WorldWideScience

Sample records for atmospheres psychiatric knowledge

  1. Use of Restraint in the Psychiatric Setting: Knowledge of Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Restraint is a widely used method of controlling patient's behaviour throughout the world. However, next to nothing is known about its use in the developing countries. Aims: To assess the knowledge of medical staff of a Nigerian psychiatric hospital concerning the use of restraint. Methods: We administered a ...

  2. Supporting Students with Psychiatric Disabilities in Postsecondary Education: Important Knowledge, Skills, and Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupferman, Scott I.; Schultz, Jared C.

    2015-01-01

    We began the exploratory process of identifying knowledge, skills, and attitudes that are important for disability service professionals to possess in order to provide beneficial services to students with psychiatric disabilities in postsecondary education. Using a three-round Delphi survey, two groups of experts identified 54 knowledge, skill,…

  3. [Contemporary epistemology and psychiatric knowledge. Characteristics of late modernity: post and hyper].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantin, Juan C

    2009-01-01

    The author explores the concept of late modernity, postmodernity and hypermodernity, as well as matters of scientific rationality. He discusses the current scientific knowledge from an epistemological viewpoint, in order to prove that psychiatric knowledge has reflected these questions throughout history and so it still does.

  4. What do you think of us? Evaluating patient knowledge of and satisfaction with a psychiatric outpatient service.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Jabbar, F

    2011-03-01

    This study aimed to measure patient satisfaction with the care they were receiving; examine patients\\' knowledge of the psychiatric services in general; and identify variables associated with satisfaction.

  5. A survey of HIV-related knowledge among adult psychiatric patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hughes E, Gray R. HIV prevention for people with serious mental illness: A survey of mental health workers' attitudes, knowledge and practice. Journal of Clinical Nursing 2008;. 18:591-600. 8. Naber D, Pajonk FG, Perro C, Lohmer B. Human immunodeficiency virus antibody test and seroprevalence in psychiatric patients.

  6. Knowledge and practices of general practitioners regarding psychiatric problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R K Chaudhary

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mental health problems account for 12% of global disease burden and non-psychiatrist medical practitioners deal with a large proportion of this burden. This study was planned to assess the knowledge, attitude and treatment practices of non-psychiatrist medical practitioners regarding mental health problems. Materials and Methods: One hundred Allopathic and 25 each of Homeopathic and Ayurvedic medical practitioners were interviewed and assessed using a semi-structured performa. Results: Majority (95% of them were aware regarding etiology, increasing incidence and treatment facilities available for mental health problems. Treatment modalities include counseling and medication but 69.9% of them had not received any formal training in administering them. Conclusions: 98.5% practitioners providing mental health services at the primary level feel the need to be properly trained and oriented in the management of these patients to improve quality of healthcare.

  7. Assessment of knowledge about childhood autism among paediatric and psychiatric nurses in Ebonyi state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achor Justin U

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing public and professional awareness of autism spectrum disorders with early recognition, diagnosis and interventions that are known to improve prognosis. Poor knowledge about childhood autism among paediatric and psychiatric nurses who are members of multidisciplinary teams that care for such children may be a major barrier to early interventions that could improve quality of life and prognosis in childhood autism. Factors that influence knowledge about childhood autism among these nurses are not known. This study assessed knowledge about childhood autism among paediatric and psychiatric nurses in Ebonyi state, Nigeria and determined the factors that could be influencing such knowledge. Methods Forty specialist paediatric and forty psychiatric nurses, making a total sample of eighty, were randomly selected from all the health care facilities in Ebonyi state, Nigeria. A socio-demographic questionnaire and knowledge about childhood autism among health workers (KCAHW questionnaire were administered to them and the study was a point survey. Results The total mean score on the KCAHW questionnaire among the nurses that participated in the study was 12.56 ± 3.23 out of a total of 19 possible. The mean score for the paediatric nurses was 11.78 ± 3.64 while psychiatric nurses had mean score of 13.35 ± 2.58. The mean scores in Domain 1 were 6.17 ± 1.75 for the paediatric nurses and 6.52 ± 1.43 for the psychiatric nurses. The mean scores in Domain 2 were 0.65 ± 0.48 for the paediatric nurses and 0.80 ± 0.41 for the psychiatric nurses. Domain 3 showed mean scores of 1.97 ± 1.25 for the paediatric nurses while psychiatric nurses scored 2.62 ± 1.23. Domain 4 yielded the mean scores of 2.97 ± 1.54 and 3.42 ± 0.98 for the paediatric and psychiatric nurses respectively. There was significant relationship between the total mean score on the KCAHW questionnaire for the two groups and the area of specialisation of

  8. [Knowledge about previous psychiatric care: is it a guaranty for therapeutic investment or a curse in psychiatric emergencies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Clercq, M; Hoyois, P

    1990-04-01

    A sample of 755 psychiatric emergencies taken in charge in the emergency service of the St-Luc Hospital, Brussels, was divided into two groups: patients without psychiatric background (498) and patients having received previous psychiatric care (238). A background of psychiatric follow-up strongly influence the taking on and therapeutic decisions to be made by psychiatrists: its absence protects the patient and is seen as the guaranty of a good investment from the therapist while the existence of previous psychiatric treatment rather leads to hospital in lieu of crisis intervention, even when the crisis mechanisms are not significantly different in both samples.

  9. Fusion of psychiatric and medical high fidelity patient simulation scenarios: effect on nursing student knowledge, retention of knowledge, and perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameg, Kirstyn M; Englert, Nadine Cozzo; Howard, Valerie M; Perozzi, Katherine J

    2013-12-01

    High fidelity patient simulation (HFPS) has become an increasingly popular teaching methodology in nursing education. To date, there have not been any published studies investigating HFPS scenarios incorporating medical and psychiatric nursing content. This study utilized a quasi-experimental design to assess if HFPS improved student knowledge and retention of knowledge utilizing three parallel 30-item Elsevier HESI(TM) Custom Exams. A convenience sample of 37 senior level nursing students participated in the study. The results of the study revealed the mean HESI test scores decreased following the simulation intervention although an analysis of variance (ANOVA) determined the difference was not statistically significant (p = .297). Although this study did not reveal improved student knowledge following the HFPS experiences, the findings did provide preliminary evidence that HFPS may improve knowledge in students who are identified as "at-risk." Additionally, students responded favorably to the simulations and viewed them as a positive learning experience.

  10. Knowledge of Psychiatric Nurses About the Potentially Lethal Side-Effects of Clozapine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Hert, Marc; De Beugher, Annelien; Sweers, Kim; Wampers, Martien; Correll, Christoph U; Cohen, Dan

    2016-02-01

    Clozapine is an antipsychotic with superior efficacy in treatment refractory patients, and has unique anti-suicidal properties and a low propensity to cause extrapyramidal side-effects. Despite these advantages, clozapine utilization is low. This can in part be explained by a number of potentially lethal side effects of clozapine. Next to psychiatrists nurses play a crucial role in the long-term management of patients with schizophrenia. It is therefore important that nurses know, inform and monitor patients about the specific side-effects of clozapine. A recent study of psychiatrists published in 2011 has shown that there was a gap in the knowledge about side-effects of clozapine. The knowledge about side-effects of clozapine in nurses has never been studied. This cross-sectional study evaluated the knowledge base regarding the safety of clozapine, and its potential mediators, of psychiatric nurses in 3 psychiatric hospitals in Belgium with a specifically developed questionnaire based on the literature and expert opinion (3 clozapine experts). A total of 85 nurses completed the questionnaire. The mean total score was 6.1 of a potential maximum score of 18. Only 3 of the 18 multiple choice knowledge questions were answered correctly by more than 50% of nurses. Only 24.9% of participants passed the test (>50% correct answers). Nurses working on psychosis units were more likely to pass the test (xx.y% vs yy.z%, p=0.0124). There was a trend that nurses with a lower nursing diploma were more likely to fail the test (p=0.0561). Our study clearly identifies a large gap in the basic knowledge of psychiatric nurses about clozapine and its side-effects. Knowledge could be increased by more emphasis on the topic in nurse's training curricula as well as targeted onsite training. Only 23.5% of participants indicate that there was sufficient information in their basic nursing training. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Irish psychiatric nurses' self-reported sources of knowledge for practice.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Yadav, B L

    2012-02-01

    Evidence-based practice (EBP) is an approach to health care in which health professionals use the best evidence available to guide their clinical decisions and practice. Evidence is drawn from a range of sources, including published research, educational content and practical experience. This paper reports the findings of a study that investigated the sources of knowledge or evidence for practice used by psychiatric nurses in Ireland. The paper is part of a larger study, which also investigated barriers, facilitators and level of skills in achieving EBP among Irish psychiatric nurses. Data were collected in a postal survey of a random sample of Irish psychiatric nurses using the Development of Evidence-Based Practice Questionnaire. The findings revealed that the majority of survey respondents based their practice on information which was derived from interactions with patients, from their personal experience and from information shared by colleagues and members of the multidisciplinary team, in preference to published sources of empirically derived evidence. These findings are consistent with those of the previous similar studies among general nurses and suggest that Irish psychiatric nurses face similar challenges to their general nursing counterparts in attaining of EBP.

  12. Psychiatric residents' self-assessment of teaching knowledge and skills following a brief "psychiatric residents-as-teachers" course: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady-Weliky, Tana A; Chaudron, Linda H; Digiovanni, Sue K

    2010-01-01

    Resident physicians have an important role in medical student teaching. There has been limited curriculum development in this area for general psychiatric residents. A 4-hour workshop for PGY-2 psychiatric residents was designed and implemented to improve residents' self-assessment of their knowledge of the medical student curriculum and core teaching skills. Residents completed pre- and postcourse self-assessments of their knowledge, skills, attitudes, and values about teaching. Descriptive statistics were obtained on pre- and postcourse data and were analyzed using t tests assuming unequal variance. Following course participation, there was statistically significant improvement in residents' self-assessment of their knowledge of the medical student curriculum (p ≤ 0.001), their self-assessment regarding perception of peers' view of their teaching ability (p ≤ 0.02), and their perceived knowledge of various teaching methods (p ≤ 0.02). Our findings suggest that a brief workshop may enhance psychiatric residents' self-assessment of teaching knowledge and skills.

  13. Negotiating clinical knowledge: a field study of psychiatric nurses' everyday communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Niels

    2008-01-01

    was highly dependent on the individual nurses' practical ability to participate in the game. Furthermore, the nurses colluded in their mutual communication to enable the collective display and sense of knowing that protected them against explicit signs of uncertainty about the clinic. The game of clinical...... knowledge influenced processes of clinical decision-making among the nurses as the game added to a distorted widening of a 'fictional distance' between patients and the representations produced by the nurses.......Nursing practices at psychiatric hospitals have changed significantly over the last decades. In this paper, everyday nursing practices were interpreted in light of these institutional changes. The objective was to examine how mental health nurses' production of clinical knowledge was influenced...

  14. The ward atmosphere important for the psychosocial work environment of nursing staff in psychiatric in-patient care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wann-Hansson Christine

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The nursing staff working in psychiatric care have a demanding work situation, which may be reflected in how they view their psychosocial work environment and the ward atmosphere. The aims of the present study were to investigate in what way different aspects of the ward atmosphere were related to the psychosocial work environment, as perceived by nursing staff working in psychiatric in-patient care, and possible differences between nurses and nurse assistants. Methods 93 nursing staff working at 12 general psychiatric in-patient wards in Sweden completed two questionnaires, the Ward Atmosphere Scale and the QPSNordic 34+. Data analyses included descriptive statistics, the Mann-Whitney U-test, Spearman rank correlations and forward stepwise conditional logistic regression analyses. Results The data revealed that there were no differences between nurses and nurse assistants concerning perceptions of the psychosocial work environment and the ward atmosphere. The ward atmosphere subscales Personal Problem Orientation and Program Clarity were associated with a psychosocial work environment characterized by Empowering Leadership. Program Clarity was related to the staff's perceived Role Clarity, and Practical Orientation and Order and Organization were positively related to staff perceptions of the Organizational Climate. Conclusions The results from the present study indicate that several ward atmosphere subscales were related to the nursing staff's perceptions of the psychosocial work environment in terms of Empowering Leadership, Role Clarity and Organizational Climate. Improvements in the ward atmosphere could be another way to accomplish improvements in the working conditions of the staff, and such improvements would affect nurses and nurse assistants in similar ways.

  15. Knowledge and Attitude of Patients with Psychiatric Disorders and their Relatives Toward Electroconvulsive Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, Amitava; Grover, Sandeep; Chakrabarti, Subho

    2014-07-01

    Knowledge and attitude regarding electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is one of the important parameters for acceptance of ECT as a safe and effective treatment option. Several factors shape the knowledge and attitude of general people such as previous experience of ECT, sources of their information about ECT and prevailing myths about ECT. The present study attempted to examine the knowledge and attitude concerning ECT among patients with psychiatric disorders and their relatives. Knowledge and attitudes regarding ECT were assessed using the Bengali version of the ECT knowledge and attitude questionnaires, between 100 clinically stable patients with mental illnesses and their healthy relatives. Majority of the patients and relatives were unaware of the basic facts about ECT. Relatives were somewhat better informed and more positive about ECT than patients, but the differences between the two groups were not significant. Previous experience of ECT did not have any major impact in knowledge and attitude in both patients and relative groups. Patients obtained information, mostly from media (44%), doctors (23%), and from personal experiences (13%). On the other hand, relatives obtained information almost equally from media (26%), doctors (27%), and experience of friends or relatives (28%). No significant difference was observed in knowledge and attitude in patients who had obtained their facts from doctors (n=23) and from other sources (n=77). Among relatives, those who had obtained their information from doctors (n=27) were better informed than those who had obtained so from other sources (n=73). Since patients and relatives have poor knowledge and negative attitude toward ECT, medical professionals should impart proper information about ECT to patients and relatives to increase the acceptability of this treatment.

  16. Effect of educational module on knowledge of primary school teachers regarding early symptoms of childhood psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Liza Thankam; Gupta, Sandhya; Sagar, Rajesh

    2013-10-01

    University-based pre-service educational programs do not adequately prepare the teachers to have sufficient knowledge and skill for identifying a wide variety of symptoms related to mental health disorders among children. To assess the effect of educational module on knowledge of primary school teachers regarding early symptoms of childhood psychiatric disorders. A pre experimental study on a sample of 35 primary school teachers was done in selected schools of Delhi. Self-instructional module on early symptoms of childhood psychiatric disorders (SIM on ESCD) was developed. Data was collected by using standardized tools including the structured questionnaire for 'Demographic and selected variables' and pre-test knowledge questionnaire. The subjects were exposed to SIM on ESCD for a period of 15 days. Knowledge regarding early symptoms of childhood psychiatric disorders was assessed twice, first one being before exposure to module and the next one on 16(th) day of exposure to module. Data were analyzed using statistical package STATA 9.0 version. Primary school teachers who have been teaching in government schools had high pre-test knowledge score than that in private sector. There was significant difference in mean knowledge score of primary school teachers before (9.71) and after (15.60) the administration of SIM on ESCD. Younger teachers and those who had less years of teaching experience had more knowledge gain score than those who were older and had more teaching experience. In the absence of adequate pre-service and in-service education of primary school teachers on early symptoms of childhood psychiatric disorders, SIM on ESCD is a highly effective and viable method for improving primary school teachers' knowledge on early symptoms of childhood psychiatric disorders.

  17. The production of the psychiatric subject: power, knowledge and Michel Foucault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Marc

    2005-01-01

    The issue of power has become increasingly important within psychiatry, psychotherapy and mental health nursing generally. This paper will suggest that the work of Michel Foucault, the French philosopher and historian, has much to contribute to the discussion about the nature, existence and exercise of power within contemporary mental health care. As well as examining his original and challenging account of power, Foucault's emphasis on the intimate relationship between power and knowledge will be explored within the context of psychiatry and mental health nursing. This is to say that the paper will investigate Foucault's account of how power and knowledge are central to the process by which human beings are 'made subjects' and therefore how 'psychiatric identities' are produced. In doing so, it will be suggested that Foucault's work can not only make a valuable contribution to contemporary discussions about power and knowledge, but can also provide a significant critique and reconceptualization of the theoretical foundations and associated diagnostic and therapeutic practices of psychiatry and mental health nursing.

  18. Mental Health: Knowledge, Attitudes and Training of Professionals on Dual Diagnosis of Intellectual Disability and Psychiatric Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, S.; Stawski, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Dual diagnosis (DD) refers to the coexistence of intellectual disability and psychiatric disorder. In order to provide individuals with DD with adequate care, it is essential for mental health workers to have adequate knowledge and positive attitudes. These may be achieved through proper training. Aims: To summarise the available…

  19. The effect of songwriting on knowledge of coping skills and working alliance in psychiatric patients: a randomized clinical effectiveness study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a songwriting intervention on psychiatric patients' knowledge of coping skills and working alliance. Participants were randomly assigned to scripted and manualized experimental (n=48) or control (n=41) conditions. The experimental condition was a group psychoeducational music therapy songwriting session concerning coping skills while the control condition was a group psychoeducational session concerning coping skills. Both conditions were single-session therapy with patients on an acute adult psychiatric unit. Results indicated no significant between group differences in measures of knowledge of coping skills, consumer working alliance, or perception of enjoyment (p>.05), although the experimental condition tended to have slightly higher mean scores than the control group for these measures. There was a significant between group difference in measures of therapist working alliance (pcoping skills can be as effective a psychosocial intervention as traditional talk-based psychoeducation to teach psychiatric inpatients how to proactively manage their illness. Additionally, music therapy can be as effective as talk-based psychoeducation in establishing working alliance. Implications for clinical practice, limitations, and suggestions for future research are provided.

  20. Perceived Stress among Nursing Staff in Psychiatric Inpatient Care: The Influence of Perceptions of the Ward Atmosphere and the Psychosocial Work Environment.

    OpenAIRE

    Tuvesson, Hanna; Eklund, Mona; Wann-Hansson, Christine

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate (1) perceived stress as felt by the nursing staff working in psychiatric inpatient care, (2) possible differences between nurses and nurse assistants, and (3) associations among individual characteristics, the ward atmosphere, the psychosocial work environment, and perceived stress. Ninety-three members of the nursing staff completed three instruments-one each measuring perceived stress, the ward atmosphere, and the psychosocial work environment. The...

  1. Psychiatric Genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sullivan, Patrick F; Agrawal, Arpana; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2018-01-01

    into biologically, clinically, and therapeutically meaningful insights. The emerging findings suggest that we are entering a phase of accelerated genetic discovery for multiple psychiatric disorders. These findings are likely to elucidate the genetic portions of these truly complex traits, and this knowledge can...... then be mined for its relevance for improved therapeutics and its impact on psychiatric practice within a precision medicine framework. [AJP at 175: Remembering Our Past As We Envision Our Future November 1946: The Genetic Theory of Schizophrenia Franz Kallmann's influential twin study of schizophrenia in 691...

  2. Knowledge of the patient as decision-making power: staff members' perceptions of interprofessional collaboration in challenging situations in psychiatric inpatient care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrielsson, Sebastian; Looi, Git-Marie E; Zingmark, Karin; Sävenstedt, Stefan

    2014-12-01

    Challenging situations in psychiatric inpatient settings call for interprofessional collaboration, but the roles and responsibilities held by members of different professions is unclear. The aim of this study was to describe staff members' perceptions of interprofessional collaboration in the context of challenging situations in psychiatric inpatient care. Prior to the study taking place, ethical approval was granted. Focus group interviews were conducted with 26 physicians, ward managers, psychiatric nurses, and nursing assistants. These interviews were then transcribed and analysed using qualitative content analysis. Results described participants' perceptions of shared responsibilities, profession-specific responsibilities and professional approaches. In this, recognising knowledge of the patient as decision-making power was understood to be a recurring theme. This is a delimited qualitative study that reflects the specific working conditions of the participants at the time the study was conducted. The findings suggest that nursing assistants are the most influential professionals due to their closeness to and first-hand knowledge of patients. The results also point to the possibility of other professionals gaining influence by getting closer to patients and utilising their professional knowledge, thus contributing to a more person-centred care. © 2014 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  3. Effect of VAPE about mother and infant health on knowledge among primary caregivers of patients with postpartum psychiatric illness:- A pre-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Sailaxmi; Thomas, Linsu; Desai, Geetha

    2017-08-01

    Post partum psychiatric illnesses are quiet common nowadays, which can interfere with postnatal care of both mother and infant. The present study was a one group pre-test - post-test design, adopted with an aim to enhance the knowledge on mother infant health among primary caregivers of mothers with postpartum psychiatric illnesses conducted in the mother-baby unit, NIMHANS, Bengaluru. Twenty five subjects who met the inclusion criteria were recruited through convenience sampling. After the pilot study, data was collected with a researcher developed tool. The Video Assisted Psycho-Education [VAPE] consisted of three sessions lasting for thirty minutes, taken over three consecutive days following the pre-test. Post-test was done immediately after the last session. Effectiveness of the intervention was established by McNemar test, Paired t-test and Wilcoxon Sign Ranks test. Analysis revealed statistically significant (pVAPE sessions. There was no statistically significant association between the pre-intervention knowledge score and the socio-demographic variables of the study subjects. The study findings revealed that the VAPE programme was effective in increasing the knowledge of the primary caregivers on mother infant health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Knowledge, Self-Confidence and Attitudes towards Suicidal Patients at Emergency and Psychiatric Departments: A Randomised Controlled Trial of the Effects of an Educational Poster Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Landschoot, Renate; Portzky, Gwendolyn; van Heeringen, Kees

    2017-03-14

    Educational posters are used to enhance knowledge, attitudes and self-confidence of patients. Little is known on their effectiveness for educating health care professionals. As these professionals may play an important role in suicide prevention, the effects of a poster and accompanying evaluation and triage guide on knowledge, self-confidence and attitudes regarding suicidal thoughts and behaviours, were studied in a multicentre cluster randomised controlled trial, involving staff from 39 emergency and 38 psychiatric departments throughout Flanders ( n = 1171). Structured self-report questionnaires assessed the knowledge, confidence and beliefs regarding suicidal behaviour management, and attitudes. Data were analysed through a Solomon four-group design, with random assignment to the different conditions. Baseline scores for knowledge and provider confidence were high. The poster and accompanying evaluation and triage guide did not have an effect on knowledge about suicide and self-confidence in suicidal behaviour management. However, the poster campaign appeared to be beneficial for attitudes towards suicidal patients, but only among staff from mental health departments that were assigned to the un-pretested condition. Given the limited effects of the poster campaign in the studied population with a relatively high baseline knowledge, the evaluation of this poster as part of a multimodal educational programme in a more heterogeneous sample of health care professionals is recommended.

  5. [The madman of Itaguaí, history, madness, and psychiatric knowledge: historiographic dialogues about "The Alienist," by Machado de Assis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, José Roberto Franco

    2016-01-01

    From the early 1970s until more recently, historiography (which is not always written by historians) has investigated the psychiatric intervention practices that prevailed in Brazil from the latter half of the nineteenth century through the early twentieth, along with their theoretical foundations and the underlying logics of power and sociability. The article analyzes the novella "The Alienist," by Machado de Assis, by engaging in dialogue with this field. The book is interpreted as a robust and eminently critical "historical witness" of the early emergence of mental health medicine in Brazil and its institutional correlate, the asylum.

  6. A Comparison of Psychiatric and Nonpsychiatric Nurse Practitioner Knowledge and Management Recommendations Regarding Adolescent Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Tracy A; Graves, Janessa M

    Nurse practitioners (NPs) are statutorily authorized to provide assessment and cognitive recommendations for concussion in most states. Their scope of practice includes assessment and management of concussion sequalae including anxiety, insomnia, and depression, as well as return to school and activity guidance. Analysis of symptom-based diagnosis of mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) in adolescents, including return to school and school workload recommendations comparing psychiatric and nonpsychiatric NPs. Cross-sectional Web-based survey with embedded videos using standardized actors and scripts randomized for patient sex and sport. A total of 4,849 NPs licensed in Oregon or Washington were invited by e-mail to view and respond to this study, with a response rate of 23%. Psychiatric mental health nurse practitioners (PMHNPs) were 44% less likely than family NPs to report using standardized concussion tools. 17% had completed continuing education on mild TBI compared to 54.5% of family NPs. Seven PMHNPs provided additional feedback related to discomfort in completing the survey due to lack of comfort or experience. Return to school recommendations and reduced workload advice did not significantly differ by NP type. PMHNPs may support individualized assessment through concussion evaluation, use of standardized tools, and differential consideration of TBI for mental health symptoms. More research is required related to the role and contribution of cognitive rest to full recovery.

  7. Thresholds for protecting Pacific Northwest ecosystems from atmospheric deposition of nitrogen: state of knowledge report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Tonnie; Blett, Tamara; Porter, Ellen; Geiser, Linda; Graw, Rick; McMurray, Jill; Perakis, Steven S.; Rochefort, Regina

    2014-01-01

    The National Park Service and U.S. Forest Service manage areas in the states of Idaho, Oregon, and Washington – collectively referred to in this report as the Pacific Northwest - that contain significant natural resources and provide many recreational opportunities. The agencies are mandated to protect the air quality and air pollution-sensitive resources on these federal lands. Human activity has greatly increased the amount of nitrogen emitted to the atmosphere, resulting in elevated amounts of nitrogen being deposited in park and forest ecosystems. There is limited information in the Pacific Northwest about the levels of nitrogen that negatively affect natural systems, i.e., the critical loads. The National Park Service and U.S. Forest Service, with scientific input from the U.S. Geological Survey, have developed an approach for accumulating additional nitrogen critical loads information in the Pacific Northwest and using the data in planning and regulatory arenas. As a first step in that process, this report summarizes the current state of knowledge about nitrogen deposition, effects, and critical loads in the region. It also describes ongoing research efforts and identifies and prioritizes additional data needs.

  8. Mars atmospheric losses induced by the solar wind: current knowledge and perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermakov, Vladimir; Zelenyi, Lev; Vaisberg, Oleg; Sementsov, Egor; Dubinin, Eduard

    2017-04-01

    Solar wind induced atmospheric losses have been studied since earlier 1970th. Several loss channels have been identified including pick-up of exospheric photo-ions and ionospheric ions escape. Measurements performed during several solar cycles showed variation of these losses by about factor of 10, being largest at maximum solar activity. MAVEN spacecraft equipped with comprehensive set of instruments with high temporal and mass resolution operating at Mars since fall 2014 ensures much better investigation of solar wind enforcing Martian environment, Mars atmospheric losses processes and mass loss rate. These issues are very important for understanding of Martian atmospheric evolution including water loss during cosmogonic time. Simultaneous observations by MAVEN and MEX spacecraft open the new perspective in study of Martian environment. In this report we discuss results of past and current missions and preliminary analysis of heavy ions escape using simultaneous measurements of MEX and MAVEN spacecraft.

  9. Interweaving monitoring activities and model development towards enhancing knowledge of the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romano, N.; Angulo-Jaramillo, M.; Javaux, M.; Ploeg, van der M.J.

    2012-01-01

    The guest editors summarize the advances and challenges associated with monitoring and modeling of the soil–plant–atmosphere continuum. They introduce the contributions in the special section, with an emphasis on the scale addressed in each study. The study of water pathways from the soil to the

  10. The Link between Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices in Relation to Atmospheric Haze Pollution in Peninsular Malaysia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    De Pretto, Laura; Acreman, Stephen; Ashfold, Matthew J; Mohankumar, Suresh K; Campos-Arceiz, Ahimsa

    2015-01-01

    .... Here we present a cross-sectional survey conducted among people in Kuala Lumpur and surrounds to assess the links between knowledge, attitudes, and practices in relation to the transboundary haze episodes...

  11. The Link between Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices in Relation to Atmospheric Haze Pollution in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura De Pretto

    Full Text Available Transboundary haze episodes caused by seasonal forest fires have become a recurrent phenomenon in Southeast Asia, with serious environmental, economic, and public health implications. Here we present a cross-sectional survey conducted among people in Kuala Lumpur and surrounds to assess the links between knowledge, attitudes, and practices in relation to the transboundary haze episodes. Of 305 respondents, 125 were amateur athletes participating in a duathlon event and the remainder were surveyed in an inner-city shopping mall. Across the whole sample, people who possessed more factual information about the haze phenomenon showed significantly higher levels of concern. Duathletes were more knowledgeable than non-duathletes and also more concerned about the negative effects of haze, especially on health. For all people who regularly practice outdoor sports (including people interviewed at the shopping mall, higher levels of knowledge and concerned attitudes translated into a greater likelihood of engaging in protective practices, such as cancelling their outdoor training sessions, while those with greater knowledge were more likely to check the relevant air pollution index on a daily basis. Our results indicate that the provision of accurate and timely information about air quality to residents will translate into beneficial practices, at least among particularly exposed individuals, such as amateur athletes who regularly practice outdoor sports.

  12. The Link between Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices in Relation to Atmospheric Haze Pollution in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pretto, Laura; Acreman, Stephen; Ashfold, Matthew J; Mohankumar, Suresh K; Campos-Arceiz, Ahimsa

    2015-01-01

    Transboundary haze episodes caused by seasonal forest fires have become a recurrent phenomenon in Southeast Asia, with serious environmental, economic, and public health implications. Here we present a cross-sectional survey conducted among people in Kuala Lumpur and surrounds to assess the links between knowledge, attitudes, and practices in relation to the transboundary haze episodes. Of 305 respondents, 125 were amateur athletes participating in a duathlon event and the remainder were surveyed in an inner-city shopping mall. Across the whole sample, people who possessed more factual information about the haze phenomenon showed significantly higher levels of concern. Duathletes were more knowledgeable than non-duathletes and also more concerned about the negative effects of haze, especially on health. For all people who regularly practice outdoor sports (including people interviewed at the shopping mall), higher levels of knowledge and concerned attitudes translated into a greater likelihood of engaging in protective practices, such as cancelling their outdoor training sessions, while those with greater knowledge were more likely to check the relevant air pollution index on a daily basis. Our results indicate that the provision of accurate and timely information about air quality to residents will translate into beneficial practices, at least among particularly exposed individuals, such as amateur athletes who regularly practice outdoor sports.

  13. [Rheumatic fibromyalgia: psychiatric features].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarró Alvarez, S

    2002-01-01

    Rheumatic fibromyalgia, also known as fibrositis or myofascial pain, is a common syndrome whose diagnoses, founded mainly on physical examination, usually delays due to symptom unspecificity, amount of complementary tests requested and intercourse with psychiatric disorders. Psychyatrists and psychologists get often involved in fibromyalgia treatment. Its proper knowledge prevents not only physicians and patients' psychological discourage but also development of depression and mental health expenses, as well as allows designing a treatment plan according to the main symptoms which may offer improvement chances to fibromyalgia patients. This article intends to offer an up-to-date and complete information about this entity, focused on psychiatric aspects, to better identify and manage such a puzzling disease.

  14. Knowledges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berling, Trine Villumsen

    2012-01-01

    Scientific knowledge in international relations has generally focused on an epistemological distinction between rationalism and reflectivism over the last 25 years. This chapter argues that this distinction has created a double distinction between theory/reality and theory/practice, which works...... as a ghost distinction structuring IR research. While reflectivist studies have emphasised the impossibility of detached, objective knowledge production through a dissolution of the theory/reality distinction, the theory/practice distinction has been left largely untouched by both rationalism...... on the interrelationship between theory and practice in specific domains, while at the same time foregrounding the own position of the researcher. The transformation of European security in the 1990s is taken as an example of how an IR analysis changes focus when seeing knowledge as Bourdieu....

  15. Perceived sleep quality of psychiatric patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Niet, G. J. (Gerrit); Tiemens, B. G. (Bea); Lendemeijer, H. H. G. M. (Bert); Hutschemaekers, G. J. M. (Giel)

    This paper aims at acquiring knowledge about the quality of sleep of adult and elderly psychiatric patients who receive clinical or outpatient nursing care, and identifying key factors in perceiving a sleep problem. To do so, a sample of 1699 psychiatric patients were asked whether they perceived a

  16. Exploring the perceptions of psychiatric patients regarding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-03-13

    Mar 13, 2012 ... of reducing the readmission of psychiatric patients following marijuana-induced psychosis. A qualitative ... The findings of this study include perceptions of psychiatric patients on the use of marijuana, the negative effects of marijuana .... to the nursing body of knowledge that cannot be obtained by any other ...

  17. Study of Scientific Problem-Solving Abilities Based on Scientific Knowledge about Atmosphere and Weather for Seventh Grade Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phoorin Thaengnoi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this research were: 1 to develop scientific problem-solving abilities test based on scientific knowledge about atmosphere and weather for seventh grade students and 2 to study the scientific problem-solving abilities of seventh grade students. The samples used in this study were 47 students who were studying in seventh grade in academic year 2015 of a school in Chai Nat province, Thailand. Purposive sampling was applied for identifying the samples. The research instrument of this study was the scientific problem-solving abilities test developed by the researcher. The research data was analyzed by comparing students’ scores with the criteria and considering students’ answers in each element of scientific problem-solving abilities. The results of the study were as follows: The scientific problem-solving abilities test composed of 2 parts. The first part was multiple-choice questions which was composed of 4 situations, a total of 20 questions. The Index of Item Objective Congruence of this part was varied in the range between 0.67 – 1.00. The difficulty and the discrimination level were in the range between 0.33 – 0.63 and 0.27 – 0.67, respectively. The reliability levels of this part was equal to 0.81. The second part of the test was subjective questions which composed of 2 situations, a total of 10 questions. The Index of Item Objective Congruence of this part was varied in the range between 0.67 – 1.00. The reliability level of this part was equal to 0.83. Besides, all questions in the test were covered all elements of scientific problem-solving abilities ; 1 identifying the problem 2 making the hypothesis 3 collecting data and knowledge to solve the problem 4 identifying problem-solving method and 5 predicting the characteristics of the results. The problem-solving abilities of the students revealed that 40.43% of students (n=19 were in a moderate level and 59.57% of students (n=28 were in a low level with the

  18. Stigmatization of psychiatric symptoms and psychiatric service use: a vignette-based representative population survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowislo, Julia F; Lange, Claudia; Euler, Sebastian; Hachtel, Henning; Walter, Marc; Borgwardt, Stefan; Lang, Undine E; Huber, Christian G

    2017-06-01

    Background There is evidence for two different types and/or sources of mental illness stigma, namely the display of psychiatric symptoms and the use of psychiatric service institutions. However, no current study has compared the two. Furthermore, gaps exist in our knowledge of both types of stigma. Little is known about the perceived stigma of specific psychiatric service treatment environments, for instance forensic settings. In addition, systematic research on stigma attached to symptoms of personality disorders in the general population is scarce, and for borderline personality disorder, nonexistent. Methods We conducted a representative survey of the general population (N = 2207) in the canton of Basel-Stadt, Switzerland. Participants were asked to read a vignette depicting either the psychiatric symptoms of a fictitious character or a psychiatric service institution to which the character had been admitted, and indicate desired social distance (an indicator for stigma). Type of symptoms, type of psychiatric service, dangerousness, and gender were systematically varied between vignettes. Findings Desired social distance was significantly lower in relation to psychiatric service use than to psychiatric symptoms. Overall, symptoms of alcohol dependency, behavior endangering others, and the fictitious character's being male tend to increase stigmatization. Interestingly, the character's being hospitalized in a psychiatric unit at a general hospital and also respondent familiarity with psychiatric services tend to decrease stigmatization. Interpretation Familiarity of the general population with psychiatric patients should be increased. Furthermore, treatment in psychiatric units located within general hospitals should be promoted, as such treatment is associated with decreased stigma.

  19. Atmospheric Dispositifs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieczorek, Izabela

    2015-01-01

    Through the coupling of dispositif with atmosphere this paper engages in a discussion of the atmospherics as both a form of knowledge and a material practice. In doing so the objective is to provide an inventory of tools and methodologies deployed in the construction of atmosphere understood......, the conceptual foundations and protocols for the production of atmosphere in architecture might be found beneath the surface of contemporary debates. In this context, the notion of atmospheric dispositif – illustrated through an oeuvre of the German architect Werner Ruhnau and its theoretical and historical...

  20. Neuro psychiatry 1943: the role of documentary film in the dissemination of medical knowledge and promotion of the U.K. psychiatric profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Edgar

    2014-04-01

    In 1943, Basil Wright produced a documentary film about the treatment of servicemen and civilians with psychological disorders at Mill Hill Emergency Medical Service Hospital. Funded by the Ministry of Information, Neuro Psychiatry was shot to convince influential clinicians and policy makers in North America that the British had developed expertise in the management of psychiatric casualties. By emphasizing novel and apparently effective interventions and excluding severe or intractable cases from the film, Wright encouraged an optimistic sense of achievement. Filmed at a time when victory was considered an eventual outcome, the picture presented a health service to which all had access without charge. Children and unemployed women, two groups excluded under the 1911 National Insurance Act, had been required to pay for healthcare in the prewar period and were shown receiving free treatment from the Emergency Medical Service. However, the therapeutic optimism presented in the film proved premature. Most U.K. battle casualties arose in the latter half of the conflict and follow-up studies failed to confirm the positive outcome statistics reported in the film. Aubrey Lewis, clinical director of the hospital, criticized research projects conducted at Mill Hill for a lack of rigor. The cinematographic skills of Wright and director Michael Hankinson, together with their reformist agenda, created a clinical presentation that emphasized achievements without acknowledging the limitations not only of the therapies offered by doctors but also the resources available to a nation at war.

  1. Neuro Psychiatry 1943: The Role of Documentary Film in the Dissemination of Medical Knowledge and Promotion of the U.K. Psychiatric Profession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Edgar

    2014-01-01

    In 1943, Basil Wright produced a documentary film about the treatment of servicemen and civilians with psychological disorders at Mill Hill Emergency Medical Service Hospital. Funded by the Ministry of Information, Neuro Psychiatry was shot to convince influential clinicians and policy makers in North America that the British had developed expertise in the management of psychiatric casualties. By emphasizing novel and apparently effective interventions and excluding severe or intractable cases from the film, Wright encouraged an optimistic sense of achievement. Filmed at a time when victory was considered an eventual outcome, the picture presented a health service to which all had access without charge. Children and unemployed women, two groups excluded under the 1911 National Insurance Act, had been required to pay for healthcare in the prewar period and were shown receiving free treatment from the Emergency Medical Service. However, the therapeutic optimism presented in the film proved premature. Most U.K. battle casualties arose in the latter half of the conflict and follow-up studies failed to confirm the positive outcome statistics reported in the film. Aubrey Lewis, clinical director of the hospital, criticized research projects conducted at Mill Hill for a lack of rigor. The cinematographic skills of Wright and director Michael Hankinson, together with their reformist agenda, created a clinical presentation that emphasized achievements without acknowledging the limitations not only of the therapies offered by doctors but also the resources available to a nation at war. PMID:23134695

  2. Psychiatric conditions associated with bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumpulainen, Kirsti

    2008-01-01

    Bullying is a complex phenomenon moderated not only by the personal characteristics and behavioral traits of the individual but also by family rearing practices, as well as by situational factors such as the frequency and type of bullying. The phenomenon is also affected by group processes among the individuals present during the event. Bullying is a distressing experience that is often continuous over years and predicts both concurrent and future psychiatric symptoms and disorders, even in adulthood. At young ages, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and depression, as well as anxiety, are prevalent concurrently with bullying among the children involved. Later in young adulthood, male victims are at risk for anxiety, male bullies for personality disorders, and male bully-victims for both personality disorders and anxiety, and the risk is especially increased if the child is disturbed when involved in bullying at school age. Rarely does any single behavior predict future problems as clearly as bullying does, and additional assessment of psychiatric problems is always warranted, if the child is involved in bullying as a bully, victim or bully-victim. Based on our current knowledge, school-based interventions regulating the behavior of the child, increasing pro-social skills and promoting peer relationships are recommended for those without concurrent psychiatric disturbance, but those displaying psychiatric symptoms and disorders should be referred for psychiatric consultation and intervention.

  3. Genetic counseling for psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuang, D W; Faraone, S V; Tsuang, M T

    2001-04-01

    Like other medical conditions, some psychiatric disorders are inherited, whereas others are not. Human genetics research is moving at a rapid pace. Genes for over 450 genetic disorders have been cloned and many disease-causing mutations have also been identified. The explosion of this new knowledge has created many new exciting opportunities in the diagnosis of these heritable disorders. The rapid pace of gene discovery will aid the identification of susceptibility genes for psychiatric disorders. Indeed, we can look forward to answers to many clinical and research questions. These are some of the gifts that the expanding field of human genetics research will continue to bring to medical science. However, as genetic tests for the detection of psychiatric disorders become available, many ethical, legal, and social implications will need to be considered. In this article, we review the principles of genetic counseling for psychiatric disorders, as well as the social and ethical dilemmas that genetic testing may bring. Although medical and scientific advances may bring many gifts, we should approach this new knowledge with caution, as one of the gifts may be a Pandora's box.

  4. Technological Advances in Psychiatric Nursing: An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostrom, Andrea C

    2016-06-01

    Understanding and treating mental illness has improved in many ways as a result of the fast pace of technological advances. The technologies that have the greatest potential impact are those that (1) increase the knowledge of how the brain functions and changes based on interventions, (2) have the potential to personalize interventions based on understanding genetic factors of drug metabolism and pharmacodynamics, and (3) use information technology to provide treatment in the absence of an adequate mental health workforce. Technologies are explored for psychiatric nurses to consider. Psychiatric nurses are encouraged to consider the experiences of psychiatric patients, including poor health, stigmatization, and suffering. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Link between Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices in Relation to Atmospheric Haze Pollution in Peninsular Malaysia: e0143655

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Laura De Pretto; Stephen Acreman; Matthew J Ashfold; Suresh K Mohankumar; Ahimsa Campos-Arceiz

    2015-01-01

    .... Here we present a cross-sectional survey conducted among people in Kuala Lumpur and surrounds to assess the links between knowledge, attitudes, and practices in relation to the transboundary haze episodes...

  6. PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS AND SLEEP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krystal, Andrew D.

    2012-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Psychiatric disorders and sleep are related in important ways. In contrast to the longstanding view of this relationship which viewed sleep problems as symptoms of psychiatric disorders, there is growing experimental evidence that the relationship between psychiatric disorders and sleep is complex and includes bi-directional causation. In this article we provide the evidence that supports this point of view, reviewing the data on the sleep disturbances seen in patients with psychiatric disorders but also reviewing the data on the impact of sleep disturbances on psychiatric conditions. Although much has been learned about the psychiatric disorders-sleep relationship, additional research is needed to better understand these relationships. This work promises to improve our ability to understand both of these phenomena and to allow us to better treat the many patients with sleep disorders and with psychiatric disorders. PMID:23099143

  7. The checkered history of American psychiatric epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, Allan V; Grob, Gerald N

    2011-12-01

    American psychiatry has been fascinated with statistics ever since the specialty was created in the early nineteenth century. Initially, psychiatrists hoped that statistics would reveal the benefits of institutional care. Nevertheless, their fascination with statistics was far removed from the growing importance of epidemiology generally. The impetus to create an epidemiology of mental disorders came from the emerging social sciences, whose members were concerned with developing a scientific understanding of individual and social behavior and applying it to a series of pressing social problems. Beginning in the 1920s, the interest of psychiatric epidemiologists shifted to the ways that social environments contributed to the development of mental disorders. This emphasis dramatically changed after 1980 when the policy focus of psychiatric epidemiology became the early identification and prevention of mental illness in individuals. This article reviews the major developments in psychiatric epidemiology over the past century and a half. The lack of an adequate classification system for mental illness has precluded the field of psychiatric epidemiology from providing causal understandings that could contribute to more adequate policies to remediate psychiatric disorders. Because of this gap, the policy influence of psychiatric epidemiology has stemmed more from institutional and ideological concerns than from knowledge about the causes of mental disorders. Most of the problems that have bedeviled psychiatric epidemiology since its inception remain unresolved. In particular, until epidemiologists develop adequate methods to measure mental illnesses in community populations, the policy contributions of this field will not be fully realized. © 2011 Milbank Memorial Fund.

  8. Psychiatric services in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benmebarek, Zoubir

    2017-02-01

    The paper describes the current provision of psychiatric services in Algeria - in particular, in-patient and out-patient facilities, child psychiatry and human resources. Education, training, associations and research in the field of mental health are also briefly presented. The challenges that must dealt with to improve psychiatric care and to comply with international standards are listed, by way of conclusion.

  9. U.S. Natural Gas System Methane Emissions: State of Knowledge from LCAs, Inventories, and Atmospheric Measurements (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heath, G.

    2014-04-01

    Natural gas (NG) is a potential "bridge fuel" during transition to a decarbonized energy system: It emits less carbon dioxide during combustion than other fossil fuels and can be used in many industries. However, because of the high global warming potential of methane (CH4, the major component of NG), climate benefits from NG use depend on system leakage rates. Some recent estimates of leakage have challenged the benefits of switching from coal to NG, a large near-term greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction opportunity. During this presentation, Garvin will review evidence from multiple perspectives - life cycle assessments (LCAs), inventories and measurements - about NG leakage in the US. Particular attention will be paid to a recent article in Science magazine which reviewed over 20 years of published measurements to better understand what we know about total methane emissions and those from the oil and gas sectors. Scientific and policy implications of the state of knowledge will be discussed.

  10. Psychiatric disorders and pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "SH. Akhondzadeh

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Psychiatric disorders are common in women during their childbearing years. Special considerations are needed when psychotic disorders present during pregnancy. Early identification and treatment of psychiatric disorders in pregnancy can prevent morbidity in pregnancy and in postpartum with the concomitant risks to mother and baby. Nevertheless, diagnosis of psychiatric illnesses during pregnancy is made more difficult by the overlap between symptoms of the disorders and symptoms of pregnancy. In majority of cases both psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy should be considered. However, psychiatric disorders in pregnancy are often under treated because of concerns about potential harmful effects of medication. This paper reviews findings about the presentation and course of major psychiatric disorders during pregnancy.

  11. Primary Psychiatric Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Mercan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The etiology of these dermatological diseases is entirely psychiatric origin. These patients show overconcern to their skin or self inflicted dermatoses unconsciously instead of facing with their real problems. In this group, delusions, dermatitis artefacta, trichotillomania, body dysmorphic disorder can be seen. They use denial as defence mechanism to their real psychiatric problems and prefer to apply dermatology instead of psychiatry. Dermatologist should be very careful before asking psychiatric consultation. Denial mechanism help patients to overcome agressive impulses like suicide or prevent further psychiatric damage like psychosis. Dermatologist should see these patients with short and frequent intervals with a good empathic approach. This will help to progress a powerful patient doctor relationship which will lead to a psychiatric evaluation.

  12. Perinatal psychiatric episodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk-Olsen, Trine; Maegbaek, M L; Johannsen, B M

    2016-01-01

    and childbirth, which suggests differences in the underlying etiology. We further speculate varying treatment incidence and prevalence in pregnancy vs postpartum may indicate that the current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5 peripartum specifier not adequately describes at-risk periods......Perinatal psychiatric episodes comprise various disorders and symptom severity, which are diagnosed and treated in multiple treatment settings. To date, no studies have quantified the incidence and prevalence of perinatal psychiatric episodes treated in primary and secondary care, which we aimed...... psychiatric facilities, 2.5 births were followed by an episode treated at outpatient psychiatric facility and 12 births by GP-provided pharmacological treatment. We interpret our results the following way: treated severe and moderate psychiatric disorders have different risk patterns in relation to pregnancy...

  13. Risk of suicide according to level of psychiatric treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorthøj, Carsten Rygaard; Madsen, Trine; Agerbo, Esben

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: Knowledge of the epidemiology of suicide is a necessary prerequisite of suicide prevention. We aimed to conduct a nationwide study investigating suicide risk in relation to level of psychiatric treatment. METHODS: Nationwide nested case-control study comparing individuals who died from...... suicide between 1996 and 2009 to age-, sex-, and year-matched controls. Psychiatric treatment in the previous year was graded as "no treatment," "medicated," "outpatient contact," "psychiatric emergency room contact," or "admitted to psychiatric hospital." RESULTS: There were 2,429 cases and 50...

  14. Sociodemographic Characteristic, Oath Taking and Psychiatric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: It is common knowledge that Nigeria is a source and route of transit for victims of human trafficking. Yet studies on psychiatric morbidity among the victims in the country are rare. In addition, previous studies were among post destination victims. The present study is aimed at determining the prevalence of ...

  15. Psychiatric consultations and the management of associated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Consultation-liaison psychiatry (CLP) was conceptualised as far back as the late 1800s when. Benjamin Rush promoted interest in the integration of medicine: 'the psychosomatic unity of the body and soul'.[1] Others have described CLP as the practical application of all psychiatric knowledge, ideas and techniques to.

  16. Oxytocin and Psychiatric Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokce Nur Say

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Oxytocin is a neuropeptide that plays critical role in mother-infant bonding, pair bonding and prosocial behaviors. Several neuropsychiatric disorders such as autism, schizophrenia, affective disorders, anxiety disorders, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, alcohol/substance addiction, aggression, suicide, eating disorders and personality disorders show abnormalities of oxytocin system. These findings have given rise to the studies searching therapeutic use of oxytocin for psychi-atric disorders. The studies of oxytocin interventions in psychiatric disorders yielded potentially promising findings. This paper reviews the role of oxytocin in emotions, behavior and its effects in psychiatric disorders. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(2: 102-113

  17. Comprehensive Psychiatric Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Guide - Table of Contents Facts For Families Guide - View by Topic Chinese Facts for Families Guide ... Psychiatric Evaluation No. 52; Updated October 2017 Evaluation by a child and adolescent psychiatrist is appropriate for any child or adolescent ...

  18. Culture and Psychiatric Diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Aggarwal, Neil Krishan

    2013-01-01

    Since the publication of DSM-IV in 1994, a number of components related to psychiatric diagnosis have come under criticism for their inaccuracies and inadequacies. Neurobiologists and anthropologists have particularly criticized the rigidity of DSM-IV diagnostic criteria that appear to exclude whole classes of alternate illness presentations as well as the lack of attention in contemporary psychiatric nosology to the role of contextual factors in the emergence and characteristics of psychopat...

  19. Hyperthyroidism and psychiatric morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Frans; Thvilum, Marianne; Pedersen, Dorthe Almind

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid hormones are essential for the normal development of the fetal brain, while hyperthyroidism in adults is associated with mood symptoms and reduced quality of life. We aimed to investigate the association and temporal relation between hyperthyroidism and psychiatric morbidity.......Thyroid hormones are essential for the normal development of the fetal brain, while hyperthyroidism in adults is associated with mood symptoms and reduced quality of life. We aimed to investigate the association and temporal relation between hyperthyroidism and psychiatric morbidity....

  20. Psychiatric disorders and sleep issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Eliza L

    2014-09-01

    Sleep issues are common in people with psychiatric disorders, and the interaction is complex. Sleep disorders, particularly insomnia, can precede and predispose to psychiatric disorders, can be comorbid with and exacerbate psychiatric disorders, and can occur as part of psychiatric disorders. Sleep disorders can mimic psychiatric disorders or result from medication given for psychiatric disorders. Impairment of sleep and of mental health may be different manifestations of the same underlying neurobiological processes. For the primary care physician, key tools include recognition of potential sleep effects of psychiatric medications and familiarity with treatment approaches for insomnia in depression and anxiety. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Atmospheric thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Iribarne, J V

    1973-01-01

    The thermodynamics of the atmosphere is the subject of several chapters in most textbooks on dynamic meteorology, but there is no work in English to give the subject a specific and more extensive treatment. In writing the present textbook, we have tried to fill this rather remarkable gap in the literature related to atmospheric sciences. Our aim has been to provide students of meteorology with a book that can playa role similar to the textbooks on chemical thermodynamics for the chemists. This implies a previous knowledge of general thermodynamics, such as students acquire in general physics courses; therefore, although the basic principles are reviewed (in the first four chapters), they are only briefly discussed, and emphasis is laid on those topics that will be useful in later chapters, through their application to atmospheric problems. No attempt has been made to introduce the thermodynamics of irreversible processes; on the other hand, consideration of heterogeneous and open homogeneous systems permits a...

  2. Psychiatric Aspects of Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacer Sezgin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Infertility can be defined as a crisis with cultural, religious, and class related aspects, which coexists with medical, psychiatric, psychological, and social problems. Relation between psychiatric and psychological factors stem from a mutual interaction of both. Family is an important institution in maintaining human existence and raising individuals in line with society's expectations. Fertility and reproduction are seen as universal functions unique to women with raising children as the expected result of the family institution. Incidence of infertility has increased recently and can become a life crisis for a couple. Even though not being able to have a child affects both sexes emotionally, women feel greater amounts of stress, pressure, anxiety, and depression.Consequences of infertility arise from short and long-term devastating effects on both individual's physical and mental health, and marital system. Many studies focus on infertility related psychological and psychiatric disorders (depression, anxiety, grief, marital conflict, gender differences, relation between the causes of infertility and psychopathology, the effects of psychiatric evaluation and intervention -when necessaryon the course of infertility treatment, pregnancy rates, and childbirth. The most important underlying causes of high levels of stress and anxiety that infertile women experience are the loss of maternity, reproduction, sense of self, and genetic continuity. In this review article is to investigate the relationship between medically unexplained symptoms and psychiatric symptoms. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(2.000: 165-185

  3. Psychiatric Genomics: An Update and an Agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Patrick F; Agrawal, Arpana; Bulik, Cynthia M; Andreassen, Ole A; Børglum, Anders D; Breen, Gerome; Cichon, Sven; Edenberg, Howard J; Faraone, Stephen V; Gelernter, Joel; Mathews, Carol A; Nievergelt, Caroline M; Smoller, Jordan W; O'Donovan, Michael C

    2018-01-01

    The Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) is the largest consortium in the history of psychiatry. This global effort is dedicated to rapid progress and open science, and in the past decade it has delivered an increasing flow of new knowledge about the fundamental basis of common psychiatric disorders. The PGC has recently commenced a program of research designed to deliver "actionable" findings-genomic results that 1) reveal fundamental biology, 2) inform clinical practice, and 3) deliver new therapeutic targets. The central idea of the PGC is to convert the family history risk factor into biologically, clinically, and therapeutically meaningful insights. The emerging findings suggest that we are entering a phase of accelerated genetic discovery for multiple psychiatric disorders. These findings are likely to elucidate the genetic portions of these truly complex traits, and this knowledge can then be mined for its relevance for improved therapeutics and its impact on psychiatric practice within a precision medicine framework. [AJP at 175: Remembering Our Past As We Envision Our Future November 1946: The Genetic Theory of Schizophrenia Franz Kallmann's influential twin study of schizophrenia in 691 twin pairs was the largest in the field for nearly four decades. (Am J Psychiatry 1946; 103:309-322 )].

  4. Psychiatric patient and anaesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joginder Pal Attri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many patients with psychiatric illnesses are prescribed long-term drug treatment, and the anaesthesiologist must be aware of potential interactions with anaesthetic agents. Psychotropic drugs often given in combination with each other or with other non-psychiatric drugs generally exert profound effects on the central and peripheral neurotransmitter and ionic mechanisms. Hence, prior intake of these drugs is an important consideration in the management of the patient about to undergo anaesthesia and surgery. This article highlights the effects of anaesthetics on patients taking antipsychotics, tricyclic antidepressants, monoamine oxidase inhibitors and lithium carbonate. The risk that should be considered in the perioperative period are the extent of surgery, the patient′s physical state, anaesthesia, the direct and indirect effects of psychotropics, risk of withdrawal symptoms and risk of psychiatric recurrence and relapse.

