WorldWideScience

Sample records for atmospheres psychiatric knowledge

  1. Paranoid atmospheres: Psychiatric knowledge and delusional realities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlimme Jann E

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper I investigate the topic of paranoid atmospheres. This subject is especially of interest with respect to persons who are deluded, and also, I will demonstrate, sheds light upon the psychiatrist's "gaze" and knowledge of delusions. In my argument I will follow a path initially outlined by Karl Jaspers (1883-1969: modern psychiatric diagnosis of delusions is a diagnosis of form and not content. Jaspers' emphasis on the form of delusions enables psychiatrists to be self-critical about their professional knowledge and, consequently, prevent the development of dogmatic attitudes. In accord with Jaspers, my argument will focus on the basic structure of delusions and highlight the difference between delusional realities and non-delusional realities, a difference that follows from the possibility of self-criticism of one's own conscious and explicit convictions. I will demonstrate the importance of self-criticism with regard to paranoid atmospheres and also to psychiatric knowledge. In this manner, an understanding of delusions as lived experience will be developed, which argues that an escalation of the influence of delusional convictions, resulting in a profoundly paranoid atmosphere, is most problematic for the deluded person. To acknowledge this insight mirrors the need for a self-critique of psychiatric discourse, encourages an empathic and respectful relationship between professionals and deluded patients, and enables deluded persons to restrict their paranoid atmosphere. It is the main conclusion of my paper that a deluded person cannot do (with respect to his delusional convictions what a psychiatrist must do (with respect to his psychiatric knowledge and his own existential convictions in order to prevent a profoundly paranoid atmosphere in their relationship: be self-critical.

  2. Nursing workers’ knowledge in psychiatric emergency situations: an integrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Yukari Ikuta

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this integrative review was to identify, in national and international literature, the available evidence regarding nursing workers’ knowledge on care in psychiatric emergency situations, from 1990 to 2012. The articles were selected from PubMed, MedLine, CINAHL and LILACS databases. The data were collected by means of a structured form and the findings were submitted to content analysis. The sample consisted of 10 articles. While synthesizing the evidence, it was found that the articles evidenced that care in psychiatric emergencies occurs in a fragmented manner and it is requires that nursing have knowledge, confidence and skills in the interaction. This study identified the scarcity of scientific production in national and international journals and the need to implement actions such as permanent education and improving the qualification of workers who provide care in psychiatric emergencies. Descriptors: Emergencies; Nursing; Knowledge; Mental Health.

  3. [Psychiatric care and knowledge, utility of the useless].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touzet, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    What knowledge is necessary in psychiatric care? Philosophy is a valuable ally of caregivers, it enables them to take a step back from their activity, in order to be able to sustain their thought Platon, Hadot and Heidegger support this course to become "specialists in everything". PMID:23311065

  4. Knowledge & attitudes of mental health professionals regarding psychiatric research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N N Mishra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Mental health professionals have varied attitudes and views regarding informed consent and confidentiality protections in psychiatric research and clinical care. The present study was designed to understand the knowledge and views of mental health professionals (MHPs regarding informed consent and confidentiality protection practices. Methods: Mental health professionals (n=121 who were members of the Delhi Psychiatric Society, were invited to participate in this questionnaire-based study of their knowledge and attitudes regarding informed consent and confidentiality. Half of them expressed willingness to discuss participation and gave initial oral consent (n=62; of these, 31 gave written informed consent to participate and completed the questionnaires. The questionnaires included both forced choice (yes / no / do not know and open-ended questions. Questionnaires content reflected prominent guidelines on informed consent and confidentiality protection. Results: Attitudes of the majority of the participants towards informed consent and confidentiality were in line with ethical principles and guidelines. All expressed the opinion that confidentiality should generally be respected and that if confidentiality was breached, there could be mistrust of the professional by the patient/participant. The mean knowledge scores regarding informed consent and confidentiality were 8.55 ± 1.46 and 8.16 ± 1.29, respectively. Interpretation & conclusions: The participating mental health professionals appeared to have adequate knowledge of basic ethical guidelines concerning informed consent and confidentiality. Most respondents were aware of ethical issues in research. Given the small sample size and low response rate, the significance of the quantitative analysis must be regarded with modesty, and qualitative analysis of open-ended questions may be more valuable for development of future research. Increased efforts to involve mental

  5. PSYCHIATRIC CLINICAL PLACEMENT UPON NURSING STUDENTS PERCEIVED KNOWLEDGE IN CARING FOR MENTALLY ILL

    OpenAIRE

    Herry Prasetyo

    2012-01-01

    Background: The implementation of a psychiatric clinical placement has been an integral component in Indonesia Nursing Academies. Purpose: The research was to investigate how nursing students’ perceived knowledge in caring for mentally ill patients as a result of their psychiatric clinical placement. Method: A descriptive survey design commonly called non-experimental design was used in this research. Students, who had completed two weeks in a psychiatric clinical placement as a component of ...

  6. [Contemporary epistemology and psychiatric knowledge. Characteristics of late modernity: post and hyper].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantin, Juan C

    2009-01-01

    The author explores the concept of late modernity, postmodernity and hypermodernity, as well as matters of scientific rationality. He discusses the current scientific knowledge from an epistemological viewpoint, in order to prove that psychiatric knowledge has reflected these questions throughout history and so it still does.

  7. What do you think of us? Evaluating patient knowledge of and satisfaction with a psychiatric outpatient service.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Jabbar, F

    2011-03-01

    This study aimed to measure patient satisfaction with the care they were receiving; examine patients\\' knowledge of the psychiatric services in general; and identify variables associated with satisfaction.

  8. A knowledge network for a dynamic taxonomy of psychiatric disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Ranga R

    2015-03-01

    Current taxonomic approaches in medicine and psychiatry are limited in validity and utility. They do serve simple communication purposes for medical coding, teaching, and reimbursement, but they are not suited for the modern era with its rapid explosion of knowledge from the "omics" revolution. The National Academy of Sciences published a report entitled Toward Precision Medicine: Building a Knowledge Network for Biomedical Research and a New Taxonomy of Disease. The authors advocate a new taxonomy that would integrate molecular data, clinical data, and health outcomes in a dynamic, iterative fashion, bringing together research, public health, and health-care delivery with the interlinked goals of advancing our understanding of disease pathogenesis and thereby improving health. As the need for an information hub and a knowledge network with a dynamic taxonomy based on integration of clinical and research data is vital, and timely, this proposal merits consideration.

  9. Negotiating clinical knowledge: a field study of psychiatric nurses' everyday communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Niels

    2008-01-01

    Nursing practices at psychiatric hospitals have changed significantly over the last decades. In this paper, everyday nursing practices were interpreted in light of these institutional changes. The objective was to examine how mental health nurses' production of clinical knowledge was influenced...... by the particular social relations on hospital wards. Empirical data stemming from an extended fieldwork at two Danish psychiatric hospital wards were interpreted using interactionistic theory and the metaphor: 'the game of clinical knowledge'. The results indicated that the nurses' production of clinical knowledge...... was highly dependent on the individual nurses' practical ability to participate in the game. Furthermore, the nurses colluded in their mutual communication to enable the collective display and sense of knowing that protected them against explicit signs of uncertainty about the clinic. The game of clinical...

  10. Assessment of knowledge about childhood autism among paediatric and psychiatric nurses in Ebonyi state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achor Justin U

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing public and professional awareness of autism spectrum disorders with early recognition, diagnosis and interventions that are known to improve prognosis. Poor knowledge about childhood autism among paediatric and psychiatric nurses who are members of multidisciplinary teams that care for such children may be a major barrier to early interventions that could improve quality of life and prognosis in childhood autism. Factors that influence knowledge about childhood autism among these nurses are not known. This study assessed knowledge about childhood autism among paediatric and psychiatric nurses in Ebonyi state, Nigeria and determined the factors that could be influencing such knowledge. Methods Forty specialist paediatric and forty psychiatric nurses, making a total sample of eighty, were randomly selected from all the health care facilities in Ebonyi state, Nigeria. A socio-demographic questionnaire and knowledge about childhood autism among health workers (KCAHW questionnaire were administered to them and the study was a point survey. Results The total mean score on the KCAHW questionnaire among the nurses that participated in the study was 12.56 ± 3.23 out of a total of 19 possible. The mean score for the paediatric nurses was 11.78 ± 3.64 while psychiatric nurses had mean score of 13.35 ± 2.58. The mean scores in Domain 1 were 6.17 ± 1.75 for the paediatric nurses and 6.52 ± 1.43 for the psychiatric nurses. The mean scores in Domain 2 were 0.65 ± 0.48 for the paediatric nurses and 0.80 ± 0.41 for the psychiatric nurses. Domain 3 showed mean scores of 1.97 ± 1.25 for the paediatric nurses while psychiatric nurses scored 2.62 ± 1.23. Domain 4 yielded the mean scores of 2.97 ± 1.54 and 3.42 ± 0.98 for the paediatric and psychiatric nurses respectively. There was significant relationship between the total mean score on the KCAHW questionnaire for the two groups and the area of specialisation of

  11. Irish psychiatric nurses' self-reported sources of knowledge for practice.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Yadav, B L

    2012-02-01

    Evidence-based practice (EBP) is an approach to health care in which health professionals use the best evidence available to guide their clinical decisions and practice. Evidence is drawn from a range of sources, including published research, educational content and practical experience. This paper reports the findings of a study that investigated the sources of knowledge or evidence for practice used by psychiatric nurses in Ireland. The paper is part of a larger study, which also investigated barriers, facilitators and level of skills in achieving EBP among Irish psychiatric nurses. Data were collected in a postal survey of a random sample of Irish psychiatric nurses using the Development of Evidence-Based Practice Questionnaire. The findings revealed that the majority of survey respondents based their practice on information which was derived from interactions with patients, from their personal experience and from information shared by colleagues and members of the multidisciplinary team, in preference to published sources of empirically derived evidence. These findings are consistent with those of the previous similar studies among general nurses and suggest that Irish psychiatric nurses face similar challenges to their general nursing counterparts in attaining of EBP.

  12. Knowledge of Psychiatric Nurses About the Potentially Lethal Side-Effects of Clozapine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Hert, Marc; De Beugher, Annelien; Sweers, Kim; Wampers, Martien; Correll, Christoph U; Cohen, Dan

    2016-02-01

    Clozapine is an antipsychotic with superior efficacy in treatment refractory patients, and has unique anti-suicidal properties and a low propensity to cause extrapyramidal side-effects. Despite these advantages, clozapine utilization is low. This can in part be explained by a number of potentially lethal side effects of clozapine. Next to psychiatrists nurses play a crucial role in the long-term management of patients with schizophrenia. It is therefore important that nurses know, inform and monitor patients about the specific side-effects of clozapine. A recent study of psychiatrists published in 2011 has shown that there was a gap in the knowledge about side-effects of clozapine. The knowledge about side-effects of clozapine in nurses has never been studied. This cross-sectional study evaluated the knowledge base regarding the safety of clozapine, and its potential mediators, of psychiatric nurses in 3 psychiatric hospitals in Belgium with a specifically developed questionnaire based on the literature and expert opinion (3 clozapine experts). A total of 85 nurses completed the questionnaire. The mean total score was 6.1 of a potential maximum score of 18. Only 3 of the 18 multiple choice knowledge questions were answered correctly by more than 50% of nurses. Only 24.9% of participants passed the test (>50% correct answers). Nurses working on psychosis units were more likely to pass the test (xx.y% vs yy.z%, p=0.0124). There was a trend that nurses with a lower nursing diploma were more likely to fail the test (p=0.0561). Our study clearly identifies a large gap in the basic knowledge of psychiatric nurses about clozapine and its side-effects. Knowledge could be increased by more emphasis on the topic in nurse's training curricula as well as targeted onsite training. Only 23.5% of participants indicate that there was sufficient information in their basic nursing training. PMID:26804506

  13. The impact of facility relocation on patients' perceptions of ward atmosphere and quality of received forensic psychiatric care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexiou, Eirini; Degl' Innocenti, Alessio; Kullgren, Anette; Wijk, Helle

    2016-08-01

    In recent years, large groups of forensic psychiatric patients have been relocated into new medium- and maximum-security forensic psychiatric facilities in Sweden, where a psychosocial care approach is embedded. From this perspective and on the assumption that physical structures affect the therapeutic environment, a prospective longitudinal study was designed to investigate the impact of the facility relocation of three forensic psychiatric hospitals on patients' perceptions of ward atmosphere and quality of received forensic psychiatric care. Participants were patients over 18 years of age sentenced to compulsory forensic psychiatric treatment. Data were obtained by validated questionnaires. Overall, 58 patients (78%) answered the questionnaires at baseline with a total of 25 patients (34%) completing follow-up 1 at six months and 11 patients (15%) completing follow-up 2, one year after relocation. Approximately two-thirds of the participants at all time-points were men and their age range varied from 18 to 69. The results of this study showed that poor physical environment features can have a severe impact on care quality and can reduce the possibilities for person-centered care. Furthermore, the study provides evidence that the patients' perceptions of person-centered care in forensic psychiatric clinics are highly susceptible to factors in the physical and psychosocial environment. Future work will explore the staff's perception of ward atmosphere and the possibilities to adapt a person-centered approach in forensic psychiatric care after facility relocation. PMID:27213839

  14. The impact of facility relocation on patients' perceptions of ward atmosphere and quality of received forensic psychiatric care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexiou, Eirini; Degl' Innocenti, Alessio; Kullgren, Anette; Wijk, Helle

    2016-08-01

    In recent years, large groups of forensic psychiatric patients have been relocated into new medium- and maximum-security forensic psychiatric facilities in Sweden, where a psychosocial care approach is embedded. From this perspective and on the assumption that physical structures affect the therapeutic environment, a prospective longitudinal study was designed to investigate the impact of the facility relocation of three forensic psychiatric hospitals on patients' perceptions of ward atmosphere and quality of received forensic psychiatric care. Participants were patients over 18 years of age sentenced to compulsory forensic psychiatric treatment. Data were obtained by validated questionnaires. Overall, 58 patients (78%) answered the questionnaires at baseline with a total of 25 patients (34%) completing follow-up 1 at six months and 11 patients (15%) completing follow-up 2, one year after relocation. Approximately two-thirds of the participants at all time-points were men and their age range varied from 18 to 69. The results of this study showed that poor physical environment features can have a severe impact on care quality and can reduce the possibilities for person-centered care. Furthermore, the study provides evidence that the patients' perceptions of person-centered care in forensic psychiatric clinics are highly susceptible to factors in the physical and psychosocial environment. Future work will explore the staff's perception of ward atmosphere and the possibilities to adapt a person-centered approach in forensic psychiatric care after facility relocation.

  15. Effect of educational module on knowledge of primary school teachers regarding early symptoms of childhood psychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liza Thankam Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: University-based pre-service educational programs do not adequately prepare the teachers to have sufficient knowledge and skill for identifying a wide variety of symptoms related to mental health disorders among children. Aims: To assess the effect of educational module on knowledge of primary school teachers regarding early symptoms of childhood psychiatric disorders. Settings and Design: A pre experimental study on a sample of 35 primary school teachers was done in selected schools of Delhi. Materials and Methods: Self-instructional module on early symptoms of childhood psychiatric disorders (SIM on ESCD was developed. Data was collected by using standardized tools including the structured questionnaire for ′Demographic and selected variables′ and pre-test knowledge questionnaire. The subjects were exposed to SIM on ESCD for a period of 15 days. Knowledge regarding early symptoms of childhood psychiatric disorders was assessed twice, first one being before exposure to module and the next one on 16 th day of exposure to module. Statistical Analysis: Data were analyzed using statistical package STATA 9.0 version. Results: Primary school teachers who have been teaching in government schools had high pre-test knowledge score than that in private sector. There was significant difference in mean knowledge score of primary school teachers before (9.71 and after (15.60 the administration of SIM on ESCD. Younger teachers and those who had less years of teaching experience had more knowledge gain score than those who were older and had more teaching experience. Conclusions: In the absence of adequate pre-service and in-service education of primary school teachers on early symptoms of childhood psychiatric disorders, SIM on ESCD is a highly effective and viable method for improving primary school teachers′ knowledge on early symptoms of childhood psychiatric disorders.

  16. The production of the psychiatric subject: power, knowledge and Michel Foucault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Marc

    2005-01-01

    The issue of power has become increasingly important within psychiatry, psychotherapy and mental health nursing generally. This paper will suggest that the work of Michel Foucault, the French philosopher and historian, has much to contribute to the discussion about the nature, existence and exercise of power within contemporary mental health care. As well as examining his original and challenging account of power, Foucault's emphasis on the intimate relationship between power and knowledge will be explored within the context of psychiatry and mental health nursing. This is to say that the paper will investigate Foucault's account of how power and knowledge are central to the process by which human beings are 'made subjects' and therefore how 'psychiatric identities' are produced. In doing so, it will be suggested that Foucault's work can not only make a valuable contribution to contemporary discussions about power and knowledge, but can also provide a significant critique and reconceptualization of the theoretical foundations and associated diagnostic and therapeutic practices of psychiatry and mental health nursing.

  17. FORGING PSYCHIATRIC CATEGORIES: A Philosophical Examination of the Creation and Stabilization of Diagnostic Knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    Roome, Benjamin Reynolds

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation explores the entanglement of ethics and epistemology in the domain of psychiatric research, considering the ways that measurement practices and ethical values interrelate. If psychiatric clinicians, researchers, and patients are not acutely aware of the relationship between experimental configurations and the meaning of scientific data, unhealthy realities that take psychiatric constructs as fixed parts of nature will persist.The core of this work consists of case studies o...

  18. The ward atmosphere important for the psychosocial work environment of nursing staff in psychiatric in-patient care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wann-Hansson Christine

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The nursing staff working in psychiatric care have a demanding work situation, which may be reflected in how they view their psychosocial work environment and the ward atmosphere. The aims of the present study were to investigate in what way different aspects of the ward atmosphere were related to the psychosocial work environment, as perceived by nursing staff working in psychiatric in-patient care, and possible differences between nurses and nurse assistants. Methods 93 nursing staff working at 12 general psychiatric in-patient wards in Sweden completed two questionnaires, the Ward Atmosphere Scale and the QPSNordic 34+. Data analyses included descriptive statistics, the Mann-Whitney U-test, Spearman rank correlations and forward stepwise conditional logistic regression analyses. Results The data revealed that there were no differences between nurses and nurse assistants concerning perceptions of the psychosocial work environment and the ward atmosphere. The ward atmosphere subscales Personal Problem Orientation and Program Clarity were associated with a psychosocial work environment characterized by Empowering Leadership. Program Clarity was related to the staff's perceived Role Clarity, and Practical Orientation and Order and Organization were positively related to staff perceptions of the Organizational Climate. Conclusions The results from the present study indicate that several ward atmosphere subscales were related to the nursing staff's perceptions of the psychosocial work environment in terms of Empowering Leadership, Role Clarity and Organizational Climate. Improvements in the ward atmosphere could be another way to accomplish improvements in the working conditions of the staff, and such improvements would affect nurses and nurse assistants in similar ways.

  19. The effect of songwriting on knowledge of coping skills and working alliance in psychiatric patients: a randomized clinical effectiveness study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a songwriting intervention on psychiatric patients' knowledge of coping skills and working alliance. Participants were randomly assigned to scripted and manualized experimental (n=48) or control (n=41) conditions. The experimental condition was a group psychoeducational music therapy songwriting session concerning coping skills while the control condition was a group psychoeducational session concerning coping skills. Both conditions were single-session therapy with patients on an acute adult psychiatric unit. Results indicated no significant between group differences in measures of knowledge of coping skills, consumer working alliance, or perception of enjoyment (p>.05), although the experimental condition tended to have slightly higher mean scores than the control group for these measures. There was a significant between group difference in measures of therapist working alliance (pgroup higher than the control group. Although the music therapy group had a higher mean rate of previous psychiatric hospitalizations, their perception of enjoyment scores were still higher than those of the control condition, a finding incongruent in the literature. Furthermore, despite the increased number of previous hospitalizations, the music therapy condition had higher attendance rates than the control condition, thus possibly providing incentives for funding. It seems that group songwriting about coping skills can be as effective a psychosocial intervention as traditional talk-based psychoeducation to teach psychiatric inpatients how to proactively manage their illness. Additionally, music therapy can be as effective as talk-based psychoeducation in establishing working alliance. Implications for clinical practice, limitations, and suggestions for future research are provided. PMID:21866716

  20. Study of Psychiatrists’ knowledge, attitude, and practice toward compulsory admission of psychiatric patients and its related laws in Iran in 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Valipour, M.D.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground and Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the Iranian psychiatrist's knowledge, attitude and practice about compulsory admission and its related laws.Materials and Methods: The target group of this descriptive prospective study was the entire Iranian psychiatrists whose addresses were available in Iranian psychiatry association. Assessment was performed through a self-report questionnaire, which contained 52 evaluating questions. Questionnaires were mailed to psychiatrists and assessed after they returned the answers.Results: We obtained responses from 116 psychiatrists. Twelve and a half percent of them had been complained against due to compulsory admission. More than 50% of them had studied literature crowing psychiatric health laws, and 12.1% of them had a poor knowledge reyording this literature. About 70% of them believed that the present law is not befitting with current needs. Majority of them reported that they hospitalize their patients involuntarily and they prefer their opinion on compulsory admission rather than other resources in most situations.Conclusion: These findings suggest that the present law about compulsory admission of psychiatric patients is deficient and not befitting with current needs. Furthermore, lack of education in this view is obvious and prominen

  1. PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    2004536 Association study of clinical presentation in first-episode schizophrenia and possible candidate genes in chromosome 22. MA Xiaohong (马小红), et al. Dept Psychiatr, West China Hosp, Sichuan U-niv, Chengdu 610041. Chin J Psychiatr 2004;37(3): 145-148.

  2. The social and cultural construction of psychiatric knowledge: an analysis of NICE guidelines on depression and ADHD

    OpenAIRE

    Moncrieff, J.; Timimi, S.

    2013-01-01

    The current paper presents an analysis of the NICE guidelines on depression and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) from the perspective of the philosophy of science, guided particularly by Foucault's notion of the symbiosis of knowledge and power. It examines how data that challenged the orthodox position on the validity and drug treatment of these conditions was managed in the process of guideline development. The depression guideline briefly considered the complexity and hetero...

  3. Thresholds for protecting Pacific Northwest ecosystems from atmospheric deposition of nitrogen: state of knowledge report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Tonnie; Blett, Tamara; Porter, Ellen; Geiser, Linda; Graw, Rick; McMurray, Jill; Perakis, Steven S.; Rochefort, Regina

    2014-01-01

    The National Park Service and U.S. Forest Service manage areas in the states of Idaho, Oregon, and Washington – collectively referred to in this report as the Pacific Northwest - that contain significant natural resources and provide many recreational opportunities. The agencies are mandated to protect the air quality and air pollution-sensitive resources on these federal lands. Human activity has greatly increased the amount of nitrogen emitted to the atmosphere, resulting in elevated amounts of nitrogen being deposited in park and forest ecosystems. There is limited information in the Pacific Northwest about the levels of nitrogen that negatively affect natural systems, i.e., the critical loads. The National Park Service and U.S. Forest Service, with scientific input from the U.S. Geological Survey, have developed an approach for accumulating additional nitrogen critical loads information in the Pacific Northwest and using the data in planning and regulatory arenas. As a first step in that process, this report summarizes the current state of knowledge about nitrogen deposition, effects, and critical loads in the region. It also describes ongoing research efforts and identifies and prioritizes additional data needs.

  4. Perceived sleep quality of psychiatric patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Niet, G. J. (Gerrit); Tiemens, B. G. (Bea); Lendemeijer, H. H. G. M. (Bert); Hutschemaekers, G. J. M. (Giel)

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims at acquiring knowledge about the quality of sleep of adult and elderly psychiatric patients who receive clinical or outpatient nursing care, and identifying key factors in perceiving a sleep problem. To do so, a sample of 1699 psychiatric patients were asked whether they perceived a

  5. Experiences of nursing staff on psychiatric care of depressed patients

    OpenAIRE

    Suutarinen, Kreetta-Maija

    2012-01-01

    The thesis researched the views and experiences of nursing staff of psychiatric special care ward on psychiatric care of depressed patients. Because caring is patient/client oriented profession, it is essential to include patients and nursing staff in the development work. This assumption was basis for the thesis. The thesis aimed to add knowledge on the views of the nursing staff and to show how this knowledge can be used in development of psychiatric care. The thesis also pursue...

  6. Knowledges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berling, Trine Villumsen

    2012-01-01

    Scientific knowledge in international relations has generally focused on an epistemological distinction between rationalism and reflectivism over the last 25 years. This chapter argues that this distinction has created a double distinction between theory/reality and theory/practice, which works...... as a ghost distinction structuring IR research. While reflectivist studies have emphasised the impossibility of detached, objective knowledge production through a dissolution of the theory/reality distinction, the theory/practice distinction has been left largely untouched by both rationalism...... and reflectivism. Bourdieu, on the contrary, lets the challenge to the theory/reality distinction spill over into a challenge to the theory/practice distinction by thrusting the scientist in the foreground as not just a factor (discourse/genre) but as an actor. In this way, studies of IR need to include a focus...

  7. The Link between Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices in Relation to Atmospheric Haze Pollution in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pretto, Laura; Acreman, Stephen; Ashfold, Matthew J; Mohankumar, Suresh K; Campos-Arceiz, Ahimsa

    2015-01-01

    Transboundary haze episodes caused by seasonal forest fires have become a recurrent phenomenon in Southeast Asia, with serious environmental, economic, and public health implications. Here we present a cross-sectional survey conducted among people in Kuala Lumpur and surrounds to assess the links between knowledge, attitudes, and practices in relation to the transboundary haze episodes. Of 305 respondents, 125 were amateur athletes participating in a duathlon event and the remainder were surveyed in an inner-city shopping mall. Across the whole sample, people who possessed more factual information about the haze phenomenon showed significantly higher levels of concern. Duathletes were more knowledgeable than non-duathletes and also more concerned about the negative effects of haze, especially on health. For all people who regularly practice outdoor sports (including people interviewed at the shopping mall), higher levels of knowledge and concerned attitudes translated into a greater likelihood of engaging in protective practices, such as cancelling their outdoor training sessions, while those with greater knowledge were more likely to check the relevant air pollution index on a daily basis. Our results indicate that the provision of accurate and timely information about air quality to residents will translate into beneficial practices, at least among particularly exposed individuals, such as amateur athletes who regularly practice outdoor sports.

  8. The Link between Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices in Relation to Atmospheric Haze Pollution in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura De Pretto

    Full Text Available Transboundary haze episodes caused by seasonal forest fires have become a recurrent phenomenon in Southeast Asia, with serious environmental, economic, and public health implications. Here we present a cross-sectional survey conducted among people in Kuala Lumpur and surrounds to assess the links between knowledge, attitudes, and practices in relation to the transboundary haze episodes. Of 305 respondents, 125 were amateur athletes participating in a duathlon event and the remainder were surveyed in an inner-city shopping mall. Across the whole sample, people who possessed more factual information about the haze phenomenon showed significantly higher levels of concern. Duathletes were more knowledgeable than non-duathletes and also more concerned about the negative effects of haze, especially on health. For all people who regularly practice outdoor sports (including people interviewed at the shopping mall, higher levels of knowledge and concerned attitudes translated into a greater likelihood of engaging in protective practices, such as cancelling their outdoor training sessions, while those with greater knowledge were more likely to check the relevant air pollution index on a daily basis. Our results indicate that the provision of accurate and timely information about air quality to residents will translate into beneficial practices, at least among particularly exposed individuals, such as amateur athletes who regularly practice outdoor sports.

  9. Neuro psychiatry 1943: the role of documentary film in the dissemination of medical knowledge and promotion of the U.K. psychiatric profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Edgar

    2014-04-01

    In 1943, Basil Wright produced a documentary film about the treatment of servicemen and civilians with psychological disorders at Mill Hill Emergency Medical Service Hospital. Funded by the Ministry of Information, Neuro Psychiatry was shot to convince influential clinicians and policy makers in North America that the British had developed expertise in the management of psychiatric casualties. By emphasizing novel and apparently effective interventions and excluding severe or intractable cases from the film, Wright encouraged an optimistic sense of achievement. Filmed at a time when victory was considered an eventual outcome, the picture presented a health service to which all had access without charge. Children and unemployed women, two groups excluded under the 1911 National Insurance Act, had been required to pay for healthcare in the prewar period and were shown receiving free treatment from the Emergency Medical Service. However, the therapeutic optimism presented in the film proved premature. Most U.K. battle casualties arose in the latter half of the conflict and follow-up studies failed to confirm the positive outcome statistics reported in the film. Aubrey Lewis, clinical director of the hospital, criticized research projects conducted at Mill Hill for a lack of rigor. The cinematographic skills of Wright and director Michael Hankinson, together with their reformist agenda, created a clinical presentation that emphasized achievements without acknowledging the limitations not only of the therapies offered by doctors but also the resources available to a nation at war.

  10. 精神科护理员岗位知识的认知调查和培训效果%Cognition and training effect on job knowledge of psychiatric nurses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敏; 曹新妹; 汤玉妹

    2015-01-01

    目的:通过对精神科护理员岗位知识的调查,完善岗位知识的培训,提高护理员的综合素质。方法参考相关文献并结合临床实践,自行设计精神科护理员岗位知识认知调查表,选择2012年9月—2013年3月在上海市两所精神卫生中心工作的精神科护理员97名进行问卷测评,根据调查结果给予相应的培训和指导。经培训后6个月再次测评,比较培训前后精神科护理员对岗位知识的认知状况。同时运用自行设计满意度调查表,于培训前后对护理员的工作进行评价。结果培训后护理员岗位知识测评优秀者8名(8.25%),良好者44名(45.36%),合格者42名(43.30%),不合格者3名(3.09%),明显优于培训前,差异有统计学意义(H=121.09,P<0.01)。培训后护理员岗位职责和工作制度得分为(18.03±1.54)分,精神科危机状态应对方法得分为(16.21±1.63)分,基础医学知识得分为(15.33±2.34)分,安全维护知识得分为(17.57±1.77)分,基础护理知识得分为(13.01±2.39)分,平均得分为(80.20±7.96)分,均优于培训前,差异有统计学意义( t值分别为12.98,11.38,17.10,18.57,12.00,19.01;P<0.01)。结论分阶段、多样化的教育培训能有效提高精神科护理员对岗位知识的认知水平,为精神科护理人力资源和业务技术提供保障,能提高患者对护理工作的满意度。%Objective To improve the psychiatric nursing training and the workers′ quality through investigating the level of psychiatric nurses′ job knowledge. Methods Considering of both theoretical and practical needs, we designed the “Questionnaire of Psychiatric Care Workers′ Job Knowledge”. A total of 97 people in two mental health centers of Shanghai who were working as care workers from September 2012 to March 2013 were selected. The questionnaire was surveyed before training and 6 months′after training. The level of psychiatric care knowledge was compared. Results After the training and

  11. The Link between Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices in Relation to Atmospheric Haze Pollution in Peninsular Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Laura De Pretto; Stephen Acreman; Matthew J Ashfold; Mohankumar, Suresh K.; Ahimsa Campos-Arceiz

    2015-01-01

    Transboundary haze episodes caused by seasonal forest fires have become a recurrent phenomenon in Southeast Asia, with serious environmental, economic, and public health implications. Here we present a cross-sectional survey conducted among people in Kuala Lumpur and surrounds to assess the links between knowledge, attitudes, and practices in relation to the transboundary haze episodes. Of 305 respondents, 125 were amateur athletes participating in a duathlon event and the remainder were surv...

  12. Technological Advances in Psychiatric Nursing: An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostrom, Andrea C

    2016-06-01

    Understanding and treating mental illness has improved in many ways as a result of the fast pace of technological advances. The technologies that have the greatest potential impact are those that (1) increase the knowledge of how the brain functions and changes based on interventions, (2) have the potential to personalize interventions based on understanding genetic factors of drug metabolism and pharmacodynamics, and (3) use information technology to provide treatment in the absence of an adequate mental health workforce. Technologies are explored for psychiatric nurses to consider. Psychiatric nurses are encouraged to consider the experiences of psychiatric patients, including poor health, stigmatization, and suffering.

  13. Functional and psychiatric vestibular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staab, J P

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral factors have long been recognized as affecting spatial orientation and balance function. Neuroanatomic and neurophysiologic studies conducted worldwide over the last 30 years have substantially advanced our knowledge about the inherently strong connectivity among threat/anxiety, vestibular, visual, and somatosensory systems in the brain. Clinical investigations have shed greater light on the nature of functional and psychiatric disorders that manifest or magnify vestibular morbidity. Concepts of these syndromes have changed over 150 years. Even their nomenclature has had different meanings in different eras. This chapter will review functional and psychiatric vestibular disorders. Terminology will follow the International Classification of Diseases, 11th edition, beta draft and the International Classification of Vestibular Disorders. Anxiety plays a central role in behavioral vestibular morbidity. Anxiety, traumatic stress, obsessive, and depressive disorders may be primary causes of episodic and chronic vestibular symptoms or secondary complications of other vestibular disorders. These psychiatric illnesses affect 30-50% of patients who consult neurologists or otologists for vestibular symptoms. Coexisting psychiatric disorders adversely affect treatment for patients with structural vestibular diseases, especially when unrecognized. Persistent postural-perceptual dizziness is the leading cause of long-term vestibular disability. Fortunately, pharmacologic, psychotherapeutic, and rehabilitative treatments of these illnesses have improved in recent years. PMID:27638082

  14. [Authority in the psychiatric clinic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laemmel, K

    1983-01-01

    Although considerable progress was made as far as therapy and individual rights of the patients are concerned today the psychiatric hospital is more than ever the butt of open citicism. One of the reasons for that is the odium of involuntarity and authority surrounding it. It is based on the ill-fame and dubious reputation of the nineteenth century "asylum". The problem of authority concerns today's hospitals as much as ever. How the hospital is run depends naturally in the first place on the personality of it's director his views on authority, as much as on his understanding and ability to handle the intensive dynamic processes in the institution. Recognizing the boundaries of his actual knowledge and training, his "authoritative authority", makes him wisely limit his goals and activities. Power or "authoritarian authority" must be employed with restraint and moderation but without hesitancy when necessary. The clinic represents for the patient a total milieu. It's therapeutic effect relies a great deal on the regulatory influence of the daily routine based on the authority of the treatment team. Jones' ideas of the "Therapeutic Community" have only limited value for today's psychiatric hospital. Even less significant contributions have been made by the antipsychiatric movement or the Marxist-inspired reformers of the last decades. Only that is therapeutic which in the final analysis helps the patient to cope successfully with reality. Even today the use of involuntary measures-seclusion and medication etc. remain a necessary tool for the treatment of some patients. As every institution is always part of a public or private structure, it's authority is always bridled by these. Ethical clinical psychiatry requires an ethical political state, if it is not to become it's henchman. Even in democratic countries problems may arise around involuntary hospitalization, the care of psychiatrically ill criminals or the legalities around medicating the uncooperative psychotic

  15. Primary Psychiatric Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Mercan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The etiology of these dermatological diseases is entirely psychiatric origin. These patients show overconcern to their skin or self inflicted dermatoses unconsciously instead of facing with their real problems. In this group, delusions, dermatitis artefacta, trichotillomania, body dysmorphic disorder can be seen. They use denial as defence mechanism to their real psychiatric problems and prefer to apply dermatology instead of psychiatry. Dermatologist should be very careful before asking psychiatric consultation. Denial mechanism help patients to overcome agressive impulses like suicide or prevent further psychiatric damage like psychosis. Dermatologist should see these patients with short and frequent intervals with a good empathic approach. This will help to progress a powerful patient doctor relationship which will lead to a psychiatric evaluation.

  16. Neurobiology of psychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đokić Gorica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurobiologically spoken, the supstrate of the mind is formed by neuronal networks, and dysregulated neurocircuitry can cause psychiatric disorders. Psychiatric disorders are diagnosed by symptom clusters that are the result of abnormal brain tissue, and/or activity in specialized areas of the brain. Dysregulated circuitry results from abnormal neural function, or abnormal neural connections from one brain area to another, which leads to neurotransmitter imbalances. Each psychiatric disorder has uniquely dysregulated circuitry and thereby unique neurotransmitter imbalance, such as: prefrontal cortical-limbic pathways in depression or prefrontal cortical-striatal pathways in schizophrenia ie. serotonin-norepinephrin-dopamin imbalance in depression, or dopamine hyperactivity in schizophrenia. Biological psychiatry has completely changed the farmacological treatment of psychiatric disorders, and new foundings in that field are supportive to futher more neuropsychopharmacological and nonpharmacological therapy studies, whish has as a result more safe and effective therapy for psychiatric disorders.

  17. Psychiatric disorders in Danish children aged 5-7 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elberling, Hanne; Linneberg, Allan; Ulrikka Rask, Charlotte;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Knowledge about the presentation of psychopathology in preschool age and associated risk factors is fundamental to preventive intervention before schooling. AIMS: To investigate the full spectrum of psychiatric diagnoses in general population children at the period of transition from ...

  18. Oxytocin and Psychiatric Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokce Nur Say

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Oxytocin is a neuropeptide that plays critical role in mother-infant bonding, pair bonding and prosocial behaviors. Several neuropsychiatric disorders such as autism, schizophrenia, affective disorders, anxiety disorders, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, alcohol/substance addiction, aggression, suicide, eating disorders and personality disorders show abnormalities of oxytocin system. These findings have given rise to the studies searching therapeutic use of oxytocin for psychi-atric disorders. The studies of oxytocin interventions in psychiatric disorders yielded potentially promising findings. This paper reviews the role of oxytocin in emotions, behavior and its effects in psychiatric disorders. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(2: 102-113

  19. Occupational Psychiatric Disorders in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Kyeong-Sook; Kang, Seong-Kyu

    2010-01-01

    We searched databases and used various online resources to identify and systematically review all articles on occupational psychiatric disorders among Korean workers published in English and Korean before 2009. Three kinds of occupational psychiatric disorders were studied: disorders related to job stress and mental illness, psychiatric symptoms emerging in victims of industrial injuries, and occupational psychiatric disorders compensated by Industrial Accident Compensation Insurance (IACI). ...

  20. Hyperthyroidism and psychiatric morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Frans; Thvilum, Marianne; Pedersen, Dorthe Almind;

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid hormones are essential for the normal development of the fetal brain, while hyperthyroidism in adults is associated with mood symptoms and reduced quality of life. We aimed to investigate the association and temporal relation between hyperthyroidism and psychiatric morbidity.......Thyroid hormones are essential for the normal development of the fetal brain, while hyperthyroidism in adults is associated with mood symptoms and reduced quality of life. We aimed to investigate the association and temporal relation between hyperthyroidism and psychiatric morbidity....

  1. Computerized Psychiatric Diagnostic Interview

    OpenAIRE

    Zetin, Mark; Warren, Stacey; Lanssens, Ed; Tominaga, Doris

    1987-01-01

    A computerized psychiatric diagnostic interview was developed and administered to 121 adult acute psychiatric inpatients. Data on the 100 completers was evaluated for sensitivity and specificity of the computer diagnostic evaluation relative to the hospital discharge diagnosis and revealed sensitivity greater than 70% for major depression, alcohol/substance abuse, adjustment disorder, bipolar/mania, dependent personaltiy disorder, and histrionic personality disorder. Specificity was greater t...

  2. Psychiatric genetic testing: Attitudes and intentions among future users and providers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laegsgaard, Mett Marri; Mors, Ole

    2008-01-01

    as a guide in this field, but the optimal utilization of genetic testing has also been recognized to depend on knowledge of the potential consumers' attitudes. To provide knowledge to inform the public debate on mental illness and genetics, and the future conducting of psychiatric genetic testing...... and counseling, we surveyed attitudes toward psychiatric genetic testing among 397 patients with a psychiatric diagnosis, 164 of their relatives and 100 medical and psychology students. The results showed widespread interest in psychiatric genetic testing of self and child, but less support for prenatal testing...... and differences in attitudes among possible future users and providers of psychiatric genetic testing and counseling indicate ambivalence, insecurity, and perceived lack of knowledge in relation to psychiatric genetics. These results should inform further research and the future integration of psychiatric...

  3. Transporting Forensic Psychiatric Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dike, Charles C; Nicholson, Elizabeth; Young, John L

    2015-12-01

    Patients in a forensic psychiatric facility often require escorted transport to medical facilities for investigations or treatments of physical health ailments. Transporting these patients presents significant safety and custody challenges because of the nature of patients housed in forensic psychiatric facilities. A significant proportion of these patients may be transfers from the Department of Corrections (DOC) under legal mandates for psychiatric evaluation and treatment better provided in a hospital setting, and most of them will return to the DOC. Although departments of correction have protocols for escorting these potentially dangerous individuals, it is unclear whether receiving psychiatric hospitals have established procedures for maintaining the safety of others and custody of these individuals during transportation outside the hospital facility. The literature is sparse on precautions to be observed when transporting dangerous forensic psychiatric patients, including those with high escape risk. In this article, we describe one forensic inpatient facility's procedure for determining the appropriate level needed to transport these individuals outside of the forensic facility. We also describe the risk assessment procedure for determining level of transport. These are quality improvement measures resulting from a critical review of an incident of escape from the forensic facility several years ago. PMID:26668224

  4. Psychiatric Aspects of Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacer Sezgin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Infertility can be defined as a crisis with cultural, religious, and class related aspects, which coexists with medical, psychiatric, psychological, and social problems. Relation between psychiatric and psychological factors stem from a mutual interaction of both. Family is an important institution in maintaining human existence and raising individuals in line with society's expectations. Fertility and reproduction are seen as universal functions unique to women with raising children as the expected result of the family institution. Incidence of infertility has increased recently and can become a life crisis for a couple. Even though not being able to have a child affects both sexes emotionally, women feel greater amounts of stress, pressure, anxiety, and depression.Consequences of infertility arise from short and long-term devastating effects on both individual's physical and mental health, and marital system. Many studies focus on infertility related psychological and psychiatric disorders (depression, anxiety, grief, marital conflict, gender differences, relation between the causes of infertility and psychopathology, the effects of psychiatric evaluation and intervention -when necessaryon the course of infertility treatment, pregnancy rates, and childbirth. The most important underlying causes of high levels of stress and anxiety that infertile women experience are the loss of maternity, reproduction, sense of self, and genetic continuity. In this review article is to investigate the relationship between medically unexplained symptoms and psychiatric symptoms. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(2.000: 165-185

  5. Addressing psychiatric comorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woody, G E; McLellan, A T; O'Brien, C P; Luborsky, L

    1991-01-01

    Research studies indicate that addressing psychiatric comorbidity can improve treatment for selected groups of substance-abusing patients. However, the chances for implementing the necessary techniques on a large scale are compromised by the absence of professional input and guidance within programs. This is especially true in public programs, which treat some of the most disadvantaged, disturbed, and socially destructive individuals in the entire mental health system. One starting point for upgrading the level of knowledge and training of staff members who work in this large treatment system could be to develop a better and more authoritative information dissemination network. Such a system exists in medicine; physicians are expected to read appropriate journals and to guide their treatment decisions using the data contained in the journals. Standards of practice and methods for modifying current practice are within the tradition of reading new facts, studying old ones, and comparing treatment outcome under different conditions with what is actually being done. No such general system of information-gathering or -sharing exists, particularly in public treatment programs. One of the most flagrant examples of this "educational shortfall" can be found among those methadone programs that adamantly insist on prescribing no more than 30 to 35 mg/day for all patients, in spite of the overwhelming evidence that these dose levels generally are inadequate. In some cases, program directors are unaware of studies that have shown the relationship between dose and outcome. In other cases, they are aware of the studies but do not modify their practices accordingly. This example of inadequate dosing is offered as an example of one situation that could be improved by adherence to a system of authoritative and systematic information dissemination. Many issues in substance abuse treatment do not lend themselves to information dissemination as readily as that of methadone dosing

  6. Purposeful Activity in Psychiatric Rehabilitation: Is Neurogenesis a Key Player?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Siu-Chong Cheung

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Adult neurogenesis, defined as the generation of new neurons in adulthood, has been a fascinating discovery in neuroscience, as the continuously replenishing neuronal population provides a new perspective to understand neuroplasticity. Besides maintaining normal physiological function, neurogenesis also plays a key role in pathophysiology and symptomatology for psychiatric conditions. In the past decades, extensive effort has been spent on the understanding of the functional significance of neurogenesis in psychiatric conditions, mechanisms of pharmacological treatment, and discovery of novel drug candidates for different conditions. In a clinical situation, however, long-term rehabilitation treatment, in which occupational therapy is the key discipline, is a valuable, economical, and commonly used treatment alternative to psychotropic medications. Surprisingly, comparatively few studies have investigated the biological and neurogenic effects of different psychiatric rehabilitative treatments. To address the possible linkage between psychiatric rehabilitation and neurogenesis, this review discusses the role of neurogenesis in schizophrenia, major depression, and anxiety disorders. The review also discusses the potential neurogenic effect of currently used psychiatric rehabilitation treatments. With a better understanding of the biological effect of psychiatric rehabilitation methods and future translational studies, it is hoped that the therapeutic effect of psychiatric rehabilitation methods could be explained with a novel perspective. Furthermore, this knowledge will benefit future formulation of treatment methods, especially purposeful activities in occupational therapy, for the treatment of psychiatric disorders.

  7. CANNABIS AND PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS

    OpenAIRE

    Loga, Slobodan; Loga-Zec, Svjetlana; Spremo, Mira

    2010-01-01

    There are connection between use of cannabis and many psychiatric disturbances in adolescents, especially “cannabis psychosis", depression, panic attacks and suicide. Negative effects could occur either as a result of a specific pharmacological effect of cannabis, or as the result of stressful experiences during the intoxication of cannabis in young people. Potentially is very dangerous high frequency suicidal ideation among cannabis users.

  8. Pathological Gambling: Psychiatric Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westphal, James R.

    2008-01-01

    Three psychiatric conceptual models: addictive, obsessive-compulsive spectrum and mood spectrum disorder have been proposed for pathological gambling. The objectives of this paper are to (1) evaluate the evidence base from the most recent reviews of each model, (2) update the evidence through 2007 and (3) summarize the status of the evidence for…

  9. Psychiatric-Mental Health Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reighley, Joan

    A description is provided of a course, "Psychiatric-Mental Health Nursing," designed to teach students at Level 3 of a two-year college nursing program about the role of the nurse in a psychiatric setting and about concepts of mental health and psychiatric disorders, using both classroom and clinical instruction. The first section of the course…

  10. Toward developmental models of psychiatric disorders in zebrafish

    OpenAIRE

    William Howard James Norton

    2013-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders are a diverse set of diseases that affect all aspects of mental function including social interaction, thinking, feeling and mood. Although psychiatric disorders place a large economic burden on society, the drugs available to treat them are often palliative with variable efficacy and intolerable side-effects. The development of novel drugs has been hindered by a lack of knowledge about the etiology of these diseases. It is thus necessary to further investigate psychi...

  11. Noncompliance to medication in psychiatric patients : a literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Mibei, Felix

    2013-01-01

    One in four people globally will be affected by mental disorders at some point in their life. Currently approximately 450 million people worldwide suffer from this conditions. The aim of this project is to produce evidence based knowledge for nursing students and practicing nurses in the specialty of mental health about the reasons of noncompliance to medication in psychiatric patients. What are the main reasons for noncompliance to medication in psychiatric patients?. Methods, this...

  12. Psychiatric disorders and traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Schwarzbold

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Marcelo Schwarzbold1, Alexandre Diaz1, Evandro Tostes Martins2, Armanda Rufino1, Lúcia Nazareth Amante1,3, Maria Emília Thais1, João Quevedo4, Alexandre Hohl1, Marcelo Neves Linhares1,5,6, Roger Walz1,61Núcleo de Pesquisas em Neurologia Clínica e Experimental (NUPNEC, Departamento de Clínica Médica, Hospital Universitário, UFSC, Florianópolis, SC, Brazil; 2Unidade de Terapia Intensiva, Hospital Governador Celso Ramos, Florianópolis, SC, Brazil; 3Departamento de Enfermagem, UFSC, Florianópolis, SC, Brazil; 4Laboratório de Neurociências, UNESC, Criciúma, SC, Brazil; 5Departamento de Cirurgia, Hospital Universitário, UFSC, Florianópolis, SC, Brazil; 6Centro de Cirurgia de Epilepsia de Santa Catarina (CEPESC, Hospital Governador Celso Ramos, Florianópolis, SC, BrazilAbstract: Psychiatric disorders after traumatic brain injury (TBI are frequent. Researches in this area are important for the patients’ care and they may provide hints for the comprehension of primary psychiatric disorders. Here we approach epidemiology, diagnosis, associated factors and treatment of the main psychiatric disorders after TBI. Finally, the present situation of the knowledge in this field is discussed.Keywords: psychiatric disorders, traumatic brain injury, neuropsychiatry, diagnostic, epidemiology, pathophysiology

  13. [Psychiatric treatment sentences.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevens, Hanne; Nordentoft, Merete; Agerbo, Esben;

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Previous Danish studies of the increasing number of sentences to psychiatric treatment (SPT) have compared prevalent populations of persons undergoing treatment with incident measures of reported crimes. Examining the period 1990-2006, we studied incident sentences, taking the type...... to violent offending, and that particularly assaults against public servants have contributed to the development. CONCLUSION: Regarding violent offences against private persons, the time-trends for SPT are parallel to the time-trends for suspended and custodial sentences, which may indicate that the same...... societal factors, including propensity to report, police priorities and court practices, are involved both generally and amongst psychiatric patients. Conversely, the rise in violent offences against public servants is higher amongst SPTs. This can conceivably be connected to both conditions, leading...

  14. Culture and psychiatric diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Aggarwal, Neil Krishan

    2013-01-01

    Since the publication of DSM-IV in 1994, neurobiologists and anthropologists have criticized the rigidity of its diagnostic criteria that appear to exclude whole classes of alternate illness presentations, as well as the lack of attention in contemporary psychiatric nosology to the role of contextual factors in the emergence and characteristics of psychopathology. Experts in culture and mental health have responded to these criticisms by revising the very process of diagnosis for DSM-5. Specifically, the DSM-5 Cultural Issues Subgroup has recommended that concepts of culture be included more prominently in several areas: an introductory chapter on Cultural Aspects of Psychiatric Diagnosis - composed of a conceptual introduction, a revised Outline for Cultural Formulation, a Cultural Formulation Interview that operationalizes this Outline, and a glossary on cultural concepts of distress - as well as material directly related to culture that is incorporated into the description of each disorder. This chapter surveys these recommendations to demonstrate how culture and context interact with psychiatric diagnosis at multiple levels. A greater appreciation of the interplay between culture, context, and biology can help clinicians improve diagnostic and treatment planning.

  15. Uncertainties in the current knowledge of some atmospheric trace gases associated with U.S. agriculture: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupa, Sagar; Booker, Fitzerald; Bowersox, Van; Lehmann, Christopher; Lehmann, Chris Topher; Grantz, David

    2008-08-01

    Approximately 80 different crop species are grown in the United States in widely differing geographic areas, climatic and edaphic conditions, and management practices. Although the majority of cultivated acreage in the United States is planted with only about 10 primary crops, uncertainties associated with trace gas emissions arise from: (1) limited data availability, (2) inaccurate estimates because of large temporal and spatial variability in trace gas composition and magnitude of trace gas emissions from agricultural activities, (3) differing characteristics of pollutant emissions from highly dispersed animal feed-lots, and (4) limited understanding of the emissions of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) associated with agriculture. Although emission issues are of concern, so also is atmospheric deposition to cropping systems, including wet and dry nitrogen, minerals, and organic compounds. These can have feedback effects on trace gas emissions. Overall, the many gaps in our understanding of these aspects of agricultural systems deserve serious attention.

  16. Disclosure of abuse among female patients within general psychiatric care - a cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Örmon, K.; Sunnqvist, C.; Bahtsevani, C.; Levander, M. Torstensson

    2016-01-01

    Background Experiences of abuse are common among women in general psychiatric care. Even so, there are to our knowledge no previous national or international studies exploring disclosure in a general psychiatric setting of female patient’s experiences of abuse to staff or to formal and informal networks. This study aimed to explore women’s disclosure of experiencing physical, emotional and/or sexual abuse during their most recent contact with staff at a general psychiatric clinic. The study a...

  17. Broader Indications for Psychiatric Consultation

    OpenAIRE

    Steinberg, Paul

    1987-01-01

    A liaison approach to psychiatric consultation increases the patient population who can benefit from psychiatric assessment during hospitalization for medical or surgical conditions. It also broadens the scope of the psychiatric investigation of the individual patient. The meaning of the illness to the patient, and the patient's present methods of adapting to his or her illness are important considerations. Unconscious concerns, which interfere with the patient's compliance to medical treatme...

