WorldWideScience

Sample records for atmosphere solving faint

  1. Geological Sulfur Isotopes Indicate Elevated OCS in the Archean Atmosphere, Solving the Faint Young Sun Paradox

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ueno, Yuichiro; Johnson, Matthew Stanley; Danielache, Sebastian Oscar;

    2009-01-01

    Distributions of sulfur isotopes in geological samples would provide a record of atmospheric composition if the mechanism producing the isotope effects could be described quantitatively. We determined the UV absorption spectra of 32SO2, 33SO2, and 34SO2 and use them to interpret the geological re......-rich, reducing Archean atmosphere. The radiative forcing, due to this level of OCS, is able to resolve the faint young sun paradox. Further, the decline of atmospheric OCS may have caused the late Archean glaciation....

  2. Fainting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of hyperventilation. Drug use. Some illegal drugs (like cocaine or methamphetamine) or using inhalants ("huffing") can cause fainting. Low blood sugar. The brain depends on a constant supply of sugar from ...

  3. The Kinematics of the Ultra-Faint Milky Way Satellites: Solving the Missing Satellite Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Simon, Joshua D

    2007-01-01

    We present Keck/DEIMOS spectroscopy of stars in 8 of the newly discovered ultra-faint dwarf galaxies around the Milky Way. We measure the velocity dispersions of Canes Venatici I and II, Ursa Major I and II, Coma Berenices, Hercules, Leo IV and Leo T from the velocities of 18 - 214 stars in each galaxy and find dispersions ranging from 3.3 to 7.6 km/s. The 6 galaxies with absolute magnitudes M_V < -4 are highly dark matter-dominated, with mass-to-light ratios approaching 1000. The measured velocity dispersions are inversely correlated with their luminosities, indicating that a minimum mass for luminous galactic systems may not yet have been reached. The 6 brightest of the ultra-faint dwarfs extend the luminosity-metallicity relationship followed by normal dwarfs by 2 orders of magnitude in luminosity; several of these objects have mean metallicities as low as [Fe/H] = -2.3 and therefore represent some of the most metal-poor known stellar systems. We detect metallicity spreads of up to 0.5 dex in several ob...

  4. A model atmosphere analysis of the faint early-type halo star PHL 346

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, F. P.; Lennon, D. J.; Brown, P. J. F.; Dufton, P. L.

    1986-08-01

    Stellar equivalent widths and hydrogen line profiles, measured from high-resolution optical spectra obtained with the 2.5 m Issac Newton Telescope, are used in conjunction with model atmosphere calculations to determine the atmospheric parameters and chemical composition of the faint, high galactic latitude early-type star PHL 346. The effective temperature (Teff = 22,600 + or - 1000 K) and surface gravity (log g = 3.6 + or - 0.2), as well as the chemical composition, are found to be similar to those of normal OB stars. Therefore, it is concluded that PHL 346 is an ordinary Population I object, at a z distance of 8.7 + or - 1.5 kpc. The relatively small stellar velocity in the z-direction (Vz = +56 + or - 10 km/s) then implies that PHL 346 must have been formed in the halo, possibly from galactic fountain material at a z distance of about 6 kpc.

  5. Archean Earth Atmosphere Fractal Haze Aggregates: Light Scattering Calculations and the Faint Young Sun Paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boness, D. A.; Terrell-Martinez, B.

    2010-12-01

    As part of an ongoing undergraduate research project of light scattering calculations involving fractal carbonaceous soot aggregates relevant to current anthropogenic and natural sources in Earth's atmosphere, we have read with interest a recent paper [E.T. Wolf and O.B Toon,Science 328, 1266 (2010)] claiming that the Faint Young Sun paradox discussed four decades ago by Carl Sagan and others can be resolved without invoking heavy CO2 concentrations as a greenhouse gas warming the early Earth enough to sustain liquid water and hence allow the origin of life. Wolf and Toon report that a Titan-like Archean Earth haze, with a fractal haze aggregate nature due to nitrogen-methane photochemistry at high altitudes, should block enough UV light to protect the warming greenhouse gas NH3 while allowing enough visible light to reach the surface of the Earth. To test this hypothesis, we have employed a rigorous T-Matrix arbitrary-particle light scattering technique, to avoid the simplifications inherent in Mie-sphere scattering, on haze fractal aggregates at UV and visible wavelenths of incident light. We generate these model aggregates using diffusion-limited cluster aggregation (DLCA) algorithms, which much more closely fit actual haze fractal aggregates than do diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) algorithms.

  6. Geochemical and biologic constraints on the Archaean atmosphere and climate – A possible solution to the faint early Sun paradox

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosing, Minik Thorleif; Brid, D. K.; Sleep, N. H.;

    absence of substantial compensation for the lower solar irradiance by greenhouse gasses in the atmosphere, we have examined the factors that controlled Earth’s albedo. These are primarily the surface albedo of Earth and the abundance and properties of clouds. We have applied a model that takes into...... account the apparent growth of Earth continents (Collerson and Kamber 1999) and the absence of land vegetation during the Precambrian for the evolution of the surface albedo, and a model for the abundance and properties of clouds that takes into account the lower abundance of biogenic cloud condensation...... nuclei in a less productive prokaryotic world. The higher transparency of the atmosphere for short wave incoming solar radiation and the lower surface albedo on an early Earth dominated by oceans, provided sufficient compensation for the lower solar irradiance to allow the presence of liquid oceans, even...

  7. A new analysis strategy for detection of faint gamma-ray sources with Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Becherini, Yvonne; Marandon, Vincent; Punch, Michael; Pita, Santiago; 10.1016/j.astropartphys.2011.03.005

    2011-01-01

    A new background rejection strategy for gamma-ray astrophysics with stereoscopic Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACT), based on Monte Carlo (MC) simulations and real background data from the H.E.S.S. [High Energy Stereoscopic System, see [1].] experiment, is described. The analysis is based on a multivariate combination of both previously-known and newly-derived discriminant variables using the physical shower properties, as well as its multiple images, for a total of eight variables. Two of these new variables are defined thanks to a new energy evaluation procedure, which is also presented here. The method allows an enhanced sensitivity with the current generation of ground-based Cherenkov telescopes to be achieved, and at the same time its main features of rapidity and flexibility allow an easy generalization to any type of IACT. The robustness against Night Sky Background (NSB) variations of this approach is tested with MC simulated events. The overall consistency of the analysis chain has been ...

  8. Variational iteration solving method for El Nino phenomenon atmospheric physics of nonlinear model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    A class of El Nino atmospheric physics oscillation model is considered. The El Nino atmospheric physics oscillation is an abnormal phenomenon involved in the tropical Pacific ocean-atmosphere interactions. The conceptual oscillator model should consider the variations of both the eastern and westem Pacific anomaly patterns. An El Nino atmospheric physics model is proposed using a method for the variational iteration theory. Using the variational iteration method, the approximate expansions of the solution of corresponding problem are constructed. That is, firstly, introducing a set of functional and accounting their variationals, the Lagrange multiplicators are counted, and then the variational iteration is defined, finally, the approximate solution is obtained. From approximate expansions of the solution, the zonal sea surface temperature anomaly in the equatorial eastern Pacific and the thermocline depth anomaly of the seaair oscillation for El Nino atmospheric physics model can be analyzed. El Nino is a very complicated natural phenomenon. Hence basic models need to be reduced for the sea-air oscillator and are solved. The variational iteration is a simple and valid approximate method.

  9. The faint young Sun problem

    CERN Document Server

    Feulner, Georg

    2012-01-01

    For more than four decades, scientists have been trying to find an answer to one of the most fundamental questions in paleoclimatology, the `faint young Sun problem'. For the early Earth, models of stellar evolution predict a solar energy input to the climate system which is about 25% lower than today. This would result in a completely frozen world over the first two billion years in the history of our planet, if all other parameters controlling Earth's climate had been the same. Yet there is ample evidence for the presence of liquid surface water and even life in the Archean (3.8 to 2.5 billion years before present), so some effect (or effects) must have been compensating for the faint young Sun. A wide range of possible solutions have been suggested and explored during the last four decades, with most studies focusing on higher concentrations of atmospheric greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide, methane or ammonia. All of these solutions present considerable difficulties, however, so the faint young Sun prob...

  10. Fainting Starting Parenteral Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pederiva, Federica; Barbi, Egidio; Zennaro, Floriana; Neri, Elena

    2015-09-01

    Complications such as mechanical accidents, infections, and thrombosis are commonly described in the presence of a central venous catheter. We present a case of a boy who had fainting episodes due to dislocation of a central venous catheter. PMID:25853719

  11. Green's Method Approach for Solving the Hermitized Atmospheric Diffusion Equation with Multiple Sources and Eddy Diffusivities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The three-dimensional generalized (self-adjoint) atmospheric diffusion equation can be solved analytically. Where the source strength is located at any where within the region of interest, and with arbitrary power- law function of wind speed and eddy diffusivities. The Greens method approach is utilized, where the Green's function is splitting into two factors, As a result of the hermeticity the solution of the diffusion equation can be expressed exact, as a multiple of source and the two factors of the Green's function, vertical dispersion factor, and cross wind dispersion factor. The two factors of the Green's function are derived analytically in which, the Green's of the diffusion equation is splitting into two pair of two-dimensional differential equations, by using: separation of variables, Bessel equation, and transform the dependent and independent variables, and the cosine transformation. All amenable cases are adopted such as: Neumann (total reflection), Dirichlet (total adsorption), and mixed boundary conditions. Gaussian plume model is extracted in all the previously cases

  12. Asymptotic solving method for a sea—air oscillator model of atmospheric physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a class of coupled system for the El Niño/La Niña southern oscillation (ENSO) atmospheric physics oscillation model is considered. We propose an ENSO atmospheric physics model using a method from the asymptotic theory. It is indicated from the results that the asymptotic method can be used for analyzing the sea surface temperature anomaly and the thermocline depth anomaly of the atmosphere—ocean oscillation for the ENSO model in the equatorial Pacific. (general)

  13. Search for faint galactic features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matuska, W.; Burkhead, M.S.

    1980-01-01

    Trying to determine the size of galaxies and looking for tails and connections between galaxies can be intriguing. These very faint features are often buried in the film grain noise. Our study is of the NGC 3623, NGC 3627 and NGC 3628 region. The search for these faint features is complicated by film variation, sky background, microdensitometer drift and stars in the neighborhood of the galaxies. These questions are addressed and faint features are found with the use of judicious data stretching and averaging along suspected features.

  14. Solving for the Surface: An Automated Approach to THEMIS Atmospheric Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, A. J.; Salvatore, M. R.; Smith, R.; Edwards, C. S.; Christensen, P. R.

    2013-12-01

    Here we present the initial results of an automated atmospheric correction algorithm for the Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) instrument, whereby high spectral resolution Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) data are queried to generate numerous atmospheric opacity values for each THEMIS infrared image. While the pioneering methods of Bandfield et al. [2004] also used TES spectra to atmospherically correct THEMIS data, the algorithm presented here is a significant improvement because of the reduced dependency on user-defined inputs for individual images. Additionally, this technique is particularly useful for correcting THEMIS images that have captured a range of atmospheric conditions and/or surface elevations, issues that have been difficult to correct for using previous techniques. Thermal infrared observations of the Martian surface can be used to determine the spatial distribution and relative abundance of many common rock-forming minerals. This information is essential to understanding the planet's geologic and climatic history. However, the Martian atmosphere also has absorptions in the thermal infrared which complicate the interpretation of infrared measurements obtained from orbit. TES has sufficient spectral resolution (143 bands at 10 cm-1 sampling) to linearly unmix and remove atmospheric spectral end-members from the acquired spectra. THEMIS has the benefit of higher spatial resolution (~100 m/pixel vs. 3x5 km/TES-pixel) but has lower spectral resolution (8 surface sensitive spectral bands). As such, it is not possible to isolate the surface component by unmixing the atmospheric contribution from the THEMIS spectra, as is done with TES. Bandfield et al. [2004] developed a technique using atmospherically corrected TES spectra as tie-points for constant radiance offset correction and surface emissivity retrieval. This technique is the primary method used to correct THEMIS but is highly susceptible to inconsistent results if great care in the

  15. Four Numerical Approaches for Solving the Radiative Transfer Equation in Magnetized White-Dwarf Atmospheres

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan, Stefan; Schmidt, Holger

    2003-01-01

    We compare four different methods to calculate radiative transfer through a magnetized stellar atmosphere, and apply them to the case of magnetic white dwarfs. All methods are numerically stable enough to allow determination of the magnetic field structure, but distinctions between faster, simplifying, methods, and elaborate, but more CPU-time consuming, methods, can be made.

  16. Global carbon - nitrogen - phosphorus cycle interactions: A key to solving the atmospheric CO2 balance problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, B. J.; Mellillo, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    If all biotic sinks of atmospheric CO2 reported were added a value of about 0.4 Gt C/yr would be found. For each category, a very high (non-conservative) estimate was used. This still does not provide a sufficient basis for achieving a balance between the sources and sinks of atmospheric CO2. The bulk of the discrepancy lies in a combination of errors in the major terms, the greatest being in a combination of errors in the major terms, the greatest being in the net biotic release and ocean uptake segments, but smaller errors or biases may exist in calculations of the rate of atmospheric CO2 increase and total fossil fuel use as well. The reason why biotic sinks are not capable of balancing the CO2 increase via nutrient-matching in the short-term is apparent from a comparison of the stoichiometry of the sources and sinks. The burning of fossil fuels and forest biomass releases much more CO2-carbon than is sequestered as organic carbon.

  17. Recent Research and Development in Solving Atmospheric Corrosion Problems of Steel Industries in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A rust layer, so called 'protective' rust layer, on a weathering low-alloy steel has strong protective ability for atmospheric corrosion of the steel. We have recently found through a large number of spectroscopic studies including Moessbauer spectroscopy that the protective rust layer forms after long-term phase transformation. The phase and structure of the rust definitely control the protective ability of the rust layer. From this recent knowledge, some new technologies have been developed. One is the surface-treatment technique that provides a possibility for obtaining the protective rust layer in a relatively short period even in the severe environments such as in marine and chloride (de-icing salts) containing environments. Others are based on selection of effective alloying elements for steel materials. These are particularly important for application in areas where protective rust layer formation may be hindered or prevented. In this paper, we mention recent progress in research and development on rusting protection by rust for atmospheric corrosion of steels in Japan.

  18. Some Weaker Forms of Fuzzy Faintly Open Mappings

    OpenAIRE

    Othman, Hakeem A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper is devoted to introduce and investigate some weak forms of fuzzy open mappings, namely fuzzy faintly semi open (fuzzy faintly semi closed), fuzzy faintly preopen (fuzzy faintly preclosed), fuzzy faintly $\\alpha$-open (fuzzy faintly $\\alpha$-closed), fuzzy faintly semi preopen (fuzzy faintly semi preclosed) and fuzzy faintly $sp$- open (fuzzy faintly $sp$- closed) mappings and their fundamental properties are obtained. Moreover, their relationship with other types of fuzzy open (clo...

  19. Studies of faint field galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although claims are often made that photometric surveys of faint field galaxies reveal evidence for evolution over recent epochs (z<0.6), it has not yet been possible to select a single evolutionary model from comparisons with the data. Magnitude counts are sensitive to evolution but the data is well-mixed in distance because of the width of the luminosity function (LF). Colours can narrow the possibilities but the effects of redshift and morphology can only be separated using many passbands. In this paper, the author highlights two ways in which one can make further progress in this important subject. First, he discusses results based on the AAT redshift survey which comprises 5 Schmidt fields to J = 16.7 i.e. well beyond local inhomogeneities. Secondly, the difficulties in resolving the many possibilities encountered with faint photometry could be resolved with redshifts. To obtain redshift distributions for faint samples is now feasible via multi-object spectroscopy. At intermediate magnitudes (J=20) such distributions test the faint end of the galaxy LF; at faint magnitudes (J=22) they offer a direct evolutionary test. (Auth.)

  20. Employing GNSS radio occultation for solving the global climate monitoring problem for the fundamental state of the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchengast, Gottfried; Schwaerz, Marc; Schwarz, Jakob; Scherllin-Pirscher, Barbara; Pock, Christian; Innerkofler, Josef; Proschek, Veronika; Steiner, Andrea; Danzer, Julia; Ladstaedter, Florian; Foelsche, Ulrich

    2016-04-01

    Monitoring the atmosphere to gain accurate and long-term stable records of essential climate variables (ECVs) such as temperature is the backbone of atmospheric and climate science. Earth observation from space is the key to obtain such data globally. Currently, however, not any atmospheric ECV record can serve as authoritative reference from weekly to decadal scales so that climate variability and change is not yet reliably monitored, despite of satellite data since the 1970s. We aim to solve this decades-long problem for the fundamental state of the atmosphere, the thermodynamic state of the gas as expressed by air density, pressure, temperature, and tropospheric water vapor, which are the fundamental ECVs for tracking climate change and in fact fundamental to all weather and climate processes. We base the solution on the unique SI-traceable data of the GNSS radio occultation (RO) space geodetic observing system, available since 2001 and scheduled long-term into the future. We introduce a new system modeling and data analysis approach which, in contrast to current RO retrieval chains using classical data inversion, enables us to exploit the traceability to universal time (SI second) and to realize SI-traced profiles of atmospheric ECVs, accounting also for relevant side influences such as from the ionosphere, with unprecedented utility for climate monitoring and science. We work to establish such a trace first-time in form of the Reference Occultation Processing System rOPS, providing reference RO data for calibration/validation and climate applications. This rOPS development is a current cornerstone endeavor at the WEGC Graz over 2013 to 2016, supported also by colleagues from EUMETSAT Darmstadt, ECMWF Reading, DMI Copenhagen, AIUB Berne, UCAR Boulder, JPL Pasadena, and others. The rOPS approach demands to process the full chain from the SI-tied raw data to the ECVs with integrated uncertainty propagation, both of estimated systematic and estimated random

  1. Faint Dwarfs in Nearby Groups

    CERN Document Server

    Speller, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    The number and distribution of dwarf satellite galaxies remain a critical test of cold dark matter-dominated structure formation on small scales. Until recently, observational information about galaxy formation on these scales has been limited mainly to the Local Group. We have searched for faint analogues of Local Group dwarfs around nearby bright galaxies, using a spatial clustering analysis of the photometric catalog of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 8. Several other recent searches of SDSS have detected clustered satellite populations down to $\\Delta m_r \\equiv ({m}_{r,\\, {\\rm sat}} -\\, {m}_{r,\\, {\\rm main}}) \\sim 6$-$8$, using photometric redshifts to reduce background contamination. SDSS photometric redshifts are relatively imprecise, however, for faint and nearby galaxies. Instead we use angular size to select potential nearby dwarfs, and consider only the nearest isolated bright galaxies as primaries. As a result, we are able to detect an excess clustering signal from companions down...

  2. Faint young Sun paradox remains

    CERN Document Server

    Goldlatt, Colin

    2011-01-01

    The Sun was fainter when the Earth was young, but the climate was generally at least as warm as today; this is known as the `faint young Sun paradox'. Rosing et al. [1] claim that the paradox can be resolved by making the early Earth's clouds and surface less reflective. We show that, even with the strongest plausible assumptions, reducing cloud and surface albedos falls short by a factor of two of resolving the paradox. A temperate Archean climate cannot be reconciled with the low level of CO2 suggested by Rosing et al. [1]; a stronger greenhouse effect is needed.

  3. Exploring the faint young Sun problem and the possible climates of the Archean Earth with a 3-D GCM

    CERN Document Server

    Charnay, Benjamin; Wordsworth, Robin; Leconte, Jérémy; Millour, Ehouarn; Codron, Francis; Spiga, Aymeric

    2013-01-01

    Different solutions have been proposed to solve the "faint young Sun problem", defined by the fact that the Earth was not fully frozen during the Archean despite the fainter Sun. Most previous studies were performed with simple 1-D radiative convective models and did not account well for the clouds and ice-albedo feedback or the atmospheric and oceanic transport of energy. We apply a global climate model (GCM) to test the different solutions to the faint young Sun problem. We explore the effect of greenhouse gases (CO2 and CH4), atmospheric pressure, cloud droplet size, land distribution, and Earth's rotation rate. We show that neglecting organic haze, 100 mbar of CO2 with 2 mbar of CH4 at 3.8 Ga and 10 mbar of CO2 with 2 mbar of CH4 at 2.5 Ga allow a temperate climate (mean surface temperature between 10{\\deg}C and 20{\\deg}C). Such amounts of greenhouse gases remain consistent with the geological data. Removing continents produces a warming lower than +4{\\deg}C. The effect of rotation rate is even more limit...

  4. Particle-based ablation model for faint meteors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokan, E.; Campbell-Brown, M.

    2014-07-01

    Modeling the ablation of meteoroids as they enter the atmosphere is a way of determining their physical structure and elemental composition. This can provide insight into the structure of parent bodies when combined with an orbit computed from observations. The Canadian Automated Meteor Observatory (CAMO) is a source of new, high-resolution observations of faint meteors [1]. These faint objects tend to have pre-atmospheric masses around 10^{-5} kg, corresponding to a radius of 1 mm. A wide-field camera with a 28° field of view provides guidance to a high-resolution camera that tracks meteors in flight with 1.5° field of view. Meteors are recorded with a scale of 4 m per pixel at a range of 135 km, at 110 frames per second, allowing us to investigate detailed meteor morphology. This serves as an important new constraint for ablation models, in addition to meteor brightness (lightcurves) and meteoroid deceleration. High-resolution observations of faint meteors have revealed that contemporary ablation models are not able to predict meteor morphology, even while matching the observed lightcurve and meteoroid deceleration [2]. This implies that other physical processes, in addition to fragmentation, must be considered for faint meteor ablation. We present a new, particle-based approach to modeling the ablation of small meteoroids. In this model, we simulate the collisions between atmospheric particles and the meteoroid to determine the rate of evaporation and deceleration. Subsequent collisions simulated between evaporated meteoroid particles and ambient atmospheric particles then produce light that would be observed by high-resolution cameras. Preliminary results show simultaneous agreement with meteor morphology, lightcurves, and decelerations recorded with CAMO. A sample comparison of simulated and observed meteor morphology is given in the attached figure. Several meteoroids are well-represented as solid, stony bodies, but some require modeling as a dustball [3

  5. Clouds and the Faint Young Sun Paradox

    CERN Document Server

    Goldblatt, Colin

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the role which clouds could play in resolving the Faint Young Sun Paradox (FYSP). Lower solar luminosity in the past means that less energy was absorbed on Earth (a forcing of -50 Wm-2 during the late Archean), but geological evidence points to the Earth being at least as warm as it is today, with only very occasional glaciations. We perform radiative calculations on a single global mean atmospheric column. We select a nominal set of three layered, randomly overlapping clouds, which are both consistent with observed cloud climatologies and reproduce the observed global mean energy budget of Earth. By varying the fraction, thickness, height and particle size of these clouds we conduct a wide exploration of how changed clouds could affect climate, thus constraining how clouds could contribute to resolving the FYSP. Low clouds reflect sunlight but have little greenhouse effect. Removing them entirely gives a~forcing of +25 Wm-2 whilst more modest reduction in their efficacy gives a forcing of +10 ...

  6. 6Li detection in metal-poor stars: can 3D model atmospheres solve the second lithium problem?

    CERN Document Server

    Steffen, M; Caffau, E; Bonifacio, P; Ludwig, H -G; Spite, M

    2012-01-01

    The presence of 6Li in the atmospheres of metal-poor halo stars is usually inferred from the detection of a subtle extra depression in the red wing of the 7Li doublet line at 670.8 nm. However, the intrinsic line asymmetry caused by convective flows in the photospheres of cool stars is almost indistinguishable from the asymmetry produced by a weak 6Li blend on a (presumed) symmetric 7Li profile. Previous determinations of the 6Li/ 7Li isotopic ratio based on 1D model atmospheres, ignoring the convection-induced line asymmetry, must therefore be considered as upper limits. By comparing synthetic 1D LTE and 3D non-LTE line profiles of the Li 670.8 nm feature, we quantify the differential effect of the convective line asymmetry on the derived 6Li abundance as a function of effective temperature, gravity, and metallicity. As expected, we find that the asymmetry effect systematically reduces the resulting 6Li/7Li ratios. Depending on the stellar parameters, the 3D-1D offset in 6Li/7Li ranges between -0.005 and -0....

  7. Clouds and the Faint Young Sun Paradox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Goldblatt

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the role which clouds could play in resolving the Faint Young Sun Paradox (FYSP. Lower solar luminosity in the past means that less energy was absorbed on Earth (a forcing of -50 W m−2 during the late Archean, but geological evidence points to the Earth being at least as warm as it is today, with only very occasional glaciations. We perform radiative calculations on a single global mean atmospheric column. We select a nominal set of three layered, randomly overlapping clouds, which are both consistent with observed cloud climatologies and reproduce the observed global mean energy budget of Earth. By varying the fraction, thickness, height and particle size of these clouds we conduct a wide exploration of how changed clouds could affect climate, thus constraining how clouds could contribute to resolving the FYSP. Low clouds reflect sunlight but have little greenhouse effect. Removing them entirely gives a forcing of +25 W m−2 whilst more modest reduction in their efficacy gives a forcing of +10 to +15 W m−2. For high clouds, the greenhouse effect dominates. It is possible to generate +50 W m−2 forcing from enhancing these, but this requires making them 3.5 times thicker and 14 K colder than the standard high cloud in our nominal set and expanding their coverage to 100% of the sky. Such changes are not credible. More plausible changes would generate no more that +15 W m−2 forcing. Thus neither fewer low clouds nor more high clouds can provide enough forcing to resolve the FYSP. Decreased surface albedo can contribute no more than +5 W m−2 forcing. Some models which have been applied to the FYSP do not include clouds at all. These overestimate the forcing due to increased CO2 by 20 to 25% when pCO2 is 0.01 to 0.1 bar.

  8. Clouds and the Faint Young Sun Paradox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Goldblatt

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the role which clouds could play in resolving the Faint Young Sun Paradox (FYSP. Lower solar luminosity in the past means that less energy was absorbed on Earth (a forcing of −50 W m−2 during the late Archean, but geological evidence points to the Earth having been at least as warm as it is today, with only very occasional glaciations. We perform radiative calculations on a single global mean atmospheric column. We select a nominal set of three layered, randomly overlapping clouds, which are both consistent with observed cloud climatologies and reproduced the observed global mean energy budget of Earth. By varying the fraction, thickness, height and particle size of these clouds we conduct a wide exploration of how changed clouds could affect climate, thus constraining how clouds could contribute to resolving the FYSP. Low clouds reflect sunlight but have little greenhouse effect. Removing them entirely gives a forcing of +25 W m−2 whilst more modest reduction in their efficacy gives a forcing of +10 to +15 W m−2. For high clouds, the greenhouse effect dominates. It is possible to generate +50 W m−2 forcing from enhancing these, but this requires making them 3.5 times thicker and 14 K colder than the standard high cloud in our nominal set and expanding their coverage to 100% of the sky. Such changes are not credible. More plausible changes would generate no more than +15 W m−2 forcing. Thus neither fewer low clouds nor more high clouds can provide enough forcing to resolve the FYSP. Decreased surface albedo can contribute no more than +5 W m−2 forcing. Some models which have been applied to the FYSP do not include clouds at all. These overestimate the forcing due to increased CO2 by 20 to 25% when pCO2 is 0.01 to 0.1 bar.