  5. A comprehensive psychiatric service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, A G

    1984-01-01

    A comprehensive psychiatric service was established in 1969 in the Faroe Islands. This service was created as a department of a general hospital. The spheres covered by this department, operating in the midst of the community were: acute and chronic patients, a liaison-psychiatric service......, and an outpatient service. The number of chronic patients has not decreased, due to an influx of unruly senile patients. The close proximity of the service to the community has increased the pressure with regard to the care of such patients. Other services, such as outpatient treatment of alcoholics and neurotics...

  6. A comprehensive psychiatric service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, A G

    1984-01-01

    , and an outpatient service. The number of chronic patients has not decreased, due to an influx of unruly senile patients. The close proximity of the service to the community has increased the pressure with regard to the care of such patients. Other services, such as outpatient treatment of alcoholics and neurotics......A comprehensive psychiatric service was established in 1969 in the Faroe Islands. This service was created as a department of a general hospital. The spheres covered by this department, operating in the midst of the community were: acute and chronic patients, a liaison-psychiatric service...

  7. Data mining in psychiatric research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar, Diego; Cornejo, Eduardo; Xanthopoulos, Petros; Guarracino, Mario R; Pardalos, Panos M

    2012-01-01

    Mathematical sciences and computational methods have found new applications in fields like medicine over the last few decades. Modern data acquisition and data analysis protocols have been of great assistance to medical researchers and clinical scientists. Especially in psychiatry, technology and science have made new computational methods available to assist the development of predictive modeling and to identify diseases more accurately. Data mining (or knowledge discovery) aims to extract information from large datasets and solve challenging tasks, like patient assessment, early mental disease diagnosis, and drug efficacy assessment. Accurate and fast data analysis methods are very important, especially when dealing with severe psychiatric diseases like schizophrenia. In this paper, we focus on computational methods related to data analysis and more specifically to data mining. Then, we discuss some related research in the field of psychiatry.

  8. Psychiatric impairment and

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2002-12-03

    Dec 3, 2002 ... Impairment and disability assessment on psychiatric grounds has always been subjective, controversial ... informed medical advisors doing their disability assessments. Many of these advisors have expressed ..... that will empower the affected employee and that is non- stigma- tising. In order to do so it is ...

  9. Aggression in Psychiatric Wards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidhjelm, Jacob; Sestoft, Dorte; Skovgaard, Lene Theil

    2016-01-01

    Health care workers are often exposed to violence and aggression in psychiatric settings. Short-term risk assessments, such as the Brøset Violence Checklist (BVC), are strong predictors of such aggression and may enable staff to take preventive measures against aggression. This study evaluated wh...

  10. Psychiatric genetics:AJP

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pippa

    their caregivers in South Africa. The heritability of the majority of the psychiatric disorders is ... linkage analyses in a cohort of Bantu-speaking black South. Africans.17-22 Areas of implied linkage to schizophrenia ... one of the studies of a Bantu-speaking schizophrenia cohort. Table I. Glossary of genetic terminology. Allele.

  11. Cerebellum and psychiatric disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Baldaçara,Leonardo; Borgio,João Guilherme Fiorani; Lacerda,Acioly Luiz Tavares de; Jackowski,Andrea Parolin

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this update article is to report structural and functional neuroimaging studies exploring the potential role of cerebellum in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders. METHOD: A non-systematic literature review was conducted by means of Medline using the following terms as a parameter: "cerebellum", "cerebellar vermis", "schizophrenia", "bipolar disorder", "depression", "anxiety disorders", "dementia" and "attention deficit hyperactivity disorder". The electron...

  12. Purposeful Activity in Psychiatric Rehabilitation: Is Neurogenesis a Key Player?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Siu-Chong Cheung

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Adult neurogenesis, defined as the generation of new neurons in adulthood, has been a fascinating discovery in neuroscience, as the continuously replenishing neuronal population provides a new perspective to understand neuroplasticity. Besides maintaining normal physiological function, neurogenesis also plays a key role in pathophysiology and symptomatology for psychiatric conditions. In the past decades, extensive effort has been spent on the understanding of the functional significance of neurogenesis in psychiatric conditions, mechanisms of pharmacological treatment, and discovery of novel drug candidates for different conditions. In a clinical situation, however, long-term rehabilitation treatment, in which occupational therapy is the key discipline, is a valuable, economical, and commonly used treatment alternative to psychotropic medications. Surprisingly, comparatively few studies have investigated the biological and neurogenic effects of different psychiatric rehabilitative treatments. To address the possible linkage between psychiatric rehabilitation and neurogenesis, this review discusses the role of neurogenesis in schizophrenia, major depression, and anxiety disorders. The review also discusses the potential neurogenic effect of currently used psychiatric rehabilitation treatments. With a better understanding of the biological effect of psychiatric rehabilitation methods and future translational studies, it is hoped that the therapeutic effect of psychiatric rehabilitation methods could be explained with a novel perspective. Furthermore, this knowledge will benefit future formulation of treatment methods, especially purposeful activities in occupational therapy, for the treatment of psychiatric disorders.

  13. Psychiatric specialty training in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margariti, M; Kontaxakis, V; Ploumpidis, D

    2017-01-01

    The reform and development of psychiatric services require, in addition to financial resources, reserves in specialized human resources. The role of psychiatrists in this process, and at reducing the consequences of mental morbidity is evident. Psychiatrists are required to play a multifaceted role as clinicians, as experts in multidisciplinary team environments and as advisors in the recognition of public needs in mental health issues, as teachers and mentors for students and other health professionals, as researchers in order to enrich our knowledge in the scientific field of psychiatry, and as public health specialists in the development of the mental health services system. This multifaceted role requires the continuous education of modern psychiatrists, but above all a broad, substantial and comprehensive training regime in the initial stage of their professional career, that is to say during specialization. Training in Psychiatry, as indeed has happened in all other medical specialties, has evolved considerably in recent decades, both in the content of education due to scientific advances in the fields of neurobiology, cognitive neuroscience, genetics, psychopharmacology, epidemiology and psychiatric nosology, and also because of advances in the educational process itself. Simple apprenticeship next to an experienced clinician, despite its importance in the clinical training of young psychiatrists, is no longer sufficient to meet the increased demands of the modern role of psychiatrists, resulting in the creation of educational programs defined by setting and pursuing minimum, though comprehensive educational objectives. This development has created the global need to develop organizations intended to supervise training programs. These organizations have various forms worldwide. In the European Union, the competent supervising body for medical specialties is the UEMS (European Union of Medical Specialities) and particularly in the case of the psychiatric

  14. About the practice of psychiatric euthanasia: a commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Castroman, Jorge

    2017-06-27

    Euthanasia motivated by mental disorders is legal in only a few countries and has a short history. In a recent report of all psychiatric euthanasia cases in Belgium between 2002 and 2013, Dierickx and colleagues suggest that the number of these cases is increasing, and provide a profile of the applicants. To date, knowledge of the practice of psychiatric euthanasia is limited, but rising public awareness might increase the number of requests. The authors reveal several shortcomings in cases of psychiatric euthanasia and open avenues for future research.Please see related article: https://bmcpsychiatry.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12888-017-1369-0.

  15. Caring Science and the Development of Forensic Psychiatric Caring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hörberg, Ulrica

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to discuss how caring science can contribute and provide a theoretical foundation for the development of caring within forensic psychiatric care. It is not only a challenge but also a great opportunity to use caring science theory within forensic psychiatric care when caring for the patients and supporting their health processes. There is a need for more knowledge about, understanding of, and willingness to care for patients within forensic psychiatric settings in a "true caring" way. In order to achieve this, a caring culture is required, one that supports carers and provides them with opportunities to further develop a caring attitude. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Epigenetics: An Emerging Framework for Advanced Practice Psychiatric Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSocio, Janiece E

    2016-07-01

    The aims of this paper are to synthesize and report research findings from neuroscience and epigenetics that contribute to an emerging explanatory framework for advanced practice psychiatric nursing. Discoveries in neuroscience and epigenetics reveal synergistic mechanisms that support the integration of psychotherapy, psychopharmacology, and psychoeducation in practice. Advanced practice psychiatric nurses will benefit from an expanded knowledge base in neuroscience and epigenetics that informs and explains the scientific rationale for our integrated practice. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Tangled ruptures: discursive changes in Danish psychiatric nursing 1965-75

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, N

    2001-01-01

    Psychiatric nursing and psychiatric nurses have been referred to in various ways over the course of history. These articulations reflect and constitute the ways in which nursing is comprehended during specific periods. A rupture in these descriptions and conceptions of Danish psychiatric nursing...... over the period 1965--75 is identified using a discourse analytical framework, inspired primarily by Foucault. This rupture influenced all aspects of psychiatric nursing: the perception of the psychiatric patient, the expertise and knowledge of the nurse and the care given by the nurse. The study...

  18. Psychiatric disorders and traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Schwarzbold

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Marcelo Schwarzbold1, Alexandre Diaz1, Evandro Tostes Martins2, Armanda Rufino1, Lúcia Nazareth Amante1,3, Maria Emília Thais1, João Quevedo4, Alexandre Hohl1, Marcelo Neves Linhares1,5,6, Roger Walz1,61Núcleo de Pesquisas em Neurologia Clínica e Experimental (NUPNEC, Departamento de Clínica Médica, Hospital Universitário, UFSC, Florianópolis, SC, Brazil; 2Unidade de Terapia Intensiva, Hospital Governador Celso Ramos, Florianópolis, SC, Brazil; 3Departamento de Enfermagem, UFSC, Florianópolis, SC, Brazil; 4Laboratório de Neurociências, UNESC, Criciúma, SC, Brazil; 5Departamento de Cirurgia, Hospital Universitário, UFSC, Florianópolis, SC, Brazil; 6Centro de Cirurgia de Epilepsia de Santa Catarina (CEPESC, Hospital Governador Celso Ramos, Florianópolis, SC, BrazilAbstract: Psychiatric disorders after traumatic brain injury (TBI are frequent. Researches in this area are important for the patients’ care and they may provide hints for the comprehension of primary psychiatric disorders. Here we approach epidemiology, diagnosis, associated factors and treatment of the main psychiatric disorders after TBI. Finally, the present situation of the knowledge in this field is discussed.Keywords: psychiatric disorders, traumatic brain injury, neuropsychiatry, diagnostic, epidemiology, pathophysiology

  19. [SEXUALITY IN PSYCHIATRIC HOSPITALIZATION: REALITY VERSUS POLICY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalev, Anat; Weil, Gabriel; Rubinstein, Ludmila

    2016-12-01

    Psychiatric hospitalization might be a necessity for certain groups of patients with mental illness, involving acute symptoms and substantial disability which do not allow independent living in the community. In such situations, it is crucial to enable inpatients to enjoy the best possible quality of life, including the right for sexual autonomy as a basic human right. Satisfying sexual life is part of meaningful life and plays an important role in personal and social recovery. On the other hand, sexual relations in psychiatric wards raise many dilemmas, including the need to protect inpatients from sexual abuse and victimization, particularly when mental illness involves judgment deficits and decreased ability to express autonomous will. In spite of its' importance, this subject receives little attention in policy guidelines and clinical practice and is largely ignored. The article reviews literature examining various aspects of sexual behavior in psychiatric facilities, revealing ethical dilemmas, risks and the role of policy guidelines to address this subject. We present viewpoints of practitioners, consumers and family members concerning sexual behavior in psychiatric hospitalization. We conclude with implications that emerge from accumulated knowledge with regard to policy making and proposed frameworks for change.

  20. Shared Decision Making for Psychiatric Rehabilitation Services Before Discharge from Psychiatric Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zisman-Ilani, Yaara; Roe, David; Elwyn, Glyn; Kupermintz, Haggai; Patya, Noa; Peleg, Ido; Karnieli-Miller, Orit

    2018-02-02

    Shared decision making (SDM) is an effective health communication model designed to facilitate patient engagement in treatment decision making. In mental health, SDM has been applied and evaluated for medications decision making but less for its contribution to personal recovery and rehabilitation in psychiatric settings. The purpose of this pilot study was to assess the effect of SDM in choosing community psychiatric rehabilitation services before discharge from psychiatric hospitalization. A pre-post non-randomized design with two consecutive inpatient cohorts, SDM intervention (N = 51) and standard care (N = 50), was applied in two psychiatric hospitals in Israel. Participants in the intervention cohort reported greater engagement and knowledge after choosing rehabilitation services and greater services use at 6-to-12-month follow-up than those receiving standard care. No difference was found for rehospitalization rate. Two significant interaction effects indicated greater improvement in personal recovery over time for the SDM cohort. SDM can be applied to psychiatric rehabilitation decision making and can help promote personal recovery as part of the discharge process.

  1. Culture and psychiatric diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Aggarwal, Neil Krishan

    2013-01-01

    Since the publication of DSM-IV in 1994, neurobiologists and anthropologists have criticized the rigidity of its diagnostic criteria that appear to exclude whole classes of alternate illness presentations, as well as the lack of attention in contemporary psychiatric nosology to the role of contextual factors in the emergence and characteristics of psychopathology. Experts in culture and mental health have responded to these criticisms by revising the very process of diagnosis for DSM-5. Specifically, the DSM-5 Cultural Issues Subgroup has recommended that concepts of culture be included more prominently in several areas: an introductory chapter on Cultural Aspects of Psychiatric Diagnosis - composed of a conceptual introduction, a revised Outline for Cultural Formulation, a Cultural Formulation Interview that operationalizes this Outline, and a glossary on cultural concepts of distress - as well as material directly related to culture that is incorporated into the description of each disorder. This chapter surveys these recommendations to demonstrate how culture and context interact with psychiatric diagnosis at multiple levels. A greater appreciation of the interplay between culture, context, and biology can help clinicians improve diagnostic and treatment planning. Copyright © 2013 APA*

  2. Subjectivity and severe psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, John

    2011-01-01

    To have a complete human science in the mental health field it is essential to give adequate attention to both the objective and the subjective data related to people with psychiatric disorders. The tendency in the past has been to ignore or discount one or the other of these data sources. Subjective data are particularly neglected, sometimes considered (only) part of the "art" of medicine since the usual methodologies of the physical sciences in themselves are not adequate to reflect the nature, elusiveness, and complexity of human subjective experience. The complete experience of hallucinated voices, for instance, often includes not only the voices themselves but also terrible anguish and terrifying inability to concentrate. But even such descriptors fall unnecessarily short of reflecting the data of the experience, thus leaving research, theory, and treatment with incomplete information. To represent adequately the subjective data it is essential to recognize that besides the usual discursive knowledge and methods of traditional physical science, a second kind of knowledge and method is required to reflect the depth of human experience. To accomplish this, we must employ approaches to narrative and the arts that are uniquely capable of capturing the nature of these experiences. Only by attending seriously in our research, training, theory, and practice to the unique nature of subjective data is it possible to have a true human science for our field.

  3. Psychiatric genetic testing: Attitudes and intentions among future users and providers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laegsgaard, Mett Marri; Mors, Ole

    2008-01-01

    as a guide in this field, but the optimal utilization of genetic testing has also been recognized to depend on knowledge of the potential consumers' attitudes. To provide knowledge to inform the public debate on mental illness and genetics, and the future conducting of psychiatric genetic testing...... contradictions mirroring the bioethical dilemmas recognized in the field and variations in attitudes between groups with different levels of knowledge of genetics, different kinds of experience with mental illness, and different motives and preconceptions regarding psychiatric genetics. The contradictions...... and differences in attitudes among possible future users and providers of psychiatric genetic testing and counseling indicate ambivalence, insecurity, and perceived lack of knowledge in relation to psychiatric genetics. These results should inform further research and the future integration of psychiatric...

  4. [Forensic psychiatric patients in Denmark].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Tina Gram; Valbak, Lone; Perto, Gurli; Reinert, Kjeld

    2006-06-05

    In Denmark the number of forensic psychiatric patients is increasing. The objective of this study was to explore whether the increased number of forensic psychiatric patients has been reflected in the use of psychiatric inpatient facilities. Furthermore, we wanted to investigate differences in the treatment of various diagnostic groups of forensic patients and of forensic and non-forensic patients with schizophrenia. Information about admissions and outpatient contact was extracted from the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register for all Danish patients sentenced to psychiatric treatment in the period 1994-2003. Furthermore, a group of first-admission forensic patients suffering from schizophrenia was compared to a control group of first-admission non-forensic patients with schizophrenia, matched for sex, age and time of admission. The number of forensic psychiatric patients increased markedly in the period 1994-2003; at the same time, the use of inpatient facilities for this group of patients did not increase to a similar degree but actually decreased. Forensic patients in the group F20-F29 spent more time in hospital than did forensic patients with affective disorders and personality disorders. Forensic psychiatric patients with schizophrenia had significantly longer periods of hospitalization than did non-forensic patients with schizophrenia. Forensic psychiatric patients' use of psychiatric inpatient facilities during the last 10 years did not increase to the extent expected relative to the increasing number of forensic psychiatric patients. This raises the question of whether these patients are receiving necessary and sufficient treatment.

  5. Staging atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Mikkel; Bjerregaard, Peter; Sørensen, Tim Flohr

    2015-01-01

    The article introduces the special issue on staging atmospheres by surveying the philosophical, political and anthropological literature on atmosphere, and explores the relationship between atmosphere, material culture, subjectivity and affect. Atmosphere seems to occupy one of the classic...

  6. Knowledge of nurses at a psychiatric hospitalization unit of a teaching hospital Saberes de los enfermeros en una unidad de internación psiquiátrica en un hospital universitario Saberes dos enfermeiros em uma unidade de internação psiquiátrica de um hospital universitário

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Olschowsky

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the knowledge of the nurses in a psychiatric hospitalization unit at a university hospital. It is an exploratory, descriptive research with a qualitative approach, utilizing semistructured interviews. The nurses refer to a change in the assisting care, starting from their experience in the asylum mode and making references to the concepts of the psychosocial mode: integrality, welcoming, interdisciplinarity and interpersonal relationship. Integral and individual care, knowledge of the psychiatric syndromes and their treatment as well as the consideration of the subjectivity of the subject under psychiatric suffering are part of the knowledge that guides nursing actions in mental health.Este estudio tiene por objetivo identificar los saberes de los enfermeros en una unidad de internación psiquiátrica en un hospital universitario. Se trata de una investigación exploratoria, descriptiva, con aproximación cualitativa, utilizando la entrevista semi-estructurada. Los enfermeros refieren una transformación en el cuidado asistencial a partir de su experiencia en el modo asilar, haciendo referencias a las concepciones del modo psicosocial: integralidad, acogida, interdisciplinaridad y relación interpersonal. El cuidado integral e individual, el conocimiento de los síndromes psiquiátricos y su tratamiento y la consideración de la subjetividad del individuo bajo sufrimiento psíquico son formas del saber que orientan las acciones de la enfermería en salud mental.Este estudo tem o objetivo de identificar os saberes dos enfermeiros em uma unidade de internação psiquiátrica em um hospital universitário. Trata-se de pesquisa exploratório-descritiva, com abordagem qualitativa, utilizando a entrevista semi-estruturada. Os enfermeiros relatam transformação no cuidado assistencial a partir de sua experiência no modo asilar, fazendo referências às concepções do modo psicossocial: integralidade, acolhimento

  7. [Psychiatric complications of abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurpegui, Manuel; Jurado, Dolores

    2009-01-01

    The psychiatric consequences of induced abortion continue to be the object of controversy. The reactions of women when they became aware of conception are very variable. Pregnancy, whether initially intended or unintended, may provoke stress; and miscarriage may bring about feelings of loss and grief reaction. Therefore, induced abortion, with its emotional implications (of relief, shame and guilt) not surprisingly is a stressful adverse life event. METHODOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS: There is agreement among researchers on the need to compare the mental health outcomes (or the psychiatric complications) with appropriate groups, including women with unintended pregnancies ending in live births and women with miscarriages. There is also agreement on the need to control for the potential confounding effects of multiple variables: demographic, contextual, personal development, previous or current traumatic experiences, and mental health prior to the obstetric event. Any psychiatric outcome is multi-factorial in origin and the impact of life events depend on how they are perceived, the psychological defence mechanisms (unconscious to a great extent) and the coping style. The fact of voluntarily aborting has an undeniable ethical dimension in which facts and values are interwoven. No research study has found that induced abortion is associated with a better mental health outcome, although the results of some studies are interpreted as or Some general population studies point out significant associations with alcohol or illegal drug dependence, mood disorders (including depression) and some anxiety disorders. Some of these associations have been confirmed, and nuanced, by longitudinal prospective studies which support causal relationships. With the available data, it is advisable to devote efforts to the mental health care of women who have had an induced abortion. Reasons of the woman's mental health by no means can be invoked, on empirical bases, for inducing an abortion.

  8. Lamotrigine in psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Jennifer G; Gitlin, Michael J; Altshuler, Lori L

    2013-07-01

    Owing to the prevalence of medication side effects and treatment resistance, prescribers often consider off-label uses of US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved agents for the treatment of persistent symptoms. The authors review the available literature on the FDA-approved and non-FDA-approved uses of lamotrigine in adults with psychiatric disorders. We used PubMed, MEDLINE, and a hand search of relevant literature to find studies published between 1990 and 2012 and available in English language. The following keywords were searched: lamotrigine, psychiatric, mood disorders, depression, personality disorders, anxiety, schizophrenia, side effects, and rash. Data were selected from 29 randomized controlled trials (RCTs). When RCTs were not available, open-label trials (6), retrospective case reviews (10), and case series (4) were summarized. We extracted results of monotherapy and augmentation trials of lamotrigine on primary and secondary outcome measures. Lamotrigine is generally well tolerated, with the best evidence for the maintenance treatment of bipolar disorder, particularly in prevention of depressive episodes. In acute bipolar depression, meta-analyses suggested a modest benefit, especially for more severely depressed subjects, with switch rates similar to placebo. In unipolar depression, double-blind RCTs noted benefit on subsets of symptoms and improved response in more severely depressed subjects. Data are limited but promising in borderline personality disorder. Use of lamotrigine in schizophrenia and anxiety disorders has little supportive evidence. Lamotrigine is recommended in bipolar maintenance when depression is prominent. It also has a role in treating acute bipolar depression and unipolar depression, though the latter warrants more research. Data are too limited in other psychiatric disorders to recommend its use at this time. © Copyright 2013 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  9. Parricide: Psychiatric morbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunjić Bojana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Parricide is defined as a murder of parents by their children; the patricide is murder of father, while matricide is murder of mother. This entity is classified as homicide, but it differs in the fact that victims are parents and the killers are their children. Mostly, it is associated with psychiatric morbidity. OBJECTIVE To describe sociodemographic and psychopathological characteristics of parricide committers and to analyze circumstances of parricide and psychiatric morbidity in order to achieve better recognition and prevention of risks. METHOD This retrospective study included all homicide autopsy records (1991-2005 performed at the Institute of Forensic Medicine, Medical School, University of Belgrade. For further analyses, all parricide records were selected out. The study analyzed all available parameters, which concerned parricide committers, victims and the act itself. Methods of descriptive statistics were used. RESULTS Between 1991 and 2005, there were 948 cases of homicide; of these, 3.5% were parricides. The committers of parricide were on average 31.2±11.9 years old, 87.8% were males, 60.6% with psychiatric symptoms most commonly with schizophrenia, alcohol dependence, personality disorder etc. Victims were on average 63.7±11.9 years old, 54.5% males, and 21.2% had a diagnosed mental illness. CONCLUSION Parricide is a rare kind of homicide accounting for 3% of all homicides. Committers are mostly unemployed males in early adulthood who have mental disorder. The phenomenon of parricide deserves a detailed analysis of the committer (individual bio-psycho-social profile and the environ- mental factors (family, closely related circumstances to enable a precise prediction of the act and prevention of the fatal outcome, which logically imposes the need of further studies.

  10. Psychiatric aspects of dwarfism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brust, J S; Ford, C V; Rimoin, D L

    1976-02-01

    Sixteen adult dwarfs - 11 with achondroplasia and 5 with hypopituitarism - were studied by means of psychiatric interviews and psychological tests. There were no significant differences between the two groups; in general, the subjects had achieved a satisfactory life adjustment despite the stress of having bodies uniquely different from those of the general population. They had secure identities as "little people" and successfully used coping mechanisms such as a sense of humor and a pleasant interpersonal style. Male dwarfs tended to experience more emotional distress than female dwarfs.

  11. Critical assessment of the current state of scientific knowledge, terminology, and research needs concerning the role of organic aerosols in the atmosphere, climate, and global change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fuzzi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In spite of impressive advances in recent years, our present understanding of organic aerosol (OA composition, physical and chemical properties, sources and transformation characteristics is still rather limited, and their environmental effects remain highly uncertain. This paper discusses and prioritizes issues related to organic aerosols and their effects on atmospheric processes and climate, providing a basis for future activities in the field. Four main topical areas are addressed: i sources of OA; ii formation transformation and removal of OA; iii physical, chemical and mixing state of OA; iv atmospheric modelling of OA. Key questions and research priorities regarding these four areas are synthesized in this paper, and outstanding issues for future research are presented for each topical area. In addition, an effort is made to formulate a basic set of consistent and universally applicable terms and definitions for coherent description of atmospheric OA across different scales and disciplines.

  12. Cerebellum and psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldaçara, Leonardo; Borgio, João Guilherme Fiorani; Lacerda, Acioly Luiz Tavares de; Jackowski, Andrea Parolin

    2008-09-01

    The objective of this update article is to report structural and functional neuroimaging studies exploring the potential role of cerebellum in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders. A non-systematic literature review was conducted by means of Medline using the following terms as a parameter: "cerebellum", "cerebellar vermis", "schizophrenia", "bipolar disorder", "depression", "anxiety disorders", "dementia" and "attention deficit hyperactivity disorder". The electronic search was done up to April 2008. Structural and functional cerebellar abnormalities have been reported in many psychiatric disorders, namely schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, anxiety disorders, dementia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Structural magnetic resonance imaging studies have reported smaller total cerebellar and vermal volumes in schizophrenia, mood disorders and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Functional magnetic resonance imaging studies using cognitive paradigms have shown alterations in cerebellar activity in schizophrenia, anxiety disorders and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. In dementia, the cerebellum is affected in later stages of the disease. Contrasting with early theories, cerebellum appears to play a major role in different brain functions other than balance and motor control, including emotional regulation and cognition. Future studies are clearly needed to further elucidate the role of cerebellum in both normal and pathological behavior, mood regulation, and cognitive functioning.

  13. Reforma psiquiátrica brasileira: conhecimentos dos profissionais de saúde do serviço de atendimento móvel de urgência Reforma psiquiátrica brasileña: conocimientos de los profesionales de salud del servicio móvil de urgencia Brazilian psychiatric reform: knowledges of health professional of mobile service of urgency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Bonfada

    2013-06-01

    tratamiento psicosocial, sus líneas de referencia a la necesidad de hospitalización para los pacientes psiquiátricos. El modelo centrado en los hospitales y diseñado por la psiquiatría clásica exclusiva sigue vivo en las ideas de estos profesionales como una referencia a la atención de urgencias psiquiátricas.Objective is to identify the knowledge of health professionals of Service of Mobile Emergency of Natal on the Brazilian Psychiatric Reform. Information was collected through semi-structured interviews with 24 health professionals stationed at the institution. The interviews were transcribed and submitted to the technique of thematic analysis revealed three categories of analysis: admission of the subject in crisis as social and family demands; Psychiatric Reform: legislation and reality in the SAMU-Natal, and the Brazilian Psychiatric Reform as a promoter of deinstitutionalization. The professionals showed misleading and reductionist understandings of the Brazilian Psychiatric Reform and, mostly, did not give credence to the current model of mental health care in guided psychosocial treatment, his lines referring to the need for hospitalization of psychiatric patients. In this sense, we realize that the hospital-centered model designed by classical psychiatry is still alive in the ideas of these professionals as a reference to the psychiatric emergency care.

  14. Treating the disconfirmed psychiatric client.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heineken, J

    1983-01-01

    Frequent disconfirmation behaviors have been documented in psychiatric clients. Individuals who demonstrate maladaptive patterns of disconfirmation can learn to understand and modify this dysfunctional sequence. Through one to one interactions and group discussions, psychiatric nurses can help clients learn more positive communication behaviors. This accomplishment will positively affect the client's interpersonal responsiveness and self-esteem.

  15. Psychiatric comorbidity : fact or artifact?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Loo, Hanna; Romeijn, Johannes

    The frequent occurrence of comorbidity has brought about an extensive theoretical debate in psychiatry. Why are the rates of psychiatric comorbidity so high and what are their implications for the ontological and epistemological status of comorbid psychiatric diseases? Current explanations focus

  16. College Students with Psychiatric Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Delar K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on college students with psychiatric disabilities. It defines and discusses various psychiatric conditions such as mood disorders, anxiety disorders, eating disorders, and personality disorders. It concludes with accommodations that a college professor can make to help these students succeed in higher education. (Contains 1…

  17. Determination of the Atmospheric Neutrino Fluxes from Atmospheric Neutrino Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez-Garcia, M. C.; Maltoni, M.; Rojo, J.

    2006-01-01

    The precise knowledge of the atmospheric neutrino fluxes is a key ingredient in the interpretation of the results from any atmospheric neutrino experiment. In the standard atmospheric neutrino data analysis, these fluxes are theoretical inputs obtained from sophisticated numerical calculations based

  18. Gene therapy for psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfand, Yaroslav; Kaplitt, Michael G

    2013-01-01

    Gene therapy has become of increasing interest in clinical neurosurgery with the completion of numerous clinical trials for Parkinson disease, Alzheimer disease, and pediatric genetic disorders. With improved understanding of the dysfunctional circuitry mediating various psychiatric disorders, deep brain stimulation for refractory psychiatric diseases is being increasingly explored in human patients. These factors are likely to facilitate development of gene therapy for psychiatric diseases. Because delivery of gene therapy agents would require the same surgical techniques currently being employed for deep brain stimulation, neurosurgeons are likely to lead the development of this field, as has occurred in other areas of clinical gene therapy for neurologic disorders. We review the current state of gene therapy for psychiatric disorders and focus specifically on particular areas of promising research that may translate into human trials for depression, drug addiction, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and schizophrenia. Issues that are relatively unique to psychiatric gene therapy are also discussed. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. The psychiatric interview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Julie Elisabeth Nordgaard; Sass, Louis A; Parnas, Josef

    2012-01-01

    that are historically rooted in logical positivism and behaviorism. These theoretical approaches marked decisively the so-called "operational revolution in psychiatry" leading to the creation of DSM-III. This paper attempts to examine the theoretical assumptions that underlie the use of a fully structured psychiatric...... person), actionable format, used for classification, treatment, and research. Our central thesis is that psychiatry targets the phenomena of consciousness, which, unlike somatic symptoms and signs, cannot be grasped on the analogy with material thing-like objects. We claim that in order to perform...... faithful distinctions in this particular domain, we need a more adequate approach, that is, an approach that is guided by phenomenologically informed considerations. Our theoretical discussion draws upon clinical examples derived from structured and semi-structured interviews. We conclude that fully...

  20. Gender, status, and psychiatric labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroska, Amy; Harkness, Sarah K; Brown, Ryan P; Thomas, Lauren S

    2015-11-01

    We examine a key modified labeling theory proposition-that a psychiatric label increases vulnerability to competence-based criticism and rejection-within task- and collectively oriented dyads comprised of same-sex individuals with equivalent education. Drawing on empirical work that approximates these conditions, we expect the proposition to hold only among men. We also expect education, operationalized with college class standing, to moderate the effects of gender by reducing men's and increasing women's criticism and rejection. But, we also expect the effect of education to weaken when men work with a psychiatric patient. As predicted, men reject suggestions from teammates with a psychiatric history more frequently than they reject suggestions from other teammates, while women's resistance to influence is unaffected by their teammate's psychiatric status. Men also rate psychiatric patient teammates as less powerful but no lower in status than other teammates, while women's teammate assessments are unaffected by their teammate's psychiatric status. Also as predicted, education reduces men's resistance to influence when their teammate has no psychiatric history. Education also increases men's ratings of their teammate's power, as predicted, but has no effect on women's resistance to influence or teammate ratings. We discuss the implications of these findings for the modified labeling theory of mental illness and status characteristics theory. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Perceptions Among Psychiatric Staff of Creating a Therapeutic Alliance With Patients on Community Treatment Orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, Susanne; Fridlund, Bengt

    2016-10-01

    A therapeutic alliance with a continuing collaboration between a patient and psychiatric staff is a resource for helping patients cope with the demands of coercive legislation. Knowledge exists describing coercion in inpatient care while the knowledge regarding the perceptions of creating a therapeutic alliance with patients on Community Treatment Orders (CTO) among psychiatric staff is scarce. To describe perceptions among psychiatric staff of creating a therapeutic alliance with patients on CTOs, an exploratory design using a phenomenographic method was employed. Thirteen semi-structured audio-taped interviews were conducted with psychiatric staff responsible for patients on CTOs. The staff worked in five different outpatient clinics and the interviews were conducted at their workplaces. The analysis resulted in in four metaphors: the persevering psychiatric staff, the learning psychiatric staff, the participating psychiatric staff, and the motivating psychiatric staff. Patients on CTOs were more time-consuming for psychiatric staff in care and treatment. Long-term planning is required in which the creation of a therapeutic alliance entails the patient gradually gaining greater self-awareness and wanting to visit the outpatient clinic. The professional-patient relationship is essential and if a therapeutic alliance is not created, the patient's continued care and treatment in the community is vulnerable.

  2. Psychiatric disorders in myasthenia gravis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Inés Ybarra

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in patients with myasthenia gravis (MG. METHOD: Forty-one patients with MG answered to a structured psychiatric interview (MINI-Plus. RESULTS: Eleven (26.1% patients were diagnosed with a depressive disorder and 19 (46.3% were diagnosed with an anxiety disorder. Patients with dysthymia were older (p=0.029 and had longer disease duration (p=0.006. Patients with social phobia also had longer disease duration (p=0.039. CONCLUSION: Psychiatric disorders in MG are common, especially depressive and anxiety disorders.

  3. The cerebellum and psychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph ePhillips

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The cerebellum has been considered for a long time to play a role solely in motor coordination. However, studies over the past two decades have shown that the cerebellum also plays a key role in many motor, cognitive, and emotional processes. In addition, studies have also shown that the cerebellum is implicated in many psychiatric disorders including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorders, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders. In this review, we discuss existing studies reporting cerebellar dysfunction in various psychiatric disorders. We will also discuss future directions for studies linking the cerebellum to psychiatric disorders.

  4. [Qualitative methods in psychiatric research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikorski, Claudia; Glaesmer, Heide

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses the usage of qualitative methods in psychiatric research and presents the qualitative approach in more detail. Recent original empirical work of a German psychiatric journal was systematically reviewed. Methods used to collect and analyse the information are detailed. One third of the articles used a solely qualitative research design. One further article applied a combination of quantitative and qualitative approaches. Three kinds of the qualitative interviews were used (in depth, narrative and problem-focussed interview). Additionally, focus groups (group discussions) and qualitative content analysis were applied by studies. Qualitative approaches are an integral part of psychiatric research. Further work should assure to use adequate sampling strategies.

  5. Psychiatric illnesses in inflammatory bowel diseases - psychiatric comorbidity and biological underpinnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowakowski, Jarosław; Chrobak, Adrian Andrzej; Dudek, Dominika

    2016-12-23

    Inflammatory bowel disease is a group of chronic medical conditions comprising Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis that involves increased frequency of mental disorders. The most common psychiatric disorders in inflammatory bowel disease are depression and anxiety, however, some epidemiologic and biological evidence suggest that other disorders like bipolar disorder occur more often. Biological mechanisms concerning both inflammatory bowel disease and depression or anxiety explain susceptibility to developing mental disorders in inflammatory bowel disease. Interactions of brain gut-axis, immunological disturbances, oxidative stress and vagus nerve dysfunction play a role in pathophysiology of inflammatory bowel disease and mental disorders as well. Significance of these factors was covered in this paper. Psychiatric comorbidity in IBD may affect course of intestinal disease. It can increase requency and severity of relapses and hinder the treatment so knowledge about relationship between IBD and mental health appears to be vital for proper management of patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

  6. Rabeprazole and psychiatric symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polimeni, Giovanni; Cutroneo, Paola; Gallo, Adele; Gallo, Salvatore; Spina, Edoardo; Caputi, Achille P

    2007-07-01

    To report the case of a patient who developed marked anxiety associated with episodes of panic attacks after starting rabeprazole therapy. An otherwise healthy 55-year-old woman was prescribed rabeprazole 20 mg/day administered in the morning for persistent symptoms of dyspepsia. Ten days later, she presented with a 7 day history of marked anxiety associated with panic attacks, night terror (pavor nocturnus), episodic mental confusion, and attention deficit. Within 2 days of discontinuing rabeprazole, the patient recovered completely from the neuropsychiatric manifestations. Subsequent esomeprazole therapy did not cause psychiatric symptoms. Rabeprazole-induced hypergastrinemia may have played a role in this neuropsychiatric adverse reaction. Several lines of evidence have indicated that gastrin-releasing peptide, whose release is mediated by proton pump inhibitor (PPI)-induced secretion of gastrin, is involved in regulating aspects of behavior that might be altered in disorders such as anxiety, depression, and dementia. The fact that rabeprazole has the highest capacity of inducing gastrin increase compared with other PPIs might explain why our patient's panic symptoms disappeared after switching to esomeprazole. Based on the Naranjo probability scale, rabeprazole was the probable cause of the adverse reaction. Specific studies are needed to investigate the potential role of PPI-induced hypergastrinemia in neuropsychiatric adverse reactions.

  7. Prototype diagnosis of psychiatric syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    WESTEN, DREW

    2012-01-01

    The method of diagnosing patients used since the early 1980s in psychiatry, which involves evaluating each of several hundred symptoms for their presence or absence and then applying idiosyncratic rules for combining them for each of several hundred disorders, has led to great advances in research over the last 30 years. However, its problems have become increasingly apparent, particularly for clinical practice. An alternative approach, designed to maximize clinical utility, is prototype matching. Instead of counting symptoms of a disorder and determining whether they cross an arbitrary cutoff, the task of the diagnostician is to gauge the extent to which a patient’s clinical presentation matches a paragraph-length description of the disorder using a simple 5-point scale, from 1 (“little or no match”) to 5 (“very good match”). The result is both a dimensional diagnosis that captures the extent to which the patient “has” the disorder and a categorical diagnosis, with ratings of 4 and 5 corresponding to presence of the disorder and a rating of 3 indicating “subthreshold” or “clinically significant features”. The disorders and criteria woven into the prototypes can be identified empirically, so that the prototypes are both scientifically grounded and clinically useful. Prototype diagnosis has a number of advantages: it better captures the way humans naturally classify novel and complex stimuli; is clinically helpful, reliable, and easy to use in everyday practice; facilitates both dimensional and categorical diagnosis and dramatically reduces the number of categories required for classification; allows for clinically richer, empirically derived, and culturally relevant classification; reduces the gap between research criteria and clinical knowledge, by allowing clinicians in training to learn a small set of standardized prototypes and to develop richer mental representations of the disorders over time through clinical experience; and can help

  8. Lesion procedures in psychiatric neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Shaun R; Aronson, Joshua P; Sheth, Sameer A; Eskandar, Emad N

    2013-01-01

    Lesion procedures for psychiatric indications have a history that spans more than a century. This review provides a brief history of psychiatric surgery and addresses the most recent literature on lesion surgery for the treatment of anxiety and mood disorders. Relevant data described in publications from the early 1900 s through the modern era regarding lesion procedures for psychiatric indications, both historical and current use, are reported. The early procedures of Burkhardt, Moniz, and Freeman are reviewed, followed by descriptions of the more refined techniques of Leksell, Knight, Foltz, White, and Kelly. The application of lesion procedures to obsessive-compulsive disorder, mood disorders, and addiction are discussed. Lesioning procedures have informed modern deep brain stimulation targets. Recent lesioning studies demonstrate the efficacy and durability of these procedures in severely disabled patients. Judicious application of these techniques should continue for appropriately selected patients with severe, refractory psychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Tics, ADHD and Psychiatric Comorbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of teacher-rated tic behaviors in 3006 school children, from preschool to adolescence, was determined in a study of comorbid psychiatric symptoms at State University of New York, Stony Brook, NY.

  10. Tics, ADHD and Psychiatric Comorbidity

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-01-01

    The prevalence of teacher-rated tic behaviors in 3006 school children, from preschool to adolescence, was determined in a study of comorbid psychiatric symptoms at State University of New York, Stony Brook, NY.

  11. Psychiatric disorders in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoog, Ingmar

    2011-07-01

    Recent research has shown that depression, anxiety disorders, and psychosis are more common than previously supposed in elderly populations without dementia. It is unclear whether the frequency of these disorders increases or decreases with age. Clinical expression of psychiatric disorders in old age may be different from that seen in younger age groups, with less and often milder symptoms. Concurrently, comorbidity between different psychiatric disorders is immense, as well as comorbidity with somatic disorders. Cognitive function is often decreased in people with depression, anxiety disorders, and psychosis, but whether these disorders are risk factors for dementia is unclear. Psychiatric disorders in the elderly are often related to cerebral neurodegeneration and cerebrovascular disease, although psychosocial risk factors are also important. Psychiatric disorders, common among the elderly, have consequences that include social deprivation, poor quality of life, cognitive decline, disability, increased risk for somatic disorders, suicide, and increased nonsuicidal mortality.

  12. Psychiatric emergencies (part II): psychiatric disorders coexisting with organic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, A; Giannuzzi, R; Sollazzo, F; Petrongolo, L; Bernardini, L; Dain, S

    2013-02-01

    In this Part II psychiatric disorders coexisting with organic diseases are discussed. "Comorbidity phenomenon" defines the not univocal interrelation between medical illnesses and psychiatric disorders, each other negatively influencing morbidity and mortality. Most severe psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and depression, show increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease, related to poverty, use of psychotropic medication, and higher rate of preventable risk factors such as smoking, addiction, poor diet and lack of exercise. Moreover, psychiatric and organic disorders can develop together in different conditions of toxic substance and prescription drug use or abuse, especially in the emergency setting population. Different combinations with mutual interaction of psychiatric disorders and substance use disorders are defined by the so called "dual diagnosis". The hypotheses that attempt to explain the psychiatric disorders and substance abuse relationship are examined: (1) common risk factors; (2) psychiatric disorders precipitated by substance use; (3) psychiatric disorders precipitating substance use (self-medication hypothesis); and (4) synergistic interaction. Diagnostic and therapeutic difficulty concerning the problem of dual diagnosis, and legal implications, are also discussed. Substance induced psychiatric and organic symptoms can occur both in the intoxication and withdrawal state. Since ancient history, humans selected indigene psychotropic plants for recreational, medicinal, doping or spiritual purpose. After the isolation of active principles or their chemical synthesis, higher blood concentrations reached predispose to substance use, abuse and dependence. Abuse substances have specific molecular targets and very different acute mechanisms of action, mainly involving dopaminergic and serotoninergic systems, but finally converging on the brain's reward pathways, increasing dopamine in nucleus accumbens. The most common

  13. Psychiatric characteristics of homicide defendants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martone, Christine A; Mulvey, Edward P; Yang, Suzanne; Nemoianu, Andrei; Shugarman, Ryan; Soliman, Layla

    2013-09-01

    The authors examined the rate of mental disorders in an unselected sample of homicide defendants in a U.S. jurisdiction, seeking to identify psychiatric factors associated with offense characteristics and court outcomes. Defendants charged with homicide in a U.S. urban county between 2001 and 2005 received a psychiatric evaluation after arrest. Demographic, historical, and psychiatric variables as well as offense characteristics and legal outcomes were described. Bivariate analyses examined differences by age group and by race, and logistic models examined predictors of multiple victims, firearm use, guilty plea, and guilty verdict. Fifty-eight percent of the sample had at least one axis I or II diagnosis, most often a substance use disorder (47%). Axis I or II diagnoses were more common (78%) among defendants over age 40. Although 37% of the sample had prior psychiatric treatment, only 8% of the defendants with diagnosed axis I disorders had outpatient treatment during the 3 months preceding the homicide; African Americans were less likely than non-African Americans to be in treatment. African American males were more likely to use a firearm and to have a male victim. In exploratory analyses, psychiatric factors did not predict multiple victims, firearm use in the crime, or a guilty verdict. Rates of axis I disorders were lower than reported in previous studies. Few homicide defendants were in psychiatric treatment at the time of the crime, suggesting limited opportunities for prevention by mental health providers.

  14. Psychiatric aspects of induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotland, Nada L

    2011-08-01

    Approximately one third of the women in the United States have an abortion during their lives. In the year 2008, 1.21 million abortions were performed in the United States (Jones and Koolstra, Perspect Sex Reprod Health 43:41-50, 2011). The psychiatric outcomes of abortion are scientifically well established (Adler et al., Science 248:41-43, 1990). Despite assertions to the contrary, there is no evidence that abortion causes psychiatric problems (Dagg, Am J Psychiatry 148:578-585, 1991). Those studies that report psychiatric sequelae suffer from severe methodological defects (Lagakos, N Engl J Med 354:1667-1669, 2006). Methodologically sound studies have demonstrated that there is a very low incidence of frank psychiatric illness after an abortion; women experience a wide variety of feelings over time, including, for some, transient sadness and grieving. However, the circumstances that lead a woman to terminate a pregnancy, including previous and/or ongoing psychiatric illness, are independently stressful and increase the likelihood of psychiatric illness over the already high baseline incidence and prevalence of mood and anxiety disorders among women of childbearing age. For optimal psychological outcomes, women, including adolescents, need to make autonomous and supported decisions about problem pregnancies. Clinicians can help patients facing these decisions and those who are working through feelings about having had abortions in the past.

  15. Atmospheric refraction: a history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehn, Waldemar H.; van der Werf, Siebren

    2005-09-01

    We trace the history of atmospheric refraction from the ancient Greeks up to the time of Kepler. The concept that the atmosphere could refract light entered Western science in the second century B.C. Ptolemy, 300 years later, produced the first clearly defined atmospheric model, containing air of uniform density up to a sharp upper transition to the ether, at which the refraction occurred. Alhazen and Witelo transmitted his knowledge to medieval Europe. The first accurate measurements were made by Tycho Brahe in the 16th century. Finally, Kepler, who was aware of unusually strong refractions, used the Ptolemaic model to explain the first documented and recognized mirage (the Novaya Zemlya effect).

  16. Improving the physical health in long-term psychiatric inpatients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Peter; Davidsen, A.S.; Killian, R.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with psychiatric illness have increased somatic morbidity and increased mortality. Knowledge of how to integrate the prevention and care of somatic illness into the treatment of psychiatric patients is required. The aims of this study were to investigate whether an intervention...... programme to improve physical health is effective. METHODS: An extension of the European Network for Promoting the Health of Residents in Psychiatric and Social Care Institutions (HELPS) project further developed as a 12-month controlled cluster-randomized intervention study in the Danish centre. Waist...... circumference was a proxy of unhealthy body fat in view of the increased risk of cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. RESULTS: Waist circumference was 108 cm for men and 108 cm for women. Controlled for cluster randomization, sex, age, and body fat, the intervention group showed a small...

  17. Adult Autism Spectrum Disorders and its Psychiatric Comorbidities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Ramos

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Unlike in children, the autism spectrum disorders (ASD in adults have not been so extensively studied, with consequent difficulties in diagnosis and management in adulthood, especially in the presence of psychiatric comorbidity. The authors have made a selective review of literature, focusing on ASD definition, its epidemiology, diagnosis and factors that may influence its outcome. The main psychiatric comorbidities in adults will also be focused, as well as its impact in the clinical presentation of psychiatric disorders. Despite the tendency for a progressive symptomatic improvement in adulthood, ASD affect patients during their whole life. Furthermore, it is estimated that they affect a considerable number of patients, making even more relevant a thorough knowledge of these pathologies.

  18. Adult Autism Spectrum Disorders and its Psychiatric Comorbidities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Ramos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Unlike in children, the autism spectrum disorders (ASD in adults have not been so extensively studied, with consequent difficulties in diagnosis and management in adulthood, especially in the presence of psychiatric comorbidity. The authors have made a selective review of literature, focusing on ASD definition, its epidemiology, diagnosis and factors that may influence its outcome. The main psychiatric comorbidities in adults will also be focused, as well as its impact in the clinical presentation of psychiatric disorders. Despite the tendency for a progressive symptomatic improvement in adulthood, ASD affect patients during their whole life. Furthermore, it is estimated that they affect a considerable number of patients, making even more relevant a thorough knowledge of these pathologies.

  19. Atmospheric mercury—An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, William H.; Munthe, John

    This paper presents a broad overview and synthesis of current knowledge and understanding pertaining to all major aspects of mercury in the atmosphere. The significant physical, chemical, and toxicological properties of this element and its environmentally relebant species encountered in the atmosphere are examined. Atmospheric pathways and processes considered herein include anthropogenic as well as natural sources of Hg emissions to the atmosphere, aerial transport and dispersion (including spatial and temporal variability), atmospheric transformations (both physical and chemical types), wet and dry removal/deposition processes to Earth's surface. In addition, inter-compartmental (air-water/soil/vegetation) transfer and biogeochemical cycling of mercury are considered and discussed. The section on numerical modelling deals with atmospheric transport models as well as process-oriented models. Important gaps in our current knowledge of mercury in the atmospheric environment are identified, and suggestions for future areas of research are offered.

  20. Curricular approaches to research ethics training for psychiatric investigators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Donna T

    2003-12-01

    Training in research ethics is crucial for psychiatric investigators. Addressing ethical dimensions of human subjects research requires knowledge about the rules and norms governing research; sensitivity to ethical implications of actions; and skills in ethics problem solving. Investigators in training who are physicians have the additional challenge of developing identities as investigators that sometimes conflict with their identities as physicians. To propose a curriculum for psychiatric research ethics training. Review of literature on ethics education and presentation of a curricular approach to research ethics training for psychiatric investigators. Research ethics can be learned and should be taught. Involvement of active investigators in teaching research ethics is important. While core topics of psychiatric research ethics training have not yet been identified, there are available models from which to draw. Research ethics should be introduced early and integrated throughout the research training period. Lack of resources and institutional support can be obstacles to development of comprehensive research ethics curricula. Small-group, case-based discussion is best for teaching ethics problem-solving skills. Examples of teaching module ideas and a fully developed sample teaching module are presented. There is opportunity for creative models for teaching psychiatric research ethics. Work is needed to identify core topics, target pedagogical strategies to trainees at different levels, and develop evaluation methods.

  1. [THE PSYCHIATRIC DIAGNOSIS GUIDE - DSM-5 - INNOVATIONS AND CRITICISM].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Shmuel; Zemishlany, Zvi

    2015-05-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) as a guide for diagnosing psychiatric diseases and enables the alignment of psychiatric diagnoses with those of the psychologists, the social workers, the nursing staff and other mental health professionals. In addition, it helps bring cohesion to research, public health policy, education, the field of insurance and compensation and the legal system. After 14 years of hard work, the updated version of the DSM, the DSM-5, was published on May 2013. The current review aims to update the readers on the essence of the DSM and the methods of psychiatric diagnosing and to present the main changes in the field, as expressed in the 5th edition of the guide. In addition to details of those changes we included discussions of the criticisms brought against them. We hope that the review will contribute to broadening the readers' knowledge, broaden exposure and familiarity with the psychiatric lingo and to strengthening the professional ties between psychiatrists and professionals in other, tangential, medical fields.

  2. Views of practitioners of alternative medicine toward psychiatric illness and psychiatric care: a study from Solapur, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holikatti, Prabhakar C; Kar, Nilamadhab

    2015-01-01

    It is common knowledge that patients seek treatment for psychiatric illnesses from various sources including the alternative medicine. Views and attitudes of clinicians often influence the provision of appropriate mental health care for these patients. In this context, it was intended to study the views of the practitioners of alternative medicine toward psychiatric disorders, patients and interventions. The study was conducted as a questionnaire-based survey among a sample of practitioners of alternative medicine specifically Ayurveda and Homeopathy, who were practicing in Solapur and adjoining areas of Maharashtra and Karnataka states in India. A semi-structured Attitudinal Inventory for Psychiatry questionnaire was used. Demographic and professional data were collected. Out of 62 practitioners approached, 50 responded (80.6%). There were no significant differences in the views of practitioners toward psychiatry and psychiatrists based on respondents' gender, place of residence, location of practice, type of alternative medicine, exposure to psychiatric patients, or if they knew someone with psychiatric illness. Attitudes were generally positive, but variable. Among negative observations were that approximately 60% of respondents felt that a patient can be disadvantaged by being given a psychiatric label and 58% believed that emotions are difficult to handle. A considerable proportion (40%) of the respondents felt doctors other than psychiatrists were unable to identify psychiatric disorders. This study's findings suggest that practitioners of alternative medicine have mixed views about mental illness, patients and treatment. Some of their negative views and perceived inability to identify psychiatric disorders may be addressed through further training, information sharing and collaborative work.

  3. Letter to the editor: Critical assessments of the current state of scientific knowledge, terminology, and research needs concerning the ecological effects of elevated atmospheric nitrogen deposition in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yuepeng; Liu, Yongwen; Wentworth, Gregory R.; Zhang, Lin; Zhao, Yuanhong; Li, Yi; Liu, Xuejun; Du, Enzai; Fang, Yunting; Xiao, Hongwei; Ma, Hongyuan; Wang, Yuesi

    2017-03-01

    In a publication in Atmospheric Environment (http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2015.10.081), Gu et al. (2015) estimated that "the total nitrogen (N) deposition in 2010 was 2.32 g N m-2 yr-1" in China. This value is comparable with previous estimations based on a synthesized dataset of wet/bulk inorganic N deposition observations, which underestimates the total N deposition since their algorithm (equations (2) and (3) in their paper) does not account for dry deposition of NH3, HNO3, NOx and wet/dry deposition of HONO and organic nitrogen (e.g. amines, amides, PAN). Indeed, Gu et al. (2015) mixed the terminology of wet/bulk deposition and total deposition. Another flawed assumption by Gu et al. (2015) is that all inorganic N in precipitation estimated by their algorithm originates from fertilizer and coal combustion. This is incorrect and almost certainly causes biases in the spatial and temporal distribution of estimated wet/bulk inorganic N deposition (Fig. 5 in their paper), further considering the fact that they neglected important N sources like livestock and they did not consider the nonlinearity between various sources and deposition. Besides the input data on N deposition, the model validation (Sect. 2.3.2) described in their paper also requires clarification because the detailed validation information about the time series of observational dataset versus modeling results was not given. As a result of these combined uncertainties in their estimation of N deposition and the lack of detail for model-measurement comparison, their estimates of the impacts of N deposition on carbon storage in Chinese forests may need further improvement. We suggest the clarification of the terminology regarding N deposition, especially for wet deposition, bulk deposition, gaseous and particulate dry deposition or total deposition since the accurate distinction between these terms is crucial to investigating and estimating the effects of N deposition on ecosystems.