  18. Psychiatric Comorbidity and Complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Michael J; Aplasca, Alexis; Morales-Theodore, Rosa; Zaharakis, Nikola; Linker, Julie

    2016-07-01

    This article highlights the prevalence of co-occurring disorders among adolescents and underscores the complexity and opportunities of treating these patients in a systematic, comprehensive approach. As evidenced by this review, the need exists to develop and test models of care that integrate co-occurring disorders into both psychiatric and substance abuse treatment settings. The challenge for pediatric practitioners is to provide detailed assessments linked to evidence-based treatment plans to account for the variations in adolescent development and the unique risk factor profile of each patient. The issues related to co-morbidity are vast and continue to grow with rapidly increasing research literature. PMID:27338972

  19. Psychiatric assessment in transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Messias Erick

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of the presumptive donor law in Brazil is expected to increase the availability of organs for transplantation. As medical management of end-stage organ dysfunction continues to improve, increasing numbers of potential transplant recipients will be available to meet this supply. There is mounting evidence that supports the involvement of skilled psychiatric practitioners in the selection of transplant candidates. Data supporting the influence of psychosocial factors on compliance and therefore medical outcomes continues to grow. The literature review allows delineating the components and rationale for comprehensive psychosocial evaluations as a component of preoperative transplantation evaluation.

  20. U.S. Natural Gas System Methane Emissions: State of Knowledge from LCAs, Inventories, and Atmospheric Measurements (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heath, G.

    2014-04-01

    Natural gas (NG) is a potential "bridge fuel" during transition to a decarbonized energy system: It emits less carbon dioxide during combustion than other fossil fuels and can be used in many industries. However, because of the high global warming potential of methane (CH4, the major component of NG), climate benefits from NG use depend on system leakage rates. Some recent estimates of leakage have challenged the benefits of switching from coal to NG, a large near-term greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction opportunity. During this presentation, Garvin will review evidence from multiple perspectives - life cycle assessments (LCAs), inventories and measurements - about NG leakage in the US. Particular attention will be paid to a recent article in Science magazine which reviewed over 20 years of published measurements to better understand what we know about total methane emissions and those from the oil and gas sectors. Scientific and policy implications of the state of knowledge will be discussed.

  1. Knowledge of nurses at a psychiatric hospitalization unit of a teaching hospital Saberes de los enfermeros en una unidad de internación psiquiátrica en un hospital universitario Saberes dos enfermeiros em uma unidade de internação psiquiátrica de um hospital universitário

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Olschowsky

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the knowledge of the nurses in a psychiatric hospitalization unit at a university hospital. It is an exploratory, descriptive research with a qualitative approach, utilizing semistructured interviews. The nurses refer to a change in the assisting care, starting from their experience in the asylum mode and making references to the concepts of the psychosocial mode: integrality, welcoming, interdisciplinarity and interpersonal relationship. Integral and individual care, knowledge of the psychiatric syndromes and their treatment as well as the consideration of the subjectivity of the subject under psychiatric suffering are part of the knowledge that guides nursing actions in mental health.Este estudio tiene por objetivo identificar los saberes de los enfermeros en una unidad de internación psiquiátrica en un hospital universitario. Se trata de una investigación exploratoria, descriptiva, con aproximación cualitativa, utilizando la entrevista semi-estructurada. Los enfermeros refieren una transformación en el cuidado asistencial a partir de su experiencia en el modo asilar, haciendo referencias a las concepciones del modo psicosocial: integralidad, acogida, interdisciplinaridad y relación interpersonal. El cuidado integral e individual, el conocimiento de los síndromes psiquiátricos y su tratamiento y la consideración de la subjetividad del individuo bajo sufrimiento psíquico son formas del saber que orientan las acciones de la enfermería en salud mental.Este estudo tem o objetivo de identificar os saberes dos enfermeiros em uma unidade de internação psiquiátrica em um hospital universitário. Trata-se de pesquisa exploratório-descritiva, com abordagem qualitativa, utilizando a entrevista semi-estruturada. Os enfermeiros relatam transformação no cuidado assistencial a partir de sua experiência no modo asilar, fazendo referências às concepções do modo psicossocial: integralidade, acolhimento

  2. Children and adolescents in the Psychiatric Emergency Department: a 10-year survey in Copenhagen County

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taastrøm, Annette; Klahn, Julie; Staal, Nina;

    2014-01-01

    Background: Knowledge on psychiatric emergencies in children and adolescents is limited. The Psychiatric Emergency Departments (PED) in Copenhagen enable the acute examination of children and adolescents 24 h a day, 7 days a week. However, very little is known about who presents to the PED...

  3. Psychiatric disease as a risk factor in fast-track hip and knee replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gylvin, Silas Hinsch; Jørgensen, Christoffer Calov; Fink-Jensen, Anders;

    2016-01-01

    of the two, or something else has not been thoroughly analyzed-and there are no internationally accepted guidelines for perioperative management of psychiatric patients. This overview summarizes our current knowledge on perioperative risks in patients with preoperative psychiatric disorders and the possible...

  4. Post-partum psychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanvi Vijay Tuteja

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Post-partum period is demanding period characterized by overwhelming biological, social and emotional changes. It requires significant personal and interpersonal adaptation, especially in case of primigravida. Childbearing from the standpoint of psychological medicine is the most complex event in human experience. Traditionally Inwood has classified post-partum psychiatric disorders (PPPD as maternity blues, post-partum (postnatal depression and puerperal psychosis (PP. However the spectrum of postpartum phenomenology is widely characterized by range of emotions from transient mood liability, irritability and weepiness to marked agitation, delusions, confusion and delirium. Untreated post-partum depression can have adverse long term effects. For the mother, the episode can be the precursor of chronic recurrent depression. For her children a mother's ongoing depression can contribute to emotional, cognitive and interpersonal problems in later life. And therefore a thorough knowledge of the same is important for all obstetrician and gynecologists. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(8.000: 2497-2502

  5. Psychiatric Comorbidities in Restless Legs Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallweit, Ulf; Werth, Esther; Seiz, Angela; Sefidan, Sandra; Dahmen, Norbert; Manconi, Mauro; Ehlert, Ulrike; Bassetti, Claudio L A

    2016-01-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a neurological sleep disorder with frequent (39%) coexisting psychiatric comorbidities. Patients with any psychiatric comorbidity had fewer periodic leg movements in sleep. Psychiatric disorders should be taken into account in patients with RLS. PMID:27019065

  6. College Students with Psychiatric Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Delar K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on college students with psychiatric disabilities. It defines and discusses various psychiatric conditions such as mood disorders, anxiety disorders, eating disorders, and personality disorders. It concludes with accommodations that a college professor can make to help these students succeed in higher education. (Contains 1…

  7. Reforma psiquiátrica brasileira: conhecimentos dos profissionais de saúde do serviço de atendimento móvel de urgência Reforma psiquiátrica brasileña: conocimientos de los profesionales de salud del servicio móvil de urgencia Brazilian psychiatric reform: knowledges of health professional of mobile service of urgency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Bonfada

    2013-06-01

    tratamiento psicosocial, sus líneas de referencia a la necesidad de hospitalización para los pacientes psiquiátricos. El modelo centrado en los hospitales y diseñado por la psiquiatría clásica exclusiva sigue vivo en las ideas de estos profesionales como una referencia a la atención de urgencias psiquiátricas.Objective is to identify the knowledge of health professionals of Service of Mobile Emergency of Natal on the Brazilian Psychiatric Reform. Information was collected through semi-structured interviews with 24 health professionals stationed at the institution. The interviews were transcribed and submitted to the technique of thematic analysis revealed three categories of analysis: admission of the subject in crisis as social and family demands; Psychiatric Reform: legislation and reality in the SAMU-Natal, and the Brazilian Psychiatric Reform as a promoter of deinstitutionalization. The professionals showed misleading and reductionist understandings of the Brazilian Psychiatric Reform and, mostly, did not give credence to the current model of mental health care in guided psychosocial treatment, his lines referring to the need for hospitalization of psychiatric patients. In this sense, we realize that the hospital-centered model designed by classical psychiatry is still alive in the ideas of these professionals as a reference to the psychiatric emergency care.

  8. The cerebellum and psychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph ePhillips

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The cerebellum has been considered for a long time to play a role solely in motor coordination. However, studies over the past two decades have shown that the cerebellum also plays a key role in many motor, cognitive, and emotional processes. In addition, studies have also shown that the cerebellum is implicated in many psychiatric disorders including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorders, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders. In this review, we discuss existing studies reporting cerebellar dysfunction in various psychiatric disorders. We will also discuss future directions for studies linking the cerebellum to psychiatric disorders.

  9. Psychiatric disorders in myasthenia gravis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Inés Ybarra

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in patients with myasthenia gravis (MG. METHOD: Forty-one patients with MG answered to a structured psychiatric interview (MINI-Plus. RESULTS: Eleven (26.1% patients were diagnosed with a depressive disorder and 19 (46.3% were diagnosed with an anxiety disorder. Patients with dysthymia were older (p=0.029 and had longer disease duration (p=0.006. Patients with social phobia also had longer disease duration (p=0.039. CONCLUSION: Psychiatric disorders in MG are common, especially depressive and anxiety disorders.

  10. [Psychiatric complications of cannabis use].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coscas, Sarah; Benyamina, Amine; Reynaud, Michel; Karila, Laurent

    2013-12-01

    Cannabis is the most widely used illicit substance, especially among young people. Cannabis use is extremely commonplace and frequently comorbid with psychiatric disorders that raise questions about the etiology. The use of cannabis is an aggravating factor of all psychiatric disorders. Psychiatric complications are related to the age of onset, duration of exposure and individual risk factors of the individual (mental and social health). The panic attack is the most common complication. The link with psychosis is narrow that leads to increased prevention for vulnerable populations. Cannabis is also an indicator of increased depressive vulnerability and an aggravating factor for bipolar disorder. PMID:24579344

  11. Care systematization in psychiatric nursing within the psychiatric reform context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirdes, A; Kantorski, L P

    2002-02-01

    The aim of this study was to approach care systematization in psychiatric nursing in two psychiatric disorder patients who attended 'Nossa Casa', São Lourenço do Sul, RS, Brazil. Nossa Casa services psychiatric patients in the community, focussing on: (i) permanence in their environment, allowing patients to remain close to their families and social spheres; (ii) integral attendance to meet individual needs; (iii) respecting individual differences; (iv) rehabilitation practices; and (v) social reinsertion. Concepts and assumptions of the psychiatric reform and the Irving's nursing process were used as theoretical-methodological references to elaborate this systematization. A therapeutic project for the psychiatric patient was elaborated, in accordance with the interdisciplinary proposal accepted by Nossa Casa. Interdisciplinary team intervention, guided by a previously discussed common orientation and defined through an individualized therapeutic project, allowed for an effective process of psychosocial rehabilitation. The authors concluded that a therapeutic project based on the mentioned premises leads to consistent, comprehensive, dialectical and ethical assistance in mental health, thereby reinstating the citizenship of psychiatric patients.

  12. Suicide among older psychiatric inpatients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erlangsen, Annette; Zarit, Steven H; Tu, Xin;

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Older adults have elevated suicide rates, especially in the presence of a psychiatric disorder, yet not much is known about predictors for suicide within this high-risk group. The current study examines the characteristics associated with suicide among older adults who are admitted...... to a psychiatric hospital. METHOD: All persons aged 60 and older living in Denmark who were hospitalized with psychiatric disorders during 1990-2000 were included in the study. Using a case-control design and logistic regression analysis, the authors calculated the suicide risk associated with specific patient...... characteristics. RESULTS: Affective disorders were found to be associated with an almost twofold higher risk of suicide among psychiatric inpatients than other types of disorders (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.5-2.6). Patients with dementia had a significantly lower risk ratio of 0.2 (95% CI: 0...

  13. Engram Formation in Psychiatric Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J. Gebicke-Haerter

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Environmental factors substantially influence beginning and progression of mental illness, reinforcing or reducing the consequences of genetic vulnerability. Often initiated by early traumatic events, engrams or memories are formed that may give rise to a slow and subtle progression of psychiatric disorders. The large delay between beginning and time of onset (diagnosis may be explained by efficient compensatory mechanisms observed in brain metabolism that use optional pathways in highly redundant molecular interactions.To this end, research has to deal with mechanisms of learning and long-term memory formation, which involves a epigenetic changes, b altered neuronal activities and c changes in neuron-glia communication. On the epigenetic level, apparently DNA-methylations are more stable than histone modifications, although both closely interact. Neuronal activities basically deliver digital information, which clearly can serve as basis for memory formation (LTP. However, research in this respect has long time neglected the importance of glia. They are more actively involved in the control of neuronal activities than thought before. They can both reinforce and inhibit neuronal activities by transducing neuronal information from frequency-encoded to amplitude and frequency-modulated calcium wave patterns spreading in the glial syncytium by use of gap junctions. In this way, they serve integrative functions. In conclusion, we are dealing with two concepts of encoding information that mutually control each other and synergize: a digital (neuronal and a wave-like (glial computing, forming neuron-glia functional units with inbuilt feedback loops to maintain balance of excitation and inhibition. To better understand mental illness, we have to gain more insight into the dynamics of adverse environmental impact on those cellular and molecular systems. This report summarizes existing knowledge and draws some outline about further research in molecular

  14. Sleep disorders in psychiatric practice

    OpenAIRE

    Szelenberger, Waldemar; SOLDATOS, CONSTANTIN

    2005-01-01

    Over the last years, a large body of evidence has accumulated showing that complaints of disordered sleep are quite prevalent in the community. Insomnia is by far the most common disturbance and is often associated with concurrent psychiatric illness, in particular anxiety and mood disorders. On the other hand, sleep complaints are frequently present among psychiatric patients and have been incorporated in the official diagnostic criteria for many mental disorders, such as m...

  15. Psychiatric emergencies (part I): psychiatric disorders causing organic symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, A; Giannuzzi, R; Sollazzo, F; Petrongolo, L; Bernardini, L; Daini, S

    2013-02-01

    Psychiatric emergencies are conditions that mostly destabilize the already frenetic activity of the Emergency Department. Sometimes the emergency is clearly referable to primitive psychiatric illness. Other times, psychiatric and organic symptoms can independently coexist (comorbidity), or develop together in different conditions of substance abuse, including alcohol and prescription drugs. Differentiating between substance induced and pre-existing psychiatric disorder (dual diagnosis) may be difficult, other than controversial issue. Finally, an organic disease can hide behind a psychiatric disorder (pseudopsychiatric emergency). In this review (part I), psychiatric disorders that occur with organic symptoms are discussed. They include: (1) anxiety, conversion and psychosomatic disorders, and (2) simulated diseases. The physiologic mechanisms of the stress reaction, divided into a dual neuro-hormonal response, are reviewed in this section: (1) activation of the sympathetic nervous system and adrenal medulla with catecholamine production (rapid response), and (2) activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis with cortisol production (slow response). The concept of the fight-or-flight response, its adaptive significance and the potential evolution in paralyzing response, well showing by Yerkes-Dodson curve, is explained. Abnormal short- and long-term reactions to stress evolving toward well codified cluster of trauma and stressor-related disorders, including acute stress disorder, adjustment disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder, are examined. A brief review of major psychiatric disorder and related behaviour abnormalities, vegetative symptoms and cognitive impairment, according to DMS IV-TR classification, are described. Finally, the reactive psychic symptoms and behavioral responses to acute or chronic organic disease, so called "somatopsychic disorders", commonly occurring in elderly and pediatric patients, are presented. The specific conditions of

  16. Towards Developmental Models of Psychiatric Disorders in Zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Howard James Norton

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Psychiatric disorders are a diverse set of diseases that affect all aspects of mental function including social interaction, thinking, feeling and mood. Although psychiatric disorders place a large economic burden on society, the drugs available to treat them are often palliative with variable efficacy and intolerable side-effects. The development of novel drugs has been hindered by a lack of knowledge about the etiology of these diseases. It is thus necessary to further investigate psychiatric disorders using a combination of human molecular genetics, gene-by-environment studies, in vitro pharmacological and biochemistry experiments, animal models and investigation of the non-biological basis of these diseases, such as environmental effects.Many psychiatric disorders, including autism spectrum disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, mental retardation and schizophrenia can be triggered by alterations to neural development. The zebrafish is a popular model for developmental biology that is increasingly used to study human disease. Recent work has extended this approach to examine psychiatric disorders as well. However, since psychiatric disorders affect complex mental functions that might be human specific, it is not possible to fully model them in fish. In this review, I will propose that the suitability of zebrafish for developmental studies, and the genetic tools available to manipulate them, provide a powerful model to study the roles of genes that are linked to psychiatric disorders during neural development. The relative speed and ease of conducting experiments in zebrafish can be used to address two areas of future research: the contribution of environmental factors to disease onset, and screening for novel therapeutic compounds.

  17. Awareness of symptoms and preventive knowledge of common psychiatric disorders in elderly and their caregivers%老年人及其照料者对老年期常见精神障碍症状和预防知识的知晓率

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨宁; 颜瑜章; 陈力鸣; 胡号应

    2012-01-01

    目的:调查老年人及其照料者对老年期常见精神障碍症状和预防知识的知晓情况,了解精神卫生健康知识的普及程度和探索宣传教育的重点.方法:采用方便抽样的方法,经简易智能精神状态检查量表(MMSE)筛查后,对广州市431名老年人及423名老年人照料者进行老年期常见精神障碍的症状和预防知识问卷调查,比较老年人和照料者两组间对精神障碍相关知识知晓率的差异.结果:老年人组及照料者组对精神障碍相关知识的知晓率差异无统计学意义(74.4% vs.75.5%,P>0.05).老年人组对老年痴呆最常见原因及老年抑郁症主要病因的知晓率均低于照料者组(36.2% vs.47.0%,26.2% vs.43.0%,均P<0.01);老年人组对过分关注身体健康、无故怀疑自己生病属心理问题及老年人抑郁症身体表现的知晓率均高于照料者组(88.9% vs.83.7%,84.0% vs.76.4%,均P<0.01).城市老年人及照料者的知晓率均高于农村老年人及照料者(77.4% vs.70.9%,77.3% vs.73.6%,均P<0.05),且老年人组中教育程度高者知晓率较高(P<0.01).结论:广州市老年人群及其照料者中精神卫生健康知识普及程度总体较好,而精神障碍病因或致病因素等方面的健康教育仍需加强.%Objective: To investigate the awareness of symptoms and preventive knowledge of common psychiatric disorders in elderly and their caregivers, and to explore the focus of education of mental health knowledge. Methods: By cluster sampling and assessing with Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE),431 elderly people and 423 caregivers in Guangzhou were selected. They were investigated with the questionnaire of symptoms and preventive knowledge of common psychiatric disorders in the elderly. Results: In this sample, there was no difference between the elderly people and the caregivers in the awareness rate for common psychiatric disorders in the elderly (74.4% vs. 75.5%,P>0

  18. OCCUPATIONAL ROLE AFTER PSYCHIATRIC HOSPITALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GH.R GHASSEMI

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Severe Psychiatricillness is accompanied by gross disturbances in patient's occupational role. This study presents a comparative picture of work performance before and after psychiatric hospitalization. Method: Subjects comprised 440 psychiatric admitters from Noor Medical center - Isfahan - Iran, who were followed from November 1999 to November 2000. Their work adjustment was measured by means of Weiss man's index. Data were computer analyzed using SPSS by running paired t- student and ANOVA. Results: Majority of the patients (53 % were without permanent sources of income before psychiatric hospitalization, about 12 percent of those who were working prior to hospitalization lost their job after being discharged from hospital. Better work adjustment before hospitalization was positively correlated with better work adjustment after discharge for working patients (r =0/66. Working ability of the patients after discharge was lesser than before the attack f9r patients with regular and irregular job (P < 001. Discussion: Job loss or poor working ability after psychiatric admission reported by several researchers and has bean confirmed in this study as well. These observatoins have been discussed in view of the current socio economic problems in the society and nature of psychiatric disturbances.

  19. Psychiatric Adverse Effects of Dermatological Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mine Özmen

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Dermatological drugs, mostly corticosteroids and isotretinoin, cause different psychiatric adverse effects. During steroid therapy, a wide range of psychiatric conditions, from minor clinical symptoms like insomnia and anxiety to serious psychiatric syndromes like psychosis and delirium might be seen. In medical literature, a causal connection is usually suggested between “isotretinoin”, which is used for treatment of acne vulgaris and depression and suicide attempts. However, there are no statistically significant double-blind randomized studies that support this connection. Clinicians must know patient’s psychiatric history before using any dermatological treatment known as causing psychiatric adverse effects, and psychiatric consultation should be established whenever necessary.

  20. [Movement disorders is psychiatric diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidasi, Zoltan; Salacz, Pal; Csibri, Eva

    2014-12-01

    Movement disorders are common in psychiatry. The movement disorder can either be the symptom of a psychiatric disorder, can share a common aetiological factor with it, or can be the consequence of psychopharmacological therapy. Most common features include tic, stereotypy, compulsion, akathisia, dyskinesias, tremor, hypokinesia and disturbances of posture and gait. We discuss characteristics and clinical importance of these features. Movement disorders are frequently present in mood disorders, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, catatonia, Tourette-disorder and psychogenic movement disorder, leading to differential-diagnostic and therapeutical difficulties in everyday practice. Movement disorders due to psychopharmacotherapy can be classified as early-onset, late-onset and tardive. Frequent psychiatric comorbidity is found in primary movement disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, Wilson's disease, Huntington's disease, diffuse Lewy-body disorder. Complex neuropsychiatric approach is effective concerning overlapping clinical features and spectrums of disorders in terms of movement disorders and psychiatric diseases. PMID:25577484

  1. Religious ideas and psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beit-Hallahmi, B; Argyle, M

    1977-01-01

    The evidence presented above points to the need for considering factors other than purely religious ones in determining the role of religious ideas in psychiatric disorders. The occurrence of religious ideas as part of the content of individual delusional systems in psychiatric patients can be explained on the basis of exposure to religious ideas through the social environment. It may be also related to the prominence of religion, vis-a-vis other belief systems, in the social envirnment. When considering psychopathological explanations for intense religious experiences, one has to be conscious again of the social factors involved. When an unusual experience having religious content becomes normative in a certain group (for whatever reasons), trying to explain its appearance on the basis of individual psychodynamics or psychopathology becomes very difficult. There seems to be an inverse relationship between the social nature of a religious experience and its psychopathological nature, i.e., there is more psychopathology in individuals reporting solitary religious experiences, or individual religious ideas. Thus the solitary experience seems to be more influenced by disturbed individual dynamics, but in other cases social factors seem to be crucial. Our overall conclusion is that a psychiatric analysis of the role of religious factors in psychopathology has to be first a social-psychiatric analysis. An individual presenting psychiatric symptoms and religious ideas has to be evaluated in light of his social background, since the specific content of psychiatric symptoms seems to be determined by social background factors. Individual psychodynamics determine the appearance of symptoms, but their particular form will be the result of these background factors, one of which is religion. PMID:863602

  2. The nature of psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, Kenneth S

    2016-02-01

    A foundational question for the discipline of psychiatry is the nature of psychiatric disorders. What kinds of things are they? In this paper, I review and critique three major relevant theories: realism, pragmatism and constructivism. Realism assumes that the content of science is real and independent of human activities. I distinguish two "flavors" of realism: chemistry-based, for which the paradigmatic example is elements of the periodic table, and biology-based, for which the paradigm is species. The latter is a much better fit for psychiatry. Pragmatism articulates a sensible approach to psychiatric disorders just seeking categories that perform well in the world. But it makes no claim about the reality of those disorders. This is problematic, because we have a duty to advocate for our profession and our patients against other physicians who never doubt the reality of the disorders they treat. Constructivism has been associated with anti-psychiatry activists, but we should admit that social forces play a role in the creation of our diagnoses, as they do in many sciences. However, truly socially constructed psychiatric disorders are rare. I then describe powerful arguments against a realist theory of psychiatric disorders. Because so many prior psychiatric diagnoses have been proposed and then abandoned, can we really claim that our current nosologies have it right? Much of our current nosology arose from a series of historical figures and events which could have gone differently. If we re-run the tape of history over and over again, the DSM and ICD would not likely have the same categories on every iteration. Therefore, we should argue more confidently for the reality of broader constructs of psychiatric illness rather than our current diagnostic categories, which remain tentative. Finally, instead of thinking that our disorders are true because they correspond to clear entities in the world, we should consider a coherence theory of truth by which disorders

  3. The nature of psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, Kenneth S

    2016-02-01

    A foundational question for the discipline of psychiatry is the nature of psychiatric disorders. What kinds of things are they? In this paper, I review and critique three major relevant theories: realism, pragmatism and constructivism. Realism assumes that the content of science is real and independent of human activities. I distinguish two "flavors" of realism: chemistry-based, for which the paradigmatic example is elements of the periodic table, and biology-based, for which the paradigm is species. The latter is a much better fit for psychiatry. Pragmatism articulates a sensible approach to psychiatric disorders just seeking categories that perform well in the world. But it makes no claim about the reality of those disorders. This is problematic, because we have a duty to advocate for our profession and our patients against other physicians who never doubt the reality of the disorders they treat. Constructivism has been associated with anti-psychiatry activists, but we should admit that social forces play a role in the creation of our diagnoses, as they do in many sciences. However, truly socially constructed psychiatric disorders are rare. I then describe powerful arguments against a realist theory of psychiatric disorders. Because so many prior psychiatric diagnoses have been proposed and then abandoned, can we really claim that our current nosologies have it right? Much of our current nosology arose from a series of historical figures and events which could have gone differently. If we re-run the tape of history over and over again, the DSM and ICD would not likely have the same categories on every iteration. Therefore, we should argue more confidently for the reality of broader constructs of psychiatric illness rather than our current diagnostic categories, which remain tentative. Finally, instead of thinking that our disorders are true because they correspond to clear entities in the world, we should consider a coherence theory of truth by which disorders

  4. Optogenetics in psychiatric animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentz, Christian T; Oettl, Lars-Lennart; Kelsch, Wolfgang

    2013-10-01

    Optogenetics is the optical control of neuronal excitability by genetically delivered light-activated channels and pumps and represents a promising tool to fuel the study of circuit function in psychiatric animal models. This review highlights three developments. First, we examine the application of optogenetics in one of the neuromodulators central to the pathophysiology of many psychiatric disorders, the dopaminergic system. We then discuss recent work in translating functional magnetic resonance imaging in small animals (in which optogenetics can be employed to reveal physiological mechanisms underlying disease-related alterations in brain circuits) to patients. Finally, we describe emerging technological developments for circuit manipulation in freely behaving animals.

  5. Biofeedback for psychiatric disorders: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoenberg, P.L.; David, A.S.

    2014-01-01

    Biofeedback potentially provides non-invasive, effective psychophysiological interventions for psychiatric disorders. The encompassing purpose of this review was to establish how biofeedback interventions have been used to treat select psychiatric disorders [anxiety, autistic spectrum disorders, dep

  6. Alcohol Abuse and Other Psychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) Main Menu Search Search form ... Health & Health Disparities Other Psychiatric Disorders Other Substance Abuse HIV/AIDS Other Psychiatric Disorders In the current ...

  7. Alcohol Abuse and Other Psychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Disparities Other Psychiatric Disorders Other Substance Abuse HIV/AIDS Other Psychiatric Disorders In the current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), alcohol abuse and other substance abuse ...

  8. Restless Legs Syndrome and Psychiatric Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackie, Susan; Winkelman, John W

    2015-09-01

    There are strong epidemiologic ties between restless legs syndrome (RLS) and a wide array of psychiatric conditions. Although the mechanism of this association is not fully understood, there are likely bidirectional cause-and-effect relationships. Appreciation of psychiatric comorbidity is an essential component of the treatment of RLS. Clinicians should be prepared to facilitate appropriate psychiatric treatment and consider the complex interactions between psychiatric medications, RLS medications, and the clinical course of both illnesses.

  9. Legal Considerations of Psychiatric Nursing Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barloon, Linda Funk; Hilliard, Wanda

    2016-06-01

    There are major legal issues that affect psychiatric nursing and guidelines for practicing in a legal and responsible manner. Advances in understanding of psychiatric conditions and developments in how nurses care for psychiatric patients result in changes in regulations, case law, and policies that govern nursing practice. Professional development, keeping abreast of current research and literature regarding clinical practice and trends, and involvement in professional organizations are some of the ways that psychiatric nurses can meet the challenges of their profession. PMID:27229273

  10. Oral Health in Psychiatric Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozlem Gurbuz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Although oral health is a major determinant of general health and quality of life, it has a low priority in the context of mental illness. Chronic mental illness and its treatment carry inherent risks for significant oral diseases. Both the disease itself and its various pharmacologic management modalities lead to a range of oral complications and side effects, with caries, periodontal disease and xerostomia being encountered most frequently. Older age, female gender, length of hospitalization, duration of mental illness, psychiatric diagnosis are the most discussed predictors for adverse dental outcomes in the reviewed studies. Poor oral hygiene, higher intake of carbonates, smoking, poor perception of oral health self-needs, length of psychiatric disorder, length of psychotropic treatment, and less access to dental care pose at high risk for poor oral health among this population. This article emphasizes the importance of preventive dentistry programs to improve dental healthcare psychiatric chronic inpatients and the signifance of bridging dental health education to psychiatric rehabilitation programs. In this review, general information concerning the oral manifestations of mental illness, effect of medication of mental illness on oral health, the factors affecting oral health among this special population have been provided.

  11. Differences between Irish and Australian psychiatric nurses' family-focused practice in adult mental health services

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Grant, Anne

    2016-04-01

    Psychiatric nurses\\' practice with parents who have mental illness, their children and families is an important issue internationally. This study provides a comparison of Irish and Australian psychiatric nurses\\' family-focused practices in adult mental health services. Three hundred and forty three nurses across Ireland and 155 from Australia completed the Family Focused Mental Health Practice Questionnaire. Cross-country comparisons revealed significant differences, in terms of family-focused skill, knowledge, confidence and practice. Australian psychiatric nurses engaged in higher family-focused practice compared to Irish nurses. The comparative differences between countries may be attributable to differences in training, workplace support and policy.

  12. Continuity of pharmaceutical care for psychiatric patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdullah-Koolmees, Heshu

    2015-01-01

    Psychiatric diseases are common. The effective treatment of a psychiatric disease, its (somatic) side effects and any concurrent somatic diseases is important for the patient’s overall health and wellbeing. The studies conducted in psychiatric patients generally focus on the continuation of psychiat

  13. Psychiatric disorders after radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review focuses on the mental and psychological effects of medical radiation exposure, the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island, the Chernobyl disaster, atomic bomb explosions at Nagasaki and Hiroshima, and accidents at nuclear power plants and nuclear waste plants. Studies have shown that anxiety about the adverse effects of radiation in medicine (such as infertility, carcinogenicity, and genotoxicity) and fear for exposure has caused psychiatric disorders. Several studies on the mental health effects of the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island were conducted, and the results indicated that psychiatric distress persisted for a certain period of time, particularly in pregnant women and women who have children, even when no evidence of substantial of radiation exposure is seen clinically. The psychological consequences of the Chernobyl disaster have been investigated continuously, and various problems, e.g., acute stress reaction, neurosis, and psychosis, have been identified, although no physical damage due to the radiation or PTSD have been reported. By contrast, PTSD has been seen in survivors of the Nagasaki and Hiroshima nuclear explosions. A study in Ohio, (United States), which has a nuclear waste plant, investigated PTSD in people living near the plant and found that the symptom level was mild. In general, the most common symptoms among people with mental and psychological disorders due to radiation exposure are depression and anxiety, with many people having associated somatoform disorders, and some people complain of PTSD. Vague anxiety and fear of sequelae, regardless of the exposure dose, appears to cause such psychiatric disorders. Although it is rare for psychiatrists to see such cases of psychiatric disorders due to radiation exposure, their number may increase as psychiatric services become more widely available. (K.H.)

  14. Psychiatric disorders after radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kokai, Masahiro [Hyogo Coll. of Medicine, Nishinomiya (Japan); Soejima, Toshinori; Wang, Shangdong; Shinfuku, Naotaka

    2001-04-01

    This review focuses on the mental and psychological effects of medical radiation exposure, the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island, the Chernobyl disaster, atomic bomb explosions at Nagasaki and Hiroshima, and accidents at nuclear power plants and nuclear waste plants. Studies have shown that anxiety about the adverse effects of radiation in medicine (such as infertility, carcinogenicity, and genotoxicity) and fear for exposure has caused psychiatric disorders. Several studies on the mental health effects of the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island were conducted, and the results indicated that psychiatric distress persisted for a certain period of time, particularly in pregnant women and women who have children, even when no evidence of substantial of radiation exposure is seen clinically. The psychological consequences of the Chernobyl disaster have been investigated continuously, and various problems, e.g., acute stress reaction, neurosis, and psychosis, have been identified, although no physical damage due to the radiation or PTSD have been reported. By contrast, PTSD has been seen in survivors of the Nagasaki and Hiroshima nuclear explosions. A study in Ohio, (United States), which has a nuclear waste plant, investigated PTSD in people living near the plant and found that the symptom level was mild. In general, the most common symptoms among people with mental and psychological disorders due to radiation exposure are depression and anxiety, with many people having associated somatoform disorders, and some people complain of PTSD. Vague anxiety and fear of sequelae, regardless of the exposure dose, appears to cause such psychiatric disorders. Although it is rare for psychiatrists to see such cases of psychiatric disorders due to radiation exposure, their number may increase as psychiatric services become more widely available. (K.H.)

  15. Dilemmas in private psychiatric practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanasaheb M Patil

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A practicing psychiatrist faces dilemmas on a number of occasions, in deciding the best course of action he/she needs to undertake while treating a patient. At times, this choice may not be in accordance with the ethical and moral principles and may in fact appear to violate patient′s autonomy and rights. Aim: To study the nature of psychiatric practice by the practicing psychiatrist in the areas of admission, discharge, consent, physical restraint, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT, certification, treatment, suicide and psychotherapy. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional observational study. Materials and Methods: Forty-eight psychiatrists gave consent to participate in the study. A special proforma was prepared, which addresses the common dilemmas in the clinical psychiatric practice. All the psychiatrists were given specially designed profoma and were requested to fill the proforma with appropriate answers. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS software. Results: There were 42 male and 6 female psychiatrists. The age of the psychiatrists ranged from 28 to 65 years with a mean of 43.08 years. The mean duration of practice of these psychiatrists was 14.81΁11.07 years. Question and answers related to admission, discharge, consent, physical restraint, ECT, certification, treatment, suicide and psychotherapy are discussed. Conclusions: The present standard and practice especially in private psychiatric set-up does not confirm to the rules, recommendations, and regulations suggested by Mental Health Act 1987, Mental Health Authorities and various guidelines of practice. Indian Psychiatric Society and other professional bodies need to take steps to prepare guidelines for a good psychiatric practice.

  16. Critical assessment of the current state of scientific knowledge, terminology, and research needs concerning the role of organic aerosols in the atmosphere, climate, and global change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fuzzi

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available In spite of impressive advances in recent years, our present understanding of organic aerosol (OA composition, physical and chemical properties, sources and transformation characteristics is still rather limited, and their environmental effects remain highly uncertain. Therefore, the three atmosphere-related projects of the International Geosphere Biosphere Programme (IGBP – IGAC (International Global Atmospheric Chemistry Project, iLEAPS (Integrated Land Ecosystem Atmosphere Process Study and SOLAS (Surface Ocean-Lower Atmosphere Study – organised a workshop with the specific goal of discussing and prioritizing issues related to organic aerosol and their effects on atmospheric processes and climate, providing a basis for future collaborative activities at the international level. Four main topical areas were addressed: (a sources of OA; (b formation and transformation of OA; (c physical and chemical state of OA; (d atmospheric modelling of OA. Key questions and research priorities regarding these four areas have been synthesized in this paper, and outstanding issues for future research are presented for each topical area. In addition, an effort is made to formulate a basic set of consistent and universally applicable terms and definitions for coherent description of atmospheric OA across different scientific scales and disciplines. In fact, the terminologies used in the past and present scientific literature are not always consistent, and this may lead to misunderstandings and confusion in the communication between specialists from different disciplines and potentially inhibit or retard scientific progress.

  17. An Unusual Psychiatric Emergency: Herpes Simplex Encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Doyle

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of fatal herpes simplex virus (HSV encephalitis, presenting as a psychiatric emergency, is reported. The possibility of HSV encephalitis presenting mainly or solely with psychiatric symptoms is highlighted. HSV can cause a severe form of encephalitis which may present with mainly psychiatric symptoms in some cases. Early treatment with anti-viral agents can reduce mortality and morbidity, but accurate early diagnosis may be very difficult. HSV encephalopathy may mimic psychiatric illness and has been likened to syphilis as the great imitator. The case presented here should serve to raise awareness of the psychiatric features and the need to consider this diagnosis in patients with atypical behavioural disturbance.

  18. Atmospheric thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Iribarne, J V

    1973-01-01

    The thermodynamics of the atmosphere is the subject of several chapters in most textbooks on dynamic meteorology, but there is no work in English to give the subject a specific and more extensive treatment. In writing the present textbook, we have tried to fill this rather remarkable gap in the literature related to atmospheric sciences. Our aim has been to provide students of meteorology with a book that can playa role similar to the textbooks on chemical thermodynamics for the chemists. This implies a previous knowledge of general thermodynamics, such as students acquire in general physics courses; therefore, although the basic principles are reviewed (in the first four chapters), they are only briefly discussed, and emphasis is laid on those topics that will be useful in later chapters, through their application to atmospheric problems. No attempt has been made to introduce the thermodynamics of irreversible processes; on the other hand, consideration of heterogeneous and open homogeneous systems permits a...

  19. Psychiatric Aspects of Childhood Epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Pattanayak, Raman Deep; Sagar, Rajesh

    2012-01-01

    How to Cite this Article: Pattanayak RD, Sagar R. Psychiatric Aspects of Childhood Epilepsy. Iran J Child Neurol 2012;6(2):9-18.Childhood epilepsy is a chronic, recurrent disorder of unprovoked seizures. Theonset of epilepsy in childhood has significant implications for brain growth anddevelopment. Seizures may impair the ongoing neurodevelopmental processes and compromise the child’s intellectual and cognitive functioning, leading totremendous cognitive, behavioral and psychosocial consequen...

  20. Imaging genetics and psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, R; Ohi, K; Yamamori, H; Yasuda, Y; Fujimoto, M; Umeda-Yano, S; Watanabe, Y; Fukunaga, M; Takeda, M

    2015-01-01

    Imaging genetics is an integrated research method that uses neuroimaging and genetics to assess the impact of genetic variation on brain function and structure. Imaging genetics is both a tool for the discovery of risk genes for psychiatric disorders and a strategy for characterizing the neural systems affected by risk gene variants to elucidate quantitative and mechanistic aspects of brain function implicated in psychiatric disease. Early studies of imaging genetics included association analyses between brain morphology and single nucleotide polymorphisms whose function is well known, such as catechol-Omethyltransferase (COMT) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). GWAS of psychiatric disorders have identified genes with unknown functions, such as ZNF804A, and imaging genetics has been used to investigate clues of the biological function of these genes. The difficulty in replicating the findings of studies with small sample sizes has motivated the creation of largescale collaborative consortiums, such as ENIGMA, CHARGE and IMAGEN, to collect thousands of images. In a genome-wide association study, the ENIGMA consortium successfully identified common variants in the genome associated with hippocampal volume at 12q24, and the CHARGE consortium replicated this finding. The new era of imaging genetics has just begun, and the next challenge we face is the discovery of small effect size signals from large data sets obtained from genetics and neuroimaging. New methods and technologies for data reduction with appropriate statistical thresholds, such as polygenic analysis and parallel independent component analysis (ICA), are warranted. Future advances in imaging genetics will aid in the discovery of genes and provide mechanistic insight into psychiatric disorders.

  1. PSYCHIATRIC COMORBIDITY IN FORENSIC PSYCHIATRY

    OpenAIRE

    Žarkovic Palijan, Tija; Mužinić, Lana; Radeljak, Sanja

    2009-01-01

    For the past several years a numerous studies in the field of forensic psychiatry confirmed a close relationship between violent offenders and comorbid substance abuse. The comorbid substance abuse in violent offenders was usually unrecognized and misdiagnosed. Furthermore, comorbidity in forensic psychiatry describes the co-occurrence of two or more conditions or psychiatric disorder known in the literature as dual diagnosis and defined by World Health Organization (WHO). In fact, many vi...

  2. Psychiatric classification and subjective experience

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    This article does not directly consider the feelings and emotions that occur in mental illness. Rather, it concerns a higher level methodological question: To what extent is an analysis of feelings and felt emotions of importance for psychiatric classification? Some claim that producing a phenomenologically informed descriptive psychopathology is a prerequisite for serious taxonomic endeavor. Others think that classifications of mental disorders may ignore subjective experience. A middle view...

  3. Psychiatric Thoughts in Ancient India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Abhyankar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A review of the literature regarding psychiatric thoughts in ancient India is attempted. Besides interesting reading, many of the concepts are still relevant and can be used in day-to-day practice especially towards healthy and happy living. Certain concepts are surprisingly contemporary and valid today. They can be used in psychotherapy and counselling and for promoting mental health. However, the description and classification of mental illness is not in tune with modern psychiatry.

  4. Tobacco and psychiatric dual disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Noni A; Frost-Pineda, Kimberly; Gold, Mark S

    2007-01-01

    Smoking is a leading cause of morbidity and premature mortality in the United States. The relationship between tobacco smoking and several forms of cancer, heart disease, stroke, chronic lung disease, and other medical diseases is well recognized and accepted. Recent epidemiological studies are now focusing on the link between tobacco use and psychiatric diseases. Experts now suggest that in the differential diagnosis of "smoker," depression, alcohol dependence, and schizophrenia are highest on the list. Studies are also focusing on the role of secondhand tobacco exposure, either in utero or during childhood, in the risk of dual disorders. Prenatal exposure may alter gene expression and change the risk for a variety of life-long psychiatric diseases, e.g., ADD/ADHD, antisocial personality disorders, substance use disorders, and major depression. Considerable time and effort have been devoted to studying the link between smoking and depression and also schizophrenia. We will focus on less well-studied areas in tobacco use and psychiatric dual disorders (including eating disorders), prenatal and early childhood secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure, and the relationship to the genesis of these dual disorders. PMID:19283970

  5. Adult Neurogenesis and Psychiatric Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Eunchai; Wen, Zhexing; Song, Hongjun; Christian, Kimberly M; Ming, Guo-Li

    2016-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders continue to be among the most challenging disorders to diagnose and treat because there is no single genetic or anatomical locus that is causative for the disease. Current treatments are often blunt tools used to ameliorate the most severe symptoms, at the risk of disrupting functional neural systems. There is a critical need to develop new therapeutic strategies that can target circumscribed functional or anatomical domains of pathology. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis may be one such domain. Here, we review the evidence suggesting that adult hippocampal neurogenesis plays a role in emotional regulation and forms of learning and memory that include temporal and spatial memory encoding and context discrimination, and that its dysregulation is associated with psychiatric disorders, such as affective disorders, schizophrenia, and drug addiction. Further, adult neurogenesis has proven to be an effective model to investigate basic processes of neuronal development and converging evidence suggests that aberrant neural development may be an etiological factor, even in late-onset diseases. Constitutive neurogenesis in the hippocampus of the mature brain reflects large-scale plasticity unique to this region and could be a potential hub for modulation of a subset of cognitive and affective behaviors that are affected by multiple psychiatric disorders. PMID:26801682

  6. Chronotherapeutics in a psychiatric ward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, Francesco; Barbini, Barbara; Colombo, Cristina; Smeraldi, Enrico

    2007-12-01

    Psychiatric chronotherapeutics is the controlled exposure to environmental stimuli that act on biological rhythms in order to achieve therapeutic effects in the treatment of psychiatric conditions. In recent years some techniques (mainly light therapy and sleep deprivation) have passed the experimental developmental phase and reached the status of powerful and affordable clinical interventions for everyday clinical treatment of depressed patients. These techniques target the same brain neurotransmitter systems and the same brain areas as do antidepressant drugs, and should be administered under careful medical supervision. Their effects are rapid and transient, but can be stabilised by combining techniques among themselves or together with common drug treatments. Antidepressant chronotherapeutics target the broadly defined depressive syndrome, with response and relapse rates similar to those obtained with antidepressant drugs, and good results are obtained even in difficult-to-treat conditions such as bipolar depression. Chronotherapeutics offer a benign alternative to more radical treatments of depression for the treatment of severe depression in psychiatric wards, but with the advantage of rapidity of onset.

  7. [Psychiatric Hospital San Juan de Dios. One hundred years later].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocula-León, Horacio

    2014-01-01

    Mental health and psychiatric diseases have always attracted people's and health authorities' attention due to its magical approach, the lack of knowledge that surrounds them, and, at the same time, the religious fear they provoke. Both have played an important role in the history of humanity, of public health politics, and of physicians. The places where psychiatric patients were treated are of historical interest, because through the historical knowledge we can identify an approach from the science and the health policies that prevailed in each age. At the beginning of the 20th century, it was developed in México a new model of hospital care attention to psychiatric patients. La Casa de Salud San Juan de Dios para Pacientes Alienados is an example; the concept "alienated patients" suggests a social and cultural perspective. This paper presents a chronological type description of one of the major institutions involved in mental health care in México. Similarly, it shows a review of the events that affected the religious order San Juan de Dios from 1901 to 2012, when the hospitaller order was reinstated in México and established the Casa de Salud San Juan de Dios para Pacientes Alienados in the town of Zapopan, Jalisco, institution that exists up to the present day and keeps participating in the mental health care in the state of Jalisco, with the current name of Servicios de Salud San Juan de Dios.

  8. Caregivers' perceptions of coercion in psychiatric hospital admission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranieri, Veronica; Madigan, Kevin; Roche, Eric; Bainbridge, Emma; McGuinness, David; Tierney, Kevin; Feeney, Larkin; Hallahan, Brian; McDonald, Colm; O'Donoghue, Brian

    2015-08-30

    While knowledge on service users' perspective on their admissions to psychiatric wards has improved substantially in the last decade, there is a paucity of knowledge of the perspectives of caregivers. This study aimed to determine caregiver's perception of the levels of perceived coercion, perceived pressures and procedural justice experienced by service users during their admission to acute psychiatric in-patient units. The perspective of caregivers were then compared to the perspectives of their related service users, who had been admitted to five psychiatric units in Ireland. Caregivers were interviewed using an adapted version of the MacArthur admission experience interview. Sixty-six caregivers participated in this study and the majority were parents. Seventy one percent of service users were admitted involuntarily and nearly half had a diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Caregivers of involuntarily admitted individuals perceived the service users' admission as less coercive than reported by the service users. Caregivers also perceived a higher level of procedural justice in comparison to the level reported by service users. Reducing the disparity of perceptions between caregivers and service users could result in caregivers having a greater understanding of the admission process and why some service users may be reluctant to be admitted. PMID:26163727

  9. Psychiatric worker and family members: pathways towards co-operation networks within psychiatric assistance services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Carbone

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The family’s role in patient care was greatly altered by Law 180. This law, introduced in Italy in 1978, led to a gradual phasing out of custodial treatment for psychiatric patients. This different mindset, which views the family as an alternative to institutionalization, leads to it being seen as an essential entity in the setting up of community service dynamics. We interviewed health professionals in order to understand obstacles of collaboration between family members and mental health care workers. The goal was to uncover actions that promote collaboration and help build alliances between families and psychiatric workers. Results showed that health professionals view the family as a therapeutic resource. Despite this view, family members were rarely included in patient treatment. The reasons is: the structures have a theoretical orientation of collaboration with the family but, for nurses not are organized a few meeting spaces with family members. Services should create moments, such as multi-family groups or groups of information, managed by nurses and not only by doctors. These occasions it might facilitate the knowledge between professionals and family members.

  10. Zinc deficiency is common in several psychiatric disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole Grønli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mounting evidence suggests a link between low zinc levels and depression. There is, however, little knowledge about zinc levels in older persons with other psychiatric diagnoses. Therefore, we explore the zinc status of elderly patients suffering from a wide range of psychiatric disorders. METHODS: Clinical data and blood samples for zinc analyzes were collected from 100 psychogeriatric patients over 64 of age. Psychiatric and cognitive symptoms were assessed using the Montgomery and Aasberg Depression Rating Scale, the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia, the Mini-Mental State Examination, the Clockdrawing Test, clinical interviews and a review of medical records. In addition, a diagnostic interview was conducted using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview instrument. The prevalence of zinc deficiency in patients with depression was compared with the prevalence in patients without depression, and the prevalence in a control group of 882 older persons sampled from a population study. RESULTS: There was a significant difference in zinc deficiency prevalence between the control group (14.4% and the patient group (41.0% (χ(2 = 44.81, df = 1, p<0.001. In a logistic model with relevant predictors, zinc deficiency was positively associated with gender and with serum albumin level. The prevalence of zinc deficiency in the patient group was significantly higher in patients without depression (i.e. with other diagnoses than in patients with depression as a main diagnosis or comorbid depression (χ(2 = 4.36, df = 1, p = 0.037. CONCLUSIONS: Zinc deficiency is quite common among psychogeriatric patients and appears to be even more prominent in patients suffering from other psychiatric disorders than depression. LIMITATIONS: This study does not provide a clear answer as to whether the observed differences represent a causal relationship between zinc deficiency and psychiatric symptoms. The blood sample collection time points

  11. [Psychiatric rehabilitation from the viewpoint of a large psychiatric facility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregor, R

    1990-06-01

    The paper makes the reader familiar with the results of activities of the central rehabilitation department in the Psychiatric Sanatorium in Kromĕríz. It postulates views regarding the technique of work with patients and pays special attention to the rehabilitation of patients with schizophrenic psychosis. In these patients the results of rehabilitation care at different rating levels were evaluated. In the field of ergotherapy the schizophrenic patients were evaluated by the therapists and instructors of occupational therapy on entry of and departure from the workshop or class, using the Engelsman--Hájek scale. Based on the results the hypothesis was confirmed of a lower working performance of patients with schizophrenic psychosis, as compared with other diagnostic groups. In the field of remedial exercise and special forms of psychiatric rehabilitation, such as educational and recreational activities, patients with schizophrenic psychosis were evaluated by a doctor and psychologist of the rehabilitation department of the psychiatric sanatorium for after--treatment of psychoses. The patients were evaluated by Wing's scale for chronic schizophrenia and by means of the Scale for Evaluation of Working Performance and Behaviour. According to the results of both scales no significant differences were found between the experimental groups where different forms of rehabilitation were accentuated, as compared with the control group engaged only in occupational therapy. Both scales revealed in both experimental groups highly significant improvement as regards resocialization within a very short period during which the patients were subjected to intense rehabilitation. Based on these results the author recommends further rehabilitation provisions. PMID:2225189

  12. An Epidemiological Study of Psychiatric Disorders in Hamadan Province , 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Mohammadi

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The burden of psychiatric disorders in the developed countries has been identified by the screening questionnaires and standard clinical interviews at a high level, but the epidemiological studies of psychiatric disorders in our country are brief and their numbers are few. Planning for providing essential mental health services to the people requires us to be knowledgeable about the present status of psychiatric disorders in the society. The objective of this research was to carry out the epidemiological study of the psychiatric disorders in the individuals 18 years and above in urban and rural areas of Hamadan province. 664 individuals selected through randomized clustered and systematic sampling methods among the existing families of Hamadan province and the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (SADS questionnaires completed by the clinical psychologist. The diagnosis of the disorders was based on DSM-IV classification criteria.The results of the study showed that the overall prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the province was 11.28% (17.2% in women , 5.8% in men. The anxiety and mood disorders with 5.87 and 2.71% respectively had the highest prevalence in the province. The prevalence of psychotic disorders in this study was 0.60% , neuro- cognitive disorders 1.35% and dissociative disorders 0.75%. In the group of mood disorders, major depression with 2.56% and in the group of anxiety disorders, phobia with 2.56% had the higher prevalence. This study showed that 8.13% of studied individuals suffered from at least one of the psychiatric disorders. The prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the province among the individuals in the age group of 66 years and above was 13.33%, individuals whose spouses had passed away 18.75%, urban residents of province 9.81%, illiterate individuals 12.80% and housewife individuals 12.31% was more than other individuals in the sample. Being aware of this matter reveals the responsibility of the

  13. Increased psychiatric morbidity before and after the diagnosis of hypothyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thvilum, Marianne; Brandt, Frans; Pedersen, Dorthe Almind;

    2014-01-01

    Background: Thyroid hormones are necessary for fetal brain development, while hypothyroidism in adults has been associated with mood symptoms and reduced quality of life. Nevertheless, our knowledge regarding the association and temporal relation between hypothyroidism and mental disorders...... is ambiguous. Our objective was to investigate, at a nationwide level, whether a diagnosis of hypothyroidism is associated with psychiatric morbidity. Methods: Observational cohort study. Based on record-linkage between different Danish health registers, 2822 hypothyroid singletons each matched with 4 non-hypothyroid...... controls were identified and followed over a mean period of 6 years (range 1-13). Additionally, we included 385 same sex twin pairs discordant for hypothyroidism. Diagnoses of psychiatric disorders as well as treatment with antidepressants, antipsychotics and anxiolytics were recorded. Logistic and cox...