  9. Faint detection of exoplanets in microlensing surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Robert A., E-mail: rbrown@stsci.edu [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2014-06-20

    We propose a new approach to discovering faint microlensing signals below traditional thresholds, and for estimating the binary-lens mass ratio and the apparent separation from such signals. The events found will be helpful in accurately estimating the true distribution of planetary semimajor axes, which is an important goal of space microlensing surveys.

  10. The classification of faint Be stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faint emission line-stars found on Hα surveys are usually classified as planetary nebulae or Be stars on rather arbitrary criteria. A comparison of spectra of such stars with their optical and infrared properties suggests that a next step in their classification can be made quite rapidly by photometry. In particular the more unusual specimens can be readily isolated. (Auth.)

  11. On the clustering of faint red galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Haojie; Zheng, Zheng; Guo, Hong; Zhu, Ju; Zehavi, Idit

    2016-08-01

    Faint red galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey show a puzzling clustering pattern in previous measurements. In the two-point correlation function (2PCF), they appear to be strongly clustered on small-scales, indicating a tendency to reside in massive haloes as satellite galaxies. However, their weak clustering on large scales suggests that they are more likely to be found in low mass haloes. The interpretation of the clustering pattern suffers from the large sample variance in the 2PCF measurements, given the small volume of the volume-limited sample of such faint galaxies. We introduce a method to improve the clustering measurements of faint galaxies by making a full use of a flux-limited sample to obtain volume-limited measurements with an increased effective volume. In the improved 2PCF measurements, the fractional uncertainties on large-scales drop by more than 40 per cent, and the strong contrast between small-scale and large-scale clustering amplitudes seen in previous work is no longer prominent. From halo occupation distribution modelling of the measurements, we find that a considerable fraction of faint red galaxies to be satellites in massive haloes, a senario supported by the strong covariance of small-scale 2PCF measurements and the relative spatial distribution of faint red galaxies and luminous galaxies. However, the satellite fraction is found to be degenerate with the slope of the distribution profile of satellites in inner haloes. We compare the modelling results with semi-analytic model predictions and discuss the implications.

  12. A Constant Clustering Amplitude for Faint Galaxies?

    OpenAIRE

    Brainerd, Tereasa G.; Smail , Ian

    1997-01-01

    The angular clustering of faint field galaxies is investigated using deep imaging (I~25) obtained with the 10-m Keck-I telescope. The autocorrelation function is consistent with w(theta) ~ theta^-0.8 and, although less steep correlation functions cannot be ruled out with high confidence, we find no compelling evidence for a systematic decrease in the power law index at the faintest magnitude limits. Results from a number of independent observational studies are combined in order to investigat...

  13. The clustering properties of faint galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Infante, L; Infante, L; Pritchet, C J

    1994-01-01

    The two-point angular correlation function of galaxies, \\wte, has been computed from a new survey of faint galaxies covering a 2 deg^2 area near the North Galactic Pole. This survey, which is complete to limiting magnitudes \\jmag=24 and \\fmag=23, samples angular scales as large as 1\\degpoint5. Faint galaxies are found to be more weakly clustered (by a factor of at least two) compared to galaxies observed locally. Clustering amplitudes are closer to model predictions in the red than in the blue. The weak clustering of faint galaxies cannot be explained by any plausible model of clustering evolution with redshift. However, one possible explanation of the clustering properties of intermediate redshift galaxies is that they resemble those of starburst galaxies and H II region galaxies, which are observed locally to possess weak clustering amplitudes. Our clustering amplitudes are also similar to those of nearby late-type galaxies, which are observed to be more weakly clustered than early-type galaxies A simple, s...

  14. The Population of Optically Faint GEO Debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitzer, Patrick; Barker, Ed; Buckalew, Brent; Burkhardt, Andrew; Cowardin, Heather; Frith, James; Gomez, Juan; Kaleida, Catherine; Lederer, Susan M.; Lee, Chris H.

    2016-01-01

    The 6.5-m Magellan telescope 'Walter Baade' at the Las Campanas Observatory in Chile has been used for spot surveys of the GEO orbital regime to study the population of optically faint GEO debris. The goal is to estimate the size of the population of GEO debris at sizes much smaller than can be studied with 1-meter class telescopes. Despite the small size of the field of view of the Magellan instrument (diameter 0.5-degree), a significant population of objects fainter than R = 19th magnitude have been found with angular rates consistent with circular orbits at GEO. We compare the size of this population with the numbers of GEO objects found at brighter magnitudes by smaller telescopes. The observed detections have a wide range in characteristics starting with those appearing as short uniform streaks. But there are a substantial number of detections with variations in brightness, flashers, during the 5-second exposure. The duration of each of these flashes can be extremely brief: sometimes less than half a second. This is characteristic of a rapidly tumbling object with a quite variable projected size times albedo. If the albedo is of the order of 0.2, then the largest projected size of these objects is around 10-cm. The data in this paper was collected over the last several years using Magellan's IMACS camera in f/2 mode. The analysis shows the brightness bins for the observed GEO population as well as the periodicity of the flashers. All objects presented are correlated with the catalog: the focus of the paper will be on the uncorrelated, optically faint, objects. The goal of this project is to better characterize the faint debris population in GEO that access to a 6.5-m optical telescope in a superb site can provide.

  15. PMAS - Faint Object 3D Spectrophotometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, M. M.; Becker, T.; Kelz, A.

    2002-01-01

    will describe PMAS (Potsdam Multiaperture Spectrophotometer) which was commissioned at the Calar Alto Observatory 3.5m Telescope on May 28-31, 2001. PMAS is a dedicated, highly efficient UV-visual integral field spectrograph which is optimized for the spectrophotometry of faint point sources, typically superimposed on a bright background. PMAS is ideally suited for the study of resolved stars in local group galaxies. I will present results of our preliminary work with MPFS at the Russian 6m Telescope in Selentchuk, involving the development of new 3D data reduction software, and observations of faint planetary nebulae in the bulge of M31 for the determination of individual chemical abundances of these objects. Using this data, it will be demonstrated that integral field spectroscopy provides superior techniques for background subtraction, avoiding the otherwise inevitable systematic errors of conventional slit spetroscopy. The results will be put in perspective of the study of resolved stellar populations in nearby galaxies with a new generation of Extremely Large Telescopes.

  16. Cold HI in faint dwarf galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Patra, Narendra Nath; Karachentsev, Igor D; Kaisin, Serafim S; Begum, Ayesha

    2015-01-01

    We present the results of a study of the amount and distribution of cold atomic gas, as well its correlation with recent star formation in a sample of extremely faint dwarf irregular galaxies. Our sample is drawn from the Faint Irregular Galaxy GMRT Survey (FIGGS) and its extension, FIGGS2. We use two different methods to identify cold atomic gas. In the first method, line-of-sight HI spectra were decomposed into multiple Gaussian components and narrow Gaussian components were identified as cold HI. In the second method, the brightness temperature (T_B) is used as a tracer of cold HI. We find that the amount of cold gas identified using the T_B method is significantly larger than the amount of gas identified using Gaussian decomposition. We also find that a large fraction of the cold gas identified using the T_B method is spatially coincident with regions of recent star formation, although the converse is not true. That is only a small fraction of the regions with recent star formation are also covered by col...

  17. Cold H I in faint dwarf galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Narendra Nath; Chengalur, Jayaram N.; Karachentsev, Igor D.; Kaisin, Serafim S.; Begum, Ayesha

    2016-03-01

    We present the results of a study of the amount and distribution of cold atomic gas, as well its correlation with recent star formation in a sample of extremely faint dwarf irregular galaxies. Our sample is drawn from the Faint Irregular Galaxy GMRT Survey (FIGGS) and its extension, FIGGS2. We use two different methods to identify cold atomic gas. In the first method, line-of-sight H I spectra were decomposed into multiple Gaussian components and narrow Gaussian components were identified as cold H I. In the second method, the brightness temperature (TB ) is used as a tracer of cold H I. We find that the amount of cold gas identified using the TB method is significantly larger than the amount of gas identified using Gaussian decomposition. We also find that a large fraction of the cold gas identified using the TB method is spatially coincident with regions of recent star formation, although the converse is not true. That is only a small fraction of the regions with recent star formation are also covered by cold gas. For regions where the star formation and the cold gas overlap, we study the relationship between the star formation rate density and the cold H I column density. We find that the star formation rate density has a power-law dependence on the H I column density, but that the slope of this power law is significantly flatter than that of the canonical Kennicutt-Schmidt relation.

  18. Increased vasoconstriction predisposes to hyperpnea and postural faint

    OpenAIRE

    Taneja, Indu; Medow, Marvin S.; Glover, June L.; Raghunath, Neeraj K.; Stewart, Julian M.

    2008-01-01

    Our prior studies indicated that postural fainting relates to splanchnic hypervolemia and thoracic hypovolemia during orthostasis. We hypothesized that thoracic hypovolemia causes excessive sympathetic activation, increased respiratory tidal volume, and fainting involving the pulmonary stretch reflex. We studied 18 patients 13–21 yr old, 11 who fainted within 10 min of upright tilt (fainters) and 7 healthy control subjects. We measured continuous blood pressure and heart rate, respiration by ...

  19. Serendipitous discovery of the faint solar twin Inti 1

    CERN Document Server

    Galarza, Jhon Yana; Cohen, Judith G

    2016-01-01

    Methods. We determine the atmospheric parameters and differential abundances using high-resolution ($R \\approx 50 000$), high signal-to-noise (S/N $\\approx$ 110 - 240 per pixel) Keck HIRES spectra for our solar twin candidate, the previously known solar twin HD 45184, and the Sun. Results. For the bright solar twin HD 45184, we found $T_{\\rm{eff}} = 5864 \\pm 9$ K, log $g = 4.45 \\pm 0.03$ dex, $v_{t} = 1.11 \\pm 0.02$ $\\rm{km\\ {s}}^{-1}$, and [Fe/H]$ = 0.04 \\pm 0.01$ dex, which are in good agreement with previous works. The star Inti 1 has atmospheric parameters $T_{\\rm{eff}} = 5837 \\pm 11$ K, log $g = 4.42 \\pm 0.03$ dex, $v_{t} = 1.04 \\pm 0.02$ $\\rm{km\\ {s}}^{-1}$, and [Fe/H]$ = 0.07 \\pm 0.01$ dex that are higher than solar. The age and mass of the solar twin HD 45184 (3 Gyr and 1.05 $\\rm{M_{\\odot}}$) and the faint solar twin Inti 1 (4 Gyr and 1.04 $\\rm{M_{\\odot}}$) were estimated using isochrones. The differential analysis shows that HD 45184 presents an abundance pattern that is similar to typical nearby sol...

  20. A new method for imaging faint objects nearby a bright source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In astronomical observation, it is difficult to obtain the image of faint objects in the peripheral area around a bright celestial body. In order to solve the problem, a new method is designed and experimented, which is called the separation readout technique (SRT). SRT is different from either the traditional coronagraphy or the newly-developed anti-blooming CCD technique, and allows an enough-long exposure to the faint objects in the area around a bright celestial body with the well-preserved bright body's image in one frame. This paper describes in detail the principle of SRT, the computer simulation, the experimental devising and result of SRT observation on a telescope.

  1. A Search for Optically Faint GEO Debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitzer, Patrick; Lederer, Susan M.; Barker, Edwin S.; Cowardin, Heather; Abercromby, Kira J.; ilha, Jiri

    2011-01-01

    Existing optical surveys for debris at geosynchronous orbit (GEO) have been conducted with meter class telescopes, which have detection limits in the range of 18th-19th magnitude. We report on a new search for optically faint debris at GEO using the 6.5-m Magellan 1 telescope Walter Baade at Las Campanas Observatory in Chile. Our goal is to go as faint as possible and characterize the brightness distribution of debris fainter than R = 20th magnitude, corresponding to a size smaller than 10 cm assuming an albedo of 0.175. We wish to compare the inferred size distribution for GEO debris with that for LEO debris. We describe results obtained during 9.4 hours of observing time during 25-27 March 2011. We used the IMACS f/2 instrument, which has a mosaic of 8 CCDs, and a field of view of 30 arc-minutes in diameter. This is the widest field of view of any instrument on either Magellan telescope. All observations were obtained through a Sloan r filter. The limiting magnitude for 5 second exposures is estimated to be fainter than 22. With this small field of view and the limited observing time, our objective was to search for optically faint objects from the Titan 3C Transtage (1968-081) fragmentation in 1992. Eight debris pieces and the parent rocket body are in the Space Surveillance Network public catalog. We successfully tracked two cataloged pieces of Titan debris (SSN # 25001 and 33519) with the 6.5-m telescope, followed by a survey for objects on similar orbits but with a spread in mean anomaly. To detect bright objects over a wider field of view (1.6x1.6 degrees), we observed the same field centers at the same time through a similar filter with the 0.6-m MODEST (Michigan Orbital DEbris Survey Telescope), located 100 km to the south of Magellan at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, Chile. We will describe our experiences using Magellan, a telescope never used previously for orbital debris research, and our initial results.

  2. Solutions to the faint young Sun paradox simulated by a general circulation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Eric Theodore

    The faint young Sun paradox has dominated our thinking regarding early climate. Geological evidence abounds for warm, possibly hot, seawater temperatures and the proliferation of early life during the Archean period of Earth's history (3.8-2.5 Ga). However the standard solar model indicates that the Sun was only 75 to 82 percent as bright as today, implying an apparent contradiction between warm surface temperatures and weak solar irradiance. Geological evidence also places constraints on the amount of atmospheric carbon dioxide present early in Earth's history. Over the past four decades there has been much debate amongst geological, planetary, and climate science communities regarding how to properly resolve the issue of the faint young Sun. Up until very recently, 1-dimensional radiative convective models were the standard tool for deep paleoclimate modeling studies. These studies have notably lacked the ability to treat clouds, surface ice, and meridional energy transport. However, advancements in computing technology now allow us to tackle the faint young Sun paradox using a three-dimensional climate model. Here we use a modified version of the Community Atmosphere Model version 3 from the National Center for Atmospheric Research to study early climate. We find that resolving the faint young Sun paradox becomes less problematic when viewing a full representation of the climate system. Modest amounts of carbon dioxide and methane can provide adequate warming for the Archean within given constraints. Cooler climates with large ice caps but temperate tropical regions can be supported with even less carbon dioxide. The incorporation of systematic climate system differences expected during the Archean, such as fewer cloud condensation nuclei, reduced land albedos, and increased atmospheric nitrogen, can provide additional non-greenhouse means of warming the early Earth. A warm Archean no longer appears at odds with a faint young Sun. Here, we will also discuss the

  3. Observing Faint Companions Close to Bright Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serabyn, Eugene

    2012-04-01

    Progress in a number of technical areas is enabling imaging and interferometric observations at both smaller angular separations from bright stars and at deeper relative contrast levels. Here we discuss recent progress in several ongoing projects at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. First, extreme adaptive optics wavefront correction has recently enabled the use of very short (i.e., blue) wavelengths to resolve close binaries. Second, phase-based coronagraphy has recently allowed observations of faint companions to within nearly one diffraction beam width of bright stars. Finally, rotating interferometers that can observe inside the diffraction beam of single aperture telescopes are being developed to detect close-in companions and bright exozodiacal dust. This paper presents a very brief summary of the techniques involved, along with some illustrative results.

  4. Faint object 3D spectroscopy with PMAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Martin M.; Becker, Thomas; Kelz, Andreas; Bohm, Petra

    2004-09-01

    PMAS is a fiber-coupled lens array type of integral field spectrograph, which was commissioned at the Calar Alto 3.5m Telescope in May 2001. The optical layout of the instrument was chosen such as to provide a large wavelength coverage, and good transmission from 0.35 to 1 μm. One of the major objectives of the PMAS development has been to perform 3D spectrophotometry, taking advantage of the contiguous array of spatial elements over the 2-dimensional field-of-view of the integral field unit. With science results obtained during the first two years of operation, we illustrate that 3D spectroscopy is an ideal tool for faint object spectrophotometry.

  5. Faint Infrared-Excess Field Galaxies FROGs

    CERN Document Server

    Moustakas, L A; Zepf, S E; Bunker, A J

    1997-01-01

    Deep near-infrared and optical imaging surveys in the field reveal a curious population of galaxies that are infrared-bright (I-K>4), yet with relatively blue optical colors (V-I20, is high enough that if placed at z>1 as our models suggest, their space densities are about one-tenth of phi-*. The colors of these ``faint red outlier galaxies'' (fROGs) may derive from exceedingly old underlying stellar populations, a dust-embedded starburst or AGN, or a combination thereof. Determining the nature of these fROGs, and their relation with the I-K>6 ``extremely red objects,'' has implications for our understanding of the processes that give rise to infrared-excess galaxies in general. We report on an ongoing study of several targets with HST & Keck imaging and Keck/LRIS multislit spectroscopy.

  6. The faint young Sun problem revisited with a 3-D climate-carbon model – Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Le Hir

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Considering the weak luminosity of the early Sun, it is generally inferred that high concentrations of greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4 are required to prevent the early Earth's surface temperature to drop below the freezing point of liquid water. Conversely, a new controversial assumption based on banded iron formation mineralogy hypothesizes that the Archean atmosphere was potentially characterized by low concentrations of CO2. To solve the faint young Sun problem, it was suggested that a reduced albedo associated to less reflective clouds was able to prevent the Earth to jump into a snowball state. In this very active debate, we have investigated the early Earth climate using a general circulation model to test this scenario. Our simulations include the ice albedo feedback and specific Archean climatic factors such as a different cloudiness, a faster Earth's rotation rate, and a reduced continental surface. We demonstrate that when larger cloud droplets are accounted for, clouds warm high latitudes and inhibit sea-ice formation. This process limits the ice-albedo feedback efficiency and may prevent a global glaciation. Due to this particular mechanism, low pCO2 allow maintaining a mild climate during the early Archean. This conclusion will be challenged in the second part of this paper, where the carbon cycle is considered.

  7. Searching for Optically Faint GEO Debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitzer, Patrick; Lederer, Susan M.; Abercromby, Kira J.; Barker, Edwin S.; Burkhardt, Andrew; Cowardin, Heather; Krisko, Paula; Silha, Jiri

    2012-01-01

    We report on results from a search for optically faint debris (defined as R > 20th magnitude, or smaller than 10 cm assuming an albedo of 0.175)) at geosynchronous orbit (GEO) using the 6.5-m Magellan telescope "Walter Baade" at Las Campanas Observatory in Chile. Our goal is to characterize the brightness distribution of debris to the faintest limiting magnitude possible. Our data was obtained during 6 hours of observing time during the photometric nights of 26 and 27 March 2011 with the IMACS f/2 instrument, which has a field of view (fov) of 0.5 degrees in diameter. All observations were obtained through a Sloan r filter, and calibrated by observations of Landolt standard stars. Our primary objective was to search for optically faint objects from one of the few known fragmentations at GEO: the Titan 3C Transtage (1968-081) fragmentation in 1992. Eight debris pieces and the parent rocket body are in the Space Surveillance Network public catalog. We successfully tracked two cataloged pieces of Titan debris with the 6.5-m telescope, followed by a survey for unknown objects on similar orbits but with different mean anomalies. To establish the bright end of the debris population, calibrated observations were acquired on the same field centers, telescope rates, and time period with a similar filter on the 0.6-m MODEST (Michigan Orbital DEbris Survey Telescope), located 100 km to the south of Magellan at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, Chile. We will show the calibrated brightness distributions from both telescopes, and compare the observed brightness distributions with that predicted for various population models of debris of different sizes.

  8. Serendipitous discovery of the faint solar twin Inti 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yana Galarza, Jhon; Meléndez, Jorge; Cohen, Judith G.

    2016-04-01

    Context. Solar twins are increasingly the subject of many studies owing to their wide range of applications from testing stellar evolution models to the calibration of fundamental observables; these stars are also of interest because high precision abundances could be achieved that are key to investigating the chemical anomalies imprinted by planet formation. Furthermore, the advent of photometric surveys with large telescopes motivates the identification of faint solar twins in order to set the zero point of fundamental calibrations. Aims: We intend to perform a detailed line-by-line differential analysis to verify whether 2MASS J23263267-0239363 (designated here as Inti 1) is indeed a solar twin. Methods: We determine the atmospheric parameters and differential abundances using high-resolution (R ≈ 50 000), high signal-to-noise (S/N ≈ 110-240 per pixel) Keck/HIRES spectra for our solar twin candidate, the previously known solar twin HD 45184, and the Sun (using reflected light from the asteroid Vesta). Results: For the bright solar twin HD 45184, we found Teff = 5864 ± 9 K, log g = 4.45 ± 0.03 dex, vt = 1.11 ± 0.02 km s-1, and [Fe/H] = 0.04 ± 0.01 dex, which are in good agreement with previous works. Our abundances are in excellent agreement with a recent high-precision work, with an element-to-element scatter of only 0.01 dex. The star Inti 1 has atmospheric parameters Teff = 5837 ± 11 K, log g = 4.42 ± 0.03 dex, vt = 1.04 ± 0.02 km s-1, and [Fe/H] = 0.07 ± 0.01 dex that are higher than solar. The age and mass of the solar twin HD 45184 (3 Gyr and 1.05 M⊙) and the faint solar twin Inti 1 (4 Gyr and 1.04 M⊙) were estimated using isochrones. The differential analysis shows that HD 45184 presents an abundance pattern that is similar to typical nearby solar twins; this means this star has an enhanced refractory relative to volatile elements, while Inti 1 has an abundance pattern closer to solar, albeit somewhat enhanced in refractories. The abundance

  9. No climate paradox under the faint early Sun.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosing, Minik T; Bird, Dennis K; Sleep, Norman H; Bjerrum, Christian J

    2010-04-01

    Environmental niches in which life first emerged and later evolved on the Earth have undergone dramatic changes in response to evolving tectonic/geochemical cycles and to biologic interventions, as well as increases in the Sun's luminosity of about 25 to 30 per cent over the Earth's history. It has been inferred that the greenhouse effect of atmospheric CO(2) and/or CH(4) compensated for the lower solar luminosity and dictated an Archaean climate in which liquid water was stable in the hydrosphere. Here we demonstrate, however, that the mineralogy of Archaean sediments, particularly the ubiquitous presence of mixed-valence Fe(II-III) oxides (magnetite) in banded iron formations is inconsistent with such high concentrations of greenhouse gases and the metabolic constraints of extant methanogens. Prompted by this, and the absence of geologic evidence for very high greenhouse-gas concentrations, we hypothesize that a lower albedo on the Earth, owing to considerably less continental area and to the lack of biologically induced cloud condensation nuclei, made an important contribution to moderating surface temperature in the Archaean eon. Our model calculations suggest that the lower albedo of the early Earth provided environmental conditions above the freezing point of water, thus alleviating the need for extreme greenhouse-gas concentrations to satisfy the faint early Sun paradox. PMID:20360739

  10. Detection of Optically Faint GEO Debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitzer, P.; Lederer, S.; Barker, E.; Cowardin, H.; Abercromby, K.; Silha, J.; Burkhardt, A.

    2014-01-01

    There have been extensive optical surveys for debris at geosynchronous orbit (GEO) conducted with meter-class telescopes, such as those conducted with MODEST (the Michigan Orbital DEbris Survey Telescope, a 0.6-m telescope located at Cerro Tololo in Chile), and the European Space Agency's 1.0-m space debris telescope (SDT) in the Canary Islands. These surveys have detection limits in the range of 18th or 19th magnitude, which corresponds to sizes larger than 10 cm assuming an albedo of 0.175. All of these surveys reveal a substantial population of objects fainter than R = 15th magnitude that are not in the public U.S. Satellite Catalog. To detect objects fainter than 20th magnitude (and presumably smaller than 10 cm) in the visible requires a larger telescope and excellent imaging conditions. This combination is available in Chile. NASA's Orbital Debris Program Office has begun collecting orbital debris observations with the 6.5-m (21.3-ft diameter) "Walter Baade" Magellan telescope at Las Campanas Observatory. The goal is to detect objects as faint as possible from a ground-based observatory and begin to understand the brightness distribution of GEO debris fainter than R = 20th magnitude.

  11. Accurate shear measurement with faint sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jun; Foucaud, Sebastien [Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 955 Jianchuan road, Shanghai, 200240 (China); Luo, Wentao, E-mail: betajzhang@sjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: walt@shao.ac.cn, E-mail: foucaud@sjtu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Nandan Road 80, Shanghai, 200030 (China)

    2015-01-01

    For cosmic shear to become an accurate cosmological probe, systematic errors in the shear measurement method must be unambiguously identified and corrected for. Previous work of this series has demonstrated that cosmic shears can be measured accurately in Fourier space in the presence of background noise and finite pixel size, without assumptions on the morphologies of galaxy and PSF. The remaining major source of error is source Poisson noise, due to the finiteness of source photon number. This problem is particularly important for faint galaxies in space-based weak lensing measurements, and for ground-based images of short exposure times. In this work, we propose a simple and rigorous way of removing the shear bias from the source Poisson noise. Our noise treatment can be generalized for images made of multiple exposures through MultiDrizzle. This is demonstrated with the SDSS and COSMOS/ACS data. With a large ensemble of mock galaxy images of unrestricted morphologies, we show that our shear measurement method can achieve sub-percent level accuracy even for images of signal-to-noise ratio less than 5 in general, making it the most promising technique for cosmic shear measurement in the ongoing and upcoming large scale galaxy surveys.

  12. The ISO-IRAS Faint Galaxy Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Harding E.

    1999-01-01

    As part of the ISO-IRAS Faint Galaxy Survey ISO Satellite observations of over 600 IRAS sources have been obtained with the ISOCAM instrument. Because our survey strategy involved relatively short integrations, great care was required in developing analysis software including cosmic-ray and transient removal and calibration. These observations have now been through final pipeline processing at IPAC and ground-based follow-up is ongoing. The observations are for sources from two samples: a " Filler' sample selected to be at z greater than 0.1 and a fainter sample which selected for the highest redshift galaxies in the IRAS survey, with redshifts 0.2 less than z less than 1.0. I now have obtained ground-based follow-up spectrophotometry at Lick and Palomar observatories for 100 LFIRGs with 0.1 less than z less than 0.7. Our observations have confirmed that these systems are comparable to nearby LFIRGs such as Arp 220, with L (sub -)(fir) greater than 10(exp 11) L(sub -) sun and typically HII/Liner optical excitation. About 10% of the galaxies show true AGN (Sy2) excitation. Based on our work on a nearby complete sample of LFIRGS, we believe that the majority of these systems are luminous Starbursts, thus this project is tracing the luminous end of the galaxy star-forming luminosity function - the (infrared) star-formation history of the Universe to z approx. 1, a topic of some considerable recent interest. A by-product of these ISOCAM observations is approximately 1 square degree of deep 2 microns pointings outside the IRAS error boxes, allowing us an independent estimate of the mid-infrared log N - log S relation. Ground-based observations of this sample are continuing.