  4. OCCUPATIONAL ROLE AFTER PSYCHIATRIC HOSPITALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GH.R GHASSEMI

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Severe Psychiatricillness is accompanied by gross disturbances in patient's occupational role. This study presents a comparative picture of work performance before and after psychiatric hospitalization. Method: Subjects comprised 440 psychiatric admitters from Noor Medical center - Isfahan - Iran, who were followed from November 1999 to November 2000. Their work adjustment was measured by means of Weiss man's index. Data were computer analyzed using SPSS by running paired t- student and ANOVA. Results: Majority of the patients (53 % were without permanent sources of income before psychiatric hospitalization, about 12 percent of those who were working prior to hospitalization lost their job after being discharged from hospital. Better work adjustment before hospitalization was positively correlated with better work adjustment after discharge for working patients (r =0/66. Working ability of the patients after discharge was lesser than before the attack f9r patients with regular and irregular job (P < 001. Discussion: Job loss or poor working ability after psychiatric admission reported by several researchers and has bean confirmed in this study as well. These observatoins have been discussed in view of the current socio economic problems in the society and nature of psychiatric disturbances.

  5. Saccadic eye movement applications for psychiatric disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittencourt, Juliana; Velasques, Bruna; Teixeira, Silmar; Basile, Luis F; Salles, José Inácio; Nardi, Antonio Egídio; Budde, Henning; Cagy, Mauricio; Piedade, Roberto; Ribeiro, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    Objective The study presented here analyzed the patterns of relationship between oculomotor performance and psychopathology, focusing on depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, and anxiety disorder. Methods Scientific articles published from 1967 to 2013 in the PubMed/Medline, ISI Web of Knowledge, Cochrane, and SciELO databases were reviewed. Results Saccadic eye movement appears to be heavily involved in psychiatric diseases covered in this review via a direct mechanism. The changes seen in the execution of eye movement tasks in patients with psychopathologies of various studies confirm that eye movement is associated with the cognitive and motor system. Conclusion Saccadic eye movement changes appear to be heavily involved in the psychiatric disorders covered in this review and may be considered a possible marker of some disorders. The few existing studies that approach the topic demonstrate a need to improve the experimental paradigms, as well as the methods of analysis. Most of them report behavioral variables (latency/reaction time), though electrophysiological measures are absent. PMID:24072973

  6. Moral learning in psychiatric rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitvast, J E; Widdershoven, G A M; Abma, T A

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to illustrate moral learning in persons with a psychiatric disability who participated in a nursing intervention, called the photo-instrument. This intervention is a form of hermeneutic photography. The findings are based on a multiple case study of 42 patients and additional interviews with eight of them. Photo groups were organized within three settings of psychiatric services: ambulatory as well as clinical, all situated in the Netherlands. Data were analysed according to hermeneutic and semiotic principles. Two cases are presented. Findings show that voice and face are concepts that help to identify elements of moral learning in the rehabilitation process of persons with a psychiatric disability. During the process patients become more aware of their responsibilities towards themselves and others.

  7. Transposable elements and psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guffanti, Guia; Gaudi, Simona; Fallon, James H; Sobell, Janet; Potkin, Steven G; Pato, Carlos; Macciardi, Fabio

    2014-04-01

    Transposable Elements (TEs) or transposons are low-complexity elements (e.g., LINEs, SINEs, SVAs, and HERVs) that make up to two-thirds of the human genome. There is mounting evidence that TEs play an essential role in genomic architecture and regulation related to both normal function and disease states. Recently, the identification of active TEs in several different human brain regions suggests that TEs play a role in normal brain development and adult physiology and quite possibly in psychiatric disorders. TEs have been implicated in hemophilia, neurofibromatosis, and cancer. With the advent of next-generation whole-genome sequencing approaches, our understanding of the relationship between TEs and psychiatric disorders will greatly improve. We will review the biology of TEs and early evidence for TE involvement in psychiatric disorders. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Psychiatric Adverse Effects of Dermatological Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mine Özmen

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Dermatological drugs, mostly corticosteroids and isotretinoin, cause different psychiatric adverse effects. During steroid therapy, a wide range of psychiatric conditions, from minor clinical symptoms like insomnia and anxiety to serious psychiatric syndromes like psychosis and delirium might be seen. In medical literature, a causal connection is usually suggested between “isotretinoin”, which is used for treatment of acne vulgaris and depression and suicide attempts. However, there are no statistically significant double-blind randomized studies that support this connection. Clinicians must know patient’s psychiatric history before using any dermatological treatment known as causing psychiatric adverse effects, and psychiatric consultation should be established whenever necessary.

  9. Suicide among older psychiatric inpatients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erlangsen, Annette; Zarit, Steven H; Tu, Xin

    2006-01-01

    characteristics. RESULTS: Affective disorders were found to be associated with an almost twofold higher risk of suicide among psychiatric inpatients than other types of disorders (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.5-2.6). Patients with dementia had a significantly lower risk ratio of 0.2 (95% CI: 0......OBJECTIVE: Older adults have elevated suicide rates, especially in the presence of a psychiatric disorder, yet not much is known about predictors for suicide within this high-risk group. The current study examines the characteristics associated with suicide among older adults who are admitted...

  10. [Social psychiatric service as a cornerstone of psychiatric community care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, P; Tiggemann, H G

    1991-12-01

    Psychiatric care has gradually been shifting in Germany from its original inpatient basis to outpatient and complementary treatment. This shift of emphasis resulted in a transfer of psychiatry-political responsibility to communal bodies and hence also to communal public health services. Sociopsychiatric service ranks high in communal psychiatric care setups, since it promotes cooperation and helps to coordinate efforts in individual cases in respect of focal points on which such care is centered. For the future, an expert commission has suggested that the various institutions actively engaged in community psychiatric care should team up in each region. This applies in particular to mobile services visiting the patients in their homes, and to the offices providing contracts to sociopsychiatric services of public health offices. Despite positive outlooks there are also quite a few negative aspects of present-day practice. One of them is poor definition of tasks and functions of communal sociopsychiatric services, whereas another one are the unsatisfactory quantitative and qualitative means at their disposal. It is also too often overlooked that psychiatric patients and disabled persons are entitled to compensation insurance payments to promote their rehabilitation, as provided for by individual legislation in the various German laender. To tap these sources sufficiently well, sociopsychiatric services must be better equipped in every respect. The professional competence of social workers and physicians, as well as of the relevant staff, must be safeguarded by continuing education and specialist training measures.

  11. Paraphilias in adult psychiatric inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Patrick J; Odlaug, Brian L; Thomarios, Nick; Davis, Andrew A; Buchanan, Stephanie N; Meyer, Craig S; Grant, Jon E

    2010-05-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine the prevalence of paraphilias in an adult inpatient psychiatric population. One hundred twelve consecutive, voluntarily admitted, adult male psychiatric inpatients were administered the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, Sexual Disorders Module, Male Version, to assess the rates of DSM-IV paraphilias. Fifteen patients (13.4%) reported symptoms consistent with at least one lifetime DSM-IV paraphilia. The most common paraphilias were voyeurism (n = 9 [8.0%]), exhibitionism (n = 6 [5.4%]), and sexual masochism (n = 3 [2.7%]). Patients who screened positive for a paraphilia had significantly more psychiatric hospitalizations (P = .006) and, on a trend level, were more likely to have attempted suicide. In addition, patients with paraphilias were significantly more likely to report having been sexually abused than patients without a paraphilia (P = paraphilia. Paraphilias appear to be more common in adult male psychiatric inpatients than previously estimated. The study also demonstrated that these disorders were not screened for by the treating physician and thus may go untreated. Further, larger-scale studies are necessary in order to further examine the rates of these disorders in the general population.

  12. Moral learning in psychiatric rehabilitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sitvast, J.E.; Widdershoven, G.G.A.M.; Abma, T.A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to illustrate moral learning in persons with a psychiatric disability who participated in a nursing intervention, called the photo-instrument. This intervention is a form of hermeneutic photography. The findings are based on a multiple case study of 42 patients and

  13. Therapeutic abortion on psychiatric grounds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1983-04-23

    Apr 23, 1983 ... those with psychiatric disorder; severe reactive depression was found in 27,5% and 50% were considered to have personality disorders sufficient to be identified as pathological. Such assessments were based on a record of longstanding neurotic or habitually maladaptive behaviour characterized by ...

  14. Predictors of psychiatric readmissions to

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    identification of early symptoms of relapse, application of immediate and appropriate measures, and adequate record-keeping by health institutions are ... hospitalization, resulting from the policy of de-institutionalization in. Nigeria has led to ..... adolescent psychiatric care Aust N Z ] Psychiatry 2005; 39: 600-606. 3. vaett C.

  15. Dyspepsia in chronic psychiatric patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mookhoek, E.J.; Meijs, V.M.M.; Loonen, A.J.M.; Leufkens, H.G.M.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: We report on dyspeptic complaints among patients hospitalized in the long-stay ward of a general psychiatric hospital. Methods: A representative sample of the patients was interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Results: Eighty percent of the patients reported one or more

  16. Articulating Atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinch, Sofie

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an architectural approach to designing computational interfaces by articulating the notion of atmosphere in the field of interaction design. It draws upon the concept of kinesthetic interaction and a philosophical notion on atmosphere emphasizing the importance of bodily exper......” implications and qualities of the approach are identified through concrete examples of a design case, which also investigates the qualities and implications of addressing atmospheres both as design concern and user experience.......This paper presents an architectural approach to designing computational interfaces by articulating the notion of atmosphere in the field of interaction design. It draws upon the concept of kinesthetic interaction and a philosophical notion on atmosphere emphasizing the importance of bodily...... experience in space, presented as middle ground experience. In the field of HCI, middle ground experiences complete the unarticulated spectrum between designing for foreground of attention or background awareness. When “Articulating Atmospheres through Middle Ground Experiences in Interaction Design...

  17. Psychiatric morbidity among physically injured Syrian refugees in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nuaimi, Saleem; Aldandashi, Samer; Easa, Abdul Kadir Saed; Saqqur, Maher

    2018-01-01

    To the best of our knowledge, the mental health status of physically injured Syrian refugees has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity among physically injured Syrian refugees in Turkey receiving treatment at the main rehabilitation centre near the Syrian border. This is a cross sectional study. Information was collected from consenting injured Syrian refugees at Dar-el-Shefa'a Hospital in Reyhanlı (Turkey) during a one week period in December 2012 and another one week period in August 2013. A clinical psychiatric interview was conducted to determine a diagnosis according to the diagnostic criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) IV-TR. A total of 40 refugees consented and completed a clinical psychiatric interview. All refugees in this study did not have a significant past psychiatric history. The most prevalent current diagnosis was major depressive disorder (22.5%), adjustment disorder (20%), and post-traumatic stress disorder (15%). Five (12.5%) patients had no evidence of a psychiatric disorder. The prevalence of psychiatric morbidity among injured Syrian refugees in our study was extremely high. This may help guide the treatment and management of this select population. This study had a low number of participants. The method of assessment was not standardized with a validated tool. This study may help guide the treatment and management of this select population, both in neighbouring countries and as resettled refugees in Western host countries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Nursing diagnoses related to psychiatric adult inpatient care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frauenfelder, Fritz; van Achterberg, Theo; Müller Staub, Maria

    2018-02-01

    knowledge for nursing care and its demands in this setting and therefore supports the daily nursing psychiatric care and its needs. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Huntington's disease: psychiatric issues of a paradigmatic neuropsychiatric disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Raquel

    2006-01-01

    Huntington's Disease (HD) can be considered a paradigmatic neuropsychiatric disorder that has three components: motor, cognitive and behavioral symptoms. The author synthetizes research developed on epidemiology and etipathogeny of HD and makes reference to more usual symptoms, emphasizing psychiatric symptoms, often the first manifestation of HD. About a clinical case, the author points out rhe great phenotypic variability of this disease, reflects about ways to develop the knowledge of the ...

  20. Psychiatric disorders after radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kokai, Masahiro [Hyogo Coll. of Medicine, Nishinomiya (Japan); Soejima, Toshinori; Wang, Shangdong; Shinfuku, Naotaka

    2001-04-01

    This review focuses on the mental and psychological effects of medical radiation exposure, the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island, the Chernobyl disaster, atomic bomb explosions at Nagasaki and Hiroshima, and accidents at nuclear power plants and nuclear waste plants. Studies have shown that anxiety about the adverse effects of radiation in medicine (such as infertility, carcinogenicity, and genotoxicity) and fear for exposure has caused psychiatric disorders. Several studies on the mental health effects of the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island were conducted, and the results indicated that psychiatric distress persisted for a certain period of time, particularly in pregnant women and women who have children, even when no evidence of substantial of radiation exposure is seen clinically. The psychological consequences of the Chernobyl disaster have been investigated continuously, and various problems, e.g., acute stress reaction, neurosis, and psychosis, have been identified, although no physical damage due to the radiation or PTSD have been reported. By contrast, PTSD has been seen in survivors of the Nagasaki and Hiroshima nuclear explosions. A study in Ohio, (United States), which has a nuclear waste plant, investigated PTSD in people living near the plant and found that the symptom level was mild. In general, the most common symptoms among people with mental and psychological disorders due to radiation exposure are depression and anxiety, with many people having associated somatoform disorders, and some people complain of PTSD. Vague anxiety and fear of sequelae, regardless of the exposure dose, appears to cause such psychiatric disorders. Although it is rare for psychiatrists to see such cases of psychiatric disorders due to radiation exposure, their number may increase as psychiatric services become more widely available. (K.H.)

  1. Atmospheric electricity

    CERN Document Server

    Chalmers, J Alan

    1957-01-01

    Atmospheric Electricity brings together numerous studies on various aspects of atmospheric electricity. This book is composed of 13 chapters that cover the main problems in the field, including the maintenance of the negative charge on the earth and the origin of the charges in thunderstorms. After a brief overview of the historical developments of atmospheric electricity, this book goes on dealing with the general principles, results, methods, and the MKS system of the field. The succeeding chapters are devoted to some aspects of electricity in the atmosphere, such as the occurrence and d

  2. Atmospheric Neutrinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takaaki Kajita

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric neutrinos are produced as decay products in hadronic showers resulting from collisions of cosmic rays with nuclei in the atmosphere. Electron-neutrinos and muon-neutrinos are produced mainly by the decay chain of charged pions to muons to electrons. Atmospheric neutrino experiments observed zenith angle and energy-dependent deficit of muon-neutrino events. It was found that neutrino oscillations between muon-neutrinos and tau-neutrinos explain these data well. This paper discusses atmospheric neutrino experiments and the neutrino oscillation studies with these neutrinos.

  3. Possibilities and limits of multiprofessional attention in the care of psychiatric emergencies: analytical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Lima de Paula

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Goal: to analyze the possibilities and limits of multiprofessional care in the attention to psychiatric emergencies. Method: it is an analytical study of the type integrative review of the comprehensive literature. Searches were conducted in the Latin American and Caribbean Literature (LILACS and Nursing Database (BDENF databases and in the ScieLo Virtual Library, with the use of Descriptors in Health Sciences (DECs: “Emergency Services, Psychiatric”, “Forensic Psychiatry”, “Psychiatric Rehabilitation”, in the period from 2007 to 2017. Results: after data analysis, two thematic categories emerged: “Possibilities and limits in multiprofessional care for patients in crisis” and “The continuity of care to the patient in crisis by the multiprofessional team”. The studies point out fragility in the management of the multiprofessional team of care to the patients in psychiatric crisis. Therefore, in the substitutive services to the psychiatric hospital, it is necessary to strengthen the care and bonding tools for continuity of treatment after the cases of psychiatric emergency of these patients. Conclusion: this research provided a deepening of the knowledge regarding the challenges of the multiprofessional team in the care of analytical psychiatric emergencies and in relation to the patient in crisis, considering the main multiprofessional actions, understanding how this approach is done and patient follow-up. Descriptors: Emergency Services, Psychiatric. Forensic Psychiatry. Psychiatric Rehabilitation.

  4. Differences between Irish and Australian psychiatric nurses' family-focused practice in adult mental health services

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Grant, Anne

    2016-04-01

    Psychiatric nurses\\' practice with parents who have mental illness, their children and families is an important issue internationally. This study provides a comparison of Irish and Australian psychiatric nurses\\' family-focused practices in adult mental health services. Three hundred and forty three nurses across Ireland and 155 from Australia completed the Family Focused Mental Health Practice Questionnaire. Cross-country comparisons revealed significant differences, in terms of family-focused skill, knowledge, confidence and practice. Australian psychiatric nurses engaged in higher family-focused practice compared to Irish nurses. The comparative differences between countries may be attributable to differences in training, workplace support and policy.

  5. Implementation of information technology in nursing practice - challenge for management in psychiatric nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivunen, Marita; Hätönen, Heli; Välimäki, Maritta

    2009-01-01

    The implementation of information technology (IT) applications in nursing practice requires systematic investments and guidance. A collaborative organisational culture, and systematic and close clinical and administrative cooperation during the implementation process support the acceptance of IT among users in organisation. Although knowledge of IT projects management exists, there is a lack of knowledge about nursing management in IT implementation processes in psychiatric nursing.

  6. Urban atmospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandy, Matthew

    2017-07-01

    What is an urban atmosphere? How can we differentiate an 'atmosphere' from other facets of urban consciousness and experience? This essay explores some of the wider cultural, political, and philosophical connotations of atmospheres as a focal point for critical reflections on space and subjectivity. The idea of an 'affective atmosphere' as a distinctive kind of mood or shared corporeal phenomenon is considered in relation to recent developments in phenomenology, extended conceptions of agency, and new understandings of materialism. The essay draws in particular on the changing characteristics of air and light to reflect on different forms of sensory experience and their wider cultural and political connotations. The argument highlights some of the tensions and anomalies that permeate contemporary understandings of urban atmospheres.

  7. [The Flemish author Hendrik Conscience (1812-1883) and the psychiatric patients of Geel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieckhöfer, K

    1984-01-01

    The Flemish author Hendrik Conscience (1812-1883) whose novels were translated in the 19th century into all European languages, wrote also a mainly unknown, romantically elaborated story which was only translated into French under the title " Eene Gekkenwereld ", in which the system of psychiatric family care plays a leading rôle. After the presentation of a psychopathographic sketch of the personality of Conscience this is followed by a brief information on the contents. In this connection the psychopathologically and social-psychiatrically relevant passages are briefly examined and analysed. The work comes to the conclusion that in the literary field Conscience may be regarded as a pioneer of the humanisation of the early scientific psychiatry to which in the atmosphere of the psychiatric family care in the Flemish place Geel the social-psychiatric element had been already permanently adopted.

  8. Family history of psychiatric illness as a risk factor for schizoaffective disorder: a Danish register-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Thomas Munk; Labouriau, Rodrigo; Licht, Rasmus W

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Schizoaffective disorder may be related to both schizophrenia and bipolar disorders, but no population-based studies, to our knowledge, have investigated this association in families. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether a psychiatric history of schizoaffective disorder, bipolar disorder,...

  9. Automatic mining of symptom severity from psychiatric evaluation notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karystianis, George; Nevado, Alejo J; Kim, Chi-Hun; Dehghan, Azad; Keane, John A; Nenadic, Goran

    2017-12-22

    As electronic mental health records become more widely available, several approaches have been suggested to automatically extract information from free-text narrative aiming to support epidemiological research and clinical decision-making. In this paper, we explore extraction of explicit mentions of symptom severity from initial psychiatric evaluation records. We use the data provided by the 2016 CEGS N-GRID NLP shared task Track 2, which contains 541 records manually annotated for symptom severity according to the Research Domain Criteria. We designed and implemented 3 automatic methods: a knowledge-driven approach relying on local lexicalized rules based on common syntactic patterns in text suggesting positive valence symptoms; a machine learning method using a neural network; and a hybrid approach combining the first 2 methods with a neural network. The results on an unseen evaluation set of 216 psychiatric evaluation records showed a performance of 80.1% for the rule-based method, 73.3% for the machine-learning approach, and 72.0% for the hybrid one. Although more work is needed to improve the accuracy, the results are encouraging and indicate that automated text mining methods can be used to classify mental health symptom severity from free text psychiatric notes to support epidemiological and clinical research. © 2017 The Authors International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Psychiatric morbidity following Hurricane Andrew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, D; Mellman, T A; Mendoza, L M; Kulick-Bell, R; Ironson, G; Schneiderman, N

    1996-07-01

    The nature of psychiatric morbidity in previously non-ill subjects from the area most affected by Hurricane Andrew was investigated at 6-12 months posthurricane. Preliminary associations of morbidity with personal and event-related risk factors were also determined. Fifty one percent (31/61) met criteria for a new-onset disorder, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in 36%, major depression (MD) in 30%, and other anxiety disorders in 20%. Thirty four subjects (56%) had significant symptoms persisting beyond 6 months. Having sustained "severe damage" was the risk factor most strongly associated with outcome. Our data underscore the range of psychiatric morbidity related to a natural disaster, and suggest a relationship to chronic stressors.

  11. [Psychiatric emergencies in drug addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benyamina, Amine; Bouchez, Jacques; Rahioui, Hassan; Reynaud, Michel

    2003-06-01

    The practitioner is very frequently confronted by emergencies in drug-addicted patients also having psychiatric symptomatology. In this article the authors will address emergencies related to alcohol (notably intoxication, pre-DTs and the encephalopathies); emergencies related to cannabis (notably intoxication, psychotic states and panic attacks); and emergencies related to other psycho-active substances (overdoses, drug-withdrawal, psychiatric complications related to cocaine or amphetamines). In the domain of drug addiction, as in psychiatry, the practitioner must give as much importance to the organisation of the long-term healthcare plan for the drug addict, ulterior to the management of the immediate emergency. For example, whereas 90% of subjects presenting to the emergency department for acute alcoholic intoxication have a pathological consumption of alcohol (abuse or dependance), management of the alcoholism is proposed in only 2% of them.

  12. Dysfunctions in public psychiatric bureaucracies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos, L R

    1988-03-01

    The author describes common dysfunctions in public psychiatric organizations according to the model of bureaucracy articulated by Max Weber. Dysfunctions are divided into the categories of goal displacement, outside interference, unclear authority structure and hierarchy, and informal relations in the work place. The author emphasizes the bureaucratic nature of public psychiatry and the need for mental health professionals to understand the dysfunctions of the organizations in which they work, including the impact of these dysfunctions on the provision of quality care.

  13. Psychiatric Thoughts in Ancient India*

    OpenAIRE

    Ravi Abhyankar

    2015-01-01

    A review of the literature regarding psychiatric thoughts in ancient India is attempted. Besides interesting reading, many of the concepts are still relevant and can be used in day-to-day practice especially towards healthy and happy living. Certain concepts are surprisingly contemporary and valid today. They can be used in psychotherapy and counselling and for promoting mental health. However, the description and classification of mental illness is not in tune with modern psychiatry.

  14. Treatment Adherence in Psychiatric Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Emin Demirkol

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite developments in treatment options there is no significant increase in treatment adherence ratios. Inadherence in psychiatric disorders is higher than the other diseases. Loss of insight, drugs' side effects, sociodemographic features, personality traits are major factors affecting the treatment adherence. Determining and overcoming these factors for each disorder will help to improve adherence and reduce the treatment costs and hospitalization. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(1: 85-93

  15. Psychiatric thoughts in ancient India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abhyankar, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    A review of the literature regarding psychiatric thoughts in ancient India is attempted. Besides interesting reading, many of the concepts are still relevant and can be used in day-to-day practice especially towards healthy and happy living. Certain concepts are surprisingly contemporary and valid today. They can be used in psychotherapy and counselling and for promoting mental health. However, the description and classification of mental illness is not in tune with modern psychiatry.

  16. Psychiatric Thoughts in Ancient India*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abhyankar, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    A review of the literature regarding psychiatric thoughts in ancient India is attempted. Besides interesting reading, many of the concepts are still relevant and can be used in day-to-day practice especially towards healthy and happy living. Certain concepts are surprisingly contemporary and valid today. They can be used in psychotherapy and counselling and for promoting mental health. However, the description and classification of mental illness is not in tune with modern psychiatry. PMID:25838724

  17. Dissociative Experiences in Psychiatric Inpatients

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Firoozabadi; Nooshin Reza Alizadeh

    2016-01-01

    Dissociative disorders are conditions that involve disruptions of memory, awareness, identity, or perception. Data collected in diverse geographic locations underline the consistency in clinical symptoms of dissociative disorders. In this cross-sectional descriptive study, prevalence of dissociative experiences has been screened in hospitalized patients in psychiatric wards of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences in Iran. One hundred and sixty patients in two hospitals entered the study. Our...

  18. Psychiatric aspects of bariatric surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Yung-Chieh; Huang, Chih-Kuan; Tai, Chi-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review Bariatric surgery has been consistently shown to be effective in long-term marked weight loss and in bringing significant improvement to medical comorbidities such as metabolic syndrome. Empirical data suggest a high prevalence of psychiatric disorders among bariatric surgery candidates. In this review, we focus on the studies published recently with a high impact on our understanding of the role of psychiatry in bariatric surgery. Recent findings This article reviews the specific psychopathologies before surgery, changes in psychopathologies after surgery, suicide risk related to bariatric surgery, factors associated with weight loss, and recommendations for presurgical and postsurgical assessment and management. Research indicates a decrease in certain psychiatric symptoms after weight loss with bariatric surgery. However, the risk of suicide and unsuccessful weight loss in some bariatric surgery patients make monitoring following surgery as important as careful assessment and management before surgery. Specific considerations for youth and older populations and future potential research foci are discussed. Summary Recent publications suggest new directions for psychiatric evaluation and interventions for bariatric surgery patients. Future research on outcomes of specific populations, effectiveness of psychopharmacotherapy, and underlying pathophysiology are warranted for the advancement of treating bariatric surgery patients. PMID:25036421

  19. Psychiatric trainees in Finland 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putkonen, Hanna; Holi, Matti; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Korkeila, Jyrki; Eronen, Markku

    2005-01-01

    This study examined Finnish psychiatric trainees' views on their education. This was a survey study of nationwide data on Finnish psychiatric trainees in 2001. The quality of training was considered at least moderate by 84% of the respondents. Training on epidemiology, on taking history and status, and on psychopharmacology was considered the best. Quality was rated bad for training in leadership and administration, and educating the community. Research was done by 20%, and a personal clinical supervisor was appointed to 52% of the respondents. Offensive treatment had been experienced by 49% of the trainees in this study. Generally, studies of training also reflect strengths and weaknesses of the profession. Based on our results, it seems especially that training in leadership and in educating the community need to be improved; both of these are quintessential skills to survive in the struggle for economic and human resources. Furthermore, treatment of the trainees could still be better; attention should be paid to supervision of all trainees. Moreover, research must become more attractive. Psychiatry can be developed by the development of psychiatric training.

  20. [Psychiatric and Psychotherapeutic Care of Refugees by Reference of a Large Psychiatric Care Hospital in Western Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffrath, Jonas; Schmitz-Buhl, Mario; Gün, Ali Kemal; Gouzoulis-Mayfrank, Euphrosyne

    2017-04-01

    Medical and psychological care of refugees is among the most important current challenges in German health politics. Work with patients from this heterogeneous group who have often faced severe stress before, during and after their migration is currently based on a thin data foundation. Based on introductory information on current knowledge concerning psychiatric morbidity of refugees this article presents the psychiatric care of refugees at LVR Clinics Cologne - a psychiatric specialty hospital situated in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. A sample of 239 cases of refugee patients who were referred to in- and outpatient departments of the LVR Clinics Cologne between April 2015 and March 2016 are evaluated in respect of diagnoses, admission modalities and socio-demographic variables. The majority of principal diagnoses (40.2%) belong to the group of stress-related and somatoform disorders (F4 in ICD-10). Mood disorders (F3 in ICD-10) represented 31.0%, followed by mental and behavioral disorders due to psychoactive substance use (F1 in ICD-10) with 15.1%. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) was the most prevalent diagnose (13.0%). Among the 29 countries of the patients' origin Afghanistan (10,0%), Serbia (9.6%) and Kosovo (8.8%) were the most abundant. The diagnoses and the high rate of acute psychiatric events reflect the massive psychological pressure of the patients. The important role of interpreters and mediators specialized in language and integration in the treatment process is emphasized. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Atmospheric Infancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roald, Tone; Pedersen, Ida Egmose; Levin, Kasper

    2017-01-01

    In this article we establish intersubjective meaning-making in infancy as atmospheric. Through qualitative descriptions of five mother–infant dyads in a video-recorded, experimental setting when the infant is 4, 7, 10, and 13 months, we discovered atmospheric appearances with a developmental...... pattern of atmospheric variations. These appearances, we argue, are contextual and intersubjective monologues. The monologues are similar to what Daniel Stern describes with his concept of “vitality affects,” but they arise as a unified force that envelops the mother and child. As such, we present a new...

  2. Teaching safe sex practices to psychiatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sladyk, K

    1990-03-01

    An occupational therapist presented her 45-minute program called AIDS Education and Safe Sex 5 times to female mental patients in the locked ward of Cedarcrest Regional Hospital in Newington, Connecticut, to inform them about safe-sex practices and AIDS. She first administered a pretest then spoke briefly about AIDS and safe-sex practices. The lecture emphasized various important points such as no cure for AIDS exist, casual contact (e.g., kiss on the cheek, handshake) cannot transmit HIV, and effectiveness of using latex condoms. The occupational therapist spent much of her time addressing myths about AIDS and what safe-sex practices are. The patients discussed sexual abuse and dishonest partners. She administered a posttest which was the same as the pretest. Some sessions attracted more people than did other sessions. Test scores increased for every patient and for every session. They ranged from a 5% (68-73%) increase for the 3rd session to a 24% (67-91%) increase for the last session. She was not able to determine, however, whether the increased knowledge would translate into positive behavioral changes. Patients' psychiatric symptoms may have interfered with learning resulting in less than ideal improvements in knowledge. These symptoms were hypomanic behavior, restlessness, and distractibility. Perhaps other sessions with experiential techniques (e.g., putting condoms on dummies) would increase their understanding. This program helps fill the information gap not provided by the mass media which avoid mentioning safe-sex practices.

  3. The journey between ideal and real: Experiences of beginners psychiatric nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khankeh, Hamidreza; Khorasani-Zavareh, Davoud; Hoseini, Seyaid-Ali; Khodai-Ardekandi, Mohammad-Reza; Ekman, Sirkka-Liisa; Bohm, Katarina; Nakhaie, Maryam; Ranjbar, Maryam; Castrén, Maaret

    2014-07-01

    Understanding how novice nurses perceive their career in the psychiatric ward can be helpful for nurse educators and managers to gain insight into psychiatric nursing care and adding applicable knowledge to the development of support strategies for this group. The aim of this study was to describe and illuminate experiences of new graduated nurses working at a psychiatric ward in an Iranian context. A descriptive phenomenology has been chosen. Participants with baccalaureate degrees in nursing were selected purposefully and they all had less than 6 months of work experience in psychiatric wards beforehand. The study was conducted at the Razi Hospital in Iran. Data were collected through unstructured individual in-depth interviews and analyzed according to the Colaizzi method by means of Husserlian phenomenology. Three main themes were found in this study, of which six sub-themes were constructed as follows: Being in the world of fear and complaint, which has been abstracted by having mixed feelings of conflict and compliant on entry to the psychiatric ward, doubt about adequacy of being a psychiatric nurse and working in psychiatric ward and a frightening and non-supportive environment; A sense of imprisoned and confined, which has been constructed by different experience with different environmental milieu in psychiatric ward, as a lock sense; Becoming a psychiatric nurse, which has been constructed as a sense of usefulness, a sense of sympathy and compassion for patients and a sense of professional identity. This study identified areas that require modification by providing insight into lived experiences of beginners' nurses as the value in psychiatric ward. New graduated nurses may face negative perceptions and feelings due to confrontation with a new environment, patients and colleagues as well as shortcomings in the preparation.

  4. O conhecimento produzido no Programa de Pós-Graduação em Enfermagem: a enfermagem psiquiátrica El conocimiento producido en el programa de post-graduación en enfermería: la enfermería psiquiátrica The knowledge produced in the graduate program in nursing: psychiatric nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia Barros

    2005-12-01

    producir conocimientos a partir de las prácticas concretas de los trabajadores en los campos de la asistencia, la gestión y la enseñanza de Salud Mental.After almost 30 years since the creation of the Psychiatric Nursing Concentration Area in the Graduate Program of the University of São Paulo Nursing School, it is important to take a look at its scientific production in order to substantiate reflection about teaching. This is a descriptive-exploratory study. It used as sources the registers of the Graduate Service, abstracts from theses and dissertations, and memoranda and official correspondence. The data collected were analyzed in the light of the transformations occurred in this structure that has graduated 60 students, of which 50 obtained a Master's Degree and 10 a PhD, and that has been restructuring its disciplines, research lines and projects with the objective of responding to internal and external evaluations and adjusting to the guidelines of the country's fostering agencies. Current scientific production points out to an alignment with the guidelines of the Psychiatric Reform, and a tendency to produce knowledge through the concrete practice of the workers in the assistance field, the management and the teaching of Mental Health.

  5. Phenomenology of atmospheric neutrinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedynitch Anatoli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The detection of astrophysical neutrinos, certainly a break-through result, introduced new experimental challenges and fundamental questions about acceleration mechanisms of cosmic rays. On one hand IceCube succeeded in finding an unambiguous proof for the existence of a diffuse astrophysical neutrino flux, on the other hand the precise determination of its spectral index and normalization requires a better knowledge about the atmospheric background at hundreds of TeV and PeV energies. Atmospheric neutrinos in this energy range originate mostly from decays of heavy-flavor mesons, which production in the phase space relevant for prompt leptons is uncertain. Current accelerator-based experiments are limited by detector acceptance and not so much by the collision energy. This paper recaps phenomenological aspects of atmospheric leptons and calculation methods, linking recent progress in flux predictions with particle physics at colliders, in particular the Large Hadron Collider.

  6. Zinc deficiency is common in several psychiatric disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole Grønli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mounting evidence suggests a link between low zinc levels and depression. There is, however, little knowledge about zinc levels in older persons with other psychiatric diagnoses. Therefore, we explore the zinc status of elderly patients suffering from a wide range of psychiatric disorders. METHODS: Clinical data and blood samples for zinc analyzes were collected from 100 psychogeriatric patients over 64 of age. Psychiatric and cognitive symptoms were assessed using the Montgomery and Aasberg Depression Rating Scale, the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia, the Mini-Mental State Examination, the Clockdrawing Test, clinical interviews and a review of medical records. In addition, a diagnostic interview was conducted using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview instrument. The prevalence of zinc deficiency in patients with depression was compared with the prevalence in patients without depression, and the prevalence in a control group of 882 older persons sampled from a population study. RESULTS: There was a significant difference in zinc deficiency prevalence between the control group (14.4% and the patient group (41.0% (χ(2 = 44.81, df = 1, p<0.001. In a logistic model with relevant predictors, zinc deficiency was positively associated with gender and with serum albumin level. The prevalence of zinc deficiency in the patient group was significantly higher in patients without depression (i.e. with other diagnoses than in patients with depression as a main diagnosis or comorbid depression (χ(2 = 4.36, df = 1, p = 0.037. CONCLUSIONS: Zinc deficiency is quite common among psychogeriatric patients and appears to be even more prominent in patients suffering from other psychiatric disorders than depression. LIMITATIONS: This study does not provide a clear answer as to whether the observed differences represent a causal relationship between zinc deficiency and psychiatric symptoms. The blood sample collection time points

  7. An Epidemiological Study of Psychiatric Disorders in Hamadan Province , 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Mohammadi

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The burden of psychiatric disorders in the developed countries has been identified by the screening questionnaires and standard clinical interviews at a high level, but the epidemiological studies of psychiatric disorders in our country are brief and their numbers are few. Planning for providing essential mental health services to the people requires us to be knowledgeable about the present status of psychiatric disorders in the society. The objective of this research was to carry out the epidemiological study of the psychiatric disorders in the individuals 18 years and above in urban and rural areas of Hamadan province. 664 individuals selected through randomized clustered and systematic sampling methods among the existing families of Hamadan province and the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (SADS questionnaires completed by the clinical psychologist. The diagnosis of the disorders was based on DSM-IV classification criteria.The results of the study showed that the overall prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the province was 11.28% (17.2% in women , 5.8% in men. The anxiety and mood disorders with 5.87 and 2.71% respectively had the highest prevalence in the province. The prevalence of psychotic disorders in this study was 0.60% , neuro- cognitive disorders 1.35% and dissociative disorders 0.75%. In the group of mood disorders, major depression with 2.56% and in the group of anxiety disorders, phobia with 2.56% had the higher prevalence. This study showed that 8.13% of studied individuals suffered from at least one of the psychiatric disorders. The prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the province among the individuals in the age group of 66 years and above was 13.33%, individuals whose spouses had passed away 18.75%, urban residents of province 9.81%, illiterate individuals 12.80% and housewife individuals 12.31% was more than other individuals in the sample. Being aware of this matter reveals the responsibility of the

  8. Atmospheric neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajita, Takaaki [Research Center for Cosmic Neutrinos, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa-no-ha 5-1-5, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan)

    2004-12-01

    Neutrino oscillation was discovered through the study of atmospheric neutrinos. Atmospheric neutrinos are produced as decay products in hadronic showers resulting from collisions of cosmic rays with nuclei in the atmosphere. Electron neutrinos and muon neutrinos are produced mainly by the decay chain of charged pions to muons and electrons. Depending on the energy of the neutrinos, atmospheric neutrinos are observed as fully contained events, partially contained events and upward-going muon events. The energy range covered by these events is from a few hundred MeV to >1 TeV. Data from various experiments showed zenith angle- and energy-dependent deficit of {nu}{sub {mu}} events, while {nu}{sub e} events did not show any such effect. It was also shown that the {nu}{sub {mu}} survival probability obeys the sinusoidal function as predicted by neutrino oscillations. Two-flavour {nu}{sub {mu}} {r_reversible} {nu}{sub {tau}} oscillations, with sin{sup 2} 2{theta} > 0.90 and {delta}m{sup 2} in the region of 1.9 x 10{sup -3} to 3.0 x 10{sup -3} eV{sup 2}, explain all these data. Various detailed studies using high statistics atmospheric neutrino data excluded the alternative hypotheses that were proposed to explain the {nu}{sub {mu}} deficit.

  9. Psychiatric diagnosis in legal settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Allan

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available When asked to give a diagnosis in legal settings practitioners should be mindful of the tentative nature of psychiatric diag- noses and that courts require that such a diagnosis must have scientific credibility. South African courts are not explicit about the test they will apply to determine whether a diagno- sis is scientifically credible, but some guidance can be found in United States case law. This paper examines these criteria with reference to the disorders included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR.

  10. Cultural relativism and psychiatric illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabrega, H

    1989-07-01

    Psychiatry has had a long-standing association with sociology and, especially, cultural anthropology. These social sciences have been influential in developing the concept of cultural relativism and applying it to psychiatry, sometimes in a challenging way and with much detriment. The concept has been used by some antipsychiatrists in attempts to discredit psychiatric practice. Contemporary psychiatrists endorsing a form of biological determinism have tended to either disregard the concept or judge it as trivial if not nonsensical. This study describes the concept of cultural relativism, reviews its applications to illness, and analyzes its implications from a historical and theoretical point of view. Its varied aspects, power, and limitations are discussed.

  11. [Gender aspects of psychiatric publications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freidl, Marion; Unger, Annemarie; Vyssoki, Benjamin; Wancata, Johannes

    2010-01-01

    Are authors of German language psychiatric journals more often male or female? Are there gender differences regarding scientific topics? Analysis of publications of two German-language journals (Neuropsychiatrie, Psychiatrische Praxis) for the period 2008-2009. We could not find any gender differences concerning the number of first authors, but the number of male co-authors was nearly double as high as of female co-authors. Qualitative research methods were used more often by female researchers, but there were no significant differences regarding scientific topics. Overall, we found fewer gender differences than expected concerning authorship.

  12. [Sickness absence and disability due to psychiatric disorders from a gender perspective - a systematic literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, S; Stengler, K

    2013-06-01

    This work is aimed at providing a review of the literature on gender differences in the prevalence of mental disorders at the workplace. A systematic literature search of all original works on sickness absence and disability due to psychiatric disorders published in PubMed from 2000 through to 2011 was undertaken. Female employees have more frequent and longer sickness absences due to psychiatric disorders. Male employees are at a high risk of disability due to psychiatric disorders. Gender-specific prevention strategies at the workplace should target the prevention of short and long-term consequences for female employees and the long-term impact of psychiatric disorders in male employees. However, there is still a lack of knowledge about implications for gender specific prevention strategies at the workplace. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing in China: Past, Present and Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiuying; Li, Xin-Min; Xu, Dongmei; Wang, Wenqiang

    2017-10-01

    The mental health service model and policy have undergone dramatic changes and are moving toward the establishment of integrated service network-based community mental health services in China. But there are still some issues, such as shortage of resources, a relatively low rate of psychiatric treatment, lack of the knowledge about mental health in the general population, and stigma associated with mental disorders. This paper summarizes the history of psychiatric and mental health nursing in China and analyzes the characteristics of the current situation. There are healthcare challenges for psychiatric and mental health nurses with the mental health services reform by government, and in this paper we discuss future trends and provide suggestions for development of the psychiatric nursing profession, and mental health services reform. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Psychiatric sequelae of traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suprakash Chaudhury

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Almost half of the people suffering traumatic brain injury (TBI may later be diagnosed with psychiatric disorders. The literature (PubMed, IndMed of past 30 years on psychiatric disturbances associated with TBI is reviewed. The authors highlight the close link between head injury and psychiatry and provide an overview of the epidemiology, risk-factors, and mechanisms of psychiatric sequelae including, cognitive deficits, substance abuse, psychoses, mood disorders, suicide, anxiety disorders, dissociative disorders, post-concussion syndrome, and personality changes following head injury. The various psychiatric sequelae are briefly discussed.

  15. Approaches to psychiatric nosology: A viewpoint

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Avasthi, Ajit; Sarkar, Siddharth; Grover, Sandeep

    2014-01-01

    Psychiatric nosology is required for communication among clinicians and researchers, understanding etiology, testing treatment efficacy, knowing the prevalence of the problems and disorders, health...

  16. Legal duties of psychiatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beahrs, J O

    1990-01-01

    Psychiatric practice involves an implied contract in which each party fulfills a specialized role and incurs corresponding duties and obligations to be discharged as best able. Patients incur duties at three levels. First are specific duties that arise from patients' specialized role in their own health care: (1) to provide accurate and complete information, and (2) to cooperate with treatment within the bounds of informed consent. Second are general duties that apply to all citizens, but are especially relevant within the mental health context: (1) to respect the physical integrity of self, others, and property, and (2) to obey the law. The controversial "duty to protect" is at a third level, a transcendent duty that is specific to the context at hand, but in principle can apply to more than one party. Advantages of enforcing patients' duties include better care by treating professionals, optimum level of functioning of patients, and improved systems-wide morale and safety. Breach of patients' duty has many potential consequences in the forensic sphere: termination of care, malpractice defense, criminal prosecution, and tort liability. Complicating factors include the degree and effect of patients' psychiatric impairment, patients' legal status, and the role played by psychotherapeutic transference.

  17. Psychotherapy in Contemporary Psychiatric Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjipavlou, George; Hernandez, Carlos A Sierra; Ogrodniczuk, John S

    2015-01-01

    Objective: American data suggest a declining trend in the provision of psychotherapy by psychiatrists. Nevertheless, the extent to which such findings generalize to psychiatric practice in other countries is unclear. We surveyed psychiatrists in British Columbia to examine whether the reported decline in psychotherapy provision extends to the landscape of Canadian psychiatric practice. Method: A survey was mailed to the entire population of fully licensed psychiatrists registered in British Columbia (n = 623). The survey consisted of 30 items. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the sample and psychotherapy practice patterns. Associations between variables were evaluated using nonparametric tests. Results: A total of 423 psychiatrists returned the survey, yielding a response rate of 68%. Overall, 80.9% of psychiatrists (n = 342) reported practicing psychotherapy. A decline in the provision of psychotherapy was not observed; in fact, there was an increase in psychotherapy provision among psychiatrists entering practice in the last 10 years. Individual therapy was the predominant format used by psychiatrists. The most common primary theoretical orientation was psychodynamic (29.9%). Regarding actual practice, supportive psychotherapy was practiced most frequently. Professional time constraints were perceived as the most significant barrier to providing psychotherapy. The majority (85%) of clinicians did not view remuneration as a significant barrier to treating patients with psychotherapy. Conclusions: Our findings challenge the prevailing view that psychotherapy is in decline among psychiatrists. Psychiatrists in British Columbia continue to integrate psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy in clinical practice, thus preserving their unique place in the spectrum of mental health services. PMID:26175328

  18. Time Perception and Psychiatric Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Ceviz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Time perception is an ability which we use in every moment of daily life, that guides the formation and continuation of our behaviors and from an evolutionary perspective ensures survival. Internal clock models help us to understand time perception. Time perception is known to vary between individuals and particular situations. This variability is explained with the mechanisms which is associated with the processes related to attention, the speed of the internal clock and the memory unit. It is suggested that time perception is mainly associated with the activities of dopamine and acetylcholine. Some dopaminergic psychoactive substances like cocaine and amphetamine have all been shown to change time perception by increasing the speed of internal clock while on the other hand some antipsychotic drugs make an opposite change in time perception by descreasing the speed of the clock. Similarly, time perception is affected in some psychiatric disorders and an ethiopathological relationship between time perception disturbances and psychiatric disorders is suggested. In this article time perception changes in schizophrenia, attention deficit/hyperactivity syndrome, depression, anxiety disorders and personality disorders are briefly reviewed.

  19. [Compulsive buying and psychiatric comorbidity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Astrid; Mühlhans, Barbara; Silbermann, Andrea; Müller, Ulrike; Mertens, Christian; Horbach, Thomas; Mitchell, James E; de Zwaan, Martina

    2009-08-01

    Compulsive buying is an excessive behavior that has begun to receive attention from researchers in recent years. The current study provides an overview of research on compulsive buying and examines the psychiatric co-morbidity in a German female treatment seeking compulsive buying sample in comparison with age and gender-matched normal buying control groups. Thirty women suffering from compulsive buying disorder, 30 community controls, and 30 bariatric surgery candidates were assessed with the German versions of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV diagnoses (SCID). Women with compulsive buying disorder showed significantly higher prevalence rates of affective, anxiety, and eating disorders compared to community controls, and suffered significantly more often from affective and anxiety disorders compared to bariatric surgery candidates. The compulsive buying group presented with the highest rates of personality disorders, most commonly avoidant, depressive, obsessive-compulsive, and borderline personality disorder, and reported the highest prevalence rates of other impulse control disorders, especially for intermittent explosive disorder. The findings suggest an elevated psychiatric co-morbidity in patients with compulsive buying disorder.

  20. Face processing in psychiatric conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, J; Hay, D C; Young, A W

    1992-02-01

    Functional models of face processing have indicated that dissociations exist between the various processes involved, e.g. between familiar face recognition and matching of unfamiliar faces, and between familiar face recognition and facial expression analysis. These models have been successfully applied to the understanding of the different types of impairment that can exist in neuropsychological patients. In the present study, aspects of face processing in psychiatric patients were investigated in relation to Bruce & Young's (1986) model. Based on this functional model different predictions can be made. We contrast here the impaired expression analysis hypothesis, which is that psychiatric patients would show a deficit in facial expression recognition, but not in facial identity recognition or unfamiliar face matching, with the generalized deficit hypothesis, that patients would be impaired on all tasks. These hypotheses were examined using three forced-choice tasks (facial recognition, facial expression recognition, and unfamiliar face matching) which were presented to schizophrenic and depressed patients, and to non-patient controls. Results showed that schizophrenic patients performed at a significantly lower level than non-patient controls on all three tasks, supporting the generalized deficit hypothesis.

  1. Epigenetic signaling in psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Catherine J; Bagot, Rosemary C; Labonté, Benoit; Nestler, Eric J

    2014-10-09

    Psychiatric disorders are complex multifactorial illnesses involving chronic alterations in neural circuit structure and function. While genetic factors are important in the etiology of disorders such as depression and addiction, relatively high rates of discordance among identical twins clearly indicate the importance of additional mechanisms. Environmental factors such as stress or prior drug exposure are known to play a role in the onset of these illnesses. Such exposure to environmental insults induces stable changes in gene expression, neural circuit function, and ultimately behavior, and these maladaptations appear distinct between developmental and adult exposures. Increasing evidence indicates that these sustained abnormalities are maintained by epigenetic modifications in specific brain regions. Indeed, transcriptional dysregulation and associated aberrant epigenetic regulation is a unifying theme in psychiatric disorders. Aspects of depression and addiction can be modeled in animals by inducing disease-like states through environmental manipulations (e.g., chronic stress, drug administration). Understanding how environmental factors recruit the epigenetic machinery in animal models reveals new insight into disease mechanisms in humans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. ASD, a Psychiatric Disorder, or Both? Psychiatric Diagnoses in Adolescents with High-Functioning ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazefsky, Carla A.; Oswald, Donald P.; Day, Taylor N.; Eack, Shaun M.; Minshew, Nancy J.; Lainhart, Janet E.

    2012-01-01

    Varied presentations of emotion dysregulation in autism complicate diagnostic decision making and may lead to inaccurate psychiatric diagnoses or delayed autism diagnosis for high-functioning children. This pilot study aimed to determine the concordance between prior psychiatric diagnoses and the results of an autism-specific psychiatric interview…

  3. Alarming atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund, Marie; Kinch, Sofie

    2014-01-01

    Nurses working in the Neuro-Intensive Care Unit at Aarhus University Hospital lack the tools to prepare children for the alarming atmosphere they will enter when visiting a hospitalised relative. The complex soundscape dominated by alarms and sounds from equipment is mentioned as the main stressor...

  4. Atmospheric humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water vapor plays a critical role in earth's atmosphere. It helps to maintain a habitable surface temperature through absorption of outgoing longwave radiation, and it transfers trmendous amounts of energy from the tropics toward the poles by absorbing latent heat during evaporation and subsequently...

  5. History of the Nordic psychiatric cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Knorring, Lars

    2012-03-01

    The Nordic countries include Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden as well the Faroe Islands, Greenland, Svalbard and Åland. The countries share much common history as well as common traits in their respective societies. As early as 1906, a Scandinavian Psychiatric Association was suggested. The first Nordic Psychiatric Congress was held in Copenhagen 1913. After the First World War, at the 6th Nordic Psychiatric Congress in Stockholm 1935, a Nordic Psychiatric Association was founded and it was decided that a Nordic Journal of Psychiatry should be founded. After the Second World War, at the 8th Nordic Psychiatric Congress in Copenhagen 1946, the Nordic Psychiatric Association was terminated. At this time, the most important task of the Association, to found a Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, had been achieved. After 1946, there has been a close cooperation between the Nordic countries but no common Nordic Psychiatric Association. Today, the Nordic Psychiatric Cooperation is active and ongoing. The 30th Nordic Psychiatric Congress is scheduled to be held in Tromsö, in 2012. The Nordic Journal of Psychiatry is publishing its 64 th volume. The Journal is indexed in the important international databases and the impact factor is increasing. The Joint Committee of the Nordic psychiatric associations has established itself as the owner of the Journal and the organizer of the congresses. There are also a series of Nordic cooperations in a series of different fields, such as the Scandinavian Societies of Biological Psychiatry, the Scandinavian College of Neuropsychopharmacology (SCNP), the bi-annual Nordic Psychoanalytical Congresses, the Scandinavian Psychoanalytic Review, the Nordic Association of Psychiatric Epidemiology, NAPE, and so on.

  6. Psychiatric sequelae of traumatic brain injury: Retrospective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-12-23

    Dec 23, 2011 ... Objective: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a public health problem and is associated with many complications. However little is known about the psychiatric sequelae of TBI in Nigeria. This study described the pattern and determinants of psychiatric sequelae among subjects with TBI. Materials and Methods: ...

  7. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection among Psychiatric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Psychiatric patients are considered high risked group for Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. This has been found to be as a result of poor judgment and irrationality associated with some of the disorders. However, there is dearth of literature on the prevalence of HIV infection among psychiatric ...

  8. Psychiatric sequelae of traumatic brain injury: Retrospective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information obtained included the sociodemographic characteristics, type of injury, durations of unconsciousness (LOC) and posttraumatic amnesia (PTA), psychiatric and psychoactive substance use history. Psychiatric diagnosis was based on the criteria of the 10th edition of the International Classification of Diseases ...

  9. Exploring the perceptions of psychiatric patients regarding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-03-13

    Mar 13, 2012 ... recommendations for nursing education, nursing research and nursing practice, with the aim of reducing the readmission of ... impairment of memory, concentration, motivation, self- esteem, relationships with others and ..... at increasing nursing students' and psychiatric nurses' insight about psychiatric ...

  10. Exploring the perceptions of psychiatric patients regarding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to explore and describe the perceptions of psychiatric patients with regard to marijuana use in Potchefstroom, North West Province, as well as to formulate recommendations for nursing education, nursing research and nursing practice, with the aim of reducing the readmission of psychiatric ...

  11. Smartphone apps as a new psychiatric treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalum, Anette Ellegaard; Arnfred, Sidse Marie

    2014-01-01

    Søg 1 - 1 ud af 1 Smartphone apps as a new psychiatric treatment. Anette Ellegaard Dalum, Sidse Arnfred, 2014, vol. 176, nummer 34, 2014. Ugeskrift for laeger Artikel Importer Fjern......Søg 1 - 1 ud af 1 Smartphone apps as a new psychiatric treatment. Anette Ellegaard Dalum, Sidse Arnfred, 2014, vol. 176, nummer 34, 2014. Ugeskrift for laeger Artikel Importer Fjern...

  12. Establishment of a local psychiatric service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, A G

    1981-01-01

    of senile psychoses. The total increase amounts to 2.4 times the admission rates of psychiatric cases to the General Hospital and 4.4 times the admission rates to the Psychiatric Hospital in Nykøbing in the last years prior to the start of the local service. The outpatient department has grown steadily...

  13. PSYCHIATRIC MORBIDITY AMONG CHILDREN AND YOUNG ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kateee

    2003-06-06

    Jun 6, 2003 ... Objectives: To estimate the prevalence and pattern of psychiatric disorders among children and young persons appearing in .... by a computer using the Statistical Package for Social. Sciences (SPSS) Version 8.0 and a ..... for further psychiatric assessment and treatment as necessary. The Juvenile court ...