  14. Knowledge about knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technology and knowledge make up the knowledge capital that has been so essential to the oil and gas industry's value creation, competitiveness and internationalization. Report prepared for the Norwegian Oil Industry Association (OLF) and The Norwegian Society of Chartered Technical and Scientific Professionals (Tekna), on the Norwegian petroleum cluster as an environment for creating knowledge capital from human capital, how fiscal and other framework conditions may influence the building of knowledge capital, the long-term perspectives for the petroleum cluster, what Norwegian society can learn from the experiences in the petroleum cluster, and the importance of gaining more knowledge about the functionality of knowledge for increased value creation (author) (ml)

  15. Research on Chaxu Atmosphere,Perceived Organizational Support and Tacit Knowledge Sharing%差序氛围、组织支持感知与隐性知识共享之关系探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许颖

    2015-01-01

    知识经济时代,隐性知识共享能力是组织获得可持续竞争优势的最重要来源。隐形知识共享是否成功,关键在于知识工作者能否被适当地激励,以及是否愿意积极主动地参与分享其隐性知识。中国传统,人际关系是以血缘关系和地缘关系为基础,组织呈现以“领导”为中心的差序格局可能会弥漫着领导不一致对待的差序氛围。拟用跨层次分析方法(HLM)探讨差序氛围如何影响组织支持感知、积极情绪与隐性知识共享。结果发现,个体层次上,组织支持感知与积极情绪呈正向相关,组织支持感知、积极情绪与隐性知识共享呈正向相关,积极情绪部分中介组织支持感知与隐性知识共享之关系;跨层次上,差序氛围与组织支持感知、积极情绪和隐性知识共享行为之间呈正向相关。%In knowledge economy,the capability of tacit knowledge sharing is one of the most important sources of sustain-able competitive advantage organizations.The tacit knowledge sharing is the key to the knowledge worker being properly motivated,and willing to actively participate in sharing their knowledge.“Chaxu pattern”based on traditional Chinese so-ciety and geopolitical relations kinship may be filled with inconsistent treatment of poor leadership sequence atmosphere.In-dividual -level results showed that positive relationships existed in relations between perceived organizational support,posi-tive moods,and tacit knowledge sharing.Positive moods partially mediated the relationship between perceived organization-al support and tacit knowledge sharing.Cross -level results represented that Chaxu atmosphere was positively associated with perceived organizational support,positive moods and tacit knowledge sharing.

  16. How to evacuate a psychiatric hospital: a Hurricane Katrina success story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Joan; Lackey, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the successful evacuation of an entire psychiatric hospital from New Orleans, Louisiana, to Memphis, Tennessee, on a weekend night. The destination site was 400 miles away and buses were used for transport. The evacuation occurred shortly before Hurricane Katrina struck New Orleans and included 73 adult, adolescent, and child acute psychiatric patients. Thirty-five staff members also participated in the evacuation with their families and pets. This report is significant because little is known about how to implement a disaster plan that involves the transport of an entire psychiatric hospital-patients, nurses, physicians, staff, and family members--to another city. The knowledge gained can also benefit psychiatric nurses and their organizations when establishing or modifying their disaster plans. PMID:18251350

  17. [Complex expertise on the psychiatric health of a criminal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierowski, Józef Krzysztof

    2006-01-01

    The development of psychiatry and psychology has brought about a situation in need of newer evaluation of the surroundings in which the justice department tries to use specialist knowledge of the processes governing human psychic life and health. The lacking of clear criteria between the competencies of psychiatrists and psychologists is a certain standard in dealing with the disturbed or mentally ill persons. This is a result of the application of a multidisciplinary approach towards the patient in the area of diagnosis, therapy and rehabilitation. The advancing psychiatric and psychological knowledge has a difficulty in findings its way to forensic psychiatry and psychology. However, owing to the fact that current legal regulations require complex psychiatric-psychological opinions to be formulated, it is worthy to take a closer look at the issue. The fore-mentioned model has its benefits and its flaws. The compiling of the complex opinion may bring about the risk of "mixing up" of the contents as used by the various experts and cause certain methodological problems. From another perspective it would appear that it is impossible to refrain from applying the newly developing interdisciplinary links. Positive experiences with the DSM classification give a strong argument to the sensibility of this approach. The author analyses the bases for cooperation between the psychiatric-psychological expertise which arises from the rules and regulations of the penal law and the code of penal conduct. They pertain to the rules of being able in body and mind and the application of the so called security measures. The model of psychiatric-psychological cooperation taken up by the law-giver does not pertain fully to the essential competencies of psychiatry and psychology and is not a compact consequential solution.

  18. Establishment of a local psychiatric service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, A G

    1981-01-01

    The Faroe Islands are a group of islands in the North Atlantic Ocean between Norway and Iceland inhabited by about 42,000 people. They are considered a nation with home rule within the Danish Kingdom. A Psychiatric Department was not established on the islands until 1969. Before this, psychiatric...... of senile psychoses. The total increase amounts to 2.4 times the admission rates of psychiatric cases to the General Hospital and 4.4 times the admission rates to the Psychiatric Hospital in Nykøbing in the last years prior to the start of the local service. The outpatient department has grown steadily...

  19. Martyrs of the psychiatric hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serra Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on the history of an Italian psychiatric hospital (Arezzo that closed in 1989 and was turned into a university. The illegal and inhumane treatment in asylum-type institutions is condemned. In particular the treatment of those patients who, according to the analysis, hospital directors referred to as “social cases.” These individuals did not stay in hospital because of health problems but only due to the lack of social care by the state. AS a consequence they are condemned to be “prisoners” without committing any crimes.

  20. Psychiatric Emergencies in the Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikka, Veronica; Kalra, S; Galwankar, Sagar; Sagar, Galwankar

    2015-11-01

    With the increasing life expectancy, the geriatric population has been increasing over the past few decades. By the year 2050, it is projected to compose more than a fifth of the entire population, representing a 147% increase in this age group. There has been a steady increase in the number of medical and psychiatric disorders, and a large percentage of geriatric patients are now presenting to the emergency department with such disorders. The management of our progressively complex geriatric patient population will require an integrative team approach involving emergency medicine, psychiatry, and hospitalist medicine.

  1. GENERAL PRACTITIONERS' ATTITUDE TOWARDS PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS AND PSYCHIATRIC PATIENTS: A SURVEY OF JAIPUR CITY

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Ishwar Dayal; Gautam, Shiv; Kamal, Preet

    1992-01-01

    A survey of 40 randomly selected general practitioners was carried out to find out their attitudes towards psychiatric disorders and psychiatric patients by administering a specially designed proforma which recorded sociodemographic characteristics as well as attitudes. Majority of GPs were of the opinion that psychiatric disorders are inherited, can occur in any normal person living under stress, are treatable. They had positive attitude towards psychiatric illness but showed more social dis...

  2. ASD, a Psychiatric Disorder, or Both? Psychiatric Diagnoses in Adolescents with High-Functioning ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazefsky, Carla A.; Oswald, Donald P.; Day, Taylor N.; Eack, Shaun M.; Minshew, Nancy J.; Lainhart, Janet E.

    2012-01-01

    Varied presentations of emotion dysregulation in autism complicate diagnostic decision making and may lead to inaccurate psychiatric diagnoses or delayed autism diagnosis for high-functioning children. This pilot study aimed to determine the concordance between prior psychiatric diagnoses and the results of an autism-specific psychiatric interview…

  3. [Mental capacity of psychiatric patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kevin Chien-Chang

    2010-12-01

    Nearly every society maintains legal norms that define those members of society qualified to participate in social affairs. Mental capacity and legal competence are deemed necessary conditions for legal actions to have legal validity. On Nov. 23, 2009, newly revised adult guardianship provisions came into effect in Taiwan. However, there has been lack of discussion with regard to how assessments of mental capacity and legal competence should be conducted on psychiatric patients. This paper reviewed relevant overseas literature on this subject and followed common practice in separating legal mental capacity into causal and functional components. The causal component predicates the diseases and illnesses that render the disability, while the functional component represents legally substantial impairments in terms of cognition, emotion and behavior. The paper explored functional component contents, including finance management, individual health care, independence in daily life, interpersonal relationships and communing. Findings pointed out that in setting up competence standards, a trade-off between respect for autonomy and beneficence is unavoidable. As Taiwan does not have rich empirical data on competence assessments and decisions, collaboration between the legal and psychiatric professions is recommended to engage in relevant research to enhance legal consistencies and the science of competence assessment.

  4. Psychotherapy in Contemporary Psychiatric Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjipavlou, George; Hernandez, Carlos A Sierra; Ogrodniczuk, John S

    2015-01-01

    Objective: American data suggest a declining trend in the provision of psychotherapy by psychiatrists. Nevertheless, the extent to which such findings generalize to psychiatric practice in other countries is unclear. We surveyed psychiatrists in British Columbia to examine whether the reported decline in psychotherapy provision extends to the landscape of Canadian psychiatric practice. Method: A survey was mailed to the entire population of fully licensed psychiatrists registered in British Columbia (n = 623). The survey consisted of 30 items. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the sample and psychotherapy practice patterns. Associations between variables were evaluated using nonparametric tests. Results: A total of 423 psychiatrists returned the survey, yielding a response rate of 68%. Overall, 80.9% of psychiatrists (n = 342) reported practicing psychotherapy. A decline in the provision of psychotherapy was not observed; in fact, there was an increase in psychotherapy provision among psychiatrists entering practice in the last 10 years. Individual therapy was the predominant format used by psychiatrists. The most common primary theoretical orientation was psychodynamic (29.9%). Regarding actual practice, supportive psychotherapy was practiced most frequently. Professional time constraints were perceived as the most significant barrier to providing psychotherapy. The majority (85%) of clinicians did not view remuneration as a significant barrier to treating patients with psychotherapy. Conclusions: Our findings challenge the prevailing view that psychotherapy is in decline among psychiatrists. Psychiatrists in British Columbia continue to integrate psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy in clinical practice, thus preserving their unique place in the spectrum of mental health services. PMID:26175328

  5. Time Perception and Psychiatric Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Ceviz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Time perception is an ability which we use in every moment of daily life, that guides the formation and continuation of our behaviors and from an evolutionary perspective ensures survival. Internal clock models help us to understand time perception. Time perception is known to vary between individuals and particular situations. This variability is explained with the mechanisms which is associated with the processes related to attention, the speed of the internal clock and the memory unit. It is suggested that time perception is mainly associated with the activities of dopamine and acetylcholine. Some dopaminergic psychoactive substances like cocaine and amphetamine have all been shown to change time perception by increasing the speed of internal clock while on the other hand some antipsychotic drugs make an opposite change in time perception by descreasing the speed of the clock. Similarly, time perception is affected in some psychiatric disorders and an ethiopathological relationship between time perception disturbances and psychiatric disorders is suggested. In this article time perception changes in schizophrenia, attention deficit/hyperactivity syndrome, depression, anxiety disorders and personality disorders are briefly reviewed.

  6. Psychiatric disorders and sexual dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldinger, Marcel D

    2015-01-01

    Sexual problems are highly prevalent among patients with psychiatric disorders. They may be caused by the psychopathology of the psychiatric disorder but also by its pharmacotherapy. Both positive symptoms (e.g., psychosis, hallucinations) as well as negative symptoms (e.g., anhedonia) of schizophrenia may negatively interfere with interpersonal and sexual relationships. Atypical antipsychotics have fewer sexual side-effects than the classic antipsychotics. Mood disorders may affect libido, sexual arousal, orgasm, and erectile function. With the exception of bupropion, agomelatine, mirtazapine, vortioxetine, amineptine, and moclobemide, all antidepressants cause sexual side-effects. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) may particularly delay ejaculation and female orgasm, but also can cause decreased libido and erectile difficulties. SSRI-induced sexual side-effects are dose-dependent and reversible. Very rarely, their sexual side-effects persist after SSRI discontinuation. This is often preceded by genital anesthesia. Some personality characteristics are a risk factor for sexual dysfunction. Also patients with eating disorders may suffer from sexual difficulties. So far, research into psychotropic-induced sexual side-effects suffers from substantial methodologic limitations. Patients tend not to talk with their clinician about their sexual life. Psychiatrists and other doctors need to take the initiative to talk about the patient's sexual life in order to become informed about potential medication-induced sexual difficulties. PMID:26003261

  7. Cultural Issues in Psychiatric Administration and Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Neil Krishan

    2015-09-01

    This paper addresses cultural issues in psychiatric administration and leadership through two issues: (1) the changing culture of psychiatric practice based on new clinician performance metrics and (2) the culture of psychiatric administration and leadership in light of organizational cultural competence. Regarding the first issue, some observers have discussed the challenges of creating novel practice environments that balance business values of efficient performance with fiduciary values of treatment competence. This paper expands upon this discussion, demonstrating that some metrics from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, the nation's largest funder of postgraduate medical training, may penalize clinicians for patient medication behaviors that are unrelated to clinician performance. A focus on pharmacotherapy over psychotherapy in these metrics has unclear consequences for the future of psychiatric training. Regarding the second issue, studies of psychiatric administration and leadership reveal a disproportionate influence of older men in positions of power despite efforts to recruit women, minorities, and immigrants who increasingly constitute the psychiatric workforce. Organizational cultural competence initiatives can diversify institutional cultures so that psychiatric leaders better reflect the populations they serve. In both cases, psychiatric administrators and leaders play critical roles in ensuring that their organizations respond to social challenges.

  8. Smartphone apps as a new psychiatric treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalum, Anette Ellegaard; Arnfred, Sidse Marie

    2014-01-01

    Søg 1 - 1 ud af 1 Smartphone apps as a new psychiatric treatment. Anette Ellegaard Dalum, Sidse Arnfred, 2014, vol. 176, nummer 34, 2014. Ugeskrift for laeger Artikel Importer Fjern......Søg 1 - 1 ud af 1 Smartphone apps as a new psychiatric treatment. Anette Ellegaard Dalum, Sidse Arnfred, 2014, vol. 176, nummer 34, 2014. Ugeskrift for laeger Artikel Importer Fjern...

  9. Nursing 302: An Introduction to Psychiatric Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaustein, Jenna Rose

    A description is provided of "Introduction to Psychiatric Nursing," a 7-week course offered to juniors and seniors in a bachelor of science nursing program. The first sections present information on curricular placement, time assignments, and the targeted student population, and define psychiatric/mental health nursing. Next, the course…

  10. Establishment of a local psychiatric service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, A G

    1981-01-01

    The Faroe Islands are a group of islands in the North Atlantic Ocean between Norway and Iceland inhabited by about 42,000 people. They are considered a nation with home rule within the Danish Kingdom. A Psychiatric Department was not established on the islands until 1969. Before this, psychiatric...

  11. Psychiatric disorders in women with fertility problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldur-Felskov, Birgitte; Kjaer, S K; Albieri, V;

    2013-01-01

    Do women who don't succeed in giving birth after an infertility evaluation have a higher risk of psychiatric disorders compared with women who do?......Do women who don't succeed in giving birth after an infertility evaluation have a higher risk of psychiatric disorders compared with women who do?...

  12. Deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism in psychiatric settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Els G. Van Neste

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism are serious, possibly life-threatening events which are often ignored in psychiatric settings. This article investigates which psychiatric patients are at increased risk of developing a venous thromboembolism. To our knowledge we are the first to perform a literature review of clinical studies relating venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism to psychotropic drugs and mental disorders. Methods: A Medline search for English studies using the appropriate search terms was performed. In addition, cross references of the relevant articles` literature references were considered. We withheld 12 observational studies, 29 case-reports and one review-article. Results: We found evidence that low potency antipsychotic drugs like chlorpromazine and thioridazine, and clozapine for treatment of resistant schizophrenia have an increased risk of venous thromboembolism. There is no evidence that antidepressants, benzodiazepines or mood stabilizers have a similar effect. Also psychiatric conditions like physical restraint, catatonia and neuroleptic malignant syndrome are related to a higher incidence of deep venous thrombosis. Conclusions: Limitations of the studies and hypotheses about underlying biological mechanisms are reviewed. The rationale for prophylactic measures is discussed and recommendations to prevent deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism are given.

  13. Psoriasis and Associated Psychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, José Luís Pio Da Costa; Reis, José Pedro Gaspar Dos; Figueiredo, Américo Manuel Da Costa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction and objective: Psoriasis is a chronic skin disease with a high impact on self-esteem and patients’ health-related quality of life. In the last decades some studies have pointed out mental disorders associated with psoriasis and the etiopathogenic mechanisms behind that co-existence. This work compiles psychopathology associated with psoriasis and further analyzes the etiopathogenesis of psoriasis and mental disorders. Methods: A systematic review of the literature was conducted based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) and using the “5S” levels of organization of evidence from healthcare research, as previously described. Results: Psoriasis is linked with many mental disorders, both in the psychotic and neurotic sprectrum. Chronic stress diminishes hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and upregulates sympathetic-adrenal-medullary responses, stimulating pro-inflammatory cytokines. Then, it maintains and exacerbates psoriasis and some of its mental disorders. High levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines connect psoriasis, psychiatric conditions, and other comorbidities of psoriasis (such as atherosclerosis) within a vicious cycle. Furthermore, the etiopathogenesis of the link between each psychiatric comorbidity and psoriasis has its own subtleties, including the cooccurrence of other comorbidities, the parts of the body affected by psoriasis, treatments, and biological and psychosocial factors. Conclusion: The study of psychopathology can amplify our understanding about the etiopathogenesis of psoriasis and associated mental disorders. Patients would benefit from a psychodermatologic approach. The adequate treatment should take into account the mental disorders associated with psoriasis as well as the circumstances under which they occur.

  14. Knowledge management

    OpenAIRE

    Jarošová, Milena

    2008-01-01

    Theoretical part: Basic terms of knowledge management, knowledge worker, knowledge creation and conversion process, prerequisites and benefits of knowledge management. Knowledge management and it's connection to organizational culture and structure, result measurements of knowledge management, learning organization and it's connection to knowledge management. Tacit knowledge management tools -- stories -- types, how to create, practical use, communities, coaching. Value Based Organization. Pr...

  15. Cognitive and Psychiatric Phenotypes of Movement Disorders in Children: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Pazi, Hilla; Jaworowski, Solomon; Shalev, Ruth S

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The cognitive and psychiatric aspects of adult movement disorders are well established, but specific behavioural profiles for paediatric movement disorders have not been delineated. Knowledge of non-motor phenotypes may guide treatment and determine which symptoms are suggestive of a specific movement disorder and which indicate medication…

  16. Connectomics in psychiatric research: advances and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao M

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Miao Cao,* Zhijiang Wang,* Yong He State Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning and IDG/McGovern Institute for Brain Research, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Psychiatric disorders disturb higher cognitive functions and severely compromise human health. However, the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying psychiatric disorders are very complex, and understanding these mechanisms remains a great challenge. Currently, many psychiatric disorders are hypothesized to reflect “faulty wiring” or aberrant connectivity in the brains. Imaging connectomics is arising as a promising methodological framework for describing the structural and functional connectivity patterns of the human brain. Recently, alterations of brain networks in the connectome have been reported in various psychiatric disorders, and these alterations may provide biomarkers for disease diagnosis and prognosis for the evaluation of treatment efficacy. Here, we summarize the current achievements in both the structural and functional connectomes in several major psychiatric disorders (eg, schizophrenia, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and autism based on multi-modal neuroimaging data. We highlight the current progress in the identification of these alterations and the hypotheses concerning the aberrant brain networks in individuals with psychiatric disorders and discuss the research questions that might contribute to a further mechanistic understanding of these disorders from a connectomic perspective.Keywords: psychiatric disorders, connectome, graph theory, functional connectivity, structural connectivity

  17. Brain tumors in patients primarly treated psychiatrically

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignjatović-Ristić Dragana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Psychiatric symptoms are not rare manifestations of brain tumors. Brain tumors presented by symptoms of raised intracranial pressure, focal neurological signs, or convulsions are usually first seen by the neurologist or less frequently by the neurosurgeon in routine diagnostic procedures. On the other hand, when psychiatric symptoms are the first manifestation in “neurologically silent” brain tumors, the patients are sent to the psychiatrist for the treatment of psychiatric symptoms and brain tumors are left misdiagnosed for a long period of time. Case Report. We presented three patients with the diagnosed brain tumor where psychiatrist had been the first specialist to be consulted. In all three cases neurological examination was generally unremarkable with no focal signs or features of raised intracranial pressure. CT scan demonstrated right insular tumor in a female patient with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD; right parietal temporal tumor in a patient with delusions and depression and left frontal tumor in a patient with history of alcohol dependency. Conclusion. Psychiatric symptoms/disorders in patients with brain tumors are not specific enough and can have the same clinical presentation as the genuine psychiatric disorder. Therefore, we emphasize the consideration of neuroimaging in patients with abrupt beginning of psychiatric symptoms, in those with a change in mental status, or when headaches suddenly appear or in cases of treatment resistant psychiatric disorders regardless the lack of neurological symptoms.

  18. Psychiatric disorders in bone marrow transplant patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To identify the psychiatric illnesses in patients with hematological/oncological disorders encountered during blood and bone marrow transplantation. All consecutive patients, aged 15 years and above, who fulfilled inclusion and exclusion criteria and underwent blood and bone marrow transplantation, were enrolled in this study. Psychiatric assessment comprised of a semi-structured interview based on Present Status Examination (PSE). The psychiatric diagnosis was made on the basis of International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) system of classification devised by W.H.O. Eighty patients, who fulfilled the inclusion criteria, were inducted in this study. Thirty (37.5%) cases were found to have psychiatric disorders. Out of the total, 60 (75%) were males and 20 (25%) females. Adjustment disorder was the most frequent diagnosis (n=12), followed by major depression (n=7). Rest of the diagnoses made were generalized anxiety disorder, acute psychotic disorder, delirium and depressive psychosis. High psychiatric morbidity associated with blood and bone marrow transplantation was observed. It indicates the importance of psychiatric intervention during the isolation period of BMT as well as pre-transplant psychiatric assessment and counseling regarding procedure. (author)

  19. How writing records reduces clinical knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Niels

    2009-01-01

    drew on data from an extended fieldwork on two Danish "special observation" wards. The results indicated that the nurses' recording produced "stereotyping" representations of the patients and reduced the nurses' clinical knowledge but that this particular way of recording made good sense in relation......Through the practices of recording, psychiatric nurses produce clinical knowledge about the patients in their care. The objective of this study was to examine the conventionalized practices of recording among psychiatric nurses and the typical linguistic organization of their records. The study...

  20. Workroles of staff nurses in psychiatric settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, E G; Shealy, A H; Kowalski, C; LaMont, J; Range, B A

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to operationalize Peplau's workroles of the psychiatric staff nurse. Thirty registered nurses audiotaped one-to-one interactions with 62 adult, child, and adolescent psychiatric patients. Content analysis was used to identify role behaviors and to identify roles that were different from those outlined by Peplau. The counselor role was the most frequently occurring primary workrole. Overlap was found between behaviors indicative of autocratic leader versus surrogate and those of resource person versus teacher. The findings supported Peplau's contention that the counselor role is central to the practice of psychiatric nursing.

  1. Inpatient Psychiatric Prospective Payment System (IPF PPS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This file contains case level data for inpatient psychiatric stays and is derived from 2011 MEDPAR data file and the latest available provider specific file. The...

  2. Chromosomal abnormalities in a psychiatric population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, K.E.; Lubetsky, M.J.; Wenger, S.L.; Steele, M.W. [Univ. of Pittsburgh Medical Center, PA (United States)

    1995-02-27

    Over a 3.5 year period of time, 345 patients hospitalized for psychiatric problems were evaluated cytogenetically. The patient population included 76% males and 94% children with a mean age of 12 years. The criteria for testing was an undiagnosed etiology for mental retardation and/or autism. Cytogenetic studies identified 11, or 3%, with abnormal karyotypes, including 4 fragile X positive individuals (2 males, 2 females), and 8 with chromosomal aneuploidy, rearrangements, or deletions. While individuals with chromosomal abnormalities do not demonstrate specific behavioral, psychiatric, or developmental problems relative to other psychiatric patients, our results demonstrate the need for an increased awareness to order chromosomal analysis and fragile X testing in those individuals who have combinations of behavioral/psychiatric, learning, communication, or cognitive disturbance. 5 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  3. [Psychiatric manifestations due to abnormal glucocorticoid levels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lommerse, K M; Dijkstra, F N; Boeke, A J P; Eekhoff, E M W; Jacobs, G E

    2016-01-01

    This clinical case presentation describes the disease trajectory in two patients who presented with psychiatric symptoms as a result of abnormal serum glucocorticoid levels. One case involves a 58-year-old man with hypercortisolism, the other case concerns a 55-year-old woman with hypocortisolism. In both cases there was a considerable diagnostic delay in recognizing the underlying adrenal gland pathology. Abnormal glucocorticoid levels, caused by endocrine disorders, often results in psychiatric symptoms. Delay in diagnosis may have adverse consequences. Hyper- or hypocortisolism should be considered in patients who present with an atypical presentation of psychiatric symptoms. Moreover, the absence of specific physical signs or symptoms at first presentation in such patients does not exclude an underlying endocrinological cause. Therefore, physical and psychiatric reassessment of such patients should be considered at regular intervals. PMID:27507414

  4. Supported Education for youth with psychiatric disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Korevaar, Lies

    2014-01-01

    Higher and advanced vocational education prepare young adults for a career and enhance their life goals.The onset of mental illness generally occurs between 17 and 25 years. For young adults with psychiatric disabilities, educational resources are largely unavailable

  5. Supported education for youth with psychiatric disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korevaar, E.L.

    2014-01-01

    Higher and advanced vocational education prepare young adults for a career and enhance their life goals.The onset of mental illness generally occurs between 17 and 25 years. For young adults with psychiatric disabilities, educational resources are largely unavailable

  6. Barriers in the treatment of psychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Psychiatric illnesses are very common in prevalence. But not everyone who has a mental illness gets a psychiatric consultation. The causes are many. First, many time people don’t recognise and accept mental illnesses in them as a result of lack of insight and awareness. Secondly, even if they know they have a mental illness, they don’t feel comfortable in disclosing it. Third, after knowing that they have some problems which require help from a doctor, they don’t know whom to consult, where to consult, and how to consult. Fourth, in spite of all possible awareness, there may not be psychiatric facilities nearby. Thus, it becomes utmost necessary to discuss those factors which stop people with psychiatric illnesses to get adequate help so that remedial steps could be taken.

  7. Neuroreceptor imaging in psychiatric disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molecular imaging, the study of receptors, transporters and enzymes, as well as other cellular processes, has grown in recent years to be one of the most active neuroimaging areas. The application of single photon emission tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) techniques to the study of psychiatric illness has lead to increased understanding of disease processes as well as validated, in vivo, theories of illness etiology. Within the field of psychiatry these techniques have been applied most widely to the study of schizophrenia. Studies within schizophrenia are largely limited to either the dopamine or serotonin system. This is due in large part to the availability of suitable radiotracers as well as the current theories on the etiology of the illness. Two basic study designs are used when studying schizophrenia using molecular imaging and make up the majority of studies reviewed in this manuscript. The first type, termed ''clinical studies'', compares the findings from PET and SPECT studies in those with schizophrenia to normal controls in an attempt to understand the pathophysiology of the illness. The second study design, termed ''occupancy studies'', uses these techniques to enhance the understanding of the mechanism of action of the medications used in treating this illness. This review will focus on the findings of molecular imaging studies in schizophrenia, focusing, for the most part, on the serotonin and dopamine systems. Emphasis will be placed on how these findings and techniques are currently being used to inform the development of novel treatments for schizophrenia. (author)

  8. Psychiatric Conditions in Parkinson Disease: A Comparison With Classical Psychiatric Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buoli, Massimiliano; Caldiroli, Alice; Altamura, Alfredo Carlo

    2016-03-01

    Psychiatric conditions often complicate the outcome of patients affected by Parkinson disease (PD), but they differ from classical psychiatric disorders in terms of underlying biological mechanisms, clinical presentation, and treatment response. The purpose of the present review is to illustrate the biological and clinical aspects of psychiatric conditions associated with PD, with particular reference to the differences with respect to classical psychiatric disorders. A careful search of articles on main databases was performed in order to obtain a comprehensive review about the main psychiatric conditions associated with PD. A manual selection of the articles was then performed in order to consider only those articles that concerned with the topic of the review. Psychiatric conditions in patients with PD present substantial differences with respect to classical psychiatric disorders. Their clinical presentation does not align with the symptom profiles represented by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders and International Classification of Diseases. Furthermore, psychiatry treatment guidelines are of poor help in managing psychiatric symptoms of patients with PD. Specific diagnostic tools and treatment guidelines are needed to allow early diagnosis and adequate treatment of psychiatric conditions in comorbidity with PD.

  9. Psychiatric morbidity among inmates of leprosy homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K C Jindal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Leprosy affected people are having high psychological distress and it in turn leads to psychiatric disorders. There is a paucity of literature from our country in this significant health problem. Aims: The aim of this study was to find the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity and its association with sociodemographic and clinical factors among the inmates of leprosy homes. Settings and Design: Study sample was obtained from individuals residing in two leprosy homes of malwa belt of Punjab. Materials and Methods: In screening stage, the study subjects were administered sociodemographic proforma and general health questionnaire (GHQ-12. In the confirmation stage, the study subjects were interviewed in detail and disability assessment was done using World Health Organization disability scale. Final psychiatric diagnosis was made as per ICD-10 criteria′s. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis was performed using the descriptive statistics, Chi-square test, analysis of variance, and correlation analysis. Results: Majority of the subjects was in the age group 41-50 years, female, married, illiterate, Hindu and were from nuclear families. Nearly, 50.38% of subjects were having GHQ-12 score more than twelve. Nearly, 55.6% subjects were having psychiatric disorders out of which a large number of patients was diagnosed as having dysthymia. The other psychiatric disorders found in the study population were moderate depressive episode, generalized anxiety disorder, mixed anxiety and depressive disorder and schizophrenia unspecified. Psychiatric morbidity was found to be significantly related to age, family status, and duration of leprosy illness and presence of deformities among inmates. Conclusions: This study highlighted that psychiatric disorders were found in a large number among inmates of leprosy homes. Leprosy eradication program must place specific emphasis on psychiatric care of these patients.

  10. Liver Transplant—Psychiatric and Psychosocial Aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Grover, Sandeep; Sarkar, Siddharth

    2012-01-01

    Liver transplantation is a life saving surgical procedure that is associated with improved longevity and enhanced quality of life. The number of successful liver transplants is growing worldwide. The procedure requires a dedicated and trained team of experts. A psychiatrist plays an important role in such a team. Psychiatric and psychosocial assessment is considered imperative to evaluate the candidate's suitability as a transplant recipient. Many psychiatric disorders may lead to the need fo...

  11. The Geriatric Population and Psychiatric Medication

    OpenAIRE

    Sannidhya Varma; Himanshu Sareen; JK Trivedi

    2010-01-01

    With improvement in medical services in the last few years, there has been a constant rise in the geriatric population throughout the world, more so in the developing countries. The elderly are highly prone to develop psychiatric disorders, probably because of age related changes in the brain, concomitant physical disorders, as well as increased stress in later life. Psychiatric disorders in this population may have a different presentation than in other groups and some of psychopathologies m...

  12. Psychiatric disorders in general paediatric referrals.

    OpenAIRE

    Garralda, M E; Bailey, D.

    1989-01-01

    Detailed interviews with parents of 128 children aged 7 to 12 years consecutively referred to general paediatric clinics identified psychiatric disturbance in 36 (28%) of the children. Emotional disorders were the commonest psychiatric diagnoses (present in two thirds); less frequent diagnoses were conduct disorders (5/36, 14%), mixed conduct/emotional disorders (six, 17%), and hyperkinetic syndrome (three, 8%). Disturbance was related to level of energy, with disturbed children being describ...

  13. Insomnia comorbid to severe psychiatric illness

    OpenAIRE

    Soehner, Adriane M.; Kaplan, Katherine A; Harvey, Allison G.

    2013-01-01

    In psychiatric illness, there is a growing body of evidence indicating that sleep disturbances exert a detrimental influence on the course of these disorders and contribute to impaired function. Even when psychiatric disorders are successfully treated or stabilized, insomnia and other sleep disturbances often fail to remit. The present review focuses on sleep in two severe mental illnesses, namely bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. This article discusses the role of sleep disturbances and al...

  14. Psychiatric Morbidity Among Inmates of Leprosy Homes

    OpenAIRE

    K C Jindal; Gurvinder Pal Singh; Varinder Mohan; Mahajan, B. B.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Leprosy affected people are having high psychological distress and it in turn leads to psychiatric disorders. There is a paucity of literature from our country in this significant health problem. Aims: The aim of this study was to find the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity and its association with sociodemographic and clinical factors among the inmates of leprosy homes. Settings and Design: Study sample was obtained from individuals residing in two leprosy homes of malwa belt of Pu...

  15. Forensic Psychiatric Aspects of Impulse Control Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Soysal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Impulse control disorders is an important psychiatric disorder group which draws attention in recent years. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and other classical disorders like pyromania, kleptomania, intermittent explosive disorder and compulsive buying could be evasuated under this topic. The aim of this article is to review forensic psychiatric aspects of impulse control disorders and evaluate the disorders in terms of their legal status. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2015; 7(1: 16-29

  16. "Tacit Knowledge" versus "Explicit Knowledge"

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchez, Ron

    2004-01-01

    This paper explains two fundamental approaches to knowledge management. The tacit knowledge approach emphasizes understanding the kinds of knowledge that individuals in an organization have, moving people to transfer knowledge within an organization, and managing key individuals as knowledge creators and carriers. By contrast, the explicit knowledge approach emphasizes processes for articulating knowledge held by individuals, the design of organizational approaches for creating...

  17. Connectomics in psychiatric research: advances and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Miao; Wang, Zhijiang; He, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders disturb higher cognitive functions and severely compromise human health. However, the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying psychiatric disorders are very complex, and understanding these mechanisms remains a great challenge. Currently, many psychiatric disorders are hypothesized to reflect "faulty wiring" or aberrant connectivity in the brains. Imaging connectomics is arising as a promising methodological framework for describing the structural and functional connectivity patterns of the human brain. Recently, alterations of brain networks in the connectome have been reported in various psychiatric disorders, and these alterations may provide biomarkers for disease diagnosis and prognosis for the evaluation of treatment efficacy. Here, we summarize the current achievements in both the structural and functional connectomes in several major psychiatric disorders (eg, schizophrenia, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and autism) based on multi-modal neuroimaging data. We highlight the current progress in the identification of these alterations and the hypotheses concerning the aberrant brain networks in individuals with psychiatric disorders and discuss the research questions that might contribute to a further mechanistic understanding of these disorders from a connectomic perspective. PMID:26604764

  18. Norms, Reliability, and Item Analysis of the Hopelessness Scale in General Psychiatric, Forensic Psychiatric, and College Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Thomas W.

    1982-01-01

    Administered the Hopelessness Scale to criminal psychiatric inpatients, general psychiatric inpatients, and college students. Both psychiatric groups endorsed significantly more items in the hopeless direction. Found the scale more reliable with the psychiatric patients. Item analysis of the Hopelessness Scale suggests that three items were not…

  19. Language, subjectivity and participation in psychiatric institutions in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringer, Agnes

    psychiatric facilities in Denmark: an outpatient psychiatric long-term treatment clinic and a closed psychiatric ward. The applied methods are participant observation, interviews with patients and professionals and analysis of documents. Employing discursive and narrative approaches, the aim of the project...... is to shed light on how the professionals and patients construct patient identities within the institution. How are the psychiatric patients and the professionals positioned in their interactions? How are concepts such as psychiatric diagnosis and mental illness negotiated? Which possibilities...

  20. Associations Between Psychiatric Impairment and Sexual Risk Behavior Among Teens in Mental Health Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Wendy; Barker, David H.; Lescano, Celia M.; Stewart, Angela J.; Affleck, Katelyn; Donenberg, Geri; DiClemente, Ralph; Brown, Larry K.

    2015-01-01

    Aims To assess the associations of sexual risk behavior with psychiatric impairment and individual, peer, and partner attitudes among adolescents receiving mental health treatment. Methods Adolescents (N=893, 56% female, 67% African American) completed assessments of psychiatric impairment, rejection sensitivity, peer norms, HIV knowledge, perceived vulnerability, self-efficacy and condom use intentions. Two structural equation models were used to test the study hypotheses; one for sexually active youth and one for non-active youth. Results For non-active youth, psychiatric impairment influenced self-efficacy and condom use intentions via peer norms, rejection sensitivity, and perceived vulnerability. Among the sexually active youth, sexual risk was related to impairment and previous condom use. Discussion These results suggest that individual, peer, and partner factors are related to impairment and to sexual risk attitudes, but depend on previous sexual experience. PMID:26023302

  1. Exploring the influence of gestalt therapy training on psychiatric nursing practice: stories from the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Teresa; Howie, Linsey

    2011-08-01

    Psychiatric nurses interested in extending their interpersonal and psychotherapeutic skills sometimes undertake postgraduate training in gestalt therapy. Little is known about how this new knowledge and psychotherapeutic skill base informs their practice. This paper presents the findings of a qualitative study that aimed to explore the influence of gestalt therapy training on psychiatric nursing practice. Within a framework of narrative inquiry, four psychiatric nurses trained in gestalt therapy were invited to tell their stories of training in a gestalt approach to therapy, and recount their experiences of how it influenced their practice. In keeping with narrative analysis methods, the research findings were presented as a collection of four stories. Eight themes were derived from a thematic analysis conducted within and across the four stories. The discussion of the themes encapsulates the similarities and differences across the storied collection, providing a community and cultural context for understanding the individual stories. PMID:21429062

  2. Exploring the influence of gestalt therapy training on psychiatric nursing practice: stories from the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Teresa; Howie, Linsey

    2011-08-01

    Psychiatric nurses interested in extending their interpersonal and psychotherapeutic skills sometimes undertake postgraduate training in gestalt therapy. Little is known about how this new knowledge and psychotherapeutic skill base informs their practice. This paper presents the findings of a qualitative study that aimed to explore the influence of gestalt therapy training on psychiatric nursing practice. Within a framework of narrative inquiry, four psychiatric nurses trained in gestalt therapy were invited to tell their stories of training in a gestalt approach to therapy, and recount their experiences of how it influenced their practice. In keeping with narrative analysis methods, the research findings were presented as a collection of four stories. Eight themes were derived from a thematic analysis conducted within and across the four stories. The discussion of the themes encapsulates the similarities and differences across the storied collection, providing a community and cultural context for understanding the individual stories.

  3. Relationship of functional gastrointestinal disorders and psychiatric disorders: Implications for treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Carol S North; Barry A Hong; David H Alpers

    2007-01-01

    This article revisits the links between psychopathology and functional gastrointestinal disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), discusses the rational use of antidepressants as well as non-pharmacological approaches to the management of IBS, and suggests guidelines for the treatment of IBS based on an interdisciplinary perspective from the present state of knowledge. Relevant published literature on psychiatric disorders, especially somatization disorder, in the context of IBS, and literature providing direction for management is reviewed, and new directions are provided from findings in the literature. IBS is a heterogeneous syndrome with various potential mechanisms responsible for its clinical presentations. IBS is typically complicated with psychiatric issues, unexplained symptoms, and functional syndromes in other organ systems. Most IBS patients have multiple complaints without demonstrated cause, and that these symptoms can involve systems other than the intestine, e.g. Bones and joints (fibromyalgia, temporomandibular joint syndrome), heart (non-cardiac chest pain), vascular (post-menopausal syndrome), and brain (anxiety, depression). Most IBS patients do not have psychiatric illness per se, but a range of psychoform (psychological complaints in the absence of psychiatric disorder) symptoms that accompany their somatoform (physical symptoms in the absence of medical disorder) complaints. It is not correct to label IBS patients as psychiatric patients (except those more difficult patients with true somatization disorder).One mode of treatment is unlikely to be universally effective or to resolve most symptoms. The techniques of psychotherapy or cognitive-behavioral therapy can allow IBS patients to cope more readily with their illness.Specific episodes of depressive or anxiety disorders can be managed as appropriate for those conditions.Medications designed to improve anxiety or depression are not uniformly useful for psychiatric complaints in IBS

  4. Neuroreceptor imaging in psychiatric disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frankle, W.G. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY, (United States). Coll. of Physicians and Surgeons; Laruelle, M. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). New York State Psychiatric Inst.

    2002-11-01

    Molecular imaging, the study of receptors, transporters and enzymes, as well as other cellular processes, has grown in recent years to be one of the most active neuroimaging areas. The application of single photon emission tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) techniques to the study of psychiatric illness has lead to increased understanding of disease processes as well as validated, in vivo, theories of illness etiology. Within the field of psychiatry these techniques have been applied most widely to the study of schizophrenia. Studies within schizophrenia are largely limited to either the dopamine or serotonin system. This is due in large part to the availability of suitable radiotracers as well as the current theories on the etiology of the illness. Two basic study designs are used when studying schizophrenia using molecular imaging and make up the majority of studies reviewed in this manuscript. The first type, termed ''clinical studies'', compares the findings from PET and SPECT studies in those with schizophrenia to normal controls in an attempt to understand the pathophysiology of the illness. The second study design, termed ''occupancy studies'', uses these techniques to enhance the understanding of the mechanism of action of the medications used in treating this illness. This review will focus on the findings of molecular imaging studies in schizophrenia, focusing, for the most part, on the serotonin and dopamine systems. Emphasis will be placed on how these findings and techniques are currently being used to inform the development of novel treatments for schizophrenia. (author)

  5. Psychiatric Aspects of Childhood Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raman Deep PATTANAYAK

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite this Article: Pattanayak RD, Sagar R. Psychiatric Aspects of Childhood Epilepsy. Iran J Child Neurol 2012;6(2:9-18.Childhood epilepsy is a chronic, recurrent disorder of unprovoked seizures. Theonset of epilepsy in childhood has significant implications for brain growth anddevelopment. Seizures may impair the ongoing neurodevelopmental processes and compromise the child’s intellectual and cognitive functioning, leading totremendous cognitive, behavioral and psychosocial consequences. Children with epilepsy are at increased risk for emotional and behavioral problems. In addition to the direct effects of epilepsy, there are multiple contributory factors including the underlying neurological abnormalities and adverse effects of medication. This review discusses the current understanding of various psychiatric aspects of childhood epilepsy, including the neuropsychological, behavioral and psychosocial concomitants of childhood epilepsy.References1. Shinnar S, Pellock JM. Update on the epidemiology and prognosis of pediatric epilepsy. J Child Neurol 2002;7 suppl 1:4-17.2. Murphy CC, Trevathan E, Yeargin-Allsopp M. Prevalence of epilepsy and epileptic seizures in 10-year-old children: results from the Metropolitan Atlanta Developmental Disabilities Study. Epilepsia 1995;36(9:866-72.3. Placencia M, Shorvon SD, Paredes V, Bimos C, Sander JW, Suarez J, et al. Epileptic seizures in an Andean region of Ecuador ncidence and prevalence and regional variation. Brain 1992;115:771-82.4. Henkin Y, Sadeh M, Kivity S, Shabtai E, KishonRabin L, Gadoth N. Cognitive function in idiopathic generalized epilepsy of childhood. Dev Med Child Neurol 2005;47:126-32.5. Rodenburg R, Stams GJ, Meijer AM, Aldenkamp AP, Dekovic M. Psychopathology in children with epilepsy: a meta-analysis. J Pediatr Psychol 2005;30(6:453-68.6. Caplan R, Siddarth P, Gurbani S, Ott D, Sankar R, Shields WD. Psychopathology and pediatric complex partial seizures: seizure

  6. Clinically useful predictors for premature mortality among psychiatric patients visiting a psychiatric emergency room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Jørgen; Buus, Niels; Wernlund, Andreas Glahn;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine changes in the distribution of causes of death and mortality rates among psychiatric patients visiting a psychiatric emergency room (PER), to determine clinically useful predictors for avoiding premature mortality among these patients and to discuss...

  7. Saccadic eye movement applications for psychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bittencourt J

    2013-09-01

    Med/Medline, ISI Web of Knowledge, Cochrane, and SciELO databases were reviewed. Results: Saccadic eye movement appears to be heavily involved in psychiatric diseases covered in this review via a direct mechanism. The changes seen in the execution of eye movement tasks in patients with psychopathologies of various studies confirm that eye movement is associated with the cognitive and motor system. Conclusion: Saccadic eye movement changes appear to be heavily involved in the psychiatric disorders covered in this review and may be considered a possible marker of some disorders. The few existing studies that approach the topic demonstrate a need to improve the experimental paradigms, as well as the methods of analysis. Most of them report behavioral variables (latency/reaction time, though electrophysiological measures are absent. Keywords: depression, bipolar disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, schizophrenia, anxiety disorder

  8. Knowledge Sharing is Knowledge Creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge sharing and knowledge transfer are important to knowledge communication. However when groups of knowledge workers engage in knowledge communication activities, it easily turns into mere mechanical information processing despite other ambitions. This article relates literature of knowledge...... reducing complexity and dividing knowledge into to dichotomies or hierarchies, knowledge workers should be enabled to use different strategies for knowledge sharing, -transfer and –creation depending on the task and the nature of the knowledge. However if the ambition is to have a strategy for sharing...

  9. The serotonin transporter in psychiatric disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spies, Marie; Knudsen, Karen Birgitte Moos; Lanzenberger, Rupert;

    2015-01-01

    and might therefore be relevant for stratification of patients into clinical subsets. PET has enabled the elucidation of mechanisms of response to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and hence provides a basis for rational pharmacological treatment of major depressive disorder. Such imaging......Over the past 20 years, psychotropics affecting the serotonergic system have been used extensively in the treatment of psychiatric disorders. Molecular imaging, in particular PET, has allowed for elucidation of the essential contribution of the serotonin transporter to the pathophysiology...... of various psychiatric disorders and their treatment. We review studies that use PET to measure cerebral serotonin transporter activity in psychiatric disorders, focusing on major depressive disorder and antidepressant treatment. We also discuss opportunities and limitations in the application...

  10. Regionalization of psychiatric services for the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulman, K I

    1991-02-01

    This overview addresses issues related to psychiatric services for the elderly in Canada. The author reviews the developments in the United Kingdom that have led to the establishment of guiding principles which may be applied to the Canadian health care system. These include the clear definition of a target population, a comprehensive approach to services, availability and accessibility, and clear accountability. A model for the establishment of regionalized psychiatric services is proposed, including the integration of hospital-based and community-based services with clearly defined areas of responsibility. In light of the changing demographics in Canada and the prevalence of psychiatric illness in the elderly, this is a matter of growing urgency for the health care system. PMID:2029681

  11. Defining the psychiatric role in spastic dysphonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, B I; Wallack, J J; Srain, J J; Biller, H F

    1988-03-01

    The authors evaluated 11 surgically-treated patients with spastic dysphonia, a phonation disorder of unclear etiology. The results indicate that the illness does not appear to be a somatoform disorder, but that stress may play a role in its expression, and that there may be secondary depression and anxiety. The experience of spastic dysphonics suggests that psychiatric treatments may be inappropriately applied to an illness without clear organic etiology, whereas, conversely, a proper psychiatric role may be rejected when effective medical or surgical treatment is available. The authors recommend that psychiatrists evaluating patients with illnesses of unclear etiology should be cautious in making a primary psychiatric diagnosis unless DSM-III criteria are met.

  12. Negative rumor: contagion of a psychiatric department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novac, Andrei; McEwan, Stephanie; Bota, Robert G

    2014-01-01

    Over the past few decades, a sizable body of literature on the effects of rumors and gossip has emerged. Addressing rumors in the workplace is an important subject, as rumors have a direct impact on the quality of the work environment and also on the productivity and creativity of the employees. To date, little has been written on the effect of rumors and gossip in psychiatric hospitals. This article presents case vignettes of rumors spread in psychiatric hospitals and the impact on team cohesion and morale among the staff implicated in these, too often, neglected occurrences. Dynamic aspects with particular focus on rumors in psychiatric units and suggestions for remedy and treatment are presented. PMID:25133051

  13. Parental psychiatric hospitalisation and offspring schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger J; Mortensen, Erik L; Reinisch, June M;

    2009-01-01

    of schizophrenia and a range of psychotic and non-psychotic psychiatric diagnoses in parents. Psychiatric admission data after 1969 were available for 7047 cohort members born between 1959 and 1961, and for 7006 mothers and 6993 fathers. Univariate analysis showed that neurosis, alcohol and substance dependence...... in both parents were associated with elevated risk of offspring schizophrenia; in addition, maternal schizophrenia, affective disorder and personality disorder were associated with elevated risk. Controlling for parental age, parental social status, and parental psychiatric co-diagnosis, offspring risk...... of schizophrenia was associated with maternal schizophrenia (OR = 15.41 with 95% CI 5.96-39.81) and, independently, with paternal hospitalisation with neurosis (OR = 5.90 with 95% CI 2.23-15.62). The risk of schizophrenia associated with paternal neurosis remained significant after excluding offspring of parents...

  14. Ethical Challenges in Psychiatric Administration and Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffic, H Steven; Saeed, Sy Atezaz; Silver, Stuart; Koh, Steve

    2015-09-01

    As with all professional ethical principles, those in psychiatry have to evolve over time and societal changes. The current ethical challenges for psychiatric administration and leadership, especially regarding for-profit managed care, need updated solutions. One solution resides in the development by the American Association of Psychiatric Administrators (AAPA) of the first set of ethical principles designed specifically for psychiatric administrators. These principles build on prior Psychological Theories of leadership, such as those of Freud, Kernberg, and Kohut. Supplementing these theories are the actual real life models of psychiatrist leadership as depicted in the memoirs of various psychiatrists. Appreciating these principles, theories, and models may help emerging leaders to better recognize the importance of ethical challenges. A conclusion is that psychiatrists should have the potential to assume more successful leadership positions once again. In such positions, making the skills and well-being of all in the organization seems now to be the foremost ethical priority.

  15. Ethical Challenges in Psychiatric Administration and Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffic, H Steven; Saeed, Sy Atezaz; Silver, Stuart; Koh, Steve

    2015-09-01

    As with all professional ethical principles, those in psychiatry have to evolve over time and societal changes. The current ethical challenges for psychiatric administration and leadership, especially regarding for-profit managed care, need updated solutions. One solution resides in the development by the American Association of Psychiatric Administrators (AAPA) of the first set of ethical principles designed specifically for psychiatric administrators. These principles build on prior Psychological Theories of leadership, such as those of Freud, Kernberg, and Kohut. Supplementing these theories are the actual real life models of psychiatrist leadership as depicted in the memoirs of various psychiatrists. Appreciating these principles, theories, and models may help emerging leaders to better recognize the importance of ethical challenges. A conclusion is that psychiatrists should have the potential to assume more successful leadership positions once again. In such positions, making the skills and well-being of all in the organization seems now to be the foremost ethical priority. PMID:26024739

  16. 知识型员工个人期望、人际氛围与创新绩效关系研究%Research on the Relationship between Knowledge Staffs’Personal Expectation Interpersonal Atmosphere and Innovation Performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜跃平; 王嘉彤

    2015-01-01

    The knowledge staff is the key resource for enterprises to gain a sustainable advantage in the increasingly compet-itive environment.With the reference on relative theories and methods of management,psychology,organizational behav-ior and innovation management,this paper deals with the relationship between knowledge staffs'personal expectation,in-terpersonal atmosphere and innovation performance,based on an empirical analysis.The result shows that the achieve-ment expectancy,occupation development expectation,self-efficacy expectations and job dedication have significant posi-tive correlation with innovation performance.Also,outcome expectations and innovation performance is positively related to each other.While interpersonal facilitation is conducive to individual innovation,but its role on innovation performance is not significant.%知识型员工是企业在日益严峻环境中获得竞争优势的关键资源。采用管理学、应用心理学、组织行为学、创新管理学相关理论与方法,在问卷调查的基础上进行实证分析,探究知识型员工创新过程中个人期望、人际氛围与创新绩效的关系。结果表明:员工成就期望、职业发展期望、自我效能期望、职位奉献与创新绩效显著正相关,结果期望与创新绩效正相关,且人际促进有利于个人创新。

  17. Knowledge management

    OpenAIRE

    Lubojacký, Roman

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge management is a way to effectively manage corporate knowledge. Goal of the thesis is to analyze tasks and ways of knowledge management and technological means to support it and test chosen software tools for creation of knowledge base of business terms. First part of the work is dealing with analysis of knowledge management, technics and tools, which are used and technologies for its support. Second part is focused on testing tools for creation of business terms knowledge base for n...

  18. Psychobiotics: An emerging probiotic in psychiatric practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kali, Arunava

    2016-06-01

    Intestinal microbial flora plays critical role in maintenance of health. Probiotic organisms have been recognized as an essential therapeutic component in the treatment of intestinal dysbiosis. Current research suggests their health benefits extends beyond intestinal disorders. The neuroactive molecules produced by the gut microbiota has been found to modulate neural signals which affect neurological and psychiatric parameters like sleep, appetite, mood and cognition. Use of these novel probiotics opens up the possibility of restructuring of intestinal microbiota for effective management of various psychiatric disorders. PMID:27621125

  19. The Impact of Psychiatric Patient Boarding in Emergency Departments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Nicks

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Studies have demonstrated the adverse effects of emergency department (ED boarding. This study examines the impact of resource utilization, throughput, and financial impact for psychiatric patients awaiting inpatient placement. Methods. The authors retrospectively studied all psychiatric and non-psychiatric adult admissions in an Academic Medical Center ED (>68,000 adult visits from January 2007-2008. The main outcomes were ED length of stay (LOS and associated reimbursement. Results. 1,438 patients were consulted to psychiatry with 505 (35.1% requiring inpatient psychiatric care management. The mean psychiatric patient age was 42.5 years (SD 13.1 years, with 2.7 times more women than men. ED LOS was significantly longer for psychiatric admissions (1089 min, CI (1039–1140 versus 340 min, CI (304–375; <0.001 when compared to non-psychiatric admissions. The financial impact of psychiatric boarding accounted for a direct loss of ($1,198 compared to non-psychiatric admissions. Factoring the loss of bed turnover for waiting patients and opportunity cost due to loss of those patients, psychiatric patient boarding cost the department $2,264 per patient. Conclusions. Psychiatric patients awaiting inpatient placement remain in the ED 3.2 times longer than non-psychiatric patients, preventing 2.2 bed turnovers (additional patients per psychiatric patient, and decreasing financial revenue.

