WorldWideScience

Sample records for atmospheric nuclear bom

  1. Atmospheric methods for nuclear test monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simons, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. DOE sponsored research investigating atmospheric infrasound as a means of detecting both atmospheric and underground nuclear tests. Various detection schemes were examined and were found to be effective for different situations. It has been discovered that an enhanced sensitivity is realizable for the very lowest frequency disturbances by detecting the infrasound at the top of the atmosphere using ratio sound techniques. These techniques are compared to more traditional measurement schemes

  2. BOMS-D-16-00748.pdf | forthcoming | boms | Volumes | public ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

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  3. BOMS-D-16-00644.pdf | forthcoming | boms | Volumes | public ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

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  4. BOMS-D-15-01104.pdf | forthcoming | boms | Volumes | public ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

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  5. BOMS-D-16-00560.pdf | forthcoming | boms | Volumes | public ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

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  6. BOMS-D-17-00085.pdf | forthcoming | boms | Volumes | public ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

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  7. BOMS-D-16-00562.pdf | forthcoming | boms | Volumes | public ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

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  8. BOMS-D-16-00407.pdf | forthcoming | boms | Volumes | public ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

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  9. BOMS-D-16-00569.pdf | forthcoming | boms | Volumes | public ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

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  10. BOMS-D-15-00965.pdf | forthcoming | boms | Volumes | public ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

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  11. BOMS-D-17-00322.pdf | forthcoming | boms | Volumes | public ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

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  12. BOMS-D-16-00821.pdf | forthcoming | boms | Volumes | public ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

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  13. BOMS-D-16-00613.pdf | forthcoming | boms | Volumes | public ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

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  14. BOMS-D-16-00443.pdf | forthcoming | boms | Volumes | public ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

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  15. BOMS-D-15-01110.pdf | forthcoming | boms | Volumes | public ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

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  16. BOMS-D-16-00790.pdf | forthcoming | boms | Volumes | public ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

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  17. BOMS-D-16-00881.pdf | forthcoming | boms | Volumes | public ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

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  18. BOMS-D-16-00368.pdf | forthcoming | boms | Volumes | public ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

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  19. BOMS-D-17-00377.pdf | forthcoming | boms | Volumes | public ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

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  20. BOMS-D-16-00728.pdf | forthcoming | boms | Volumes | public ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

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  1. BOMS-D-16-01004.pdf | forthcoming | boms | Volumes | public ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; public; Volumes; boms; forthcoming; BOMS-D-16-01004.pdf. 404! error. The page your are looking for can not be found! Please check the link or use the navigation bar at the top. YouTube; Twitter; Facebook; Blog. Academy News. IAS Logo. 29th Mid-year meeting. Posted on 19 January 2018. The 29th Mid-year ...

  2. BOMS-D-16-00023.pdf | forthcoming | boms | Volumes | public ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; public; Volumes; boms; forthcoming; BOMS-D-16-00023.pdf. 404! error. The page your are looking for can not be found! Please check the link or use the navigation bar at the top. YouTube; Twitter; Facebook; Blog. Academy News. IAS Logo. 29th Mid-year meeting. Posted on 19 January 2018. The 29th Mid-year ...

  3. BOMS-D-16-00399.pdf | forthcoming | boms | Volumes | public ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; public; Volumes; boms; forthcoming; BOMS-D-16-00399.pdf. 404! error. The page your are looking for can not be found! Please check the link or use the navigation bar at the top. YouTube; Twitter; Facebook; Blog. Academy News. IAS Logo. 29th Mid-year meeting. Posted on 19 January 2018. The 29th Mid-year ...

  4. BOMS-D-17-00315.pdf | forthcoming | boms | Volumes | public ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

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  5. BOMS-D-16-00015.pdf | forthcoming | boms | Volumes | public ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

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  6. BOMS-D-15-00018.pdf | forthcoming | boms | Volumes | public ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

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  7. BOMS-D-17-00399.pdf | forthcoming | boms | Volumes | public ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

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  8. BOMS-D-16-00992.pdf | forthcoming | boms | Volumes | public ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

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  9. BOMS-D-15-00514.pdf | forthcoming | boms | Volumes | public ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; public; Volumes; boms; forthcoming; BOMS-D-15-00514.pdf. 404! error. The page your are looking for can not be found! Please check the link or use the navigation bar at the top. YouTube; Twitter; Facebook; Blog. Academy News. IAS Logo. 29th Mid-year meeting. Posted on 19 January 2018. The 29th Mid-year ...

  10. BOMS-D-17-00606.pdf | forthcoming | boms | Volumes | public ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; public; Volumes; boms; forthcoming; BOMS-D-17-00606.pdf. 404! error. The page your are looking for can not be found! Please check the link or use the navigation bar at the top. YouTube; Twitter; Facebook; Blog. Academy News. IAS Logo. 29th Mid-year meeting. Posted on 19 January 2018. The 29th Mid-year ...

  11. BOMS-D-17-00607.pdf | forthcoming | boms | Volumes | public ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; public; Volumes; boms; forthcoming; BOMS-D-17-00607.pdf. 404! error. The page your are looking for can not be found! Please check the link or use the navigation bar at the top. YouTube; Twitter; Facebook; Blog. Academy News. IAS Logo. 29th Mid-year meeting. Posted on 19 January 2018. The 29th Mid-year ...

  12. BOMS-D-16-00720.pdf | forthcoming | boms | Volumes | public ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; public; Volumes; boms; forthcoming; BOMS-D-16-00720.pdf. 404! error. The page your are looking for can not be found! Please check the link or use the navigation bar at the top. YouTube; Twitter; Facebook; Blog. Academy News. IAS Logo. 29th Mid-year meeting. Posted on 19 January 2018. The 29th Mid-year ...

  13. BOMS-D-16-00509.pdf | forthcoming | boms | Volumes | public ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; public; Volumes; boms; forthcoming; BOMS-D-16-00509.pdf. 404! error. The page your are looking for can not be found! Please check the link or use the navigation bar at the top. YouTube; Twitter; Facebook; Blog. Academy News. IAS Logo. 29th Mid-year meeting. Posted on 19 January 2018. The 29th Mid-year ...

  14. Animal Effects from Soviet Atmospheric Nuclear Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    describes the effect on animal models of atmospheric nuclear weapons tests performed by the Soviet Union at the Semipalatinsk Test Site . Part I describes...understand the pathogenic mechanisms of injury and the likelihood of efficacy of proposed treatment measures. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Semipalatinsk Test Site ...the Semipalatinsk Test Site . Part 1 describes the air blast and thermal radiation effects. Part 2 covers the effects of primary (prompt) radiation and

  15. Atmospheric methods for nuclear test monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simons, D.J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States)

    1994-12-31

    This report describes two atmomospheric methods for the monitoring and detection of underground nuclear explosions: Near infrasound technique, and ionospheric monitoring. Ground motion from underground explosions cause induced air pressure perturbations. The ionospheric technique utilizes the very strong air pressure pulse which is launched straight up above an underground explosion. When the pressure disturbance reaches the ionosphere, it becomes a 10 % pressure perturbation. Detection involves sending radio waves through the ionosphere with transmitters and recievers on the ground. Radar analysis yields interpretable signals. The near infrasound method detects the signal which is projected into the side lobes of the main signal. Both of the atmospheric methods were utilized on the monitoring of the NPE underground chemical explosion experiment. Results are described.

  16. Atmospheric effects of a nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birks, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: nuclear war scenario (assumptions of size and place of explosions); fires; urban and forest fires; smoke and soot; darkness; meteorological and climatic effects; photochemical smog; ozone shield depletion; conclusions. (U.K.)

  17. Nuclear Emergency and the Atmospheric Dispersion of Nuclear Aerosols: Discussion of the Shared Nuclear Future - 13163

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rana, Mukhtar A.; Ali, Nawab; Akhter, Parveen; Khan, E.U.

    2013-01-01

    This paper has a twofold objective. One is to analyze the current status of high-level nuclear waste disposal along with presentation of practical perspectives about the environmental issues involved. Present disposal designs and concepts are analyzed on a scientific basis and modifications to existing designs are proposed from the perspective of environmental safety. Other is to understand the aerosol formation in the atmosphere for the case of the leakage from the nuclear waste containers or a nuclear accident. Radio-nuclides released from the waste will attach themselves to the existing aerosols in the atmosphere along with formation of new aerosols. Anticipating the nuclear accident when a variety of radioactive aerosols will form and exist in the atmosphere, as a simple example, measurement of naturally existing radioactive aerosols are made in the atmosphere of Islamabad and Murree. A comparison with similar measurements in 3 cities of France is provided. Measurement of radionuclides in the atmosphere, their attachment to aerosols and follow up transport mechanisms are key issues in the nuclear safety. It is studied here how "7Be concentration in the atmospheric air varies in the capital city of Islamabad and a Himalaya foothill city of Murree (Pakistan). Present results are compared with recent related published results to produce a "7Be concentration versus altitude plot up to an altitude of 4000 m (a.s.l.). Origin and variance of "7Be concentration at different altitudes is discussed in detail. The relevance of results presented here with the evaluation of implications of Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear disasters has been discussed in a conclusive manner. It is the first international report of a joint collaboration/project. The project is being generalized to investigate and formulate a smooth waste storage and disposal policy. The project will address the fission and fusion waste reduction, its storage, its recycling, air, water and soil quality

  18. Nuclear Emergency and the Atmospheric Dispersion of Nuclear Aerosols: Discussion of the Shared Nuclear Future - 13163

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rana, Mukhtar A. [Science-Admin Coherence Cell (SACC), PINSTECH Admin Blk, PAEC, Islamabad (Pakistan); Ali, Nawab [Physics Division, Directorate of Science, Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (PINSTECH), P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Akhter, Parveen [Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS), Islamabad (Pakistan); Khan, E.U. [Department of Physics, International Islamic University (IIU), Kettle Fields, Kashmir Highways, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2013-07-01

    This paper has a twofold objective. One is to analyze the current status of high-level nuclear waste disposal along with presentation of practical perspectives about the environmental issues involved. Present disposal designs and concepts are analyzed on a scientific basis and modifications to existing designs are proposed from the perspective of environmental safety. Other is to understand the aerosol formation in the atmosphere for the case of the leakage from the nuclear waste containers or a nuclear accident. Radio-nuclides released from the waste will attach themselves to the existing aerosols in the atmosphere along with formation of new aerosols. Anticipating the nuclear accident when a variety of radioactive aerosols will form and exist in the atmosphere, as a simple example, measurement of naturally existing radioactive aerosols are made in the atmosphere of Islamabad and Murree. A comparison with similar measurements in 3 cities of France is provided. Measurement of radionuclides in the atmosphere, their attachment to aerosols and follow up transport mechanisms are key issues in the nuclear safety. It is studied here how {sup 7}Be concentration in the atmospheric air varies in the capital city of Islamabad and a Himalaya foothill city of Murree (Pakistan). Present results are compared with recent related published results to produce a {sup 7}Be concentration versus altitude plot up to an altitude of 4000 m (a.s.l.). Origin and variance of {sup 7}Be concentration at different altitudes is discussed in detail. The relevance of results presented here with the evaluation of implications of Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear disasters has been discussed in a conclusive manner. It is the first international report of a joint collaboration/project. The project is being generalized to investigate and formulate a smooth waste storage and disposal policy. The project will address the fission and fusion waste reduction, its storage, its recycling, air, water and soil

  19. The atmospheric cooling of nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leuenberger, J.M.; Mayor, J.C.; Gassmann, F.; Lieber, K.

    1978-08-01

    Four different types of nuclear reactor are considered: light water reactors, high temperature reactors with steam circulation and with direct gas turbine circulation, and fast breeder reactors. Wet and dry cooling towers are described and experimental studies carried out using cooling tower models are presented. (G.T.H.)

  20. Atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides released by a nuclear plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barboza, A.A.

    1989-01-01

    A numerical model has been developed to simulate the atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides released by a nuclear plant operating under normal conditions. The model, based on gaussian plume representation, accouts for and evaluates several factors which affect the concentraction of effluents in the atmosphere, such as: ressuspension, deposition, radioactive decay, energy and type of the radiation emitted, among others. The concentraction of effluents in the atmosphere is calculated for a uniform mesh of points around the plant, allowing the equivalent doses to be then evaluated. Simulations of the atmosphere dispersion of radioactive plumes of Cs 137 and Ar 41 have been performed assuming a constant rate of release, as expected from the normal operation of a nuclear plant. Finally, this work analyzes the equivalent doses at ground level due to the dispersion of Cs 137 and Ar 41 , accumulated over one year and determines the isodose curves for a hypothetical site. (author) [pt

  1. Penanganan Teror Bom Thamrin Ditinjau Berdasarkan Skep Kapolri Nomor: 172 Tahun 2014 tentang Penanganan Tempat Kejadian Perkara (PTKP Bom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedy Tabrani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Fenomena ISIS pasca Al-Qaeda telah memberikan harapan baru dan semangat baru kelompok radikal Islam di Indonesia. Salah satu aksi terorisme yang dilakukan oleh anggota ISIS di Indonesia adalah terror Bom Thamrin pada 14 Januari 2016 dengan pola dan modus berupa bom dan penembakan. Polri sebagai leading sector penanganan terorisme, telah merumuskan beberapa peraturan mengenai penanganan terorisme, misalnya, Keputusan Kepala Kepolisian Negara Republik Indonesia Nomor: 172 Tahun 2014 tentang Penanganan Tempat Kejadian Perkara Bom (PTKP. Keputusan tersebut menjadi landasan kepolisian dalam penanganan kasus teror di lapangan. Untuk itu, penelitian ini akan mengungkap sejauh mana penanganan terror bom Thamrin ditinjau berdasarkan Skep Kapolri Nomor: 172 Tahun 2014 Tentang Penanganan Tempat Kejadian Perkara Bom (PTKP. Kata kunci: terorisme, Teror Thamrin, ISIS, Polri   ISIS phenomena after Al-Qaeda have given new hope and spirit of Islamic radicalism groups in Indonesia. One of terrorism action by ISIS members was Thamrin bombing terror on January 14, 2016 with pattern and modus of bombings and shootings. Indonesian National Police as a leading sector in handling terrorism has formulated rules regarding terrorism handling, such as the Decree of the Indonesian National Police Chief (Perkap No. 172, 2014 on the Handling of the Crime Scene (PTKP of bomb. This decree becomes the base of police on handling terror scene. Therefore, this research can reveal how far the handling of Thamrin terror bombing based on Skep No. 173, 2014. Keywords: Terrorism, Terror of Thamrin, ISIS, Indonesian National Police

  2. The effects on the atmosphere of a major nuclear exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    Most of the earth's population would survive the immediate horrors of a nuclear holocaust, but what long-term climatological changes would affect their ability to secure food and shelter. This sobering report considers the effects of fine dust from ground-level detonations, of smoke from widespread fires, and of chemicals released into the atmosphere. The authors use mathematical models of atmospheric processes and data from natural situations - e.g., volcanic eruptions and arctic haze - to draw their conclusions

  3. Effects on the atmosphere of a major nuclear exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The Committee on the Atmospheric Effects of Nuclear Explosions addressed the following charge: (1) determine the manner in which the atmosphere of the earth would be modified by a major exchange of nuclear weapons and, insofar as the current state of knowledge and understanding permits, give a quantitative description of the more important of the changes; and (2) recommend research and exploratory work appropriate to a better understanding of the question. Recent calculations by different investigators suggest that the climatic effects from a major nuclear exchange could be large in scale. Although there are enormous uncertainties involved in the calculations, the committee believes that long-term climatic effects with severe implications for the biosphere could occur, and these effects should be included in any analysis of the consequences of nuclear war. The estimates are necessarily rough and can only be used as a general indication of the seriousness of what might occur

  4. Nuclear risk from atmospheric dispersion in Northern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauritzen, B.

    2007-04-01

    The aim of the 2005-06 NKS-B NordRisk project has been to present practical methods for probabilistic risk assessment from long-range atmospheric transport and deposition of radioactive material. In this project an atlas of long-range atmospheric dispersion and deposition patterns derived from archived numerical weather prediction (NWP) model data coupled to an atmospheric dispersion model has been produced, and a PC-based software tool has been developed, based on a simplified description of the long-term, long-range atmospheric dispersion and deposition. The atlas and the software tool may allow for a rapid, first assessment of the risks following a nuclear emergency, when detailed information on the long-range atmospheric dispersion and deposition is not available. (au)

  5. Intermediate range atmospheric transport and technology assessments: nuclear pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohwer, P.S.; Hoffman, F.O.; Miller, C.W.

    1981-01-01

    Mathematical models have been used to assess potential impacts of radioactivity releases during all phases of our country's development of nuclear power. Experience to date has shown that in terms of potential dose to man, the most significant releases of radioactivity from nuclear fuel cycle facilities are those to the atmosphere. Our ability to predict atmospheric dispersion will, therefore, ultimately affect our capability to understand and assess the significance of both routine and accidental discharges of radionuclides. Assessment of potential radiological exposures from postulated routine and accidental releases of radionuclides from the fast-breeder reactor will require the use of atmospheric dispersion models, and the design, siting, and licensing of breeder reactor fuel cycle facilities will be influenced by the predictions made by these models

  6. Bom Bunuh Diri dan Euthanasia (Perspektif Hukum Islam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Thobroni

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Perjuangan tidak pernah mengenal kata akhir, namun cara berjuang tiap umat sering kali mengalami perubahan searah dengan perubahan sarana-sarana perang. Pada tahun-tahun terakhir, sering terdengar upaya beberapa kelompok muslim yang melakukan bom bunuh diri atau juga dikenal sebagai suicide bombing dan human bombing atau bom manusia. Secara umum ada dua reaksi para ulama dalam menyikapinya, sebagian melarang dan sebagian lagi memuji. Kedua kelompok tersebut sama-sama menyertakan argumen-argumennya, baik secara naqly maupun aqly. Kejelasan hukum syara’ sangat dibutuhkan dalam masalah yang amat krusial ini. Ini dikarenakan perbedaan yang ada cukup tajam dan mengandung berbagai implikasinya baik di dunia maupun di akhirat. Bagi mereka yang menganggap aksi bom manusia sebagai aksi bunuh diri (‘amaliyat intihariyah, maka implikasi kepada para pelakunya ialah tidak diberlakukan hukum-hukum mati syahid, namun dipandang sebagai orang hina karena berputus asa menghadapi kesulitan hidup. Di akhirat, pelakunya dianggap akan masuk neraka, karena telah bunuh diri. Sedangkan bagi mereka yang menganggap aksi bom bunuh diri sebagai aksi mati syahid (‘amaliyat istisyhadiyah, maka implikasi kepada para pelakunya adalah diberlakukan hukum-hukum mati syahid. Dia dianggap sebagai pahlawan dan teladan keberanian yang patut dicontoh dan di akhirat akan masuk surga. Karena hidup dan mati ada di tangan Tuhan, serta merupakan karunia dan wewenang Tuhan, maka Islam melarang orang melakukan pembunuhan, baik terhadap orang lain (kecuali dengan alas an yang dibenarkan oleh agama maupun terhadap dirinya sendiri (bunuh diri dengan alasan apapun. Hukum bunuh diri dan euthanasia masih dipersoalkan di kalangan masyarakat. Pro kontra inilah yang mendorong penulis untuk memilih tema hukum bom bunuh diri dan euthanasia dalam perspektif hukum Islam.

  7. The atmospheric and climatic consequences of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagan, C.

    1985-01-01

    Four effects-obscuring smoke in the troposphere, obscuring dust in the stratosphere, the fallout of radioactive debris, and the partial destruction of the ozone layer - constitute the four known principal adverse environmental consequences that would occur after a nuclear war is ''over''. There may well be others about which we are still ignorant. The dust, and especially, the dark soot absorb ordinary visible light from the sun, heating the atmosphere and cooling the Earth's surface. All four of these effects have been treated in the authors; recent study, known form the initials of its authors as TTAPS. For the first time it is demonstrated that severe and prolonged low temperatures, the ''nuclear winter'', would follow a nuclear war. The new results have been subjected to detailed scrutiny, and many corroboratory calculations have not been made, including at least two in the Soviet Union. Unlike many previous studies, the effects do not seem to be restricted to northern midlatitudes, where the nuclear exchange would mainly take place. There is now substantial evidence that the heating by sunlight of atmospheric dust and soot over northern midlatitude targets would profoundly change the global circulation. In our studies, several dozen different scenarios where chosen, covering a wide range of possible wars, and the range of uncertainty in each key parameter was considered (e.g., to describe how many fine particles are injected into the atmosphere)

  8. The effects on the atmosphere of a major nuclear exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    Most of the earth's population would survive the immediate horrors of a nuclear holocaust, but what long-term climatological changes would affect their ability to secure food and shelter. This sobering report considers the effects of fine dust from ground-level detonations, of smoke from widespread fires, and of chemicals released into the atmosphere. The authors use mathematical models of atmospheric processes and data from natural situations - e.g., volcanic eruptions and arctic haze - to draw their conclusions.

  9. A simple dynamic rising nuclear cloud based model of ground radioactive fallout for atmospheric nuclear explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Yi

    2008-01-01

    A simple dynamic rising nuclear cloud based model for atmospheric nuclear explosion radioactive prediction was presented. The deposition of particles and initial cloud radius changing with time before the cloud stabilization was considered. Large-scale relative diffusion theory was used after cloud stabilization. The model was considered reasonable and dependable in comparison with four U.S. nuclear test cases and DELFIC model results. (authors)

  10. 28 CFR 79.33 - Proof of participation onsite during a period of atmospheric nuclear testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... number; (iv) The site at which the claimant participated in the atmospheric detonation of a nuclear... atmospheric detonation of a nuclear device. If the facts gathered by the DoD are insufficient to establish the... claimant was present onsite during the atmospheric detonation of a nuclear device as an employee of the AEC...

  11. Prompt atmospheric neutrino fluxes: perturbative QCD models and nuclear effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, Atri [Department of Physics, University of Arizona,1118 E. 4th St. Tucson, AZ 85704 (United States); Space sciences, Technologies and Astrophysics Research (STAR) Institute,Université de Liège,Bât. B5a, 4000 Liège (Belgium); Enberg, Rikard [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University,Box 516, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Jeong, Yu Seon [Department of Physics and IPAP, Yonsei University,50 Yonsei-ro Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 03722 (Korea, Republic of); National Institute of Supercomputing and Networking, KISTI,245 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34141 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, C.S. [Department of Physics and IPAP, Yonsei University,50 Yonsei-ro Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 03722 (Korea, Republic of); Reno, Mary Hall [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa,Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Sarcevic, Ina [Department of Physics, University of Arizona,1118 E. 4th St. Tucson, AZ 85704 (United States); Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona,933 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Stasto, Anna [Department of Physics, 104 Davey Lab, The Pennsylvania State University,University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2016-11-28

    We evaluate the prompt atmospheric neutrino flux at high energies using three different frameworks for calculating the heavy quark production cross section in QCD: NLO perturbative QCD, k{sub T} factorization including low-x resummation, and the dipole model including parton saturation. We use QCD parameters, the value for the charm quark mass and the range for the factorization and renormalization scales that provide the best description of the total charm cross section measured at fixed target experiments, at RHIC and at LHC. Using these parameters we calculate differential cross sections for charm and bottom production and compare with the latest data on forward charm meson production from LHCb at 7 TeV and at 13 TeV, finding good agreement with the data. In addition, we investigate the role of nuclear shadowing by including nuclear parton distribution functions (PDF) for the target air nucleus using two different nuclear PDF schemes. Depending on the scheme used, we find the reduction of the flux due to nuclear effects varies from 10% to 50% at the highest energies. Finally, we compare our results with the IceCube limit on the prompt neutrino flux, which is already providing valuable information about some of the QCD models.

  12. Atmosphere after a nuclear war: twilight at noon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crutzen, P; Birks, J

    1982-01-01

    If a nuclear war occurs, serious atmospheric consequences will result from the production of large amounts of particulate matter due to the many fires that will start in cities, industry, and particularly in forests, agricultural fields, and oil and gas fields. The authors estimate that for most of the Northern Hemisphere the average intensity of sunlight reaching the surface of the earth would be reduced by a large factor as a result of light absorption by particles in the submicron diameter size range, and this darkness would persist for as long as the fires burn, which is expected to be many weeks. The screening of sunlight by the fire-produced aerosol over extended periods during the growing season would eliminate much of the food production in the Northern Hemisphere. Marine ecosystems may be particularly sensitive to the loss of sunlight that would result. The fires would also inject large quantities of oxides of nitrogen and reactive hydrocarbons into the atmosphere, creating the potential for a severe photochemical smog situation throughout much of the Northern Hemisphere. The production of strong oxidants such as ozone and peroxyacetylnitrate (PAN) as the aerosol is removed from the atmosphere would also negatively influence food production throughout the Northern Hemisphere during the first year following the war.

  13. Site-Specific Atmospheric Dispersion Characteristics of Korean Nuclear Power Plant Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, M. H.; Kim, E. H.; Suh, K. S.; Hwang, W. T.; Choi, Y. G.

    2001-01-01

    Site-specific atmospheric dispersion characteristics have been analyzed. The northwest and the southwest wind prevail on nuclear sites of Korea. The annual isobaric surface averaged for twenty years around Korean peninsula shows that west wind prevails. The prevailing west wind is profitable in the viewpoint of radiation protection because three of four nuclear sites are located in the east side. Large scale field tracer experiments over nuclear sites have been conducted for the purpose of analyzing the atmospheric dispersion characteristics and validating a real-time atmospheric dispersion and dose assessment system FADAS. To analyze the site-specific atmospheric dispersion characteristics is essential for making effective countermeasures against a nuclear emergency

  14. Atmospheric effects and societal consequences of regional scale nuclear conflicts and acts of individual nuclear terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toon, O. B.; Turco, R. P.; Robock, A.; Bardeen, C.; Oman, L.; Stenchikov, G. L.

    2007-04-01

    We assess the potential damage and smoke production associated with the detonation of small nuclear weapons in modern megacities. While the number of nuclear warheads in the world has fallen by about a factor of three since its peak in 1986, the number of nuclear weapons states is increasing and the potential exists for numerous regional nuclear arms races. Eight countries are known to have nuclear weapons, 2 are constructing them, and an additional 32 nations already have the fissile material needed to build substantial arsenals of low-yield (Hiroshima-sized) explosives. Population and economic activity worldwide are congregated to an increasing extent in megacities, which might be targeted in a nuclear conflict. We find that low yield weapons, which new nuclear powers are likely to construct, can produce 100 times as many fatalities and 100 times as much smoke from fires per kt yield as previously estimated in analyses for full scale nuclear wars using high-yield weapons, if the small weapons are targeted at city centers. A single "small" nuclear detonation in an urban center could lead to more fatalities, in some cases by orders of magnitude, than have occurred in the major historical conflicts of many countries. We analyze the likely outcome of a regional nuclear exchange involving 100 15-kt explosions (less than 0.1% of the explosive yield of the current global nuclear arsenal). We find that such an exchange could produce direct fatalities comparable to all of those worldwide in World War II, or to those once estimated for a "counterforce" nuclear war between the superpowers. Megacities exposed to atmospheric fallout of long-lived radionuclides would likely be abandoned indefinitely, with severe national and international implications. Our analysis shows that smoke from urban firestorms in a regional war would rise into the upper troposphere due to pyro-convection. Robock et al. (2007) show that the smoke would subsequently rise deep into the stratosphere due

  15. PAVAN, Atmospheric Dispersion of Radioactive Releases from Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: PAVAN estimates down-wind ground-level air concentrations for potential accidental releases of radioactive material from nuclear facilities. Options can account for variation in the location of release points, additional plume dispersion due to building wakes, plume meander under low wind speed conditions, and adjustments to consider non-straight trajectories. It computes an effective plume height using the physical release height which can be reduced by inputted terrain features. 2 - Method of solution: Using joint frequency distributions of wind direction and wind speed by atmospheric stability, the program provides relative air concentration (X/Q) values as functions of direction for various time periods at the exclusion area boundary (EAB) and the outer boundary of the low population zone (LPZ). Calculations of X/Q values can be made for assumed ground-level releases or evaluated releases from free-standing stacks. The X/Q calculations are based on the theory that material released to the atmosphere will be normally distributed (Gaussian) about the plume centerline. A straight-line trajectory is assumed between the point of release and all distances for which X/Q values are calculated. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: - The code cannot handle multiple emission sources

  16. Nuclear power and the protection of the earth's atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henssen, H.; Vossebrecker, H.

    1989-01-01

    Despite its very bold assumptions about the success achievable in energy conservation, the concept of the Social Democratic Party of Germany to abandon the use of nuclear power, which was adopted in 1986 and is still valid, had to be based on an intensified use of fossil fuels, i.e., increased CO 2 emissions were accepted as a consequence of the 'ban nukes' policy. The scientific reservations are meanwhile beginning to evaporate, which could still be made against the greenhouse effect in 1986. The current state of climatological research makes it appear most likely that our planet is heading for a climatological catastrophe of global dimensions if the emissions of greenhouse gases, especially CO 2 , continue. The conferences of Toronto and Hamburg have shown this very clearly. In fact, any other development of the state of our knowledge would have come as a surprise. It must be remembered that mankind, by burning fossil sources of energy, is engaged in returning to the atmosphere, those amounts of CO 2 which photosynthesis had removed from it over several hundred million years. Even without having recourse to modern mathematical climatological models, one must recognize that this is a step towards the conditions existing before the Carboniferous Age, when life as we know it could not have existed. Nuclear power is able, technically and economically, to make a major contribution to banning the impending climatological disaster. This is true if one includes the so-called costs to the national economy. (orig.) [de

  17. Methods for automated semantic definition of manufacturing structures (mBOM) in mechanical engineering companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stekolschik, Alexander, Prof.

    2017-10-01

    The bill of materials (BOM), which involves all parts and assemblies of the product, is the core of any mechanical or electronic product. The flexible and integrated management of engineering (Engineering Bill of Materials [eBOM]) and manufacturing (Manufacturing Bill of Materials [mBOM]) structures is the key to the creation of modern products in mechanical engineering companies. This paper presents a method framework for the creation and control of e- and, especially, mBOM. The requirements, resulting from the process of differentiation between companies that produce serialized or engineered-to-order products, are considered in the analysis phase. The main part of the paper describes different approaches to fully or partly automated creation of mBOM. The first approach is the definition of part selection rules in the generic mBOM templates. The mBOM can be derived from the eBOM for partly standardized products by using this method. Another approach is the simultaneous use of semantic rules, options, and parameters in both structures. The implementation of the method framework (selection of use cases) in a standard product lifecycle management (PLM) system is part of the research.

  18. Atmospheric emission of 137Cs82 from Beloyarsk nuclear power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolotkov, G. A.

    2018-01-01

    Citing Beloyarsk nuclear power plant (Russia) as an example, the problem of remote detection of radioactivity in the atmospheric pollution is examined. The comparative analysis of injected radionuclides into the atmosphere from the nuclear power plant with advanced fast neutron reactor is carried out. The main radionuclides throw out into the atmosphere from the nuclear power plant are beta-radionuclides. The secondary and tertiary spectra of beta-electrons decay for artificial radionuclide 137Cs82 is calculated, using Spencer-Fano’s equation. The averaged parameters of initial beta - electrons generated by 137Cs82 decay in the atmosphere is calculated.

  19. Teror Bom Buku di Jakarta: Peran Polri dalam Penanganan Terorisme di Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.M.S. Urip Widodo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menjelaskan teror bom buku yang terjadi di Jakarta pada 15 Maret 2011. Berdasarkan sumber data Berita Acara Pemeriksaan (BAP, penelitian ini mampu memberikan penjelasan secara kronologis rencana aksi teror bom buku. Teror bom buku ini merupakan modus baru para teroris dalam melakukan aksinya, karena yang menjadi targetnya adalah individu. Teror bom buku, apabila melihat jumlah korban dan kualitas ledakan, tidak sebanding dengan bom yang ditempatkan di gedung-gedung tertentu seperti pada kasus-kasus teror bom sebelumnya. Akan tetapi dampaknya hampir sama, bahkan teror bom buku sudah menyentuh aspek psikologi masyarakat awam. Ketakutan dan kepanikan yang melanda sampai di tingkat rumah tangga adalah bentuk keberhasilan aksi bom buku menjadi sebuah teror. Mengacu pada hukum formal yang berlaku di Indonesia, maka aksi dan pelaku bom buku dapat dikategorikan sebagai tindak pidana terorisme. Kata kunci: terorisme, bom buku, hukum, kepolisian.   This research purposes to explain a terror of book bombing which take place in Jakarta on March 15th 2011. Based on data of Police Investigation Report, it capables to give explanation chronologically of planning from terror of book bombing. This terror of book bombing is a new modus of terrorist in their activity whereas their target is an individual. If we see from the number of victim and the quality of explosion, it can not be compared with bomb which were placed on certain buildings, such as cases of bombings before. However its impact is similiar, even the terror of book bombing has reached psychological aspect of society. Fear and panic spread to reach household are illuminating the success of terror of book bombing. Referring to formal law in Indonesia, activity and person of terror of book bombing can be categorized as a criminal act of terrorism. Keywords: terrorism, bombing book, law, police.

  20. XOQDOQ, Meteorological Evaluation of Atmospheric Nuclear Power Plant Effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagendorf, J.F.; Goll, J.T.; Sandusky, W.F.; Eyberger, L.R.

    1990-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: XOQDOQ was designed for meteorological evaluation of continuous and anticipated intermittent releases from commercial nuclear power reactors. It calculates annual relative effluent concentrations and average relative deposition values at locations specified by the user and at various standard radial distances and segments for downwind sectors. It also calculates these values at the specified locations for anticipated intermittent (e.g. containment or purge) releases, which occur during routine operation. The program computes an effective plume height that accounts for physical release height, aerodynamic down-wash, plume rise, and terrain features. The user may optionally select additional plume dispersion due to building wakes, plume depletion via dry deposition, and plume radioactive decay, or specify adjustments to represent non-straight line trajectories (recirculation or stagnation). 2 - Method of solution: XOQDOQ is based on the principle that diffusion of material released to the atmosphere can be described by a Gaussian distribution within the plume with transport described by a straight-line trajectory. The horizontal and vertical dispersion coefficients are empirically determined, largely from observations at or near ground level. The program implements the assumptions outlined in Section C of NRC Regulatory Guide 1.111. Long-term average values of relative effluent concentration are calculated by assuming a long-term continuous release with effluent distributed evenly across a 22-1/2 degree sector. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem - Maxima of: 30 receptor locations/receptor type, 14 wind-speed classes, 10 distances of site-specific recirculation correction factors, 8 receptor types, 7 atmospheric stability categories, 5 separate release points. XOQDOQ cannot handle multiple emission sources or plume depletion via wet deposition, or evaluate the meteorological aspects of the consequences of

  1. A Study on intelligent measurement of nuclear explosion equivalent in atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Desheng; Wu Xiaohong

    1999-01-01

    Measurement of nuclear explosion equivalent in atmosphere is an important subject for nuclear survey. Based on the relations between nuclear explosion equivalent and the minimum illuminance time of light radiation from nuclear explosion. The method of RC differential valley time detection and mean-time taking is presented the method, using a single-chip computer as a intelligent part, can realize intelligent measurement of minimum illuminance time with high reliability and low power consumption. This method provides a practical mean for quick, accurate and reliable measurement of nuclear explosion equivalent in atmosphere

  2. A plan for research by the atmospheric research section in support of Ontario Hydro's nuclear activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogram, G.L.; Melo, O.T.

    1984-01-01

    A plan for nuclear studies by the Atmospheric Research Section is presented. The need for research is discussed and research objectives are established. Recommended research activities include the study of fundamental processes governing the fate of emissions released to the atmosphere by Hydro's nuclear facilities and the development of improved transport models describing the fate of these emissions. A Sectional goal of providing technical expertise in the atmospheric sciences in support of Ontario Hydro's present and future nuclear activities is proposed. The plan covers a five-year time frame (1984-1988)

  3. Atmospheric dispersion and the radiological consequences of normal airborne effluents from a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, D.; Yang, L.; Sun, C.Z.

    1995-01-01

    The relationship between the consequences of the normal exhaust of radioactive materials in air from nuclear power plants and atmospheric dispersion is studied. Because the source terms of the exhaust from a nuclear power plant are relatively low and their radiological consequences are far less than the corresponding authoritative limits, the atmospheric dispersion models, their various modifications, and selections of relevant parameters have few effects on those consequences. In the environmental assessment and siting, the emphasis should not be placed on the consequence evaluation of routine exhaust of nuclear power plants, and the calculation of consequences of the exhaust and atmospheric field measurements should be appropriately, simplified. 12 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs

  4. Development of scheme for predicting atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides during nuclear emergency by using atmospheric dynamic model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagai, Haruyasu; Chino, Masamichi; Yamazawa, Hiromi (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan))

    1999-07-01

    The meteorological forecast models are critically important for the accuracy of predicting the atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides discharged into atmosphere during nuclear emergencies. Thus, this paper describes a new scheme for predicting environmental impacts due to accidental release of radionuclides by using an atmospheric dynamic model PHYSIC. The advantages of introducing PHYSIC are, (1) three-dimensional local meteorological forecasts can be conducted, (2) synoptic meteorological changes can be considered by inputting grid data of synoptic forecasts from Japan Meteorological Agency to PHYSIC as initial and boundary conditions, (3) forecasts can be improved by nudging method using local meteorological observations, and (4) atmospheric dispersion model can consider the variation of the mixed layer. (author)

  5. Development of scheme for predicting atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides during nuclear emergency by using atmospheric dynamic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, Haruyasu; Chino, Masamichi; Yamazawa, Hiromi

    1999-01-01

    The meteorological forecast models are critically important for the accuracy of predicting the atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides discharged into atmosphere during nuclear emergencies. Thus, this paper describes a new scheme for predicting environmental impacts due to accidental release of radionuclides by using an atmospheric dynamic model PHYSIC. The advantages of introducing PHYSIC are, (1) three-dimensional local meteorological forecasts can be conducted, (2) synoptic meteorological changes can be considered by inputting grid data of synoptic forecasts from Japan Meteorological Agency to PHYSIC as initial and boundary conditions, (3) forecasts can be improved by nudging method using local meteorological observations, and (4) atmospheric dispersion model can consider the variation of the mixed layer. (author)

  6. The atmospheric and climatic consequences of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagan, C.

    1984-01-01

    The author discusses his recent research that has uncovered the fact that nuclear war may carry in its wake a climatic catastrophe, which he calls ''nuclear winter.'' He says the effects of nuclear war would not be restricted to the combatant nations. Agriculture in the Northern Hemisphere would be devasted by even a ''small'' nuclear war. The propagating ecological consequences all over the Earth are likely to be severe. The Southern Hemisphere will be cold and dark. Global arsenals, now about twenty times the nuclear winter threshold, are growing

  7. Atmospheric diffusion study and its application to nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chino, Masamichi

    1990-01-01

    The report reviews studies on atmospheric diffusion of radioactive substances released from a smokestack. Smoke containing radioactive substances, or radioactive plume, diffuses into air while being affected by atmospheric turbulent flows in various ways depending on the scale of the plume. The diffusion of a radioactive plume released from a smokestack is discussed first, focusing on the diffusion process in the vicinity of the smokestack, in the atmospheric boundary layer and in the troposphere. Many theoretical studies have been conducted by using the Gaussian plume model, though it is too simple to take into account the topographic effects and unstationary atmospheric conditions. Various numerical calculation models (designed for numerical calculation by a computer) have recently been developed, particularly for the implementation of environmental impact evaluation. Diagnostic and forecast type models are available for atmospheric air flow calculation. Other models available for diffusion analysis include the puff model, segment model, PIC (particle in cell)model, and random walk model. (N.K.)

  8. Environmental consequences of nuclear war (SCOPE 28), Vol. 1: Physical and atmospheric effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pittock, A.B.; Ackerman, T.P.; Crutzen, P.J.; MacCracken, M.C.; Shapiro, C.S.; Turco, R.P.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents an interdisciplinary look at current scientific knowledge of the possible environmental consequences of a nuclear war. The authors assess the likely magnitude of changes in sunlight, temperature, precipitation, atmospheric chemistry, and more. Volume One reviews existing nuclear arsenals, war scenarios, immediate and subsequent effects

  9. Consideration of impact of atmospheric intrusion in subsurface sampling for investigation of suspected underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowrey, J.D.; Bowyer, T.W.; Haas, D.A.; Hayes, J.C.; Biegalski, S.R.

    2016-01-01

    Radioactive noble gases radioxenon and radioargon constitute the primary smoking gun of an underground nuclear explosion. The aim of subsurface sampling of soil gas as part of an on-site inspection (OSI) is to search for evidence of a suspected underground nuclear event. It has been hypothesized that atmospheric gas can disturb soil gas concentrations and therefore potentially add to problems in civilian source discrimination verifying treaty compliance under the comprehensive nuclear-test ban treaty. This work describes a study of intrusion of atmospheric air into the subsurface and its potential impact on an OSI using results of simulations from the underground transport of environmental xenon (UTEX) model. (author)

  10. Nuclear risk from atmospheric dispersion in Northern Europe - Summary Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Bent

    The objective of the NordRisk II project has been to derive practical means for assessing the risks from long-range atmospheric dispersion of radioac-tive materials. An atlas over different atmospheric dispersion and deposi-tion scenarios has been developed using historical numerical weather pre......-diction (NWP) model data. The NWP model data covers three years span-ning the climate variability associated with the North Atlantic Oscillation, and the atlas considers radioactive releases from 16 release sites in and near the Nordic countries. A statistical analysis of the long-range disper......-sion and deposition patterns is undertaken to quantify the mean dispersion and deposition as well as the variability. Preliminary analyses show that the large-scale atmospheric dispersion and deposition is near-isotropic, irrespective of the release site and detailed climatology, and allows for a simple...

  11. Strategic Inventory Positioning in BOM with Multiple Parents Using ASR Lead Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to meet the lead time that the customers require, work-in-process inventory (WIPI is necessary at almost every station in most make-to-order manufacturing. Depending on the station network configuration and lead time at each station, some of the WIPI do not contribute to reducing the manufacturing lead time of the final product at all. Therefore, it is important to identify the optimal set of stations to hold WIPI such that the total inventory holding cost is minimized, while the required due date for the final product is met. The authors have presented a model to determine the optimal position and quantity of WIPI for a given simple bill of material (S-BOM, in which any part in the BOM has only one immediate parent node. In this paper, we extend the previous study to the general BOM (G-BOM in which parts in the BOM can have more than one immediate parent and present a new solution procedure using genetic algorithm.

  12. Study of the impact of atmospheric emissions (41AR) during operation of a nuclear reactor research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, Simone F.; Barreto, Alberto A.; Jacomino, Vanusa Maria F.; Rodrigues, Paulo Cesar H.

    2013-01-01

    The knowledge of the atmosphere dispersion of radionuclides, resulting from a nuclear reactor emissions during normal operation, is an important step in the process of nuclear licensing and environmental. This step requires a study to evaluate the radiological environmental impact. The results of this study are used by radiation protection agents to control the exposure of public to radiation during the operation of nuclear facilities. The elaboration of environmental impact assessment due to atmospheric emissions is based on a study of atmospheric dispersion. The aim of this study is estimate the concentrations of radionuclides in different compartments of the ecosystem and calculate the dose received by man as a result of radiation exposure in different scenarios of interest. This paper deals with the case study of the impact of atmospheric emissions of 41 Ar during operation of a nuclear research reactor. This study was accomplished with the application of the dispersion model ARTM (Radionuclide Transport Atmospheric Model), along with the geoprocessing resources. Among the results are: the spatial distribution of population by age; topography of the region, local wind rose, atmospheric stability and the estimate of the concentration of radionuclide 41 Ar and of dose. The results indicate that the dose, by external irradiation due to immersion in the cloud, was below the limits established by regulatory agencies. (author)

  13. Tritium concentration reducing method in atmosphere in nuclear reactor containment facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirasawa, Yoshiya; Kigoshi, Yasutane; Yonenaga, Haruo.

    1992-01-01

    A portion of water content in an atmosphere is condensed by a condensation/evaporation device disposed in a nuclear reactor containment building and then a portion of the condensed water is evaporated in the atmosphere. A portion of hydrogen nuclides constituting the evaporated water content is subjected to isotopic exchange with tritium nuclides in the atmosphere. A portion of water content in the atmosphere applied with the isotopic exchange is condensed in the condensation/evaporation device. That is, the hydrogen nuclides in steams are applied with isotopic exchange with tritium nuclides, and steams incorporating tritium nuclides are condensed again in the condensation/evaporation device, to transfer the tritium nuclides in the atmosphere to condensed water. The condensed water is recovered without releasing the tritium nuclides to the outside of the reactor containment building, thereby enabling to reduce the tritium concentration in the atmosphere. (N.H.)

  14. Os Fundamentos da Caracterização do Direito ao Bom Ambiente do Trabalho como Direito Fundamental

    OpenAIRE

    Pes, João Hélio Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    Este trabalho objetiva verificar quais são os fundamentos da caracterização do direito ao bom ambiente do trabalho como direito fundamental. Inicialmente, conceitua o direito ao bom ambiente do trabalho. Logo a seguir, menciona a diferenciação entre fundamentalidade formal e fundamentalidade material do direito ao bom ambiente do trabalho à luz da teoria pós positivista. Por fim, apresenta alguns fundamentos substanciais da caracterização do direito ao bom ambiente do trabalho como direito fu...

  15. The role of atmospheric nuclear explosions on the stagnation of global warming in the mid 20th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Yoshiaki

    2011-04-01

    This study suggests that the cause of the stagnation in global warming in the mid 20th century was the atmospheric nuclear explosions detonated between 1945 and 1980. The estimated GST drop due to fine dust from the actual atmospheric nuclear explosions based on the published simulation results by other researchers (a single column model and Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Model) has served to explain the stagnation in global warming. Atmospheric nuclear explosions can be regarded as full-scale in situ tests for nuclear winter. The non-negligible amount of GST drop from the actual atmospheric explosions suggests that nuclear winter is not just a theory but has actually occurred, albeit on a small scale. The accuracy of the simulations of GST by IPCC would also be improved significantly by introducing the influence of fine dust from the actual atmospheric nuclear explosions into their climate models; thus, global warming behavior could be more accurately predicted.

  16. Atmospheric dispersion in complex terrain: Angra-1 nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima e Silva Filho, P.P. de

    1986-01-01

    The Angra 1 plant is located in a very complex terrain, what makes the environmental impact assessment very difficult, regarding to the atmospheric transport problem as well as to the diffusion problem. Three main characteristics are responsible for that situation: the location at the shoreline, the complex topography and the high roughness of the terrain. Those characteristics generate specific phenomena and utilization of parameters from other sites are not convenient. Considering financial and technical viabilities, we must look for the local parameters, disregarding the easy, although risky, attitude of applying parameters and models incovenient to the Angra site. Some of those aspects are more important, and among them we will discuss the Plume Rise, the Critical Height, the Drainage Flow and the Atmospheric Dispersion Coefficients. (Author) [pt

  17. Atmospheric discharges from nuclear facilities during decommissioning: German experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, H.; Goertz, R.; Weil, L.

    1997-08-01

    In Germany, a substantial amount of experience is available with planning, licensing and realization of decommissioning projects. In total, a number of 18 nuclear power plants including prototype facilities as well as 6 research reactors and 3 fuel cycle facilities have been shut down finally and are at different stages of decommissioning. Only recently the final {open_quotes}green field{close_quotes} stage of the Niederaichbach Nuclear Power Plant total dismantlement project has been achieved. From the regulatory point of view, a survey of the decommissioning experience in Germany is presented highlighting the aspects of production and retention of airborne radioactivity. Nuclear air cleaning technology, discharge limits prescribed in licences and actual discharges are presented. As compared to operation, the composition of the discharged radioactivity is different as well as the off-gas discharge rate. In practically all cases, there is no significant amount of short-lived radionuclides. The discussion further includes lessons learned, for example inadvertent discharges of radionuclides expected not to be in the plants inventory. It is demonstrated that, as for operation of nuclear power plants, the limits prescribed in the Ordinance on Radiological Protection can be met using existing air cleaning technology, Optimization of protection results in public exposures substantially below the limits. In the frame of the regulatory investigation programme a study has been conducted to assess the airborne radioactivity created during certain decommissioning activities like decontamination, segmentation and handling of contaminated or activated parts. The essential results of this study are presented, which are supposed to support planning for decommissioning, for LWRs, Co-60 and Cs-137 are expected to be the dominant radionuclides in airborne discharges. 18 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Atmospheric Dispersion Simulation for Level 3 PSA at Ulchin Nuclear Site using a PUFF model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Jun; Han, Seok-Jung; Jeong, Hyojoon; Jang, Seung-Cheol [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Air dispersion prediction is a key in the level 3 PSA to predict radiation releases into the environment for preparing an effective strategy for an evacuation as a basis of the emergency preparedness. To predict the atmospheric dispersion accurately, the specific conditions of the radiation release location should be considered. There are various level 3 PSA tools and MACSS2 is one of the widely used level 3 PSA tools in many countries including Korea. Due to the characteristics of environmental conditions in Korea, it should be demonstrated that environmental conditions of Korea nuclear sites can be appropriately illustrated by the tool. In Korea, because all nuclear power plants are located on coasts, sea and land breezes might be a significant factor. The objectives of this work is to simulate the atmospheric dispersion for Ulchin nuclear site in Korea using a PUFF model and to generate the data which can be used for the comparison with that of PLUME model. A nuclear site has own atmospheric dispersion characteristics. Especially in Korea, nuclear sites are located at coasts and it is expected that see and land breeze effects are relatively high. In this work, the atmospheric dispersion at Ulchin nuclear site was simulated to evaluate the effect of see and land breezes in four seasons. In the simulation results, it was observed that the wind direction change with time has a large effect on atmospheric dispersion. If the result of a PLUME model is more conservative than most severe case of a PUFF model, then the PLUME model could be used for Korea nuclear sites in terms of safety assessment.

  19. Development of regional atmospheric dynamic and air pollution models for nuclear emergency response system WSPEEDI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuno, Akiko; Yamazawa, Hiromi; Lee, Soon-Hwan; Tsujita, Yuichi; Takemiya, Hiroshi; Chino, Masamichi

    2000-01-01

    WSPEEDI (Worldwide version of System for Prediction of Environmental Emergency Dose Information) is a computer-based emergency response system to predict long-range atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides discharged into the atmosphere due to a nuclear accident. WSPEEDI has been applied to several international exercises and real events. Through such experiences, the new version of WSPEEDI aims to employ a combination of an atmospheric dynamic model and a particle random walk model for more accurate predictions. This paper describes these models, improvement of prediction and computational techniques for quick responses. (author)

  20. The atmosphere after a nuclear war: twilight at noon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crutzen, P.J.; Birks, J.W.

    1982-01-01

    As a result of a nuclear war, vast forest areas will go up in smoke - corresponding at least to the combined land mass of Denmark, Norway and Sweden. In addition to the tremendous fires burning for weeks in cities and industrial centres, fires will also rage across croplands and it is likely that at least 1.5 billion tons of stored fossil fuels (mostly oil and gas) will be destroyed. The fires will produce a thick smoke layer, drastically reducing sunlight reaching the earth's surface. Darkness would persist for many weeks, rendering any agricultural activity in the Northern Hemisphere virtually impossible if the war takes place during the growing season. Marine ecosystems are probably particularly sensitive to prolonged periods of darkness. It is also possible that severe, worldwide photochemical smog conditions would develop, with high levels of tropospheric ozone that would likewise interfere severely with plant productivity. Survival becomes even more difficult if stratospheric ozone depletions also take place. The authors conclude that not more than a small fraction of the initial survivors of a nuclear war in the middle and high latitude regions of the Northern Hemisphere could escape famine and disease during the following year. (U.K.)

  1. Radioactive fallout in France after the second Chinese nuclear explosion: atmospheric transfer processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doury, A.; Bourgeon, P.

    1966-05-01

    The products released into the atmosphere by the second Chinese nuclear explosion were detected and measured in France during the months of May, June and July 1965. The main results are presented here and discussed. They are considered in particular in the light of the meteorological conditions as a function of the most recent hypotheses concerning transfer processes. (authors) [fr

  2. Monitoring of atmospheric excess 14C around Paks Nuclear Power Plant, Hungary

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Molnár, M.; Bujtás, T.; Svingor, E.; Futó, I.; Světlík, Ivo

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 2 (2007), s. 1031-1043 ISSN 0033-8222 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : radiocarbon * monitoring * atmospheric excess 14C Subject RIV: DL - Nuclear Waste, Radioactive Pollution ; Quality Impact factor: 1.164, year: 2007

  3. Atmospheric nuclear weapons test history narrated by carbon-14 in human teeth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishizawa, Kunihide; Nagatsu, Toshiharu; Togari, Akifumi; Matsumoto, Shosei

    1991-01-01

    The atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons since 1945 caused a significant increase in the concentration of atmospheric 14 C. The 14 C concentration in plants that assimilate 14 C directly by photosynthesis reflects the atmospheric 14 C concentration. Carbon-14 is then transferred into the human body through the food chain. Based on animal experiments, the collagen in human teeth is metabolically inert after its formation. This implies that the collagen of each tooth retains the 14 C concentration which reflects the 14 C concentration in the blood at the time collagen metabolism ceased. The distribution of the 14 C concentration in the collagen of teeth from subjects of various ages would follow a pattern similar to that shown by soft tissues. In this paper the authors elucidate the relationship between the number of nuclear weapon tests and the distribution of 14 C concentration in teeth

  4. Spectroradiometric inspection of nuclear pollution in the atmosphere based on photochemical effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chistyakova, Liliya K.; Kopytin, Yurii D.

    2005-07-01

    Results of theoretical and experimental investigations of remote monitoring methods based on secondary radioactivity effects including anomalous gaseous fields and their emissions in optical and microwave ranges are discussed. The feasibility of remote registration of secondary emission and absorption spectra from weakly ionized regions in the atmosphere above nuclear power engineering objects, dumps, and tailings dumps of nuclear wastes are examined. Based on the literature data on the excess concentrations of aerosol and gaseous components produced in radiation fields above their background levels, the diffusion parameters of radioactive emissions in the atmosphere are evaluated. The methods under consideration are shown to be promising for ecological monitoring of atmospheric radioactive pollution. High sensitivities of these methods enable pollutants to be detected at long distances. Simultaneous use of passive and active methods gives additional information on the parameters of radioactive pollution.

  5. A source term estimation method for a nuclear accident using atmospheric dispersion models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Minsik; Ohba, Ryohji; Oura, Masamichi

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop an operational source term estimation (STE) method applicable for a nuclear accident like the incident that occurred at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power station in 2011. The new STE method presented here is based on data from atmospheric dispersion...... models and short-range observational data around the nuclear power plants.The accuracy of this method is validated with data from a wind tunnel study that involved a tracer gas release from a scaled model experiment at Tokai Daini nuclear power station in Japan. We then use the methodology developed...... and validated through the effort described in this manuscript to estimate the release rate of radioactive material from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power station....

  6. Estimation of effective dose from the atmospheric nuclear tests due to the intake of marine products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Masanao

    2008-01-01

    The worldwide environmental protection is required by the public. A long-term environmental assessment from nuclear fuel cycle facilities to the aquatic environment also becomes more important to understand long-term risk of nuclear energy. Evaluation of long-term risk including not only in Japan but also in neighboring countries is considered to be necessary in order to develop sustainable nuclear power industry. The author successfully simulated the distribution of radionuclides in seawater and seabed sediment produced by atmospheric nuclear tests using LAMER (Long-term Assessment ModEl of Radionuclides in the oceans). A part of the LAMER calculated the advection-diffusion-scavenging processes for radionuclides in the oceans and the Japan Sea in cooperate with Oceanic General Circulation Model (OGCM) and was validated. The author is challenging to calculate probabilistic effective dose suggested by ICRP from intake of marine products due to atmospheric nuclear tests using the Monte Carlo method in the other part of LAMER. Depending on the deviation of each parameter, the 95th percentile of the probabilistic effective dose was from one third to two thirds of the 95th percentile of the deterministic effective dose in proforma calculation. It means that probabilistic assessment can contribute to the design and optimisation of a nuclear fuel cycle facility. (author)

  7. Characteristics of acoustic wave from atmospheric nuclear explosions conducted at the USSR Test Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolova, Inna

    2015-04-01

    Availability of the acoustic wave on the record of microbarograph is one of discriminate signs of atmospheric (surface layer of atmosphere) and contact explosions. Nowadays there is large number of air wave records from chemical explosions recorded by the IMS infrasound stations installed during recent decade. But there is small number of air wave records from nuclear explosions as air and contact nuclear explosions had been conducted since 1945 to 1962, before the Limited Test Ban Treaty was signed in 1963 (the treaty banning nuclear weapon tests in the atmosphere, in outer space and under water) by the Great Britain, USSR and USA. That time there was small number of installed microbarographs. First infrasound stations in the USSR appeared in 1954, and by the moment of the USSR collapse the network consisted of 25 infrasound stations, 3 of which were located on Kazakhstan territory - in Kurchatov (East Kazakhstan), in Borovoye Observatory (North Kazakhstan) and Talgar Observatory (Northern Tien Shan). The microbarograph of Talgar Observatory was installed in 1962 and recorded large number of air nuclear explosions conducted at Semipalatinsk Test Site and Novaya Zemlya Test Site. The epicentral distance to the STS was ~700 km, and to Novaya Zemlya Test Site ~3500 km. The historical analog records of the microbarograph were analyzed on the availability of the acoustic wave. The selected records were digitized, the database of acoustic signals from nuclear explosions was created. In addition, acoustic signals from atmospheric nuclear explosions conducted at the USSR Test Sites were recorded by analogue broadband seismic stations at wide range of epicentral distances, 300-3600 km. These signals coincide well by its form and spectral content with records of microbarographs and can be used for monitoring tasks and discrimination in places where infrasound observations are absent. Nuclear explosions which records contained acoustic wave were from 0.03 to 30 kt yield for

  8. EFFAIR: a computer program for estimating the dispersion of atmospheric emissions from a nuclear site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dormuth, K.W.; Lyon, R.B.