  13. Direct method for solving transfer equation by expansion in spherical harmonics: Scattering in atmosphere with Lambertian lower boundary and thermal radiation transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustinov, Y. A.

    1978-01-01

    The direct method for the solution of the spherical harmonics approximation to the equation of transfer of radiation is applied to the cases of (1) scattering of the solar radiation in the atmosphere with the Lambertian boundary and (2) thermal radiation transfer.

  14. a Faint and Lonely Brown Dwarf in the Solar Vicinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-04-01

    identical to other known Brown Dwarfs, its measured characteristics indicate that it must be located at a distance of only 10 parsecs, that is about 33 light-years, from the solar system. Its temperature is obviously below 1700 degrees C (where TiO and VO condense as dust grains [3] so that the spectral lines of these molecules are no longer seen). Its mass can be no more than 75 times that of Jupiter, or 6 percent of that of the Sun. During recent years, several Brown Dwarf candidates have been de-masked as low-mass stars and only recently a few Brown Dwarfs were identified in the Pleiades star cluster. Those Brown Dwarfs are quite young and therefore comparatively hotter and brighter. Contrarily, KELU-1 is most probably somewhat older and its unique location so close to us greatly facilitates future investigations. Moreover, it is not at all `disturbed' by the presence of other objects in its immediate surroundings, as this is the case for all other known objects of this type. It will now be important to obtain accurate measurements of KELU-1's parallax , that is, the small annual change of its position in the sky that is caused by the Earth's motion around the Sun and thus the viewing angle of an Earth-based observer. This should be possible within the next year. Moreover, high resolution spectral investigations with large telescope facilities, soon to include the ESO Very Large Telescope at the Paranal observatory in northern Chile, will now for the first time enable us to investigate the processes that take place in the relatively cold upper layers of Brown Dwarfs. For instance, the observed presence of lithium shows that its atmosphere must be different from that of low-mass stars. KELU-1 and the `Dark Matter' From the fact that KELU-1 is so faint that it was barely detectable on the ESO Schmidt plates, it is possible to estimate that the total volume so far surveyed for this type of objects by this research programme is rather small, only about 23 cubic parsecs (800

  15. Omnidirectional Thermal Imaging Surveillance System Featuring Trespasser and Faint Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Wai Kit, Zeh-Yang Chew, Hong-Liang Lim, Chu-Kiong Loo, Way-Soong Lim

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposed an efficient omnidirectional thermal imaging surveillancesystem featuring trespasser and faint detection. In this thermal imaging system,the omnidirectional scenes in a monitored site such as old folks home, nursinghome, hospital etc. are first captured using a thermal camera attached to acustom made hyperbolic IR (infrared radiation reflected mirror. The capturedscenes to be monitored with trespasser or faint detection are then fed into alaptop computer for image processing and alarm purposes. Log-polar mapping isproposed to map the captured omnidirectional thermal image into panoramicimage, hence providing the observer or image processing tools a complete wideangle of view. Two effective human behavioral detection algorithms namely:Human head detection algorithm and home alone faint detection algorithm arealso designed for monitored the trespasser or fainted people detection. Theobserved significances of this new proposed omnidirectional thermal imagingsystem include: it can cover a wide angle of view (360º omnidirectional, usingminimum hardware, low cost and the output thermal images are with higher datacompression. Experimental results show that the proposed thermal imaging surveillance system achieves high accuracy in detecting trespasser andmonitoring faint detection for health care purpose.

  16. The faint galaxy contribution to the diffuse extragalactic background light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Shaun; Treyer, Marie-Agnes; Silk, Joseph

    1992-01-01

    Models of the faint galaxy contribution to the diffuse extragalactic background light are presented, which are consistent with current data on faint galaxy number counts and redshifts. The autocorrelation function of surface brightness fluctuations in the extragalactic diffuse light is predicted, and the way in which these predictions depend on the cosmological model and assumptions of biasing is determined. It is confirmed that the recent deep infrared number counts are most compatible with a high density universe (Omega-0 is approximately equal to 1) and that the steep blue counts then require an extra population of rapidly evolving blue galaxies. The faintest presently detectable galaxies produce an interesting contribution to the extragalactic diffuse light, and still fainter galaxies may also produce a significant contribution. These faint galaxies still only produce a small fraction of the total optical diffuse background light, but on scales of a few arcminutes to a few degrees, they produce a substantial fraction of the fluctuations in the diffuse light.

  17. VLBI detection of an Infrared-Faint Radio Source

    OpenAIRE

    Norris, Ray P.; Tingay, Steven; Phillips, Chris; Middelberg, Enno; Deller, Adam; Appleton, Philip N.

    2007-01-01

    Infrared-Faint Radio Sources represent a new and unexpected class of object which is bright at radio wavelengths but unusually faint at infrared wavelengths. If, like most mJy radio sources, they were either conventional active or star-forming galaxies in the local Universe, we would expect them to be detectable at infrared wavelengths, and so their non-detection by the Spitzer Space Telescope is surprising. Here we report the detection of one of these sources using Very Long Baseline Interfe...

  18. Faint NUV/FUV Standards from Swift/UVOT, GALEX and SDSS Photometry

    CERN Document Server

    Siegel, Michael H; Roming, Peter W A; Landsman, Wayne B; Prieto, Carlos Allende; Breeveld, Alice A; Brown, Peter; Holland, Stephen T; Kuin, N P M; Page, Mathew J; Berk, Daniel E Vanden

    2010-01-01

    At present, the precision of deep ultraviolet photometry is somewhat limited by the dearth of faint ultraviolet standard stars. In an effort to improve this situation, we present a uniform catalog of eleven new faint (u sim17) ultraviolet standard stars. High-precision photometry of these stars has been taken from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and Galaxy Evolution Explorer and combined with new data from the Swift Ultraviolet Optical Telescope to provide precise photometric measures extending from the Near Infrared to the Far Ultraviolet. These stars were chosen because they are known to be hot (20,000 < T_eff < 50,000 K) DA white dwarfs with published Sloan spectra that should be photometrically stable. This careful selection allows us to compare the combined photometry and Sloan spectroscopy to models of pure hydrogen atmospheres to both constrain the underlying properties of the white dwarfs and test the ability of white dwarf models to predict the photometric measures. We find that the photometry pro...

  19. The Stony Brook Photometric Redshifts of Faint Galaxies in the Hubble Deep Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Lanzetta, K M; Fernández-Soto, A; Pascarelle, S; Pütter, R C; Yahata, N; Yahil, A; Lanzetta, Kenneth M.; Chen, Hsiao-Wen; Fernandez-Soto, Alberto; Pascarelle, Sebastian; Puetter, Rick; Yahata, Noriaki; Yahil, Amos

    1999-01-01

    We report on some aspects of the current status of our efforts to establish properties of faint galaxies by applying our photometric redshift technique to faint galaxies in the HDF and HDF-S WFPC2 and NICMOS fields.

  20. A Search for Magnesium in Europa's Atmosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Horst, Sarah M.; Brown, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    Europa's tenuous atmosphere results from sputtering of the surface. The trace element composition of its atmosphere is therefore related to the composition of Europa's surface. Magnesium salts are often invoked to explain Galileo Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer spectra of Europa's surface, thus magnesium may be present in Europa's atmosphere. We have searched for magnesium emission in the Hubble Space Telescope Faint Object Spectrograph archival spectra of Europa's atmosphere. Magnesium wa...

  1. VLBI detection of an Infrared-Faint Radio Source

    CERN Document Server

    Norris, Ray P; Phillips, Chris; Middelberg, Enno; Deller, Adam; Appleton, Philip N

    2007-01-01

    Infrared-Faint Radio Sources represent a new and unexpected class of object which is bright at radio wavelengths but unusually faint at infrared wavelengths. If, like most mJy radio sources, they were either conventional active or star-forming galaxies in the local Universe, we would expect them to be detectable at infrared wavelengths, and so their non-detection by the Spitzer Space Telescope is surprising. Here we report the detection of one of these sources using Very Long Baseline Interferometry, from which we conclude that the sources are driven by Active Galactic Nuclei. We suggest that these sources are either normal radio-loud quasars at high redshift or abnormally obscured radio galaxies.

  2. X-ray Counterparts of Infrared Faint Radio Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schartel, Norbert

    2011-10-01

    Infrared Faint Radio Sources (IFRS) are radio sources with extremely faint or even absent infrared emission in deep Spitzer Surveys. Models of their spectral energy distributions, the ratios of radio to infrared flux densities and their steep radio spectra strongly suggest that IFRS are AGN at high redshifts (2IFRS, but if confirmed, the increased AGN numbers at these redshifts will account for the unresolved part of the X-ray background. The identification of X-ray counterparts of IFRS is considered to be the smoking gun for this hypothesis. We propose to observe 8 IFRS using 30ks pointed observations. X-ray detections of IFRS with different ratios of radio-to-infrared fluxes, will constrain the class-specific SED.

  3. The Formation History of the Ultra-Faint Dwarf Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Thomas M; Geha, Marla; Kirby, Evan; VandenBerg, Don A; Kalirai, Jason S; Simon, Joshua D; Avila, Roberto J; Munoz, Ricardo R; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Renzini, Alvio; Ferguson, Henry C; Vargas, Luis C; Gennaro, Mario

    2013-01-01

    We present early results from a Hubble Space Telescope survey of the ultra-faint dwarf galaxies. These Milky Way satellites were discovered in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, and appear to be an extension of the classical dwarf spheroidals to low luminosities, offering a new front in the efforts to understand the missing satellite problem. Because they are the least luminous, most dark matter dominated, and least chemically evolved galaxies known, the ultra-faint dwarfs are the best candidate fossils from the early universe. The primary goal of the survey is to measure the star-formation histories of these galaxies and discern any synchronization due to the reionization of the universe. We find that the six galaxies of our survey have very similar star-formation histories, and that each is dominated by stars older than 12 Gyr.

  4. Towards a Network of Faint DA White Dwarfs as High-Precision Spectrophotometric Standards

    CERN Document Server

    Narayan, Gautham; Holberg, Jay B; Matheson, Thomas; Saha, Abhijit; Olszewski, Edward W; Claver, Jenna; Stubbs, Christopher W; Bohlin, Ralph C; Deustua, Susana; Rest, Armin

    2016-01-01

    We present initial results from a program aimed at establishing a network of hot DA white dwarfs to serve as spectrophotometric standards for present and future wide-field surveys. These stars span the equatorial zone and are faint enough to be conveniently observed throughout the year with large-aperture telescopes. Spectra of these white dwarfs are analyzed to generate a non-local-thermodynamic-equilibrium (NLTE) model atmosphere normalized to HST colors, including adjustments for wavelength-dependent interstellar extinction. Once established, this standard star network will serve ground-based observatories in both hemispheres as well as space-based instrumentation from the UV to the near IR. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this concept and show how two different approaches to the problem using somewhat different assumptions produce equivalent results. We discuss lessons learned and the resulting corrective actions applied to our program.

  5. Toward a Network of Faint DA White Dwarfs as High-precision Spectrophotometric Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, G.; Axelrod, T.; Holberg, J. B.; Matheson, T.; Saha, A.; Olszewski, E.; Claver, J.; Stubbs, C. W.; Bohlin, R. C.; Deustua, S.; Rest, A.

    2016-05-01

    We present the initial results from a program aimed at establishing a network of hot DA white dwarfs to serve as spectrophotometric standards for present and future wide-field surveys. These stars span the equatorial zone and are faint enough to be conveniently observed throughout the year with large-aperture telescopes. The spectra of these white dwarfs are analyzed in order to generate a non-local-thermodynamic-equilibrium model atmosphere normalized to Hubble Space Telescope colors, including adjustments for wavelength-dependent interstellar extinction. Once established, this standard star network will serve ground-based observatories in both hemispheres as well as space-based instrumentation from the UV to the near IR. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this concept and show how two different approaches to the problem using somewhat different assumptions produce equivalent results. We discuss the lessons learned and the resulting corrective actions applied to our program.

  6. The faint end of the galaxy luminosity function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treyer, Marie A.; Silk, Joseph

    1994-01-01

    The evolution of the B- and K-band luminosity functions of galaxies is inferred in a relatively model-independent way from deep spectroscopic and photometric surveys. We confirm earlier evidence by Eales for an increase in the amplitude of the B-band galaxy luminosity function at modest redshift (z less than or approx. 0.2). We find in addition that the slope of the faint end of the luminosity function must systematically steepen and progress toward more luminous galaxies with increasing lookback time, assuming that the galaxy redshift distribution may be smoothly extrapolated 2 mag fainter than observed, as suggested by recent gravitational lensing studies. This evolution is shown to be color-dependent, and we predict the near-infrared color distribution of faint galaxies. The luminosity function of blue (B - K less than or approx. 4) galaxies in the range 0.2 less than or approx. z less than or approx. 1 can be represented by a Schechter function with characteristic light density phi(sup *) L(sup *) comparable to that of present-day late-type galaxies, but with a steeper faint end slope alpha approx. 1.4.

  7. The faint radio sky: radio astronomy becomes mainstream

    CERN Document Server

    Padovani, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Radio astronomy has changed. For years it studied relatively rare sources, which emit mostly non-thermal radiation across the entire electromagnetic spectrum, i.e. radio quasars and radio galaxies. Now it is reaching such faint flux densities that it detects mainly star-forming galaxies and the more common radio-quiet active galactic nuclei. These sources make up the bulk of the extragalactic sky, which has been studied for decades in the infrared, optical, and X-ray bands. I follow the transformation of radio astronomy by reviewing the main components of the radio sky at the bright and faint ends, the issue of their proper classification, their number counts, luminosity functions, and evolution. The overall "big picture" astrophysical implications of these results, and their relevance for a number of hot topics in extragalactic astronomy, are also discussed. The future prospects of the faint radio sky are very bright, as we will soon be flooded with survey data. This review should be useful to all extragalac...

  8. Infrared-Faint Radio Sources are at high redshifts

    CERN Document Server

    Herzog, Andreas; Norris, Ray P; Sharp, Rob; Spitler, Lee R

    2013-01-01

    Context. Infrared-Faint Radio Sources (IFRS) are characterised by relatively high radio flux densities and associated faint or even absent infrared and optical counterparts. The resulting extremely high radio-to-infrared flux density ratios up to several thousands were previously known only for High-redshift Radio Galaxies (HzRGs), suggesting a link between these classes of object. However, the optical and infrared faintness of IFRS makes their study diffcult. So far, no redshift is known for an original IFRS which would help to put IFRS in the context of other classes of object, especially of HzRGs. Aims. This work tests the hypothesis that IFRS follow the relation between 3.6 um flux density and redshift found for HzRGs. Furthermore, redshifts will enable us to reveal the intrinsic radio and infrared properties of IFRS and we will test the current suggestions that IFRS are high-redshift radio-loud active galactic nuclei. Methods. A sample of IFRS was spectroscopically observed using the Focal Reducer and lo...

  9. Are the infrared-faint radio sources pulsars?

    CERN Document Server

    Keith, A D Cameron M J; Norris, R P; Mao, M Y; Middelberg, E

    2011-01-01

    Infrared-Faint Radio Sources (IFRS) are objects which are strong at radio wavelengths but undetected in sensitive Spitzer observations at infrared wavelengths. Their nature is uncertain and most have not yet been associated with any known astrophysical object. One possibility is that they are radio pulsars. To test this hypothesis we undertook observations of 16 of these sources with the Parkes Radio Telescope. Our results limit the radio emission to a pulsed flux density of less than 0.21 mJy (assuming a 50% duty cycle). This is well below the flux density of the IFRS. We therefore conclude that these IFRS are not radio pulsars.

  10. Are the infrared-faint radio sources pulsars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, A. D.; Keith, M.; Hobbs, G.; Norris, R. P.; Mao, M. Y.; Middelberg, E.

    2011-07-01

    Infrared-faint radio sources (IFRS) are objects which are strong at radio wavelengths but undetected in sensitive Spitzer observations at infrared wavelengths. Their nature is uncertain and most have not yet been associated with any known astrophysical object. One possibility is that they are radio pulsars. To test this hypothesis we undertook observations of 16 of these sources with the Parkes Radio Telescope. Our results limit the radio emission to a pulsed flux density of less than 0.21 mJy (assuming a 50 per cent duty cycle). This is well below the flux density of the IFRS. We therefore conclude that these IFRS are not radio pulsars.

  11. Two-photon processes in faint biphoton fields

    CERN Document Server

    Strekalov, D V; Chekhova, M V; Dowling, J P; Strekalov, Dmitry V.; Stowe, Matt; Chekhova, Maria V.; Dowling, Jonathan P.

    2002-01-01

    The goal of this research is to determine and study a physical system that will enable a fast and intrinsically two-photon detector, which would be of interest for quantum information and metrology applications. We consider two types of two-photon processes that can be observed using a very faint, but quantum-correlated biphoton field. These are optical up-conversion and an external photoelectric effect. We estimate the correlation enhancement factor for the biphoton light compared to coherent light, report and discuss the preliminary experimental results.

  12. FIGGS2: An HI survey of extremely faint irregular galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Patra, Narendra Nath; Karachentsev, Igor D; Sharina, Margarita E

    2016-01-01

    We present the observations and first results from the FIGGS2 survey. FIGGS2 is an extension of the earlier Faint Irregular Galaxies GMRT survey (FIGGS) towards faint luminosity end. The sample consists of 20 galaxies of which 15 were detected in HI 21cm line using the Giant Meter-wave Radio Telescope (GMRT). The median blue band magnitude of our sample is ~ -11.6, which is more than one magnitude fainter than earlier FIGGS survey. From our GMRT observations we find that, for many of our sample galaxies, the HI disks are offset from their optical disks. The HI diameters of the FIGGS2 galaxies show a tight correlation with their HI mass. The slope of the correlation is 2.08 +/- 0.20 similar to what is found for FIGGS galaxies. We also find that for almost all galaxies, the HI disks are larger than the optical disks which is a common trend for dwarf or spiral galaxies. The mean value of the ratio of HI to optical diameter is ~ 1.54.

  13. Exploring the faint source population at 15.7 GHz

    CERN Document Server

    Whittam, Imogen H; Green, David A; Jarvis, Matt J

    2016-01-01

    We discuss our current understanding of the nature of the faint, high-frequency radio sky. The Tenth Cambridge (10C) survey at 15.7 GHz is the deepest high-frequency radio survey to date, covering 12 square degrees to a completeness limit of 0.5 mJy, making it the ideal starting point from which to study this population. In this work we have matched the 10C survey to several lower-frequency radio catalogues and a wide range of multi-wavelength data (near- and far-infrared, optical and X-ray). We find a significant increase in the proportion of flat-spectrum sources at flux densities below 1 mJy - the median radio spectral index between 15.7 GHz and 610 MHz changes from 0.75 for flux densities greater than 1.5 mJy to 0.08 for flux densities less than 0.8 mJy. The multi-wavelength analysis shows that the vast majority (> 94 percent) of the 10C sources are radio galaxies; it is therefore likely that these faint, flat spectrum sources are a result of the cores of radio galaxies becoming dominant at high frequenci...

  14. Freeze, Flight, Fight, Fright, Faint: Adaptationist Perspectives on the Acute Stress Response Spectrum

    OpenAIRE

    Bracha, Dr. H. Stefan

    2004-01-01

    This article reviews the existing evolutionary perspectives on the acute stress response habitual faintness and blood-injection-injury type-specific phobia (BIITS phobia). In this article, an alternative evolutionary perspective, based on recent advances in evolutionary psychology, is proposed. Specifically, that fear-induced faintness (eg, fainting following the sight of a syringe, blood, or following a trivial skin injury) is a distinct Homo sapiens-specific extreme-stress survival response...

  15. Sweating the small stuff: simulating dwarf galaxies, ultra-faint dwarf galaxies, and their own tiny satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Coral Rose

    2016-06-01

    The high dark matter content and the shallow potential wells of low mass galaxies (10^3 Msun important questions in near field cosmology: why are there so few observed dwarfs compared to the number predicted by simulations? What shuts down star formation in ultra-faint galaxies? Why do dwarfs have inverted age gradients and what does it take to convert a dwarf irregular (dIrrs) into a dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxy?We to attempt to answer these questions by running ultra-high resolution cosmological FIRE simulations of isolated dwarf galaxies. We predict that many ultra-faint dwarfs should exist as satellites of more massive isolated Local Group dwarfs. The ultra-faints (Mstar 10 Gyr), having had their star formation shut down by reionization. Additionally, we show that the kinematics and ellipticities of isolated simulated dwarf centrals are consistent with observed dSphs satellites without the need for harassment from a massive host. We further show that most (but not all) observed *isolated* dIrrs in the Local Volume also have dispersion-supported stellar populations, contradicting the previous view that these objects are rotating. Finally, we investigate the stellar age gradients in dwarfs — showing that early mergers and strong feedback can create an inverted gradient, with the older stars occupying larger galactocentric radii.These results offer an interesting direction in testing models that attempt to solve dark matter problems via explosive feedback episodes. Can the same models that create large cores in simulated dwarfs preserve the mild stellar rotation that is seen in a minority of isolated dIrrs? Can the bursty star formation that created a dark matter core also match observed stellar gradients in low mass galaxies? Comparisons between our simulations and observed dwarfs should provide an important benchmark for this question going forward.

  16. Very faint X-ray binaries with XMM-Newton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas Padilla, M.

    2016-06-01

    A population of very faint X-ray binaries has been discovered in the last years thanks to the improvement in sensitivity and resolution of the new generations of X-ray missions. These systems show anomalously low luminosities, below 10^{36} ergs/sec, challenging our understanding of accretion physics and binary evolution models, and thereby opening new windows for both observational and theoretical work on accretion onto compact objects. XMM-Newton is playing a crucial role in the study of this dim family of objects thanks to its incomparable spectral capabilities at low luminosities. I will review the state-of-the-art of the field and present our XMM results in both black hole and neutron star objects. Finally, I will discuss the possibilities that the new generation of X-ray telescopes offer for this research line.

  17. Morphology and astrometry of Infrared-Faint Radio Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middelberg, Enno; Norris, Ray; Randall, Kate; Mao, Minnie; Hales, Christopher

    2008-10-01

    Infrared-Faint Radio Sources, or IFRS, are an unexpected class of object discovered in the Australia Telescope Large Area Survey, ATLAS. They are compact 1.4GHz radio sources with no visible counterparts in co-located (relatively shallow) Spitzer infrared and optical images. We have detected two of these objects with VLBI, indicating the presence of an AGN. These observations and our ATLAS data indicate that IFRS are extended on scales of arcseconds, and we wish to image their morphologies to obtain clues about their nature. These observations will also help us to select optical counterparts from very deep, and hence crowded, optical images which we have proposed. With these data in hand, we will be able to compare IFRS to known object types and to apply for spectroscopy to obtain their redshifts.

  18. Do the enigmatic ``Infrared-Faint Radio Sources'' include pulsars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, George; Middelberg, Enno; Norris, Ray; Keith, Michael; Mao, Minnie; Champion, David

    2009-04-01

    The Australia Telescope Large Area Survey (ATLAS) team have surveyed seven square degrees of sky at 1.4GHz. During processing some unexpected infrared-faint radio sources (IFRS sources) were discovered. The nature of these sources is not understood, but it is possible that some of these sources may be pulsars within our own galaxy. We propose to observe the IFRS sources with steep spectral indices using standard search techniques to determine whether or not they are pulsars. A pulsar detection would 1) remove a subset of the IFRS sources from the ATLAS sample so they would not need to be observed with large optical/IR telescopes to find their hosts and 2) be intrinsically interesting as the pulsar would be a millisecond pulsar and/or have an extreme spatial velocity.

  19. Faint blue objects on the Hubble Deep Field North and South as possible nearby old halo white dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Méndez, R A

    1999-01-01

    Using data derived from the deepest and finest angular resolution images of the universe yet acquired by astronomers at optical wavelengths using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) in two postage-stamp sections of the sky (Williams et al. 1996a,b), plus simple geometrical and scaling arguments, we demonstrate that the faint blue population of point-source objects detected on those two fields (Méndez et al. 1996) could actually be ancient halo white dwarfs at distances closer than about 2 kpc from the Sun. This finding has profound implications, as the mass density of the detected objects would account for about half of the missing dark matter in the Milky-Way (Bahcall and Soneira 1980), thus solving one of the most controversial issues of modern astrophysics (Trimble 1987, Ashman 1992). The existence of these faint blue objects points to a very large mass locked into ancient halo white dwarfs. Our estimate indicates that they could account for as much as half of the dark matter in our Galaxy, confirming the su...

  20. Establishing a Network of faint DA white dwarfs as Spectrophotometric Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Abhijit; Narayan, Gautham; Holberg, Jay; Matheson, Thomas; Olszewski, Edward; Stubbs, Christopher; Bohlin, Ralph; Sabbi, Elena; Deustua, Susana; Rest, Armin; Axelrod, Tim; MacKenty, John W.; Camarota, Larry; Gilliland, Ron

    2015-08-01

    Systematic uncertainties in photometric calibration are the dominant source of error in current type Ia supernova dark energy studies, as well as other forefront cosmology efforts, e.g. photo-redshift determinations for weak lensing mass tomography. Current and next-generation ground-based all-sky surveys require a network of calibration stars with 1) known SEDs (to properly and unambiguously take into account filter differences), and 2) that are on a common photometric zeropoint scale across the sky to sub-percent accuracy. We are using a combination of HST panchromatic photometry and ground based spectroscopy to establish such an essential network of faint primary photometric standards, exploiting the well-understood spectral energy distributions of DA white dwarf stars that are free from the complications of observing through the Earth's time-variable atmosphere. The Balmer features in the spectra are used to deduce the two parameters (temperature and log(g)) from which we model the spectral energy distribution (SED) from these stars which have pure hydrogen atmospheres. By comparing against panchromatic broadband HST photometry, and allowing for an achromatic zero-point adjustment and mild scaling of the interstellar reddening, we find that model prediction and observation agree to a few milli-mag. By combining the zero-point and reddening adjustments with the modeled SED, for each star we obtain the incident SED above the terrestrial atmosphere, thus establishing these objects as spectrophotometric standards. We are pursuing 23 objects between 16 and 19 mag spread over the sky uniformly around the equator and northern mid-latitudes, with plans to extend this to southern latitudes. This precision photometric heritage from HST will benefit essentially all existing and upcoming survey projects, and in prticular, directly addresses one of the current barriers to understanding the nature of dark energy.

  1. Abundance ratios of red giants in low mass ultra faint dwarf spheroidal galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    François, P; Bonifacio, P; Bidin, C Moni; Geisler, D; Sbordone, L

    2015-01-01

    Low mass dwarf spheroidal galaxies are key objects for our understanding of the chemical evolution of the pristine Universe and the Local Group of galaxies. Abundance ratios in stars of these objects can be used to better understand their star formation and chemical evolution. We report on the analysis of a sample of 11 stars belonging to 5 different ultra faint dwarf spheroidal galaxies (UfDSph) based on X-Shooter spectra obtained at the VLT. Medium resolution spectra have been used to determine the detailed chemical composition of their atmosphere. We performed a standard 1D LTE analysis to compute the abundances. Considering all the stars as representative of the same population of low mass galaxies, we found that the [alpha/Fe] ratios vs [Fe/H] decreases as the metallicity of the star increases in a way similar to what is found for the population of stars belonging to dwarf spheroidal galaxies. The main difference is that the solar [alpha/Fe] is reached at a much lower metallicity for the UfDSph than the ...