  20. What is "truth"? Some philosophical contributions to psychiatric issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, E R

    1988-02-01

    Philosophical perspectives, although eminently relevant to clinical investigation and practice, are rarely brought to bear on psychiatric topics. The author attempts to raise professional consciousness of core issues in the philosophy of science by examining the status of truth, theory, and observation in psychiatry. He evaluates prominent approaches to the problem of knowledge, particularly those of the "subjectivists" and "relativists," such as Schafer and Spence, and the "empiricists" and "inductivists," such as the proponents of DSM-III. Drawing on contemporary philosophy of science, the work of William James, and the classical Greek conviction that more truth resides in the middle than at either extreme, the author mediates between these rival points of view. PMID:3277447

  1. Probable Nootropicinduced Psychiatric Adverse Effects: A Series of Four Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajaltouni, Jean

    2015-01-01

    The misuse of nootropics—any substance that may alter, improve, or augment cognitive performance, mainly through the stimulation or inhibition of certain neurotransmitters—may potentially be dangerous and deleterious to the human brain, and certain individuals with a history of mental or substance use disorders might be particularly vulnerable to their adverse effects. We describe four cases of probable nootropic-induced psychiatric adverse effects to illustrate this theory. To the best of our knowledge this has not been previously reported in the formal medical literature. We briefly describe the most common classes of nootropics, including their postulated or proven methods of actions, their desired effects, and their adverse side effects, and provide a brief discussion of the cases. Our objective is to raise awareness among physicians in general and psychiatrists and addiction specialists in particular of the potentially dangerous phenomenon of unsupervised nootropic use among young adults who may be especially vulnerable to nootropics’ negative effects. PMID:27222762

  2. Knowledge Discovery in Textual Documentation: Qualitative and Quantitative Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Stanley; De Oliveira, Jose Palazzo M.; Gastal, Fabio Leite

    2001-01-01

    Presents an application of knowledge discovery in texts (KDT) concerning medical records of a psychiatric hospital. The approach helps physicians to extract knowledge about patients and diseases that may be used for epidemiological studies, for training professionals, and to support physicians to diagnose and evaluate diseases. (Author/AEF)

  3. Psychiatric home care: a new tool for crisis intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiro, A H

    1994-03-01

    The cost of psychiatric care has been rapidly increasing in recent years. Between 1984 and 1987, there was a 46 percent increase in psychiatric hospitals beds and a 60 percent increase in psychiatric units in general hospitals. This reflected a recognition by many health care systems that psychiatric patients were a good source of revenue. With this push toward more and more inpatient programs, crucial aspects of psychiatric care were left behind. Specifically, the limitations of inpatient therapy have not been recognized. Within the past five years, a new program has been developed and pioneered to use home care to prevent psychiatric hospitalizations and to also prevent the difficult transitions for psychiatric patients. Over a two-year period, this program was studied for its impact on the quality and cost of psychiatric care.

  4. Knowledge crash and knowledge management

    OpenAIRE

    Ermine, Jean-Louis

    2010-01-01

    International audience; This article, by including the problem of “Knowledge Crash” in the more general framework of “Knowledge Management”, enlarges the concepts of knowledge, generation and knowledge transfer. It proposes a global approach, starting from a strategic analysis of a knowledge capital and ending in the implementation of socio-technical devices for inter-generational knowledge transfer.

  5. Ethics, patient rights and staff attitudes in Shanghai's psychiatric hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Liang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adherence to ethical principles in clinical research and practice is becoming topical issue in China, where the prevalence of mental illness is rising, but treatment facilities remain underdeveloped. This paper reports on a study aiming to understand the ethical knowledge and attitudes of Chinese mental health professionals in relation to the process of diagnosis and treatment, informed consent, and privacy protection in clinical trials. Methods A self-administered survey was completed by 1110 medical staff recruited from Shanghai’s 22 psychiatric hospitals. Simple random selection methods were used to identify target individuals from the computerized registry of staff. Results The final sample for analysis consisted 1094 medical staff (including 523 doctors, 542 nurses, 8 pharmacologists and 21 other staff. The majority reported that their medical institutions had not established an Ethics Committee (87.8% and agreed that Ethics Committees should be set up in their institutions (72.9%. Approximately half (52% had not received systematic education in ethics, and almost all (89.1% of the staff thought it was necessary. Nearly all participants (90.0% knew the Shanghai Mental Health Regulations which was the first local regulations relating to mental health in China, but only 11% and 16.6% respectively knew of the Nuremberg Code and the Declaration of Helsinki. About half (51.8% thought that the guardian should make the decision as to whether the patient participated in clinical trials or not. Conclusions The study indicates that most psychiatric hospitals in Shanghai have no Medical Ethics Committee. More than half the medical staff had not received systematic education and training in medical ethics and they have insufficient knowledge of the ethical issues related to clinical practice and trials. Training in ethics is recommended for medical staff during their training and as ongoing professional development.

  6. Psychiatric Nursing Care for Adult Survivors of Child

    OpenAIRE

    Zalm, Yvonne van der; Nugteren, Willem; Hafsteinsdóttir, Thóra van der; Venne, Cokky van der; Kool, Nienke; van Meijel, Berno

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine what is known from the literature about nursing care of psychiatric patients with a history of child maltreatment. CONCLUSIONS: Psychiatric nurses underline the importance of a routine inquiry of child abuse on admission of patients to psychiatric care, but are reluctant to ask about child abuse. They often feel insufficiently competent to respond effectively to patients with a history of child maltreatment. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Psychiatric nurses need training in how ...

  7. Knowledge scenarios

    OpenAIRE

    Baiget, Joan

    2005-01-01

    Knowledge management consist nowadays in a wide range of practices. However there are two basic concepts in the Knowledge literature: Tacit and Explicit knowledge. This article suggests to conceptualize both concepts related to ‘the reality’, and proposes a basic model for acquisition, creation and transmission of knowledge, introducing the ideas of ‘Organic knowledge’ and ‘Inorganic knowledge’.

  8. Knowledge Management

    CERN Document Server

    Gerami, Mohsen

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the important process of knowledge and its management, and differences between tacit and explicit knowledge and understanding the culture as a key issue for the successful implementation of knowledge management, in addition to, this paper is concerned with the four-stage model for the evolution of information technology (IT) support for knowledge management in law firms.

  9. Educational Needs in the Psychiatric Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluckin, Andy; Hanna, Bob

    1991-01-01

    Case studies in Norwich, England, identified issues in the provision of adult education in psychiatric settings: differing definitions of the role of adult education; role conflict between adult educators and health professionals; and opposing beliefs about outsiders entering an institution. The cases also affirmed the therapeutic value of…

  10. [The architectural design of psychiatric care buildings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunet, Lionel

    2012-01-01

    The architectural design of psychiatric care buildings. In addition to certain "classic" creations, the Dunet architectural office has designed several units for difficult patients as well as a specially adapted hospitalisation unit. These creations which are demanding in terms of the organisation of care require close consultation with the nursing teams. Testimony of an architect who is particularly engaged in the universe of psychiatry.

  11. [Physical activities, psychiatric care and mental health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davanture, Olivier

    2014-02-01

    At Ville-Evrard psychiatric hospital, sports activities are used as one of several therapeutic tools. The day-long multi-sport sessions, led notably by a nurse, form part of the care programme. Sport not only enables the patients to exert themselves, it is above all a form of therapeutic mediation which encourages verbal and non-verbal communication.

  12. Childhood Maltreatment, Emotional Dysregulation, and Psychiatric Comorbidities

    OpenAIRE

    Dvir, Yael; Ford, Julian D.; Hill, Michael; Frazier, Jean A.

    2014-01-01

    Affect dysregulation, defined as the impaired ability to regulate and/or tolerate negative emotional states, and has been associated with interpersonal trauma and post-traumatic stress. Affect regulation difficulties also play a role in many other psychiatric conditions, including anxiety disorders and mood disorders, specifically major depression in youth and bipolar disorder throughout the life span.

  13. Psychopsychiatry: Can psychosocial factors cause psychiatric disorders?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Praag, H.M. van

    1979-01-01

    It is a widely accepted view today that psychosocial factors can cause psychiatric disorders. However, this view has, as yet, no firm foundation of verifiable facts. This paper outlines some research strategies that can provide data in favor of or against this theory: (1) systematic analysis of life

  14. Sleep disordered breathing in community psychiatric patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirstie N. Anderson

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Sleep disturbance is prominent in many neuropsychiatric disorders and may precipitate or exacerbate a range of psychiatric conditions. Few studies have investigated sleep disordered breathing and in particular obstructive sleep apnoea in community psychiatric patients and the commonly used screening instruments have not been evaluated in patients with psychiatric disorders. The objective is to evaluate the prevalence of sleep disordered breathing in a community cohort with chronic mental illness on long term psychotropic medication, and to assess the effectiveness of commonly used screening instruments to detect abnormal sleep. Methods: 52 patients completed sleep questionnaires and 50 undertook overnight oximetry. Results: 52% (n = 26 had sleep-disordered breathing; 20% (n = 10 had moderate/severe sleep apnoea. The Epworth Sleepiness Score and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Inventory did not predict sleep disordered breathing. Conclusions: Patients with psychiatric disorders in the community have a high rate of undiagnosed sleep disordered breathing, which is not reliably detected by established sleep disorder screening questionnaires.

  15. Psychological testing of the psychiatrically injured worker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenthaler, E S

    1988-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to provide the occupational health worker with an overview of psychological testing, including the rationale for utilizing psychological testing, the psychometric foundations of psychological tests, the types of psychological tests, and the issues related to the psychological assessment of work-related psychiatric and neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:3067394

  16. Psychiatric illness in the New Zealand Maori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdev, P S

    1989-12-01

    This paper compares psychiatric illness in the contemporary Maori with that in the non-Maori New Zealander. The ethnic data available are all from secondary sources. The limitations of this and the problems of achieving a satisfactory definition of "a Maori" are discussed. The data suggest that the Maori have a slightly greater risk of psychiatric hospitalization than the non-Maori. First admission rates for schizophrenia are higher for the Maori, as are the readmission rates. First admission rates for major affective illness are roughly comparable in the two groups, and those for neuroses and neurotic depression are lower in the Maori. Rates of admission for alcohol abuse, alcohol dependence and personality disorders are much higher for the Maori male aged 20-40 years and this group is at greatest risk of psychiatric hospitalization. A larger proportion of Maori are admitted involuntarily, especially under the Criminal Justice Act. The median stay in hospital is not longer for the Maori but their re-admissions are more frequent. The Maori have shown an increase in first psychiatric admission rates since the 1950s, with rapid increases in the early 60s and the 80s. The rates for psychotic disorders have been relatively constant and the most significant changes have been for alcohol abuse, alcohol dependence and personality disorders. The author relates this historical change to socioeconomic and politico-cultural factors, particularly the stress of rapid urbanization. PMID:2610653

  17. 21.PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER 21.2.Schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1992-01-01

    920198 Kinetic observation of serum thyr-onormone level in schizophrenics.WANGXueyi (王学义),et al.Psychiatr Hosp,KailuanCoal Mining Administration,Tangshan,063001.Chin J Neurol & Psychiat 1991; 24 (5): 268-271.Measurements of serum T3,T4,RUR and FT4I

  18. Chronic psychiatric status and satisfaction with life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arrindell, W.A.; van Nieuwenhuizen, Ch; Luteijn, F.

    2001-01-01

    The present study represents the first to administer the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) as part of a. semi-structured interview to a large sample of psychiatric patients with severe mental illness. psychometric appraisal of the SWLS demonstrated that figures on its internal structure were quite

  19. Prosecuting Assaultive Forensic and Psychiatric Inpatients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angus, Kerri C.; Reddon, John R.; Chudleigh, Michele D.

    2008-01-01

    Inpatient assault of forensic and psychiatric staff is a complex and multifaceted issue. Hence, the consequences reported in the literature regarding prosecuting assaultive inpatients are quite variable. In this article, issues pertaining to the prosecution of violent inpatients are reviewed. Illustrative cases, challenges of prosecution,…

  20. 42 CFR 415.184 - Psychiatric services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Psychiatric services. 415.184 Section 415.184 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM SERVICES FURNISHED BY PHYSICIANS IN PROVIDERS, SUPERVISING PHYSICIANS...

  1. Sexual Attitude Reassessment for Psychiatric Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dincin, Jerry; Wise, Shirley

    1979-01-01

    Sexuality programs are one part of the program at Thresholds, a rehabilitation center for psychiatric patients (17 to 50 years old). A 16 week sexuality group includes seven phases: initial interview; beginning group development (health care, contraception, reproduction, sexuality); masturbation; intercourse; homosexuality; coed group discussion;…

  2. CANNABIS RELATED PSYCHIATRIC SYNDROMES: A SELECTIVE REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Basu, Debasish; Malhotra, Anil; Varma, Vijoy K.

    1994-01-01

    Association between cannabis use and various psychiatric syndromes does exist, but their nature remains elusive. Cannabis intoxication, ‘cannabis psychosis’ and certain other conditions related with cannabis use like flashbacks and prolonged depersonalization are discussed in this paper. The controversial nature of the cannabis - schizophrenia link is noted, and various methodological issues in clinical cannabis research are highlighted.

  3. Sexual Health Education: A Psychiatric Resident's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waineo, Eva; Arfken, Cynthia L.; Morreale, Mary K.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This report discusses psychiatric residents' perceptions of sexual health education and their opinions regarding curricular improvements. Methods: An anonymous, web-based survey was sent to residents in one general psychiatry program (N = 33). The response rate was 69.7%. Results: Residents reported inadequate experience in multiple…

  4. Decreasing Psychiatric Admission Wait Time in the Emergency Department by Facilitating Psychiatric Discharges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stover, Pamela R; Harpin, Scott

    2015-12-01

    Limited capacity in a psychiatric unit contributes to long emergency department (ED) admission wait times. Regulatory and accrediting agencies urge hospitals nationally to improve patient flow for better access to care for all types of patients. The purpose of the current study was to decrease psychiatric admission wait time from 10.5 to 8 hours and increase the proportion of patients discharged by 11 a.m. from 20% to 50%. The current study compared pre- and post-intervention data. Plan-Do-Study-Act cycles aimed to improve discharge processes and timeliness through initiation of new practices. Admission wait time improved to an average of 5.1 hours (t = 3.87, p = 0.006). The proportion of discharges occurring by 11 a.m. increased to 46% (odds ratio = 3.42, p planning processes and timeliness in a psychiatric unit significantly decreased admission wait time from the ED, improving access to psychiatric care. PMID:26505524

  5. STUDY ON PSYCHIATRIC CO - MORBIDITY IN PSORIASIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrikant B.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is relatively common , chronic inflammatory and hyper - proliferative skin disease that affects 1.4% to 2.0% of the population. Presence of itching , chronic recurrent course of disease and incomplete cure may contribute to great deal of psychiatric co - morbidity in these patients. the most persuasive indications of a link between stress and psoriasis comes from patients themselves , with studies illustrating that the majority of patients believe that stress or psychological distress is a factor in the manifestations of their condition . Depression and anxiety are the most common disorders that are associated with psoriasis , but the proportion of patient also having other psychiatric co - morbid diseases which include social phobia , generalize anxiety disorder , panic disorder , psychotic diso rder , etc. Moreover , symptoms of psoriasis , especially pruritus , are related to depression. OBJECTIVES : To evaluate different psychiatric illnesses their prevalence and severity in psoriasis patients. METHODOLOGY : This was cross - sectional observational stu dy comprised of 70 consecutive patients of psoriasis attending the out - patient department of Dermatology. All the patients were subjected to detailed examinations including the elicitation of dermatological and psychiatric profile after getting written con sent for study . Data was collected using self - developed , pre tested , semi structured Pro format by interview method. RESULTS : The profile of psychiatric diagnoses obtained in the present study depressive disorder 31.4% {18.57% depression , 12.85% Depression with anxiety symptoms} , anxiety disorder 25.7% (7.14% GAD , 8.17% panic disorder , 5.71% social phobia , 4.28 specific phobia. Severity of major depressive disorder was determined with HAM - D score 53.8% had mild depression , 30.7% moderate depression and 15. 5% severe depression. Similarly when HAM - A scale was used to determined severity of generalized

  6. The exploration of in-service training needs of psychiatric nurses / Herman Rankele Letlape

    OpenAIRE

    Letlape, Herman Rankele

    2012-01-01

    New research findings, changes in legislation and the use of information technology in nursing, requires continuous in-service training of psychiatric nurses (Booyens, 2004:381; Muller, 2004:294) to cope with, reflect on, evaluate and modify their clinical practice based on emerging knowledge (Cowen et al.,2009:2; Polit & Beck, 2006:4). Many studies have been conducted on the importance of in-service training, and authors agree that in-service training improves the quality of n...

  7. Relationship of functional gastrointestinal disorders and psychiatric disorders: Implications for treatment

    OpenAIRE

    North, Carol S.; Hong, Barry A.; Alpers, David H.

    2007-01-01

    This article revisits the links between psychopathology and functional gastrointestinal disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), discusses the rational use of antidepressants as well as non-pharmacological approaches to the management of IBS, and suggests guidelines for the treatment of IBS based on an interdisciplinary perspective from the present state of knowledge. Relevant published literature on psychiatric disorders, especially somatization disorder, in the context of IBS, and ...

  8. Coping in Chest Pain Patients with and without Psychiatric Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitaliano, Peter P.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examined relations between psychiatric disorder and coronary heart disease (CHD) in 77 patients with chest pain, and compared coping profiles of chest pain patients with and without psychiatric disorders and CHD. Psychiatric patients with no medical disease were also studied. Results are discussed in the context of illness behavior and…

  9. Psychiatric Nursing Care for Adult Survivors of Child

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zalm, Yvonne van der; Nugteren, Willem; Hafsteinsdóttir, Thóra van der; Venne, Cokky van der; Kool, Nienke; Meijel, Berno van

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine what is known from the literature about nursing care of psychiatric patients with a history of child maltreatment. CONCLUSIONS: Psychiatric nurses underline the importance of a routine inquiry of child abuse on admission of patients to psychiatric care, but are reluctant to as

  10. The Use of Homosexuality as a Psychiatric Diagnosis for Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shachar, Sandra A.

    Although research on homosexuality has utilized psychiatric patients as subjects, few studies have examined the use of homosexuality as a psychiatric diagnosis. Using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) definition of homosexuality as a psychiatric disorder only when homosexuality is ego-dystonic, an intensive review of…

  11. Risk of suicide according to level of psychiatric treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorthøj, Carsten Rygaard; Madsen, Trine; Agerbo, Esben;

    2014-01-01

    ,323 controls. Compared with people who had not received any psychiatric treatment in the preceding year, the adjusted rate ratio (95 % confidence interval) for suicide was 5.8 (5.2-6.6) for people receiving only psychiatric medication, 8.2 (6.1-11.0) for people with at most psychiatric outpatient contact, 27...

  12. Psychiatric intervention in primary care for mothers whose schoolchildren have psychiatric disorder.

    OpenAIRE

    Coverley, C T; Garralda, M E; Bowman, F

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Psychiatric disorder in schoolchildren has been linked to increased general practice attendance rates. This increase may, in part, be a result of maternal stress focused on the disturbed child, and of a decrease in confidence in parenting. AIM. A study was undertaken to pilot the feasibility of a single session, psychiatric intervention in primary care for mothers of disturbed children and to examine uptake rates and reported immediate and long-term effects. METHOD. Single psychia...

  13. Self-Esteem Deficits Among Psychiatric Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Rizwan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to investigate the difference in the level of self-esteem among patients with psychiatric disorders and normal controls. After a detailed literature review, it was hypothesized that there would be a significant difference in the level of self-esteem among patients with psychiatric disorders and normal controls. The sample of the present study consisted of 260 participants, who were further divided into two groups: clinical group (n = 140 and normal controls (n = 120. The age range of the participants in both the samples were 18 to 25 years (with the mean age of 22.14 years for psychiatric patients and 21.18 years for normal controls, and they belonged to middle socioeconomic status. The clinical group consisted of diagnosed psychiatric patients according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; DSM-IV-TR criteria and further divided into four subgroups, including patients of (a schizophrenia (n = 40, (b major depressive disorder (n = 40, (c obsessive-compulsive disorder (n = 40, and (d opioid dependence disorder (n = 20. The semi-structured interview form of Institute of Clinical Psychology, University of Karachi, and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale were used. Descriptive Statistics and one-way ANOVA were applied to analyze and interpret the data in statistical terminology. Results indicate significant differences among patients with psychiatric disorders and normal controls on the variable of self-esteem (F = 30.513, df = 4, 255, p< .05. The finding has implications for clinical interventions and also suggests avenues for future research.

  14. Psychiatric disorders and urbanization in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koelen Jurrijn

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological studies over the last decade have supplied growing evidence of an association between urbanization and the prevalence of psychiatric disorders. Our aim was to examine the link between levels of urbanization and 12-month prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders in a nationwide German population study, controlling for other known risk factors such as gender, social class, marital status and the interaction variables of these factors with urbanization. Methods The Munich Composite International Diagnostic Interview (M-CIDI was used to assess the prevalence of mental disorders (DSM-IV in a representative sample of the German population (N = 4181, age: 18–65. The sample contains five levels of urbanization based on residence location. The epidemiological study was commissioned by the German Ministry of Research, Education and Science (BMBF and approved by the relevant Institutional Review Board and ethics committee. Written informed consent was obtained for both surveys (core survey and Mental Health Supplement. Subjects did not get any financial compensation for their study participation. Results Higher levels of urbanization were linked to higher 12-month prevalence rates for almost all major psychiatric disorders (with the exception of substance abuse and psychotic disorders. The weighted prevalence percentages were highest in the most urbanized category. Alongside urbanization, female gender, lower social class and being unmarried were generally found to be associated with higher levels of psychopathology. The impact of urbanization on mental health was about equal (for almost all major psychiatric disorders in young people and elderly people, men and women, and in married and single people. Only people from a low social class in the most urbanized settings had more somatoform disorders, and unmarried people in the most urbanized settings had more anxiety disorders. Conclusion Psychiatric disorders are more

  15. Knowledge Sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holdt Christensen, Peter

    The concept of knowledge management has, indeed, become a buzzword that every single organization is expected to practice and live by. Knowledge management is about managing the organization's knowledge for the common good of the organization -but practicing knowledge management is not as simple...... as that. This article focuses on knowledge sharing as the process seeking to reduce the resources spent on reinventing the wheel.The article introduces the concept of time sensitiveness; i.e. that knowledge is either urgently needed, or not that urgently needed. Furthermore, knowledge sharing...... is considered as either a push or pull system. Four strategies for sharing knowledge - help, post-it, manuals and meeting, and advice are introduced. Each strategy requires different channels for sharing knowledge. An empirical analysis in a production facility highlights how the strategies can be practiced....

  16. The Effect of Psychiatric Rehabilitation on the Activity and Participation Level of Clients with Long-Term Psychiatric Disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wel, Tom van; Felling, Albert; Persoon, Jean

    2003-01-01

    During the last decades of the 20th century, many psychiatric hospitals changed the living environments of their clients with long-term psychiatric disabilities. We investigated the effect of this environmental psychiatric rehabilitation and normalization process on the activity and participation le

  17. "Tacit Knowledge" versus "Explicit Knowledge"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanchez, Ron

    2004-01-01

    This paper explains two fundamental approaches to knowledge management. The tacitknowledge approach emphasizes understanding the kinds of knowledge that individualsin an organization have, moving people to transfer knowledge within an organization,and managing key individuals as knowledge creators...... an organization. The relative advantages and disadvantages of bothapproaches to knowledge management are summarized. A synthesis of tacit andknowledge management approaches is recommended to create a hybrid design for theknowledge management practices in a given organization....

  18. Knowledge management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Mahnke, Volker

    2003-01-01

    Knowledge management has emerged as a very successful organization practice and has beenextensively treated in a large body of academic work. Surprisingly, however, organizationaleconomics (i.e., transaction cost economics, agency theory, team theory and property rightstheory) has played no role...... in the development of knowledge management. We argue thatorganizational economics insights can further the theory and practice of knowledge managementin several ways. Specifically, we apply notions of contracting, team production,complementaries, hold-up, etc. to knowledge management issues (i.e., creating...... and integrationknowledge, rewarding knowledge workers, etc.) , and derive refutable implications that are novelto the knowledge management field from our discussion....

  19. Knowledge Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2001, SCK-CEN decided to adopt and implement a practical knowledge management approach. Knowledge management activities were identified within the organisation and a co-ordinated approach to knowledge management was applied. Such an approach requires an efficient reuse of recorded knowledge and an effective transfer of the available knowledge. This approach ensures an added value to our research work and guarantees the long-term preservation of the institutional memory. Principle results and future developments regarding knowledge management at SCK-CEN are summarised

  20. Prevalence of psychiatric morbidity in visually impaired children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhla, Ajay Kumar; Sinha, Vinod Kumar; Verma, Vijay; Sarkhel, Sujit

    2011-03-01

    This study was done to measure psychiatric morbidity and associated sociodemographic variables among visually impaired children. 92 students of age range 6 to 20 years from four schools for the blind, in Ranchi, were screened with verbal Hindi translation of General Health Questionnaire 60. Diagnostic Interview Schedule Parent version was applied to establish psychiatric diagnosis on primary caretakers of those who scored above cutoff. Fourteen scored above cut off and psychiatric diagnoses of 8 children were established. The prevalence of psychiatric morbidity among visually impaired children was found to be 8.69% No sociodemographic variable was associated with the occurrence of psychiatric illness. PMID:21169654

  1. Parents of children with psychopathology: psychiatric problems and the association with their child's problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middeldorp, Christel M; Wesseldijk, Laura W; Hudziak, James J; Verhulst, Frank C; Lindauer, Ramon J L; Dieleman, Gwen C

    2016-08-01

    Knowledge is lacking regarding current psychopathology in parents whose children are evaluated in a psychiatric outpatient clinic. This especially accounts for fathers. We provide insight into the prevalence rates of parental psychopathology and the association with their offspring psychopathology by analyzing data on psychiatric problems collected in 701 mothers and 530 fathers of 757 referred children. Prevalence rates of parental psychopathology were based on (sub)clinical scores on the adult self report. Parent-offspring associations were investigated in multivariate analyses taking into account co-morbidity. Around 20 % of the parents had a (sub)clinical score on internalizing problems and around 10 % on attention deficit hyperactivity (ADH) problems. Prevalence rates did not differ between mothers and fathers. Parent-offspring associations did not differ between girls and boys. Maternal anxiety was associated with all offspring problem scores. In addition, maternal ADH problems were associated with offspring ADH problems. Paternal anxiety and ADH problems scores were specifically associated with offspring internalizing and externalizing problem scores, respectively. Associations with offspring psychopathology were of similar magnitude for mothers and fathers and were not influenced by spousal resemblance. Our study shows that both fathers and mothers are at increased risk for psychiatric problems at the time of a child's evaluation and that their problems are equally associated with their offspring problems. The results emphasize the need to screen mothers as well as fathers for psychiatric problems. Specific treatment programs should be developed for these families in especially high need. PMID:26757722

  2. Knowledge Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowledge management is an evolving subject area based on two notions: - That knowledge is a fundamental aspect of effective organizational performance; - That specific steps need to be actively taken to promote knowledge creation and use. Two common approaches to knowledge management that are often used in combination include: - Knowledge management focused on the capture of explicit knowledge and sharing this via technology; - Knowledge management focused on managing tacit knowledge without necessarily making it explicit, and creating new knowledge as well as sharing existing knowledge. In the context of human resources development, knowledge management is strongly tied to strategy and is activity oriented. Properly applied knowledge management improves organizational efficiency and productivity through reducing process times, introducing technology to assist finding relevant information and instituting techniques to remedy poor quality outputs. Knowledge management also promotes innovations, which can result from initiatives such as developing social networks for knowledge exchange, providing leadership to encourage risk taking and capturing the lessons learned from past activities. Both of these benefits require openness to change and a drive for continual improvement. Other benefits of knowledge management include improved decision making, retaining organizational memory and organizational learning, as well as improving morale. Knowledge management can be used on its own or in collaboration with other management disciplines and tools to establish an environment that will enable the organization to realize these benefits. Summarizing the effective management of nuclear knowledge includes ensuring the continued availability of qualified personnel. As the nuclear workforce ages and retires, and with support uncertain for university programmes in nuclear science and engineering, this issue has become critical to ensuring safety and security, encouraging innovation

  3. Artisanal knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raven, Diederick

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This essay is about the ensuing problem that in general it is nothelpful to talk about non-standard knowledge practices as modeled after our Western ideas of what knowledge is. It negotiates this problem by arguing that artisanal knowledge is an independent and self-contained mode of knowledge and is arranged in three parts. In the first part an outline is given of the key assumptions of the interactionist conception of knowledge that needs to be put in place as an alternative to the basically Kantian mixture of empiricist and rationalist assumptions of the folk model of Western academic thinking about knowledge. In this interactionist conception of knowledgeartisanal knowledge gets center stage. In the second part, the notion of craftknowledge is opened up as much as possible. The third and final part takes upthe question whether craft knowledge is a cultural universal.

  4. Sound knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kauffmann, Lene Teglhus

    of anthropological debates and theories about knowledge. This provides a perspective from which to look critically at ‘evidence’ and identify its multiple meanings and uses in policymaking. The analysis also leads to a refinement of anthropological concepts of knowledge. ‘Evidence’ is purported to be the objective...... and ideologies explicit. Furthermore, in relation to an anthropology of knowledge, sound knowledge also offers a reconsideration of the way anthropologists study knowledge, as it specifies that studying knowledge for anthropologists means studying what people consider as knowledge, in what circumstances......The thesis is about the conceptualisation of knowledge associated with ‘evidence’. In the Danish society, there is a proliferating demand for ‘evidence’, which started as the basis of practices in medicine and has spread into social work, education and most policymaking arenas. The aim...

  5. Adherence level and knowledge about psychopharmacological treatment among patients discharged from psychiatric internment Grado de adhesión y conocimiento sobre tratamiento psicofarmacológico entre pacientes egresados de internación psiquiátrica Grau de adesão e conhecimento sobre tratamento psicofarmacológico entre pacientes egressos de internação psiquiátrica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucilene Cardoso

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This exploratory, descriptive and prospective study aimed to identify the degree of adherence to psychopharmacological treatment of patients who were discharged from psychiatric hospitalization and their knowledge about their prescription and diagnosis. The study was carried out at a Mental Health Service. The sample consisted of all service clients who were discharged from psychiatric hospitalization in the data collection period. A Sociodemographic Questionnaire and the Morisky-Green Test were the instruments used. Data were analyzed through central trend measures. In total, 48 patients participated in the study. Regarding adherence, 70.8% of them showed a low adherence level to psychopharmacological treatment. Moreover, only twenty-one patients knew what their diagnosis was and most did not know or partially knew the name and dose of all prescribed medications.El objetivo de este trabajo fue identificar el grado de adhesión al tratamiento psicofarmacológico de los pacientes egresados de internación psiquiátrica y evaluar su conocimiento en cuanto a su prescripción y diagnóstico. Se trata de un estudio exploratorio, descriptivo, prospectivo, realizado en un Núcleo de Salud Mental. La muestra fue compuesta por todos los clientes de este servicio que tuvieron alta de internación psiquiátrica en el período de recolección siendo utilizado un Cuestionario sociodemográfico y la Prueba de Adhesión de Morisky-Green como instrumentos. Los datos fueron analizados por medidas de tendencia central. Hicieron parte de la muestra 48 pacientes; en relación a la adhesión, se observó que 70,8% de ellos fueron clasificados con bajo grado de adhesión al tratamiento psicofarmacológico. Además de eso, apenas veintiún pacientes sabían informar cual era su diagnóstico y la mayoría de ellos no sabía o sabía parcialmente el nombre y dosis de todos los medicamentos que le fueron prescritos.O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar o grau de ades

  6. Accessible Knowledge - Knowledge on Accessibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Inge Mette

    2015-01-01

    Although serious efforts are made internationally and nationally, it is a slow process to make our physical environment accessible. In the actual design process, architects play a major role. But what kinds of knowledge, including research-based knowledge, do practicing architects make use of when...... designing accessible environments? The answer to the question is crucially important since it affects how knowledge is distributed and how accessibility can be ensured. In order to get first-hand knowledge about the design process and the sources from which they gain knowledge, 11 qualitative interviews...... were conducted with architects with experience of designing for accessibility. The analysis draws on two theoretical distinctions. The first is research-based knowledge versus knowledge used by architects. The second is context-independent knowledge versus context-dependent knowledge. The practitioners...

  7. Staging atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Mikkel; Bjerregaard, Peter; Sørensen, Tim Flohr

    2015-01-01

    The article introduces the special issue on staging atmospheres by surveying the philosophical, political and anthropological literature on atmosphere, and explores the relationship between atmosphere, material culture, subjectivity and affect. Atmosphere seems to occupy one of the classic...... localities of tensions between matter and the immaterial, the practical and the ideal, and subject and object. In the colloquial language there can, moreover, often seem to be something authentic or genuine about atmosphere, juxtaposing it to staging, which is implied to be something simulated or artificial....... This introduction seeks to outline how a number of scholars have addressed the relationship between staged atmospheres and experience, and thus highlight both the philosophical, social and political aspects of atmospheres...

  8. Knowledge Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Milton, Nick

    2008-01-01

    Several technologies are emerging that provide new ways to capture, store, present and use knowledge. This book is the first to provide a comprehensive introduction to five of the most important of these technologies: Knowledge Engineering, Knowledge Based Engineering, Knowledge Webs, Ontologies and Semantic Webs. For each of these, answers are given to a number of key questions (What is it? How does it operate? How is a system developed? What can it be used for? What tools are available? Wha...

  9. Knowledge management

    OpenAIRE

    Nádvorník, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    The main goal of this thesis is to describe implementation of the information system that will support knowledge management using KM-Beat-it methodology in Helpdesk department of the Wincor Nixdorf, Ltd. company. Due to lack of knowledge management principles usage this system will support procedures and processes of knowledge management. Setup and implementation of this system was performed using and combining of two methodologies, methodology for knowledge management implementation KM-Beat-...

  10. [Neurologic and psychiatric manifestations of Lyme disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanc, F

    2007-01-01

    The neurological and psychiatric manifestations of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato are so numerous that Borrelia is also called the "new great imitator". Thus knowing about the multiple clinical aspects of neuroborreliosis is necessary for the clinician. We reviewed literature for "classical" neuroborreliosis such as acute meningoradiculitis or chronicle encephalomyelitis, but also for encephalitis, myelitis, polyneuritis, radiculitis and more controversial disorders such as chronic neurological disorders, ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, and motor neuron disease. We specified every time on which basis each disorder was attributed to Lyme disease, particularly if European or American criteria were met. Every part of the nervous system can be involved: from central to peripheral nervous system, and even muscles. In endemic areas, Lyme serology must be assessed in case of unexplained neurological or psychiatric disorder. In case of positive serology, CSF assessment with intrathecal anti-Borrelia antibody index will be more efficient to prove the diagnosis. PMID:17350199

  11. Tension‑Type Headache - Psychiatric Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Campos Mendes

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The tension‑type headaches (Ctt are the most frequent headaches in the general population and those with higher socio‑economic impact, given the high degree of disability they cause. Objective: The authors propose to conduct a review of the available literature on the subject, from a psychiatric perspective. Discussion: Several studies have identified a higher prevalence of psychiatric disorders, personality traits and ineffective coping mechanisms in patients with Ctt, so it is essential to understand this relationship and the impact of these psychopathological factors on this kind of headaches. Conclusion: Their clinical and therapeutic approach is hampered by these and other factors and multiple strategies of pharmacological and psycho‑behavioral treatment have been used on them, however, scientific evidence is still scarce.

  12. Caring for the elderly female psychiatric patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, Mudhasir; Holroyd, Suzanne

    2010-06-01

    With the growth of the elderly population, and the female elderly population in particular, healthcare providers will see increasing numbers of elderly women with psychiatric disorders. To properly care for this group of patients, better understanding is needed not only of group differences in this patient population but also of the differences in each individual, as they age, given their unique life experiences, cohort effects, medical comorbidity, social situation, and personality traits. Understandably, these characteristics will interact with psychiatric disorders in ways that may increase the challenge to correctly diagnose and treat these patients. In addition, understanding late life changes, the prevalence of various mental disorders and the sometimes unique presentation of mental disorders in this age group is required to better diagnose and treat this population.

  13. Anxiety in non-psychiatric patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Polikandrioti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Systematic approach of anxiety in non-psychiatric patients contributes significantly to the effective treatment. At first, is essential to explore the biological causes and afterwards the possibility that anxiety is a manifestation of a psychiatric disorder. Furthermore, when anxiety is diagnosed as patient's response to the disease, it is crucial to explore the psychological mechanisms that the patient mobilizes in order to defend it, the psycho-social problems of the patient, the supportive network, personality and the personal meaning that the patient gives to the disease. The most effective treatment of anxiety is the combination of medication therapy (benzodiazepines, antidepressants with psychological therapies such as cognitive- behavioral psychotherapy that aim to change patterns of thought, behavior and belief.

  14. The intellectual crisis of psychiatric research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fava, Giovanni A

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to examine the intellectual crisis and the potential sources of reveille in clinical research in psychiatry. Current prevailing conceptual models in psychiatry are critically examined, with particular reference to neurobiology, clinical psychopharmacology, assessment, and the therapeutic process. Biological reductionism, neglect of individual responses to treatment, massive propaganda from the pharmaceutical industry, misleading effects of psychometric theory on clinical assessment, and lack of consideration of multiple therapeutic ingredients and of the role of psychological well-being are identified as major sources of an intellectual crisis in psychiatric research. The conceptual crisis of psychiatry is shared by other areas of clinical medicine and stems from a narrow concept of science that neglects clinical observation, the basic method of medicine. A unified concept of health and disease may yield new clinical insights in psychiatric disorders, and may result in therapeutic efforts of more enduring quality than current strategies.

  15. A profile of students who followed a course in the didactics of psychiatric nursing at Unisa during 1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, V J

    1996-03-01

    Students who followed the above course did so as part of the Nursing Education III course offered at UNISA. This research aims at establishing a profile of these students. Aspects covered include age, sex, marital status, professional and academic qualifications, professional posts held and current fields of occupation. Such knowledge will clarify who the psychiatric nurse educators of the future might be, and also what the target population for the above course could be. Students' personal perceptions of the above course are sought in the second part of the questionnaire. Such information should be valuable in improving future courses for educators of psychiatric nurses. PMID:9257581

  16. Alcohol use disorders increase the risk of completed suicide - Irrespective of other psychiatric disorders. A longitudinal cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Knop, Joachim; Mortensen, Erik Lykke;

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge of the epidemiology of suicide is a necessary prerequisite for developing prevention programs. The aim of this study was to analyze the risk of completed suicide among individuals with alcohol use disorders (AUD), and to assess the role of other psychiatric disorders in this association...... suicide, AUD, Psychotic disorders, Anxiety disorders, Mood disorders, Personality disorders, Drug abuse, and Other psychiatric disorders. Individuals registered with AUD were at significantly increased risk of committing suicide, with a crude hazard ratio (HR) of 7.98 [Confidence interval (CI): 5...

  17. A profile of students who followed a course in the didactics of psychiatric nursing at Unisa during 1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, V J

    1996-03-01

    Students who followed the above course did so as part of the Nursing Education III course offered at UNISA. This research aims at establishing a profile of these students. Aspects covered include age, sex, marital status, professional and academic qualifications, professional posts held and current fields of occupation. Such knowledge will clarify who the psychiatric nurse educators of the future might be, and also what the target population for the above course could be. Students' personal perceptions of the above course are sought in the second part of the questionnaire. Such information should be valuable in improving future courses for educators of psychiatric nurses.

  18. Gluten encephalopathy with psychiatric onset: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Costantini Chiara; Bortolaso Paola; Bolla Emilio; Vender Simone; Poloni Nicola; Callegari Camilla

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Many cases of coeliac disease, a gastrointestinal autoimmune disorder caused by sensitivity to gluten, can remain in a subclinical stage or undiagnosed. In a significant proportion of cases (10–15%) gluten intolerance can be associated with central or peripheral nervous system and psychiatric disorders. A 38-year-old man was admitted as to our department an inpatient for worsening anxiety symptoms and behavioural alterations. After the addition of second generation antipsychotic to t...

  19. Parental psychiatric disorders and autism spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Jokiranta, Elina; Brown, Alan S.; Heinimaa, Markus; Cheslack-Postava, Keely; Partanen, Auli; SOURANDER, ANDRE

    2013-01-01

    The present population-based, case-control study examines associations between specific parental psychiatric disorders and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) including childhood autism, Asperger’s syndrome and pervasive developmental disorder (PDD-NOS). The cohort includes 4713 children born between 1987 and 2005 with diagnoses of childhood autism, Asperger’s syndrome or PDD-NOS. Cases were ascertained from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register, and each was matched to four controls by gender,...

  20. Teenage pregnancy: doubts, uncertainties and psychiatric disturbance.

    OpenAIRE

    S. Maskey

    1991-01-01

    Fifty-two pregnant teenagers were assessed at 'booking' using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ 28), a locus of control scale, and five visual analogue 'attitude scales'. Thirty-eight were in the antenatal and 14 in the termination clinic. One quarter had probable psychiatric disorder on the GHQ. The GHQ scores correlated outcome of pregnancy (whether about the planned outcome of pregnancy (whether termination or full term). Locus of control correlated with the Depression scale of the GHQ...

  1. Illness related deception: social or psychiatric problem?

    OpenAIRE

    Bass, Christopher; Halligan, Peter W

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we question the validity of factitious disorder as a meaningful psychiatric diagnosis. When the diagnosis is used there is often the assumption that the person engaging in the ‘deception’ is not lying in the traditional sense of being deliberately misleading. Moreover, little is known about the aetiology or psychopathology underlying factitious disorder, and the legitimacy of deception as a mental disorder has been questioned. It is argued that while illness deception may be mor...

  2. Incidence of childhood psychiatric disorders in India

    OpenAIRE

    Malhotra, Savita; Kohli, Adarsh; Kapoor, Mehak; Pradhan, Basant

    2009-01-01

    Background: Studies on incidence of childhood mental disorders are extremely rare globally and there are none from India. Incidence studies though more difficult and time consuming, provide invaluable information on the pattern and causes of occurrence of mental disorders allowing opportunity for early intervention and primary prevention. Aim: This study aimed at estimating the incidence of psychiatric disorders in school children. Materials and Methods: A representative sample of school chil...

  3. Neuroimaging in child and adolescent psychiatric disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Santosh, P. J.

    2000-01-01

    Neuroimaging in child psychiatry is a rapidly developing field and the number of different techniques being used is increasing rapidly. This review describes the current status of neuroimaging in childhood psychopathology and discusses limitations of the various studies. As yet, no specific and consistent abnormality has been detected in childhood psychiatric disorders. Obsessive compulsive disorder has shown the most consistent findings so far, with orbitofrontal cortex and...

  4. Connectomic intermediate phenotypes for psychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex eFornito

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Psychiatric disorders are phenotypically heterogeneous entities with a complex genetic basis. To mitigate this complexity, many investigators study so-called intermediate phenotypes that putatively provide a more direct index of the physiological effects of candidate genetic risk variants than overt psychiatric syndromes. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is a particularly popular technique for measuring such phenotypes because it allows interrogation of diverse aspects of brain structure and function in vivo. Much of this work however, has focused on relatively simple measures that quantify variations in the physiology or tissue integrity of specific brain regions in isolation, contradicting an emerging consensus that most major psychiatric disorders do not arise from isolated dysfunction in one or a few brain regions, but rather from disturbed interactions within and between distributed neural circuits; i.e., they are disorders of brain connectivity. The recent proliferation of new MRI techniques for comprehensively mapping the entire connectivity architecture of the brain, termed the human connectome, has provided a rich repertoire of tools for understanding how genetic variants implicated in mental disorder impact distinct neural circuits. In this article, we review research using these connectomic techniques to understand how genetic variation influences the connectivity and topology of human brain networks. We highlight recent evidence from twin and imaging genetics studies suggesting that the penetrance of candidate risk variants for mental illness, such as those in SLC6A4, MAOA, ZNF804A and APOE, may be higher for intermediate phenotypes characterised at the level of distributed neural systems than at the level of spatially localised brain regions. The findings indicate that imaging connectomics provides a powerful framework for understanding how genetic risk for psychiatric disease is expressed through altered structure and function of

  5. STUDY ON PSYCHIATRIC CO - MORBIDITY IN PSORIASIS

    OpenAIRE

    Shrikant B.; Parth S; Ashish V; Mundhada

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is relatively common , chronic inflammatory and hyper - proliferative skin disease that affects 1.4% to 2.0% of the population. Presence of itching , chronic recurrent course of disease and incomplete cure may contribute to great deal of psychiatric co - morbidity in these patients. the most persuasive indications of a link between stress and psoriasis comes from patients themselves , with studies illustrating that the m...

  6. Psychiatric illness in women requesting caesarean section

    OpenAIRE

    Sydsjö, Gunilla; Möller, Louise; Lilliecreutz, Caroline; Bladh, Marie; Andolf, E; Josefsson, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare psychiatric in-and outpatient care during the 5 years before first delivery in primiparae delivered by caesarean section on maternal request with all other primiparae women who had given birth during the same time period. Design Prospective, population-based register study. Setting Sweden. Sample Women giving birth for the first time between 2002 and 2004 (n = 64 834). Methods Women giving birth by caesarean section on maternal request (n = 1009) were compared with all ot...

  7. Drug Compliance and the Psychiatric Patient

    OpenAIRE

    Seltzer, Allan; Hoffman, Brian F.

    1980-01-01

    Non-compliance is one of the commonest causes of therapeutic failure in both medicine and psychiatry. With psychiatric patients the factors contributing to non-compliance are related to: illness variables (schizophrenia, mania, paranoia, chronicity), patient variables (inappropriate health beliefs, need to rebel against authority, a wish to remain sick, defective memory), medication variables (inefficient and ineffective regimens, side effects) and patient-therapist variables (degree of super...

  8. Premenstrual Syndrome and Psychiatric Co-morbidities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziba Taghizadeh

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available "n    "nObjective: Premenstrual syndrome (PMS is a common disorder with prevalence rate of approximately 30%; its concurrence with psychiatric symptoms will make it a disabling condition that resists usual treatment. Objective: This study was enrolled to assess the co-morbidity of PMS and psychiatric disorders in a sample of girls with PMS compared to those without PMS. "n    "nMaterial and method : This study was conducted through a cross sectional method with 362 participants (166 with PMS and 196 healthy girls who were selected randomly and completed the demographic questionnaire, premenstrual syndrome symptom daily record scale and the symptom checklist 90-revised (SCL-90-R. "n    "nResult: According to the result of the independent t test, the mean score of all the psychiatric symptoms in the PMS group was significantly higher than those in healthy group (P<0.001. According to SCL-90-R measurement, most of the participants in the PMS group were categorized as extremely sick for somatization (44% ,obsessive-compulsive (59%, depression (58.4%, anxiety (64.5%, hostility (47% and psychoticism (69.3%; most of the participants were diagnosed as having borderline severity of disorders for interpersonal sensitivity (44.6% and paranoid (42.8% and most of the respondents with PMS (46.4% were diagnosed as healthy only for phobic anxiety. "n    "nConclusion: There is a considerable relationship between PMS and different psychiatric symptoms that can complicate the diagnosis of PMS and its treatment for the health care providers. Therefore, all health care providers who are in contact with women in their reproductive age should be sensitive to mental health status in women with PMS.

  9. Cognitive deficits in psychiatric disorders: Current status

    OpenAIRE

    Trivedi, J.K.

    2006-01-01

    Cognition denotes a relatively high level of processing of specific information including thinking, memory, perception, motivation, skilled movements and language. Cognitive psychology has become an important discipline in the research of a number of psychiatric disorders, ranging from severe psychotic illness such as schizophrenia to relatively benign, yet significantly disabling, non-psychotic illnesses such as somatoform disorder. Research in the area of neurocognition has started unlockin...

  10. Links between circadian rhythms and psychiatric disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilia N Karatsoreos

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Determining the cause of psychiatric disorders is a goal of modern neuroscience, and will hopefully lead to the discovery of treatments to either prevent or alleviate the suffering caused by these diseases. One roadblock to attaining this goal is the realization that neuropsychiatric diseases are rarely due to a single gene polymorphism, environmental exposure, or developmental insult. Rather, it is a complex interaction between these various influences that likely leads to the development of clinically relevant syndromes. Our lab is exploring the links between environmental exposures and neurobehavioral function by investigating how disruption of the circadian (daily clock alters the structure and function of neural circuits, with the hypothesis that disrupting this crucial homeostatic system can directly contribute to altered vulnerability of the organism to other factors that interact to produce psychiatric illness. This review explores some historical and more recent findings that link disrupted circadian clocks to neuropsychiatric disorders, particularly depression, mania, and schizophrenia. We take a comparative approach by exploring the effects observed in human populations, as well as some experimental models used in the laboratory to unravel mechanistic and causal relationships between disruption of the circadian clock and behavioral abnormalities. This is a rich area of research that we predict will contribute greatly to our understanding of how genes, environment, and development interact to modulate an individual’s vulnerability to psychiatric disorders.

  11. Immigration, moving house and psychiatric admissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, L M; Sundquist, J; Johansson, S E; Bergman, B

    1998-08-01

    This study was designed to elucidate psychiatric admission rates for native Swedes and foreign-born individuals during the period 1991-1994, when Sweden had a great influx of refugees. During the same period, and even earlier, psychiatric in-patient care had been reduced. Tests of differences between Swedes and foreign-born individuals in first psychiatric admission rates were performed using Poisson regressions, and the risk of a readmission was assessed using a proportional hazard model. Foreign-born individuals and native Swedes, both males and females, showed a similar admission pattern with regard to the number of admissions. Foreign-born males under 55 years of age and foreign-born females under 35 years of age had significantly higher admission rates than native Swedes. In total, native Swedes, both males and females, were hospitalized for a significantly longer period than the foreign-born subjects. About 43% of the patients were readmitted. The risk of a readmission was significantly increased among those with a high rate of internal migration. The high admission rates for young foreign-born individuals might be explained by a high incidence of mental illness owing to the trauma of being violently forced to migrate, acculturation difficulties, or unsatisfactory social circumstances such as high unemployment. The shorter hospitalization time could be due to undertreatment or less serious mental illness. PMID:9718235

  12. Psychotherapy for pregnant women with psychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Müldner-Nieckowski

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy is a major life change for many women. The related biological changes, especially complications in its course and in the course of delivery, carry a risk of developing a variety of psychological problems and mental disorders. However, their treatment is challenging due to the teratogenic effects of most psychoactive drugs and specific requirements for entering different psychotherapeutic programs. Mental disorders during pregnancy are undoubtedly an important issue for both gynecology and psychiatry. There is still a discussion considering the question whether psychotherapy during pregnancy is safe, although no scientifically valid data contradicting the safety of psychotherapy during pregnancy has been published so far. Together with psychotherapy – as a treatment of choice – clinicians approve some other relatively safe treatment methods for psychiatric disorders in pregnant women. Light therapy, limited pharmacotherapy, ECT are included. The goal of this paper is to review current opinions of clinicians and researches concerning possibilities, indications and outcome of psychological treatments as a way to help pregnant women who suffer from different psychiatric conditions, and also because this subject is not yet present in Polish psychiatric journals.

  13. Psychiatric disorders in chronic periodic haemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paraskevi Theofilou

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The progress in Medical and Nursing Science has contributed significantly to the lengthening of life expectancy regarding several categories of ill people with chronic diseases. However, when the quality of life depends on the periodic correction of biological parameters, as with people with chronic renal failure, this situation affects both the patient and the environment. The aim of the present study is the evaluation of psychiatric disorders which are presented in haemodialysis patients as well as the influence of these disorders on their quality of life. Material and method: Review of relative bibliography was made in electronic basis of Medline (1980‐2009 using as key words haemodialysis, chronic renal failure, quality of life, psychiatric disorders. Complementary bibliography was found through other electronic search engines. Results: The chronic character and the frequency of renal failure, the possible dysfunction in the movement as well as the necessary long treatment cause problems, which extend the disease beyond the medical area offering socioeconomic dimensions, which complicate the associated psychiatric disorders. Conclusions: These patients suffer from the disease as well as from the treatment and at the same time they are faced with the number of the accompanying and interrelated problems, which come up in their everyday living and prescribe restrictively their way of life.