  14. Sleep in Children With Psychiatric Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramtekkar, Ujjwal; Ivanenko, Anna

    2015-06-01

    Sleep disturbances are common in pediatric psychiatric disorders and constitute key elements in diagnostic symptomatology of various primary psychiatric disorders including bipolar disorder, depression, and anxiety disorder. Although sleep is not included in key defining criteria of some impairing illnesses such as obsessive-compulsive disorder and schizophrenia, these disorders present with a very high prevalence of sleep disturbances. The interaction between sleep and psychopathology is very complex with significant interrelationship in development, severity, and prognosis of psychiatric disorders and comorbid sleep disturbances. The research ranging from small intervention case series to large epidemiologic studies have demonstrated the role of specific sleep complaints in specific psychiatric diagnoses. However, the research using objective instruments such as polysomnography and actigraphy remains limited in youth with psychiatric disorders. The intervention studies using pharmaceutical treatment specifically focusing on sleep disturbances in psychiatric disorders are also sparse in the pediatric literature. Early identification of sleep disturbances and behavioral management using cognitive behavior therapy-based tools appear to be the most effective approach for treatment. The use of psychotropic medications such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors for the treatment of primary psychiatric disorder often alleviate the psychological barriers for sleep but may lead to emergence of other sleep issues such as restless leg syndrome. The safety and efficacy data of hypnotics for primary sleep disorders are limited in pediatrics and should be avoided or used with extreme caution in children with comorbid sleep and psychiatric problems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Psychiatric disorders of patients seeking obesity treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Hung-Yen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obese and overweight people have a higher risk of both chronic physical illness and mental illness. Obesity is reported to be positively associated with psychiatric disorders, especially in people who seek obesity treatment. At the same time, obesity treatment may be influenced by psychological factors or personality characteristics. This study aimed to understand the prevalence of mental disorders among ethnic Chinese who sought obesity treatment. Methods Subjects were retrospectively recruited from an obesity treatment center in Taiwan. The obesity treatments included bariatric surgery and non-surgery treatment. All subjects underwent a standardized clinical evaluation with two questionnaires and a psychiatric referral when needed. The psychiatric diagnosis was made thorough psychiatric clinic interviews using the SCID. A total of 841 patients were recruited. We compared the difference in psychiatric disorder prevalence between patients with surgical and non-surgical treatment. Results Of the 841 patients, 42% had at least one psychiatric disorder. Mood disorders, anxiety disorders and eating disorders were the most prevalent categories of psychiatric disorders. Females had more mood disorders and eating disorders than males. The surgical group had more binge-eating disorder, adjustment disorder, and sleep disorders than the non-surgical group. Conclusion A high prevalence of psychiatric disorders was found among ethnic Chinese seeking obesity treatment. This is consistent with study results in the US and Europe.

  16. Psychiatric disorders and urbanization in Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, J.J.M.; Peen, J.; Koelen, J.A.; Smit, H.F.E.; Schoevers, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    Background. Epidemiological studies over the last decade have supplied growing evidence of an association between urbanization and the prevalence of psychiatric disorders. Our aim was to examine the link between levels of urbanization and 12-month prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders in a

  17. Psychiatric disorders and urbanization in Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, J.J.M.; Peen, J.; Koelen, J.A.; Smit, H.F.E.; Schoevers, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Epidemiological studies over the last decade have supplied growing evidence of an association between urbanization and the prevalence of psychiatric disorders. Our aim was to examine the link between levels of urbanization and 12-month prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders in

  18. determining treatment levels of comorbid psychiatric conditions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SITWALA COMPUTERS

    ABSTRACT. Background: Psychiatric co-morbidities occur more frequently in patients with epilepsy but are usually under- treated. Treatment of these disorders is key to reducing mortality via suicide and other causes. This study determined the levels of treatment of psychiatric co- morbidities at clinics in Lusaka, Zambia.

  19. Psychiatric disorders in women with fertility problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldur-Felskov, Birgitte; Kjaer, S K; Albieri, V

    2013-01-01

    Do women who don't succeed in giving birth after an infertility evaluation have a higher risk of psychiatric disorders compared with women who do?......Do women who don't succeed in giving birth after an infertility evaluation have a higher risk of psychiatric disorders compared with women who do?...

  20. Inappropriate involuntary admissions to psychiatric hospitals | van ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inappropriate involuntary admissions to psychiatric hospitals. P L van der Merwe, A Allan, M M Allan. Abstract. Background. In order to preserve scarce resources, treabnent in tertiary psychiatric hospitals should be restricted to those whose treatment needs make admission to such hospitals essential. However, anecdotal ...

  1. Stress levels of psychiatric nursing staff

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Looff, P.C. de; Kuijpers, E.; Nijman, H.L.I.

    2014-01-01

    During a total of 30 shifts, the arousal levels of 10 psychiatric nurses were assessed while working on a (forensic) psychiatric admissions ward. Arousal was assessed by means of a small device (wristband) by which the Skin Conductance Level (SCL) of the participating nurses was monitored. Each

  2. The Use of Physical Restraint in Norwegian Adult Psychiatric Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Wynn

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The use of coercion within the psychiatric services is problematic and raises a range of ethical, legal, and clinical questions. “Physical restraint” is an emergency procedure used in psychiatric hospitals to control patients that pose an imminent physical danger. We wished to review the literature published in scientific peer-reviewed journals describing studies on the use of physical restraint in Norway, in order to identify the current state of knowledge and directions for future research. Design. The databases PubMed, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Web of Science, and Embase were searched for studies relating to physical restraint (including holding in Norwegian psychiatric hospitals, supplemented with hand searches. Results. 28 studies were included. Most of the studies were on rates of restraint, but there were also some studies on perceptions of patients and staff, case studies, and ethnographic studies. There was only one intervention study. There are differences in use between wards and institutions, which in part may be explained by differences in patient populations. Staff appear to be less negative to the use of restraint than patients. Conclusions. The studies that were identified were primarily concerned with rates of use and with patients’ and staff’s perspectives. More interventional studies are needed to move the field forward.

  3. Saturn: atmosphere, ionosphere, and magnetosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gombosi, Tamas I; Ingersoll, Andrew P

    2010-03-19

    The Cassini spacecraft has been in orbit around Saturn since 30 June 2004, yielding a wealth of data about the Saturn system. This review focuses on the atmosphere and magnetosphere and briefly outlines the state of our knowledge after the Cassini prime mission. The mission has addressed a host of fundamental questions: What processes control the physics, chemistry, and dynamics of the atmosphere? Where does the magnetospheric plasma come from? What are the physical processes coupling the ionosphere and magnetosphere? And, what are the rotation rates of Saturn's atmosphere and magnetosphere?

  4. Parental psychiatric hospitalisation and offspring schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger J; Mortensen, Erik L; Reinisch, June M

    2009-01-01

    The risk of schizophrenia has been linked with a family history of schizophrenia and less strongly with other psychiatric disorders in family members. Using data from the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort and from the Danish Psychiatric Case Register, we studied the relationship between offspring risk...... of schizophrenia and a range of psychotic and non-psychotic psychiatric diagnoses in parents. Psychiatric admission data after 1969 were available for 7047 cohort members born between 1959 and 1961, and for 7006 mothers and 6993 fathers. Univariate analysis showed that neurosis, alcohol and substance dependence...... in both parents were associated with elevated risk of offspring schizophrenia; in addition, maternal schizophrenia, affective disorder and personality disorder were associated with elevated risk. Controlling for parental age, parental social status, and parental psychiatric co-diagnosis, offspring risk...

  5. Animal cruelty and psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleyzer, Roman; Felthous, Alan R; Holzer, Charles E

    2002-01-01

    Animal cruelty in childhood, although generally viewed as abnormal or deviant, for years was not considered symptomatic of any particular psychiatric disorder. Although animal cruelty is currently used as a diagnostic criterion for conduct disorder, research establishing the diagnostic significance of this behavior is essentially nonexistent. In the current study, investigators tested the hypothesis that a history of substantial animal cruelty is associated with a diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder (APD) and looked for associations with other disorders commonly diagnosed in a population of criminal defendants. Forty-eight subjects, criminal defendants who had histories of substantial animal cruelty, were matched with defendants without this history. Data were systematically obtained from the files by using four specifically designed data retrieval outlines. A history of animal cruelty during childhood was significantly associated with APD, antisocial personality traits, and polysubstance abuse. Mental retardation, psychotic disorders, and alcohol abuse showed no such association.

  6. Acupuncture therapy for psychiatric illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilkington, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Acupuncture has traditionally been used for problems including anxiety, insomnia, stress, and depression in China and other East Asian countries. A range of different neurobiological responses to acupuncture have been investigated including modulation of serotonergic, noradrenergic, and dopaminergic systems; effects on GABA and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis; and inflammatory responses. Interpretation of the findings is challenging because the neurobiology of psychiatric disorders has yet to be fully elucidated. Limitations also arise from the use of animal models and the selection of appropriate control treatments. Further complexity is added by acupuncture treatment being nonstandardized with acupuncture points often selected on the basis on traditional practice and theory. Potentially promising findings require further investigation and substantiation. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. How writing records reduces clinical knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Niels

    2009-01-01

    drew on data from an extended fieldwork on two Danish "special observation" wards. The results indicated that the nurses' recording produced "stereotyping" representations of the patients and reduced the nurses' clinical knowledge but that this particular way of recording made good sense in relation......Through the practices of recording, psychiatric nurses produce clinical knowledge about the patients in their care. The objective of this study was to examine the conventionalized practices of recording among psychiatric nurses and the typical linguistic organization of their records. The study...

  8. Psychiatric features in perpetrators of homicide-unsuccessfulsuicide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    unsuccessful-suicide (HUS), those cases in which the perpetrator is referred for forensic psychiatric observation present an opportunity to explore psychiatric features pertaining to the event. Objective. To identify possible contributing psychiatric features ...

  9. Huntington's disease: psychiatric issues of a paradigmatic neuropsychiatric disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Ribeiro

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Huntington's Disease (HD can be considered a paradigmatic neuropsychiatric disorder that has three components: motor, cognitive and behavioral symptoms. The author synthetizes research developed on epidemiology and etipathogeny of HD and makes reference to more usual symptoms, emphasizing psychiatric symptoms, often the first manifestation of HD. About a clinical case, the author points out rhe great phenotypic variability of this disease, reflects about ways to develop the knowledge of the neuropsychiatric manifestations in order to achieve new treatment strategies in this area, finallt, ameliorate the comprehension of cerebral function.

  10. Choking risk among psychiatric inpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagamine T

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Takahiko Nagamine1Division of Psychiatric Internal Medicine, Seiwakai-Kitsunan Hospital, Suzenji, JapanChoking is a life-threatening and not infrequent occurrence in psychiatric hospitals. There is, however, little information available about the risk factors or methods to prevent choking. We conducted a retrospective analysis of the 8 patients who had a cardiopulmonary arrest due to choking and received resuscitation at our hospital during the 6-year period from April 2005 to March 2011. The study involved 6 males and females, all of whom were patients with schizophrenia taking antipsychotics orally. They were aged from 56 to 79 (mean ± SD: 69.0 ± 7.5 years, with the duration of illness from 28 to 54 years (39.9 ± 7.9 years. In 6 of the 8 cases, choking was diagnosed immediately on the basis of the situation at the time of cardiopulmonary arrest. In the remaining 2 cases, cardiopulmonary arrest was initially unexplained, and choking was only diagnosed subsequently. Choking was caused by bread in all cases. Tracheal intubation was carried out in all cases and resulted in successful resuscitation, causing no subsequent change in functions compared with the prechoking condition. All 8 patients had been receiving multiple antipsychotics before the event (mean number of drugs used 2.5 ± 0.7, with a total dose level ranging from 600 to 1800 mg/day chlorpromazine equivalents (mean 1113 ± 341 mg/day. Seven of the 8 patients had mild to moderate involuntary movements, and 5 patients were diagnosed with antipsychotic-induced tardive dyskinesia. During the 5-year period before the choking event, 7 of the 8 patients had at least 1 treatment interruption, and some patients had up to 4 interruptions.

  11. Atmospheric materiality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieczorek, Izabela

    2016-01-01

    A disjunction between the material and the immaterial has been at the heart of the architectural debate for decades. In this dialectic tension, the notion of atmosphere which increasingly claims attention in architectural discourse seems to be parallactic, leading to the re-evaluation of perceptual...... experience and, consequently, to the conceptual and methodological shifts in the production of space, and hence in the way we think about materiality. In this context, architectural space is understood as a contingent construction – a space of engagement that appears to us as a result of continuous...... and complex interferences revealed through our perception; ‘the atmospheric’ is explored as a spatial and affective quality as well as a sensory background, and materiality as a powerful and almost magical agency in shaping of atmosphere. Challenging existing dichotomies and unraveling intrinsic...

  12. Psychiatric comorbidities in patients with Atypical Odontalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Anna; Tu, Trang T H; Shinohara, Yukiko; Mikuzuki, Lou; Kawasaki, Kaoru; Sugawara, Shiori; Suga, Takayuki; Watanabe, Takeshi; Watanabe, Motoko; Umezaki, Yojiro; Yoshikawa, Tatsuya; Motomura, Haruhiko; Takenoshita, Miho; Maeda, Hidefumi; Toyofuku, Akira

    2018-01-01

    Atypical Odontalgia (AO) is a condition characterized by tooth pain with no apparent cause. Although psychiatric comorbidity seems to be very common, it has rarely been studied. To clarify the influence of psychiatric comorbidity on the clinical features in patients with AO, we retrospectively evaluated their examination records. Clinical features and psychiatric diagnoses of 383 patients with AO were investigated by reviewing patients' medical records and referral letters. Psychiatric diagnoses were categorized according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5). We also analyzed visual analogue scale (VAS), self-rating depression scale (SDS), and the short-form McGill pain questionnaire (SF-MPQ) scores. Of the 383 patients with AO, 177 (46.2%) had comorbid psychiatric disorders. The most common were depressive disorders (15.4%) and anxiety disorders (10.1%). Serious psychotic disorders such as bipolar disorder (3.0%) and schizophrenia (1.8%) were rare. Dental trigger of AO was reported in 217 (56.7%) patients. There were no significant correlations between psychiatric comorbidities and most of the demographic features. Higher VAS and SDS scores, higher frequency of sleep disturbance, and higher ratings of "Fearful" and "Punishing-cruel" descriptors of the SF-MPQ were found in patients with psychiatric comorbidity. About half of AO patients had comorbid psychiatric disorders. Dental procedures are not necessarily causative factors of AO. In AO patients with comorbid psychiatric disorders, pain might have a larger emotional component than a sensory one. VAS, SDS, and SF-MPQ scores might aid in the noticing of underlying comorbid psychiatric disorders in AO patients. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Teaching ethics of psychopharmacology research in psychiatric residency training programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beresin, Eugene V; Baldessarini, Ross J; Alpert, Jonathan; Rosenbaum, Jerrold

    2003-12-01

    American psychiatric residency training programs are now required to teach principles of research ethics. This task is especially pressing in light of evolving guidelines pertaining to human subjects, including psychiatric patients, especially when psychopharmacology is involved. Residents need to understand principles of research ethics and implications of roles of psychiatrists as investigators and clinicians. We consider major contemporary ethical issues in clinical psychiatric research, with an emphasis on psychopharmacology, and implications of addressing them within residency training programs. We reviewed recent literature on ethical issues in clinical research and on medical education in bioethics. This report considers: (1) an overview of current training; (2) perceived needs and rationales for training in research ethics, (3) recommended educational content and methods; (4) issues that require further study (including demonstration of acquired knowledge, practice issues, and the treatment versus-investigation misconception); and (5) conclusions. Recommended components of residency training programs include basic ethical principles; scientific merit and research design; assessment of risks and benefits; selection and informed consent of patient-subjects; and integrity of the clinical investigator, including definition of roles, conflicts-of-interest, and accountability. Evaluation of educational effectiveness for both trainees and faculty is a recommended component of such programs. We recommend that psychiatric training include education about ethical aspects of clinical research, with a particular emphasis on psychopharmacology. These activities can efficiently be incorporated into teaching of other aspects of bioethics, research methods, and psychopharmacology. Such education early in professional development should help to clarify roles of clinicians and investigators, improve the planning, conduct and reporting of research, and facilitate career

  14. Sleep problems in children and adolescents with epilepsy: Associations with psychiatric comorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Berit Hjelde; Alfstad, Kristin Å; van Roy, Betty; Henning, Oliver; Lossius, Morten I

    2016-09-01

    Sleep problems are common in pediatric epilepsy and may influence seizure control, daytime functioning, and overall quality of life. Knowledge of factors contributing to sleep problems is likely to improve treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between psychiatric comorbidity and parent-reported and self-reported sleep problems in a sample of children and adolescents with epilepsy. Participants were children and adolescents (N=94), aged 10-19years, with generalized or focal epilepsy who had been referred to a tertiary epilepsy treatment center in Norway. Participants underwent a thorough clinical assessment and 24h of EEG registration. Information on sleep problems was obtained from parents using the Children's Sleep Habit Questionnaire (CSHQ) and from self-reporting using the Sleep Self-Report (SSR) questionnaire. Psychiatric diagnoses were established using the semistructured psychiatric interview Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia - Present and Lifetime Version (Kiddie-SADS-PL). Both the total and subdomain CSHQ and SSR scores were high in comparison with scores from population-based samples. Having one or more psychiatric disorder(s) was significantly associated with elevated scores on both the CSHQ and the SSR. With the exception of parent-reported parasomnias, associations between sleep problems and psychiatric disorders remained significant after adjusting for relevant epilepsy variables. Psychiatric comorbidity explained about one-third of the variance of the reported sleep problems in children and adolescents with epilepsy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Respect in forensic psychiatric nurse-patient relationships: a practical compromise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Donald N; Peter, Elizabeth; Gallop, Ruth; Angus, Jan E; Liaschenko, Joan

    2011-03-01

    The context of forensic psychiatric nursing is distinct from other psychiatric settings as, it involves placement of patients in secure environments with restrictions determined by the courts. Previous literature has identified that nurses morally struggle with respecting patients who have committed heinous offences, which can lead to the patient being depersonalized and dehumanized. Although respect is fundamental to ethical nursing practice, it has not been adequately explored conceptually or empirically. As a result, little knowledge exists that identifies how nurses develop, maintain, and express respect for patients. The purpose of this study is to analyze the concept of respect systematically, from a forensic psychiatric nurse's perspective using the qualitative methodology of focused ethnography. Forensic psychiatric nurses were recruited from two medium secure forensic rehabilitation units. In the first interview, 13 registered nurses (RNs) and two registered practical nurses (RPNs) participated, and although all informants were invited to the second interview, six RNs were lost to follow-up. Despite this loss, saturation was achieved and the data were interpreted through a feminist philosophical lens. Respect was influenced by factors categorized into four themes: (1) emotive-cognitive reactions, (2) nonjudgmental approach, (3) social identity and power, and (4) context. The data from the themes indicate that forensic psychiatric nurses strike a practical compromise, in their understanding and enactment of respect in therapeutic relationships with forensic psychiatric patients. © 2011 International Association of Forensic Nurses.

  16. Medication Non-Adherence among Adult Psychiatric Out-patients in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Information on adherence of adult psychiatric patients to biological modes of treatment is scarce in Ethiopia. Knowledge on adherence is essential in terms of future prognosis, quality of life and functionality of such patients. This study was conducted to assess the magnitude and associated factors of ...

  17. [Ethics in the psychiatric-psychotherapeutic field--introduction and basics of philosophy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Wolfgang

    2014-07-01

    Diversity and complexity of ethical problems in the psychiatric-psychotherapeutic field require ethical competences in all structures of the public health system. The knowledge of ethical examples and principles including basics of philosophy may offer bearing and will be helpful to develop a personal and social ethical attitude. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Cognitive and Psychiatric Phenotypes of Movement Disorders in Children: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Pazi, Hilla; Jaworowski, Solomon; Shalev, Ruth S

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The cognitive and psychiatric aspects of adult movement disorders are well established, but specific behavioural profiles for paediatric movement disorders have not been delineated. Knowledge of non-motor phenotypes may guide treatment and determine which symptoms are suggestive of a specific movement disorder and which indicate medication…

  19. Juvenile mental health courts for adjudicated youth: role implications for child and adolescent psychiatric mental health nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burriss, F Antoinette; Breland-Noble, Alfiee M; Webster, Joe L; Soto, Jose A

    2011-05-01

    Juvenile mental health courts for adjudicated youth. To describe the role of psychiatric nurses in reducing mental health disparities for adjudicated youth via juvenile mental health courts. ISI Web of Knowledge; Sage Journals Online; HighWire; PubMed; Google Scholar and Wiley Online Library and websites for psychiatric nursing organizations. Years included: 2000-2010. Juvenile mental health courts may provide a positive and effective alternative to incarceration for youth with mental health problems with psychiatric nurses playing a key role in program implementation. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Connectomics in psychiatric research: advances and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao M

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Miao Cao,* Zhijiang Wang,* Yong He State Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning and IDG/McGovern Institute for Brain Research, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Psychiatric disorders disturb higher cognitive functions and severely compromise human health. However, the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying psychiatric disorders are very complex, and understanding these mechanisms remains a great challenge. Currently, many psychiatric disorders are hypothesized to reflect “faulty wiring” or aberrant connectivity in the brains. Imaging connectomics is arising as a promising methodological framework for describing the structural and functional connectivity patterns of the human brain. Recently, alterations of brain networks in the connectome have been reported in various psychiatric disorders, and these alterations may provide biomarkers for disease diagnosis and prognosis for the evaluation of treatment efficacy. Here, we summarize the current achievements in both the structural and functional connectomes in several major psychiatric disorders (eg, schizophrenia, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and autism based on multi-modal neuroimaging data. We highlight the current progress in the identification of these alterations and the hypotheses concerning the aberrant brain networks in individuals with psychiatric disorders and discuss the research questions that might contribute to a further mechanistic understanding of these disorders from a connectomic perspective.Keywords: psychiatric disorders, connectome, graph theory, functional connectivity, structural connectivity

  1. Psychiatric phenotypes in chronic traumatic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahar, Ian; Alosco, Michael L; McKee, Ann C

    2017-09-06

    Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a neurodegenerative disorder involving cognitive, motor, and psychiatrically-relevant symptoms resulting from repetitive head impacts. Psychiatric phenotypes of CTE, including depression and suicidality, present particular challenges for CTE research, given that the diagnosis requires postmortem neuropathological examination. The pathognomonic lesion of CTE is the perivascular accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau (ptau) protein at the depths of cortical sulci. These lesions are found in the earliest disease stages, and with advancing pathological severity, ptau deposition occurs in widespread brain regions in a four-stage scheme of severity. We review the psychiatric phenotypes of individuals neuropathologically diagnosed with CTE, and suggest that earlier CTE stages hold particular interest for psychiatric CTE research. In the early CTE stages, there is ptau pathology in frontal cortex and axonal loss in the frontal white matter, followed by progressive ptau neurofibrillary degeneration in the amygdala and hippocampus. Neuropathological changes in the frontal and medial temporal lobes may underlie psychiatric phenotypes. Additional insight into the association between CTE pathology and psychiatric sequelae may come from advancements in in vivo methods of CTE detection. Further epidemiological, clinical, and postmortem studies are needed to validate the nature of psychiatric sequelae in CTE. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. [Promoting "successful aging" in community psychiatric care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niimura, Hidehito; Nemoto, Takahiro; Sakuma, Kei; Mizuno, Masafumi

    2011-01-01

    Recently, patients with schizophrenia have been progressively aging in a way similar to that of the general population. In Japan, community mental health care has become more active in the context of the policy of promoting the discharge of patients from psychiatric hospitals. Patients with chronic schizophrenia who have been discharged are already approaching old age. "Successful aging" may be a key concept in their community-based psychiatric care. Successful aging does not emphasize a loss of youth, but focuses on gains and growth achieved with aging. In the Sasagawa Project, 78 patients with schizophrenia were gradually transferred from a psychiatric hospital to a community dwelling. Eight years have passed since the project began. Elder patients (>60 years old) showed stable psychiatric symptoms and were rarely readmitted to the psychiatric ward. They were, however, more often readmitted to hospital due to physical disease (for example, lifestyle-related disease or fracture) than were middle -aged patients (aging, but they are not sufficiently prepared for old age. In the mental health care of aging psychiatric patients, it is necessary to not only control psychiatric symptoms, but also promote and improve their quality of life by maintaining their ability to continue living in the community (for example, by supporting their preparations for old age).

  3. Increased psychiatric morbidity in women with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome or complete gonadal dysgenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engberg, Hedvig; Strandqvist, Anna; Nordenström, Anna; Butwicka, Agnieszka; Nordenskjöld, Agneta; Hirschberg, Angelica Lindén; Frisén, Louise

    2017-10-01

    Knowledge concerning mental health outcomes is important to optimize the health of individuals with disorders or differences of sex development (DSD). Thus, the aim of this study was to estimate if the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity in adult women diagnosed with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS) or complete gonadal dysgenesis (46,XY GD and 46,XX GD) differs from that in women with premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) or age-matched population controls. This cross-sectional study was conducted at the Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden, and included 33 women with different DSDs: 20 CAIS, 6 46,XY GD, 7 46,XX GD, 21 women with POI and 61 population-derived controls. Psychiatric morbidity was assessed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview plus (MINI+). To complement the MINI+, three self-report questions were used to evaluate current and previous psychiatric history. Results are presented as p values and estimated risks (odds ratio [OR], 95% confidence intervals [CI]) of psychiatric conditions among women with CAIS or GD in comparison with women with POI and age-matched population-derived controls. Twenty-eight of the 33 women (85%) with CAIS or GD met the criteria for at least one psychiatric disorder according to the MINI+, with depression and anxiety disorders being most common. This was significantly higher compared with population controls (52%) (OR 5.1, 95% CI 1.7-14.9), but not compared to women with POI, who had a high frequency of psychiatric diagnoses (76%). The increased psychiatric morbidity in women with CAIS and GD highlights the need for clinical awareness of the psychiatric vulnerability in these patients. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Psychiatric disorder in male veterans and nonveterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norquist, G S; Hough, R L; Golding, J M; Escobar, J I

    1990-05-01

    Prevalences of Diagnostic Interview Schedule/DSM-III psychiatric disorders for male veterans and nonveterans from four war eras were estimated using data from over 7500 male community respondents interviewed by the Epidemiologic Catchment Area program at five geographic areas across the country. Veterans serving after Vietnam (Post-Vietnam era) had greater lifetime and 6-month prevalences of psychiatric disorder than their nonveteran counterparts, whereas the reverse tended to be the case for the Vietnam, Korean, and World War II war eras. Comparisons across war eras revealed a trend for more psychiatric disorder, especially substance abuse, in younger veterans and nonveterans than in older respondents.

  5. Workroles of staff nurses in psychiatric settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, E G; Shealy, A H; Kowalski, C; LaMont, J; Range, B A

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to operationalize Peplau's workroles of the psychiatric staff nurse. Thirty registered nurses audiotaped one-to-one interactions with 62 adult, child, and adolescent psychiatric patients. Content analysis was used to identify role behaviors and to identify roles that were different from those outlined by Peplau. The counselor role was the most frequently occurring primary workrole. Overlap was found between behaviors indicative of autocratic leader versus surrogate and those of resource person versus teacher. The findings supported Peplau's contention that the counselor role is central to the practice of psychiatric nursing.

  6. Cyberbullying: implications for the psychiatric nurse practitioner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Lindsey M; Hubbard, Grace B

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to inform and educate psychiatric nurse practitioners about the pervasiveness of the rapidly increasing problem of cyberbullying. As more children and adolescents obtain access to the Internet, mobile devices, and social networking sites, the exposure to bullying in the virtual format increases. Cyberbullying is a growing public health concern and can affect mental health and school performance. Cyberbullying often results in a range of psychiatric symptoms and has been linked to suicide attempts and completions. The psychiatric nurse practitioner is uniquely prepared to provide a range of interventions for patients, families, and communities who have experienced cyberbullying. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Substance use among Danish psychiatric patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Tina; Jespersen, Hans Søe Riis; Vinberg, Maj

    2017-01-01

    equivalents. Compared to the general population, the psychiatric patients had higher odds of being current smokers and having used illicit drugs within the past month. Women with psychiatric disorders were twice as likely to binge drink on a monthly basis. No significant difference was found in the patients......, 412 psychiatric patients participated in the study, and 33% had an AUDIT-score ≥8, indicating problematic alcohol use according to the AUDIT guidelines. The mean weekly alcohol intake was 9.7 ± 28.3 standard drinks, and 47% were current smokers with a mean daily use of 19.9 ± 13.8 cigarette...

  8. Indian - American contributions to psychiatric research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandurangi, Anand K

    2010-01-01

    The Indian Diaspora, especially in North America, is a visible force in the field of psychiatric medicine. An estimated 5000 persons of Indian origin practice psychiatry in the USA and Canada, and an estimated 10% of these are in academic psychiatry. Wide ranging contributions, from molecular biology of psychiatric disorders to community and cultural psychiatry, are being made by this vibrant group of researchers. This article is a brief summary and work-in-progress report of the contributions by Indian - American psychiatric researchers. Although not exhaustive in coverage, it is meant to give the reader an overview of the contributions made by three waves of researchers over a span of 50 years.

  9. PSYCHIATRIC MORBIDITY IN A CHILDREN'S HOME1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, P. K.; Agarwal, A. K; Gupta, S. C.

    1980-01-01

    SUMMARY Sixty-two inmates of a children's home were examined by using a symptom check list and Hindi adaptation of Stanford Binet Intelligence Scale—Form LM (1960). A high proportion (69.4%) of the inmates had one or other psychiatric problem. Mild mental retardation (I. Q. 50—70) was most common (40.3%), 11.3% were diagnosed as having unsocialized disturbance of conduct. Four most common psychiatric symptoms were stealing, quarrelsome behaviour, destructive behaviour and bed wetting. No significant correlation was found between psychiatric illnesses and present age, duration of stay and age at entry into the home. PMID:22058478

  10. Psychiatric aspects of chronic lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Abhishek; Lolak, Sermsak

    2009-06-01

    Chronic lung diseases continue to be common and cause significant morbidity and mortality. There is a complex interplay between psychiatric issues and pulmonary diseases. This review aims to summarize the recent literature and advances involving psychiatric aspects of lung diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, restrictive lung disease, and cystic fibrosis. The authors include the latest findings in epidemiology, impact, etiology, screening, and management of psychiatric and pulmonary comorbidity. The relationship between mental health and lung disease, as it is between mental health and other physical illnesses, is multifactorial. Further studies continue to clarify issues and treatment guidelines for this comorbidity.

  11. Hospital Related Stress Among Patients Admitted to a Psychiatric In-patient Unit in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latha KS

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The psychiatric patient’s attitudes towards hospitalization have found an association between patient perceptions of the ward atmosphere and dissatisfaction. The aim of the study was to determine the aspects of stress related to hospitalization in inpatients admitted to a psychiatric facility. Fifty in-patients of both sexes admitted consecutively to a psychiatric unit in a General Hospital were asked to rate the importance of, and their satisfaction with, 38 different aspects of in-patient care and treatment. Results showed that the major sources of stress were related to having a violent patient near to his/her bed; being away from family; having to stay in closed wards; having to eat cold and tasteless food; losing income or job due to illness, being hospitalized away from home; not able to understand the jargons used by the clinical staff and not getting medication for sleep. A well-differentiated assessment of stress and satisfaction has implications for the evaluation of the quality of psychiatric care and for the improvement of in-patient psychiatric care.

  12. [Current issues in psychiatric ethics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, József

    2015-01-01

    The article analyzes some ethical problems in psychiatry that have been emerging in recent years. It deals with the ongoing intensive debates about the DSM-5 before its publication, and with some of the criticisms of the DSM-5 itself. Then it goes on to analyze the use of placebo. This is followed by the ethical problems of the treatment of ADHD with stimulant drugs, among which one is the question of authenticity, namely whether the pre-treatment or the post-treatment personality is the real, authentic self of the patient. This question has been raised not only in the case of the ADHD, but also in relation with the antidepressant treatment of depression earlier, and in relation with deep brain stimulation and dopamine replacement therapy now, all of which causes changes in the treated patient's personality and motivations. Finally the article describes some ethical problems of informed consent in the case of antidepressant medication, together with the necessity to involve psychiatric nurses and rating scales in the assessment of the patient's decision making capacity.

  13. The importance of the patients deemed not guilty by reason of insanity for the psychiatric reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douzenis, Athanasios

    2016-01-01

    According to the Greek Penal Law if someone "because of a morbid disturbance of his mental functioning" (article 34) is acquitted of a crime or misdemeanour that the law punishes with more than 6 months imprisonment, then the court orders that this individual should be kept in a public psychiatric institution if the court reaches the conclusion that this person poses a threat to public safety.1 Individuals who have broken the law and deemed "not guilty by reason of insanity" are treated in psychiatric units of Psychiatric Hospitals according to the article 69 of the Penal Code. In Athens, in the Psychiatric Hospital of Athens and the Dromokaiteion Psychiatric Hospital, and in Thessaloniki in the Unit for "Not guilty by reason of insanity (NGRI)". The person who is deemed not guilty by reason of insanity following a crime is facing double stigmatisation and marginalisation from both the legal and the health system. He/she is usually treated initially with fear and later since there is no therapeutic aim but only the court instruction for "guardianship", with indifference. The patient who is committed by the courts in a psychiatric unit for being "NGRI" is facing a unique legal and psychiatric status.2 In this respect he/she is disadvantaged when compared to either convicted criminals or psychiatric inpatients. If the patient was not found "NGRI" (ie innocent as far as sentencing is concerned) he would have been punished with loss of liberty for a certain (specific) amount of time, and like all individuals convicted in court he/she would have the right to appeal and reduce his/her sentence in a higher court and maybe released from prison earlier for good behaviour etc. In this respect the individual found to be "NGRI" is disadvantaged when compared to a convicted felon since he/she is kept for an undefined period of time. Additionally, he/she will be allowed to leave the psychiatric unit following a subjective assessment of a judge with no psychiatric knowledge who

  14. Service dogs, psychiatric hospitalization, and the ADA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramatsu, Russ S; Thomas, Kelly Jones; Leong, Stephanie L; Ragukonis, Frank

    2015-01-01

    A service dog is defined as "any dog that is individually trained to do work or perform tasks for the benefit of an individual with a disability, including a physical, sensory, psychiatric, intellectual, or other mental disability." Some psychiatric patients may depend on a service dog for day-to-day functioning. The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) established certain rights and responsibilities for individuals with disabilities and health care providers. Psychiatric hospitalization of a patient with a service dog may pose a problem and involves balancing the requirement to provide safe and appropriate psychiatric care with the rights of individuals with disabilities. This Open Forum examines issues that arise in such circumstances, reviews the literature, and provides a foundation for the development of policies and procedures.

  15. Service Dogs, Psychiatric Hospitalization, and the ADA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Muramatsu, Russ S; Thomas, Kelly Jones; Leong, Stephanie L; Ragukonis, Frank

    A service dog is defined as “any dog that is individually trained to do work or perform tasks for the benefit of an individual with a disability, including a physical, sensory, psychiatric, intellectual, or other mental disability...

  16. Barriers in the treatment of psychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Psychiatric illnesses are very common in prevalence. But not everyone who has a mental illness gets a psychiatric consultation. The causes are many. First, many time people don’t recognise and accept mental illnesses in them as a result of lack of insight and awareness. Secondly, even if they know they have a mental illness, they don’t feel comfortable in disclosing it. Third, after knowing that they have some problems which require help from a doctor, they don’t know whom to consult, where to consult, and how to consult. Fourth, in spite of all possible awareness, there may not be psychiatric facilities nearby. Thus, it becomes utmost necessary to discuss those factors which stop people with psychiatric illnesses to get adequate help so that remedial steps could be taken.

  17. Psychiatric nosology and taxonomy in ancient India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldipur, C V

    1989-08-01

    This article considers the nosology and taxonomy of psychiatric disorders in Sushruta Samhita, an ancient Indian treatise on medicine. Some implications of this treatise for modern psychiatry are discussed.

  18. Chromosomal abnormalities in a psychiatric population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, K.E.; Lubetsky, M.J.; Wenger, S.L.; Steele, M.W. [Univ. of Pittsburgh Medical Center, PA (United States)

    1995-02-27

    Over a 3.5 year period of time, 345 patients hospitalized for psychiatric problems were evaluated cytogenetically. The patient population included 76% males and 94% children with a mean age of 12 years. The criteria for testing was an undiagnosed etiology for mental retardation and/or autism. Cytogenetic studies identified 11, or 3%, with abnormal karyotypes, including 4 fragile X positive individuals (2 males, 2 females), and 8 with chromosomal aneuploidy, rearrangements, or deletions. While individuals with chromosomal abnormalities do not demonstrate specific behavioral, psychiatric, or developmental problems relative to other psychiatric patients, our results demonstrate the need for an increased awareness to order chromosomal analysis and fragile X testing in those individuals who have combinations of behavioral/psychiatric, learning, communication, or cognitive disturbance. 5 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  19. Knowledge management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tayfun Gülle

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The book includes detailed information concerning knowledge and knowledge management with current resources in seven chapters uder the titles of “organizational effects of knowlegde management, knowledge management systems, new knowledge discovery: data mining, computer as an information sharing platform, technologies as knowledge management: artificial intelligence and knowledge based systems, future of knowlegde management”. Concepts of knowledge and knowledge management becomes phenomenon for all disciplinaries so global companies, other companies, state sector, epistemologists, experts of innovation and governance, information professionals etc may find informative to it. The book also includes three prefaces which are well-informed and so all of them is summarized in the text.

  20. Forensic Psychiatric Aspects of Impulse Control Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Soysal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Impulse control disorders is an important psychiatric disorder group which draws attention in recent years. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and other classical disorders like pyromania, kleptomania, intermittent explosive disorder and compulsive buying could be evasuated under this topic. The aim of this article is to review forensic psychiatric aspects of impulse control disorders and evaluate the disorders in terms of their legal status. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2015; 7(1: 16-29

  1. Ethics in Psychiatric Research: Issues and Recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Shobhit; Kuppili, Pooja Patnaik; Pattanayak, Raman Deep; Sagar, Rajesh

    2017-01-01

    Psychiatric research has increased remarkably over recent decades to help in understanding the current trends and better therapeutic options for illness. On the other hand, there is also a trend toward higher rates of retraction of published papers in the recent years. Ethics is required to maintain and increase the overall quality and morality of research. Psychiatric research faces several unique ethical challenges. Ethical guidelines are very important tool of research which safeguards par...

  2. Insomnia comorbid to severe psychiatric illness

    OpenAIRE

    Soehner, Adriane M.; Kaplan, Katherine A; Harvey, Allison G.

    2013-01-01

    In psychiatric illness, there is a growing body of evidence indicating that sleep disturbances exert a detrimental influence on the course of these disorders and contribute to impaired function. Even when psychiatric disorders are successfully treated or stabilized, insomnia and other sleep disturbances often fail to remit. The present review focuses on sleep in two severe mental illnesses, namely bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. This article discusses the role of sleep disturbances and al...

  3. Psychiatric aspects of Parkinson′s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Grover

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson′s disease (PD is essentially characterized by the motor symptoms in the form of resting tremor, rigidity and bradykinesia. However, over the years it has been recognized that motor symptoms are just the "tip of the iceberg" of clinical manifestations of PD. Besides motor symptoms, PD characterized by many non-motor symptoms, which include cognitive decline, psychiatric disturbances (depression, psychosis and impulse control, sleep difficulties, autonomic failures (gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, urinary, thermoregulation and pain syndrome. This review evaluates the various aspects of psychiatric disorders including cognitive decline and sleep disturbances in patients with PD. The prevalence rate of various psychiatric disorders is high in patients with PD. In terms of risk factors, various demographic, clinical and treatment-related variables have been shown to be associated with higher risk of development of psychiatric morbidity. Evidence also suggests that the presence of psychiatric morbidity is associated with poorer outcome. Randomized controlled trials, evaluating the various pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments for management of psychiatric morbidity in patients with PD are meager. Available evidence suggests that tricyclic antidepressants like desipramine and nortriptyline are efficacious for management of depression. Among the antipsychotics, clozapine is considered to be the best choice for management of psychosis in patients with PD. Among the various cognitive enhancers, evidence suggest efficacy of rivastigmine in management of dementia in patients with PD. To conclude, this review suggests that psychiatric morbidity is highly prevalent in patients with PD. Hence, a multidisciplinary approach must be followed to improve the overall outcome of PD. Further studies are required to evaluate the efficacy of various other measures for management of psychiatric morbidity in patients with PD.

  4. Psychiatric disorders and urbanization in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Koelen Jurrijn; Peen Jaap; Dekker Jack; Smit Filip; Schoevers Robert

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Epidemiological studies over the last decade have supplied growing evidence of an association between urbanization and the prevalence of psychiatric disorders. Our aim was to examine the link between levels of urbanization and 12-month prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders in a nationwide German population study, controlling for other known risk factors such as gender, social class, marital status and the interaction variables of these factors with urbanization. Method...

  5. Low blood pressure in psychiatric inpatients.

    OpenAIRE

    Masterton, G; Main, C J; Lever, A F; Lever, R S

    1981-01-01

    Blood pressure recordings in 116 female psychiatric inpatients were analysed. Sixty-nine women had schizophrenia, the remainder a variety of psychiatric conditions. All had been in hospital continuously for more than one year, the average for 19 years continuously. An average of seven recordings of blood pressure per patient had been made during that time. The latest of these compared well with measurements made independently using a sphygmomanometer free from observer bias. On admission to h...

  6. Concurrent Medical and Psychiatric Disorders among Schizophrenic and Neurotic Outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Bruno R.; Pai, Shaila

    Although the occurrence of medical illnesses in psychiatric patients is quite high, medical illnesses manifested by psychiatric symptoms are often overlooked. The higher mortality rates among psychiatric patients when compared to the general population may be a reflection of neglect or inadequate treatment of the psychiatric patients' medical…

  7. Training in Psychiatric Genomics during Residency: A New Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winner, Joel G.; Goebert, Deborah; Matsu, Courtenay; Mrazek, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors ascertained the amount of training in psychiatric genomics that is provided in North American psychiatric residency programs. Methods: A sample of 217 chief residents in psychiatric residency programs in the United States and Canada were identified by e-mail and surveyed to assess their training in psychiatric genetics and…

  8. [Prescription drug abuse in elderly psychiatric patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetterling, Tilman; Schneider, Barbara

    2012-08-01

    Due to demographic changes there will be a fraction of elderly patients with substance use disorders. However, only a few data have been published about elderly abusers of prescription drugs. Since substance abuse is frequently comorbid with psychiatric disorders, treatment in a psychiatric hospital is often needed. In this explorative study elderly people with prescription drug abuse who required psychiatric inpatient treatment should be characterized. This study was part of the gerontopsychiatry study Berlin (Gepsy-B), an investigation of the data of all older inpatients (≥ 65 years) admitted to a psychiatric hospital within a period of 3 years. Among 1266 documented admissions in 110 cases (8.7 %) (mean age: 75.7 ± 7.1 years) prescription drug abuse, mostly of benzodiazepines was diagnosed. Females showed benzodiazepine abuse more often than males. In only a small proportion of the cases the reason for admission was withdrawal of prescribed drugs. 85.5 % suffered from psychiatric comorbidity, mostly depression. As risk factors for abuse depressive symptoms (OR: 3.32) as well as concurrent nicotine (OR: 2.69) or alcohol abuse (OR: 2.14) were calculated. Psychiatric inpatient treatment was primarily not necessary because of prescription drug abuse but because of other psychopathological symptoms. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Policies on assisted suicide in Dutch psychiatric facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverkate, I; van der Wal, G

    1998-01-01

    Recent jurisprudence in the Netherlands challenges psychiatric hospitals to formulate policies on how to approach requests for assisted suicide. This study examined whether such policies exist in Dutch psychiatric hospitals and general hospitals with psychiatric wards. The directors of patient care in 38 of the country's 52 psychiatric hospitals and 42 of the 59 general hospitals with psychiatric wards responded to a mail survey. Five psychiatric hospitals and six general hospitals had written policies. Almost half of the psychiatric hospitals had a verbal policy only. The majority of the hospitals with policies had a tolerant or permissive policy toward assisted suicide.

  10. Psychiatric/ psychological forensic report writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Gerald

    Approaches to forensic report writing in psychiatry, psychology, and related mental health disciplines have moved from an organization, content, and stylistic framework to considering ethical and other codes, evidentiary standards, and practice considerations. The first part of the article surveys different approaches to forensic report writing, including that of forensic mental health assessment and psychiatric ethics. The second part deals especially with psychological ethical approaches. The American Psychological Association's Ethical Principles and Code of Conduct (2002) provide one set of principles on which to base forensic report writing. The U.S. Federal Rules of Evidence (2014) and related state rules provide another basis. The American Psychological Association's Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychology (2013) provide a third source. Some work has expanded the principles in ethics codes; and, in the third part of this article, these additions are applied to forensic report writing. Other work that could help with the question of forensic report writing concerns the 4 Ds in psychological injury assessments (e.g., conduct oneself with Dignity, avoid the adversary Divide, get the needed reliable Data, Determine interpretations and conclusions judiciously). One overarching ethical principle that is especially applicable in forensic report writing is to be comprehensive, scientific, and impartial. As applied to forensic report writing, the overall principle that applies is that the work process and product should reflect integrity in its ethics, law, and science. Four principles that derive from this meta-principle concern: Competency and Communication; Procedure and Protection; Dignity and Distance; and Data Collection and Determination. The standards or rules associated with each of these principles are reviewed. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Torture: psychiatric sequelae and phenomenology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerr-Zegers, O; Hartmann, L; Lira, E; Weinstein, E

    1992-05-01

    Torture has been defined by the United Nations (declaration of December 9, 1975) as "every act by which a public functionary (or another person at his instigation) intentionally inflicts on another person serious pain or suffering, ...physical or mental, with the object of obtaining information or of punishing him...or of intimidating that person or others." In Chile, from the 1973 military coup d'Etat up to the 1988 plebiscite, torture was practiced in a systematic way, as a method of interrogation and as a means of intimidation of detainees and, indirectly, of the population at large. In the beginning, torture was applied in military station units and in police stations, in the facilities of sport fields and prisoners' camps; but above all, in clandestine detention centers and prisons belonging to the secret police (Amnesty International 1977, 1983; CODEPU 1984, 1985, 1986; Lira and Weinstein 1987; Muñoz 1986; Rodríguez de Ruiz-Tagle 1978). In spite of the bloodshed of the 1973 coup d'Etat, the phenomenon of torture came as a total surprise for the detainees, who had very often voluntarily surrendered themselves to the new authorities, and who, given the civil traditions of the country, expected treatment in accordance with a society subject to the law. The military government regularly denied having undertaken the practice of torture. According to Lira and Weinstein (20), this denial of such an extreme experience or horror made it even more difficult to overcome the trauma and fostered the development of chronic psychiatric pathology.

  12. Neuroreceptor imaging in psychiatric disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frankle, W.G. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY, (United States). Coll. of Physicians and Surgeons; Laruelle, M. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). New York State Psychiatric Inst.

    2002-11-01

    Molecular imaging, the study of receptors, transporters and enzymes, as well as other cellular processes, has grown in recent years to be one of the most active neuroimaging areas. The application of single photon emission tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) techniques to the study of psychiatric illness has lead to increased understanding of disease processes as well as validated, in vivo, theories of illness etiology. Within the field of psychiatry these techniques have been applied most widely to the study of schizophrenia. Studies within schizophrenia are largely limited to either the dopamine or serotonin system. This is due in large part to the availability of suitable radiotracers as well as the current theories on the etiology of the illness. Two basic study designs are used when studying schizophrenia using molecular imaging and make up the majority of studies reviewed in this manuscript. The first type, termed ''clinical studies'', compares the findings from PET and SPECT studies in those with schizophrenia to normal controls in an attempt to understand the pathophysiology of the illness. The second study design, termed ''occupancy studies'', uses these techniques to enhance the understanding of the mechanism of action of the medications used in treating this illness. This review will focus on the findings of molecular imaging studies in schizophrenia, focusing, for the most part, on the serotonin and dopamine systems. Emphasis will be placed on how these findings and techniques are currently being used to inform the development of novel treatments for schizophrenia. (author)

  13. Knowledge Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999

    The first of the four papers in this symposium, "Knowledge Management and Knowledge Dissemination" (Wim J. Nijhof), presents two case studies exploring the strategies companies use in sharing and disseminating knowledge and expertise among employees. "A Theory of Knowledge Management" (Richard J. Torraco), develops a conceptual…

  14. Knowledge Sharing is Knowledge Creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge sharing and knowledge transfer are important to knowledge communication. However when groups of knowledge workers engage in knowledge communication activities, it easily turns into mere mechanical information processing despite other ambitions. This article relates literature of knowledge...... communication and knowledge creation to an intervention study in a large Danish food production company. For some time a specific group of employees uttered a wish for knowledge sharing, but it never really happened. The group was observed and submitted to metaphor analysis as well as analysis of co......-creation strategies. Confronted with the results, the group completely altered their approach to knowledge sharing and let it become knowledge co-creation. The conclusions are, that knowledge is and can only be a diverse and differentiated concept, and that groups are able to embrace this complexity. Thus rather than...

  15. Associations Between Psychiatric Impairment and Sexual Risk Behavior Among Teens in Mental Health Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Wendy; Barker, David H; Lescano, Celia M; Stewart, Angela J; Affleck, Katelyn; Donenberg, Geri; DiClemente, Ralph; Brown, Larry K

    2014-04-01

    To assess the associations of sexual risk behavior with psychiatric impairment and individual, peer, and partner attitudes among adolescents receiving mental health treatment. Adolescents (N=893, 56% female, 67% African American) completed assessments of psychiatric impairment, rejection sensitivity, peer norms, HIV knowledge, perceived vulnerability, self-efficacy and condom use intentions. Two structural equation models were used to test the study hypotheses; one for sexually active youth and one for non-active youth. For non-active youth, psychiatric impairment influenced self-efficacy and condom use intentions via peer norms, rejection sensitivity, and perceived vulnerability. Among the sexually active youth, sexual risk was related to impairment and previous condom use. These results suggest that individual, peer, and partner factors are related to impairment and to sexual risk attitudes, but depend on previous sexual experience.

  16. Saccadic eye movement applications for psychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bittencourt J

    2013-09-01

    Med/Medline, ISI Web of Knowledge, Cochrane, and SciELO databases were reviewed. Results: Saccadic eye movement appears to be heavily involved in psychiatric diseases covered in this review via a direct mechanism. The changes seen in the execution of eye movement tasks in patients with psychopathologies of various studies confirm that eye movement is associated with the cognitive and motor system. Conclusion: Saccadic eye movement changes appear to be heavily involved in the psychiatric disorders covered in this review and may be considered a possible marker of some disorders. The few existing studies that approach the topic demonstrate a need to improve the experimental paradigms, as well as the methods of analysis. Most of them report behavioral variables (latency/reaction time, though electrophysiological measures are absent. Keywords: depression, bipolar disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, schizophrenia, anxiety disorder

  17. Perpetuating stigma? Differences between advertisements for psychiatric and non-psychiatric medication in two professional journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Juliet L H

    2010-02-01

    Continuing debates regarding advertising and the pharmaceutical industry, and others detailing the continued stigmatization of mental health problems. To establish whether there are any differences in advertisements for psychiatric and non-psychiatric medication aimed at health professionals. Quantitative (t-tests, Chi-squared) and qualitative analysis of all unique advertisements for medication that appeared in two professional journals (the British Medical Journal and the British Journal of Psychiatry) between October 2005 and September 2006 was undertaken. Close attention was paid to both images and text used in the advertisements. Significant differences were found between advertisements for psychiatric and non-psychiatric medication in both quantitative and qualitative analysis: advertisements for psychiatric medication contain less text and are less likely to include specific information about the actual drug than non-psychiatric medication advertisements; images used in advertisements for psychiatric medication are more negative than those used for non-psychiatric medication, and are less likely to portray people in everyday situations. A distinction between mental health problems and other forms of ill health is clearly being maintained in medication advertisements; this has potentially stigmatizing consequences, both for professional and public perceptions. There are also troubling implications in light of the debates surrounding Direct to Consumer Advertising.

  18. Psychiatric disorders among the elderly on non-psychiatric wards in an African setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakasujja, Noeline; Musisi, Seggane; Walugembe, James; Wallace, Daphne

    2007-08-01

    The elderly are vulnerable to illness and particularly to psychiatric illness. Many mentally ill elderly patients end up on non-psychiatric wards owing to somatization of their illnesses. Even for these patients, a psychiatric diagnosis may not be made. The literature on the elderly in Uganda is very scanty. This study aims to establish the prevalence and factors associated with psychiatric disorders among elderly patients admitted to non-psychiatric wards. We carried out a descriptive cross-sectional study of 127 consenting elderly patients. They were administered a standardized questionnaire comprising the Self Reporting Questionnaire 25, the Mini-mental State Examination and the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual IV. Study variables included socio-demographic characteristics, physical illnesses, psychiatric disorders and the treatment given. The rate of psychiatric morbidity was 48%. The sex ratio was 1:1; however, women had a higher rate of psychiatric illness than men, 54.6% and 41.3% respectively. Being widowed or separated and having cancer were associated with SRQ>5, p=0.02 and p=0.04 respectively. Depressive disorders were the most common at 25.2% and were more common in women. Increasing age was associated with dementia (pUganda. Particular attention should be given to the psychological health of elderly people admitted to general hospitals.

  19. Psychiatric Service Use and Psychiatric Disorders in Adults with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaumik, S.; Tyrer, F. C.; McGrother, C.; Ganghadaran, S. K.

    2008-01-01

    Background: UK policies aim to facilitate access to general psychiatric services for adults with intellectual disability (ID). If this is to be achieved, it is important to have a clear idea of the characteristics and proportion of people with ID who currently access specialist psychiatric services and the nature and extent of psychiatric…

  20. Impact of social-psychiatric services and psychiatric clinics on involuntary admissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emons, Barbara; Haussleiter, Ida Sybille; Kalthoff, Jörg; Schramm, Anja; Hoffmann, Knut; Jendreyschak, Jasmin; Schaub, Markus; Armgart, Carina; Juckel, Georg; Illes, Franciska

    2014-11-01

    Germany provides a wide range of highly developed mental health care to its citizens. The aim of this study was to identify factors influencing the voluntariness of admissions to psychiatric hospitals. Especially the impact of demographic factors of the region, characteristics of the psychiatric hospitals and characteristics of the psychosocial services was analyzed. A retrospective analysis of hospital admission registers from 13 German adult psychiatric hospitals in 2009 was conducted. Public data on the regional psychiatric accommodation and demographic situation were added. Hospitals were dichotomously divided according to their index of involuntary admissions. Group comparisons were performed between the clinics with low and high involuntary admission indices. Analysis was conducted with clinical, psychiatric provision and demographic data related to inpatients in the Landschaftsverbands Westfalen-Lippe (LWL)-PsychiatryNetwork. Especially the range of services provided by the social-psychiatric services in the region such as number of supervised patients and home visits had an influence on the proportion of involuntary admissions to a psychiatric hospital. Some demographic characteristics of the region such as discretionary income showed further influence. Contrary to our expectations, the characteristics of the individual hospital seem to have no influence on the admission rate. Social-psychiatric services show a preventive impact on involuntary acute psychiatry interventions. Sociodemographic factors and patient variables play a role with regard to the number of involuntary hospitalizations, whereas characteristics of hospitals seemed to play no role. © The Author(s) 2013.