    1978-11-01

    Analysis of the transport of material through the turbulent atmospheric boundary layer is an important part of environmental impact assessments for nuclear plants. Although this is a complex phenomenon, practical estimates of ground level concentrations downwind of release are usually obtained using a simple Gaussian formula whose coefficients are obtained from empirical correlations. Based on this formula, the computer program EFFAIR has been written to provide a flexible tool for atmospheric dispersion calculations. It is considered appropriate for calculating dilution factors at distances of 10 2 to 10 4 metres from an effluent source if reflection from the inversion lid is negligible in that range. (author)

  9. Nuclear analytical techniques applied to characterization of atmospheric aerosols in Amazon Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerab, Fabio; Artaxo, Paulo

    1996-01-01

    This work presents the atmospheric aerosols characterization that exist in different regions of Amazon basin. The biogenic aerosol emission by forest, as well as the atmospheric emissions of particulate materials due to biomass burning, were analyzed. Samples of aerosol particles were collected during three years in two different locations of Amazon region using Stacked Unit Filters. In order to study these samples some analytical nuclear techniques were used. The high concentrations of aerosols as a result of biomass burning process were observed in the period of june-september

  10. Nuclear geophysics in space and atmospheric reserch at INPE/BRAZIl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordemann, D.J.R.; Pereira, E.B.; Marinho, E.V.A.; Sircilli Neto, F.

    1986-05-01

    During the last years, INPE's research in Nuclear Geophysics has developed in fields of interest to the Institute, the scientific community and the society in general. In the space research field it may be considered as a contribution to the history of meteorite falls in our planet or possible collision with big meteorites which may have been the cause of important effects such as biological extinction and extraterrestrial matter gathering. In the atmospheric research field, spatial and temporal variations of radon measurements in the lower atmosphere allow correlations from micrometeorology to worlwide scale through mesoscale, in the interpretation of phenomena which deal with the dynamics of air masses. (Author) [pt

  11. Measurement of anthropogenic radionuclides in the atmosphere with a radionuclide monitoring network for nuclear tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonezawa, Chushiro; Yamamoto, Yoichi

    2011-01-01

    A worldwide radionuclide monitoring network for nuclear tests has detected the anthropogenic radioactive materials released in the atmosphere due to the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant impacted by the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011. After four months have passed since the accident occurred, most overseas stations do not detect the radionuclides of Fukushima origin any more. The Takasaki station in Japan, however, is still detecting them every day. This paper describes radionuclide monitoring stations and the network of them as part of the International Monitoring System (IMS) in the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), as well as the measurement results of radionuclide particulates and radioactive isotopes of xenon released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant with the monitoring network. (J.P.N.)

  12. Atmospheric overview for the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowen, J.L.; Egami, R.T.

    1983-11-01

    This report discusses atmospheric considerations for a nuclear waste repository at NTS. It presents the climatology of Nevada, and NTS in particular, including paleoclimatology for past climatic changes, present climatology for mean meterological conditions, feature climatological expectations, and occurrence of extreme weather. It discusses air quality aspects including an estimation of present air quality and possible dispersion conditions on NTS. It briefly assesses noise problems. It outlines a plan for an Environmental Impact Statement and covers the federal and state regulations for air quality. It identifies data for climatology and air quality and evaluates their applicability to nuclear waste repository

  13. Shoshonitic intrusion magmatism in Pajeu-Paraiba belt: the Bom Jardim complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, I.P. de; Silva Filho, A.F. da

    1990-01-01

    The Bom Jardim complex is a multi phase intrusion emplaced within the basement of the Pajeu-Paraiba belt, in the Borborema province, N.E., Brazil, during the Pan African (Brasiliano) orogeny, 600 Ma ago. The Bom Jardim complex is primarily composed of monzonites and syenites with subordinated granites. The major and trace elements geochemistry has established a shoshonitic affinity for the monzonite-syenite assemblages, whereas the granites are clearly of a high-K calc-alkaline character. The main geochemical trends determined for the complex are the result of fractionation of mainly amphibole, biotite, alkali feldspar ±clinopyroxene within the developing magmas. The enrichment in transition metal elements, LILE and high LILE/HSFE ratios, coupled with an initial Sr sup(87)/Sr sup(86) ratio of 0.70709 is consistent with a subduction related magma source. (author)

  14. Atmospheric nuclear weapon test history as characterized by the deposition of 14C in human teeth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishizawa, K.; Togari, A.; Matsumoto, S.; Nagatsu, T.

    1990-01-01

    The 14 C concentration in the collagen of human teeth was retrospectively investigated to determine whether its incorporation was related to atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons. Teeth were extracted for dental therapy from July 1987 to February 1988 from patients who were residents in Japan. Tooth collagen was extracted with HCl and converted to amorphous C by heating in a vacuum line. Specimens for 14 C analysis were prepared by mixing the amorphous C with silver powder. The 14 C concentration was measured by mass spectrometer. The 14 C concentration in tooth collagen rapidly increased in 1961 after the bomb tests, peaked around 1967-1968, and then gradually decreased. The collagen of human teeth maintains the 14 C concentration at the age of root completion for life. The results of this study indicate that the history of environmental contamination from atmospheric nuclear weapon's tests has been characterized by deposition of 14 C in the tooth collagen 14 C of human beings

  15. Low Power, Room Temperature Systems for the Detection and Identification of Radionuclides from Atmospheric Nuclear Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    DTRA-TR-13-48 Low Power, Room Temperature Systems for the Detection and Identification of Radionuclides from Atmospheric Nuclear Test Approved for...01-C-0071 Radionuclides from Atmospheric Nuclear Tests 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Muren Chu...I IIlIl4eI ilf "tt""f;lk~ l).t::l’e.do)- mllin:: in an n-t~’J𔃻f mlllril.: II!’ ,-kll ~".r’I::!, ..... ·hkh j,-, .:auI,,·d br thP . la-ek f.r ·;IIff

  16. Necessary conditions for the initiation and propagation of nuclear-detonation waves in plane atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, T.A.; Wood, L.

    1979-01-01

    The basic conditions for the initiation of a nuclear-detonation wave in an atmosphere having plane symmetry (e.g., a thin, layered fluid envelope on a planet or star) are developed. Two classes of such a detonation are identified: those in which the temperature of the plasma is comparable to that of the electromagnetic radiation permeating it, and those in which the temperature of the plasma is much higher. Necessary conditions are developed for the propagation of such detonation waves for an arbitrarily great distance. The contribution of fusion chain reactions to these processes is evaluated. By means of these considerations, it is shown that neither the atmosphere nor oceans of the Earth may be made to undergo propagating nuclear detonation under any circumstances

  17. The study of atmospheric dispersion of radionuclide near nuclear power plant using CFD approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagrale, Dhanesh B.; Bera, Subrata; Deo, Anuj K.; Gaikwad, Avinash J.

    2015-01-01

    Most of the studies on atmospheric dispersion of radioactive material released from nuclear power plants are based on Gaussian plume models which fail to take account turbulence generated. The Fire Dynamic Simulator (FDS) code is one such flow model that uses a form of Navier-Stokes equation for low mach number applications. In the 0-2 km range near nuclear power plant, mainly near the source of emission of radionuclides, obstructions like natural draft cooling towers, plant building and structures are located. The stability class 'F' conditions and temperature of surrounding atmosphere, 15°C are considered in analysis. Main constituents of radionuclides released from stack mainly xenon, krypton. Two cases are carried out a) dispersion of gases without obstruction of cooling tower and b) dispersion of gases with obstruction of cooling tower. It is observed that mass fraction of radionuclides near the cooling tower ground increased to certain extent due to obstruction and wake effect. (author)

  18. On the electromagnetic pulse generated by exo-atmospheric nuclear detonations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leuthaeuser, K.D.

    1983-01-01

    When gamma rays produced by high altitude nuclear weapons explosions interact with the atmosphere they generate an electromagnetic pulse (EMP) propagating towards the earth's surface. The EMP covers large areas of millions of km 2 and reaches peak electric fields of more than 50 kV/m which may couple into all kinds of conducting systems. The present paper deals with a simple model to calculate EMP fields basing on Maxwell's equations. (orig.)

  19. Atmospheric stability effects on potential radiological releases at a nuclear research facility in Romania: Characterising the atmospheric mixing state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambers, Scott D.; Galeriu, Dan; Williams, Alastair G.; Melintescu, Anca; Griffiths, Alan D.; Crawford, Jagoda; Dyer, Leisa; Duma, Marin; Zorila, Bogdan

    2016-01-01

    A radon-based nocturnal stability classification scheme is developed for a flat inland site near Bucharest, Romania, characterised by significant local surface roughness heterogeneity, and compared with traditional meteorologically-based techniques. Eight months of hourly meteorological and atmospheric radon observations from a 60 m tower at the IFIN-HH nuclear research facility are analysed. Heterogeneous surface roughness conditions in the 1 km radius exclusion zone around the site hinder accurate characterisation of nocturnal atmospheric mixing conditions using conventional meteorological techniques, so a radon-based scheme is trialled. When the nocturnal boundary layer is very stable, the Pasquill–Gifford “radiation” scheme overestimates the atmosphere's capacity to dilute pollutants with near-surface sources (such as tritiated water vapour) by 20% compared to the radon-based scheme. Under these conditions, near-surface wind speeds drop well below 1 m s"−"1 and nocturnal mixing depths vary from ∼25 m to less than 10 m above ground level (a.g.l.). Combining nocturnal radon with daytime ceilometer data, we were able to reconstruct the full diurnal cycle of mixing depths. Average daytime mixing depths at this flat inland site range from 1200 to 1800 m a.g.l. in summer, and 500–900 m a.g.l. in winter. Using tower observations to constrain the nocturnal radon-derived effective mixing depth, we were able to estimate the seasonal range in the Bucharest regional radon flux as: 12 mBq m"−"2 s"−"1 in winter to 14 mBq m"−"2 s"−"1 in summer. - Highlights: • Site climatology accurately characterised by season and atmospheric stability class. • Comparison of "2"2"2Rn-based, Pasquill–Gifford and Richardson number stability indices. • Seasonal mixing depth estimates over the whole diurnal cycle by ceilometer and radon. • Seasonal variability in the regional radon source function well constrained.

  20. Study of applying the Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability to nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orphan, R.C.

    1978-06-01

    Each utility licensee for a nuclear power reactor is required to minimize the adverse effects from an accidental radionuclide release into the atmosphere. In the past the ability to forecast quantitatively the extent of the hazard from such a release has been limited. Now powerful atmospheric modeling techniques are available to assist nuclear reactor site officials with greatly improved assessments. Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) has developed a prototype system called the Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) which is designed to integrate the modeling with advanced sensors, data handling techniques, and weather data in order to provide timely, usable advisories to the site officials. The purpose of this project is to examine the ways and means of adapting ARAC for application to many nuclear power reactors widely dispersed across the nation. The project will emphasize the management aspects, including government-industry relationships, technology transfer, organizational structure, staffing, implementing procedures, and costs. Benefits and costs for several alternative systems will be compared. The results will be reviewed and evaluated by the management and staff of the ARAC project at LLL and also by selected staff members of the sponsoring government agency

  1. Atmospheric Dispersion Assessment for Potential Accidental Releases at Yonggwang Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, Man Gyun; Sim, Young Rok; Jung, Chul Kee; Lee, Goung Jin; Kim, Soong Pyung; Chung, Sung Tai

    2000-01-01

    XOQ DW code is currently used to assess the atmospheric dispersion for the routine releases of radioactive gaseous effluents at Yonggwang nuclear power plants. This code was developed based on XOQDOQ code and an additional code is required to assess the atmospheric dispersion for potential accidental releases. In order to assess the atmospheric dispersion for the accidental releases, XOQAR code has been developed by using PAVAN code that is based on Reg. Guide 1.145. The terrain data of XOQ DW code inputs and the relative concentrations (X/Q) of XOQ DW code outputs are used as the inputs of the XOQAR code through the interface with XOQ DW code. By using this code, the maximum values of X/Q at exclusion area and low population zone boundaries except for sea areas were assessed as 1.33 x 10 -4 and 7.66 x 10 -6 sec/m 3 , respectively. Through the development of this code, a code system is prepared for assessing the atmospheric dispersion for the accidental releases as well as the routine releases. This developed code can be used for other domestic nuclear power plants by modifying the terrain input data

  2. Modified ensemble Kalman filter for nuclear accident atmospheric dispersion: prediction improved and source estimated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X L; Su, G F; Yuan, H Y; Chen, J G; Huang, Q Y

    2014-09-15

    Atmospheric dispersion models play an important role in nuclear power plant accident management. A reliable estimation of radioactive material distribution in short range (about 50 km) is in urgent need for population sheltering and evacuation planning. However, the meteorological data and the source term which greatly influence the accuracy of the atmospheric dispersion models are usually poorly known at the early phase of the emergency. In this study, a modified ensemble Kalman filter data assimilation method in conjunction with a Lagrangian puff-model is proposed to simultaneously improve the model prediction and reconstruct the source terms for short range atmospheric dispersion using the off-site environmental monitoring data. Four main uncertainty parameters are considered: source release rate, plume rise height, wind speed and wind direction. Twin experiments show that the method effectively improves the predicted concentration distribution, and the temporal profiles of source release rate and plume rise height are also successfully reconstructed. Moreover, the time lag in the response of ensemble Kalman filter is shortened. The method proposed here can be a useful tool not only in the nuclear power plant accident emergency management but also in other similar situation where hazardous material is released into the atmosphere. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Estimation Of 137Cs Using Atmospheric Dispersion Models After A Nuclear Reactor Accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsek, V.; Kindap, T.; Unal, A.; Pozzoli, L.; Karaca, M.

    2012-04-01

    Nuclear energy will continue to have an important role in the production of electricity in the world as the need of energy grows up. But the safety of power plants will always be a question mark for people because of the accidents happened in the past. Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident which happened in 26 April 1986 was the biggest nuclear accident ever. Because of explosion and fire large quantities of radioactive material was released to the atmosphere. The release of the radioactive particles because of accident affected not only its region but the entire Northern hemisphere. But much of the radioactive material was spread over west USSR and Europe. There are many studies about distribution of radioactive particles and the deposition of radionuclides all over Europe. But this was not true for Turkey especially for the deposition of radionuclides released after Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident and the radiation doses received by people. The aim of this study is to determine the radiation doses received by people living in Turkish territory after Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident and use this method in case of an emergency. For this purpose The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model was used to simulate meteorological conditions after the accident. The results of WRF which were for the 12 days after accident were used as input data for the HYSPLIT model. NOAA-ARL's (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Air Resources Laboratory) dispersion model HYSPLIT was used to simulate the 137Cs distrubition. The deposition values of 137Cs in our domain after Chernobyl Nuclear Reactor Accident were between 1.2E-37 Bq/m2 and 3.5E+08 Bq/m2. The results showed that Turkey was affected because of the accident especially the Black Sea Region. And the doses were calculated by using GENII-LIN which is multipurpose health physics code.

  4. A MINIATURIZAÇÃO DO MUNDO EM “A GUERRA NO BOM FIM”, DE MOACYR SCLIAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyslei Nascimento

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The novel “A guerra no Bom Fim” by Moacyr Scliar reenacts the devastating effects of the War in the imagination of children in Bom Fim, the Jewish quarter of Porto Alegre. From the point of view of childhood, the space of dream and fantasy, but also of nightmares and bad omens, it is configured as a “small country” that reveals, in their conformation, the miniaturized world and brutalized.

  5. A MINIATURIZAÇÃO DO MUNDO EM “A GUERRA NO BOM FIM”, DE MOACYR SCLIAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyslei Nascimento

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The novel “A guerra no Bom Fim” by Moacyr Scliar reenacts the devastating effects of the War in the imagination of children in Bom Fim, the Jewish quarter of Porto Alegre. From the point of view of childhood, the space of dream and fantasy, but also of nightmares and bad omens, it is configured as a “small country” that reveals, in their conformation, the miniaturized world and brutalized.

  6. Nuclear analytical techniques applied to the large scale measurements of atmospheric aerosols in the amazon region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerab, Fabio

    1996-03-01

    This work presents the characterization of the atmosphere aerosol collected in different places of the Amazon Basin. We studied both the biogenic emission from the forest and the particulate material which is emitted to the atmosphere due to the large scale man-made burning during the dry season. The samples were collected during a three year period at two different locations in the Amazon, namely the Alta Floresta (MT) and Serra do Navio (AP) regions, using stacked unit filters. These regions represent two different atmospheric compositions: the aerosol is dominated by the forest natural biogenic emission at Serra do Navio, while at Alta Floresta it presents an important contribution from the man-made burning during the dry season. At Alta Floresta we took samples in gold in order to characterize mercury emission to the atmosphere related to the gold prospection activity in Amazon. Airplanes were used for aerosol sampling during the 1992 and 1993 dry seasons to characterize the atmospheric aerosol contents from man-made burning in large Amazonian areas. The samples were analyzed using several nuclear analytic techniques: Particle Induced X-ray Emission for the quantitative analysis of trace elements with atomic number above 11; Particle Induced Gamma-ray Emission for the quantitative analysis of Na; and Proton Microprobe was used for the characterization of individual particles of the aerosol. Reflectancy technique was used in the black carbon quantification, gravimetric analysis to determine the total atmospheric aerosol concentration and Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy for quantitative analysis of mercury in the particulate from the Alta Floresta gold shops. Ionic chromatography was used to quantify ionic contents of aerosols from the fine mode particulate samples from Serra do Navio. Multivariate statistical analysis was used in order to identify and characterize the sources of the atmospheric aerosol present in the sampled regions. (author)

  7. Simulations of Atmospheric Krypton-85 to Assess the Detectability of Clandestine Nuclear Reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, O.; Ahlswede, J.; Annewandter, R.; Kalinowski, M.B.; Rast, S.; Schluenzen, K.H.

    2010-01-01

    The results of this study were achieved in the project 'Simulation of Atmospheric Noble Gas Concentrations to Assess Sampling Procedures for the Detection of Clandestine Nuclear Reprocessing' (IAEA GER 1643) in the joint programme of IAEA and Federal Government of Germany. In the first year of the project the detectability of additional krypton-85 sources was investigated using atmospheric transport modelling. Krypton-85 is released into the air during reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel rods. Therefore the krypton-85 signature can possibly be used for the detection of undeclared plutonium separation. First, the global krypton-85 background produced by known reprocessing facilities from 1971 until 2006 was simulated with the atmospheric general circulation model ECHAM5 using annual emission data. The model results were evaluated by extensive comparison with measurements performed by the German Federal Office for Radiation Protection. Of particular interest for an assessment of the detectability of unknown sources is the background variability. The variability of concentrations is very high over central Europe, where the large reprocessing plants La Hague and Sellafield are located, and it is very low on the Southern Hemisphere, where no nuclear reprocessing takes place. The analysis of concentration time series on various time scales allows partly a distinction between fluctuations caused by the variability of the sources from variations due to atmospheric dynamics. Furthermore the detection sensitivity to a set of arbitrarily specified source locations is analysed with a Lagrangian particle dispersion model. This, in combination with the location specific background variability, is giving first benchmarks on the capability of using krypton-85 for IAEA Safeguards based on the Additional Protocols foreseeing environmental sampling. (author)

  8. Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear accidents: what has changed in the use of atmospheric dispersion modeling?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benamrane, Y.; Wybo, J.-L.; Armand, P.

    2013-01-01

    The threat of a major accidental or deliberate event that would lead to hazardous materials emission in the atmosphere is a great cause of concern to societies. This is due to the potential large scale of casualties and damages that could result from the release of explosive, flammable or toxic gases from industrial plants or transport accidents, radioactive material from nuclear power plants (NPPs), and chemical, biological, radiological or nuclear (CBRN) terrorist attacks. In order to respond efficiently to such events, emergency services and authorities resort to appropriate planning and organizational patterns. This paper focuses on the use of atmospheric dispersion modeling (ADM) as a support tool for emergency planning and response, to assess the propagation of the hazardous cloud and thereby, take adequate counter measures. This paper intends to illustrate the noticeable evolution in the operational use of ADM tools over 25 y and especially in emergency situations. This study is based on data available in scientific publications and exemplified using the two most severe nuclear accidents: Chernobyl (1986) and Fukushima (2011). It appears that during the Chernobyl accident, ADM were used few days after the beginning of the accident mainly in a diagnosis approach trying to reconstruct what happened, whereas 25 y later, ADM was also used during the first days and weeks of the Fukushima accident to anticipate the potentially threatened areas. We argue that the recent developments in ADM tools play an increasing role in emergencies and crises management, by supporting stakeholders in anticipating, monitoring and assessing post-event damages. However, despite technological evolutions, its prognostic and diagnostic use in emergency situations still arise many issues. -- Highlights: • Study of atmospheric dispersion modeling use during nuclear accidents. • ADM tools were mainly used in a diagnosis approach during Chernobyl accident. • ADM tools were also used

  9. Model calculating annual mean atmospheric dispersion factor for coastal site of nuclear power plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes an atmospheric dispersion field experiment performed on the coastal site of nuclear power plant in the east part of China during 1995 to 1996. The three-dimension joint frequency are obtained by hourly observation of wind and temperature on a 100m high tower; the frequency of the “event day of land and sea breezes” are given by observation of surface wind and land and sea breezes; the diffusion parameters are got from measurements of turbulent and wind tunnel simulation test.A new model calculating the annual mean atmospheric dispersion factor for coastal site of nuclear power plant is developed and established.This model considers not only the effect from mixing release and mixed layer but also the effect from the internal boundary layer and variation of diffusion parameters due to the distance from coast.The comparison between results obtained by the new model and current model shows that the ratio of annual mean atmospheric dispersion factor gained by the new model and the current one is about 2.0.

  10. The atmospheric corrosion: an important technical-economic and nuclear safety factor during storage in the construction of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, R.; Rodriguez, J.; Diaz, J.; Gomez, J.; Galeano, N.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to show the results of the research performed to determine the atmospheric corrosion in the region of Juragua nuclear power plant and to offer some practical recommendations to increase the efficiency during the storage of materials, considering technical-economic and nuclear safety aspects

  11. Atmospheric Radionuclides from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident-Two years observations in Tsukuba, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Yasuhito; Kajino, Mizuo; Zaizen, Yuji; Adachi, Koji; Mikami, Masao; Kita, Kazuyuki; Hatano, Yuko

    2013-04-01

    The accident of Fukushima Dai-Ichi Nuclear Power Plant of the Tokyo Electric Power Corporation arisen by the hit of great earthquake and tsunami in March 11, 2011, emitted abundant fresh radioactive material to the atmospheric environment. The amount has been estimated to be at least a few-tenth of those from the Chernobyl accident (by NISA, etc.). By this large-scale contamination, atmospheric environments over Japan, especially the eastern part, were seriously impacted with such a massive amount of the anthropogenic radionuclides (e.g. typical hotspots). So the persisting aftermath is one of the concerns. Although the heavy primary emission seems to be terminated until April of 2011, 2ndary emissions from contaminated ground surface, coppices, fields, roads, any burnings of the contaminated materials generated the resuspension of radionuclides into the atmosphere. With 2-years observation for the Fukushima radioactivity at the Meteorological Research Institute, Japan (MRI) such persisting resuspension is considered in this presentation. The resuspension seems still in difficulty to give forecast by computer modeling; the observations are indispensable bodies of the research even in the future. The MRI has carried out observations of the atmospheric radionuclides, which are long-lived with potentials of environmental and health impacts, for more than 50 years. Aiming at to clarify temporal change in concentration of anthropogenic radionuclides in the atmosphere and its control factors, the observations have continued over the long period. The long-lasting impacts of the Fukushima accident are addressed with our long-term time series of the atmospheric radioactivity as a reference.

  12. A model for radiological consequences of nuclear power plant operational atmospheric releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocar, Cemil; Soekmen, Cemal Niyazi

    2009-01-01

    A dynamic dose and risk assessment model is developed to estimate radiological consequences of atmospheric emissions from nuclear power plants. Internal exposure via inhalation and ingestion, external exposure from clouds and radioactivity deposited on the ground are included in the model. The model allows to simulate interregional moves of people and multi-location food supply in the computational domain. Any long-range atmospheric dispersion model which yields radionuclide concentrations in air and on the ground at predetermined time intervals can easily be integrated into the model. The software developed is validated against radionuclide concentrations measured in different environmental media and dose values estimated after the Chernobyl accident. Results obtained using the model compare well with dose estimates and activities measured in foodstuffs and feedstuffs

  13. The atmosphere submodel for the assessment of Canada's nuclear fuel waste management concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiro, B.D.

    1992-09-01

    Canada's Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program is researching a concept for disposal of immobilized nuclear fuel waste in a vault mined deep in stable plutonic rock. When protective barriers are eventually breached, radioactive and chemically toxic nuclides, carried by groundwater, may migrate from the vault to the biosphere. They may cycle through surface waters, soil, the atmosphere and the food chain. One of the objectives of the program is to assess the movement of nuclides using modelling techniques to calculate the radiological dose to humans and concentrations of contaminants in the environment. To achieve these goals a biosphere model, comprising four submodels, has been developed. This report describes the atmosphere submodel and the pathways through which nuclides may move through the atmosphere. The model describes the processes of nuclide suspension, dispersion and deposition. Surface water and soil are considered as primary sources of nuclide fluxes to the atmosphere. Some nuclides may be attached to contaminated suspended particulate matter, whereas others are mobile as gases. The model considers natural phenomena such as wind erosion of soil, forest fires, gaseous emissions from soil, and bubble bursting at lake surfaces. Anthropogenic processes such as wood burning for energy are also modelled, and nuclide concentrations in both outdoor and indoor air are calculated. The model combines a variety of techniques, including mass loading concepts, flux density estimates, numerical dispersion models and specific activity relationships. The model is probabilistic; transport is modelled using simple mass transfer equations, and variability is incorporated by distributing values for parameters. This report documents the model equations, the parameter values, and comparisons of pathways. (Author)

  14. Regularities of in-regional redistribution of the nuclear test products in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsitskishvili, M.S.; Chkhartishvili, A.G.; Nozadze, M.R.; Intskirveli, L.N.; Buachidze, N.D.; Churguliya, E.R.; Shatberashvili, I.G.; Diasamidze, R.I.; Karchava, G.V.; Gugushvili, B.S.

    2003-01-01

    Regularities of artificial radionuclides redistribution in the Caucasus atmosphere are studied. The structure of global fallout in the region is considered. It is noted, that Caucasus is characterizing by a wide diversity of the landscapes and soils. This diversity results a different migration regime for radioisotopes in soils. Penetration of the nuclear tests products into the soils depends on the annual precipitation amount (soil humidification), and incoming level of the radioisotopes. At evaluation of external and internal irradiation doses on South Caucasus population the Caucasus was divided into regions by levels of the global reactive fallout

  15. Estimation of maximum credible atmospheric radioactivity concentrations and dose rates from nuclear tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telegadas, K.

    1979-01-01

    A simple technique is presented for estimating maximum credible gross beta air concentrations from nuclear detonations in the atmosphere, based on aircraft sampling of radioactivity following each Chinese nuclear test from 1964 to 1976. The calculated concentration is a function of the total yield and fission yield, initial vertical radioactivity distribution, time after detonation, and rate of horizontal spread of the debris with time. calculated maximum credible concentrations are compared with the highest concentrations measured during aircraft sampling. The technique provides a reasonable estimate of maximum air concentrations from 1 to 10 days after a detonation. An estimate of the whole-body external gamma dose rate corresponding to the maximum credible gross beta concentration is also given. (author)

  16. A numerical simulation of 129I in the atmosphere emitted from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishizawa, Masato; Suzuki, Takashi; Nagai, Haruyasu; Togawa, Orihiko

    2010-01-01

    A global chemical transport model, MOZART-4, is applied to investigate the behavior of 129 I emitted from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants in Europe (Sellafield in the UK and La Hague in France). The result of numerical simulation for more than fifty-year period from the 1950s is validated by comparison with measurements of 129 I around the world and analyzed to clarify the characteristic of the distributions of concentration and deposition of 129 I. The modeled concentrations of 129 I in precipitation in Europe and the United States and inventories in the seawater around Japan and the Gulf of Mexico are in the same order as measurements. the emitted 129 I to the atmosphere is distributed all over the Northern Hemisphere due mainly to the prevailing westerlies and can be an important source of supply of artificial 129 I for the seawater remote from the point source such as a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. (author)

  17. System for keeping atmospheric pressure in nuclear facility and its peripheral equipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Hatsuo

    1993-02-01

    The design to keep radioactive materials in the facility and not to make them spread inside the facility and into the environments is an essential issue in the construction of nuclear facilities. One reason of the contamination is due to the diffusion with air flow, therefore, negative pressure for the ambients has been utilized to keep gaseous radioactivities inside the facility of interest. The pressure difference is not so large, though, the atmospheric pressure level of the contaminated and possibly contaminated areas are always kept to be lower than those of the ambient one to prevent the dissemination of radioactivity from the defined area. The technique using negative pressure, at present, is employed widely in nuclear facilities, and the basic system is the same as that of JRR-1 built as the first nuclear facility in Japan. In the present work, the conventional system with negative pressure was reexamined on the sate-of-art of the regulations for the nuclear facilities, and consequently some shortages of the system has been found. Thus, an advanced system with an excellent performance keeping the negative pressure has been developed to cover the shortage. In this report, the new system is introduced with a couple of comments, acquired from the author's experience, to the design and the maintenance of the composite equipments of the system. (author)

  18. Nuclear fuel particles in the environment - characteristics, atmospheric transport and skin doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poellaenen, R.

    2002-05-01

    In the present thesis, nuclear fuel particles are studied from the perspective of their characteristics, atmospheric transport and possible skin doses. These particles, often referred to as 'hot' particles, can be released into the environment, as has happened in past years, through human activities, incidents and accidents, such as the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in 1986. Nuclear fuel particles with a diameter of tens of micrometers, referred to here as large particles, may be hundreds of kilobecquerels in activity and even an individual particle may present a quantifiable health hazard. The detection of individual nuclear fuel particles in the environment, their isolation for subsequent analysis and their characterisation are complicated and require well-designed sampling and tailored analytical methods. In the present study, the need to develop particle analysis methods is highlighted. It is shown that complementary analytical techniques are necessary for proper characterisation of the particles. Methods routinely used for homogeneous samples may produce erroneous results if they are carelessly applied to radioactive particles. Large nuclear fuel particles are transported differently in the atmosphere compared with small particles or gaseous species. Thus, the trajectories of gaseous species are not necessarily appropriate for calculating the areas that may receive large particle fallout. A simplified model and a more advanced model based on the data on real weather conditions were applied in the case of the Chernobyl accident to calculate the transport of the particles of different sizes. The models were appropriate in characterising general transport properties but were not able to properly predict the transport of the particles with an aerodynamic diameter of tens of micrometers, detected at distances of hundreds of kilometres from the source, using only the current knowledge of the source term. Either the effective release height has been higher

  19. Nuclear fuel particles in the environment - characteristics, atmospheric transport and skin doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poellaenen, R

    2002-05-01

    In the present thesis, nuclear fuel particles are studied from the perspective of their characteristics, atmospheric transport and possible skin doses. These particles, often referred to as 'hot' particles, can be released into the environment, as has happened in past years, through human activities, incidents and accidents, such as the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in 1986. Nuclear fuel particles with a diameter of tens of micrometers, referred to here as large particles, may be hundreds of kilobecquerels in activity and even an individual particle may present a quantifiable health hazard. The detection of individual nuclear fuel particles in the environment, their isolation for subsequent analysis and their characterisation are complicated and require well-designed sampling and tailored analytical methods. In the present study, the need to develop particle analysis methods is highlighted. It is shown that complementary analytical techniques are necessary for proper characterisation of the particles. Methods routinely used for homogeneous samples may produce erroneous results if they are carelessly applied to radioactive particles. Large nuclear fuel particles are transported differently in the atmosphere compared with small particles or gaseous species. Thus, the trajectories of gaseous species are not necessarily appropriate for calculating the areas that may receive large particle fallout. A simplified model and a more advanced model based on the data on real weather conditions were applied in the case of the Chernobyl accident to calculate the transport of the particles of different sizes. The models were appropriate in characterising general transport properties but were not able to properly predict the transport of the particles with an aerodynamic diameter of tens of micrometers, detected at distances of hundreds of kilometres from the source, using only the current knowledge of the source term. Either the effective release height has

  20. Associated factors of malnutrition among African children under five years old, Bom Jesus, Angola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ema Cândida Branco FERNANDES

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To identify the determinants of wasting and stunting in children under five years old in the commune of Bom Jesus, Angola Methods: A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted with 742 children in 2010, and nutritional deficits were defined by World Health Organization criteria. Prevalence ratios and associated factors of wasting and stunting were estimated using Poisson regression with robust variance, using a conceptual hierarchical model Results: For both deficits, there were significant differences in the prevalence ratios according to the children's neighborhood and age. Boys and those children living in households whose water supply came from the river or lake, as well those with recent expulsion of parasites and infections were more likely to present stunting. Children of fathers with higher number of children or that which the fathers were not living at home and whose mothers were 25-34 years old were less likely to have wasting Conclusion: It was identified independent variables from different levels of determination of malnutrition, standing out the basic sanitation conditions and family structure as important predictors of the nutritional deficits. The knowledge of the associated factors of malnutrition may contribute for subside public policies in planning interventions to improve the childhood nutrition status in Bom Jesus and communes with similar characteristics in Angola.

  1. Atmospheric radionuclides from Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident detected in Lanzhou, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邬家龙王赟; 孙卫; 罗伟立; 王延俊; 张飙

    2015-01-01

    After the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident on March 11, 2011, the radioactivity released from the accident was transported around the globe by atmospheric processes. The radioactivity monitoring program on atmospheric particulate in Lanzhou, China was activated by GSCDC to detect the input radionu-clides through atmospheric transport. Several artificial radionuclides were detected and measured in aerosol samples from March 26 to May 2, 2011. The peaked activity concentrations (in mBq/m3) were: 1.194 (131I), 0.231 (137Cs), 0.173 (134Cs) and 0.008 (136Cs), detected on April 6, 2011. The average activity ratio of 131I/137Cs and 134Cs/137Cs in air were 13.5 and 0.78. The significant increase of 137Cs activity concentration, one order of magnitude higher than pre-Fukushima accident levels, in ground level aerosol was observed in 2013, as its re-suspension from soil. The back-trajectory analysis simulated by NOAA-ARL HYSPLIT shows a direct transfer of the air masses released from Fukushima to Lanzhou across the Pacific Ocean, North America and Europe at the height close to 9000 m AGL. The value of effective dose for inhalation is close to one millionth of the annual limit for the general public.

  2. Pollution of atmospheric air with toxic and radioactive particulate matter investigated by means of nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagielak, J.

    1978-01-01

    The application of spectrometric methods of nuclear techniques to the investigations of atmospheric air pollution by toxic and radioactive elements and results of these investigations conducted in the highly industrialized and urbanized regions of Poland have been presented. The method of precipitation of the samples, the measurements and analysis of radiation spectra of alpha and gamma radiation emitted by isotopes present in the samples have been described. The concentrations of toxic metal dust in the air have been evaluated by neutron activation and X-ray fluorescence analysis. Appropriate methods of measurement, calibration of instrument and the discussion of results have been presented. The work presents the results of investigations performed in Siersza within the years 1973-1974 and in Warsaw in the period of 1975-1977, which have permitted to estimate the mean monthly values of concentration in the atmospheric air of the following radioisotopes: 7 Be, 54 Mn, 95 Zr, 103 Ru, 106 Ru, 125 Sb, 131 I, 137 Cs, 140 Ba, 141 Ce, 144 Ce, 226 Ra, Th-nat, U-nat and the following stable elements: Sc, Cr, Fe, Co, Zn, As, Se, Sb, W, Pb. The analysis of changes in concentration of each particular artificial radioisotope in the air for the region of Poland in connection with Chinese nuclear explosions have been given. On the basis of the performed environmental investigations the method of analysis of relations between the concentrations of particular elements present in the dust has been discussed. The applications of this method have been presented. The hazard to the population and the environment caused by the radioactive and toxic dust present in the atmospheric air has been estimated. (author)

  3. Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear accidents: what has changed in the use of atmospheric dispersion modeling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benamrane, Y; Wybo, J-L; Armand, P

    2013-12-01

    The threat of a major accidental or deliberate event that would lead to hazardous materials emission in the atmosphere is a great cause of concern to societies. This is due to the potential large scale of casualties and damages that could result from the release of explosive, flammable or toxic gases from industrial plants or transport accidents, radioactive material from nuclear power plants (NPPs), and chemical, biological, radiological or nuclear (CBRN) terrorist attacks. In order to respond efficiently to such events, emergency services and authorities resort to appropriate planning and organizational patterns. This paper focuses on the use of atmospheric dispersion modeling (ADM) as a support tool for emergency planning and response, to assess the propagation of the hazardous cloud and thereby, take adequate counter measures. This paper intends to illustrate the noticeable evolution in the operational use of ADM tools over 25 y and especially in emergency situations. This study is based on data available in scientific publications and exemplified using the two most severe nuclear accidents: Chernobyl (1986) and Fukushima (2011). It appears that during the Chernobyl accident, ADM were used few days after the beginning of the accident mainly in a diagnosis approach trying to reconstruct what happened, whereas 25 y later, ADM was also used during the first days and weeks of the Fukushima accident to anticipate the potentially threatened areas. We argue that the recent developments in ADM tools play an increasing role in emergencies and crises management, by supporting stakeholders in anticipating, monitoring and assessing post-event damages. However, despite technological evolutions, its prognostic and diagnostic use in emergency situations still arise many issues. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Real time analysis for atmospheric dispersions for Fukushima nuclear accident: Mobile phone based cloud computing assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Tae Ho

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Possible nuclear accident is simulated for the atmospheric contaminations. • The simulations results give the relative importance of the fallouts. • The cloud computing of IT is performed successfully. • One can prepare for the possible damages of such a NPP accident. • Some other variables can be considered in the modeling. - Abstract: The radioactive material dispersion is investigated by the system dynamics (SD) method. The non-linear complex algorithm could give the information about the hazardous material behavior in the case of nuclear accident. The prevailing westerlies region is modeled for the dynamical consequences of the Fukushima nuclear accident. The event sequence shows the scenario from earthquake to dispersion of the radionuclides. Then, the dispersion reaches two cities in Korea. The importance of the radioactive dispersion is related to the fast and reliable data processing, which could be accomplished by cloud computing concept. The values of multiplications for the wind, plume concentrations, and cloud computing factor are obtained. The highest value is 94.13 in the 206th day for Seoul. In Pusan, the highest value is 15.48 in the 219th day. The source is obtained as dispersion of radionuclide multiplied by 100. The real time safety assessment is accomplished by mobile phone

  5. Climate risks by radioactive krypton-85 from nuclear fission. Atmospheric-electrical and air-chemical effects of ionizing radiation in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kollert, R.

    1994-01-01

    The study shows that krypton-85 from nuclear fission enhances air ionization and, thus, interferes with the atmospheric-electrical system and the water balance of the earth atmosphere. This is reason for concern: There are unforeseeable effects for weather and climate if the krypton-85 content of the earth atmosphere continues to rise. There may be a krypton-specific greenhouse effect and a collapse of the natural atmospheric-electrical field. In addition, human well-being may be expected to be impaired as a result of the diminished atmospheric-electrical field. There is also the risk of radiochemical actions and effects caused-by krypton-85-containing plumes in other air-borne pollutants like the latters' transformation to aggressive oxidants. This implies radiation smog and more acid rain in the countries exposed. This study summarizes findings gained in these issues by various sciences, analyses them and elaborates hypotheses on the actions and effects of krypton-85 on the air, the atmosphere and the climate. (orig./HP) [de

  6. Gênero e culturas infantis: os clubinhos da escola e as trocinhas do Bom Retiro Gender and children's culture: school clubinhos and the trocinhas of Bom Retiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Mara Cruz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo trata de gênero e culturas infantis, entrecruzando os clubinhos das séries iniciais, analisados em pesquisa feita em uma escola do bairro de Pinheiros, São Paulo, em 2001, e as trocinhas do Bom Retiro, estudadas por Florestan Fernandes em 1942. Na busca de aspectos microestruturais e do efeito dessas interações na construção de diferentes significados de gênero, emergiram questões como: em que medida tais agrupamentos conseguiam estabelecer espaços de autonomia perante o mundo adulto?; elaboravam relações de gênero próprias de uma cultura infantil?; quais eram os pontos centrais sobre os quais se desenrolava a trama das relações de gênero em cada tempo e lugar? A partir da etnografia, foram produzidos 28 registros de campo do recreio de 1ª a 4ª série. Apenas nas 3as e 4as séries assistiu-se a quarenta aulas de cinquenta minutos (de educação artística e educação física, e foram entrevistados 29 meninos e 26 meninas. Ora segregadores ora agregadores, observou-se que os clubinhos (mistos ou de mesmo sexo eram o modo como as crianças geriam suas relações, fosse para permitir grupos mistos sem conflito, fosse para manter o distanciamento entre os sexos de modo pacífico. Este estudo contribui para trazer à tona um pouco das culturas infantis em seu protagonismo relacionado ao gênero e possibilita a caracterização da escola como espaço contraditório, que pode desenvolver ações de suporte às crianças para ampliação de suas experiências.This study deals with gender and children's cultures, crossing the initial series clubinhos, analyzed in a research done at school in the Borough of Pinheiros in São Paulo in 2001 with the trocinhas of Bom Retiro studied by Florestan Fernandes in 1942. In the search for microstructural aspects and for the effect of these interactions in the construction of different meanings of gender, questions emerged such as: to what extent do these groups manage to establish

  7. Climatic effects of nuclear war: The role of atmospheric stability and ground heat fluxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, J.F.B.; Slingo, A.

    1988-01-01

    Most studies of the climatic effects of nuclear war have used atmospheric models with simple representations of important physical processes. In this work, a model is used which treats the diurnal cycle of insolation, and includes surface and boundary layer parameterizations which take into account static stability and a four-layer soil model. Three idealized experiments are described in which a band of smoke is prescribed over northern mid-latitudes in In the experiment, the standard model is used, in the second the effect of deep soil layers is ignored and in the third the stability dependence in the surface and boundary layer processes is removed. It is found that the inclusion of deep soil layers decreases the surface cooling by about 20%, whereas the inclusion of stability effects increases the cooling by about the same amount, though conclusions will depend to some extent on the model used. copyright American Geophysical Union 1988

  8. The field tracer test study of atmospheric dispersion in Fujian Huian Nuclear Power Plant site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Erbang; Xin Cuntian; Yan Jiangyu; Ren Zhiqiang; Xuan Yiren; Jia Peirong

    2003-01-01

    The SF 6 tracer tests and its main results completed in site of Fujian Huian Nuclear Power Plant during summer, 2002, are described. A total of 15 times of SF 6 tracer tests were done in the July, in which the time of atmospheric stability B, C, D, E is respectively 3, 2, 9, 1 based on ΔT-U method and the time of B, D, E is respectively 1, 11, 3 based on ΔT method. About 50 samples were collected in each SF 6 tracer tests, the maximum of sample distance from the tower in which the SF 6 tracer was released is about 15 km. The values of p y , p z , q y , q z in the formula of diffusion parameters is determined. Finally the above diffusion parameters are compared with P-G curve, Briggs diffusion parameters and those obtained from turbulence observation and wind tunnel simulation test done in the past time. (authors)

  9. A survey of atmospheric dispersion models applicable to risk studies for nuclear facilities in complex terrain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittek, P.

    1985-09-01

    Atmospheric dispersion models are reviewed with respect to their application to the consequence assessment within risk studies for nuclear power plants located in complex terrain. This review comprises: seven straight-line Gaussian models, which have been modified in order to take into account in a crude way terrain elevations, enhanced turbulence and some others effects; three trajectory/puff-models, which can handle wind direction changes and the resulting plume or puff trajectories; five three-dimensional wind field models, which calculate the wind field in complex terrain for the application in a grid model; three grid models; one Monte-Carlo-model. The main features of the computer codes are described, along with some informations on the necessary computer time and storage capacity. (orig.) [de

  10. Impact of rainstorm and runoff modeling on predicted consequences of atmospheric releases from nuclear reactor accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchie, L.T.; Brown, W.D.; Wayland, J.R.

    1980-05-01

    A general temperate latitude cyclonic rainstorm model is presented which describes the effects of washout and runoff on consequences of atmospheric releases of radioactive material from potential nuclear reactor accidents. The model treats the temporal and spatial variability of precipitation processes. Predicted air and ground concentrations of radioactive material and resultant health consequences for the new model are compared to those of the original WASH-1400 model under invariant meteorological conditions and for realistic weather events using observed meteorological sequences. For a specific accident under a particular set of meteorological conditions, the new model can give significantly different results from those predicted by the WASH-1400 model, but the aggregate consequences produced for a large number of meteorological conditions are similar

  11. Topography and its effects on atmospheric dispersion in a risk study for nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittek, P.

    1985-07-01

    In the consequence assessment model, applied in the German Reactor Risk Study (GRRS), atmospheric dispersion of radioactive substances is beeing treated with a straight line Gaussian dispersion model. But some of the German nuclear power plants are located in complex terrain. In this report, the 19 sites which are considered in the GRRS, are described and classified by two different methods in respect to terrain complexity. The relevant effects of the terrain on the dispersion are commented. Two modifications of the GRRS consequence assessment code UFOMOD take into account in a simple way the terrain elevation and the enhanced turbulence effected eventually by the terrain structure. Sample calculations for two release categories of the GRRS demonstrate the effect of these modifications on the calculated number of early fatalities. (orig.) [de

  12. Que bom te ver viva: vozes femininas reivindicando uma outra história

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia da Costa Bezerra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The right to determine the meaning of the military dictatorship in Brazil has been a constant dispute between members of the militant left and the military regime. The language used by the two groups constantly revolves around the mythic images of “heroes”, “victims”, “for the good of the people”. This essay focuses on Que bom te ver viva, by Lúcia Murat, who brings a new perspective to this debate. Taking as a point of departure the testimony of eight ex-political prisoners, the film attempts to answer the question: How did we survive?” The essay discusses how the movie builds frames of memory that go beyond those taken as representative.

  13. PERMAINAN BOM ANGKA DALAM KONSEP KELIPATAN PERSEKUTUAN TERKECIL UNTUK ANAK SEKOLAH DASAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Indah Adrelia

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is that students are able to understand the basic concepts of Least Common Multiple (LCM easy by using traditional games in Palembang, namely Bom Angka. The method used is design research with preliminary design, teaching experiment, and retrospective analysis stage, with the subjects were primary school students in the fourth grade. The results of this study indicate that the use of the traditional game in LCM motivated students to be more interested in learning mathematics, because students can learn and play at the same time. In addition, the pronunciation of numbers in sequence once uttered a bomb in every multiple of the numbers that have been agreed enables students to think quickly while helping students memorizing multiplication automatically, who were eventually able to instill the concept of LCM well.   

  14. Assessment of the announced North Korean nuclear test using long-range atmospheric transport and dispersion modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Meutter, Pieter; Camps, Johan; Delcloo, Andy; Termonia, Piet

    2017-08-18

    On 6 January 2016, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea announced to have conducted its fourth nuclear test. Analysis of the corresponding seismic waves from the Punggye-ri nuclear test site showed indeed that an underground man-made explosion took place, although the nuclear origin of the explosion needs confirmation. Seven weeks after the announced nuclear test, radioactive xenon was observed in Japan by a noble gas measurement station of the International Monitoring System. In this paper, atmospheric transport modelling is used to show that the measured radioactive xenon is compatible with a delayed release from the Punggye-ri nuclear test site. An uncertainty quantification on the modelling results is given by using the ensemble method. The latter is important for policy makers and helps advance data fusion, where different nuclear Test-Ban-Treaty monitoring techniques are combined.

  15. The economic valuation on atmospheric improvement benefit by nuclear power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, S. J.; Yoo, S. H.; Han, S. Y.; Do, G. W.; Lee, J. S. [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea)

    2000-12-01

    The major contents are as follows : To begin with, major air pollutants' emissions and emission reduction facilities in industrial sectors including a power generation were investigated and the future prospect was suggested. Environmental effects by attributes of air pollutions were summarized through a extensive literature survey. And the concept of benefit-cost based upon social costs and economic values of generation was established to estimate atmospheric improvement benefits by using a nuclear power. As a result of investigating many valuation methodologies that can estimate economic values of environmental improvement, we adopted MAUA(multi-attribute utility assessment) as a research method and estimated environmental costs by air pollutant and by power generating source. Also, we presented foreign case studies related to social costs in power generating sector and horizontally compared study's results home and abroad. Then, we set up four scenarios based on total generation that the 5th long-term power resources planning forecasted and calculated economic values of atmospheric improvement benefits among scenarios. Further, we suggested the results incorporating uncertainty of estimation parameters. Finally, we suggested a rational ground to move toward environment-friendly energy consumption and proposed a plan for the national energy policy against the green age in the 21th century. 147 refs., 45 figs., 103 tabs. (Author)

  16. Atmospheric pollution in the Tula Industrial Corridor studied using a bio monitor and nuclear analytical techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez C, M. A.; Solis, C.; Andrade, E. [UNAM, Instituto de Fisica, Apdo. Postal 20-364, 01000 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Beltran H, R. I. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Centro de Investigaciones Quimicas, Carretera Pachuca-Tulancingo Km. 4.5, 42184 Pachuca, Hidalgo (Mexico); Issac O, K. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Facultad de Medicina, Paseo Tollocan s/n, esq. Jesus Carranza, 50120 Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Lucho C, C. A. [Universidad Politecnica de Pachuca, Carretera Pachuca-Cd. Sahagun Km. 20, Hidalgo (Mexico); Lopez R, M. C.; Longoria, L. C. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2011-02-15

    This study deals with the application of nuclear analytical techniques to analyze trace elements in the biological monitor Tillandsia usneoides. Biological monitors provides an alternative advantageous way of particulate matter sampling in air pollution studies, since there is no need of special sampling devices, accumulation time can be as long as desired. T. usneoides, which occurs naturally throughout Mexico, was used to monitor air quality of Tula-Vito-Apasco (TVA) industrial corridor at central Mexico. This area is considered one of the critical zones of the country because of atmospheric contaminants high concentration. Particulate matter is regulated by Mexican norms, but its chemical composition is not. Plants were transplanted from a clean environment to four sites at the TVA corridor, and exposed for 12 weeks from February to April 2008. Trace element accumulation of plants was determined by particle induced X-ray emission and neutron activation analysis. Results reveal differences in trace elements distribution among sites in the TVA corridor. Furthermore, anthropogenic elements (S, V) and crustal elements (Ca) in T. usneoides exhibit high levels. Highly toxic elements such as Hg, As and Cr although present at trace levels, showed un enrichment relative to the initial values, when transplanted to the TVA corridor. Results show that monitoring with T. usneoides allows a first approximation of air sources to provide insights of the atmospheric pollution in the TVA corridor. (Author)

  17. Atmospheric and climatic consequences of a major nuclear war: Results of recent research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golitsyn, G.S.; MacCracken, M.C.

    1987-09-01

    During the last several years, comprehensive three-dimensional atmospheric circulation models, including detailed parametric formulations of a wide range of climatologically significant processes, have been applied to study the potential consequences of a major nuclear war involving the injection of smoke which could result from the large-scale fires ignited by such an exchange. For plausible smoke injections during the warm season of the year, all model calculations suggest that a significant climatic perturbation would result. In the lower range of smoke injection scenarios (producing of order 10 Tg of highly carbonaceous smoke), smoke would act primarily to inhibit convection and rainfall, especially over land areas, including possibly some disruption of the summer monsoon. The upper range of smoke scenarios (of order 100 Tg of highly carbonaceous smoke) would cause not only rapid and sharp decreases in land temperature and precipitation (a mid-latitude average land-temperature drop of the order of 20 0 C, up to perhaps twice this amount in continental interiors), but also seems likely to leave enough smoke in the atmosphere to persist into the following warm season, inducing a cooling of several degrees

  18. Atmospheric pollution in the Tula Industrial Corridor studied using a bio monitor and nuclear analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez C, M. A.; Solis, C.; Andrade, E.; Beltran H, R. I.; Issac O, K.; Lucho C, C. A.; Lopez R, M. C.; Longoria, L. C.

    2011-01-01

    This study deals with the application of nuclear analytical techniques to analyze trace elements in the biological monitor Tillandsia usneoides. Biological monitors provides an alternative advantageous way of particulate matter sampling in air pollution studies, since there is no need of special sampling devices, accumulation time can be as long as desired. T. usneoides, which occurs naturally throughout Mexico, was used to monitor air quality of Tula-Vito-Apasco (TVA) industrial corridor at central Mexico. This area is considered one of the critical zones of the country because of atmospheric contaminants high concentration. Particulate matter is regulated by Mexican norms, but its chemical composition is not. Plants were transplanted from a clean environment to four sites at the TVA corridor, and exposed for 12 weeks from February to April 2008. Trace element accumulation of plants was determined by particle induced X-ray emission and neutron activation analysis. Results reveal differences in trace elements distribution among sites in the TVA corridor. Furthermore, anthropogenic elements (S, V) and crustal elements (Ca) in T. usneoides exhibit high levels. Highly toxic elements such as Hg, As and Cr although present at trace levels, showed un enrichment relative to the initial values, when transplanted to the TVA corridor. Results show that monitoring with T. usneoides allows a first approximation of air sources to provide insights of the atmospheric pollution in the TVA corridor. (Author)

  19. The economic valuation on atmospheric improvement benefit by nuclear power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, S J; Yoo, S H; Han, S Y; Do, G W; Lee, J S [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea)

    2000-12-01

    The major contents are as follows : To begin with, major air pollutants' emissions and emission reduction facilities in industrial sectors including a power generation were investigated and the future prospect was suggested. Environmental effects by attributes of air pollutions were summarized through a extensive literature survey. And the concept of benefit-cost based upon social costs and economic values of generation was established to estimate atmospheric improvement benefits by using a nuclear power. As a result of investigating many valuation methodologies that can estimate economic values of environmental improvement, we adopted MAUA(multi-attribute utility assessment) as a research method and estimated environmental costs by air pollutant and by power generating source. Also, we presented foreign case studies related to social costs in power generating sector and horizontally compared study's results home and abroad. Then, we set up four scenarios based on total generation that the 5th long-term power resources planning forecasted and calculated economic values of atmospheric improvement benefits among scenarios. Further, we suggested the results incorporating uncertainty of estimation parameters. Finally, we suggested a rational ground to move toward environment-friendly energy consumption and proposed a plan for the national energy policy against the green age in the 21th century. 147 refs., 45 figs., 103 tabs. (Author)

  20. Forty years of atmospheric radiocarbon monitoring around Bohunice nuclear power plant, Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Povinec, P.P.; Chudy, M.; Sivo, A.; Simon, J.; Holy, K.; Richtarikova, M.

    2009-01-01

    Radiocarbon variations in the atmospheric CO 2 with attenuating amplitudes and decreasing mean values with typical maxima in summer and minima in winter have been observed since 1967 in two localities of Slovakia, in Bratislava and Zlkovce, situated about 60 km NE from Bratislava, only 5 km from the Bohunice Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). The 14 C record in Bratislava has been influenced mainly by fossil CO 2 emissions, in contrast to the Zlkovce record which has been more variable, as it has clearly been affected by operation of the Bohunice NPP. However, during specific meteorological conditions with NE transport of air masses to Bratislava, the effect of the Bohunice NPP has been visible in Bratislava as well. Maximum 14 C concentrations (up to 120% above a natural background) were observed around A1 NPP which used CO 2 with admixture of air as a cooling agent. The 14 C concentrations around four pressurized light water reactors were up to 30% above the background. The Δ 14 C values in the heavily polluted atmosphere of Bratislava were up to 10% and at Zlkovce up to 5% lower than the European clean air represented by the Jungfraujoch Δ 14 C data. Later the Δ 14 C values were similar at both sites, and from 2003 they were close to the European clean air levels. The observed Δ 14 C behaviour in the atmosphere provides a unique evidence of decreased fossil fuel CO 2 emissions in the region, as well as the long-term effect of the Bohunice NPP on the Bratislava and Zlkovce stations. The estimated annual radiation doses to the local public due to digestion of radiocarbon contaminated food have been estimated to be around 3 μSv

  1. Atmospheric considerations regarding the impact of heat dissipation from a nuclear energy center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotty, R.M.; Bauman, H.; Bennett, L.L.

    1976-05-01

    Potential changes in climate resulting from a large nuclear energy center are discussed. On a global scale, no noticeable changes are likely, but on both a regional and a local scale, changes can be expected. Depending on the cooling system employed, the amount of fog may increase, the amount and distribution of precipitation will change, and the frequency or location of severe storms may change. Very large heat releases over small surface areas can result in greater atmospheric instability; a large number of closely spaced natural-draft cooling towers have this disadvantage. On the other hand, employment of natural-draft towers makes an increase in the occurrence of ground fog unlikely. The analysis suggests that the cooling towers for a large nuclear energy center should be located in clusters of four with at least 2.5-mile spacing between the clusters. This is equivalent to the requirement of one acre of land surface per each two megawatts of heat being rejected

  2. Uncertainty analysis of atmospheric deposition simulation of radiocesium and radioiodine from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morino, Yu; Ohara, Toshimasa; Yumimoto, Keiya

    2014-05-01

    Chemical transport models (CTM) played key roles in understanding the atmospheric behaviors and deposition patterns of radioactive materials emitted from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP) after the nuclear accident that accompanied the great Tohoku earthquake and tsunami on 11 March 2011. In this study, we assessed uncertainties of atmospheric simulation by comparing observed and simulated deposition of radiocesium (137Cs) and radioiodine (131I). Airborne monitoring survey data were used to assess the model performance of 137Cs deposition patterns. We found that simulation using emissions estimated with a regional-scale (~500 km) CTM better reproduced the observed 137Cs deposition pattern in eastern Japan than simulation using emissions estimated with local-scale (~50 km) or global-scale CTM. In addition, we estimated the emission amount of 137Cs from FDNPP by combining a CTM, a priori source term, and observed deposition data. This is the first use of airborne survey data of 137Cs deposition (more than 16,000 data points) as the observational constraints in inverse modeling. The model simulation driven by a posteriori source term achieved better agreements with 137Cs depositions measured by aircraft survey and at in-situ stations over eastern Japan. Wet deposition module was also evaluated. Simulation using a process-based wet deposition module reproduced the observations well, whereas simulation using scavenging coefficients showed large uncertainties associated with empirical parameters. The best-available simulation reproduced the observed 137Cs deposition rates in high-deposition areas (≥10 kBq m-2) within one order of magnitude. Recently, 131I deposition map was released and helped to evaluate model performance of 131I deposition patterns. Observed 131I/137Cs deposition ratio is higher in areas southwest of FDNPP than northwest of FDNPP, and this behavior was roughly reproduced by a CTM if we assume that released 131I is more in gas phase

  3. Simulation of atmospheric krypton-85 transport to assess the detectability of clandestine nuclear reprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, Jens Ole

    2010-02-02

    The radioactive noble gas krypton-85 is released into the atmosphere during reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel or irradiated breeding targets. This is a necessary step for plutonium separation. Therefore the {sup 85}Kr signature of reprocessing could possibly be used for the detection of undeclared nuclear facilities producing nuclear weaponusable material. The {sup 85}Kr content of the atmosphere has grown over the last decades as the emissions from military and civilian nuclear industry could not be compensated by the decay with a half-life of 10.76 years. In this study, the global {sup 85}Kr background distribution due to emissions of known reprocessing facilities for the period from 1971 until 2006 was simulated using the atmospheric general circulation model ECHAM5 applying the newest available annual emission data. The convective tracer transport scheme and the operator splitting for the physical calculations in the model were modified in order to guarantee physically correct results for tracer point sources, in particular non negative concentrations. An on-line routine controlling the {sup 85}Kr -budget in the model enforced exact mass conservation. The results of the simulation were evaluated by extensive comparison with measurements performed by the German Federal Office for Radiation Protection with very good agreement at most observation sites except those in the direct vicinity of {sup 85}Kr sources. Of particular interest for the {sup 85}Kr detection potential was the variability of {sup 85}Kr background concentrations which was evaluated for the first time in a global model. In addition, the interhemispheric transport as simulated by ECHAM5 was analyzed using a two-box model providing a mean exchange time of τ {sub ex} = 10.5 months. The analysis of τ{sub ex} over simulated 35 years indicates that in years with strong South Asian or African Monsoon the interhemispheric transport is faster during the monsoon season. A correlation analysis of

  4. Probabilistic siting analysis of nuclear power plants emphasizing atmospheric dispersion of radioactive releases and radiation-induced health effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savolainen, Ilkka

    1980-01-01

    A presentation is made of probabilistic evaluation schemes for nuclear power plant siting. Effects on health attributable to ionizing radiation are reviewed, for the purpose of assessment of the numbers of the most important health effect cases in light-water reactor accidents. The atmospheric dispersion of radioactive releases from nuclear power plants is discussed, and there is presented an environmental consequence assessment model in which the radioactive releases and atmospheric dispersion of the releases are treated by the application of probabilistic methods. In the model, the environmental effects arising from exposure to radiation are expressed as cumulative probability distributions and expectation values. The probabilistic environmental consequence assessment model has been applied to nuclear power plant site evaluation, including risk-benefit and cost-benefit analyses, and the comparison of various alternative sites. (author)

  5. Nuclear microprobe analysis and source apportionment of individual atmospheric aerosol particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artaxo, P.; Rabello, M.L.C.; Watt, F.; Grime, G.; Swietlicki, E.