  14. Psychiatric disorders in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, G A; Nehall, J E; Simeon, D T

    1996-06-01

    The symptoms of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) may include altered mental function. The present study sought to determine whether the psychiatric disorders are due to the disease itself or to the stress of having a chronic disease. Forty-five SLE patients attending outpatient clinics at the Port-of-Spain General Hospital in Trinidad were compared with two control groups: patients with chronic debilitating diseases similar to SLE in terms of chronicity and treatment (n = 44) and non-diseased individuals (n = 48). The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM III-R was used to identify psychiatric disorders. Both the SLE and the chronic illness groups had more psychiatric illness (44% and 39%, respectively) when compared with the non-diseased controls (2%) (p < 0.001). Major depression was the most common diagnosis among both diseased groups. However, psychotic illnesses (schizophrenic-type psychosis and bipolar disorders) were more prevalent in the SLE group (11.1% vs 0%, p = 0.02). These results indicate that major depression in SLE may be related more to the effects of a chronic illness than to SLE itself. However, the occurrence of psychotic symptoms may be related to SLE disease and needs further study.

  15. Knowledge spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Doignon, Jean-Paul

    1999-01-01

    Knowledge spaces offer a rigorous mathematical foundation for various practical systems of knowledge assessment. An example is offered by the ALEKS system (Assessment and LEarning in Knowledge Spaces), a software for the assessment of mathematical knowledge. From a mathematical standpoint, knowledge spaces generalize partially ordered sets. They are investigated both from a combinatorial and a stochastic viewpoint. The results are applied to real and simulated data. The book gives a systematic presentation of research and extends the results to new situations. It is of interest to mathematically oriented readers in education, computer science and combinatorics at research and graduate levels. The text contains numerous examples and exercises and an extensive bibliography.

  16. [Knowledge and power at a molecular level; biological psychiatry in a social context].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeff, B

    2009-01-01

    How do we acquire our knowledge about psychiatric disorders and how did the current biologically way of thinking in psychiatry originate? With the help of the philosophy of Michel Foucault and Nikolas Rose this essay describes the conditions that made possible today's biological approach in psychiatry. It will become clear that research in the life sciences and the psychiatric knowledge arising from this research are shaped and formed in a complex network of social, economic, political and scientific forces. The biological approach to psychiatric disorders is the product of present-day relationships between scientific developments and commercial corporations.

  17. The Dubai Community Psychiatric Survey: acculturation and the prevalence of psychiatric disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghubash, R; Hamdi, E; Bebbington, P

    1994-02-01

    Dubai, an Emirate in the Gulf region, has experienced spectacular social change as a result of the exploitation of its oil reserves. The Dubai Community Psychiatric Survey was designed to study the effects of this social change on the mental health of female nationals. In this paper, we approach the problem by quantifying social change in two main ways: the first focused on social change at the individual level as measured by the Socio-cultural Change Questionnaire (Bebbington et al. 1993). The second examined the effect of social change at the community level by identifying areas of residence at different levels of development. We hypothesized that attitudes and behaviours markedly at odds with traditional prescriptions would be associated with high rates of psychiatric morbidity. On the individual level, the association between psychiatric morbidity and the amount of social change reflected in the behaviours and views of the subjects was not significant. However, there was a significant association between morbidity and between social attitudes and behaviours. At the community level, in contrast, the relationship between psychiatric morbidity and social change was significant: there was more psychiatric morbidity in areas at the extremes of the social change continuum. The hypothesis put forward in this study must be modified accordingly.

  18. Knowledge Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariq, Syed Z.; Kutler, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The emergence of rapidly expanding technologies for distribution and dissemination of information and knowledge has brought to focus the opportunities for development of knowledge-based networks, knowledge dissemination and knowledge management technologies and their potential applications for enhancing productivity of knowledge work. The challenging and complex problems of the future can be best addressed by developing the knowledge management as a new discipline based on an integrative synthesis of hard and soft sciences. A knowledge management professional society can provide a framework for catalyzing the development of proposed synthesis as well as serve as a focal point for coordination of professional activities in the strategic areas of education, research and technology development. Preliminary concepts for the development of the knowledge management discipline and the professional society are explored. Within this context of knowledge management discipline and the professional society, potential opportunities for application of information technologies for more effectively delivering or transferring information and knowledge (i.e., resulting from the NASA's Mission to Planet Earth) for the development of policy options in critical areas of national and global importance (i.e., policy decisions in economic and environmental areas) can be explored, particularly for those policy areas where a global collaborative knowledge network is likely to be critical to the acceptance of the policies.

  19. Psychiatric aspects of Parkinson's disease--an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrag, Anette

    2004-07-01

    In patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) disturbances of mental state constitute some of the most difficult treatment challenges of advanced disease, often limiting effective treatment of motor symptoms and leading to increased disability and poor quality of life. This article provides an update on the current knowledge of these complications and the use of old and new drugs in their management. Mental state alterations in PD include depression, anxiety, cognitive impairment, apathy, and treatment-related psychiatric symptoms. The latter range from vivid dreams and hallucinations to delusions, manic symptoms, hypersexuality, dopamine dysregulation syndrome and delirium. While some of these symptoms may be alleviated by anti-parkinsonian medication, especially if they are off-period related, treatment-related phenomena are usually exacerbated by increasing the number or dosage of antiparkinsonian drugs. Elimination of exacerbating factors and simplification of drug regimes are the first and most important steps in improvement of such symptoms. However, the advent of atypical antipsychotics such as clozapine has dramatically helped the management of treatment-related psychiatric complications in PD. In patients with dementia associated with PD cognitive functioning and behavioural problems appear to respond to cholinesterase inhibitors, such as rivastigmine or donepezil. Depression is a common problem in early as well as advanced PD, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, reboxetine, and tricyclic antidepressants have been reported to be effective and well tolerated antidepressants. Randomised, controlled studies are required to assess the differential efficacy and tolerability of antidepressants in patients with PD, including the newer antidepressants with serotonergic and noradrenergic properties. PMID:15258780

  20. Determination of the Atmospheric Neutrino Fluxes from Atmospheric Neutrino Data

    CERN Document Server

    González-Garciá, M C; Rojo, J

    2006-01-01

    The precise knowledge of the atmospheric neutrino fluxes is a key ingredient in the interpretation of the results from any atmospheric neutrino experiment. In the standard atmospheric neutrino data analysis, these fluxes are theoretical inputs obtained from sophisticated numerical calculations based on the convolution of the primary cosmic ray spectrum with the expected yield of neutrinos per incident cosmic ray. In this work we present an alternative approach to the determination of the atmospheric neutrino fluxes based on the direct extraction from the experimental data on neutrino event rates. The extraction is achieved by means of a combination of artificial neural networks as interpolants and Monte Carlo methods for faithful error estimation

  1. Exoplanet Atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Seager, S

    2010-01-01

    At the dawn of the first discovery of exoplanets orbiting sun-like stars in the mid-1990s, few believed that observations of exoplanet atmospheres would ever be possible. After the 2002 Hubble Space Telescope detection of a transiting exoplanet atmosphere, many skeptics discounted it as a one-object, one-method success. Nevertheless, the field is now firmly established, with over two dozen exoplanet atmospheres observed today. Hot Jupiters are the type of exoplanet currently most amenable to study. Highlights include: detection of molecular spectral features; observation of day-night temperature gradients; and constraints on vertical atmospheric structure. Atmospheres of giant planets far from their host stars are also being studied with direct imaging. The ultimate exoplanet goal is to answer the enigmatic and ancient question, "Are we alone?" via detection of atmospheric biosignatures. Two exciting prospects are the immediate focus on transiting super Earths orbiting in the habitable zone of M-dwarfs, and u...

  2. Aggressive behaviors in the psychiatric emergency service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Chaput

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Yves Chaput1, Lucie Beaulieu2, Michel Paradis3, Edith Labonté41Department of Psychiatry, McGill University, Montreal (presently in private practice; 2Department of Psychiatry, Haut Richelieu Hospital, Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu, Quebec; 3Department of Psychiatry, University of Montreal, Montreal; 4Department of Psychiatry, Laval University, Quebec, CanadaIntroduction: Studies of aggressive behaviors in a nonforensic mental health setting have focused primarily on the inpatient ward and, on event prediction, using behavior-based clinical rating scales. Few studies have specifically targeted aggressive behaviors in the psychiatric emergency service or determined whether assessing the demographic and clinical characteristics of such patients might prove useful for their more rapid identification.Methods: We used a prospectively acquired database of over 20,900 visits to four services in the province of Quebec, Canada, over a two-year period from September 2002 onwards. A maximum of 72 variables could be acquired per visit. Visits with aggression (any verbally or physically intimidating behavior, both present and past, were tagged. Binary logistic regressions and cross-tabulations were used to determine whether the profile of a variable differed in visits with aggression from those without aggression.Results: About 7% of visits were marked by current aggression (verbal 49%, physical 12%, verbal and physical 39%. Including visits with a “past only” history of aggression increased this number to 20%. Variables associated with aggression were gender (male, marital status (single/separated, education (high school or less, employment (none, judicial history (any type, substance abuse (prior or active, medication compliance (poor, type of arrival to psychiatric emergency services (involuntary, police, judiciary, landlord, reason for referral (behavioral dyscontrol, diagnosis (less frequent in anxiety disorders, and outcome (more frequently placed under

  3. Atmospheric Neutrinos

    OpenAIRE

    Takaaki Kajita

    2012-01-01

    Atmospheric neutrinos are produced as decay products in hadronic showers resulting from collisions of cosmic rays with nuclei in the atmosphere. Electron-neutrinos and muon-neutrinos are produced mainly by the decay chain of charged pions to muons to electrons. Atmospheric neutrino experiments observed zenith angle and energy-dependent deficit of muon-neutrino events. It was found that neutrino oscillations between muon-neutrinos and tau-neutrinos explain these data well. This paper discusses...

  4. Articulating Atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinch, Sofie

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an architectural approach to designing computational interfaces by articulating the notion of atmosphere in the field of interaction design. It draws upon the concept of kinesthetic interaction and a philosophical notion on atmosphere emphasizing the importance of bodily...... experience in space, presented as middle ground experience. In the field of HCI, middle ground experiences complete the unarticulated spectrum between designing for foreground of attention or background awareness. When “Articulating Atmospheres through Middle Ground Experiences in Interaction Design...

  5. Top-down or bottom-up: Contrasting perspectives on psychiatric diagnoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem MA Verhoeven

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Willem MA Verhoeven1,2, Siegfried Tuinier1, Ineke van der Burgt31Vincent van Gogh Institute for Psychiatry, Venray, The Netherlands; 2Department of Psychiatry, Erasmus University Medical Centre, Rotterdam, The Netherlands; 3Department of Human Genetics, Radboud University Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The NetherlandsAbstract: Clinical psychiatry is confronted with the expanding knowledge of medical genetics. Most of the research into the genetic underpinnings of major mental disorders as described in the categorical taxonomies, however, did reveal linkage with a variety of chromosomes. This heterogeneity of results is most probably due to the assumption that the nosological categories as used in these studies are disease entities with clear boundaries. If the reverse way of looking, the so-called bottom-up approach, is applied, it becomes clear that genetic abnormalities are in most cases not associated with a single psychiatric disorder but with a certain probability to develop a variety of aspecific psychiatric symptoms. The adequacy of the categorical taxonomy, the so-called top-down approach, seems to be inversely related to the amount of empirical etiological data. This is illustrated by four rather prevalent genetic syndromes, fragile X syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome, 22q11 deletion syndrome, and Noonan syndrome, as well as by some cases with rare chromosomal abnormalities. From these examples, it becomes clear that psychotic symptoms as well as mood, anxiety, and autistic features can be found in a great variety of different genetic syndromes. A psychiatric phenotype exists, but comprises, apart from the chance to present several psychiatric symptoms, all elements from developmental, neurocognitive, and physical characteristics.Keywords: genetic disorders, psychiatric symptoms, phenotype, mental disorders

  6. [Psychiatric manifestations by prions. A narrative review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo Robles, Daniel; García Maldonado, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    Prion diseases are a group of rare and rapidly progressive neurodegenerative conditions that may cause neuropsychiatric symptoms. This group of diseases has been described since the 18(th) century, but they were recognized decades later, when it became clear that the humans were affected by infected animals. There was controversy when the problem was attributed to a single protein with infective capacity. The common pathological process is characterized by the conversion of the normal cellular prion protein into an abnormal form. In humans, the illness has been classified as idiopathic, inherited and acquired through exposure to exogenous material containing abnormal prions. The most prominent neurological manifestation of prion diseases is the emergence of a rapidly progressive dementia, mioclonus associated with cerebellar ataxia and also extra pyramidal symptoms. Psychiatric symptoms occur in early stages of the illness and can contribute to timely diagnosis of this syndrome. Psychiatric symptoms have traditionally been grouped in three categories: affective symptoms, impaired motor function and psychotic symptoms. Such events usually occur during the prodromal period prior to the neurological manifestations and consists in the presence of social isolation, onset of delusions, irritability/aggression, visual hallucinations, anxiety and depression, and less frequent first-rank symptoms among others. Definite diagnosis requires post mortem examination. The possibility that a large number of cases may occur in the next years or that many cases have not been considered with this diagnosis is a fact. In our opinion, psychiatrists should be aware of symptoms of this disease. The main objective of this research consisted of assessing the correlation between this disturbance and neuro-psychiatric symptoms and particularly if this psychiatric manifestations integrate a clinical picture suggestive for the diagnosis of these diseases, but firstly reviewed taxonomic

  7. Knowledge Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Kiran

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study covers the knowledge management (KM in institutions of higher technical education (IHTEs from the perspective of thought leaders and junior academia to identify whether there is a difference of opinion regarding KM strategies, including knowledge technologies, knowledge acquisition, knowledge storage, knowledge dissemination, and KM-based framework for research and curriculum development (CD. Data have been collected through structured questionnaire from 141 respondents covering 30 higher educational institutions in India, including national- and state-level institutions—Designations of the targeted respondents in the IHTEs have been categorized into (a senior academia, that is, professors, heads, and associate professors occupying senior management positions, considered to be the institute overseers and thought leaders of KM and (b junior academia consisting of assistant professors and lecturers who are using and also contributing to the KM system. ANOVA has been used to see whether there is a significant difference of opinion among the two groups of knowledge users. The results of the study highlight a significant difference among the two groups regarding knowledge technologies, knowledge acquisition, knowledge storage, and knowledge dissemination. But, there is a consensus regarding KM-based framework for research and CD.

  8. Pluto's atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airborne CCD photometer observations of Pluto's June 9, 1988 stellar occultation have yielded an occultation lightcurve, probing two regions on the sunrise limb 2000 km apart, which reveals an upper atmosphere overlying an extinction layer with an abrupt upper boundary. The extinction layer may surround the entire planet. Attention is given to a model atmosphere whose occultation lightcurve closely duplicates observations; fits of the model to the immersion and emersion lightcurves exhibit no significant derived atmosphere-structure differences. Assuming a pure methane atmosphere, surface pressures of the order of 3 microbars are consistent with the occultation data. 43 references

  9. Atmospheric electricity

    CERN Document Server

    Chalmers, J Alan

    1957-01-01

    Atmospheric Electricity brings together numerous studies on various aspects of atmospheric electricity. This book is composed of 13 chapters that cover the main problems in the field, including the maintenance of the negative charge on the earth and the origin of the charges in thunderstorms. After a brief overview of the historical developments of atmospheric electricity, this book goes on dealing with the general principles, results, methods, and the MKS system of the field. The succeeding chapters are devoted to some aspects of electricity in the atmosphere, such as the occurrence and d

  10. The psychiatrization of our children, or, an autoethnographic narrative of perpetuating First Nations genocide through ‘benevolent’ institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda A. LeFrancois

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available I enter the discussion on madness and psychiatrization through breathing the air and walking the halls of ‘benevolent’ institutions, such as child protection and psychiatry, institutions that produce "mental illness" through the psychiatrization of the people they are meant to support. This narrative provides an example of the ways in which child welfare organizations are both sanist and racist in their organizing principles and in their interpretations of the needs and desires of marginalized people. This narrative provides an example of my own shifting complicity within the relations of power in a particular ‘benevolent’ child protection agency, a narrative that uses autoethnographic knowledge and queers my lived experience in order to unwrap and make visible the normalizing connections between psychiatrization, colonialism, racialization, and adultism.

  11. Factors associated with psychiatric symptoms and psychiatric disorders in ethnic minority youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriaanse, Marcia; Doreleijers, Theo; van Domburgh, Lieke; Veling, Wim

    2016-10-01

    While ethnic diversity is increasing in many countries, ethnic minority youth is less likely to be reached, effectively treated and retained by youth mental health care compared to majority youth. Improving understanding of factors associated with mental health problems within socially disadvantaged ethnic minority youth is important to tailor current preventive and treatment interventions to the needs of these youth. The aim of this study was to explore factors at child, family, school, peer, neighbourhood and ethnic minority group level associated with mental health problems in Moroccan-Dutch youth (n = 152, mean age 13.6 ± 1.9 years). Self-reported and teacher-reported questionnaire data on psychiatric symptoms and self-report interview data on psychiatric disorders were used to divide children into three levels of mental health problems: no symptoms, only psychiatric symptoms and psychiatric disorders. Psychiatric symptoms and/or disorders were associated with more psychopathic traits, a higher number of experienced trauma and children in the family, and more conflicts with parents, affiliation with delinquent peers, perceived discrimination and cultural mistrust. Psychiatric symptoms and/or disorders were also associated with less self-esteem, parental monitoring, affiliation with religion and orientation to Dutch or Moroccan culture, and a weaker ethnic identity. For youth growing up in a disadvantaged ethnic minority position, the most important factors were found at family (parent-child relationship and parenting practices) and ethnic minority group level (marginalization, discrimination and cultural mistrust). Preventive and treatment interventions for socially disadvantaged ethnic minority youth should be aimed at dealing with social disadvantage and discrimination, improving the parent-child relationship and parenting practices, and developing a positive (cultural) identity. PMID:26895811

  12. The NAPPH (National Association of Private Psychiatric Hospitals) today--under new management. Interview by John Herrmann.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trachtenberg, R L

    1992-01-01

    When Robert L. Trachtenberg took over the executive directorship of the National Association of Private Psychiatric Hospitals some five months ago, he walked into a situation wherein several psychiatric specialty hospitals in Texas were under fire. "There were a lot of questions," Trachtenberg says, "and challenges to the credibility of psychiatric hospitals." He was referring to the Texas state investigation into abuses by personnel within psychiatric hospitals. Last year, the Texas Senate Interim Committee on Health and Human Services conducted an eight-month investigation into the conduct of the state's psychiatric hospitals after a newspaper article recounted the unconventional way in which a 14-year old boy was picked up and admitted to a psychiatric facility. After a number of public hearings, three private agencies overseeing Texas psychiatric hospitals adopted rules to prevent further problems in the areas of patient rights, fraudulent billing, patient recruitment and the admission and discharge process. The Senate Interim Committee, however, felt these rules needed to be codified into law and has drafted over 30 bills to be presented to the Texas legislature as omnibus legislation next January. Trachtenberg went to work to iron out methods to encourage better overseeing and state governance, as well as tackling the related issues of standards of care and managed care/utilization review. His background as Deputy Administrator of the Alcohol, Drug Abuse and Mental Health Administration within HHS provided him with a broad spectrum of knowledge about the field of psychiatry and its problems, and his vast experience in federal government--over 32 years of running domestic programs--enable him to have a keen sense of what can get done, and how. Health Systems REVIEW recently discussed the role of the NAPPH under its new leader, Bob Trachtenberg. What follows is an edited version of that conversation. PMID:10122848

  13. Governing Knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolai J Foss; Dana B Minbaeva

    2009-01-01

    SHRM increasingly emphasizes HRM practices as means to build strategic knowledge resources such as superior capabilities. While the knowledge-based view increasingly pays attention to micro-foundations, the SHRM field neglects these and emphasizes collective constructs such as “human capital pools,” “HRM architectures”, etc. As a result, causal links between HRM practices, knowledge and organizational performance are black-boxed. We propose a program for research and identify s...

  14. Semantic Web Ontology and Data Integration: a Case Study in Aiding Psychiatric Drug Repurposing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chen; Sun, Jingchun; Tao, Cui

    2016-01-01

    Despite ongoing progress towards treating mental illness, there remain significant difficulties in selecting probable candidate drugs from the existing database. We describe an ontology - oriented approach aims to represent the nexus between genes, drugs, phenotypes, symptoms, and diseases from multiple information sources. Along with this approach, we report a case study in which we attempted to explore the candidate drugs that effective for both bipolar disorder and epilepsy. We constructed an ontology that incorporates the knowledge between the two diseases and performed semantic reasoning task on the ontology. The reasoning results suggested 48 candidate drugs that hold promise for a further breakthrough. The evaluation was performed and demonstrated the validity of the proposed ontology. The overarching goal of this research is to build a framework of ontology - based data integration underpinning psychiatric drug repurposing. This approach prioritizes the candidate drugs that have potential associations among genes, phenotypes and symptoms, and thus facilitates the data integration and drug repurposing in psychiatric disorders. PMID:27570661

  15. An orthomolecular approach to the prevention and treatment of psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zell, Mark; Grundmann, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    Orthomolecular medicine is based on the use of endogenous and naturally occurring substances to supplement deficiencies in vitamins, minerals, and other essential substances in the human body. Although the medical community has long regarded it as a nonscientific approach to healing, scientific and clinical evidence is emerging for the supplemental use of orthomolecular medicine in the treatment of schizophrenia, depression, bipolar disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Psychiatrists currently treat these common psychiatric disorders using a wide range of pharmacological approaches that often have significant side effects, resulting in patients' noncompliance. With newly gained knowledge about the neurophysiology and neuropathophysiology of psychiatric disorders, researchers now can link potential mechanisms for both pharmacological and orthomolecular treatments to physiological processes. In many cases, the use of orthomolecular supplements may provide a feasible addition to conventional drug therapy. PMID:23341413

  16. Semantic Web Ontology and Data Integration: a Case Study in Aiding Psychiatric Drug Repurposing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chen; Sun, Jingchun; Tao, Cui

    2016-01-01

    Despite ongoing progress towards treating mental illness, there remain significant difficulties in selecting probable candidate drugs from the existing database. We describe an ontology - oriented approach aims to represent the nexus between genes, drugs, phenotypes, symptoms, and diseases from multiple information sources. Along with this approach, we report a case study in which we attempted to explore the candidate drugs that effective for both bipolar disorder and epilepsy. We constructed an ontology that incorporates the knowledge between the two diseases and performed semantic reasoning task on the ontology. The reasoning results suggested 48 candidate drugs that hold promise for a further breakthrough. The evaluation was performed and demonstrated the validity of the proposed ontology. The overarching goal of this research is to build a framework of ontology - based data integration underpinning psychiatric drug repurposing. This approach prioritizes the candidate drugs that have potential associations among genes, phenotypes and symptoms, and thus facilitates the data integration and drug repurposing in psychiatric disorders.

  17. KNOWLEDGE CYCLE AND STRATEGIC KNOWLEDGE WITHIN COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu NICOLESCU

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the knowledge-based economy, a company performs a set of activities focused on knowledge: identifying necessary knowledge, buying knowledge, learning, acquiring knowledge, creating knowledge, storing knowledge, sharing knowledge, using knowledge, protection of knowledge, capitalizing knowledge. As a result, a new function emerge: the knowledge function. In the knowledge-based companies, not every knowledge has the same impact. The analysis of the actual situations in the most developed and highly performing companies - based in knowledge, outlines the occurrence of a new category of knowledge – strategic knowledge. Generating this category of knowledge is a new category of challenge for the scientific system.

  18. Knowledge Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Kerr, Aphra; O'Riain, Sean

    2009-01-01

    We examine a number of key questions regarding this knowledge economy. First, we look at the origin of the concept as well as early attempts to define and map the knowledge economy empirically. Second, we examine a variety of perspectives on the socio-spatial organisation of the knowledge economy and approaches which link techno-economic change and social-spatial organisation. Building on a critique of these perspectives, we then go on to develop a view of a knowledge economy that is conteste...

  19. Peripheral oxytocin and vasopressin: Biomarkers of psychiatric disorders? A comprehensive systematic review and preliminary meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutigliano, Grazia; Rocchetti, Matteo; Paloyelis, Yannis; Gilleen, James; Sardella, Alberto; Cappucciati, Marco; Palombini, Erika; Dell'Osso, Liliana; Caverzasi, Edgardo; Politi, Pierluigi; McGuire, Philip; Fusar-Poli, Paolo

    2016-07-30

    A large array of studies have investigated peripheral oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (ADH) as potential biomarkers of psychiatric disorders, with highly conflicting and heterogenous findings. We searched Web of KnowledgeSM and Scopus® for English original articles investigating OT and/or ADH levels in different biological fluids (plasma/serum, saliva, urine and cerebrospinal fluid) across several psychiatric disorders. Sixty-four studies were included. We conducted 19 preliminary meta-analyses addressing OT alterations in plasma/serum, saliva, urine and cerebrospinal fluid of 7 psychiatric disorders and ADH alterations in plasma/serum, saliva, urine and cerebrospinal fluid of 6 psychiatric disorders compared to controls. Hedge's g was used as effect size measure, together with heterogeneity analyses, test of publication biases and quality control. None of them (except serum OT in anorexia nervosa) revealed significant differences. There is no convincing evidence that peripheral ADH or OT might be reliable biomarkers in psychiatric disorders. However, the lack of significant results was associated with high methodological heterogeneity, low quality of the studies, small sample size, and scarce reliability of the methods used in previous studies, which need to be validated and standardized. PMID:27183106

  20. CLINICAL PROFILE OF PATIENTS ATTENDING A PRISON PSYCHIATRIC CLINIC

    OpenAIRE

    R K Chadda; Amarjeet,

    1998-01-01

    Psychiatric morbidity is higher in prison inmates as compared to that in general population but treatment facilities are often inadequate. The present work reports the profile of psychiatric patients seen in a jail hospital over a period of three months. The jail had about 9000 inmates. Psychiatric services consisted of weekly visit by a psychiatrist. Seventy two male inmates were seen during the period of study. Most of them (80%) were undertrials. Diagnosis included schizophrenia, depressio...

  1. Sexual Violence: Psychiatric Healing With Eye Movement Reprocessing and Desensitization

    OpenAIRE

    Posmontier, Bobbie; Dovydaitis, Tiffany; LIPMAN, KENNETH

    2010-01-01

    Sexual violence, which affects one in three women worldwide, can result in significant psychiatric morbidity and suicide. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) offers health care providers the option of a brief psychiatric intervention that can result in psychiatric healing in as few as four sessions. Because health care providers often hear stories of sexual violence from their patients, they are in an ideal position to make recommendations for treatment. The purpose of this a...

  2. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in Psychiatric Nursing in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Naoki Yoshinaga; Akiko Nosaki; Yuta Hayashi; Hiroki Tanoue; Eiji Shimizu; Hiroko Kunikata; Yoshie Okada; Yuko Shiraishi

    2015-01-01

    Psychiatric nurses have played a significant role in disseminating cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in Western countries; however, in Japan, the application, practice, efficiency, and quality control of CBT in the psychiatric nursing field are unclear. This study conducted a literature review to assess the current status of CBT practice and research in psychiatric nursing in Japan. Three English databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO) and two Japanese databases (Ichushi-Web and CiNii) wer...

  3. Drug abuse, psychiatric disorders, and AIDS. Dual and triple diagnosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Batki, S L

    1990-01-01

    Substance abuse and psychiatric disorders commonly occur together. This form of dual diagnosis is notable because it complicates assessment and makes treatment more difficult for both psychiatric and drug abuse problems. Drugs can cause psychiatric disorders and can also be used as an attempt to "cure" them by self-medication. The spread of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among drug users has added a third potential clinical problem, that of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, to t...

  4. Psychiatric morbidity in asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus patients

    OpenAIRE

    Chauhan, V S; Suprakash Chaudhury; Sudarsanan, S.; Kalpana Srivastava

    2013-01-01

    Background: Psychiatric morbidity in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients is being studied all over the world. There is paucity of Indian literature particularly in asymptomatic HIV individuals. Aim: The aim of the following study is to establish the prevalence and the determinants of psychiatric morbidity in asymptomatic HIV patients. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was undertaken to assess psychiatric morbidity as per ICD-10 dacryocystorhinostomy criteria in 100 consec...

  5. Phenomenology of atmospheric neutrinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedynitch Anatoli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The detection of astrophysical neutrinos, certainly a break-through result, introduced new experimental challenges and fundamental questions about acceleration mechanisms of cosmic rays. On one hand IceCube succeeded in finding an unambiguous proof for the existence of a diffuse astrophysical neutrino flux, on the other hand the precise determination of its spectral index and normalization requires a better knowledge about the atmospheric background at hundreds of TeV and PeV energies. Atmospheric neutrinos in this energy range originate mostly from decays of heavy-flavor mesons, which production in the phase space relevant for prompt leptons is uncertain. Current accelerator-based experiments are limited by detector acceptance and not so much by the collision energy. This paper recaps phenomenological aspects of atmospheric leptons and calculation methods, linking recent progress in flux predictions with particle physics at colliders, in particular the Large Hadron Collider.

  6. Psychiatric Consultation and Substance Use Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specker, Sheila; Meller, William H.; Thurber, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Background A substantial number of patients in general hospitals will evince substance abuse problems but a majority is unlikely to be adequately identified in the referral-consultation process. This failure may preclude patients from receiving effective interventions for substance use disorders. Objectives 1. To evaluate all referred patients for possible substance use disorders. 2. To ascertain the degree of convergence between patients referred for chemical problems and the corresponding DSM diagnosis. 3. To compare demographic data for substance abusing patients and referrals not so classified. 4. To evaluate conditions concomitant with substance use disorders. Method Consecutive one-year referrals (524) to consultation-liaison psychiatric services were scrutinized for chemically-related problems by psychiatric consultants. Results Of the referrals, 176 met criteria for substance use disorders (SUD) (57% alcohol; 25% other drugs; 18% both alcohol and other drugs). Persons diagnosed with SUD tended to be younger, male, non-Caucasian, unmarried, and unemployed. They were more likely to be depressed, have liver and other gastrointestinal problems, and to have experienced traumatic events; they also tended to have current financial difficulties. Most were referred for SUD evaluation by personnel in general medicine and family practice. Following psychiatric consultation, SUD designated patients were referred mainly to substance abuse treatment programs. The only variable related to recommended inpatient versus outpatient services for individuals with SUD was the Global Assessment of Functioning Axis (GAF) with persons having lower estimated functioning more likely to be referred for inpatient interventions. Conclusions These data are similar to the results of past studies in this area. Unlike previous investigations in the domain of consultative-liaison psychiatry, financial stressors and specific consultant recommendations were included in data gathering. Although

  7. Psychiatric Consultation and Substance Use Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Specker

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: A substantial number of patients in general hospitals will evince substance abuse problems but a majority is unlikely to be adequately identified in the referral-consultation process. This failure may preclude patients from receiving effective interventions for substance use disorders. Objectives: 1. To evaluate all referred patients for possible substance use disorders. 2. To ascertain the degree of convergence between patients referred for chemical problems and the corresponding DSM diagnosis. 3. To compare demographic data for substance abusing patients and referrals not so classified. 4. To evaluate conditions concomitant with substance use disorders. Method: Consecutive one-year referrals (524 to consultation-liaison psychiatric services were scrutinized for chemically-related problems by psychiatric consultants. Results: Of the referrals, 176 met criteria for substance use disorders (SUD (57% alcohol; 25% other drugs; 18% both alcohol and other drugs. Persons diagnosed with SUD tended to be younger, male, non-Caucasian, unmarried, and unemployed. They were more likely to be depressed, have liver and other gastrointestinal problems, and to have experienced traumatic events; they also tended to have current financial difficulties. Most were referred for SUD evaluation by personnel in general medicine and family practice. Following psychiatric consultation, SUD designated patients were referred mainly to substance abuse treatment programs. The only variable related to recommended inpatient versus outpatient services for individuals with SUD was the Global Assessment of Functioning Axis (GAF with persons having lower estimated functioning more likely to be referred for inpatient interventions. Conclusions: These data are similar to the results of past studies in this area. Unlike previous investigations in the domain of consultative-liaison psychiatry, financial stressors and specific consultant recommendations were included in

  8. Skin and brain: itch and psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caccavale, Stefano; Bove, Domenico; Bove, Rocco M; LA Montagna, Maddalena

    2016-10-01

    Skin diseases (atopic eczema, psoriasis, idiopathic urticaria), systemic diseases (chronic hepatic or renal failure, morbus Hodgkin, diabetes mellitus) and psychiatric disorders (obsessive compulsive disorders, depression, delusions of parasitosis) can occur with itching. The aim of this review is to clarify the link between pruritus and psychiatric morbidity and emphasize the importance of a psychiatric consultation for patients with a chronic itching, without a skin disease. In the last years, there is a growing awareness regarding psychogenic itch, although these types of itch are significantly less studied in comparison to other types of pruritus. Psychogenic pruritus is usually a diagnosis of exclusion. There are not controlled studies about treatment of psychogenic itch, but the same drugs prescribed for neuropathic pain, depression, and anxiety are used. There is a strong association between pruritus and psyche; so, it is important that the dermatologist evaluates psychosomatic dimension. According to the analysis of scientific literature and our clinical experience, pruritus seems to be a rather common phenomenon in patients suffering from depression. Future works should explain the basis of psychopathology of chronic itching thanks to studies of selected groups of patients with a particular type of chronic itching, highlighting the clinical features to establish appropriate and individual targeted care, based on the several types of pruritus. Some questions still unanswered could be clarified in this way. It is really important to decrease the symptoms "itching", because the quality of life of the patient will be improved, but the goal is to identify the underlying mechanisms of itch and establish a targeted therapy, depending on the biological changes and the underlying disease. PMID:25854671

  9. Knowledge Gaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyles, Marjorie; Pedersen, Torben; Petersen, Bent

    2003-01-01

    , assimilating, and utilizing knowledge - are crucial determinants ofknowledge gap elimination. In contrast, the two factors deemed essential in traditionalinternationalization process theory - elapsed time of operations and experientiallearning - are found to have no or limited effect.Key words......: Internationalization, knowledge gap, absorptive capacity, learning box....

  10. [Psychiatric care in South Tyrol -- an example of coordination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pycha, Roger; Conca, Andreas

    2006-02-01

    The Tyrol's division after the two World Wars cut the South Tyrol off from every relevant aspect of psychiatric care. First attempts towards a community psychiatric system weren't sufficiently sustained by politicians. Only in the 90 ty's was the association of relatives of mentally ill people able to sensitize public and politicians to the need for an adequate psychiatric care system. Since 1996 an excellent psychiatric plan has been in existence, 80 % of which has to date been able to be put into practice. Since 1997 mentally ill people have founded their own self-help-organization and influenced the planning process.

  11. 42 CFR 412.27 - Excluded psychiatric units: Additional requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of assessment/diagnostic data. Medical records must stress the psychiatric components of the record... directed toward restoring and maintaining optimal levels of physical and psychosocial functioning. (ii)...

  12. Mental health/psychiatric issues in elder abuse and neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Claudia; Livingston, Gill

    2014-11-01

    Elder abuse may be defined as a violation of a vulnerable older person's human and civil rights. Psychiatric illness is an important cause of vulnerability to abuse, especially when it is comorbid with other risk factors, such as physical frailty, sensory impairment, social isolation, and physical dependency. Health care providers are likely to encounter elder abuse regularly, and therefore have an important role in its detection and management, and in the treatment of subsequent psychiatric illness. This article reviews the relationships between psychiatric illnesses and elder abuse and neglect, examines the psychiatric consequences, and discusses how these may be treated. PMID:25439645

  13. Correlates of hopelessness in psychiatrically hospitalized children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashani, J H; Soltys, S M; Dandoy, A C; Vaidya, A F; Reid, J C

    1991-01-01

    The importance of hopelessness within the study of childhood psychiatric disorders is becoming increasingly apparent. The present study divides a child inpatient sample (age 7 to 12 years) into two groups based on scores from the Kazdin Hopelessness Scale for Children. Comparisons made between the two groups on various measures showed that children with high hopelessness had lower cognitive ability, "difficult child" temperament characteristics, more anxiety, lower self-esteem, and a higher degree of psychopathology than the low-hopelessness group. The role of hopelessness in academic success and future psychopathology are discussed.

  14. Hair loss related to primary psychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Çığıl Fettahoğlu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Scalp hair has greater social and psychological importance than its' biological significance. In the hair disorder consultation services there are lots of patients who are often considered as "difficult" or "problematic", because of their biopsychosocial problems. When it’s considered that the hair loss patients refer to the dermatology clinics in the first step, we can understand the importance of the awareness of the clinicians about the causal and/or consequential relationship between hair diseases and the psychological problems. In this paper, hair loss diseases that are related to primary psychiatric disorders are reviewed.

  15. The Quality of Prescribing for Psychiatric Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soerensen, A L; Nielsen, L P; Poulsen, B K;

    2014-01-01

    The Quality of Prescribing for Psychiatric PatientsSoerensen AL1,2, Nielsen LP3,4, Poulsen BK3, Lisby M3,5, Mainz J6,7 1Danish Center for Healthcare Improvements, Faculty of Social Sciences and Faculty of Health Sciences, Aalborg University, Denmark; 2University College of Northern Denmark; 3......-drug interactions involved propranolol, erythromycin, simvastatin and promethazine. After adjusting for age, gender, alcohol/substance abuse, number of prescriptions, number of somatic diagnoses and level of kidney function, only polypharmacy (>5 prescriptions) increased the odds for a PIP significantly; OR=4...

  16. Psychiatric adverse effects of pediatric corticosteroid use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozdowicz, Linda B; Bostwick, J Michael

    2014-06-01

    Corticosteroids, highly effective drugs for myriad disease states, have considerable neuropsychiatric adverse effects that can manifest in cognitive disorders, behavioral changes, and frank psychiatric disease. Recent reviews have summarized these effects in adults, but a comprehensive review on corticosteroid effects in children has not been published since 2005. Here, we systematically review articles published since then that, we find, naturally divide into 3 main areas: (1) chronic effects of acute prenatal and neonatal exposure associated with prematurity and congenital conditions; (2) immediate behavioral effects of acute exposure via oncological protocols; and (3) acute behavioral effects of sporadic use in children and adolescents with other conditions. PsycInfo, MEDLINE, Embase, and Scopus were queried to identify articles reporting psychiatric adverse effects of corticosteroids in pediatric patients. Search terms included corticosteroids, adrenal cortex hormones, steroid psychosis, substance-induced psychoses, glucocorticoids, dexamethasone, hydrocortisone, prednisone, adverse effects, mood disorders, mental disorders, psychosis, psychotic, psychoses, side effect, chemically induced, emotions, affective symptoms, toxicity, behavior, behavioral symptoms, infant, child, adolescent, pediatric, paediatric, neonatal, children, teen, and teenager. Following guidelines for systematic reviews from the Potsdam Consultation on Meta-Analysis, we have found it difficult to draw specific conclusions that are more than general impressions owing to the quality of the available studies. We find a mixed picture with neonates exposed to dexamethasone, with some articles reporting eventual deficits in neuropsychiatric functioning and others reporting no effect. In pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, corticosteroid use appears to correlate with negative psychiatric and behavioral effects. In children treated with corticosteroids for noncancer conditions

  17. [Sexual dysfunction among patients with psychiatric disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldati, Lorenzo

    2016-03-16

    Scientific literature shows that sexual dysfunction is more common in patients suffering from psychiatric illness as opposed to the general population. It also shows that the prevalence of sexual dysfunction is underestimated by professionals, partly because patients rarely talk spontaneously about their dysfunctions. However, sexual dysfunction has an impact on patients' mental health. Furthermore, some psychotropic medication, antidepressants and antipsychotics in particular, can hinder sexual functioning and induce sexual dysfunction. These harmful effects can, in turn, reduce patients' compliance with their medical treatments. It is therefore important that practitioners take into account their patients' sexual experience. PMID:27149715

  18. [Psychiatric symptoms can reveal Turner syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thusgaard, Helle; Arnfred, Sidse Marie H

    2013-02-01

    Turner syndrome is usually diagnosed by physical characteristics, i.e. low height and infertility. This case report presents a woman, who was referred to a chromosome analysis at the age of 35 years, due to a specific pattern of psychiatric symptoms. She felt childish, had strong emotional bonds to her family, yet lacked friendships and intimate relationships. She had moderate symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder with a sexual content. Confronted with this constellation of symptoms, psychiatrists and psychologists should be aware of Turner syndrome.

  19. Suicide among immigrant psychiatric patients in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasena, R; Beddage, V; Fernando, M L

    1991-11-01

    Ninety-four Canadian-born psychiatric patients who committed suicide were compared with 23 foreign-born patients committing suicide in Canada. East Europeans were over-represented, and significant differences were found in the age distribution, stress, level of education, social isolation, and methods of suicide. Most foreign-born patients had come to Canada for family or economic reasons but were unemployed, with poor social integration. Employment, housing, education, social integration and a support network seem to be important in preventing these deaths. Cultural evaluation of the patient and early intervention is recommended. PMID:1756350

  20. Knowledge brokering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine how the spanning of inter-organizational weak ties and technological boundaries influences knowledge brokering. Design/methodology/approach – The paper is based on original fieldwork and employs a case study research design, investigating a Danish...... HTSF’s inter-organizational activities. Findings – The findings show how an inter-organizational search that crosses technological boundaries and is based on a network structure of weak ties can imply a reduced risk of unwanted knowledge spill-over. Research limitations/implications – By not engaging...... in strong tie collaborations a knowledge brokering organization can reduce the risk of unwanted knowledge spill-over. The risks and opportunities of knowledge spill-over furthermore rely on the nature of the technology involved and to what extent technological boundaries are crossed. Practical implications...

  1. Knowledge transfer - Acquiring implicit knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many organisations have recognised the problem of experts taking home a huge amount of specific knowledge, which they have gathered in their department, when they leave. The successor is capable only of acquiring explicit expertise because implicit experiences are not documented and therefore no more available. That is why we have started this pilot study in order to try to conserve the above mentioned tacit and implicit knowledge and to make it available to other colleagues. Using a semi-standardised interview we elicit tacit knowledge from the expert and summarise it in a report. This interview-guideline forms the basis of in-depth investigation for implicit knowledge. (author)

  2. Low self-esteem and psychiatric patients: Part I – The relationship between low self-esteem and psychiatric diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Silverstone, Peter H.; Salsali, Mahnaz

    2003-01-01

    Background The objective of the current study was to determine the prevalence and the degree of lowered self-esteem across the spectrum of psychiatric disorders. Method The present study was carried out on a consecutive sample of 1,190 individuals attending an open-access psychiatric outpatient clinic. There were 957 psychiatric patients, 182 cases with conditions not attributable to a mental disorder, and 51 control subjects. Patients were diagnosed according to DSM III-R diagnostic criteria...

  3. Effects of a Dedicated Regional Psychiatric Emergency Service on Boarding of Psychiatric Patients in Area Emergency Departments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Zeller

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Mental health patients boarding for long hours, even days, in United States emergency departments (EDs awaiting transfer for psychiatric services has become a considerable and widespread problem. Past studies have shown average boarding times ranging from 6.8 hours to 34 hours. Most proposed solutions to this issue have focused solely on increasing available inpatient psychiatric hospital beds, rather than considering alternative emergency care designs that could provide prompt access to treatment and might reduce the need for many hospitalizations. One suggested option has been the “regional dedicated emergency psychiatric facility,” which serves to evaluate and treat all mental health patients for a given area, and can accept direct transfers from other EDs. This study sought to assess the effects of a regional dedicated emergency psychiatric facility design known at the “Alameda Model” on boarding times and hospitalization rates for psychiatric patients in area EDs. Methods: Over a 30-day period beginning in January 2013, 5 community hospitals in Alameda County, California, tracked all ED patients on involuntary mental health holds to determine boarding time, defined as the difference between when they were deemed stable for psychiatric disposition and the time they were discharged from the ED for transfer to the regional psychiatric emergency service. Patients were also followed to determine the percentage admitted to inpatient psychiatric units after evaluation and treatment in the psychiatric emergency service.Results: In a total sample of 144 patients, the average boarding time was approximately 1 hour and 48 minutes. Only 24.8% were admitted for inpatient psychiatric hospitalization from the psychiatric emergency service. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that the Alameda Model of transferring patients from general hospital EDs to a regional psychiatric emergency service reduced the length of boarding

  4. Atmospheric amines - Part I. A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Xinlei; Wexler, Anthony S.; Clegg, Simon L.

    2011-01-01

    Amines are emitted by a wide range of sources and are ubiquitous atmospheric organic bases. Approximately 150 amines and about 30 amino acids have been identified in the atmosphere. We review the present knowledge of atmospherically relevant amines with respect to their sources, fluxes, and dynamics including gas-phase reactions, gas-to-particle conversion and deposition. The health effects of aliphatic and aromatic amines are briefly summarized as well as the atmospheric occurrence and reactivity of amino acids and urea.

  5. Psychiatric care in the Brazilian context O cuidado psiquiátrico no contexto brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Barbosa de Pinho

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This study seeks to present an updated discussion concerning psychiatric care in Brazil. It is based upon a historical review of psychiatric knowledge and practices within the Brazilian context and knowledge about the phenomenon of madness. It discusses the appearance of modern medical science as an area of knowledge designed for the treatment and comprehension of mental suffering. It also presents a discussion on psychiatric reform, stressing how it is a movement that seeks to redefine the significance of knowledge and practices about the phenomenon of madness, by concentrating on the application of such knowledge and practices in the psychiatric hospital. This paper concludes with a brief critical reflection on prevailing mental healthcare in Brazil, singling out the potential and the difficulties faced within the scope of health policies and the day-to-day working life of professionals of the area.O presente estudo pretende fazer uma discussão atualizada acerca da assistência psiquiátrica no Brasil, tendo como base um resgate histórico dos saberes e práticas psiquiátricas no contexto brasileiro e a apropriação do fenômeno da loucura. Discute o surgimento da ciência médica moderna e da psiquiatria como área do conhecimento designada ao tratamento e à compreensão do sofrimento mental. Também apresenta discussões acerca da reforma psiquiátrica, ressaltandoa como um movimento que vem ao encontro da ressignificação de saberes e práticas de intervenção referentes ao fenômeno da loucura, a partir da concentração desses saberes e práticas no hospital psiquiátrico. No final, realiza uma breve reflexão crítica sobre a assistência em saúde mental no país na atualidade, constatando potencialidades e dificuldades enfrentadas no âmbito das políticas de saúde e do cotidiano do processo de trabalho dos profissionais da área.

  6. [The psychiatric aspects of animal assisted therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bánszky, Noémi; Kardos, Edina; Rózsa, Linda; Gerevich, József

    2012-01-01

    Animal assisted therapy is a known preventive and interventive method which is held by the contribution of specially trained animals and professionals. One of its main indication fields is psychiatry. The purpose of this summary is to give an overview on the animal assisted therapy's background, possible uses and effectiveness with literature. It looks for the answer if this therapeutic method can be used for effectively easing the symptoms of specific psychiatric diseases and on which fields can it be used most effectively. Due to the data provided by literature it can be determined that the therapy supported by animals is able to give an effective help on the fields of various psychiatric supports, preventions, interventions and rehabilitations regardless of the age. It is mostly used in the case of depression, anxiety, addiction, schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder. Aside from these it could also be used effectively in the rehabilitation of victims of sexual abuse especially in the case of children. It can also play a role in the re-socialization of inadapted adolescences and adults, even with farmtherapy. Due to experiences the therapies supported by animals are effective on the following fields: improving social and communication skills, easing anxiety, improving mood, helping independent living, improving emphatic skills. PMID:22781543

  7. Pathways to psychiatric care in Cantabria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Barquero, J L; Herrera Castanedo, S; Artal, J A; Cuesta Nuñez, J; Gaite, L; Goldberg, D; Sartorius, N

    1993-10-01

    This article delineates the pathways taken in different health areas of Cantabria (Spain) by a series of newly referred patients to the mental health services and explores the influence of sociodemographic, medical and service-related factors on the delays in referral. The work forms part of an ongoing World Health Organization multicentre research programme aimed at exploring and optimizing the quality of mental health care in different centres of the world. We found that, in a rural health area, the majority of newly referred patients establish the first contact with the general practitioner and to a lesser extent with the hospital doctor and from there directly progress to the psychiatric services; in the urban health area there is a greater tendency to contact specialized medical and psychiatric services. Delays in these health areas are remarkably short and are comparable to the ones in other European centres. Our data also show that somatic symptoms are the main presenting problem both at the primary care and at the mental health level; and that, in general, psychotropic drug prescriptions are high both in hospital and in general medical settings, and that women were more often prescribed psychotropic medication than men. PMID:8256636

  8. Biofeedback for psychiatric disorders: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenberg, Poppy L A; David, Anthony S

    2014-06-01

    Biofeedback potentially provides non-invasive, effective psychophysiological interventions for psychiatric disorders. The encompassing purpose of this review was to establish how biofeedback interventions have been used to treat select psychiatric disorders [anxiety, autistic spectrum disorders, depression, dissociation, eating disorders, schizophrenia and psychoses] to date and provide a useful reference for consultation by clinicians and researchers planning to administer a biofeedback treatment. A systematic search of EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and WOK databases and hand searches in Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, and Journal of Neurotherapy, identified 227 articles; 63 of which are included within this review. Electroencephalographic neurofeedback constituted the most investigated modality (31.7%). Anxiety disorders were the most commonly treated (68.3%). Multi-modal biofeedback appeared most effective in significantly ameliorating symptoms, suggesting that targeting more than one physiological modality for bio-regulation increases therapeutic efficacy. Overall, 80.9% of articles reported some level of clinical amelioration related to biofeedback exposure, 65.0% to a statistically significant (p biofeedback interventions within mainstream psychiatry. PMID:24806535

  9. Pregnant crack addicts in a psychiatric unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela de Moraes Costa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In this study we aim to characterize a sample of 85 pregnant crack addicts admitted for detoxification in a psychiatric inpatient unit. METHOD: Cross-sectional study. Sociodemographic, clinical, obstetric and lifestyle information were evaluated. RESULTS: Age of onset for crack use varied from 11 to 35 years (median = 21. Approximately 25% of the patients smoked more than 20 crack rocks in a typical day of use (median = 10; min-max = 1-100. Tobacco (89.4%, alcohol (63.5% and marijuana (51.8% were the drugs other than crack most currently used. Robbery was reported by 32 patients (41.2%, imprisonment experience by 21 (24.7%, trade of sex for money/drugs by 38 (44.7%, home desertion by 33 (38.8%; 15.3% were positive for HIV, 5.9% for HCV, 1.2% for HBV and 8.2% for syphilis. After discharge from the psychiatric unit, only 25% of the sample followed the proposed treatment in the chemical dependency outpatient service. CONCLUSION: Greater risky behaviors for STD, as well as high rates of maternal HIV and Syphilis were found. Moreover, the high rates of concurrent use of other drugs and involvement in illegal activities contribute to show their chaotic lifestyles. Prevention and intervention programs need to be developed to address the multifactorial nature of this problem.

  10. The medication process in a psychiatric hospital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ann Lykkegaard; Lisby, Marianne; Nielsen, Lars Peter;

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the frequency, type, and potential severity of errors in several stages of the medication process in an inpatient psychiatric setting. Methods: A cross-sectional study using three methods for detecting errors: (1) direct observation; (2) unannounced control visits in the w......Purpose: To investigate the frequency, type, and potential severity of errors in several stages of the medication process in an inpatient psychiatric setting. Methods: A cross-sectional study using three methods for detecting errors: (1) direct observation; (2) unannounced control visits....... The observational unit: The individual handling of medication (prescribing, dispensing, and administering). Results: In total, 189 errors were detected in 1,082 opportunities for error (17%) of which 84/998 (8%) were assessed as potentially harmful. The frequency of errors was: prescribing, 10/189 (5%); dispensing......, 18/189 (10%); administration, 142/189 (75%); and discharge summaries, 19/189 (10%). The most common errors were omission of pro re nata dosing regime in computerized physician order entry, omission of dose, lack of identity control, and omission of drug. Conclusion: Errors throughout the medication...