  1. Genetic Counselling for Psychiatric Disorders: Accounts of Psychiatric Health Professionals in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Sian; Arribas-Ayllon, Michael

    2016-12-01

    Genetic counselling is not routinely offered for psychiatric disorders in the United Kingdom through NHS regional clinical genetics departments. However, recent genomic advances, confirming a genetic contribution to mental illness, are anticipated to increase demand for psychiatric genetic counselling. This is the first study of its kind to employ qualitative methods of research to explore accounts of psychiatric health professionals regarding the prospects for genetic counselling services within clinical psychiatry in the UK. Data were collected from 32 questionnaire participants, and 9 subsequent interviewees. Data analysis revealed that although participants had not encountered patients explicitly demanding psychiatric genetic counselling, psychiatric health professionals believe that such a service would be useful and desirable. Genomic advances may have significant implications for genetic counselling in clinical psychiatry even if these discoveries do not lead to genetic testing. Psychiatric health professionals describe clinical genetics as a skilled profession capable of combining complex risk communication with much needed psychosocial support. However, participants noted barriers to the implementation of psychiatric genetic counselling services including, but not limited to, the complexities of uncertainty in psychiatric diagnoses, patient engagement and ethical concerns regarding limited capacity.

  2. Correlates of attitudes toward homosexuality and intention to care for homosexual people among psychiatric nurses in southern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Shu-Ying; Pan, Shung-Mei; Ko, Nai-Ying; Liu, Hsiu-Chin; Wu, Shu-Jung; Yang, Wen-Chiung; Yang, Hsing-Hu; Shieh, Shiu-Fen; Chuang, Li-Yu; Yen, Cheng-Fang

    2006-08-01

    This study examined the association between attitudes toward homosexual individuals and intention to provide care and demographic and occupational factors, sexual orientation, knowledge about homosexuality, and experiences of contact with homosexual people among psychiatric nurses in southern Taiwan. In total, 133 psychiatric nurses from a medical center, three regional teaching hospitals, and one psychiatric hospital in southern Taiwan were recruited into this study. Their attitudes toward homosexual people as recorded on the Attitudes Toward Homosexuality Questionnaire, intention to provide care to homosexual individuals, and related factors were examined. The results revealed that psychiatric nurses who had a bachelor's or master's degree, higher level of knowledge about homosexuality, and friends or relatives with a homosexual orientation had a more positive attitude toward homosexuality. These psychiatric nurses, with more positive attitudes, and who worked in the medical center or regional teaching hospitals had a higher intention to care for homosexual people. The factors related to attitudes toward homosexuality and intention to care for homosexual people identified in this study should be taken into consideration when intervening in psychiatric nurses' attitudes toward homosexuality and intention to care for homosexual people.

  3. Knowledge Sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holdt Christensen, Peter

    The concept of knowledge management has, indeed, become a buzzword that every single organization is expected to practice and live by. Knowledge management is about managing the organization's knowledge for the common good of the organization -but practicing knowledge management is not as simple...... as that. This article focuses on knowledge sharing as the process seeking to reduce the resources spent on reinventing the wheel.The article introduces the concept of time sensitiveness; i.e. that knowledge is either urgently needed, or not that urgently needed. Furthermore, knowledge sharing...... is considered as either a push or pull system. Four strategies for sharing knowledge - help, post-it, manuals and meeting, and advice are introduced. Each strategy requires different channels for sharing knowledge. An empirical analysis in a production facility highlights how the strategies can be practiced....

  4. Can psychiatric childhood disorders be due to inborn errors of metabolism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, A; Eyskens, F; Glazemakers, I; van West, D

    2017-02-01

    Many patients who visit a centre for hereditary metabolic diseases remarkably also suffer from a child psychiatric disorder. Those child psychiatric disorders may be the first sign or manifestation of an underlying metabolic disorder. Lack of knowledge of metabolic disorders in child psychiatry may lead to diagnoses being missed. Patients therefore are also at risk for not accessing efficacious treatment and proper counselling. To search the literature for the co-occurrence of child psychiatric disorders, such as ADHD, autism, psychosis, learning disorders and eating disorders and metabolic disorders. A search of the literature was conducted by performing a broad search on PubMed, using the terms "ADHD and metabolic disorders", "autism and metabolic disorders", "psychosis and metabolic disorders", "learning disorders and metabolic disorders", and "eating disorders and metabolic disorders". Based on inclusion criteria (concerning a clear psychiatric disorder and concerning a metabolic disorder) 4441 titles and 249 abstracts were screened and resulted in 71 relevant articles. This thorough literature search provides child and adolescent psychiatrists with an overview of metabolic disorders associated with child psychiatric symptoms, their main characteristics and recommendations for further investigations.

  5. Knowledge Acquisition, Knowledge Programming, and Knowledge Refinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes-Roth, Frederick; And Others

    This report describes the principal findings and recommendations of a 2-year Rand research project on machine-aided knowledge acquisition and discusses the transfer of expertise from humans to machines, as well as the functions of planning, debugging, knowledge refinement, and autonomous machine learning. The relative advantages of humans and…

  6. Alcohol use disorders increase the risk of completed suicide - Irrespective of other psychiatric disorders. A longitudinal cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Knop, Joachim; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2009-01-01

    suicide, AUD, Psychotic disorders, Anxiety disorders, Mood disorders, Personality disorders, Drug abuse, and Other psychiatric disorders. Individuals registered with AUD were at significantly increased risk of committing suicide, with a crude hazard ratio (HR) of 7.98 [Confidence interval (CI): 5......Knowledge of the epidemiology of suicide is a necessary prerequisite for developing prevention programs. The aim of this study was to analyze the risk of completed suicide among individuals with alcohol use disorders (AUD), and to assess the role of other psychiatric disorders in this association.......27-12.07] compared to individuals without AUD. Adjusting for all psychiatric disorders the risk fell to 3.23 (CI: 1.96-5.33). In the stratified sub-sample of individuals without psychiatric disorders, the risk of completed suicide was 9.69 (CI: 4.88-19.25) among individuals with AUD. The results indicate...

  7. Knowledge management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Mahnke, Volker

    2003-01-01

    Knowledge management has emerged as a very successful organization practice and has beenextensively treated in a large body of academic work. Surprisingly, however, organizationaleconomics (i.e., transaction cost economics, agency theory, team theory and property rightstheory) has played no role...... in the development of knowledge management. We argue thatorganizational economics insights can further the theory and practice of knowledge managementin several ways. Specifically, we apply notions of contracting, team production,complementaries, hold-up, etc. to knowledge management issues (i.e., creating...... and integrationknowledge, rewarding knowledge workers, etc.) , and derive refutable implications that are novelto the knowledge management field from our discussion....

  8. Psychiatric Disability in Law Enforcement Officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Marilyn

    2017-03-01

    Law enforcement officers all across the world are exposed to violence, confrontation, and traumatic incidents. They regularly witness death and suffering and are at risk of personal injury. Psychiatric sequelae include an increased risk for trauma-related symptoms, depression, alcohol-use disorders, and stress-related medical conditions. Law enforcement officers have been applying for early disability retirement pensions at an increased rate for stress-related psychiatric and medical conditions. As a result, law enforcement agencies are prematurely losing valuable resources, officers with training and experience. Departments have become proactive in trying to address mental health issues to prevent psychiatric disability by implementing employee wellness plans and stress reduction interventions. Programs have been developed to mitigate the effects of stress on law enforcement personnel. Many law enforcement agencies have developed strategies to encourage early confidential referral for psychiatric treatment. They utilize peer support groups and employee assistance programs and develop alliances with mental health professionals. When these approaches fail, a fitness for duty process can be used to identify impairment in work functioning due to psychiatric factors with the prospect of later returning the officer to full duty. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Psychiatric care in the German prison system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Marc

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the nature of medical care within the German penal system. German prison services provide health care for all inmates, including psychiatric care. The reached level of equivalence of care and ethical problems and resource limitations are discussed and the way of legislation in this field since 2006 reform on federal law is described. The article summarizes basic data on German prison health care for mentally ill inmates. The legislation process and factors of influence are pointed out. A description of how psychiatric care is organized in German prisons follows. It focuses on the actual legal situation including European standards of prison health care and prevention of torture, psychiatric care in German prisons themselves, self harm and addiction. Associated problems such as blood born diseases and tuberculosis are included. The interactions between prison staff and health care personal and ethic aspects are discussed. The legislation process is still going on and there is still a chance to improve psychiatric care. Mental health problems are the major challenge for prison health care. Factors such as special problems of migrants, shortage of professionals and pure statistic data are considered. The paper provides a general overview on psychiatric services in prison and names weak points and strengths of the system.

  10. Psychiatric comorbidities in women with celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arigo, Danielle; Anskis, Alicia M; Smyth, Joshua M

    2012-03-01

    Although the physical consequences of Celiac Disease are well studied, less is known about co-occurring psychiatric symptoms. This study examines psychiatric risk and comorbidities of women with Celiac Disease, who may be at increased risk for psychiatric symptoms (e.g. depression, and disordered eating behaviours). Women (N = 177) with Celiac Disease responded to an extensive web-mediated survey assessing dietary compliance, illness symptoms, psychiatric functioning, and disordered eating. Despite high reported dietary compliance, patients reported marked illness symptoms and impaired quality of life. A substantial minority endorsed symptoms that met criteria for the diagnosis of psychiatric disorders: 37% (n = 65) met the threshold suggesting depression, and 22% (n = 39) for disordered eating. Participants whose symptoms exceeded these clinical thresholds reported greater perceived stress and reduced overall mental health, relative to women below the clinical cutoffs. Despite largely adhering to a gluten-free diet, a substantial subset of women with Celiac Disease report clinically relevant symptoms of depression and disordered eating; such symptoms are associated with increased psychosocial distress in other domains. These results suggest potential to improve the patient well-being through attention to psychosocial care, in addition to existing dietary recommendations for individuals with Celiac Disease.

  11. Impulse control disorders in adult psychiatric inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jon E; Levine, Laura; Kim, Daniel; Potenza, Marc N

    2005-11-01

    The authors' goal was to examine the prevalence of impulse control disorders in psychiatric inpatients. They used the Minnesota Impulsive Disorders Interview, a semistructured clinical interview assessing pathological gambling, trichotillomania, kleptomania, pyromania, intermittent explosive disorder, compulsive buying, and compulsive sexual behavior, to screen 204 consecutively admitted psychiatric inpatients. One hundred twelve of the inpatients were women (54.9%), and the mean age of the 204 inpatients was 40.5 years (SD=13.2, range=18-83). Patients whose screen was positive for an impulse control disorder were evaluated with structured clinical interviews. Sixty-three patients (30.9%) were diagnosed with at least one current impulse control disorder. The most common impulse control disorders were compulsive buying (N=19 [9.3%]), kleptomania (N=16 [7.8%]), and pathological gambling (N=14 [6.9%]). Patients with and without co-occurring impulse control disorders did not differ significantly from each other on demographic measures or number or type of psychiatric diagnoses other than impulse control disorders. Impulse control disorders appear common among psychiatric inpatients. Additional, larger studies are needed to examine the prevalence of impulse control disorders in the general population and specific psychiatric groups.

  12. [Circadian rhythm sleep disorders in psychiatric diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromundt, Vivien

    2014-11-01

    Circadian rhythm sleep disorders are prevalent among psychiatric patients. This is most probable due to a close relationship between functional disturbances of the internal clock, sleep regulation and mental health. Mechanisms on molecular level of the circadian clock and neurotransmitter signalling are involved in the development of both disorders. Moreover, circadian disorders and psychiatric diseases favour each other by accessory symptoms such as stress or social isolation. Actimetry to objectively quantify the rest-activity cycle and salivary melatonin profiles as marker for the circadian phase help to diagnose circadian rhythm sleep disorders in psychiatric patients. Chronotherapeutics such as bright light therapy, dark therapy, melatonin administration, and wake therapy are used to synchronise and consolidate circadian rhythms and help in the treatment of depression and other psychiatric disorders, but are still neglected in medicine. More molecular to behavioural research is needed for the understanding of the development of circadian disorders and their relationship to psychiatric illnesses. This will help to boost the awareness and treatment of circadian rhythm sleep disorders in psychiatry.

  13. Psychiatric screening of admissions to an accident and emergency ward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, G; Reinstein, D Z; Rajiyah, G; Rosser, R

    1991-04-01

    One hundred medical and surgical patients admitted to an accident and emergency ward were screened for psychiatric disorder. A psychiatric diagnosis was made in 37 patients, 32 of whom were correctly identified by the GHQ. Psychiatric morbidity was associated with being single, lower social class, unemployment, homelessness and living in Bloomsbury Health District or north-east London. It was also associated with not being registered with a GP. The 14 overdose patients were no more likely to receive a psychiatric diagnosis than other patients, yet constituted most of the psychiatric referrals. Few patients were asked by medical staff about emotional worries or problems. A desire to be asked such questions and a past psychiatric history were associated with a psychiatric diagnosis. Routine screening of psychiatric morbidity in both medical and surgical patients and appropriate psychiatric referral of identified patients is recommended. A system of facilitating GP registration is necessary, as much of the morbidity identified could be contained within primary care.

  14. Child and adolescent experience of and satisfaction with psychiatric care: a critical review of the research literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biering, P

    2010-02-01

    This review paper contributes to better understanding of child and adolescent perception of quality of psychiatric care and should therefore be of interests for those who are concerned with the development and improvement of psychiatric care. * The review shows that the concept of patient satisfaction in child and adolescent psychiatric care is still underdeveloped and that few valid instruments have been developed to measure the concept. * The review helps to clarify the concept of adolescent satisfaction with psychiatric care by indentifying the universal components of the concept. * The paper concludes that children's perception of quality of care differs from their parents' and that quality assessment of children and adolescents needs to be heeded. Abstract Users' perspectives ought to be a determining factor for assessing the quality of psychiatric care and hence their perspectives need to be thoroughly understood. There is a lack of comprehensive knowledge of how children and adolescents perceive the quality of their psychiatric care. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to critically review and synthesize findings from research on youth experience and satisfaction with psychiatric care. The review finds that knowledge about youth perception of quality of care is scattered and that few researchers consider previous findings. There are few valid instruments to measure child and adolescent patient satisfaction and few studies have considered these users' perceptions. These few studies indicate that adolescents' satisfaction has three universal components: satisfaction with environment and the organization of services; with user-caregiver relationship; and with treatment outcome. However, instruments that only use these factors lack sensitivity, while instruments that measure specific components of services capture differences in satisfaction between user groups. The review shows that parents and children have different mental care needs, and that the

  15. Accessible Knowledge - Knowledge on Accessibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Inge Mette

    2015-01-01

    Although serious efforts are made internationally and nationally, it is a slow process to make our physical environment accessible. In the actual design process, architects play a major role. But what kinds of knowledge, including research-based knowledge, do practicing architects make use of when...... designing accessible environments? The answer to the question is crucially important since it affects how knowledge is distributed and how accessibility can be ensured. In order to get first-hand knowledge about the design process and the sources from which they gain knowledge, 11 qualitative interviews...... were conducted with architects with experience of designing for accessibility. The analysis draws on two theoretical distinctions. The first is research-based knowledge versus knowledge used by architects. The second is context-independent knowledge versus context-dependent knowledge. The practitioners...

  16. Psychiatric diseases: Need for an increased awareness among the anesthesiologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajwa, Sukhminder Jit Singh; Jindal, Ravi; Kaur, Jasbir; Singh, Amarjit

    2011-10-01

    Psychological disorders and psychiatric diseases have been on the rise since the last three decades. An increasing number of such patients are encountered nowadays for elective or emergency surgery. A multi-array of challenges are faced while anesthetizing these patients or treating them in an intensive care unit. The problems include the deteriorated mental physiology, altered cognition and the possible drug interactions with psychotropic medications. The challenge starts from the preoperative assessment stage. Knowledge of the pharmacological profile of the various anti-psychotic drugs, their side-effects and drug interactions are of prime importance for an anesthesiologist to facilitate smooth delivery of anesthesia in such patients. It is important to formulate a clear plan to deal with any challenge in the perioperative or postoperative period. All the clinical aspects and various definitions of mental disorders in the present article have been used as per the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV). We reviewed the advances in psychiatric diseases, their treatment and their implications on delivery of anesthesia.

  17. Neurodevelopmental and psychiatric issues in Down's syndrome: assessment and intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicari, Stefano; Pontillo, Maria; Armando, Marco

    2013-06-01

    Down's syndrome (DS) is the most frequent genetic cause of intellectual disability and patients with DS show significant psychopathology (18-23%). Moreover, individuals with DS often show a cognitive decline associated with ageing characterized by a deterioration in memory, language and cognitive functioning. According to these relevant findings, an overview is presented of state-of-the-art knowledge of the neurocognitive, neurobiological and psychopathological profile, assessment and treatment of patients with DS. The linguistic characteristics of DS develop differently along distinct developmental trajectories. Thus, for example, morphosyntax deficit, especially in production, is more evident in adolescence than in early childhood and lexicon is usually better preserved in all ages (at least in comprehension). So far, rehabilitation is the only effective approach for improving cognitive and linguistic abilities. However, ongoing preliminary reports on other approaches such as transmagnetic stimulation or drugs suggest alternative or integrative treatment for the future. Individuals with DS show typical organization of brain structures related to some cognitive abilities, such as reduced volume in frontal and prefrontal areas, which is related to poor executive and linguistic abilities. They also frequently show psychiatric disorders such as externalizing disorders as well as depression, anxiety and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Nevertheless, as for other genetic syndrome with intellectual disability, there is a significant lack of research specifically focused on treatments of psychiatric and behavioural problems in DS. This is true both for psychosocial and for pharmacological interventions.

  18. Cross-sectional study to evaluate the longitudinal development of child and adolescent psychiatric diagnoses of inpatients in Vorarlberg, Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Karoline; Fuchs, Martin; Veraar, Maria; Menz, Wolfgang; Kemmler, Georg; Simma, Burkhard

    2016-02-01

    Clinical experience has repeatedly shown evidence for continuity between mental disorders in children and adolescents and mental disorders in adulthood. Up to now, Austria has had no epidemiologic data on psychiatric diseases in children and adolescents and their development into adulthood. How often do children and adolescents with psychiatric diseases have psychiatric diseases in adulthood? Is there any association between psychiatric diagnoses in childhood/adolescence and adulthood? Electronic medical records provided us with data on 2210 children and adolescents who were admitted to any hospital in the State of Vorarlberg, Austria, between 1997 and 2012 because of psychiatric diseases. In this cross-sectional study, diagnoses were coded according to ICD-10 and ICD-9 criteria. The three main reasons for admission of children and adolescents were substance abuse, emotional disorders and conduct disorders. Of the admitted children and adolescents, 9.8 % were readmitted to a psychiatric institution in adulthood. The main reason for readmission in adulthood appears to be disorders due to psychoactive substances (42.1 %). Of young patients with psychoactive substance use, 9.7 % were rehospitalized in adulthood, 70.8 % of them showed a diagnosis in the same category (F1) on admission. Children and adolescents admitted for schizophrenia, schizotypal, and delusional disorders (F2) were significantly more likely to be readmitted in adulthood (40.9 %) compared to any other child psychiatric diagnosis. This study once again shows the continuity of psychiatric disorders from childhood and adolescence to adulthood. It also gives further information about the transmission of diagnoses when patients reached the age of 18 years and their outcome. Until now, there is hardly any information about the outcome of children and adolescents with psychiatric diagnoses in Austria. We want to bring up more knowledge on that issue. Research findings may improve prevention and clinical

  19. Negative rumor: contagion of a psychiatric department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novac, Andrei; McEwan, Stephanie; Bota, Robert G

    2014-01-01

    Over the past few decades, a sizable body of literature on the effects of rumors and gossip has emerged. Addressing rumors in the workplace is an important subject, as rumors have a direct impact on the quality of the work environment and also on the productivity and creativity of the employees. To date, little has been written on the effect of rumors and gossip in psychiatric hospitals. This article presents case vignettes of rumors spread in psychiatric hospitals and the impact on team cohesion and morale among the staff implicated in these, too often, neglected occurrences. Dynamic aspects with particular focus on rumors in psychiatric units and suggestions for remedy and treatment are presented.

  20. Psychiatric Problems in Patients with Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munevver Tunel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a physical disorder with concurrent mental and social components. During cancer, the feelings of fear, hopelessness, guilt, helplessness, abandonment perceived as a crisis leading to destruction in the suffering person. Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer among women. Prevalence of psychiatric disorders among cancer patients is approximately 50% and most of disorders are related with the occurrence of cancer and cancer treatment. Majority of patients present with major depression, adjustment disorder, anxiety disorders, sleep disorders, suicidial ideation, and delirium. Treatment of psychiatric disorders and cancer therapy should be conducted along with special consideration of drug interactions. This article reviews the adaptation process experienced by individuals during diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer, it psychological effects, resulting psychiatric comorbidites and their treatments. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2012; 21(3.000: 189-219

  1. An interprofessional psychiatric advanced pharmacy practice experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstone, Lisa W; Cooley, Janet

    2013-08-12

    To create an interprofessional psychiatry advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) and assess the initial outcomes. An elective psychiatry APPE was developed in a setting of interdisciplinary practice. Preceptor responsibilities were shared between a psychiatric pharmacist and an attending psychiatrist or psychiatric nurse practitioner. Students were also given the opportunity to shadow and work with other health care professionals such as nurses, social workers, therapists, family nurse practitioners, and utilization review staff members. Midpoint and final evaluations demonstrated student advancement throughout the experience as well as the development of communication skills with patients and an increased ability to work collaboratively with other health care providers. Students rated this practice experience highly and their comments reflected achievement of the established learning objectives. An interdisciplinary elective practice experience in psychiatry at a local teaching hospital was effective in teaching psychiatric care and interprofessional interaction. This teaching model can be adapted for use in other practice settings or specialty areas.

  2. Psychiatric history in living kidney donor candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Katsuji; Kobayashi, Sayaka; Ishigooka, Jun

    2012-04-01

    To critically discuss recent studies of living kidney donor candidates with a past or current psychiatric history and to offer guidance for the psychosocial evaluation of such donors. A global consensus has been developed that active, significant mental illness and substance abuse are absolute contraindications to organ donation due to diminished ability to make a well informed, rational decision about donation or to maintain health status after donation. However, to date, there has been little information published on the suitability for donation and the long-term psychosocial and medical outcomes after donation in donors with mental health issues, especially relatively milder psychiatric disorders, or past significant psychiatric history. To resolve the ethical dilemma of whether living donor candidates with mental health issues should be allowed to donate as is their right or be considered a vulnerable group in need of protection, we need more information. Information should include careful evaluation, possible intervention and follow-up to optimize donation.

  3. Ayahuasca in adolescence: a preliminary psychiatric assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silveira, Dartiu Xavier; Grob, Charles S; de Rios, Marlene Dobkin; Lopez, Enrique; Alonso, Luisa K; Tacla, Cristiane; Doering-Silveira, Evelyn

    2005-06-01

    Ayahuasca is believed to be harmless for those (including adolescents) drinking it within a religious setting. Nevertheless controlled studies on the mental/ psychiatric status of ritual hallucinogenic ayahuasca concoction consumers are still lacking. In this study, 40 adolescents from a Brazilian ayahuasca sect were compared with 40 controls matched on sex, age, and educational background for psychiatric symptomatology. Screening scales for depression, anxiety, alcohol consumption patterns (abuse), attentional problems, and body dysmorphic disorders were used. It was found that, compared to controls, considerable lower frequencies of positive scoring for anxiety, body dismorphism, and attentional problems were detected among ayahuasca-using adolescents despite overall similar psychopathological profiles displayed by both study groups. Low frequencies of psychiatric symptoms detected among adolescents consuming ayahuasca within a religious context may reflect a protective effect due to their religious affiliation. However further studies on the possible interference of other variables in the outcome are necessary.

  4. Psychiatric conditions in an evolutionary context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabrega Jr, Horacio

    2004-01-01

    Psychiatric conditions and the institutions and practices that modern society has evolved to handle them originated during the nineteenth century in Anglo European societies. They are products of a historically contingent and culture specific formulation of a class of social problems of behavior that came to the fore in relation to intellectual and political economic changes of those societies. However, such problems have a long ancestry. They are intrinsic to human species and the social and cultural systems that its members have evolved since their emergence. This article reviews intellectual quandaries raised by evolutionary study of psychiatric conditions, those of crossing the human/animal divide and crossing historically contingent cultures; and of framing history of psychiatry in terms of social and cultural evolution. The biological architecture underlying psychiatric conditions and the breakthroughs that indigenous psychiatry of different types of societies underwent in formulating signs and symptoms are discussed. Copyright (c) 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Indian – American contributions to psychiatric research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandurangi, Anand K.

    2010-01-01

    The Indian Diaspora, especially in North America, is a visible force in the field of psychiatric medicine. An estimated 5000 persons of Indian origin practice psychiatry in the USA and Canada, and an estimated 10% of these are in academic psychiatry. Wide ranging contributions, from molecular biology of psychiatric disorders to community and cultural psychiatry, are being made by this vibrant group of researchers. This article is a brief summary and work-in-progress report of the contributions by Indian – American psychiatric researchers. Although not exhaustive in coverage, it is meant to give the reader an overview of the contributions made by three waves of researchers over a span of 50 years. PMID:21836715

  6. Ethical Challenges in Psychiatric Administration and Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffic, H Steven; Saeed, Sy Atezaz; Silver, Stuart; Koh, Steve

    2015-09-01

    As with all professional ethical principles, those in psychiatry have to evolve over time and societal changes. The current ethical challenges for psychiatric administration and leadership, especially regarding for-profit managed care, need updated solutions. One solution resides in the development by the American Association of Psychiatric Administrators (AAPA) of the first set of ethical principles designed specifically for psychiatric administrators. These principles build on prior Psychological Theories of leadership, such as those of Freud, Kernberg, and Kohut. Supplementing these theories are the actual real life models of psychiatrist leadership as depicted in the memoirs of various psychiatrists. Appreciating these principles, theories, and models may help emerging leaders to better recognize the importance of ethical challenges. A conclusion is that psychiatrists should have the potential to assume more successful leadership positions once again. In such positions, making the skills and well-being of all in the organization seems now to be the foremost ethical priority.

  7. Negative Rumor: Contagion of a Psychiatric Department

    OpenAIRE

    Novac, Andrei; McEwan, Stephanie; Bota, Robert G

    2014-01-01

    Over the past few decades, a sizable body of literature on the effects of rumors and gossip has emerged. Addressing rumors in the workplace is an important subject, as rumors have a direct impact on the quality of the work environment and also on the productivity and creativity of the employees. To date, little has been written on the effect of rumors and gossip in psychiatric hospitals. This article presents case vignettes of rumors spread in psychiatric hospitals and the impact on team cohe...

  8. Onconeural Antibodies in Acute Psychiatric Inpatient Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sæther, Sverre Georg; Schou, Morten; Stoecker, Winfried

    2017-01-01

    Paraneoplastic neurological disorders associated with onconeural antibodies often appear with neuropsychiatric symptoms. To study the prevalence of onconeural antibodies in patients admitted to acute psychiatric inpatient care, the serum of 585 such patients was tested for antibodies targeting MOG......, GLRA1B, DPPX, GRM1, GRM5, DNER, Yo, ZIC4, GAD67, amphiphysin, CV2, Hu, Ri, Ma2, and recoverin. Only one sample was positive (antirecoverin IgG). The present findings suggest that serum onconeural antibody positivity is rare among patients acutely admitted for inpatient psychiatric care. The clinical...

  9. Psychiatric emergency services in Copenhagen 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moltke, Katinka; Høegh, Erica B; Sæbye, Ditte

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Since the first publication of the psychiatric emergency units (PEUs) in Copenhagen 1985, outpatient facilities have undergone considerable changes. Our aim is to examine how these changes have influenced the activities in the PEUs in the same catchment area. METHODS: We conducted...... reduced the number of visits in the PEUs considerably. The results have shown a change of diagnostic distribution and more severe conditions requiring acute admissions for emergency treatment. Close collaboration with the patients' families, GPs, social authorities and specialized psychiatric outpatient...

  10. The geriatric population and psychiatric medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, Sannidhya; Sareen, Himanshu; Trivedi, J K

    2010-01-01

    With improvement in medical services in the last few years, there has been a constant rise in the geriatric population throughout the world, more so in the developing countries. The elderly are highly prone to develop psychiatric disorders, probably because of age related changes in the brain, concomitant physical disorders, as well as increased stress in later life. Psychiatric disorders in this population may have a different presentation than in other groups and some of psychopathologies might be mistaken for normal age related changes by an unwary clinician. Therefore the need of the day is to train psychiatrists and physicians to better recognize and manage mental disorders in this age group.

  11. Psychobiotics: An emerging probiotic in psychiatric practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunava Kali

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal microbial flora plays critical role in maintenance of health. Probiotic organisms have been recognized as an essential therapeutic component in the treatment of intestinal dysbiosis. Current research suggests their health benefits extends beyond intestinal disorders. The neuroactive molecules produced by the gut microbiota has been found to modulate neural signals which affect neurological and psychiatric parameters like sleep, appetite, mood and cognition. Use of these novel probiotics opens up the possibility of restructuring of intestinal microbiota for effective management of various psychiatric disorders.

  12. Dissociative identity disorder in psychiatric inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rifkin, A; Ghisalbert, D; Dimatou, S; Jin, C; Sethi, M

    1998-06-01

    The aim of this study was to replicate reports of a high rate of dissociative identity disorder in psychiatric inpatients. Subjects were 100 randomly selected women, 16-50 years old, who had recently been admitted to an acute psychiatric hospital. Diagnoses were made by two interviewers through use of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders. One percent (N = 1) of the interviewed subjects had dissociative identity disorder. Contrary to previous studies, the authors found a low rate of dissociative identity disorder, perhaps because of the different methodology used.

  13. Psychiatric (Axis I) and personality (Axis II) disorders and subjective psychiatric symptoms in chronic tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlsten, Hanna; Taiminen, Tero; Karukivi, Max; Sjösten, Noora; Nikkilä, Johanna; Virtanen, Juuso; Paavola, Janika; Joutsa, Juho; Niinivirta-Joutsa, Katri; Takala, Mari; Holm, Anu; Rauhala, Esa; Löyttyniemi, Eliisa; Johansson, Reijo; Jääskeläinen, Satu K

    2017-11-30

    Chronic tinnitus has been associated with several psychiatric disorders. Only few studies have investigated these disorders using validated diagnostic interviews. The aims were to diagnose psychiatric and personality disorders with structured interviews, to assess self-rated psychiatric symptoms and elucidate temporal relations between psychiatric disorders and tinnitus. Current and lifetime DSM-IV diagnoses of axis-I (psychiatric disorders) and axis-II (personality disorders) were assessed using structured clinical interviews (SCID-I and -II). Current subjective psychiatric symptoms were evaluated via self-rating instruments: the Symptom Check List-90 (SCL-90), the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES). 83 patients (mean age 51.7, 59% men) with chronic, disturbing tinnitus and a median Tinnitus Handicap Inventory score of 32. The rates of lifetime and current major depression were 26.5% and 2.4%. The lifetime rate of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (type C) was 8.4%. None of the patients had cluster B personality disorder or psychotic symptoms. The SCL-90 subscales did not differ from the general population, and median DES score was low, 2.4. Tinnitus patients are prone to episodes of major depression and often also have obsessive-compulsive personality features. Psychiatric disorders seem to be comorbid or predisposing conditions rather than consequences of tinnitus. Clinical trial reference: ClinicalTrials.gov (ID NCT 01929837).

  14. Atmospheric Research 2016 Technical Highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platnick, Steven

    2017-01-01

    Atmospheric research in the Earth Sciences Division (610) consists of research and technology development programs dedicated to advancing knowledge and understanding of the atmosphere and its interaction with the climate of Earth. The Divisions goals are to improve understanding of the dynamics and physical properties of precipitation, clouds, and aerosols; atmospheric chemistry, including the role of natural and anthropogenic trace species on the ozone balance in the stratosphere and the troposphere; and radiative properties of Earth's atmosphere and the influence of solar variability on the Earth's climate. Major research activities are carried out in the Mesoscale Atmospheric Processes Laboratory, the Climate and Radiation Laboratory, the Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, and the Wallops Field Support Office. The overall scope of the research covers an end-to-end process, starting with the identification of scientific problems, leading to observation requirements for remote-sensing platforms, technology and retrieval algorithm development; followed by flight projects and satellite missions; and eventually, resulting in data processing, analyses of measurements, and dissemination from flight projects and missions. Instrument scientists conceive, design, develop, and implement ultraviolet, infrared, optical, radar, laser, and lidar technology to remotely sense the atmosphere. Members of the various laboratories conduct field measurements for satellite sensor calibration and data validation, and carry out numerous modeling activities. These modeling activities include climate model simulations, modeling the chemistry and transport of trace species on regional-to-global scales, cloud resolving models, and developing the next-generation Earth system models. Satellite missions, field campaigns, peer-reviewed publications, and successful proposals are essential at every stage of the research process to meeting our goals and maintaining leadership of the

  15. Atmospheric science and power production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randerson, D. (ed.)

    1984-07-01

    This is the third in a series of scientific publications sponsored by the US Atomic Energy Commission and the two later organizations, the US Energy Research and Development Adminstration, and the US Department of Energy. The first book, Meteorology and Atomic Energy, was published in 1955; the second, in 1968. The present volume is designed to update and to expand upon many of the important concepts presented previously. However, the present edition draws heavily on recent contributions made by atmospheric science to the analysis of air quality and on results originating from research conducted and completed in the 1970s. Special emphasis is placed on how atmospheric science can contribute to solving problems relating to the fate of combustion products released into the atmosphere. The framework of this book is built around the concept of air-quality modeling. Fundamentals are addressed first to equip the reader with basic background information and to focus on available meteorological instrumentation and to emphasize the importance of data management procedures. Atmospheric physics and field experiments are described in detail to provide an overview of atmospheric boundary layer processes, of how air flows around obstacles, and of the mechanism of plume rise. Atmospheric chemistry and removal processes are also detailed to provide fundamental knowledge on how gases and particulate matter can be transformed while in the atmosphere and how they can be removed from the atmosphere. The book closes with a review of how air-quality models are being applied to solve a wide variety of problems. Separate analytics have been prepared for each chapter.

  16. Knowledge spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Doignon, Jean-Paul

    1999-01-01

    Knowledge spaces offer a rigorous mathematical foundation for various practical systems of knowledge assessment. An example is offered by the ALEKS system (Assessment and LEarning in Knowledge Spaces), a software for the assessment of mathematical knowledge. From a mathematical standpoint, knowledge spaces generalize partially ordered sets. They are investigated both from a combinatorial and a stochastic viewpoint. The results are applied to real and simulated data. The book gives a systematic presentation of research and extends the results to new situations. It is of interest to mathematically oriented readers in education, computer science and combinatorics at research and graduate levels. The text contains numerous examples and exercises and an extensive bibliography.

  17. Protecting Knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sofka, Wolfgang; de Faria, Pedro; Shehu, Edlira

    2018-01-01

    Most firms use secrecy to protect their knowledge from potential imitators. However, the theoretical foundations for secrecy have not been well explored. We extend knowledge protection literature and propose theoretical mechanisms explaining how information visibility influences the importance...... of secrecy as a knowledge protection instrument. Building on mechanisms from information economics and signaling theory, we postulate that secrecy is more important for protecting knowledge for firms that have legal requirements to reveal information to shareholders. Furthermore, we argue that this effect...... and a firm's investment in fixed assets. Our findings inform both academics and managers on how firms balance information disclosure requirements with the use of secrecy as a knowledge protection instrument....

  18. Knowledge Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariq, Syed Z.; Kutler, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The emergence of rapidly expanding technologies for distribution and dissemination of information and knowledge has brought to focus the opportunities for development of knowledge-based networks, knowledge dissemination and knowledge management technologies and their potential applications for enhancing productivity of knowledge work. The challenging and complex problems of the future can be best addressed by developing the knowledge management as a new discipline based on an integrative synthesis of hard and soft sciences. A knowledge management professional society can provide a framework for catalyzing the development of proposed synthesis as well as serve as a focal point for coordination of professional activities in the strategic areas of education, research and technology development. Preliminary concepts for the development of the knowledge management discipline and the professional society are explored. Within this context of knowledge management discipline and the professional society, potential opportunities for application of information technologies for more effectively delivering or transferring information and knowledge (i.e., resulting from the NASA's Mission to Planet Earth) for the development of policy options in critical areas of national and global importance (i.e., policy decisions in economic and environmental areas) can be explored, particularly for those policy areas where a global collaborative knowledge network is likely to be critical to the acceptance of the policies.

  19. Raising adults as children? A report on milieu therapy in a psychiatric ward in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeye, Christine; Bjelland, Anne Karen; Skorpen, Aina; Anderssen, Norman

    2009-03-01

    Milieu therapy is widely used as a therapeutic approach in psychiatric wards in the Nordic countries, but few studies exist that report on what practices a milieu therapy approach implies as seen from an ethnographic perspective. Therefore, there is a need to obtain insight into how milieu therapy unfolds in a psychiatric ward setting. The present ethnographic study aims to explore this in a locked-up psychiatric ward that was tied to a psychodynamic-oriented milieu therapy approach. Metaphors from traditional nuclear family life were widely used. Patients were often understood as harmed children and were taught self-management skills; the staff aimed at providing a caring atmosphere; and the patients seemed to behave, sometimes, in a childlike manner. In a Foucaultian framework, milieu therapy can be seen as a therapeutic normalization technique used to produce self-governing individuals. Milieu therapy "raises" patients in order to transform patients' odd behaviour and nonconforming lifestyles. We see this "raising children" approach as a type of intervention that nicely connects to the national policy of normalization and integration politics towards persons with psychiatric diagnoses.

  20. Valuing psychiatric patients' stories: belief in and use of the supernatural in the Jamaican psychiatric setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Caryl C A B; Carpenter, Karen A; Peltzer, Karl; Weaver, Steve

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine illness presentation and understand how psychiatric patients make meaning of the causes of their mental illnesses. Six Jamaican psychiatric patients were interviewed using the McGill Illness Narrative Interview Schedule. Of the 6, 3 representative case studies were chosen. The hermeneutic phenomenological approach and the common sense model were used in the formulation of patients' explanatory models. Results indicate that psychiatric patients actively conceptualized the causes and resultant treatment of their mental illnesses. Patients' satisfaction and compliance with treatment were dependent on the extent to which practitioners' conceptualization matched their own, as well as practitioners' acknowledgement of patients' concerns about causation, prognosis, and treatment.

  1. Recovery in involuntary psychiatric care: is there a gender difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schön, Ulla-Karin

    2013-10-01

    Research on recovery from mental illness and the influence of compulsory psychiatric institutional care has revealed the complexity of this concept. There is also limited knowledge regarding the impact of gender-role expectations in these contexts, and how such expectations may influence both the care and individuals' recovery processes. To explore women's and men's perceptions of the impact of compulsory inpatient care on recovery from severe mental illness. Grounded theory was used to analyse 30 first-person accounts of recovery from mental illness, elicited via interviews with individuals who had been compulsorily treated in hospital and diagnosed with a severe mental illness. Inpatient care at an early stage was crucial for the informants' recovery. However, there was ambivalence in their perceptions of the impact of compulsory inpatient care. The narratives confirmed gender differences as well as gender stereotypes. The results have implications for recovery research, in that they emphasise the importance of understanding recovery as a gender-influenced process.

  2. Increased psychiatric morbidity before and after the diagnosis of hypothyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thvilum, Marianne; Brandt, Frans; Pedersen, Dorthe Almind

    2014-01-01

    interval (CI): 1.12-2.04) and increased prevalence of treatment with antipsychotics (OR 1.49; 95% CI: 1.29-1.73), antidepressants (OR 1.50; 95% CI: 1.35-1.67), and anxiolytics (OR 1.28; 95% CI: 1.16-1.41). After the diagnosis of hypothyroidism, patients had a higher risk of being diagnosed......Background: Thyroid hormones are necessary for fetal brain development, while hypothyroidism in adults has been associated with mood symptoms and reduced quality of life. Nevertheless, our knowledge regarding the association and temporal relation between hypothyroidism and mental disorders...... is ambiguous. Our objective was to investigate, at a nationwide level, whether a diagnosis of hypothyroidism is associated with psychiatric morbidity. Methods: Observational cohort study. Based on record-linkage between different Danish health registers, 2822 hypothyroid singletons each matched with 4 non...

  3. Patient Experienced Continuity of Care in the Psychiatric Healthcare System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Natasja Koitzsch; Johansen, Katrine Schepelern; Kastrup, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    , developed in 2004 by Joyce et al., which encompasses four domains: accessibility, individualised care, relationship base and service delivery. Results: Investigating continuity of care, we found issues of specific concern to immigrants and refugees, but also commonalities across the groups....... For accessibility, areas pertinent to immigrants and refugees include lack of knowledge concerning mental illness and obligations towards children. In terms of Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11 9740 individualised care, trauma, additional vulnerability, and taboo concerning mental illness were...... of specific concern. In the domain of service delivery, social services included assistance with immigration papers for immigrants and refugees. In the relationship base domain, no differences were identified. Implications for priority area: The treatment courses of patients in the psychiatric field...

  4. The Impact of Psychiatric Patient Boarding in Emergency Departments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Nicks

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Studies have demonstrated the adverse effects of emergency department (ED boarding. This study examines the impact of resource utilization, throughput, and financial impact for psychiatric patients awaiting inpatient placement. Methods. The authors retrospectively studied all psychiatric and non-psychiatric adult admissions in an Academic Medical Center ED (>68,000 adult visits from January 2007-2008. The main outcomes were ED length of stay (LOS and associated reimbursement. Results. 1,438 patients were consulted to psychiatry with 505 (35.1% requiring inpatient psychiatric care management. The mean psychiatric patient age was 42.5 years (SD 13.1 years, with 2.7 times more women than men. ED LOS was significantly longer for psychiatric admissions (1089 min, CI (1039–1140 versus 340 min, CI (304–375; <0.001 when compared to non-psychiatric admissions. The financial impact of psychiatric boarding accounted for a direct loss of ($1,198 compared to non-psychiatric admissions. Factoring the loss of bed turnover for waiting patients and opportunity cost due to loss of those patients, psychiatric patient boarding cost the department $2,264 per patient. Conclusions. Psychiatric patients awaiting inpatient placement remain in the ED 3.2 times longer than non-psychiatric patients, preventing 2.2 bed turnovers (additional patients per psychiatric patient, and decreasing financial revenue.

  5. Atmospheric Climate Experiment Plus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundahl, K.

    ACE+ is an atmospheric sounding mission using radio occultation techniques and is a combination of the two Earth Explorer missions ACE and WATS earlier proposed to ESA. ACE was highly rated by ESA in the Call for Earth Explorer Opportunity Missions in 1999 and was prioritised as number three and selected as a "hot-stand-by". A phase A study was carried out during 2000 and 2001. ACE will observe atmospheric parameters using radio occultations from an array of 6 micro-satellites which track the L- band signal of GPS satellites to map the detailed refractivity and thermal structure of the global atmosphere from surface to space. Water vapour and wind in Atmospheric Troposphere and Stratosphere WATS was the response to ESA's Call for Ideas for the next Earth Explorer Core Missions in 2001. WATS combines ACE GPS atmospheric occultations and LEO-LEO cross-link occultations. Cross-links strongly enhance the capability of measuring humidity relative to the ACE mission. The Earth Science Advisory Committée at ESA noted that the LEO-GNSS occultation technique is already well established through several missions in recent years and could not recommend WATS for a Phase A study as an Earth Explorer Core Mission. The ESAC was, however, deeply impressed by the LEO-LEO component of the WATS proposal and would regard it as regrettable if this science would be lost and encourages the ACE/WATS team to explore other means to achieve its scientific goal. ACE+ is therefore the response to ESA's 2nd Call for Earth Explorer Opportunity Missions in 2001 and will contribute in a significant manner to ESA's Living Planet Programme. ACE+ will considerably advance our knowledge about atmosphere physics and climate change processes. The mission will demonstrate a highly innovative approach using radio occultations for globally measuring profiles of humidity and temperature throughout the atmosphere and stratosphere. A constellation of 4 small satellites, tracking L-band GPS/GALILEO signals and

  6. Knowledge cycle and strategic knowledge within company

    OpenAIRE

    Ovidiu NICOLESCU

    2007-01-01

    In the knowledge-based economy, a company performs a set of activities focused on knowledge: identifying necessary knowledge, buying knowledge, learning, acquiring knowledge, creating knowledge, storing knowledge, sharing knowledge, using knowledge, protection of knowledge, capitalizing knowledge. As a result, a new function emerge: the knowledge function. In the knowledge-based companies, not every knowledge has the same impact. The analysis of the actual situations in the most developed an...

  7. Knowledge Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Kiran

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study covers the knowledge management (KM in institutions of higher technical education (IHTEs from the perspective of thought leaders and junior academia to identify whether there is a difference of opinion regarding KM strategies, including knowledge technologies, knowledge acquisition, knowledge storage, knowledge dissemination, and KM-based framework for research and curriculum development (CD. Data have been collected through structured questionnaire from 141 respondents covering 30 higher educational institutions in India, including national- and state-level institutions—Designations of the targeted respondents in the IHTEs have been categorized into (a senior academia, that is, professors, heads, and associate professors occupying senior management positions, considered to be the institute overseers and thought leaders of KM and (b junior academia consisting of assistant professors and lecturers who are using and also contributing to the KM system. ANOVA has been used to see whether there is a significant difference of opinion among the two groups of knowledge users. The results of the study highlight a significant difference among the two groups regarding knowledge technologies, knowledge acquisition, knowledge storage, and knowledge dissemination. But, there is a consensus regarding KM-based framework for research and CD.

  8. Asperger Syndrome: Associated Psychiatric and Medical Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaziuddin, Mohammad

    2002-01-01

    This article explores the association of medical and psychiatric conditions with Asperger syndrome, based mainly on publications from the last two decades. It examines comorbidity of Asperger syndrome with mood disorders, schizophrenia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, tic disorders, violence and aggression,…

  9. [Burden of psychiatric diseases in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente P, Benjamín; Kohn, Robert; Saldivia B, Sandra; Rioseco S, Pedro

    2007-12-01

    Chile has one of the highest disease burdens caused by neuropsychiatric illnesses in the world, according to WHO, reaching to 31%. Major depression and alcohol use disorders are ranked first and second in attributed disability among adults. Nearly one-third of the population has had a psychiatric disorder in their lifetime, and 22.2% in the past year. Anxiety disorders are the most prevalent conditions, followed by major depression and alcohol abuse. Currently, mental health accounts for 2.3%) of the health care budget, which is less than some neighboring countries. The availability of 1.3 psychiatric beds per 10,000 inhabitants, is less than the mean of lower-income countries. Moreover, 81% are for chronic rather than acute care. Chile has 4.0 psychiatrist per 100,000 inhabitants, which is lower than other countries in Latin America. Only 38.5% of those patients with a psychiatric diagnosis receive any kind of mental health care, whether from a specialist or primary care. There is a perception among lay persons, that psychiatric treatments lack efficacy, despite evidence demonstrating the contrary. Not addressing the treatment gap in mental health has serious public health implications.

  10. Chronic psychiatric status and satisfaction with life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arrindell, W.A.; van Nieuwenhuizen, Ch; Luteijn, F.

    The present study represents the first to administer the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) as part of a. semi-structured interview to a large sample of psychiatric patients with severe mental illness. psychometric appraisal of the SWLS demonstrated that figures on its internal structure were quite

  11. Out and Down: Incarceration and Psychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnittker, Jason; Massoglia, Michael; Uggen, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders are unusually prevalent among current and former inmates, but it is not known what this relationship reflects. A putative causal relationship is contaminated by assorted influences, including childhood disadvantage, the early onset of most disorders, and the criminalization of substance use. Using the National Comorbidity…

  12. Psychiatric Assessment and Rehabilitation of Burn Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman Akarsu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Psychiatric rehabilitation has gained significance owing to improved healthcare facilities for burn injuries and decreased mortality/ morbidity rates. Burn traumas may result in psychiatric signs such as denial, anger, guilt, confusion, disgrace, anxiety, distress, and nervousness. Psychiatric disorders such as delirium, depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, and sexual problems can also be encountered. Therefore, it is necessary to look for these signs and disorders through regular sessions with burn patients and appropriate psychometric tests. This study aims at examining the process of psychological rehabilitation for burn patients in light of the current literature. Material and Methods: This study has been carried out in the light of the main and current literature review. The study intends to put forth the data observed in the course of the psychological diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation of burn patients. The study has been conducted in accordance with the Helsinki Declaration Guidelines. Results: Treatment and rehabilitation process requires a multidisciplinary teamwork that consists of physicians, dieticians, psychologists, social service specialists, and other healthcare workers who can meet the needs of burn patients and their families. It is necessary for the team to contribute both to the hospitalization process and the social environment of the patients and their families. Conclusion: It is observed that the quality of life of these patients can be considerably improved with the effective assessment of psychiatric signs that occur during or after the injury and with appropriate treatment methods.

  13. PSYCHIATRIC MORBIDITY IN A NIGERIAN NEUROLOGY CLINIC

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-05-28

    May 28, 2013 ... East African Medical Journal Vol. 89 No. 2 February 2012. PSYCHIATRIC MORBIDITY IN A NIGERIAN NEUROLOGY CLINIC. P. O. Ajiboye, FWACP, Senior Lecturer/ Consultant Psychiatrist, Department of Behavioural Sciences, University of Ilorin/. University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Ilorin, Kwara State, ...

  14. EDITORIAL PSYCHIATRIC ILLNESS AMONG JUVENILES AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kateee

    2003-06-01

    Jun 1, 2003 ... PSYCHIATRIC ILLNESS AMONG JUVENILES AND ADOLESCENTS IN KENYA. Twenty years ago, FGN, ..... and adolescence may show a good deal of shift from conduct disorders to mixed ...... risk factor for both perinatal and young infant death, khat chewing during pregnancy may be one of the factors ...

  15. Sexual Attitude Reassessment for Psychiatric Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dincin, Jerry; Wise, Shirley

    1979-01-01

    Sexuality programs are one part of the program at Thresholds, a rehabilitation center for psychiatric patients (17 to 50 years old). A 16 week sexuality group includes seven phases: initial interview; beginning group development (health care, contraception, reproduction, sexuality); masturbation; intercourse; homosexuality; coed group discussion;…

  16. Psychiatric nurses' experiences with inpatient aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijman, H.; Bowers, L.; Oud, N.; Jansen, G.

    2005-01-01

    Using a survey instrument, the experiences of psychiatric nurses with inpatient aggression were investigated in East London, U.K. On this "Perceptions of Prevalence Of Aggression Scale" (POPAS), annual experiences with 15 types of disruptive and aggressive behavior were rated anonymously. Staff

  17. Can Psychiatric Rehabilitation Be Core to CORE?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olney, Marjorie F.; Gill, Kenneth J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: In this article, we seek to determine whether psychiatric rehabilitation principles and practices have been more fully incorporated into the Council on Rehabilitation Education (CORE) standards, the extent to which they are covered in four rehabilitation counseling "foundations" textbooks, and how they are reflected in the…

  18. PSYCHIATRIC MORBIDITY IN A NIGERIAN NEUROLOGY CLINIC

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-05-28

    May 28, 2013 ... medication effects and psychological reactions to the illness. Parkinson's disease (PD) is a good example of a disabling neurological disorder and it is now apparent that the underlying neurodegenerative disorder is a major cause of psychiatric disturbances even though the psychological reactions to the ...

  19. The professional paradigm of qualified psychiatric nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, U A

    1995-10-01

    The main purpose of this research was to determine the professional paradigm of the qualified psychiatric nurse and the factors influencing the formation of this paradigm. The research was both explorative and descriptive, and both qualitative and quantitative methods were used. The research approach was deductive and based on the theory of paradigm of Törnebohm. The test persons comprised three groups: Swedish-speaking Finns, Swedes and Finns. In each group there were eight students in the final stages of their psychiatric nursing training. A total of 40 questionnaires were distributed to each group. The research revealed four different characteristic types of qualified psychiatric nurses: caring science oriented, partly caring science oriented, general humanist and finally the personality- and experience-oriented. The results also indicate that there is a discrepancy between will and ability within caring. This can partly be interpreted as an expression of the discrepancy between philosophical and ideological impressions and real acts but it may partly indicate a lack of information. Many informants had difficulty naming a theoretical frame of reference for their work and stating aspects of psychiatric caring that would be important to know but on which no information so far exists. Many informants expressed the need for more research and development but did not indicate the subjects.

  20. 42 CFR 415.184 - Psychiatric services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Psychiatric services. 415.184 Section 415.184 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... TEACHING SETTINGS, AND RESIDENTS IN CERTAIN SETTINGS Physician Services in Teaching Settings § 415.184...

  1. Prevalence and Correlates of Psychiatric Disorders among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Research has established that psychiatric disorders are common among children and adolescents within the juvenile justice system. However, the bulk of these researches had been from the developed countries, with very limited data from sub-Sahara Africa. In a region like sub-Sahara Africa with acute ...

  2. Physician assisted death in psychiatric practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewoud, J.H.; van der Maas, P.J.; van der Wal, G.; Hengeveld, M.W.; Tholen, A.J.; Schudel, W.J.; van der Heide, A.

    1997-01-01

    Background: In 1994 the Dutch Supreme Court ruled that in exceptional instances, physician-assisted suicide might be justifiable for patients with unbearable mental suffering but no physical illness. We studied physician- assisted suicide and euthanasia in psychiatric practice in the Netherlands.

  3. SPECIFIC PSYCHIATRIC MORBIDITY AMONG DIABETICS AT A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2000-01-01

    Jan 1, 2000 ... Background: In Nigeria, with a rising incidence of diabetes mellitus (DM), there are ... Objective: To assess the prevalence of specific psychiatric disorders and ..... Suleiman T.G., Ohaeri J.U., Lawal R.A., Haruna A.T. and Orija.

  4. Psychiatric and Societal Impacts of Terrorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grieger, Thomas A

    2006-01-01

    ... is one consequence of terrorism. Even emotional and behavioral changes that do not reach the level of a diagnosable disorder may contribute significantly to the overall health burden resulting from terrorist attacks. Psychiatric disorders will occur in a relatively small percentage of the exposed population. The course of illness for those in whom suc...

  5. Substance use and violence among psychiatric inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, D; Bowers, L

    2015-03-01

    Nursing staff on psychiatric wards often attribute patient violence and aggression to substance use. This study examined incidents of alcohol and illicit drug use among acute psychiatric inpatients and associations between substance use and violence or other forms of aggression. A sample of 522 adult psychiatric inpatients was recruited from 84 acute psychiatric wards in England. Data were collected from nursing and medical records for the first 2 weeks of admission. Only a small proportion of the sample was reported to have used or been under the influence of alcohol (5%) or drugs (3%). There was no physical violence during a shift when a patient had used alcohol or drugs. Substance using patients were also no more likely than others to behave violently at any point during the study period. However, incidents of substance use were sometimes followed by verbal aggression. Beliefs that substance using patients are likely to be violent were not supported by this study, and could impact negatively on therapeutic relationships between nurses and this patient group. Future studies are needed to examine how staff intervene and interact with intoxicated patients. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Psychiatric epidemiology and disaster exposure in Australia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reifels, L.; Mills, K.; Dückers, M.L.A.; O'Donnell, M.L.