    1993-01-01

    In atmospheric aerosol reserach, one key issue is to determine the sources of the airborne particles. Bulk PIXE analysis coupled with receptor modeling provides a useful, but limited view of the aerosol sources influencing one particular site or sample. The scanning nuclear microprobe (SNM) technique is a microanalytical technique that gives unique information on individual aerosol particles. In the SNM analyses a 1.0 μm size 2.4 MeV proton beam from the Oxford SNM was used. The trace elements with Z>11 were measured by the particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) method with detection limits in the 1-10 ppm range. Carbon, nitrogen and oxygen are measured simultaneously using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS). Atmospheric aerosol particles were collected at the Brazilian Antarctic Station and at biomass burning sites in the Amazon basin tropical rain forest in Brazil. In the Antarctic samples, the sea-salt aerosol particles were clearly predominating, with NaCl and CaSO 4 as major compounds with several trace elements as Al, Si, P, K, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Sr, and Pb. Factor analysis of the elemental data showed the presence of four components: 1) Soil dust particles; 2) NaCl particles; 3) CaSO 4 with Sr; and 4) Br and Mg. Strontium, observed at 20-100 ppm levels, was always present in the CaSO 4 particles. The hierarchical cluster procedure gave results similar to the ones obtained through factor analysis. For the tropical rain forest biomass burning aerosol emissions, biogenic particles with a high organic content dominate the particle population, while K, P, Ca, Mg, Zn, and Si are the dominant elements. Zinc at 10-200 ppm is present in biogenic particles rich in P and K. The quantitative aspects and excellent detection limits make SNM analysis of individual aerosol particles a very powerful analytical tool. (orig.)

  6. The reduction of atmospheric emissions after the implementation of first Polish nuclear power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholewiński, Maciej

    2018-04-01

    In this work the environmental benefits in the atmospheric emissions after the implementation of 3,000 MW nuclear power plants were assessed and presented. To determine the quantity of avoided emissions of CO2, NOx, SO2 and Hg compounds, harmonised stoichiometric combustion model dedicated to solid fuel fired power plant was created. To increase the credibility of the studies, future strict emission standards (Directive 2010/75/EU, BAT documents for LCP) were included as well. In conducted studies, representative samples of 3 different Polish solid fuels were examined (by comprehensive proximate and ultimate analysis) and used in assessment. It was proven that by the replacement of thermal solid fuel power plant by nuclear unit (with annual production rate of 22.4 TWh net) up to 16.4 million tonnes of lignite, 8.9 million tonnes of hard coal or 13.1 million tonnes of solid biomass can be saved. Further, for the case of lignite, the emission, at least, of 21.29 million tonnes of CO2 (6.9% of all Polish emission in 2015), 1,610 tonnes of dust (0.4%), 16,102 tonnes of NOx (2.2%), 16,102 tonnes of SO2 (2.0%) and 564 kg of mercury (5.9%) can be avoided. For selected hard coal, calculated emission savings were equal to 17.60 million tonnes of CO2 (5.7%), 1,357 tonnes of dust (0.4%), 13,566 tonnes of NOx (1.9%), 13,566 tonnes of SO2 (1.7%), 271 kg of mercury (2.9%), and for biomass - equal to 20.04 million tonnes of CO2 (6.5%), 1,471 tonnes of dust (0.4%), 14,712 tonnes of NOx (2.0%), 14,712 tonnes of SO2 (1.8%) and 294 kg of mercury (3.1%).

  7. The reduction of atmospheric emissions after the implementation of first Polish nuclear power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cholewiński Maciej

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work the environmental benefits in the atmospheric emissions after the implementation of 3,000 MW nuclear power plants were assessed and presented. To determine the quantity of avoided emissions of CO2, NOx, SO2 and Hg compounds, harmonised stoichiometric combustion model dedicated to solid fuel fired power plant was created. To increase the credibility of the studies, future strict emission standards (Directive 2010/75/EU, BAT documents for LCP were included as well. In conducted studies, representative samples of 3 different Polish solid fuels were examined (by comprehensive proximate and ultimate analysis and used in assessment. It was proven that by the replacement of thermal solid fuel power plant by nuclear unit (with annual production rate of 22.4 TWh net up to 16.4 million tonnes of lignite, 8.9 million tonnes of hard coal or 13.1 million tonnes of solid biomass can be saved. Further, for the case of lignite, the emission, at least, of 21.29 million tonnes of CO2 (6.9% of all Polish emission in 2015, 1,610 tonnes of dust (0.4%, 16,102 tonnes of NOx (2.2%, 16,102 tonnes of SO2 (2.0% and 564 kg of mercury (5.9% can be avoided. For selected hard coal, calculated emission savings were equal to 17.60 million tonnes of CO2 (5.7%, 1,357 tonnes of dust (0.4%, 13,566 tonnes of NOx (1.9%, 13,566 tonnes of SO2 (1.7%, 271 kg of mercury (2.9%, and for biomass - equal to 20.04 million tonnes of CO2 (6.5%, 1,471 tonnes of dust (0.4%, 14,712 tonnes of NOx (2.0%, 14,712 tonnes of SO2 (1.8% and 294 kg of mercury (3.1%.

  8. Modeling the atmospheric dispersion of radioactive effluents in a nuclear accident situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margeanu, Sorin

    2002-01-01

    In case of a nuclear accident, which could lead to release of radioactive contaminants, fastest countermeasures are needed related to sheltering, iodine distribution, evacuation and interdiction of food and water consumption. All these decisions should be based either on estimation of inhaled dose and the dose due to external exposure for public, or on the estimation of radioactive concentration in food (which will depend on the radioactive concentration in air and ground deposition). The dispersion model used, was a Gaussian 'puff' model. The vertical dispersion was considered not dependent on the release high. The used meteorological data are specific for the SCN - Pitesti site, collected every hour for one year. The meteorological data file contains: the wind speed (in m/s), wind direction (degrees clockwise from north), atmospheric stability category, precipitation rate (in mm/h) and the high of the mixing layer (in m). A hypothetical major nuclear accident at TRIGA - SSR of INR - Pitesti, due to a serious damage of the reactor core leading, to a large release of radioactive contaminants was examined. The release was considered as a single phase with of one hour duration. The release factors for the considered isotopic mixture are 100% noble gases (of the reactor core inventory), 40% iodine (of the reactor core inventory) and 40% particulate, i.e., 40% of the fission products of core fission products inventory, released as particles. The accuracy of the model could be increased by implementation of the code on a real-time system, where the acquisition of the parameters done is on-line, namely, the data are introduced as soon as the modification of meteorological and dosimetric conditions are produced. In this case, the parameters used in formulas can be adjusted according with the field situation. Unfortunately the real-time systems need more powerful resources: monitoring stations which can measure and send on-line the data and which can cover a large area

  9. Innovative concept for a major breakthrough in atmospheric radioactive xenon detection for nuclear explosion monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Petit, G.; Cagniant, A.; Gross, P.; Achim, P.; Douysset, G.; Taffary, T.; Moulin, C.; Morelle, M.

    2013-01-01

    The verification regime of the comprehensive test ban treaty (CTBT) is based on a network of three different waveform technologies together with global monitoring of aerosols and noble gas in order to detect, locate and identify a nuclear weapon explosion down to 1 kt TNT equivalent. In case of a low intensity underground or underwater nuclear explosion, it appears that only radioactive gases, especially the noble gas which are difficult to contain, will allow identification of weak yield nuclear tests. Four radioactive xenon isotopes, 131m Xe, 133m Xe, 133 Xe and 135 Xe, are sufficiently produced in fission reactions and exhibit suitable half-lives and radiation emissions to be detected in atmosphere at low level far away from the release site. Four different monitoring CTBT systems, ARIX, ARSA, SAUNA, and SPALAX TM have been developed in order to sample and to measure them with high sensitivity. The latest developed by the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) is likely to be drastically improved in detection sensitivity (especially for the metastable isotopes) through a higher sampling rate, when equipped with a new conversion electron (CE)/X-ray coincidence spectrometer. This new spectrometer is based on two combined detectors, both exhibiting very low radioactive background: a well-type NaI(Tl) detector for photon detection surrounding a gas cell equipped with two large passivated implanted planar silicon chips for electron detection. It is characterized by a low electron energy threshold and a much better energy resolution for the CE than those usually measured with the existing CTBT equipments. Furthermore, the compact geometry of the spectrometer provides high efficiency for X-ray and for CE associated to the decay modes of the four relevant radioxenons. The paper focus on the design of this new spectrometer and presents spectroscopic performances of a prototype based on recent results achieved from both radioactive xenon standards and air sample

  10. Study of atmospheric aerosol by means of nuclear techniques with accelerator at LABEC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calzolai, G.

    2011-01-01

    The atmospheric aerosols, despite their tiny concentration in the air, have a relevant impact on a wide range of issues, spanning from the local to the global scale. Many epidemiologic studies on human exposures to ambient particulate matter have clearly established a statistically significant correlation between fine-particles concentration in the air and health effects. Moreover, increasing interest originates by the role of aerosols in climate change, and in particular in global warming and changes in hydrological cycles. Nuclear techniques have been demonstrated to be an effective tool for aerosol study. In particular, the IBA (Ion Beam Analysis) techniques may allow the detection of all the elements present in the aerosol samples. Radiocarbon measurements, performed by AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectrometry), can give fundamental information about the sources of the aerosol carbonaceous fraction. Without claiming to be exhaustive, a brief description of the role of these techniques in the aerosol study is given in the present paper, with a special attention to their application at the INFN-LABEC laboratory of Florence.

  11. Iterative ensemble Kalman filter for atmospheric dispersion in nuclear accidents: An application to Kincaid tracer experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X L; Su, G F; Chen, J G; Raskob, W; Yuan, H Y; Huang, Q Y

    2015-10-30

    Information about atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides is vitally important for planning effective countermeasures during nuclear accidents. Results of dispersion models have high spatial and temporal resolutions, but they are not accurate enough due to the uncertain source term and the errors in meteorological data. Environmental measurements are more reliable, but they are scarce and unable to give forecasts. In this study, our newly proposed iterative ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) data assimilation scheme is used to combine model results and environmental measurements. The system is thoroughly validated against the observations in the Kincaid tracer experiment. The initial first-guess emissions are assumed to be six magnitudes underestimated. The iterative EnKF system rapidly corrects the errors in the emission rate and wind data, thereby significantly improving the model results (>80% reduction of the normalized mean square error, r=0.71). Sensitivity tests are conducted to investigate the influence of meteorological parameters. The results indicate that the system is sensitive to boundary layer height. When the heights from the numerical weather prediction model are used, only 62.5% of reconstructed emission rates are within a factor two of the actual emissions. This increases to 87.5% when the heights derived from the on-site observations are used. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A simplified model for calculating atmospheric radionuclide transport and early health effects from nuclear reactor accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madni, I.K.; Cazzoli, E.G.; Khatib-Rahbar, M.

    1995-01-01

    During certain hypothetical severe accidents in a nuclear power plant, radionuclides could be released to the environment as a plume. Prediction of the atmospheric dispersion and transport of these radionuclides is important for assessment of the risk to the public from such accidents. A simplified PC-based model was developed that predicts time-integrated air concentration of each radionuclide at any location from release as a function of time integrated source strength using the Gaussian plume model. The solution procedure involves direct analytic integration of air concentration equations over time and position, using simplified meteorology. The formulation allows for dry and wet deposition, radioactive decay and daughter buildup, reactor building wake effects, the inversion lid effect, plume rise due to buoyancy or momentum, release duration, and grass height. Based on air and ground concentrations of the radionuclides, the early dose to an individual is calculated via cloudshine, groundshine, and inhalation. The model also calculates early health effects based on the doses. This paper presents aspects of the model that would be of interest to the prediction of environmental flows and their public consequences

  13. Determination of atmospheric dispersion factors in emergency situations in Almirante Alvaro Alberto nuclear power plant - unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leao, I.L.B.

    1987-08-01

    The necessity of Knowing the atmospheric dispersion factor, used to obtain the first estimation dose in the public case for accidents with releasing of radioactive material to atmosphere in Almirante Alvaro Alberto nuclear power plant - unit I, lead to the development of a fast and efficient method to determine the dilution factors, in a pre-determined distance from the source, to be used in the dose estimate. The ACID computer program for pocket calculation allow to obtain the meteorological information to evaluate the dose. In this work the mathemathical models used and the program developed are described. (Author) [pt

  14. BOM DIA SILÊNCIO: A AÇÃO DA INFÂNCIA NO CINEMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela Fronckowiak

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available As crianças, “entre elas”, o que nos dizem? Como as escutamos? Como as vemos? Como as lemos? No ensaio, persigo a ideia de investigar a ação das crianças, sensorialmente projetadas no filme Bom dia (Ohayo - 1959, de Yasujiro Ozu (1903-1963, em diálogo com a sociologia da infância, a pedagogia poética e a fenomenologia da imaginação. A intenção é a de priorizar, na percepção das infâncias, o estudo das relações que as crianças estabelecem entre si no filme assistido. A imaginação, portanto, opera aqui um papel fundamental, pois pensar, na perspectiva de construção desse texto, supera reproduzir ou analisar um mundo que se dá a ver, ou se oferece. Ao optar por essa via de acesso – não melhor, mas outra – busco escutar-ver-ler-sentir a obra cinematográfica enquanto criação de uma imagem nova e conceber, a partir dela, uma escrita criativa, que se institui no estreito vínculo com a minha imaginação material no exercício de devanear escrevendo.

  15. Populating a Library of Reusable H-Boms Assessment of a Feasible Image Based Modeling Workflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santagati, C.; Lo Turco, M.; D'Agostino, G.

    2017-08-01

    The paper shows the intermediate results of a research activity aimed at populating a library of reusable Historical Building Object Models (H-BOMs) by testing a full digital workflow that takes advantages from using Structure from Motion (SfM) models and is centered on the geometrical/stylistic/materic analysis of the architectural element (portal, window, altar). The aim is to find common (invariant) and uncommon (variant) features in terms of identification of architectural parts and their relationships, geometrical rules, dimensions and proportions, construction materials and measure units, in order to model archetypal shapes from which it is possible to derive all the style variations. At this regard, a set of 14th - 16th century gothic portals of the catalan-aragonese architecture in Etnean area of Eastern Sicily has been studied and used to assess the feasibility of the identified workflow. This approach tries to answer the increasingly demand for guidelines and standards in the field of Cultural Heritage Conservation to create and manage semantic-aware 3D models able to include all the information (both geometrical and alphanumerical ones) concerning historical buildings and able to be reused in several projects.

  16. Evaluation of food contamination and health risks caused by radioactive fallout released from atmospheric nuclear detonation tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Yoko; Ito, Yoshihiko; Yoneda, Minoru; Morisawa, Shinsuke

    2011-01-01

    Before Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster, radionuclide like 137 Cs released from atmospheric nuclear detonation tests and Chernobyl disaster has been transported worldwide in the environment and finally taken up by humans through various pathways. In this research, dietary intake of 137 Cs and the related health risks to Japanese caused by chronic global radioactive food contamination from 1945 to 2010 were evaluated by using the mathematical model for the evaluation of global distribution of 137 Cs with food ingestion and domestic and international food supply model. The results of this evaluation can show a background situation before Fukushima disaster and give important information for the risk assessment of this disaster. (author)

  17. A study of wet deposition of atmospheric tritium releases at the Ontario Power Generation, Pickering Nuclear Generating Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crooks, G.; DeWilde, J.; Yu, L.

    2001-01-01

    The Ontario Power Generation,Pickering Nuclear Generating Station (PNGS) has been investigating deposition of atmospheric releases of tritium on their site. This study has included numerical dispersion modelling studies conducted over the past three years, as well as an ongoing field monitoring study. The following paper will present results of the field monitoring study and make comparisons to the numerical modelling. The results of this study could be of potential use to nuclear stations in quantifying tritium deposition in near field regions where building wake effects dominate pollutant dispersion

  18. CaK2(AsO3OH)(H2O)2 cell length a | forthcoming | boms | Volumes ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; public; Volumes; boms; forthcoming; CaK2(AsO3OH)(H2O)2 cell length a. 404! error. The page your are looking for can not be found! Please check the link or use the navigation bar at the top. YouTube; Twitter; Facebook; Blog. Academy News. IAS Logo. 29th Mid-year meeting. Posted on 19 January 2018. The 29th ...

  19. Potential Impact of Atmospheric Releases at Russian Far East Nuclear Submarine Complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, F.; Mahura, A.; Compton, K.; Brown, K.; Takano, M.; Novikov, V.; Soerensen, J. H.; Baklanov, A.

    2003-02-25

    An ''Assessment of the Impact of Russian Nuclear Fleet Operations on Far Eastern Coastal Regions'' is being performed as part of the Radiation Safety of the Biosphere Project (RAD) of the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) of Laxenburg, Austria. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive unclassified analysis of the potential impact of accidents at the Russian Far East nuclear submarine sites near Vladivostok and Petropavlovsk. We have defined the situation there based upon available information and studies commissioned by RAD in collaboration with Russian research institutes including Russian Research Center-''Kurchatov Institute'', Institute of Northern Environmental Problems and Lazurit Central Design Bureau. Further, in our original work, some in collaboration with the staff of the Danish Meteorological Institute (DMI) and members of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, we have calculated the nuclide trajectories from these sites in the atmospheric boundary layer, less than 1.5 kilometers high, and determined their probability of crossing any of the nearby countries as well as Asiatic Russia. We have further determined the concentrations in each of these crossings as well as the total, dry and wet depositions of nuclides on these areas. Finally, we have calculated the doses to the Japanese Island population from typical winter airflow patterns (those most likely to cross the Islands in the minimum times), strong north winds, weak north winds and cyclonic winds for conditions similar to the Chazhma Bay criticality accident (fresh fuel) and for a criticality accident for the same type of reactor with fuel being withdrawn (spent fuel). The maximum individual committed dosages were less than 2 x 10-7 and 2 x 10-3 mSv, respectively. The long-term external doses by radionuclides deposited on the ground and the internal doses by consumption of foods were not evaluated as it is

  20. On simulation of the atmospheric acoustic channel for some nuclear tests in former soviet test site Semipalatinsk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokin, A. G.; Lobycheva, I. Yu.

    2011-08-01

    This paper presents data on the recording of infrasound from distant nuclear explosions set off in former soviet test site Semipalatinsk and recorded by infrasonic station Irkutsk-Badary of the Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics SB RAS in the Tunkinsky region in the Buryat Republic. We assess the state of the atmospheric acoustic channel (AAC) along the propagation path. Results of the AAC modeling are compared with experimental data.

  1. Assessment of theoretical and experimental results in the calculation of atmospheric dilution factors in the Atucha I nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintana, E.E.; Tossi, M.H.; Telleria, D.M.

    1990-01-01

    Collective doses produced during the normal working of the Atucha I Nuclear Power Plant are calculated using annual atmospheric factors. This work studies the behaviour of the dilution factors in different periods of the year in order to fit the calculated dose model applying factors from seasonal, monthly or weekly periods. The Radiation Protection Group of the C.N.E.A. have carried out continuous environmental monitoring in the surroundings of the Atucha I Nuclear Power Plant. These studies include the measurement of air tritium concentration, radionuclide that is found principally as tritiated water vapour. This isotope, normally released by the nuclear power plant was used as a tracer to assess the atmospheric dilution factors. Factors were calculated by two methods: an experimental one, based on environmental measurements of the tritium concentration in the surroundings of the nuclear power plant and another one by applying a theoretical model based on information from the micrometeorological tower located in the mentioned place. To carry out the environmental monitoring, four monitoring stations in the surroundings of the power plant were chosen. Three of them are approximately one kilometer from the plant and the fourth is 7.5 km away, near the city of Lima. To condense and collect the atmospheric water vapour, an overcooling system was used. The measurement was performed by liquid scintillation counting, previous alkaline electrolytical enrichment of the samples. The theoretical model uses hourly values of direction and wind intensity, as well as the atmospheric dispersive properties. Values obtained during the period 1976 to 1988 allowed, applying statistical tests, to validate the theoretical model and to observe seasonal variation of the dilution factors throughout the same year and between different years. Finally, results and graphics are presented showing that the behaviour of the dilution factors in different periods of the year. It is recommended to

  2. Position and volume estimation of atmospheric nuclear detonations from video reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Daniel T.

    Recent work in digitizing films of foundational atmospheric nuclear detonations from the 1950s provides an opportunity to perform deeper analysis on these historical tests. This work leverages multi-view geometry and computer vision techniques to provide an automated means to perform three-dimensional analysis of the blasts for several points in time. The accomplishment of this requires careful alignment of the films in time, detection of features in the images, matching of features, and multi-view reconstruction. Sub-explosion features can be detected with a 67% hit rate and 22% false alarm rate. Hotspot features can be detected with a 71.95% hit rate, 86.03% precision and a 0.015% false positive rate. Detected hotspots are matched across 57-109 degree viewpoints with 76.63% average correct matching by defining their location relative to the center of the explosion, rotating them to the alternative viewpoint, and matching them collectively. When 3D reconstruction is applied to the hotspot matching it completes an automated process that has been used to create 168 3D point clouds with 31.6 points per reconstruction with each point having an accuracy of 0.62 meters with 0.35, 0.24, and 0.34 meters of accuracy in the x-, y- and z-direction respectively. As a demonstration of using the point clouds for analysis, volumes are estimated and shown to be consistent with radius-based models and in some cases improve on the level of uncertainty in the yield calculation.

  3. Global risk from the atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides by nuclear power plant accidents in the coming decades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christoudias, T.; Proestos, Y. [The Cyprus Institute, Nicosia (Cyprus); Lelieveld, J. [The Cyprus Institute, Nicosia (Cyprus); Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Mainz (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    We estimate the global risk from the release and atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides from nuclear power plant accidents using the EMAC atmospheric chemistry-general circulation model. We included all nuclear reactors that are currently operational, under construction and planned or proposed. We implemented constant continuous emissions from each location in the model and simulated atmospheric transport and removal via dry and wet deposition processes over 20 years (2010-2030), driven by boundary conditions based on the IPCC A2 future emissions scenario. We present global overall and seasonal risk maps for potential surface layer concentrations and ground deposition of radionuclides, and estimate potential doses to humans from inhalation and ground-deposition exposures to radionuclides. We find that the risk of harmful doses due to inhalation is typically highest in the Northern Hemisphere during boreal winter, due to relatively shallow boundary layer development and limited mixing. Based on the continued operation of the current nuclear power plants, we calculate that the risk of radioactive contamination to the citizens of the USA will remain to be highest worldwide, followed by India and France. By including stations under construction and those that are planned and proposed, our results suggest that the risk will become highest in China, followed by India and the USA.

  4. The FOCON model to assess doses due to the atmospheric radioactive discharges of nuclear facilities during normal operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rommens, C.; Morin, A.; Merle-Szeremeta, A.

    1999-01-01

    The FOCON model to assess doses due to the atmospheric radioactive discharges of nuclear facilities during normal operation. To assess the dosimetric impact to the public due to atmospheric radioactive discharges of nuclear facilities during normal operation, the Institute for Protection and Nuclear Safety has developed the FOCON96 code. FOCON96 calculates the dispersion of gases and aerosols into the environment (atmosphere contamination and ground deposition), their transfer in the biosphere (soils, plants and animals) and their impact to a member of the public (individual effective and equivalent doses, external exposure to the plume and to the deposits, internal exposure by inhalation and ingestion). FOCON96 uses ergonomic windows and proposes many capabilities (modular architecture, default values, choice of libraries, access to all the parameters of the models, listing or results, management of result files, calculations made directly, etc.). In the European context, and intercomparison with the PC-CREAM code, developed by the National Radiological Protection Board, has shown the coherence of the results of the two codes. A comparison of the windows and capabilities has shown that FOCON96 was easier to use. FOCON96 is not adapted to calculate the doses received during one particular year that are due to the discharges of a facility in operation for a long period of time. An evolution of the software will be considered if this kind of assessment is generalized. (authors)

  5. Modeling the Propagation of Atmospheric Gravity Waves Produced by an Underground Nuclear Explosion using the Transfer Function Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruntz, R. J.; Mayr, H. G.; Paxton, L. J.

    2017-12-01

    We will present results from the Transfer Function Model (TFM), which simulates the neutral atmosphere, from 0 to 700 km, across the entire globe (pole to pole). The TFM is able to rapidly calculate the density and temperature perturbations created by a localized impulse. We have used TFM to simulate a ground-level explosion (equivalent to an underground nuclear explosion (UNE)) and its effects on the neutral atmosphere, including the propagation of gravity waves up to ionospheric heights. At ionospheric altitudes ion-neutral interactions are expected to lead to perturbations in the electron density. These perturbations can be observed as changes in the total electron content (TEC), a feature readily observed by the globally distributed network of global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) sensors. We will discuss the time and location of the maximum atmospheric disturbances at a number of altitudes, including the peaks of several ionospheric layers, including the F2 layer, which is often treated as the major driver of changes in GNSS-TEC observations. We will also examine the drop-off of atmospheric disturbances at those altitudes, both with increasing time and distance. The 6 known underground nuclear explosions (UNEs) by North Korea in the 21st century have sparked increased interest in UNE detection through atmospheric and ionospheric observations. The latest test by North Korea (3 Sept. 2017) was the largest UNE in over 2 decades. We will compare TFM results to the analysis of previous UNEs, including some tests by North Korea, and discuss possible confounding factors in predicting the time, location, and amplitude of atmospheric and ionospheric disturbances produced by a UNE.

  6. Peli, Luci, Bom... transgresión sexual y cultura popular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Dolores Arroyo Fdez.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio se asienta en la narrativa de la película de Pedro Almodóvar Pepi, Luci, Bom y otras chicas del montón, estrenada en 1980, en plena transición a la democracia en España. Se analiza el film considerando sus componentes audiovisuales  como escenario a  los específicos de identidad y comportamiento sexual.  Se contempla su rodaje, en las calles de Madrid, y la construcción de sus diálogos e imágenes, que beben directamente de las fuentes de la cultura de masas  (fotonovelas, viñetas de cómic, publicidad, música y el lenguaje de la calle, en contraste con las creaciones de la alta cultura.  Precisamente, en esta película han participado varios artistas plásticos y dibujantes emergentes entonces: Ceesepe y el grupo Costus.  Al mismo nivel transgresor se presentan, de forma rebelde y escatológica, los comportamientos e identidades sexuales de sus protagonistas.  Esta cinta supo encauzar toda una serie de reivindicaciones a favor de la libertad sexual y la eliminación de tabúes,  protagonizada por parte de la juventud de la época; pero no deja de profundizar en los sentimientos como el amor y el desamor, la amistad y la soledad.   

  7. Evaluation of the uncertainty in the azimuth calculation for the detection and localization of atmospheric nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuff, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    Low-frequency acoustic signal below about 1 Hz can travel for hundreds or thousands of kilometers through in the Earth atmosphere. If a source produces infrasonic energy, it can be detected by a remote sensor. Atmospheric strong explosions as the nuclear detonation contains low-frequency components that can travel long distances with measurable signal levels. This fact can be useful for detection and localization of clandestine events. The international regime on the non-proliferation of nuclear requires the ability to detect, localize, and discriminate nuclear events on a global scale. Monitoring systems such as the Inter national Monitoring System (I.M.S.) rely on several sensor technologies to perform these functions. The current I.M.S. infra sound system design includes a network of low-frequency atmospheric acoustic sensor arrays, which contribute primarily to the detection and localization of atmospheric nuclear events. There have been observed differences between the azimuth measurements and the true directions of the sources of infra sound waves in artificial and natural events such as explosive eruptions of strong volcanoes. The infra sound waves are reflected in stratospheric and thermospheric layers near 50 km and 120 km in height respectively. The azimuth deviation is affected by meteorological disturbances in the troposphere and stratosphere. This paper describe new elements to obtain the uncertainty in the azimuth calculation of arrival wave plane passing across of a not plane array of infra sound sensors. It also presents a 3D computation of infra sound propagation and estimation of the azimuth deviation using the zonal horizontal wind model and M.S.I.S.E.-90 model of the upper atmosphere to obtain temperature, density and concentration of the principal components of the air for altitudes of up to 120 km. Deviations of up to 12 degrees in the azimuth were obtained, depending on the location of the source of infra sound, the point of measurement and

  8. Atmospheric release advisory capability pilot project at two nuclear power plants and associated state offices of emergency preparedness. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, L.C.

    1983-01-01

    A project to demonstrate the feasibility of utilizing Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) limited service with commercial nuclear power plants and their associated state offices of emergency preparedness is discussed. Preliminary planning, installation and testing of the ARAC site facilities at Indian Point Nucler Power Station, New York State; at New York State Office of Emergency Preparedness, Albany, New York; at Rancho Seco Nuclear Generating Station, California; and at the State of California Office of Emergency Services, Sacramento, California, are summarized. ARAC participation in the Robert E. Ginna nuclear generating plant accident in New York on January 25, 1982, is discussed. The ARAC system is evaluated with emphasis on communications, the suite of models contained within the ARAC system, and the staff. The implications of this project in designing the next-generation ARAC system to service federal and state needs are assessed

  9. Atmospheric transport of radionuclides emitted due to wildfires near the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangeliou, Nikolaos; Zibtsev, Sergey; Myroniuk, Viktor; Zhurba, Marina; Hamburger, Thomas; Stohl, Andreas; Balkanski, Yves; Paugam, Ronan; Mousseau, Timothy A.; Møller, Anders P.; Kireev, Sergey I.

    2016-04-01

    In 2015, two major fires in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (CEZ) have caused concerns about the secondary radioactive contamination that might have spread over Europe. The total active burned area was estimated to be about 15,000 hectares, of which 9000 hectares burned in April and 6000 hectares in August. The present paper aims to assess, for the first time, the transport and impact of these fires over Europe. For this reason, direct observations of the prevailing deposition levels of 137Cs and 90Sr, 238Pu, 239Pu, 240Pu and 241Am in the CEZ were processed together with burned area estimates. Based on literature reports, we made the conservative assumption that 20% of the deposited labile radionuclides 137Cs and 90Sr, and 10% of the more refractory 238Pu, 239Pu, 240Pu and 241Am, were resuspended by the fires. We estimate that about 10.9 TBq of 137Cs, 1.5 TBq of 90Sr, 7.8 GBq of 238Pu, 6.3 GBq of 239Pu, 9.4 GBq of 240Pu and 29.7 GBq of 241Am were released from both fire events. These releases could be classified as of "Level 3" on the relative INES (International Nuclear Events Scale) scale, which corresponds to a serious incident, in which non-lethal deterministic effects are expected from radiation. To simulate the dispersion of the resuspended radionuclides in the atmosphere and their deposition onto the terrestrial environment, we used a Lagrangian dispersion model. Spring fires redistributed radionuclides over the northern and eastern parts of Europe, while the summer fires also affected Central and Southern Europe. The more labile elements escaped more easily from the CEZ and then reached and deposited in areas far from the source, whereas the larger refractory particles were removed more efficiently from the atmosphere and thus did mainly affect the CEZ and its vicinity. For the spring 2015 fires, we estimate that about 80% of 137Cs and 90Sr and about 69% of 238Pu, 239Pu, 240Pu and 241Am were deposited over areas outside the CEZ. 93% of the labile and 97% of

  10. The atmospheric corrosion, important technical and economic factor in the construction of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, R.; Diaz, J.; Gomez, J.; Rodriguez, J.

    1995-01-01

    In order to determine the atmospheric effects of the construction of the Juragua NPP some experiments were performed in the reactor site. Samples of carbon steel were placed in experimental stations and the consequent oxidation was measured. The results show that the region's atmosphere aggressiveness may be classified from low to median. 11 refs

  11. Tritium concentrations in the atmospheric environment at Rokkasho, Japan before the final testing of the spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akata, Naofumi; Kakiuchi, Hideki; Shima, Nagayoshi; Iyogi, Takashi; Momoshima, Noriyuki; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed at obtaining background tritium concentrations in precipitation and air at Rokkasho where the first commercial spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in Japan has been under construction. Tritium concentration in monthly precipitation during fiscal years 2001-2005 had a seasonal variation pattern which was high in spring and low in summer. The tritium concentration was higher than that observed at Chiba City as a whole. The seasonal peak concentration at Rokkasho was generally higher than that at Chiba City, while the baseline concentrations of both were similar. The reason for the difference may be the effect of air mass from the Asian continent which is considered to have high tritium concentration. Atmospheric tritium was operationally separated into HTO, HT and hydrocarbon (CH 3 T) fractions, and the samples collected every 3 d-14 d during fiscal year 2005 were analyzed for these fractions. The HTO concentration as radioactivity in water correlated well with that in the precipitation samples. The HT concentration was the highest among the chemical forms analyzed, followed by the HTO and CH 3 T concentrations. The HT and CH 3 T concentrations did not have clear seasonal variation patterns. The HT concentration followed the decline previously reported by Mason and Ostlund with an apparent half-life of 4.8 y. The apparent and environmental half-lives of CH 3 T were estimated as 9.2 y and 36.5 y, respectively, by combining the present data with literature data. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change used the atmospheric lifetime of 12 y for CH 4 to estimate global warming in its 2007 report. The longer environmental half-life of CH 3 T suggested its supply from other sources than past nuclear weapon testing in the atmosphere. - Highlights: → We observed background tritium concentrations in atmospheric environment at Rokkasho, Japan. → Tritium concentration in precipitation was high in spring and low in summer. → The atmospheric HT

  12. Tritium concentrations in the atmospheric environment at Rokkasho, Japan before the final testing of the spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akata, Naofumi, E-mail: nao@ies.or.jp [Department of Radioecology, Institute for Environmental Sciences, 1-7 Ienomae, Obuchi, Rokkasho, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan); Kakiuchi, Hideki [Department of Radioecology, Institute for Environmental Sciences, 1-7 Ienomae, Obuchi, Rokkasho, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan); Shima, Nagayoshi [Entex Inc., 1-2-8 Asahi, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-0852 (Japan); Iyogi, Takashi [Department of Radioecology, Institute for Environmental Sciences, 1-7 Ienomae, Obuchi, Rokkasho, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan); Momoshima, Noriyuki [Radioisotope Center, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Hisamatsu, Shun' ichi [Department of Radioecology, Institute for Environmental Sciences, 1-7 Ienomae, Obuchi, Rokkasho, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan)

    2011-09-15

    This study aimed at obtaining background tritium concentrations in precipitation and air at Rokkasho where the first commercial spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in Japan has been under construction. Tritium concentration in monthly precipitation during fiscal years 2001-2005 had a seasonal variation pattern which was high in spring and low in summer. The tritium concentration was higher than that observed at Chiba City as a whole. The seasonal peak concentration at Rokkasho was generally higher than that at Chiba City, while the baseline concentrations of both were similar. The reason for the difference may be the effect of air mass from the Asian continent which is considered to have high tritium concentration. Atmospheric tritium was operationally separated into HTO, HT and hydrocarbon (CH{sub 3}T) fractions, and the samples collected every 3 d-14 d during fiscal year 2005 were analyzed for these fractions. The HTO concentration as radioactivity in water correlated well with that in the precipitation samples. The HT concentration was the highest among the chemical forms analyzed, followed by the HTO and CH{sub 3}T concentrations. The HT and CH{sub 3}T concentrations did not have clear seasonal variation patterns. The HT concentration followed the decline previously reported by Mason and Ostlund with an apparent half-life of 4.8 y. The apparent and environmental half-lives of CH{sub 3}T were estimated as 9.2 y and 36.5 y, respectively, by combining the present data with literature data. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change used the atmospheric lifetime of 12 y for CH{sub 4} to estimate global warming in its 2007 report. The longer environmental half-life of CH{sub 3}T suggested its supply from other sources than past nuclear weapon testing in the atmosphere. - Highlights: > We observed background tritium concentrations in atmospheric environment at Rokkasho, Japan. > Tritium concentration in precipitation was high in spring and low in summer. > The

  13. Determination of the characteristic limits and responses of nuclear track detectors in mixed radon and thoron atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Röttger, Annette; Honig, Anja; Schrammel, Dieter; Strauss, Heinrich F.

    2016-01-01

    Closed nuclear track detectors are widely used for the determination of Rn-222 exposures. There are also partial open systems available, which are specially designed for the determination of the exposure to Rn-220, which is a relevant exposure in special workplaces or in specific regions of the world. This paper presents data and a detail analysis of how to determine the cross-correlation by calibration in pure Rn-222 and pure Rn-220 atm. By these means calibration coefficients for the analysis of real mixed atmospheres can be obtained. The respective decision threshold, detection limit and limits of the confidence interval were determined according to ISO 11929 (ISO 11929:2010, 2010). The exposure of detectors was performed at the radon reference chamber and the thoron progeny chamber of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). The analysis of track response was done at Parc RGM, while the analytical routines were developed in the Leibniz University Hanover, Institute Radioökologie und Strahlenschutz IRS at the working Group AK SIGMA (Arbeitskreis Nachweisgrenzen). - Highlights: • Analysis of exposure in reference atmospheres according ISO 11929. • Calibration of nuclear track detectors for 222 Rn and 220 Rn. • Calculation of cross-correlation by calibration in pure 222 Rn and 220 Rn atmospheres. • Thoron activity concentration should not be omitted in radon exposure determinations.

  14. Xenon-133 and caesium-137 releases into the atmosphere from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant: determination of the source term, atmospheric dispersion, and deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohl, A.; Seibert, P.; Wotawa, G.; Arnold, D.; Burkhart, J. F.; Eckhardt, S.; Tapia, C.; Vargas, A.; Yasunari, T. J.

    2012-04-01

    This presentation will show the results of a paper currently under review in ACPD and some additional new results, including more data and with an independent box modeling approach to support some of the findings of the ACPD paper. On 11 March 2011, an earthquake occurred about 130 km off the Pacific coast of Japan's main island Honshu, followed by a large tsunami. The resulting loss of electric power at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (FD-NPP) developed into a disaster causing massive release of radioactivity into the atmosphere. In this study, we determine the emissions of two isotopes, the noble gas xenon-133 (133Xe) and the aerosol-bound caesium-137 (137Cs), which have very different release characteristics as well as behavior in the atmosphere. To determine radionuclide emissions as a function of height and time until 20 April, we made a first guess of release rates based on fuel inventories and documented accident events at the site. This first guess was subsequently improved by inverse modeling, which combined the first guess with the results of an atmospheric transport model, FLEXPART, and measurement data from several dozen stations in Japan, North America and other regions. We used both atmospheric activity concentration measurements as well as, for 137Cs, measurements of bulk deposition. Regarding 133Xe, we find a total release of 16.7 (uncertainty range 13.4-20.0) EBq, which is the largest radioactive noble gas release in history not associated with nuclear bomb testing. There is strong evidence that the first strong 133Xe release started early, before active venting was performed. The entire noble gas inventory of reactor units 1-3 was set free into the atmosphere between 11 and 15 March 2011. For 137Cs, the inversion results give a total emission of 35.8 (23.3-50.1) PBq, or about 42% of the estimated Chernobyl emission. Our results indicate that 137Cs emissions peaked on 14-15 March but were generally high from 12 until 19 March, when they

  15. Utilization of mesoscale atmospheric dynamic model PHYSIC as a meteorological forecast model in nuclear emergency response system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, Haruyasu; Yamazawa, Hiromi

    1997-01-01

    It is advantageous for an emergency response system to have a forecast function to provide a time margin for countermeasures in case of a nuclear accident. We propose to apply an atmospheric dynamic model PHYSIC (Prognostic HYdroStatic model Including turbulence Closure model) as a meteorological forecast model in the emergency system. The model uses GPV data which are the output of the numerical weather forecast model of Japan Meteorological Agency as the initial and boundary conditions. The roles of PHYSIC are the interface between GPV data and the emergency response system and the forecast of local atmospheric phenomena within the model domain. This paper presents a scheme to use PHYSIC to forecast local wind and its performance. Horizontal grid number of PHYSIC is fixed to 50 x 50, whereas the mesh and domain sizes are determined in consideration of topography causing local winds at an objective area. The model performance was examined for the introduction of GPV data through initial and boundary conditions and the predictability of local wind field and atmospheric stability. The model performance was on an acceptable level as the forecast model. It was also recognized that improvement of cloud calculation was necessary in simulating atmospheric stability. (author)

  16. Atmospheric stability modelling for nuclear emergency response systems using fuzzy set theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walle, B. van de; Ruan, D.; Govaerts, P.

    1993-01-01

    A new approach to Pasquill stability classification is developed using fuzzy set theory, taking into account the natural continuity of the atmospheric stability and providing means to analyse the obtained stability classes. (2 figs.)

  17. Validation Study for an Atmospheric Dispersion Model, Using Effective Source Heights Determined from Wind Tunnel Experiments in Nuclear Safety Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masamichi Oura

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available For more than fifty years, atmospheric dispersion predictions based on the joint use of a Gaussian plume model and wind tunnel experiments have been applied in both Japan and the U.K. for the evaluation of public radiation exposure in nuclear safety analysis. The effective source height used in the Gaussian model is determined from ground-level concentration data obtained by a wind tunnel experiment using a scaled terrain and site model. In the present paper, the concentrations calculated by this method are compared with data observed over complex terrain in the field, under a number of meteorological conditions. Good agreement was confirmed in near-neutral and unstable stabilities. However, it was found to be necessary to reduce the effective source height by 50% in order to achieve a conservative estimation of the field observations in a stable atmosphere.

  18. Measured tritium in groundwater related to atmospheric releases from the Marcoule nuclear site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, F.; Clech, A.; Crochet, P.

    1996-01-01

    Tritium is released into the atmosphere during normal operation from the industrial facilities operated by COGEMA at Marcoule; over a 1 5-year period covered by this study (1979-1994) the quantities ranged from 4940 to 520 TBq·yr -1 . Atmospheric release in rainy weather results in tritium migration into the ground water by a series of mechanisms associated with the water cycle. COGEMA monitors the ground water by means of bore holes. Atmospheric monitoring is also routinely performed; data on the tritium activity concentration in the air and rainwater are available for the same time period. A simplified observation suggests a relation between the atmospheric tritium release and the ground water radioactivity. In 1994, the activity ranged from 100 to 200 Bq·l -1 in the boreholes located 1 km and 2 km downwind from the point of release, diminishing with the distance to less than 20 Bq·l -1 at about 3 km. The authors attempted to model two types of transfers: atmospheric transfer from the release chimney to the borehole, and transfer in the alluvial ground water. The aquifer comprises the alluvial deposits forming the Codolet plain extending to the south of Marcoule, downwind from the point of atmospheric tritium release. The hydrogeology of the entire Marcoule site has been described in previous studies by the French bureau of geological and mineralogical research (BRGM) and ANTEA. (author)

  19. Evaluating the Effect of Nuclear Power Plant Buildings on the Atmospheric Dispersion Behavior of Released Radioactive Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nassar, N.N.; Tawfik, F.S.; Agamy, S.A.; Nagla, T.F.

    2017-01-01

    One of the most important principles in air pollution is to minimize the release of pollutants to the atmosphere, deposition on the ground and promote sufficient dilution of released pollutants within the atmosphere. Building down wash describes the effect that wind flowing over or around buildings create a cavity of reticulating winds in the are a near the buildings. These cavities cause increased vertical dispersion of plumes emitted from stacks on or near the buildings . Often it leads to elevated concentrations downwind of affected stacks. The aim of this work is to evaluate the effect of the building down wash phenomena on the atmospheric dispersion behavior of released radioactive materials from NPP. In this study, a hypothetical scenario is presented involving a point source with varying stack parameters and rectangular shaped buildings (Mille stone Nuclear Power Plant) using meteorological parameters of a chosen day. The concentrations of assumed released radionuclides, taking into consideration the building down wash effect and without are calculated using the AERMOD Model taking into consideration the effect of the type of atmospheric stability class. Also the analysis includes the model predictions for the highest 1-hour cavity concentration. The results show that the size of the cavity zone is not affected by the type of stability class, but is affected by the stack location and buildings shape. On other hand, the distance at which the plume touches the ground is affected by the type of stability class, the stack location and buildings shape. So, strategies for locating buildings need to be considered to maximize dispersion when planning for constructing several reactors and accessory buildings at a nuclear site

  20. Effect on the annual atmospheric dispersion factor of different diffusion parameters and meteorological data at nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Erbang; Yan Jiangyu; Wang Han; Xin Cuntian

    2003-01-01

    Based on the hourly metrological observing data of 100 m high tower during 1997-1999 at Tianwan Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) site and 1995-1997 in Fujian Huian NPP site, the effect on the annual atmospheric dispersion factor (AADF) of four different diffusion parameters (on-site measuring values, IAEA's, Briggs's and Pasquill's) are estimated. The analysis shows that the deviation between the results from IAEA's, Briggs's and on-site measured diffusion parameters is less than 20%. The effect on the AADF from different years' meteorological data also is estimated. (authors)

  1. Nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    The first text deals with a new circular concerning the collect of the medicine radioactive wastes, containing radium. This campaign wants to incite people to let go their radioactive wastes (needles, tubes) in order to suppress any danger. The second text presents a decree of the 31 december 1999, relative to the limitations of noise and external risks resulting from the nuclear facilities exploitation: noise, atmospheric pollution, water pollution, wastes management and fire prevention. (A.L.B.)

  2. Determination of radiation doses caused by release into the atmosphere by nuclear power plants, based on measurement of emission and immission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekler, B.; Deme, S.

    2006-01-01

    The radiation impact of nuclear facilities, and the nuclear power plants as well, can be determined by using two methods. The first one calculates the dose of critical group of population based on the release, meteorological and hydrological parameters. The second method gives an estimate of the additional dose caused by the nuclear facility from the radiological measurements in the environment. This article compares this two methods for the release in the atmosphere, and gives an estimate of the relative error. The comparison can be applied for cases when the atmospheric pollution is released from a point type source, so for the conventional power plants as well. (author)

  3. Improvement of low energy atmospheric neutrino flux calculation using the JAM nuclear interaction model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, M.; Kajita, T.; Kasahara, K.; Midorikawa, S.

    2011-01-01

    We present the calculation of the atmospheric neutrino fluxes with an interaction model named JAM, which is used in PHITS (Particle and Heavy-Ion Transport code System) [K. Niita et al., Radiation Measurements 41, 1080 (2006).]. The JAM interaction model agrees with the HARP experiment [H. Collaboration, Astropart. Phys. 30, 124 (2008).] a little better than DPMJET-III[S. Roesler, R. Engel, and J. Ranft, arXiv:hep-ph/0012252.]. After some modifications, it reproduces the muon flux below 1 GeV/c at balloon altitudes better than the modified DPMJET-III, which we used for the calculation of atmospheric neutrino flux in previous works [T. Sanuki, M. Honda, T. Kajita, K. Kasahara, and S. Midorikawa, Phys. Rev. D 75, 043005 (2007).][M. Honda, T. Kajita, K. Kasahara, S. Midorikawa, and T. Sanuki, Phys. Rev. D 75, 043006 (2007).]. Some improvements in the calculation of atmospheric neutrino flux are also reported.

  4. Dose calculation for atmospheric releases from a nuclear accident using RAMS/HYPACT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Junji; Tomita, Kenichi; Homma, Toshimitsu

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the investigation of uncertainties in the structure of the atmospheric dispersion/deposition model used in the probabilistic accident consequence assessment code, OSCAAR. To investigate these uncertainties, we have introduced the more sophisticated computer codes, RAMS and HYPACT, which were widely used in the research field of atmospheric phenomena. In this work, the capabilities of the HYPACT model were extended for use in accident consequence assessments. The preliminary comparison between the predictions by OSCAAR and those by RAMS/HYPACT were conducted for both individual and collective consequences in terms of probabilistic results. (author)

  5. Atmospheric behavior, deposition, and budget of radioactive materials from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in March 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morino, Y.; Ohara, T.; Nishizawa, M.

    2011-12-01

    To understand the atmospheric behavior of radioactive materials emitted from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant after the nuclear accident that accompanied the great Tohoku earthquake and tsunami on 11 March 2011, we simulated the transport and deposition of iodine-131 and cesium-137 using a chemical transport model. The model roughly reproduced the observed temporal and spatial variations of deposition rates over 15 Japanese prefectures (60-400 km from the plant), including Tokyo, although there were some discrepancies between the simulated and observed rates. These discrepancies were likely due to uncertainties in the simulation of emission, transport, and deposition processes in the model. A budget analysis indicated that approximately 13% of iodine-131 and 22% of cesium-137 were deposited over land in Japan, and the rest was deposited over the ocean or transported out of the model domain (700 × 700 km2). Radioactivity budgets are sensitive to temporal emission patterns. Accurate estimation of emissions to the air is important for estimation of the atmospheric behavior of radionuclides and their subsequent behavior in land water, soil, vegetation, and the ocean.

  6. Harmonization of French and German calculation procedures for atmospheric dispersion following accidental releases from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crabol, B.; Romeo, E.; Nester, K.

    1992-01-01

    In case of an accident in a nuclear power plant near the French-German border different schemes for dispersion calculations in both countries will currently be applied. An intercomparison of these schemes initiated from the German-French Commission for the safety of nuclear installations (DFK) revealed in some meteorological situations large differences in the resulting concentrations for radionuclides. An ad hoc working group was installed by the DFK with the mandate to analyse the reasons for the different model results and also to consider new theoretical concepts. The working group has agreed to apply a Gaussian puff model for emergency response calculations. The results of the model based on turbulence parameterization via similarity approach or spectral theory - have been compared with tracer experiments for different emission heights and atmospheric stability regimes. As a reference the old modelling approaches have been included in the study. The simulations with the similarity approach and the spectral theory show a slightly better agreement to the measured concentration data than the schemes used in the past. Instead of diffusion categories both new approaches allow a continuous characterization of the atmospheric dispersion conditions. Because the spectral approach incorporates the sampling time of the meteorological data as an adjustable parameter thereby offering the possibility to adjust the dispersion model to different emission scenarios this turbulence parameterization scheme will be foreseen as the basis for a joint French-German puff model

  7. Atmospheric Direct Uptake and Long-term Fate of Radiocesium in Trees after the Fukushima Nuclear Accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahara, Yasunori; Ohta, Tomoko; Ogawa, Hideki; Kumata, Atsushi

    2014-11-01

    Large areas of forests were radioactively contaminated by the Fukushima nuclear accident of 2011, and forest decontamination is now an important problem in Japan. However, whether trees absorb radioactive fallout from soil via the roots or directly from the atmosphere through the bark and leaves is unclear. We measured the uptake of radiocesium by trees in forests heavily contaminated by the Fukushima nuclear accident. The radiocesium concentrations in sapwood of two tree species, the deciduous broadleaved konara (Quercus serrata) and the evergreen coniferous sugi (Cryptomeria japonica), were higher than that in heartwood. The concentration profiles showed anomalous directionality in konara and non-directionality in sugi, indicating that most radiocesium in the tree rings was directly absorbed from the atmosphere via bark and leaves rather than via roots. Numerical modelling shows that the maximum 137Cs concentration in the xylem of konara will be achieved 28 years after the accident. Conversely, the values for sugi will monotonously decrease because of the small transfer factor in this species. Overall, xylem 137Cs concentrations will not be affected by root uptake if active root systems occur 10 cm below the soil.

  8. Acoustic energy transfer to the upper atmosphere from surface chemical and underground nuclear explosions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drobzheva, Yana Viktorovna; Krasnov, Valerij Michailovič

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 68, 3-5 (2006), s. 578-585 ISSN 1364-6826 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/04/2110 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : Acoustic wave * Energy * Atmosphere * Ionosphere Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 1.448, year: 2006

  9. Tritium concentrations in the atmospheric environment at Rokkasho, Japan before the final testing of the spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akata, Naofumi; Kakiuchi, Hideki; Shima, Nagayoshi; Iyogi, Takashi; Momoshima, Noriyuki; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi

    2011-09-01

    This study aimed at obtaining background tritium concentrations in precipitation and air at Rokkasho where the first commercial spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in Japan has been under construction. Tritium concentration in monthly precipitation during fiscal years 2001-2005 had a seasonal variation pattern which was high in spring and low in summer. The tritium concentration was higher than that observed at Chiba City as a whole. The seasonal peak concentration at Rokkasho was generally higher than that at Chiba City, while the baseline concentrations of both were similar. The reason for the difference may be the effect of air mass from the Asian continent which is considered to have high tritium concentration. Atmospheric tritium was operationally separated into HTO, HT and hydrocarbon (CH(3)T) fractions, and the samples collected every 3 d-14 d during fiscal year 2005 were analyzed for these fractions. The HTO concentration as radioactivity in water correlated well with that in the precipitation samples. The HT concentration was the highest among the chemical forms analyzed, followed by the HTO and CH(3)T concentrations. The HT and CH(3)T concentrations did not have clear seasonal variation patterns. The HT concentration followed the decline previously reported by Mason and Östlund with an apparent half-life of 4.8 y. The apparent and environmental half-lives of CH(3)T were estimated as 9.2 y and 36.5 y, respectively, by combining the present data with literature data. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change used the atmospheric lifetime of 12 y for CH(4) to estimate global warming in its 2007 report. The longer environmental half-life of CH(3)T suggested its supply from other sources than past nuclear weapon testing in the atmosphere. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Levels of tritium in soils and vegetation near Canadian nuclear facilities releasing tritium to the atmosphere: implications for environmental models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, P.A.; Kwamena, N.-O.A.; Ilin, M.; Wilk, M.; Clark, I.D.

    2015-01-01

    Concentrations of organically bound tritium (OBT) and tritiated water (HTO) were measured over two growing seasons in vegetation and soil samples obtained in the vicinity of four nuclear facilities and two background locations in Canada. At the background locations, with few exceptions, OBT concentrations were higher than HTO concentrations: OBT/HTO ratios in vegetation varied between 0.3 and 20 and values in soil varied between 2.7 and 15. In the vicinity of the four nuclear facilities OBT/HTO ratios in vegetation and soils deviated from the expected mean value of 0.7, which is used as a default value in environmental transfer models. Ratios of the OBT activity concentration in plants ([OBT] plant ) to the OBT activity concentration in soils ([OBT] soil ) appear to be a good indicator of the long-term behaviour of tritium in soil and vegetation. In general, OBT activity concentrations in soils were nearly equal to OBT activity concentrations in plants in the vicinity of the two nuclear power plants. [OBT] plant /[OBT] soil ratios considerably below unity observed at one nuclear processing facility represents historically higher levels of tritium in the environment. The results of our study reflect the dynamic nature of HTO retention and OBT formation in vegetation and soil during the growing season. Our data support the mounting evidence suggesting that some parameters used in environmental transfer models approved for regulatory assessments should be revisited to better account for the behavior of HTO and OBT in the environment and to ensure that modelled estimates (e.g., plant OBT) are appropriately conservative. - Highlights: • We measured tritium in soils and plants near four nuclear facilities in Canada. • OBT/HTO ratios in plants are higher than default value in environmental models. • OBT/HTO ratios in background soils reflect historically higher atmospheric tritium. • Implications for environmental transfer models are discussed

  11. Xenon-133 and caesium-137 releases into the atmosphere from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant. Determination of the source term, atmospheric dispersion, and deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stohl, A.; Burkhart, J.F.; Eckhardt, S.; Seibert, P.; Arnold, D.; Technical Univ. of Catalonia, Barcelona; Tapia, C.; Vargas, A.; Yasunari, T.J.