  11. Ethics and evidence in psychiatric practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Mona

    2009-01-01

    Many psychiatrists have endorsed the idea of evidence-based psychiatry, the application of the principles of evidence-based medicine (EBM) to psychiatric practice. Proponents of an evidence-based approach to psychiatry hope that if practice is driven by "hard" scientific data, there will be greater potential to help patients. In other words, advocates of evidence-based psychiatry aim to bolster psychiatry's ethical standing through scientific evidence. Can EBM provide this ethical substantiation to psychiatry? This article provides an overview of some of the main ethical issues within psychiatry and examines three interrelated questions: (1) to which ethical values is EBM committed? (2) which ethical theory is reflected in these values? and (3) can these values and theories resolve existing ethical issues in psychiatry? EBM strives for the "greatest good for the greatest number," where good is defined as improved health. This utilitarian orientation cannot, however, address critical areas of moral importance for psychiatry, such as how its practitioners differentiate normal from abnormal, how they determine which forms of suffering should be alleviated through psychiatric means, and when involuntary intervention is ethically justified. The ethical principles implicit in EBM are too limited to serve as an ethical basis for psychiatry. PMID:19395825

  12. Psychiatric Symptoms in Patients with Alopecia Areata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burak

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Alopecia areata is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by sudden hair loss. Existing evidence suggests that alopecia areata may be associated with personality traits altering the susceptibility to stress and psychiatric conditions associated with stress. The aim of this study was to compare the intensity of depressive and anxiety symptoms and the level of alexithymia in patients with alopecia areata and healthy control subjects.Materials and methods: Fifty patients with the diagnosis of alopecia areata and 30 healthy volunteers were compared in terms of scores of Beck depression inventory, Beck anxiety inventory, and Toronto alexithymia scale.Results: There were no statistically significant differences between alopecia areata cases and healthy controls regarding intensity of anxiety and level of alexythimia (p=0.053 and p=0.120, respectively. The intensity of depressive symptoms exhibited by alopecia areata patients was found to be significantly higher than that in healthy controls (p=0.010 and there was no statistically significant relationship between intensity of depressive symptoms and duration of the current alopecia areata episode (p=0.873.Conclusion: It is suggested that psychiatric evaluation should also be performed in all alopecia areata cases during the clinical follow-up period. (Turk­derm 2011; 45: 203-5

  13. Bullying, psychiatric pathology and suicidal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobry, Yuriy; Braquehais, María Dolores; Sher, Leo

    2013-01-01

    Bullying is a highly prevalent behavior which carries a significant social, medical and financial cost for its victims and perpetrators, with powerful and long-lasting psychological and social impact. Bullying has been defined as a specific form of intentional, repeated aggression, that involves a disparity of power between the victim(s) and perpetrator(s). The aggression can take physical, verbal or gestural forms. The behavior of bullying crosses sociodemographic categories of age, gender, ethnicity, level of academic achievement and professional environment. It has been abundantly observed by teachers and parents in elementary schools, but has also shown its negative presence in corporate boardrooms. The direct outcome of bullying, for both victims and perpetrators, is an increased risk of psychiatric disorders including depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety disorders, substance abuse and suicidal behavior. Cruelty (and bullying, as one of its manifestations) breaks the basis of morality. Mental health professionals usually treat the victims of those actions unfortunately long after they have been exposed to the harm. The evidence does not support the idea that the majority of cruel actions are intrinsically "pathological", in the sense of being motivated by "mental disorders". Therefore, only moral rules and legal actions - but not psychiatric or psychological interventions - may dissuade humans from this form of cruelty. PMID:24006324

  14. Hostility and violence of acute psychiatric inpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azzoni Antonella

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The aim of the present study was to find out the extent of hostility and violence and the factors that are associated with such hostility and violence in a psychiatric intensive care unit. Methods Retrospective analysis of data prospectively collected in a 6-year period. Results No hostility was observed in 56.1%, hostility in 40.9%, and violence in 3.0% of the admitted cases. Seclusion was never used. Six cases (2,5‰ required physical restraint. Risk factors associated with violence were younger age, suicidal risk, and diagnosis of schizophrenia. Risk factors associated with hostile and violent behavior were younger age at the onset of the disorder, being single, having no children, lower GAF scores, higher BPRS hostility, SAPS, and CGI scores, lower BPRS anxiety-depression score, higher doses of psychoactive drugs, more frequent use of neuroleptics, diagnosis of mania, personality disorder, substance and alcohol related disorders, no diagnosis of depression. Conclusion The study confirms the low rate of violence among Italian psychiatric in-patients, the major relevance of clinical rather than socio-demographic factors in respect of aggressive behavior, the possibility of a no seclusion-no physical restraint policy, not associated either with higher rates of hostility or violence or with more severe drug side effects.

  15. Subjectivity and intersubjectivity in psychiatric diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The establishment of criteriological diagnostic systems since the 1980s has increased the reliability of psychiatric diagnosis. On the other hand, the limits of this approach for clinicians and researchers are becoming increasingly apparent. In particular, the assessment of subjective experience is nearly excluded on the theoretical level and undervalued on the pragmatic level, with detrimental consequences for the validity of psychiatric diagnosis, empirical research and therapeutic purposes. To correct this unfavourable development, three major approaches to the assessment of mental illness should be equally taken into account: (1) the positivistic, objectifying or 3rd-person approach as endorsed by DSM-IV and ICD-10, focusing mainly on observable behavioural symptoms; (2) the phenomenological, subject-oriented or 1st-person approach, focusing on the patient's self-experience and exploring its basic structures, and (3) the hermeneutic, intersubjective or 2nd-person approach, mainly aiming at the co-construction of narratives and interpretations regarding the patient's self-concept, relationships and conflicts. These three approaches will be compared regarding their respective values for psychopathological description, diagnosis, research and therapeutic purposes.

  16. Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease and Psychiatric Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soner Cakmak

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is a rapidly progressive, degenerative slow virus infection disease of central nervous system. Based on etiologic origins, four different Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease subtypes have been identified: sporadic, genetic, iatrogenic and variant. The clinical course generally begin with apathy, irritability, behavioral changes, speech problems, memory deterioration, rapidly progresses and concludes with death over a period of 3-12 months. Symptoms are observed secondary to brain cortex, cerebellum, corticospinal tracts, spinal anterior horn cells and basal ganglia damage. Unusual (%5-10 cases can survive up to 2 years. The initial symptoms of disease can be sudden which resultsin adjustment problems leading patients to seek psychiatric help. Patients could receive different diagnosis such as psychosis, depression with psychotic features, and treatments at this stages. Early diagnosis is crucial because of management of the disease and treatment approaches. In this article diagnosis and clinical features of Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease and related psychiatric symptoms have been briefly reviewed. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(4.000: 631-643

  17. Knowledge Blogging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerdal-Hjermind, Annette

    The rise of social media and web 2.0 technologies over the last few years has impacted many communication functions. One influence is organizational bloggers as knowledge mediators on government agency practices. The ways in which these organizational bloggers in their roles as experts are able...... to change, facilitate, and enable communication about a broad range of specialized knowledge areas, in a more open interactional institutional communication environment than traditional media typically offer, give rise to a set of new implications as regards the mediation of expert knowledge to the target...

  18. Exoplanetary Atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Madhusudhan, Nikku; Fortney, Jonathan; Barman, Travis

    2014-01-01

    The study of exoplanetary atmospheres is one of the most exciting and dynamic frontiers in astronomy. Over the past two decades ongoing surveys have revealed an astonishing diversity in the planetary masses, radii, temperatures, orbital parameters, and host stellar properties of exoplanetary systems. We are now moving into an era where we can begin to address fundamental questions concerning the diversity of exoplanetary compositions, atmospheric and interior processes, and formation histories, just as have been pursued for solar system planets over the past century. Exoplanetary atmospheres provide a direct means to address these questions via their observable spectral signatures. In the last decade, and particularly in the last five years, tremendous progress has been made in detecting atmospheric signatures of exoplanets through photometric and spectroscopic methods using a variety of space-borne and/or ground-based observational facilities. These observations are beginning to provide important constraints...

  19. Atmospheric composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, G. E.

    1973-01-01

    The earth's atmosphere is made up of a number of gases in different relative amounts. Near sea level and up to about 90 km, the amount of these atmospheric gases in clean, relatively dry air is practically constant. Four of these gases, nitrogen, oxygen, argon, and carbon dioxide, make up 99.99 percent by volume of the atmosphere. Two gases, ozone and water vapor, change in relative amounts, but the total amount of these two is very small compared to the amount of the other gases. The atmospheric composition shown in a table can be considered valid up to 90 km geometric altitude. Above 90 km, mainly because of molecular dissociation and diffusive separation, the composition changes.

  20. Knowledge Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ole Henning

    1998-01-01

    The knowledge test is about competing temporal and spatial expressions of the politics of technological development and national prosperity in contemporary society. The discussion is based on literature of national systems of innovation and industrial networks of various sorts. Similarities...

  1. Placing knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine; Valentin, Karen; Nielsen, Gritt B.

    Internationalisation of higher education is premised by a seeming paradox: On the one hand, academic knowledge strives to be universal in the sense that it claims to produce generalizable, valid and reliable knowledge that can be used, critiqued, and redeveloped by academics from all over the world......; on the other hand, the rationale for strengthening mobility through internationalisation is based on an imagination of the potentials of particular locations (academic institutions). Intrigued by this tension between universality and particularity in academic knowledge production, this paper presents...... preliminary findings from a project that study internationalisation of higher education as an agent in the interrelated processes of place-making and knowledge-making. The project is based on three case-studies. In this paper, focus is on PhD students’ change of research environment. This is used as a case...

  2. Suicide Mortality of Suicide Attempt Patients Discharged from Emergency Room, Nonsuicidal Psychiatric Patients Discharged from Emergency Room, Admitted Suicide Attempt Patients, and Admitted Nonsuicidal Psychiatric Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae W.; Park, Subin; Yi, Ki K.; Hong, Jin P.

    2012-01-01

    The suicide mortality rate and risk factors for suicide completion of patients who presented to an emergency room (ER) for suicide attempt and were discharged without psychiatric admission, patients who presented to an ER for psychiatric problems other than suicide attempt and were discharged without psychiatric admission, psychiatric inpatients…

  3. Knowledge Fascism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Vincent Fella

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge is not democratic, it is a regime. That is the clear message from Professor Vincent Hendricks. But do not be discouraged, through hard work and diligence everyone can achieve enlightenment and insight......Knowledge is not democratic, it is a regime. That is the clear message from Professor Vincent Hendricks. But do not be discouraged, through hard work and diligence everyone can achieve enlightenment and insight...

  4. Knowledge Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald Nielsen, Bo; Nicolajsen, Katrine

    For Økonomistyrelsen opstilles en teoretisk model over forudsætningerne for, at mmah er kan anvende knowledge management. Praksis vurderes dernæst i forhold til denne model.......For Økonomistyrelsen opstilles en teoretisk model over forudsætningerne for, at mmah er kan anvende knowledge management. Praksis vurderes dernæst i forhold til denne model....

  5. Conventionalized knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Niels

    2006-01-01

    Mental health nurses routinely hand over clinical knowledge at intershift reports. In the present study, field descriptions from prolonged fieldwork and transcripts of audio recordings of handovers were analysed discursively drawing on ethnomethodology and conversation analysis. The analysis iden...... exact clinical situations. Handing over caused a silencing of the least powerful nurses' voices, generated uncertainty, and promoted knowledge about the patients' clinical situation that was not necessarily precise or up-to-date....

  6. Engineering Knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    Nathan Rosenberg; W. Edward Steinmuller

    2012-01-01

    In historical perspective, both the nature of and arrangements for the generation of engineering knowledge have evolved over the past 150 years. We examine the historical development of the search for ‘useful knowledge’ in agriculture, aeronautics and chemical engineering during the first half of this period and the evolving balance between public and private initiative in supporting this search. During this period, the US was engaged in the engineering knowledge was often empirical, practice...

  7. Saudi Arabian Teachers' Knowledge and Beliefs about ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abed, Mohaned; Pearson, Susan; Clarke, Paula; Chambers, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is considered one of the most frequently diagnosed psychiatric childhood disorders. It affects 3-7% of school-aged children, interfering with their academic performance and social interactions. This study explored the knowledge and beliefs of teachers in Saudi Arabia about children with ADHD. The…

  8. Preface to the first monograph: The Fourth Psychiatric Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajai R. Singh

    2004-05-01

    the one hand, and cautious forays in the neurosciences, adoption and genetic studies on the other ( from where, hopefully, significant leads in understanding the aetiology of major psychiatric disorders must arise. Diagnostic refinement is a necessary step in this direction, as is use of sophisticated technology to aid the process.And yet, we know that psychiatry, its practitioners, and its patients, do not function in a vacuum. They interact with, and are influenced by, a wide range of complex, interlinked, social and interpersonal forces.These forces are often generated by people not directly connected with the medical speciality of psychiatry. They are the policy-planners, governments, political leaders, activists, social thinkers, NGOs, mass media, enlightened public opinion etc. They have marked influence on social thought and action, policy, funding and research. They influence people and societies often in more significant ways than the medical speciality of psychiatry considers healthy for society.We may continue to function in a vacuum and wait for wisdom to dawn. Or, we may establish a dialogue with them and work for wisdom for happen.The second option seems the more productive one.No doubt, there are some psychiatrists comfortable with the biological label. There are others comfortable with the social one. Both these are needed, for they help to further robust enquiry in their respective fields. But what we also probably need is an integration, a synthesis of the mass of evidence that these two fields have produced. The inevitable conclusions drawn at our present state of knowledge based on such integration will give rise to pointers for further research as well as guidelines for policy-planners. Moreover, it will result in an awakened public opinion empowered with knowledge and evidence, its actions enlightened, and unlikely to be swayed or manipulated by unscrupulous forces.The Mens Sana Monographs are meant to further attempts at such a Fourth

  9. Sleep disturbances in a clinical forensic psychiatric population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphuis, Jeanine; Karsten, Julie; de Weerd, Al; Lancel, Marike

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Poor sleep is known to cause detrimental effects on the course of diverse psychiatric disorders and is a putative risk factor for hostility and aggression. Thus, sleep may be crucial in forensic psychiatric practice. However, little is known about the prevalence of sleep disturbances in t

  10. Seasonality of suicides with and without psychiatric illness in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yip, P.S.; Yang, K.C.; Qin, Ping

    2006-01-01

    This paper studied the seasonality of suicides among persons with and without psychiatric illness in Denmark from 1970 to 1999. A non-homogenous Poisson process was used to examine the data. The seasonality of suicides was shown to be associated with gender and their psychiatric histories...

  11. University Students' Views on the Utility of Psychiatric Advance Directives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheyett, Anna M.; Rooks, Adrienne

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Rates of serious mental illnesses (SMIs) among university students are increasing, and universities are struggling with how to respond to students who show SMI symptoms. Psychiatric advance directives (PADs) allow individuals, when well, to document their wishes for treatment during a psychiatric crisis. This project explored the…

  12. Obstructive sleep apnea: management considerations in psychiatric patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heck T

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Taryn Heck,1 Monica Zolezzi21Pharmacy Department, University of Alberta Hospital, Alberta Health Services, Edmonton, AB, Canada; 2Clinical Pharmacy and Practice, College of Pharmacy, Qatar University, Doha, QatarAbstract: Psychiatric disorders and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA are often comorbid. However, there is limited information on the impact of psychotropic medications on OSA symptoms, on how to manage psychiatric pharmacotherapy in patients presenting with OSA, or on the effectiveness and challenges of OSA treatments in patients with comorbid mental illness. As such, the objective of this article is to provide an overview of some epidemiological aspects of OSA and treatment considerations in the management of OSA in individuals with comorbid psychiatric disorders. Predefined keywords were used to search for relevant literature in electronic databases. Data show that OSA is particularly prevalent in patients with psychiatric disorders. The medical care that patients with these comorbidities require can be challenging, as some of the psychiatric medications used by these patients may exacerbate OSA symptoms. As such, continuous positive airway pressure continues to be the first-line treatment, even in patients with psychiatric comorbidity. However, more controlled studies are required, particularly to determine continuous positive airway pressure compliance in patients with mental illness, the impact of treating OSA on psychiatric symptoms, and the impact of the use of psychotropic medications on OSA symptoms.Keywords: obstructive sleep apnea, psychiatric disorders, comorbidity, psychotropic medications

  13. 42 CFR 456.482 - Medical, psychiatric, and social evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Services for Individuals Under Age 21: Admission and Plan of Care Requirements § 456.482 Medical... under age 21, the medical, psychiatric, and social evaluations required by §§ 456.170, and 456.370 must... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Medical, psychiatric, and social evaluations....

  14. 28 CFR 549.43 - Involuntary psychiatric treatment and medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... medication. 549.43 Section 549.43 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MEDICAL SERVICES Administrative Safeguards for Psychiatric Treatment and Medication § 549.43 Involuntary psychiatric treatment and medication. Title 18 U.S.C. 4241-4247 and federal...

  15. A Pen-Based System for the Psychiatric Emergency Room

    OpenAIRE

    Kennedy, Robert S.

    1995-01-01

    Translating paper based clinical assessment forms to computer based forms for a Psychiatric Emergency Room was facilitated by the use of a computer using Windows for Pen® system and a familiar database. Offering a smooth transition from paper to electronic forms was the primary goal for this busy metropolitan Psychiatric Emergency Room.

  16. Cerebrospinal fluid vasopressin in neurological and psychiatric disorders.

    OpenAIRE

    Sørensen, P S; Gjerris, A; Hammer, M.

    1985-01-01

    Vasopressin was determined in CSF and plasma of 243 patients with different neurological and psychiatric disorders, including control patients. CSF vasopressin was significantly higher in patients with high pressure hydrocephalus, intracranial tumour, benign intracranial hypertension, intracranial haemorrhage, ischaemic stroke, and craniocerebral trauma. In patients with primary degenerative dementia, CSF vasopressin was lower than in control patients. Among patients with psychiatric disorder...

  17. Neuromedin and FN-38 Peptides for Treating Psychiatric Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methods and compositions for treating psychiatric diseases and disorders are disclosed. The methods provided generally involve the administration of an NMX peptide, an FNX peptide, or an NMX receptor agonist, or analogs or derivatives thereof, to a subject in order to treat psychiatric diseases and ...

  18. Ethological approaches to psychiatric disorders : focus on depression and schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerts, Erwin; Bruene, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Behavioural observation of psychiatric patient groups using ethological methodology has never been a mainstream approach in psychiatry. In the present review article it is argued that the assessment of non-verbal behaviour in psychiatric disorders has much to offer to clinicians. Based on a Medline

  19. Elements of Successful School Reentry after Psychiatric Hospitalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Elysia V.; Welfare, Laura E.; Williams, Amy M.

    2011-01-01

    Psychiatric hospitalization is an intensive intervention designed to stabilize adolescents who are experiencing an acute mental health crisis. Reintegrating to school after discharge from psychiatric hospitalization can be overwhelming for many adolescents (E. V. Clemens, L. E. Welfare, & A. M. Williams, 2010). The authors used a consensual…

  20. Psychiatric Diagnostic Interviews for Children and Adolescents: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angold, Adrian; Erkanli, Alaattin; Copeland, William; Goodman, Robert; Fisher, Prudence W.; Costello, E. Jane

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare examples of three styles of psychiatric interviews for youth: the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC) ("respondent-based"), the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment (CAPA) ("interviewer-based"), and the Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA) ("expert judgment"). Method: Roughly equal numbers of…

  1. The Role of Sleep in Childhood Psychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfano, Candice A.; Gamble, Amanda L.

    2009-01-01

    Although sleep problems often comprise core features of psychiatric disorders, inadequate attention has been paid to the complex, reciprocal relationships involved in the early regulation of sleep, emotion, and behavior. In this paper, we review the pediatric literature examining sleep in children with primary psychiatric disorders as well as…

  2. Psychiatric Symptoms in Adults with Down Syndrome and Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urv, Tiina K.; Zigman, Warren B.; Silverman, Wayne

    2010-01-01

    Changes in psychiatric symptoms related to specific stages of dementia were investigated in 224 adults 45 years of age or older with Down syndrome. Findings indicate that psychiatric symptoms are a prevalent feature of dementia in the population with Down syndrome and that clinical presentation is qualitatively similar to that seen in Alzheimer's…

  3. Understanding Interpersonal Function in Psychiatric Illness Through Multiplayer Economic Games

    OpenAIRE

    King-Casas, Brooks; Chiu, Pearl H

    2012-01-01

    Interpersonal factors play significant roles in the onset, maintenance, and remission of psychiatric conditions. In the current major diagnostic classification systems for psychiatric disorders, some conditions are defined by the presence of impairments in social interaction or maintaining interpersonal relationships; these include autism, social phobia, and the personality disorders. Other psychopathologies confer significant difficulties in the social domain, including major depression, pos...

  4. Psychiatric disorders and clinical correlates of suicidal patients admitted to a psychiatric hospital in Tokyo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishimoto Kayo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients admitted to a psychiatric hospital with suicidal behavior (SB are considered to be especially at high risk of suicide. However, the number of studies that have addressed this patient population remains insufficient compared to that of studies on suicidal patients in emergency or medical settings. The purpose of this study is to seek features of a sample of newly admitted suicidal psychiatric patients in a metropolitan area of Japan. Method 155 suicidal patients consecutively admitted to a large psychiatric center during a 20-month period, admission styles of whom were mostly involuntary, were assessed using Structured Clinical Interviews for DSM-IV Axis I and II Disorders (SCID-I CV and SCID-II and SB-related psychiatric measures. Associations of the psychiatric diagnoses and SB-related characteristics with gender and age were examined. Results The common DSM-IV axis I diagnoses were affective disorders 62%, anxiety disorders 56% and substance-related disorders 38%. 56% of the subjects were diagnosed as having borderline PD, and 87% of them, at least one type of personality disorder (PD. SB methods used prior to admission were self-cutting 41%, overdosing 32%, self-strangulation 15%, jumping from a height 12% and attempting traffic death 10%, the first two of which were frequent among young females. The median (range of the total number of SBs in the lifetime history was 7 (1-141. Severity of depressive symptomatology, suicidal intent and other symptoms, proportions of the subjects who reported SB-preceding life events and life problems, and childhood and adolescent abuse were comparable to those of the previous studies conducted in medical or emergency service settings. Gender and age-relevant life-problems and life events were identified. Conclusions Features of the studied sample were the high prevalence of affective disorders, anxiety disorders and borderline PD, a variety of SB methods used prior to admission

  5. Virtual patient simulation in psychiatric care - A pilot study of digital support for collaborate learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunnqvist, Charlotta; Karlsson, Karin; Lindell, Lisbeth; Fors, Uno

    2016-03-01

    Psychiatric and mental health nursing is built on a trusted nurse and patient relationship. Therefore communication and clinical reasoning are two important issues. Our experiences as teachers in psychiatric educational programmes are that the students feel anxiety and fear before they start their clinical practices in psychiatry. Therefore there is a need for bridging over the fear. Technology enhanced learning might support such activities so we used Virtual patients (VPs), an interactive computer simulations of real-life clinical scenarios. The aim of this study was to investigate 4th term nursing students' opinions on the use of Virtual Patients for assessment in a Mental Health and Ill-health course module. We asked 24 volunteering students to practise with five different VP cases during almost 10 weeks before the exam. The participants were gathered together for participating in a written and an oral evaluation. The students were positive to the use of VPs in psychiatry and were very positive to use VPs in their continued nursing education. It seems that Virtual Patients can be an activity producing pedagogic model promoting students' independent knowledge development, critical thinking, reflection and problem solving ability for nurse students in psychiatric care. PMID:27038085

  6. Predictors of frequent visits to a psychiatric emergency room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Jørgen; Aagaard, Andreas; Buus, Niels

    2014-01-01

    to psychiatric emergency services. OBJECTIVES: To identify predictors of frequent use of a psychiatric emergency room at a Danish University Psychiatric Hospital through a 12-year period (1995-2007) and to speculate on how changes in the mental healthcare services affect predictors of frequent use through time...... deinstitutionalising of the Danish mental health services and a radical health care reform. A basic multiplicative model was designed for the early detection of individual frequent visitors.......BACKGROUND: The role of the psychiatric emergency services has undergone extensive changes following a significant downsizing of the number of psychiatric hospital beds during the past decades. A relatively small number of "frequent visitors" accounts for a disproportionately large amount of visits...

  7. [Crisis interventions: a psychotherapeutical challenge for psychiatric emergencies?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressi, Cinizia; Damsa, Cristian; Pirrotta, Roberto; Lazignac, Coralie; Invernizzi, Giordano

    2005-01-01

    Taking care of patients consulting the emergency psychiatric unit, raises nosological, legal, ethical and even logistic questions for the emergency departments. The need for emergency psychiatric interventions has grown constantly during the last twenty years and clinicians were challenged to find a new psychotherapeutic approach, more focused on the actual symptoms presented by the patients than the 'classic' psychiatric interventions. The goal of this article is to discuss the possibility of a psychotherapeutic approach in an emergency department, departing from a treatment model that has been developed at the psychiatric emergency of the University of Milan. In this approach, the psychotherapeutic treatment is divided in four different stages: preparation, incubation, transformation and verification. The "psychiatric crisis" becomes an opportunity to change for the patient, being a passage rite towards a new and better psychological functioning.

  8. Basic study on architectural planning of psychiatric hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers the main problems of the current mental health facilities in China from the standpoint of architects on the background that mental disorder has become a serious threat to human health. In order to effectively learn from the developed countries, this paper reviews the brief history of the world’s mental health and the main phases of the evolution of psychiatric hospitals, analyzes the actual situation of mental health facilities abroad based on a large amount of data, compares the roles of public and private psychiatric hospitals from the viewpoint of government supervision, and investigates the functions and positions of psychiatric hospitals and the psychiatry divisions of general hospitals in the medical system. At last, this paper discusses the necessity of the systemization of mental health facilities, the role of psychiatric hospitals in this facility system and the developing approaches of psychiatric hospitals in China.

  9. Psychiatric disorders in long-term sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Hans Jørgen; Bech, Per

    2009-01-01

    AIMS: The study estimates the incidence of psychiatric disorders in long-term sickness absence (LSA; more than eight weeks of continuous sickness absence) over one year. The study is the first accounting for everybody on LSA by linking a psychiatric assessment for all persons on LSA to public...... registers. METHODS: In a Danish population of 120,000 inhabitants all 2,414 incident persons on LSA within one year were posted a questionnaire, of whom 1,121 (46.4%) responded. In a two phase design the 1,121 sick-listed persons were screened for psychiatric disorders. Phase 2 consisted of 844 people...... examined persons in Phase 2 showed by binomial tests the following frequencies: any psychiatric disorder 57%, any depression 42%, and any anxiety 18%. In Phase 1, representative for everyone on LSA, the frequencies were 48% for any psychiatric disorder, 35% for any depression, 15% for any anxiety, and 7...

  10. Knowledge Model: Project Knowledge Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durao, Frederico; Dolog, Peter; Grolin, Daniel;

    2009-01-01

    The Knowledge model for project management serves several goals:Introducing relevant concepts of project management area for software development (Section 1). Reviewing and understanding the real case requirements from the industrial perspective. (Section 2). Giving some preliminary suggestions...

  11. PRAGMATIC KNOWLEDGE OR NOBLE KNOWLEDGE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian MANOLESCU

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Disputes about the opportunity to introduce competence-based education are increasingly present in terms of educational policies and strategies. Obviously, in the last decade and a half, several countries have introduced competence based education. Although specific knowledge acquisition should be an essential component of student learning, assessing such knowledge in adult life depends largely on the individual purchase of more general concepts and skills. The article discusses pragmatic knowledge and noble knowledge. This is a collective dilemma, to the extent that the education system lives in the tension between the two logics. The two positions or divergent attitudes can coexist as long ast hey do not become extremist. Educational dilemma is especially now a priority.

  12. Atmospheric Photochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Harrie; Potter, A. E.

    1961-01-01

    The upper atmosphere offers a vast photochemical laboratory free from solid surfaces, so all reactions take place in the gaseous phase. At 30 km altitude the pressure has fallen to about one-hundredth of that at ground level, and we shall, rather arbitrarily, regard the upper atmosphere as beginning at that height. By a little less than 100 km the pressure has fallen to 10(exp -3) mm Hg and is decreasing by a power of ten for every 15 km increase in altitude. Essentially we are concerned then with the photochemistry of a nitrogen-oxygen mixture under low-pressure conditions in which photo-ionization, as well as photodissociation, plays an important part. Account must also be taken of the presence of rare constituents, such as water vapour and its decomposition products, including particularly hydroxyl, oxides of carbon, methane and, strangely enough, sodium, lithium and calcium. Many curious and unfamiliar reactions occur in the upper atmosphere. Some of them are luminescent, causing the atmosphere to emit a dim light called the airglow. Others, between gaseous ions and neutral molecules, are almost a complete mystery at this time. Similar interesting phenomena must occur in other planetary atmospheres, and they might be predicted if sufficient chemical information were available.

  13. Categorizing "frequent visitors" in the psychiatric emergency room: a semistructured interview study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Niels

    2011-01-01

    Nurses can become demoralized and hostile toward frequent visitors in psychiatric emergency rooms because of the number of visits. The aim of this study was to develop more knowledge about the ways in which nurses categorize frequent visitors. Eleven nurses were interviewed, and their categorizing...... practices were examined from a social constructionist perspective. The results showed that the nurses did not categorize frequent visitors as particularly unlikeable or difficult to treat. Like other visitors, they could be categorized as difficult if they obstructed a smooth flow of successful referrals...... through the emergency room and/or there was poor rapport with the nurses....

  14. The factor structure of the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (Expanded Version) in a sample of forensic psychiatric patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, J. van; Vuijk, P.J.; Harte, J.M.; Smit, B.L.; Nijman, H.L.I.; Scherder, E.J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Severe behavioral problems, aggression, unlawful behavior, and uncooperativeness make the forensic psychiatric population both hard to treat and study. To fine-tune treatment and evaluate results, valid measurement is vital. The Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale-Extended (BPRS-E) is a widely used scale

  15. Psychiatric emergency services in Copenhagen 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moltke, Katinka; Høegh, Erica B; Sæbye, Ditte;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Since the first publication of the psychiatric emergency units (PEUs) in Copenhagen 1985, outpatient facilities have undergone considerable changes. Our aim is to examine how these changes have influenced the activities in the PEUs in the same catchment area. METHODS: We conducted...... a follow-up study to describe this development in the past 27 years by comparing 1985 variables with same measures in 2012. A random sample of all visits every 10 days in 2012 to three PEUs in Copenhagen were registered and compared with data collected, using the same study design in 1985. MAIN RESULTS......: The number of visits has decreased significantly from 367 visits/year/10,000 inhabitants in 1985 to 225 in 2012. Apart from a considerable number (15.6%) of visitors with non-Danish background, the demographic variables have not changed significantly since 1985. Compared with 1985, the diagnostic...

  16. The therapeutic relationship after psychiatric admission.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Roche, Eric

    2014-03-01

    The therapeutic relationship is one of the most central and important factors in the treatment of mental health disorders. A better therapeutic relationship is associated with service engagement, medication adherence, and satisfaction with services. This study aimed to compare the demographic and clinical factors associated with the therapeutic relationship in voluntarily and involuntarily admitted psychiatric service users. We found that individuals who had been admitted involuntarily, who had a diagnosis of a psychotic disorder, and who reported higher levels of perceived pressures on admission were more likely to have a poorer therapeutic relationship with their consultant psychiatrist. Greater levels of insight and treatment satisfaction, together with higher levels of procedural justice experienced on admission, were associated with a better therapeutic relationship. We found that the level of perceived coercion on admission was not related to the therapeutic relationship. Targeted interventions to improve the therapeutic relationship, particularly for involuntarily admitted service users, are discussed.

  17. The competencies of newly qualified psychiatric nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lunice B Khoza

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available This research report comprises part of a larger study, which endeavoured to identified the competencies of newly qualified nurses (NQNs as viewed by senior professional nurses (SPNs in the clinical units. This report concentrates only on the competencies of the NQNs working in the psychiatric nursing units. SPNs (N=29 from certain health services in the Northern Province (NP of the RSA, constituted the population for this research. A descriptive survey was used as a research approach to conduct this research. The fieldwork, entailing the distrib~ltiona nd collection of the questionnaires by a researcher, was done during a period of political and labour unrest in this area. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full text.

  18. Behavioral treatment of violent psychiatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, S E; Woolsey, J E; Innocent, A J; Liberman, R P

    1988-12-01

    This article reviewed major accelerative and decelerative behavioral treatments for aggressive and destructive behavior in psychiatric patients. Accelerative procedures supplant antagonistic behavior by teaching adaptive skills, and by strengthening competing responses; they are realized in token economies, social skills training, differential reinforcement of other behavior, and activity programming. Current decelerative procedures reduce violent behavior by decreasing reinforcement accessible to the patient following violent acts; they are exemplified by social extinction, response cost, time out from reinforcement, overcorrection, and contingent restraint. All behavioral interventions are applied within a philosophic framework that emphasizes observable behavior, measurement of treatment effects, and restructure of the social and physical environment to improve patients' response patterns. This approach extends beyond a problem-oriented model and presents proven techniques for developing and maintaining patients' adaptive functioning.

  19. [University crisis and student psychiatric service].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdomo; De Arango, M V; De López, R

    1975-03-01

    This paper briefs a research on the influence of stressing environmental factors upon mental health conditions of university students. The study was undertaken at the Student Psychiatric Service, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia. Three equal periods are compared. The first is a normal one; the others are disorderly and riotous, up to the point of foreing the discontinuance of academic activities for several months. As compared with the period of academic stability, the rates of mental disturbances show a steep rise in the periods of agitation. Schizophrenia, depression, anxiety, all kinds of difficulties in interpersonal relations, and somatic disturbances, are sharply increased, whereas complaints of less severe disturbances, like transient situational disorders, level up or decrease. Another significant rise is registered in the use of drugs for therapeutic purposes. The study leads to the conclusion that stress due to environmental disorders or social upheavals is an important factor in the aethiology of severe mental disturbances. PMID:1163265

  20. Reactions of psychiatric patients to telepsychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbie Campbell

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Telepsychiatry could offer a viable medical service to remote or isolated social communities if it does not generate adverse reactions such as delusional ideation, particularly in patients in settlements without adequate exposure to mainstream culture and internet. We examined subjective reactions to telepsychiatry of randomly selected 84 psychiatric patients from remote locations in Ontario, Canada. They rated the quality of their teleconferencing sessions via 10 item questionnaire and were asked about advantages and disadvantages of telepsychiatry. The majority of patients indicated that they were able to communicate as if physically present (92.9% and were comfortable with telepsychiatric service (95.2%. They found the sessions as beneficial as direct meetings with their psychiatrist (84.5% and would use this service again (98.8%. There were no instances of telepsychiatry being associated with adverse reactions in patients from remote communities with inadequate exposure to modern mainstream culture and internet.

  1. Reactions of Psychiatric Patients to Telepsychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Robbie; O'Gorman, Jennifer; Cernovsky, Zack Z

    2015-09-30

    Telepsychiatry could offer a viable medical service to remote or isolated social communities if it does not generate adverse reactions such as delusional ideation, particularly in patients in settlements without adequate exposure to mainstream culture and internet. We examined subjective reactions to telepsychiatry of randomly selected 84 psychiatric patients from remote locations in Ontario, Canada. They rated the quality of their teleconferencing sessions via 10 item questionnaire and were asked about advantages and disadvantages of telepsychiatry. The majority of patients indicated that they were able to communicate as if physically present (92.9%) and were comfortable with telepsychiatric service (95.2%). They found the sessions as beneficial as direct meetings with their psychiatrist (84.5%) and would use this service again (98.8%). There were no instances of telepsychiatry being associated with adverse reactions in patients from remote communities with inadequate exposure to modern mainstream culture and internet. PMID:26605038

  2. [Profit sharing: a psychiatric management strategy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, K J; Pratt, C W

    1994-01-01

    This paper outlines the development and implementation of profit sharing, an innovative technique to motivate and empower chronically mentally ill members of a psychiatric rehabilitation program. In some ways, this intervention resembles a token economy. Members are paid script for program participation, which they then exchange for rewards. In contrast to token economies, however, the profit sharing system is financed, administered and monitored by program members. This method has the advantage of enhancing program participation and involvement by allowing members to keep the rewards earned through their own efforts. Data collected over a five-year period suggest that profit sharing increases program utilization, average daily attendance and the number of positive vocational outcomes.

  3. Circadian clock dysfunction and psychiatric disease: could fruit flies have a say?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Agostino Zordan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available There is evidence of a link between the circadian system and psychiatric diseases. Studies in humans and mammals suggest that environmental and/or genetic disruption of the circadian system lead to an increased liability to psychiatric disease. Disruption of clock genes and/or the clock network might be related to the etiology of these pathologies; also, some genes, known for their circadian clock functions, might be associated to mental illnesses through clock-independent pleiotropy. Here we examine the features which we believe make Drosophila melanogaster a model apt to study the role of the circadian clock in psychiatric disease. Despite differences in the organization of the clock system, the molecular architecture of the Drosophila and mammalian circadian oscillators are comparable and many components are evolutionarily related. In addition, Drosophila has a rather complex nervous system, which shares much at the cell and neurobiological level with humans, i.e. a tripartite brain, the main neurotransmitter systems, and behavioral traits: circadian behavior, learning and memory, motivation, addiction, social behavior. There is evidence that the Drosophila brain shares some homologies with the vertebrate cerebellum, basal ganglia and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis, the dysfunctions of which have been tied to mental illness. We discuss Drosophila in comparison to mammals with reference to the: organization of the brain and neurotransmitter systems; architecture of the circadian clock; clock-controlled behaviors. We sum up current knowledge on behavioral endophenotypes which are amenable to modeling in flies, such as defects involving sleep, cognition, or social interactions and discuss the relationship of the circadian system to these traits. Finally, we consider if Drosophila could be a valuable asset to understand the relationship between circadian clock malfunction and psychiatric disease.

  4. Saturn: atmosphere, ionosphere, and magnetosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gombosi, Tamas I; Ingersoll, Andrew P

    2010-03-19

    The Cassini spacecraft has been in orbit around Saturn since 30 June 2004, yielding a wealth of data about the Saturn system. This review focuses on the atmosphere and magnetosphere and briefly outlines the state of our knowledge after the Cassini prime mission. The mission has addressed a host of fundamental questions: What processes control the physics, chemistry, and dynamics of the atmosphere? Where does the magnetospheric plasma come from? What are the physical processes coupling the ionosphere and magnetosphere? And, what are the rotation rates of Saturn's atmosphere and magnetosphere? PMID:20299587

  5. Mitochondrial mutations in subjects with psychiatric disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Sequeira

    Full Text Available A considerable body of evidence supports the role of mitochondrial dysfunction in psychiatric disorders and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA mutations are known to alter brain energy metabolism, neurotransmission, and cause neurodegenerative disorders. Genetic studies focusing on common nuclear genome variants associated with these disorders have produced genome wide significant results but those studies have not directly studied mtDNA variants. The purpose of this study is to investigate, using next generation sequencing, the involvement of mtDNA variation in bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, major depressive disorder, and methamphetamine use. MtDNA extracted from multiple brain regions and blood were sequenced (121 mtDNA samples with an average of 8,800x coverage and compared to an electronic database containing 26,850 mtDNA genomes. We confirmed novel and rare variants, and confirmed next generation sequencing error hotspots by traditional sequencing and genotyping methods. We observed a significant increase of non-synonymous mutations found in individuals with schizophrenia. Novel and rare non-synonymous mutations were found in psychiatric cases in mtDNA genes: ND6, ATP6, CYTB, and ND2. We also observed mtDNA heteroplasmy in brain at a locus previously associated with schizophrenia (T16519C. Large differences in heteroplasmy levels across brain regions within subjects suggest that somatic mutations accumulate differentially in brain regions. Finally, multiplasmy, a heteroplasmic measure of repeat length, was observed in brain from selective cases at a higher frequency than controls. These results offer support for increased rates of mtDNA substitutions in schizophrenia shown in our prior results. The variable levels of heteroplasmic/multiplasmic somatic mutations that occur in brain may be indicators of genetic instability in mtDNA.

  6. Psychiatric aspects of pain in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Sedat

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this review is to discuss the psychiatric aspects of pain in cancer patients from a biopsychosocial approach. Pain in cancer patients is considered as a complex reaction causing severe suffering and involves many psychological aspects. It has many dimensions such as personality, affect, cognition and social relations. The pain experience may also be influenced by some psychological factors such as anxiety, depression and the meaning of pain. Therefore, a successful management of cancer pain requires a multidisciplinary approach. Since cancer pain is generally treated medically, the psychological impact of pain is often underestimated. However, cancer pain is usually related to high levels of psychological distress. Culture, as an important factor affecting cancer pain, will also be discussed during this review. It is crucial to understand cultural diversity in the treatment of cancer patients with pain. Research shows that a minority patients of various ethnicities have less control of their pain because of the miscommunication problem within the medical setting. By paying attention to patients' cultural diversities, problems such as miscommunication causing inadequate control of pain can be eliminated. In order to manage pain in cancer patients, cognitive-behavioral interventions may be integrated with pharmacotherapy. The main goal of these strategies is to provide a sense of control and better coping skills to deal with cancer. Patients' maladaptive thoughts or behaviors may cause physical and emotional stress. Main behavioral strategies include biofeedback, relaxation training, and hypnosis. Cognitive strategies include guided imagery, distraction, thought monitoring and problem solving. By discussing all of these aspects of cancer pain, the multidimensional characteristic of pain and the relation between cancer pain and psychiatric factors will be clarified. PMID:20590361

  7. Isoprenoid Pathway And Neurological And Psychiatric Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravikumar A

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The coexistence of neuronal degeneration, psychiatric manifestation, immune activation and malignant transformation has been documented in literature, suggesting a central dysfunction in the pathophysiology of these disorders. The isoprenoid pathway may be candidate in this respect, in view of the changes in the concentration of some products of this pathway in many of these disorders, however, no detailed study has been carried out in this respect. In view of this, a study was undertaken on the isoprenoid pathway in some of these disorders - primary generalized epilepsy, Parkinson’s disease (PD, schizophrenia, manic depressive psychosis (MDP, CNS glioma, multiple sclerosis, subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPEand a familial group with familial coexistence of schizophrenia, PD, primary generalized epilepsy, malignant neoplasia, rheumatoid arthritis and syndrome-X over three generations. The following parameters were studied in the patients of these disorders as compared to age and sex matched control subjects - ubiquinone dolichol, digoxin, activity of HMG CoA reductase in the plasma and erthyorcyte membrane Na -K--ATpase. Increase in the activity of HMG CoA reductase and in the concentration of plasma digoxin and dolichol was observed in most of these cases. On the other hand, there was decrease in the concentration of plasma ubiquinone. Decrease in the activity of erythrocyte membrane Na-K- ATpase activity for which digoxin is an inhibitor was also observed in all the cases studied. These results indicate an upregulation of the isoprenoid pathway in the neurological and psychiatric disorders studied. The implications of this change is discussed in details.

  8. Approach bias modification in inpatient psychiatric smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machulska, Alla; Zlomuzica, Armin; Rinck, Mike; Assion, Hans-Jörg; Margraf, Jürgen

    2016-05-01

    Drug-related automatic approach tendencies contribute to the development and maintenance of addictive behavior. The present study investigated whether a nicotine-related approach bias can be modified in smokers undergoing inpatient psychiatric treatment by using a novel training variant of the nicotine Approach-Avoidance-Task (AAT). Additionally, we assessed whether the AAT-training would affect smoking behavior. Inpatient smokers were randomly assigned to either an AAT-training or a sham-training condition. In the AAT-training condition, smokers were indirectly instructed to make avoidance movements in response to nicotine-related pictures and to make approach movements in response to tooth-cleaning pictures. In the sham-training condition, no contingency between picture content und arm movements existed. Trainings were administered in four sessions, accompanied by a brief smoking-cessation intervention. Smoking-related self-report measures and automatic approach biases toward smoking cues were measured before and after training. Three months after training, daily nicotine consumption was obtained. A total of 205 participants were recruited, and data from 139 participants were considered in the final analysis. Prior to the trainings, smokers in both conditions exhibited a stronger approach bias for nicotine-related pictures than for tooth-cleaning pictures. After both trainings, this difference was no longer evident. Although reduced smoking behavior at posttest was observed after both trainings, only the AAT-training led to a larger reduction of nicotine consumption at a three-month follow-up. Our preliminary data partially support the conclusion that the AAT might be a feasible tool to reduce smoking in the long-term in psychiatric patients, albeit its effect on other smoking-related measures remains to be explored. PMID:26874269

  9. HIV Risk Behavior Among Psychiatric Outpatients: Association with Psychiatric Disorder, Substance Use Disorder, and Gender

    OpenAIRE

    Carey, Michael P.; Carey, Kate B.; Maisto, Stephen A.; Schroder, Kerstin E. E.; Vanable, Peter A.; Gordon, Christopher M.

    2004-01-01

    Persons living with a mental illness are disproportionately vulnerable to HIV. The current study sought to examine the influence of psychiatric disorder, substance use disorder, and gender on risky sexual behavior in this vulnerable population. Participants were 228 female and 202 male outpatients (66% mood disorder, 34% schizophrenia) each of whom took part in a Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-IV and a comprehensive assessment of sexual risk behavior. Univariate and multivariate an...

  10. The Use of the Addiction Severity Index Psychiatric Composite Scores to Predict Psychiatric Inpatient Admissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drymalski, Walter M; Nunley, Michael R

    2016-01-01

    The high prevalence of co-occurring mental health and substance use disorders indicates a need for integrated behavioral health treatment that addresses both types of disorder simultaneously. One component of this integrated treatment is the use of an assessment process that can concurrently identify the presence of each class of disorder. The Addiction Severity Index (ASI) has been extensively used and researched in the field of substance use disorders for over 30 years. The ASI has seven sections, including a section on substance use disorders and a section on psychiatric symptoms, making it a potential candidate for a co-occurring screen during intake. The following study utilized a receiver operating characteristic curve analysis to determine an optimal cutoff score on the ASI psychiatric composite score to identify which individuals seeking substance use disorder treatment were admitted to the Milwaukee County Behavioral Health Division's psychiatric hospital in the year subsequent to their ASI administration. Of the 19,320 individuals who completed an initial ASI in our system, 343 had an inpatient admission. The receiver operating characteristic curve was statistically significant, with an area under the curve of 0.75. A cutoff of 0.27 had a sensitivity of 0.77 and a specificity of 0.61, such that over 60% (11,963/19,320) of the sample was excluded. These results suggest that the ASI psychiatric composite score may be a useful initial screen to identify those with potential mental health problems/needs in a behavioral health system attempting to integrate addiction and mental health services. PMID:27580192

  11. The Use of the Addiction Severity Index Psychiatric Composite Scores to Predict Psychiatric Inpatient Admissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drymalski, Walter M; Nunley, Michael R

    2016-01-01

    The high prevalence of co-occurring mental health and substance use disorders indicates a need for integrated behavioral health treatment that addresses both types of disorder simultaneously. One component of this integrated treatment is the use of an assessment process that can concurrently identify the presence of each class of disorder. The Addiction Severity Index (ASI) has been extensively used and researched in the field of substance use disorders for over 30 years. The ASI has seven sections, including a section on substance use disorders and a section on psychiatric symptoms, making it a potential candidate for a co-occurring screen during intake. The following study utilized a receiver operating characteristic curve analysis to determine an optimal cutoff score on the ASI psychiatric composite score to identify which individuals seeking substance use disorder treatment were admitted to the Milwaukee County Behavioral Health Division's psychiatric hospital in the year subsequent to their ASI administration. Of the 19,320 individuals who completed an initial ASI in our system, 343 had an inpatient admission. The receiver operating characteristic curve was statistically significant, with an area under the curve of 0.75. A cutoff of 0.27 had a sensitivity of 0.77 and a specificity of 0.61, such that over 60% (11,963/19,320) of the sample was excluded. These results suggest that the ASI psychiatric composite score may be a useful initial screen to identify those with potential mental health problems/needs in a behavioral health system attempting to integrate addiction and mental health services.

  12. Atmospheric Research 2012 Technical Highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, William K -M.

    2013-01-01

    This annual report, as before, is intended for a broad audience. Our readers include colleagues within NASA, scientists outside the Agency, science graduate students, and members of the general public. Inside are descriptions of atmospheric research science highlights and summaries of our education and outreach accomplishments for calendar year 2012.The report covers research activities from the Mesoscale Atmospheric Processes Laboratory, the Climate and Radiation Laboratory, the Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, and the Wallops Field Support Office under the Office of Deputy Director for Atmospheres, Earth Sciences Division in the Sciences and Exploration Directorate of NASAs Goddard Space Flight Center. The overall mission of the office is advancing knowledge and understanding of the Earths atmosphere. Satellite missions, field campaigns, peer-reviewed publications, and successful proposals are essential to our continuing research.

  13. Practical knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jens

    2006-01-01

    The chapter aims to develop conceptions of practical knowledge, relevant to skills and Bildung in engineering science. The starting point is Francis Bacon’s ideas of new science, developed 400 years ago. It is argued that Bacon’s vision has become dogmatized during the course of history, whereas....... Furthermore, and still with reference to truth, utility, and goodness, it is claimed that unification of skills and Bildung should include the ability to deal with complexity. A second-order complexity challenges the search for adequacy between; a) the complexity of knowledge-creation; and b) the complexity...

  14. Solid knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Anders

    2008-01-01

    The great icons of industrial and architectural design are cornerstones of our material culture. They are referred to again and again in education, research and cultural debate, and as such they have become nodal points of human discourse. The knowledge embedded in such artefacts has often been...... referred to as ‘silent knowledge’....

  15. Knowledge brokering:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Carsten

    2010-01-01

    on such an opportunity, than a strong tie would be. Furthermore, a number of organizational enablers for this open inter-organizational search and knowledge brokering strategy are identified. The main arguments point to the role of a general technological competence and the R&D department being the networking department....

  16. Atmospheric Refraction

    CERN Document Server

    Nauenberg, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Calculations of atmospheric refraction are generally based on a simplified model of atmospheric density in the troposphere which assumes that the temperature decreases at a constant lapse rate from sea level up to a height equal to eleven km, and that afterwards it remains constant. In this model, the temperature divided by the lapse rate determines the length scale in the calculations for altitudes less than this height. But daily balloon measurements across the U.S.A. reveal that in some cases the air temperature actually increases from sea level up to a height of about one km, and only after reaching a plateau, it decreases at an approximately constant lapse rate. Moreover, in three examples considered here, the temperature does not remain constant at eleven km , but continues to decreases to a minimum at about sixteen kilometers , and then increases at higher altitudes at a lower rate. Calculations of atmospheric refraction based on this atmospheric data is compared with the results of simplified models.

  17. Atmospheric Dispositifs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieczorek, Izabela

    2015-01-01

    as a spatial phenomenon, exploring a multiplicity of conditions that constitute their resonant origins – i.e. the production sites from and within they have emerged. The intention is also to argue that despite the fact that atmosphere as an aesthetic category has crystallised over the last few decades...

  18. Variants of psychiatric disorders in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T A Lisitsyna

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To analyze prevalence and structure of psychiatric disorders in pts with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE examining in the Institute of rheumatology of RAMS. Material and methods. 115 pts with SLE with median age 34 [24; 45] years and median disease duration 8 [4; 17] years were included. SLE activity was assessed with SLEDAI. Psychiatric disorders were diagnosed by a psychiatrist according to ICD-10 using some psychiatric and psychological scales. Results. Psychiatric disorders were revealed in 76 from 115 (66% pts. Anxiety-depressive spectrum disorders prevailed (83%: depressive episode (40%, adjustment disorders (24%, generalized anxiety disorder (10%, dysthymia (9%. Severe cognitive dysfunction was revealed in 7% of pts. Pts with and without psychiatric disorders did not significantly differ in age, sex, duration and activity of the disease, duration of treatment and cumulative dose of prednisolone and cytotoxic drugs. Conclusion. Psychiatric disorders are frequent in pts with SLE (66%. Anxiety-depressive disorders prevail among them (83%. Relationship between SLE and psychiatric disorders requires further examination.

  19. Adolescents and Dual Diagnosis in a Psychiatric Emergency Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matali, José Luis; Andión, Oscar; Pardo, Marta; Iniesta, Raquel; Serrano, Eduard; San, Luis

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, both the prevalence of drug use and related child and adolescent psychiatric emergencies have risen sharply. There are few studies about the impact on child and adolescent emergency services. This study has a twofold aim. The first is to describe the prevalence of substance use disorders, mental disorders and dual diagnosis (substance use problems plus mental disorder) in adolescents in psychiatric emergency service. The second is to analyze clinical and healthcare differences between patients with dual diagnosis and patients with a mental disorder without substance use disorder.We retrospectively reviewed 4012 discharge forms for emergencies treated at the psychiatric emergency department during the period 2007-2009. We obtained a sample of 1795 visits. This sample was divided into two groups: the dual diagnosis group (n = 477) and the psychiatric disorder group (n = 1318).The dual diagnosis group accounted for 26.5% of psychiatric emergencies analyzed. Compared to the psychiatric disorder group,the dual diagnosis group had significantly more conduct disorders, social problems, involuntariness in the visit, less hospital admissions and less connection with the healthcare network.Adolescents with a dual diagnosis account for a high percentage of visits at child and adolescent psychiatric emergency services. This patient group requires specialized care both at emergency services and in specific units. Accordingly, these units should play a triple role when handling dual diagnosis: detection, brief treatment and referral to a specialised unit. PMID:26990268

  20. Gestational risks and psychiatric disorders among indigenous adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitbeck, Les B; Crawford, Devan M

    2009-02-01

    This study reports on the effects maternal prenatal binge drinking, cigarette smoking, drug use, and pregnancy and birth complications on meeting criteria for psychiatric disorders at ages 10-12 and 13-15 years among 546 Indigenous adolescents from a single culture in the northern Midwest and Canada. Adolescent DSM-IV psychiatric disorders were assessed with the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children-Revised (DISC-R). Results indicate that maternal behaviors when pregnant have significant effects on adolescent psychiatric disorders even when controlling for age and gender of adolescent, family per capita income, living in a single mother household, and adolescent reports of mother's positive parenting. PMID:18998209

  1. Adverse Psychiatric Effects Associated with Herbal Weight-Loss Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Saverio Bersani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and overeating are among the most prevalent health concerns worldwide and individuals are increasingly using performance and image-enhancing drugs (PIEDs as an easy and fast way to control their weight. Among these, herbal weight-loss products (HWLPs often attract users due to their health claims, assumed safety, easy availability, affordable price, extensive marketing, and the perceived lack of need for professional oversight. Reports suggest that certain HWLPs may lead to onset or exacerbation of psychiatric disturbances. Here we review the available evidence on psychiatric adverse effects of HWLPs due to their intrinsic toxicity and potential for interaction with psychiatric medications.