    2017-01-01

    Aims. To examine the lifetime prevalence and risk of psychiatric disorders associated with natural and man-made disaster exposure in Australia. Methods. We utilised data from a nationally representative population survey (N = 8841) which were analysed through univariate and multivariate logistic

  7. [Dementia - a relevant subject in psychiatric research?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wancata, Johannes

    2011-10-01

    Demographic change calls for increased efforts in dementia research. A systematic analysis of a German-speaking psychiatric journal was performed. 18.2 % of all papers published in were related to dementia and cognition. Dementia is a main issue; only papers regarding schizophrenia were more common. Health service research is largely lacking. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Psychiatric nurses' experiences with inpatient aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijman, H.L.I.; Bowers, L.; Oud, N.E.; Jansen, G.J.

    2005-01-01

    Using a survey instrument, the experiences of psychiatric nurses with inpatienaggression were investigated in East London, U.K. On this Perceptions of Prevalence Of Aggression Scale (POPAS), annual experiences with 15 types of disruptive and aggressive behavior were rated anonymously. Staff members

  9. Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders in Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichstrom, Lars; Berg-Nielsen, Turid Suzanne; Angold, Adrian; Egger, Helen Link; Solheim, Elisabet; Sveen, Trude Hamre

    2012-01-01

    Background: Many disorders in childhood and adolescence were already present in the preschool years. However, there is little empirical research on the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in young children. A true community study using structured diagnostic tools has yet to be published. Methods: All children born in 2003 or 2004 in the city of…

  10. 76 FR 40229 - Psychiatric Evaluation and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-08

    ... transfer to a mental hospital are threatened with immediate deprivation of liberty interests they are... use of the phrase `qualified health services staff' in Sec. 549.44 of the proposed regulation. The APA.... Bureau policy on pharmacy services is predicated on the requirement that the use of psychiatric...

  11. Tobacco Smoking in Adolescent Psychiatric Outpatients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditchburn, K. Marie; Sellman, J. Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Three main aims of this study were to ascertain the prevalence rate of smoking among adolescent psychiatric outpatients; estimate smokers' degree of nicotine dependence; and investigate the relationship between smoking and common mental health disorders. Face-to-face interviews were conducted on 93 patients ages 13-18 presenting to an adolescent…

  12. Lipids in psychiatric disorders and preventive medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Miriam; Levant, Beth; Reichel, Martin; Gulbins, Erich; Kornhuber, Johannes; Müller, Christian P

    2017-05-01

    Psychiatric disorders like mood disorders, schizophrenia, or drug addiction affect a sizeable proportion of the human population and severely compromise quality of life. Therefore, measures to prevent the manifestation, and treatments to ameliorate the symptoms, of these disorders are in high demand. Brain lipids determine the localization and function of proteins in the cell membrane of neurons. Lipids may also act as neurotransmitters or other signalling molecules. The lipid composition of the brain can be influenced by nutrition, environmental factors, and by behavioural activity. Thus, lipids represent a target for preventive medicine of psychiatric disorders. Here we review how brain lipids contribute to normal behaviour and to major psychiatric disorders with the focus on phospholipids/fatty acids, sphingolipids, and endocannabinoids. Accumulating evidence suggests a crucial role for membrane forming and signalling lipids in the brain in the etiopathologies of depression, bipolar disorders, schizophrenia, and drug addiction. Lipids also represent potential preventive interventions for these psychiatric disorders by either targeted dietary supplementation or pharmacological manipulation of lipid regulating enzymes. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Psychiatric classification, stigma, and mental health

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Afr J Psychiatry 2013;16:227-229. African Journal of Psychiatry • July 2013. 227. Work on DSM-5 and ICD-11, and the simultaneous development of alternative approaches to psychiatric classification such as the Research Domain Criteria of the. National Institute of Mental Health1, has led to renewed interest of colleagues ...

  14. What is the significance of onconeural antibodies for psychiatric symptomatology?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sæther, Sverre Georg; Schou, Morten; Kondziella, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with intracellular onconeural antibodies may present with neuro-psychiatric syndromes. We aimed to evaluate the evidence for an association between well-characterized onconeural antibodies and psychiatric symptoms in patients with and without paraneoplastic central nervous sy...

  15. Health habits, attitudes and behavior towards oral health of psychiatric patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Svetlana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. People with psychiatric disorders are at high risk of oral diseases due to the impact of their primary psychiatric condition and the side-effects of antipsychotic medications. Objective. The aim of this study was to identify habits, attitudes and behavior towards oral health of hospitalized psychiatric patients with psychotic disorders, including mood disorders with psychotic characteristics, as well as to identify factors that could influence those habits, attitudes and behavior. Methods. The experimental group consisted of 186 hospitalized patients with psychiatric disorders (87 males and 99 females, aged from 18 to 59 years (mean age 46.0±8.0 years. The control group consisted of 186 healthy persons matched for age and gender. Data were obtained by using specially designed questionnaires with questions about the subjects' social, economic and demographic characteristics, as well as their habits, attitudes and behaviour concerning their oral health, in a form of a standardized interview. Other medical data were collected from medical documentation of disease history. Statistical analysis was performed by Student's t-test, Chi-square test, ANOVA, Logistic Regression and simultaneous multiple regression. Results. Psychiatric patients have worse habits, attitudes and behavior concerning their oral health in comparison with healthy persons (p<0.001: they wash their teeth more rarely and in a shorter time, have less knowledge of oral diseases and their effect on general health, and visit their dentist more rarely. The obtained results depend on social, economic and demographic characteristics and on the underlying illness of patients. Conclusion. Health educational work concerning oral health of patients should be included in psychiatric treatment, as a part of an existing therapy with the aim of improving the general quality of their life.

  16. Different Places, Different Ideas: Reimagining Practice in American Psychiatric Nursing After World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kylie M

    2018-01-01

    In 1952, Hildegard Peplau published her textbook Interpersonal Relations in Nursing: A Conceptual Frame of Reference for Psychodynamic Nursing. This was the same year the American Psychiatric Association (APA) published the first edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (1st ed.; DSM-I; APA). These events occurred in the context of a rapidly changing policy and practice environment in the United States after World War II, where the passing of the National Mental Health Act in 1946 released vast amounts of funding for the establishment of the National Institute of Mental Health and the development of advanced educational programs for the mental health professions including nursing. This article explores the work of two nurse leaders, Hildegard Peplau and Dorothy Mereness, as they developed their respective graduate psychiatric nursing programs and sought to create new knowledge for psychiatric nursing that would facilitate the development of advanced nursing practice. Both nurses had strong ideas about what they felt this practice should look like and developed distinct and particular approaches to their respective programs. This reflected a common belief that it was only through nurse-led education that psychiatric nursing could shape its own practice and control its own future. At the same time, there are similarities in the thinking of Peplau and Mereness that demonstrate the link between the specific social context of mental health immediately after World War II and the development of modern psychiatric nursing. Psychiatric nurses were able to gain significant control of their own education and practice after the war, but this was not without a struggle and some limitations, which continue to impact on the profession today.

  17. Managing Depression: Stories of Patients and Their Families Pursuing Mental Health after Psychiatric Hospitalization

    OpenAIRE

    Thorne, Catherine B.

    2002-01-01

    This qualitative research study was designed to follow-up with ten participants in a relapse prevention program at an inpatient psychiatric unit with a diagnosis of major depression for the purpose of determining their experiences post-discharge in practicing relapse prevention and in pursuing and maintaining wellness in their mental health. It relied upon narrative theory, theories of self-efficacy, and theories of depression to guide the research process as well as the field of knowledge a...

  18. Screening for psychiatric morbidity in an accident and emergency department.

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, G; Hindley, N; Rajiyah, G; Rosser, R

    1990-01-01

    One hundred and twenty A&E Department daytime attenders were screened for psychiatric disorder in a two stage procedure. Thirty-three patients were identified as General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) 'cases' of whom 28 agreed to a psychiatric interview using the Clinical Interview Schedule. Twenty-eight GHQ 'non-cases' were also interviewed. A psychiatric diagnosis was made in 24 patients, 21 of whom were GHQ cases. Patients were more likely to suffer from psychiatric morbidity if the presenting...

  19. Exploring the perceptions of psychiatric patients regarding marijuana use

    OpenAIRE

    Belinda Scrooby; Emmerentia du Plessis; Leepile A. Sehularo

    2012-01-01

    There is limited understanding on marijuana use by psychiatric patients, specifically with regard as to why they continue to smoke marijuana despite the negative consequences, such as readmittance to psychiatric hospitals following marijuana-induced psychosis. It is, therefore, important to understand why psychiatric patients continue to use marijuana, despite experiencing its negative effects. The purpose of this study was to explore and describe the perceptions of psychiatric patients with ...

  20. Use of animal-assisted therapy with psychiatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetti, Jeanette; King, Camille

    2010-11-01

    The use of animal-assisted therapy (AAT) as an adjunct treatment approach in psychiatric settings has received much attention in the literature. This article explores the use of AAT with psychiatric patients. The authors performed a literature review and found that AAT can have a significant effect on the improvement of psychiatric patients' socialization and provides a variety of psychological benefits. Nurses can benefit from learning about the potential benefits of AAT for psychiatric patients.

  1. Psychiatric hospitalisation and suicide among the very old in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erlangsen, Annette; Mortensen, Preben Bo; Vach, Werner

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Very old people have higher suicide rates than the younger elderly population. Psychiatric disorders are known to have a strong association with suicide among elderly people. AIMS: To analyse the analyse the suicide risk associated with psychiatric hospitalisation among the very old......: The association between suicide and psychiatric hospitalisation is much weaker for the very old than for the old. Psychiatric disorders among very old people may be interacting with other disorders, may be underdiagnosed or treated in other healthcare settings....

  2. Psychiatric comorbidity in gender dysphoric adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Annelou L C; Doreleijers, Theo A H; Steensma, Thomas D; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T

    2011-11-01

    This study examined psychiatric comorbidity in adolescents with a gender identity disorder (GID). We focused on its relation to gender, type of GID diagnosis and eligibility for medical interventions (puberty suppression and cross-sex hormones). To ascertain DSM-IV diagnoses, the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC) was administered to parents of 105 gender dysphoric adolescents. 67.6% had no concurrent psychiatric disorder. Anxiety disorders occurred in 21%, mood disorders in 12.4% and disruptive disorders in 11.4% of the adolescents. Compared with natal females (n = 52), natal males (n = 53) suffered more often from two or more comorbid diagnoses (22.6% vs. 7.7%, p = .03), mood disorders (20.8% vs. 3.8%, p = .008) and social anxiety disorder (15.1% vs. 3.8%, p = .049). Adolescents with GID considered to be 'delayed eligible' for medical treatment were older [15.6 years (SD = 1.6) vs. 14.1 years (SD = 2.2), p = .001], their intelligence was lower [91.6 (SD = 12.4) vs. 99.1 (SD = 12.8), p = .011] and a lower percentage was living with both parents (23% vs. 64%, p 1.0 for all psychiatric diagnoses except specific phobia. Despite the suffering resulting from the incongruence between experienced and assigned gender at the start of puberty, the majority of gender dysphoric adolescents do not have co-occurring psychiatric problems. Delayed eligibility for medical interventions is associated with psychiatric comorbidity although other factors are of importance as well. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2011 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  3. Self-Esteem Deficits Among Psychiatric Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Rizwan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to investigate the difference in the level of self-esteem among patients with psychiatric disorders and normal controls. After a detailed literature review, it was hypothesized that there would be a significant difference in the level of self-esteem among patients with psychiatric disorders and normal controls. The sample of the present study consisted of 260 participants, who were further divided into two groups: clinical group (n = 140 and normal controls (n = 120. The age range of the participants in both the samples were 18 to 25 years (with the mean age of 22.14 years for psychiatric patients and 21.18 years for normal controls, and they belonged to middle socioeconomic status. The clinical group consisted of diagnosed psychiatric patients according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; DSM-IV-TR criteria and further divided into four subgroups, including patients of (a schizophrenia (n = 40, (b major depressive disorder (n = 40, (c obsessive-compulsive disorder (n = 40, and (d opioid dependence disorder (n = 20. The semi-structured interview form of Institute of Clinical Psychology, University of Karachi, and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale were used. Descriptive Statistics and one-way ANOVA were applied to analyze and interpret the data in statistical terminology. Results indicate significant differences among patients with psychiatric disorders and normal controls on the variable of self-esteem (F = 30.513, df = 4, 255, p< .05. The finding has implications for clinical interventions and also suggests avenues for future research.

  4. Prevalence of smoking in psychiatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, Marie-France; Canceil, Olivier; Baylé, Franck; Millet, Bruno; Bourdel, Marie-Chantal; Moatti, Cécile; Olié, Jean-Pierre; Attar-Lévy, Dominique

    2002-04-01

    Compelling evidence that tobacco-smoking is a form of drug addiction exists. The aim of this study is to determine the following: (1) prevalence of tobacco-smoking and of nicotine dependence in French psychiatric patients; (2) rates and patterns of tobacco smoking and of nicotine dependence according to diagnosis; (3) relationship between current smoking status and antipsychotic medications; and (4) relationship between cigarette smoking and neurological side effects induced by neuroleptics. A population of 711 psychiatric in- and outpatients was assessed using: (1) a detailed smoking self-questionnaire for smoking history and nicotine dependence; and (2) a questionnaire for staff covering treatments and DSMIII-R diagnoses. Data were analyzed using chi2 analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests (one factor) for quantitative comparisons between groups of patients, and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) test with age covariate was performed for age-dependent variables. Prevalence of smoking in the population of psychiatric patients was significantly higher than in the French general population. Diagnoses among current smokers were mainly substance-related disorder and schizophrenia. The authors established correlations between prevalence of smoking and age, sex, marital and socioeconomic status, alcohol use, coffee consumption and other psychoactive substance use or abuse. The authors did not find relationship between smoking prevalence and institutionalization. Neuroleptic neurological side effects were significantly fewer among smokers compared to nonsmokers. However, the rate of smokers was significantly higher in psychiatric patients receiving neuroleptic drugs. Nicotine abuse in psychiatric patients, and especially in schizophrenic patients, could support the hypothesis that smoking is consistent with self-medication.

  5. Psychiatric disorders and urbanization in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, Jack; Peen, Jaap; Koelen, Jurrijn; Smit, Filip; Schoevers, Robert

    2008-01-17

    Epidemiological studies over the last decade have supplied growing evidence of an association between urbanization and the prevalence of psychiatric disorders. Our aim was to examine the link between levels of urbanization and 12-month prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders in a nationwide German population study, controlling for other known risk factors such as gender, social class, marital status and the interaction variables of these factors with urbanization. The Munich Composite International Diagnostic Interview (M-CIDI) was used to assess the prevalence of mental disorders (DSM-IV) in a representative sample of the German population (N = 4181, age: 18-65). The sample contains five levels of urbanization based on residence location. The epidemiological study was commissioned by the German Ministry of Research, Education and Science (BMBF) and approved by the relevant Institutional Review Board and ethics committee. Written informed consent was obtained for both surveys (core survey and Mental Health Supplement). Subjects did not get any financial compensation for their study participation. Higher levels of urbanization were linked to higher 12-month prevalence rates for almost all major psychiatric disorders (with the exception of substance abuse and psychotic disorders). The weighted prevalence percentages were highest in the most urbanized category. Alongside urbanization, female gender, lower social class and being unmarried were generally found to be associated with higher levels of psychopathology. The impact of urbanization on mental health was about equal (for almost all major psychiatric disorders) in young people and elderly people, men and women, and in married and single people. Only people from a low social class in the most urbanized settings had more somatoform disorders, and unmarried people in the most urbanized settings had more anxiety disorders. Psychiatric disorders are more prevalent among the inhabitants of more urbanized areas

  6. Psychiatric disorders and urbanization in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koelen Jurrijn

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological studies over the last decade have supplied growing evidence of an association between urbanization and the prevalence of psychiatric disorders. Our aim was to examine the link between levels of urbanization and 12-month prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders in a nationwide German population study, controlling for other known risk factors such as gender, social class, marital status and the interaction variables of these factors with urbanization. Methods The Munich Composite International Diagnostic Interview (M-CIDI was used to assess the prevalence of mental disorders (DSM-IV in a representative sample of the German population (N = 4181, age: 18–65. The sample contains five levels of urbanization based on residence location. The epidemiological study was commissioned by the German Ministry of Research, Education and Science (BMBF and approved by the relevant Institutional Review Board and ethics committee. Written informed consent was obtained for both surveys (core survey and Mental Health Supplement. Subjects did not get any financial compensation for their study participation. Results Higher levels of urbanization were linked to higher 12-month prevalence rates for almost all major psychiatric disorders (with the exception of substance abuse and psychotic disorders. The weighted prevalence percentages were highest in the most urbanized category. Alongside urbanization, female gender, lower social class and being unmarried were generally found to be associated with higher levels of psychopathology. The impact of urbanization on mental health was about equal (for almost all major psychiatric disorders in young people and elderly people, men and women, and in married and single people. Only people from a low social class in the most urbanized settings had more somatoform disorders, and unmarried people in the most urbanized settings had more anxiety disorders. Conclusion Psychiatric disorders are more

  7. Knowledge Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Kerr, Aphra; O'Riain, Sean

    2009-01-01

    We examine a number of key questions regarding this knowledge economy. First, we look at the origin of the concept as well as early attempts to define and map the knowledge economy empirically. Second, we examine a variety of perspectives on the socio-spatial organisation of the knowledge economy and approaches which link techno-economic change and social-spatial organisation. Building on a critique of these perspectives, we then go on to develop a view of a knowledge economy that is conteste...

  8. Clinically useful predictors for premature mortality among psychiatric patients visiting a psychiatric emergency room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Jørgen; Buus, Niels; Wernlund, Andreas Glahn

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine changes in the distribution of causes of death and mortality rates among psychiatric patients visiting a psychiatric emergency room (PER), to determine clinically useful predictors for avoiding premature mortality among these patients and to discuss...... by substance use disorder is preventable, and PERs are ideal points of early intervention. Systematic screening for substance use disorder at the PER and/or crisis intervention teams may be effective intervention strategies....

  9. Puerperal Psychiatric Disorders: A 6 - Year Retrospective Review at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: About 1.7% of new cases seen during the period had a post partum psychiatric disorder. Depression (50%) was the commonest type of post-partum psychiatric illness, followed by mania (21.3%), bipolar affective disorder (12.5%) and schizophrenia (10.3%). Most had onset of psychiatric symptoms less than 4 ...

  10. Psychiatric Nursing Care for Adult Survivors of Child

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thóra van der Hafsteinsdóttir; Cokky van der Venne; Yvonne van der Zalm; Nienke Kool; Willem Nugteren; prof Berno van Meijel

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine what is known from the literature about nursing care of psychiatric patients with a history of child maltreatment. CONCLUSIONS: Psychiatric nurses underline the importance of a routine inquiry of child abuse on admission of patients to psychiatric care, but are reluctant to

  11. College Student Utilization of a Comprehensive Psychiatric Emergency Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Sharon L.; Kader, Mahrin; Haggerty, Melinda Z.; Bakhai, Yogesh D.; Warren, Calvert G.

    2013-01-01

    The authors sought to identify college students at risk for experiencing a mental health crisis that warranted a psychiatric evaluation at a hospital and/or a psychiatric hospitalization. A retrospective chart review of college students evaluated at a comprehensive psychiatric emergency program during a 1-year period was conducted. Demographic…

  12. Language, subjectivity and participation in psychiatric institutions in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringer, Agnes

    psychiatric facilities in Denmark: an outpatient psychiatric long-term treatment clinic and a closed psychiatric ward. The applied methods are participant observation, interviews with patients and professionals and analysis of documents. Employing discursive and narrative approaches, the aim of the project...

  13. The Effect of Clinical Psychiatric Training on Medical Students' Belief ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background to the study: Medical student's attitude towards people with mental illness (PWMI) is very important for the future care of psychiatric patients. It has been postulated that psychiatric education could lead to a reduction in negative attitude towards PWMI. Objective: To assess the effect of clinical psychiatric training ...

  14. Psychiatric, Psychological and “Witchcraft” Defences to Murder in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Expert psychiatric testimony may be relevant in certain instances of homicide especially murder. However, the exposure of most psychiatric trainees may be inadequate in relation to the range of psychological defences available to an offender accused of homicide. Aim: To describe the psychiatric and ...

  15. Adherence level and knowledge about psychopharmacological treatment among patients discharged from psychiatric internment Grado de adhesión y conocimiento sobre tratamiento psicofarmacológico entre pacientes egresados de internación psiquiátrica Grau de adesão e conhecimento sobre tratamento psicofarmacológico entre pacientes egressos de internação psiquiátrica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucilene Cardoso

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This exploratory, descriptive and prospective study aimed to identify the degree of adherence to psychopharmacological treatment of patients who were discharged from psychiatric hospitalization and their knowledge about their prescription and diagnosis. The study was carried out at a Mental Health Service. The sample consisted of all service clients who were discharged from psychiatric hospitalization in the data collection period. A Sociodemographic Questionnaire and the Morisky-Green Test were the instruments used. Data were analyzed through central trend measures. In total, 48 patients participated in the study. Regarding adherence, 70.8% of them showed a low adherence level to psychopharmacological treatment. Moreover, only twenty-one patients knew what their diagnosis was and most did not know or partially knew the name and dose of all prescribed medications.El objetivo de este trabajo fue identificar el grado de adhesión al tratamiento psicofarmacológico de los pacientes egresados de internación psiquiátrica y evaluar su conocimiento en cuanto a su prescripción y diagnóstico. Se trata de un estudio exploratorio, descriptivo, prospectivo, realizado en un Núcleo de Salud Mental. La muestra fue compuesta por todos los clientes de este servicio que tuvieron alta de internación psiquiátrica en el período de recolección siendo utilizado un Cuestionario sociodemográfico y la Prueba de Adhesión de Morisky-Green como instrumentos. Los datos fueron analizados por medidas de tendencia central. Hicieron parte de la muestra 48 pacientes; en relación a la adhesión, se observó que 70,8% de ellos fueron clasificados con bajo grado de adhesión al tratamiento psicofarmacológico. Además de eso, apenas veintiún pacientes sabían informar cual era su diagnóstico y la mayoría de ellos no sabía o sabía parcialmente el nombre y dosis de todos los medicamentos que le fueron prescritos.O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar o grau de ades

  16. Patient participation in pro re nata medication in psychiatric inpatient settings: An integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipp, Kirsi; Kuosmanen, Lauri; Repo-Tiihonen, Eila; Leinonen, Minna; Louheranta, Olavi; Kangasniemi, Mari

    2017-12-21

    Pro re nata (PRN) medication is widely used and studied in psychiatric care, but our knowledge about patient participation in its administration is fragmented. The aim of this integrative review was to describe and synthesize previous knowledge of patient participation in PRN in psychiatric inpatient settings. We conducted both electronic and manual searches, using the CINAHL, Scopus, PsycINFO, and PubMed databases, and eight scientific journals. Searches were limited to the English language, to the years 2006-2016, and to selected papers using inclusion, exclusion, and quality criteria. We identified 16 relevant papers, and these showed that patient participation included patient-related starting points, including the patients' willingness to participate and their knowledge of the medication. The patients' participation in PRN practices was demonstrated by the opportunity to request PRN and to refuse any PRN that was offered. Patient participation was shown to be linked to certain situations where PRN was recommended. The role that the professionals played in patient participation included interacting with patients, providing counselling and alternatives for PRN. Our results also revealed that coercion was used administering PRN. The existing literature exposed challenges that need to be addressed if patient participation in the use of PRN medication is to be effectively achieved in psychiatric inpatient settings. Equal partnerships between patients, nurses, and physicians are an essential part of this process, and further research into PRN medication is urgently needed, particularly studies that focus on patients' experiences. © 2017 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  17. Atmosphere: Power, Critique, Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albertsen, Niels

    2016-01-01

    This paper hans three interrelated parts. First, atmosphere is approached through the concept of power. Atmospheres 'grip' us directly or mediate power indirectly by manipulating moods and evoking emotions. How does atmosphere relate to different conceptions of power? Second, atmospheric powers may...

  18. Knowledge Gaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyles, Marjorie; Pedersen, Torben; Petersen, Bent

    2003-01-01

    , assimilating, and utilizing knowledge - are crucial determinants ofknowledge gap elimination. In contrast, the two factors deemed essential in traditionalinternationalization process theory - elapsed time of operations and experientiallearning - are found to have no or limited effect.Key words......: Internationalization, knowledge gap, absorptive capacity, learning box....

  19. Disappearing knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nišavić Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Following the exposition of the basic standpoints of contextualism in relation to invariantistic position, which takes the concept of knowledge in its rigorous and fixed meaning, the text continues to deal with the analysis of the concept of knowledge offered by David Lewis, with a goal to solve common epistemological problems, one of those being the lottery paradox. Accepting fallibilism as the only plausible option regarding the possibility of acquiring knowledge, Lewis claims that, with the postulated rules that allow us to properly eliminate alternative possibilities, it is possible to resolve the previously mentioned paradox. If we want to base knowledge on probability, and not on certainty, and to directly stipulate it with the context in which it is being imposed or expressed, than it is obvious that knowledge will depend on whether the requirements for knowledge are high or low. Thus, in one case it might occur that we have knowledge, and in the other that we do not, even though nothing is changed except the conversational conditions that are already ”in the game”. Such, elusive knowledge, that gets lost, De Rose labels ”now you know it, now you don’t” and considers it to be a direct consequence of Lewis’s analysis. As such, the analysis should not be accepted.

  20. Attitudes of Psychiatric Nurses about the Request for Euthanasia on the Basis of Unbearable Mental Suffering(UMS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc De Hert

    Full Text Available When psychiatric patients express a wish for euthanasia, this should first and foremost be interpreted as a cry for help. Due to their close day-to-day relationship, psychiatric nurses may play an important and central role in responding to such requests. However, little is known about nurses' attitudes towards euthanasia motivated by unbearable mental suffering.The aim of this study was to provide insight into the attitudes and actions taken by psychiatric nurses when confronted with a patient's euthanasia request based on unbearable mental suffering (UMS.A questionnaire was sent to 11 psychiatric hospitals in the Flemish part of Belgium.The overall response rate was 70% (N = 627. Psychiatric nurses were frequently confronted with a request for euthanasia, either directly (N = 329, 53% or through a colleague (N = 427, 69%. A majority (N = 536, 84% did not object to euthanasia in a psychiatrically ill population with UMS. Confounding factors were the psychiatric diagnosis and the type of ward where the nurses were working. Most participants acknowledged a lack of knowledge and skills to adequately address the euthanasia request (N = 434, 71%. Nearly unanimously (N = 618, 99%, study participants indicated that dealing with euthanasia requests and other end-of-life issues should be part of the formal training of nurses.The results highlight the need for ethically sound and comprehensive provision of care. Psychiatric nurses play an important role in dealing with the complex issue of requests for euthanasia. There is also a need for education, training and clear guidelines on the level of health care organizations.

  1. Attitudes of Psychiatric Nurses about the Request for Euthanasia on the Basis of Unbearable Mental Suffering(UMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Hert, Marc; Van Bos, Liesbet; Sweers, Kim; Wampers, Martien; De Lepeleire, Jan; Correll, Christophe U

    2015-01-01

    When psychiatric patients express a wish for euthanasia, this should first and foremost be interpreted as a cry for help. Due to their close day-to-day relationship, psychiatric nurses may play an important and central role in responding to such requests. However, little is known about nurses' attitudes towards euthanasia motivated by unbearable mental suffering. The aim of this study was to provide insight into the attitudes and actions taken by psychiatric nurses when confronted with a patient's euthanasia request based on unbearable mental suffering (UMS). A questionnaire was sent to 11 psychiatric hospitals in the Flemish part of Belgium. The overall response rate was 70% (N = 627). Psychiatric nurses were frequently confronted with a request for euthanasia, either directly (N = 329, 53%) or through a colleague (N = 427, 69%). A majority (N = 536, 84%) did not object to euthanasia in a psychiatrically ill population with UMS. Confounding factors were the psychiatric diagnosis and the type of ward where the nurses were working. Most participants acknowledged a lack of knowledge and skills to adequately address the euthanasia request (N = 434, 71%). Nearly unanimously (N = 618, 99%), study participants indicated that dealing with euthanasia requests and other end-of-life issues should be part of the formal training of nurses. The results highlight the need for ethically sound and comprehensive provision of care. Psychiatric nurses play an important role in dealing with the complex issue of requests for euthanasia. There is also a need for education, training and clear guidelines on the level of health care organizations.

  2. Knowledge brokering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine how the spanning of inter-organizational weak ties and technological boundaries influences knowledge brokering. Design/methodology/approach – The paper is based on original fieldwork and employs a case study research design, investigating a Danish...... HTSF’s inter-organizational activities. Findings – The findings show how an inter-organizational search that crosses technological boundaries and is based on a network structure of weak ties can imply a reduced risk of unwanted knowledge spill-over. Research limitations/implications – By not engaging...... in strong tie collaborations a knowledge brokering organization can reduce the risk of unwanted knowledge spill-over. The risks and opportunities of knowledge spill-over furthermore rely on the nature of the technology involved and to what extent technological boundaries are crossed. Practical implications...

  3. The effect of psychiatric rehabilitation on the activity and participation level of clients with long-term psychiatric disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wel, T.F. van; Felling, A.J.A.; Persoon, J.M.G.

    2003-01-01

    During the last decades of the 20th century, many psychiatric hospitals changed the living environments of their clients with long-term psychiatric disabilities. We investigated the effect of this environmental psychiatric rehabilitation and normalization process on the activity and participation

  4. Alcohol Use and Abuse in a University Psychiatric Health Service: Prevalence and Patterns of Comorbidity with Other Psychiatric Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Helen E.; Tisdall, Gordon W.

    1994-01-01

    Examined use and abuse of alcohol and other drugs in university psychiatric health service and patterns of comorbidity with other psychiatric problems. Psychiatric service students (n=110) tended to drink less than did undergraduate comparison group and to report similar frequencies of adverse consequences. Alcohol disorders were significantly…

  5. The Effect of Psychiatric Rehabilitation on the Activity and Participation Level of Clients with Long-Term Psychiatric Disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wel, Tom van; Felling, Albert; Persoon, Jean

    2003-01-01

    During the last decades of the 20th century, many psychiatric hospitals changed the living environments of their clients with long-term psychiatric disabilities. We investigated the effect of this environmental psychiatric rehabilitation and normalization process on the activity and participation

  6. Adaptation of a scale to measure coping strategies in informal primary caregivers of psychiatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas-Santiago, F J; Marván, M L; Lagunes-Córdoba, R

    2017-10-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Informal caregivers of psychiatric patients are vulnerable to many disturbances associated with the stress related to their activity. Caregivers who show a coping style focused on problem-solving report less psychological distress, and this approach positively influences the recovery process of the psychiatric patient. There are some questionnaires to measure coping styles in caregivers of psychiatric patients, but most of them do not have the minimum psychometric properties that a scale must fulfil. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: The authors present an adapted and validated scale for measuring both active and passive coping strategies used by informal caregivers to face daily stressful situations with psychiatric patients. The study is an example of how scales can be adapted to small samples (n coping styles of informal caregivers are related to recovery process of psychiatric patients. Background The recovery process of a psychiatric patient is related to his primary informal caregiver's style of coping with stress. There is insufficient literature on validations of instruments that measure coping styles in this population. Objective To adapt and validate a scale to measure coping strategies in primary informal caregivers. Method The adapted scale was based on the Extreme Coping Scale of López-Vázquez and Marván. Items from that scale were adapted for application to informal caregivers. The scale was administered to 122 primary informal caregivers of patients from two psychiatric institutions in Mexico. Psychometric analyses were performed to determine the scale's properties. Results The scale was composed of 20 items (six less than in the original scale) and two factors: (i) active coping (Cronbach's alpha = .837) and (ii) passive coping (Cronbach's alpha = .718). Discussion The findings are discussed in the light of the importance of studying the relationship between coping styles and the well-being of both

  7. Psychiatric Disorders From Childhood to Adulthood in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome: Results From the International Consortium on Brain and Behavior in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schneider, Maude; Debbané, Martin; Bassett, Anne S; Chow, Eva W.C; Fung, Wai Lun Alan; van den Bree, Marianne B.M; Owen, Michael; Murphy, Declan G; Murphy, Kieran C; Niarchou, Maria; Kates, Wendy R; Antshel, Kevin M; Fremont, Wanda; McDonald-McGinn, Donna M; Gur, Raquel E; Zackai, Elaine H; Vorstman, Jacob; Duijff, Sasja N; Klaassen, Petra W.J; Swillen, Ann; Gothelf, Doron; Green, Tamar; Weizman, Abraham; Van Amelsvoort, Therese; Evers, Laurens; Boot, Erik; Shashi, Vandana; Hooper, Stephen R; Bearden, Carrie E; Jalbrzikowski, Maria; Armando, Marco; Vicari, Stefano; Ousley, Opal; Campbell, Linda E; Simon, Tony J; Eliez, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    .... The authors report what is to their knowledge the first large-scale collaborative study of rates and sex distributions of psychiatric disorders from childhood to adulthood in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome...

  8. Psychiatric disorders in long-term sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Hans Jørgen; Bech, Per

    2009-01-01

    examined persons in Phase 2 showed by binomial tests the following frequencies: any psychiatric disorder 57%, any depression 42%, and any anxiety 18%. In Phase 1, representative for everyone on LSA, the frequencies were 48% for any psychiatric disorder, 35% for any depression, 15% for any anxiety, and 7......% for any somatoform disorder. Multivariable analyses showed that female sex and unemployment were predictors of a psychiatric disorder, whereas living with children below 18 years and being a skilled worker carried a reduced risk of a psychiatric disorder. CONCLUSIONS: The high frequency of psychiatric...

  9. psygenet2r: a R/Bioconductor package for the analysis of psychiatric disease genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Sacristán, Alba; Hernández-Ferrer, Carles; González, Juan R; Furlong, Laura I

    2017-12-15

    Psychiatric disorders have a great impact on morbidity and mortality. Genotype-phenotype resources for psychiatric diseases are key to enable the translation of research findings to a better care of patients. PsyGeNET is a knowledge resource on psychiatric diseases and their genes, developed by text mining and curated by domain experts. We present psygenet2r, an R package that contains a variety of functions for leveraging PsyGeNET database and facilitating its analysis and interpretation. The package offers different types of queries to the database along with variety of analysis and visualization tools, including the study of the anatomical structures in which the genes are expressed and gaining insight of gene's molecular function. Psygenet2r is especially suited for network medicine analysis of psychiatric disorders. The package is implemented in R and is available under MIT license from Bioconductor (http://bioconductor.org/packages/release/bioc/html/psygenet2r.html). juanr.gonzalez@isglobal.org or laura.furlong@upf.edu. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  10. The Concept of Patient Participation in Forensic Psychiatric Care: The Patient Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvin, Mikael; Almqvist, Kjerstin; Kjellin, Lars; Schröder, Agneta

    2016-01-01

    The importance of patient participation is advocated in medical treatment and nursing care and has been linked to increased quality of care, increased patient satisfaction, and treatment adherence. Still, patients in forensic psychiatric care often report being unhappy with their experienced level of participation. The concept of patient participation is complex and has several definitions, thus it is important to investigate it from different perspectives in different contexts. The aim of this study was to describe patients' perceptions of the concept of patient participation in forensic psychiatric care. A qualitative design with a phenomenographic approach was used, and interviews with 19 participants in a Swedish setting were completed. The participants described the concept of patient participation in forensic psychiatric care as follows: influence, to have good communication and to be involved; confidence, to have mutual trust and to trust the care; and own responsibility, to participate in activities and to take the initiative. On the basis of the results of this study, improved patient participation in forensic psychiatric care may be achieved with active communication, by building up and maintaining trust for professional competence and by encouraging patients' own responsibility. It is important that knowledge about patients' views of the concept of patient participation is included in the planning and improvement of forensic care.

  11. The spirit of St Louis: the contributions of Lee N. Robins to North American psychiatric epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Nancy D

    2014-08-01

    This article takes up the history of North American psychiatric epidemiology with reference to production of knowledge concerning sociopathic or antisocial personality disorder and drug dependence, abuse, and/or addiction. These overlapping arenas provide a microcosm within which to explore the larger shift of postwar psychiatric epidemiology from community studies based on psychological scales to studies based on specific diagnostic criteria. This paper places the figure of sociologist Lee Nelken Robins within the context of the Department of Psychiatry in the School of Medicine at Washington University in St Louis, Missouri. The St Louis research group--to which Robins was both marginal and central--developed the basis for specific diagnostic criteria and was joined by Robert Spitzer, Jean Endicott and other architects of DSM-III in reorienting American psychiatry towards medical, biological and epidemiological models. Robins was a key linchpin working at the nexus of the psychiatric epidemiological and sociological drug addiction research networks. This article situates her work within the broader set of societal and governmental transformations leading to the technologically sophisticated turn in American psychiatric epidemiology and research on the aetiology of drug abuse and mental health and illness. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association © The Author 2013; all rights reserved.

  12. A Brain Centred View of Psychiatric Comorbidity in Tinnitus: From Otology to Hodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minichino, Amedeo; Panico, Roberta; Testugini, Valeria; Altissimi, Giancarlo; Cianfrone, Giancarlo

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Comorbid psychiatric disorders are frequent among patients affected by tinnitus. There are mutual clinical influences between tinnitus and psychiatric disorders, as well as neurobiological relations based on partially overlapping hodological and neuroplastic phenomena. The aim of the present paper is to review the evidence of alterations in brain networks underlying tinnitus physiopathology and to discuss them in light of the current knowledge of the neurobiology of psychiatric disorders. Methods. Relevant literature was identified through a search on Medline and PubMed; search terms included tinnitus, brain, plasticity, cortex, network, and pathways. Results. Tinnitus phenomenon results from systemic-neurootological triggers followed by neuronal remapping within several auditory and nonauditory pathways. Plastic reorganization and white matter alterations within limbic system, arcuate fasciculus, insula, salience network, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, auditory pathways, ffrontocortical, and thalamocortical networks are discussed. Discussion. Several overlapping brain network alterations do exist between tinnitus and psychiatric disorders. Tinnitus, initially related to a clinicoanatomical approach based on a cortical localizationism, could be better explained by an holistic or associationist approach considering psychic functions and tinnitus as emergent properties of partially overlapping large-scale neural networks. PMID:25018882

  13. The periodicities in and biometeorological relationships with bed occupancy of an acute psychiatric ward in Antwerp, Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, M.; de Meyer, F.; Peeters, D.; Meltzer, H.; Schotte, C.; Scharpe, S.; Cosyns, P.

    1993-06-01

    Recently, some investigators have established a seasonal pattern in normal human psychology, physiology and behaviour, and in the incidence of psychiatric psychopathology. In an attempt to elucidate the chronopsy and meteotropism in the latter, we have examined the chronograms of, and the biometeorological relationships to bed occupancy of the psychiatric ward of the Antwerp University Hospital during three consecutive calendar years (1987 1989). Weather data for the vicinity were provided by a local meteorological station and comprise mean atmospheric pressure, air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and minutes of sunlight and precipitation/day. The number of psychiatric beds occupied during the study period exhibited a significant seasonal variation. Peaks in bed occupancy were observed in March and November, with lows in August. An important part of the variability in the number of beds occupied could be explained by the composite effects of weather variables of the preceding weeks. Our results suggest that short-term fluctuations in atmospheric activity may dictate some of the periodicities in psychiatric psychopathology.

  14. Thermal Band Atmospheric Correction Using Atmospheric Profiles Derived from Global Positioning System Radio Occultation and the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagnutti, Mary; Holekamp, Kara; Stewart, Randy; Vaughan, Ronald D.

    2006-01-01

    This Rapid Prototyping Capability study explores the potential to use atmospheric profiles derived from GPS (Global Positioning System) radio occultation measurements and by AIRS (Atmospheric Infrared Sounder) onboard the Aqua satellite to improve surface temperature retrieval from remotely sensed thermal imagery. This study demonstrates an example of a cross-cutting decision support technology whereby NASA data or models are shown to improve a wide number of observation systems or models. The ability to use one data source to improve others will be critical to the GEOSS (Global Earth Observation System of Systems) where a large number of potentially useful systems will require auxiliary datasets as input for decision support. Atmospheric correction of thermal imagery decouples TOA radiance and separates surface emission from atmospheric emission and absorption. Surface temperature can then be estimated from the surface emission with knowledge of its emissivity. Traditionally, radiosonde sounders or atmospheric models based on radiosonde sounders, such as the NOAA (National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration) ARL (Air Resources Laboratory) READY (Real-time Environmental Application and Display sYstem), provide the atmospheric profiles required to perform atmospheric correction. Unfortunately, these types of data are too spatially sparse and too infrequently taken. The advent of high accuracy, global coverage, atmospheric data using GPS radio occultation and AIRS may provide a new avenue for filling data input gaps. In this study, AIRS and GPS radio occultation derived atmospheric profiles from the German Aerospace Center CHAMP (CHAllenging Minisatellite Payload), the Argentinean Commission on Space Activities SAC-C (Satellite de Aplicaciones Cientificas-C), and the pair of NASA GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) satellites are used as input data in atmospheric radiative transport modeling based on the MODTRAN (MODerate resolution atmospheric

  15. Measuring Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matoskova Jana

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge is a key to creating a sustainable competitive advantage. Measuring knowledge of an organization as a unit allows for, in addition to other things, benchmarking it against other organizations as well as comparing the development within the organization in the course of time. Additionally, measuring the knowledge of individuals and groups helps identify key workers and can also be used when recruiting a new work force, while evaluating employees’ work performances, or to check the course of the adaptation of a new employee. Even though the field of measuring knowledge belongs, in comparison with other topics, among the lesser-developed fields in the management of knowledge, a number of approaches that can be used to measure knowledge have been introduced. The aim of this study is to present an overview of methods which can be applied when measuring the knowledge of organizations, groups or individuals and thus provide a practical list of methods which feature in literature mostly for practitioners and novices in this field. The study is based on a content-analysis of literature.

  16. Knowledge Blogging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerdal-Hjermind, Annette

    The rise of social media and web 2.0 technologies over the last few years has impacted many communication functions. One influence is organizational bloggers as knowledge mediators on government agency practices. The ways in which these organizational bloggers in their roles as experts are able...... to change, facilitate, and enable communication about a broad range of specialized knowledge areas, in a more open interactional institutional communication environment than traditional media typically offer, give rise to a set of new implications as regards the mediation of expert knowledge to the target...

  17. Conventionalized knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Niels

    2006-01-01

    Mental health nurses routinely hand over clinical knowledge at intershift reports. In the present study, field descriptions from prolonged fieldwork and transcripts of audio recordings of handovers were analysed discursively drawing on ethnomethodology and conversation analysis. The analysis...... identified linguistic and social conventions for handing over clinical knowledge; in particular, differences were identified between non-interactional and interactional handovers. The interactional handovers were relatively more substantial but did also bring forth obvious signs of uncertainty regarding...... exact clinical situations. Handing over caused a silencing of the least powerful nurses' voices, generated uncertainty, and promoted knowledge about the patients' clinical situation that was not necessarily precise or up-to-date....

  18. The Quality of Prescribing for Psychiatric Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soerensen, A L; Nielsen, L P; Poulsen, B K

    2014-01-01

    The Quality of Prescribing for Psychiatric PatientsSoerensen AL1,2, Nielsen LP3,4, Poulsen BK3, Lisby M3,5, Mainz J6,7 1Danish Center for Healthcare Improvements, Faculty of Social Sciences and Faculty of Health Sciences, Aalborg University, Denmark; 2University College of Northern Denmark; 3...... of PIP was assessed using four categories. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify possible predictive factors of PIP. RESULTS: The proportion of patients with one or more PIPs was 123/219(56%). “Interaction between drugs” was the most common category for potentially serious and potentially...... need to improve the quality in prescribing for psychiatric patients....

  19. The Quality of Prescribing for Psychiatric Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ann Lykkegaard; Nielsen, Lars Peter; Poulsen, Birgitte Klindt

    2014-01-01

    The Quality of Prescribing for Psychiatric Patients Soerensen AL1,2, Nielsen LP3,4, Poulsen BK3, Lisby M3,5, Mainz J6,7 1Danish Center for Healthcare Improvements, Faculty of Social Sciences and Faculty of Health Sciences, Aalborg University, Denmark; 2University College of Northern Denmark; 3...... of PIP was assessed using four categories. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify possible predictive factors of PIP. RESULTS: The proportion of patients with one or more PIPs was 123/219(56%). “Interaction between drugs” was the most common category for potentially serious and potentially...... need to improve the quality in prescribing for psychiatric patients....

  20. The serotonin transporter in psychiatric disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spies, Marie; Knudsen, Karen Birgitte Moos; Lanzenberger, Rupert

    2015-01-01

    of various psychiatric disorders and their treatment. We review studies that use PET to measure cerebral serotonin transporter activity in psychiatric disorders, focusing on major depressive disorder and antidepressant treatment. We also discuss opportunities and limitations in the application...... of this neuroimaging method in clinical practice. Although results from individual studies diverge, meta-analysis indicates a trend towards reduced serotonin transporter availability in patients with major depressive disorder. Inconsistencies in results might suggest symptom heterogeneity in major depressive disorder...... and might therefore be relevant for stratification of patients into clinical subsets. PET has enabled the elucidation of mechanisms of response to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and hence provides a basis for rational pharmacological treatment of major depressive disorder. Such imaging...

  1. Triage in psychiatric emergency services in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sæbye, Ditte; Høegh, Erica Bernt; Knop, Joachim

    2017-01-01

    Inspired by the Australasian triage system, a regional psychiatric triage system was introduced in the psychiatric emergency units (PEUs) in Copenhagen in 2011. Our aim of the study is to determine the characteristics of the patient according to the defined triage criteria and check...... if this is in accordance with recommendations. A random 10% data sample was obtained throughout 2012 in three PEUs of Copenhagen. Triage category, demographic, social and clinically relevant variables were collected. A total of 929 contacts were registered. We found significant associations between triage category...... and several clinical parameters. Time of visit was correlated to diagnoses. The results indicate that use of the new triage system in emergency psychiatry has facilitated urgency categorization, reduced waiting time, and optimized clinical decisions. These goals are important clinical implications...

  2. Cotard syndrome in neurological and psychiatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Bermudez, Jesus; Aguilar-Venegas, Luis C; Crail-Melendez, Daniel; Espinola-Nadurille, Mariana; Nente, Francisco; Mendez, Mario F

    2010-01-01

    The authors describe the frequency and characteristics of Cotard syndrome among neurological and psychiatric inpatients at a tertiary referral center. All inpatients from the National Institute of Neurology of Mexico (March 2007-May 2009) requiring neuropsychiatric consultation were reviewed. Among 1,321 inpatient consultations, 63.7% had neurological disease and one (0.11%) had viral encephalitis and Cotard syndrome. Of inpatients, 36.2% had pure psychiatric disorders and three (0.62%) had Cotard syndrome, associated with psychotic depression, depersonalization, and penile retraction (koro syndrome). This review discusses potential mechanisms for Cotard syndrome, including the role of a perceptual-emotional dissociation in self-misattribution in the deliré des negations.

  3. Phobias, other psychiatric comorbidities and chronic migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corchs, Felipe; Mercante, Juliane P P; Guendler, Vera Z; Vieira, Domingos S; Masruha, Marcelo R; Moreira, Frederico R; Bernik, Marcio; Zukerman, Eliova; Peres, Mario F P

    2006-12-01

    Comorbidity of chronic migraine (CM) with psychiatric disorders, mostly anxiety and mood disorders, is a well-recognized phenomenon. Phobias are one of the most common anxiety disorders in the general population. Phobias are more common in migraineurs than non-migraineurs. The clinical profile of phobias in CM has never been studied. We investigated the psychiatric profile in 56 patients with CM using the SCID I/P interview. Lifetime criteria for at least one mental disorder was found in 87.5% of the sample; 75% met criteria for at least one lifetime anxiety disorder and 60.7% of our sample fulfilled DSM-IV criteria for lifetime phobic avoidant disorders. Mood and anxiety scores were higher in phobic patients than in non-phobic CM controls. Number of phobias correlated with higher levels of anxiety and depression. Phobias are common in CM. Its recognition may influence its management. Early treatment may lead to better prognosis.

  4. Deep brain stimulation for intractable psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Wayne K; Alterman, Ron L

    2012-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has virtually replaced ablative neurosurgery for use in medication-refractory movement disorders. DBS is now being studied in severe psychiatric conditions, such as treatment-resistant depression (TRD) and intractable obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Effects of DBS have been reported in ∼100 cases of OCD and ∼50 cases of TRD for seven (five common) anatomic targets. Although these published reports differ with respect to study design and methodology, the overall response rate appears to exceed 50% in OCD for some DBS targets. In TRD, >50% of patients responded during acute and long-term bilateral electrical stimulation in a different target. DBS was generally well tolerated in both OCD and TRD, but some unique, target- and stimulation-specific adverse effects were observed (e.g., hypomania). Further research is needed to test the efficacy and safety of DBS in psychiatric disorders, compare targets, and identify predictors of response.

  5. Tension‑Type Headache - Psychiatric Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Campos Mendes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The tension‑type headaches (Ctt are the most frequent headaches in the general population and those with higher socio‑economic impact, given the high degree of disability they cause. Objective: The authors propose to conduct a review of the available literature on the subject, from a psychiatric perspective. Discussion: Several studies have identified a higher prevalence of psychiatric disorders, personality traits and ineffective coping mechanisms in patients with Ctt, so it is essential to understand this relationship and the impact of these psychopathological factors on this kind of headaches. Conclusion: Their clinical and therapeutic approach is hampered by these and other factors and multiple strategies of pharmacological and psycho‑behavioral treatment have been used on them, however, scientific evidence is still scarce.

  6. Tension‑Type Headache - Psychiatric Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Campos Mendes

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The tension‑type headaches (Ctt are the most frequent headaches in the general population and those with higher socio‑economic impact, given the high degree of disability they cause. Objective: The authors propose to conduct a review of the available literature on the subject, from a psychiatric perspective. Discussion: Several studies have identified a higher prevalence of psychiatric disorders, personality traits and ineffective coping mechanisms in patients with Ctt, so it is essential to understand this relationship and the impact of these psychopathological factors on this kind of headaches. Conclusion: Their clinical and therapeutic approach is hampered by these and other factors and multiple strategies of pharmacological and psycho‑behavioral treatment have been used on them, however, scientific evidence is still scarce.

  7. Genetics and genomics of psychiatric disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geschwind, Daniel H; Flint, Jonathan

    2015-09-25

    Large-scale genomic investigations have just begun to illuminate the molecular genetic contributions to major psychiatric illnesses, ranging from small-effect-size common variants to larger-effect-size rare mutations. The findings provide causal anchors from which to understand their neurobiological basis. Although these studies represent enormous success, they highlight major challenges reflected in the heterogeneity and polygenicity of all of these conditions and the difficulty of connecting multiple levels of molecular, cellular, and circuit functions to complex human behavior. Nevertheless, these advances place us on the threshold of a new frontier in the pathophysiological understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of psychiatric disease. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  8. Connectomic intermediate phenotypes for psychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex eFornito

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Psychiatric disorders are phenotypically heterogeneous entities with a complex genetic basis. To mitigate this complexity, many investigators study so-called intermediate phenotypes that putatively provide a more direct index of the physiological effects of candidate genetic risk variants than overt psychiatric syndromes. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is a particularly popular technique for measuring such phenotypes because it allows interrogation of diverse aspects of brain structure and function in vivo. Much of this work however, has focused on relatively simple measures that quantify variations in the physiology or tissue integrity of specific brain regions in isolation, contradicting an emerging consensus that most major psychiatric disorders do not arise from isolated dysfunction in one or a few brain regions, but rather from disturbed interactions within and between distributed neural circuits; i.e., they are disorders of brain connectivity. The recent proliferation of new MRI techniques for comprehensively mapping the entire connectivity architecture of the brain, termed the human connectome, has provided a rich repertoire of tools for understanding how genetic variants implicated in mental disorder impact distinct neural circuits. In this article, we review research using these connectomic techniques to understand how genetic variation influences the connectivity and topology of human brain networks. We highlight recent evidence from twin and imaging genetics studies suggesting that the penetrance of candidate risk variants for mental illness, such as those in SLC6A4, MAOA, ZNF804A and APOE, may be higher for intermediate phenotypes characterised at the level of distributed neural systems than at the level of spatially localised brain regions. The findings indicate that imaging connectomics provides a powerful framework for understanding how genetic risk for psychiatric disease is expressed through altered structure and function of

  9. Chromosomal abnormalities in child psychiatric patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, K. E.; Kim, J. H.; Moon, S. Y.; Oh, S. K.

    1999-01-01

    To determine the frequency of chromosomal abnormalities in a child psychiatric population, and to evaluate possible associations between types of abnormalities and patient's clinical characteristics, cytogenetic examination was performed on 604 patients. Demographic data, reasons for karyotyping, clinical signs, and other patient characteristics were assessed and correlated with the results from karyotyping. Chromosomal abnormalities were found in 69 patients (11.3%); these were structural in...

  10. Premenstrual Syndrome and Psychiatric Co-morbidities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziba Taghizadeh

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available "n    "nObjective: Premenstrual syndrome (PMS is a common disorder with prevalence rate of approximately 30%; its concurrence with psychiatric symptoms will make it a disabling condition that resists usual treatment. Objective: This study was enrolled to assess the co-morbidity of PMS and psychiatric disorders in a sample of girls with PMS compared to those without PMS. "n    "nMaterial and method : This study was conducted through a cross sectional method with 362 participants (166 with PMS and 196 healthy girls who were selected randomly and completed the demographic questionnaire, premenstrual syndrome symptom daily record scale and the symptom checklist 90-revised (SCL-90-R. "n    "nResult: According to the result of the independent t test, the mean score of all the psychiatric symptoms in the PMS group was significantly higher than those in healthy group (P<0.001. According to SCL-90-R measurement, most of the participants in the PMS group were categorized as extremely sick for somatization (44% ,obsessive-compulsive (59%, depression (58.4%, anxiety (64.5%, hostility (47% and psychoticism (69.3%; most of the participants were diagnosed as having borderline severity of disorders for interpersonal sensitivity (44.6% and paranoid (42.8% and most of the respondents with PMS (46.4% were diagnosed as healthy only for phobic anxiety. "n    "nConclusion: There is a considerable relationship between PMS and different psychiatric symptoms that can complicate the diagnosis of PMS and its treatment for the health care providers. Therefore, all health care providers who are in contact with women in their reproductive age should be sensitive to mental health status in women with PMS.

  11. Psychiatric disorders prior to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, M.; Goldacre, R; Talbot, K; Goldacre, MJ

    2016-01-01

    It is recognized that neuropsychiatric conditions are overrepresented in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patient kindreds and psychiatric symptoms may precede the onset of motor symptoms. Using a hospital record linkage database, hospitalization with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, or anxiety was significantly associated with a first diagnosis of ALS within the following year. This is likely to specifically reflect the clinicopathological overlap of ALS with fr...