    2012-01-01

    On 11 March 2011, an earthquake occurred about 130 km off the Pacific coast of Japan's main island Honshu, followed by a large tsunami. The resulting loss of electric power at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant developed into a disaster causing massive release of radioactivity into the atmosphere. In this study, we determine the emissions into the atmosphere of two isotopes, the noble gas xenon-133 ("1"3"3Xe) and the aerosol-bound caesium-137 ("1"3"7Cs), which have very different release characteristics as well as behavior in the atmosphere. To determine radionuclide emissions as a function of height and time until 20 April, we made a first guess of release rates based on fuel inventories and documented accident events at the site. This first guess was subsequently improved by inverse modeling, which combined it with the results of an atmospheric transport model, FLEXPART, and measurement data from several dozen stations in Japan, North America and other regions. We used both atmospheric activity concentration measurements as well as, for "1"3"7Cs, measurements of bulk deposition. Regarding "1"3"3Xe, we find a total release of 15.3 (uncertainty range 12.2-18.3) EBq, which is more than twice as high as the total release from Chernobyl and likely the largest radioactive noble gas release in history. The entire noble gas inventory of reactor units 1-3 was set free into the atmosphere between 11 and 15 March 2011. In fact, our release estimate is higher than the entire estimated "1"3"3Xe inventory of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant, which we explain with the decay of iodine-133 (half-life of 20.8 h) into "1"3"3Xe. There is strong evidence that the "1"3"3Xe release started before the first active venting was made, possibly indicating structural damage to reactor components and/or leaks due to overpressure which would have allowed early release of noble gases. For "1"3"7Cs, the inversion results give a total emission of 36.6 (20.1-53.1) PBq, or about

  12. Xenon-133 and caesium-137 releases into the atmosphere from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant: determination of the source term, atmospheric dispersion, and deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stohl

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available On 11 March 2011, an earthquake occurred about 130 km off the Pacific coast of Japan's main island Honshu, followed by a large tsunami. The resulting loss of electric power at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant developed into a disaster causing massive release of radioactivity into the atmosphere. In this study, we determine the emissions into the atmosphere of two isotopes, the noble gas xenon-133 (133Xe and the aerosol-bound caesium-137 (137Cs, which have very different release characteristics as well as behavior in the atmosphere. To determine radionuclide emissions as a function of height and time until 20 April, we made a first guess of release rates based on fuel inventories and documented accident events at the site. This first guess was subsequently improved by inverse modeling, which combined it with the results of an atmospheric transport model, FLEXPART, and measurement data from several dozen stations in Japan, North America and other regions. We used both atmospheric activity concentration measurements as well as, for 137Cs, measurements of bulk deposition. Regarding 133Xe, we find a total release of 15.3 (uncertainty range 12.2–18.3 EBq, which is more than twice as high as the total release from Chernobyl and likely the largest radioactive noble gas release in history. The entire noble gas inventory of reactor units 1–3 was set free into the atmosphere between 11 and 15 March 2011. In fact, our release estimate is higher than the entire estimated 133Xe inventory of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant, which we explain with the decay of iodine-133 (half-life of 20.8 h into 133Xe. There is strong evidence that the 133Xe release started before the first active venting was made, possibly indicating structural damage to reactor components and/or leaks due to overpressure which would have allowed early release of noble gases. For 137

  13. Xenon-133 and caesium-137 releases into the atmosphere from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant. Determination of the source term, atmospheric dispersion, and deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stohl, A.; Burkhart, J.F.; Eckhardt, S. [NILU - Norwegian Institute for Air Research, Kjeller (Norway); Seibert, P. [Univ. of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna (Austria). Inst. of Meteorology; Wotawa, G. [Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics, Vienna (Austria); Arnold, D. [Univ. of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna (Austria). Inst. of Meteorology; Technical Univ. of Catalonia, Barcelona (Spain). Inst. of Energy Technologies; Tapia, C. [Technical Univ. of Catalonia, Barcelona (Spain). Dept. of Physics and Nucelar Engineering; Vargas, A. [Technical Univ. of Catalonia, Barcelona (Spain). Inst. of Energy Technologies; Yasunari, T.J. [Univs. Space Research Association, Columbia, MD (United States). Goddard Earth Sciences and Technology and Research

    2012-07-01

    On 11 March 2011, an earthquake occurred about 130 km off the Pacific coast of Japan's main island Honshu, followed by a large tsunami. The resulting loss of electric power at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant developed into a disaster causing massive release of radioactivity into the atmosphere. In this study, we determine the emissions into the atmosphere of two isotopes, the noble gas xenon-133 ({sup 133}Xe) and the aerosol-bound caesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs), which have very different release characteristics as well as behavior in the atmosphere. To determine radionuclide emissions as a function of height and time until 20 April, we made a first guess of release rates based on fuel inventories and documented accident events at the site. This first guess was subsequently improved by inverse modeling, which combined it with the results of an atmospheric transport model, FLEXPART, and measurement data from several dozen stations in Japan, North America and other regions. We used both atmospheric activity concentration measurements as well as, for {sup 137}Cs, measurements of bulk deposition. Regarding {sup 133}Xe, we find a total release of 15.3 (uncertainty range 12.2-18.3) EBq, which is more than twice as high as the total release from Chernobyl and likely the largest radioactive noble gas release in history. The entire noble gas inventory of reactor units 1-3 was set free into the atmosphere between 11 and 15 March 2011. In fact, our release estimate is higher than the entire estimated {sup 133}Xe inventory of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant, which we explain with the decay of iodine-133 (half-life of 20.8 h) into {sup 133}Xe. There is strong evidence that the {sup 133}Xe release started before the first active venting was made, possibly indicating structural damage to reactor components and/or leaks due to overpressure which would have allowed early release of noble gases. For {sup 137}Cs, the inversion results give a total emission of 36

  14. PAVAN: an atmospheric-dispersion program for evaluating design-basis accidental releases of radioactive materials from nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bander, T.J.

    1982-11-01

    This report provides a user's guide for the NRC computer program, PAVAN, which is a program used by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to estimate downwind ground-level air concentrations for potential accidental releases of radioactive material from nuclear facilities. Such an assessment is required by 10 CFR Part 100 and 10 CFR Part 50. The program implements the guidance provided in Regulatory Guide 1.145, Atmospheric Dispersion Models for Potential Accident Consequence Assessments at Nuclear Power Plants. Using joint frequency distributions of wind direction and wind speed by atmospheric stability, the program provides relative air concentration (X/Q) values as functions of direction for various time periods at the exclusion area boundary (EAB) and the outer boundary of the low population zone (LPZ). Calculations of X/Q values can be made for assumed ground-level releases (e.g., through building penetrations and vents) or elevated releases from free-standing stacks. Various options may be selected by the user. They can account for variation in the location of release points, additional plume dispersion due to building wakes, plume meander under low wind speed conditions, and adjustments to consider non-straight trajectories. It computes an effective plume height using the physical release height which can be reduced by inputted terrain features. It cannot handle multiple emission sources. A description of the main program and all subroutines is provided. Also included as appendices are a complete listing of the program and two test cases with the required data inputs and the resulting program outputs

  15. The politics of atmospheric sciences: "nuclear winter" and global climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dörries, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    This article, by exploring the individual and collective trajectories that led to the "nuclear winter" debate, examines what originally drew scientists on both sides of the controversy to this research. Stepping back from the day-to-day action and looking at the larger cultural and political context of nuclear winter reveals sometimes surprising commonalities among actors who found themselves on opposing sides, as well as differences within the apparently coherent TTAPS group (the theory's originators: Richard P. Turco, Owen Brian Toon, Thomas P. Ackerman, James B. Pollack, and Carl Sagan). This story foreshadows that of recent research on anthropogenic climate change, which was substantially shaped during this--apparently tangential--cold war debate of the 1980s about research on the global effects of nuclear weapons.

  16. Summary of atmospheric measurements and transport pathways of radioactive materials released by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuruta, Haruo; Nakajima, Teruyuki [Tokyo Univ., Atmosphere and Ocean Research Inst., Kashiwa, Chiba (Japan); Takigawa, Masayuki [Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Yokosuka, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2012-11-15

    After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FD1NPP) accident, a continual monitoring of atmospheric radionuclides was independently carried out at several stations by different research institutions in the Kanto area south of Fukushima prefecture. No such measurements were made in the Fukushima area. Although the sampling methodology varied from one station to the next, the following results were found by the analysis of these data during March 13-31, 2011. High concentrations of {sup 131}I, {sup 134}Cs, and {sup 137}Cs in the atmosphere were observed in the first period (March 15-16, 2011) and the second period (March 20-23, 2011). According to a numerical simulation by an atmospheric transport model, these radionuclides were directly transported to the stations from the FD1NPP. The ratio of {sup 131}I to {sup 137}Cs in the atmosphere was around 10 in the first period and on March 20-21, while the ratio in the periods outside the first period and the March 20-21 was around 100. According to the measurements of gaseous {sup 131}I ({sup 131}I(g)) and particulate {sup 131}I ({sup 131}I(a)) which were performed separately at two stations, at least half of the total {sup 131}I (the sum of {sup 131}I(g) and {sup 131}I(a)) sampled was particulate {sup 131}I in the first and second periods, although {sup 131}I(a) was 20-40% of the total {sup 131}I in the periods outside the first and second periods. (author)

  17. Atmospheric dispersion calculation for posturated accident of nuclear facilities and the computer code: PANDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitahara, Yoshihisa; Kishimoto, Yoichiro; Narita, Osamu; Shinohara, Kunihiko

    1979-01-01

    Several Calculation methods for relative concentration (X/Q) and relative cloud-gamma dose (D/Q) of the radioactive materials released from nuclear facilities by posturated accident are presented. The procedure has been formulated as a Computer program PANDA and the usage is explained. (author)

  18. A Scientific Assessment of the Atmospheric Impact of a Nuclear Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisner, J. M.

    2016-12-01

    A nuclear exchange at either the regional or global scale will unfortunately lead to large loss of life; however, given the consequences it is important to scientifically quantify this problem and not over exaggerate impacts. Over the past 70 years Los Alamos has been developing the necessary expertize to quantify effects from nuclear weapons. In particular, the rapid advancement of computing power has enabled model calculations over a wide range of spatial and time scales from the source to cdimpacts. In this presentation, results from each scale will be presented along with discussions regarding the importance of the linkage between each scale. For example, source calculations are important for defining the spatial region where the weapon can start potential fires; a consequence of the thermal fluence, rubblization, and other factors such as cloud cover. This information is then used in a first principle urban firestorm model that simulates the production of carbon particles responsible for possible blockage of incoming solar radiation--the so-called nuclear winter mechanism. Hence, the critical piece of this puzzle is the overall carbon footprint that could lead to regional/global cooling; assuming either too much carbon and/or all carbon is transported into the stratosphere will lead to unrealistic estimates of cooling. And finally, another important aspect to be shown in this presentation is how a realistic source of carbon could lead to significant reductions in long-term regional/global impacts of a nuclear exchange.

  19. Atmospheric Tracer Depletion Testing for Unfiltered Air In-Leakage Determination at the Wolf Creek Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, T. M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wilke, R. J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Roberts, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Vignato, G. J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Atmospheric Tracer Depletion tests were conducted at the Wolf Creek Nuclear Power Plant to quantify the unfiltered in-leakage (UI) into the Control Room (CR), Control Building (CB), and Equipment Rooms (ER) at the Wolf Creek Nuclear Power Plant. Wolf Creek has two independent charcoal filter Emergency Ventilation Systems (EVS) that can be used to purify air entering the control building and control room. The Bravo System contains a filtration system in Room 1501 in the Auxiliary Building for the Control Room and another filtration system (FGK02B) on Elevation 2016 for the Control Building. The Alpha system contains a filtration system in Room 1512 in the Auxiliary Building for the Control Room and another filtration system (FGK02A) on Elevation 2016 for the Control Building. The Atmospheric Tracer Depletion (ATD) test is a technique to measure in-leakage using the concentration of perfluorocarbon compounds that have a constant atmospheric background. These levels are present in the Control Room and Control Building under normal operating conditions. When air is supplied by either of the EVS, most of the PFTS are removed by the charcoal filters. If the concentrations of the PFTs measured in protected areas are the same as the levels at the output of the EVS, the in-leakage of outside air into the protected area would be zero. If the concentration is higher in the protected area than at the output of the filter system, there is in-leakage and the in-leakage can be quantified by the difference. Sampling was performed using state-of-the-art Brookhaven Atmospheric Tracer Samplers (BATS) air sampling equipment and analysis performed on Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) dedicated PFT analytical systems. In the Alpha test two tracers PMCH and mcPDCH were used to determine in-leakage into the control building. The analytical system was tuned to maximize sensitivity after initial analysis of the Alpha test. The increased sensitivity permitted accurate quantification of

  20. Atmospheric Tracer Depletion Testing for Unfiltered Air In-Leakage Determination at the Wolf Creek Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, T. M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wilke, R. J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Roberts, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Vignato, G. J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Atmospheric Tracer Depletion tests were conducted at the Wolf Creek Nuclear Power Plant to quantify the unfiltered in-leakage (UI) into the Control Room (CR), Control Building (CB), and Equipment Rooms (ER) at the Wolf Creek Nuclear Power Plant. Wolf Creek has two independent charcoal filter Emergency Ventilation Systems (EVS) that can be used to purify air entering the control building and control room. The Bravo System contains a filtration system in Room 1501 in the Auxiliary Building for the Control Room and another filtration system (FGK02B) on Elevation 2016 for the Control Building. The Alpha system contains a filtration system in Room 1512 in the Auxiliary Building for the Control Room and another filtration system (FGK02A) on Elevation 2016 for the Control Building.The Atmospheric Tracer Depletion (ATD) test is a technique to measure in-leakage using the concentration of perfluorocarbon compounds that have a constant atmospheric background. These levels are present in the Control Room and Control Building under normal operating conditions. When air is supplied by either of the EVS, most of the PFTS are removed by the charcoal filters. If the concentrations of the PFTs measured in protected areas are the same as the levels at the output of the EVS, the in-leakage of outside air into the protected area would be zero. If the concentration is higher in the protected area than at the output of the filter system, there is in-leakage and the in-leakage can be quantified by the difference.Sampling was performed using state-of-the-art Brookhaven Atmospheric Tracer Samplers (BATS) air sampling equipment and analysis performed on Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) dedicated PFT analytical systems. In the Alpha test two tracers PMCH and mcPDCH were used to determine in-leakage into the control building. The analytical system was tuned to maximize sensitivity after initial analysis of the Alpha test. The increased sensitivity permitted accurate quantification of five

  1. Thermoluminescence dosimetry in very hot atmosphere with a view to the dosimetry in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bikwaku, Nsampala Tomakunsimba

    1985-01-01

    In order to develop radiation resistant materials for use in the region of nuclear reactor cores, it is necessary to know the dose absorbed by the surrounding structures. A passive thermoluminescence technique was chosen, an activated alumina material with very deep traps which are stable at high temperature (450 deg. C), being used. The characteristic properties of this detector have been studied and an attempt made to interpret the results obtained. (author) [fr

  2. DIGITAL INVASIONS: FROM POINT CLOUDS TO HISTORICAL BUILDING OBJECT MODELING (H-BOM OF A UNESCO WHL SITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Chiabrando

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper here presented shows the outcomes of a research/didactic activity carried out within a workshop titled "Digital Invasions. From point cloud to Heritage Building Information Modeling" held at Politecnico di Torino (29th September–5th October 2016. The term digital invasions refers to an Italian bottom up project born in the 2013 with the aim of promoting innovative digital ways for the enhancement of Cultural Heritage by the co-creation of cultural contents and its sharing through social media platforms. At this regard, we have worked with students of Architectural Master of Science degree, training them with a multidisciplinary teaching team (Architectural Representation, History of Architecture, Restoration, Digital Communication and Geomatics. The aim was also to test if our students could be involved in a sort of niche crowdsourcing for the creation of a library of H-BOMS (Historical-Building Object Modeling of architectural elements.

  3. Digital Invasions: from Point Clouds to Historical Building Object Modeling H-Bom of a Unesco Whl Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiabrando, F.; Lo Turco, M.; Santagati, C.

    2017-02-01

    The paper here presented shows the outcomes of a research/didactic activity carried out within a workshop titled "Digital Invasions. From point cloud to Heritage Building Information Modeling" held at Politecnico di Torino (29th September-5th October 2016). The term digital invasions refers to an Italian bottom up project born in the 2013 with the aim of promoting innovative digital ways for the enhancement of Cultural Heritage by the co-creation of cultural contents and its sharing through social media platforms. At this regard, we have worked with students of Architectural Master of Science degree, training them with a multidisciplinary teaching team (Architectural Representation, History of Architecture, Restoration, Digital Communication and Geomatics). The aim was also to test if our students could be involved in a sort of niche crowdsourcing for the creation of a library of H-BOMS (Historical-Building Object Modeling) of architectural elements.

  4. Considerações sobre a Relação de Gênero em Bom-Crioulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Morando

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho busca observar as relações de gênero e poder entre as personagens da narrativa Bom-crioulo, de Adolfo Caminha. Tais referências levarão em conta o projeto médicohigiênico oitocentista e sua interface com a poética naturalista, tomando como eixo de discussão a forma como a homossexualidade é representada no texto. Para tentar examinar essa proposta, verificaremos os elementos constitutivos da formação de uma trindade sexual, de caráter familiar e zoomórfico, presente na criação dos personagens protagonistas e no conflito representado.

  5. The role of the LLNL Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability in a FRMAC response to a nuclear power plant incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baskett, R.L.; Sullivan, T.J.; Ellis, J.S.; Foster, C.S.

    1994-01-01

    The Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan (FRERP) can provide several emergency response resources in response to a nuclear power plant (NPP) accident if requested by a state or local agency. The primary FRERP technical resources come from the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC). Most of the FRMAC assets are located at the DOE Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL) at Nellis Air Force Base, Las Vegas, Nevada. In addition, the primary atmospheric dispersion modeling and dose assessment asset, the Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) is located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, California. In the early stages of a response, ARAC relies on its automatic worldwide meteorological data acquisition via the Air Force Global Weather Center (AFGWC). The regional airport data are supplemented with data from on-site towers and sodars and the National Oceanographic ampersand Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) field-deployable real-time rawinsonde system. ARAC is prepared with three-dimensional regional-scale diagnostic dispersion model to simulate the complex mixed fission product release from a reactor accident. The program has been operational for 18 years and is presently developing its third generation system. The current modernization includes faster central computers, a new site workstation system. The current modernization includes faster central computers, a new site workstation system, improvements in its diagnostic dispersion models, addition of a new hybrid-particle source term, and implementation of a mesoscale prognostic model. AS these new capabilities evolve, they will be integrated into the FRMAC's field-deployable assets

  6. Three-dimensional simulation of radioactive pollutant in the atmosphere from nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buske, Daniela; Vilhena, Marco Tullio de

    2008-01-01

    In this work we report numerical simulations using the GILTT (Generalized Integral Laplace Transform Technique) approach to simulate radioactive pollutant dispersion in the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL). To study the dispersion and the possible scenarios arising from accidental emissions, the results obtained with the GILTT method are compared with experimental data obtained at the Nuclear Power Plant of Angra dos Reis under neutral/moderately unstable conditions. Furthermore, to a better description of the wind profile for the irregular ground level terrain, we consider the wind profile as solution of the MM5 mesoscale model. The statistical indices point out a reasonable good agreement is obtained between experimental data and GILTT model. (author)

  7. Radioactive fallout: an overview of internal emitter research in the era of atmospheric nuclear weapons testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Book, S.A.; Goldman, M.

    1983-03-01

    This report is a review of the literature on the radiobiology of internal emitters. Its purpose is to consider what has become known about the radiobiology of internally deposited radionuclides over the last four decades. The primary emphasis is the progression of radiobiological information through the 1950s and early 1960s, when atmospheric testing of atomic weapons was occurring with increasing regularity. We also consider information on fission products that are biologically important, specifically, isotopes of iodine, strontium, and cesium. We also examine data for plutonium and uranium. For each of the radionuclides discussed, we consider environmental pathways that are available for the eventual exposure to human populations and the metabolic pathways that determine the tissues at risk following exposure. We also consider the radiobiological effects of exposure given at high levels, and, when appropriate, the risks accompanying low-level exposures

  8. Determination of safe radioactive releases to the atmosphere from the nuclear power site, Dynefontein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basson, J.K.; Van As, D.

    1976-01-01

    South Africa's first nuclear power station, Koeberg A, is to be built by Escom at Dynefontein, 28 km north of Cape Town, and the experience gained at the National Nuclear Research Centre, Pelindaba, has been used by the AEB as basis for the pre-operational investigation. The capacity of the environment to accept airborne radioactive effluent safely depends on various local factors such as dispersion conditions, the ecology, the habits of the local population and the accumulation, through critical pathways, of pertinent radionuclides. Long-term average dilution factors at varying distances from a 100m stack have been calculated by ESCOM from mesometeorological data collected by the CSIR. On the basis of available data, permissible release rates are derived for radioisotopes of the noble gases (critical pathway:external cloud exposure), 131 I, 137 Cs, 106 Ru, 125 Sb and 114 Ce and tritium. Although final confirmation of these values can only be obtained after operation, such a pre-operational survey may serve as an example to conventional industry [af

  9. Review of the work by Kondratyev and Nikolsky on the climatic effects of atmospheric nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luther, F.M.

    1992-01-01

    A recent article by Gribbin that discussed yet unpublished work by K. Ya. Kondratyev and G.A. Nikolsky has generated a great deal of interest (or controversy). The claim is made that the effect of the eruption of Mt. Agung on temperatures in the northern hemisphere has been overestimated by a factor of two and that the cooling effect of large releases of NO x to the stratosphere in the 1960s from nuclear tests was comparable to that of Mt. Agung. Following a chain of arguments, that are discussed below, Gribbin quotes the Soviet scientists as saying, in the case of a nuclear conflict, a global decrease of the Earth's surface temperature may reach 5-10 K, which will bring about disastrous consequences for man's economic activity. In order to evaluate these claims, the author has looked at each step in their argument as discussed in Gribbin's article and in an earlier publication of most of these ideas (Kondratyev and Nikolsky). He has attempted to identify (1) assumptions made in their argument, (2) unsubstantiated statements, and (3) gaps or omissions in their argument that may affect their conclusions. The Kondratyev and Nikolsky article is reviewed first, then the Gribbin article

  10. Experimental researches of nuclear reactor neutron and gamma radiation scattering into the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Istomin, Yu.L.; Zelensky, D.I.; Cherepnin, Yu.S.; Orlov, Yu.V.; Netecha, M.E.; Avaev, V.N.; Vasel'ev, G.A.; Sakamoto, H.; Nomura, Y.; Naito, Y.

    1998-01-01

    In the report there are results of measuring radiation distribution on the caps of the RA and IWG.1M research reactors. Comparative analysis of the results is also in the report. There are neutron spectra in the interval of energies from 10 -9 to 13 MeV above RA and IWG.1M reactors. The spectra were measured with a set of activation detectors. Measurements were calculated to a nominal rate: for RA reactor - 300 kw, for IWG.1M - 7 MW. Thus, in the course of the experiment, vast experimental information relating to distribution of the RA and IWG.1M reactor gamma and neutron radiation scattered in the air for distances varying from 50 to 1000 m from the reactors has become available. The data obtained are to be used to verify the calculation codes and to validate the group nuclear constants

  11. Continental-scale enrichment of atmospheric 14CO2 from the nuclear power industry: potential impact on the estimation of fossil fuel-derived CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graven, H. D.; Gruber, N.

    2011-12-01

    The 14C-free fossil carbon added to atmospheric CO2 by combustion dilutes the atmospheric 14C/C ratio (Δ14C), potentially providing a means to verify fossil CO2 emissions calculated using economic inventories. However, sources of 14C from nuclear power generation and spent fuel reprocessing can counteract this dilution and may bias 14C/C-based estimates of fossil fuel-derived CO2 if these nuclear influences are not correctly accounted for. Previous studies have examined nuclear influences on local scales, but the potential for continental-scale influences on Δ14C has not yet been explored. We estimate annual 14C emissions from each nuclear site in the world and conduct an Eulerian transport modeling study to investigate the continental-scale, steady-state gradients of Δ14C caused by nuclear activities and fossil fuel combustion. Over large regions of Europe, North America and East Asia, nuclear enrichment may offset at least 20% of the fossil fuel dilution in Δ14C, corresponding to potential biases of more than -0.25 ppm in the CO2 attributed to fossil fuel emissions, larger than the bias from plant and soil respiration in some areas. Model grid cells including high 14C-release reactors or fuel reprocessing sites showed much larger nuclear enrichment, despite the coarse model resolution of 1.8°×1.8°. The recent growth of nuclear 14C emissions increased the potential nuclear bias over 1985-2005, suggesting that changing nuclear activities may complicate the use of Δ14C observations to identify trends in fossil fuel emissions. The magnitude of the potential nuclear bias is largely independent of the choice of reference station in the context of continental-scale Eulerian transport and inversion studies, but could potentially be reduced by an appropriate choice of reference station in the context of local-scale assessments.

  12. Assessment of people exposure to contamination with radioactive substances removed to the atmosphere from nuclear objects of Swierk Centre, Poland, in the period of 1987-1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipiak, B.; Nowicki, K.

    1995-01-01

    The exposure of particular persons, living in the near surroundings of Nuclear Centre - Swierk near Warsaw, Poland, to radioactive substances removed to the atmosphere during the period 1987-1992 has been assessed. The effective dose equivalent for statistically critical groups of persons has been estimated. The results have been compared with maximum permitted dose limits. 17 refs, 12 tabs

  13. Emulation and Sobol' sensitivity analysis of an atmospheric dispersion model applied to the Fukushima nuclear accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Sylvain; Mallet, Vivien; Korsakissok, Irène; Mathieu, Anne

    2016-04-01

    Simulations of the atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides involve large uncertainties originating from the limited knowledge of meteorological input data, composition, amount and timing of emissions, and some model parameters. The estimation of these uncertainties is an essential complement to modeling for decision making in case of an accidental release. We have studied the relative influence of a set of uncertain inputs on several outputs from the Eulerian model Polyphemus/Polair3D on the Fukushima case. We chose to use the variance-based sensitivity analysis method of Sobol'. This method requires a large number of model evaluations which was not achievable directly due to the high computational cost of Polyphemus/Polair3D. To circumvent this issue, we built a mathematical approximation of the model using Gaussian process emulation. We observed that aggregated outputs are mainly driven by the amount of emitted radionuclides, while local outputs are mostly sensitive to wind perturbations. The release height is notably influential, but only in the vicinity of the source. Finally, averaging either spatially or temporally tends to cancel out interactions between uncertain inputs.

  14. Atmospheric Dispersion Modeling of 137Cs generated from Nuclear Spent Fuel under Hypothetic Accidental Condition in the BNPP Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jongkuk; Lee, Kwan-Hee; Yook, Daesik; Kim, Sung Il; Lee, Byung Soo

    2016-04-01

    This study presents the results of atmosphere dispersion modeling using CALPUFF code that are based on computational simulation to evaluate the environmental characteristics of the Barakah nuclear power plant (BNPP) in west area of UAE. According to meteorological data analysis (2012~2013), the winds from the north(7.68%) and west(9.05%) including NNW(41.63%), NW(28.55%), and WNW(6.31%) winds accounted for more than 90% of the wind directions. East(0.2%) and south(0.6%) direction wind, including ESE(0.31%), SE(0.38%), and SSE(0.38%) were rarely distributed during the simulation period. Seasonal effects were not showed. However, a discrepancy in the tendency between daytime and night-time was observed. Approximately 87% of the wind speed was distributed below 5.4m/s (17%, 47% and 23% between the speeds of 0.5-1.8m/s 1.8-3.3m/s and 3.3-5.4m/s, respectively) during the annual period. Seasonal wind speed distribution results presented very similar pattern of annual distribution. Wind speed distribution of day and night, on the other hand, had a discrepancy with annual modeling results than seasonal distribution in some sections. The results for high wind speed (more than 10.8m/s) showed that this wind blew from the west. This high wind speed is known locally as the 'Shamal', which occurs rarely, lasting one or two days with the strongest winds experienced in association with gust fronts and thunderstorms. Six variations of cesium-137 (137Cs) dispersion test were simulated under hypothetic severe accidental condition. The 137Cs dispersion was strongly influenced by the direction and speed of the main wind. From the test cases, east-south area of the BNPP site was mainly influenced by 137Cs dispersion. A virtual receptor was set and calculated for observation of the 137Cs movement and accumulation. Surface roughness tests were performed for the analysis of topographic conditions. According to the surface condition, there are various surface roughness length. Four types

  15. Atmospheric radionuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear reactor accident observed in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, N.Q.; Giap, T.V.; Phan, N.T.; Truong, Y.; Binh, N.T; Sieu, L.N.; Hien, P.D.

    2012-01-01

    Radionuclides from the reactor accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant were observed in the surface air at stations in Hanoi, Dalat and Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) in Vietnam, about 4500 km southwest of Japan, during the period from March 27 to April 22, 2011. The maximum activity concentrations in the air measured at those three sites were 193, 33 and 37 μBq m -3 for 131 I, 134 Cs and 137 Cs, respectively. Peaks of radionuclide concentrations in the air corresponded to arrival of the air mass from Fukushima to Vietnam after traveling for 8 days over the Pacific Ocean. Cesium-134 was detected with the 134 Cs/ 137 Cs activity ratio of about 0.85 in line with observations made elsewhere. The 131 I/ 137 Cs activity ratio was observed to decrease exponentially with time as expected from radioactive decay. The ratio at Dalat, where is 1500 m high, was higher than those at Hanoi and HCMC in low lands, indicating the relative enrichment of the iodine in comparison to cesium at high altitudes. The time-integrated surface air concentrations of the Fukushima-derived radionuclides in the Southeast Asia showed exponential decrease with distance from Fukushima. (author)

  16. Determination of the safety zones of Angra dos Reis Nuclear Power Plant, according to the model of radion diffusion in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santina, M.D.

    1978-01-01

    The safety distance for Angra dos Reis Nuclear Power Plant are calculated, based on the model of the maximum credible accident for PWR power reactors and on the calculation of the dose due to hypothetical accidental release of radioactivity, using the model of radiation dispersion in the atmosphere. The safety distances for the Angra dos Reis reactors are also calculated using the model of the nine accident categories of the Rasmussen Report. The values of probability associated to each type of accident are used with the respective fractions of radiation release to the atmosphere. The soil contamination is also calculated for all the accidents considered and for several conditions of atmospheric stability, according to the model developed by Chamberlain. The program ACRA-II is used for calculation of the diffusion of radiation in the atmosphere, and the doses associated to it [pt

  17. A summary of estimated doses to members of the public from atmospheric nuclear tests at the Nevada test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, S.L.; Bouville, A.; Luckyanov, N.; Miller, C.W.; Beck, H.L.; Anspaugh, L.R.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses estimates of radiation dose to representative members of the public of the United States (U.S.) from atmospheric nuclear tests conducted from 1951 through 1962 at the Nevada Test Site. The estimates provided here summarize five studies conducted over the past two decades. From those studies, an estimate of the average deposition of 137 Cs within each of the more than 3,000 counties across the country has been derived as well as doses to representative persons in each county and to specific subpopulations. The years of the largest contributions to the collective external dose were 1952, 1953, and 1957. Those years accounted for about 70% of the 84,000 person-Gy received by the U.S. public. Irradiation of the thyroid gland of members of the U.S. public was also a consequence of dispersion of radioiodine in the fallout. Thyroid doses varied by location and by birth year. The population weighted thyroid dose for a child born in 1951 and for an adult in 1951 were 30 and 5 mGy, respectively. Maps are provided to show the geographic distribution of 137 Cs as well as the average thyroid dose received in each county from the Nevada tests. (author)

  18. Effects of the Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear accidents on atmospheric electricity parameters recorded at Polish observation stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubicki, Marek; Baranski, Piotr; Odzimek, Anna; Michnowski, Stanislaw; Myslek-Laurikainen, Bogna

    2013-04-01

    We analyse the atmospheric electricity parameters, measured at Polish geophysical stations in Swider, Poland, and Hornsund, Spitsbergen, in connection with the radioactive incident in Fukushima, Japan, beginning on 11 March 2011, following the 9.0 earthquake and tsunami. We compare our results with the situation during and after the Chernobyl disaster on April 26, 1986, when the radioactive fallout detected at Swider increased in the last week of April 1986, from 4.111 to 238.7 Bq/m2 and up to 967.0 Bq/m2 in the second week of May 1986 - what was more than 235 times greater than the values measured prior to that accident. Besides the electric field especially the electric conductivity is very sensitive to the radioactive contamination of the air. Thus we postulate that these two measurements should be run at geophysical stations over the world and used as a relatively simple and low-cost tool for continuous monitoring of possible hazard caused by nuclear power plant accidents.

  19. Diabetes susceptibility of BALB/cBOM mice treated with streptozotocin. Inhibition by lethal irradiation and restoration by splenic lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paik, S.G.; Blue, M.L.; Fleischer, N.; Shin, S.

    1982-01-01

    In genetically susceptible strains of mice, repeated injections of a subdiabetogenic dose of streptozotocin induces the development of progressive insulin-dependent hyperglycemia. We showed previously that host T-cell functions play an obligatory etiologic role in this experimental disease by demonstrating that the athymic nude mouse is resistant to diabetes induction unless its T-cell functions are reconstituted by thymus graft. Here we show that lethal irradiation of euthymic (+/nu) mice of BALB/cBOM background causes selective resistance of the mice to the diabetogenic effects of the multiple low doses of streptozotocin without affecting their sensitivity to a high pharmacologic dose of the toxin. We also show that reconstitution of the irradiated mice with splenic lymphocytes causes the restoration of diabetes susceptibility. Lethally irradiated mice thus represent a useful experimental model for analyzing the host functions involved in the development of this disease. These results provide an additional support for the hypothesis that the induction of diabetes in this model system is mediated by an autoimmune amplification mechanism

  20. A representação social do “bom professor” no ensino superior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássia Marques Cândido

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available O estudo investiga as Representações Sociais de alunos de uma Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro sobre o "bom professor". O interesse pelo fenômeno surgiu pela constatação de urgência na promoção de ações que contribuam para melhoria do Ensino Superior, assim como pela escassez de estudos que tratem do processo ensino aprendizagem no contexto do Ensino Superior, sobretudo com a utilização da Teoria das Representações Sociais. A coleta de dados ocorreu através da aplicação de um questionário, abrangendo 294 estudantes de variados cursos de graduação. As categorias que emergiram do discurso dos participantes puderam ser classificadas em dois grupos: um relacionado aos aspectos técnicos da profissão docente; outro relacionado ao professor em seu processo de interação com o aluno. Os resultados permitiram refletir sobre a necessidade de atenção às especificidades inerentes à formação docente para o Ensino Superior, destacando a relevância do papel docente na formação do futuro profissional.

  1. Emission, transport, deposition, and re-suspension of radionuclides from Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant in the atmosphere - Overview of 2-year investigations in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kita, Kazuyuki; Igarashi, Yasuhiro; Yoshida, Naohiro; Nakajima, Teruyuki

    2013-04-01

    Following a huge earthquake and tsunami in Eastern Japan on 11 March, 2011, the accident in Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) occurred to emit a large amount of artificial radionuclides to the environment. Soon after the FDNPP accident, many Japanese researchers, as well as researchers in other countries, started monitoring radionuclides in various environmental fields and/or model calculations to understand extent and magnitude of radioactive pollution. In this presentation, we overview these activities for the atmospheric radionuclides in Japan as followings: 1. Investigations to evaluate radionuclide emissions by explosions at FNDPP in March 2011 and to estimate the respiration dose of the radiation at this stage. 2. Investigations to evaluate atmospheric transport and deposition processes of atmospheric radionuclide to determine the extent of radionuclide pollution. -- Based on results of the regular and urgent monitoring results, as well as the mapping of the distribution of radionuclide s accumulated by the deposition to the ground, restoration of their time-dependent emission rates has been tried, and processes determining atmospheric concentration and deposition to the ground have been investigated by using the model calculations. 3. Monitoring of the atmospheric concentrations of radionuclide after the initial, surge phase of FNDPP accident. 4. Investigations to evaluate re-suspension of radionuclide from the ground, including the soil and the vegetation. -- Intensive monitoring of the atmospheric concentrations and deposition amount of radionuclide after the initial, surge phase of the accident enable us to evaluate emission history from FNDPP, atmospheric transport and deposition processes, chemical and physical characteristics of atmospheric radionuclide especially of radio cesium, and re-suspension processes which has become dominant process to supply radio cesium to the atmosphere recently.

  2. EPA assessment of fallout in the United States from atmospheric nuclear testing on September 26 and November 17, 1976 by the People's Republic of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strong, A.B.; Smith, J.M.; Johnson, R.H. Jr.

    1977-08-01

    Following the atmospheric nuclear weapons tests by the People's Republic of China on September 26 and November 17, 1976, the Environmental Radiation Ambient Monitoring System (ERAMS) network was fully activated and frequent samples of air particulates, precipitation, and pasteurized milk were collected for several weeks after each event. Population doses for the United States were calculated using the levels of radioactivity measured in these samples. Based on the calculated doses, health effects to the population of the United States were estimated. This report is a summary of EPA's assessment regarding the radiation doses and potential health effects which may be attributed to radioactive fallout from these nuclear weapons tests

  3. Seleção preliminar de genótipos de pinheira em Bom Jesus-PI Preliminary selection of sugar apple genotypes in Bom Jesus county, Piauí state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ítalo Herbert Lucena Cavalcante

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A pinheira (Annona squamosa L. ocorre espontaneamente no Nordeste Brasileiro, onde é explorada de forma extrativista, caracterizando-se pela falta de manejo adequado e material genético selecionado. Nesse sentido, foi realizado um experimento com objetivo de avaliar a produtividade, as características físicas e químicas de frutos de dez genótipos de pinheira no município de Bom Jesus, PI. Adotou-se delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com tratamentos representados por dez genótipos de pinheira e três repetições. Foram avaliadas as seguintes variáveis: vitamina C, acidez titulável, sólidos solúveis, relação SS/AT "ratio", diâmetros longitudinal e transversal, relação DL/DT, número se sementes por fruto, massa dos frutos e produção por planta. Os genótipos apresentam diferenças quanto às características químicas, físicas e produtivas dos frutos. Os genótipos foram agrupados em sete grupos, com destaque para o grupo III (Gen-02 e grupo IV (Gen-05, fato que explicitou as diferenças entre os genótipos de pinheira quanto às características produtivas e químicas e físicas dos frutos. Genótipos Gen-01 e Gen-02 apresentam potencial para instalação em plantios comerciais, pela produtividade, formato do fruto ou por caracterizarem fontes naturais de vitamina C.The sugar apple (Annona squamosa L. is native to tropical America, occurring spontaneously in Northeastern Brazil, where it is exploited mainly as subsistence without adequate management and without genetic material selection. An experiment was developed aiming to evaluate yield, physical and chemical characteristics of the fruits of ten sugar apple genotypes in Bom Jesus, Piauí State, Brazil. A completely randomized design with treatments represented by ten genotypes and three replications was adopted. The following variables were evaluated: vitamin C, titratable acidity, soluble solids, SS/TA ratio, longitudinal diameter and transverse, LD/TD, number of

  4. Nodulação e produtividade de Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. por cepas de rizóbio em Bom Jesus, PI Yield and nodulation of Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. inoculated with rhizobia strains in Bom Jesus, PI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Martins Costa

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a resposta de Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. cv. "BR 17 Gurguéia" à inoculação com duas cepas isoladas de solos de mineração de bauxita em reabilitação: UFLA 3-164 e UFLA 3-155 e três cepas INPA 03 11B (BR 3301; UFLA 03 84 (BR 3302 e BR 3267 (SEMIA 6462, autorizadas pelo MAPA como inoculantes para a cultura do feijão-caupi. O experimento foi conduzido em campo na Universidade Federal do Piauí, Campus Professora Cinobelina Elvas, Bom Jesus, PI. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados com sete tratamentos e com seis repetições, sendo cinco cepas citadas e dois controles não inoculados, um com N-mineral (70 kg ha-1 de N e outra sem N mineral. Foram avaliados a nodulação (número e massa seca de nódulos, o crescimento (massa seca da parte aérea, o rendimento de grãos e o teor e acúmulo de nitrogênio na parte aérea e nos grãos, além da eficiência relativa. A inoculação das sementes com as cepas de bactérias diazotróficas simbióticas resultou em rendimentos de grãos equivalente à testemunha adubada com nitrogênio mineral. A cepa em fase de teste, UFLA 3-155 apresentou rendimento de grãos igual à cepa recomendada INPA 03 11B (BR 3301, podendo também ser testada em outras regiões brasileiras. Entre as cepas aprovadas pelo MAPA a INPA 03 11B (BR 3301 apresentou a maior produção de grãos.It evaluates the effect of inoculation with two rhizobia strains isolated from soils under rehabilitation after bauxite mining: UFLA 3-164 and UFLA 3-155, compared to inoculation with strains INPA 03 11B (BR 3301; UFLA 03 84 (BR 3302 and BR 3267 (SEMIA 6462, officially authorized as inoculant to cowpea by MAPA, in Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp cv. "BR 17 Gurgueia". The experiment was carried out at the 'Universidade Federal do Piauí, Campus Professora Cinobelina Elvas, Bom Jesus, PI,' in a randomized block design, white seven treatments and six replications. Treatments were the five strains and

  5. Measurement of Kr-85 and Xe-133 as undisturbed tracers for the representing of atmospheric transport after disposal of radioactivity from nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, G.; Steinkopff, T.; Salvamoser, J.

    2016-01-01

    The Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD, German Meteorological Service) operates since 1996 a sampling and measurement device for the radioactive rare gases Kr-85 and Xe-133 in Offenbach. These measurements are embedded in the German Measurement and Information System for Monitoring Environmental Radioactivity (Integriertes Mess- und Informationssystem zur Ueberwachung der Radioaktivitaet in der Umwelt, IMIS) [1]. In addition to these measurements the DWD is sampling rare gases in Potsdam and since 2014 in Trier in cooperation with the Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz (Federal Office for Radiation Protection, BfS). In the frame of the Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW)-program of the WMO the DWD operated a sampling station at the Zugspitze (Schneefernerhaus) from 1999 to 2005. This location at the Zugspitze is well suited for the observation of long distance transport of Kr-85 in the higher atmosphere. The DWD in Offenbach operates a complex analytical system for the measurement of Kr-85 and Xe-133 since 1998. This system consists of sampling with first enrichment, second enrichment, gas chromatographic separation and preparation of Krypton and Xenon and measurement of Kr-85 and Xe-133. Using the example Fukushima, it is shown, that the radioactive rare gases Kr-85 and Xe-133 are well undisturbed tracers for atmospheric transport in case of a nuclear accident or routine nuclear reprocessing plants. Measurements of Xe-133, I-131, Cs-137 and Kr-85 are correlated with source and atmospheric transport to the sampling sites at Offenbach and Potsdam.

  6. Atmospheric discharge and dispersion of radionuclides during the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Part I: Source term estimation and local-scale atmospheric dispersion in early phase of the accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katata, Genki; Ota, Masakazu; Terada, Hiroaki; Chino, Masamichi; Nagai, Haruyasu

    2012-01-01

    The atmospheric release of 131 I and 137 Cs in the early phase of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP1) accident from March 12 to 14, 2011 was estimated by combining environmental data with atmospheric dispersion simulations under the assumption of a unit release rate (1 Bq h −1 ). For the simulation, WSPEEDI-II computer-based nuclear emergency response system was used. Major releases of 131 I (>10 15 Bq h −1 ) were estimated when air dose rates increased in FNPP1 during the afternoon on March 12 after the hydrogen explosion of Unit 1 and late at night on March 14. The high-concentration plumes discharged during these periods flowed to the northwest and south–southwest directions of FNPP1, respectively. These plumes caused a large amount of dry deposition on the ground surface along their routes. Overall, the spatial pattern of 137 Cs and the increases in the air dose rates observed at the monitoring posts around FNPP1 were reproduced by WSPEEDI-II using estimated release rates. The simulation indicated that air dose rates significantly increased in the south–southwest region of FNPP1 by dry deposition of the high-concentration plume discharged from the night of March 14 to the morning of March 15. - Highlights: ► Source term during the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident was estimated. ► Atmospheric dispersion simulation was carried out for estimation. ► Major releases were estimated in the afternoon on March 12 and the night on March 14. ► Air dose rate increased due to dry deposition during the night of March 14.

  7. Implementation of a model of atmospheric dispersion and dose calculation in the release of radioactive effluents in the Nuclear Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz L, C. A.

    2015-01-01

    In the present thesis, the software DERA (Dispersion of Radioactive Effluents into the Atmosphere) was developed in order to calculate the equivalent dose, external and internal, associated with the release of radioactive effluents into the atmosphere from a nuclear facility. The software describes such emissions in normal operation, and not considering the exceptional situations such as accidents. Several tools were integrated for describing the dispersion of radioactive effluents using site meteorological information (average speed and wind direction and the stability profile). Starting with the calculation of the concentration of the effluent as a function of position, DERA estimates equivalent doses using a set of EPA s and ICRP s coefficients. The software contains a module that integrates a database with these coefficients for a set of 825 different radioisotopes and uses the Gaussian method to calculate the effluents dispersion. This work analyzes how adequate is the Gaussian model to describe emissions type -puff-. Chapter 4 concludes, on the basis of a comparison of the recommended correlations of emissions type -puff-, that under certain conditions (in particular with intermittent emissions) it is possible to perform an adequate description using the Gaussian model. The dispersion coefficients (σ y and σ z ), that using the Gaussian model, were obtained from different correlations given in the literature. Also in Chapter 5 is presented the construction of a particular correlation using Lagrange polynomials, which takes information from the Pasquill-Gifford-Turner curves (PGT). This work also contains a state of the art about the coefficients that relate the concentration with the equivalent dose. This topic is discussed in Chapter 6, including a brief description of the biological-compartmental models developed by the ICRP. The software s development was performed using the programming language Python 2.7, for the Windows operating system (the XP

  8. Detailed source term estimation of the atmospheric release for the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident by coupling simulations of an atmospheric dispersion model with an improved deposition scheme and oceanic dispersion model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katata, G.; Chino, M.; Kobayashi, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Ibaraki (Japan); and others

    2015-07-01

    Temporal variations in the amount of radionuclides released into the atmosphere during the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FNPS1) accident and their atmospheric and marine dispersion are essential to evaluate the environmental impacts and resultant radiological doses to the public. In this paper, we estimate the detailed atmospheric releases during the accident using a reverse estimation method which calculates the release rates of radionuclides by comparing measurements of air concentration of a radionuclide or its dose rate in the environment with the ones calculated by atmospheric and oceanic transport, dispersion and deposition models. The atmospheric and oceanic models used are WSPEEDI-II (Worldwide version of System for Prediction of Environmental Emergency Dose Information) and SEA-GEARN-FDM (Finite difference oceanic dispersion model), both developed by the authors. A sophisticated deposition scheme, which deals with dry and fog-water depositions, cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activation, and subsequent wet scavenging due to mixed-phase cloud microphysics (in-cloud scavenging) for radioactive iodine gas (I{sub 2} and CH{sub 3}I) and other particles (CsI, Cs, and Te), was incorporated into WSPEEDI-II to improve the surface deposition calculations. The results revealed that the major releases of radionuclides due to the FNPS1 accident occurred in the following periods during March 2011: the afternoon of 12 March due to the wet venting and hydrogen explosion at Unit 1, midnight of 14 March when the SRV (safety relief valve) was opened three times at Unit 2, the morning and night of 15 March, and the morning of 16 March. According to the simulation results, the highest radioactive contamination areas around FNPS1 were created from 15 to 16 March by complicated interactions among rainfall, plume movements, and the temporal variation of release rates. The simulation by WSPEEDI-II using the new source term reproduced the local and regional patterns of

  9. Study of variations of radon emanations from soil in Morocco using solid state nuclear track detectors. Correlations with atmospheric parameters and seismic activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boukhal, H.

    1993-01-01

    This study investigates the quantity variations of radon emanating from soil in accordance with time. It aims to verify the possibility of the radon sign use in earthquake prediction. Regular measures of radon concentration in soil have been carried out over the two years 1991 and 1992 in five towns of Morocco: Rabat, Tetouan, Ifrane and Khouribga, and in geophysic observatory of Ibn Rochd (Berchid region). The measuring method is based on the solid state nuclear track detectors technique. The obtained results have shown an influence of the atmospheric effects on the radon emanation. The experiment proved that, on one hand, the variations of the aforesaid influence are correlated to variations of the pluviometry and the atmospheric temperature and, on the other hand, there is no notable effect of atmospheric pressure or atmospheric humidity. The good correlations between the different seismic activities and the variations of radon emanation rate in the five measurement stations, have shown the interest of radon use in the earthquake prediction field. 81 refs., 100 figs., 17 tabs.(F. M.)

  10. Atmospheric deposition, resuspension and root uptake of plutonium in corn and other grain-producing agroecosystems near a nuclear fuel facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinder, J.E. III; McLeod, K.W.; Adriano, D.C.; Corey, J.C.; Boni, A.L.

    1989-01-01

    Plutonium released to the environment may contribute to dose to humans through inhalation or ingestion of contaminated foodstuffs. Plutonium contamination of agricultural plants may result from interception and retention of atmospheric deposition, resuspension of Pu-bearing soil particles to plant surfaces, and root uptake and translocation to grain. Plutonium on vegetation surfaces may be transferred to grain surfaces during mechanical harvesting. Data obtained from corn grown near the US Department of Energy's H-Area nuclear fuel chemical separations facility on the Savannah River Site was used to estimated parameters of a simple model of Pu transport in agroecosystems. The parameter estimates for corn were compared to those previously obtained for wheat and soybeans. Despite some differences in parameter estimates among crops, the relative importances of atmospheric deposition, resuspension and root uptake were similar among crops. For even small deposition rates, the relative importances of processes for Pu contamination of corn grain should be: transfer of atmospheric deposition from vegetation surfaces to grain surfaces during combining > resuspension of soil to grain surfaces > root uptake. Approximately 3.9 x 10 -5 of a year's atmospheric deposition is transferred to grain. Approximately 6.2 x 10 -9 of the Pu inventory in the soil is resuspended to corn grain, and a further 7.3 x 10 -10 of the soil inventory is absorbed by roots and translocated to grains

  11. Assessment of impact of a severe accident at nuclear power plant of Angra dos Reis with release of radionuclides to the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguiar, Andre Silva de

    2015-01-01

    This study had as purpose the assess the impact of a severe accident, and also analyze the dispersion of 131 I in the atmosphere, so that, through concentrating and inhaling dose of the plume, were possible to verify if the results are in accordance with the indicated data by the Plan of Emergency of the CNAAA regarding the Impact Zone and Control. This exercise was performed with the aid of an atmospheric model and a dispersion where to atmospheric modeling we used the data coupling WRF / CALMET and of dispersion, CALPUFF. The suggested accident consists of a Station Blackout at Nuclear Power of Angra (Unit 1), where through the total core involvement, will release 100% of the 131 I to the atmosphere. The value of the total activity in the nucleus to this radionuclide is 7.44 x 1017 Bq, that is relative on the sixth day of burning. This activity will be released through the chimney at a rate in Bq/s in the scenario of 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours of release. Applying the model in the proposed scenario, it is verified that the plume has concentrations of the order of 1020 Bq/m³ and dose of about 108 Sv whose value is beyond of the presented by Eletronuclear in your current emergency plan. (author)

  12. Experimental determination of the atmospheric dispersion at the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center for 160 m and 195 m emission heights. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, P.; Huebschmann, W.; Schuettelkopf, H.; Vogt, S.

    1983-03-01

    Diffusion experiments have been carried out at the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center in order to investigate the atmospheric diffusion of pollutants and to determine specifically the influence on atmospheric diffusion of topographic conditions specific to the site. For this purpose, halogenated hydrocarbons are emitted at 160 m and 195 m height, their local concentration distribution is measured at ground level downwind of the source. Part 1 of the report describes the diffusion experiments performed and presents the detailed data of measurements. These include the coordinates of the sampling positions, the measured concentrations and the relevant meteorological data recorded during the experiments. The stability classes prevailing during the experiments are derived from these data and are indicated. (orig.) [de

  13. Experimental determination of the atmospheric dispersion parameters at the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center for 60 m and 100 m emission heights. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, P.; Dilger, H.; Huebschmann, W.; Schuettelkopf, H.; Vogt, S.; Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe G.m.b.H.

    1981-09-01

    Experiments have been carried out at the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center in order to investigate the atmospheric diffusion of pollutants. The influence on atmospheric diffusion of topographic conditions specific to the site is to be determined. For this purpose, halogenated hydrocarbons are emitted at 60 m and 100 m height; their local concentration distribution is measured at ground level downwind of the source. Part 1 of the report describes the diffusion experiments performed and presents the measured data in a detailed manner. The data include the coordinates of the sampling positions, the measured concentrations and the relevant meteorological data recorded during the experiments. The stability classes prevailing during the experiments are derived from these data and are indicated. (orig./HP) [de

  14. Studies of the long-range transport of atmospheric pollutant using nuclear-related analytical techniques. Appendix 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Shaojin

    1995-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosol and rainwater samples collected in the different Western Pacific areas were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation and proton induced x-ray emission to (1) determine the atmospheric concentrations of trace elements over the Western Pacific and (2) to estimate the atmospheric deposition of trace elements and dust-soil material to this region. High abundance of pollutant and crustal elements relative to oceanic sources was observed. Some characteristics of marine atmosphere relating to long-range transport of crustal and anthropogenic elements from continent to the remote ocean are discussed. The total dust-soil particle mass is estimated to be 0.066-1.2 μg/m 3 over the Western Pacific Ocean areas. Atmospheric inputs of dust-soil particles control the marine particle concentrations of crustal elements. A total of 99 atmospheric samples with the 'Gent' filter unit were collected during October 1993 and September 1994 at a western suburb of Beijing, China (40 deg. N,116 deg. E), and completed the analysis of these filters by both INAA and PIXE. (author)

  15. Radiation risk from the nuclear power installation of space vehicle in case of reentry to the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikheenko, S.G.

    1994-01-01

    Main directions of space using of nuclear power are considered. Nuclear energy has found many applications in space projects. The first application is the use of nuclear energy for the production of electricity in space and the second main application is the use of nuclear power for propulsion purposes in space flight. History of usage nuclear power systems in space technic is shown. Today there are 54 satellites with NPS in space near the Earth. The main principle of radical solution of the problem of radiation safety is based on the accommodation of space objects with nuclear units in orbits, such that the ballistic lifetime is greater than the time necessary for complete decay of the accumulated radioactivity. Radiation safety on various stages of space nuclear systems exploitation is discussed. If Main System Ensuring Radiation Safety is failed, it must operates Reserved System Ensuring Radiation Safety. Concrete development of a booster system for nuclear unit and a system for the reactor destruction in order to ensure aerodynamic destruction of fuel has been realized in satellite of 'Cosmos' series. The investigations on reserved system ensuring radiation safety in Moscow Physical - Engineering Institute are discussed. The results show that we can in principle ensure the radiation safety in accordance to ICRP recommendations. (author)

  16. Desterritorializando e reterritorializando um shtetl nos trópicos. Leitura do romance A guerra no Bom Fim, de Moacyr Scliar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya Lani

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A noção de fronteira, vista como um limite fixo, imóvel, vem dando lugar no discurso da pós-modernidade a espaços itinerantes em que se destacam relações identitárias transitórias, fluidas, errantes, marcadas pela pluralidade das travessias culturais. Apoiando-nos no conceito de desterritorialização/reterritorialização criado por Gilles Deleuze e reavaliado por Néstor García Canclini, o presente artigo analisa as diferentes etapas de tal processo no romance A guerra no Bom Fim (1972, de Moacyr Scliar.

  17. OCORRÊNCIA DE Anaplasma bovis (Donatien & Lestoquard, 1936, Dumler et al. 2001 NA REGIÃO DE BOM JESUS DO ITABAPOANA, RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Augusto Melo Junior

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, 400 capillary blood smears collected from the ear and the tail of 200 bovines were microscopically examinedfor the presence of hemoparasites. The diagnosis was based on the direct research, semonstrating the etiologic agent inclusions. Eleven bovines (5.5% were considered infected by Anaplasma bovis, confirming the presence of this hemoparasite in the city of Bom Jesus do Itabapoana, the first city of the northwesten region of the state of Rio de Janeiro to register such occurrence.

  18. The risk of leukaemia in young children from exposure to tritium and carbon-14 in the discharges of German nuclear power stations and in the fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakeford, Richard [The University of Manchester, Centre for Occupational and Environmental Health, Institute of Population Health, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2014-05-15

    Towards the end of 2007, the results were published from a case-control study (the ''KiKK Study'') of cancer in young children, diagnosed <5 years of age during 1980-2003 while resident near nuclear power stations in western Germany. The study found a tendency for cases of leukaemia to live closer to the nearest nuclear power station than their matched controls, producing an odds ratio that was raised to a statistically significant extent for residence within 5 km of a nuclear power station. The findings of the study received much publicity, but a detailed radiological risk assessment demonstrated that the radiation doses received by young children from discharges of radioactive material from the nuclear reactors were much lower than those received from natural background radiation and far too small to be responsible for the statistical association reported in the KiKK Study. This has led to speculation that conventional radiological risk assessments have grossly underestimated the risk of leukaemia in young children posed by exposure to man-made radionuclides, and particular attention has been drawn to the possible role of tritium and carbon-14 discharges in this supposedly severe underestimation of risk. Both {sup 3}H and {sup 14}C are generated naturally in the upper atmosphere, and substantial increases in these radionuclides in the environment occurred as a result of their production by atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons during the late 1950s and early 1960s. If the leukaemogenic effect of these radionuclides has been seriously underestimated to the degree necessary to explain the KiKK Study findings, then a pronounced increase in the worldwide incidence of leukaemia among young children should have followed the notably elevated exposure to {sup 3}H and {sup 14}C from nuclear weapons testing fallout. To investigate this hypothesis, the time series of incidence rates of leukaemia among young children <5 years of age at diagnosis has been

  19. Small Nuclear-powered Hot Air Balloons for the Exploration of the Deep Atmosphere of Uranus and Neptune

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cleve, J. E.; Grillmair, C. J.

    2001-01-01

    The Galileo probe gathered data in the Jovian atmosphere for about one hour before its destruction. For a wider perceptive on the atmospheres of the outer planets, multiple, long-lived observations platforms would be useful. In this paper we examine the basic physics of hot-air ballooning in a hydrogen atmosphere, using plutonium RTGs as a heat source. We find that such balloons are buoyant at a sufficiently great depth in these atmospheres, and derive equations for the balloon radius and mass of plutonium required as a function of atmospheric mass density and balloon material parameters. We solve for the buoyancy depth given the constraint that each probe may contain 1.0 kg of Pu, and find that the temperature at that depth is too great for conventional electronics (>70 C) for Jupiter and Saturn. However, the Pu mass constraint and the operating temperature constraint are consistent for Uranus and Neptune, and this concept may be applicable to those planets. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  20. Mortality and cancer incidence 1952-1998 in UK participants in the UK atmospheric nuclear weapons tests and experimental programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muirhead, C.R.; Bingham, D.; Haylock, R.G.E.; O'Hagan, J.A.; Goodill, A.A.; Berridge, G.L.C.; English, M.A.; Hunter, N.; Kendall, G.M.