  2. Adverse Psychiatric Effects Associated with Herbal Weight-Loss Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersani, F. Saverio; Coviello, Marialuce; Imperatori, Claudio; Francesconi, Marta; Hough, Christina M.; Valeriani, Giuseppe; De Stefano, Gianfranco; Bolzan Mariotti Posocco, Flaminia; Santacroce, Rita; Minichino, Amedeo; Corazza, Ornella

    2015-01-01

    Obesity and overeating are among the most prevalent health concerns worldwide and individuals are increasingly using performance and image-enhancing drugs (PIEDs) as an easy and fast way to control their weight. Among these, herbal weight-loss products (HWLPs) often attract users due to their health claims, assumed safety, easy availability, affordable price, extensive marketing, and the perceived lack of need for professional oversight. Reports suggest that certain HWLPs may lead to onset or exacerbation of psychiatric disturbances. Here we review the available evidence on psychiatric adverse effects of HWLPs due to their intrinsic toxicity and potential for interaction with psychiatric medications. PMID:26457296

  3. Is it possible to strengthen psychiatric nursing staff's clinical supervision?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonge, Henrik; Buus, Niels

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To test the effects of a meta-supervision intervention in terms of participation, effectiveness and benefits of clinical supervision of psychiatric nursing staff. BACKGROUND: Clinical supervision is regarded as a central component in developing mental health nursing practices, but the evidence...... supporting positive outcomes of clinical supervision in psychiatric nursing is not convincing. DESIGN: The study was designed as a randomized controlled trial. All permanently employed nursing staff members at three general psychiatric wards at a Danish university hospital (n = 83) were allocated to either...

  4. Circadian Clocks as Modulators of Metabolic Comorbidity in Psychiatric Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barandas, Rita; Landgraf, Dominic; McCarthy, Michael J; Welsh, David K

    2015-12-01

    Psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder are often accompanied by metabolic dysfunction symptoms, including obesity and diabetes. Since the circadian system controls important brain systems that regulate affective, cognitive, and metabolic functions, and neuropsychiatric and metabolic diseases are often correlated with disturbances of circadian rhythms, we hypothesize that dysregulation of circadian clocks plays a central role in metabolic comorbidity in psychiatric disorders. In this review paper, we highlight the role of circadian clocks in glucocorticoid, dopamine, and orexin/melanin-concentrating hormone systems and describe how a dysfunction of these clocks may contribute to the simultaneous development of psychiatric and metabolic symptoms. PMID:26483181

  5. Intervention to reduce inpatient psychiatric admission in a metropolitan city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirsadri, Alireza; Mischel, Edward; Haddad, Luay; Tancer, Manuel; Arfken, Cynthia L

    2015-02-01

    When psychiatric hospitalization is over-used, it represents a financial drain and failure of care. We evaluated implementation and cessation of transporting people medically certified for psychiatric hospitalization to a central psychiatric emergency service for management and re-evaluation of hospitalization need. After implementation, the hospitalization rate declined 89% for 346 transported patients; only four of the nonhospitalized patients presented in crisis again in the next 30 days. Following cessation, the hospitalization rate jumped 59% compared to the preceding year. Costs declined 78.7% per diverted patient. The findings indicate that it is possible to reduce hospitalization and costs, and maintain quality care.

  6. Dissecting psychiatric spectrum disorders by generative embedding

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    Kay H. Brodersen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This proof-of-concept study examines the feasibility of defining subgroups in psychiatric spectrum disorders by generative embedding, using dynamical system models which infer neuronal circuit mechanisms from neuroimaging data. To this end, we re-analysed an fMRI dataset of 41 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and 42 healthy controls performing a numerical n-back working-memory task. In our generative-embedding approach, we used parameter estimates from a dynamic causal model (DCM of a visual–parietal–prefrontal network to define a model-based feature space for the subsequent application of supervised and unsupervised learning techniques. First, using a linear support vector machine for classification, we were able to predict individual diagnostic labels significantly more accurately (78% from DCM-based effective connectivity estimates than from functional connectivity between (62% or local activity within the same regions (55%. Second, an unsupervised approach based on variational Bayesian Gaussian mixture modelling provided evidence for two clusters which mapped onto patients and controls with nearly the same accuracy (71% as the supervised approach. Finally, when restricting the analysis only to the patients, Gaussian mixture modelling suggested the existence of three patient subgroups, each of which was characterised by a different architecture of the visual–parietal–prefrontal working-memory network. Critically, even though this analysis did not have access to information about the patients' clinical symptoms, the three neurophysiologically defined subgroups mapped onto three clinically distinct subgroups, distinguished by significant differences in negative symptom severity, as assessed on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS. In summary, this study provides a concrete example of how psychiatric spectrum diseases may be split into subgroups that are defined in terms of neurophysiological mechanisms specified by a

  7. Tackling nonadherence in psychiatric disorders: current opinion

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    Farooq S

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Saeed Farooq,1,2 Farooq Naeem3 1Staffordshire University, Staffordshire, UK; 2Postgraduate Medical Institute, Lady Reading Hospital, Peshawar, Pakistan; 3Department of Psychiatry, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada Abstract: Nonadherence to treatment is a major challenge in all fields of medicine, and it has been claimed that increasing the effectiveness of adherence interventions may have far greater impact on the health of the population than any improvement in specific medical treatments. However, despite widespread use of terms such as adherence and compliance, there is little agreement on definitions or measurements. Nonadherence can be intermittent or continuous, voluntary or involuntary, and may be specific to single or multiple interventions, which makes reliable measurement problematic. Both direct and indirect methods of assessment have their limitations. The current literature focuses mainly on psychotic disorders. A large number of trials of various psychological, social, and pharmacologic interventions has been reported. The results are mixed, but interventions specifically designed to improve adherence with a more intensive and focused approach and interventions combining elements from different approaches such as cognitive-behavioral therapy, family-based, and community-based approaches have shown better outcomes. Pharmacologic interventions include careful drug selection, switching when a treatment is not working, dose adjustment, simplifying the treatment regimen, and the use of long-acting injections. The results for the most studied pharmacologic intervention, ie, long-acting injections, are far from clear, and there are discrepancies between randomized controlled trials, nationwide cohort studies, and mirror-image studies. Nonadherence with treatment is often paid far less attention in routine clinical practice and psychiatric training. Strategies to measure and improve adherence in clinical practice are based more

  8. Neurotic excoriations. A controlled psychiatric examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruensgaard, K

    1984-01-01

    The investigation covers 68 patients with the primary form of neurotic excoriations (n.ex.) who within a 5 year period, 1974-78 had contact with the dermatology department, Odense University Hospital. The diagnosis was ascertained clinically - anamnestically, and by various laboratory examinations. The first 25 typical patients were matched with neurotic control patients (control group) who were homogeneous with regard to sex, age, level of intelligence, main personality traits (self-esteem, orderliness in a broad sense, hysterical traits), and level of invalidity. The primary psychiatric investigation contained a semistructured biographic interview lasting about 3 hours. N.ex. patients were on an average 42 years old at the time of reference to the dermatology department and most frequently in their 20s, 30s, and 40s. About 90% were women and only about 1/2 were married. Occupationally pensioners and workers dominated. Childhood seems on many levels to have been more discordant for n.ex. patients than for the control patients. Father and steady partners tended to have a lower social status in the n.ex. group than in the control group. A predominance of n.ex. patients lacked self-confidence (though possibly managed to mask it), were hypersensitive, meticulous or perfectionistic, suffered from sexual dysfunction. They were more reserved in contact situations than patients in the control group and often revealed no manifest need of psychiatric treatment. Significantly more in the n.ex. group than in the control group had a high level of energy and activity. There was a dominant tendency to depressive/dysphoric moods in the n.ex. group. Management of aggression was seldom without problems in both the n.ex. group and in the control group but aggressive explosions occurred with significantly greater frequency in the n.ex. group. A number of the patients in the n.ex. group described how their spouse's phlegmatism could violently irritate them. The same frequency for

  9. [The occupational health of medical personnel of psychiatric institutions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzhenskaia, E V

    2013-01-01

    The article considers the issues of self-assessment of occupational health by medical personnel of psychiatric service. The main issues and areas of occupation health disorders are identified. The main directions of disorders prevention are presented.

  10. Psychiatric disorder in two siblings with hallervorden-spatz disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunwoo, Young-Kyung; Lee, Jeong-Seop; Kim, Won-Hyoung; Shin, Yong-Bum; Lee, Myung-Ji; Cho, In-Hee; Ock, Sun-Myeong

    2009-09-01

    Hallervorden-Spatz disease (HSD) is a rare autosomal-recessive hereditary disorder characterized by the early onset of progressive movement alterations, including dystonia, rigidity, choreoathetosis, and mental deterioration. HSD is also associated with a variety of psychiatric symptoms, primarily depression and mental deterioration. However, psychosis has rarely been reported as a major symptom of HSD. We report two siblings who presented psychiatric symptoms as major clinical presentations, accompanied by ataxic and spastic gait, dysarthria, and typical neuroimaging findings of HSD. A 14-year-old girl presented complex motor tics, stereotypic behavior and anxiety symptoms. Her older brother, a 16-year-old boy, presented prominent auditory hallucinations, persecutory delusions and social withdrawal symptoms. Psychiatric symptoms were improved after atypical antipsychotic treatment. HSD is a rare disease but should be carefully considered in the diagnosis of patients with both motor disorder and various psychiatric symptoms.

  11. Psychiatric Axis I Comorbidities among Patients with Gender Dysphoria

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    Azadeh Mazaheri Meybodi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Cooccurring psychiatric disorders influence the outcome and prognosis of gender dysphoria. The aim of this study is to assess psychiatric comorbidities in a group of patients. Methods. Eighty-three patients requesting sex reassignment surgery (SRS were recruited and assessed through the Persian Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I disorders (SCID-I. Results. Fifty-seven (62.7% patients had at least one psychiatric comorbidity. Major depressive disorder (33.7%, specific phobia (20.5%, and adjustment disorder (15.7% were the three most prevalent disorders. Conclusion. Consistent with most earlier researches, the majority of patients with gender dysphoria had psychiatric Axis I comorbidity.

  12. Psychiatric personnel, risk management and the new institutionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazelton, M

    1999-12-01

    This article reports the findings of a series of ethnographic research interviews conducted with psychiatric personnel in one region of Tasmania between 1995 and 1997. These interviews formed part of a more wide-ranging project examining changes in the regulatory practices of psychiatric personnel in the light of the professional, media and policy discourses that inform them, especially in relation to the impact of social justice reforms spelt out in recent Australian mental health policy. In discussing the nature of psychiatric work the personnel interviewed returned repeatedly to the themes of safety and risk management. The study presents an analysis of discourses deployed around these themes and argues that concerns over safety and risk are central to the emergence of a new institutionalism in acute in-patient psychiatric services.

  13. Psychiatric diagnoses in a group of astronaut applicants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santy, Patricia A.; Faulk, Dean M.; Holland, Al W.

    1991-01-01

    Between 1959 and 1987, the psychiatric evaluation of astronaut candidates evolved from a 30-h intensive examination evaluating applicants for psychopathology, and studying their performance under stress, to a 2-h clinical interview whose structure and contents were determined by the individual examiner. Evaluations done during these years applied both psychiatric (or, 'select-out') criteria and psychological (or, 'select-in') criteria. In an attempt to more rigorously define the psychiatric, 'select-out' component, a standardized, semistructured clinical interview was developed to identify the presence or history of psychiatric disorders listed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 3rd Ed. ('DSM-III'). A total of 117 astronaut applicants underwent this clinical interview as part of a comprehensive medical evaluation during a recent astronaut selection. Of the 117 applicants, 9 (7.7 percent) met DSM-III criteria for a variety of Axis I and Axis II diagnoses, including V-code diagnoses.

  14. Refugee children have fewer contacts to psychiatric healthcare services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barghadouch, Amina; Kristiansen, Maria; Jervelund, Signe Smith;

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Studies show a high level of mental health problems among refugee children. This study examined whether a subset of refugee children living in Denmark accessed psychiatric healthcare services more than those born in the country. METHODS: This study compared 24,427 refugee children from...... and psychiatrists in private practice. RESULTS: Between 1 January 1996 and 30 June 2012, 3.5 % of the refugee children accessed psychiatric healthcare services compared to 7.7 % of the Danish-born children. The rate ratio of having any first-time psychiatric contact was 0.42 (95 % CI 0.40-0.45) among refugee boys...... and 0.35 (95 % CI 0.33-0.37) among refugee girls, compared to Danish-born children. Figures were similar for those accessing private psychologists or psychiatrists, emergency room, inpatient and outpatient services. CONCLUSIONS: Refugee children used fewer psychiatric healthcare services than Danish...

  15. Psychiatric diagnosis by telephone : is it an opportunity?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muskens, Esther M. H.; Lucassen, Peter; Groenleer, Wilke; van Weel, Chris; Voshaar, Richard Oude; Speckens, Anne

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: For reasons of feasibility, diagnostic telephone interviews are frequently used in research of psychiatric morbidity. However, it is unknown whether diagnostic telephone interviews are as valid as diagnostic face-to-face interviews. RESEARCH QUESTION: Are diagnostic telephone interviews

  16. Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders in Patients with Diabetes Type 2

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    S. Alireza Sajjadi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psychiatric disorders are important complications of chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus.Materials and method: In this descriptive study, 80 patients with diabetes type 2 referred to diabetes clinic of Zahedan in 2009. They were selected by simple randomized method, screened by General Health Questionnaire and assessed by psychiatric interview, if it was necessary.Results: Totally, 67.5% required an interview and 43.75% were diagnosed with a psychiatric disorder. Major depression were more prevalent (13.5% than adjustment disorders (15%.Conclusion: High prevalence of depression and adjustment disorder in diabetic patients needs psychiatric assessment and treatment as the main part, in the diabetes clinics

  17. The credible forensic psychiatric evaluation in multiple chemical sensitivity litigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, R I

    1998-01-01

    The forensic psychiatrist must be able to perform a credible psychiatric evaluation and render a competent psychiatric opinion in hotly contested multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) litigation. Forensic psychiatrists are often requested to evaluate MCS claimants by third party payers, employers, lawyers, and government agencies regarding health care costs and disability payments, workers' compensation claims, unemployment benefits, workplace accommodation reimbursements for special housing and environmental needs, civil litigation, and other claims. The credible forensic psychiatric evaluation of MCS litigants is described using the multiaxial diagnostic system of DSM-IV. Forensic psychiatrists must avoid becoming polarized by the current MCS controversy. The ethical requirements of honesty and striving for objectivity can be met by keeping separate the roles of therapist and expert, staying abreast of the scientific literature regarding MCS, and understanding the role of the psychiatric expert in MCS litigation. PMID:9785280

  18. Quantifying psychiatric comorbidity - Lessions from chronic disease epidemiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batstra, L; Bos, EH; Neeleman, J

    2002-01-01

    Background Comorbidity research in psychiatric epidemiology mostly uses measures of association like odds or risk ratios to express how strongly disorders are linked. In contrast, chronic disease epidemiologists increasingly use measures of clustering, like multimorbidity (cluster) coefficients, to

  19. Molecular Pathways Bridging Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration and Psychiatric Disorders

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    Roberta eZanardini

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The overlap of symptoms between neurodegenerative and psychiatric diseases has been reported. Neuropsychiatric alterations are commonly observed in dementia, especially in the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD, which is the most common clinical FTD subtype. At the same time, psychiatric disorders, like schizophrenia, can display symptoms of dementia, including features of frontal dysfunction with relative sparing of memory. In the present review we discuss common molecular features in these pathologies with a special focus on FTD. Molecules like Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF and progranulin are linked to the pathophysiology of both neurodegenerative and psychiatric diseases. In these brain-associated illnesses, the presence of disease-associated variants in BDNF and progranulin (GRN genes cause a reduction of circulating proteins levels, through alterations in proteins expression or secretion. For these reasons, we believe that prevention and therapy of psychiatric and neurological disorders could be achieved enhancing both BDNF and progranulin levels thanks to drug discovery efforts.

  20. Gluten encephalopathy with psychiatric onset: case report

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    Costantini Chiara

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Many cases of coeliac disease, a gastrointestinal autoimmune disorder caused by sensitivity to gluten, can remain in a subclinical stage or undiagnosed. In a significant proportion of cases (10–15% gluten intolerance can be associated with central or peripheral nervous system and psychiatric disorders. A 38-year-old man was admitted as to our department an inpatient for worsening anxiety symptoms and behavioural alterations. After the addition of second generation antipsychotic to the therapeutic regimen, the patient presented neuromotor impairment with high fever, sopor, leukocytosis, raised rhabdomyolysis-related indicators. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome was strongly suspected. After worsening of his neuropsychiatric conditions, with the onset of a frontal cognitive deficit, bradykinesia and difficulty walking, dysphagia, anorexia and hypoferraemic anaemia, SPET revealed a reduction of cerebral perfusion and ENeG results were compatible with a mainly motor polyneuropathy. Extensive laboratory investigations gave positive results for anti-gliadin antibodies, and an appropriate diet led to a progressive remission of the encephalopathy.

  1. [Forensic-psychiatric assessment of pedophilia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitschke, J; Osterheider, M; Mokros, A

    2011-09-01

    The present paper illustrates the approach of a forensic psychiatric expert witness regarding the assessment of pedophilia. In a first step it is inevitable to differentiate if the defendant is suffering from pedophilia or if the alleged crime might have been committed because of other motivations (antisociality, sexual activity as redirection, impulsivity). A sound diagnostic assessment is indispendable for this task. In a second step the level of severity needs to be gauged in order to clarify whether the requirement of the entry criteria of §§ 20, 21 of the German penal code are fulfilled. In a third step, significant impairments of self-control mechanisms need to be elucidated. The present article reviews indicators of such impairments regarding pedophilia. With respect to a mandatory treatment order (§ 63 German penal code) or preventive detention (§ 66 German penal code) the legal prognosis of the defendant needs to be considered. The present paper gives an overview of the current state of risk assessment research and discusses the transfer to an individual prognosis critically.

  2. A geneticist's approach to psychiatric disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, E A

    1987-11-01

    The pattern of the genetics of psychiatric disease is various, in detail and in kind; one cannot always expect to find simple, trustworthy explanations of what are complex relationships. There will be some diseases, mostly of the disruptive type, that will prove to be Mendelian defects; but it would be idle to expect that of most. Many disorders will be elucidated only when the nub of the problem is better defined. Mindless application of standard genetic techniques devised for quite different purposes is no substitute for articulate speculation built on sound fact and cogent testing. In this respect genetic evidence is no different from that of physiology, pathology and pharmacology, which are perhaps less unfamiliar to readers than genetics. Finally, no answer has been found unless it deals in those terms in which the question first arose. If the topic of the genetic analysis is some psychosis, the final predicate must be a statement about the psychosis, not about some arbitrary abstraction from it. PMID:3324138

  3. Inching toward Armageddon: a psychiatric view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, H D

    1983-01-01

    The existence of thermonuclear arsenals capable of destroying much of humanity takes its origins from, and has an influence on, processes that are largely psychological. The threat to use a single nuclear bomb to resolve contemporary conflict is an anathema in part because complex nation-states did not evolve with surviving a nuclear war in mind. The atomic arms race has proceeded apace because of maladaptive psychological mechanism including denial, distortion, projection, and, most relevantly, the need to enhance bonding within groups by creating stereotypes. One consequence of the arms race is a climate of fear and hopelessness, and especially destructive effect of which is seen in children. The physician's role in the prevention of nuclear war is critical, but divided between contradictory roles. On one hand, the physician is traditionally identified as a non-political advocate of the sick; on the other, as an advocate for the public health. It is this second model that enables physicians most legitimately to work for the prevention of nuclear war and to deal with the psychiatric concomitants of a planet drifting toward disaster.

  4. When psychiatric diagnosis becomes an overworked tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szmukler, George

    2014-08-01

    A psychiatric diagnosis today is asked to serve many functions-clinical, research, medicolegal, delimiting insurance coverage, service planning, defining eligibility for state benefits (eg, for unemployment or disability), as well as providing rallying points for pressure groups and charities. These contexts require different notions of diagnosis to tackle the particular problem such a designation is meant to solve. In a number of instances, a 'status' definition (ie, a diagnostic label or category) is employed to tackle what is more appropriately seen as requiring a 'functional' approach (ie, how well the person is able to meet the demands of a test of performance requiring certain capabilities, aptitudes or skills). In these instances, a diagnosis may play only a subsidiary role. Some examples are discussed: the criteria for involuntary treatment; the determination of criminal responsibility; and, assessing entitlements to state benefits. I suggest that the distinction between 'status' versus 'function' has not been given sufficient weight in discussions of diagnosis. It is in the functional domain that some of the problematic relationships between clinical psychiatry and the social institutions with which it rubs shoulders are played out. A status, signified by a diagnosis, has often been encumbered with demands for which it is poorly equipped. It is a reductive way of solving problems of management, allocation or disposal for which a functional approach should be given greater weight. PMID:24241948

  5. Psychiatric disturbance and decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radford, M H; Mann, L; Kalucy, R S

    1986-06-01

    The relationship between psychiatric disorder (as measured by severity of psychoneurotic status and depression) and decision-making behaviour was examined in a sample of 39 hospitalised patients. Measures based on the conflict theory of decision-making of Janis and Mann (1977) and the expectancy-value theory of decision-making of Edwards (1961) were administered. Patients who scored highest on measures of psychoneurotic disorder--the Middlesex Hospital Questionnaire and the Beck Depression Inventory--were least confident about their decision-making. They also reported a high use of maladaptive decision-making coping patterns, in particular decision avoidance. Slightly over one-half of the patients demonstrated an ability to make rational decisions, while the remainder made either irrational decisions or avoided making any decision at all. Observation in the test session revealed that patients were strikingly slow in answering the questionnaires and often attempted to make no response. The importance of this area of research for patient assessment and treatment is discussed.

  6. Structural plasticity mechanisms and developmental psychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique eMuller

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Synaptic plasticity mechanisms are usually discussed in terms of changes in synaptic strength. The capacity of excitatory synapses to rapidly modify the membrane expression of glutamate receptors in an activity-dependent manner plays a critical role in learning and memory processes by re-distributing activity within neuronal networks. Recent work has however also shown that functional plasticity properties are associated with a rewiring of synaptic connections and a selective stabilization of activated synapses. These structural aspects of plasticity have the potential to continuously modify the organization of synaptic networks and thereby introduce specificity in the wiring diagram of cortical circuits. Recent work has started to unravel some of the molecular mechanisms that underlie these properties of structural plasticity, highlighting an important role of signaling pathways that are also major candidates for contributing to developmental psychiatric disorders. We review here some of these recent advances and discuss the hypothesis that alterations of structural plasticity could represent a common mechanism contributing to the cognitive and functional defects observed in diseases such as intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia.

  7. An observational study in psychiatric acute patients admitted to General Hospital Psychiatric Wards in Italy

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    Margari Francesco

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives this Italian observational study was aimed at collecting data of psychiatric patients with acute episodes entering General Hospital Psychiatric Wards (GHPWs. Information was focused on diagnosis (DSM-IV, reasons of hospitalisation, prescribed treatment, outcome of aggressive episodes, evolution of the acute episode. Methods assessments were performed at admission and discharge. Used psychometric scales were the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS, the Modified Overt Aggression Scale (MOAS and the Nurses' Observation Scale for Inpatient Evaluation (NOSIE-30. Results 864 adult patients were enrolled in 15 GHPWs: 728 (320 M; mean age 43.6 yrs completed both admission and discharge visits. A severe psychotic episode with (19.1% or without (47.7% aggressive behaviour was the main reason of admission. Schizophrenia (42.8% at admission and 40.1% at discharge and depression (12.9% at admission and 14.7% at discharge were the predominant diagnoses. The mean hospital stay was 12 days. The mean (± SD total score of MOAS at admission, day 7 and discharge was, respectively, 2.53 ± 5.1, 0.38 ± 2.2, and 0.21 ± 1.5. Forty-four (6.0% patients had episodes of aggressiveness at admission and 8 (1.7% at day 7. A progressive improvement in each domain/item vs. admission was observed for MOAS and BPRS, while NOSIE-30 did not change from day 4 onwards. The number of patients with al least one psychotic drug taken at admission, in the first 7 days of hospitalisation, and prescribed at discharge, was, respectively: 472 (64.8%, 686 (94.2% and 676 (92.9%. The respective most frequently psychotic drugs were: BDZs (60.6%, 85.7%, 69.5%, typical anti-psychotics (48.3%, 57.0%, 49.6%, atypical anti-psychotics (35.6%, 41.8%, 39.8% and antidepressants (40.9%, 48.8%, 43.2%. Rates of patients with one, two or > 2 psychotic drugs taken at admission and day 7, and prescribed at discharge, were, respectively: 24.8%, 8.2% and 13.5% in mono-therapy; 22.0%, 20

  8. Gestational Risks and Psychiatric Disorders Among Indigenous Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Whitbeck, Les B.; Crawford, Devan M.

    2008-01-01

    This study reports on the effects maternal prenatal binge drinking, cigarette smoking, drug use, and pregnancy and birth complications on meeting criteria for psychiatric disorders at ages 10–12 and 13–15 years among 546 Indigenous adolescents from a single culture in the northern Midwest and Canada. Adolescent DSM-IV psychiatric disorders were assessed with the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children-Revised (DISC-R). Results indicate that maternal behaviors when pregnant have significant...

  9. Psychiatric characterization of children with genetic causes of hyperandrogenism

    OpenAIRE

    Mueller, Sven; Ng, Pamela; Sinaii, Ninet; Leschek, Ellen; Green-Golan, Liza; VanRyzin, Carol; Ernst, Monique; Merke, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Very little is known about the mental health status in children with genetic causes of hyperandrogenism. This study sought to characterize psychiatric morbidity in this group. Design/methods: Children (8-18 years) with the diagnosis of classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) or familial male precocious puberty (FMPP) underwent a semi-structured psychiatric interview, the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Present and Lifetime Version. According to sex an...

  10. Incidence of psychiatric disorders after extended residence in Antarctica

    OpenAIRE

    Palinkas, Lawrence A; Glogower, Frederic; Dembert, Mark; Hansen, Kendall; Smullen, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Objectives. The incidence of psychiatric disorders and depressive symptoms was examined in a cohort of American men and women who spent an austral winter at two different research stations in Antarctica to determine whether extended residence of nonindigenous inhabitants in a polar region is associated with psychiatric morbidity. Study Design. Debriefings interviews with 220 men and 93 women were conducted by 3 psychiatrists and 1 clinical psychologist at McMurdo Station and South Pole Statio...

  11. Psychiatric Disorders and TRP Channels: Focus on Psychotropic Drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Nazıroğlu, Mustafa; Demirdaş, Arif

    2015-01-01

    Psychiatric and neurological disorders are mostly associated with the changes in neural calcium ion signaling pathways required for activity-triggered cellular events. One calcium channel family is the TRP cation channel family, which contains seven subfamilies. Results of recent papers have discovered that calcium ion influx through TRP channels is important. We discuss the latest advances in calcium ion influx through TRP channels in the etiology of psychiatric disorders. Activation of TRPC...

  12. Psychiatric morbidity at secondary level health facility in Ballabgarh, Haryana

    OpenAIRE

    Harshal Salve; Pradip Kharya; Puneet Misra; Rai, Sanjay K.; Shashi Kant

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is dearth of information about psychiatric morbidity at secondary level health facility in India. Aim: To study psychiatric morbidity amongst patients attending psychiatry clinic in secondary level health facility. Settings and Design: Present study is based on hospital record review of psychiatry clinic at secondary care hospital in Ballabgarh, Haryana. Materials and Methods: Service record of psychiatry clinic at civil hospital Ballabgarh was reviewed. Diagnosis of psychia...

  13. Epigenetic signaling in psychiatric disorders: stress and depression

    OpenAIRE

    Bagot, Rosemary C.; Labonté, Benoit; Peña, Catherine J.; Nestler, Eric J.

    2014-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders are complex multifactorial disorders involving chronic alterations in neural circuit structure and function. While genetic factors play a role in the etiology of disorders such as depression, addiction, and schizophrenia, relatively high rates of discordance among identical twins clearly point to the importance of additional factors. Environmental factors, such as stress, play a major role in the psychiatric disorders by inducing stable changes in gene expression, neural...

  14. Stress load during childhood affects psychopathology in psychiatric patients

    OpenAIRE

    Popov Tzvetan; Awiszus Barbara; Borgelt Jens; Rockstroh Brigitte; Weber Katja; Hoffmann Klaus; Schonauer Klaus; Watzl Hans; Pröpster Karl

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Childhood stress and trauma have been related to adult psychopathology in different psychiatric disorders. The present study aimed at verifying this relationship for stressful experiences during developmental periods by screening stress load across life in adult psychiatric inpatients with different diagnoses compared to healthy subjects. In addition, a relationship between the amount of adverse experiences and the severity of pathology, which has been described as a 'buil...

  15. Preterm birth and psychiatric disorder in young adult life

    OpenAIRE

    Nosarti, Chiara; Reichenberg, Abraham; Murray, Robin M.; Cnattingius, Sven; Lambe, Mats P.; Yin, Li; MacCabe, James; Rifkin, Larry; Hultman, Christina M

    2012-01-01

    Context: Preterm birth, intrauterine growth restriction, and delivery-related hypoxia have been associated with schizophrenia. It is unclear whether these associations pertain to other adult-onset psychiatric disorders and whether these perinatal events are independent.Objective: To investigate the relationships among gestational age, nonoptimal fetal growth, Apgar score, and various psychiatric disorders in young adult life.Design: Historical population-based cohort study.Setting: Identifica...

  16. Mental health of psychiatric outpatients bullied in childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Fosse, Gunilla Klensmeden

    2006-01-01

    Bullying hurts – even many years later This thesis indicates that bullying by peers in school during childhood is associated withmental health problems in adulthood; almost50 per cent of the 160 psychiatric outpatients reported bullying by peers. As adults, those bullied in childhood demonstrated higher psychiatric symptom levels, lower self-esteem and more external locus of control. They also reported more bulimianervosa. In addition, they were often singles, and, they had lower levels of e...

  17. Insomnia as a Transdiagnostic Process in Psychiatric Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Dolsen, Michael R.; Asarnow, Lauren D.; Harvey, Allison G.

    2014-01-01

    Insomnia is a major public health concern, and is highly comorbid with a broad range of psychiatric disorders. Although insomnia has historically been considered a symptom of other disorders, this perspective has shifted. Epidemiological and experimental studies suggest that insomnia is related to the onset and course of several psychiatric disorders. Furthermore, several randomized controlled trials show that cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia delivered to individuals who meet diagnos...

  18. Predicting Suicides After Psychiatric Hospitalization in US Army Soldiers

    OpenAIRE

    Kessler, Ronald; Warner, Christopher H.; Ivany, Christopher; Petukhova, Maria; Rose, Sherri; Bromet, Evelyn J.; Brown, Millard; Cai, Tianxi; Colpe, Lisa J.; Cox, Kenneth L.; Fullerton, Carol S.; Gilman, Stephen Edward; Gruber, Michael; Heeringa, Steven G.; Lewandowski-Romps, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: The US Army experienced a sharp increase in soldier suicides beginning in 2004. Administrative data reveal that among those at highest risk are soldiers in the 12 months after inpatient treatment of a psychiatric disorder. OBJECTIVE: To develop an actuarial risk algorithm predicting suicide in the 12 months after US Army soldier inpatient treatment of a psychiatric disorder to target expanded posthospitalization care. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: There were 53,769 hospitaliz...

  19. Rediscovering Psychopathology: The Epistemology and Phenomenology of the Psychiatric Object

    OpenAIRE

    Parnas, Josef; Sass, Louis A.; ZAHAVI, DAN

    2012-01-01

    Questions concerning both the ontology and epistemology of the “psychiatric object” (symptoms and signs) should be at the forefront of current concerns of psychiatry as a clinical neuroscience. We argue that neglect of these issues is a crucial source of the stagnation of psychiatric research. In honor of the centenary of Karl Jaspers’ book, General Psychopathology, we offer a critique of the contemporary “operationalist” epistemology, a critique that is consistent with Jaspers’ views. Sympto...

  20. Migraine predicts physical and pain symptoms among psychiatric outpatients

    OpenAIRE

    Hung, Ching-I; Liu, Chia-Yih; Wang, Shuu-Jiun

    2013-01-01

    Background No study has been performed to compare the impacts of migraine and major depressive episode (MDE) on depression, anxiety and somatic symptoms, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among psychiatric outpatients. The aim of this study was to investigate the above issue. Methods This study enrolled consecutive psychiatric outpatients with mood and/or anxiety disorders who undertook a first visit to a medical center. Migraine was diagnosed according to the International Classific...

  1. Knowledge Work and Knowledge Creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dau, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    instructions in respectively teacher and radiographyundergraduate educations influences the student’s creativity and knowledge creation in the use of virtualmedia?The paper is based on a longitudinal case study of two classes of teacher and radiography students’wayfinding within blended learning environments......, internship, home and virtual environment. The samplingconsisted of 18 focus group interviews including students, teachers and internship supervisors. Thesampling was carried out among the informants. Focus group interviews were carried out three times andobservation studies four times in the period 2012...... thinking than well-planned instructions.The teachers ICT competencies and the instructions they carried out highly influenced students’ creativeknowledge creation. Highly structured instructional designs seemed to decrease students creativeknowledge work and limit their knowledge creation. In contrary, low...

  2. Psychiatric morbidity in psoriasis: a study in Himachal Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhash Kashyap

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psychiatric morbidity in psoriasis is influenced by socio-cultural factors. Most of the studies in this perspective are done in western setup; to extrapolate them on Indian patients with different demographic and socio-cultural profile may not be appropriate. Our study was designed to evaluate the prevalence and its correlation to various socio-economic variables in Indian patients. Methods: This was a non-interventional, cross-sectional study, in which 125 consecutive psoriasis patients over one year were screened for psychiatric morbidity. Demographic and disease parameters including Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI, Psoriasis Disability Index (PDI, General Health Questionnaire (GHQ, Comprehensive Psychopathological Rating Scale (CPRS were recorded along with the severity assessment of psychiatric morbidity and its relation to these variables was analyzed. Results: Among 125 psoriasis patients, 43 (35.2% had psychiatric morbidity. Thirty two (26.4% had depression, 3 (2.4% had dysthymia, generalized anxiety disorder and adjustment disorder each, and 2 (1.6% suffered social phobia. A significant increase in psychiatric morbidity was seen with increase in PDI and PASI scores. Conclusions: There is a significant psychiatric morbidity associated with psoriasis and it increases with severity of the disease. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(7.000: 2524-2527

  3. Functional neuroimaging and presenting psychiatric features in frontotemporal dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, M F; McMurtray, A; Chen, A K; Shapira, J S; Mishkin, F; Miller, B L

    2006-01-01

    Background Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a behavioural syndrome caused by degeneration of the frontal and anterior temporal lobes. Behavioural disturbances include psychiatric features. Whether patients with FTD present with psychiatric features varies with the initial neuroanatomical variability of FTD. Objective To identify presenting psychiatric changes not part of diagnostic criteria of FTD and contrast them with the degree of hemispheric asymmetry and frontal and temporal hypoperfusion on single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging. Methods 74 patients who met consensus criteria for FTD were evaluated at a two year follow up. All had brain SPECT on initial presentation. Results of an FTD psychiatric checklist were contrasted with ratings of regional hypoperfusion. Results The regions of predominant hypoperfusion did not correlate with differences on FTD demographic variables but were associated with presenting psychiatric features. Dysthymia and anxiety were associated with right temporal hypoperfusion. “Moria” or frivolous behaviour also occurred with temporal lobe changes, especially on the right. The only significant frontal lobe feature was the presence of a peculiar physical bearing in association with right frontal hypoperfusion. Conclusions Patients with FTD may present with psychiatric changes distinct from the behavioural diagnostic criteria for this disorder. Early temporal involvement is associated with frivolous behaviour and right temporal involvement is associated with emotional disturbances. In contrast, those with right frontal disease may present with alterations in non‐verbal behaviour. PMID:16043457

  4. The Co-evolution of Neuroimaging and Psychiatric Neurosurgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyster, Timothy G.; Mikell, Charles B.; Sheth, Sameer A.

    2016-01-01

    The role of neuroimaging in psychiatric neurosurgery has evolved significantly throughout the field’s history. Psychiatric neurosurgery initially developed without the benefit of information provided by modern imaging modalities, and thus lesion targets were selected based on contemporary theories of frontal lobe dysfunction in psychiatric disease. However, by the end of the 20th century, the availability of structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) allowed for the development of mechanistic theories attempting to explain the anatamofunctional basis of these disorders, as well as the efficacy of stereotactic neuromodulatory treatments. Neuroimaging now plays a central and ever-expanding role in the neurosurgical management of psychiatric disorders, by influencing the determination of surgical candidates, allowing individualized surgical targeting and planning, and identifying network-level changes in the brain following surgery. In this review, we aim to describe the coevolution of psychiatric neurosurgery and neuroimaging, including ways in which neuroimaging has proved useful in elucidating the therapeutic mechanisms of neuromodulatory procedures. We focus on ablative over stimulation-based procedures given their historical precedence and the greater opportunity they afford for post-operative re-imaging, but also discuss important contributions from the deep brain stimulation (DBS) literature. We conclude with a discussion of how neuroimaging will transition the field of psychiatric neurosurgery into the era of precision medicine. PMID:27445706

  5. Psychiatric symptoms and CAG expansion in Huntington`s disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, M.W.; Schmid, W.; Spiegel, R. [Univ. of Zuerich (Switzerland)

    1996-02-16

    The mutation responsible for Huntington`s disease (HD) is an elongated CAG repeat in the coding region of the IT15 gene. A PCR-based test with high sensitivity and accuracy is now available to identify asymptomatic gene carriers and patients. An inverse correlation between CAG copy number and age at disease onset has been found in a large number of affected individuals. The influence of the CAG repeat expansion on other phenotypic manifestations, especially specific psychiatric symptoms has not been studied intensively. In order to elucidate this situation we investigated the relation between CAG copy number and distinct psychiatric phenotypes found in 79 HD-patients. None of the four differentiated categories (personality change, psychosis, depression, and nonspecific alterations) showed significant differences in respect to size of the CAG expansion. In addition, no influence of individual sex on psychiatric presentation could be found. On the other hand in patients with personality changes maternal transmission was significantly more frequent compared with all other groups. Therefore we suggest that clinical severity of psychiatric features in HD is not directly dependent on the size of the dynamic mutation involved. The complex pathogenetic mechanisms leading to psychiatric alterations are still unknown and thus genotyping does not provide information about expected psychiatric symptoms in HD gene carriers. 40 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  6. Internação psiquiátrica e ordem judicial: saberes e poderes sobre adolescentes usuários de drogas ilícitas Internación psiquiátrica y orden judicial: saberes y poderes sobre adolescentes usuarios de drogas ilícitas Psychiatric internments and judicial orders: knowledge and power with regard to drug-abuse young people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Cristina Coelho Scisleski

    2008-09-01

    én es un medio de ingreso a los servicios de salud.Judicial orders for compulsory psychiatric internment of adolescents in drug abuse situations experiencing social marginality conditions are analyzed. Essay is based on a Master's research in the Post-graduation Program of Social and Institutional Psychology of UFRGS, carried out in a public psychiatric hospital in Porto Alegre RS Brazil. Current study investigates how this kind of psychiatric internment is produced, taking into account the adolescent's social trajectories. The essay discusses judicial orders for psychiatric internment in guiding the adolescents to the health services and questions their effects in public politics and in subjectivity processes. Results show judicial orders with regard to psychiatric internment may be a form of punishment for young people and an access to health services.

  7. Factors predicting adherence with psychiatric follow-up appointments for patients assessed by the liaison psychiatric team in the emergency department.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Agyapong, Vincent I O

    2010-01-01

    Several factors may predict adherence with psychiatric follow-up appointment for patients seen in the emergency department (ED) by liaison psychiatric teams. Awareness of these factors would allow for interventions targeted at vulnerable groups.

  8. The lived experience by psychiatric nurses of aggression and violence from patients in a Gauteng psychiatric institution

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    E. Bimenyimana

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Caring for good people is difficult enough; to care for people who are either aggressive or violent is even more difficult. This is what psychiatric nurses working in the psychiatric institution in which research was done are exposed to on a daily basis. The aim of the research was to explore and describe the lived experience by psychiatric nurses of aggression and violence from patients in a Gauteng psychiatric institution. A qualitative, explorative, descriptive, and contextual study design was utilised. Data was collected by means of semi-structured interviews and naïve sketches. Tesch’s (Creswell, 2004:256 method of open coding and an independent coder were utilised for data analysis. This study shed some light on the lived experience by psychiatric nurses of aggression and violence from patients in a Gauteng psychiatric institution. The findings show that the level of violence and aggression to which psychiatric nurses are exposed is overwhelming and the consequences are alarming. The contributing factors to this violence and aggression are: the mental status and the conditions in which patients are admitted; the staff shortage; the lack of support among the members of the multidisciplinary team (MDT; and the lack of structured and comprehensive orientation among newly appointed staff members. As a result, psychiatric nurses are emotionally, psychologically, and physically affected. They then respond with the following emotions and behaviour: fear, anger, frustration, despair, hopelessness and helplessness, substance abuse, absenteeism, retaliation and the development of an “I don’t care” attitude.

  9. Saturn's Polar Atmosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Sayanagi, Kunio M; Dyudina, Ulyana A; Fletcher, Leigh N; Sánchez-Lavega, Agustin; West, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    This book chapter, Saturn's Polar Atmosphere, is to be published by Cambridge University Press as part of a multi-volume work edited by Kevin Baines, Michael Flasar, Norbert Krupp, and Thomas Stallard, entitled "Saturn in the 21st Century." This chapter reviews the state of our knowledge about Saturn's polar atmosphere that has been revealed through Earth- and space-based observation as well as theoretical and numerical modeling. In particular, the Cassini mission to Saturn, which has been in orbit around the ringed planet since 2004, has revolutionized our understanding of the planet. The current review updates a previous review by Del Genio et al (2009; Saturn Atmospheric Structure and Dynamics, Chapter 7 of "Saturn from Cassini-Huygens"), written after Cassini's primary mission phase that ended in 2008, by focusing on the north polar region of Saturn and comparing it to the southern high latitudes. Two prominent features in the northern high latitudes are the northern hexagon and the north polar vortex; we...

  10. Forty years of a psychiatric day hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosário Curral

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Day hospitals in psychiatry are a major alternative to inpatient care today, acting as key components of community and social psychiatry. Objective: To study trends in the use of psychiatric day hospitals over the last decades of the 20th century and the first decade of the 21st century, focusing on patient age, sex, and diagnostic group, using data from Centro Hospitalar São João, Porto, Portugal. METHODS: Data corresponding to years 1970 to 2009 were collected from patient files. Patients were classified into seven diagnostic groups considering their primary diagnoses only. RESULTS: Mean age upon admission rose from 32.7±12.1 years in the second half of the 1970s to 43.5±12.2 years in 2005-2009 (p for trend < 0.001. Most patients were female (63.2%, however their proportion decreased from nearly 70% in the 1970s to 60% in the first decade of the 21st century. In males, until the late 1980s, neurotic disorders (E were the most common diagnosis, accounting for more than one third of admissions. In the subsequent years, this proportion decreased, and the number of admissions for schizophrenia (C exceeded 50% in 2004- 2009. In females, until the late 1980s, affective disorders (D and neurotic disorders (E, similarly distributed, accounted for most admissions. From the 1990s on, the proportion of neurotic disorders (E substantially decreased, and affective disorders (D came to represent more than 50% of all admissions. CONCLUSIONS: Mean age upon admission rose with time, as did the percentage of female admissions, even though the latter tendency weakened in the last 10 years assessed. There was also an increase in the proportion of patients with schizophrenia.

  11. [Diagnosis and classification in psychiatric disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campillo Serrano, C; Romero, M; Díaz Martínez, R

    1994-01-01

    This paper provides a general overview of the evolution of the diagnostic concepts in Psychiatry, of the research methods for future improvement, of the goals reached and of the deterrants that have to be surpassed. Classification, standardization and systematization of mental disorders has not been an easy task. For this reason, during a long period of time a wide diversity in the classification of the mental illness that ran along with the thinking trend of each and everyone of the different authors has been observed. This resulted in a division of the specialty and in the contamination of its ideologies and also, it has damaged the reputation of the diagnosis. The development of psychopharmacology and of the epidemiological systems made necessary the implementation of a strict diagnostic system that could make possible the planning of treatments, the establishment of prognosis and the design of preventive measurements. England was the cradle of this change due to the fact that the situation of the specialty availed itself of the influence of the prestigious and noteworthy German professors exiled in this country. Since 1972, some of the material that has been published illustrates the new tendency of nosology. Since then, there has been a great proliferation of works in this field. The culminating point of these investigations is represented by the Diagnosis and Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Association and by the International Classification of Illnesses (ICD-10). From this point of view, diagnosis is just a provisional hypothesis of a work that can be identified because of its pathological expressions and which is also of help in the communication between specialists.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7557053

  12. Monoamine oxidase and agitation in psychiatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolac Perkovic, Matea; Svob Strac, Dubravka; Nedic Erjavec, Gordana; Uzun, Suzana; Podobnik, Josip; Kozumplik, Oliver; Vlatkovic, Suzana; Pivac, Nela

    2016-08-01

    Subjects with schizophrenia or conduct disorder display a lifelong pattern of antisocial, aggressive and violent behavior and agitation. Monoamine oxidase (MAO) is an enzyme involved in the degradation of various monoamine neurotransmitters and neuromodulators and therefore has a role in various psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders and pathological behaviors. Platelet MAO-B activity has been associated with psychopathy- and aggression-related personality traits, while variants of the MAOA and MAOB genes have been associated with diverse clinical phenotypes, including aggressiveness, antisocial problems and violent delinquency. The aim of the study was to evaluate the association of platelet MAO-B activity, MAOB rs1799836 polymorphism and MAOA uVNTR polymorphism with severe agitation in 363 subjects with schizophrenia and conduct disorder. The results demonstrated significant association of severe agitation and smoking, but not diagnosis or age, with platelet MAO-B activity. Higher platelet MAO-B activity was found in subjects with severe agitation compared to non-agitated subjects. Platelet MAO-B activity was not associated with MAOB rs1799836 polymorphism. These results suggested the association between increased platelet MAO-B activity and severe agitation. No significant association was found between severe agitation and MAOA uVNTR or MAOB rs1799836 polymorphism, revealing that these individual polymorphisms in MAO genes are not related to severe agitation in subjects with schizophrenia and conduct disorder. As our study included 363 homogenous Caucasian male subjects, our data showing this negative genetic association will be a useful addition to future meta-analyses. PMID:26851573

  13. Clinical features and therapeutic management of patients admitted to Italian acute hospital psychiatric units: the PERSEO (psychiatric emergency study and epidemiology) survey

    OpenAIRE

    Russo Federico; Righi Roberto; Minervini Lina; Margari Francesco; Casacchia Massimo; Boncompagni Giancarlo; Boccalon Roberto M; Ballerini Andrea; Salteri Andrea; Frediani Sonia; Rossi Andrea; Scatigna Marco

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background The PERSEO study (psychiatric emergency study and epidemiology) is a naturalistic, observational clinical survey in Italian acute hospital psychiatric units, called SPDCs (Servizio Psichiatrico Diagnosi e Cura; in English, the psychiatric service for diagnosis and management). The aims of this paper are: (i) to describe the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients, including sociodemographic features, risk factors, life habits and psychiatric diagnoses; and...

  14. Family history of psychiatric illness as a risk factor for schizoaffective disorder: a Danish register-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Thomas Munk; Labouriau, Rodrigo; Licht, Rasmus W;

    2005-01-01

    , or schizophrenia among parents and siblings is a risk factor for developing a schizoaffective disorder, and whether a specific pattern of family history of psychiatric illness exists in persons with schizoaffective disorder compared with persons with bipolar disorder or schizophrenia. DESIGN: Register-based cohort......BACKGROUND: Schizoaffective disorder may be related to both schizophrenia and bipolar disorders, but no population-based studies, to our knowledge, have investigated this association in families. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether a psychiatric history of schizoaffective disorder, bipolar disorder...... study. SETTING: Denmark. COHORT: The 2.4 million persons born in Denmark after 1952. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Relative risks of the 3 illnesses estimated by Poisson regression. RESULTS: In total, 1925 persons had a schizoaffective disorder, 3721 had a bipolar disorder, and 12 501 had schizophrenia...

  15. Constructing Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanton, Patricia

    2003-02-01

    Schools are expected to lay the foundation upon which knowledge can be built and equip students with the tools necessary to accomplish the construction. The role of the teacher in this building process is crucial to the type of structure the student can build. Whether you call it constructivism, discussion teaching, project-based learning, inquiry learning, or any of the other names given to the instructional strategies being suggested by education researchers, the key is getting students to become active participants in the process. While some students may be able to learn from eloquently delivered lectures and dynamic demonstrations, the majority of students cannot effectively retain and apply ideas communicated in this manner.

  16. A Comparative Study of HIV/AIDS: The Knowledge, Attitudes, and Risk Behaviors of Schizophrenic and Diabetic Patients in Regard to HIV/AIDS in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ogunsemi Olawale O; Lawal Rahmaan A; Okulate Gbenga T; Alebiosu Christopher O; Olatawura Michael O

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Context Studies on knowledge and risk behaviors related to HIV/AIDS reported from developed countries have shown that people with psychiatric disorders constitute a special risk group. In Nigeria, although similar studies have been conducted on various population groups, there has, so far, been no reported study on people suffering from psychiatric disorders. Objective The present study set out to compare knowledge, attitudes, and risk behaviors related to HIV/AIDS among schizophreni...

  17. A Comparative Study of HIV/AIDS: The Knowledge, Attitudes, and Risk Behaviors of Schizophrenic and Diabetic Patients in Regard to HIV/AIDS in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ogunsemi, Olawale O; Lawal, Rahmaan A; Okulate, Gbenga T; Christopher O. Alebiosu; Michael O. Olatawura

    2006-01-01

    Context Studies on knowledge and risk behaviors related to HIV/AIDS reported from developed countries have shown that people with psychiatric disorders constitute a special risk group. In Nigeria, although similar studies have been conducted on various population groups, there has, so far, been no reported study on people suffering from psychiatric disorders. Objective The present study set out to compare knowledge, attitudes, and risk behaviors related to HIV/AIDS among schizophrenic patient...

  18. Deep brain stimulation for psychiatric diseases: what are the risks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Christian; Fontaine, Denys

    2015-05-01

    Despite the application of deep brain stimulation (DBS) as an efficient treatment modality for psychiatric disorders, such as obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome (GTS), and treatment refractory major depression (TRD), few patients are operated or included in clinical trials, often for fear of the potential risks of an approach deemed too dangerous. To assess the surgical risks, we conducted an analysis of publications on DBS for psychiatric disorders. A PubMed search was conducted on reports on DBS for OCD, GTS, and TRD. Forty-nine articles were included. Only reports on complications related to DBS were selected and analyzed. Two hundred seventy-two patients with a mean follow-up of 22 months were included in our analysis. Surgical mortality was nil. The overall mortality was 1.1 %: two suicides were unrelated to DBS and one death was reported to be unlikely due to DBS. The majority of complications were transient and related to stimulation. Long-term morbidity occurred in 16.5 % of cases. Three patients had permanent neurological complications due to intracerebral hemorrhage (2.2 %). Complications reported in DBS for psychiatric diseases appear to be similar to those reported for DBS in movement disorders. But class I evidence is lacking. Our analysis was based mainly on small non-randomized studies. A significant number of patients (approximately 150 patients) who were treated with DBS for psychiatric diseases had to be excluded from our analysis as no data on complications was available. The exact prevalence of complications of DBS in psychiatric diseases could not be established. DBS for psychiatric diseases is promising, but remains an experimental technique in need of further evaluation. A close surveillance of patients undergoing DBS for psychiatric diseases is mandatory. PMID:25795265

  19. Psychiatric diagnoses in patients with burning mouth syndrome and atypical odontalgia referred from psychiatric to dental facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miho Takenoshita

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Miho Takenoshita1, Tomoko Sato1, Yuichi Kato1, Ayano Katagiri1, Tatsuya Yoshikawa1, Yusuke Sato2, Eisuke Matsushima3, Yoshiyuki Sasaki4, Akira Toyofuku11Psychosomatic Dentistry, 2Complete Denture Prosthodontics, 3Liaison Psychiatry and Palliative Medicine, 4Center for Education and Research in Oral Health Care, Faculty of Dentistry, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, JapanBackground: Burning mouth syndrome (BMS and atypical odontalgia (AO are two conditions involving chronic oral pain in the absence of any organic cause. Psychiatrically they can both be considered as “somatoform disorder”. From the dental point of view, however, the two disorders are quite distinct. BMS is a burning or stinging sensation in the mouth in association with a normal mucosa whereas AO is most frequently associated with a continuous pain in the teeth or in a tooth socket after extraction in the absence of any identifiable cause. Because of the absence of organic causes, BMS and AO are often regarded as psychogenic conditions, although the relationship between oral pain and psychologic factors is still unclear. Some studies have analyzed the psychiatric diagnoses of patients with chronic oral pain who have been referred from dental facilities to psychiatric facilities. No study to date has investigated patients referred from psychiatric facilities to dental facilities.Objective: To analyze the psychiatric diagnoses of chronic oral pain patients, diagnosed with BMS and AO, and referred from psychiatric facilities to dental facilities.Study design: Psychiatric diagnoses and disease conditions of BMS or AO were investigated in 162 patients by reviewing patients’ medical records and referral forms. Psychiatric diagnoses were categorized according to the International Statistical Classification of Disease and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision.Results: The proportion of F4 classification (neurotic, stress

  20. Psychiatric Status across Body Mass Index in a Mediterranean Spanish Population.

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    Mario Gutiérrez-Bedmar

    Full Text Available Mental and body weight disorders are among the major global health challenges, and their comorbidity may play an important role in treatment and prevention of both pathologies. A growing number of studies have examined the relationship between psychiatric status and body weight, but our knowledge is still limited.The present study aims to investigate the cross-sectional relationships of psychiatric status and body mass index (BMI in Málaga, a Mediterranean city in the South of Spain.A total of 563 participants were recruited from those who came to his primary care physician, using a systematic random sampling, non-proportional stratified by BMI categories. Structured clinical interviews were used to assess current Axes-I and II mental disorders according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR. BMI was calculated as weight (Kg divided by square of height in meters (m2. Logistic regression was used to investigate the association between BMI and the presence of any mental disorder. BMI was introduced in the models using restricted cubic splines.We found that high BMI values were directly associated with mood and adjustment disorders, and low BMI values were directly associated with avoidant and dependent personality disorders (PDs. We observed an inverse relationship between low BMI values and cluster A PDs. There were not significant relationships between anxiety or substance-related disorders and BMI.Psychiatric status and BMI are related in a Mediterranean Spanish population. A multidisciplinary approach to both pathologies becomes increasingly more necessary.