  12. Association between bullying and pediatric psychiatric hospitalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leader, Hadassa; Singh, Jasmine; Ghaffar, Ayesha; de Silva, Cheryl

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: Bullying is a serious public health issue. We sought to demonstrate an association between bullying victimization and hospital admissions for acute psychiatric problems. We described the demographics and types of bullying in a sample of hospitalized patients in Staten Island, NY, and compared bullying victimization scores with psychiatric versus medical admissions. Methods: Patients in grades 3–12 were recruited from the Staten Island University Hospital Inpatient Pediatrics unit and emergency department. Patients completed the validated Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire (OBQ) was analyzed to formulate a report of bullying in our sample as well as a sub-score measurement of bullying victimization. Pediatric residents simultaneously documented whether the subject was a medical versus an in-patient psychiatry admission. Statistical analysis was performed to look for an association between the victimization sub-score and a psychiatric indication for admission. Results: A total of 185 surveys were analyzed. Peak bullying occurred in 7th and 8th grades. Demographics and types of bullying in our sample were described. A strong association between bullying victimization and hospitalization for in-patient psychiatry was demonstrated. Association between bullying victimization and suicidal ideation, psychiatry, and social work consults was also shown. Concern for an association between hospitalization for psychogenic illness and bullying victimization was also raised. Conclusions: There is a significant association between bullying victimization and psychiatric hospital admissions. This raises the specter of the serious consequences of bullying as it is the first study to prospectively link hospital admissions to bullying. Studies using a valid measure of psychogenic illness to look for an association with bullying victimization are needed. PMID:29326819

  13. From ideals to resignation - interprofessional teams perspectives on everyday life processes in psychiatric inpatient care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molin, Jenny; Graneheim, Ulla Hällgren; Ringnér, Anders; Lindgren, Britt-Marie

    2016-11-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Psychiatric inpatient care has been described by both ward staff and patients as being demanding and disorganized, lacking opportunities for quality interactions in everyday life through joint activities. Qualitative research on interprofessional teams' perspectives on everyday life processes in psychiatric inpatient care is lacking. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: Staff have ideals about care and collaboration, but the obstacles they face in everyday life, such as a poor environment, power asymmetry, lacking structure and the demands of managing chaos, mean that they appear to resign and shift focus from the patients' best interests to self-survival. Different professions in general describe the same obstacles in everyday life on the wards but there are also profession-specific perspectives on distancing and feelings of abandonment. To our knowledge, these findings have not been reported in the international evidence. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Given these findings we suggest interventions such as Protected Engagement Time as well as reflective dialogues within interprofessional teams. This would help staff to resume their caring role in everyday life in psychiatric inpatient care and put their ideals into practice. Introduction Patients and ward staff describe psychiatric inpatient care as demanding, characterized by unpredictable events, yet research on interprofessional teams perspectives of everyday life processes in psychiatric inpatient care lacks. Aim This study aims to explore everyday life processes in psychiatric inpatient care, as reported by staff in interprofessional teams. Method A grounded theory design was used and 36 participants were interviewed. Results The analysis resulted in a process-oriented core category From ideals to resignation. Related to this core category were three further categories: Knowing where to go, Walking a path of obstacles and Shifting focus from the patient's best

  14. Psychiatric symptomatology after delirium: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langan, Clare; Sarode, Deep P; Russ, Tom C; Shenkin, Susan D; Carson, Alan; Maclullich, Alasdair M J

    2017-09-01

    Delirium is an acute and usually transient severe neuropsychiatric syndrome associated with significant long-term physical morbidity. However, its chronic psychiatric sequelae remain poorly characterized. To investigate the prevalence of psychiatric symptoms, namely anxiety, depressive, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms after delirium, a systematic literature search of MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO databases was performed independently by two authors in March 2016. Bibliographies were hand-searched, and a forward- and backward-citation search using Web of Science was performed for all included studies. Of 6411 titles, we included eight prospective cohort studies, including 370 patients with delirium and 1073 without delirium. Studies were heterogeneous and mostly included older people from a range of clinical groups. Consideration of confounders was variable. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was almost three times higher in patients with delirium than in patients without delirium (22.2% vs 8.0%, risk ratio = 2.79; 95% confidence interval = 1.36-5.73). There was no statistically significant difference between the prevalence of anxiety symptoms between patients with and without delirium. The prevalence of PTSD symptoms after delirium was inconclusive: only one study investigated this and no association between PTSD symptoms after delirium was reported. There is limited published evidence of the prevalence of psychiatric symptoms after non-ICU delirium and the strongest evidence is for depressive symptoms. Further longitudinal studies are warranted to investigate the prevalence of anxiety and PTSD symptoms. © 2017 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  15. [Psychotherapy for pregnant women with psychiatric disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müldner-Nieckowski, Łukasz; Cyranka, Katarzyna; Smiatek-Mazgaj, Bogna; Mielimąka, Michał; Sobański, Jerzy; Rutkowski, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy is a major life change for many women. The related biological changes, especially complications in its course and in the course of delivery, carry a risk of developing a variety of psychological problems and mental disorders. However, their treatment is challenging due to the teratogenic effects of most psychoactive drugs and specific requirements for entering different psychotherapeutic programs. Mental disorders during pregnancy are undoubtedly an important issue for both gynecology and psychiatry. There is still a discussion considering the question whether psychotherapy during pregnancy is safe, although no scientifically valid data contradicting the safety of psychotherapy during pregnancy has been published so far. Together with psychotherapy - as a treatment of choice - clinicians approve some other relatively safe treatment methods for psychiatric disorders in pregnant women. Light therapy, limited pharmacotherapy, ECT are included. The goal of this paper is to review current opinions of clinicians and researches concerning possibilities, indications and outcome of psychological treatments as a way to help pregnant women who suffer from different psychiatric conditions, and also because this subject is not yet present in Polish psychiatric journals.

  16. [Complex hereditary diseases with psychiatric symptoms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetterberg, L

    1999-02-28

    Family and adoption studies indicate that genetic factors play a role in the development of many psychiatric disorders. A variable number of possible interacting genes giving a predisposition to the diseases is likely. The genetic dissection has been hampered by genetic complexity as well as by difficulties in defining the phenotypes. Genetic mapping efforts using sib pairs, twins and individual large families have revealed preliminary or tentative evidence of susceptibility loci for a number of psychiatric disorders. Illnesses described in this article include the prion disease familial fatal insomnia (FFI), alcoholism, anorexia nervosa, autism, bipolar affective disorder, dyslexia, enuresis nocturna, epilepsia, obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD), schizophrenia, and the dementias, Alzheimer's disease and frontal lobe dementia. The genes and proteins related to the newly discovered transmitter in the central nervous system, nitric oxide (NO), and its genes and proteins are also reviewed. The number of mapped human genes now exceeds 30,000 of the estimated total number of 60,000 to 100,000 genes. This rapid development will facilitate gene mapping and efforts to isolate and identify the genes responsible for symptom susceptibility in many of the aetiologically unclear psychiatric diseases with complex genetic origin.

  17. Psychiatric diagnosis and aggression before acute hospitalisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colasanti, A; Natoli, A; Moliterno, D; Rossattini, M; De Gaspari, I F; Mauri, M C

    2008-09-01

    To examine the predictors of aggressive behaviours occurring before acute hospitalisation. We analysed 350 acute admissions to a psychiatric ward during a 12-month period. The diagnoses were formulated according to the DSM IV axis I and II criteria. Aggressive behaviours occurring in the week before admission were retrospectively assessed using the modified overt aggression scale. The patients' clinical and sociodemographic variables, concurrent drug or alcohol abuse, and admission status were recorded at the time of admission. Aggressive and violent behaviours were highly prevalent, respectively, in 45% and 33% of the cases. Violence before admission was independently associated with drug abuse, involuntary admission status, and severe psychopathology. A diagnosis of a psychotic disorder did not increase the risk of aggression or violence, compared to the other psychiatric diagnoses. Personality disorders were significantly more associated to aggressive behaviours than psychotic disorders. The diagnosis of psychotic disorder is a poor predictor of aggression in a sample of psychiatric patients. Other clinical and non-clinical variables are associated to aggression before hospitalisation: they include drug abuse, involuntary admission status, general severity of symptoms, and diagnosis of personality disorder.

  18. Links between circadian rhythms and psychiatric disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilia N Karatsoreos

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Determining the cause of psychiatric disorders is a goal of modern neuroscience, and will hopefully lead to the discovery of treatments to either prevent or alleviate the suffering caused by these diseases. One roadblock to attaining this goal is the realization that neuropsychiatric diseases are rarely due to a single gene polymorphism, environmental exposure, or developmental insult. Rather, it is a complex interaction between these various influences that likely leads to the development of clinically relevant syndromes. Our lab is exploring the links between environmental exposures and neurobehavioral function by investigating how disruption of the circadian (daily clock alters the structure and function of neural circuits, with the hypothesis that disrupting this crucial homeostatic system can directly contribute to altered vulnerability of the organism to other factors that interact to produce psychiatric illness. This review explores some historical and more recent findings that link disrupted circadian clocks to neuropsychiatric disorders, particularly depression, mania, and schizophrenia. We take a comparative approach by exploring the effects observed in human populations, as well as some experimental models used in the laboratory to unravel mechanistic and causal relationships between disruption of the circadian clock and behavioral abnormalities. This is a rich area of research that we predict will contribute greatly to our understanding of how genes, environment, and development interact to modulate an individual’s vulnerability to psychiatric disorders.

  19. Psychiatric aspects of cancer in the aged.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxman, T E; Silberfarb, P M

    1987-01-01

    The greatest risk factor for cancer is ageing, yet little is known about the epidemiology and treatment of psychiatric disorders in the aged cancer population. This is particularly true for the group over 75 years of age. Four important areas of psychiatric treatment relevant to the aged cancer patient are: illness behaviour, cognitive disorders, depression and psychosocial adaptation. Within these areas the following four conclusions can be made: (a) Symptom presentation and health promoting practices are two important aspects of illness behaviour that affect the detection and prevention of cancer in the aged. (b) It is likely that there will be an increased co-occurrence of dementia and cancer, raising important issues of treatment and informed consent. (c) There appears to be evidence that depression in cancer patients does not increase with age. (d) Similar to depression, despite widely differing methods and age cutoffs, the results of several studies have shown that psychosocial adaptation to cancer is maintained with age. With respect to psychiatric treatment, no patient should be denied full use of appropriate therapy on grounds of old age alone, and more attention should be given to the systematic detection and evaluation of reversible cognitive disorders.

  20. Psychiatric referrals in two general hospitals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doongaji D

    1989-07-01

    Full Text Available A prospective study was undertaken to compare the patterns of psychiatric referrals in two general hospitals in Bombay viz. the King Edward Memorial Hospital (64 cases and the Jaslok Hospital and Research Centre (62 cases. It was observed that depressive symptoms were the most common presenting symptoms in these patients attending either of the hospitals. Similarly, the commonest diagnoses were depression and organic mental disorder. Attempted suicide with organophosphorous compounds was the commonest reason for hospitalization at K.E.M. Hospital (p less than 0.001. A significant number of these patients were females (p less than 0.05. The psychiatric referrals at Jaslok had been hospitalized mainly for suspected medical or neurological illness (p less than 0.001. These patients belonged to higher economic strata and hence had a better paying capacity compared to patients at KEM hospital, a significant number of whom were unemployed (p less than 0.001. The duration of pre-referred illness of patients and their stay at Jaslok hospital were longer as compared to those at KEM Hospital (p less than 0.01. The number of non-relevant special investigations carried out on patients in Jaslok was more (p less than 0.01. Further analysis of diagnoses revealed that a significant number of patients at KEM Hospital were admitted as primary psychiatric illness (p less than 0.05.

  1. [A staff development model in psychiatric nursing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koen, D; Muller, M; Poggenpoel, M

    1995-03-01

    The nursing service manager is accountable for the quality of nursing care delivered in the nursing service. It is therefore important that the nursing service manager facilitates staff development in the nursing service. It is not only the nursing service manager's responsibility to make provision for staff development--the nurse also has a responsibility in this regard. He/she should purposefully make an effort to keep up to date with the latest developments. This article focuses on the co-responsibility of the psychiatric nurse and nursing service manager regarding staff development. A model for staff development is described, in accordance with the guidelines of Dickoff, James & Wiedenbach for theory development. An inductive approach was primarily followed to describe the provisional model, after which a literature study was employed to refine and purify the model. This model was exposed to expert evaluation, after which the final model for staff development of psychiatric nurses was described. Recommendations include the testing of certain hypotheses and utilisation of this model in psychiatric nursing practice.

  2. Suicidal behavior and abuse in psychiatric outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, M L; Asnis, G M; Lipschitz, D S; Chorney, P

    1995-01-01

    The present study examines the relationship between suicidal behaviors and histories of abuse in psychiatric outpatients. Two hundred fifty-one psychiatric outpatients were evaluated for history of abuse, suicidal behavior, demographics, and clinical characteristics using self-report instruments and a face-to-face interview. Logistic regression analysis indicated that physical abuse (battering) in adulthood and histories of a combination of childhood and adulthood abuse were significant predictors of past suicide attempts and current suicidal ideation. Victims of abuse were more likely than nonvictim controls to have been suicidal at a younger age and to have made multiple suicide attempts. Among patients with a history of abuse, suicide attempters could be distinguished from nonattempters on the basis of higher levels of dissociation, depression, and somatization. Abusive experiences in adulthood appear to play an important role in suicidal behavior among psychiatric outpatients. High levels of specific symptoms (i.e., depression, somatization, and dissociation) among patients with a history of abuse can help to identify outpatients at risk for suicidal behavior.

  3. Atmospheric Research 2014 Technical Highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platnick, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric research in the Earth Sciences Division (610) consists of research and technology development programs dedicated to advancing knowledge and understanding of the atmosphere and its interaction with the climate of Earth. The Division's goals are to improve understanding of the dynamics and physical properties of precipitation, clouds, and aerosols; atmospheric chemistry, including the role of natural and anthropogenic trace species on the ozone balance in the stratosphere and the troposphere; and radiative properties of Earth's atmosphere and the influence of solar variability on the Earth's climate. Major research activities are carried out in the Mesoscale Atmospheric Processes Laboratory, the Climate and Radiation Laboratory, the Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, and the Wallops Field Support Office. The overall scope of the research covers an end-to-end process, starting with the identification of scientific problems, leading to observation requirements for remote-sensing platforms, technology and retrieval algorithm development; followed by flight projects and satellite missions; and eventually, resulting in data processing, analyses of measurements, and dissemination from flight projects and missions. Instrument scientists conceive, design, develop, and implement ultraviolet, infrared, optical, radar, laser, and lidar technology to remotely sense the atmosphere. Members of the various Laboratories conduct field measurements for satellite sensor calibration and data validation, and carry out numerous modeling activities. These modeling activities include climate model simulations, modeling the chemistry and transport of trace species on regional-to-global scales, cloud resolving models, and developing the next-generation Earth system models. Satellite missions, field campaigns, peer-reviewed publications, and successful proposals are essential at every stage of the research process to meeting our goals and maintaining leadership of the

  4. Caustics of atmospheric waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godin, Oleg A.

    2015-04-01

    Much like light and sound, acoustic-gravity waves in inhomogeneous atmosphere often have a caustic or caustics, where the ray theory predicts unphysical, divergent values of the wave amplitude and needs to be modified. Increase of the wave magnitude in the vicinity of a caustic makes such vicinities of primary interest in a number of problems, where a signal needs to be separated from a background noise. The value of wave focusing near caustics should be carefully quantified in order to evaluate possible nonlinearities promoted by the focusing. Physical understanding of the wave field in the vicinity of a caustic is also important for understanding of the wave reflection from and transmission (tunneling) through the caustic. To our knowledge, in contrast to caustics of acoustic, electromagnetic, and seismic waves as well as gravity waves in incompressible fluids, asymptotics of acoustic-gravity waves in the vicinity of a caustic have never been studied systematically. In this paper, we fill this gap. Atmospheric waves are considered as linear acoustic-gravity waves in a neutral, horizontally stratified, moving ideal gas of variable composition. Air temperature and wind velocity are assumed to be gradually varying functions of height, and slowness of these variations determines the large parameter of the problem. The scale height of the atmosphere can be large or small compared to the vertical wavelength. It is found that the uniform asymptotics of the wave field in the presence of a simple caustic can be expressed in terms of the Airy function and its derivative. As for the acoustic waves, the argument of the Airy function is expressed in terms of the eikonal calculated in the ray, or WKB, approximation. The geometrical, or Berry, phase, which arises in the consistent WKB approximation for acoustic-gravity waves, plays an important role in the caustic asymptotics. In the uniform asymptotics, the terms with the Airy function and its derivative are weighted by cosine

  5. Knowledge Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ole Henning

    1998-01-01

    The knowledge test is about competing temporal and spatial expressions of the politics of technological development and national prosperity in contemporary society. The discussion is based on literature of national systems of innovation and industrial networks of various sorts. Similarities...

  6. Placing knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine; Valentin, Karen; Nielsen, Gritt B.

    Internationalisation of higher education is premised by a seeming paradox: On the one hand, academic knowledge strives to be universal in the sense that it claims to produce generalizable, valid and reliable knowledge that can be used, critiqued, and redeveloped by academics from all over the world......; on the other hand, the rationale for strengthening mobility through internationalisation is based on an imagination of the potentials of particular locations (academic institutions). Intrigued by this tension between universality and particularity in academic knowledge production, this paper presents...... preliminary findings from a project that study internationalisation of higher education as an agent in the interrelated processes of place-making and knowledge-making. The project is based on three case-studies. In this paper, focus is on PhD students’ change of research environment. This is used as a case...

  7. Knowledge Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald Nielsen, Bo; Nicolajsen, Katrine

    For Økonomistyrelsen opstilles en teoretisk model over forudsætningerne for, at mmah er kan anvende knowledge management. Praksis vurderes dernæst i forhold til denne model.......For Økonomistyrelsen opstilles en teoretisk model over forudsætningerne for, at mmah er kan anvende knowledge management. Praksis vurderes dernæst i forhold til denne model....

  8. Knowledge Fascism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Vincent Fella

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge is not democratic, it is a regime. That is the clear message from Professor Vincent Hendricks. But do not be discouraged, through hard work and diligence everyone can achieve enlightenment and insight......Knowledge is not democratic, it is a regime. That is the clear message from Professor Vincent Hendricks. But do not be discouraged, through hard work and diligence everyone can achieve enlightenment and insight...

  9. Engineering knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    Nathan Rosenberg; W. Edward Steinmueller

    2013-01-01

    In historical perspective, both the nature of and arrangements for the generation of engineering knowledge have evolved over the past 150 years. We examine the historical development of the search for ‘useful knowledge’ in agriculture, aeronautics and chemical engineering during the first half of this period and the evolving balance between public and private initiative in supporting this search. During this period, the US was engaged in the engineering knowledge was often empirical, practice...

  10. The Therapeutic Relationship in Inpatient Psychiatric Care: A Narrative Review of the Perspective of Nurses and Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Poyato, Antonio R; Montesó-Curto, Pilar; Delgado-Hito, Pilar; Suárez-Pérez, Raquel; Aceña-Domínguez, Rosa; Carreras-Salvador, Regina; Leyva-Moral, Juan M; Lluch-Canut, Teresa; Roldán-Merino, Juan F

    2016-12-01

    To study the significance of 'therapeutic relationship' between nurses and patients within the context of a psychiatric hospital. Narrative literature review. Content analysis. The significance of the therapeutic relationship is quite similar for both nurses and patients in psychiatric hospital units. Nevertheless, several factors may separate the two positions: the time available for the relationship, the negative perceptions on the part of both parties, and the insecurity of the setting. Increased knowledge and understanding of the significance of the therapeutic relationship from the perspective of nurses and patients would allow the strengthening of areas of mutual interest. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A profile of students who followed a course in the didactics of psychiatric nursing at Unisa during 1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, V J

    1996-03-01

    Students who followed the above course did so as part of the Nursing Education III course offered at UNISA. This research aims at establishing a profile of these students. Aspects covered include age, sex, marital status, professional and academic qualifications, professional posts held and current fields of occupation. Such knowledge will clarify who the psychiatric nurse educators of the future might be, and also what the target population for the above course could be. Students' personal perceptions of the above course are sought in the second part of the questionnaire. Such information should be valuable in improving future courses for educators of psychiatric nurses.

  12. Atmosphere-Ionosphere Coupling via Atmospheric Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koucka Knizova, Petra; Lastovicka, Jan

    2017-04-01

    The Earth atmosphere and ionosphere is complicated and highly variable system which displays oscillations on wide range scales. The most important factor influencing the ionosphere is certainly the solar and geomagnetic activity. However, the processes even in distant regions in the neutral atmosphere cannot be simply neglected. This contribution reviews aspects of ionospheric variability originating in the lower laying atmosphere. It focuses especially on the generation and propagation of the atmospheric waves from their source region up to the heights of the ionosphere. We will show the role of infrasound, gravity waves, tides and planetary waves in the atmosphere-ionosphere coupling. Particularly gravity waves are of high importance for the ionosphere. Recent theoretical and experimental results will briefly be reviewed.

  13. App Use in Psychiatric Education: A Medical Student Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Cecilia; Kolli, Venkata

    2017-02-01

    The objective of the study is to understand and appraise app use by medical students during their clerkships. Following Creighton University IRB approval, a voluntary and anonymous paper-based, 15-question survey was distributed to third-year medical students. Data were analyzed using Microsoft Excel. Of 112 medical students available, 76.7% (86) participated in the survey. All participants owned a smartphone or tablet with 84.9% using Apple iOS, followed by 12.8% using Android platform. Students reported using the fewest number of apps during surgery, psychiatry, and obstetrics and gynecology clerkships. The largest number of apps were used during the internal medicine rotation (70.3%). The three most popular apps were Epocrates, UpToDate, and UWorld. The most common uses for these apps were as references during the clerkship, followed by improving knowledge, and test taking. Perceived major benefits included accessibility (96% of student respondents) and interactivity (39.5%). Common apps used during the psychiatry clerkship included UpToDate (71%), Epocrates (51%), and Medscape (43%). Despite less frequent app use during their psychiatry clerkship, 90% felt there was a utility for educational apps in psychiatric education. Consistent with the previous literature on medical students preferring educational apps, students suggest developers focus on question bank-type apps, followed by clinical support-focused and self-directed case-based learning apps for psychiatry clerkship learning. Educators should factor these modes of educational delivery into future educational app development. This survey shows a high degree of smartphone and tablet use among medical students, and they attest to mobile phone app utility in psychiatric education.

  14. [The relation of selected psychiatric disorders to occurrence of suicide attempts among teenage psychiatrically hospitalized patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajewska, Katarzyna; Gawlik-Kotelnicka, Oliwia; Gmitrowicz, Agnieszka

    2015-06-01

    Suicide is the third cause of death globally in the age group 10-19. Multiple risk factors (genetic, psychiatric, psychological, familial, social) increased number of suicide attempts. The aim of this study was to explore whether mental disorders are associated with the number of suicide attempts among psychiatric hospitalized adolescents. Retrospective, chart-based analysis of 119 patients, aged 13-18, treated in 2013-2014 in the Department of Adolescent Psychiatry in Łódź. Inclusion criteria was diagnosis of schizophrenia, schizotypal and delusional disorders, mood disorders, neurotic, stress-related and somatoform disorders, behavioral and emotional disorders according to ICD 10. Exclusion criteria were other psychiatric diagnosis, incomplete information about intention of self-harm behaviors. For statistical analysis used Statistica 9.1. Among psychiatricaly hospitalized patients, 51.2% of people attempted suicide. No relationship was found (p > 0.05) between psychiatric diagnosis and frequency of suicide attempts in adolescents, but the most common suicide attempts related to people with a diagnosis of mood disorders (59.3%) and neurotic disorders (54.6%), and least frequently in patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia , schizotypal and delusional disorders (40%) and behavioral and emotional disorders (44.4%). There is no relation between the occurrence of suicide attempts and the type of mental disorders among psychiatrically hospitalized adolescents. © 2015 MEDPRESS.

  15. Price elasticity of demand for psychiatric consultation in a Nigerian psychiatric service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esan, Oluyomi

    2016-12-01

    This paper addresses price elasticity of demand (PED) in a region where most patients make payments for consultations out of pocket. PED is a measure of the responsiveness of the quantity demanded of goods or services to changes in price. The study was done in the context of an outpatient psychiatric clinic in a sub -Saharan African country. The study was performed at the University College Hospital (UCH), Ibadan, Nigeria. Aggregate data were collected on weekly clinic attendance over a 24-month period October 2008 - September 2010 representing 12 months before, to 12months after a 67% increase in price of outpatient psychiatric consultation. The average weekly clinic attendance prior to the increase was compared to the average clinic attendance after the price increase. Arc-PED for consultation was also estimated. Clinic attendance dropped immediately and significantly in the weeks following the price increase. There was a 34.4% reduction in average weekly clinic attendance. Arc-PED for psychiatric consultation was -0.85. In comparison to reported PED on health care goods and services, this study finds a relatively high PED in psychiatric consultation following an increase in price of user fees of psychiatric consultation.

  16. Sound knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kauffmann, Lene Teglhus

    The thesis is about the conceptualisation of knowledge associated with ‘evidence’. In the Danish society, there is a proliferating demand for ‘evidence’, which started as the basis of practices in medicine and has spread into social work, education and most policymaking arenas. The aim of the res......The thesis is about the conceptualisation of knowledge associated with ‘evidence’. In the Danish society, there is a proliferating demand for ‘evidence’, which started as the basis of practices in medicine and has spread into social work, education and most policymaking arenas. The aim...... of the research is to investigate what is considered to ‘work as evidence’ in health promotion and how the ‘evidence discourse’ influences social practices in policymaking and in research. From investigating knowledge practices in the field of health promotion, I develop the concept of sound knowledge...... as knowledge based on reflexive practices. I chose ‘health promotion’ as the field for my research as it utilises knowledge produced in several research disciplines, among these both quantitative and qualitative. I mapped out the institutions, actors, events, and documents that constituted the field of health...

  17. Definitions and diagnoses: cultural implications of psychiatric help-seeking and psychiatrists' definitions of the situation in psychiatric emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, A D

    1979-12-01

    This paper explores lay and psychiatric actors' definitions of mental illness by focusing on several aspects of emergency psychiatric diagnosis. First, it considers psychiatric diagnosis as a social and cultural process in which mental illnesses are defined with increasing specificity as individuals move from lay to psychiatric contexts. Second, the paper considers variation in psychiatric residents' conceptions of mental illness, their role in emergency contexts, and lastly, their diagnostic styles. Diagnostic styles are shown to exist and to be grounded in residents' definitions of the situation. It is suggested that the variation in psychiatrists' definitions of the psychiatric situation, especially as regards etiology, plays a prominent, but as yet unnoted, role in producing variability in psychiatric diagnosis. It is also argued that actors' definitions are cultural, grounded in non-professional lay ideology, and are not products of secondary professional socialization.

  18. The Attitude of Psychiatric and Non-psychiatric Health-care Workers Toward Suicide in Malaysian Hospitals and Its Implications for Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siau, Ching Sin; Wee, Lei-Hum; Yacob, Sapini; Yeoh, Seen Heng; Binti Adnan, Tassha Hilda; Haniff, Jamaiyah; Perialathan, Komathi; Mahdi, Aziman; Rahman, Abu Bakar; Eu, Choon Leng; Binti Wahab, Suzaily

    2017-08-01

    This research is aimed to examine the attitude of health-care workers toward suicidal patients in Malaysian hospitals, comparing responses from psychiatric and non-psychiatric workers, and to identify specific needs in suicide prevention and management training. This is a multi-site cross-sectional study. The authors conducted a survey based on a translated self-administered questionnaire to participants from seven core hospital departments. While most health-care workers regardless of department and specialty took their duty to prevent suicide seriously, a large majority of them expressed negative attitudes such as finding suicidal behavior irritating, and more than half believed suicidal attempts were a way of making others sorry. However, psychiatric workers were less likely to have judgmental attitudes that included believing suicide attempters as being selfish or trying to get sympathy from others. As there were more similarities than differences in health-care workers' attitudes toward suicide, recommendations on basic and continuous suicide prevention and management training among hospital workers were made. The interventions focused on improving knowledge, affective, and skill-based areas that were aimed to correct the wrongful understanding of and to minimize the negative attitudes toward suicidal individuals indicated by the study results.

  19. Developing a reflection-centered curriculum for graduate psychiatric nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton-Deutsch, Sara; McNelis, Angela M; Day, Pamela O'Haver

    2012-10-01

    This article discusses theoretical underpinnings, teaching strategies, and preliminary evaluation relative to the development of a reflective curriculum used in our distance-accessible graduate psychiatric nursing program. Influenced by the collective ideas of J. Dewey (1993), J. Reed and S. Proctor (1993), D. A. Kolbe (1984), J. Mezirow (1981), C. Johns (2006), D. Schön (1983), D. Freshwater (2008), and others who have promoted reflection as a transformative teaching and learning process, we sought to develop a curriculum that balanced knowledge and skill acquisition with critical reflective practices that would instill habits of lifelong learning. We began with traditional approaches to psychiatric nursing education, including case study analysis and modified lectures that we call mini lectures. We then added principles and practices of reflection to allow for merging these traditional approaches with contemporary reflection-focused approaches. Specific ways to use reflection in a graduate psychiatric nursing curriculum are described to demonstrate how we have taken our curriculum beyond traditional ways of teaching and learning toward one that emphasizes building knowledge and skill through reflective practice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Knowledge Model: Project Knowledge Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durao, Frederico; Dolog, Peter; Grolin, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    The Knowledge model for project management serves several goals:Introducing relevant concepts of project management area for software development (Section 1). Reviewing and understanding the real case requirements from the industrial perspective. (Section 2). Giving some preliminary suggestions...

  1. PRAGMATIC KNOWLEDGE OR NOBLE KNOWLEDGE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian MANOLESCU

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Disputes about the opportunity to introduce competence-based education are increasingly present in terms of educational policies and strategies. Obviously, in the last decade and a half, several countries have introduced competence based education. Although specific knowledge acquisition should be an essential component of student learning, assessing such knowledge in adult life depends largely on the individual purchase of more general concepts and skills. The article discusses pragmatic knowledge and noble knowledge. This is a collective dilemma, to the extent that the education system lives in the tension between the two logics. The two positions or divergent attitudes can coexist as long ast hey do not become extremist. Educational dilemma is especially now a priority.

  2. Atmospheric structure from Phoenix atmospheric entry data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catling, D. C.

    2008-12-01

    The atmospheric structure at the time of landing of NASA's Phoenix probe has been derived from measurements of the aerodynamic drag of the spacecraft during atmospheric entry and descent. The result provides the first atmospheric structure in Mars' polar environment obtained from in situ measurements. Phoenix was equipped with an inertial measurement unit (IMU) that used accelerometers for linear acceleration measurement in three Cartesian axes and ring-laser gyroscopes to measure the three- dimensional orientation of the probe (Taylor et al., 2008). The temperature structure of the atmosphere along the flight path was calculated via a four-step process: (i) integrating forward the IMU data to obtain the time history of the spacecraft velocity vector relative to the atmosphere as a function of altitude; (ii) calculating atmospheric density from drag, with iteration for aerodynamic coefficient dependence on density; (iii) integrating the hydrostatic equation to derive the vertical pressure; and (iv) calculating atmospheric temperature from the equation of state. Initial profile reconstruction shows reasonable agreement with predictions in the middle atmosphere for the given season and time of day (landing occurred at 16h 33min 37sec in local solar time expressed as a 24-hour clock). However, the derived lower atmospheric structure below ~0.1 mbar is generally warmer than predicted. A possible explanation could be a shallower vertical distribution of dust that usually assumed. References: P. A. Taylor, D. C. Catling, M. Daly, C. S. Dickinson, H. O. Gunnlaugsson, A-M. Harri, C. F. Lange, Temperature, pressure and wind instrumentation on the Phoenix meteorological package, J. Geophys. Res., 113, EA0A10, doi:10.1029/2007JE003015, 2008.

  3. Planetary Atmospheric Electricity

    CERN Document Server

    Leblanc, F; Yair, Y; Harrison, R. G; Lebreton, J. P; Blanc, M

    2008-01-01

    This volume presents our contemporary understanding of atmospheric electricity at Earth and in other solar system atmospheres. It is written by experts in terrestrial atmospheric electricity and planetary scientists. Many of the key issues related to planetary atmospheric electricity are discussed. The physics presented in this book includes ionisation processes in planetary atmospheres, charge generation and separation, and a discussion of electromagnetic signatures of atmospheric discharges. The measurement of thunderstorms and lightning, including its effects and hazards, is highlighted by articles on ground and space based instrumentation, and new missions.Theory and modelling of planetary atmospheric electricity complete this review of the research that is undertaken in this exciting field of space science. This book is an essential research tool for space scientists and geoscientists interested in electrical effects in atmospheres and planetary systems. Graduate students and researchers who are new to t...

  4. Mirador - Atmospheric Composition

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Earth Science data access made simple. Atmospheric Composition is focused on the composition of Earth's atmosphere in relation to climate prediction, solar effects,...

  5. Top-down or bottom-up: Contrasting perspectives on psychiatric diagnoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem MA Verhoeven

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Willem MA Verhoeven1,2, Siegfried Tuinier1, Ineke van der Burgt31Vincent van Gogh Institute for Psychiatry, Venray, The Netherlands; 2Department of Psychiatry, Erasmus University Medical Centre, Rotterdam, The Netherlands; 3Department of Human Genetics, Radboud University Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The NetherlandsAbstract: Clinical psychiatry is confronted with the expanding knowledge of medical genetics. Most of the research into the genetic underpinnings of major mental disorders as described in the categorical taxonomies, however, did reveal linkage with a variety of chromosomes. This heterogeneity of results is most probably due to the assumption that the nosological categories as used in these studies are disease entities with clear boundaries. If the reverse way of looking, the so-called bottom-up approach, is applied, it becomes clear that genetic abnormalities are in most cases not associated with a single psychiatric disorder but with a certain probability to develop a variety of aspecific psychiatric symptoms. The adequacy of the categorical taxonomy, the so-called top-down approach, seems to be inversely related to the amount of empirical etiological data. This is illustrated by four rather prevalent genetic syndromes, fragile X syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome, 22q11 deletion syndrome, and Noonan syndrome, as well as by some cases with rare chromosomal abnormalities. From these examples, it becomes clear that psychotic symptoms as well as mood, anxiety, and autistic features can be found in a great variety of different genetic syndromes. A psychiatric phenotype exists, but comprises, apart from the chance to present several psychiatric symptoms, all elements from developmental, neurocognitive, and physical characteristics.Keywords: genetic disorders, psychiatric symptoms, phenotype, mental disorders

  6. Beyond childhood: psychiatric comorbidities and social background of adults with Asperger syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Mandy; Prox-Vagedes, Vanessa; Ohlmeier, Martin D; Dillo, Wolfgang

    2015-03-01

    Over the past few years, our knowledge about Asperger syndrome (AS) has increased enormously. Although it used to be a syndrome mainly encountered in childhood and adolescent psychiatry, it is now increasingly recognized in adult psychiatry. Nevertheless, little is known about psychiatric comorbidities and life course of adults with AS. The current study aimed to gain an insight into comorbidities and the development of the social situation of adults with AS. We investigated psychiatric comorbidities, psychiatric history, professional background, partnerships, and children in 50 adults with AS (34 men and 16 women) over a broad age range (20-62 years). Seventy percent of adults with AS had at least one psychiatric comorbiditiy. Most frequent comorbidities were depression and anxiety disorders. Obsessive-compulsive disorder and alcohol abuse/dependence were also observed. Many adults had previously been treated with psychopharmacological or psychotherapeutic interventions. Although most adults had a high-level school leaving certificate and had gone on to complete training/university studies, less than half were currently in employment. Fourteen adults were living in a partnership and 10 had children. Adults with AS often have psychiatric comorbidities, indicating lower levels of mental health. Additionally, they seem to have severe limitations concerning professional success, despite having a good school education. Their family situation is also impaired with regard to starting a family. These considerable limitations in the life of adults with AS may help to understand their specific problems, and emphasize the importance of developing specific treatments for improving their mental health and social integration.

  7. Psychiatric Disorders in Young Adults Diagnosed with Juvenile Fibromyalgia in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Natoshia Raishevich; Tran, Susan T; Lynch-Jordan, Anne M; Ting, Tracy V; Sil, Soumitri; Strotman, Daniel; Noll, Jennie G; Powers, Scott W; Arnold, Lesley M; Kashikar-Zuck, Susmita

    2015-12-01

    Adolescents with juvenile-onset fibromyalgia (JFM) have increased rates of psychiatric disorders, but to our knowledge no studies have examined psychiatric disorders in adolescents with JFM when they enter young adulthood. This study examined the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in young adults diagnosed with JFM during adolescence and the relationship between mental health diagnoses and physical functioning. Ninety-one young adults (mean age 21.60, SD 1.96) with a history of JFM being followed as part of a prospective longitudinal study and 30 matched healthy controls (mean age 21.57, SD 1.55) completed a structured interview of psychiatric diagnoses and a self-report measure of physical impairment. Young adults with a history of JFM were more likely to have current and lifetime histories of anxiety disorders (70.3% and 76.9%, respectively) compared with controls (33.3% for both, both p < 0.001). Individuals with JFM were also more likely to have current and lifetime histories of major mood disorders (29.7% and 76.9%, respectively) compared with controls (10% and 40%, p < 0.05). The presence of a current major mood disorder was significantly related to impairment in physical functioning [F (1, 89) = 8.30, p < 0.01] and role limitations attributable to a physical condition [F (1, 89) = 7.09, p < 0.01]. Psychiatric disorders are prevalent in young adulthood for individuals with a history of JFM, and a current major mood disorder is associated with greater physical impairment. Greater attention to early identification and treatment of mood disorders in patients with JFM is warranted.

  8. Marriage and other psychological stressors in the causation of psychiatric disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad S. I. Mullick

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the specific psychiatric diagnosis, frequency, and types of stressors, and the level of awareness about marriage law between married (cases; n=80 and unmarried girls (control; n=80 with one or more psychiatric disorders below the age of 18 years. The psychiatric diseases were diagnosed according to Axis One of ICD-10 clinical diagnoses of multi-axial classification of childhood and adolescent psychiatric disorder. Psychosocial stressors were considered on the basis of Axis Five of this classification. Of the cases, major depressive disorder was the highest (n=47 and next was a dissociative (conversion disorder (n=24. Among the controls, generalized anxiety disorder (n=31 was the most prevalent followed by obsessive-compulsive disorder (n=17. The difference was highly significant (p>0.001. The cases reported a significant excess of psychosocial stressors than that of the controls to the onset of the psychiatric disorder. All the cases had associated stressors. In contrast, 77 out of 80 control patients had stressors. Marriage itself played as a stressor in the 78 cases. Beside this, other highly frequent stressors were marital discord followed by drop out from study and trouble with in-laws. Among the controls, the highest reported stressor was increased academic workload and next two commonest stressors were poor academic performance and discord with peers. Interestingly, 52.5% of the cases were having knowledge about the law on the age of marriage and that was 32.5% among the controls. It was significant that most of the girls breached their continuity of education after marriage (p>0.001. In conclusion, psychosocial stressors including marriage have a causal relationship with depressive and conversion disorder. 

  9. Free will perceptions and psychiatric symptoms in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisman de Mamani, A; Gurak, K; Maura, J; Martinez de Andino, A; Weintraub, M J; Mejia, M

    2016-04-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Some research suggests that holding a free will perspective may offer mental health and physical health benefits. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: This study is the first to examine links between free will perceptions and psychiatric symptoms in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Study results suggest that helping people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia to recognize situations where they do have some freedom of choice over their actions and emotional reactions (free will) may assist them in improving their experiences and better managing their symptoms. Introduction Some research indicates that having a strong sense that one possesses free will may be associated with better psychological and physical health. This study is the first to examine the relationship between free will perceptions and psychiatric symptoms in patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia. Method Thirty-two participants were interviewed using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale to assess symptom severity and the Free Will Subscale of the Free Will and Determinism Scale to assess free will perceptions. Results As hypothesized, a negative association was found between free will perceptions and total symptom severity, though it appears that this was mainly accounted for by positive symptoms. A content analysis was also conducted to qualitatively examine how patients conceptualize the construct of free will and its role in coping with their own mental illness. Discussion Study results suggest that holding a free will perspective may mitigate psychiatric symptoms in patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia. Thus, psychiatric nurses and other mental health clinicians may improve current treatments for schizophrenia by helping patients recognize situations where they do have some freedom of choice over their actions and emotional reactions (free will) to stressful life events. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Terminal delirium misdiagnosed as major psychiatric disorder: Palliative care in a psychiatric inpatient unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aligeti, Sabitha; Baig, Muhammad R; Barrera, Fernando F

    2016-06-01

    Delirium is a neuropsychiatric condition characterized by acute change in cognition and disturbance of consciousness. A similar state during the final days of life is termed "terminal delirium." We present three cases with end-stage chronic medical problems without any significant psychiatric history who were admitted to an inpatient psychiatric unit or a locked dementia unit for management of "depression," "dementia," or "psychosis." Early diagnosis of terminal delirium helps prevent patients, family members, and staff from undergoing severe emotional distress and facilitates appropriate end-of-life care.

  11. Procedural knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgeff, Michael P.; Lansky, Amy L.

    1986-01-01

    Much of commonsense knowledge about the real world is in the form of procedures or sequences of actions for achieving particular goals. In this paper, a formalism is presented for representing such knowledge using the notion of process. A declarative semantics for the representation is given, which allows a user to state facts about the effects of doing things in the problem domain of interest. An operational semantics is also provided, which shows how this knowledge can be used to achieve particular goals or to form intentions regarding their achievement. Given both semantics, the formalism additionally serves as an executable specification language suitable for constructing complex systems. A system based on this formalism is described, and examples involving control of an autonomous robot and fault diagnosis for NASA's Space Shuttle are provided.

  12. Procedural knowledge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georgeff, M.P.; Lansky, A.L.

    1986-10-01

    Much of commonsense knowledge about the real world is in the form of procedures or sequences of actions for achieving particular goals. In this paper, a formalism is presented for representing such knowledge using the notion of process. A declarative semantics for the representation is given, which allows a user to state facts about the effects of doing things in the problem domain of interest. An operational semantics is also provided, which shows how this knowledge can be used to achieve particular goals or to form intentions regarding their achievement. Given both semantics, our formalism additionally serves as an executable specification language suitable for constructing complex systems. A system based on this formalism is described, and examples involving control of an autonomous robot and fault diagnosis for NASA's space shuttle are provided.

  13. Knowledge brokering:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Carsten

    2010-01-01

    In the recent years a number of studies have explored different inter-organizational search strategies in relation to knowledge brokering and innovation performance. So far there has been very limited research that involves a crossing of both organizational and technological boundaries that also......-organizational search strategy that spans technological boundaries and involves the formation and search among weak ties. The findings show how knowledge brokering is influenced by the make-up of the technology involved, the technological distance between the two parties and why weak ties are less likely to collaborate...... on such an opportunity, than a strong tie would be. Furthermore, a number of organizational enablers for this open inter-organizational search and knowledge brokering strategy are identified. The main arguments point to the role of a general technological competence and the R&D department being the networking department....

  14. Atmospheric refraction : a history

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehn, WH; van der Werf, S

    2005-01-01

    We trace the history of atmospheric refraction from the ancient Greeks up to the time of Kepler. The concept that the atmosphere could refract light entered Western science in the second century B.C. Ptolemy, 300 years later, produced the first clearly defined atmospheric model, containing air of

  15. Practical knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jens

    2006-01-01

    The chapter aims to develop conceptions of practical knowledge, relevant to skills and Bildung in engineering science. The starting point is Francis Bacon’s ideas of new science, developed 400 years ago. It is argued that Bacon’s vision has become dogmatized during the course of history, whereas....... Furthermore, and still with reference to truth, utility, and goodness, it is claimed that unification of skills and Bildung should include the ability to deal with complexity. A second-order complexity challenges the search for adequacy between; a) the complexity of knowledge-creation; and b) the complexity...

  16. Body and Psychiatric Discourse in the Early Twentieth Century in Uruguay: Insufficiency, Weakness and Adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustina Craviotto Corbellini

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the psychiatric medical discourse and experimental psychology during the twentieth century in Uruguay, as expert knowledge on children and as referents of the pedagogic discourse of that period. As an introduction some key elements of psychiatry in the country are presented; from them, it is stuyed how the dysfunction of the body became the focus of analysis that led to a series of school children´s classifications. The relationship of the dysfunctional body with school learning is at the core of the reflection, and indiscipline and mental weaknesses are taken as elements articulating the psychiatric and psychological discourses with the pedagogical one, through the notion of adjustment disorder.

  17. An orthomolecular approach to the prevention and treatment of psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zell, Mark; Grundmann, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    Orthomolecular medicine is based on the use of endogenous and naturally occurring substances to supplement deficiencies in vitamins, minerals, and other essential substances in the human body. Although the medical community has long regarded it as a nonscientific approach to healing, scientific and clinical evidence is emerging for the supplemental use of orthomolecular medicine in the treatment of schizophrenia, depression, bipolar disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Psychiatrists currently treat these common psychiatric disorders using a wide range of pharmacological approaches that often have significant side effects, resulting in patients' noncompliance. With newly gained knowledge about the neurophysiology and neuropathophysiology of psychiatric disorders, researchers now can link potential mechanisms for both pharmacological and orthomolecular treatments to physiological processes. In many cases, the use of orthomolecular supplements may provide a feasible addition to conventional drug therapy.

  18. [Psychiatric specialty training in Greece: Comparative analysis of educational programs (2000 vs 2014)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margariti, M; Papageorgiou, Ch

    2017-01-01

    Modern educational programs for specialization in psychiatry should follow the developments in psychiatric science, both in the part of acquired knowledge about mental disorders and their treatment, as well as in the part of clinical practice in the diverse spectrum of modern psychiatric services. In Greece, the institutional framework for psychiatric training during specialization has yet to modernize and conform to European standards. For the moment, it is covered by a 1994 Presidential Decree, which briefly describes the time of specialization in psychiatry and the duration of clinical practice in the relevant educational subjects. This study presents a comparative analysis of training in the specialty of Psychiatry in two distinct periods (2000 vs 2014). Already by the year 2000, psychiatric training showed many structural weaknesses. The areas of clinical experience, theoretical and psychotherapeutic training have shown wide divergences among training centers, and limited potential for convergence with European standards under the existing framework. Important exceptions were certain university clinics, with the bulk of future psychiatrists in the country falling short of educational benefits. Fifteen years later and under the burden of the consequences of the economic crisis, the institutional framework has not yet changed, and the overall situation seems to have deteriorated dramatically. The number of training centers offering full specialization and the number of psychiatrists who receive training increased in reverse proportion to the number of specialized psychiatrists employed in hospitals, which has been drastically reduced due to restrictive measures on staff recruitment. Almost all training indicators show deterioration, but mainly the area of theoretical training shows the most dramatic degradation. Nevertheless, it is noteworthy that nowadays several psychiatric clinics endeavor to develop training programs in conjunction with psychiatric services

  19. Conceptions of mobile emergency service health professionals concerning psychiatric emergency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Bonfada

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Under the Brazilian Psychiatric Reformation, assistance to psychological seizures represents a challenge for the emergency services. Therefore, the objective of this paper is the analysis of the conceptions of health professionals who work at the Mobile Emergency Service in Natal on psychiatric emergency care. This paper is, then, a qualitative study that used interviews as tools for collecting information. By using thematic analysis, the speeches were grouped into three categories: the stigma on patients and the professionals' fear of services interventions in psychiatric emergencies; having psychiatric emergencies regarded as harmful to patients and others' security; psychiatric emergencies being taken as patients' aggressiveness or severe depression. The data collected indicate that the interviewed professionals' ideas are supported by elements associated with the ideology that insanity implies social segregation and dangerousness. Thus, the survey prompted reflection on relevant issues to the process of psychiatric reformation implementation.

  20. Seasonality of suicides with and without psychiatric illness in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yip, P.S.; Yang, K.C.; Qin, Ping

    2006-01-01

    This paper studied the seasonality of suicides among persons with and without psychiatric illness in Denmark from 1970 to 1999. A non-homogenous Poisson process was used to examine the data. The seasonality of suicides was shown to be associated with gender and their psychiatric histories...... with a declining trend of suicide incidence noted over the captured period. A mild seasonal component was reported in the period of the late 70s to early 80s (1975-1984) among females who did not have any psychiatric treatment history, while in the 80s the significant seasonality was mainly contributed by male...... suicides without a psychiatric history. Another mild possible invoked seasonality in the 90s was in males who suffered from psychiatric illness. The rest could be treated as random events. Apparently, the seasonality among suicides with psychiatric illness exists but its effect could vary in different...

  1. Recurrent abdominal pain in children: psychiatric diagnoses and parental psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garber, J; Zeman, J; Walker, L S

    1990-07-01

    Approximately 12% of children report recurrent episodes of abdominal pain. In only about 10% of these cases, however, can an organic etiology be identified, and therefore it often is assumed that these children have emotional problems. To test this hypothesis, children with recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) with no identifiable organic cause were compared to children with an organic diagnosis for their abdominal pain, children with psychiatric disorders, and healthy controls. Both groups of children with abdominal pain had significantly more psychiatric disorders (predominantly anxiety and depression) than did the healthy group. Both RAP and psychiatric children had significantly higher Child Behavior Checklist internalizing scores; psychiatric children were rated as significantly more maladjusted on the Children's Global Assessment Scale. Mothers of RAP children were significantly more anxious than mothers of organic pain and healthy children. Psychiatric children were significantly more likely than the other three groups to underreport their psychiatric symptoms relative to their mothers.

  2. Barometric pressure, emergency psychiatric visits, and violent acts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schory, Thomas J; Piecznski, Natasha; Nair, Sunil; el-Mallakh, Rif S

    2003-10-01

    Associations between human behaviour and psychiatric decompensation and weather variables have been inconsistent. We studied the association of certain weather variables (specifically, humidity, wind speed, and barometric pressure) with emergent psychiatric presentations, psychiatric admissions, incidence of violent crimes, and suicides in a metropolitan area. We performed a retrospective study for the year 1999 in a mid-sized city. We included all documented emergent psychiatric visits to the city's psychiatric emergency room. We obtained violence data from the city police department and suicide data from the country medical examiner. The data suggest that total numbers of acts of violence and emergency psychiatry visits are significantly associated with low barometric pressure. Psychiatric inpatient admissions and suicides are not associated with any of the weather variables investigated. While alternate conclusions can be drawn, we propose that the data support the interpretation that low barometric pressure is associated with an increase in impulsive behaviours. Additional investigation is warranted.

  3. Psychiatric adverse effects of chloroquine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Bogaczewicz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Chloroquine is a prototype antimalarial drug, widely used in several branches of medicine. Antimalarial drugs are used in the treatment of various dermatological, immunological, rheumatological and infectious diseases. Examples of off-labelled indications for chloroquine analogues use include dermatomyositis, sarcoidosis, polymorphous light eruption, disseminated granuloma annulare and porfiria cutanea tarda. There is a relatively small number of adverse effects related to chloroquine analogues used in standard doses, such as gastrointestinal disturbances, headaches, skin reactions, hypotension, convulsions, extrapyramidal symptoms and visual disturbances. Psychiatric side effects of chloroquine seem to be rare, but may manifest in a wide range of symptoms, such as confusion, disorientation, ideas of persecution, agitation, outbursts of violence, loss of interest, feeling sad, suicidal ideas and impaired insight. There is also a report of a manic episode with psychotic features in the course of bipolar disorder, and another case report of persecutory delusions, anxiety, derealisation and visual illusions triggered by chloroquine. The duration of psychiatric symptoms usually ranges from one to two weeks, and symptoms usually disappear within several days following cessation of chloroquine usage and starting psychiatric treatment where indicated. This article reviews the case studies of patients diagnosed with mental disorders resulting from the use of chloroquine, and discusses the management in such cases.

  4. Targeted research training: developing minority psychiatric investigators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Harold; Guerra, Ernesto; Regier, Darrel

    2014-04-01

    The primary purpose of this article is to review the career outcomes of a research training program specifically targeted to young psychiatric researchers from minority populations underrepresented in psychiatry. The aims of the program were (1) to support psychiatric investigators from under-represented populations in the development and maintenance of research careers and (2) to identify the factors which influence successful research career development. Demographic data from 99 program participants were collected from an online survey as part of a systematic program evaluation, and through a follow-up internet search. Outcome measures included current academic position, number and types of post-training grants received, number of peer-reviewed publications, and comparison of post-training career outcomes with those from other highly regarded research training programs. Of the 99 psychiatrists accepted into the program, 55 responded to the online survey; additional information on non-responders was obtained through a follow-up internet search. Results indicated that 64% of program trainees identified their primary employment setting as academic/research; 70% reported publication of their research findings, and 64% reported the award of post-training research grants. The percentage of program graduates appointed to academic faculty positions and their receipt of R01 and/or K awards, exceeded that of two highly regarded national training programs. The study further identified major factors influencing successful research career development. Findings from this study strongly suggest that research training programs targeted to young minority psychiatrists can be successful in supporting the development and maintenance of their research careers. The decline in the availability of such programs does not portend well for increasing the numbers of underrepresented minority psychiatric researchers.

  5. Privacy in psychiatric treatment: threats and responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelbaum, Paul S

    2002-11-01

    The author provides an overview of the current status of privacy in psychiatric treatment, with particular attention to the effects of new federal regulations authorized by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA). The author reviews the ethical and legal underpinnings for medical privacy, including the empirical data supporting its importance; discusses those portions of the new federal regulations most relevant to psychiatric practice; and suggests steps that psychiatrists can take to maintain their patients' privacy in the new environment. Medical ethics and law, in keeping with patients' preferences, traditionally have provided strong protection for the information that patients communicate while receiving medical care. In general, release of information has required patients' explicit consent. However, limitations of the consent model and technological innovations that permit the aggregation of computerized medical information have led to pressure for greater access to these data. Although the new federal regulations offer patients some additional protections (including security for psychotherapy notes), they also mark a retreat from reliance on patient consent and open up records to previously unauthorized uses, among them law enforcement investigations and marketing and fundraising by health care organizations. However, states retain the power to provide higher levels of protection. The new regulatory environment is less friendly to medical privacy but still leaves a great deal of discretion in physicians' hands. A commitment to protecting privacy as an ethical norm can be advanced by psychiatrists' requesting patients' consent even when it is not required, by ensuring that patients are aware of the limits on confidentiality, and by avoiding unnecessary breaches of privacy in the course of providing psychiatric care.