    2003-01-01

    An updated analysis has been conducted of mortality and cancer incidence among men from the United Kingdom who took part in the UK atmospheric nuclear weapon tests and experimental programmes in Australia and the Pacific between 1952 and 1967. Rates of multiple myeloma, leukaemia, other cancers, and non-cancer causes of death were studied, as in previous analyses of these men. Based on a total of 21,357 test participants and 22,333 controls identified from the same Ministry of Defence (MOD) archives, information was obtained on deaths and cancer registrations up to the end of 1998. Compared with national mortality rates, rates of deaths from all causes increased to a similar extent in both test participants and controls with longer follow-up, with Standardised Mortality Ratios (SMRs) of 89 and 88 respectively over the full follow-up period and a relative risk of 1.01 (90% confidence interval (Cl) 0.98-1.05). For all cancers, the corresponding SMRs were 93 for test participants and 92 for controls, with a relative risk of 1.01 (90% Cl 0.96-1.08) for all cancers. Mortality from multiple myeloma was consistent with national rates both for test participants and controls, and the relative risk of myeloma incidence among test participants relative to controls was 1.14 (90% Cl 0.74-1.74) over the full follow up period and 0.79 (90% Cl 0.45-1.38) during the extended period of follow up (1991-98). Over the full follow-up period, leukaemia mortality among test participants was consistent with national rates, whilst rates among controls were significantly lower (SMR 68), and there was a suggestion of a raised risk among test participants relative to controls (relative risk 1.45 (0.96-2.17), one-sided p=0.07, two-sided p=0.14); the corresponding relative risk for leukaemia incidence was 1.33 (0.97-1.84), one-sided p==0.07, two-sided p=0.14. After excluding chronic lymphatic leukaemia (CLL), which is not thought to be radiation-inducible, the relative risk of leukaemia

  1. The risk of leukaemia in young children from exposure to tritium and carbon-14 in the discharges of German nuclear power stations and in the fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakeford, Richard

    2014-05-01

    Towards the end of 2007, the results were published from a case-control study (the "KiKK Study") of cancer in young children, diagnosed study found a tendency for cases of leukaemia to live closer to the nearest nuclear power station than their matched controls, producing an odds ratio that was raised to a statistically significant extent for residence within 5 km of a nuclear power station. The findings of the study received much publicity, but a detailed radiological risk assessment demonstrated that the radiation doses received by young children from discharges of radioactive material from the nuclear reactors were much lower than those received from natural background radiation and far too small to be responsible for the statistical association reported in the KiKK Study. This has led to speculation that conventional radiological risk assessments have grossly underestimated the risk of leukaemia in young children posed by exposure to man-made radionuclides, and particular attention has been drawn to the possible role of tritium and carbon-14 discharges in this supposedly severe underestimation of risk. Both (3)H and (14)C are generated naturally in the upper atmosphere, and substantial increases in these radionuclides in the environment occurred as a result of their production by atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons during the late 1950s and early 1960s. If the leukaemogenic effect of these radionuclides has been seriously underestimated to the degree necessary to explain the KiKK Study findings, then a pronounced increase in the worldwide incidence of leukaemia among young children should have followed the notably elevated exposure to (3)H and (14)C from nuclear weapons testing fallout. To investigate this hypothesis, the time series of incidence rates of leukaemia among young children risk of leukaemia in young children following the peak of above-ground nuclear weapons testing, or that incidence rates are related to level of exposure to fallout, is

  2. H.R. 5051: a bill to authorize funding for research on the potential atmospheric, climatic, biological, health, and environmental consequences of nuclear explosions and nuclear exchanges... Introduced in the House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session, June 18, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The Nuclear Winter Research Act of 1986 authorizes funding to study the potential consequences of nuclear explosions. The research will cover possible atmospheric, climatic, biological, health, or environmental changes to see if the nuclear winter theory is plausible. The bill authorizes $8.5 million over a five-year period for the Department of Defense study. It also establishes a Nuclear Winter Study Commission to determine and evaluate what implications these potential effects have for defense policy

  3. Studying the effects of 1974 French atomic tests series in the Pacific on Australian atmosphere - a nuclear analytical approach to the environmental metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhri, M. A.; Chaudhri, M. N.

    2006-01-01

    A novel approach for nuclear metrology has been selected to study the effects of French Atomic Tests in the Pacific of 1974, on the Australian atmosphere. This is to investigate the changes in the elemental concentrations of the atmospheric particulates collected in Australia just before and after the onset of the atomic tests in the Pacific. Any additional radioactivity due to the tests would either be still there or would decay into stable isotopes. If by some very sensitive techniques one could determine the elemental / isotopic composition of the air particulate, one can work backwards in estimating the sort and quantity of activities that could have existed just after conducting of the tests. We decided to use the technique of charge-particle activation analysis to estimate the elemental / isotopic concentrations of the Australian Atmosphere. This technique has the potential to provide concentrations in the ppb and sub ppb regions. The atmospheric particulates were collected on Polystyrene filters in high-volume air samplers placed all along the Australian East Coast at locations in Port Moresby (New Guinea), Townsville, Brisbane, Sydney, Melbourne and Hobart. The filters were cut into small pieces and placed in the grove of an Al-Target holder, covered by a thin Al-foil, which was cooled by liquid nitrogen. The samples were irradiated for one hour each with a proton beam of 8.5 MeV at an intensity of 1 □A. After a waiting period of one hour the irradiated samples were counted with a high resolution and high sensitivity Germanium detector. Suitably prepared 'Standards', for quantifying the absolute concentrations, were also irradiated in identical fashion and their induced activities measured. A number of elements, S, Ca, Ti, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se and Hg were detected in the two types of samples- one taken just before the Atomic Tests started and the other set taken just after the finishing of the tests.Their concentration of different elements ranged from

  4. Studing the effects of 1974 French Atomic Tests series in the Pacific on Australian atmosphere - a novel approach to nuclear metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhri, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: PRINCIPLE: A novel approach for nuclear metrology has been selected to study the effects of French Atomic Tests in the Pacific of 1974 on the Australian atmosphere. This is to investigate the changes in the elemental concentrations of the atmospheric particulates collected in Australia just before and after the onset of the atomic tests in the Pacific. Any additional radioactivity due to the tests would either be still there or would decay into stable isotopes. If by some very sensitive techniques one could determine the elemental / isotopic composition of the air particulate, one can work backwards in estimating the sort and quantity of activities that could have existed just after conducting of the tests. We decided to use the technique of charged-particle activation analysis to estimate the elemental / isotopic concentrations of the Australian Atmosphere. This technique has the potential to provide concentrations in the ppb and sub ppb regions. METHOD: The atmospheric particulates were collected on Polystyrene filters in high-volume air samplers placed all along the Australian East Coast at locations in Port Moresby (New Guinea), Townsville, Brisbane, Sydney, Melbourne and Hobart. The filters were cut into small pieces and placed in the grove of an Al-Target holder, covered by a thin Al-foil, which was cooled by liquid nitrogen. The samples were irradiated for one hour each with 8.5 MeV proton beam at an intensity of 1 μA. After waiting period of one hour the irradiated samples were counted with a high resolution and high sensitivity Germanium detector. Suitably prepared 'Standards', for quantifying the absolute concentrations, were also irradiated in identical fashion and their induced activities were measured. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: A number of elements, like S, Ca, Ti, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se and Hg, were detected in the two types of samples- one taken just before the Atomic Tests started and the other set taken just after the finishing of the

  5. Atmospheric families with SEγ > 100 TeV detected in nuclear emulsion and lead chambers exposed at Chacaltaya Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maldonado, R.H.C.

    1980-03-01

    Hadromic interactions from cosmic radiation with observed energy greater than 100TeV, using a high statistics, are analyzed. Only hadronic interactions in the atmosphere are considered, using a method in which the height of the interactions is implicitly taking into account. The data belong to the Brazil-Japan Collaboration. (L.C.) [pt

  6. Dutch distribution zones of stable iodine tablets based on atmospheric dispersion modelling of accidental releases from nuclear power plants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok-Palma, Y.S.; Leenders, M.; Meulenbelt, J.

    2010-01-01

    Rapid administration of stable iodine is essential for the saturation and subsequent protection of the thyroid gland against the potential harm caused by radioiodines. This paper proposes the Dutch risk analysis that uses an atmospheric dispersion model to calculate the size of the zones around

  7. Estimation of the time-dependent radioactive source-term from the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident using atmospheric transport modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeppner, M.; Plastino, W.; Budano, A.; De Vincenzi, M.; Ruggieri, F.

    2012-04-01

    Several nuclear reactors at the Fukushima Dai-ichi power plant have been severely damaged from the Tōhoku earthquake and the subsequent tsunami in March 2011. Due to the extremely difficult on-site situation it has been not been possible to directly determine the emissions of radioactive material. However, during the following days and weeks radionuclides of 137-Caesium and 131-Iodine (amongst others) were detected at monitoring stations throughout the world. Atmospheric transport models are able to simulate the worldwide dispersion of particles accordant to location, time and meteorological conditions following the release. The Lagrangian atmospheric transport model Flexpart is used by many authorities and has been proven to make valid predictions in this regard. The Flexpart software has first has been ported to a local cluster computer at the Grid Lab of INFN and Department of Physics of University of Roma Tre (Rome, Italy) and subsequently also to the European Mediterranean Grid (EUMEDGRID). Due to this computing power being available it has been possible to simulate the transport of particles originating from the Fukushima Dai-ichi plant site. Using the time series of the sampled concentration data and the assumption that the Fukushima accident was the only source of these radionuclides, it has been possible to estimate the time-dependent source-term for fourteen days following the accident using the atmospheric transport model. A reasonable agreement has been obtained between the modelling results and the estimated radionuclide release rates from the Fukushima accident.

  8. Experimental study of a model and parameters calculating annual mean atmospheric dispersion factor for a nuclear power plant to be build in coastal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Erbang; Chen Jiayi; Zhang Maoshuan; Gao Zhanrong; Yao Rentai; Jia Peirong; Qiao Qingdang

    1999-01-01

    The author tries to develop a new model calculating annual mean atmospheric dispersion factor for a nuclear power plant to be build in coastal site based on field experiments. This model considers not only the difference between shore ward and off-shore but also the comprehensive effect of following factors: mixed layer and thermal internal boundary layer, mixing release and variation of diffusion parameters due to the distance from coast and so on. The various parameters needed in the model are obtained from the field atmospheric experiments done on the NPP site during 1995∼1996. There dimension joint frequency is got from wind and temperature measurements at 4 heights of a tower of 100 m; diffusion parameters shore ward and off-shore from turbulent measurement and wind tunnel simulation test; the parameters relative to sea and land breeze and thermal internal boundary layer are obtained from tests with low altitude radiosonde and lost balloon at 3 sites during two periods of Summer and Winter. Finally a comparison of the results given by this model and commonly used model provided by relative guides is done. The comparison shows that about 1 times under estimation is found for the maximum of annual mean atmospheric dispersion factor in common model because the effect from thermal internal boundary layer and other factors are neglected

  9. Report of the expert committee on the review of data on atmospheric fallout arising from British nuclear tests in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The terms of reference of the committee were to review the published scientific literature and other relevant scientific data on the short and long-term effects of fallout arising from British nuclear tests in Australia; to comment on the adequacy of the data available and the collection methodology; to assess the fallout levels arising from each of the tests, the immediate and subsequent hazards from the fallout to the Australian population and individual Australians, including Australian personnel involved and aborigines in South Australia, and the adequacy of the criteria for safe firing of each of the tests. A comparison is made of radiation protection standards adopted during the nuclear test period with current standards. The recommendations include the setting up of a public inquiry to determine how the conduct and consequences of the British nuclear tests affected the health and well-being of Australians

  10. Determining of the nuclear composition of primary cosmic rays from the experimental distributions of multiple muons in atmospheric showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beshtoev, Kh.M.

    1993-01-01

    Various approaches are discussed for determining the nuclear composition of the primary cosmic radiation from the distributions of multiple muons. Results are presented of calculations of the distributions of multiple muons for A 1 , A 4 , A 14 , A 26 , A 56 nuclei for an infinite plane and for the underground scintillation telescope of the Institute for Nuclear Research of the Academy of Sciences of Russia.The most suitable technique for determination of the primary nuclear composition of cosmic rays from the distribution of multiple muons is shown to be the approximate solution of a set of N equations, in which the respective coefficients of the contributions of various nuclei A i (i=1-N) to the primary composition serve as variables, while the remaining parts of these equations are the distributions of multiple muons obtained experimentally. 7 refs.; 2 tabs

  11. Inquiry commission of the consequences of atmospheric nuclear tests performed between 1966 and 1974 in French Polynesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    After having outlined that the French Polynesia institutions want to make their own assessment of 30 years of nuclear tests, this document presents the inquiry commission set up by the French Polynesia Council, and what this commission has done. It outlines the present consequences of the nuclear tests performed in Polynesia, proposes a summary of the inquiry commission report, and formulates a set of recommendations. Appendices contain a text published by the CRIIRAD after a mission in Polynesia, a reference to an indemnification law in the United States, and a bill proposition

  12. CAE meteorological database for the PC CREAM program. Atmospheric dilution factor in different points of the CAE (Centro Atomico Ezeiza) and of the argentine nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amado, Valeria A.

    2007-01-01

    In the first part of this work, the EZEIZA.MET file, with the meteorological database of the surroundings of the Ezeiza Atomic Center, is prepared and incorporated into the library of the PC CREAM program. This program was developed by the National Radiological Protection Board and the European Union. Information provided by the National Meteorological Service was used, corresponding to the Ezeiza Meteorological Station during the period 1996-2005. In the second part, a methodology to estimate the atmospheric dilution factor at a point using the PLUME module of the PC CREAM, is presented. The developed methodology was used to estimate the dilution factor at points close to the Ezeiza Atomic Center and nuclear power plants Atucha I and Embalse. The developed methodology was used to estimate the dilution factor at points close to the Ezeiza Atomic Center and nuclear power plants Atucha I and Embalse. In the first case the file with the generated meteorological database is used, whereas for the nuclear power plants the already existing ATUCHALO.MET and EMBALSE.MET files are used. The dilution factors obtained are compared with those obtained in previous work. The proposed methodology is a useful tool to estimate the dilution factors in a simple and systematic way, and simultaneously allows the update of the meteorological information used in the estimations. (author) [es

  13. Surveillance of radioactivity in the atmosphere by the Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD) in the framework of nuclear emergency response programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinkopff, T.; Dalheimer, A.; Dyck, W.; Fay, B.; Glaab, H.; Jacobsen, I.

    2000-01-01

    The Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD), German Meteorological Service, is charged with the surveillance of radioactivity in the atmosphere as a part of the emergency information network of the 'Integrated Measurement and Information System' (IMIS) in Germany. The results of measurements of radioactivity and the meteorological products are transferred regularly to this network. The DWD is also integrated into the Environmental Emergency Response Programme (EER) of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) as a communication hub. The computer infrastructure, the operational experience in data management as well as the national and international communication systems in operation are significant arguments to run the early alert system on the surveillance of atmospheric radioactivity at the national meteorological service. (author)

  14. A Cultural Resources Inventory and Historical Evaluation of the Smoky Atmospheric Nuclear Test, Areas 8, 9, and 10, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Robert C. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); King, Maureen L. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Beck, Colleen M. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Falvey, Lauren W. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Menocal, Tatianna M. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This report presents the results of a National Historic Preservation Act Section 106 cultural resources inventory and historical evaluation of the 1957 Smoky atmospheric test location on the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The Desert Research Institute (DRI) was tasked to conduct a cultural resources study of the Smoky test area as a result of a proposed undertaking by the Department of Energy Environmental Management. This undertaking involves investigating Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 550 for potential contaminants of concern as delineated in a Corrective Action Investigation Plan. CAU 550 is an area that spatially overlaps portions of the Smoky test location. Smoky, T-2c, was a 44 kt atmospheric nuclear test detonated at 5:30 am on August 31, 1957, on top of a 213.4 m (700 ft) 200 ton tower (T-2c) in Area 8 of the NNSS. Smoky was a weapons related test of the Plumbbob series (number 19) and part of the Department of Defense Exercise Desert Rock VII and VIII. The cultural resources effort involved the development of a historic context based on archival documents and engineering records, the inventory of the cultural resources in the Smoky test area and an associated military trench location in Areas 9 and 10, and an evaluation of the National Register eligibility of the cultural resources. The inventory of the Smoky test area resulted in the identification of structures, features, and artifacts related to the physical development of the test location and the post-test remains. The Smoky test area was designated historic district D104 and coincides with a historic archaeological site recorded as 26NY14794 and the military trenches designed for troop observation, site 26NY14795. Sites 26NY14794 and 26NY14795 are spatially discrete with the trenches located 4.3 km (2.7 mi) southeast of the Smoky ground zero. As a result, historic district D104 is discontiguous and in total it covers 151.4 hectares (374 acres). The Smoky test location, recorded as historic

  15. NKS-B NordRisk II: Nuclear risk from atmospheric dispersion in Northern Europe - Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauritzen, B.

    2011-05-01

    The objective of the NordRisk II project has been to derive practical means for assessing the risks from long-range atmospheric dispersion of radioactive materials. An atlas over different atmospheric dispersion and deposition scenarios has been developed using historical numerical weather prediction (NWP) model data. The NWP model data covers three years spanning the climate variability associated with the North Atlantic Oscillation, and the atlas considers radioactive releases from 16 release sites in and near the Nordic countries. A statistical analysis of the long-range dispersion and deposition patterns is undertaken to quantify the mean dispersion and deposition as well as the variability. Preliminary analyses show that the large-scale atmospheric dispersion and deposition is near-isotropic, irrespective of the release site and detailed climatology, and allows for a simple parameterization of the global dispersion and deposition patterns. The atlas and the underlying data are made available in a format compatible with the ARGOS decision support system, and have been implemented in ARGOS. (Author)

  16. NKS-B NordRisk II: Nuclear risk from atmospheric dispersion in Northern Europe - Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritzen, B. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy. Radiation Research Div., Roskilde (Denmark))

    2011-05-15

    The objective of the NordRisk II project has been to derive practical means for assessing the risks from long-range atmospheric dispersion of radioactive materials. An atlas over different atmospheric dispersion and deposition scenarios has been developed using historical numerical weather prediction (NWP) model data. The NWP model data covers three years spanning the climate variability associated with the North Atlantic Oscillation, and the atlas considers radioactive releases from 16 release sites in and near the Nordic countries. A statistical analysis of the long-range dispersion and deposition patterns is undertaken to quantify the mean dispersion and deposition as well as the variability. Preliminary analyses show that the large-scale atmospheric dispersion and deposition is near-isotropic, irrespective of the release site and detailed climatology, and allows for a simple parameterization of the global dispersion and deposition patterns. The atlas and the underlying data are made available in a format compatible with the ARGOS decision support system, and have been implemented in ARGOS. (Author)

  17. JORNALISMO AUTOMATIZADO, GERAÇÃO DE LINGUAGEM NATURAL E A LÓGICA DO BOM SUFICIENTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishma Carreira

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A explosão de dados digitais e o avanço do campo da Inteligência Artificial permitiram o surgimento de algoritmos capazes de redigir e distribuir automaticamente notícias jornalísticas com rapidez e de forma customizada. A automatizacão da produção de narrativas entrega textos básicos, objetivos e sem sofisticação, formatando a função de jornalistas e contribui para a ampliação da chamada "bolha de filtros" definida por Eli Pariser.  Neste texto, procuramos demonstrar que ao adotar a automação, redações nos Estados Unidos, Europa e China passaram a usar a lógica do bom suficiente, demonstrada por Robert Capps. Ou seja, a automatização da elaboração de notícias pode estar sendo adotada unicamente por seu caráter "industrial" e pelo custo radicalmente reduzido, não priorizando a diversificação, a cultura e a qualidade humana dos relatos. As reflexões centram-se em pesquisa bibliográfica de caráter exploratório e interdisciplinar, a partir da abordagem da Teoria Ator-Rede.   PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Jornalismo automatizado; robôs e jornalismo; algoritmo jornalista; futuro do jornalismo.     ABSTRACT The explosion of digital data and the advance of the field of Artificial Intelligence allowed the emergence of algorithms capable of automatically writing and distributing news stories quickly and in a customized way. The automation of narrative production delivers basic, objective and unsophisticated texts, shaping the role of journalists and contributes to the expansion of the so-called "filter bubble" defined by Eli Pariser. In this text, we try to demonstrate that in adopting automation, essays in the United States, Europe and China have come to use the logic of good enough, demonstrated by Robert Capps. That is to say, the automation of the elaboration of news can be adopted solely by its "industrial" character and by the radically reduced cost, not prioritizing the diversification, the culture and the human quality of

  18. Nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This document proposes a presentation and discussion of the main notions, issues, principles, or characteristics related to nuclear energy: radioactivity (presence in the environment, explanation, measurement, periods and activities, low doses, applications), fuel cycle (front end, mining and ore concentration, refining and conversion, fuel fabrication, in the reactor, back end with reprocessing and recycling, transport), the future of the thorium-based fuel cycle (motivations, benefits and drawbacks), nuclear reactors (principles of fission reactors, reactor types, PWR reactors, BWR, heavy-water reactor, high temperature reactor of HTR, future reactors), nuclear wastes (classification, packaging and storage, legal aspects, vitrification, choice of a deep storage option, quantities and costs, foreign practices), radioactive releases of nuclear installations (main released radio-elements, radioactive releases by nuclear reactors and by La Hague plant, gaseous and liquid effluents, impact of releases, regulation), the OSPAR Convention, management and safety of nuclear activities (from control to quality insurance, to quality management and to sustainable development), national safety bodies (mission, means, organisation and activities of ASN, IRSN, HCTISN), international bodies, nuclear and medicine (applications of radioactivity, medical imagery, radiotherapy, doses in nuclear medicine, implementation, the accident in Epinal), nuclear and R and D (past R and D programmes and expenses, main actors in France and present funding, main R and D axis, international cooperation)

  19. Steady state transient analysis of spent nuclear fuel bundle exposed to stagnant gaseous atmosphere (Paper No. HMT-56-87)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, G.; Markandeya, S.G.; Venkatraj, V.

    1987-01-01

    This paper deals with the development of a computer code for the analysis of radiative heat exchange in rod bundles. Nuclear fuel bundles continue to generate heat even after their removal from the reactor core because of decay of fission products. During the transfer of the bundles from the core to storage bay they may pass through gaseous environment. Radiative heat exchange will be the dominant mode within the bundle under this condition. A computer code RIIEINA (Radiative Heat Exchange In Nuclear Assemblies) has been developed and used for predicting the behaviour of the spent fuel subassembly of the proposed Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor exposed to gaseous environment. The analytical model computer code and the results obtained are briefly discussed. (author). 5 refs., 5 figs

  20. Levels of tritium in soils and vegetation near Canadian nuclear facilities releasing tritium to the atmosphere: implications for environmental models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, P A; Kwamena, N-O A; Ilin, M; Wilk, M; Clark, I D

    2015-02-01

    Concentrations of organically bound tritium (OBT) and tritiated water (HTO) were measured over two growing seasons in vegetation and soil samples obtained in the vicinity of four nuclear facilities and two background locations in Canada. At the background locations, with few exceptions, OBT concentrations were higher than HTO concentrations: OBT/HTO ratios in vegetation varied between 0.3 and 20 and values in soil varied between 2.7 and 15. In the vicinity of the four nuclear facilities OBT/HTO ratios in vegetation and soils deviated from the expected mean value of 0.7, which is used as a default value in environmental transfer models. Ratios of the OBT activity concentration in plants ([OBT]plant) to the OBT activity concentration in soils ([OBT]soil) appear to be a good indicator of the long-term behaviour of tritium in soil and vegetation. In general, OBT activity concentrations in soils were nearly equal to OBT activity concentrations in plants in the vicinity of the two nuclear power plants. [OBT]plant/[OBT]soil ratios considerably below unity observed at one nuclear processing facility represents historically higher levels of tritium in the environment. The results of our study reflect the dynamic nature of HTO retention and OBT formation in vegetation and soil during the growing season. Our data support the mounting evidence suggesting that some parameters used in environmental transfer models approved for regulatory assessments should be revisited to better account for the behavior of HTO and OBT in the environment and to ensure that modelled estimates (e.g., plant OBT) are appropriately conservative. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Nuclear interactions of cosmic rays with the Mars atmosphere and rocks according to data of the Mars-5 space vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surkov, Yu A; Moskaleva, L P; Kharyukova, V P; Borodin, A M [AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Geokhimii i Analiticheskoj Khimii

    1976-03-01

    Gamma-spectra of Mars have been analyzed measured by the ''Mars-5'' interplanetary station at the altitude of approximately 200 km over the planet. A model spectrum of the Mars atmosphere gamma-radiation obtained earlier has been employed for obtaining cosmo-chemical information of the Mars rocks. In the energy range of gamma radiation Esub(..gamma..)(>=)2.6 MeV, in which no contribution of gamma radiation of natural radioisotopes is present, the best agreement has been obtained for the spectrum of gamma-radiation induced by cosmic rays in rocks of the type of earthly basalts.

  2. Comparative study of radiological assessment impact of nuclear power plant and coal-fired power plant: the atmospheric dispersion factor (χ/Q) in Muria Peninsula, Jepara

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umbara, H.; Syahrir; Yatim, S.

    1997-01-01

    The atmospheric dispersion factor (χ/Q) in Muria Peninsula, Jepara was carried out to calculate the exposure dose to public from nuclear power plant and coal-fired plant. The dispersion factor (χ/Q) value was calculated with mathematical model and diffusion equation. Parameter used as the input data was taken from meteorological data of Ujung Watu site within one year (August 1994 - July 1995) to obtain joint frequency distribution data which were the percentage of wind speed and stability class for 16 sector within one year. The results indicated that the highest dispersion factor (χ/Q) within 300 - 700 m radius from point of release is 4.750E-07 - 8.238E-07 second/m 3 for north west direction (author)

  3. Television journalism as a tool for public communication: a study of cases of violence against women in the newscast Bom Dia Goiás from Tv Anhanguera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Ribeiro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the social function of journalism, the scope and the credibility of TV journalism, as well as the possibility of its use as a tool for public communication. To this end, it is necessary to refer to details surrounding the deployment and development of TV journalism in Brazil and to conceptualize public communication and citizenship. Also, this study carries out an analysis of the channels that the individual uses to get information, mass communication characteristics and, above all, television and the need for the existence of public communication for citizenship. In addition, this article puts forward a content analysis of the TV news program Bom Dia Goiás - TV Anhanguera (an affiliate of Rede Globo in Goiás, outlining its approach and the type of information conveyed to the public about a serious social problem - violence against women.

  4. Juan Cham-Bom-Bian: recorrido del "médico chino"desde la Habana hacia Cárdenas. Breves apuntes históricos

    OpenAIRE

    Vega Jiménez, Junior

    2015-01-01

    Los orígenes de la medicina tradicional china en Cuba datan de la época colonial, cuyas técnicasfueronintroducidas a través de los inmigrantes chinos. Es muy frecuentelautilización, tanto en el argot popular como médico,delrefrán: "A ese no lo cura ni el médico chino".El origen de esta frase es real, y proviene del poco conocido JuanCham-Bom-Bian. La mayor parte de su estancia en Cuba ocurrió entre la sciudades de La Habana y Cárdenas; enesta última ocurrió su misteriosa muerte. El objetivo d...

  5. TELEVISION JOURNALISM AS A TOOL FOR PUBLIC COMMUNICATION: A STUDY OF CASES OF VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN IN THE NEWSCAST BOM DIA GOIÁS FROM TV ANHANGUERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Mainieri

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the social function of journalism, the scope and the credibility of TV journalism, as well as the possibility of its use as a tool for public communication. To this end, it is necessary to refer to details surrounding the deployment and development of TV journalism in Brazil and to conceptualize public communication and citizenship. Also, this study carries out an analysis of the channels that the individual uses to get information, mass communication characteristics and, above all, television and the need for the existence of public communication for citizenship. In addition, this article puts forward a content analysis of the TV news program Bom Dia Goiás - TV Anhanguera (an affiliate of Rede Globo in Goiás, outlining its approach and the type of information conveyed to the public about a serious social problem - violence against women.

  6. Análise do campo elétrico atmosférico durante tempo bom e distúrbios geofísicos

    OpenAIRE

    Anaya, José Carlos Tacza

    2015-01-01

    Neste trabalho de dissertação apresenta-se a capabilidade de uma nova rede de sensores para monitorar o campo elétrico atmosférico em vários locais na América do Sul. O objetivo principal é obter a curva diária do campo elétrico atmosférico de tempo bom. Para isto foram realizadas médias mensais, sazonais e anuais. Essa curva é comparada com a curva característica em Tempo Universal conhecida como a Curva de Carnegie, a qual é relacionada com as correntes fluindo no Circuito Elétrico Atmosfér...

  7. Assessment of exposures to 131I in the continental United States resulting from the Nevada atmospheric nuclear tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouville, A.; Wachholz, B.W.; Dreicer, M.

    1991-01-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) is conducting an assessment of the exposure to 131 I that the American people received from the fallout resulting from the atmospheric bomb tests carried out at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). It is estimated that about 5 EBq of 131 I were released into the atmosphere as a result of approximately 100 tests carried out mainly in the 1950s. The most important source of human exposure from fallout 131 I was due to the ingestion of cows' milk but other routes of exposure (ingestion of goats' milk, leafy vegetables, eggs, and cottage cheese as well as inhalation) are also considered. The exposure to 131 I are assessed on a test-by-test and county-by-county basis. In order to make these estimates for locations throughout the United States, it is necessary to determine: The activities of 131 I deposited on soil and vegetation, the amount of 131 I consumed by dairy cows and the resulting 131 I concentrations in cow's milk, and the 131 I ingested by people. The overall methodology currently used in the assessment of the 131 I exposures is presented. Particular attention is devoted to the methodology developed to estimate the intake of contaminated pasture by dairy cows, milk production, and milk distribution for each county of the continental United States during the 1950s

  8. Two standards - CSA-N288.1 and USNRC regulatory guides 1.109, 1.111 for chronic atmospheric releases from nuclear facilities - compared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, S-R.

    1997-05-01

    Although the Canadian Standards Association's 'Guidelines for Calculating Derived Release Limits for Radioactive Material in Airborne and Liquid Effluents for Normal Operation of Nuclear Facilities', CSA-N288.1-M87 (CSA 1987) can be used to license CANDU (CANadian Deuterium Uranium) reactors sold off-shore, in practice purchasers may wish to use the United States Regulatory Guides (RG) 1.109 (United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission 1977a) and 1.111 (USNRC 1977b) to calculate doses from routine atmospheric releases to members of a critical group. When differences in dose predictions are found between the two standards, CSA-N288.1 comes under attack. This paper explains the differences between the two models. The two atmospheric dispersion models were compared for a ground level release and an elevated release such as from CANDU 6. For a ground level release, CSA's dilution factors were slightly more than half of RG's. For the elevated release, following recommendations in each guide, CSA's dilution coefficient is higher than RG's within 1000 m of the stack and only slightly lower farther away. All differences can be accounted for by different mathematical formulations and assumptions about height at which wind speed is measured. Ingestion, inhalation, immersion and external doses predicted by the two models were compared for unit release (Bq s -1 ) and for realistic source terms of a suite of 33 radionuclides commonly released from both CANDUs and Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs). To demonstrate real differences in the models, ingestion doses for the two models were compared using the CSA diet in both models and CSA predictions were recalculated to account for decay which occurs between harvest and ingestion in RG. Once all assumptions are equalized, there is very little difference in dose predictions of the two models that cannot be explained by different parameter values. Both models have outdated dose conversion factors, and the use of improved numbers will

  9. LIXO E RECICLAGEM: A PERCEPÇÃO AMBIENTAL DE ESTUDANTES DE ESCOLAS PÚBLICAS E PRIVADAS DO MUNICÍPIO DE BOM JESUS DO ITABAPOANA (RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Natal Correia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Lixo e reciclagem são temas relevantes para a sociedade em vista dos grandes problemas ambientais causados pelo homem e as suas conseqüências para a natureza. Este trabalho teve o intuito de avaliar a percepção de estudantes de escolas públicas e particulares sobre o tema lixo e reciclagem. Para isso, foi aplicado um questionário misto e estruturado para alunos do 9º ano do Ensino Fundamental do Município de Bom Jesus do Itabapoana (RJ, totalizando 144 alunos de escolas da rede pública e privada.  Foi observado que a maioria dos alunos de ambas as modalidades de ensino não souberam conceituar corretamente os termos lixo e reciclagem, mostrando que, apesar do tema ser abordado pelos meios de comunicação, poucos alunos se atentam para o conhecimento disponível. Muitos estudantes confundiram termos freqüentemente abordados pela mídia, como por exemplo, definindo reciclagem como coleta seletiva. Muitos alunos responderam corretamente sobre quais materiais podem ou não ser reciclados, mostrando que os mesmos detêm algum conhecimento sobre o tema, apesar deste poder ser mais bem trabalhado nas escolas. Os alunos não demonstraram percepção de que eles mesmos estão inseridos nos problemas ambientais, mostrando a necessidade de um trabalho mais eficaz relacionado à educação ambiental nas escolas. Palavras-chave: Educação Ambiental; Alunos; Bom Jesus do Itabapoana; Escolas Públicas e Privadas.

  10. Technical subsidies for the operation of IRD/CNEN emergency vehicles in the case of a nuclear accident at the Angra Nuclear Power Plant with associated radioactive releases to the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leao, J.L.B.

    1982-03-01

    Technical support is provided for the operation of an emergency vehicle of Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria/Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in the event of uncontrolled release of radioactivity from the Angra Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) to the atmosphere. It is based on internationally adopted emergency decision process philosophy, the concept of 'Protective Action Guide' (PAG), the exposure pathways relevant to nuclear accidents, the measuring systems to be used in obtaining the exposure rate in the effluent 'plume', the methods utilized to predict dose to the population, radioiodine suppression measures, the monitoring instrumentation available to the emergency group, some post-accident considerations and finally, the monitoring that may be carried out from an aircraft. Information is given about the NPP operator's responsabilities with respect to the prediction of the consequences of an accident, as well as methods for thyroid and whole body dose estimation based on exposure to the radioiodine and noble gases present in the effluent plume. The example of the Three Mile Island's incident is used to formulate some observations regarding collective dose to the public estimates derived from measurements made from a helicopter. (Author) [pt

  11. Planejamento estratégico em saúde com base em determinantes: o caso do município de Campo Bom (RS. Uma proposta metodológica para a gestão descentralizada Strategic health planning based on determinants: case of the municipality of Campo Bom, Rio Grande do Sul State. A methodological proposal for the decentralized management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Maximino León González

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de analisar o modelo de planejamento estratégico em saúde com base em determinantes, utilizado na experiência do município de Campo Bom, realizou-se estudo observacional, qualitativo, de análise documental e avaliação de novas tecnologias de processo na gestão local de saúde. O estudo contém uma análise de coerência metodológica e de aplicabilidade do modelo, a partir da revisão dos planos municipal e locais. Nele, apresenta-se o caso de Campo Bom, no qual foi possível integrar e aplicar, em nível local, um modelo estratégico de planejamento em saúde orientado às novas conceituações da saúde, considerando elementos dos diferentes desenvolvimentos teóricos, sendo viável responder às necessidades e situações locais prevalentes. Identificam-se etapas evolutivas do planejamento em saúde e analisam-se elementos integradores do modelo e limitações na sua aplicação, salientando-se a necessidade de apoiar o aprofundamento do estudo e o desenvolvimento do campo.With the purpose to analyze the health strategic planning model based on determinants experienced in the municipality of Campo Bom, Rio Grande do Sul State, it was conducted an observational, qualitative study, of documental analysis as well as an evaluation of new process technologies in local health administration. This study contains an analysis of the methodological coherency and applicability of this model, based on the revision of the elaborated plans. The plans presented at Campo Bom case shows the possibility of integration and applicability at local level, of a health strategic planning model oriented to the new health concepts considering elements of different theoretical developments that enables the response to the most common local needs and situations. It was identified evolutional stages of health planning and analyzed integrative elements of the model and limitations of its application, pointing to the need of support the deepening on

  12. Detailed source term estimation of the atmospheric release for the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident by coupling simulations of atmospheric dispersion model with improved deposition scheme and oceanic dispersion model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katata, G.; Chino, M.; Kobayashi, T.; Terada, H.; Ota, M.; Nagai, H.; Kajino, M.; Draxler, R.; Hort, M. C.; Malo, A.; Torii, T.; Sanada, Y.

    2014-06-01

    Temporal variations in the amount of radionuclides released into the atmosphere during the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station (FNPS1) accident and their atmospheric and marine dispersion are essential to evaluate the environmental impacts and resultant radiological doses to the public. In this paper, we estimate a detailed time trend of atmospheric releases during the accident by combining environmental monitoring data with atmospheric model simulations from WSPEEDI-II (Worldwide version of System for Prediction of Environmental Emergency Dose Information), and simulations from the oceanic dispersion model SEA-GEARN-FDM, both developed by the authors. A sophisticated deposition scheme, which deals with dry and fogwater depositions, cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activation and subsequent wet scavenging due to mixed-phase cloud microphysics (in-cloud scavenging) for radioactive iodine gas (I2 and CH3I) and other particles (CsI, Cs, and Te), was incorporated into WSPEEDI-II to improve the surface deposition calculations. The fallout to the ocean surface calculated by WSPEEDI-II was used as input data for the SEA-GEARN-FDM calculations. Reverse and inverse source-term estimation methods based on coupling the simulations from both models was adopted using air dose rates and concentrations, and sea surface concentrations. The results revealed that the major releases of radionuclides due to FNPS1 accident occurred in the following periods during March 2011: the afternoon of 12 March due to the wet venting and hydrogen explosion at Unit 1, the morning of 13 March after the venting event at Unit 3, midnight of 14 March when the SRV (Safely Relief Valve) at Unit 2 was opened three times, the morning and night of 15 March, and the morning of 16 March. According to the simulation results, the highest radioactive contamination areas around FNPS1 were created from 15 to 16 March by complicated interactions among rainfall, plume movements, and the temporal variation of

  13. Measurement of concentrations of radon and its daughters in indoor atmosphere using CR-39 nuclear track detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.J.; Sharma, K.C.; Varshney, A.K.; Prasad, Rajendra; Tyagi, R.K.

    1988-01-01

    The concentrations of radon and its daughters in rooms having different environmental conditions are measured using CR-39 nuclear track detector. It has been found that the radon concentration inside the rooms depends on ventilation, sub-soil emanation and the housed materials. The use of internal wall coverings such as plaster, distemper and white washing may reduce the radon emanation inside the rooms. The use of paints on walls is the best for reducing the radon concentration inside the rooms. (author). 11 refs

  14. Local variance of atmospheric 14C concentrations around Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant from 2010 to 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Biying; Xu, Sheng; Cook, Gordon T.

    2017-01-01

    Radiocarbon (14C) has been measured in single tree ring samples collected from the southwest of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant. Our data indicate south-westwards dispersion of radiocarbon and the highest 14C activity observed so far in the local environment during the 2011 accident....... The abnormally high 14C activity in the late wood of 2011 ring may imply an unknown source of radiocarbon nearby after the accident. The influence of 14C shrank from 30 km during normal reactor operation to 14 km for the accident in the northwest of FDNPP, but remains unclear in the southwest....

  15. Evaluation of radiological impact of habitual atmospheric releases in the surroundings of the Juragua nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Rodriguez, J.M.; Rosales, I.

    1993-01-01

    The considerations and fundamental data used to evaluate the individual doses to the population living within an area of 40 km in the surroundings of Juragua nuclear power plant are presented. Recognized dispersion models (Pasquill modified) and models of dose calculations due to continuous habitual air releases composed of gases and aerosols (47 radionuclides) are used for the calculations.The following ways are taken into account for evaluation: a)irradiation of the cloud, b)irradiation of contaminated ground, c)inhalation, d) ingestion of agro-products. The iso line maps of concentrations and fundamental doses for the site are shown

  16. Dispersion modeling of atmospheric contaminants in the Angra Nuclear Power Plant using LES and a new model for the CBL growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Davidson M.; Goulart, Antonio G.; Soares, Pedro M.; Vilhena, Marco T.

    2009-01-01

    In the present work we report a comparison between experimental data and GILTT approach to simulate radioactive contaminant dispersion in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer using micrometeorological parameters generated by LES (Large Eddy Simulation) in the area around the Angra dos Reis Nuclear Power Plant. Furthermore, starting from the evolution equation for the turbulent energy density spectrum (EDS), we develop a new model for the growth of the turbulence in Convective Boundary Layer (CBL). We apply dimensional analysis to parameterize the unknown inertial transport and convective source term in the dynamic equation for the three-dimensional (3-D) spectrum. The non linear integro-differential equation is solved by Adomian decomposition method. The one-dimensional vertical spectrum is derived from the 3-D spectrum, employing a weight function. This allows us to select the magnitude of the vertical spectral component for the construction of the growing 3-D. Using the micrometeorological parameters generated by LES, for the first time, we employ the vertical component of the energy spectrum to calculate the eddy diffusivity (required in dispersion models). This new eddy diffusivity is used in the simulations of the ground-level concentrations considering experimental data of the Nuclear Power Plant. (author)

  17. Joint release rate estimation and measurement-by-measurement model correction for atmospheric radionuclide emission in nuclear accidents: An application to wind tunnel experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinpeng; Li, Hong; Liu, Yun; Xiong, Wei; Fang, Sheng

    2018-03-05

    The release rate of atmospheric radionuclide emissions is a critical factor in the emergency response to nuclear accidents. However, there are unavoidable biases in radionuclide transport models, leading to inaccurate estimates. In this study, a method that simultaneously corrects these biases and estimates the release rate is developed. Our approach provides a more complete measurement-by-measurement correction of the biases with a coefficient matrix that considers both deterministic and stochastic deviations. This matrix and the release rate are jointly solved by the alternating minimization algorithm. The proposed method is generic because it does not rely on specific features of transport models or scenarios. It is validated against wind tunnel experiments that simulate accidental releases in a heterogonous and densely built nuclear power plant site. The sensitivities to the position, number, and quality of measurements and extendibility of the method are also investigated. The results demonstrate that this method effectively corrects the model biases, and therefore outperforms Tikhonov's method in both release rate estimation and model prediction. The proposed approach is robust to uncertainties and extendible with various center estimators, thus providing a flexible framework for robust source inversion in real accidents, even if large uncertainties exist in multiple factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Staging atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Mikkel; Bjerregaard, Peter; Sørensen, Tim Flohr

    2015-01-01

    The article introduces the special issue on staging atmospheres by surveying the philosophical, political and anthropological literature on atmosphere, and explores the relationship between atmosphere, material culture, subjectivity and affect. Atmosphere seems to occupy one of the classic...

  19. Atmospheric dispersion modelling and the use of radiological data in the event of a nuclear accident overseas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ApSimon, H.M.; Simms, K.L.

    1988-02-01

    This report considers what radiological measurements are most useful for use in conjunction with computer simulations based on meteorological data to provide the best possible estimates of areas affected and the likely levels of contamination in the event of a nuclear accident overseas. The context is defined according to the needs at different stages in emergency procedures - before radioactivity reaches the UK, during the period of passage overhead, after passage of the material. The ability to identify localised areas where precipitation has concentrated deposition is emphasized. It is made clear that γ detectors tend to be dominated by local levels of deposited activity and are inadequate to define when radioactivity is passing overhead. Facilities for airborne monitoring are recommended. (author)

  20. Camphor: a good model for illustrating NMR techniques; Canfora: um bom modelo para ilustrar tecnicas de RMN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoneda, Julliane Diniz; Leal, Katia Zaccur [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Fisico-Quimica]. E-mail: kzl@rmn.uff.br; Seidl, Peter Rudolf [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica. Dept. de Processos Organicos; Azeredo, Rodrigo Bagueira de V. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Quimica Organica; Kleinpeter, Erich [Universitaet Potsdam (Germany). Chemisches Institut

    2007-07-01

    The use of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy to establish the three-dimensional structures of molecules is an important component of modern Chemistry courses. The combination of techniques that can be used for this purpose is conveniently illustrated by their application to the camphor molecule. This paper presents applications of several techniques used in NMR spectral interpretation in an increasing order of complexity. The result of individual experiments is illustrated in order to familiarize the user with the way connectivity through bonds and through space is established from 1D/2D-NMR spectra and molecular stereochemistry is determined from different NMR experiments. (author)

  1. Resuspension and atmospheric transport of radionuclides due to wildfires near the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in 2015: An impact assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangeliou, N.; Zibtsev, S.; Myroniuk, V.; Zhurba, M.; Hamburger, T.; Stohl, A.; Balkanski, Y.; Paugam, R.; Mousseau, T. A.; Møller, A. P.; Kireev, S. I.

    2016-05-01

    In April and August 2015, two major fires in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (CEZ) caused concerns about the secondary radioactive contamination that might have spread over Europe. The present paper assessed, for the first time, the impact of these fires over Europe. About 10.9 TBq of 137Cs, 1.5 TBq of 90Sr, 7.8 GBq of 238Pu, 6.3 GBq of 239Pu, 9.4 GBq of 240Pu and 29.7 GBq of 241Am were released from both fire events corresponding to a serious event. The more labile elements escaped easier from the CEZ, whereas the larger refractory particles were removed more efficiently from the atmosphere mainly affecting the CEZ and its vicinity. During the spring 2015 fires, about 93% of the labile and 97% of the refractory particles ended in Eastern European countries. Similarly, during the summer 2015 fires, about 75% of the labile and 59% of the refractory radionuclides were exported from the CEZ with the majority depositing in Belarus and Russia. Effective doses were above 1 mSv y-1 in the CEZ, but much lower in the rest of Europe contributing an additional dose to the Eastern European population, which is far below a dose from a medical X-ray.

  2. Modelisation of soluble aerosols behaviour in the atmosphere of a PWR nuclear reactor in case of accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, A.F.

    1984-07-01

    After a short description of soluble aerosols accidental production in a PWR, a calculation model is given for physical properties of a gaz and steam mixture in a given atmosphere. Then the equilibrium of a saline drop with steam is studied. From the MASON equation, a calculation model is given for kinetic of volume variation of a saline drop and also a sensitivity study showing the little influence of the boundary layer on the drop surface, of the drop settling and of the thermodynamic conditions of the containment. As a numerical application, this condensation/evaporation model, and a simplified one with faster numerical resolution, is introduced in the AEROSOLS codes of the CEA-DEMT. The AEROSOLS/A2 suppose a log-normal distribution of the suspended particles in the containment. This application shows the very large sensitivity of the condensation depending on the moisture ratio inside the reactor building, and its primary importance on the behaviour of the aerosols. It is also shown that the simplified model gives a very little difference compared with the detailed model, and that the computation time is much more lower [fr

  3. A critical review of nuclear activation techniques for the determination of trace elements in atmospheric aerosols, particulates and sludge samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dams, R.

    1992-01-01

    Activation analysis is one of the major techniques for the determination of many minor and trace elements in a large variety of solid environmental and pollution samples, such as atmospheric aerosols, particulate emissions, fly ash, coal, incineration ash and sewage sludge, etc. Neutron activation analysis of total, inhalable or respirable airborne particulate matter collected on a filter or in a cascade impactor on some substrate, is very popular. By Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) up to 45 elements can be determined. The irradiation and counting procedures can be adapted to optimize the sensitivity for particular elements. The precision is largely governed by counting statistics and a high accuracy can be obtained after calibration with multi-elemental standards. Radiochemical Neutron Activation Analysis (RNAA) is applied only when extremely low limits of determination are required. Instrumental Photon Activation Analysis (IPAA) is complementary to INAA, since some elements of environmental interest can be determined which do not produce appropriate radionuclides by neutron irradiation. Charged Particle Activation Analysis (CPAA) is used in particular circumstances such as for certification purposes or coupled to radiochemical separations for extremely low concentrations. (author)

  4. The human sex odds at birth after the atmospheric atomic bomb tests, after Chernobyl, and in the vicinity of nuclear facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherb, Hagen; Voigt, Kristina

    2011-06-01

    Ever since the discovery of the mutagenic properties of ionizing radiation, the possibility of birth sex odds shifts in exposed human populations was considered in the scientific community. Positive evidence, however weak, was obtained after the atomic bombing of Japan. We previously investigated trends in the sex odds before and after the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident. In a pilot study, combined data from the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Hungary, Norway, Poland, and Sweden between 1982 and 1992 showed a downward trend in the sex odds and a significant jump in 1987, the year immediately after Chernobyl. Moreover, a significant positive association of the sex odds between 1986 and 1991 with Chernobyl fallout at the district level in Germany was observed. Both of these findings, temporality (effect after exposure) and dose response association, yield evidence of causality. The primary aim of this study was to investigate longer time periods (1950-2007) in all of Europe and in the USA with emphasis on the global atmospheric atomic bomb test fallout and on the Chernobyl accident. To obtain further evidence, we also analyze sex odds data near nuclear facilities in Germany and Switzerland. DATA AND STATISTICAL METHODS: National gender-specific annual live births data for 39 European countries from 1975 to 2007 were compiled using the pertinent internet data bases provided by the World Health Organization, United Nations, Council of Europe, and EUROSTAT. For a synoptic re-analysis of the period 1950 to 1990, published data from the USA and from a predominantly western and less Chernobyl-exposed part of Europe were studied additionally. To assess spatial, temporal, as well as spatial-temporal trends in the sex odds and to investigate possible changes in those trends after the atomic bomb tests, after Chernobyl, and in the vicinity of nuclear facilities, we applied ordinary linear logistic regression. Region-specific and eventually changing spatial

  5. Scenarios for 14C release to the atmosphere by the world nuclear industry and estimated radiological impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Till, J.E.; Killough, G.G.

    1978-01-01

    This paper presents an assessment of the radiation dose to the world population and the associated potential health effects from three scenarios of 14 C releases by the nuclear industry between 1975 and 2020. Measures of health impact are derived from source terms through the use of a multicompartment model of the global carbon cycle, dose-rate factors based on 14 C specific activity in various organs of man, and health-effect incidence factors recently recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. The scenarios for worldwide 14 C releases considered are (1) a pessimistic scenario in which all the 14 C projected to be produced in fuel cycles is released, (2) an optimistic scenario that assumes a decontamination factor of 100 for fuel reprocessing, and (3) an intermediate scenario that simulates a phased improvement in effluent treatment technology at reprocessing plants. The estimates of cumulative potential health effects are based on integrations over infinite time. Comparisons with estimated effects from naturally formed 14 C are shown

  6. Bayesian inverse modeling of the atmospheric transport and emissions of a controlled tracer release from a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, Donald D.; Simpson, Matthew; Cameron-Smith, Philip; Baskett, Ronald L.

    2017-01-01

    Probability distribution functions (PDFs) of model inputs that affect the transport and dispersion of a trace gas released from a coastal California nuclear power plant are quantified using ensemble simulations, machine-learning algorithms, and Bayesian inversion. The PDFs are constrained by observations of tracer concentrations and account for uncertainty in meteorology, transport, diffusion, and emissions. Meteorological uncertainty is calculated using an ensemble of simulations of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model that samples five categories of model inputs (initialization time, boundary layer physics, land surface model, nudging options, and reanalysis data). The WRF output is used to drive tens of thousands of FLEXPART dispersion simulations that sample a uniform distribution of six emissions inputs. Machine-learning algorithms are trained on the ensemble data and used to quantify the sources of ensemble variability and to infer, via inverse modeling, the values of the 11 model inputs most consistent with tracer measurements. We find a substantial ensemble spread in tracer concentrations (factors of 10 to 10 3 ), most of which is due to changing emissions inputs (about 80 %), though the cumulative effects of meteorological variations are not negligible. The performance of the inverse method is verified using synthetic observations generated from arbitrarily selected simulations. When applied to measurements from a controlled tracer release experiment, the inverse method satisfactorily determines the location, start time, duration and amount. In a 2 km x 2 km area of possible locations, the actual location is determined to within 200 m. The start time is determined to within 5 min out of 2 h, and the duration to within 50 min out of 4 h. Over a range of release amounts of 10 to 1000 kg, the estimated amount exceeds the actual amount of 146 kg by only 32 kg. The inversion also estimates probabilities of different WRF configurations. To best match

  7. Bayesian inverse modeling of the atmospheric transport and emissions of a controlled tracer release from a nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas, Donald D.; Simpson, Matthew; Cameron-Smith, Philip; Baskett, Ronald L. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Probability distribution functions (PDFs) of model inputs that affect the transport and dispersion of a trace gas released from a coastal California nuclear power plant are quantified using ensemble simulations, machine-learning algorithms, and Bayesian inversion. The PDFs are constrained by observations of tracer concentrations and account for uncertainty in meteorology, transport, diffusion, and emissions. Meteorological uncertainty is calculated using an ensemble of simulations of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model that samples five categories of model inputs (initialization time, boundary layer physics, land surface model, nudging options, and reanalysis data). The WRF output is used to drive tens of thousands of FLEXPART dispersion simulations that sample a uniform distribution of six emissions inputs. Machine-learning algorithms are trained on the ensemble data and used to quantify the sources of ensemble variability and to infer, via inverse modeling, the values of the 11 model inputs most consistent with tracer measurements. We find a substantial ensemble spread in tracer concentrations (factors of 10 to 10{sup 3}), most of which is due to changing emissions inputs (about 80 %), though the cumulative effects of meteorological variations are not negligible. The performance of the inverse method is verified using synthetic observations generated from arbitrarily selected simulations. When applied to measurements from a controlled tracer release experiment, the inverse method satisfactorily determines the location, start time, duration and amount. In a 2 km x 2 km area of possible locations, the actual location is determined to within 200 m. The start time is determined to within 5 min out of 2 h, and the duration to within 50 min out of 4 h. Over a range of release amounts of 10 to 1000 kg, the estimated amount exceeds the actual amount of 146 kg by only 32 kg. The inversion also estimates probabilities of different WRF configurations. To best

  8. Measurement of concentrations of radon and its daughters in indoor atmosphere using CR-39 nuclear track detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farid, S.M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the measurements of indoor 222 Rn and daughter levels in houses of different types located in different parts of Bangladesh. The passive time-integrated method of using a solid state nuclear track detector (CR-39) was employed for measuring both the 222 Rn gas concentration as well as the potential alpha energy exposure (PAEE) level from the short lived daughters of 222 Rn. The 222 Rn concentration from cup exposure and the PAEE from the bare exposure were obtained directly from the track density using calibration curves. A total of 275 exposures were made in the bare mode in 15 locations and 71 exposures in the cup mode in 6 locations. The geometric mean PAEE level obtained is 9.5 mWL with a geometric standard deviation of 1.9. The corresponding value for 222 Rn concentration are 61.3 Bq.M -3 and 2.4. The total data was collected over a period of one and a half year. The monthly variation of the geometric mean of PAEE is also shown. The annual effective dose equivalent has been estimated for each location by using the conversion factor of 9 mWv per WLM as obtained from ICRP-50. The average PAEE level obtained from the total data is below the intervention level as suggested by US EPA. However, the individual averages for each location show that in 8 out of 15 locations intervention may be considered and in others not intervention is called for. The 222 Rn concentrations at the seven locations are equal or less than the equilibrium equivalent 222 Rn concentration value as suggested by EPA. Attempts have also been made to see the variation in the PAEE levels according to different type of construction material used for the houses. (Author)

  9. Jovian atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allison, M.; Travis, L.D.

    1986-10-01

    A conference on the atmosphere of Jupiter produced papers in the areas of thermal and ortho-para hydrogen structure, clouds and chemistry, atmospheric structure, global dynamics, synoptic features and processes, atmospheric dynamics, and future spaceflight opportunities. A session on the atmospheres of Uranus and Neptune was included, and the atmosphere of Saturn was discussed in several papers

  10. Atmospheric deposition of heavy metals in transilvanian plateau of romania studied by the moss bio monitoring Technique employing nuclear and related analytical Techniques and gis technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucaciu, Adriana; Craciun, L.; Cuculeanu, V.; Eseanu, D.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents data for 39 elements of 69 moss samples (Hypnum cupressiforme) collected in the Transilvanian Plateau of Romania. This results have obtained in the framework of the project Atmospheric Deposition of Heavy Metals in Rural and Urban Areas of Romania Studied by the Moss Bio monitoring Technique Employing Nuclear and Related Analytical Techniques and GIS Technology carried out under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna.The samples collected have been analyzed by ENAA with the exception of Cu, Cd, and Pb which were determined by AAS. IAEA certified materials were used to ensure the quality of the measurements. The regional concentration variations of selected elements are presented in the form of maps constructed by GIS technology. Extremely high values are observed for elements such as Cu, Zn, As and Sb in parts of this territory affected by local metal industries. The levels are among the highest observed in the world, and could be partly responsible for the unfortunate health situation in some of these areas

  11. ANÁLISE DA ESTRUTURA VEGETACIONAL EM UMA ÁREA DE CAATINGA NO MUNICÍPIO DE BOM JESUS, PIAUÍ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALLYSON ROCHA ALVES

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The vegetation of the Caatinga has different types of unique landscapes, in which little is known. Considering the situation, this study aimed to perform a phytosociological survey in area of Ca atinga, located in Bom Jesus, Piauí. Were systematically re leased 15 quadratic plots with 400 m², with spacing of 80 m between plots and between lines. Within each sampli ng unit were measured all individuals with circumfe rence at breast height (CBH ≥ 6 cm, as measured in these individuals the CBH and the total height. With this, it were calculated the phytosociological parameters, diamet er distribution and diversity index of Shannon-Wean er (H'. In this survey we sampled 640 individuals represent ing 36 species, which provided a density of 1600 in d ha -1 and an estimated basal area of 17.02 m² ha -1 . The species most representatives were Copaifera langsdorffi Desf., Ptyrocarpa moniliformis Benth., Pterodon abruptus (Moric. Benth and Combretum glaucocarpum (Mart. Eichl. , with about 43% of the sampled and 40% in the area of ecological importance. The result of the diversity index of Shannon-Weaner was 2.96 nats in d -1 .