  1. Factors affecting hospital stay in psychiatric patients: the role of active comorbidity

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    Douzenis Athanassios

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research on length of stay (LOS of psychiatric inpatients is an under-investigated issue. In this naturalistic study factors which affect LOS of two groups of patients were investigated, focusing on the impact on LOS of medical comorbidity severe enough to require referral. Methods Active medical comorbidity was quantified using referral as the criterion. The study sample consisted of 200 inpatients with the diagnosis of schizophrenia and 228 inpatients suffering from bipolar disorder (type I or II. Jonckheere and Mann–Whitney tests were used to estimate the influence of referrals on LOS, and regression analyses isolated variables associated with LOS separately for each group. Results Half of the patients needed one or more referrals for a non-psychiatric problem. The most common medical condition of patients with bipolar disorder was arterial hypertension. Inpatients with schizophrenia suffered mostly from an endocrine/metabolic disease - 12% of referrals were for Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. A positive linear trend was found between LOS and number of referrals; the effect was greater for schizophrenia patients. The effect of referrals on LOS was verified by regression in both groups. Overall, referred patients showed greater improvement in GAF compared to controls. Conclusions To our knowledge this was the first study to investigate physical comorbidity in psychiatric inpatients using the criterion of referral to medical subspecialties. Comorbidity severe enough to warrant referral is a significant determinant of hospital stay. This insight may prove useful in health care planning. The results show lack of effective community care in the case of schizophrenia and negative symptoms may be the cause of this. Our findings call for more attention to be paid to the general medical needs of inpatients with severe mental health and concurrent severe medical comorbidity.

  2. Self-esteem, life stress and psychiatric disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, P M; Kreitman, N B; Ingham, J G; Sashidharan, S P

    1989-01-01

    Using a special subsample from a survey of women in Edinburgh investigations were carried out into (a) which types of life event are associated with lowered self-esteem; (b) the role of life events and self-esteem in onset of psychiatric disorder; and (c) the additional significance of prior psychiatric consultation in determining onset. Stressors involving impaired relationships with others were the only ones clearly associated with lowered self-esteem. Minor psychiatric illness was predicted by stress of uncertain outcome, and, to a lesser extent, by impaired relationship stress. Onset of major depression was best predicted by an interaction between total stress experienced and low self-esteem. There was evidence that such onset involves a pre-existing low level of self-esteem on which life stress impinges, rather than life stress generating low self-esteem and then onset. A small group of subjects characterised by low self-esteem, prior psychiatric consultation and maladaptive coping seemed to be fluctuating in and out of psychiatric illness irrespective of stress.

  3. Psychiatric disorders in patients with end-stage renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martiny, Camila; e Silva, Adriana Cardoso de Oliveira; Neto, José Pedro Simões; Nardi, Antonio Egidio

    2012-09-01

    Psychiatric disorders in patients with end-stage renal disease are associated with poor prognosis and quality of life. The goal of this study is to investigate the association between psychiatric disorders and renal disease in patients undergoing dialysis treatment, compared with other chronic diseases, appreciating the demographic status of these patients. Sixty-nine patients participated in a diagnostic interview and gave socio-demographic data. The population was composed of 55% men aged 19-77 years with an average age of 50 years (95% CI = 47-54 years). The prevalence of psychiatric disorders found in this study (46.6%) was compared with that found in patients with asthma, polycystic ovary syndrome and HIV-positive. Moreover, the prevalence of the four most common psychiatric disorders which were identified among patients on dialysis were also the subject of comparison between them and others. These results demonstrate the relationship between the various psychiatric disorders and are compatible with other research studies.

  4. Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders amongst Adolescents in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Shahrivar

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available "n Objective: "n The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of different psychiatric disorders among 12 to 17 years old adolescents in urban areas of Tehran. "nMethod: In this study, 1105 adolescents (12 -17 years old were selected from 250 clusters of the entire 22 municipality areas of Tehran using a multistage sampling method. After responding to the Farsi version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire self-report version, the Farsi version of the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia - Present and Lifetime version (K-SADS-PL was administered to 273 adolescents and their families. The prevalence of adolescent psychiatric disorders was determined using the results of K-SADS-PL. "nResults: There were not any statistically significant differences between the sexes in the frequency of psychiatric disorders except for ADHD which was observed more frequently in boys. The most prevalent psychiatric disorders were attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, oppositional defiant disorder, depressive disorders and separation anxiety disorder. "nConclusion: The frequency of psychiatric disorders among the adolescents in Tehran's urban areas was comparable to the reports from other countries. However, using methods to deal with missing data makes these prevalence rates somehow higher.

  5. Psychiatric patients turnaround times in the emergency department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohlmeier Martin

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To analyze the turnaround times of psychiatric patients within the Emergency Department (ED from registration to discharge or hospitalization in a University Hospital in 2002. Methods Data from a one-year period of psychiatric admissions to the emergency service at a University Hospital were monitored and analyzed focused on turnaround times within the ED. Information on patients variables such as age, sex, diagnosis, consultations and diagnostic procedures were extracted from the patients' charts. Results From 34.058 patients seen in the ED in 2002, 2632 patients were examined by psychiatrists on duty. Mean turnaround time in the ED was 123 (SD 97 minutes (median 95. Patients to be hospitalized on a psychiatric ward stayed shorter within the ED, patients who later were admitted to another faculty, were treated longer in the ED. Patients with cognitive or substance related disorders stayed longer in the ED than patients with other psychiatric diagnoses. The number of diagnostic procedures and consultations increased the treatment time significantly. Conclusion As the number of patients within the examined ED increases every year, the relevant variables responsible for longer or complicated treatments were assessed in order to appropriately change routine procedures without loss of medical standards. Using this basic data, comparisons with the following years and other hospitals will help to define where the benchmark of turnaround times for psychiatric emergency services might be.

  6. Associations between Polygenic Risk for Psychiatric Disorders and Substance Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Caitlin E; Agrawal, Arpana; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Hartz, Sarah M; Lynskey, Michael T; Nelson, Elliot C; Bierut, Laura J; Bogdan, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    Despite evidence of substantial comorbidity between psychiatric disorders and substance involvement, the extent to which common genetic factors contribute to their co-occurrence remains understudied. In the current study, we tested for associations between polygenic risk for psychiatric disorders and substance involvement (i.e., ranging from ever-use to severe dependence) among 2573 non-Hispanic European-American participants from the Study of Addiction: Genetics and Environment. Polygenic risk scores (PRS) for cross-disorder psychopathology (CROSS) were generated based on the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium's Cross-Disorder meta-analysis and then tested for associations with a factor representing general liability to alcohol, cannabis, cocaine, nicotine, and opioid involvement (GENSUB). Follow-up analyses evaluated specific associations between each of the five psychiatric disorders which comprised CROSS-attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder (AUT), bipolar disorder (BIP), major depressive disorder (MDD), and schizophrenia (SCZ)-and involvement with each component substance included in GENSUB. CROSS PRS explained 1.10% of variance in GENSUB in our sample (p cannabis use, (B) MDD PRS and severe cocaine dependence, (C) SCZ PRS and non-problem cannabis use and severe cannabis dependence, and (D) SCZ PRS and severe cocaine dependence. These results suggest that shared covariance from common genetic variation contributes to psychiatric and substance involvement comorbidity. PMID:27574527

  7. Nursing students' attitudes about psychiatric mental health nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Lauren; Weber, Tayler; Shattell, Mona; Harris, Barbara A

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe Masters entry nursing students' attitudes about psychiatric mental health clinical experiences; preparedness to care for persons with mental illness; students' perceived stigmas and stereotypes; and plans to choose mental health nursing as a career. A 31-item survey was administered to pre-licensure graduate nursing students who were recruited from a Masters entry nursing program from a university in a large city in the Midwestern US. Results indicated that clinical experiences provide valuable experiences for nursing practice, however, fewer students think that these experiences prepare them to work as a psychiatric mental health nurse and none plan to pursue careers as psychiatric mental health nurses. The findings support conclusions from other studies that increasing the amount of time in the clinical setting and adding specific content to the curriculum, particularly content related to the importance of psychiatric mental health nursing and the effects of stigma, may assist the profession's efforts to recruit and retain psychiatric mental health nurses. Further research is needed to determine the effectiveness of these strategies and to identify the best ways to implement them. PMID:25397970

  8. Noncompliance and its Causes Resulting in Psychiatric Readmissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Yaghoubi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available "n  "n Objective: "n We aimed to describe psychiatrists' attributions on non-compliance related issues resulting in re-hospitalizations of psychiatric patients. "nMethod: In a cross sectional study, we included 500 randomly selected psychiatric readmitted patients and registered their demographic data (including age, sex, job, marital status, and educational level, and psychiatric clinical data including diagnosis, medications, and presence of psychiatric disorders in family members. Possible noncompliance issues by means of type and causes were asked through a structured interview by a psychiatrist. "nResults: Non-compliance was reported as a possible cause of admission in 441 88.2 of the re-hospitalized cases. No insight to disease (n=295; 59%, and feeling of cure (n=138; 27.6% were the 2 most prevalent causes for noncompliance of the patients . "nConclusion: It seems that non-compliance, as a prevalent factor, possibly causes readmission in psychiatric wards. Providing a better insight to disease and to instruct patients to take their medications even if they have some feeling of cure is important to decrease such problems.

  9. Who’s Boarding in the Psychiatric Emergency Service?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott A. Simpson

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: When a psychiatric patient in the emergency department requires inpatient admission, but no bed is available, they may become a “boarder.” The psychiatric emergency service (PES has been suggested as one means to reduce psychiatric boarding, but the frequency and characteristics of adult PES boarders have not been described. Methods: We electronically extracted electronic medical records for adult patients presenting to the PES in an urban county safety-net hospital over 12 months. Correlative analyses included Student’s t-tests and multivariate regression. Results: 521 of 5363 patient encounters (9.7% resulted in boarding. Compared to non-boarding encounters, boarding patient encounters were associated with diagnoses of a primary psychotic, anxiety, or personality disorder, or a bipolar manic/mixed episode. Boarders were also more likely to be referred by family, friends or providers than self-referred; arrive in restraints; experience restraint/ seclusion in the PES; or be referred for involuntary hospitalization. Boarders were more likely to present to the PES on the weekend. Substance use was common, but only tobacco use was more likely associated with boarding status in multivariate analysis. Conclusion: Boarding is common in the PES, and boarders have substantial psychiatric morbidity requiring treatment during extended PES stays. We question the appropriateness of PES boarding for seriously ill psychiatric patients. [West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(6:669-674

  10. Common DNA sequence variation and psychiatric disease

    OpenAIRE

    Ripke, S

    2014-01-01

    In a genome-wide association study (GWAS), a large number of SNPs are genotyped in a large number of cases (with disease) and controls (without disease) using commercially available high-throughput genotyping platforms. In a GWAS, the genotype data collected in cases and unaffected, population-matched controls are compared. Other than identifying individuals with the disease, there is no requirement for prior biological knowledge of the trait under investigation. This analysis approach has di...

  11. Tradução e adaptação de questionários norte-americanos para a avaliação de habilidades e conhecimentos na prática psiquiátrica brasileira Traducción y adaptación de cuestionarios estadounidenses para evaluar habilidades y conocimientos en la práctica psiquiátrica Translation and adaptation of North American questionnaires for the assessment of skills and knowledge in the Brazilian psychiatric practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibiracy de Barros Camargo

    2004-12-01

    ña.INTRODUCTION: The Brazilian literature does not make reference to standardized instruments and guidelines aimed at the assessing psychiatric teaching and practice. As a contribution to the theme, the authors of the present study translated and adapted a North American instrument designed to evaluate skills and knowledge in the psychiatric practice. The objectives of this study were: 1 to describe the methodology used to translate two questionnaires on skills and knowledge of psychiatry; 2 to summarize the difficulties faced in the process of translating and adapting the questionnaires; 3 to make the questionnaires available in Portuguese. METHOD: The methodology comprised the following stages: first professional version; evaluation by bilingual psychiatrists; evaluation by monolingual psychiatrists; final version in Portuguese; independent back translation by a second professional translator; final review by the first author of the original paper. The authors systematically followed all stages. RESULTS: Eleven of the translation and adaptation problems faced during the process referred to linguistic equivalence, whereas five problems were related to technical equivalence. DISCUSSION: Empirical research in psychiatric education is a new and increasingly important field. It will improve the quality of education and training in both residency and continuing education programs in psychiatry - a specialty in transition. CONCLUSION: The small number of adaptations may indicate that the translation and adaptation of the words in the source language reached linguistic equivalence. The use of translation and back translation proved to be insufficient, and the process had to be followed by bilingual and monolingual psychiatrists and also by the authors. This paper offers the scientific community the first instrument in the Portuguese language aimed at assessing skills and knowledge in the Brazilian psychiatric practice.

  12. Carbon in Atmospheric Particulate Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon compounds account for a large fraction of airborne particulate matter ('carbonaceous aerosols'). Their presence raises a number of scientific questions dealing with climate issues and possible effects on human health. This review describes the current state of knowledge with respect to the ambient concentrations levels (elemental carbon, organic carbon and organic matter) and the various emission sources, and summarizes the role of atmospheric carbon in the various environmental issues. The report finishes by identifying the actual gaps in knowledge and gives (related) suggestions for future research

  13. Role of individual psychotherapy of people diagnosed with schizophrenia in the Polish system of psychiatric care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Cichocki

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper takes up the subject of the place and role of individual psychotherapy of people diagnosed with schizophrenia in the Polish system of psychiatric care. It describes various therapeutic contexts in which such psychotherapy can take place: inpatient ward, outpatient ward, ambulatory care, community care team. It also touches upon the issue of psychotherapy in contact with a chronically ill patient who participates in rehabilitation at occupational therapy workshops or at a day care center. It discusses various needs of patients at specific stages of illness: acute psychosis, postpsychotic depression, symptomatic remission, and a possible response to these needs offered by psychiatric treatment. The paper emphasizes the importance of long-term therapeutic contact for recovery process, which includes the patient’s self-knowledge and awareness of the capability to influence their own life, gained during psychotherapy. The central idea of this paper is the connection of psychotherapy and organizational solutions which would enable its broadest and most effective usage in daily practice. An important element is a reflection concerning the relationships between psychotherapy of people suffering from schizophrenia and usually concurrently administered pharmacotherapy.

  14. Factors influencing adherence to standard precautions among nursing professionals in psychiatric hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Helena Piai-Morais

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE Evaluate and correlate individual, work-related and organizational factors that influence adherence to standard precautions among nursing professionals of psychiatric hospitals in São Paulo. METHOD An exploratory cross-sectional study conducted with 35 nursing professionals, using the assessment tool for adherence to standard precautions through the Likert scale, ranging from 1 to 5. RESULTS Knowledge of the precautions received a high score (4.69; adherence received (3.86 and obstacles (3.78, while intermediaries and the scales of organizational factors received low scores (2.61. There was a strong correlation between the magnitude adherence scale and the personal protective equipment availability (r = 0.643; p = 0.000. The training scale for prevention of HIV exposure (p = 0.007 was statistically different between the nurses and nursing assistants. CONCLUSION The organizational factors negatively contributed to adherence to standard precautions, indicating that psychiatric institutions lack safe working conditions, ongoing training and management actions to control infections.

  15. Semantic Web Ontology and Data Integration: a Case Study in Aiding Psychiatric Drug Repurposing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chen; Sun, Jingchun; Tao, Cui

    2016-01-01

    Despite ongoing progress towards treating mental illness, there remain significant difficulties in selecting probable candidate drugs from the existing database. We describe an ontology — oriented approach aims to represent the nexus between genes, drugs, phenotypes, symptoms, and diseases from multiple information sources. Along with this approach, we report a case study in which we attempted to explore the candidate drugs that effective for both bipolar disorder and epilepsy. We constructed an ontology that incorporates the knowledge between the two diseases and performed semantic reasoning task on the ontology. The reasoning results suggested 48 candidate drugs that hold promise for a further breakthrough. The evaluation was performed and demonstrated the validity of the proposed ontology. The overarching goal of this research is to build a framework of ontology — based data integration underpinning psychiatric drug repurposing. This approach prioritizes the candidate drugs that have potential associations among genes, phenotypes and symptoms, and thus facilitates the data integration and drug repurposing in psychiatric disorders. PMID:27570661

  16. [Issues in psychiatric evaluation of children and adolescents with visual impairment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saisky, Yaniv; Hasid, Soli; Ebert, Tanya; Kosov, Irene

    2014-02-01

    Approximately 8% from those who are defined as blind in Israel are children and adolescents. Visual impairment is correlated with a high rate of psychopathology. However, some of these children and adolescents do not receive appropriate diagnosis and treatment. Often, the clinicians and those who treat the children/adolescents lack the proper professional knowledge related to the unique diagnosis and treatment of children/ adolescents who are visually impaired. Visual impairment might influence different aspects of the psychiatric diagnosis. These aspects include the influence of the impairment on different developmental axes; the reciprocal relationship between the child and his/her environment; the clinical presentation of different psychopathologies; and the different treatment modalities. In this review we discuss these issues. Moreover, we raise the question as to whether there is a need to adapt the psychiatric evaluation and the treatment specifically to the visually impaired child. The review is based on the existing literature in addition to our clinical experience, which stems from our work with children and adolescents who are at the "Jewish Institute for the Blind", an institute for children and adolescents with visual impairment in Israel.

  17. A sociological study of bed blocking in psychiatric rehabilitation units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leighton, Kevin

    2002-08-01

    This study focuses on the reported problem of psychiatric patients who are 'bed-blocking' mental health rehabilitation units. It explores the concept of individualized care within psychiatric nursing and argues that this 'received view' is counterproductive for some client groups. Individualized care assumes a number of mainstream social values and beliefs that may conflict radically with the attitudes to life (ideologies) of some service users. These clients may resist normalisation, independence and individualism, preferring instead a more collective, pastoral and spiritual lifestyle. Clients and nurses may reject culture-biased care policy, using various strategies to neutralize individualized care in practice. In the absence of a coherent alternative, such action may lead to frustration, alienation and bed blocking. The study uses structured and unstructured interviews in two psychiatric units to examine this hypothesis.

  18. Posthospitalization Outcomes for Psychiatric Sex Offenders: Comparing Two Treatment Protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinson, Jill D; McVay, Lee Ann; Becker, Judith V

    2016-05-01

    This study evaluates the effectiveness of safe offender strategies (SOS) in comparison with relapse prevention (RP) in a sample of 91 inpatient males in a secure psychiatric setting. All men evidenced a history of violent sexual offending and were diagnosed with serious psychiatric disorders and/or intellectual disabilities. Participants who received SOS (n= 58) and RP (n= 33) were followed from 6 to 36 months post release. SOS clients were significantly less likely to be arrested (0%) or rehospitalized (5.2%) than RP clients (9% arrested; 54.5% rehospitalized). In addition, SOS clients were more likely to transition continuously to less restrictive alternatives, with no returns to high security, in comparison with RP clients. The authors discuss implications for use of SOS, a treatment that facilitates skills development and affects global self-regulatory functioning, particularly in sex offenders with serious mental illness or intellectual impairment, in promoting community reintegration and limiting returns to psychiatric settings. PMID:26205684

  19. Forensic Psychiatric Evaluation for Military Absenteeism in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzeng, Nian-Sheng; Chen, Chih-Kang; Wang, Tzong-Shi; Chang, Hsin-An; Kao, Yu-Chen; Yeh, Hui-Wen; Chiang, Wei-Shan; Huang, San-Yuan

    2016-09-01

    The relationship between military absenteeism and mental health problems has been noted; however, factors affecting military absenteeism by enlisted personnel have not been studied systematically. In a medical center in Taiwan, we performed a chart review of 26 forensic psychiatric evaluations of enlisted personnel who were absent without leave (AWOL) or deserted their service from 1994 to 2014. The findings showed that many of these recruits had a lower level of education (50.00% had just nine years of education), intellectual disability (46.15%), depressive disorders (30.76%), and suicidal ideation (53.85%). Depressive disorder was overrepresented in comparison with findings in a previous study. Further study is needed to confirm whether psychiatric screening before service enlistment and early psychiatric intervention for service members with mental illness or emotional disturbance could help in the prevention of desertion or going AWOL. PMID:27644869

  20. Comorbidity of psychiatric and personality disorders in first suicide attempters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Nagaraja Rao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Attempted suicide is a common clinical problem in a general hospital setting. It has a serious clinical and socio-economical impact too. Aims: To study the psychosocial, psychiatric, and personality profile of the first suicide attempters in a general hospital. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional, hospital-based, descriptive study. Materials and Methods: All the consecutive cases of first suicide attempt ( n=100 treated in a general hospital were studied to know the clinical profile. Variables related to socio-demographic characteristics, family background, suicide characteristics, psychiatric morbidity, and comorbidity were analyzed. Risk-Rescue rating was applied to know the medical seriousness of the suicide attempt. Presumptive stressful life event scale was utilized to calculate life events score. Structured clinical interview (MINI Plus and semi-structured clinical interview (IPDE were used for axis-I and axis-II (personality diagnoses. The results were analyzed using appropriate statistical measures. Results: Family history of psychiatric illnesses (31% and suicide (11% were noted. Insecticides and pesticides were the most common agents (71% employed to attempt suicide. Interpersonal difficulties (46% were the most frequent stressor. Overall medical seriousness of the suicide attempt was of moderate lethality. 93% of the suicide attempters had at least one axis-I and/or axis-II psychiatric disorder. Most common diagnostic categories were mood disorders, adjustment disorders, and substance-related disorders, with axis-I disorders (89%, personality disorders (52%, and comorbidity of psychiatric disorders (51.6%. Conclusion: Individuals who made first suicide attempt were young adults, had lower educational achievement; overall seriousness of the suicide attempt was of moderate lethality, high prevalence of psychiatric morbidity, personality disorders, and comorbidity, and had sought medical help from general practitioners.

  1. Psychiatrically impaired patients often exposed to pregnancy risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neinstein, L S; Katz, B

    1985-06-01

    The issue of choosing contraceptives for mentally ill patients is important. Over 400,000 female mental patients of childbearing age are treated each year in the US. With less longterm institutionalization, they are increasingly exposed to pregnancy risk. The reproductive rate of mentally ill women has risen markedly since the 1950s. Some evidence exists that pregnancy, childbirth, and child care can contribute to recurrences of psychotic or depressive episodes. Mental patients are interested in family planning, but they may be socially disorganized and thus unable to effectively use community resources. Consequently, they are at especially high risk for unwanted pretnancy. Many mental patients have impaired ability to communicate their needs, making specialized contraceptive services for them imperative in the settings where the patients are usually seen. Before prescribing an oral contraceptive, diaphragm, or IUD, clinicians should obtain informed consent from those patients. For a woman to give adequate informed consent, she must have sufficient knowledge to make a decision, and clinicians must not use coercion in the decision making process. Due to the fact that judgment and reasoning may be impaired in the mentally ill patient, ensuring that she fully understands the risks and benefits of contraceptives may be difficult. Only specially trained professionals should provide contraceptives for the mentally ill. OCs may not be appropriate for patients who are taking antidepressants or who have history of depression. The literature contains contradictory reports about whether or not OCs worsen existing depression or cause depression. 9 of 12 major studies of the association between OC use and depression report depression in 16-56% of women using OCs. 3 studies found no such association. Although vitamin B6 may be a helpful adjunct to OCs for depressed women, pyridoxine may not be entirely benign. Women with mental illness may find mechanical methods of

  2. Psychiatric Diagnosis and Criminal Record Determine the Courts’ Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kørner, Ejnar Alex; Gottlieb, Peter; Gabrielsen, Gorm;

    2014-01-01

    Section 69 of the Danish Penal Code implies the possibility of sentencing also non-psychotic offenders to treatment when this is considered expedient. The aim of this study was to analyse which factors influence the courts’ decisions to sentence offenders to psychiatric treatment instead of punis......Section 69 of the Danish Penal Code implies the possibility of sentencing also non-psychotic offenders to treatment when this is considered expedient. The aim of this study was to analyse which factors influence the courts’ decisions to sentence offenders to psychiatric treatment instead...

  3. Psychiatric diagnoses in legal systems: an issue of validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellsop, Graham W; Diesfel, Kate

    2011-12-01

    When considering psychiatric evidence, justice systems from many countries are frequently presented with diagnostic labels from official psychiatric classificatory systems. A lack of validity in much of these classificatory systems is receiving increasing attention. Illustrative examples include post-traumatic stress disorder, various personality disorders and dissociative identity disorder. The courts and review bodies from many jurisdictions place tremendous faith in the present categorical classifications (e.g., DSMIV and ICD10). This paper questions whether the reliance on these classifications systems is appropriate in legal proceedings.

  4. Lipid Peroxidation in Psychiatric Illness: Overview of Clinical Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yash B. Joshi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The brain is known to be sensitive to oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation. While lipid peroxidation has been shown to contribute to many disease processes, its role in psychiatric illness has not been investigated until recently. In this paper, we provide an overview of lipid peroxidation in the central nervous system as well as clinical data supporting a link between lipid peroxidation and disorders such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder. These data support further investigation of lipid peroxidation in the effort to uncover therapeutic targets and biomarkers of psychiatric disease.

  5. Comorbidity psychiatric disorders in epilepsy: a review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titlic, M; Basic, S; Hajnsek, S; Lusic, I

    2009-01-01

    While reviewing the available literature, we noticed comorbidity of epilepsy and psychiatric disorders. Psychiatric disorders were observed more frequently in patients with high seizure frequency. There is significant prevalence of epilepsy comorbidity with depression, anxiety disorders, and to a lesser extent with bipolar disorders and other forms of psychosis. Suicidal risk factors, ideation and attempts in these patients as correlates of depression or as psychopathological features were associated to epileptic disease. This is confirmed by additional burden of epilepsy patients with psychic disorders (Ref. 70). Full Text (Free, PDF) www.bmj.sk. PMID:19408842

  6. The Future of Psychiatric Collaboration in Federally Qualified Health Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliebe, Kristopher E

    2016-08-01

    Federally qualified health centers (FQHCs) provide comprehensive care to underserved and disadvantaged populations. FQHCs now comprise the largest primary care network in the United States. Currently, many FQHCs provide limited access to psychiatric services; and when such services are available, most use traditional on-site psychiatric clinics. The author reviews the rationale for increasing access to behavioral health care in FQHCs by adopting collaborative models of care, describes challenges to adopting these models in FQHCs, and discusses ways to increase the primary care team's ability to support patient self-care and family functioning. PMID:27032666

  7. Changing to problem-oriented methods. Implementation in psychiatric institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaviria, B; Alvis, J; Zarour, N

    1976-08-01

    The so-called problem-oriented methods for organizing and recording clinical information offer many potential benefits to users in psychiatric institutions. Beyond the mechanical aspects of implementation, incorporating a problem-oriented approach into the practices of clinical teams entails conceptual and practical readjustments of considerable magnitude. Based on an 18-month study of eight psychiatric teams with diverse characteristics, the paper discusses rationales and priorities, as well as administrative and educational considerations in the conversion process. Such a process must be studied and understood in setting objectives and channeling resources, if outcomes are to match the expectations. PMID:1085344

  8. [Slot machine and roulette gamblers. Psychiatric and criminologic differences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröber, H L

    1991-11-01

    In an unselected group of 48 excessive gamblers who came for psychiatric help or for an expert opinion on legal responsibility, childhood developmental limitations were frequent, as well as disorders in the ability to form and maintain partner relationships in later life. However, the childhood conditions and biographies of this group were diverse, and the spectrum of their observed mental and personality disorders rather wide. Differences in age, social class and psychiatric spectrum were found between gamblers at electronic game machines (german style slot-machines) and roulette gamblers. Delinquent behaviour was relatively frequent and had usually started before the onset of excessive gambling. PMID:1770966

  9. [Psychiatric comorbidities and secondary emotional difficulties in Asperger syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Toru

    2007-03-01

    People with developmental disorders frequently have psychiatric comorbidities and problematic emotional reactions and behaviors. We commonly calls these conditions "nizi-shougai (secondary difficulties)" in Japan. But there is no clear definition of "nizi-shougai", and it is impossible to distinguish "secondary difficulties" from the problems derived from Asperger syndrome itself. In this paper, I focus on psychiatric comorbidities and emotional difficulties of Asperger syndrome. Early detection and intervention for children with developmental disorders can prevent some kind of "secondary difficulties". Treatment for Asperger syndrome should be tailored to meet individual characteristics and needs.

  10. Cortico-Basal Ganglia Circuit Function in Psychiatric Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunaydin, Lisa A; Kreitzer, Anatol C

    2016-01-01

    Circuit dysfunction models of psychiatric disease posit that pathological behavior results from abnormal patterns of electrical activity in specific cells and circuits in the brain. Many psychiatric disorders are associated with abnormal activity in the prefrontal cortex and in the basal ganglia, a set of subcortical nuclei implicated in cognitive and motor control. Here we discuss the role of the basal ganglia and connected prefrontal regions in the etiology and treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder, anxiety, and depression, emphasizing mechanistic work in rodent behavioral models to dissect causal cortico-basal ganglia circuits underlying discrete behavioral symptom domains relevant to these complex disorders. PMID:26667072

  11. Tourette's syndrome in children: neurological, neuropsychological and psychiatric issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brovedani, P; Masi, G

    2000-06-01

    The interplay between neurologic, neuropsychologic and psychiatric features makes Tourette's syndrome (TS) a paradigmatic model for neuropsychiatric disorders. The aim of this paper is to review this complex interplay of clinical features. After a survey of some epidemiological studies, the natural history of neurological, behavioral and psychological characteristics of the syndrome is described. The problem of high psychiatric comorbidity, firstly with obsessive-compulsive disorder and attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, is discussed. Neuropsychological features of TS are considered, as they can negatively affect the quality of life of affected patients. Considerations on treatment, pharmacologic as well as educational and psychotherapeutic, conclude this review.

  12. The Peregrinating Psychiatric Patient in the Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Scott A; Pasic, Jagoda

    2016-09-01

    Many emergency department (ED) psychiatric patients present after traveling. Although such travel, or peregrination, has long been associated with factitious disorder, other diagnoses are more common among travelers, including psychotic disorders, personality disorders, and substance abuse. Travelers' intense psychopathology, disrupted social networks, lack of collateral informants, and unawareness of local resources complicate treatment. These patients can consume disproportionate time and resources from emergency providers. We review the literature on the emergency psychiatric treatment of peregrinating patients and use case examples to illustrate common presentations and treatment strategies. Difficulties in studying this population and suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:27625725

  13. Usage of psychiatric emergency services by asylum seekers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reko, Amra; Bech, Per; Wohlert, Cathrine;

    2015-01-01

    predominantly male and married. The group consisted primarily (61%) of failed asylum seekers. Most patients (81%) presented with relevant mental health problems. The main reasons for presenting to the acute psychiatric emergency service were suicidal ideation and/or behaviour (60%). The most frequent diagnosis...... by asylum seekers in Denmark shows some of the acute mental health needs asylum seekers present with. The findings of high levels of suicidal ideation and possible diagnostic difficulties are discussed, as well as possible improvements of the referral and psychiatric evaluation processes....

  14. Atmospheres of Jupiter and Saturn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the current knowledge of the atmospheres of Jupiter and Saturn are reviewed making use of the extensive telescopic studies, International Ultraviolet Explorer Satellite observations and the measurements made during the recent Pioneer and Voyager flybys which have been supported by detailed theoretical studies. A detailed discussion is given of the composition of these atmospheres and the abundance ratios which provide insight into their original state and their evolution. The Voyager observations indicate a surprisingly close similarity between the weather systems of the Earth and the giant planets. Although both Jupiter and Saturn have internal heat sources, and are therefore star-like in their interiors, they appear to produce terrestrial-style weather systems. A detailed discussion is given of this work, which forms a major study of the Laboratory for Planetary Atmospheres at University College London. (author)

  15. Chemical modeling of exoplanet atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Venot, Olivia

    2014-01-01

    The past twenty years have revealed the diversity of planets that exist in the Universe. It turned out that most of exoplanets are different from the planets of our Solar System and thus, everything about them needs to be explored. Thanks to current observational technologies, we are able to determine some information about the atmospheric composition, the thermal structure and the dynamics of these exoplanets, but many questions remain still unanswered. To improve our knowledge about exoplanetary systems, more accurate observations are needed and that is why the Exoplanet Characterisation Observatory (EChO) is an essential space mission. Thanks to its large spectral coverage and high spectral resolution, EChO will provide exoplanetary spectra with an unprecedented accuracy, allowing to improve our understanding of exoplanets. In this work, we review what has been done to date concerning the chemical modeling of exoplanet atmospheres and what are the main characteristics of warm exoplanet atmospheres, which a...

  16. Atmospheric science and power production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randerson, D. (ed.)

    1984-07-01

    This is the third in a series of scientific publications sponsored by the US Atomic Energy Commission and the two later organizations, the US Energy Research and Development Adminstration, and the US Department of Energy. The first book, Meteorology and Atomic Energy, was published in 1955; the second, in 1968. The present volume is designed to update and to expand upon many of the important concepts presented previously. However, the present edition draws heavily on recent contributions made by atmospheric science to the analysis of air quality and on results originating from research conducted and completed in the 1970s. Special emphasis is placed on how atmospheric science can contribute to solving problems relating to the fate of combustion products released into the atmosphere. The framework of this book is built around the concept of air-quality modeling. Fundamentals are addressed first to equip the reader with basic background information and to focus on available meteorological instrumentation and to emphasize the importance of data management procedures. Atmospheric physics and field experiments are described in detail to provide an overview of atmospheric boundary layer processes, of how air flows around obstacles, and of the mechanism of plume rise. Atmospheric chemistry and removal processes are also detailed to provide fundamental knowledge on how gases and particulate matter can be transformed while in the atmosphere and how they can be removed from the atmosphere. The book closes with a review of how air-quality models are being applied to solve a wide variety of problems. Separate analytics have been prepared for each chapter.

  17. On Knowledge Workers in the Knowledge Society

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Yu-wei; WANG Shu-hong

    2004-01-01

    The paper makes a study on our present knowledge society and knowledge workers. After analyzing the reason that knowledge workers are the newly emerging dominant group in this knowledge society, it gets to the point that the real leadership in the age of knowledge are knowledge workers. Yet, they have to actively organize and learn together, otherwise, they would be same as the workers of industrial model. Only through organizational learning can knowledge workers turn into a very innovative learning organization dancing with the unexpected.

  18. Satisfaction of patients hospitalised in psychiatric hospitals: a randomised comparison of two psychiatric-specific and one generic satisfaction questionnaires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cléopas Agatta

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While there is interest in measuring the satisfaction of patients discharged from psychiatric hospitals, it might be important to determine whether surveys of psychiatric patients should employ generic or psychiatry-specific instruments. The aim of this study was to compare two psychiatric-specific and one generic questionnaires assessing patients' satisfaction after a hospitalisation in a psychiatric hospital. Methods We randomised adult patients discharged from two Swiss psychiatric university hospitals between April and September 2004, to receive one of three instruments: the Saphora-Psy questionnaire, the Perceptions of Care survey questionnaire or the Picker Institute questionnaire for acute care hospitals. In addition to the comparison of response rates, completion time, mean number of missing items and mean ceiling effect, we targeted our comparison on patients and asked them to answer ten evaluation questions about the questionnaire they had just completed. Results 728 out of 1550 eligible patients (47% participated in the study. Across questionnaires, response rates were similar (Saphora-Psy: 48.5%, Perceptions of Care: 49.9%, Picker: 43.4%; P = 0.08, average completion time was lowest for the Perceptions of Care questionnaire (minutes: Saphora-Psy: 17.7, Perceptions of Care: 13.7, Picker: 17.5; P = 0.005, the Saphora-Psy questionnaire had the largest mean proportion of missing responses (Saphora-Psy: 7.1%, Perceptions of Care: 2.8%, Picker: 4.0%; P P Conclusion Despite differences in the intended target population, content, lay-out and length of questionnaires, none appeared to be obviously better based on our comparison. All three presented advantages and drawbacks and could be used for the satisfaction evaluation of psychiatric inpatients. However, if comparison across medical services or hospitals is desired, using a generic questionnaire might be advantageous.

  19. Impact of psychiatric illness upon asthma patients' health care utilization and illness control. Are all psychiatric comorbidities created equal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilipenko, Nataliya; Karekla, Maria; Georgiou, Andreas; Feldman, Jonathan

    2016-10-01

    The impact of psychiatric illnesses upon asthma patients' functioning is not well understood. This study examined the impact of psychiatric comorbidity upon illness management in asthma patients using empirically-derived psychiatric comorbidity groups. Participants were a clinic sample of Greek-speaking asthma patients (N = 212) assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) Somatoform, Depression, Panic Disorder (PD), Other Anxiety Disorder, Eating Disorder (ED) and Alcohol sub-scales. The associations between sub-scales were examined using multiway frequency analysis. The following groups were derived: Somatoform disorder and/or Any Depressive disorder (n = 63), Somatoform disorder and/or Other Anxiety disorder (n = 51), Somatoform disorder and/or Any ED (n = 60), and Any Anxiety group including PD and/or Other Anxiety disorder (n = 24). Across all groups, psychiatric illness was associated with significantly worse asthma control (p Anxiety group, OR = 4.61, 95% CI [1.90, 11.15], Somatoform and/or Any Depressive disorder, OR = 2.06, 95% CI [1.04, 4.09] and Somatoform and/or Other Anxiety disorder, OR = 2.75, 95% CI [1.35, 5.60] were at higher risk for asthma-related Emergency Room (ER) visits compared to controls. However only Somatoform and/or Any Depressive disorder, OR = 3.67, 95% CI [1.60, 8.72], Somatoform and/or Other Anxiety disorder, OR = 5.50, 95% CI [2.34, 12.74], and Somatoform and/or Any ED, OR = 4.98, 95% CI [2.14, 11.60] group membership were risk factors for asthma-related hospitalizations. Results suggest that while comorbid psychiatric disorders generally negatively impact asthma illness management, different psychiatric comorbidities appear to have disparate effects upon illness management outcomes. PMID:26782700

  20. The new asylums in the community: severely ill psychiatric patients living in psychiatric supported housing facilities. A Danish register-based study of prognostic factors, use of psychiatric services, and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Merete; Pedersen, Marianne G; Pedersen, Carsten B;

    2012-01-01

    never experienced a psychiatric admission. RESULTS: We identified schizophrenia as the strongest diagnostic predictor of becoming a resident in a supported psychiatric housing facility, followed by organic mental disorders, substance abuse, and affective disorder. In addition, the higher the number of...... predictors of becoming a resident in a psychiatric housing facility, use of psychiatric services around the time of entrance to a supported psychiatric housing facility, and mortality rates for residents in a psychiatric housing facility compared to non-residents and to persons in the general population who...... been diagnosed with schizophrenia, schizophrenia-like disorders, and organic mental disorders, and a large proportion had substance abuse and a high use of bed days. Moving into such a facility reduced the number of bed days....

  1. New onset epilepsy following unintentional durotomy in a patient on anti-psychiatric medication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    West M

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available We would like to present a rare case report describing a case in which new-onset tonic-clonic seizures occurred following an unintentional durotomy during lumbar discectomy and decompression. Unintentional durotomy is a frequent complication of spinal surgical procedures, with a rate as high as 17%. To our knowledge a case of new onset epilepsy has never been reported in the literature. Although dural tears during surgery and CSF hypovolaemia are thought to be the main contributing factors, one postulates on the effects of anti-psychiatric medication with epileptogenic properties. Amisulpride and Olanzapine can lower seizure threshold and should be used with caution in patients previously diagnosed with epilepsy. However manufacturers do not state that in cases where the seizure threshold is already lowered by CSF hypotension, new onset epilepsy might be commoner. Finally, strong caution and aggressive post-operative monitoring is advised for patients with CSF hypotension in combination with possible epileptogenic medication.

  2. Experience of Psychiatric Mental Health Nurse Practitioners in Public Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoenix, Bethany J; Hurd, Manton; Chapman, Susan A

    2016-01-01

    Expansion of health insurance coverage under the Accountable Care Act has meant that millions of people are now insured for mental health treatment, but with no significant increase in the mental health workforce. Services of psychiatric mental health nurse practitioners (PMHNPs) may be best utilized to improve access to and quality of public mental health services if the financial, political, scope of practice, and treatment model barriers that limit their ability or willingness to practice in these settings are better understood. This article reports qualitative results from a study that assessed barriers and best practices in the use of PMHNPs in county mental health services in California. Results indicate that PMHNPs are valued for their "whole person" perspective, collaborative approach, and interpersonal communication skills, but that significant knowledge gaps, regulatory constraints, and bureaucratic barriers in public mental health systems inhibit PMHNPs from practicing at the top of their scope. PMID:27259125

  3. Genetic testing and Alzheimer's disease: implications for psychiatric-mental health nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutte, Debra L

    2013-11-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common cause of irreversible dementia, continues to grow in prevalence as well as public health impact. Extensive research into the genetic etiology of AD has yielded knowledge of some genetic factors that are causative and other genetic factors that increase risk for disease. Consequently, the possibility of genetic testing in individuals with or at risk for AD is a question that nurses may be asked. Psychiatric-mental health (PMH) professionals are in key positions to influence the care of individuals who are considering the effect of genetic information on their health care decisions. Whether by working within interdisciplinary genetic counseling teams to provide direct specialty services or by developing skills to identify and refer individuals at risk for or concerned about their risk for AD, PMH nurses can play an important role in the health care of individuals and families experiencing AD.

  4. Acute atropine intoxication with psychiatric symptoms by herbal infusion of Pulmonaria officinalis (Lungwort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Baca-García

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Lungwort infusion is a preparation extracted from Pulmonaria officinalis which is occasionally used as a folk remedy for the common cold. The current report aims to describe acute atropine intoxications with delirium caused by Lungwort infusion in several members of the same family. Methods: Description of three case reports. Search of literature through Medline. Results: Three generations of a same family presented acute and moderately severe atropine intoxications after drinking an infusion prepared with Pulmonaria officinalis. Conclusions: Despite the lack of scientific evidence for its clinical use, medicinal plants continue being widely used. In spite of severe adverse effects reported, the general thought is that herbal remedies are harmless. To our knowledge, this is the first report of acute atropine intoxications with psychiatric symptoms secondary to Pulmonaria officinalis in several members of a family. We suspect that the lungwort infusion may have been contaminated with some other substance with atropinic properties.

  5. Physical activity and psychiatric symptoms in adults with schizophrenia spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snethen, Gretchen A; McCormick, Bryan P; Lysaker, Paul H

    2014-12-01

    People diagnosed with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSDs) experience significant health disparity due to cardiovascular disease. One key to cardiovascular health is physical activity (PA). In addition, sedentary behavior is recognized as a health threat, independent of PA levels. The current study sought to identify the relationship of psychiatric symptoms of SSD to measured PA and sedentary behavior. Findings indicated that less than half of the sample obtained the recommended minutes of moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) per week. Subjects who were younger and had greater cognitive disorganization engaged in more minutes of MVPA. In contrast, sedentary behavior was only associated with aspects of metacognitive functioning, such that subjects who had greater ability for forming integrated representations of themselves and the related capacity to use knowledge of themselves spent less time in sedentary behaviors. This study expands upon the limited literature available on individuals with SSD and PA levels.

  6. Knowledge management, codification and tacit knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    Kimble, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. This article returns to a theme addressed in Vol. 8(1) October 2002 of the journal: knowledge management and the problem of managing tacit knowledge. Method. The article is primarily a review and analysis of the literature associated with the management of knowledge. In particular, it focuses on the works of a group of economists who have studied the transformation of knowledge into information through the process of codification and the knowledge transaction topography they...

  7. Inpatient Psychiatric Facility Quality Measure Data – by State

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Inpatient Psychiatric Facility Quality Reporting (IPFQR) program currently uses six measures. Psychiatric facilities that are eligible for this program may have...

  8. Cross-cultural differences in psychiatric nurses' attitudes to inpatient aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Gerard J.; Middel, Berry; Dassen, Theodoor; Reijneveld, Menno S A

    2006-01-01

    Little is currently known about the attitudes of psychiatric nurses toward patient aggression, particularly from an international perspective. Attitudes toward patient aggression of psychiatric nurses from five European countries were investigated using a recently developed and tested attitude scale

  9. Psychiatric disorders in the parents of individuals with infantile autism: a case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, Svend Erik; Rich, Bente; Isager, Torben;

    2007-01-01

    The rates and types of psychiatric disorders were studied in the parents of individuals with infantile autism (IA).......The rates and types of psychiatric disorders were studied in the parents of individuals with infantile autism (IA)....

  10. Psychiatric diagnoses and psychoactive medication use among nonsurgical critically ill patients receiving mechanical ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wunsch, Hannah; Christiansen, Christian Fynbo; Johansen, Martin B;

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: The relationship between critical illness and psychiatric illness is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To assess psychiatric diagnoses and medication prescriptions before and after critical illness. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Population-based cohort study in Denmark of critically ill patien...

  11. POST PARTUM PSYCHIATRIC SYNDROMES—AN ANALYSIS OF 100 CONSECUTIVE CASES1

    OpenAIRE

    Gautam, Shiv; Nijhawan, Madhu; Gehlot, P.S.

    1982-01-01

    SUMMARY 100 consecutive out patients with onset of Psychiatric illness within 40 days of child birth were studied by using Indian Psychiatric Interview Schedule and a specially designed Proforma. It was found that post partum psychiatric syndromes occurred most frequently in patients less than 25 years of age. Stress of Physical illness was present in a considerably high number of patients (74%). In 66% the Psychiatric illness was associated with first child birth and risk of Puerperal Psycho...

  12. Psychiatric Heredity and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Survey Study of War Veterans

    OpenAIRE

    Dijanić Plašć, Ivana; Peraica, Tina; Grubišić-Ilić, Mirjana; Rak, Davor; Jambrošić Sakoman, Andrea; Kozarić-Kovačić, Dragica

    2007-01-01

    Aim To explore the prevalence of psychiatric heredity (family history of psychiatric illness, alcohol dependence disorder, and suicidality) and its association with the diagnosis of stress-related disorders in Croatian war veterans established during psychiatric examination. Methods The study included 415 war veterans who were psychiatrically assessed and diagnosed by the same psychiatrist during an expert examination conducted for the purposes of compensation seeking. Data were collected ...

  13. Stability of childhood anxiety disorder diagnoses: a follow-up naturalistic study in psychiatric care

    OpenAIRE

    Carballo, Juan J.; Baca-Garcia, Enrique; Blanco, Carlos; Perez-Rodriguez, M Mercedes; Jimenez Arriero, Miguel A.; Artes-Rodriguez, Antonio; Rynn, Moira; Shaffer, David; Oquendo, Maria A.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Few studies have examined the stability of major psychiatric disorders in pediatric psychiatric clinical populations. The objective of this study was to examine the long-term stability of anxiety diagnoses starting with pre-school age children through adolescence evaluated at multiple time points. Prospective cohort study was conducted of all children and adolescents receiving psychiatric care at all pediatric psychiatric clinics belonging to two catchment areas in Madrid,...

  14. Physical activity in adolescents with psychiatric disorders and in the general population

    OpenAIRE

    Mangerud, Wenche Langfjord; Bjerkeset, Ottar; Lydersen, Stian; Indredavik, Marit Sæbø

    2014-01-01

    Background: Adults who suffer from psychiatric disorders report low levels of physical activity and the activity levels differ between disorders. Less is known regarding physical activity across psychiatric disorders in adolescence. We investigate the frequency and type of physical activity in adolescent psychiatric patients, compared with adolescents in the general population. Methods: A total of 566 adolescent psychiatric patients aged 13–18 years who participated in the CAP sur...

  15. Physical activity in adolescents with psychiatric disorders and in the general population

    OpenAIRE

    Mangerud, Wenche Langfjord; Bjerkeset, Ottar; Lydersen, Stian; Indredavik, Marit Sæbø

    2014-01-01

    Background Adults who suffer from psychiatric disorders report low levels of physical activity and the activity levels differ between disorders. Less is known regarding physical activity across psychiatric disorders in adolescence. We investigate the frequency and type of physical activity in adolescent psychiatric patients, compared with adolescents in the general population. Methods A total of 566 adolescent psychiatric patients aged 13–18 years who participated in the CAP survey, Norway, w...

  16. HIV RELATED ADMISSIONS IN A PSYCHIATRIC HOSPITAL A FIVE YEAR PROFILE

    OpenAIRE

    Chandra, P.S.; Krishna, V.A.S.; Ravi, V.; Desai, A.; Puttaram, S.

    1999-01-01

    Recent reports have indicated an increasing prevalence of HIV infection in the mentally ill. Reports have also emphasised the etiological role of HIV infection in psychiatric illness. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical and risk profile of psychiatric inpatients found seropositive for HIV infection. All psychiatric inpatients from a psychiatric hospital who tested positive for HI V infection over a five year period were assessed. The assessments included a detailed clinical histo...

  17. Fatty acids and oxidative stress in psychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonello Lucio

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to determine whether there is published evidence for increased oxidative stress in neuropsychiatric disorders. Methods A PubMed search was carried out using the MeSH search term 'oxidative stress' in conjunction with each of the DSM-IV-TR diagnostic categories of the American Psychiatric Association in order to identify potential studies. Results There was published evidence of increased oxidative stress in the following DSM-IV-TR diagnostic categories: mental retardation; autistic disorder; Rett's disorder; attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder; delirium; dementia; amnestic disorders; alcohol-related disorders; amphetamine (or amphetamine-like-related disorders; hallucinogen-related disorders; nicotine-related disorders; opioid-related disorders; schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders; mood disorders; anxiety disorders; sexual dysfunctions; eating disorders; and sleep disorders. Conclusion Most psychiatric disorders are associated with increased oxidative stress. Patients suffering from that subgroup of these psychiatric disorders in which there is increased lipid peroxidation might therefore benefit from fatty acid supplementation (preferably with the inclusion of an antioxidant-rich diet while patients suffering from all these psychiatric disorders might benefit from a change to a whole-food plant-based diet devoid of refined carbohydrate products.

  18. Effects of Multiple Maltreatment Experiences among Psychiatrically Hospitalized Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxer, Paul; Terranova, Andrew M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Relying on indicators coded from information collected routinely during intake assessments at a secure inpatient psychiatric facility, this study examined the extent to which different forms of maltreatment accounted for variations in youths' emotional and behavioral problems. Methods: Clinical information was reviewed for a large (N =…

  19. Social Interaction Related to the Functioning of Forensic Psychiatric Inpatients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Horst, Ruud; Snijders, Tom; Volker, Beate; Spreen, Marinus; Völker, B.

    2010-01-01

    The major aim of the treatment of forensic psychiatric patients is to reduce risk of future violence by means of a positive change in the factors associated with the offence. In this article, we argue that information on patients' social network patterns and the content of their relationships provid

  20. Neurological Impairment and Hypersensitivity among Psychiatrically Disturbed Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Steven; Hollingsworth, David K.

    1994-01-01

    Because of recent developments in measurements, investigated possible covariation between hyperactivity and cerebral deficits in adolescent psychiatric inpatients. Used several different measures on 45 patients (32 boys, 13 girls). The limited amount of covariation found suggests that neuropsychological deficits may be a diffuse problem that…