  2. Group Problem Solving

    CERN Document Server

    Laughlin, Patrick R

    2011-01-01

    Experimental research by social and cognitive psychologists has established that cooperative groups solve a wide range of problems better than individuals. Cooperative problem solving groups of scientific researchers, auditors, financial analysts, air crash investigators, and forensic art experts are increasingly important in our complex and interdependent society. This comprehensive textbook--the first of its kind in decades--presents important theories and experimental research about group problem solving. The book focuses on tasks that have demonstrably correct solutions within mathematical

  3. Thinking and problem solving

    OpenAIRE

    Frensch, Peter; Funke, Joachim

    2005-01-01

    Human thinking, and in particular, the human ability to solve complex, real-life problems contributes more than any other human ability to the development of human culture and the growth and development of human life on earth. However, the human ability to solve complex problems is still not well understood, partly because it has for a long time been largely ignored by traditional problem-solving research in the field of psychology. In this article, we present a definition of complex problem ...

  4. The Primeval Populations of the Ultra-Faint Dwarf Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Thomas M; Geha, Marla; Kirby, Evan N; VandenBerg, Don A; Munoz, Ricardo R; Kalirai, Jason S; Simon, Joshua D; Avila, Roberto J; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Renzini, Alvio; Ferguson, Henry C

    2012-01-01

    We present new constraints on the star formation histories of the ultra-faint dwarf (UFD) galaxies, using deep photometry obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). A galaxy class recently discovered in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, the UFDs appear to be an extension of the classical dwarf spheroidals to low luminosities, offering a new front in efforts to understand the missing satellite problem. They are the least luminous, most dark-matter dominated, and least chemically-evolved galaxies known. Our HST survey of six UFDs seeks to determine if these galaxies are true fossils from the early universe. We present here the preliminary analysis of three UFD galaxies: Hercules, Leo IV, and Ursa Major I. Classical dwarf spheroidals of the Local Group exhibit extended star formation histories, but these three Milky Way satellites are at least as old as the ancient globular cluster M92, with no evidence for intermediate-age populations. Their ages also appear to be synchronized to within ~1 Gyr of each other, a...

  5. Luminosity Function of Faint Globular Clusters in M87

    CERN Document Server

    Waters, C Z; Lauer, T R; Baltz, E A; Silk, J; Waters, Christopher Z.; Zepf, Stephen E.; Lauer, Tod R.; Baltz, Edward A.; Silk, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    We present the luminosity function to very faint magnitudes for the globular clusters in M87, based on a 30 orbit \\textit{Hubble Space Telescope (HST)} WFPC2 imaging program. The very deep images and corresponding improved false source rejection allow us to probe the mass function further beyond the turnover than has been done before. We compare our luminosity function to those that have been observed in the past, and confirm the similarity of the turnover luminosity between M87 and the Milky Way. We also find with high statistical significance that the M87 luminosity function is broader than that of the Milky Way. We discuss how determining the mass function of the cluster system to low masses can constrain theoretical models of the dynamical evolution of globular cluster systems. Our mass function is consistent with the dependence of mass loss on the initial cluster mass given by classical evaporation, and somewhat inconsistent with newer proposals that have a shallower mass dependence. In addition, the rat...

  6. Statistical lensing of faint QSOs by galaxy clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Croom, S M

    1999-01-01

    We investigate the anti-correlation between faint high redshift QSOs and low redshift galaxy groups found by Boyle, Fong & Shanks (1988), on the assumption that it is caused by gravitational lensing of a flat QSO number count, rather than any other systematic effect (e.g dust). An isothermal sphere lens model, requires a velocity dispersion of 1286+72-91 km/s. Addition of a constant density plane reduces this to 1143+109-153 km/s, while the plane density is 0.081+-0.032h g/cm**2. Both these values are considerably larger than the 400-600km/s expected for poor clusters and groups and imply that the mass associated with such groups is ~4 times larger than inferred from virial analyses. If due to lensing, this measurement clearly tends to favour high values of Omega_0. We demonstrate how an estimate of Omega_0 may be obtained, finding a simple scaling relation for Omega_0. Systematic uncertainties in the extent of the anti-correlation and the group space density currently dominate this determination, but thi...

  7. VLBI observations of Infrared-Faint Radio Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middelberg, Enno; Phillips, Chris; Norris, Ray; Tingay, Steven

    2006-10-01

    We propose to observe a small sample of radio sources from the ATLAS project (ATLAS = Australia Telescope Large Area Survey) with the LBA, to determine their compactness and map their structures. The sample consists of three radio sources with no counterpart in the co-located SWIRE survey (3.6 um to 160 um), carried out with the Spitzer Space Telescope. This rare class of sources, dubbed Infrared-Faint Radio Sources, or IFRS, is inconsistent with current galaxy evolution models. VLBI observations are an essential way to obtain further clues on what these objects are and why they are hidden from infrared observations: we will map their structure to test whether they resemble core-jet or double-lobed morphologies, and we will measure the flux densities on long baselines, to determine their compactness. Previous snapshot-style LBA observations of two other IFRS yielded no detections, hence we propose to use disk-based recording with 512 Mbps where possible, for highest sensitivity. With the observations proposed here, we will increase the number of VLBI-observed IFRS from two to five, soon allowing us to draw general conclusions about this intriguing new class of objects.

  8. The radio properties of infrared-faint radio sources

    CERN Document Server

    Middelberg, Enno; Hales, Christopher A; Seymour, Nick; Johnston-Hollitt, Melanie; Huynh, Minh T; Lenc, Emil; Mao, Minnie Y

    2010-01-01

    Infrared-faint radio sources (IFRS) are objects that have flux densities of several mJy at 1.4GHz, but that are invisible at 3.6um when using sensitive Spitzer observations with uJy sensitivities. Their nature is unclear and difficult to investigate since they are only visible in the radio. High-resolution radio images and comprehensive spectral coverage can yield constraints on the emission mechanisms of IFRS and can give hints to similarities with known objects. We imaged a sample of 17 IFRS at 4.8GHz and 8.6GHz with the Australia Telescope Compact Array to determine the structures on arcsecond scales. We added radio data from other observing projects and from the literature to obtain broad-band radio spectra. We find that the sources in our sample are either resolved out at the higher frequencies or are compact at resolutions of a few arcsec, which implies that they are smaller than a typical galaxy. The spectra of IFRS are remarkably steep, with a median spectral index of -1.4 and a prominent lack of spec...

  9. THE PRIMEVAL POPULATIONS OF THE ULTRA-FAINT DWARF GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Thomas M.; Tumlinson, Jason; Kalirai, Jason S.; Avila, Roberto J.; Ferguson, Henry C., E-mail: tbrown@stsci.edu, E-mail: tumlinson@stsci.edu, E-mail: jkalirai@stsci.edu, E-mail: avila@stsci.edu, E-mail: ferguson@stsci.edu [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); and others

    2012-07-01

    We present new constraints on the star formation histories of the ultra-faint dwarf (UFD) galaxies, using deep photometry obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). A galaxy class recently discovered in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, the UFDs appear to be an extension of the classical dwarf spheroidals to low luminosities, offering a new front in efforts to understand the missing satellite problem. They are the least luminous, most dark-matter-dominated, and least chemically evolved galaxies known. Our HST survey of six UFDs seeks to determine if these galaxies are true fossils from the early universe. We present here the preliminary analysis of three UFD galaxies: Hercules, Leo IV, and Ursa Major I. Classical dwarf spheroidals of the Local Group exhibit extended star formation histories, but these three Milky Way satellites are at least as old as the ancient globular cluster M92, with no evidence for intermediate-age populations. Their ages also appear to be synchronized to within {approx}1 Gyr of each other, as might be expected if their star formation was truncated by a global event, such as reionization.

  10. Teaching through Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fi, Cos D.; Degner, Katherine M.

    2012-01-01

    Teaching through Problem Solving (TtPS) is an effective way to teach mathematics "for" understanding. It also provides students with a way to learn mathematics "with" understanding. In this article, the authors present a definition of what it means to teach through problem solving. They also describe a professional development vignette that…

  11. Mathematical Problem Solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Richard E.

    This chapter examines research on the cognitive processes involved in mathematical problem solving. The introduction includes definitions of key terms and a summary of four cognitive processes used in mathematical problem solving: (1) translating; (2) integrating; (3) planning; and (4) executing. Examples are then provided and exemplary research…

  12. The radio properties of infrared-faint radio sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middelberg, E.; Norris, R. P.; Hales, C. A.; Seymour, N.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Huynh, M. T.; Lenc, E.; Mao, M. Y.

    2011-02-01

    Context. Infrared-faint radio sources (IFRS) are objects that have flux densities of several mJy at 1.4 GHz, but that are invisible at 3.6 μm when using sensitive Spitzer observations with μJy sensitivities. Their nature is unclear and difficult to investigate since they are only visible in the radio. Aims: High-resolution radio images and comprehensive spectral coverage can yield constraints on the emission mechanisms of IFRS and can give hints to similarities with known objects. Methods: We imaged a sample of 17 IFRS at 4.8 GHz and 8.6 GHz with the Australia Telescope Compact Array to determine the structures on arcsecond scales. We added radio data from other observing projects and from the literature to obtain broad-band radio spectra. Results: We find that the sources in our sample are either resolved out at the higher frequencies or are compact at resolutions of a few arcsec, which implies that they are smaller than a typical galaxy. The spectra of IFRS are remarkably steep, with a median spectral index of -1.4 and a prominent lack of spectral indices larger than -0.7. We also find that, given the IR non-detections, the ratio of 1.4 GHz flux density to 3.6 μm flux density is very high, and this puts them into the same regime as high-redshift radio galaxies. Conclusions: The evidence that IFRS are predominantly high-redshift sources driven by active galactic nuclei (AGN) is strong, even though not all IFRS may be caused by the same phenomenon. Compared to the rare and painstakingly collected high-redshift radio galaxies, IFRS appear to be much more abundant, but less luminous, AGN-driven galaxies at similar cosmological distances.

  13. Near-infrared imaging survey of faint companions around young dwarfs in the Pleiades cluster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yoichi Itoh; Yumiko Oasa; Hitoshi Funayama; Masahiko Hayashi; Misato Fukagawa; Toshio Hashiguchi; Thayne Currie

    2011-01-01

    We conducted a near-infrared imaging survey of 11 young dwarfs in the Pleiades cluster using the Subaru Telescope and the near-infrared coronagraph imager.We found ten faint point sources, with magnitudes as faint as 20 mag in the K-band,with around seven dwarfs. Comparison with the Spitzer archive images revealed that a pair of the faint sources around V 1171 Tau is very red in infrared wavelengths, which indicates very low-mass young stellar objects. However, the results of our follow-up proper motion measurements implied that the central star and the faint sources do not share common proper motions, suggesting that they are not physically associated.

  14. The first Swift X-ray Flash: The faint afterglow of XRF 050215B

    CERN Document Server

    Levan, A J; Tanvir, N R; Page, K L; Rol, E; Zhang, B; Goad, M R; O'Brien, P T; Priddey, R S; Bersier, D; Burrows, D N; Chapman, R; Fruchter, A S; Giommi, P; Gehrels, N; Hughes, M A; Pak, S; Simpson, C; Tagliaferri, G; Vardoulaki, E

    2006-01-01

    We present the discovery of XRF 050215B and its afterglow. The burst was detected by the Swift BAT during the check-out phase and observations with the X-ray telescope began approximately 30 minutes after the burst. These observations found a faint, slowly fading X-ray afterglow near the centre of the error box as reported by the BAT. Infrared data, obtained at UKIRT after 10 hours also revealed a very faint K-band afterglow. The afterglow appear unusual since it is very faint, especially in the infrared with K>20 only 9 hours post burst. The X-ray and infrared lightcurves exhibit a slow, monotonic decay with alpha=0.8 and no evidence for steepening associated with the jet break to 10 days post burst. We discuss possible explanations for the faintness and slow decay in the context of present models for the production of X-ray Flashes.

  15. Solving Word Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karrison, Joan; Carroll, Margaret Kelly

    1991-01-01

    Students with language and learning disabilities may have difficulty solving mathematics word problems. Use of a sequential checklist, identifying clues and keywords, and illustrating a problem can all help the student identify and implement the correct computational process. (DB)

  16. Creativity and Problem Solving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents some modern and interdisciplinary concepts about creativity and creative processes of special relevance for Operational Research workers. Central publications in the area Creativity-Operational Research are shortly reviewed. Some creative tools and the Creative Problem Solving...

  17. Problem Solving and Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Chandralekha

    2016-01-01

    One finding of cognitive research is that people do not automatically acquire usable knowledge by spending lots of time on task. Because students' knowledge hierarchy is more fragmented, "knowledge chunks" are smaller than those of experts. The limited capacity of short term memory makes the cognitive load high during problem solving tasks, leaving few cognitive resources available for metacognition. The abstract nature of the laws of physics and the chain of reasoning required to draw meaningful inferences makes these issues critical. In order to help students, it is crucial to consider the difficulty of a problem from the perspective of students. We are developing and evaluating interactive problem-solving tutorials to help students in the introductory physics courses learn effective problem-solving strategies while solidifying physics concepts. The self-paced tutorials can provide guidance and support for a variety of problem solving techniques, and opportunity for knowledge and skill acquisition.

  18. Solving Tommy's Writing Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdman, Debra

    1986-01-01

    The article describes an approach by which word processing helps to solve some of the writing problems of learning disabled students. Aspects considered include prewriting, drafting, revising, and completing the story. (CL)

  19. Spectrum from Faint Galaxy IRAS F00183-7111

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope has detected the building blocks of life in the distant universe, albeit in a violent milieu. Training its powerful infrared eye on a faint object located at a distance of 3.2 billion light-years, Spitzer has observed the presence of water and organic molecules in the galaxy IRAS F00183-7111. With an active galactic nucleus, this is one of the most luminous galaxies in the universe, rivaling the energy output of a quasar. Because it is heavily obscured by dust (see visible-light image in the inset), most of its luminosity is radiated at infrared wavelengths.The infrared spectrograph instrument onboard Spitzer breaks light into its constituent colors, much as a prism does for visible light. The image shows a low-resolution spectrum of the galaxy obtained by the spectrograph at wavelengths between 4 and 20 microns. Spectra are graphical representations of a celestial object's unique blend of light. Characteristic patterns, or fingerprints, within the spectra allow astronomers to identify the object's chemical composition and to determine such physical properties as temperature and density.The broad depression in the center of the spectrum denotes the presence of silicates (chemically similar to beach sand) in the galaxy. An emission peak within the bottom of the trough is the chemical signature for molecular hydrogen. The hydrocarbons (orange) are organic molecules comprised of carbon and hydrogen, two of the most common elements on Earth. Since it has taken more than three billion years for the light from the galaxy to reach Earth, it is intriguing to note the presence of organics in a distant galaxy at a time when life is thought to have started forming on our home planet.Additional features in the spectrum reveal the presence of water ice (blue), carbon dioxide ice (green) and carbon monoxide (purple) in both gas and solid forms. The magenta peak corresponds to singly ionized neon gas, a spectral line often used by astronomers as a

  20. Transport equation solving methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is mainly devoted to Csub(N) and Fsub(N) methods. CN method: starting from a lemma stated by Placzek, an equivalence is established between two problems: the first one is defined in a finite medium bounded by a surface S, the second one is defined in the whole space. In the first problem the angular flux on the surface S is shown to be the solution of an integral equation. This equation is solved by Galerkin's method. The Csub(N) method is applied here to one-velocity problems: in plane geometry, slab albedo and transmission with Rayleigh scattering, calculation of the extrapolation length; in cylindrical geometry, albedo and extrapolation length calculation with linear scattering. Fsub(N) method: the basic integral transport equation of the Csub(N) method is integrated on Case's elementary distributions; another integral transport equation is obtained: this equation is solved by a collocation method. The plane problems solved by the Csub(N) method are also solved by the Fsub(N) method. The Fsub(N) method is extended to any polynomial scattering law. Some simple spherical problems are also studied. Chandrasekhar's method, collision probability method, Case's method are presented for comparison with Csub(N) and Fsub(N) methods. This comparison shows the respective advantages of the two methods: a) fast convergence and possible extension to various geometries for Csub(N) method; b) easy calculations and easy extension to polynomial scattering for Fsub(N) method

  1. Mathematics as Problem Solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soifer, Alexander

    This book contains about 200 problems. It is suggested that it be used by students, teachers or anyone interested in exploring mathematics. In addition to a general discussion on problem solving, there are problems concerned with number theory, algebra, geometry, and combinatorics. (PK)

  2. Problem Solving with Patents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jerilou; Sumrall, William J.

    2008-01-01

    Exploring our patent system is a great way to engage students in creative problem solving. As a result, the authors designed a teaching unit that uses the study of patents to explore one avenue in which scientists and engineers do science. Specifically, through the development of an idea, students learn how science and technology are connected.…

  3. On Solving Linear Recurrences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbs, David E.

    2013-01-01

    A direct method is given for solving first-order linear recurrences with constant coefficients. The limiting value of that solution is studied as "n to infinity." This classroom note could serve as enrichment material for the typical introductory course on discrete mathematics that follows a calculus course.

  4. Simon on problem solving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2006-01-01

    general approach to problem solving. We apply these Simonian ideas to organisational issues, specifically new organisational forms. Specifically, Simonian ideas allow us to develop a morphology of new organisational forms and to point to some design problems that characterise these forms....

  5. Universal Design Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Mary C.

    2004-01-01

    Universal design is made up of four elements: accessibility, adaptability, aesthetics, and affordability. This article addresses the concept of universal design problem solving through experiential learning for an interior design studio course in postsecondary education. Students' experiences with clients over age 55 promoted an understanding of…

  6. THE FAINT END OF THE QUASAR LUMINOSITY FUNCTION AT z ∼ 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evolution of the quasar luminosity function (QLF) is one of the basic cosmological measures providing insight into structure formation and mass assembly in the universe. We have conducted a spectroscopic survey to find faint quasars (-26.0 1450 2. Thirty candidates have R ≤ 23 mag. We conducted spectroscopic follow-up for 28 of our candidates and found 23 QSOs, 21 of which are reported here for the first time, in the 3.74 β) gives a faint-end slope β = -1.6 ± 0.2. If we consider our larger, but highly incomplete sample going 1 mag fainter, we measure a steeper faint-end slope -2 < β < -2.5. In all cases, we consistently find faint-end slopes that are steeper than expected based on measurements at z ∼ 3. We combine our sample with bright quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to derive parameters for a double-power-law LF. Our best fit finds a bright-end slope, α = -2.4 ± 0.2, and faint-end slope, β = -2.3 ± 0.2, without a well-constrained break luminosity. This is effectively a single power law, with β = -2.7 ± 0.1. We use these results to place limits on the amount of ultraviolet radiation produced by quasars and find that quasars are able to ionize the intergalactic medium at these redshifts.

  7. Improving the ability of image sensors to detect faint stars and moving objects using image deconvolution techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Octavi Fors; Jorge Núñez; Xavier Otazu; Albert Prades; Cardinal, Robert D.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we show how the techniques of image deconvolution can increase the ability of image sensors as, for example, CCD imagers, to detect faint stars or faint orbital objects (small satellites and space debris). In the case of faint stars, we show that this benefit is equivalent to double the quantum efficiency of the used image sensor or to increase the effective telescope aperture by more than 30% without decreasing the astrometric precision or introducing artificial bias. In the ca...

  8. THE FAINT END OF THE CLUSTER-GALAXY LUMINOSITY FUNCTION AT HIGH REDSHIFT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We measure the faint-end slope of the galaxy luminosity function (LF) for cluster galaxies at 1 3.6μm = –0.97 ± 0.14 and α4.5μm = –0.91 ± 0.28, consistent with a flat faint-end slope and is in agreement with measurements of the field LF in similar bands at these redshifts. A comparison to α in low-redshift clusters finds no statistically significant evidence of evolution. Combined with past studies which show that M* is passively evolving out to z ∼ 1.3, this means that the shape of the cluster LF is largely in place by z ∼ 1.3. This suggests that the processes that govern the buildup of the mass of low-mass cluster galaxies have no net effect on the faint-end slope of the cluster LF at z ∼< 1.3.

  9. Determination of astrometry and photometry of faint companions in the presence of residual speckle noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Daniel; Devaney, Nicholas; Gladysz, Szymon

    In this paper we examine approaches to faint companion detection and estimation in multi-spectral images. We will employ the Hotelling observer which is the optimal linear algorithm for signal detection. We have shown how to use this observer to estimate faint object position and brightness in the presence of residual speckle which usually limit astrometric and photometric techniques. These speckles can be reduced by differential imaging techniques such as Angular Differential Imaging and Spectral Differential Imaging. Here we present results based on simulations of adaptive optics corrected images from an ELT which contain quasi-static speckle noise. The simulation includes Angular Differential Imaging to reduce the residual speckle and subsequent multi-wavelenght processing. We examine the feasibility of this approach on simulated ELT observations of faint companions.

  10. THE SUBARU HIGH-z QUASAR SURVEY: DISCOVERY OF FAINT z ∼ 6 QUASARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the discovery of one or two extremely faint z ∼ 6 quasars in 6.5 deg2 utilizing a unique capability of the wide-field imaging of the Subaru/Suprime-Cam. The quasar selection was made in (i'-zB ) and (zB -zR ) colors, where zB and zR are bandpasses with central wavelengths of 8842 Å and 9841 Å, respectively. The color selection can effectively isolate quasars at z ∼ 6 from M/L/T dwarfs without the J-band photometry down to zR < 24.0, which is 3.5 mag deeper than the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We have selected 17 promising quasar candidates. The follow-up spectroscopy for seven targets identified one apparent quasar at z = 6.156 with M 1450 = –23.10. We also identified one possible quasar at z = 6.041 with a faint continuum of M 1450 = –22.58 and a narrow Lyα emission with HWHM =427 km s–1, which cannot be distinguished from Lyman α emitters. We derive the quasar luminosity function at z ∼ 6 by combining our faint quasar sample with the bright quasar samples by SDSS and CFHQS. Including our data points invokes a higher number density in the faintest bin of the quasar luminosity function than the previous estimate employed. This suggests a steeper faint-end slope than lower z, though it is yet uncertain based on a small number of spectroscopically identified faint quasars, and several quasar candidates still remain to be diagnosed. The steepening of the quasar luminosity function at the faint end does increase the expected emission rate of the ionizing photon; however, it only changes by a factor of approximately two to six. This was found to still be insufficient for the required photon budget of reionization at z ∼ 6

  11. Creativity and Problem Solving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents some modern and interdisciplinary concepts about creativity and creative processes of special relevance for Operational Research workers. Central publications in the area Creativity-Operational Research are shortly reviewed. Some creative tools and the Creative Problem Solving...... approach are also discussed. Finally, some applications of these concepts and tools are outlined. Some central references are presented for further study of themes related to creativity or creative tools....

  12. Creativity and problem Solving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Victor Valqui Vidal

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some modern and interdisciplinary concepts about creativity and creative processes of special relevance for Operational Research workers. Central publications in the area Creativity-Operational Research are shortly reviewed. Some creative tools and the Creative Problem Solving approach are also discussed. Finally, some applications of these concepts and tools are outlined. Some central references are presented for further study of themes related to creativity or creative tools.

  13. Crossword solving mobile application

    OpenAIRE

    Pencelj, Andraž

    2013-01-01

    The thesis describes development of crossword solving mobile application with PhoneGap framework. The emphasis is on application development for Android platform. Thesis describes only application which runs on mobile devices without server-side part. First part of thesis describes crosswords and their history. It also describes technologies which were used. Emphasis is on describing PhoneGap framework and mobile web browsers. PhoneGap framework is used to develop native applications for m...

  14. Kim 3: an Ultra-faint Star Cluster in the Constellation of Centaurus

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Dongwon; Jerjen, Helmut; Mackey, Dougal; Da Costa, Gary S.; Milone, Antonino P.

    2015-01-01

    We report the discovery of an ultra-faint star cluster in the constellation of Centaurus. This new stellar system, Kim 3, features a half light radius of $r_{h}=2.29^{+1.28}_{-0.52}$ pc and a total luminosity of $M_{V}=+0.7\\pm0.3$. Approximately 26 stars are identified as candidate member stars down to four magnitudes below the main-sequence turn-off, which makes Kim 3 the least luminous star cluster known to date. The compact physical size and extreme low luminosity place it close to faint s...

  15. Very long baseline interferometry detection of an Infrared-Faint Radio Source

    OpenAIRE

    Norris, Ray P.; Tingay, Steven; Phillips, Chris; Middelberg, Enno; Deller, Adam; Appleton, Philip N.

    2007-01-01

    Infrared-Faint Radio Sources represent a new and unexpected class of object which is bright at radio wavelengths but unusually faint at infrared wavelengths. If, like most mJy radio sources, they were either conventional active or star-forming galaxies in the local Universe, we would expect them to be detectable at infrared wavelengths, and so their non-detection by the Spitzer Space Telescope is surprising. Here, we report the detection of one of these sources using very long baseline interf...

  16. The Nature of the Faint Chandra X-ray Sources in the Galactic Centre

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiter, A.J.; Belczynski, K.; Harrison, T. E.

    2005-01-01

    Recent Chandra observations have revealed a large population of faint X-ray point sources in the Galactic Centre. The observed population consists of about 2000 faint sources in the luminosity range ~10^31-10^33 erg/s. The majority of these sources (70%) are described by hard spectra, while the rest are rather soft. The nature of these sources still remains unknown. Belczynski & Taam (2004) demonstrated that X-ray binaries with neutron star or black hole accretors may account for most of the ...

  17. Big fish, small fish: Two New Ultra-Faint Satellites of the Milky Way

    CERN Document Server

    Belokurov, V; Evans, N W; Gilmore, G; Irwin, M J; Just, D; Koposov, S; Mateo, M; Olszewski, E; Watkins, L; Wyrzykowski, L

    2010-01-01

    We report the discovery of two new Milky Way satellites in the neighboring constellations of Pisces and Pegasus identified in data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Pisces II, an ultra-faint dwarf galaxy lies at the distance of ~180 kpc, some 15 degrees away from the recently detected Pisces I. Segue 3, an ultra-faint star cluster lies at the distance of 16 kpc. We use deep follow-up imaging obtained with the 4-m Mayall telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory to derive their structural parameters. Pisces II has a half-light radius of ~60 pc, while Segue 3 is twenty times smaller at only 3pc.

  18. Faint Lyα Emitters, Star-forming Galaxies, and Damped Lyα Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, M.; Haehnelt, M.; Bunker, A.; Becker, G.; Marleau, F.; Graham, J.; Cristiani, S.; Jarvis, M.; Lacey, C.; Morris, S.; Peroux, C.; Roettgering, H.; Theuns, T.