  12. Palinologia holocênica do testemunho Bom Jesus, margem leste da ilha do Marajó, Pará, Amazônia Palynological study of Holocene sediments of Bom Jesus core, east margin of the Marajó Island, Pará, Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Cardoso da Silva Rodrigues

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A porção superior (1,25m do testemunho de sondagem Bom Jesus (TBJ, coletado no limite campo-mangue da Fazenda Bom Jesus, município de Soure, ilha do Marajó, Pará, Brasil, foi estudada através de análise palinológica de alta resolução objetivando a determinação da composição, abundância e diversidade de tipos polínicos bioindicadores de modificações na paleovegetação durante o Holoceno. 16 amostras sedimentares de 2cm³ foram tratadas de acordo com metodologia padrão em palinologia. Os programas Tilia e Tilia Graph foram utilizados para a construção dos diagramas palinológicos de abundância e concentração. A base do testemunho foi datada por 14C em 2730 ± 40 anos A.P. Foram definidas três zonas palinológicas. A presença de pólen de Rhizophora com abundância máxima de 88% apontou dominância de mangue ao longo de todo o testemunho sedimentar. Variações recorrentes na hidrodinâmica da baía do Marajó, caracterizadas por pulsos erosivos de curto período, parecem ter provocado redução na dominância de mangue. O incremento na abundância de tipos polínicos bioindicadores de campo inundável associados a elementos de restinga e floresta, evidenciam a migração do campo inundável sobre o manguezal. Os dados indicam correlação com outros registros polínicos holocênicos de transgressão marinha para a costa norte amazônica no Holoceno Superior.The upper portion (1.25 m of the sediment core Bom Jesus (TBJ, was collected in the field-mangrove limit of Bom Jesus Farm, municipality of Soure, island of Marajó, Pará, Brazil, was studied through pollen analysis high resolution aimed at determining the composition, abundance and diversity of the pollen types bioindicators of changes in the palaeobotany. 16 samples of sedimentary 2cm³ were treated according to standard methodology. Tilia and Tilia Graph software were used for to construct abundance and concentration palinological diagrams. The core base was

  13. Atmospheric contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruetter, Juerg

    1997-01-01

    It is about the levels of contamination in center America, the population's perception on the problem, effects of the atmospheric contamination, effects in the environment, causes of the atmospheric contamination, possibilities to reduce the atmospheric contamination and list of Roeco Swisscontac in atmospheric contamination

  14. Fission products in National Atmospheric Deposition Program—Wet deposition samples prior to and following the Fukushima Dai-Ichi Nuclear Power Plant incident, March 8?April 5, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetherbee, Gregory A.; Debey, Timothy M.; Nilles, Mark A.; Lehmann, Christopher M.B.; Gay, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Radioactive isotopes I-131, Cs-134, or Cs-137, products of uranium fission, were measured at approximately 20 percent of 167 sampled National Atmospheric Deposition Program monitoring sites in North America (primarily in the contiguous United States and Alaska) after the Fukushima Dai-Ichi Nuclear Power Plant incident on March 12, 2011. Samples from the National Atmospheric Deposition Program were analyzed for the period of March 8-April 5, 2011. Calculated 1- or 2-week radionuclide deposition fluxes at 35 sites from Alaska to Vermont ranged from 0.47 to 5,100 Becquerels per square meter during the sampling period of March 15-April 5, 2011. No fission-product isotopes were measured in National Atmospheric Deposition Program samples obtained during March 8-15, 2011, prior to the arrival of contaminated air in North America.

  15. Diversity and indices of infestation of fruit flies and their parasitoids in six coffee cultivars in the city of Bom Jesus of Itabapoana, RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Sobral Silva

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses one of the most important pests of world fruit crop: the fruit flies, however, there are few studies concerned with their association with coffee fruit. This study was carried out in the municipality of Bom Jesus do Itabapoana, in the Northwest Region of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, aiming at determining the species which occur in the coffee plantations of this region, their natural infestation indices and the natural parasitism of these species. Mature fruits of six cultivars of Arabic coffee (‘Acauã’ ‘Catuaí Amarelo’, ‘Catuaí Vermelho’, ‘Catuaí 785’, ‘Mundo Novo’e ‘2SL Vermelho’ were collected. All cultivars evaluated were infested by fruit flies, which were associated with only one species of parasitoid in each cultivar. A total of 1,749 puparia were obtained and from which emerged 460 adults, being 441 specimens of fruit flies and 19 parasitoids. Four species of fruit flies were obtained: Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemman, 1830, Anastrepha sororcula (Zucchi, 1979, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824, (Tephritidae and Neosilba pendula Bezzi, 1919 (Lonchaeidae. The mean natural infestation index of the coffee fruits by fruit flies was of 291.5 puparia/kg and 0.4 puparia/fruit. There was a predominance of A. fraterculus over C. capitata, which was more frequent only in ‘Catuaí Vermelho’ and ‘Catuaí 785’. All parasitoids belong to the family Braconidae [Asobara sp., Opius bellus (Gahan, 1930 and Doryctobrachon areolatus (Szépligeti, 1911], which were responsible for a very low level of natural parasitism (1.1%.

  16. Nuclear pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramade, Francois

    1979-01-01

    In this chapter devoted to nuclear pollution the following topics were studied: fundamentals of radiobiology (ecological importance of the various radioisotopes, biological effects of ionizing radiations); ecological effects of radioactive fallout (contamination of atmosphere, terrestrial ecosystems, oceans). The electronuclear industry and its environmental impact. PWR type reactors, fuel reprocessing plants, contamination of trophic chains by radionuclides released in the environment from nuclear installations [fr

  17. Autochthonous canine visceral leishmaniasis in a non-endemic area: Bom Sucesso, Minas Gerais State, Brazil Ocorrência de leishmaniose visceral canina autóctone em uma área não-endêmica: Bom Sucesso, Minas Gerais, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Roberto Silva

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The article begins by describing a dog with characteristic symptoms of visceral leishmaniasis. A serum sample from this animal was positive by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF performed in anti-Leishmania total IgG in 1999. Tissues from the same dog were also positive by polymerase chain reaction (PCR in 2004, identifying Leishmania DNA in the cerebellum, liver, kidney, and intestine. This is the first report of a dog with autochthonous visceral leishmaniasis in the county of Bom Sucesso, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The finding of this IIF-positive dog led to a canine visceral leishmaniasis epidemiological investigation in the county. The investigation was conducted from March 1999 to December 2005. IIF was positive for Leishmania in 22 (3% of 734 examined dogs. Among the 22 IIF-positive dogs, six presented characteristic symptoms of canine visceral leishmaniasis. The results of this epidemiological investigation were sent to local and State public health authorities, requesting visceral leishmaniasis control and preventive measures to interrupt transmission of the disease and avoid the occurrence of human cases.O presente trabalho descreve inicialmente um cão com sintomas característicos de leishmaniose visceral. Amostra de soro desse cão foi positiva por imunofluorescência indireta (IFI conduzida no IgG total anti-Leishmania em 1999. Além disso, tecidos desse cão foram positivos por reação em cadeia pela polimerase (PCR conduzida em 2004, identificando DNA de Leishmania no cerebelo, fígado, rim e intestino. Esta é a primeira vez que um cão com leishmaniose visceral autóctone foi descrito no Município de Bom Sucesso, Minas Gerais, Brasil. O achado desse cão reagente à IFI levou a uma investigação epidemiológica nesse município. Essa investigação foi conduzida de março de 1999 a dezembro de 2005. Vinte e dois de um total de 734 (3% cães examinados foram reagentes à IFI. Entre os 22 cães IFI reagentes, seis apresentaram

  18. Origin of atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marx, Gy [Eotvos Lorand Tudomanyegyetem, Budapest (Hungary). Atomfizikai Tanszek

    1975-01-01

    The evolution of the atmosphere of the Earth is described. Starting from the hot Universe the main steps of the ''cooling-down'' process as the different states of the condensation of the matter are discussed. After this nuclear evolution the chemical evolution could start on the solid Earth's crust. In the reductive primordial atmosphere mainly due to ultraviolet rays the basic molecules for life as sugars and amino acids were formed. The photosynthesis of the plants has later produced the oxygen being present in the recent atmosphere. The question whether pollution could affect the auto-stabilization loop of the atmosphere is also discussed. Finally the possibility of life on the Mars is studied.

  19. The origin of atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marx, Gy.

    1975-01-01

    The evolution of the atmosphere of the Earth is described. Starting from the hot Universe the main steps of the ''cooling-down'' process as the different states of the condensation of the matter are discussed. After this nuclear evolution the chemical evolution could start on the solid Earth's crust. In the reductive primordial atmosphere mainly due to ultraviolet rays the basic molecules for life as sugars and amino acids were formed. The photosynthesis of the plants has later produced the oxygen being present in the recent atmosphere. The question whether the pollution could affect the auto-stabilization loop of the atmosphere is also discussed. Finally the possibility of life on the Mars is studied. (Sz.Z.)

  20. MODO DE VIDA CAMPONESA: MUDANÇAS E PERMANÊNCIAS NA COMUNIDADE BOM JESUS NA ESTRADA DA EMADE –TEFÉ-AM/Mode of camponesa life: changes and permanences in the community Bom Jesus on the road of EMADE -Tefé/AM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nágila dos Santos Situba

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo analisar as mudanças e permanências dos modos de vida camponesa da comunidade Bom Jesus, situada na estrada da Emade, município de Tefé-Amazonas. Neste sentido, as transformações e permanências ocorridas nesta comunidade estão relacionadas à abertura da estrada da Emade (1997 e a instalação da Empresa Amazonense de Dendê na década de 1980. Além disto, outro elemento agregado a essas mudanças é o processo de urbanização que se expandiu em todo o globo terrestre, trazendo consigo transformações nos modos de vida, no cotidiano e na relação cidade e comunidade. Os resultados obtidos apontam mudanças no que se refere aos modos de vida, hábitos alimentares e atividades agrícolas que caracterizavam os camponeses. Além disto, outras atividades se inseriram no cotidiano dos camponeses como: extração de madeira, carpintaria, comércio, produção de carvão, servidor público etc.

  1. The influence of atmospheric conditions on the cooling tower plume of nuclear power station; Uticaj atmosferskih uslova na perjanicu rashladnih tornjeva nuklearne elektrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vehauc, A [Boris Kidric Institute of nuclear sciences, Vinca, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1978-07-01

    The paper deals with the effect of atmospheric conditions - relative humidity, wind velocity, temperature and temperature gradient on the visible plume. For estimating cooling tower plumes, used was made of verified mathematical model. (author)

  2. Atmospheric transport of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, T.V.

    1977-01-01

    The chairman and contributors are members of the Working Group on Atmospheric Dispersion, Deposition, and Resuspension. This group examined the mathematical approaches for determining the direct and indirect pathways to man of releases of pollutants to the atmosphere. The dose-to-man limitations promulgated by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the Energy Research and Development Administration were presented. The present status of research was discussed, and recommendations for future work were made. Particular emphasis was placed on the need for additional experimental work to develop confidence limits leading to acceptable probability statements of critical pathways for determining the dose-to-man

  3. Atmospheric transport of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, T.V.

    1978-01-01

    The chairman and contributors are members of the Working Group on Atmospheric Dispersion, Deposition, and Resuspension. This group examined the mathematical approaches for determining the direct and indirect pathways to man of releases of pollutants to the atmosphere. The dose-to-man limitations promulgated by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the Energy Research and Development Administration were presented. The present status of research was discussed, and recommendations for future work were made. Particular emphasis was placed on the need for additional experimental work to develop confidence limits leading to acceptable probability statements of critical pathways for determining the dose-to-man

  4. CARACTERÍSTICAS MORFOLÓGICAS E MORFOMÉTRICAS DOS CANAIS DE DRENAGEM DA BACIA HIDROGRÁFICA DO RIO BOM SUCESSO - SEMIÁRIDO DA BAHIA/BRASIL

    OpenAIRE

    Kleber Carvalho Lima; Archimedes Perez Filho; Cenira Maria Lupinacci Cunha

    2014-01-01

    Propõe-se neste artigo, analisar as características dos canais de drenagem intermitentes e efêmeros da Bacia Hidrográfica do Rio Bom Sucesso (Bahia), levando-se em consideração os seus aspectos morfológicos e morfométricos. Para tanto, definiu-se a rede de drenagem, caracterizaram-se os canais de drenagem, classificaram-se os cursos fluviais quanto à textura do canal e aplicaram-se os índices morfométricos. Por meio disso, verificou-se que a bacia possui baixa densidade de drenagem e baixa de...

  5. Synthetic carbonaceous fuel and feedstock using nuclear power, air, and water. [CO/sub 2/ from atmosphere and ocean reacting with H/sub 2/ to produce MeOH and then gasoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinberg, M [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY; Baron, S

    1977-01-01

    Development of synthetic carbonaceous fuels and feedstocks (SCFF) is imperative if the U.S. is to maintain its world leadership. All forms of carbonaceous materials can serve as sources of raw material for SCFF, however, here we consider the ultimate renewable resource of carbon which is CO/sub 2/ from the atmosphere or the oceans. A number of methods for the recovery of CO/sub 2/ have been examined. An absorption-stripping system utilizing dilute carbonate solvent appears most economical for atmospheric recovery while distillation appears of interest for sea-water recovery. An alternative isothermal process utilizing chlor-alkali cells is also described. Electrolytic hydrogen is thermocatalytically combined with the CO/sub 2/ to form methanol which can then be dehydrated to gasoline. Production cost is dominated by the energy for hydrogen and the plant capital investment. Base loaded nuclear power plants supplying peaking load and generating SCFF in an off-peak mode is proposed for reducing costs. Under 1974/5 conditions, incremental power costs would have been a minimum. Under 1985 escalated conditions, incremental costs indicate 6 mills/kWh(e) for power which yields 33.9 c/gallon methanol or 77.1 c/gallon of equivalent gasoline which takes credit for oxygen would break even with $23/bbl of oil. The capital investment for producing the equivalent of one million barrels/day of gasoline in 142 nuclear reactors of 100 MW(e) capacity, operating in an off-peak mode, amounts to slightly more than the investment in new oil exploration and production facilities and considerably less than the projected outflow of capital to foreign OPEC countries. The nuclear synthesis-route using atmospheric and aquatic CO/sub 2/ simulates the solar photosynthetic process and provides a long-term renewable and environmentally acceptable alternate source of SCFF.

  6. Pluto's atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliot, J.L.; Dunham, E.W.; Bosh, A.S.; Slivan, S.M.; Young, L.A.

    1989-01-01

    Airborne CCD photometer observations of Pluto's June 9, 1988 stellar occultation have yielded an occultation lightcurve, probing two regions on the sunrise limb 2000 km apart, which reveals an upper atmosphere overlying an extinction layer with an abrupt upper boundary. The extinction layer may surround the entire planet. Attention is given to a model atmosphere whose occultation lightcurve closely duplicates observations; fits of the model to the immersion and emersion lightcurves exhibit no significant derived atmosphere-structure differences. Assuming a pure methane atmosphere, surface pressures of the order of 3 microbars are consistent with the occultation data. 43 references

  7. Atmospheric electricity

    CERN Document Server

    Chalmers, J Alan

    1957-01-01

    Atmospheric Electricity brings together numerous studies on various aspects of atmospheric electricity. This book is composed of 13 chapters that cover the main problems in the field, including the maintenance of the negative charge on the earth and the origin of the charges in thunderstorms. After a brief overview of the historical developments of atmospheric electricity, this book goes on dealing with the general principles, results, methods, and the MKS system of the field. The succeeding chapters are devoted to some aspects of electricity in the atmosphere, such as the occurrence and d

  8. Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickerson, M.H.; Gudiksen, P.H.; Sullivan, T.J.

    1983-02-01

    The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) project is a Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored real-time emergency response service available for use by both federal and state agencies in case of a potential or actual atmospheric release of nuclear material. The project, initiated in 1972, is currently evolving from the research and development phase to full operation. Plans are underway to expand the existing capability to continuous operation by 1984 and to establish a National ARAC Center (NARAC) by 1988. This report describes the ARAC system, its utilization during the past two years, and plans for its expansion during the next five to six years. An integral part of this expansion is due to a very important and crucial effort sponsored by the Defense Nuclear Agency to extend the ARAC service to approximately 45 Department of Defense (DOD) sites throughout the continental US over the next three years

  9. Articulating Atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinch, Sofie

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an architectural approach to designing computational interfaces by articulating the notion of atmosphere in the field of interaction design. It draws upon the concept of kinesthetic interaction and a philosophical notion on atmosphere emphasizing the importance of bodily...

  10. Atmospheric electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volland, H.

    1984-01-01

    The book Atmospheric Electrodynamics, by Hans Voland is reviewed. The book describes a wide variety of electrical phenomena occurring in the upper and lower atmosphere and develops the mathematical models which simulate these processes. The reviewer finds that the book is of interest to researchers with a background in electromagnetic theory but is of only limited use as a reference work

  11. Urban atmospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandy, Matthew

    2017-07-01

    What is an urban atmosphere? How can we differentiate an 'atmosphere' from other facets of urban consciousness and experience? This essay explores some of the wider cultural, political, and philosophical connotations of atmospheres as a focal point for critical reflections on space and subjectivity. The idea of an 'affective atmosphere' as a distinctive kind of mood or shared corporeal phenomenon is considered in relation to recent developments in phenomenology, extended conceptions of agency, and new understandings of materialism. The essay draws in particular on the changing characteristics of air and light to reflect on different forms of sensory experience and their wider cultural and political connotations. The argument highlights some of the tensions and anomalies that permeate contemporary understandings of urban atmospheres.

  12. Características de um grupo de usuários do Programa Saúde da Família na cidade de Campo Bom (RS, Brasil em 2006 Characteristics of Family Health Program users sample in Campo Bom (RS, Brazil during the year of 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Niegia Garcia de Goulart

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo é conhecer as características de uma amostra da população atendida por uma Equipe de Saúde da Família que buscou atendimento em uma unidade de saúde (UBS do município de Campo Bom (RS em 2006. Foram selecionados os primeiros 200 pacientes que consultaram a UBS pesquisada no mês de janeiro de 2006 e já consultavam no serviço.Características pessoais e ligadas à busca por atendimento nos últimos doze meses foram verificadas. Dos sujeitos da amostra, 68% eram do sexo feminino. As crianças representaram 30,5% e 59% dos entrevistados apresentavam ensino fundamental incompleto. A doença crônica como motivo para procura pela UBS ocorreu em 42% dos sujeitos e 17% procuraram o serviço para prevenção primária. As doenças crônicas representaram um percentual alto da amostra e provavelmente estão associadas à busca de atendimento clínico na UBS em virtude dos sintomas e complicações decorrentes destas. Este dado demonstra a necessidade de investimentos na prevenção de incapacidades e/ou complicações e prevenção da instalação de doenças crônicas preveníveis. A partir do conhecimento mais detalhado do perfil dos usuários do serviço de saúde estudado, a equipe de saúde pode promover uma atuação mais efetiva.This study aims to describe the characteristics of Family Health Program (FHP users sample in a Basic Health Unit (BHU in Campo Bom, southern of Brazil. Based on data collected from the handbook of the first 200 patients attended in a specific BHU in January 2006, we analyzed sex, age, average number of medical and nursing consultations in the last twelve months and the reasons for requiring a BHU attendance. In this sample, 68% were female. Children represented 30.5% of the sample and 35.5% of the patients self-declared as married. In addition to that, 59% had not finished basic school. Almost half (42% of the citizens presented some chronic disease as a complaint to go to a BUH and 17

  13. GOOD PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL IN COMMERCIAL CORRESPONDENCE WRITING SKILLS OF THE EXECUTIVE BILINGUAL SECRETARY O BOM DESEMPENHO DA SECRETÁRIA EXECUTIVA BILÍNGUE NA REDAÇÃO DA CORRESPONDÊNCIA COMERCIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary de Paula Leite Carter

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Writing e-mails and commercial letters in English correctly it is a mandatory task in the professional everyday life of the executive secretary. This work has as an objective to offer an outlook on Commercial Correspondence in English, focusing notably on the commercial letters and e-mails. Some elements that give support to the good understanding of the reception of the text such as style, coherence; the usage of correct expressions as well as the strategic planning of the paragraphs will be highlighted in this project.

    Saber redigir corretamente e-mails e cartas comerciais em inglês é uma tarefa imprescindível na vida diária da secretária executiva. Este trabalho tem como objetivo oferecer exemplos de correspondência comercial em inglês que possam facilitar o trabalho da profissional da área. Algumas das opções serão discutidas para que o bom desempenho da escrita comercial seja concretizado de forma eficaz. Alguns elementos que dão suporte ao bom entendimento da recepção do texto como o estilo, a coerência, o emprego de expressões úteis assim como o planejamento estratégico dos parágrafos, foram destacados neste projeto.

  14. Atmospheric Electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aplin, Karen; Fischer, Georg

    2018-02-01

    Electricity occurs in atmospheres across the Solar System planets and beyond, spanning spectacular lightning displays in clouds of water or dust, to more subtle effects of charge and electric fields. On Earth, lightning is likely to have existed for a long time, based on evidence from fossilized lightning strikes in ancient rocks, but observations of planetary lightning are necessarily much more recent. The generation and observations of lightning and other atmospheric electrical processes, both from within-atmosphere measurements, and spacecraft remote sensing, can be readily studied using a comparative planetology approach, with Earth as a model. All atmospheres contain charged molecules, electrons, and/or molecular clusters created by ionization from cosmic rays and other processes, which may affect an atmosphere's energy balance both through aerosol and cloud formation, and direct absorption of radiation. Several planets are anticipated to host a "global electric circuit" by analogy with the circuit occurring on Earth, where thunderstorms drive current of ions or electrons through weakly conductive parts of the atmosphere. This current flow may further modulate an atmosphere's radiative properties through cloud and aerosol effects. Lightning could potentially have implications for life through its effects on atmospheric chemistry and particle transport. It has been observed on many of the Solar System planets (Earth, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune) and it may also be present on Venus and Mars. On Earth, Jupiter, and Saturn, lightning is thought to be generated in deep water and ice clouds, but discharges can be generated in dust, as for terrestrial volcanic lightning, and on Mars. Other, less well-understood mechanisms causing discharges in non-water clouds also seem likely. The discovery of thousands of exoplanets has recently led to a range of further exotic possibilities for atmospheric electricity, though lightning detection beyond our Solar System

  15. Nuclear risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulkers, G.

    1988-01-01

    This file includes data on risks insured by the nuclear insurance pool in Belgium and on the Chernobyl accident covering injury, economic damage and compensation for the latter. Also included are the texts of the IAEA Conventions on Early Notification and on Assistance in Case of a Nuclear Accident as well as that of a Convention on long-distance transfrontier atmospheric pollution signed in Geneva [fr

  16. Mars: Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroz, V.; Murdin, P.

    2001-07-01

    The atmosphere of MARS is much thinner than the terrestrial one. However, even the simplest visual telescopic observations show a set of atmospheric events such as seasonal exchange of material between polar caps, temporal appearance of clouds and changes of visibility of dark regions on the disk of the planet. In 1947 the prominent CO2 bands in the near-infrared part of the Martian spectrum were...

  17. Aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos e laboratoriais da leishmaniose visceral em cães (Canis familiaris) (Linnaeus, 1758) provenientes da zona urbana do município de Bom Jesus- PI e região metropolitana do Recife- PE, Brasil.

    OpenAIRE

    Jamile Prado dos Santos

    2010-01-01

    A Leishmaniose Visceral Canina (LVC) no Brasil é causada por Leishmania infantum a qual é relatada em várias regiões. O objetivo desta pesquisafoi verificar aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos e laboratoriais da leishmaniose visceral em cães (Canis familiaris) (Linnaeus, 1758) provenientes da zona urbana do município de Bom Jesus PI e Região Metropolitana de Recife - PE, Brasil. Cães do município de Bom Jesus, Piauí, e do bairro de Muribeca, município de Jaboatão dos Guararapes, Pernambuco...

  18. Atmospheric Photochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Harrie; Potter, A. E.

    1961-01-01

    The upper atmosphere offers a vast photochemical laboratory free from solid surfaces, so all reactions take place in the gaseous phase. At 30 km altitude the pressure has fallen to about one-hundredth of that at ground level, and we shall, rather arbitrarily, regard the upper atmosphere as beginning at that height. By a little less than 100 km the pressure has fallen to 10(exp -3) mm Hg and is decreasing by a power of ten for every 15 km increase in altitude. Essentially we are concerned then with the photochemistry of a nitrogen-oxygen mixture under low-pressure conditions in which photo-ionization, as well as photodissociation, plays an important part. Account must also be taken of the presence of rare constituents, such as water vapour and its decomposition products, including particularly hydroxyl, oxides of carbon, methane and, strangely enough, sodium, lithium and calcium. Many curious and unfamiliar reactions occur in the upper atmosphere. Some of them are luminescent, causing the atmosphere to emit a dim light called the airglow. Others, between gaseous ions and neutral molecules, are almost a complete mystery at this time. Similar interesting phenomena must occur in other planetary atmospheres, and they might be predicted if sufficient chemical information were available.

  19. Amianto, perigo e invisibilidade: percepção de riscos ambientais e à saúde de moradores do município de Bom Jesus da Serra/Bahia Asbestos, danger and invisibility: perception of environmental risks and health of the residents of Bom Jesus da Serra/ Bahia state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela de Abreu Moniz

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Na sociedade atual, tornou-se importante o fato de conhecer como as populações expostas ambientalmente formulam e respondem aos riscos químicos tecnológicos. Este estudo objetivou analisar a percepção de riscos ambientais e à saúde de moradores do município de Bom Jesus da Serra/BA, que se apresenta como uma área especialmente envolvida pela exposição ambiental ao amianto no Brasil. Foram aplicados questionários mistos com moradores usuários de duas estratégias de saúde da família desse município. Os sujeitos do estudo foram selecionados conforme as seguintes características: faixas etárias específicas- uma de 20 a 35 anos e outra a partir de 60 anos; gênero; tempo e local de moradia. A amostra intencional alcançada foi de 83 sujeitos. Os resultados mostraram que predominou a preocupação sobre a contaminação do ar pela poeira, mas houve negação dos riscos ambientais relacionados ao amianto. No que se refere aos riscos à saúde, também ocorreu invisibilidade pela maioria dos informantes sobre a maior chance de se ter câncer e doenças pulmonares para quem resida nesse município, principalmente para o grupo de moradores próximo à mina e de ex-trabalhadores idosos.It is important for society as a whole to know how environmentally exposed populations understand and respond to technological chemical risks. This study aimed to analyze the perception of environmental risks and health of the residents of BJS/BA, which is an area especially subjected to environmental exposure to asbestos in Brazil. Mixed questionnaires were used on residents who attend the "Family Health Program" of this city. The subjects of the study were selected according to the following characteristics: specific age groups - one group from 20 to 35 and the other group over 60; sex; length of time and location of dwelling. The intentional sample reached comprised 83 individuals. The results showed that there was general concern about contamination

  20. Atmospheric thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Iribarne, J V

    1973-01-01

    The thermodynamics of the atmosphere is the subject of several chapters in most textbooks on dynamic meteorology, but there is no work in English to give the subject a specific and more extensive treatment. In writing the present textbook, we have tried to fill this rather remarkable gap in the literature related to atmospheric sciences. Our aim has been to provide students of meteorology with a book that can playa role similar to the textbooks on chemical thermodynamics for the chemists. This implies a previous knowledge of general thermodynamics, such as students acquire in general physics courses; therefore, although the basic principles are reviewed (in the first four chapters), they are only briefly discussed, and emphasis is laid on those topics that will be useful in later chapters, through their application to atmospheric problems. No attempt has been made to introduce the thermodynamics of irreversible processes; on the other hand, consideration of heterogeneous and open homogeneous systems permits a...

  1. Atmospheric pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambrozo, J.; Guillossou, G.

    2008-01-01

    The atmosphere is the reservoir of numerous pollutants (nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, carbon oxides, particulates, volatile organic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) from natural origin or anthropogenic origin ( industry, transport, agriculture, district heating). With epidemiologic studies the atmospheric pollution is associated with an increase of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. At the european level, the technological progress, the legislation have allowed a reduction of pollutant emissions, however these efforts have to be continued because the sanitary impact of atmospheric pollution must not be underestimated, even if the risks appear less important that these ones in relation with tobacco, inside pollution or others factors of cardiovascular risks. Indeed, on these last factors an individual action is possible for the exposure to air pollution people have no control. (N.C.)

  2. Principles for the limitation of releases of radionuclides from nuclear power plants to the atmosphere. A model of food chain system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pensko, J.; Stpiczynska, Z.

    1976-01-01

    On the basis of reference data the principles are set up for the limitation of releases of radioactive substances from nuclear power plants to the environment to maintain the radiation exposure of population to the level of accepted dose limits. The main attention is paid to the transfer of radionuclides released through food chain to man. For that purpose the mathematical model of population exposure by food chain which relates the radiation doses to the activity of radionuclides released is presented. The Laplace transformation is used to simplify the solution of the differential equations. It is shown that the estimation of the population exposure with the aid of a food chain mathematical model not only gives the permissible limits of release but also indicates the ways of proper radiological control program in the environment of nuclear installations. (author)

  3. O “bom professor”: opinião dos estudantes El “buen profesor”: opinión de los estudiantes The “good teacher”: students’ opinions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Clara Amado Apóstolo Ventura

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Num processo de ensino/aprendizagem centrado no estudante e numa perspetiva de melhoria contínua e de crescer com qualidade e relevância, o Conselho para a Qualidade e Avaliação da Escola Superior de Enfermagem de Coimbra entendeu ser pertinente conhecer a opinião dos estudantes sobre o perfil de um ‘Bom Professor’. Neste contexto, desenvolveu um estudo tendo como objetivo identificar a opinião dos estudantes acerca das características de um ‘Bom Professor’. Trata-se de um estudo qualitativo, utilizando um questionário autopreenchido, com uma questão aberta “o que considera ser um Bom Professor”, e a identificação do curso. A amostra é constituída por 174 e 52 estudantes dos Cursos de Licenciatura e Pós-Licenciatura de Especialização em Enfermagem, respetivamente. Do conjunto de indicadores de um “Bom professor” emerge o domínio dos conteúdos da disciplina que leciona, a capacidade de cativar e motivar, de desenvolver uma boa relação com os estudantes, ser disponível e acessível, compreensivo e tolerante, de relacionar a teoria com a prática, sendo exigente, assíduo e pontual.En el proceso de enseñanza/aprendizaje centrado en el estudiante desde un enfoque de mejora continua y de crecimiento con calidad y relevancia, el Consejo de Calidad y Evaluación de la Escuela de Enfermería de Coímbra consideró pertinente conocer la opinión de los estudiantes acerca del perfil del “buen profesor”. En este contexto, se desarrolló un estudio con el objetivo de identificar la opinión de los estudiantes acerca de las características que lo distinguen. Se trata de un estudio cualitativo, mediante cuestionario auto administrado con una pregunta abierta “lo que consideras que sea un buen profesor” y la identificación del curso. La muestra consta de 174 estudiantes de grado y 52 de especialización y posgrado en Enfermería. Del conjunto de indicadores de un “buen profesor”, resalta: el dominio de los

  4. Avaliação do impacto da contaminação do solo de áreas agrícolas de Bom Repouso (MG) por meio de ensaios ecotoxicológicos

    OpenAIRE

    Natália Costa de Lima

    2010-01-01

    Nas últimas décadas tem-se verificado um significativo aumento na quantidade de contaminantes que são liberados no ambiente, destacando-se os agrotóxicos como um dos mais utilizados e nocivos. Os agrotóxicos são utilizados para o controle de doenças, pragas e plantas invasoras e, apesar de sua eficiência, seus efeitos em nível de ecossistema e saúde humana são preocupantes. No município de Bom Repouso/MG, devido à prática agrícola há intenso uso de agrotóxicos, os quais são aplicados nas lavo...

  5. Nuclear Test Personnel Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    FOIA Electronic Reading Room Privacy Impact Assessment DTRA No Fear Act Reporting Nuclear Test Personnel Review NTPR Fact Sheets NTPR Radiation Dose Assessment Documents US Atmospheric Nuclear Test History Documents US Underground Nuclear Test History Reports NTPR Radiation Exposure Reports Enewetak

  6. Mineralogia e geoquímica de perfis de solo com Terra Preta Arqueológica de Bom Jesus do Tocantins, sudeste da Amazônia Mineralogy and geochemistry of soil profiles with Archeological Black Earth from Bom Jesus do Tocantins, southeastern Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Any Kelly Terra da Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparação de dados morfológicos, mineralógicos e químicos de solo com horizontes antrópicos - Terra Preta Arqueológica (TPA com Argissolos adjacentes permitiu identificar os principais processos responsáveis pela formação da TPA em um sítio arqueológico no Município de Bom Jesus do Tocantins, sudeste do Estado do Pará. A similaridade entre os dados dos horizontes subsuperficiais do solo com TPA e solos adjacentes indica que o horizonte antrópico do solo TPA foi provavelmente desenvolvido a partir de um horizonte similar aos Argissolos adjacentes com posterior transformação pedogenética através da introdução de materiais orgânicos e inorgânicos por antigas colonizações humanas, resultando no espessamento do horizonte superficial e em concentrações maiores de CaO e P2O5 (teores totais, Zn (teor traço, P e Zn disponível (teores disponíveis, além de Ca e Mg trocáveis (teores trocáveis em relação aos Argissolos adjacentes. Além disso, essa intervenção antrópica antiga também provocou modificações no horizonte subsuperficial do Argissolo com TPA, como concentrações altas de P2O5 e principalmente P disponível. O Soil Taxonomy e o Sistema Brasileiro de Classificação de Solos (SiBCS são adequados para a identificação de solo com horizonte antrópico (p.exe. TPA, uma vez que priorizam nas ordens do solo os principais processos pedogenéticos atuantes na formação do solo, relacionados aos horizontes subsuperficiais, além das transformações pedogenéticas posteriores no horizonte superficial. Contudo, este trabalho recomenda o acréscimo de alguns atributos diagnósticos como quantidade de artefatos cerâmicos e líticos, P2O5, P e Zn disponíveis, C orgânico, Ca2++ Mg2+ (teores trocáveis, CTC e índice de saturação por bases no horizonte superficial para o agrupamento e distinção dos diversos tipos de solos antrópicos antigos da Amazônia.The comparison of morphological, mineralogical and

  7. Design and construction of an irradiation apparatus with controlled atmosphere and temperature for radiation damage evaluation of nuclear materials in the IEA-R1 research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucki, Georgi; Silva, Jose Eduardo Rosa da; Castanheira, Myrthes; Terremoto, Luis Antonio Albiac; Teodoro, Celso Antonio; Silva, Antonio Teixeira e; Damy, Margaret de Almeida

    2005-01-01

    A material irradiation apparatus CIMAT (Capsula de Irradiacao de Materiais) with controlled temperature and atmosphere is described. The device was specifically designed to perform experiments inside the core of the IEA-R1 swimming pool reactor and allows fast neutron (E=1 MeV) irradiations of multiple miniature metallic samples at temperature between 100 deg C and 500 deg C, in Argon or Helium atmosphere to inhibit corrosion. The aim of CIMAT is to make a comparative assessment of Radiation Embrittlement (RE) on the AS 508 cl.3 steel, of different origins (ELETROMETAL-Brazil and VITCOVICE-Chekia) used in Pressure Vessels (PV) of PWR, for fluence of 10 exp 19 nvt at 300 C, by means of mechanical post irradiation evaluation. Previous characterization of non-irradiated samples of these materials is presented. In situ electrical and magnetic measurements, at high temperatures, are foreseen to be made with this apparatus. Extensive temperature stability and leak-tightness tests performed in the reactor swimming pool have proven the CIMAT to be intrinsically safe and operational. (author)

  8. Alarming atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund, Marie; Kinch, Sofie

    2014-01-01

    Nurses working in the Neuro-Intensive Care Unit at Aarhus University Hospital lack the tools to prepare children for the alarming atmosphere they will enter when visiting a hospitalised relative. The complex soundscape dominated by alarms and sounds from equipment is mentioned as the main stressor...

  9. Modelling in the experimental study of the hydrogen mixing with inner atmosphere of the safety containers of nuclear power plants in post LOCA conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fineschi, F.; Lanza, S.

    1979-01-01

    In light water nuclear power plants hydrogen releases from the pressure containment system may take place following a loss-of-coolant accident. In view of preparing technical safeguards aiming at the control of the flame propagation probability and of explosions, it is important to know the space-time distribytion of hydrogen concentrations in the safety containers. It is shown that an experimental study on a scale model is praticable only in the case when full turbulence conditions occur in the container and in the model. Then general aspects of a methodology capable to verify with a reasonable confiance degree the validity of the assumptions is illustrated

  10. Nuclear methods in environmental and energy research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, J. R. [ed.

    1977-01-01

    The topics considered in the seven sessions were nuclear methods in atmospheric research; nuclear and atomic methodology; nuclear methods in tracer applications; energy exploration, production, and utilization; nuclear methods in environmental monitoring; nuclear methods in water research; and nuclear methods in biological research. Individual abstracts were prepared for each paper. (JSR)

  11. Atmospheric transport of radioiodine and radiocesium released in the early phase by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident from field measurements and a simulation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuruta, Haruo; Nakajima, Teruyuki; Takigawa, Masayuki

    2013-01-01

    The continuous measurements of atmospheric concentration of "1"3"1I and "1"3"7Cs at ten stations in the Kanto area located 120km south from Fukushima, showed that "1"3"1"I"/"1"3"7Cs and the ratio of particulate "1"3"1I to the sum of particulate "1"3"1I and gaseous "1"3"1I significantly changed in the periods when the polluted air masses were transported, compared with those in the other periods. A numerical model well simulated the transport of the polluted air masses to the Kanto and Fukushima area, while any field data did not suggest the transport to Fukushima on March 20-21 due to no precipitation. (author)

  12. Integration of measurements with atmospheric dispersion models: Source term estimation for dispersal of (239)Pu due to non-nuclear detonation of high explosive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, L. L.; Harvey, T. F.; Freis, R. P.; Pitovranov, S. E.; Chernokozhin, E. V.

    1992-10-01

    The accuracy associated with assessing the environmental consequences of an accidental release of radioactivity is highly dependent on our knowledge of the source term characteristics and, in the case when the radioactivity is condensed on particles, the particle size distribution, all of which are generally poorly known. This paper reports on the development of a numerical technique that integrates the radiological measurements with atmospheric dispersion modeling. This results in a more accurate particle-size distribution and particle injection height estimation when compared with measurements of high explosive dispersal of (239)Pu. The estimation model is based on a non-linear least squares regression scheme coupled with the ARAC three-dimensional atmospheric dispersion models. The viability of the approach is evaluated by estimation of ADPIC model input parameters such as the ADPIC particle size mean aerodynamic diameter, the geometric standard deviation, and largest size. Additionally we estimate an optimal 'coupling coefficient' between the particles and an explosive cloud rise model. The experimental data are taken from the Clean Slate 1 field experiment conducted during 1963 at the Tonopah Test Range in Nevada. The regression technique optimizes the agreement between the measured and model predicted concentrations of (239)Pu by varying the model input parameters within their respective ranges of uncertainties. The technique generally estimated the measured concentrations within a factor of 1.5, with the worst estimate being within a factor of 5, very good in view of the complexity of the concentration measurements, the uncertainties associated with the meteorological data, and the limitations of the models. The best fit also suggest a smaller mean diameter and a smaller geometric standard deviation on the particle size as well as a slightly weaker particle to cloud coupling than previously reported.

  13. Integration of measurements with atmospheric dispersion models: Source term estimation for dispersal of 239Pu due to non- nuclear detonation of high explosive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, L.L.; Harvey, T.F.; Freis, R.P.; Pitovranov, S.E.; Chernokozhin, E.V.

    1992-10-01

    The accuracy associated with assessing the environmental consequences of an accidental release of radioactivity is highly dependent on our knowledge of the source term characteristics and, in the case when the radioactivity is condensed on particles, the particle size distribution, all of which are generally poorly known. This paper reports on the development of a numerical technique that integrates the radiological measurements with atmospheric dispersion modeling. This results in a more accurate particle-size distribution and particle injection height estimation when compared with measurements of high explosive dispersal of 239 Pu. The estimation model is based on a non-linear least squares regression scheme coupled with the ARAC three-dimensional atmospheric dispersion models. The viability of the approach is evaluated by estimation of ADPIC model input parameters such as the ADPIC particle size mean aerodynamic diameter, the geometric standard deviation, and largest size. Additionally we estimate an optimal ''coupling coefficient'' between the particles and an explosive cloud rise model. The experimental data are taken from the Clean Slate 1 field experiment conducted during 1963 at the Tonopah Test Range in Nevada. The regression technique optimizes the agreement between the measured and model predicted concentrations of 239 Pu by varying the model input parameters within their respective ranges of uncertainties. The technique generally estimated the measured concentrations within a factor of 1.5, with the worst estimate being within a factor of 5, very good in view of the complexity of the concentration measurements, the uncertainties associated with the meteorological data, and the limitations of the models. The best fit also suggest a smaller mean diameter and a smaller geometric standard deviation on the particle size as well as a slightly weaker particle to cloud coupling than previously reported

  14. HERALD, a programme enumerating the radiation doses to the population following the release of radioactive gases and aerosols into the atmosphere after a nuclear reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veverka, O.

    1986-01-01

    Program HERALD computes radiation doses to the population following an accident of a fission nuclear reactor, the destruction of the primary coolant circuit (LOCA), etc. The program was written with the intention to obtain a tool which would enable the user to follow numerically a radioactive cloud, its physical behaviour and its consequences up to extremely long distances of several thousands kilometres. Therefore the usual model of Gaussian distribution was avoided and the considerably simpler ''box model'' was chosen. This can be replaced by the ''semi-box model''. The fallout velocity of gases and particles is calculated using a simple model including the dependence on the Pasquillian stability class and on the local surface roughness. So is the scavenging coefficient for gases and particles, removed by either rainfalls, or snowfall or fogs. It is possible to employ corresponding empirical data. The program utilizes an ample data library holding nuclear data for approximately 500 fission products in 121 decay chains of at most 10 members, the corresponding dose factors for external gamma and beta irradiation from the cloud and the surface and from the inhaled and ingested radionuclides (ICRP-30). This library is now being extended to approximately 1,200 nuclides (products of activation, fission products and fuels including transuranium elements) for the purposes of normal operation and of heavy accidents. The program is written in standard language FORTRAN IV and is run on computer M 4030-1. (author) 5 figs., 34 tabs., 26 refs

  15. Daily atmospheric radionuclide observations and health impact estimation before and after the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear accident: Five-year trends by Canadian monitoring stations - Ten-year trends of atmospheric lead-210 and the correlation to atmospheric mercury in the Canadian Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Weihua; Chen, Jing; Ungar, Kurt [Radiation Protection Bureau, Health Canada, 775 Brookfield Rd. Ottawa, K1A 1C1 (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    Mercury is a global threat to human and environmental health. Anthropogenic emissions of mercury have been larger than natural emissions since the start of the industrial age about 200 years ago. In the past decades, many studies have focused on monitoring and controlling anthropogenic emissions of mercury and their transport and transformation in the environment. In October 2013, the Minamata Convention on Mercury was formally adopted as international law. The new treaty aims to further cut mercury emissions and releases; it is the first global convention on environment and health. Coal burning for power generation and industrial use is one of the major sources of anthropogenic mercury emissions to the air. However, coal combustion processes produce significant quantities of dust containing not only mercury but also natural radionuclides that are released into the atmosphere. Like the case of mercury, those radionuclides can be transported over long distances, deposited on soil and oceans and accumulated in Arctic biota. Exposure to elevated levels of radiation is a health concern. This study analyses long-term trends of atmospheric lead-210 from Health Canada's radiological monitoring stations in the Arctic. Results are compared with ten-year records of atmospheric mercury reported by Environment Canada. A discussion is given on the correlation of long-range atmospheric transport of lead-210 and mercury from industrial sources, such as coal burning. It is expected that continuous decline of atmospheric mercury in the Arctic, especially with more and more countries signing the Minamata Convention, will result in a deceasing trend of atmospheric lead-210 from industrial sources as well. (authors)

  16. 78 FR 70076 - Aging Management of Internal Surfaces, Fire Water Systems, Atmospheric Storage Tanks, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-22

    ... Systems, Atmospheric Storage Tanks, and Corrosion Under Insulation AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... Internal Surfaces, Fire Water Systems, Atmospheric Storage Tanks, and Corrosion Under Insulation.'' This LR... related to internal surface aging effects, fire water systems, atmospheric storage tanks, and corrosion...

  17. Cânfora: um bom modelo para ilustrar técnicas de RMN Camphor: a good model for illustrating NMR techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julliane Diniz Yoneda

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy to establish the three-dimensional structures of molecules is an important component of modern Chemistry courses. The combination of techniques that can be used for this purpose is conveniently illustrated by their application to the camphor molecule. This paper presents applications of several techniques used in NMR spectral interpretation in an increasing order of complexity. The result of individual experiments is illustrated in order to familiarize the user with the way connectivity through bonds and through space is established from 1D/2D-NMR spectra and molecular stereochemistry is determined from different NMR experiments.

  18. Updating long-range transport model predictions using real-time monitoring data in case of nuclear accidents with release to the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raes, Frank; Tassone, Caterina; Grippa, Gianni; Zarimpas, Nicolas; Graziani, Giovanni

    1991-01-01

    A procedure is developed to reduce the uncertainties of long-range transport model predictions, in case of a large scale nuclear accident. It is based on the availability in 'real time' of the concentrations of airborne radioactive aerosols from automatic on-line monitors, which are presently being installed throughout Europe. Essentially, the procedure consists of: (1) constructing new (area) source terms from the measured field data as they become available; and (2) restart the prediction with these sources, rather than with the original (point) source. The procedure is applied to the Chernobyl accident. It is shown that the procedure is feasible and might result in an improvement of the prediction of the location of the cloud by several hundreds of kilometers and the actual levels with an order of magnitude. The weak point is the treatment of the vertical structure and transport of the cloud, which can only be solved when 'real-time' upper air observations are also available. (author)

  19. Radiation exposure due to local fallout from Soviet atmospheric nuclear weapons testing in Kazakhstan: solid cancer mortality in the Semipalatinsk historical cohort, 1960-1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Susanne; Gusev, Boris I; Pivina, Ludmila M; Apsalikov, Kazbek N; Grosche, Bernd

    2005-10-01

    Little information is available on the health effects of exposures to fallout from Soviet nuclear weapons testing and on the combined external and internal environmental exposures that have resulted from these tests. This paper reports the first analysis of the Semipalatinsk historical cohort exposed in the vicinity of the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site, Kazakhstan. The cohort study, which includes 19,545 inhabitants of exposed and comparison villages of the Semipalatinsk region, was set up in the 1960s and comprises 582,750 person-years of follow-up between 1960 and 1999. Cumulative effective radiation dose estimates in this cohort range from 20 mSv to approximately 4 Sv. Rates of mortality and cancer mortality in the exposed group substantially exceeded those of the comparison group. Dose-response analyses within the exposed group confirmed a significant trend with dose for all solid cancers (P sites, a significant trend with dose was observed for lung cancer (P = 0.0001), stomach cancer (P = 0.0050), and female breast cancer (P = 0.0040) as well as for esophagus cancer in women (P = 0.0030). The excess relative risk per sievert for all solid cancers combined was 1.77 (1.35; 2.27) based on the total cohort data, yet a selection bias regarding the comparison group could not be entirely ruled out. The excess relative risk per sievert based on the cohort's exposed group was 0.81 (0.46; 1.33) for all solid cancers combined and thus still exceeds current risk estimates from the Life Span Study. Future epidemiological assessments based on this cohort will benefit from extension of follow-up and ongoing validation of dosimetric data.

  20. Atmospheric krypton-85 during 1962 and 1963

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehhalt, D.; Muennich, K. O.; Roether, W.; Schoelch, J.; Stich, W.

    1963-11-15

    The krypton-85 found in the atmosphere presumably originates from two different sources, namely fission bomb tests and processing of burned-out fuel elements from nuclear reactors. This paper discusses the impact of the sources of krypton in the atmosphere in greater detail.

  1. Modeling of atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baklouti, Nada

    2010-01-01

    This work is a prediction of atmospheric dispersion of radionuclide from a chronic rejection of the nuclear power generating plant that can be located in one of the Tunisian sites: Skhira or Bizerte. Also it contains a study of acute rejection 'Chernobyl accident' which was the reference for the validation of GENII the code of modeling of atmospheric dispersion.

  2. Corrosion resistance of ceramic materials in pyrochemical reprocessing atmosphere by using molten salt for spent nuclear oxide fuel. Corrosion research under chlorine gas condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Masayuki; Hanada, Keiji; Koizumi, Tsutomu; Aose, Shinichi; Kato, Toshihiro

    2002-12-01

    Pyrochemical reprocessing using molten salts (RIAR process) has been recently developed for spent nuclear oxide fuel and discussed in feasibility study. It is required to improve the corrosion resistance of equipments such as electrolyzer because the process is operated in severe corrosion environment. In this study, the corrosion resistance of ceramic materials was discussed through the thermodynamic calculation and corrosion test. The corrosion test was basically carried out in alkali molten salt under chlorine gas condition. And further consideration about the effects of oxygen, carbon and main fission product's chlorides were evaluated in molten salt. The result of thermodynamic calculation shows most of ceramic oxides have good chemical stability on chlorine, oxygen and uranyl chloride, however the standard Gibb's free energies with carbon have negative value. On the other hand, eleven kinds of ceramic materials were examined by corrosion test, then silicon nitride, mullite and cordierite have a good corrosion resistance less than 0.1 mm/y. Cracks were not observed on the materials and flexural strength did not reduce remarkably after 480 hours test in molten salt with Cl 2 -O 2 bubbling. In conclusion, these three ceramic materials are most applicable materials for the pyrochemical reprocessing process with chlorine gas condition. (author)

  3. The calculated radiological impact on the environment of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center due to radioactive emissions to the atmosphere in the years 1975 and 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebschmann, W.; Nagel, D.; Papadopoulos, D.

    1976-08-01

    The radiological impact by radioactive offgas and exhaust air on the environment of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center (KNRC) is calculated every year and compared with the permissible equivalent doses. This report includes both the forecasted maximum doses from maximum releases scheduled for the year 1976 and the actual doses of 1975 based on the measured releases in 1975. According to the various irradiation mechanisms of the nuclides emitted, the following doses are indicated, each calculated for an adult person: whole body dose by γ-irradiation and tritium inhalation, skin dose by external β-irradiation, lung dose by aerosol inhalation, bone dose by plutonium inhalation, and effective integral dose. The maximum infant thyroid dose due to iodine ingestion via the pasture-cow-milk-pathway is also calculated. The respective maximum doses indicate that the dose limits of 30 mrem/a whole body dose (adult) and 90 mrem/a thyroid dose (Infant) which are to be observed by the KNRC since the year 1975 are not exceeded at any point, provided the emissions remain below the scheduled maximum level. The doses in 1975 were markedly below the dose limits mentioned above. This is even true when partial body and organ doses are integrated in an 'effective dose'. (orig.) [de

  4. Atmospheric dispersion models of radioactivity releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oza, R.B.

    2016-01-01

    In view of the rapid industrialization in recent time, atmospheric dispersion models have become indispensible 'tools' to ensure that the effects of releases are well within the acceptable limits set by the regulatory authority. In the case of radioactive releases from the nuclear facility, though negligible in quantity and many a times not even measurable, it is required to demonstrate the compliance of these releases to the regulatory limits set by the regulatory authority by carrying out radiological impact assessment. During routine operations of nuclear facility, the releases are so low that environmental impact is usually assessed with the help of atmospheric dispersion models as it is difficult to distinguish negligible contribution of nuclear facility to relatively high natural background radiation. The accidental releases from nuclear facility, though with negligible probability of occurrence, cannot be ruled out. In such cases, the atmospheric dispersion models are of great help to emergency planners for deciding the intervention actions to minimize the consequences in public domain and also to workout strategies for the management of situation. In case of accidental conditions, the atmospheric dispersion models are also utilized for the estimation of probable quantities of radionuclides which might have got released to the atmosphere. Thus, atmospheric dispersion models are an essential tool for nuclear facility during routine operation as well as in the case of accidental conditions

  5. Radionuclides in an arctic terrestrial ecosystem affected by atmospheric release from the Kraton-3 accidental underground nuclear explosion. 2001-2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramzaev, V.; Golikov, V.; Mishine, A.; Kaduka, M.; Burtcev, I.; Gedeonov, A.; Bulatenkov, Y.U.; Strand, P.; Brown, J.

    2004-01-01

    Current distributions of artificial radionuclides (ARN) were studied in the main compartments of a larch-tree forest lethally affected by a radioactive release from the Kraton-3 peaceful underground nuclear explosion (65.9 deg N, 112.3 deg E; Yakutia, Russia; 1978). Samples of soil, fungi, lichens, mosses, grasses, shrubs and trees were obtained at points belonging to four zones categorised by the severity of the ecosystem damage. Sampling was supplemented by dose rate measurements in air and mapping. The area of forest characterised by 100% lethality to adult larches (Larix gmelinii) and with partial, visually-detectable damage of other more radio-resistance species (e.g. lichens, mosses) covers a territory of approximately 1.2 km 2 . Elevated levels of long-lived ARN were found at all sampling sites. Maximum registered levels of the ground contamination with radionuclides of Cs, Sr and Pu were three orders of magnitude higher than those expected from global fallout. The ratios of 137 Cs to some other significant radionuclides in the ground contamination were as follows [mean (range)]: 90 Sr - 0.57(0.02-0.93); 239,240 Pu 44(25-72); 60 Co 470(220-760). Twenty-three years after a discrete contamination event, 90-95% of the total deposited radiocesium and plutonium has still remained in the lichen-moss on-ground cover and in the top 5 cm organic soil layer. At the same time, vertical and horizontal migrations of 90 Sr in soil were more pronounced. Strong surface contamination with 137 Cs, 90 Sr and plutonium was detected at the twigs and bark of the dead larches. The young larches that grew at the contaminated area following the initial destruction of the forest demonstrated a substantial ability to accumulate 137 Cs, 90 Sr and plutonium via roots, while the bushes selectively accumulated mainly radiostrontium. In contrast, some fungi concentrated mostly radiocesium. The levels of gamma dose rate in air and the environmental contamination with 137 Cs were found to

  6. Improvement in soil-plant-atmosphere modelling of {sup 14}C dynamics and the application of two models to data from a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limer, Laura M.C. [Quintessa Limited, 633/635 Birchwood Boulevard, WA3 7QU, Warrington (United Kingdom); Le Dizes-Maurel, Severine; Maro, Denis [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), PRP-ENV, SERIS, LM2E, Cadarache, Saint-Paul Lez Durance (France); Klos, Ryk [Aleksandria Sciences Limited, S7 2DD, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Norden, Maria [Swedish Radiation Safety Authority, SE-171 16, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2014-07-01

    The need to address radiological impacts from {sup 14}C released to the biosphere has been recognised for some time. However, because of its role in biological processes and its ecological cycling, the standard methods employed to model long-term radionuclide transport and accumulation in the biosphere cannot be used satisfactorily for {sup 14}C. The degree of complexity in any {sup 14}C model used must be balanced against the availability of supporting data and the assessment context. In 2011, the model SSPAM14C was developed on behalf of the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM), with the intention to usage in both long-term and short-term release assessments (Limer et al., 2013). As part of the model testing it was applied to data collected during laboratory experiments performed by Imperial College London in the 1990's (Tucker and Shaw, 1997). Independently, IRSN has also been developing its own {sup 14}C model, TOCATTA (Le Dizes et al., 2012), and has previously tested it against field data collected by IRSN, between 2006 and 2008, in the vicinity of the La Hague nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in France (Aulagnier et al., 2012). The main conclusion drawn from these comparisons highlighted the need to develop an hourly time step model of {sup 14}C transfer based more thoroughly on knowledge arising from plant physiology, soil science and meteorology (Farquhar and von Caemmerer, 1982). These models have undergone further development, and have been applied here to the La Hague field data as it represents a medium term data set with both short term variation and a sizeable time series of measurements against which to compare the models. By increasing the temporal resolution of the IRSN model, a new version called TOCATTA-ccan simulate the impact of intermittent {sup 14}C releases occurring either the day or night (Aulagnier et al., 2013). Simplification of the soil sub-model in SSPAM14C is also shown to be justified for application to operational release

  7. Nuclear methods in environmental and energy research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogt, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    A total of 75 papers were presented on nuclear methods for analysis of environmental and biological samples. Sessions were devoted to software and mathematical methods; nuclear methods in atmospheric and water research; nuclear and atomic methodology; nuclear methods in biology and medicine; and nuclear methods in energy research

  8. Nuclear methods in environmental and energy research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, J R [ed.

    1980-01-01

    A total of 75 papers were presented on nuclear methods for analysis of environmental and biological samples. Sessions were devoted to software and mathematical methods; nuclear methods in atmospheric and water research; nuclear and atomic methodology; nuclear methods in biology and medicine; and nuclear methods in energy research.

  9. Lagrangian modeling of atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides and geographical information systems as tools to support emergency planning in area of influence of nuclear complex of Angra dos Reis, RJ, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Corbiniano

    2013-01-01

    Industrial accidents generally endanger structures and the set of environmental influence area where the enterprises are located, especially when affected by atmospheric dispersion of their pollutants, whose concern with the evacuation of the population is the main goal in emergency situations. Considering the nuclear complex Angra dos Reis - RJ, based on computer modeling analysis of the mechanisms of pollutant dispersion in conjunction with geographic information systems were developed. Thus, information about the dispersion of radionuclides - from simulations performed on the HYSPLIT; meteorological data (direction, intensity and calm on the wind regime and analysis of the wind field in the region using WRF), occurrence of landslides and data on the environmental study area were integrated into a GIS database using ArcGIS platform. Aiming at the identification and definition of escape routes in case of evacuation from accidental events in CNAAA, the results point solutions for long-term planning, based on weather and landslides, and short-term, supported by simulations of the dispersion radionuclides, in order to support actions that assist local emergency planning. (author)

  10. CARACTERÍSTICAS MORFOLÓGICAS E MORFOMÉTRICAS DOS CANAIS DE DRENAGEM DA BACIA HIDROGRÁFICA DO RIO BOM SUCESSO - SEMIÁRIDO DA BAHIA/BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleber Carvalho Lima

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Propõe-se neste artigo, analisar as características dos canais de drenagem intermitentes e efêmeros da Bacia Hidrográfica do Rio Bom Sucesso (Bahia, levando-se em consideração os seus aspectos morfológicos e morfométricos. Para tanto, definiu-se a rede de drenagem, caracterizaram-se os canais de drenagem, classificaram-se os cursos fluviais quanto à textura do canal e aplicaram-se os índices morfométricos. Por meio disso, verificou-se que a bacia possui baixa densidade de drenagem e baixa densidade hidrográfica, baixo potencial para a elaboração de formas de origem fluvial. Predomina o transporte de sedimentos por carga de fundo, o que demonstra a relação existente entre o regime fluvial e os eventos pluviométricos de grande magnitude, típicos do semiárido. Além disso, as características geométricas dos canais demonstram o predomínio da erosão lateral em contraponto à erosão vertical do relevo.

  11. Nuclear energy and security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blejwas, Thomas E.; Sanders, Thomas L.; Eagan, Robert J.; Baker, Arnold B.