  6. Smoking and psychiatric disorders: a comorbidity survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopes F.L.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological and clinical studies have shown a positive correlation between smoking and psychiatric disorders. To investigate the prevalence of cigarette smoking, 277 psychiatric outpatients with anxiety or depressive disorders (DSM-IV answered a self-evaluation questionnaire about smoking behavior and were compared with a group of 68 control subjects. The diagnoses (N = 262 were: 30.2% (N = 79 major depressive disorder, 23.3% (N = 61 panic disorder, 15.6% (N = 41 social anxiety disorder, 7.3% (N = 19 other anxiety disorders, and 23.7% (N = 62 comorbidity disorders. Among them, 26.3% (N = 69 were smokers, 23.7% (N = 62 were former smokers and 50.0% (N = 131 were nonsmokers. The prevalence of nicotine dependence among the smokers was 59.0% (DSM-IV. The frequency of cigarette smoking did not show any significant difference among the five classes of diagnosis. The social anxiety disorder patients were the heaviest smokers (75.0%, with more unsuccessful attempts to stop smoking (89.0%. The frequency of former smokers was significantly higher among older subjects and nonsmokers were significantly younger (chi² = 9.13, d.f. = 2, P = 0.01. Our data present some clinical implications suggesting that in our psychiatric outpatient sample with anxiety disorder, major depression and comorbidity (anxiety disorder and major depression, the frequency of cigarette smoking did not differ from the frequency found in the control group or in general population studies. Some specific features of our population (outpatients, anxiety and depressive disorders might be responsible for these results.

  7. Atmospheric Habitable Zones in Y Dwarf Atmospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yates, Jack S.; Palmer, Paul I. [School of GeoSciences, University of Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Biller, Beth; Cockell, Charles S., E-mail: j.s.yates@ed.ac.uk [Centre for Exoplanet Science, University of Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

    2017-02-20

    We use a simple organism lifecycle model to explore the viability of an atmospheric habitable zone (AHZ), with temperatures that could support Earth-centric life, which sits above an environment that does not support life. To illustrate our model, we use a cool Y dwarf atmosphere, such as WISE J085510.83–0714442.5, whose 4.5–5.2 μ m spectrum shows absorption features consistent with water vapor and clouds. We allow organisms to adapt to their atmospheric environment (described by temperature, convection, and gravity) by adopting different growth strategies that maximize their chance of survival and proliferation. We assume a constant upward vertical velocity through the AHZ. We found that the organism growth strategy is most sensitive to the magnitude of the atmospheric convection. Stronger convection supports the evolution of more massive organisms. For a purely radiative environment, we find that evolved organisms have a mass that is an order of magnitude smaller than terrestrial microbes, thereby defining a dynamical constraint on the dimensions of life that an AHZ can support. Based on a previously defined statistical approach, we infer that there are of the order of 10{sup 9} cool Y brown dwarfs in the Milky Way, and likely a few tens of these objects are within 10 pc from Earth. Our work also has implications for exploring life in the atmospheres of temperate gas giants. Consideration of the habitable volumes in planetary atmospheres significantly increases the volume of habitable space in the galaxy.

  8. Solid knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Anders

    2008-01-01

    The great icons of industrial and architectural design are cornerstones of our material culture. They are referred to again and again in education, research and cultural debate, and as such they have become nodal points of human discourse. The knowledge embedded in such artefacts has often been...... referred to as ‘silent knowledge’....

  9. The effect of a researcher designated music intervention on hospitalised psychiatric patients with different levels of anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chyn-Yng; Miao, Nae-Fang; Lee, Tso-Ying; Tsai, Jui-Chen; Yang, Hui-Ling; Chen, Wen-Chun; Chung, Min-Huey; Liao, Yuan-Mei; Chou, Kuei-Ru

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a music intervention on hospitalised psychiatric patients with different levels of anxiety. In clinical practice, psychiatric inpatients and nurses routinely suffer from anxiety. A music intervention may possibly be useful, but knowledge as to how useful and how effective it is in patients with different levels of anxiety is limited. The study design was a three-group, repeated-measures experimental study. Subjects were 22 psychiatric patients who were divided into three groups based on their level of anxiety. They listened to 20 minutes of music each day for 10 days and were assessed using the Beck Anxiety Inventory before and after the music intervention and at a one-week follow-up; an electroencephalogram and finger temperature were monitored before and during the music intervention. Anxiety levels of all three groups showed a significant difference (p = 0·0339) after the intervention. The difference alpha and beta electroencephalogram percentages for all three groups showed a significant difference (p = 0·04; p = 0·01). The finger temperature showed a non-significant difference (p = 0·41). A music intervention can effectively alleviate the anxiety of hospitalised psychiatric patients who suffer from all levels of anxiety. The study recommends a practice in alleviating anxiety. Effective lower-cost interventions to reduce anxiety in psychiatric inpatient settings would be of interest to nurses and benefit patients. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Caring conversations - psychiatric patients' narratives about suffering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredriksson, Lennart; Lindström, Unni A

    2002-11-01

    The aim of this study was to increase and deepen the understanding of how psychiatric patients in conversations with nurses narrate their experience of suffering. Data were obtained in the years 2001-2002 by audio recording of 20 individual caring conversations between eight patients and three psychiatric nurses at a psychiatric outpatient unit in Sweden. Before the data were gathered the study was approved by a local research ethics committee. The methodology is inspired by the hermeneutics of Paul Ricoeur. The data is given a naïve reading which is followed by two structural analyses which explain the text. Finally, the structural analyses and the pre-understanding are confronted in a critical reflection. In the patients' narratives, suffering was at first concealed under a façade that helps the patient to cope with suffering and with shame. As they moved along to a turning point, something happened that made them able to risk everything, i.e. their very selves, but also gave them the possibility of regaining vital parts of themselves that where lost when the façade was constructed. As they took the suffering upon themselves, they grew to be fully visible as human beings and healing was possible as a re-establishment of the interpersonal bridge. This not only meant that the sufferer became open for relationships with others or an abstract other, but also that an opening in the relationship with themselves occurred. If psychiatric patients are allowed to narrate freely they develop different plot structures, which can either hide or reveal suffering. Patients who could establish an answer to the why-question of suffering could also interpret their suffering in a way that enabled growth and reconciliation. In order to do so, they had to abandon the shelter of the façade and confront suffering and shame. This turning point opened them up to life-sustaining relationships with themselves as well as with abstract and concrete others.

  11. Postpartum psychiatric disorders: Early diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Shashi; Pathak, Abhishek; Sharma, Indira

    2015-07-01

    Postpartum period is demanding period characterized by overwhelming biological, physical, social, and emotional changes. It requires significant personal and interpersonal adaptation, especially in case of primigravida. Pregnant women and their families have lots of aspirations from the postpartum period, which is colored by the joyful arrival of a new baby. Unfortunately, women in the postpartum period can be vulnerable to a range of psychiatric disorders like postpartum blues, depression, and psychosis. Perinatal mental illness is largely under-diagnosed and can have far reaching ramifications for both the mother and the infant. Early screening, diagnosis, and management are very important and must be considered as mandatory part of postpartum care.

  12. Psychiatric approach to the living kidney donor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Correia

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Kidney transplantation is considered the treatment of choice for patients with end-stage renal disease. Living donor transplantation has increased because of the shortage, the needs of cadaver donors.Based on existing literature the authors address ethical issues and major psychiatric aspects involved in the evaluation of living donor kidney transplant, and the interference of this procedure on quality of life for donors, and their contraindications. The authors further describe the evaluation procedures used in the Hospital S. João, as well as data related to the 32 patients evaluated in the Department of Psychiatry since 2004.

  13. Use of Modafinil in Psychiatric Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Hanifi Kokacya

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Modafinil, is a psychostimulant drug with neurochemical and behavourial effects, distinct from those of amphetamine. It is used to treat patients with narcolepsy and other excessive sleepiness. Modafinil has dopaminergic, noradrenergic, histaminergic, glutamergic, serotonergic and GABAergic interactions. It is also shown that modafinil has neuroprotective effects via antioxidative mechanisms. Besides modafinil shows initial promise for a variety of off-label indications in psychiatry, including bipolar disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and schizophrenia . The aim of this article is to review the literature on clinical use of modafinil in psychiatric disorders. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(1: 42-51

  14. Psychiatric residency, role models, and leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, E; Greenblatt, M; Pasnau, R O

    1986-06-01

    Two hundred fifty ex-fellowship psychiatrists answered a questionnaire on their administrative and other professional experiences during and after residency as part of a study to determine the relationship between psychiatric training experiences and interest in administration. A large majority of subjects had had role models during training. The subjects' interest in administration had grown significantly during residency in the direction of their role models' interest. Postresidency interest in administration was significantly correlated with supervision by a psychiatrist administrator and with the number of hours subjects spent on administrative work.

  15. Hair loss related to primary psychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Çığıl Fettahoğlu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Scalp hair has greater social and psychological importance than its' biological significance. In the hair disorder consultation services there are lots of patients who are often considered as "difficult" or "problematic", because of their biopsychosocial problems. When it’s considered that the hair loss patients refer to the dermatology clinics in the first step, we can understand the importance of the awareness of the clinicians about the causal and/or consequential relationship between hair diseases and the psychological problems. In this paper, hair loss diseases that are related to primary psychiatric disorders are reviewed.

  16. Psychiatric adverse effects of pediatric corticosteroid use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozdowicz, Linda B; Bostwick, J Michael

    2014-06-01

    Corticosteroids, highly effective drugs for myriad disease states, have considerable neuropsychiatric adverse effects that can manifest in cognitive disorders, behavioral changes, and frank psychiatric disease. Recent reviews have summarized these effects in adults, but a comprehensive review on corticosteroid effects in children has not been published since 2005. Here, we systematically review articles published since then that, we find, naturally divide into 3 main areas: (1) chronic effects of acute prenatal and neonatal exposure associated with prematurity and congenital conditions; (2) immediate behavioral effects of acute exposure via oncological protocols; and (3) acute behavioral effects of sporadic use in children and adolescents with other conditions. PsycInfo, MEDLINE, Embase, and Scopus were queried to identify articles reporting psychiatric adverse effects of corticosteroids in pediatric patients. Search terms included corticosteroids, adrenal cortex hormones, steroid psychosis, substance-induced psychoses, glucocorticoids, dexamethasone, hydrocortisone, prednisone, adverse effects, mood disorders, mental disorders, psychosis, psychotic, psychoses, side effect, chemically induced, emotions, affective symptoms, toxicity, behavior, behavioral symptoms, infant, child, adolescent, pediatric, paediatric, neonatal, children, teen, and teenager. Following guidelines for systematic reviews from the Potsdam Consultation on Meta-Analysis, we have found it difficult to draw specific conclusions that are more than general impressions owing to the quality of the available studies. We find a mixed picture with neonates exposed to dexamethasone, with some articles reporting eventual deficits in neuropsychiatric functioning and others reporting no effect. In pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, corticosteroid use appears to correlate with negative psychiatric and behavioral effects. In children treated with corticosteroids for noncancer conditions

  17. Atmospheric Monitoring at the Site of the MAGIC Telescopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Will Martin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The MAGIC telescopes in La Palma, Canary Islands, measure the Cherenkov light emitted by gamma ray-induced extended air showers in the atmosphere. The good knowledge of the atmospheric parameters is important, both for the correct and safe operations of the telescopes, but also for subsequent data analysis. A weather station measures the state variables of the atmosphere, temperature, humidity and wind, an elastic Lidar system and an infrared pyrometer determine the optical transmission of the atmosphere. Using an AllSky camera, the cloud cover can be estimated. The measured values are completed by data from global atmospheric models based on numeric weather forecasts.

  18. The arsonists portrait- as seen by forensic psychiatric examination

    OpenAIRE

    Radulescu Simona Delia; Manea Mihaela Oana; Enache Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The aim of our study is to determine the mental state of the arsonists that have undergone forensic psychiatric evaluation. MATERIALS AND METHODS We have examined the mental health records between years 2014-2015. Only subjects who committed fire setting crimes and were referred to the Legal Medicine Institute from Timișoara for a psychiatric evaluation were selected for the study. We analysed the following data: socio-demographic parameters, psychiatr...

  19. ELECTROCONVULSIVE THERAPY AMONG ADOLESCENT PSYCHIATRIC PATIENTS- A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Lakshimi Borgohain; Deepak Chaudhury; Mahibul Islam Mollah; Subhankar Paul

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) among adolescent psychiatric patient is rarely used and studies in this regard are also rare, while its need is of great importance. Aim of this study was to study the prevalence of ECT in common psychiatric illnesses among adolescent age group, where it is indicated and outcome of ECT in those psychiatric patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS All data were collected retrospectively from the chart review for those adolescents aged betwee...

  20. Patient Aggression and the Wellbeing of Nurses: A Cross-Sectional Survey Study in Psychiatric and Non-Psychiatric Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virve Pekurinen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Wellbeing of nurses is associated with patient aggression. Little is known about the differences in these associations between nurses working in different specialties. We aimed to estimate and compare the prevalence of patient aggression and the associations between patient aggression and the wellbeing of nurses in psychiatric and non-psychiatric specialties (medical and surgical, and emergency medicine. A sample of 5288 nurses (923 psychiatric nurses, 4070 medical and surgical nurses, 295 emergency nurses participated in the study. Subjective measures were used to assess both the occurrence of patient aggression and the wellbeing of nurses (self-rated health, sleep disturbances, psychological distress and perceived work ability. Binary logistic regression with interaction terms was used to compare the associations between patient aggression and the wellbeing of nurses. Psychiatric nurses reported all types of patient aggression more frequently than medical and surgical nurses, whereas nurses working in emergency settings reported physical violence and verbal aggression more frequently than psychiatric nurses. Psychiatric nurses reported poor self-rated health and reduced work ability more frequently than both of the non-psychiatric nursing groups, whereas medical and surgical nurses reported psychological distress and sleep disturbances more often. Psychiatric nurses who had experienced at least one type of patient aggression or mental abuse in the previous year, were less likely to suffer from psychological distress and sleep disturbances compared to medical and surgical nurses. Psychiatric nurses who had experienced physical assaults and armed threats were less likely to suffer from sleep disturbances compared to nurses working in emergency settings. Compared to medical and surgical nurses, psychiatric nurses face patient aggression more often, but certain types of aggression are more common in emergency settings. Psychiatric nurses have

  1. Validation of the Children's Interview for Psychiatric Syndromes (ChIPS) with Psychiatrically Hospitalized Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Lance P.; Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Hunt, Jeffrey I.; Hollander, Beth L. G.; Dyl, Jennifer; Rizzo, Christie J.; Steinley, Douglas L.; Spirito, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    A study was conducted to examine the concurrent validity of the Children's Interview for Psychiatric Syndromes (ChIPS) for adolescent inpatients aged 12 to 18. The results reveal moderate agreement between ChIPS diagnoses and Schedule for Affective Disorder sand Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime version diagnoses.

  2. Psychiatric disorders, acne and systemic retinoids: comparison of risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Moigne, M; Bulteau, S; Grall-Bronnec, Marie; Gerardin, M; Fournier, Jean-Pascal; Jonville-Bera, A P; Jolliet, Pascale; Dreno, Brigitte; Victorri-Vigneau, C

    2017-09-01

    The link between isotretinoin, treatment of a severe form of acne, and psychiatric disorders remains controversial, as acne itself could explain the occurrence of psychiatric disorders. This study aims at assessing the disproportionality of psychiatric adverse events reported with isotretinoin in the French National PharmacoVigilance Database, compared with other systemic acne treatments and systemic retinoids. Data were extracted from the French National PharmacoVigilance Database for systemic acne treatments, systemic retinoids and drugs used as comparators. Each report was subjected to double-blind analysis by two psychiatric experts. A disproportionality analysis was performed, calculating the number of psychiatric ADRs divided by the total number of notifications for each drug of interest. Concerning acne systemic treatments: all 71 reports of severe psychiatric disorders involved isotretinoin, the highest proportion of mild/moderate psychiatric adverse events was reported with isotretinoin (14.1%). Among systemic retinoids, the highest proportion of severe and mild/moderate psychiatric events occurred with isotretinoin and alitretinoin. Our study raises the hypothesis that psychiatric disorders associated with isotretinoin are related to a class effect of retinoids, as a signal emerges for alitretinoin. Complementary studies are necessary to estimate the risk and further determine at-risk populations.

  3. Psychiatric nursing education in Nebraska: 1989-1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moller, M D; Pierce, A; Roach, R; Shanahan, C; Loch, E

    1991-01-01

    The academic and clinical content of psychiatric nursing curricula in the registered nurse basic educational programs in Nebraska for academic year 1989-1990 was explored by the Nebraska Sub-group of the Nursing Curriculum and Training Task Force of the National Alliance for the Mentally Ill. The review includes literature regarding the history, development, and future trends of psychiatric nursing; factors affecting nursing student attitudes toward psychiatric patients; basic content included in psychiatric and psychosocial nursing curricula; and concepts essential in working with the seriously, persistently mentally ill. Contrary to current trends in the United States, all Nebraska schools of nursing have a generic psychiatric nursing course taught by clinical specialists in psychiatric-mental health nursing. Hands-on clinical time spent with patients with psychiatric diagnoses as well as those with psychosocial needs varies from 84 to 200 hr per semester. Not all students are exposed to patients with severe and persistent mental illness. Fewer than 5% of Nebraska graduates choose psychiatric nursing as their area of practice. The authors express grave concern for the future of psychiatric nursing education. Implications for curriculum revision and replication studies are suggested.

  4. Treatment profiles in a Danish psychiatric university hospital department

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okkels, Niels; Mogensen, Rasmus Beyer; Crean, Lea Catherine

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite concerns about rising treatment of psychiatric patients with psychotropic medications and declining treatment with psychotherapy, actual treatment profiles of psychiatric patients are largely unknown. AIMS: To describe patterns in the treatment of patients in a large psychiatric...... university hospital department. METHODS: A descriptive mapping of treatment of in- and outpatients in a psychiatric department at Aarhus University Hospital Risskov, Denmark. Information was collected by healthcare staff using a 25-item survey form. The p-value was calculated with a chi-squared test and p...

  5. [Psychiatric care in South Tyrol -- an example of coordination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pycha, Roger; Conca, Andreas

    2006-02-01

    The Tyrol's division after the two World Wars cut the South Tyrol off from every relevant aspect of psychiatric care. First attempts towards a community psychiatric system weren't sufficiently sustained by politicians. Only in the 90 ty's was the association of relatives of mentally ill people able to sensitize public and politicians to the need for an adequate psychiatric care system. Since 1996 an excellent psychiatric plan has been in existence, 80 % of which has to date been able to be put into practice. Since 1997 mentally ill people have founded their own self-help-organization and influenced the planning process.

  6. Sanctioning Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brentjes, Sonja

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I discuss stories about rulers and princes of three dynasties - Abbasid, Norman and Timurid – and their narrative representation as prime knowers of the mathematical sciences, geography and history. I argue that they constitute one set of positive forms of sanctioning or contesting knowledge in those societies by prescribing hierarchies of knowledge forms and hierarchies of people and institutions that decide about the veracity of knowledge. I suggest that these stories share their origin and meaning in an environment of legitimizing propaganda for the various rulers and princes. I also claim that the value and position of scientific knowledge in these stories differ, starting from what apparently were personal interests of a ruler and leading to its integration into what was considered necessary for the education of a prince and the cultured behaviour of a ruler. Hence, these stories about knowledge and rulers present images of knowledge that delineate the status of scholars in those three societies and thus define possibilities and set boundaries for learning and practicing scholarly fields.En este artículo se estudian historias sobre gobernantes y príncipes de tres dinastías - ‛abbāsí, normanda y timurí – y su representación narrativa como conocedores de las ciencias matemáticas, la geografía y la historia. Se argumenta que constituyen un conjunto de formas positivas de aprobar o impugnar el conocimiento en esas sociedades, prescribiendo jerarquías de formas de conocimiento y jerarquías de gentes e instituciones que deciden acerca de la veracidad del conocimiento. Se sugiere que esas historias comparten su origen y significado en un contexto de propaganda legitimadora para varios gobernantes y príncipes. También se afirma que el valor y la posición del conocimiento científico en esas historias difieren, empezando por lo que en apariencia eran los intereses personales de un gobernante hasta su integraci

  7. Psychiatric issues in cosmetic plastic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericksen, William Leif; Billick, Stephen Bates

    2012-09-01

    The objective of cosmetic surgery is increased patient self-esteem and confidence. Most patients undergoing a procedure report these results post-operatively. The success of any procedure is measured in patient satisfaction. In order to optimize patient satisfaction, literature suggests careful pre-operative patient preparation including a discussion of the risks, benefits, limitations and expected results for each procedure undertaken. As a general rule, the patients that are motivated to surgery by a desire to align their outward appearance to their body-image tend to be the most satisfied. There are some psychiatric conditions that can prevent a patient from being satisfied without regard aesthetic success. The most common examples are minimal defect/Body Dysmorphic Disorder, the patient in crisis, the multiple revision patient, and loss of identity. This paper will familiarize the audience with these conditions, symptoms and related illnesses. Case examples are described and then explored in terms of the conditions presented. A discussion of the patient's motivation for surgery, goals pertaining to specific attributes, as well as an evaluation of the patient's understanding of the risks, benefits, and limitations of the procedure can help the physician determine if a patient is capable of being satisfied with a cosmetic plastic surgery procedure. Plastic surgeons can screen patients suffering from these conditions relatively easily, as psychiatry is an integral part of medical school education. If a psychiatric referral is required, then the psychiatrist needs to be aware of the nuances of each of these conditions.

  8. Compulsive buying: descriptive characteristics and psychiatric comorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christenson, G A; Faber, R J; de Zwaan, M; Raymond, N C; Specker, S M; Ekern, M D; Mackenzie, T B; Crosby, R D; Crow, S J; Eckert, E D

    1994-01-01

    Compulsive buying is infrequently described in the psychiatric literature despite suggestions that it may be prevalent. The authors investigated the demographics and phenomenology of this syndrome and assessed psychiatric comorbidity via interviews of both compulsive buyers and normal buyers. Twenty-four compulsive buyers were compared with 24 age- and sex-matched normal buyers using (1) a semistructured interview for compulsive buying and impulse control disorders, (2) a modified version of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R, and (3) scales measuring compulsiveness, depression, and anxiety. The typical compulsive buyer was a 36-year-old female who had developed compulsive buying at age 17 1/2 and whose buying had resulted in adverse psychosocial consequences. Purchases were usually of clothes, shoes, jewelry, or makeup, which frequently went unused. Compared with normal buyers, compulsive buyers had a higher lifetime prevalence of anxiety disorders, substance use disorders, and eating disorders and were more depressed, anxious, and compulsive. Among compulsive buyers, 16 (66.7%) described buying that resembled obsessive compulsive disorder, whereas 23 (95.8%) described buying that resembled an impulse control disorder. Compulsive buying is a definable clinical syndrome that can result in significant psychosocial impairment and which displays features of both obsessive compulsive disorder and the impulse control disorders.

  9. Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease and Psychiatric Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soner Cakmak

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is a rapidly progressive, degenerative slow virus infection disease of central nervous system. Based on etiologic origins, four different Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease subtypes have been identified: sporadic, genetic, iatrogenic and variant. The clinical course generally begin with apathy, irritability, behavioral changes, speech problems, memory deterioration, rapidly progresses and concludes with death over a period of 3-12 months. Symptoms are observed secondary to brain cortex, cerebellum, corticospinal tracts, spinal anterior horn cells and basal ganglia damage. Unusual (%5-10 cases can survive up to 2 years. The initial symptoms of disease can be sudden which resultsin adjustment problems leading patients to seek psychiatric help. Patients could receive different diagnosis such as psychosis, depression with psychotic features, and treatments at this stages. Early diagnosis is crucial because of management of the disease and treatment approaches. In this article diagnosis and clinical features of Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease and related psychiatric symptoms have been briefly reviewed. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(4.000: 631-643

  10. Psychiatric Symptoms in Patients with Alopecia Areata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burak

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Alopecia areata is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by sudden hair loss. Existing evidence suggests that alopecia areata may be associated with personality traits altering the susceptibility to stress and psychiatric conditions associated with stress. The aim of this study was to compare the intensity of depressive and anxiety symptoms and the level of alexithymia in patients with alopecia areata and healthy control subjects.Materials and methods: Fifty patients with the diagnosis of alopecia areata and 30 healthy volunteers were compared in terms of scores of Beck depression inventory, Beck anxiety inventory, and Toronto alexithymia scale.Results: There were no statistically significant differences between alopecia areata cases and healthy controls regarding intensity of anxiety and level of alexythimia (p=0.053 and p=0.120, respectively. The intensity of depressive symptoms exhibited by alopecia areata patients was found to be significantly higher than that in healthy controls (p=0.010 and there was no statistically significant relationship between intensity of depressive symptoms and duration of the current alopecia areata episode (p=0.873.Conclusion: It is suggested that psychiatric evaluation should also be performed in all alopecia areata cases during the clinical follow-up period. (Turk­derm 2011; 45: 203-5

  11. [The psychiatric aspects of animal assisted therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bánszky, Noémi; Kardos, Edina; Rózsa, Linda; Gerevich, József

    2012-01-01

    Animal assisted therapy is a known preventive and interventive method which is held by the contribution of specially trained animals and professionals. One of its main indication fields is psychiatry. The purpose of this summary is to give an overview on the animal assisted therapy's background, possible uses and effectiveness with literature. It looks for the answer if this therapeutic method can be used for effectively easing the symptoms of specific psychiatric diseases and on which fields can it be used most effectively. Due to the data provided by literature it can be determined that the therapy supported by animals is able to give an effective help on the fields of various psychiatric supports, preventions, interventions and rehabilitations regardless of the age. It is mostly used in the case of depression, anxiety, addiction, schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder. Aside from these it could also be used effectively in the rehabilitation of victims of sexual abuse especially in the case of children. It can also play a role in the re-socialization of inadapted adolescences and adults, even with farmtherapy. Due to experiences the therapies supported by animals are effective on the following fields: improving social and communication skills, easing anxiety, improving mood, helping independent living, improving emphatic skills.

  12. Bullying, psychiatric pathology and suicidal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobry, Yuriy; Braquehais, María Dolores; Sher, Leo

    2013-01-01

    Bullying is a highly prevalent behavior which carries a significant social, medical and financial cost for its victims and perpetrators, with powerful and long-lasting psychological and social impact. Bullying has been defined as a specific form of intentional, repeated aggression, that involves a disparity of power between the victim(s) and perpetrator(s). The aggression can take physical, verbal or gestural forms. The behavior of bullying crosses sociodemographic categories of age, gender, ethnicity, level of academic achievement and professional environment. It has been abundantly observed by teachers and parents in elementary schools, but has also shown its negative presence in corporate boardrooms. The direct outcome of bullying, for both victims and perpetrators, is an increased risk of psychiatric disorders including depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety disorders, substance abuse and suicidal behavior. Cruelty (and bullying, as one of its manifestations) breaks the basis of morality. Mental health professionals usually treat the victims of those actions unfortunately long after they have been exposed to the harm. The evidence does not support the idea that the majority of cruel actions are intrinsically "pathological", in the sense of being motivated by "mental disorders". Therefore, only moral rules and legal actions - but not psychiatric or psychological interventions - may dissuade humans from this form of cruelty.

  13. Dissociative disorders in the psychiatric emergency ward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sar, Vedat; Koyuncu, Ahmet; Ozturk, Erdinc; Yargic, L Ilhan; Kundakci, Turgut; Yazici, Ahmet; Kuskonmaz, Ekrem; Aksüt, Didem

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of dissociative disorders among emergency psychiatric admissions. Forty-three of the 97 consecutive outpatients admitted to the psychiatric emergency unit of a university hospital were screened using the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES). Seventeen (39.5% of the 43 evaluated) patients with a DES score above 25.0 were then interviewed with the Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule and the Structured Clinical Interview for Dissociative Disorders. Fifteen emergency unit patients (34.9% of the 43 evaluated participants) were diagnosed as having a dissociative disorder. Six (14.0%) patients had dissociative identity disorder, 6 (14.0%) had dissociative disorder not otherwise specified, and 3 (7.0%) had dissociative amnesia. The average DES score of dissociative patients was 43.7. A majority of them had comorbid major depression, somatization disorder, and borderline personality disorder. Most of the patients with dissociative disorder reported auditory hallucinations, symptoms associated with psychogenic amnesia, flashback experiences, and childhood abuse and/or neglect. Dissociative disorders constitute one of the diagnostic groups with high relevance in emergency psychiatry.

  14. Caffeine, mental health, and psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Diogo R

    2010-01-01

    Caffeine intake is so common that its pharmacological effects on the mind are undervalued. Since it is so readily available, individuals can adjust their own dose, time of administration and dose intervals of caffeine, according to the perceived benefits and side effects of each dose. This review focuses on human studies of caffeine in subjects with and without psychiatric disorders. Besides the possibility of mild drug dependence, caffeine may bring benefits that contribute to its widespread use. These benefits seem to be related to adaptation of mental energy to the context by increasing alertness, attention, and cognitive function (more evident in longer or more difficult tasks or situations of low arousal) and by elevating mood. Accordingly, moderate caffeine intake (caffeine can induce psychotic and manic symptoms, and more commonly, anxiety. Patients with panic disorder and performance social anxiety disorder seem to be particularly sensitive to the anxiogenic effects of caffeine, whereas preliminary data suggests that it may be effective for some patients with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). The threshold for the anxiogenic effect of caffeine is influenced by a polymorphism of the A2A receptor. In summary, caffeine can be regarded as a pharmacological tool to increase energy and effortful behavior in daily activities. More populational (cross-sectional and prospective) and experimental studies are necessary to establish the role of caffeine intake in psychiatric disorders, especially its putative efficacy on depressive mood and cognitive/attentional disorders.

  15. Psychiatric Genocide: Nazi Attempts to Eradicate Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrey, E. Fuller; Yolken, Robert H.

    2010-01-01

    Although the Nazi genocide of Jews during World War II is well known, the concurrent Nazi genocide of psychiatric patients is much less widely known. An attempt was made to estimate the number of individuals with schizophrenia who were sterilized and murdered by the Nazis and to assess the effect on the subsequent prevalence and incidence of this disease. It is estimated that between 220 000 and 269 500 individuals with schizophrenia were sterilized or killed. This total represents between 73% and 100% of all individuals with schizophrenia living in Germany between 1939 and 1945. Postwar studies of the prevalence of schizophrenia in Germany reported low rates, as expected. However, postwar rates of the incidence of schizophrenia in Germany were unexpectedly high. The Nazi genocide of psychiatric patients was the greatest criminal act in the history of psychiatry. It was also based on what are now known to be erroneous genetic theories and had no apparent long-term effect on the subsequent incidence of schizophrenia. PMID:19759092

  16. Smoking, quitting, and psychiatric disease: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubin, Henri-Jean; Rollema, Hans; Svensson, Torgny H; Winterer, Georg

    2012-01-01

    Tobacco smoking among patients with psychiatric disease is more common than in the general population, due to complex neurobiological, psychological, and pharmacotherapeutic mechanisms. Nicotine dependence exposes smokers with co-occurring mental illness to increased risks of smoking-related morbidity, mortality, and to detrimental impacts on their quality of life. The neurobiological and psychosocial links to smoking appear stronger in certain comorbidities, notably depression and schizophrenia. Through its action on the cholinergic system, nicotine may have certain beneficial effects across a range of mental health domains in these patients, including improved concentration and cognition, relief of stress and depressive affect, and feeling pleasurable sensations. Despite the availability of effective smoking cessation pharmacotherapies and psychosocial interventions, as well as increasing evidence that individuals with psychiatric disorders are motivated to quit, nicotine dependence remains an undertreated and under-recognized problem within this patient population. Evidence suggests that provision of flexible and individualized treatment programs may be successful. Furthermore, the complicated relationship observed between nicotine dependence, nicotine withdrawal symptoms, and mental illness necessitates integration of close monitoring in any successful smoking cessation program. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Patient Aggression and the Wellbeing of Nurses: A Cross-Sectional Survey Study in Psychiatric and Non-Psychiatric Settings

    OpenAIRE

    Virve Pekurinen; Laura Willman; Marianna Virtanen; Mika Kivimäki; Jussi Vahtera; Maritta Välimäki

    2017-01-01

    Wellbeing of nurses is associated with patient aggression. Little is known about the differences in these associations between nurses working in different specialties. We aimed to estimate and compare the prevalence of patient aggression and the associations between patient aggression and the wellbeing of nurses in psychiatric and non-psychiatric specialties (medical and surgical, and emergency medicine). A sample of 5288 nurses (923 psychiatric nurses, 4070 medical and surgical nurses, 295 e...

  18. Perceived Dangerousness as Related to Psychiatric Symptoms and Psychiatric Service Use – a Vignette Based Representative Population Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowislo, Julia F.; Gonet-Wirz, Franca; Borgwardt, Stefan; Lang, Undine E.; Huber, Christian G.

    2017-01-01

    Perceptions of dangerousness are an influential component of mental health stigma and can be driven by the display of psychiatric symptoms and the use of psychiatric service institutions. Yet, no previous study compared symptoms and service use associated perceptions of dangerousness. Therefore, we conducted a representative survey (N = 2,207) in the canton of Basel-Stadt, Switzerland. Participants were asked to answer the perceived dangerousness scale with respect to a vignette that either depicted psychiatric symptoms of a fictitious character or a psychiatric service institution the fictitious character had been admitted to. Between the vignettes, type of symptoms, type of psychiatric service, dangerousness, and gender were systematically varied. Perceived dangerousness was significantly lower as related to psychiatric service use than related to psychiatric symptoms. Overall, symptoms of alcohol dependency, behavior endangering others, and male gender of the fictitious character tend to increase perceived dangerousness. Furthermore, being hospitalized in a psychiatric unit at a general hospital or the rater being familiar with psychiatric services tends to decrease perceived dangerousness. Effective anti-stigma initiatives should integrate education about dangerousness as well as methods to increase familiarity with psychiatry. Additionally, an integration of modern psychiatry in somato-medical care institutions might decrease stigmatization. PMID:28367993

  19. Perceived Dangerousness as Related to Psychiatric Symptoms and Psychiatric Service Use - a Vignette Based Representative Population Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowislo, Julia F; Gonet-Wirz, Franca; Borgwardt, Stefan; Lang, Undine E; Huber, Christian G

    2017-04-03

    Perceptions of dangerousness are an influential component of mental health stigma and can be driven by the display of psychiatric symptoms and the use of psychiatric service institutions. Yet, no previous study compared symptoms and service use associated perceptions of dangerousness. Therefore, we conducted a representative survey (N = 2,207) in the canton of Basel-Stadt, Switzerland. Participants were asked to answer the perceived dangerousness scale with respect to a vignette that either depicted psychiatric symptoms of a fictitious character or a psychiatric service institution the fictitious character had been admitted to. Between the vignettes, type of symptoms, type of psychiatric service, dangerousness, and gender were systematically varied. Perceived dangerousness was significantly lower as related to psychiatric service use than related to psychiatric symptoms. Overall, symptoms of alcohol dependency, behavior endangering others, and male gender of the fictitious character tend to increase perceived dangerousness. Furthermore, being hospitalized in a psychiatric unit at a general hospital or the rater being familiar with psychiatric services tends to decrease perceived dangerousness. Effective anti-stigma initiatives should integrate education about dangerousness as well as methods to increase familiarity with psychiatry. Additionally, an integration of modern psychiatry in somato-medical care institutions might decrease stigmatization.

  20. The new asylums in the community: severely ill psychiatric patients living in psychiatric supported housing facilities. A Danish register-based study of prognostic factors, use of psychiatric services, and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Merete; Pedersen, Marianne G; Pedersen, Carsten B

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Reorganization of psychiatric treatment in Denmark involved a declining number of psychiatric long-stay beds and an increasing number of psychiatric supported housing facilities in the community. Very few studies have focused on the population in such facilities. METHODS: Information...... was generated combining addresses of supported psychiatric housing facilities with information from the Danish Civil Registration System to create a case register of persons living in supported psychiatric housing facilities. Through linkage with the Danish Psychiatric Central Register, we examined predictors...... of becoming a resident in a psychiatric housing facility, use of psychiatric services around the time of entrance to a supported psychiatric housing facility, and mortality rates for residents in a psychiatric housing facility compared to non-residents and to persons in the general population who never...

  1. Astrophysical neutrinos and atmospheric leptons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaisser T.K.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available IceCube measurements of the neutrino flux from TeV to PeV show the signal of astrophysical neutrinos standing out at high energy well above the steeply falling foreground of atmospheric neutrinos. The astrophysical signal appears both in measurements of neutrino-induced muons and in the starting event sample, which responds preferentially to electron and tau neutrinos, but which also includes muon neutrinos. Searches for point sources of astrophysical neutrinos have, however, not yet identified a single source or class of sources for the astrophysical component. Some constraints on astrophysical sources implied by the current observations will be described in this talk. Uncertainties in the fluxes of atmospheric leptons resulting from an incomplete knowledge of the primary cosmic-ray spectrum and from a limited understanding of meson production, including charm will also be reviewed. The ultimate goal is to improve the understanding of the astrophysical spectrum in the transition to lower energy where atmospheric neutrinos dominate. The main aspects of this presentation will be included in the author's Review Talk at the end of the Symposium.

  2. Atmospheric Prebiotic Chemistry and Organic Hazes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trainer, Melissa G.

    2012-01-01

    Earth's atmospheric composition at the time of the origin of life is not known, but it has often been suggested that chemical transformation of reactive species in the atmosphere was a significant source of pre biotic organic molecules. Experimental and theoretical studies over the past half century have shown that atmospheric synthesis can yield molecules such as amino acids and nucleobases, but these processes are very sensitive to gas composition and energy source. Abiotic synthesis of organic molecules is more productive in reduced atmospheres, yet the primitive Earth may not have been as reducing as earlier workers assumed, and recent research has reflected this shift in thinking. This work provides a survey of the range of chemical products that can be produced given a set of atmospheric conditions, with a particular focus on recent reports. Intertwined with the discussion of atmospheric synthesis is the consideration of an organic haze layer, which has been suggested as a possible ultraviolet shield on the anoxic early Earth. Since such a haze layer - if formed - would serve as a reservoir for organic molecules, the chemical composition of the aerosol should be closely examined. The results highlighted here show that a variety of products can be formed in mildly reducing or even neutral atmospheres, demonstrating that contributions of atmospheric synthesis to the organic inventory on early Earth should not be discounted. This review intends to bridge current knowledge of the range of possible atmospheric conditions in the prebiotic environment and pathways for synthesis under such conditions by examining the possible products of organic chemistry in the early atmosphere.

  3. Does Vitamin C Influence Neurodegenerative Diseases and Psychiatric Disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocot, Joanna; Luchowska-Kocot, Dorota; Kiełczykowska, Małgorzata; Musik, Irena; Kurzepa, Jacek

    2017-06-27

    Vitamin C (Vit C) is considered to be a vital antioxidant molecule in the brain. Intracellular Vit C helps maintain integrity and function of several processes in the central nervous system (CNS), including neuronal maturation and differentiation, myelin formation, synthesis of catecholamine, modulation of neurotransmission and antioxidant protection. The importance of Vit C for CNS function has been proven by the fact that targeted deletion of the sodium-vitamin C co-transporter in mice results in widespread cerebral hemorrhage and death on post-natal day one. Since neurological diseases are characterized by increased free radical generation and the highest concentrations of Vit C in the body are found in the brain and neuroendocrine tissues, it is suggested that Vit C may change the course of neurological diseases and display potential therapeutic roles. The aim of this review is to update the current state of knowledge of the role of vitamin C on neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, multiple sclerosis and amyotrophic sclerosis, as well as psychiatric disorders including depression, anxiety and schizophrenia. The particular attention is attributed to understanding of the mechanisms underlying possible therapeutic properties of ascorbic acid in the presented disorders.

  4. Psychiatric Mental Health Leadership at the Tipping Point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    R Delaney, Kathleen

    2015-05-01

    Currently the United States health care system is responding to the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) and the vision it contains for health care transformation. Along with sweeping changes in service delivery and payment structures, health care reform has championed concepts such as patient-centered care, integrated care, and wellness. Although these are not new ideas, their adaptation, in both ideology and service design has been accelerated in the context for reform. Indeed they are reaching a tipping point; the point where ideas gain wide acceptance and become influential trends. Although psychiatric mental health (PMH) nurses have been active in wellness, patient-centered care, and integrated care, at the current time they seem to be situated peripheral to these national trends. Increased presence of PMH nurses will facilitate their contribution to the development of these concepts within service structures and interventions. To increase knowledge and appreciation of PMH nurses' practice and unique perspective on these issues, leaders are needed who will connect and effectively communicate PMH nursing efforts to the broader health care arena. This article outlines the events that created a context for these three concepts (patient-centered care, wellness, and integrated care), and I suggest why they have reached a tipping point and discuss the need for greater PMH nursing presence in the American national dialog and the role of nursing leaders in facilitating these connections.

  5. Empowerment and occupational engagement among people with psychiatric disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultqvist, Jenny; Eklund, Mona; Leufstadius, Christel

    2015-01-01

    Empowerment is essential in the rehabilitation process for people with psychiatric disabilities and knowledge about factors that may play a key role within this process would be valuable for further development of the day centre services. The present study investigates day centre attendees' perceptions of empowerment. The aim was to investigate which factors show the strongest relationships to empowerment when considering occupational engagement, client satisfaction with day centres, and health-related and socio-demographic factors as correlates. 123 Swedish day centre attendees participated in a cross-sectional study by completing questionnaires regarding empowerment and the targeted correlates. Data were analysed with non-parametric statistics. Empowerment was shown to be significantly correlated with occupational engagement and client satisfaction and also with self-rated health and symptoms rated by a research assistant. The strongest indicator for belonging to the group with the highest ratings on empowerment was self-rated health, followed by occupational engagement and symptom severity. Occupational engagement added to the beneficial influence of self-rated health on empowerment. Enabling occupational engagement in meaningful activities and providing occupations that can generate client satisfaction is an important focus for day centres in order to assist the attendees' rehabilitation process so that it promotes empowerment.

  6. Measurement of the Atmospheric $\

    CERN Document Server

    Aartsen, M G; Abdou, Y; Ackermann, M; Adams, J; Aguilar, J A; Ahlers, M; Altmann, D; Andeen, K; Auffenberg, J; Bai, X; Baker, M; Barwick, S W; Baum, V; Bay, R; Beattie, K; Beatty, J J; Bechet, S; Tjus, J Becker; Becker, K -H; Bell, M; Benabderrahmane, M L; BenZvi, S; Berdermann, J; Berghaus, P; Berley, D; Bernardini, E; Bertrand, D; Besson, D Z; Bindig, D; Bissok, M; Blaufuss, E; Blumenthal, J; Boersma, D J; Bohaichuk, S; Bohm, C; Bose1, D; Boser, S; Botner, O; Brayeur, L; Brown, A M; Bruijn, R; Brunner, J; Buitink, S; Carson, M; Casey, J; Casier, M; Chirkin, D; Christy, B; Clark, K; Clevermann, F; Cohen, S; Cowen, D F; Silva, A H Cruz; Danninger, M; Daughhetee, J; Davis, J C; De Clercq, C; De Ridder, S; Descamps, F; Desiati, P; de Vries-Uiterweerd, G; DeYoung, T; Diaz-Velez, J C; Dreyer, J; Dumm, J P; Dunkman, M; Eagan, R; Eberhardt, B; Eisch, J; Ellsworth, R W; Engdegard, O; Euler, S; Evenson, P A; Fadiran, O; Fazely, A R; Fedynitch, A; Feintzeig, J; Feusels, T; Filimonov, K; Finley, C; Fischer-Wasels, T; Flis, S; Franckowiak, A; Franke, R; Frantzen, K; Fuchs, T; Gaisser, T K; Gallagher, J; Gerhardt, L; Gladstone, L; Glusenkamp, T; Goldschmidt, A; Golup, G; Goodman, J A; Gora, D; Grant, D; Gross, A; Grullon, S; Gurtner, M; Ha, C; Ismail, A Haj; Hallgren, A; Halzen, F; Hanson, K; Heereman, D; Heimann, P; Heinen, D; Helbing, K; Hellauer, R; Hickford, S; Hill, G C; Hoffman, K D; Hoffmann, R; Homeier, A; Hoshina, K; Huelsnitz, W; Hulth, P O; Hultqvist, K; Hussain, S; Ishihara, A; Jacobi, E; Jacobsen, J; Japaridze, G S; Jlelati, O; Kappes, A; Karg, T; Karle, A; Kiryluk, J; Kislat, F; Klas, J; Klein, S R; Kohne, J -H; Kohnen, G; Kolanoski, H; Kopke, L; Kopper, C; Kopper, S; Koskinen, D J; Kowalski, M; Krasberg, M; Kroll, G; Kunnen, J; Kurahashi, N; Kuwabara, T; Labare, M; Landsman, H; Larson, M J; Lauer, R; Lesiak-Bzdak, M; Lunemann, J; Madsen, J; Maruyama, R; Mase, K; Matis, H S; McNally, F; Meagher, K; Merck, M; Meszaros, P; Meures, T; Miarecki, S; Middell, E; Milke, N; Miller, J; Mohrmann, L; Montaruli, T; Morse, R; Nahnhauer, R; Naumann, U; Nowicki, S C; Nygren, D R; Obertacke, A; Odrowski, S; Olivas, A; Olivo, M; O'Murchadha, A; Panknin, S; Paul, L; Pepper, J A; Heros, C Perez de los; Pieloth, D; Pirk, N; Posselt, J; Price, P B; Przybylski, G T; Radel, L; Rawlins, K; Redl, P; Resconi, E; Rhode, W; Ribordy, M; Richman, M; Riedel, B; Rodrigues, J P; Rott, C; Ruhe, T; Ruzybayev, B; Ryckbosch, D; Saba, S M; Salameh, T; Sander, H -G; Santander, M; Sarkar, S; Schatto, K; Scheel, M; Scheriau, F; Schmidt, T; Schmitz, M; Schoenen, S; Schoneberg, S; Schonherr, L; Schonwald, A; Schukraft, A; Schulte, L; Schulz, O; Seckel, D; Seo, S H; Sestayo, Y; Seunarine, S; Sheremata, C; Smith, M W E; Soiron, M; Soldin, D; Spiczak, G M; Spiering, C; Stamatikos, M; Stanev, T; Stasik, A; Stezelberger, T; Stokstad, R G; Stoss, A; Strahler, E A; Strom, R; Sullivan, G W; Taavola, H; Taboada, I; Tamburro, A; Ter-Antonyan, S; Tilav, S; Toale, P A; Toscano, S; Usner, M; van der Drift, D; van Eijndhoven, N; Van Overloop, A; van Santen, J; Vehring, M; Voge1, M; Vraeghe, M; Walck, C; Waldenmaier, T; Wallraff, M; Walter, M; Wasserman, R; Weaver, Ch; Wendt, C; Westerhoff, S; Whitehorn, N; Wiebe, K; Wiebusch, C H; Williams, D R; Wissing, H; Wolf, M; Wood, T R; Woschnagg, K; Xu, C; Xu, D L; Xu, X W; Yanez, J P; Yodh, G; Yoshida, S; Zarzhitsky, P; Ziemann, J; Zierke, S; Zilles, A; Zoll, M

    2012-01-01

    We report the first observation in a high energy neutrino telescope of cascades induced by atmospheric electron neutrinos and by neutral current interactions of atmospheric neutrinos of all flavors. Using data recorded during the first year of operation of IceCube's DeepCore low energy extension, a sample of 1029 events is observed in 281 days of data. The number of observed cascades is $N_{\\rm cascade} = 496 \\pm 66 (stat.) \\pm 88(syst.)$ and the rest of the sample consists of residual backgrounds due to atmospheric muons and charged current interactions of atmospheric muon neutrinos. The flux of the atmospheric electron neutrinos is determined in the energy range between approximately 80 GeV and 6 TeV and is consistent with models of atmospheric neutrinos.

  7. Atmospheric Circulation of Exoplanets

    OpenAIRE

    Showman, Adam P.; Cho, James Y-K.; Menou, Kristen

    2009-01-01

    We survey the basic principles of atmospheric dynamics relevant to explaining existing and future observations of exoplanets, both gas giant and terrestrial. Given the paucity of data on exoplanet atmospheres, our approach is to emphasize fundamental principles and insights gained from Solar-System studies that are likely to be generalizable to exoplanets. We begin by presenting the hierarchy of basic equations used in atmospheric dynamics, including the Navier-Stokes, primitive, shallow-wate...

  8. Psychiatric disorders and clinical correlates of suicidal patients admitted to a psychiatric hospital in Tokyo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishimoto Kayo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients admitted to a psychiatric hospital with suicidal behavior (SB are considered to be especially at high risk of suicide. However, the number of studies that have addressed this patient population remains insufficient compared to that of studies on suicidal patients in emergency or medical settings. The purpose of this study is to seek features of a sample of newly admitted suicidal psychiatric patients in a metropolitan area of Japan. Method 155 suicidal patients consecutively admitted to a large psychiatric center during a 20-month period, admission styles of whom were mostly involuntary, were assessed using Structured Clinical Interviews for DSM-IV Axis I and II Disorders (SCID-I CV and SCID-II and SB-related psychiatric measures. Associations of the psychiatric diagnoses and SB-related characteristics with gender and age were examined. Results The common DSM-IV axis I diagnoses were affective disorders 62%, anxiety disorders 56% and substance-related disorders 38%. 56% of the subjects were diagnosed as having borderline PD, and 87% of them, at least one type of personality disorder (PD. SB methods used prior to admission were self-cutting 41%, overdosing 32%, self-strangulation 15%, jumping from a height 12% and attempting traffic death 10%, the first two of which were frequent among young females. The median (range of the total number of SBs in the lifetime history was 7 (1-141. Severity of depressive symptomatology, suicidal intent and other symptoms, proportions of the subjects who reported SB-preceding life events and life problems, and childhood and adolescent abuse were comparable to those of the previous studies conducted in medical or emergency service settings. Gender and age-relevant life-problems and life events were identified. Conclusions Features of the studied sample were the high prevalence of affective disorders, anxiety disorders and borderline PD, a variety of SB methods used prior to admission

  9. Towards a systems definition of psychiatric practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashkis, H A; Yanovski, A

    1976-04-01

    Assessment of psychiatric practice has been difficult largely because of the apparent diversity of psychiatrists' theories, procedures, and goals. Searching for a unifying principle, we propose system identification failure (SIF), a defect in data-processing, as the unit of psychopathology underlying all psychiatric disorder (and other behavioral error). Definitive treatment must not only identify and correct the data-processing defect, but also eliminate the secondary symptoms. Emphasis is not on method of treatment but on goal or intent. Preparatory treatment includes supportive psychological and environmental measures and somatic therapies (regardless of type, duration, or intensity) which make definitive treatment possible. Palliative treatment must be frequently reviewed. Preventive treatment should prevent SIF-formation. We consider our proposal a distillate of the aims and implicit intent of experienced psychiatrists regardless of their training or theoretical orientation. The search for a functional definition of the practice of psychiatry was perhaps at one time an academic or lexicographic exercise, but, with the advent of peer review, it has become a pragmatic matter deserving of earnest attention. What is psychiatric practice? In a universe criss-crossed by psychiatrists "riding madly off in all directions." not only are the descendants of Anna O. and Dora analyzed in vivo and those of Little Hans at one remove, but also are distant figures and cultures subjected, often iv vitro, to critical scrutiny, while the "talking treatment" is applied to couples, families, groups, "networks" and communities. When one adds to this the diversity of biological therapies and institutional, environmental, and behavioral manipulations, the task of finding a common theme, much less procedure, becomes a worthy problem in hermeneutics, general semantics, or system analysis. Thus we must ask not only the operational question, "What do psychiatrists do?" BUt also, "What did

  10. Designing Dynamic Atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinch, Sofie; Højlund, Marie

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the notion of atmospheres from a designerly perspective, and discusses temporal challenges facing interaction designers when acknowledging the dynamic character of it. As atmospheres are created in the relation between body, space, and time, a pragmatic approach seems useful,....... The potentials and implica-­‐ tions are presented through a design case, Kidkit, highlighting temporality as design parametre within interaction design.......This paper addresses the notion of atmospheres from a designerly perspective, and discusses temporal challenges facing interaction designers when acknowledging the dynamic character of it. As atmospheres are created in the relation between body, space, and time, a pragmatic approach seems useful...

  11. Atmospheric Measurements Laboratory (AML)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Atmospheric Measurements Laboratory (AML) is one of the nation's leading research facilities for understanding aerosols, clouds, and their interactions. The AML...

  12. Suicide Mortality of Suicide Attempt Patients Discharged from Emergency Room, Nonsuicidal Psychiatric Patients Discharged from Emergency Room, Admitted Suicide Attempt Patients, and Admitted Nonsuicidal Psychiatric Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae W.; Park, Subin; Yi, Ki K.; Hong, Jin P.

    2012-01-01

    The suicide mortality rate and risk factors for suicide completion of patients who presented to an emergency room (ER) for suicide attempt and were discharged without psychiatric admission, patients who presented to an ER for psychiatric problems other than suicide attempt and were discharged without psychiatric admission, psychiatric inpatients…

  13. Sleep disturbances in a clinical forensic psychiatric population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphuis, Jeanine; Karsten, Julie; de Weerd, Al; Lancel, Marike

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Poor sleep is known to cause detrimental effects on the course of diverse psychiatric disorders and is a putative risk factor for hostility and aggression. Thus, sleep may be crucial in forensic psychiatric practice. However, little is known about the prevalence of sleep disturbances in

  14. Predictive factors for psychiatric morbidity among women with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Predictive factors for psychiatric morbidity among women with infertility attending a gynaecology clinic in Nigeria. ... p < 0.0001), discrimination (Χ2 = 69.91, p < 0.0001) and history of induced abortion (Χ2 = 30.40, p < 0.0001) were found to be significantly associated with psychiatric morbidity among patients with infertility ...

  15. Predictive factors for psychiatric morbidity among women with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the psychosocial and clinical factors that are associated with psychiatric morbidity among women with infertility attending ... difference in the rate of psychiatric morbidity between women with primary infertility and those with secondary infertility (χ2 = ..... Emotional distress of infertile women in Japan.

  16. Patterns and determinants of acute psychiatric readmissions | Behr ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patterns and determinants of acute psychiatric readmissions. Graham Michael Behr, Cathy Christie, Neil Soderlund, Tennyson Lee. Abstract. Objectives. Deinstitutionalisation and shortage of psychiatric beds worldwide has led to extensive research into the risk factors and interventions associated with rapid and recurrent ...

  17. Assessment of pre and postoperative psychiatric comorbidity among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Comorbid psychiatric disorders have been reported to be associated with pre and postoperative periods. Studies on pre and postoperative comorbid psychiatric disorders among ophthalmological patients are scanty in Nigeria and other sub-Saharan countries. This study was aimed at determining pre and ...

  18. Psychiatric Disorders Among People Living With HIV/AIDS Attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection has been associated with development of psychiatric disorders in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). These disorders could occur at any stage of the disease. The presence of these psychiatric disorders may affect the adherence to the use of anti-retroviral medications as ...

  19. Psychiatric symptoms in systemic lupus erythematosus: an update

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wekking, E. M.

    1993-01-01

    Twenty-one studies on the prevalence and type of psychiatric symptoms in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are reviewed and evaluated. Substantial differences in prevalence of psychiatric symptoms in SLE-patients (from 17%-71%) have been reported. Of the investigated methodological aspects,

  20. [Access to somatic care for patients undergoing psychiatric treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabaret, Wanda

    2010-01-01

    In France, there is no across-the-board formal connection between psychiatric and somatic treatment and the somatic care of patients undergoing psychiatric treatment remains very heterogeneous and inadequate. Despite some attempts at providing structure, it is the place of the physician which must be examined and optimised.