    2008-10-01

    We have discovered a population of faint single line emitters, likely to be identified with faint z˜ 3 Lyα emitters and with the host galaxies of damped Lyman alpha systems. The objects appear to constitute the bulk of the star-forming galaxies detected so far from the ground, and are likely to provide the gaseous reservoir from which present-day Milky way type galaxies have formed. Unlike color-selected (yman break galaxies, these objects appear to have low star-formation rates, relatively strong Lyalpha emission, and low masses, metallicities, and dust content (s.a. arXiv:0711.1354).

  19. On the faint end of the high redshift AGN luminosity function

    OpenAIRE

    Shankar, Francesco; Mathur, Smita

    2007-01-01

    Using the results of recent optical surveys we conclude that the {\\it non}-detection of quasars down to faint magnitudes implies a significant flattening of the high redshift (z~6) optical active galactic nuclei (AGN) luminosity function for M_{1450}>-24.7. We find that all the data are consistent with a faint-end slope for the optical AGN luminosity function of \\beta=-2.2 and \\beta=-2.8, at the 90% and 99% confidence level respectively, flatter than the bright-end slope of \\beta'~ -3.2. We a...

  20. Solving Diophantine Equations

    OpenAIRE

    Cira, Octavian; Smarandache, Florentin

    2016-01-01

    In this book a multitude of Diophantine equations and their partial or complete solutions are presented. How should we solve, for example, the equation {\\eta}({\\pi}(x)) = {\\pi}({\\eta}(x)), where {\\eta} is the Smarandache function and {\\pi} is Riemann function of counting the number of primes up to x, in the set of natural numbers? If an analytical method is not available, an idea would be to recall the empirical search for solutions. We establish a domain of searching for the solutions and th...

  1. FAINT TIDAL FEATURES IN GALAXIES WITHIN THE CANADA-FRANCE-HAWAII TELESCOPE LEGACY SURVEY WIDE FIELDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present an analysis of the detectability of faint tidal features in galaxies from the wide-field component of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey. Our sample consists of 1781 luminous (Mr'1010.5 M ☉, and red galaxies are twice as likely to show tidal features than are blue galaxies.

  2. Faint laser pulses versus a single-photon source in free space quantum cryptography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molotkov, S. N.; Potapova, T. A.

    2016-03-01

    In this letter we present estimates for the distance of secret key transmission through free space for three different protocols of quantum key distribution: for BB84 and phase time-coding protocols in the case of a strictly single-photon source, and for the relativistic quantum key distribution protocol in the case of faint laser pulses.

  3. Signs of a faint disc population at polluted white dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Bergfors, Carolina; Dufour, Patrick; Rocchetto, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Observations of atmospheric metals and dust discs around white dwarfs provide important clues to the fate of terrestrial planetary systems around intermediate mass stars. We present Spitzer IRAC observations of 15 metal polluted white dwarfs to investigate the occurrence and physical properties of circumstellar dust created by the disruption of planetary bodies. We find subtle infrared excess emission consistent with warm dust around KUV 15519+1730 and HS 2132+0941, and weaker excess around the DZ white dwarf G245-58, which, if real, makes it the coolest white dwarf known to exhibit a 3.6 micron excess and the first DZ star with a bright disc. All together our data corroborate a picture where 1) discs at metal-enriched white dwarfs are commonplace and most escape detection in the infrared (possibly as narrow rings), 2) the discs are long lived, having lifetimes on the order of 10^6 yr or longer, and 3) the frequency of bright, infrared detectable discs decreases with age, on a timescale of roughly 500 Myr, su...

  4. Calibration of lichen transplants considering faint memory effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomonitoring is for more than 20 years now, a tool to study the dispersion of trace elements through the atmosphere and back to earth surface again. A qualitative improvement upon the use of biomonitors is their calibration against more traditional element availability variables like deposition or airborne concentration. Usually it is assumed that a linear regression between biomonitors concentration and availability average values provides a good calibration. In this work, an uptake experiment using transplants of lichen Parmelia sulcata carried out in Portugal during a two years period (1994/96) is described. Nuclear analytical techniques PIXE and INAA were used to analyse lichen and aerosol samples, and ICP-MS was used to analyse total deposition dry residue samples. A database of roughly 70,000 values was created and biomonitor calibration done considering also effects due to non-permanent memory. Data allowed to show, that if annual surveys are made by sampling lichens four times with a period of 3 months in-between sampling campaigns, availability mean, maxima and standard deviation, can be recovered from lichen data for: Al, Si, Cl, Ca, Ti, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, Zr, Sm, Tb, Hf, Pb, and Th. (author)

  5. Solving Differential Equations in R: Package deSolve

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this paper we present the R package deSolve to solve initial value problems (IVP) written as ordinary differential equations (ODE), differential algebraic equations (DAE) of index 0 or 1 and partial differential equations (PDE), the latter solved using the method of lines appr...

  6. THE SUBARU HIGH-z QUASAR SURVEY: DISCOVERY OF FAINT z ∼ 6 QUASARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashikawa, Nobunari; Furusawa, Hisanori; Niino, Yuu [Optical and Infrared Astronomy Division, National Astronomical Observatory, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Ishizaki, Yoshifumi; Onoue, Masafusa; Toshikawa, Jun; Ishikawa, Shogo [Department of Astronomy, School of Science, Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Willott, Chris J. [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Im, Myungshin [Center for the Exploration of the Origin of the Universe (CEOU), Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-rho, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Shimasaku, Kazuhiro [Department of Astronomy, University of Tokyo, Hongo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Ouchi, Masami [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Hibon, Pascale, E-mail: n.kashikawa@nao.ac.jp [Gemini Observatory, La Serena (Chile)

    2015-01-01

    We present the discovery of one or two extremely faint z ∼ 6 quasars in 6.5 deg{sup 2} utilizing a unique capability of the wide-field imaging of the Subaru/Suprime-Cam. The quasar selection was made in (i'-z{sub B} ) and (z{sub B} -z{sub R} ) colors, where z{sub B} and z{sub R} are bandpasses with central wavelengths of 8842 Å and 9841 Å, respectively. The color selection can effectively isolate quasars at z ∼ 6 from M/L/T dwarfs without the J-band photometry down to z{sub R} < 24.0, which is 3.5 mag deeper than the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We have selected 17 promising quasar candidates. The follow-up spectroscopy for seven targets identified one apparent quasar at z = 6.156 with M {sub 1450} = –23.10. We also identified one possible quasar at z = 6.041 with a faint continuum of M {sub 1450} = –22.58 and a narrow Lyα emission with HWHM =427 km s{sup –1}, which cannot be distinguished from Lyman α emitters. We derive the quasar luminosity function at z ∼ 6 by combining our faint quasar sample with the bright quasar samples by SDSS and CFHQS. Including our data points invokes a higher number density in the faintest bin of the quasar luminosity function than the previous estimate employed. This suggests a steeper faint-end slope than lower z, though it is yet uncertain based on a small number of spectroscopically identified faint quasars, and several quasar candidates still remain to be diagnosed. The steepening of the quasar luminosity function at the faint end does increase the expected emission rate of the ionizing photon; however, it only changes by a factor of approximately two to six. This was found to still be insufficient for the required photon budget of reionization at z ∼ 6.

  7. Six Sigma: not for the faint of heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetto, Anthony R

    2003-01-01

    Six Sigma is an excellent quality and performance improvement tool. Like any tool, the results of using it are highly dependent on whether you use it with competence and on the right problem. This article will help you decide if your problem is well-suited for a Six Sigma approach and will suggest the optimum approach for planning and implementing Six Sigma methodology. Performance improvement methods can be grouped into two broad categories, based on the problem to be addressed. When the problem is relatively minor and localized, "evolutionary" methods may be suitable (e.g., quality circles, problem-solving staff meetings, continuous quality improvement [CQI], total quality management [TQM]). These tools work best when modest incremental improvements are sought, when major process redesign is not thought to be necessary, and when the avoidance of workplace disruption is desired. Reengineering and Six Sigma are the best-known examples of the "revolutionary" performance improvement methods. These methods should be used when major (drastic, do or die, etc.) improvements are needed. Problems that cross departmental boundaries need these methods. When a process is so dysfunctional that you feel like you need to tear up the standard operating procedure (SOP) and start all over again, you need a revolutionary method. A Six Sigma project requires a major expenditure of money and employee time, and a willingness to make some hard decisions about jobs, employee retention and relationships among stakeholders. An institution's culture should be considered as part of the decision about using Six Sigma. If the institution has a history of making data-driven decisions, or at least has displayed openness to operating in that manner, Six Sigma has a good chance of success. A radiology-driven Six Sigma project should not be undertaken until a comprehensive written description of the scope of the project is approved by the radiology department leadership team and by the appropriate

  8. The Faint Optical Stellar Luminosity Function in the Ursa Minor Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Feltzing, S; Wyse, R F G; Feltzing, Sofia; Gilmore, Gerard; Wyse, Rosemary F.G.

    1999-01-01

    Analyses of their internal stellar kinematics imply that the dwarf spheroidal (dSph) companion galaxies to the Milky Way are among the most dark-matter dominated systems known. Should there be significant dark matter in the form of faint stars in these systems, the stellar luminosity function must be very different from that of a similar metallicity globular cluster, for which there is no evidence for dark matter. We present the faint stellar luminosity function in the Ursa Minor dSph, down to a luminosity corresponding to roughly 0.45 M_sun, derived from new deep HST/WFPC2 data. We find a remarkable similarity between this luminosity function, and inferred initial mass function, and that of the globular cluster M92, a cluster of similar age and metallicity to the Ursa Minor dSph.

  9. Variable Stars in the Field of the Hydra II Ultra-Faint Dwarf Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivas, Anna Katherina; Olsen, Knut A.; Blum, Robert D.; Nidever, David L.; Walker, Alistair R.; Martin, Nicolas; Besla, Gurtina; Gallart, Carme; Van Der Marel, Roeland P.; Majewski, Steven R.; Munoz, Ricardo; Kaleida, Catherine C.; Saha, Abhijit; Conn, Blair; Jin, Shoko

    2016-06-01

    We searched for variable stars in Hydra II, one of the recently discovered ultra-faint dwarf satellites of the Milky Way, using gri time-series obtained with the Dark Energy Camera (DECam) at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, Chile. We discovered one RR Lyrae star in the galaxy which was used to derive a distance of 154±8 kpc to this system and to re-calculate its absolute magnitude and half-light radius.A comparison with other RR Lyrae stars in ultra-faint systems indicates similar pulsational properties among them, which are different to those found among halo field stars and those in the largest of the Milky Way satellites. We also report the discovery of 31 additional short period variables in the field of view (RR Lyrae, SX Phe, eclipsing binaries, and a likely anomalous cepheid) which are likely not related with Hydra II.

  10. Vulnerability to simple faints is predicted by regional differences in brain anatomy

    OpenAIRE

    Beacher, Felix D C C; Gray, Marcus A.; Mathias, Christopher J.; Hugo D. Critchley

    2009-01-01

    Neurocardiogenic syncope (NCS, simple fainting) is a common and typically benign familial condition, which rarely may result in traumatic injury or hypoxic convulsions. NCS is associated with emotional triggers, anxiety states and stress. However, the etiology of NCS, as a psychophysiological process, is poorly understood. We therefore investigated the relationship between NCS and brain anatomy. We studied a non-clinical sample of eighteen individuals with histories characteristic of NCS, and...

  11. Theoretical lower limits on sizes of ultra faint dwarf galaxies from dynamical friction

    OpenAIRE

    Hernandez, X.

    2016-01-01

    Dwarf spheroidal galaxies are the smallest known stellar systems where under Newtonian interpretations, a significant amount of dark matter is required to explain observed kinematics. In fact, they are in this sense the most heavily dark matter dominated objects known. That, plus the increasingly small sizes of the newly discovered ultra faint dwarfs, puts these systems in the regime where dynamical friction on individual stars starts to become relevant. We calculate the dynamical friction ti...

  12. Faint Radio Sources in the NOAO Bootes Field. VLBA Imaging And Optical Identifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wrobel, J.M.; /NRAO, Socorro; Taylor, Greg B.; /NRAO, Socorro /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Rector, T.A.; /NRAO, Socorro /Alaska U.; Myers, S.T.; /NRAO, Socorro; Fassnacht, C.D.; /UC,

    2005-06-13

    As a step toward investigating the parsec-scale properties of faint extragalactic radio sources, the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) was used at 5.0 GHz to obtain phase-referenced images of 76 sources in the NOAO Booetes field. These 76 sources were selected from the FIRST catalog to have peak flux densities above 10 mJy at 5'' resolution and deconvolved major diameters of less than 3'' at 1.4 GHz. Fifty-five of these faint radio sources were identified with accretion-powered radio galaxies and quasars brighter than 25.5 mag in the optical I band. On VLA scales at 1.4 GHz, a measure of the compactness of the faint sources (the ratio of the peak flux density from FIRST to the integrated flux density from the NVSS catalog) spans the full range of possibilities arising from source-resolution effects. Thirty of the faint radio sources, or 39{sub -7}{sup +9}%, were detected with the VLBA at 5.0 GHz with peak flux densities above 6 {sigma} {approx} 2 mJy at 2 mas resolution. The VLBA detections occur through the full range of compactness ratios. The stronger VLBA detections can themselves serve as phase-reference calibrators, boding well for opening up much of the radio sky to VLBA imaging. For the adopted cosmology, the VLBA resolution corresponds to 17 pc or finer. Most VLBA detections are unresolved or slightly resolved but one is diffuse and five show either double or core-jet structures; the properties of these latter six are discussed in detail. Eight VLBA detections are unidentified and fainter than 25.5 mag in the optical I band; their properties are highlighted because they likely mark optically-obscured active nuclei at high redshift.

  13. A PECULIAR FAINT SATELLITE IN THE REMOTE OUTER HALO OF M31

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackey, A. D.; Dotter, A. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Mount Stromlo Observatory, via Cotter Road, Weston, ACT 2611 (Australia); Huxor, A. P. [Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Universitaet Heidelberg, Moenchhofstrasse 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Martin, N. F.; Ibata, R. A. [Observatoire astronomique de Strasbourg, Universite de Strasbourg, CNRS, UMR 7550, 11 rue de l' Universite, F-67000 Strasbourg (France); Ferguson, A. M. N. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); McConnachie, A. W. [NRC Herzberg Institute for Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Irwin, M. J. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Lewis, G. F. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, A28, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Sakari, C. M.; Venn, K. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, 3800 Finnerty Road, Victoria, BC V8P 1A1 (Canada); Tanvir, N. R., E-mail: dougal@mso.anu.edu.au [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom)

    2013-06-20

    We present Hubble Space Telescope imaging of a newly discovered faint stellar system, PAndAS-48, in the outskirts of the M31 halo. Our photometry reveals this object to be comprised of an ancient and very metal-poor stellar population with age {approx}> 10 Gyr and [Fe/H] {approx}< -2.3. Our inferred distance modulus (m - M){sub 0} = 24.57 {+-} 0.11 confirms that PAndAS-48 is most likely a remote M31 satellite with a three-dimensional galactocentric radius of 149{sup +19}{sub -8} kpc. We observe an apparent spread in color on the upper red giant branch that is larger than the photometric uncertainties should allow, and briefly explore the implications of this. Structurally, PAndAS-48 is diffuse, faint, and moderately flattened, with a half-light radius r{sub h}=26{sup +4}{sub -3} pc, integrated luminosity M{sub V} = -4.8 {+-} 0.5, and ellipticity {epsilon}=0.30{sup +0.08}{sub -0.15}. On the size-luminosity plane it falls between the extended globular clusters seen in several nearby galaxies and the recently discovered faint dwarf satellites of the Milky Way; however, its characteristics do not allow us to unambiguously classify it as either type of system. If PAndAS-48 is a globular cluster then it is among the most elliptical, isolated, and metal-poor of any seen in the Local Group, extended or otherwise. Conversely, while its properties are generally consistent with those observed for the faint Milky Way dwarfs, it would be a factor of {approx}2-3 smaller in spatial extent than any known counterpart of comparable luminosity.

  14. A PECULIAR FAINT SATELLITE IN THE REMOTE OUTER HALO OF M31

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present Hubble Space Telescope imaging of a newly discovered faint stellar system, PAndAS-48, in the outskirts of the M31 halo. Our photometry reveals this object to be comprised of an ancient and very metal-poor stellar population with age ∼> 10 Gyr and [Fe/H] ∼0 = 24.57 ± 0.11 confirms that PAndAS-48 is most likely a remote M31 satellite with a three-dimensional galactocentric radius of 149+19-8 kpc. We observe an apparent spread in color on the upper red giant branch that is larger than the photometric uncertainties should allow, and briefly explore the implications of this. Structurally, PAndAS-48 is diffuse, faint, and moderately flattened, with a half-light radius rh=26+4-3 pc, integrated luminosity MV = –4.8 ± 0.5, and ellipticity ε=0.30+0.08-0.15. On the size-luminosity plane it falls between the extended globular clusters seen in several nearby galaxies and the recently discovered faint dwarf satellites of the Milky Way; however, its characteristics do not allow us to unambiguously classify it as either type of system. If PAndAS-48 is a globular cluster then it is among the most elliptical, isolated, and metal-poor of any seen in the Local Group, extended or otherwise. Conversely, while its properties are generally consistent with those observed for the faint Milky Way dwarfs, it would be a factor of ∼2-3 smaller in spatial extent than any known counterpart of comparable luminosity.

  15. A Peculiar Faint Satellite in the Remote Outer Halo of M31

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, A. D.; Huxor, A. P.; Martin, N. F.; Ferguson, A. M. N.; Dotter, A.; McConnachie, A. W.; Ibata, R. A.; Irwin, M. J.; Lewis, G. F.; Sakari, C. M.; Tanvir, N. R.; Venn, K. A.

    2013-06-01

    We present Hubble Space Telescope imaging of a newly discovered faint stellar system, PAndAS-48, in the outskirts of the M31 halo. Our photometry reveals this object to be comprised of an ancient and very metal-poor stellar population with age >~ 10 Gyr and [Fe/H] lsim -2.3. Our inferred distance modulus (m - M)0 = 24.57 ± 0.11 confirms that PAndAS-48 is most likely a remote M31 satellite with a three-dimensional galactocentric radius of 149^{+19}_{-8} kpc. We observe an apparent spread in color on the upper red giant branch that is larger than the photometric uncertainties should allow, and briefly explore the implications of this. Structurally, PAndAS-48 is diffuse, faint, and moderately flattened, with a half-light radius r_h=26^{+4}_{-3} pc, integrated luminosity MV = -4.8 ± 0.5, and ellipticity \\epsilon =0.30^{+0.08}_{-0.15}. On the size-luminosity plane it falls between the extended globular clusters seen in several nearby galaxies and the recently discovered faint dwarf satellites of the Milky Way; however, its characteristics do not allow us to unambiguously classify it as either type of system. If PAndAS-48 is a globular cluster then it is among the most elliptical, isolated, and metal-poor of any seen in the Local Group, extended or otherwise. Conversely, while its properties are generally consistent with those observed for the faint Milky Way dwarfs, it would be a factor of ~2-3 smaller in spatial extent than any known counterpart of comparable luminosity. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI), which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with program GO 12515.

  16. DETECTION OF FAINT EXTENDED SOURCES IN HYPERSPECTRAL DATA AND APPLICATION TO HDF-S MUSE OBSERVATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Courbot, Jean-Baptiste; Mazet, Vincent; MONFRINI, Emmanuel; Collet, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Circum-Galactic Medium surrounding galaxies has been punctually detected, but its morphology remains largely unknown. The Multi-Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) spectro-imager provides for the first time both spectral and spatial resolution to spatially map such features. The problem lies in the statistical detection of faint spatially-extended sources in massive hyperspectral images such as provided by MUSE, and has not been previously handled. This paper presents a statistical detection m...

  17. Neutral hydrogen detection survey of dwarf galaxies. II. Faint Virgo dwarfs and a field sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutral hydrogen spectra are presented for 53 faint dwarf galaxies in Virgo, completing the Arecibo survey of all late-type dwarfs in the Virgo Cluster Catalog, and for 42 dwarf galaxies from the field sample of Binggeli et al. (1989). For detected galaxies, heliocentric velocities, profile widths, and single-beam fluxes are tabulated. The field sample has been used to investigate the field luminosity function and the clustering of dwarf galaxies vis-a-vis bright galaxies. 31 refs

  18. Studies of the association of faint blue and luminous galaxies using the Hitchhiker parallel camera

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, J B; Phillipps, S; Davies, J I; Morgan, I; Disney, M J

    1996-01-01

    At B magnitudes >~ 24 there is a well-known excess of galaxies (compared to standard models) which is probably due to an (evolving) population of sub-L* galaxies at moderate redshifts (<~ 0.4). One particular hypothesis which is hard to test directly via number counts or even redshift surveys is the possibility that the faint blue galaxies are in fact sub-galactic objects destined to merge by the present day to form current giant galaxies. If this were the case we might expect to find the faint blue galaxies in the vicinity of ~ L* galaxies (at redshifts =~ 0.2 to 0.4) with which they can merge (the blue galaxies are already known to be weakly clustered among themselves, limiting the possibility for multiple mergers of small fragments). In this paper we look for evidence of such clustering of faint blue galaxies around larger systems using candidates chosen photometrically from deep multicolour CCD images using the Hitchhiker parallel camera. A sample of candidate L^\\ast galaxies expected to lie at redshif...

  19. Faint disks around classical T Tauri stars: small but dense enough to form planets?

    CERN Document Server

    Piétu, V; di Folco, E; Dutrey, A; Boehler, Y

    2014-01-01

    (abridged) Most Class II sources (of nearby star forming regions) are surrounded by disks with weak millimeter continuum emission. These "faint" disks may hold clues to the disk dissipation mechanism. We attempt to determine the characteristics of such faint disks around classical T Tauri stars, and to explore the link between disk faintness and the proposed disk dispersal mechanisms (accretion, viscous spreading, photo-evaporation, planetary system formation). We performed high-angular resolution (0.3") imaging of a small sample of disks (9 sources) with low 1.3mm continuum flux (mostly <30 mJy) with the IRAM Plateau de Bure interferometer and simultaneously searched for 13CO (or CO) J=2-1 line emission. Using a simple parametric disk model, we determine characteristic sizes of the disks, in dust and gas, and we constrain surface densities in the central 50 AU. All disks are much smaller than the bright disks imaged so far, both in continuum and 13CO lines (5 detections). In continuum, half of the disks a...

  20. Eight Ultra-faint Galaxy Candidates Discovered in Year Two of the Dark Energy Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Drlica-Wagner, A; Rykoff, E S; Luque, E; Queiroz, A; Mao, Y -Y; Wechsler, R H; Simon, J D; Santiago, B; Yanny, B; Balbinot, E; Dodelson, S; Neto, A Fausti; James, D J; Li, T S; Maia, M A G; Marshall, J L; Pieres, A; Stringer, K; Walker, A R; Abbott, T M C; Abdalla, F B; Allam, S; Benoit-Levy, A; Bernstein, G M; Bertin, E; Brooks, D; Buckley-Geer, E; Burke, D L; Rosell, A Carnero; Kind, M Carrasco; Carretero, J; Crocce, M; da Costa, L N; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Dietrich, J P; Doel, P; Eifler, T F; Evrard, A E; Finley, D A; Fosalba, P; Frieman, J; Gaztanaga, E; Gerdes, D W; Gruen, D; Gruendl, R A; Gutierrez, G; Honscheid, K; Kuehn, K; Kuropatkin, N; Lahav, O; Martini, P; Miquel, R; Nord, B; Ogando, R; Plazas, A A; Reil, K; Roodman, A; Sako, M; Sanchez, E; Scarpine, V; Schubnell, M; Sevilla-Noarbe, I; Smith, R C; Soares-Santos, M; Sobreira, F; Suchyta, E; Swanson, M E C; Tarle, G; Tucker, D; Vikram, V; Wester, W; Zhang, Y; Zuntz, J

    2015-01-01

    We report the discovery of eight new ultra-faint dwarf galaxy candidates in the second year of optical imaging data from the Dark Energy Survey (DES). Six of these candidates are detected at high confidence, while two additional lower-confidence candidates are identified in regions of incomplete or non-uniform survey coverage. The new stellar systems are found using three independent automated search techniques, and are identified as statistically significant overdensities of individually resolved stars consistent with the isochrone and luminosity function of an old and metal-poor simple stellar population. The new systems are faint (Mv > -4.7 mag) and span a broad range of physical sizes (17 pc 27.5 mag arcsec$^2$) consistent with known ultra-faint dwarf galaxies. Roughly half of the DES candidates are more distant, less luminous, and/or have lower surface brightnesses than previously known Milky Way satellite galaxies, and would have had a low probability of detection if observed by the Sloan Digital Sky S...

  1. Calibration of HST wide field camera for quantitative analysis of faint galaxy images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnatunga, Kavan U.; Griffiths, Richard E.; Casertano, Stefano; Neuschaefer, Lyman W.; Wyckoff, Eric W.

    1994-01-01

    We present the methods adopted to optimize the calibration of images obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Camera (WFC) (1991-1993). Our main goal is to improve quantitative measurement of faint images, with special emphasis on the faint (I approximately 20-24 mag) stars and galaxies observed as a part of the Medium-Deep Survey. Several modifications to the standard calibration procedures have been introduced, including improved bias and dark images, and a new supersky flatfield obtained by combining a large number of relatively object-free Medium-Deep Survey exposures of random fields. The supersky flat has a pixel-to-pixel rms error of about 2.0% in F555W and of 2.4% in F785LP; large-scale variations are smaller than 1% rms. Overall, our modifications improve the quality of faint images with respect to the standard calibration by about a factor of five in photometric accuracy and about 0.3 mag in sensitivity, corresponding to about a factor of two in observing time. The relevant calibration images have been made available to the scientific community.

  2. Faint warm debris disks around nearby bright stars explored by AKARI and IRSF

    CERN Document Server

    Ishihara, Daisuke; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Nagayama, Takahiro; Kaneda, Hidehiro; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro; Fujiwara, Hideaki; Onaka, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Context: Debris disks are important observational clues for understanding planetary-system formation process. In particular, faint warm debris disks may be related to late planet formation near 1 AU. A systematic search of faint warm debris disks is necessary to reveal terrestrial planet formation. Aims: Faint warm debris disks show excess emission that peaks at mid-IR wavelengths. Thus we explore debris disks using the AKARI mid-IR all-sky point source catalog (PSC), a product of the second generation unbiased IR all-sky survey. Methods : We investigate IR excess emission for 678 isolated main-sequence stars for which there are 18 micron detections in the AKARI mid-IR all-sky catalog by comparing their fluxes with the predicted fluxes of the photospheres based on optical to near-IR fluxes and model spectra. The near-IR fluxes are first taken from the 2MASS PSC. However, 286 stars with Ks<4.5 in our sample have large flux errors in the 2MASS photometry due to saturation. Thus we have measured accurate J, H...