    2000-01-01

    Nuclear power is an important and, the authors believe, essential component of a secure nuclear future. Although nuclear fuel cycles create materials that have some potential for use in nuclear weapons, with appropriate fuel cycles, nuclear power could reduce rather than increase real proliferation risk worldwide. Future fuel cycles could be designed to avoid plutonium production, generate minimal amounts of plutonium in proliferation-resistant amounts or configurations, and/or transparently and efficiently consume plutonium already created. Furthermore, a strong and viable US nuclear infrastructure, of which nuclear power is a large element, is essential if the US is to maintain a leadership or even participatory role in defining the global nuclear infrastructure and controlling the proliferation of nuclear weapons. By focusing on new fuel cycles and new reactor technologies, it is possible to advantageously burn and reduce nuclear materials that could be used for nuclear weapons rather than increase and/or dispose of these materials. Thus, the authors suggest that planners for a secure nuclear future use technology to design an ideal future. In this future, nuclear power creates large amounts of virtually atmospherically clean energy while significantly lowering the threat of proliferation through the thoughtful use, physical security, and agreed-upon transparency of nuclear materials. The authors must develop options for policy makers that bring them as close as practical to this ideal. Just as Atoms for Peace became the ideal for the first nuclear century, they see a potential nuclear future that contributes significantly to power for peace and prosperity

  12. Atmospheric chemistry and climate

    OpenAIRE

    Satheesh, SK

    2012-01-01

    Atmospheric chemistry is a branch of atmospheric science where major focus is the composition of the Earth's atmosphere. Knowledge of atmospheric composition is essential due to its interaction with (solar and terrestrial) radiation and interactions of atmospheric species (gaseous and particulate matter) with living organisms. Since atmospheric chemistry covers a vast range of topics, in this article the focus is on the chemistry of atmospheric aerosols with special emphasis on the Indian reg...

  13. AMBIENTE E SUSTENTABILIDADE EM COMUNIDADES RURAIS DA AMAZÔNIA: UM ESTUDO DAS DIMENSÕES AMBIENTAIS NA COMUNIDADE DE BOM SOCORRO DO ZÉ AÇU NO MUNICÍPIO DE PARINTINS-AM/BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hapolo Hibson de Souza Ferreira

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo principal compreender as dimensões da sustentabilidade ambiental na comunidade de Bom Socorro do Zé Açu e quais as principais implicações nos modos de vida da população local, pois a comunidade vem apresentando mudanças socioeconômicas e espaciais nos últimos anos, refletindo nas implicações socioambientais que repercutem na reprodução do seu espaço. Esta pesquisa está pautada na reflexão sobre a questão do crescimento econômico versus sustentabilidade na Amazônia, mas especificamente na comunidade de Bom Socorro do Zé Açu. O método utilizado para a análise dos dados foi o sistêmico e a coleta foi feita por meio de aplicação de formulários socioambientais, observação participante e entrevistas com os moradores da comunidade. Para tal, foi feito o levantamento dos problemas ambientais na comunidade, evidenciando a problemática dos resíduos sólidos que vem impactando diretamente essa localidade, pela falta de um local apropriado para a destinação dos mesmos, as pessoas queimam e/ ou jogam o lixo nos terrenos baldios e nos barrancos próximos ao lago do Zé Açu, colocando em risco a saúde dos mesmos. Dentre outros problemas, destaca-se a retirada da mata nativa na comunidade para que se possam fazer mais construções que acarreta na perda de um elemento importante na regulação do micro-clima local, principalmente pelo fato da temperatura ter aumentado devido à impermeabilização do solo pela introdução do calçamento nas ruas. Outra problemática está em torno do assoreamento do lago do Zé Açu que devido à retirada da vegetação ciliar, tanto para a extração de areia, como para criação de bovinos, está pondo em risco esse elemento importante na vida dessa comunidade. A relevância desta pesquisa está no fato de que as informações aqui levantadas, podem auxiliar na elaboração de uma agenda ambiental importante que deve ser discutida e levada em considera

  14. Measurement of Kr-85 and Xe-133 as undisturbed tracers for the representing of atmospheric transport after disposal of radioactivity from nuclear facilities; Messungen von Kr-85 und Xe-133 als ungestoerte Tracer zur Darstellung atmosphaerischer Transportvorgaenge nach Freisetzung von Radioaktivitaet aus kerntechnischen Anlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, G.; Steinkopff, T. [Deutscher Wetterdienst (Germany); Salvamoser, J. [Institut fuer Angewandte Isotopen-, Gas- und Umweltuntersuchungen (IGU), Woerthsee (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD, German Meteorological Service) operates since 1996 a sampling and measurement device for the radioactive rare gases Kr-85 and Xe-133 in Offenbach. These measurements are embedded in the German Measurement and Information System for Monitoring Environmental Radioactivity (Integriertes Mess- und Informationssystem zur Ueberwachung der Radioaktivitaet in der Umwelt, IMIS) [1]. In addition to these measurements the DWD is sampling rare gases in Potsdam and since 2014 in Trier in cooperation with the Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz (Federal Office for Radiation Protection, BfS). In the frame of the Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW)-program of the WMO the DWD operated a sampling station at the Zugspitze (Schneefernerhaus) from 1999 to 2005. This location at the Zugspitze is well suited for the observation of long distance transport of Kr-85 in the higher atmosphere. The DWD in Offenbach operates a complex analytical system for the measurement of Kr-85 and Xe-133 since 1998. This system consists of sampling with first enrichment, second enrichment, gas chromatographic separation and preparation of Krypton and Xenon and measurement of Kr-85 and Xe-133. Using the example Fukushima, it is shown, that the radioactive rare gases Kr-85 and Xe-133 are well undisturbed tracers for atmospheric transport in case of a nuclear accident or routine nuclear reprocessing plants. Measurements of Xe-133, I-131, Cs-137 and Kr-85 are correlated with source and atmospheric transport to the sampling sites at Offenbach and Potsdam.

  15. Krypton-85 pollution and atmospheric electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, R.G.; ApSimon, H.M.

    1994-01-01

    Krypton-86 is a chemically inert radioactive gas present in the atmosphere, concentrations of which have been greatly increased by nuclear reprocessing and weapons testing since 1945. The long half-life (10.7 yr), allows the gas to mix thoroughly in the atmosphere. Ionization caused by krypton-85 increases the electrical conductivity of atmospheric air. Further increases in krypton-85 emissions seem inevitable. The increase in air conductivity due to release of krypton-85 will vary with height, and be larger over the oceans than over the land. Increases in conductivity will produce uncertain effects on atmospheric phenomena, so changes are compared in magnitude with other factors perturbing the conductivity, such as combustion aerosol burdens, volcanic eruptions and nuclear weapons testing. Conductivity changes are expected to have the greatest significance for meteorological phenomena close to the source. (Author)

  16. From Hiroshima to nuclear deterrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villain, Jacques; Moret, Andre

    2015-01-01

    The authors first propose an overview of nuclear weapons from their origins to 2014: evolution of weapon systems between 1945 and 2014, main treaties related to nuclear weapons, main consequences of the nuclear revolution, brief presentation and assessment of defences against ballistic missiles, cost of nuclear warfare. The second part proposes a perspective for nuclear weapons in tomorrow's world as it seems that the World will remain nuclear: possible evolution of nuclear proliferation, evolution of risks related to nuclear weapons, desirable and possible evolution of nuclear weapons. Appendices propose presentations of the main techniques used for ballistic missiles: propulsion, control, navigation and guiding, atmosphere re-entry, multiple nuclear heads, data processing, relationship between nuclear plants and weapons

  17. O melhor é bom o suficiente?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Lipton

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Artigo traduzido do original inglês "Is the Best Good Enough?", publicado em Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, vol. XCIII, parte 2, 1993, pp. 89-104. Todos os direitos do artigo estáo reservados aos editores de Aristotelian Society, a quem os tradutores agradecem, na pessoa de Mark Tavis, a licença para a traduçáo deste artigo. Reprinted by courtesy of the Editor of the Aristotelian Society: © [1993].

  18. Equipment selection for atmospheric drying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, P D; Bhattacharyya, S [Nuclear Power Corporation, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    1994-06-01

    Heavy water management is a major factor in deciding the economics of the PHWRs. Hence it is necessary to have an efficient recovery system, for the heavy water vapour escaping from various process systems and maintain a dry atmosphere in the recovery areas. While the basic objective of the atmospheric drying system is to maximize recovery and to minimize stack losses, it is equally important to optimally design the system with due consideration to operational and maintenance aspects. At present, heavy water vapour recovery in the existing Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) is carried out by dryers of dual fixed bed design. While moving bed design could have some advantages, this has not been adopted so far because of the cumbersome mechanical design involved and special requirements for nuclear application. Developmental work done in this direction has resulted in compact alternative designs. In one of the designs, the change over from adsorption to regeneration is achieved by rotating the bed slowly. This concept is further refined in another alternative using a dessicant wheel. This paper contains brief equipment description of different designs; enumerates the design requirements of an atmospheric drying system for reactor building; describes steps for designing fixed bed type D{sub 2}O vapour recovery system, and highlights advances in dryer technology. (author). 2 refs., 4 figs., 1 ill.

  19. The nuclear winter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velikhow, Y.P.

    1986-01-01

    Nuclear winter is an example of possible secondary effects, and if we speak of secondary we are thinking of small-scale second-order effects, but a nuclear winter is not a second-order effect. If you calculate the amount of heat produced by a nuclear explosion, it is a very small amount which does not have any chance of changing the Earth's climate, but a nuclear explosion drives or stars some new mechanism - the mechanism of nuclear winter - after 100 megatons of dust are transferred to the upper atmosphere. Another example of such amplification is radioactive fall-out, especially long-life radioactive fall-out after the possible elimination of the nuclear power industry, nuclear storage and distribution of storage waste around the globe. This is a very powerful amplification mechanism

  20. Nuclear law - Nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pontier, Jean-Marie; Roux, Emmanuel; Leger, Marc; Deguergue, Maryse; Vallar, Christian; Pissaloux, Jean-Luc; Bernie-Boissard, Catherine; Thireau, Veronique; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Spencer, Mary; Zhang, Li; Park, Kyun Sung; Artus, J.C.

    2012-01-01

    This book contains the contributions presented during a one-day seminar. The authors propose a framework for a legal approach to nuclear safety, a discussion of the 2009/71/EURATOM directive which establishes a European framework for nuclear safety in nuclear installations, a comment on nuclear safety and environmental governance, a discussion of the relationship between citizenship and nuclear, some thoughts about the Nuclear Safety Authority, an overview of the situation regarding the safety in nuclear waste burying, a comment on the Nome law with respect to electricity price and nuclear safety, a comment on the legal consequences of the Fukushima accident on nuclear safety in the Japanese law, a presentation of the USA nuclear regulation, an overview of nuclear safety in China, and a discussion of nuclear safety in the medical sector

  1. Atmospheric pollution. From processes to modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sportisse, B.

    2008-01-01

    Air quality, greenhouse effect, ozone hole, chemical or nuclear accidents.. All these phenomena are tightly linked to the chemical composition of atmosphere and to the atmospheric dispersion of pollutants. This book aims at supplying the main elements of understanding of 'atmospheric pollutions': stakes, physical processes involved, role of scientific expertise in decision making. Content: 1 - classifications and scales: chemical composition of the atmosphere, vertical structure, time scales (transport, residence); 2 - matter/light interaction: notions of radiative transfer, application to the Earth's atmosphere; 3 - some elements about the atmospheric boundary layer: notion of scales in meteorology, atmospheric boundary layer (ABL), thermal stratification and stability, description of ABL turbulence, elements of atmospheric dynamics, some elements about the urban climate; 4 - notions of atmospheric chemistry: characteristics, ozone stratospheric chemistry, ozone tropospheric chemistry, brief introduction to indoor air quality; 5 - aerosols, clouds and rains: aerosols and particulates, aerosols and clouds, acid rains and leaching; 6 - towards numerical simulation: equation of reactive dispersion, numerical methods for chemistry-transport models, numerical resolution of the general equation of aerosols dynamics (GDE), modern simulation chains, perspectives. (J.S.)

  2. The atmospheric corrosion, important technical and economic factor in the construction of nuclear power plants; La corrosion atmosferica, factor de importancia tecnico-economica en la construccion de centrales electronucleares (CEN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, R. [Agencia de Energia Nuclear, La Habana (Cuba); Diaz, J.; Gomez, J. [Centro de Investigaciones Quimicas (Cuba); Rodriguez, J. [MINBAS (Cuba). Direccion de Centrales Nucleares; Galeano, N. [ECM-10 (Cuba)

    1995-12-31

    In order to determine the atmospheric effects of the construction of the Juragua NPP some experiments were performed in the reactor site. Samples of carbon steel were placed in experimental stations and the consequent oxidation was measured. The results show that the region`s atmosphere aggressiveness may be classified from low to median. 11 refs.

  3. Lagrangian modeling of atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides and geographical information systems as tools to support emergency planning in area of influence of nuclear complex of Angra dos Reis, RJ, Brazil; Modelagem Lagrangeana da dispersao atmoferica de radionuclideos e sistemas de informacao geografica como ferramentas de suporte ao planejamento de emergencia na area de influencia do complexo nuclear de Angra dos Reis, RJ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Corbiniano

    2013-07-01

    Industrial accidents generally endanger structures and the set of environmental influence area where the enterprises are located, especially when affected by atmospheric dispersion of their pollutants, whose concern with the evacuation of the population is the main goal in emergency situations. Considering the nuclear complex Angra dos Reis - RJ, based on computer modeling analysis of the mechanisms of pollutant dispersion in conjunction with geographic information systems were developed. Thus, information about the dispersion of radionuclides - from simulations performed on the HYSPLIT; meteorological data (direction, intensity and calm on the wind regime and analysis of the wind field in the region using WRF), occurrence of landslides and data on the environmental study area were integrated into a GIS database using ArcGIS platform. Aiming at the identification and definition of escape routes in case of evacuation from accidental events in CNAAA, the results point solutions for long-term planning, based on weather and landslides, and short-term, supported by simulations of the dispersion radionuclides, in order to support actions that assist local emergency planning. (author)

  4. Keepers of law and order x outlaws: Police brutality, torture and execution in Elite Squad “Bandido bom é bandido morto”: violência policial, tortura e execuções em Tropa de Elite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Maria Rocha

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to investigate how Brazilian movies use representations of violence and symbolic oppression to evidence the police abuse of force in actions performed to fight crime in Brazilian slums. A recent Brazilian movie, Elite Squad (2007 shows that police methods of torture are used to obtain confessions, sometimes leading to cold blood executions without previous judgment. Police brutality against slum citizens implicitly induces the assumption – commonly tolerated in Brazil - that “a good criminal is a dead criminal”. The movie analysis depicted here focus on representations that clearly points out to violation of human rights and the mistreatment given by police to poor and marginalized citizens. We argue that those citizens are not perceived as worth human beings but as enemies to be eliminated. Therefore citizenship is not only a restricted matter of human rights but also one of misrecognition. Our analysis is based on a “diagnostic criticism of culture” (Kellner, 2001 which emphasizes: a the social horizon of the movie and b its discursive field (analysis of the message and visual resources. O propósito deste artigo é investigar como os filmes brasileiros usam representações da violência e da opressão simbólica para mostrar o abuso da força policial em ações de combate contra o crime nas favelas brasileiras. Analisaremos um filme recente, Tropa de Elite (2007, no qual métodos de tortura são usados para obtenção de confissões e execuções a sangue frio são feitas sem nenhum julgamento, corroborando a máxima segundo a qual “bandido bom é bandido morto”. A violação dos direitos humanos será discutida enfocando-se a questão de como os policiais lidam com os cidadãos pobres e marginalizados trazendo à tona o fato de que cidadania no Brasil é um tema que deve ser tratado como uma questão de direitos humanos, mas também, como de reconhecimento social. Metodologicamente, nossa análise est

  5. Δ14CO2 from dark respiration in plants and its impact on the estimation of atmospheric fossil fuel CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xiaohu; Zhou, Weijian; Cheng, Peng; Wu, Shugang; Niu, Zhenchuan; Du, Hua; Lu, Xuefeng; Fu, Yunchong; Burr, George S

    2017-04-01

    Radiocarbon ( 14 C) has been widely used for quantification of fossil fuel CO 2 (CO 2ff ) in the atmosphere and for ecosystem source partitioning studies. The strength of the technique lies in the intrinsic differences between the 14 C signature of fossil fuels and other sources. In past studies, the 14 C content of CO 2 derived from plants has been equated with the 14 C content of the atmosphere. Carbon isotopic fractionation mechanisms vary among plants however, and experimental study on fractionation associated with dark respiration is lacking. Here we present accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon results of CO 2 respired from 21 plants using a lab-incubation method and associated bulk organic matter. From the respired CO 2 we determine Δ 14 C res values, and from the bulk organic matter we determine Δ 14 C bom values. A significant difference between Δ 14 C res and Δ 14 C bom (P < 0.01) was observed for all investigated plants, ranging from -42.3‰ to 10.1‰. The results show that Δ 14 C res values are in agreement with mean atmospheric Δ 14 CO 2 for several days leading up to the sampling date, but are significantly different from corresponding bulk organic Δ 14 C values. We find that although dark respiration is unlikely to significantly influence the estimation of CO 2ff , an additional bias associated with the respiration rate during a plant's growth period should be considered when using Δ 14 C in plants to quantify atmospheric CO 2ff . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The annual averaged atmospheric dispersion factor and deposition factor according to methods of atmospheric stability classification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Hae Sun; Jeong, Hyo Joon; Kim, Eun Han; Han, Moon Hee; Hwang, Won Tae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    This study analyzes the differences in the annual averaged atmospheric dispersion factor and ground deposition factor produced using two classification methods of atmospheric stability, which are based on a vertical temperature difference and the standard deviation of horizontal wind direction fluctuation. Daedeok and Wolsong nuclear sites were chosen for an assessment, and the meteorological data at 10 m were applied to the evaluation of atmospheric stability. The XOQDOQ software program was used to calculate atmospheric dispersion factors and ground deposition factors. The calculated distances were chosen at 400 m, 800 m, 1,200 m, 1,600 m, 2,400 m, and 3,200 m away from the radioactive material release points. All of the atmospheric dispersion factors generated using the atmospheric stability based on the vertical temperature difference were shown to be higher than those from the standard deviation of horizontal wind direction fluctuation. On the other hand, the ground deposition factors were shown to be same regardless of the classification method, as they were based on the graph obtained from empirical data presented in the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Regulatory Guide 1.111, which is unrelated to the atmospheric stability for the ground level release. These results are based on the meteorological data collected over the course of one year at the specified sites; however, the classification method of atmospheric stability using the vertical temperature difference is expected to be more conservative.

  7. Atmospheric surveillance self-propelling device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cartoux, Gerard.

    1980-11-01

    The atmospheric surveillance self-propelling device of the Saclay Nuclear Research Center can, by its conception (autonomy, rapid put into service, multiplicity of sampling and measurements), be used for all kind of measuring campains: pollution radioactive or not, routine or accidental situation, technical and logistic support and as a coordination or investigation vehicle [fr

  8. Assessment of impact of a severe accident at nuclear power plant of Angra dos Reis with release of radionuclides to the atmosphere; Avaliacao do impacto de um acidente severo na usina de Angra dos Reis com liberacao de radionuclideos para a atmosfera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguiar, Andre Silva de

    2015-07-01

    This study had as purpose the assess the impact of a severe accident, and also analyze the dispersion of {sup 131}I in the atmosphere, so that, through concentrating and inhaling dose of the plume, were possible to verify if the results are in accordance with the indicated data by the Plan of Emergency of the CNAAA regarding the Impact Zone and Control. This exercise was performed with the aid of an atmospheric model and a dispersion where to atmospheric modeling we used the data coupling WRF / CALMET and of dispersion, CALPUFF. The suggested accident consists of a Station Blackout at Nuclear Power of Angra (Unit 1), where through the total core involvement, will release 100% of the {sup 131}I to the atmosphere. The value of the total activity in the nucleus to this radionuclide is 7.44 x 1017 Bq, that is relative on the sixth day of burning. This activity will be released through the chimney at a rate in Bq/s in the scenario of 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours of release. Applying the model in the proposed scenario, it is verified that the plume has concentrations of the order of 1020 Bq/m³ and dose of about 108 Sv whose value is beyond of the presented by Eletronuclear in your current emergency plan. (author)

  9. Nuclear power and acceptation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speelman, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    In 1989 a workshop was held organized by the IAEA and the Argonne National Laboratory. The purpose was to investigate under which circumstances a large-scale extension of nuclear power can be accepted. Besides the important technical information, the care for the environment determined the atmosphere during the workshop. The opinion dominated that nuclear power can contribute in tackling the environment problems, but that the social and political climate this almost makes impossible. (author). 7 refs.; 1 fig.; 1 tab

  10. Nuclear energy and environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-12-31

    The film stresses that a drastic reduction in carbon dioxide emissions, mainly from the burning of fossil fuels, must be achieved to limit a dangerous concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. It compares the environmental costs of different energy sources, in particular the wastes of a coal-fired versus a nuclear plant, and mentions the measures taken to reinforce protection against the risk of nuclear accidents

  11. Our shared atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our atmosphere is a precious and fascinating resource, providing air to breath, shielding us from harmful ultraviolet radiation (UV), and maintaining a comfortable climate. Since the industrial revolution, people have significantly altered the composition of the atmosphere throu...

  12. Report of the preliminary mission of radiological controls on the island of Mangareva and the atolls of Tureia and Hao (French Polynesia). Investigation performed by the CRIIRAD laboratory on the request of the inquiry Commission on consequences of atmospheric nuclear tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    After a presentation of the objectives of the mission, and a summary of the undertaken actions on each site, this document gives some general information on radionuclides and on the sampling and analysis method. Then, it discusses the results obtained by radiological analyses and gives recommendations about the current radiological situation of the studied island and atolls. It shows that official assessment of radiation doses undergone by the French Polynesia population during the period atmospheric nuclear tests must be revised. It outlines the need of new exhaustive investigations on health consequences of these past exposures to ionizing radiation. Recommendations are formulated

  13. Critical review of hydraulic modeling on atmospheric heat dissipation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, Y.; Brown, S.M.

    1977-01-01

    Objectives of this study were: to define the useful roles of hydraulic modeling in understanding the predicting atmospheric effects of heat dissipation systems; to assess the state-of-the-art of hydraulic modeling of atmospheric phenomena; to inventory potentially useful existing hydraulic modeling facilities both in the United States and abroad; and to scope hydraulic model studies to assist the assessment of atmospheric effects of nuclear energy centers

  14. Atmospheric refraction : a history

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehn, WH; van der Werf, S

    2005-01-01

    We trace the history of atmospheric refraction from the ancient Greeks up to the time of Kepler. The concept that the atmosphere could refract light entered Western science in the second century B.C. Ptolemy, 300 years later, produced the first clearly defined atmospheric model, containing air of

  15. Ânion gap corrigido para albumina, fosfato e lactato é um bom preditor de íon gap forte em pacientes enfermos graves: estudo de coorte em nicho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Godinho Zampieri

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Ânion gap corrigido e íon gap forte são usados comumente para estimar os ânions não medidos. Avaliamos o desempenho do ânion gap corrigido para albumina, fosfato e lactato na predição do íon gap forte em uma população mista de pacientes enfermos graves. Formulamos a hipótese de que o ânion gap corrigido para albumina, fosfato e lactato seria um bom preditor do íon gap forte, independentemente da presença de acidose metabólica. Além disso, avaliamos o impacto do íon gap forte por ocasião da admissão na mortalidade hospitalar. MÉTODOS: Incluímos 84 pacientes gravemente enfermos. A correlação e a concordância entre o ânion gap corrigido para albumina, fosfato e lactato e o íon gap forte foi avaliada utilizando-se os testes de correlação de Pearson, regressão linear, plot de Bland-Altman e pelo cálculo do coeficiente de correlação interclasse. Foram realizadas duas análises de subgrupos: uma para pacientes com excesso de base -2mEq/L (grupo com alto excesso de base. Foi realizada uma regressão logística para avaliar a associação entre os níveis de íon gap forte na admissão e a mortalidade hospitalar. RESULTADOS: Houve correlação muito forte e uma boa concordância entre o ânion gap corrigido para albumina, fosfato e lactato e o íon gap forte na população geral (r2=0,94; bias 1,40; limites de concordância de -0,75 a 3,57. A correlação foi também elevada nos grupos com baixo excesso de base (r2=0,94 e alto excesso de base (r2=0,92. Estavam presentes níveis elevados de íon gap forte em 66% da população total e 42% dos casos do grupo alto excesso de. Íon gap forte não se associou com a mortalidade hospitalar, conforme avaliação pela regressão logística. CONCLUSÃO: O ânion gap corrigido para albumina, fosfato e lactato e o íon gap forte tiveram uma excelente correlação. Os ânions não medidos estão frequentemente elevados em pacientes gravemente enfermos com excesso de base

  16. Nuclear and conventional energy transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schikarski, W.

    1979-03-01

    Atmospheric pollution from fossil fuel- and nuclear power plants have been compared. SO 2 is the substance chosen from coal- and oil fuel power plants. Measured values for chemical pollution are at levels 10 times, and radioactive pollution near to nuclear power plants, 10.000 times, below that which would cause damage to health. (A.R.H.) [pt

  17. Atmospheric Habitable Zones in Y Dwarf Atmospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yates, Jack S.; Palmer, Paul I. [School of GeoSciences, University of Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Biller, Beth; Cockell, Charles S., E-mail: j.s.yates@ed.ac.uk [Centre for Exoplanet Science, University of Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

    2017-02-20

    We use a simple organism lifecycle model to explore the viability of an atmospheric habitable zone (AHZ), with temperatures that could support Earth-centric life, which sits above an environment that does not support life. To illustrate our model, we use a cool Y dwarf atmosphere, such as WISE J085510.83–0714442.5, whose 4.5–5.2 μ m spectrum shows absorption features consistent with water vapor and clouds. We allow organisms to adapt to their atmospheric environment (described by temperature, convection, and gravity) by adopting different growth strategies that maximize their chance of survival and proliferation. We assume a constant upward vertical velocity through the AHZ. We found that the organism growth strategy is most sensitive to the magnitude of the atmospheric convection. Stronger convection supports the evolution of more massive organisms. For a purely radiative environment, we find that evolved organisms have a mass that is an order of magnitude smaller than terrestrial microbes, thereby defining a dynamical constraint on the dimensions of life that an AHZ can support. Based on a previously defined statistical approach, we infer that there are of the order of 10{sup 9} cool Y brown dwarfs in the Milky Way, and likely a few tens of these objects are within 10 pc from Earth. Our work also has implications for exploring life in the atmospheres of temperate gas giants. Consideration of the habitable volumes in planetary atmospheres significantly increases the volume of habitable space in the galaxy.

  18. Nuclear Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Parents/Teachers Resource Links for Students Glossary Nuclear Medicine What is nuclear medicine? What are radioactive tracers? ... funded researchers advancing nuclear medicine? What is nuclear medicine? Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty that uses ...

  19. Clean contest for nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, John.

    1996-01-01

    Reinvestment in the nuclear power generation industry is identified as the key to solving the conflict between rising energy demand over the next fifty years and protecting the environment. Nuclear power, it is argued, can readily meet consumers, rising demand for electricity, but will not contribute to global warming problems or other forms of atmospheric pollution. The chief problems seem not to be technical, but rather to convince policy makers and the general public that the nuclear industry is an acceptable, environmentally sound contributer to the energy generation conundrum. (UK)

  20. Nuclear safety. Seguranca nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aveline, A [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    1981-01-01

    What is nuclear safety Is there any technical way to reduce risks Is it possible to put them at reasonable levels Are there competitiveness and economic reliability to employ the nuclear energy by means of safety technics Looking for answers to these questions the author describes the sources of potential risks to nuclear reactors and tries to apply the answers to the Brazilian Nuclear Programme. (author).

  1. Nuclear energy supports sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koprda, V.

    2005-01-01

    The article is aimed at acceptability, compatibility and sustainability of nuclear energy as non-dispensable part of energy sources with vast innovation potential. The safety of nuclear energy , radioactive waste deposition, and prevention of risk from misuse of nuclear material have to be very seriously abjudged and solved. Nuclear energy is one of the ways how to decrease the contamination of atmosphere with carbon dioxide and it solves partially also the problem of global increase of temperature and climate changes. Given are the main factors responsible for the renaissance of nuclear energy. (author)

  2. Invisible nuclear; converting nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jongmoon

    1993-03-01

    This book consists of 14 chapters which are CNN era and big science, from East and West to North and South, illusory nuclear strategy, UN and nuclear arms reduction, management of armaments, advent of petroleum period, the track of nuclear power generation, view of energy, internationalization of environment, the war over water in the Middle East, influence of radiation and an isotope technology transfer and transfer armament into civilian industry, the end of nuclear period and the nuclear Nonproliferation, national scientific and technological power and political organ and executive organ.

  3. The nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serres, R.

    1999-01-01

    The French nuclear generating industry is highly competitive. The installations have an average age of fifteen years and are half way through their expected life. Nuclear power accounts for 70% of the profits of the French generating company, EDF. Nuclear generation has a minimal effect on the atmosphere and France has a level of CO 2 emissions, thought to be the main cause of the greenhouse effect, half that of Europe as a whole. The air in France is purer than in neighbouring countries, mainly because 75% of all electrical power is generated in nuclear plants and 15% in hydroelectric stations. The operations and maintenance of French nuclear power plants in the service and distribution companies out of a total of 100 000 employees in all, 90 % of whom are based in mainland France. (authors)

  4. 8. Peaceful uses of nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musilek, L.

    1992-01-01

    The chapter deals with peaceful uses of nuclear explosions. Described are the development of the underground nuclear explosion, properties of radionuclides formed during the explosion, their distribution, the release of radioactive products of underground nuclear explosions into the air, their propagation in the atmosphere, and fallout in the landscape. (Z.S.). 1 tab., 8 figs., 19 refs

  5. Fair weather atmospheric electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, R G

    2011-01-01

    Not long after Franklin's iconic studies, an atmospheric electric field was discovered in 'fair weather' regions, well away from thunderstorms. The origin of the fair weather field was sought by Lord Kelvin, through development of electrostatic instrumentation and early data logging techniques, but was ultimately explained through the global circuit model of C.T.R. Wilson. In Wilson's model, charge exchanged by disturbed weather electrifies the ionosphere, and returns via a small vertical current density in fair weather regions. New insights into the relevance of fair weather atmospheric electricity to terrestrial and planetary atmospheres are now emerging. For example, there is a possible role of the global circuit current density in atmospheric processes, such as cloud formation. Beyond natural atmospheric processes, a novel practical application is the use of early atmospheric electrostatic investigations to provide quantitative information on past urban air pollution.

  6. Atmosphere physics and chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delmas, R.; Megie, G.; Peuch, V.H.

    2005-10-01

    Since the 1970's, the awareness about the atmospheric pollution threat has led to a spectacular development of the researches on the complex interactions between the chemical composition of the atmosphere and the climate. This book makes a synthesis of the state-of-the-art in this very active domain of research. Content: introduction, atmosphere dynamics and transport, matter-radiation interaction and radiant transfer, physico-chemical processes, atmospheric aerosol and heterogenous chemistry, anthropic and natural emissions and deposition, stratospheric chemical system, tropospheric chemical system, polluted boundary layer, paleo-environments and ice archives, role of atmospheric chemistry in global changes, measurement principles and instruments, numerical modeling, experimental strategy, regulation and management of the atmospheric environment, index. (J.S.)

  7. The sources and fate of radionuclides emitted to the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandalls, J.

    2001-01-01

    The thesis represents an account of the sources and fate of radionuclides entering the atmosphere, and indicates where the candidate, through his own work, has contributed to the overall picture. The sources of the natural and man-made radionuclides found in the atmosphere are identified. New data on emissions from UK coal-fired power stations and UK steel works are reported. Radionuclides produced in nuclear fission and released to the atmosphere in the detonation of nuclear weapons, in nuclear accidents, and through routine discharges from nuclear sites have added to the atmospheric burden of radioactive materials; both acute and chronic low-level emissions are discussed. The various natural processes which remove radionuclides from the atmosphere are described. Soon after release, many radioactive materials become attached to the atmospheric aerosol, but others undergo gas-phase reactions. Some gases are sufficiently long-lived in the troposphere as to find their way into the stratosphere where their fate may be determined by the short-wave radiation from the sun. The nature of the particles of fuel emitted to the atmosphere in the explosion and fire at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986 are discussed, together with the associated environmental problems. The ground is the major sink for radionuclides leaving the atmosphere, and the behaviour of the more radiologically important radionuclides following deposition is described with special reference to: (i) fallout in both the urban and living environments; (ii) the pathways which may lead to contamination of the food chain; (iii) how the fuel particle fallout from Chernobyl was unique in nuclear accidents; (iv) soil-to-plant transfer of radioelements and (v) how radiation exposure of man can be mitigated in both the contaminated urban and rural environments. (author)

  8. »Ko bom velik, bom umetnik.« Eksperimentalni peskovnik japonske avantgarde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klara HRVATIN

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Umetniški center Sōgetsu, ki je eden od pomembnejših avantgardnih središč 60. let 20. stoletja, bi lahko opredelili kot umetniški »eksperimentalni peskovnik«. Japonski umetniki, ki so na svojih področjih danes že mednarodno priznani, so se prav v tem »peskovniku« imeli možnost preizkusiti v krogu interdisciplinarnih umetnikov in najti svoj umetniški slog. Dober primer takšnih ustvarjalcev so: filmski režiser Hiroshi Teshigahara (1927–2001, novelist Kōbō Abe (1924–1993 in glasbenik Tōru Takemitsu (1930–1996. V članku bomo orisali natančen pregled vseh umetniških združenj in njihovih dogodkov, ki so jih oblikovali umetniki v času delovanja Centra, od septembra 1958 (13. septembra je potekalo odprtje Centra do marca 1971, ko je Center prenehal delovati. V ospredje bodo postavljena glavna združenja oziroma aktivnosti, predvsem s področij jazzovske glasbe, sodobne glasbe, eksperimentalnih filmov in animacije. Poiskali bomo skupen imenovalec vseh aktivnosti v tem »peskovniku« ter poudarili novosti, ki so jih glavni akterji gibanja z deli, ki so nastala v Centru, vnesli na področji glasbe in filma.

  9. BOMS-D-16-00614.pdf | forthcoming | boms | Volumes | public ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Logo. 29th Mid-year meeting. Posted on 19 January 2018. The 29th Mid-year meeting of the Academy will be held from 29–30 June 2018 in Infosys, Mysuru. Theory Of Evolution. Posted on 23 January 2018. Joint Statement by the Three Science Academies of India on the teaching of the theory of evolution more.

  10. Phytoremediation of Atmospheric Methane

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-15

    REPORT Phytoremediation of Atmospheric Methane 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: We have transformed a plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, with the...298 (Rev 8/98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 - 31-Mar-2012 Phytoremediation of Atmospheric Methane Report Title ABSTRACT We have transformed a...DD882) Scientific Progress See attachment Technology Transfer 1    Final Report for DARPA project W911NF1010027  Phytoremediation  of Atmospheric

  11. Oscillations in stellar atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, A.; Ringuelet, A.E.; Fontenla, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Atmospheric excitation and propagation of oscillations are analyzed for typical pulsating stars. The linear, plane-parallel approach for the pulsating atmosphere gives a local description of the phenomenon. From the local analysis of oscillations, the minimum frequencies are obtained for radially propagating waves. The comparison of the minimum frequencies obtained for a variety of stellar types is in good agreement with the observed periods of the oscillations. The role of the atmosphere in the globar stellar pulsations is thus emphasized. 7 refs

  12. Regularities in the behavior of radioactive aerosols in the near-earth atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makhonko, K.P.; Avramenko, A.S.; Martynenko, V.P.; Volokitin, A.A.; Rabotnova, F.A.

    1979-10-01

    The relationship is considered between the power of nuclear explosions and mean annual magnitudes of surface concentrations and atmospheric fallout of long-lived isotopes which are products of these explosions. The role of Chinese nuclear explosions in pollution of the atmosphere over the territory of the USSR is demonstrated. Regularities are discussed about the annual course of concentrations of products of atmospheric nuclear explosions, features in concentration distribution over the territory of the USSR as well as the impact of the amount and type of atmospheric precipitation upon the formation of radioactive fallout.

  13. Atmospherical experiment in Angra I plant for characterizing the effluent transport threw in the atmospheric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Lobo, M.A. da; Kronemberger, B.M.E.

    1989-01-01

    Available as short communication only. The Environmental Safety Division of the Nuclear Safety and Fuel Department from FURNAS Electric Station S.A. joint with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), achieved a field experiment for characterizing the atmospheric transport and diffusion in the site complex of Angra I Nuclear Power Plant. The complex topography with the thick vegetation and the neighbour building bring problems for the modelling of the effluent transport and the dispersion. The actual meteorological measure system is automatic and compound with four towers. An intensive atmospheric measure with captive balloon is included, and the collected data shows that the site flux is strongly influenced by the topography and insolation. (C.G.C.). 2 figs

  14. Nucleation in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegg, D A; Baker, M B

    2009-01-01

    Small particles play major roles in modulating radiative and hydrological fluxes in the atmosphere and thus they impact both climate (IPCC 2007) and weather. Most atmospheric particles outside clouds are created in situ through nucleation from gas phase precursors and most ice particles within clouds are formed by nucleation, usually from the liquid. Thus, the nucleation process is of great significance in the Earth's atmosphere. The theoretical examination of nucleation in the atmosphere has been based mostly on classical nucleation theory. While diagnostically very useful, the prognostic skill demonstrated by this approach has been marginal. Microscopic approaches such as molecular dynamics and density functional theory have also proven useful in elucidating various aspects of the process but are not yet sufficiently refined to offer a significant prognostic advantage to the classical approach, due primarily to the heteromolecular nature of atmospheric nucleation. An important aspect of the nucleation process in the atmosphere is that the degree of metastability of the parent phase for the nucleation is modulated by a number of atmospheric processes such as condensation onto pre-existing particles, updraft velocities that are the main driving force for supersaturation of water (a major factor in all atmospheric nucleation), and photochemical production rates of nucleation precursors. Hence, atmospheric nucleation is both temporally and spatially inhomogeneous

  15. Atmospheric Measurements Laboratory (AML)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Atmospheric Measurements Laboratory (AML) is one of the nation's leading research facilities for understanding aerosols, clouds, and their interactions. The AML...

  16. Implementation of a model of atmospheric dispersion and dose calculation in the release of radioactive effluents in the Nuclear Centre; Implementacion de un modelo de dispersion atmosferica y calculo de dosis en la liberacion de efluentes radiactivos en el Centro Nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz L, C. A.

    2015-07-01

    In the present thesis, the software DERA (Dispersion of Radioactive Effluents into the Atmosphere) was developed in order to calculate the equivalent dose, external and internal, associated with the release of radioactive effluents into the atmosphere from a nuclear facility. The software describes such emissions in normal operation, and not considering the exceptional situations such as accidents. Several tools were integrated for describing the dispersion of radioactive effluents using site meteorological information (average speed and wind direction and the stability profile). Starting with the calculation of the concentration of the effluent as a function of position, DERA estimates equivalent doses using a set of EPA s and ICRP s coefficients. The software contains a module that integrates a database with these coefficients for a set of 825 different radioisotopes and uses the Gaussian method to calculate the effluents dispersion. This work analyzes how adequate is the Gaussian model to describe emissions type -puff-. Chapter 4 concludes, on the basis of a comparison of the recommended correlations of emissions type -puff-, that under certain conditions (in particular with intermittent emissions) it is possible to perform an adequate description using the Gaussian model. The dispersion coefficients (σ{sub y} and σ{sub z}), that using the Gaussian model, were obtained from different correlations given in the literature. Also in Chapter 5 is presented the construction of a particular correlation using Lagrange polynomials, which takes information from the Pasquill-Gifford-Turner curves (PGT). This work also contains a state of the art about the coefficients that relate the concentration with the equivalent dose. This topic is discussed in Chapter 6, including a brief description of the biological-compartmental models developed by the ICRP. The software s development was performed using the programming language Python 2.7, for the Windows operating system (the

  17. Panel on atmospheric and climatic consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    This article reviews some of the important details and undergirding of the presentations on the atmospheric, climatic and biological consequences of nuclear war. The discussion focuses on two questions that have been raised: whether the scenerios that have been presented are a credible basis for analysis of the consequences of possible nuclear wars, given the sizes of the existing arsenals and the available knowledge about how these arsenals might be used; and, whether the various numbers that were given for radiation doses from fallout are in fact internally consistent and compatible with those calculated by other analysts

  18. [Nuclear theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haxton, W.

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses research in nuclear physics. Topics covered in this paper are: symmetry principles; nuclear astrophysics; nuclear structure; quark-gluon plasma; quantum chromodynamics; symmetry breaking; nuclear deformation; and cold fusion

  19. Deuterium in atmospheric cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pontikis, M.C.

    Interest of the study concerning the deuterium content variation (HDO) in the atmospheric water. Standards and measurement methods. Molecule HDO cycle in the atmospheric water. Application to the study of hail-generating cumulus-nimbus and of the mantle of snow [fr

  20. Urban atmospheric contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldasano Jose, M.

    1997-01-01

    The problems of contamination are not only limited to this century, pale pathology evidences of the effects of the contamination of the air exist in interiors in the health of the old ones; the article mention the elements that configure the problem of the atmospheric contamination, atmospheric pollutants and emission sources, orography condition and effects induced by the urbanization process

  1. Controlled Atmosphere Stunning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambooij, E.; Gerritzen, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Controlled atmosphere (CAS) stunning includes several variations of gaseous mixtures given to induce an anaesthetic state before slaughter poultry. One method of multi phase CAS is to unload the birds out of the crate on a conveyor belt and subject the birds to an atmosphere of 30% O2, 40% CO2 and

  2. Atmosphere Impact Losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlichting, Hilke E.; Mukhopadhyay, Sujoy

    2018-02-01

    Determining the origin of volatiles on terrestrial planets and quantifying atmospheric loss during planet formation is crucial for understanding the history and evolution of planetary atmospheres. Using geochemical observations of noble gases and major volatiles we determine what the present day inventory of volatiles tells us about the sources, the accretion process and the early differentiation of the Earth. We further quantify the key volatile loss mechanisms and the atmospheric loss history during Earth's formation. Volatiles were accreted throughout the Earth's formation, but Earth's early accretion history was volatile poor. Although nebular Ne and possible H in the deep mantle might be a fingerprint of this early accretion, most of the mantle does not remember this signature implying that volatile loss occurred during accretion. Present day geochemistry of volatiles shows no evidence of hydrodynamic escape as the isotopic compositions of most volatiles are chondritic. This suggests that atmospheric loss generated by impacts played a major role during Earth's formation. While many of the volatiles have chondritic isotopic ratios, their relative abundances are certainly not chondritic again suggesting volatile loss tied to impacts. Geochemical evidence of atmospheric loss comes from the {}3He/{}^{22}Ne, halogen ratios (e.g., F/Cl) and low H/N ratios. In addition, the geochemical ratios indicate that most of the water could have been delivered prior to the Moon forming impact and that the Moon forming impact did not drive off the ocean. Given the importance of impacts in determining the volatile budget of the Earth we examine the contributions to atmospheric loss from both small and large impacts. We find that atmospheric mass loss due to impacts can be characterized into three different regimes: 1) Giant Impacts, that create a strong shock transversing the whole planet and that can lead to atmospheric loss globally. 2) Large enough impactors (m_{cap} ≳ √{2

  3. Response to subcommittee on environment and atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacCracken, M.C.

    1975-10-01

    The potential effects of chronic release of pollutants on climatic changes are discussed with regard to dose-response characteristics, ambiguities in prediction of climatic effects, ambiguities in measuring climatic effects, research approaches, and approaches to standard setting. A table is presented to show potential atmospheric effects of the following pollutants: CO 2 from fossil fuels, fluorocarbons, nitrogen oxides, 85 K from nuclear power plants, sulfur compounds, dusts, heat and water releases from energy generation processes, and oceanic oil slicks

  4. Nuclear topics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukner, C.

    1982-07-01

    The pamphlet touches on all aspects of nuclear energy, from the world energy demands and consumption, the energy program of the Federal Government, nuclear power plants in the world, nuclear fusion, nuclear liability up to the nuclear fuel cycle and the shutdown of nuclear power plants. (HSCH) [de

  5. Atmospheric impacts of evaporative cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carson, J.E.

    1976-10-01

    The report summarizes available information on the effects of various power plant cooling systems on the atmosphere. While evaporative cooling systems sharply reduce the biological impacts of thermal discharges in water bodies, they create (at least, for heat-release rates comparable to those of two-unit nuclear generating stations) atmospheric changes. For an isolated site such as required for a nuclear power plant, these changes are rather small and local, and usually environmentally acceptable. However, one cannot say with certainty that these effects will remain small as the number of reactors on a given site increases. There must exist a critical heat load for a specific site which, if exceeded, can create its own weather patterns, and thus create inadvertent weather changes such as rain and snow, severe thunderstorms, and tornadoes. Because proven mathematical models are not available, it is not now possible to forecast precisely the extent and frequency of the atmospheric effects of a particular heat-dissipation system at a particular site. Field research on many aspects of cooling system operation is needed in order to document and quantify the actual atmospheric changes caused by a given cooling system and to provide the data needed to develop and verify mathematical and physical models. The more important topics requiring field study are plume rise, fogging and icing (from certain systems), drift emission and deposition rates, chemical interactions, cloud and precipitation formation and critical heat-release rates

  6. Technical progress of nuclear energy: economic and environmental prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naudet, G.

    1994-01-01

    This document deals with three different aspects of the nuclear energy: first the operating and economic performances of nuclear power plants in the world, the French nuclear competitiveness. Then, the technical and economic perspectives about reactors and fuels cycle and the advantages towards atmospheric pollution are discussed to favour a new worldwide nuclear development. (TEC). 8 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs

  7. Nuclear power and nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaughen, V.C.A.

    1983-01-01

    The proliferation of nuclear weapons and the expanded use of nuclear energy for the production of electricity and other peaceful uses are compared. The difference in technologies associated with nuclear weapons and nuclear power plants are described

  8. Atmospheric diffusion of large clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, T. V. [Univ. of California, Lawrence Radiation Lab., Livermore, California (United States)

    1967-07-01

    Clouds of pollutants travel within a coordinate system that is fixed to the earth's surface, and they diffuse and grow within a coordinate system fixed to the cloud's center. This paper discusses an approach to predicting the cloud's properties, within the latter coordinate system, on space scales of a few hundred meters to a few hundred kilometers and for time periods of a few days. A numerical cloud diffusion model is presented which starts with a cloud placed arbitrarily within the troposphere. Similarity theories of atmospheric turbulence are used to predict the horizontal diffusivity as a function of initial cloud size, turbulent atmospheric dissipation, and time. Vertical diffusivity is input as a function of time and height. Therefore, diurnal variations of turbulent diffusion in the boundary layer and effects of temperature inversions, etc. can be modeled. Nondiffusive cloud depletion mechanisms, such as dry deposition, washout, and radioactive decay, are also a part of this numerical model. An effluent cloud, produced by a reactor run at the Nuclear Rocket Development Station, Nevada, is discussed in this paper. Measurements on this cloud, for a period of two days, are compared to calculations with the above numerical cloud diffusion model. In general, there is agreement. within a factor of two, for airborne concentrations, cloud horizontal area, surface air concentrations, and dry deposition as airborne concentration decreased by seven orders of magnitude during the two-day period. (author)

  9. Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickerson, M.H.

    1975-01-01

    The chief purpose of ARAC data acquisition program is to provide site officials, who are responsible for ensuring maximum health protection for the endangered site personnel and public, with estimates of the effects of atmospheric releases of hazardous material as rapidly and accurately as possible. ARAC is in the initial stages of being implemented and is therefore susceptible to changes before it reaches its final form. However the concept of ARAC is fully developed and was successfully demonstrated during a feasibility study conducted in June 1974, as a joint effort between the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) and Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL). Additional tests between SRL and LLL are scheduled for December 1975. While the immediate goal is the application of ARAC to assist a limited number of ERDA sites, the system is designed with sufficient flexibility to permit expanding the service to a large number of sites. Success in ARAC application should provide nuclear facilities with a means to handle better the urgent questions concerning the potential accidental hazards from atmospheric releases in addition to providing the sites with a capability to assess the effort of their normal operations

  10. Coming to grips with nuclear winter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherr, S.J.

    1985-01-01

    This editorial examines the politics related to the concept of nuclear winter which is a term used to describe temperature changes brought on by the injection of smoke into the atmosphere by the massive fires set off by nuclear explosions. The climate change alone could cause crop failures and lead to massive starvation. The author suggests that the prospect of a nuclear winter should be a deterrent to any nuclear exchange

  11. Dynamics of Massive Atmospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chemke, Rei; Kaspi, Yohai, E-mail: rei.chemke@weizmann.ac.il [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Weizmann Institute of Science, 234 Herzl st., 76100, Rehovot (Israel)

    2017-08-10

    The many recently discovered terrestrial exoplanets are expected to hold a wide range of atmospheric masses. Here the dynamic-thermodynamic effects of atmospheric mass on atmospheric circulation are studied using an idealized global circulation model by systematically varying the atmospheric surface pressure. On an Earth analog planet, an increase in atmospheric mass weakens the Hadley circulation and decreases its latitudinal extent. These changes are found to be related to the reduction of the convective fluxes and net radiative cooling (due to the higher atmospheric heat capacity), which, respectively, cool the upper troposphere at mid-low latitudes and warm the troposphere at high latitudes. These together decrease the meridional temperature gradient, tropopause height and static stability. The reduction of these parameters, which play a key role in affecting the flow properties of the tropical circulation, weakens and contracts the Hadley circulation. The reduction of the meridional temperature gradient also decreases the extraction of mean potential energy to the eddy fields and the mean kinetic energy, which weakens the extratropical circulation. The decrease of the eddy kinetic energy decreases the Rhines wavelength, which is found to follow the meridional jet scale. The contraction of the jet scale in the extratropics results in multiple jets and meridional circulation cells as the atmospheric mass increases.

  12. Reference Atmosphere for Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killen, Rosemary M.

    2002-01-01

    We propose that Ar-40 measured in the lunar atmosphere and that in Mercury's atmosphere is due to current diffusion into connected pore space within the crust. Higher temperatures at Mercury, along with more rapid loss from the atmosphere will lead to a smaller column abundance of argon at Mercury than at the Moon, given the same crustal abundance of potassium. Because the noble gas abundance in the Hermean atmosphere represents current effusion, it is a direct measure of the crustal potassium abundance. Ar-40 in the atmospheres of the planets is a measure of potassium abundance in the interiors, since Ar-40 is a product of radiogenic decay of K-40 by electron capture with the subsequent emission of a 1.46 eV gamma-ray. Although the Ar-40 in the Earth's atmosphere is expected to have accumulated since the late bombardment, Ar-40 in the atmospheres of Mercury and the Moon is eroded quickly by photoionization and electron impact ionization. Thus, the argon content in the exospheres of the Moon and Mercury is representative of current effusion rather than accumulation over the lifetime of the planet.

  13. Photochemistry of Planetary Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, Y. L.

    2005-12-01

    The Space Age started half a century ago. Today, with the completion of a fairly detailed study of the planets of the Solar System, we have begun studying exoplanets (or extrasolar planets). The overriding question in is to ask whether an exoplanet is habitable and harbors life, and if so, what the biosignatures ought to be. This forces us to confront the fundamental question of what controls the composition of an atmosphere. The composition of a planetary atmosphere reflects a balance between thermodynamic equilibrium chemistry (as in the interior of giant planets) and photochemistry (as in the atmosphere of Mars). The terrestrial atmosphere has additional influence from life (biochemistry). The bulk of photochemistry in planetary atmospheres is driven by UV radiation. Photosynthesis may be considered an extension of photochemistry by inventing a molecule (chlorophyll) that can harvest visible light. Perhaps the most remarkable feature of photochemistry is catalytic chemistry, the ability of trace amounts of gases to profoundly affect the composition of the atmosphere. Notable examples include HOx (H, OH and HO2) chemistry on Mars and chlorine chemistry on Earth and Venus. Another remarkable feature of photochemistry is organic synthesis in the outer solar system. The best example is the atmosphere of Titan. Photolysis of methane results in the synthesis of more complex hydrocarbons. The hydrocarbon chemistry inevitably leads to the formation of high molecular weight products, giving rise to aerosols when the ambient atmosphere is cool enough for them to condense. These results are supported by the findings of the recent Cassini mission. Lastly, photochemistry leaves a distinctive isotopic signature that can be used to trace back the evolutionary history of the atmosphere. Examples include nitrogen isotopes on Mars and sulfur isotopes on Earth. Returning to the question of biosignatures on an exoplanet, our Solar System experience tells us to look for speciation

  14. New atmospheric program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Science Foundation's Division of Atmospheric Sciences has established an Upper Atmospheric Facilities program within its Centers and Facilities section. The program will support the operation of and the scientific research that uses the longitudinal chain of incoherent scatter radars. The program also will ensure that the chain is maintained as a state-of-the-art research tool available to all interested and qualified scientists.For additional information, contact Richard A. Behnke, Division of Atmospheric Sciences, National Science Foundation, 1800 G Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20550 (telephone: 202-357-7390).

  15. Atmospheric ionisation in Snowdonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aplin, K L [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH UK (United Kingdom); Williams, J H, E-mail: k.aplin1@physics.ox.ac.uk [Envirodata-Eyri, Bryn Goleu, Penmaen Park, Llanfairfechan, Gwynedd LL33 0RL (United Kingdom)

    2011-06-23

    Atmospheric ionisation from natural radioactivity and cosmic rays has been measured at several sites in Snowdonia from 2005-present. The motivation for this project was a combination of public engagement with science, and research into the effects of ionisation on climate. A four-component atmospheric radiometer instrument is co-located with the ionisation detectors and the data is remotely logged and displayed on the Web. Atmospheric ionisation from natural radioactivity varies with local geology, and the cosmic ray ionisation component is modulated by solar activity and altitude. Variations due to all these effects have been identified and are described.

  16. Nuclear winter - a calculative experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksandrov, V.B.; Stenchikov, G.L.

    1985-01-01

    Using a hydrodynamic model of the Earth climate the climatic consequences following carbon dioxide concentration augmentation in the Earth atmosphere, effects of aerosol contamination and solar constant variation due to the use of nuclear weapon are studied. Results of studying the sensitivity of average annual climatic regime of the atmosphere and ocean general circulation to a sudde extremely strong, long-term change in optical properties of the air in the short-wave portion of the spectrum are discussed. These changes could be caused by contamination of the atmosphere with dust during a nuclear conflict and soot resulting from fires. It is shown, that after nuclear war according to practically any scenario, people who would survive the first blow will find themselves in conditions of a severe cold, darkness, absence of water, food and fuel under the effect of a powerful radiation, contaminants, diseases and under extreme pycological stress

  17. Nuclear rights - nuclear wrongs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, E.F.; Miller, F.D.; Paul, J.; Ahrens, J.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 11 selections. The titles are: Three Ways to Kill Innocent Bystanders: Some Conundrums Concerning the Morality of War; The International Defense of Liberty; Two Concepts of Deterrence; Nuclear Deterrence and Arms Control; Ethical Issues for the 1980s; The Moral Status of Nuclear Deterrent Threats; Optimal Deterrence; Morality and Paradoxical Deterrence; Immoral Risks: A Deontological Critique of Nuclear Deterrence; No War Without Dictatorship, No Peace Without Democracy: Foreign Policy as Domestic Politics; Marxism-Leninism and its Strategic Implications for the United States; Tocqueveille War.

  18. Nuclear moments

    CERN Document Server

    Kopferman, H; Massey, H S W

    1958-01-01

    Nuclear Moments focuses on the processes, methodologies, reactions, and transformations of molecules and atoms, including magnetic resonance and nuclear moments. The book first offers information on nuclear moments in free atoms and molecules, including theoretical foundations of hyperfine structure, isotope shift, spectra of diatomic molecules, and vector model of molecules. The manuscript then takes a look at nuclear moments in liquids and crystals. Discussions focus on nuclear paramagnetic and magnetic resonance and nuclear quadrupole resonance. The text discusses nuclear moments and nucl

  19. Atmospheres of Brown Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruoyan; Seay, Christopher

    2018-01-01

    We construct a grid of brown dwarf model atmospheres spanning a wide range of atmospheric metallicity (0.3x ≤ met ≤ 100x), C/O ratios (0.25x ≤ C/O ≤ 2.5x), and cloud properties, encompassing atmospheres of effective temperatures 200 ≤ Teff ≤ 2400 K and gravities 2.5 ≤ log g ≤ 5.5. We produce the expected temperature-pressure profiles and emergent spectra from an atmosphere in radiative-convective equilibrium. We can then compare our predicted spectra to observations and retrieval results to aid in their predictions and influence future missions and telescopic observations. In our poster we briefly describe our modeling methodology and present our progress on model grid construction, spanning solar and subsolar C/O and metallicity.

  20. Results from atmospheric neutrinos

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Africa and South India first detected the natural neutrinos and observed .... lucky coincidences, such as the angular diameter of the moon and sun being ... (where there is some peaking due to longer flight paths for pions in the atmosphere).

  1. Students 'Weigh' Atmospheric Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporaloni, Marina

    1998-01-01

    Describes a procedure developed by students that measures the mass concentration of particles in a polluted urban atmosphere. Uses a portable fan and filters of various materials. Compares students' data with official data. (DDR)

  2. CARBON NEUTRON STAR ATMOSPHERES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suleimanov, V. F.; Klochkov, D.; Werner, K.; Pavlov, G. G.

    2014-01-01

    The accuracy of measuring the basic parameters of neutron stars is limited in particular by uncertainties in the chemical composition of their atmospheres. For example, the atmospheres of thermally emitting neutron stars in supernova remnants might have exotic chemical compositions, and for one of them, the neutron star in Cas A, a pure carbon atmosphere has recently been suggested by Ho and Heinke. To test this composition for other similar sources, a publicly available detailed grid of the carbon model atmosphere spectra is needed. We have computed this grid using the standard local thermodynamic equilibrium approximation and assuming that the magnetic field does not exceed 10 8  G. The opacities and pressure ionization effects are calculated using the Opacity Project approach. We describe the properties of our models and investigate the impact of the adopted assumptions and approximations on the emergent spectra

  3. Exoplanet atmospheres physical processes

    CERN Document Server

    Seager, Sara

    2010-01-01

    Over the past twenty years, astronomers have identified hundreds of extrasolar planets--planets orbiting stars other than the sun. Recent research in this burgeoning field has made it possible to observe and measure the atmospheres of these exoplanets. This is the first textbook to describe the basic physical processes--including radiative transfer, molecular absorption, and chemical processes--common to all planetary atmospheres, as well as the transit, eclipse, and thermal phase variation observations that are unique to exoplanets. In each chapter, Sara Seager offers a conceptual introduction, examples that combine the relevant physics equations with real data, and exercises. Topics range from foundational knowledge, such as the origin of atmospheric composition and planetary spectra, to more advanced concepts, such as solutions to the radiative transfer equation, polarization, and molecular and condensate opacities. Since planets vary widely in their atmospheric properties, Seager emphasizes the major p...