  3. On the faint-end of the high-$z$ galaxy luminosity function

    CERN Document Server

    Yue, Bin; Xu, Yidong

    2016-01-01

    Recent measurement of the Luminosity Function (LF) of galaxies in the Epoch of Reionization (EoR, redshift $z>6$) indicates a very steep increase of the number density of low-mass galaxies populating the LF faint-end. As star formation in such systems can be easily quenched by radiative feedback effects, a turn-off is expected at some faint magnitude. Using a physically-motivated analytical model, we quantify reionization feedback effects on the LF. If reionization feedback is neglected, the power-law Schechter parameterization characterizing the faint-end of the LF remains valid up to $M_{\\rm UV}\\sim -9$. If (strong) feedback is included, the LF drops above $M_{\\rm UV} \\sim -15$, slightly below the detection limit of current surveys at $z\\sim5$. However, the LF may rise again at higher $M_{\\rm UV}$ as a result of the interplay between reionization topology and photo-evaporation physics. Moreover, we find that the stellar age -- magnitude relation might be used as a probe of feedback strength as well: in mode...

  4. A peculiar faint satellite in the remote outer halo of M31

    CERN Document Server

    Mackey, Dougal; Martin, Nicolas; Ferguson, Annette; Dotter, Aaron; McConnachie, Alan; Ibata, Rodrigo; Irwin, Mike; Lewis, Geraint; Sakari, Charli; Tanvir, Nial; Venn, Kim

    2013-01-01

    We present Hubble Space Telescope imaging of a newly-discovered faint stellar system, PAndAS-48, in the outskirts of the M31 halo. Our photometry reveals this object to be comprised of an ancient and very metal-poor stellar population with age > 10 Gyr and [Fe/H] < -2.3. Our inferred distance modulus of 24.57 +/- 0.11 confirms that PAndAS-48 is most likely a remote M31 satellite with a 3D galactocentric radius of 149 (+19 -8) kpc. We observe an apparent spread in color on the upper red giant branch that is larger than the photometric uncertainties should allow, and briefly explore the implications of this. Structurally, PAndAS-48 is diffuse, faint, and moderately flattened, with a half-light radius rh = 26 (+4 -3) pc, integrated luminosity Mv = -4.8 +/- 0.5, and ellipticity = 0.30 (+0.08 -0.15). On the size-luminosity plane it falls between the extended globular clusters seen in several nearby galaxies, and the recently-discovered faint dwarf satellites of the Milky Way; however, its characteristics do not...

  5. On the faint end of the high redshift AGN luminosity function

    CERN Document Server

    Shankar, F; Shankar, Francesco; Mathur, Smita; Shankar, Francesco; Mathur, Smita

    2007-01-01

    Using the results of recent optical surveys we conclude that the {\\it non}-detection of quasars down to faint magnitudes implies a significant flattening of the high redshift (z~6) optical active galactic nuclei (AGN) luminosity function for M_{1450}>-26.7. We find that all the data are consistent with a faint-end slope for the optical AGN luminosity function of \\beta=-2.2 and \\beta=-2.8, at the 90% and 99% confidence level respectively, flatter than the bright-end slope of \\beta'~ -3.2. We also show that X-ray deep surveys have probed even fainter magnitudes than the optical ones yielding more significant constraints on the shallow faint-end slope of the optical luminosity function. The inclusion of Type II AGN candidates, detected in the Chandra deep fields, hints towards an higher normalization for the total AGN luminosity function, if these sources lie at 5

  6. Comment on "Clouds and the Faint Young Sun Paradox" by Goldblatt and Zahnle (2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rondanelli

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Goldblatt and Zahnle (2011 raise a number of issues related to the possibility that cirrus clouds can provide a solution to the faint young sun paradox. Here, we argue that: (1 climates having a lower than present mean surface temperature cannot be discarded as solutions to the faint young sun paradox, (2 the detrainment from deep convective clouds in the tropics is a well-established physical mechanism for the formation of high clouds that have a positive radiative forcing (even if the possible role of these clouds as a negative climate feedback remains controversial and (3 even if some cloud properties are not mutually consistent with observations in radiative transfer parameterizations, the most relevant consistency (for the purpose of hypothesis testing is with observations of the cloud radiative forcing. Therefore, we maintain that cirrus clouds, as observed in the current climate and covering a large region of the tropics, can provide a solution to the faint young sun paradox, or at least ease the amount of CO2 or other greenhouse substances needed to provide temperatures above freezing during the Archean.

  7. Discovery of A Faint Quasar at z~6 and Implications for Cosmic Reionization

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Yongjung; Jeon, Yiseul; Kim, Minjin; Choi, Changsu; Hong, Jueun; Hyun, Minhee; Jun, Hyunsung David; Karouzos, Marios; Kim, Dohyeong; Kim, Duho; Kim, Jae-Woo; Kim, Ji Hoon; Lee, Seong-Kook; Pak, Soojong; Park, Won-Kee; Taak, Yoon Chan; Yoon, Yongmin

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that faint active galactic nuclei may be responsible for the reionization of the universe. Confirmation of this scenario requires spectroscopic identification of faint quasars ($M_{1450}>-24$ mag) at $z \\gtrsim6$, but only a very small number of such quasars have been spectroscopically identified so far. Here, we report the discovery of a faint quasar IMS J220417.92+011144.8 at z~6 in a 12.5 deg$^{2}$ region of the SA22 field of the Infrared Medium-deep Survey (IMS). The spectrum of the quasar shows a sharp break at $\\sim8443~\\rm{\\AA}$, with emission lines redshifted to $z=5.944 \\pm 0.002$ and rest-frame ultraviolet continuum magnitude $M_{1450}=-23.59\\pm0.10$ AB mag. The discovery of IMS J220417.92+011144.8 is consistent with the expected number of quasars at z~6 estimated from quasar luminosity functions based on previous observations of spectroscopically identified low-luminosity quasars . This suggests that the number of $M_{1450}\\sim-23$ mag quasars at z~6 may not be high enough to...

  8. Faint-state transitions in the SW Sextantis nova-like variable, HS 0455+8315

    CERN Document Server

    Shears, Jeremy; Rodriguez-Gil, Pablo; Boyd, David; Darlington, Graham; Miller, Ian

    2015-01-01

    We present the fourteen year-long light curve of the SW Sextantis nova-like variable, HS 0455+8315, from 2000 November to 2015 February which reveals two deep faint states at magnitude 19 - 20, each of which lasted about 500 and 540 days. Outside these faint states, the star spent most of the time in a normal state at a magnitude of about 15.3. The second faint state was the better observed of the two and was found to have a linear decline of 0.009 mag/day, which was soon followed by a more rapid brightening at -0.020 mag/day. Time series photometry during both the normal state and near minimum light at about magnitude 18 showed that the eclipses had very similar profiles and that outside the eclipse there were irregular modulations typical of the flickering inherent to accreting CVs. Our photometry leading up to the minimum shows that accretion was still ongoing during this time.

  9. An Ultra-Faint Galaxy Candidate Discovered in Early Data from the Magellanic Satellites Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Drlica-Wagner, A; Allam, S; Tucker, D L; Gruendl, R A; Johnson, M D; Walker, A R; James, D J; Nidever, D L; Olsen, K A G; Wechsler, R H; Cioni, M R L; Conn, B C; Kuehn, K; Li, T S; Mao, Y -Y; Martin, N F; Neilsen, E; Noël, N E D; Pieres, A; Simon, J D; Stringfellow, G S; van der Marel, R P; Yanny, B

    2016-01-01

    We report a new ultra-faint stellar system found in Dark Energy Camera data from the first observing run of the Magellanic Satellites Survey (MagLiteS). MagLiteS J0664-5953 (Pictor II or Pic II) is a low surface brightness ({\\mu} = 28.5 mag arcsec$^{-2}$ within its half-light radius) resolved overdensity of old and metal-poor stars located at a heliocentric distance of 45 kpc. The physical size (r$_{1/2}$ = 46 pc) and low luminosity (Mv = -3.2 mag) of this satellite are consistent with the locus of spectroscopically confirmed ultra-faint galaxies. MagLiteS J0664-5953 (Pic II) is located 11.3 kpc from the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), and comparisons with simulation results in the literature suggest that this satellite was likely accreted with the LMC. The close proximity of MagLiteS J0664-5953 (Pic II) to the LMC also makes it the most likely ultra-faint galaxy candidate to still be gravitationally bound to the LMC.

  10. The Subaru high-z quasar survey: discovery of faint z~6 quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Kashikawa, Nobunari; Willott, Chris J; Onoue, Masafusa; Im, Myungshin; Furusawa, Hisanori; Toshikawa, Jun; Ishikawa, Shogo; Niino, Yuu; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Ouchi, Masami; Hibon, Pascale

    2014-01-01

    We present the discovery of one or two extremely faint z~6 quasars in 6.5 deg^2 utilizing a unique capability of the wide-field imaging of the Subaru/Suprime-Cam. The quasar selection was made in (i'-z_B) and (z_B-z_R) colors, where z_B and z_R are bandpasses with central wavelengths of 8842A and 9841A, respectively. The color selection can effectively isolate quasars at z~6 from M/L/T dwarfs without the J-band photometry down to z_R<24.0, which is 3.5 mag. deeper than SDSS. We have selected 17 promising quasar candidates. The follow-up spectroscopy for seven targets identified one apparent quasar at z=6.156 with M_1450=-23.10. We also identified one possible quasar at z=6.041 with a faint continuum of M_1450=-22.58 and a narrow Lyman-alpha emission with HWHM=427 km/s, which cannot be distinguished from Lyman-alpha emitters. We derive the quasar luminosity function at z~6 by combining our faint quasar sample with the bright quasar samples by SDSS and CFHQS. Including our data points invokes a higher number...

  11. Double Pendulum: a Second Ultra-faint Milky Way Satellite in the Horologium Constellation

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Dongwon

    2015-01-01

    We report the discovery of a new ultra-faint Milky Way satellite candidate, Horologium II, detected in the Dark Energy Survey Y1A1 public data. Horologium II features a half light radius of $r_{h}=47\\pm10$ pc and a total luminosity of $M_{V}=-2.6^{+0.2}_{-0.3}$ that place it in the realm of ultra-faint dwarf galaxies on the size-luminosity plane. The stellar population of the new satellite is consistent with an old ($\\sim13.5$ Gyr) and metal-poor ([Fe/H]$\\sim-2.1$) isochrone at a distance modulus of $(m-M)=19.46$, or a heliocentric distance of 78 kpc, in the color-magnitude diagram. Horologium II has a distance similar to the Sculptor dwarf spheroidal galaxy (79 kpc) and the recently reported ultra-faint satellites Eridanus III (87 kpc) and Horologium I (79 kpc). All four satellites are well aligned on the sky, which suggests a possible common origin. As Sculptor is moving on a retrograde orbit within the Vast Polar Structure when compared to the other classical MW satellite galaxies including the Magellanic ...

  12. Infrared-faint radio sources are at high redshifts. Spectroscopic redshift determination of infrared-faint radio sources using the Very Large Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, A.; Middelberg, E.; Norris, R. P.; Sharp, R.; Spitler, L. R.; Parker, Q. A.

    2014-07-01

    Context. Infrared-faint radio sources (IFRS) are characterised by relatively high radio flux densities and associated faint or even absent infrared and optical counterparts. The resulting extremely high radio-to-infrared flux density ratios up to several thousands were previously known only for high-redshift radio galaxies (HzRGs), suggesting a link between the two classes of object. However, the optical and infrared faintness of IFRS makes their study difficult. Prior to this work, no redshift was known for any IFRS in the Australia Telescope Large Area Survey (ATLAS) fields which would help to put IFRS in the context of other classes of object, especially of HzRGs. Aims: This work aims at measuring the first redshifts of IFRS in the ATLAS fields. Furthermore, we test the hypothesis that IFRS are similar to HzRGs, that they are higher-redshift or dust-obscured versions of these massive galaxies. Methods: A sample of IFRS was spectroscopically observed using the Focal Reducer and Low Dispersion Spectrograph 2 (FORS2) at the Very Large Telescope (VLT). The data were calibrated based on the Image Reduction and Analysis Facility (IRAF) and redshifts extracted from the final spectra, where possible. This information was then used to calculate rest-frame luminosities, and to perform the first spectral energy distribution modelling of IFRS based on redshifts. Results: We found redshifts of 1.84, 2.13, and 2.76, for three IFRS, confirming the suggested high-redshift character of this class of object. These redshifts and the resulting luminosities show IFRS to be similar to HzRGs, supporting our hypothesis. We found further evidence that fainter IFRS are at even higher redshifts. Conclusions: Considering the similarities between IFRS and HzRGs substantiated in this work, the detection of IFRS, which have a significantly higher sky density than HzRGs, increases the number of active galactic nuclei in the early universe and adds to the problems of explaining the formation of

  13. The history of mass assembly of faint red galaxies in 28 galaxy clusters since z=1.3

    CERN Document Server

    Andreon, S

    2007-01-01

    We measure the relative evolution of the number of bright and faint (as faint as 0.05 L*) red galaxies in a sample of 28 clusters, of which 16 are at 0.50<= z<=1.27, all observed through a pair of filters bracketing the 4000 Angstrom break rest-frame. The abundance of red galaxies, relative to bright ones, is constant over all the studied redshift range, 0faint red galaxies as large as claimed in some past works. Faint red galaxies are largely assembled and in place at z=1.3 and their deficit does not depend on cluster mass, parametrized by velocity dispersion or X-ray luminosity. Our analysis, with respect to previous one, samples a wider redshift range, minimizes systematics and put a more attention to statistical issues, keeping at the same time a large number of clusters.

  14. Syncope (Fainting)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What is neurally mediated syncope? Neurally mediated syncope (NMS) is called also neurocardiogenic, vasovagal, vasodepressor or reflex ... life-threatening conditions may also manifest as syncope. NMS is more common in children and young adults, ...

  15. Solving complex fisheries management problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petter Johnsen, Jahn; Eliasen, Søren Qvist

    2011-01-01

    A crucial issue for the new EU common fisheries policy is how to solve the discard problem. Through a study of the institutional set up and the arrangements for solving the discard problem in Denmark, the Faroe Islands, Iceland and Norway, the article identifies the discard problem as related to...

  16. Learning Impasses in Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, J. P. E.

    1992-01-01

    Problem Solving systems customarily use backtracking to deal with obstacles that they encounter in the course of trying to solve a problem. This paper outlines an approach in which the possible obstacles are investigated prior to the search for a solution. This provides a solution strategy that avoids backtracking.

  17. Program Transformation by Solving Equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱鸿

    1991-01-01

    Based on the theory of orthogonal program expansion[8-10],the paper proposes a method to transform programs by solving program equations.By the method,transformation goals are expressed in program equations,and achieved by solving these equations.Although such equations are usually too complicated to be solved directly,the orthogonal expansion of programs makes it possible to reduce such equations into systems of equations only containing simple constructors of programs.Then,the solutions of such equations can be derived by a system of solving and simplifying rules,and algebraic laws of programs.The paper discusses the methods to simplify and solve equations and gives some examples.

  18. Pulsating Star Mystery Solved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    By discovering the first double star where a pulsating Cepheid variable and another star pass in front of one another, an international team of astronomers has solved a decades-old mystery. The rare alignment of the orbits of the two stars in the double star system has allowed a measurement of the Cepheid mass with unprecedented accuracy. Up to now astronomers had two incompatible theoretical predictions of Cepheid masses. The new result shows that the prediction from stellar pulsation theory is spot on, while the prediction from stellar evolution theory is at odds with the new observations. The new results, from a team led by Grzegorz Pietrzyński (Universidad de Concepción, Chile, Obserwatorium Astronomiczne Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego, Poland), appear in the 25 November 2010 edition of the journal Nature. Grzegorz Pietrzyński introduces this remarkable result: "By using the HARPS instrument on the 3.6-metre telescope at ESO's La Silla Observatory in Chile, along with other telescopes, we have measured the mass of a Cepheid with an accuracy far greater than any earlier estimates. This new result allows us to immediately see which of the two competing theories predicting the masses of Cepheids is correct." Classical Cepheid Variables, usually called just Cepheids, are unstable stars that are larger and much brighter than the Sun [1]. They expand and contract in a regular way, taking anything from a few days to months to complete the cycle. The time taken to brighten and grow fainter again is longer for stars that are more luminous and shorter for the dimmer ones. This remarkably precise relationship makes the study of Cepheids one of the most effective ways to measure the distances to nearby galaxies and from there to map out the scale of the whole Universe [2]. Unfortunately, despite their importance, Cepheids are not fully understood. Predictions of their masses derived from the theory of pulsating stars are 20-30% less than predictions from the theory of the

  19. RESOLVING THE STELLAR OUTSKIRTS OF M81: EVIDENCE FOR A FAINT, EXTENDED STRUCTURAL COMPONENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a wide field census of resolved stellar populations in the northern half of M81, conducted with Suprime-Cam on the 8 m Subaru telescope and covering an area ∼0.3 deg2. The resulting color-magnitude diagram reaches over one magnitude below the red giant branch (RGB) tip, allowing a detailed comparison between the young and old stellar spatial distributions. The surface density of stars with ages ∼20 cm-2, lower than typically probed with Hα flux. Both diffuse light and resolved RGB star counts show compelling evidence for a faint, extended structural component beyond the bright optical disk, with a much flatter surface brightness profile. The star counts allow us to probe this component to significantly fainter levels than is possible with the diffuse light alone. From the colors of its RGB stars, we estimate that this component has a peak global metallicity [M/H] ∼ -1.1 ± 0.3 at deprojected radii 32-44 kpc assuming an age of 10 Gyr and distance of 3.6 Mpc. The spatial distribution of its RGB stars follows a power-law surface density profile, I(r) ∝ r -γ, with γ ∼ 2. If this component were separate from the bulge and from the bright optical disk, then it would contain ∼10%-15% of M81's total V-band luminosity. We discuss the possibility that this is M81's halo or thick disk, and in particular highlight its similarities and differences with these components in the Milky Way. Other possibilities for its nature, such as a perturbed disk or the faint extension of the bulge, cannot be completely ruled out, though our data disfavor the latter. These observations add to the growing body of evidence for faint, complex extended structures beyond the bright disks of spiral galaxies.

  20. Variable Stars in the Field of the Hydra II Ultra-faint Dwarf Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivas, A. Katherina; Olsen, Knut; Blum, Robert; Nidever, David L.; Walker, Alistair R.; Martin, Nicolas F.; Besla, Gurtina; Gallart, Carme; van der Marel, Roeland P.; Majewski, Steven R.; Kaleida, Catherine C.; Muñoz, Ricardo R.; Saha, Abhijit; Conn, Blair C.; Jin, Shoko

    2016-05-01

    We report the discovery of one RR Lyrae star in the ultra-faint satellite galaxy Hydra II based on time series photometry in the g, r and i bands obtained with the Dark Energy Camera at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, Chile. The association of the RR Lyrae star discovered here with Hydra II is clear because is located at 42\\prime\\prime from the center of the dwarf, well within its half-light radius of 102\\prime\\prime . The RR Lyrae star has a mean magnitude of i=21.30+/- 0.04 which is too faint to be a field halo star. This magnitude translates to a heliocentric distance of 151 ± 8 kpc for Hydra II; this value is ∼ 13% larger than the estimate from the discovery paper based on the average magnitude of several blue horizontal branch star candidates. The new distance implies a slightly larger half-light radius of {76}-10+12 pc and a brighter absolute magnitude of {M}V=-5.1+/- 0.3, which keeps this object within the realm of the dwarf galaxies. A comparison with other RR Lyrae stars in ultra-faint systems indicates similar pulsational properties among them, which are different to those found among halo field stars and those in the largest of the Milky Way satellites. We also report the discovery of 31 additional short period variables in the field of view (RR Lyrae, SX Phe, eclipsing binaries, and a likely anomalous cepheid) which are likely not related with Hydra II.

  1. DISCOVERY OF A NEW FAINT DWARF GALAXY ASSOCIATED WITH NGC 253

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the discovery of a new faint dwarf galaxy, which we dub Scl-MM-Dw1, at a projected distance of ∼65 kpc from the spiral galaxy NGC 253. The discovery results from the Panoramic Imaging Survey of Centaurus and Sculptor (PISCeS), a program with the Magellan/Megacam imager to study faint substructure in resolved stellar light around massive galaxies outside of the Local Group. We measure a tip of the red giant branch distance to Scl-MM-Dw1 of D = 3.9 ± 0.5 Mpc, consistent with that of NGC 253, making their association likely. The new dwarf's stellar population is complex, with an old, metal-poor red giant branch (≳10 Gyr, [Fe/H] ∼ –2), and an asymptotic giant branch with an age of ∼500 Myr. Scl-MM-Dw1 has a half-light radius of rh = 340 ± 50 pc and an absolute magnitude of MV  = –10.3 ± 0.6 mag, comparable to the Milky Way's satellites at the same luminosity. Once complete, our imaging survey of NGC 253 and other nearby massive galaxies will provide a census of faint substructure in halos beyond the Local Group, both to put our own environment into context and to confront models of hierarchical structure formation

  2. On the nature of faint mid-infrared sources in M33

    OpenAIRE

    Corbelli, Edvige; Giovanardi, Carlo; Palla, Francesco; Verley, Simon

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the nature of 24micron sources in M33 which have weak or no associated Halpha emission. Both bright evolved stars and embedded star forming regions are visible as compact infrared sources in the 8 and 24micron maps of M33 and contribute to the more diffuse and faint emission in these bands. Can we distinguish the two populations? We carry out deep CO J=2-1 and J=1-0 line searches at the location of compact mid-IR sources to unveil an ongoing star formation process. We use diffe...

  3. In-flight performance of the Faint Object Camera of the Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, P.; Paresce, F.; Baxter, D.; Hodge, P.; Hook, R.; Jakobsen, P.; Jedrzejewski, R.; Nota, A.; Sparks, W. B.; Towers, N.

    1991-01-01

    An overview of the Faint Object Camera and its performance to date is presented. In particular, the detector's efficiency, the spatial uniformity of response, distortion characteristics, detector and sky background, detector linearity, spectrography, and operation are discussed. The effect of the severe spherical aberration of the telescope's primary mirror on the camera's point spread function is reviewed, as well as the impact it has on the camera's general performance. The scientific implications of the performance and the spherical aberration are outlined, with emphasis on possible remedies for spherical aberration, hardware remedies, and stellar population studies.

  4. A Hero's Dark Horse: Discovery of an Ultra-Faint Milky Way Satellite in Pegasus

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Dongwon; Jerjen, Helmut; Mackey, Dougal; Da Costa, Gary S.; Milone, Antonino P.

    2015-01-01

    We report the discovery of an ultra-faint Milky Way satellite galaxy in the constellation of Pegasus. The concentration of stars was detected by applying our overdensity detection algorithm to the SDSS-DR 10 and confirmed with deeper photometry from the Dark Energy Camera at the 4-m Blanco telescope. Fitting model isochrones indicates that this object, Pegasus III, features an old and metal-poor stellar population ([Fe/H]$\\sim-2.1$) at a heliocentric distance of $205\\pm20$ kpc. The new stella...

  5. Spectral evolution of galaxies. III - Cosmological predictions for the Space Telescope faint object camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruzual A., G.

    1983-10-01

    The galactic spectral evolutionary models of Bruzual A. (1981) are employed to estimate parameters which will be observable by the wide-field camera and faint-object camera of the Space Telescope. The capabilities and bandpasses of the instruments are reviewed, and the results are presented in tables and graphs. Parameters calculated include the amplitude of the Lyman discontinuity at 912 A, stellar and galaxy rest-frame colors, color evolution, two-color diagrams as a function of redshift, luminosity evolution, surface brightness profiles, galaxy counts, and color and redshift distributions. In general, it is predicted that the space measurements will follow the trends noted in round-based observations.

  6. Investigations of the optical fields of 3CR radio sources to faint limiting magnitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deep plates of the fields of 20 3CR radio sources for which the identifications required confirmation or for which no identification had been found have been taken with the Hale 5-m telescope. For 3C 13, 14, 20, 41, 49 and 172 the identifications are confirmed. New identifications are proposed for 3C 16, 22, 34, 322, 356 and 441; these are probably radio galaxies in most cases. Possible very faint objects are noted in the vicinity of 3C 437 and 470. The sources 3C 65, 68.2, 289, 294, 324 remain unidentified. (author)

  7. Application of digital image processing techniques to faint solar flare phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Digital image processing of eight solar flare events was performed using the Video Information Communication and Retrieval language in order to study moving emission fronts, flare halos, and Moreton waves. The techniques used include contrast enhancement, isointensity contouring, the differencing of images, spatial filtering, and geometrical registration. The spatial extent and temporal behavior of the faint phenomena is examined along with the relation of the three types of phenomena to one another. The image processing techniques make possible the detailed study of the history of the phenomena and provide clues to their physical nature

  8. Photometry and Photometric Redshifts of Faint Galaxies in the Hubble Deep Field South NICMOS Field

    OpenAIRE

    Yahata, Noriaki; Lanzetta, Kenneth M.; Chen, Hsiao-Wen; Fernandez-Soto, Alberto; Pascarelle, Sebastian M.; Yahil, Amos; Puetter, Richard C.

    2000-01-01

    We present a catalog of photometry and photometric redshifts of 335 faint objects in the HDF-S NICMOS field. The analysis is based on (1) infrared images obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) using the Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrograph (NICMOS) with the F110W, F160W, and F222M filters, (2) an optical image obtained with HST using the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) with no filter, and (3) optical images obtained with the European Southern Observatory (ESO...

  9. Rocket instrument for far-UV spectrophotometry of faint astronomical objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartig, G. F.; Fastie, W. G.; Davidsen, A. F.

    1980-01-01

    A sensitive sounding rocket instrument for moderate (about 10-A) resolution far-UV (1160-1750-A) spectrophotometry of faint astronomical objects has been developed. The instrument employes a photon-counting microchannel plate imaging detector and a concave grating spectrograph behind a 40-cm Dall-Kirkham telescope. A unique remote-control pointing system, incorporating an SIT vidicon aspect camera, two star trackers, and a tone-encoded command telemetry link, permits the telescope to be oriented to within 5 arc sec of any target for which suitable guide stars can be found. The design, construction, calibration, and flight performance of the instrument are discussed.

  10. Evidence for Infrared-Faint Radio Sources as z > 1 Radio-Loud AGN

    CERN Document Server

    Huynh, M T; Siana, B; Middelberg, E

    2010-01-01

    Infrared-Faint Radio Sources (IFRSs) are a class of radio objects found in the Australia Telescope Large Area Survey (ATLAS) which have no observable mid-infrared counterpart in the Spitzer Wide-area Infrared Extragalactic (SWIRE) survey. The extended Chandra Deep Field South now has even deeper Spitzer imaging (3.6 to 70 micron) from a number of Legacy surveys. We report the detections of two IFRS sources in IRAC images. The non-detection of two other IFRSs allows us to constrain the source type. Detailed modeling of the SED of these objects shows that they are consistent with high redshift (z > 1) AGN.