  4. Nuclear EMP induced chaos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dance, B

    1983-08-01

    In the event of nuclear war, the availability of first class communications facilities and of reliable electricity supplies would be of absolutely vital importance to any of the population surviving the first onslaught not only for their own welfare, but also for the preservation of their nation's retaliation deterrent capability. However, it is to be expected that a single nuclear explosion of adequate size on the outside of the atmosphere would generate a pulse of sufficient intensity to damage communications equipment (including telephones, radio transmitters and receivers) and to interrupt main supplies. The situation caused by electromagnetic pulses (EMP) is discussed.

  5. The nuclear controversy international

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doederlein, J.M.

    1975-01-01

    The present paper deals with the following questions: How quickly can the developed nations get as much energy as possible from the nuclear power plants they are building. How can we get a maximum output from a maximum number of nuclear plants to reduce the health and the environment damage that we get from fossil fired power plants. How can we reduce the strain on future generations because of the atmospheric pollution and reduce the strain on future generations because we use up all the oil and the gas that we should leave to them for worthier purposes than energy production. (orig.) [de

  6. Nuclear energy significantly reduces carbon dioxide emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koprda, V.

    2006-01-01

    This article is devoted to nuclear energy, to its acceptability, compatibility and sustainability. Nuclear energy is non-dispensable part of energy sources with vast innovation potential. The safety of nuclear energy, radioactive waste deposition, and prevention of risk from misuse of nuclear material have to be very seriously adjudged and solved. Nuclear energy is one of the ways how to decrease the contamination of atmosphere with carbon dioxide and it solves partially also the problem of global increase of temperature and climate changes. Given are the main factors responsible for the renaissance of nuclear energy. (author)

  7. Proterozoic atmospheric oxygen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canfield, Donald Eugene

    2014-01-01

    This article is concerned with the evolution of atmospheric oxygen concentrations through the Proterozoic Eon. In particular, this article will seek to place the history of atmospheric oxygenation through the Proterozoic Eon in the context of the evolving physical environment including the history...... of continental growth and volcanic outgassing, as well as biogeochemical processing of elements within the oceans. The author will seek to explore constraints on the history of oxygenation and understand which processes have regulated oxygen through this eon....

  8. Global atmospheric changes.

    OpenAIRE

    Piver, W T

    1991-01-01

    Increasing concentrations of CO2 and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere can be directly related to global warming. In terms of human health, because a major cause of increasing atmospheric concentrations of CO2 is the increased combustion of fossil fuels, global warming also may result in increases in air pollutants, acid deposition, and exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. To understand better the impacts of global warming phenomena on human health, this review emphasizes the proces...

  9. Intensifying the Atmospheric

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liebst, Lasse Suonperä

    2012-01-01

    The phenomenological concept of urban atmospheres is more often applied as an aesthetic description of the metropolitan space as such. This conceptualization is supported in this paper; however, I strive to give the concept a post-phenomenological axial turn. While phenomenology, due to its under...... sufficiently intense. All things considered, the paper should be read as a sociological contribution to theoretically reconstruct the concept of urban atmospheres in the light of spatial morphology....

  10. Atmospheric release advisory capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, T.J.

    1981-01-01

    The ARAC system (Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability) is described. The system is a collection of people, computers, computer models, topographic data and meteorological input data that together permits a calculation of, in a quasi-predictive sense, where effluent from an accident will migrate through the atmosphere, where it will be deposited on the ground, and what instantaneous and integrated dose an exposed individual would receive

  11. Environmental consequences of atmospheric krypton-85

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeck, W.L.

    1978-01-01

    This project examines the thesis that atmospheric background ionization is relevant to the understanding of weather. Projections of future world-wide use of nuclear energy imply that sufficient krypton-85 will be produced and may be released to significantly alter the natural ionization background. The scope of the project includes an assessment of krypton-85 on the electrical aspects of the atmosphere as well as the consequences of an altered electrical state of the atmosphere. The results of a first approximation model for the effects of krypton-85 on the atmosphere show that the electric field at the surface of the ocean would be reduced by about 25 percent and at a continental station by about 15 percent. At about two kilometers altitude, the electric field would be reduced by about 14 percent over the oceans and 16 percent over the land. The effects decrease quickly with increasing altitude. Analytical studies of the equations for fair weather atmospheric electricity yield solutions suitable for the interpretation of time dependent phenomena with periods longer than a few seconds. A brief analysis shows that a perfect assessment is not necessary to make an error-free decision regarding krypton-85 control measures. From the viewpoint of a decision-maker, those aspects that could swing the decision from one alternative to another are priority areas for analysis

  12. Atmospheric pollution in Lisbon urban atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, C.

    2009-04-01

    Lisbon is the capital city of Portugal with about 565,000 residents in 2008 and a population density of 6,600 inhabitants per square kilometre. Like several other major metropolis, the town is surrounded by satellite cities, forming together a region known as "Lisbon Metropolitan Area" with about 3 million inhabitants, a quarter of the overall Portuguese population. Besides their local residents, it is estimated that more than one million citizens come into the Lisbon area every day from the outskirts, leading to elevated traffic densities and intense traffic jams, with important consequences on air pollution levels and obvious negative impacts on human health. Airborne particulate matter limit values are frequently exceeded, making urgent the existence of consistent programs to monitor and help taking measures to control them. Within the Portuguese project PAHLIS (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Contamination in Lisbon Urban Atmosphere) financed by the Portuguese Science Foundation ("Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia"), an aerosol and vapour phase sampling program is being implemented in the city of Lisbon at two selected contrasting zones, namely a typically busy area with intense road traffic and frequent exceedences of the particulate matter standard for the maximum allowable concentration, and a residential quieter area, thus with a cleaner atmosphere characterised as an urban background site. An one month-long sampling campaign was performed during the summer of 2008, where particulate matter was collected in two fractions (coarse 2.5µmwork are expected to cover a lack of reliable information regarding sources of atmospheric pollutants in Portugal and present, for the first time, systematic data of PAHs levels in Lisbon. Acknowledgement: This work was performed under Project PAHLIS (PTDC/AMB/65699/2006) financed by "Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia". C. Oliveira thanks Project PAHLIS his scholarship.

  13. Arc melting in inert gas atmosphere of zirconium sponge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julio Junior, O.; Andrade, A.H.P. de

    1991-01-01

    The obtainment of metallic zirconium in laboratory scale with commercial and nuclear quality is the objective of the Metallurgy Department of IEN/CNEN - Brazil, so a melting procedure of zirconium sponge in laboratory scale using an arc furnace in inert atmosphere is developed. The effects of atmosphere operation, and the use of gas absorber and the sponge characteristics over the quality of button in as-cast reporting with hardness measures are described. (C.G.C.)

  14. Australia and nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denborough, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    This volume compiles the papers presented in the conference held in May 1983 under the auspices of the Center for Continuing Education at the Australian National University. It also includes some previously unpublished scientific research. The papers range from analyses of the atmospheric and medical consequences of nuclear war to summaries of the efforts of people in all walks of life to prevent a global catastrophe

  15. After nuclear war - a nuclear winter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tangley, L.

    1984-01-01

    The environmental and biological consequences of nuclear war were discussed by more than 100 eminent biologists, physicists and atmospheric scientists at the recent World after Nuclear War conference. The long-term effects were determined to be worse than the well-known immediate effects. They predicted that 225 million tons of smoke would be generated within a few days in their baseline scenario. As a result, the amount of sunlight reaching the earth would be reduced to a few percent of normal and temperatures would fall to -23 0 C. About 30% of the northern middle latitudes would receive more than 250 rads radiation dose for several months and about 50% of the land area would receive more than 100 rads. Dangerous levels of solar ultraviolet light would burn through the atmosphere. It was also determined that these effects would be felt in the southern hemisphere. Those who survived the blast, fire and prompt radiation would face starvation from shutdown of plant photosynthesis and inhibition of phytoplankton photosynthesis. Huge wildfires and acid rains would stress any surviving plants and animals. Conference participants agreed that scientists had taken a new and significant step toward understanding the full consequences of nuclear war

  16. Possible consequences of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    Speeches of Soviet and foreign scientists at the Second Section of 2d All-UNION conference of scientists on problems of peace and prevention of nuclear war related to possible consequences of nuclear war have been considered. It is noted that production of a large amount of aerosol particles, dust, smoke and combustion products due to forest-fires, fires in cities, which change considerably atmosphere properties, will be the greatest effect of nuclear strike from the point of view of global consequencies. ''Nuclear winter'', photosynthesis suppression, plant bioproductivity weakening, long-term climate changes, ozone layer disturbance, mass and irreversible degeneration of all biosphere on the whole are great consequencies of nuclear conflict. Attention is paid to medical service, industrial accidents, radioactive fallouts consequence of radiation and other harmful factors for people in nuclear war

  17. Nuclear energy promise or peril?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Zwaan, B.C.C.; Hill, C.R.; Ripka, G.

    1999-01-01

    Nuclear energy will inevitably become an important worldwide issue in the 21. century. The authors are authorities in their own fields and their contributions have been read, discussed and criticized by a wide, international group of experts. The today status of nuclear power is exposed, the authors weigh the pros and cons of nuclear energy. In a near future nuclear energy could play a major role in preventing climate change and atmospheric pollution. The main challenges that put at risk nuclear energy are: nuclear safety, radiation protection, the management of radioactive wastes, the problem of plutonium stocks and the risk of proliferation. For each of these open questions, a specialist makes a precise survey of the situation

  18. Multidimensional Analysis of Nuclear Detonations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-17

    Training Command in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy Robert C. Slaughter, B.S., M.S. Captain, USAF 16...15-S-029 Abstract Digitized versions of atmospheric nuclear testing films represent a unique data set that enables the scientific community to create...temperature distribution of a nuclear fireball using digitized film . This temperature analysis underwent verification using the Digital Imaging and Remote

  19. Environmental monitoring in Slovakia using nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florek, M.; Holy, K.; Sivo, A.; Sykora, I.; Chudy, M.; Richtarikova, M.; Polaskova, A.; Hola, O.; Meresova, J.; Ondo-Estok, D.; Mankovska, B.; Frontasyeva, M.V.; Ermakov, E.V.

    2005-01-01

    The contamination of the atmosphere of Slovakia by stable elements and also by-,radionuclides as 14 C, 7 Be, 210 Pb and 222 Rn were studied during the last decade using nuclear techniques. The main aims of this research were the better understanding of processes taking place in the atmosphere, the quantification of the atmospheric pollution and its trend, as well as the evaluation of the health risk from this pollution

  20. Atmospheric gamma-ray observation with the BETS detectorfor calibrating atmospheric neutrino flux calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Kasahara, K.; Torii, S.; Tamura, T.; Tateyama, N.; Yoshida, K.; Yamagami, T.; Saito, Y.; Nishimura, J.; Murakami, H.; Kobayashi, T.; Komori, Y.; Honda, M.; Ohuchi, T.; Midorikawa, S.; Yuda, T.

    2002-01-01

    We observed atmospheric gamma-rays around 10 GeV at balloon altitudes (15~25 km) and at a mountain (2770 m a.s.l). The observed results were compared with Monte Carlo calculations to find that an interaction model (Lund Fritiof1.6) used in an old neutrino flux calculation was not good enough for describing the observed values. In stead, we found that two other nuclear interaction models, Lund Fritiof7.02 and dpmjet3.03, gave much better agreement with the observations. Our data will serve for examining nuclear interaction models and for deriving a reliable absolute atmospheric neutrino flux in the GeV region.

  1. The characteristics of local atmospheric circulation around the Wolsung NPP in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, G.B.; Lee, M.C.; Song, Y.I.

    1998-01-01

    The transport of air pollutants in coastal regions has been known to be strongly affected by the mesoscale atmospheric circulations such as sea-land breezes. These mesoscale atmospheric circulations depend on synoptic weather conditions. In this study, a three-dimensional sea-land breeze model was developed to evaluate the effects of the sea and land breezes on the atmospheric dispersion of radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants in Korea. In the model, the hydrostatic primitive equations in the terrain-following coordinate system were used. The mesoscale atmospheric circulation simulation were carried out under various synoptic weather conditions for all seasons around the Wolsung nuclear power plant site

  2. Nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Khalik Wood

    2005-01-01

    This chapter discussed the following topics related to the nuclear power: nuclear reactions, nuclear reactors and its components - reactor fuel, fuel assembly, moderator, control system, coolants. The topics titled nuclear fuel cycle following subtopics are covered: , mining and milling, tailings, enrichment, fuel fabrication, reactor operations, radioactive waste and fuel reprocessing. Special topic on types of nuclear reactor highlighted the reactors for research, training, production, material testing and quite detail on reactors for electricity generation. Other related topics are also discussed: sustainability of nuclear power, renewable nuclear fuel, human capital, environmental friendly, emission free, impacts on global warming and air pollution, conservation and preservation, and future prospect of nuclear power

  3. Atmospheric ions and pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renoux, A.

    1977-01-01

    The various types of atmospheric ions are defined, the main sources of natural atmospheric radioactivity inducing the formation of radioactive ions in the air are then recalled. The basic equations governing the formation of these ions are indicated and the most current experimental methods used for detecting them are described (Zeleny tubes, Erikson tubes). The special properties of these ions are examined, they are particularly emphasized for the smaller ones. The existence of a discret spectrum of mobilities is shown and the presence of big negative radioactive ions is investigated. Indicative information are given on the granulometric distribution of the atmospheric radioactivity in the air, from small positive Ra A ion fixation on aerosols [fr

  4. Phenomenology of atmospheric neutrinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedynitch Anatoli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The detection of astrophysical neutrinos, certainly a break-through result, introduced new experimental challenges and fundamental questions about acceleration mechanisms of cosmic rays. On one hand IceCube succeeded in finding an unambiguous proof for the existence of a diffuse astrophysical neutrino flux, on the other hand the precise determination of its spectral index and normalization requires a better knowledge about the atmospheric background at hundreds of TeV and PeV energies. Atmospheric neutrinos in this energy range originate mostly from decays of heavy-flavor mesons, which production in the phase space relevant for prompt leptons is uncertain. Current accelerator-based experiments are limited by detector acceptance and not so much by the collision energy. This paper recaps phenomenological aspects of atmospheric leptons and calculation methods, linking recent progress in flux predictions with particle physics at colliders, in particular the Large Hadron Collider.

  5. Atmosphere and Ambient Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Ulrik

    Atmosphere and Ambient Space This paper explores the relation between atmosphere and ambient space. Atmosphere and ambient space share many salient properties. They are both ontologically indeterminate, constantly varying and formally diffuse and they are both experienced as a subtle, non......-signifying property of a given space. But from a certain point of view, the two concepts also designate quite dissimilar experiences of space. To be ’ambient’ means to surround. Accordingly, ambient space is that space, which surrounds something or somebody. (Gibson 1987: 65) Since space is essentially...... of a surrounding character, all space can thus be described as having a fundamentally ambient character. So what precisely is an ambient space, then? As I will argue in my presentation, ambient space is a sensory effect of spatiality when a space is experienced as being particularly surrounding: a ‘space effect...

  6. Composition of Estonian atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punning, J. M.; Karindi, A.

    1996-01-01

    Atmospheric study, particularly that of its chemical composition, has a long tradition in Estonia. Since middle of this century, in addition to meteorological observations, some chemical compounds in precipitations have been regularly measured in many meteorological stations. The main aim was to acquire information about the state and dynamics of the atmosphere. Therefore, main attention was paid to monitoring chemical compounds which have a direct impact on the human environment. As energy production developed intensively and SO 2 and NO x increased drastically in the atmosphere in acidic rock areas, like Scandinavia, the problem of acid rain became the most important environmental problem in Europe and North-America. As a consequence, monitoring the compounds of sulphur in precipitation was organized in Estonia. In the 1970 s, as related to large operating oil shale-based power plants, Estonia became a country , where emissions of sulphur compounds per capita were extremely high. In 1979, Estonia became a participant in the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme - the network created to study transboundary air pollution. The aims of the precipitation chemistry study and the related problems of the formation and transformation of the atmospheric composition have varied over the years. But monitoring of pollutant (in particular, sulphur compound) loads has been a central issue. Over recent years, an attempt was made to estimate the spatial regularities of atmospheric impurities and their impact on the pH of mean monthly precipitations. Furthermore, calculations were provided to find out the origin of atmospheric impurities washed out in Estonia. Until the 1990 s, CO 2 , and some other greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions were not studied in Estonia. The first inventory of GHG for Estonia was provided in 1995 using the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) methodology

  7. Atmospheric correction of satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmirko, Konstantin; Bobrikov, Alexey; Pavlov, Andrey

    2015-11-01

    Atmosphere responses for more than 90% of all radiation measured by satellite. Due to this, atmospheric correction plays an important role in separating water leaving radiance from the signal, evaluating concentration of various water pigments (chlorophyll-A, DOM, CDOM, etc). The elimination of atmospheric intrinsic radiance from remote sensing signal referred to as atmospheric correction.

  8. Atmospheric aerosol studies using the 'Gent' stacked filter unit and other aerosol collectors, with multi-elemental analysis of the samples by nuclear-related analytical techniques. Appendix 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maenhaut, Willy; Francois, Filip; Cafmeyer, Jan; Okunade, Olusola

    1995-01-01

    Our research within the core programme of the Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on Air Pollution is described. This included the analysis of the analytical quality control Nuclepore filter samples, work on the calibration of the PM10 inlet of the 'Gent' stacked filter unit (SFU) sampler, and an aerosol study with this SFU sampler at an urban residential site in Gent. The calibration of the Gent PM10 inlet was done through intercomparisons with commercially available PM10 samplers, and quite reasonable agreement was obtained. For the study at the urban residential site, a total of 118 SFU samples were collected. The samples were analyzed for the particulate mass, black carbon and up to 29 elements. The elements were measured by PIXE and short-irradiation INAA. Median atmospheric concentrations and enrichment factors were calculated for the fine and coarse size fractions, and average FINE/COARSE ratios were derived. The median concentrations were compared with those from a study, done at the same site in the fall of 1986. The levels of the automotive elements Pb and Br had decreased by a factor of about three relative to 1986, but most other elements exhibited very similar concentrations. A brief overview is given of the status in our various regional and global scale aerosol studies. Finally, our plans for future work are given. (author)

  9. Regional and global atmospheric aerosol studies using the ''Gent'' stacked filter unit sampler and other aerosol collectors, with multi-elemental analysis of the samples by nuclear-related analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maenhaut, W.; Francois, F.; Salma, I.; Cafmeyer, J.; Gilot, C.

    1994-01-01

    The ''Gent'' staked filter unit sampler and other collection devices are used in regional and global scale studies on the tropospheric atmospheric aerosols, its composition, sources and fate. The aerosol samples are analyzed by particle-induced X-ray emission analysis, instrumental neutron activation analysis, ion chromatography, a light reflectance technique (for determining black carbon), and gravimetry (for measuring the particular mass). In evaluating the data, use is made of receptor modelling techniques, transport models and wind sector analysis, and also of air mass trajectories and other meteorological information. Preliminary results from a long-term study in southern Norway are presented. It is suggested that the anthropogenic and soil dust aerosol components are mainly adverted to southern Norway by long-range transport and that the major fraction of the submicrometer particle mass is from anthropogenic origin. Preliminary results are also presented for an intensive study in southern Africa. On the basis of the data for two sites (about 40 km apart) in the Kruger National Park it was concluded that regionally representative aerosol samples were collected and that the biomass burning products account for more than 50% of the fine particle mass. Finally, our plans for future work are given. (author). 70 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  10. Natural atmospheric radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renoux, A.

    1986-01-01

    After having summed up the different old or new units, used in radioactivity and radioprotection, the origins of atmospheric radioactivity are reported. Next the authors deal with the air content in radon, thoron and their radioactive descendants, insisting on the variations of the radon air content and on the radioactive balance between radon and its descendants. Then a few notions concerning the natural radioactive aerosol are developed: electric charge state, granulometric distribution. The possible effects of natural atmospheric radioactivity on man are studied with a distinction between inner irradiation and outer irradiation, an average assessment is shown. Finally the important problem of radon in inhabitations is approached [fr

  11. Atmosphere beyond Poetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieczorek, Izabela

    2014-01-01

    Defined by German philosopher Gernot Böhme as a ‘fundamental concept of a new aesthetics’ (Böhme 2003), the notion of atmosphere has been widely discussed across many disciplinary fields over the last few decades. It has taken a central stage also in architectural debate, leading to both conceptual......, the notion of atmosphere is presented as parallactic for designing experience in architectural fields, since it transgresses formal and material boundaries of bodies, opening a new gap that exposes the orthodox space-body-environment relationships to questions. It leads to the dissolution...

  12. Global atmospheric changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piver, W T

    1991-12-01

    Increasing concentrations of CO2 and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere can be directly related to global warming. In terms of human health, because a major cause of increasing atmospheric concentrations of CO2 is the increased combustion of fossil fuels, global warming also may result in increases in air pollutants, acid deposition, and exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. To understand better the impacts of global warming phenomena on human health, this review emphasizes the processes that are responsible for the greenhouse effect, air pollution, acid deposition, and increased exposure to UV radiation.

  13. France without nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barre, B.; Charmant, A.; Devezeaux, J.G.; Ladoux, N.; Vielle, M.

    1995-01-01

    As environmental issues (particularly questions associated with the greenhouse effect) become a matter of increasing current concern, the French nuclear power programme can, in retrospect, be seen to have had a highly positive impact upon emissions of atmospheric pollutants. The most spectacular effect of this programme was the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions from 530 million tonnes per annum in 1973 to 387 million tonnes per annum today. Obviously, this result cannot be considered in isolation from the economic consequences of the nuclear power programme, which have been highly significant.The most obvious consequence of nuclear power has been the production of cheap electricity, while a further consequence has been the stability of electricity prices resulting from the increasing self-sufficiency of France in energy supplies (from 22% in 1973 to 49.% in 1992). Moreover, French nuclear industry exports. In 1993, 61.7 TW·h from nuclear production were exported, which contributed F.Fr. 14.2 billion to the credit side of the balance of payment. For the same year, Framatome exports are assessed at about F.Fr. 2 billion, corresponding to manufacturing and erection of heavy components, and maintenance services. Cogema, the French nuclear fuel operator, sold nuclear materials and services for F.Fr. 9.3 billion. Thus, nuclear activities contributed more than F.Fr. 25 billion to the balance of payment. Therefore, a numerical assessment of the macroeconomic impact of the nuclear power programme is essential for any accurate evaluation of the environmental consequences of that programme. For this assessment, which is presented in the paper, the Micro-Melodie macroeconomic and energy supply model developed by the Commissariat a l'energie atomique has been used. (author). 6 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  14. Chapter 2. Peculiarities of radioactive particle formation and isotope fractionation resulted from underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Radioactive particles, forming terrain fallouts from underground nuclear explosion differ sufficiently from radioactive particles, produced by atmospheric nuclear explosions. Patterns of underground nuclear explosion development, release of radioactivity to the atmosphere, formation of a cloud and base surge, peculiarities of formed radioactive particles, data on isotope fractionation in radioactive particles are presented. Scheme of particle activation, resulted from underground explosions is given

  15. Diffusive retention of atmospheric gases in chert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettitt, E.; Cherniak, D. J.; Watson, E. B.; Schaller, M. F.

    2016-12-01

    Throughout Earth's history, the volatile contents (N2, CO2, Ar) of both deep and shallow terrestrial reservoirs has been dynamic. Volatiles are important chemical constituents because they play a significant role in regulating Earth's climate, mediating the evolution of complex life, and controlling the properties of minerals and rocks. Estimating levels of atmospheric volatiles in the deep geological past requires interrogation of materials that have acquired and retained a chemical memory from that time. Cherts have the potential to trap atmospheric components during formation and later release those gases for analysis in the laboratory. However, cherts have been underexploited in this regard, partly because their ability to retain a record of volatile components has not been adequately evaluated. Before cherts can be reliably used as indicators of past levels of major atmospheric gases, it is crucial that we understand the diffusive retentiveness of these cryptocrystalline silica phases. As the first step toward quantifying the diffusivity and solubility of carbon dioxide and nitrogen in chert, we have performed 1-atmosphere diffusive-uptake experiments at temperatures up to 450°C. Depth profiles of in-diffusing gases are measured by nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) to help us understand the molecular-scale transport of volatiles and thus the validity of using chert-bound volatiles to record information about Earth history. Data collected to date suggest that at least some cherts are ideal storage containers and can retain volatiles for a geologically long time. In addition to these diffusion experiments, preliminary online-crush fast-scan measurements using a quadrupole mass spectrometer indicate that atmospheric volatiles are released upon crushing various chert samples. By coupling such volatile-release measurements made by mass spectrometry with diffusion experiments, we are uniquely able to address the storage and fidelity of volatiles bound in crustal

  16. Environmentalists for nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comby, B.

    2001-01-01

    Fossil fuels such as coal oil, and gas, massively pollute the Earth atmosphere (CO, CO 2 , SOX, NOX...), provoking acid rains and changing the global climate by increasing the greenhouse effect, while nuclear energy does not participate in these pollutions and presents well-founded environmental benefits. Renewable energies (solar, wind) not being able to deliver the amount of energy required by populations in developing and developed countries, nuclear energy is in fact the only clean and safe energy available to protect the planet during the 21 century. The first half of the book, titled The Atomic Paradox, describes in layman language the risks of nuclear power, its environmental impact, quality and safety standards, waste management, why a power reactor is not a bomb, energy alternatives, nuclear weapons, and other major global and environmental problems. In each case the major conclusions are framed for greater emphasis. Although examples are taken from the French nuclear power program, the conclusions are equally valid elsewhere. The second half of the book is titled Information on Nuclear Energy and the Environment and briefly provides a historical survey, an explanation of the different types of radiation, radioactivity, dose effects of radiation, Chernobyl, medical uses of radiation, accident precautions, as well as a glossary of terms and abbreviations and a bibliography. (author)

  17. Seasonal atmospheric extinction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhail, J.S.

    1979-01-01

    Mean monochromatic extinction coefficients at various wavelengths at the Kottamia Observatory site have shown the existence of a seasonal variation of atmospheric extinction. The extinction of aerosol compontnts with wavelengths at winter represent exceedingly good conditions. Spring gives the highest extinction due to aerosol. (orig.)

  18. Atmospheric and aerosol chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeill, V. Faye [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Ariya, Parisa A. (ed.) [McGill Univ. Montreal, QC (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry; McGill Univ. Montreal, QC (Canada). Dept. of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences

    2014-09-01

    This series presents critical reviews of the present position and future trends in modern chemical research. Short and concise reports on chemistry, each written by the world renowned experts. Still valid and useful after 5 or 10 years. More information as well as the electronic version of the whole content available at: springerlink.com. Christian George, Barbara D'Anna, Hartmut Herrmann, Christian Weller, Veronica Vaida, D. J. Donaldson, Thorsten Bartels-Rausch, Markus Ammann Emerging Areas in Atmospheric Photochemistry. Lisa Whalley, Daniel Stone, Dwayne Heard New Insights into the Tropospheric Oxidation of Isoprene: Combining Field Measurements, Laboratory Studies, Chemical Modelling and Quantum Theory. Neil M. Donahue, Allen L. Robinson, Erica R. Trump, Ilona Riipinen, Jesse H. Kroll Volatility and Aging of Atmospheric Organic Aerosol. P. A. Ariya, G. Kos, R. Mortazavi, E. D. Hudson, V. Kanthasamy, N. Eltouny, J. Sun, C. Wilde Bio-Organic Materials in the Atmosphere and Snow: Measurement and Characterization V. Faye McNeill, Neha Sareen, Allison N. Schwier Surface-Active Organics in Atmospheric Aerosols.

  19. Atmospheric muons in Hanoi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham Ngoc Diep; Pham thi Tuyet Nhung; Pierre Darriulat; Nguyen Thi Thao; Dang Quang Thieu; Vo Van Thuan

    2006-01-01

    Recent measurements of the atmospheric muon flux in Hanoi were reviewed. As the measurements were carried out in a region of maximal geomagnetic rigidity cutoff, they provided a sensitive test of air shower models used in the interpretation of neutrino oscillation experiments. The measured data were found to be in a very good agreement with the prediction from the model of M. Honda. (author)

  20. Climate and atmospheric research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, G.; Schumacher, R.

    1992-01-01

    This issue of the scientific journal of the Humboldt university is dedicated to results of research work carried out to the greatest extent at the meteorological institute in the last two years on the area of climate and atmospheric research. The traditional research areas of the institute are climatology and the dynamics of the atmosphere, in particular the atmospherical boundary layer. Considering the high probability of a global climatic fluctuation due to the anthropogenic change of composition of the atmosphere and other climate-relevant factors imminent in the next century, climatological research today is an important part of global and regional environmental research. From the necessity of determination and evaluation of the effect of climatic fluctuations on nature and society the contours of a new interdisciplinary research area are already visible now. This is suitable as hardly any other area to be the supporting idea of environmental research at universities. The contributions contained in the issue already consider, in addition to results on climate diagnosis, also results on aspects of climate effect research. (orig./KW) [de

  1. Astronomy and Atmospheric Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, Les; Gaina, Alex

    2011-12-01

    The authors discusse the insuccess of the observation of the Total Eclipse of the Moon from 10 december 2011 in Romania and relate them with meteoconditions. Only a very short part of the last penumbral phase was observed, while the inital part and the totality was not observed due to very dense clouds. The change in color and brightness during this phase was signaled. Meanwhile, there is an area of science where clouds are of great use and interest. This area is Atmospheric optics, while the science which study clouds is meteorology. Clouds in combination with Solar and Moon light could give rise to a variety of strange, rare and unobvious phenomena in the atmosphere (sky), sometimes confused with Unidentified Flying Objects (UFO). The importance of meteorology for astronomy and atmospheric optics is underlined and an invitation to astronomers to use unfavourable days for athmospheric observations was sent. The web address of the site by Les Cowley, designed for atmospheric optics phenomena is contained in the text of the entry.

  2. Contaminants in the Atmosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, H.; Bossi, R.; Wåhlin, P.

    This report presents the results of atmospheric monitoring in Nuuk, Greenland. A long series of heavy metals and persistent organic Pollutants (POPs) have been measured and model calculations have been carried out supporting the interpretation of the results. Financially, the Danish Environmental...

  3. Atmospheric neutrino challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanev, Todor [Bartol Research Institute, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States)

    2005-08-15

    We briefly review the improvements in the predictions of atmospheric neutrino fluxes since the NOW2000 workshop. In spite of the great progress of the calculational technique the predictions are still not exact because of the uncertainties in the two major sets of input - cosmic ray flux and hadronic interactions on light nuclei.

  4. Atmosphere as colloid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutsenogij, K.P.; Kutsenogij, P.K.

    2008-01-01

    In the paper review the results of experimental and theoretical investigations on space-time variability of physical, chemical and biological atmospheric characteristics and its influence on climate, ecology and environmental quality under the impact of natural processes and anthropogenic load is submitted

  5. Atmospheric and aerosol chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeill, V. Faye; Ariya, Parisa A.; McGill Univ. Montreal, QC

    2014-01-01

    This series presents critical reviews of the present position and future trends in modern chemical research. Short and concise reports on chemistry, each written by the world renowned experts. Still valid and useful after 5 or 10 years. More information as well as the electronic version of the whole content available at: springerlink.com. Christian George, Barbara D'Anna, Hartmut Herrmann, Christian Weller, Veronica Vaida, D. J. Donaldson, Thorsten Bartels-Rausch, Markus Ammann Emerging Areas in Atmospheric Photochemistry. Lisa Whalley, Daniel Stone, Dwayne Heard New Insights into the Tropospheric Oxidation of Isoprene: Combining Field Measurements, Laboratory Studies, Chemical Modelling and Quantum Theory. Neil M. Donahue, Allen L. Robinson, Erica R. Trump, Ilona Riipinen, Jesse H. Kroll Volatility and Aging of Atmospheric Organic Aerosol. P. A. Ariya, G. Kos, R. Mortazavi, E. D. Hudson, V. Kanthasamy, N. Eltouny, J. Sun, C. Wilde Bio-Organic Materials in the Atmosphere and Snow: Measurement and Characterization V. Faye McNeill, Neha Sareen, Allison N. Schwier Surface-Active Organics in Atmospheric Aerosols.

  6. Atmospheric neutrino fluxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, D.H.

    1984-01-01

    The atmospheric neutrino fluxes, which are responsible for the main background in proton decay experiments, have been calculated by two independent methods. There are discrepancies between the two sets of results regarding latitude effects and up-down asymmetries, especially for neutrino energies Esub(ν) < 1 GeV. (author)

  7. Atoms and atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megie, G.

    1994-01-01

    The ozone sources, roles and distribution are reviewed, and the atmosphere dynamic effects on ozone circulation are discussed; chlorine and CFC are the two main perturbative agents of the ozone layer and their effects are described and analyzed; impacts of the limitation of the CFC and chlorine utilization are discussed. 5 figs., 9 tabs

  8. Parameters of atmospheric radioactivity in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaneva, B.; Todorov, P.; Georgieva, D.

    2006-01-01

    Bulgaria is a country which is located on the Balkan Peninsula, at the Eastern part of Europe. There are a lot of polluting sources, which can affect the environmental parameters and human health. One of these parameters is a radioactivity. It can be as a result from natural and anthropological sources. One of the most important sources of radiological influence to the environment and its components is from atmosphere. Anthropological sources of atmospheric pollution are Nuclear power plants, different kinds of industrial plants, and so on. The systematic control on these parameters is made by the Ministry of environment and water in Bulgaria. The atmospheric radioactivity research is based on collecting of many samples and its examine. The collecting of these aerosol samples on different kind of filters is automatic and it is put into practice by fixed stations located in some of the main towns in Bulgaria - Sofia, Varna, Burgas, Vratza and Montana. The required amount of air for each sample is 1000m 3 . These samples are analyzed by gamma-spectrometry analysis for determination of specifies activity of natural and anthropological radionuclides in them. Monitoring data for the atmospheric radioactivity can be characterized by concentrations of Cs-137, Be-7. The results show that concentrations of Cs-137 are 3 and the concentrations for Be-7 vary from 0.7 to 15.7 mBq/m 3 . Other important radionuclides are Sr-90, Uranium and Ra-226

  9. ESA Atmospheric Toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeijer, Sander

    2017-04-01

    The ESA Atmospheric Toolbox (BEAT) is one of the ESA Sentinel Toolboxes. It consists of a set of software components to read, analyze, and visualize a wide range of atmospheric data products. In addition to the upcoming Sentinel-5P mission it supports a wide range of other atmospheric data products, including those of previous ESA missions, ESA Third Party missions, Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS), ground based data, etc. The toolbox consists of three main components that are called CODA, HARP and VISAN. CODA provides interfaces for direct reading of data from earth observation data files. These interfaces consist of command line applications, libraries, direct interfaces to scientific applications (IDL and MATLAB), and direct interfaces to programming languages (C, Fortran, Python, and Java). CODA provides a single interface to access data in a wide variety of data formats, including ASCII, binary, XML, netCDF, HDF4, HDF5, CDF, GRIB, RINEX, and SP3. HARP is a toolkit for reading, processing and inter-comparing satellite remote sensing data, model data, in-situ data, and ground based remote sensing data. The main goal of HARP is to assist in the inter-comparison of datasets. By appropriately chaining calls to HARP command line tools one can pre-process datasets such that two datasets that need to be compared end up having the same temporal/spatial grid, same data format/structure, and same physical unit. The toolkit comes with its own data format conventions, the HARP format, which is based on netcdf/HDF. Ingestion routines (based on CODA) allow conversion from a wide variety of atmospheric data products to this common format. In addition, the toolbox provides a wide range of operations to perform conversions on the data such as unit conversions, quantity conversions (e.g. number density to volume mixing ratios), regridding, vertical smoothing using averaging kernels, collocation of two datasets, etc. VISAN is a cross-platform visualization and

  10. Nuclear science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This fact sheet answers specific questions about the Department of Energy's possible acquisition and conversion of a partially completed commercial nuclear power plant to a nuclear materials production facility. The nuclear power plant is the Washington Nuclear Plant number sign 1 owned by the Washington Public Power Supply System and is located on DOE's Hanford Reservation near Richland, Washington

  11. Nuclear science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-04-01

    This report answers questions about the Department of Energy's possible acquisition and conversion of a partially completed commercial nuclear power plant to a nuclear materials production facility. The nuclear power plant is the Washington Nuclear Plant No.1 owned by the Washington Public Power Supply System and is located on DOE's Hanford Reservation near Richland, Washington

  12. Nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lentle, B.C.

    1986-01-01

    Several growth areas for nuclear medicine were defined. Among them were: cardiac nuclear medicine, neuro-psychiatric nuclear medicine, and cancer diagnosis through direct tumor imaging. A powerful new tool, Positron Emission Tomography (PET) was lauded as the impetus for new developments in nuclear medicine. The political environment (funding, degree of autonomy) was discussed, as were the economic and scientific environments

  13. Nuclear option

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemm, K R

    1978-05-01

    The global outlook is that nuclear reactors are here to stay and South Africa has already entered the nuclear power stakes. This article discusses the rocketing oil prices, and the alternatives that can be used in power generation, the good safety record of the nuclear industry and the effect that South Africa's first nuclear power station should have on the environment.

  14. Nuclear resisters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The booklet contains six papers by different authors, under the headings: dangers along the nuclear fuel cycle; the nuclear profiteers; the nuclear state is a police state; a non-disposable future (renewable energy sources, energy conservation); nuclear weapons - out of control; man made madness. (U.K.)

  15. Basic elements of nuclear geophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordemann, D.J.R.; Pereira, E.B.

    1984-01-01

    Nuclear Geophysics applies the nuclear radiation detection methodology to the geosciences, specially to study the dynamical processes of the lithosphere, the hydrosphere and the atmosphere as well as some aspects of planetology and astrophysics. Here the main methods are described: alpha-ray and gamma-ray spectrometry, the interaction of alpha and gamma radiation with matter and the detectors used (grid chambers, surface barrier silicon detector for alpha radiation; and sodium iodide thallium activated phosphors, hyperpure and lithium drifted germanium semiconductor detectors for gamma radiation). The principal applications of Nuclear Geophysics are given as examples to ilustrate the use of the methods described. (AUthor) [pt

  16. Comets, impacts, and atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Tobias; Bar-Nun, Akiva

    Studies of element abundances and values of D/H in the atmospheres of the giant planets and Titan have emphasized the important role of icy planetesimals in the formation of these bodies. In these atmospheres, C/H and D/H increase as the relative masses of the 'cores' of the planets increase. N/H appears to deviate from this trend in an interesting way. In the inner solar system, the traditional approach of using carbonaceous chondrites as the source of planetary volatiles is in serious trouble because of the depletion of xenon and the unusual pattern of xenon isotopes found in the atmospheres of Earth and Mars, and because of the solar-type abundance ratios of argon, krypton and xenon and the large amounts of neon and argon on Venus. Recent studies of elemental abundances in comets, especially P/Halley, coupled with laboratory studies of the trapping of gas in ice formed at low temperatures by A. Bar-Nun et al. provide a consistent interpretation of all of these results. This interpretation emphasizes the fundamental importance of icy planetesimals (comets) and the randomness of early impacts in the formation of planetary systems. Cometary delivery by itself will not explain the noble gas abundances on the inner planets. There is good evidence for at least one additional source, which presumably consists of the rocky material making up the bulk of the planets. The existence of this rocky reservoir is manifested in the nucleogenic isotopes and in the neon which is found in all these atmospheres and is also present in the Earth's mantle. This neon may well be a relic of the planets' earliest, accretional atmospheres.

  17. Nuclear links

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The subject is dealt with in sections: introduction; energy and the third world; world energy consumption 1978; oil -the energy dilemma; nuclear chains - introduction; uranium; Namibia; enrichment and reprocessing; countries with enrichment and reprocessing facilities; waste; conclusion; why take the nuclear option; third world countries with nuclear reactors; the arms connection; government spending and human resources 1977 (by countries); nuclear power - the final solution; the fascists; world bank; campaigns; community action in Plogoff; Australian labour movement; NUM against nuclear power; Scottish campaign; students against nuclear energy; anti-nuclear campaign; partizans; 3W1 disarmament and development; campaign ATOM; CANUC; 3W1; SANE. (U.K.)

  18. Storage arrangements for nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ealing, C.J.

    1985-01-01

    A storage arrangement for nuclear fuel has a plurality of storage tubes connected by individual pipes to manifolds which are connected, in turn, to an exhaust system for maintaining the tubes at sub-atmospheric pressure, and means for producing a flow of a cooling fluid, such as air, over the exterior surfaces of the tubes. (author)

  19. Improving practical atmospheric dispersion models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, J.C.R.; Hudson, B.; Thomson, D.J.

    1992-01-01

    The new generation of practical atmospheric dispersion model (for short range ≤ 30 km) are based on dispersion science and boundary layer meteorology which have widespread international acceptance. In addition, recent improvements in computer skills and the widespread availability of small powerful computers make it possible to have new regulatory models which are more complex than the previous generation which were based on charts and simple formulae. This paper describes the basis of these models and how they have developed. Such models are needed to satisfy the urgent public demand for sound, justifiable and consistent environmental decisions. For example, it is preferable that the same models are used to simulate dispersion in different industries; in many countries at present different models are used for emissions from nuclear and fossil fuel power stations. The models should not be so simple as to be suspect but neither should they be too complex for widespread use; for example, at public inquiries in Germany, where simple models are mandatory, it is becoming usual to cite the results from highly complex computational models because the simple models are not credible. This paper is written in a schematic style with an emphasis on tables and diagrams. (au) (22 refs.)

  20. Evaluation of empirical atmospheric diffusion data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horst, T.W.; Doran, J.C.; Nickola, P.W.

    1979-10-01

    A study has been made of atmospheric diffusion over level, homogeneous terrain of contaminants released from non-buoyant point sources up to 100 m in height. Current theories of diffusion are compared to empirical diffusion data, and specific dispersion estimation techniques are recommended which can be implemented with the on-site meteorological instrumentation required by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. A comparison of both the recommended diffusion model and the NRC diffusion model with the empirical data demonstrates that the predictions of the recommended model have both smaller scatter and less bias, particularly for groundlevel sources

  1. Evaluation of empirical atmospheric diffusion data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horst, T.W.; Doran, J.C.; Nickola, P.W.

    1979-10-01

    A study has been made of atmospheric diffusion over level, homogeneous terrain of contaminants released from non-buoyant point sources up to 100 m in height. Current theories of diffusion are compared to empirical diffusion data, and specific dispersion estimation techniques are recommended which can be implemented with the on-site meteorological instrumentation required by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. A comparison of both the recommended diffusion model and the NRC diffusion model with the empirical data demonstrates that the predictions of the recommended model have both smaller scatter and less bias, particularly for ground-level sources.

  2. Device for determining pressures in aggressive atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schley, Robert; Voituriez, Bernard.

    1982-01-01

    This invention concerns a compact device for measuring rapidly changing pressures at high temperature and in corrosive or radioactive atmospheres. The device includes a case in which there is a support having two plane surfaces, an elliptical flexible membrane fixed to the first plane surface and supporting a strain gauge, a second gauge fixed to the second plane surface, the support being fitted with a passage enabling the membrane to distort under the action of the fluid it is desired to measure for pressure. Applies to the determination of pressures in nuclear reactors [fr

  3. Study of atmospherical neutrinos therapeutic potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roustit, Rudy

    2008-01-01

    Glioblastoma is nowadays one of the most murderer cancers with only 5 % survival after 3 years in case of classic treatment in radiotherapy. However, recently a new treatment have been create, the Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) using interaction's properties between bore 10 atoms and low energy neutrons that produced by giant accelerators or nuclear reactors. The target of this stage consist in adapt this technique in using a natural neutron source (atmospheric neutrons) and to know his radio-biologic efficacy. For this, we have been realised a numerical simulation of this source throughout a patient's brain [fr

  4. Simulation of containment atmosphere stratification experiment using local instantaneous description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babic, M.; Kljenak, I.

    2004-01-01

    An experiment on mixing and stratification in the atmosphere of a nuclear power plant containment at accident conditions was simulated with the CFD code CFX4.4. The original experiment was performed in the TOSQAN experimental facility. Simulated nonhomogeneous temperature, species concentration and velocity fields are compared to experimental results. (author)

  5. Detection of Atmospheric Explosions at IMS Monitoring Stations using Infrasound Techniques

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Christie, Douglas R; Kennett, Brian L; Tarlowski, Chris

    2006-01-01

    Work is continuing on the development of infrasound techniques that can be used to improve detection, location and discrimination capability for atmospheric nuclear explosions at International Monitoring System (IMS...

  6. Max-Planck-Institute for Nuclear Physics. Annual report 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klapdor, H.V.; Jessberger, E.K.

    1987-01-01

    This annual report contains short communications and extended abstracts about the work performed at the named institute together with a list of publications and talks. The work concerns technical developments on accelerators and ion sources, developments of detectors and experimental setups, electronics, data processing, target developments, giant resonances, nuclear spectroscopy, nuclear reaction mechanisms, atomic physics, medium- and high-energy physics, statistical models of nuclei and nuclear reactions, nuclear reactions at high energies, many-particle theory, quantum chromodynamics, meteorites, comets, interstellar dust, planetary atmospheres, cosmic radiation, molecular collisions in the earth atmosphere, nuclear geology and geochemistry, as well as archaeology. See hints under the relevant topics. (HSI)

  7. Measurements of atmospheric fallout in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canoba, A.C.; Lopez, F.O.; Bruno, H.A.

    1998-01-01

    With the purpose of studying the radioactive fallout present in Argentina from atmospheric nuclear explosions tests that have been conducted recently, an environmental monitoring program, outside the influence of nuclear facilities of Argentina, was undertaken during 1996 and 1997. The levels of Cs-137 and Sr-90 were analysed in samples of air, deposited material (rainwater), milk, an average meal of a standard man and food. During this period, a total of 630 radiochemical analysis were performed on 325 samples of the different matrices described. The concentration levels of the radionuclides analysed in the different environmental matrices are presented and are compared with the values obtained in the environmental monitoring program done during the period 1960-1981. (author) [es

  8. Atmospheric dispersion modeling: Challenges of the Fukushima Daiichi response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugiyama, Gayle [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Nasstrom, John [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Pobanz, Brenda [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Foster, Kevin [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Simpson, Matthew [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Vogt, Phil [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Aluzzi, Fernando [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Homann, Steve [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2012-05-01

    In this research, the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) provided a wide range of predictions and analyses as part of the response to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident including: daily Japanese weather forecasts and atmospheric transport predictions to inform planning for field monitoring operations and to provide U.S. government agencies with ongoing situational awareness of meteorological conditions; estimates of possible dose in Japan based on hypothetical U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission scenarios of potential radionuclide releases to support protective action planning for U.S. citizens; predictions of possible plume arrival times and dose levels at U.S. locations; and source estimation and plume model refinement based on atmospheric dispersion modeling and available monitoring data.

  9. Transport of radionuclides in the atmosphere during complex meteorological conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antic, D.; Telenta, B.

    1991-01-01

    Radionuclides from various sources (nuclear and fossil fuel power plants, nuclear facilities, medical facilities, etc.) are being released to the atmosphere. The meteorological conditions determine the atmospheric turbulence, dispersion, and removal processes of the radionuclides. A two-dimensional version of the cloud model based on the Klemp-Wilhelmson dynamic and Lin et al.'s microphysics and thermodynamics has been adapted and used to simulate the transport of radionuclides emitted from a power plant or other source to the atmosphere. Calculations of the trajectories and radii for a few puffs are included in this paper. These numerical investigations show that the presented model can be used for the transport simulation of radionuclides and for the assessment of the radiological impact of power plants and other sources in safety assessments and comparative studies. Because it can simulate puff trajectories, this model is especially valuable in the presence of complex meteorological conditions

  10. Lichens and atmospheric pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tallis, J H

    1964-09-01

    The extreme sensitivity of lichens, particularly the larger ones, to industrialization has been recognized for many years. Most people attribute the absence of lichens from urban areas to the atmospheric pollution prevailing, and a few attribute it to climatic dryness, resulting from efficient drainage systems in towns. The two main components of air pollution are solid matter, or soot, and gaseous sulfur dioxide. The main effects of pollution appear to be: a direct reduction of light intensity by smoke haze, a deposit of soot on the plant surface, an acidification of the soil, and direct damage to plants. A body of evidence indicates that SO/sub 2/ may be the main harmful component for lichens. The distribution of lichens thus might be used to determine the limits within which atmospheric pollution is operating. 5 references.

  11. Outer atmospheric research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    The region above the earth from about 90 km to 150 km is a major part of the upper or outer atmosphere. It is relatively unexplored, being too high for balloons or aircraft and too low for persistent orbiting spacecraft. However, the concept of a tethered subsatellite, deployed downward from an orbiting, more massive craft such as the Space Shuttle, opens the possibility of a research capability that could provide global mapping of this region. The need for research in this thick spherical shell above the earth falls into two major categories: (1) scientific data for understanding and modeling the global atmosphere and thereby determining its role in the earth system, and (2) engineering data for the design of future aerospace vehicles that will operate there. This paper presents an overview and synthesis of the currently perceived research needs and the state-of-the-art of the proposed tethered research capability. 16 references

  12. Evidence for a link between atmospheric thermonuclear detonations and nitric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holdsworth, G.

    1986-01-01

    Data are presented for an ice core, which show that during the era of intense atmospheric thermonuclear weapons testing, a significant part of the nitrate content in the snow was modulated by the intensity of the nuclear detonations. The fixation of nitrogen by nuclear fireballs leads to NOsub(x) gases in the atmosphere and ultimately to nitric acid in precipitation. At certain concentrations, these gases and the associated aerosols may perturb the climate. (author)

  13. Atmospheric Science Without Borders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panday, Arnico; Praveen, Ps; Adhikary, Bhupesh; Bhave, Prakash; Surapipith, Vanisa; Pradhan, Bidya; Karki, Anita; Ghimire, Shreta; Thapa, Alpha; Shrestha, Sujan

    2016-04-01

    The Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) in northern South Asia are among the most polluted and most densely populated places in the world, and they are upwind of vulnerable ecosystems in the Himalaya mountains. They are also fragmented across 5 countries between which movement of people, data, instruments and scientific understanding have been very limited. ICIMOD's Atmosphere Initiative has for the past three years been working on filling data gaps in the region, while facilitating collaborations across borders. It has established several atmospheric observatories at low and mid elevations in Bhutan and Nepal that provide new data on the inflow of pollutants from the IGP towards the mountains, as well as quantify the effects of local emissions on air quality in mountain cities. EGU will be the first international conference where these data will be presented. ICIMOD is in the process of setting up data servers through which data from the region will be shared with scientists and the general public across borders. Meanwhile, to promote cross-border collaboration among scientists in the region, while addressing an atmospheric phenomenon that affects the lives of the several hundred million people, ICIMOD' Atmosphere Initiative has been coordinating an interdisciplinary multi-year study of persistent winter fog over the Indo-Gangetic Plains, with participation by researchers from Pakistan, India, China, Nepal, Bhutan and Bangladesh. Using a combination of in-situ measurements and sample collection, remote sensing, modeling and community based research, the researchers are studying how changing moisture availability and air pollution have led to increases in fog frequency and duration, as well as the fog's impacts on local communities and energy demand that may affect air pollution emissions. Preliminary results of the Winter 2015-2016 field campaign will be shown.

  14. Atmospheric tides on Neptune

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dement'ev, M.S.; Morozhenko, A.V.

    1989-01-01

    The dependence of the equivalent width of the methane absorption band at 619 nm in the Neptune's spectrum upon the Triton's orbital position is discovered. It is assumed that observed changes of the equivalent width of the band and colour index (J - K) (Belton et al., 1981; Brown et al., 1981; Cruikshank, 1978) are due to atmospheric tides (period 2 d .9375) and Neptune's rotation (period 10 h .14)

  15. Dreaming of Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldmann, I. P.

    2016-04-01

    Here, we introduce the RobERt (Robotic Exoplanet Recognition) algorithm for the classification of exoplanetary emission spectra. Spectral retrieval of exoplanetary atmospheres frequently requires the preselection of molecular/atomic opacities to be defined by the user. In the era of open-source, automated, and self-sufficient retrieval algorithms, manual input should be avoided. User dependent input could, in worst-case scenarios, lead to incomplete models and biases in the retrieval. The RobERt algorithm is based on deep-belief neural (DBN) networks trained to accurately recognize molecular signatures for a wide range of planets, atmospheric thermal profiles, and compositions. Reconstructions of the learned features, also referred to as the “dreams” of the network, indicate good convergence and an accurate representation of molecular features in the DBN. Using these deep neural networks, we work toward retrieval algorithms that themselves understand the nature of the observed spectra, are able to learn from current and past data, and make sensible qualitative preselections of atmospheric opacities to be used for the quantitative stage of the retrieval process.

  16. Atmospheric benzene and toluene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, R.A.; Khalil, M.A.K.

    1983-01-01

    Atmospheric concentrations of benzene (C 6 H 6 ) and toluene (C 7 H 8 )have been observed at nine remote locations of the world ranging in latitude from inside the arctic circle to the south pole. The observations span all seasons at each location. In the northern hemisphere it is observed that C 6 H 6 and C 7 H 8 are most abundant during winter and least abundant during summer. Based on the limited data available, such cycles are not observed in the tropics. These findings are consistent with the expected latitudinal and seasonal variations of OH radicals which cause benzene and toluene to be removed from the atmosphere. The latitude distribution shows high concentrations at mid latitude and low levels in the southern hemisphere. This finding is consistent with the present understanding that the sources of benzene and toluene are primarily anthropogenic. The observed concentration distribution and varibility are consistent with the short expected atmospheric lifetime of the order of months for benzene and days for toluene

  17. DREAMING OF ATMOSPHERES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldmann, I. P.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we introduce the RobERt (Robotic Exoplanet Recognition) algorithm for the classification of exoplanetary emission spectra. Spectral retrieval of exoplanetary atmospheres frequently requires the preselection of molecular/atomic opacities to be defined by the user. In the era of open-source, automated, and self-sufficient retrieval algorithms, manual input should be avoided. User dependent input could, in worst-case scenarios, lead to incomplete models and biases in the retrieval. The RobERt algorithm is based on deep-belief neural (DBN) networks trained to accurately recognize molecular signatures for a wide range of planets, atmospheric thermal profiles, and compositions. Reconstructions of the learned features, also referred to as the “dreams” of the network, indicate good convergence and an accurate representation of molecular features in the DBN. Using these deep neural networks, we work toward retrieval algorithms that themselves understand the nature of the observed spectra, are able to learn from current and past data, and make sensible qualitative preselections of atmospheric opacities to be used for the quantitative stage of the retrieval process

  18. Atmospheric radiation monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, M.A. Leigui de; Peixoto, C.J. Todero; Leao, M.S.A.B.; Luzio, V.P. [Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), SP (Brazil); Barbosa, A.F.; Lima Junior, H.P.; Vilar, A.B.; Gama, R.G.; Ferraz, V.A. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Full text: The Atmospheric Radiation Monitor (MonRAt) is a compact telescope designed to detect fluorescence photons generated in the atmosphere by ultra-high energy cosmic rays showers with energies in the interval between 10{sup 17} eV and 10{sup 18} eV. It is composite by a 64 pixels MultiAnodic PhotoMultiplier Tube (MAPMT) placed at the focus of a parabolic mirror mounted in a Newtonian telescope setup and the data acquisition system. In front of the MAPMT photocathode, filters will be positioned to select light with wavelength in the near ultraviolet region (300 nm < {lambda} < 450 nm) where the nitrogen fluorescent emissions occurs. The data acquisition system consists of a set of pre-amplifiers and FPGA-based boards able to record trigger times and waveforms from each channel and send the data to a computer by USB ports. MonRAt will be used to detect fluorescence photons under different atmospheric conditions (pressure, temperature, humidity, local geomagnetic field, etc) and will contribute with a detailed study of the fluorescence radiation yield. The assembly of the telescope is under way and we present in this work the status of the experiment and its first measurements in the laboratory. (author)

  19. Atmospheric radiation monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, M.A. Leigui de; Peixoto, C.J. Todero; Leao, M.S.A.B.; Luzio, V.P.; Barbosa, A.F.; Lima Junior, H.P.; Vilar, A.B.; Gama, R.G.; Ferraz, V.A.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: The Atmospheric Radiation Monitor (MonRAt) is a compact telescope designed to detect fluorescence photons generated in the atmosphere by ultra-high energy cosmic rays showers with energies in the interval between 10 17 eV and 10 18 eV. It is composite by a 64 pixels MultiAnodic PhotoMultiplier Tube (MAPMT) placed at the focus of a parabolic mirror mounted in a Newtonian telescope setup and the data acquisition system. In front of the MAPMT photocathode, filters will be positioned to select light with wavelength in the near ultraviolet region (300 nm < λ < 450 nm) where the nitrogen fluorescent emissions occurs. The data acquisition system consists of a set of pre-amplifiers and FPGA-based boards able to record trigger times and waveforms from each channel and send the data to a computer by USB ports. MonRAt will be used to detect fluorescence photons under different atmospheric conditions (pressure, temperature, humidity, local geomagnetic field, etc) and will contribute with a detailed study of the fluorescence radiation yield. The assembly of the telescope is under way and we present in this work the status of the experiment and its first measurements in the laboratory. (author)

  20. The Atmospheric Boundary Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garratt, J. R.

    1994-05-01

    A comprehensive and lucid account of the physics and dynamics of the lowest one to two kilometers of the Earth's atmosphere in direct contact with the Earth's surface, known as the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). Dr. Garratt emphasizes the application of the ABL problems to numerical modeling of the climate, which makes this book unique among recent texts on the subject. He begins with a brief introduction to the ABL before leading to the development of mean and turbulence equations and the many scaling laws and theories that are the cornerstone of any serious ABL treatment. Modeling of the ABL is crucially dependent for its realism on the surface boundary conditions, so chapters four and five deal with aerodynamic and energy considerations, with attention given to both dry and wet land surfaces and the sea. The author next treats the structure of the clear-sky, thermally stratified ABL, including the convective and stable cases over homogeneous land, the marine ABL, and the internal boundary layer at the coastline. Chapter seven then extends this discussion to the cloudy ABL. This is particularly relevant to current research because the extensive stratocumulus regions over the subtropical oceans and stratus regions over the Arctic have been identified as key players in the climate system. In the final chapters, Dr. Garratt summarizes the book's material by discussing appropriate ABL and surface parameterization schemes in general circulation models of the atmosphere that are being used for climate stimulation.