  11. Infrared Faint Radio Sources in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Minh T.

    2009-01-01

    Infrared-Faint Radio Sources (IFRSs) are a class of radio objects found in the Australia Telescope Large Area Survey (ATLAS) which have no observable counterpart in the Spitzer Wide-area Infrared Extragalactic Survey (SWIRE). The extended Chandra Deep Field South now has even deeper Spitzer imaging (3.6 to 70 micron) from a number of Legacy surveys. We report the detections of two IFRS sources in IRAC images. The non-detection of two other IFRSs allows us to constrain the source type. Detailed modeling of the SED of these objects shows that they are consistent with high redshift AGN (z > 2).

  12. Evidence for Infrared-faint Radio Sources as z > 1 Radio-loud Active Galactic Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Minh T.; Norris, Ray P.; Siana, Brian; Middelberg, Enno

    2010-02-01

    Infrared-Faint Radio Sources (IFRSs) are a class of radio objects found in the Australia Telescope Large Area Survey which have no observable mid-infrared counterpart in the Spitzer Wide-area Infrared Extragalactic (SWIRE) survey. The extended Chandra Deep Field South now has even deeper Spitzer imaging (3.6-70 μm) from a number of Legacy surveys. We report the detections of two IFRS sources in IRAC images. The non-detection of two other IFRSs allows us to constrain the source type. Detailed modeling of the spectral energy distribution of these objects shows that they are consistent with high-redshift (z >~ 1) active galactic nuclei.

  13. Faint-meteor survey with a large-format CMOS sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, J.; Enomoto, T.; Terai, T.; Kasuga, T.; Miyazaki, S.; Oota, K.; Muraoka, F.; Onishi, T.; Yamasaki, T.; Mito, H.; Aoki, T.; Soyano, T.; Tarusawa, K.; Matsunaga, N.; Sako, S.; Kobayashi, N.; Doi, M.

    2014-07-01

    For observing faint meteors, we need a large telescope or similar optics, which always give a restriction of the field of view. It is a kind of trade-off between the high sensitivity by using larger telescope and narrower field of view. Reconciling this contradiction, we need a large-format imaging detector together with fast readout for meteor observations. A high-sensitivity CMOS sensor of the large format was developed by Canon Inc. in 2010[1]. Its size is 202 mm×205 mm which makes it the largest one-chip CMOS sensor in the world, and approximately 40 times the size of Canon's largest commercial CMOS sensor as shown in the figure. The number of pixel is 1280×1248. Because the increased size of the new CMOS sensor allows more light to be gathered, it enables shooting in low-light environments. The sensor makes image capture possible in one-hundredth the amount of light required by a 35 mm full-frame CMOS sensor, facilitating the shooting of 60 frame-per-second video with a mere 0.3 lux of illumination. We tried to use this large-format CMOS sensor attached to the prime focus of the 1.05-m (F3.1) Schmidt telescope at the Kiso Observatory, University of Tokyo, for surveying faint meteors. The field of view is 3.3 by 3.3 degrees. Test observations including operation check of the system were carried out in January 2011, September 2011,and December 2012. Images were obtained at a time resolution of 60 frames per second. In this system, the limiting magnitude is estimated to be about 11-12. Because of the limitation of the data storage, full-power observations (14-bit data per 1/60 second) were performed for about one or two hours each night. During the first period, we can count a sporadic meteor every 5 seconds. This is about one order higher detection rate of the faint meteors compared with the previous work[2]. Assuming the height of faint meteors at 100 km, the derived flux of the sporadic meteors is about 5 × 10^{-4} km^{-2} sec^{-1}. The last run was

  14. Atmospheric contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is about the levels of contamination in center America, the population's perception on the problem, effects of the atmospheric contamination, effects in the environment, causes of the atmospheric contamination, possibilities to reduce the atmospheric contamination and list of Roeco Swisscontac in atmospheric contamination

  15. How to solve mathematical problems

    CERN Document Server

    Wickelgren, Wayne A

    2012-01-01

    Seven problem-solving techniques include inference, classification of action sequences, subgoals, contradiction, working backward, relations between problems, and mathematical representation. Also, problems from mathematics, science, and engineering with complete solutions.

  16. Predictions for the Counts of Faint, High-Redshift Galaxies in the Mid-Infrared

    CERN Document Server

    Haiman, Z; Turner, E L; Haiman, Zoltan; Spergel, David N.; Turner, Edwin L.

    2003-01-01

    Deep mid-infrared (MIR) observations could reveal a population of faint, high-redshift (z>3) dusty starburst galaxies that are the progenitors of present-day spheroids or bulges, and are beyond the reach of current instruments. We utilize a semi-analytic galaxy formation scheme to find an extreme model for the MIR galaxy counts, designed to maximize the number of detectable sources down to a flux level of a few nJy. The model incorporates the formation of heavily dust-enshrouded stellar populations at high redshift, and is consistent with existing observations, including faint counts at 1.6um in the NICMOS Hubble Deep Field, and the upper limit on the extragalactic MIR background from TeV gamma rays. Our models predict upto 0.5 galaxies/sq.arcsec at the threshold of 100 nJy at 6um, with a comparable or larger surface density at longer MIR wavelengths. We conclude that a significant new population of high-redshift galaxies could be detected by the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) and Next Generation S...

  17. A deep ROSAT survey; 12, the x-ray spectra of faint ROSAT sources

    CERN Document Server

    Almaini, O; Boyle, B J; Griffiths, R E; Roche, N; Stewart, G C; Georgantopoulos, I; Almaini, Omar; Shanks, Tom; Boyle, Brian J; Griffiths, Richard E; Roche, Nathan; Stewart, Gordon C; Georgantopoulos, Ioannis

    1996-01-01

    Optical spectroscopy has enabled us to identify the optical counterparts to over 200 faint X-ray sources to a flux limit of S_(0.5-2keV)=4x10^-15 erg s^-1 cm^-2 on 5 deep ROSAT fields. Here we present a spectral analysis of all the X-ray sources to investigate claims that the average source spectra harden at faint X-ray flux. From a hardness ratio analysis we confirm that the average spectra from 0.5-2 keV harden from an equivalent photon index of \\Gamma=2.2 at S_(0.5-2keV)=1x10^-13 erg s^-1 cm^-2 to \\Gamma=1.7 below 1x10^-14 erg s^-1 cm^-2. These spectral changes are due to the emergence of an unidentified source population rather than the class of X-ray QSOs already identified. The 128 QSOs detected so far show no evidence for spectral hardening over this energy range and retain a mean photon index of \\Gamma=2.2. Recent work suggests that many of the remaining unidentified sources are X-ray luminous galaxies. Taking a subset identified as the most likely galaxy candidates we find that these show significant...

  18. Wide binaries in ultra-faint galaxies: a window onto dark matter on the smallest scales

    CERN Document Server

    Peñarrubia, Jorge; Chanamé, Julio; Walker, Matthew G

    2016-01-01

    We carry out controlled $N$-body simulations that follow the dynamical evolution of binary stars in the dark matter (DM) haloes of ultra-faint dwarf spheroidals (dSphs). We find that wide binaries with semi-major axes $a\\gtrsim a_t$ tend to be quickly disrupted by the tidal field of the halo. In smooth potentials the truncation scale, $a_t$, is mainly governed by (i) the mass enclosed within the dwarf half-light radius ($R_h$) and (ii) the slope of the DM halo profile at $R\\approx R_h$, and is largely independent of the initial eccentricity distribution of the binary systems and the anisotropy of the stellar orbits about the galactic potential. For the reported velocity dispersion and half-light radius of Segue I, the closest ultra-faint, our models predict $a_t$ values that are a factor 2--3 smaller in cuspy haloes than in any of the cored models considered here. Using mock observations of Segue I we show that measuring the projected two-point correlation function of stellar pairs with sub-arcsecond resoluti...

  19. Optical-Infrared Properties of Faint 1.3 mm Sources Detected with ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Hatsukade, Bunyo; Yabe, Kiyoto; Seko, Akifumi; Makiya, Ryu; Akiyama, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    We report optical-infrared (IR) properties of faint 1.3 mm sources (S_1.3mm = 0.2-1.0 mJy) detected with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) in the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Survey (SXDS) field. We searched for optical/IR counterparts of 8 ALMA-detected sources (>=4.0 sigma, the sum of the probability of spurious source contamination is ~1) in a K-band source catalog. Four ALMA sources have K-band counterpart candidates within a 0.4" radius. Comparison between ALMA-detected and undetected K-band sources in the same observing fields shows that ALMA-detected sources tend to be brighter, more massive, and more actively forming stars. While many of the ALMA-identified submillimeter-bright galaxies (SMGs) in previous studies lie above the sequence of star-forming galaxies in stellar mass--star-formation rate plane, our ALMA sources are located in the sequence, suggesting that the ALMA-detected faint sources are more like `normal' star-forming galaxies rather than `classical' SMGs. We found a regio...

  20. The radio spectral energy distribution of infrared-faint radio sources

    CERN Document Server

    Herzog, A; Middelberg, E; Seymour, N; Spitler, L R; Emonts, B H C; Franzen, T M O; Hunstead, R; Intema, H T; Marvil, J; Parker, Q A; Sirothia, S K; Hurley-Walker, N; Bell, M; Bernardi, G; Bowman, J D; Briggs, F; Cappallo, R J; Callingham, J R; Deshpande, A A; Dwarakanath, K S; For, B -Q; Greenhill, L J; Hancock, P; Hazelton, B J; Hindson, L; Johnston-Hollitt, M; Kapinska, A D; Kaplan, D L; Lenc, E; Lonsdale, C J; McKinley, B; McWhirter, S R; Mitchell, D A; Morales, M F; Morgan, E; Morgan, J; Oberoi, D; Offringa, A; Ord, S M; Prabu, T; Procopio, P; Shankar, N Udaya; Srivani, K S; Staveley-Smith, L; Subrahmanyan, R; Tingay, S J; Wayth, R B; Webster, R L; Williams, A; Williams, C L; Wu, C; Zheng, Q; Chippendale, A P; Harvey-Smith, L; Heywood, I; Indermuehle, B; Popping, A; Sault, R J; Whiting, M T

    2016-01-01

    Infrared-faint radio sources (IFRS) are a class of radio-loud (RL) active galactic nuclei (AGN) at high redshifts (z > 1.7) that are characterised by their relative infrared faintness, resulting in enormous radio-to-infrared flux density ratios of up to several thousand. We aim to test the hypothesis that IFRS are young AGN, particularly GHz peaked-spectrum (GPS) and compact steep-spectrum (CSS) sources that have a low frequency turnover. We use the rich radio data set available for the Australia Telescope Large Area Survey fields, covering the frequency range between 150 MHz and 34 GHz with up to 19 wavebands from different telescopes, and build radio spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for 34 IFRS. We then study the radio properties of this class of object with respect to turnover, spectral index, and behaviour towards higher frequencies. We also present the highest-frequency radio observations of an IFRS, observed with the Plateau de Bure Interferometer at 105 GHz, and model the multi-wavelength and radio...

  1. Star/galaxy separation at faint magnitudes: Application to a simulated Dark Energy Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soumagnac, M.T.; et al.

    2013-06-21

    We address the problem of separating stars from galaxies in future large photometric surveys. We focus our analysis on simulations of the Dark Energy Survey (DES). In the first part of the paper, we derive the science requirements on star/galaxy separation, for measurement of the cosmological parameters with the Gravitational Weak Lensing and Large Scale Structure probes. These requirements are dictated by the need to control both the statistical and systematic errors on the cosmological parameters, and by Point Spread Function calibration. We formulate the requirements in terms of the completeness and purity provided by a given star/galaxy classifier. In order to achieve these requirements at faint magnitudes, we propose a new method for star/galaxy separation in the second part of the paper. We first use Principal Component Analysis to outline the correlations between the objects parameters and extract from it the most relevant information. We then use the reduced set of parameters as input to an Artificial Neural Network. This multi-parameter approach improves upon purely morphometric classifiers (such as the classifier implemented in SExtractor), especially at faint magnitudes: it increases the purity by up to 20% for stars and by up to 12% for galaxies, at i-magnitude fainter than 23.

  2. VLA survey of the CDFS: the nature of faint radio sources

    CERN Document Server

    Tozzi, P; Fomalont, E; Miller, N; Norman, C; Mainieri, V; Padovani, P; Rosati, P

    2009-01-01

    We present the multiwavelength properties of 266 cataloged radio sources identified with 20 and 6 cm VLA deep observations of the CDFS at a flux density limit of 42 \\mu Jy at the field centre at 1.4 GHz. These new observations probe the faint end of both the star formation and radio galaxy/AGN population. X-ray data, including upper limits, turn out to be a key factor in establishing the nature of faint radio sources. We find that, while the well-known flattening of the radio number counts below 1 mJy is mostly due to star forming galaxies, these sources and AGN make up an approximately equal fraction of the sub--millijansky sky, contrary to some previous results. We have also uncovered a population of distant AGN systematically missing from many previous studies of sub-millijansky radio source identifications. The AGN include radio galaxies, mostly of the low-power, Fanaroff-Riley I type, and a significant radio-quiet component, which amounts to approximately one fifth of the total sample. We also find that ...

  3. Finding faint HI structure in and around galaxies: scraping the barrel

    CERN Document Server

    Punzo, D; Roerdink, J B T M

    2016-01-01

    Soon to be operational HI survey instruments such as APERTIF and ASKAP will produce large datasets. These surveys will provide information about the HI in and around hundreds of galaxies with a typical signal-to-noise ratio of $\\sim$ 10 in the inner regions and $\\sim$ 1 in the outer regions. In addition, such surveys will make it possible to probe faint HI structures, typically located in the vicinity of galaxies, such as extra-planar-gas, tails and filaments. These structures are crucial for understanding galaxy evolution, particularly when they are studied in relation to the local environment. Our aim is to find optimized kernels for the discovery of faint and morphologically complex HI structures. Therefore, using HI data from a variety of galaxies, we explore state-of-the-art filtering algorithms. We show that the intensity-driven gradient filter, due to its adaptive characteristics, is the optimal choice. In fact, this filter requires only minimal tuning of the input parameters to enhance the signal-to-n...

  4. Photometry and Photometric Redshifts of Faint Galaxies in the Hubble Deep Field South NICMOS Field

    CERN Document Server

    Yahata, N; Chen, H W; Fernández-Soto, A; Pascarelle, S M; Yahil, A; Pütter, R C; Yahata, Noriaki; Lanzetta, Kenneth M.; Chen, Hsiao-Wen; Fernandez-Soto, Alberto; Pascarelle, Sebastian M.; Yahil, Amos; Puetter, Richard C.

    2000-01-01

    We present a catalog of photometry and photometric redshifts of 335 faint objects in the HDF-S NICMOS field. The analysis is based on (1) infrared images obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) using the Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrograph (NICMOS) with the F110W, F160W, and F222M filters, (2) an optical image obtained with HST using the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) with no filter, and (3) optical images obtained with the European Southern Observatory (ESO) Very Large Telescope (VLT) with U, B, V, R, and I filters. The primary utility of the catalog of photometric redshifts is as a survey of faint galaxies detected in the NICMOS F160W and F222M images. The sensitivity of the survey varies significantly with position, reaching a limiting depth of AB(16,000) ~ 28.7 and covering 1.01 arcmin^2 to AB(16,000) = 27 and 1.05 arcmin^2 to AB(16,000) = 26.5. The catalog of photometric redshifts identifies 21 galaxies (or 60f the total) of redshift z > 5, 8 galaxies (or 2563641f the t...

  5. Variable stars in the field of the Hydra II ultra-faint dwarf galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Vivas, A Katherina; Olsen, Knut; Blum, Robert; Walker, Alistair; Martin, Nicolas; Besla, Gurtina; Gallart, Carme; van der Marel, Roeland; Majewski, Steven; Kaleida, Catherine; Muñoz, Ricardo; Conn, Blair; Jin, Shoko

    2015-01-01

    We report the discovery of one RR Lyrae star in the ultra--faint satellite galaxy Hydra II based on time series photometry in the g, r and i bands obtained with the Dark Energy Camera at Cerro Tololo Interamerican Observatory, Chile. The RR Lyrae star has a mean magnitude of $i = 21.30\\pm 0.04$ which translates to a heliocentric distance of $151\\pm 8$ kpc for Hydra II; this value is $\\sim 13\\%$ larger than the estimate from the discovery paper based on the average magnitude of several blue horizontal branch star candidates. The new distance implies a slightly larger half-light radius of $76^{+12}_{-10}$ pc and a brighter absolute magnitude of $M_V = -5.1 \\pm 0.3$, which keeps this object within the realm of the dwarf galaxies. The pulsational properties of the RR Lyrae star ($P=0.645$ d, $\\Delta g = 0.68$ mag) suggest Hydra II may be a member of the intermediate Oosterhoff or Oosterhoff II group. A comparison with other RR Lyrae stars in ultra--faint systems indicates similar pulsational properties among them...

  6. The Faint End of the Quasar Luminosity Function at z~4

    CERN Document Server

    Glikman, Eilat; Djorgovski, S G; Stern, Daniel; Dey, Arjun; Jannuzi, Buell T; Mahabal, Ashish

    2009-01-01

    We have conducted a spectroscopic survey to find faint quasars (-26.0 < M_{1450} < -22.0) at redshifts z=3.8-5.2 in order to measure the faint end of the quasar luminosity function at these early times. Using available optical imaging data from portions of the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey and the Deep Lens Survey, we have color-selected quasar candidates in a total area of 3.76 deg^2. Thirty candidates have R <= 23 mags. We conducted spectroscopic followup for 28 of our candidates and found 23 QSOs, 21 of which are reported here for the first time, in the 3.74 < z <5.06 redshift range. We estimate our survey completeness through detailed Monte Carlo simulations and derive the first measurement of the density of quasars in this magnitude and redshift interval. We find that the binned luminosity function is somewhat affected by the K-correction used to compute the rest-frame absolute magnitude at 1450A. Considering only our R <= 23 sample, the best-fit single power-law (Phi \\propto L^beta) give...

  7. The ALHAMBRA survey: Discovery of a faint QSO at z = 5.41

    CERN Document Server

    Matute, I; Márquez, I; Fernández-Soto, A; Husillos, C; del Olmo, A; Perea, J; Pović, M; Ascaso, B; Alfaro, E J; Moles, M; Aguerri, J A L; Aparicio--Villegas, T; Benítez, N; Broadhurst, T; Cabrera--Cano, J; Castander, F J; Cepa, J; Cerviño, M; Cristóbal-Hornillos, D; Infante, L; Delgado, R M González; Martínez, V J; Molino, A; Prada, F; Quintana, J M

    2013-01-01

    We aim to illustrate the potentiality of the Advanced Large, Homogeneous Area, Medium-Band Redshift Astronomical (ALHAMBRA) survey to investigate the high redshift universe through the detection of quasi stellar objects (QSOs) at redshifts larger than 5. The search for z>5 QSOs candidates was done by fitting an extensive library of spectral energy distributions --including active and non-active galaxy templates as well as stars-- to the photometric database of the ALHAMBRA survey (composed of 20 optical medium-band plus the 3 broad-band JHKs filters). Our selection over ~1 square degree of ALHAMBRA data (~1/4 of the total area covered by the survey), combined with GTC/OSIRIS spectroscopy, has yielded the identification of an optically faint QSO at very high redshift (z = 5.41). The QSO has an absolute magnitude of ~-24 at the 1450{\\AA} continuum, a bolometric luminosity of ~2x10^46 erg/s and an estimated black hole mass of ~10^8 Msolar. This QSO adds itself to a reduced number of known UV faint sources at the...

  8. A faint extended cluster in the outskirts of NGC 5128: evidence of a low mass accretion

    CERN Document Server

    Mouhcine, M; Ibata, R; Rejkuba, M

    2010-01-01

    We report the discovery of an extended globular cluster in a halo field in Centaurus A (NGC 5128), situated $\\sim 38\\kpc$ from the centre of that galaxy, imaged with the Advanced Camera for Surveys on board the Hubble Space Telescope. At the distance of the galaxy, the half-light radius of the cluster is r_h ~ 17pc, placing it among the largest globular clusters known. The faint absolute magnitude of the star cluster, M_(V,o)=-5.2, and its large size render this object somewhat different from the population of extended globular clusters previously reported, making it the first firm detection in the outskirts of a giant galaxy of an analogue of the faint, diffuse globular clusters present in the outer halo of the Milky Way. The colour-magnitude diagram of the cluster, covering approximately the brightest four magnitudes of the red giant branch, is consistent with an ancient, i.e., older than ~8 Gyr, intermediate-metallicity, i.e., [M/H] ~-1.0 dex, stellar population. We also report the detection of a second, e...

  9. Infrared-Faint Radio Sources in the SERVS deep fields: Pinpointing AGNs at high redshift

    CERN Document Server

    Maini, Alessandro; Norris, Ray P; Spitler, Lee R; Mignano, Arturo; Lacy, Mark; Morganti, Raffaella

    2016-01-01

    Infrared-Faint Radio Sources (IFRS) represent an unexpected class of objects relatively bright at radio wavelength, but unusually faint at infrared (IR) and optical wavelengths. A recent and extensive campaign on the radio-brightest IFRSs (S_{1.4GHz} >= 10 mJy) has provided evidence that most of them (if not all) contain an AGN. Still uncertain is the nature of the radio-faintest ones (S_{1.4GHz} 4). We analysed a number of IFRS samples identified in SERVS fields, including a new sample (21 sources) extracted from the Lockman Hole. 3.6 and 4.5 mum IR counterparts of the 64 sources located in the SERVS fields were searched for, and, when detected, their IR properties were studied. We compared the radio/IR properties of the IR-detected IFRSs with those expected for a number of known classes of objects. We found that they are mostly consistent with a mixture of high-redshift (z >= 3) radio-loud AGNs. The faintest ones (S_{1.4GHz} ~ 100 muJy), however, could be also associated with nearer (z ~ 2) dust-enshrouded...

  10. Detailed Chemical Abundances in the r-Process-Rich Ultra-Faint Dwarf Galaxy Reticulum 2

    CERN Document Server

    Roederer, Ian U; Bailey, John I; Song, Yingyi; Bell, Eric F; Crane, Jeffrey D; Loebman, Sarah; Nidever, David L; Olszewski, Edward W; Shectman, Stephen A; Thompson, Ian B; Valluri, Monica; Walker, Matthew G

    2016-01-01

    The ultra-faint dwarf galaxy Reticulum 2 (Ret 2) was recently discovered in images obtained by the Dark Energy Survey. We have observed the four brightest red giants in Ret 2 at high spectral resolution using the Michigan/Magellan Fiber System. We present detailed abundances for as many as 20 elements per star, including 12 elements heavier than the Fe group. We confirm previous detection of high levels of r-process material in Ret 2 (mean [Eu/Fe]=+1.69+/-0.05) found in three of these stars (mean [Fe/H]=-2.88+/-0.10). The abundances closely match the r-process pattern found in the well-studied metal-poor halo star CS22892-052. Such r-process-enhanced stars have not been found in any other ultra-faint dwarf galaxy, though their existence has been predicted by at least one model. The fourth star in Ret 2 ([Fe/H]=-3.42+/-0.20) contains only trace amounts of Sr ([Sr/Fe]=-1.73+/-0.43) and no detectable heavier elements. One r-process enhanced star is also enhanced in C (natal [C/Fe]=+1.1). This is only the third s...

  11. The chemical evolution of the Bootes I ultra-faint dwarf galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Frebel, Anna; Gilmore, Gerard; Wyse, Rosemary F G

    2016-01-01

    We present chemical abundance measurements of two metal-poor red giant stars in the ultra-faint dwarf galaxy Bootes I, based on Magellan/MIKE high-resolution spectra. For Boo I-980, with [Fe/H]=-3.1, we present the first elemental abundance measurements while Boo I-127, with [Fe/H]=-2.0, shows abundances in good agreement with previous measurements. Light and iron-peak element abundance ratios in the two Bootes I stars, as well as those of most other Boootes I members, collected from the literature, closely resemble those of regular metal-poor halo stars. Neutron-capture element abundances Sr and Ba are systematically lower than the main halo trend, and also show a significant abundance spread. Overall, this is similar to what has been found for other ultra-faint dwarf galaxies. We apply corrections to the carbon abundances (commensurate with stellar evolutionary status) of the entire sample and find 21% of stars to be carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars, compared to 13% without using the carbon correctio...

  12. Theoretical lower limits on sizes of ultra faint dwarf galaxies from dynamical friction

    CERN Document Server

    Hernandez, X

    2016-01-01

    Dwarf spheroidal galaxies are the smallest known stellar systems where under Newtonian interpretations, a significant amount of dark matter is required to explain observed kinematics. In fact, they are in this sense the most heavily dark matter dominated objects known. That, plus the increasingly small sizes of the newly discovered ultra faint dwarfs, puts these systems in the regime where dynamical friction on individual stars starts to become relevant. We calculate the dynamical friction timescales for pressure supported isotropic spherical dark matter dominated stellar systems, yielding $\\tau_{DF} =0.93 (r_{h}/10 pc)^{2} (\\sigma/ kms^{-1}) Gyr$. For a stellar velocity dispersion value of $3 km/s$, as typical for the smallest of the recently detected ultra faint dwarf spheroidals, dynamical friction timescales becomes smaller than the $10 Gyr$ typical of the stellar ages for these systems, for half-light radii $r_{h}<19 pc$. Thus, this becomes a theoretical lower limit below which dark matter dominated s...

  13. Chemical Diversity in the Ultra-faint Dwarf Galaxy Tucana II

    CERN Document Server

    Ji, Alexander P; Ezzeddine, Rana; Casey, Andrew R

    2016-01-01

    We present the first detailed chemical abundance study of the ultra-faint dwarf galaxy Tucana II based on high-resolution Magellan/MIKE spectra of four red giant stars. The metallicity of these stars ranges from [Fe/H] = -3.2 to -2.6, and all stars are low in neutron-capture abundances ([Sr/Fe] and [Ba/Fe] < -1). However, a number of anomalous chemical signatures are present. Three stars are carbon-enhanced, including the most metal-rich star. This star ([Fe/H]=-2.6) shows [Na,$\\alpha$,Sc/Fe] < 0, suggesting an extended star formation history with contributions from AGB stars and Type Ia supernovae. The other carbon-enhanced stars have [Fe/H] < -3 and may be consistent with enrichment by faint supernovae, if such supernovae can produce neutron-capture elements. A fourth star with [Fe/H] = -3 is carbon-normal, and exhibits distinct light element abundance ratios from the carbon-enhanced stars. The carbon-normal star implies that at least two distinct nucleosynthesis sources, both possibly associated w...

  14. THE DISCOVERY OF AN ULTRA-FAINT STAR CLUSTER IN THE CONSTELLATION OF URSA MINOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the discovery of a new ultra-faint globular cluster in the constellation of Ursa Minor, based on stellar photometry from the MegaCam imager at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. We find that this cluster, Muñoz 1, is located at a distance of 45 ± 5 kpc and at a projected distance of only 45' from the center of the Ursa Minor dwarf spheroidal galaxy. Using a maximum-likelihood technique we measure a half-light radius of 0.'5, or equivalently 7 pc, and an ellipticity consistent with being zero. We estimate its absolute magnitude to be MV –0.4 ± 0.9, which corresponds to LV = 120+160–65 L☉ and we measure a heliocentric radial velocity of –137 ± 4 km s–1 based on Keck/DEIMOS spectroscopy. This new satellite is separate from Ursa Minor by ∼30 kpc and 110 km s–1 suggesting the cluster is not obviously associated with the dSph, despite the very close angular separation. Based on its photometric properties and structural parameters we conclude that Muñoz 1 is a new ultra-faint stellar cluster. Along with Segue 3 this is one of the faintest stellar clusters known to date.

  15. Kim 3: an Ultra-faint Star Cluster in the Constellation of Centaurus

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Dongwon; Mackey, Dougal; Da Costa, Gary S; Milone, Antonino P

    2015-01-01

    We report the discovery of an ultra-faint star cluster in the constellation of Centaurus. This new stellar system, Kim 3, features a half light radius of $r_{h}=2.29^{+1.28}_{-0.52}$ pc and a total luminosity of $M_{V}=+0.7\\pm0.3$. Approximately 26 stars are identified as candidate member stars down to four magnitudes below the main-sequence turn-off, which makes Kim 3 the least luminous star cluster known to date. The compact physical size and extreme low luminosity place it close to faint star clusters in the size-luminosity plane. The stellar population of Kim 3 appears to be relatively young ($9.5^{+3.0}_{-1.7}$ Gyr) and metal-poor ([Fe/H]$=-1.6^{+0.45}_{-0.30}$) at a heliocentric distance of $15.14^{+1.00}_{-0.28}$ kpc. The cluster lacks a well-defined center and a small but prominent group of stars consistent with the Kim 3 isochrone is present approximately 9.7 pc in projection south of the cluster center. Both are signs of the cluster being in the final stage of tidal disruption.

  16. Computational Approaches for Probing the Formation of Atmospheric Molecular Clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elm, Jonas

    This thesis presents the investigation of atmospheric molecular clusters using computational methods. Previous investigations have focused on solving problems related to atmospheric nucleation, and have not been targeted at the performance of the applied methods. This thesis focuses on assessing...

  17. LoCuSS: Exploring the selection of faint blue background galaxies for cluster weak-lensing

    CERN Document Server

    Ziparo, Felicia; Okabe, Nobuhiro; Haines, Chris P; Pereira, Maria J; Egami, Eiichi

    2015-01-01

    Cosmological constraints from galaxy clusters rely on accurate measurements of the mass and internal structure of clusters. An important source of systematic uncertainty in cluster mass and structure measurements is the secure selection of background galaxies that are gravitationally lensed by clusters. This issue has been shown to be particular severe for faint blue galaxies. We therefore explore the selection of faint blue background galaxies, by reference to photometric redshift catalogs derived from the COSMOS survey and our own observations of massive galaxy clusters at z~0.2. We show that methods relying on photometric redshifts of galaxies in/behind clusters based on observations through five filters, and on deep 30-band COSMOS photometric redshifts are both inadequate to identify safely faint blue background galaxies. This is due to the small number of filters used by the former, and absence of massive galaxy clusters at redshifts of interest in the latter. We therefore develop a pragmatic method to c...

  18. Faint meteor observation by large-format CMOS sensor with 1.05-m Kiso schmidt telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, J.; Kasuga, T.; Terai, T.; Miyazaki, S.; Ohta, K.; Murooka, F.; Ohnishi, T.; Yamasaki, T.; Mito, H.; Aoki, T.; Soyano, T.; Tarusawa, K.; Matsunaga, N.; Sako, S.; Kobayashi, N.; Doi, M.; Enomoto, T.

    2014-07-01

    We tried to use a new high-sensitivity CMOS sensor of the world's largest size as a one-chip 20cmx 20cm square attached to the prime focus of the 1.05 m (F3.1) Schmidt telescope at the Kiso Observatory, University of Tokyo, for faint meteor observation. The resulting field of view was 3.3 by 3.3 degrees, with a limiting magnitude of about 12 in our preliminary analysis. Assuming the height of faint meteors at 100 km, the derived flux of sporadic meteors is about 5x10^{-4} km^{-2}s^{-1}. Although the analysis is still on going, it is clear that this CMOS sensor is useful and effective for observing faint meteors.

  19. Improving the Ability of Image Sensors to Detect Faint Stars and Moving Objects Using Image Deconvolution Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavi Fors

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we show how the techniques of image deconvolution can increase the ability of image sensors as, for example, CCD imagers, to detect faint stars or faint orbital objects (small satellites and space debris. In the case of faint stars, we show that this benefit is equivalent to double the quantum efficiency of the used image sensor or to increase the effective telescope aperture by more than 30% without decreasing the astrometric precision or introducing artificial bias. In the case of orbital objects, the deconvolution technique can double the signal-to-noise ratio of the image, which helps to discover and control dangerous objects as space debris or lost satellites. The benefits obtained using CCD detectors can be extrapolated to any kind of image sensors.

  20. Problem Solving and Complex Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Guinand, Frédéric

    2008-01-01

    The observation and modeling of natural Complex Systems (CSs) like the human nervous system, the evolution or the weather, allows the definition of special abilities and models reusable to solve other problems. For instance, Genetic Algorithms or Ant Colony Optimizations are inspired from natural CSs to solve optimization problems. This paper proposes the use of ant-based systems to solve various problems with a non assessing approach. This means that solutions to some problem are not evaluated. They appear as resultant structures from the activity of the system. Problems are modeled with graphs and such structures are observed directly on these graphs. Problems of Multiple Sequences Alignment and Natural Language Processing are addressed with this approach.

  1. Faint disks around classical T Tauri stars: Small but dense enough to form planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piétu, V.; Guilloteau, S.; Di Folco, E.; Dutrey, A.; Boehler, Y.

    2014-04-01

    Context. Most Class II sources (of nearby star-forming regions) are surrounded by disks with weak millimeter continuum emission. These "faint" disks may hold clues to the disk dissipation mechanism. However, the physical properties of protoplanetary disks have been directly constrained by imaging only the brightest sources. Aims: We attempt to determine the characteristics of such faint disks around classical T Tauri stars and to explore the link between disk faintness and the proposed disk dispersal mechanisms (accretion, viscous spreading, photo-evaporation, planetary system formation). Methods: We performed high angular resolution (0.3'') imaging of a small sample of disks (9 sources) with low 1.3 mm continuum flux (mostly emission. Using a simple parametric disk model, we determined characteristic sizes for the disks in dust and gas, and we constrained surface densities in the central 50 AU. Results: All disks are much smaller than the bright disks imaged so far, both in continuum and 13CO lines (5 detections). In continuum, half of the disks are very small, with characteristic radii less than 10 AU, but still have high surface density values. Small sizes appear to be the main cause of the low disk luminosity. Direct evidence for grain growth is found for the three disks that are sufficiently resolved. Low continuum opacity is attested in only two systems, but we cannot firmly distinguish between a low gas surface density and a lower dust emissivity resulting from grain growth. Finally, we report a tentative discovery of a ~20 AU radius cavity in DS Tau, which with the (unresolved) "transition" disk of CX Tau, brings the proportion of "transitional" disks to a similar value to that of brighter sources. The existence of cavities cannot by itself explain their observed low mm flux. Conclusions: This study highlights a category of very compact dust disks that still exhibit high surface densities, which may represent up to 25% of the whole disk population. While

  2. Interactive problem solving using LOGO

    CERN Document Server

    Boecker, Heinz-Dieter; Fischer, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    This book is unique in that its stress is not on the mastery of a programming language, but on the importance and value of interactive problem solving. The authors focus on several specific interest worlds: mathematics, computer science, artificial intelligence, linguistics, and games; however, their approach can serve as a model that may be applied easily to other fields as well. Those who are interested in symbolic computing will find that Interactive Problem Solving Using LOGO provides a gentle introduction from which one may move on to other, more advanced computational frameworks or more

  3. Resources in Technology: Problem-Solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technology Teacher, 1986

    1986-01-01

    This instructional module examines a key function of science and technology: problem solving. It studies the meaning of problem solving, looks at techniques for problem solving, examines case studies that exemplify the problem-solving approach, presents problems for the reader to solve, and provides a student self-quiz. (Author/CT)

  4. The faint end of the 250 micron luminosity function at z < 0.5

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, L; Bethermin, M; Bourne, N; Cooray, A; Cowley, W; Dunne, L; Dye, S; Eales, S; Farrah, D; Lacey, C; Loveday, J; Maddox, S; Oliver, S; Viero, M

    2016-01-01

    Aims. We aim to study the 250 micron luminosity function (LF) down to much fainter luminosities than achieved by previous efforts. Methods. We developed a modified stacking method to reconstruct the 250 micron LF using optically selected galaxies from the SDSS survey and Herschel maps of the GAMA equatorial fields and Stripe 82. Our stacking method not only recovers the mean 250 micron luminosities of galaxies that are too faint to be individually detected, but also their underlying distribution functions. Results. We find very good agreement with previous measurements in the overlapping luminosity range. More importantly, we are able to derive the LF down to much fainter luminosities (around 25 times fainter) than achieved by previous studies. We find strong positive luminosity evolution \\propto (1 + z)^4.89\\pm1.07 and moderate negative density evolution \\propto (1 + z)^-1.02\\pm0.54 over the redshift range z=[0.02, 0.5].

  5. EVIDENCE FOR INFRARED-FAINT RADIO SOURCES AS z > 1 RADIO-LOUD ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Infrared-Faint Radio Sources (IFRSs) are a class of radio objects found in the Australia Telescope Large Area Survey which have no observable mid-infrared counterpart in the Spitzer Wide-area Infrared Extragalactic (SWIRE) survey. The extended Chandra Deep Field South now has even deeper Spitzer imaging (3.6-70 μm) from a number of Legacy surveys. We report the detections of two IFRS sources in IRAC images. The non-detection of two other IFRSs allows us to constrain the source type. Detailed modeling of the spectral energy distribution of these objects shows that they are consistent with high-redshift (z ∼> 1) active galactic nuclei.

  6. Cosmic Reionization On Computers: The Faint End of the Galaxy Luminosity Function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gnedin, Nickolay Y. [Fermilab

    2016-07-01

    Using numerical cosmological simulations completed under the "Cosmic Reionization On Computers" (CROC) project, I explore theoretical predictions for the faint end of the galaxy UV luminosity functions at $z\\geq 6$. A commonly used Schechter function approximation with the magnitude cut at $M_{\\rm CUT}\\sim-13$ provides a reasonable fit to the actual luminosity function of simulated galaxies. When the Schechter functional form is forced on the luminosity functions from the simulations, the magnitude cut $M_{\\rm CUT}$ is found to vary between $-12$ and $-14$ with a mild redshift dependence. An analytical model of reionization from Madau, Haardt & Rees (1997), as used by Robertson et al. (2015), provides a good description of the simulated results, but only if the redshift dependence of the effective escape fraction (induced by physical processes not captured by the Madau, Haardt & Rees model) is accounted for.

  7. Indirect Dark Matter Detection Limits from the Ultra-Faint Milky Way Satellite Segue 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Essig, Rouven; /SLAC; Sehgal, Neelima; Strigari, Louis E.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Geha, Marla; /Yale U.; Simon, Joshua D.; /Carnegie Inst. Observ.

    2011-08-11

    We use new kinematic data from the ultra-faint Milky Way satellite Segue 1 to model its dark matter distribution and derive upper limits on the dark matter annihilation cross-section. Using gamma-ray ux upper limits from the Fermi satellite and MAGIC, we determine cross-section exclusion regions for dark matter annihilation into a variety of different particles including charged leptons. We show that these exclusion regions are beginning to probe the regions of interest for a dark matter interpretation of the electron and positron uxes from PAMELA, Fermi, and HESS, and that future observations of Segue 1 have strong prospects for testing such an interpretation. We additionally discuss prospects for detecting annihilation with neutrinos using the IceCube detector, finding that in an optimistic scenario a few neutrino events may be detected. Finally we use the kinematic data to model the Segue 1 dark matter velocity dispersion and constrain Sommerfeld enhanced models.

  8. The ISON international campaigns for monitoring of faint high altitude objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molotov, Igor; Agapov, Vladimir; Rumyantsev, Vasiliy; Biryukov, Vadim; Schildknecht, Thomas; Bakhtigaraev, Nail; Ibrahimov, Mansur; Papushev, Pavel; Minikulov, Nasredin; Andrievsky, Sergei

    The research of the space debris fragments at high orbits is one of the main directions of the International Scientific Optical Network (ISON) activities. Therefore the dedicated ISON subsystem for high altitude faint space debris observations is arranged with the aim of detection and continuous tracking of as large number of unknown high altitude faint objects as possible. The subsystem includes the number of large telescopes that are able to detect the objects down to 20m-21m and the middle-size telescopes for the observations of the space objects of 15m-18m. The 1-m ZIMLAT in Zimmerwald, Switzerland, 1.5-m AZT-33IK in Mondy, Siberia, 64-cm AT- 64 in Nauchniy, Crimea, 60-cm RK-600 in Mayaki near Odessa, Ukraine, 60-cm Zeiss-600 in Maidanak, Uzbekistan, 70-cm AZT-8 in Gissar, Tajikistan are regularly participating in ISON observing campaigns in collaboration with 1-m Zeiss-1000 ESA space debris telescope in Teide, Canaries islands. 2.6-m ZTSh in Nauchniy, Crimea, 2-m Zeiss-2000 in Terskol, North Caucasus, 1-m Zeiss-1000 in Simeiz, Crimea, 1-m Zeiss-1000 in Arkhyz, North Caucasus are joining during few nights per month. The 60-cm Zeiss-600 in Arkhyz, 70-cm AZT-8 in Evpatoria, Crimea, 60-cm Zeiss-600 in Tarija, Bolivia, 80-cm RK-800 in Mayaki, 80-cm K-800 in Terskol, 50-cm in Ussuriysk, Far East will be added to the subsystem during 2008. The observing campaigns are coordinates by the Center on space debris data collection, processing and analysis of the KIAM RAS in cooperation with the AIUB space debris team. 353 faint objects are discovered in GEO region surveys during the last 3 years (about 100000 measurements were collected for this time), including objects with high AMR. Results are publishing monthly by KIAM in High Geocentric Orbit Space Debris Circular. We will discuss the most interesting of obtained results. Many of discovered fragments are associated with space debris clouds appeared as a result of known or suspected fragmentations occurred in GEO region

  9. The Faint Young Sun Paradox in the Context of Modern Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Dumin, Yurii V

    2015-01-01

    The Faint Young Sun Paradox comes from the fact that solar luminosity (2-4)x10^9 years ago was insufficient to support the Earth's temperature necessary for the efficient development of geological and biological evolution (particularly, for the existence of considerable volumes of liquid water). It remains unclear by now if the so-called greenhouse effect on the Earth can resolve this problem. An interesting alternative explanation was put forward recently by M.Krizek (New Ast. 2012, 17, 1), who suggested that planetary orbits expand with time due to the local Hubble effect, caused by the uniformly-distributed Dark Energy. Then, under a reasonable value of the local Hubble constant, it is easy to explain why the Earth was receiving an approximately constant amount of solar irradiation for a long period in the past and will continue to do so for a quite long time in future.

  10. Studying the Kinematics of Faint Stellar Populations with the Planetary Nebula Spectrograph

    CERN Document Server

    Merrifield, Michael R

    2015-01-01

    Galaxies are faint enough when one observes just their light distributions, but in studying their full dynamical structure the stars are spread over the six dimensions of phase space rather than just the three spatial dimensions, making their densities very low indeed. This low signal is unfortunate, as stellar dynamics hold important clues to these systems' life histories, and the issue is compounded by the fact that the most interesting information comes from the faintest outer parts of galaxies, where dynamical timescales (and hence memories of past history) are longest. To extract this information, we have constructed a special-purpose instrument, the Planetary Nebula Spectrograph, which observes planetary nebulae as kinematic tracers of the stellar population, and allows one to study the stellar dynamics of galaxies down to extremely low surface brightnesses. Here, we present results from this instrument that illustrate how it can uncover the nature of low surface-brightness features such as thick disks ...

  11. Solving Differential Equations in R: Package deSolve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karline Soetaert

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the R package deSolve to solve initial value problems (IVP written as ordinary differential equations (ODE, differential algebraic equations (DAE of index 0 or 1 and partial differential equations (PDE, the latter solved using the method of lines approach. The differential equations can be represented in R code or as compiled code. In the latter case, R is used as a tool to trigger the integration and post-process the results, which facilitates model development and application, whilst the compiled code significantly increases simulation speed. The methods implemented are efficient, robust, and well documented public-domain Fortran routines. They include four integrators from the ODEPACK package (LSODE, LSODES, LSODA, LSODAR, DVODE and DASPK2.0. In addition, a suite of Runge-Kutta integrators and special-purpose solvers to efficiently integrate 1-, 2- and 3-dimensional partial differential equations are available. The routines solve both stiff and non-stiff systems, and include many options, e.g., to deal in an efficient way with the sparsity of the Jacobian matrix, or finding the root of equations. In this article, our objectives are threefold: (1 to demonstrate the potential of using R for dynamic modeling, (2 to highlight typical uses of the different methods implemented and (3 to compare the performance of models specified in R code and in compiled code for a number of test cases. These comparisons demonstrate that, if the use of loops is avoided, R code can efficiently integrate problems comprising several thousands of state variables. Nevertheless, the same problem may be solved from 2 to more than 50 times faster by using compiled code compared to an implementation using only R code. Still, amongst the benefits of R are a more flexible and interactive implementation, better readability of the code, and access to R’s high-level procedures. deSolve is the successor of package odesolve which will be deprecated in

  12. Students' Problem Solving and Justification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Barbara; Maher, Carolyn A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports on methods of students' justifications of their solution to a problem in the area of combinatorics. From the analysis of the problem solving of 150 students in a variety of settings from high-school to graduate study, four major forms of reasoning evolved: (1) Justification by Cases, (2) Inductive Argument, (3) Elimination…

  13. Problem Solving through Paper Folding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wares, Arsalan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe a couple of challenging mathematical problems that involve paper folding. These problem-solving tasks can be used to foster geometric and algebraic thinking among students. The context of paper folding makes some of the abstract mathematical ideas involved relatively concrete. When implemented…

  14. Simon on Problem-Solving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai

    general approach to problem solving. We apply these Simonian ideas to organizational issues, specifically new organizational forms. Specifically, Simonian ideas allow us to develop a morphology of new organizational forms and to point to some design problems that characterize these forms.Keywords: Herbert...

  15. Human Problem Solving in 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Pizlo, Zygmunt

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a bibliography of more than 200 references related to human problem solving, arranged by subject matter. The references were taken from PsycInfo database. Journal papers, book chapters, books and dissertations are included. The topics include human development, education, neuroscience, research in applied settings, as well as animal studies.

  16. Human Problem Solving in 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Pizlo, Zygmunt

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a bibliography of 100 references related to human problem solving, arranged by subject matter. The references were taken from PsycInfo database. Journal papers, book chapters, and dissertations are included. The topics include human development, education, neuroscience, and research in applied settings, as well as animal studies.

  17. A chemical confirmation of the faint Boötes II dwarf spheroidal galaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a chemical abundance study of the brightest confirmed member star of the ultra-faint dwarf galaxy Boötes II from Keck/HIRES high-resolution spectroscopy at moderate signal-to-noise ratios. At [Fe/H] = –2.93 ± 0.03(stat.) ± 0.17(sys.), this star chemically resembles metal-poor halo field stars and the signatures of other faint dwarf spheroidal galaxies at the same metallicities in that it shows enhanced [α/Fe] ratios, Solar Fe-peak element abundances, and low upper limits on the neutron-capture element Ba. Moreover, this star shows no chemical peculiarities in any of the eight elements we were able to measure. This implies that the chemical outliers found in other systems remain outliers pertaining to the unusual enrichment histories of the respective environments, while Boo II appears to have experienced an enrichment history typical of its very low mass. We also re-calibrated previous measurements of the galaxy's metallicity from the calcium triplet (CaT) and find a much lower value than reported before. The resulting broad metallicity spread, in excess of one dex, the very metal-poor mean, and the chemical abundance patterns of the present star imply that Boötes II is a low-mass, old, metal-poor dwarf galaxy and not an overdensity associated with the Sagittarius Stream as has been previously suggested based on its sky position and kinematics. The low, mean CaT metallicity of –2.7 dex falls right on the luminosity-metallicity relation delineated over four orders of magnitude from the more luminous to the faintest galaxies. Thus Boötes II's chemical enrichment appears representative of the galaxy's original mass, while tidal stripping and other mass loss mechanisms were probably not significant as for other low-mass satellites.

  18. Color and Variability Characteristics of Point Sources in the Faint Sky Variability Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, M E; Everett, M E; Howell, S B

    2005-03-07

    The authors present an analysis of the color and variability characteristics for point sources in the Faint Sky Variability Survey (FSVS). The FSVS cataloged {approx} 23 square degrees in BVI filters from {approx} 16-24 mag to investigate variability in faint sources at moderate to high Galactic latitudes. Point source completeness is found to be >83% for a selected representative sample (V - 17.5-22.0 mag, B-V = 0.0-1.5) containing both photometric B, V detections and 80% of the time-sampled V data available compared to a basic internal source completeness of 99%. Multi-epoch (10-30) observations in V spanning minutes to years modeled by light curve simulations reveal amplitude sensitivities to {approx} 0.015-0.075 mag over a representative V = 18-22 mag range. Periodicity determinations appear viable to time-scales of an order 1 day or less using the most sampled fields ({approx} 30 epochs). The fraction of point sources is found to be generally variable at 5-8% over V = 17.5-22.0 mag. For V brighter than 19 mag, the variable population is dominated by low amplitude (< 0.05 mag) and blue (B-V < 0.35) sources, possibly representing a population of {gamma} Doradus stars. Overall, the dominant population of variable sources are bluer than B-V = 0.65 and have Main Sequence colors, likely reflecting larger populations of RR Lyrae, SX Phe, {gamma} Doradus, and W UMa variables.

  19. Stellar Archeology in the Galactic Halo with Ultra-faint Dwarfs. VII. Hercules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musella, Ilaria; Ripepi, Vincenzo; Marconi, Marcella; Clementini, Gisella; Dall'Ora, Massimo; Scowcroft, Victoria; Moretti, Maria Ida; Di Fabrizio, Luca; Greco, Claudia; Coppola, Giuseppina; Bersier, David; Catelan, Márcio; Grado, Aniello; Limatola, Luca; Smith, Horace A.; Kinemuchi, Karen

    2012-09-01

    We present the first time-series study of the ultra-faint dwarf galaxy Hercules. Using a variety of telescope/instrument facilities we secured about 50 V and 80 B epochs. These data allowed us to detect and characterize 10 pulsating variable stars in Hercules. Our final sample includes six fundamental-mode (ab-type) and three first-overtone (c-type) RR Lyrae stars, and one Anomalous Cepheid. The average period of the ab-type RR Lyrae stars, langP abrang = 0.68 days (σ = 0.03 days), places Hercules in the Oosterhoff II group, as found for almost the totality of the ultra-faint dwarf galaxies investigated so far for variability. The RR Lyrae stars were used to obtain independent estimates of the metallicity, reddening, and distance to Hercules, for which we find [Fe/H] = -2.30 ± 0.15 dex, E(B - V) = 0.09 ± 0.02 mag, and (m - M)0 = 20.6 ± 0.1 mag, in good agreement with the literature values. We have obtained a V, B - V color-magnitude diagram (CMD) of Hercules that reaches V ~ 25 mag and extends beyond the galaxy's half-light radius over a total area of 40' × 36'. The CMD and the RR Lyrae stars indicate the presence of a population as old and metal-poor as (at least) the Galactic globular cluster M68. Based on data collected at the 2.5 m Isaac Newton Telescope, La Palma, Canary Islands, Spain, at the 4.2 m William Herschel Telescope, Roche de los Muchachos, Canary Islands, Spain, at the 2.2 m ESO/MPI telescope, La Silla, Chile, Proposal 079.D-0587, at the 2 m Liverpool Telescope, Roche de los Muchachos, Canary Islands, Spain, and at the 2 m Faulkes Telescope North, Haleakala Observatory, Hawaii, USA.

  20. The Chemical Evolution of the Bootes I Ultra-faint Dwarf Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frebel, Anna; Norris, John E.; Gilmore, Gerard; Wyse, Rosemary F. G.

    2016-08-01

    We present chemical abundance measurements of two metal-poor red giant stars in the ultra-faint dwarf galaxy Boötes I, based on Magellan/MIKE high-resolution spectra. For Boo-980, with {{[Fe/H]}}=-3.1, we present the first elemental abundance measurements, while Boo-127, with {{[Fe/H]}}=-2.0, shows abundances in good agreement with previous measurements. Light and iron-peak element abundance ratios in the two Boötes I stars, as well as those of most other Boötes I members, collected from the literature, closely resemble those of regular metal-poor halo stars. Neutron-capture element abundances Sr and Ba are systematically lower than the main halo trend and also show a significant abundance spread. Overall, this is similar to what has been found for other ultra-faint dwarf galaxies. We apply corrections to the carbon abundances (commensurate with stellar evolutionary status) of the entire sample and find 21% of stars to be carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars, compared to 13% without using the carbon correction. We reassess the metallicity distribution functions for the CEMP stars and non-CEMP stars, and confirm earlier claims that CEMP stars might belong to a different, earlier population. Applying a set of abundance criteria to test to what extent Boötes I could be a surviving first galaxy suggests that it is one of the earliest assembled systems that perhaps received gas from accretion from other clouds in the system, or from swallowing a first galaxy or building block type object. This resulted in the two stellar populations observable today. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  1. STELLAR ARCHEOLOGY IN THE GALACTIC HALO WITH ULTRA-FAINT DWARFS. VII. HERCULES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musella, Ilaria; Ripepi, Vincenzo; Marconi, Marcella, E-mail: ilaria@na.astro.it, E-mail: ripepi@na.astro.it, E-mail: marcella@na.astro.it [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, I-8013 Napoli (Italy); and others

    2012-09-10

    We present the first time-series study of the ultra-faint dwarf galaxy Hercules. Using a variety of telescope/instrument facilities we secured about 50 V and 80 B epochs. These data allowed us to detect and characterize 10 pulsating variable stars in Hercules. Our final sample includes six fundamental-mode (ab-type) and three first-overtone (c-type) RR Lyrae stars, and one Anomalous Cepheid. The average period of the ab-type RR Lyrae stars, (P{sub ab}) = 0.68 days ({sigma} = 0.03 days), places Hercules in the Oosterhoff II group, as found for almost the totality of the ultra-faint dwarf galaxies investigated so far for variability. The RR Lyrae stars were used to obtain independent estimates of the metallicity, reddening, and distance to Hercules, for which we find [Fe/H] = -2.30 {+-} 0.15 dex, E(B - V) = 0.09 {+-} 0.02 mag, and (m - M){sub 0} = 20.6 {+-} 0.1 mag, in good agreement with the literature values. We have obtained a V, B - V color-magnitude diagram (CMD) of Hercules that reaches V {approx} 25 mag and extends beyond the galaxy's half-light radius over a total area of 40' Multiplication-Sign 36'. The CMD and the RR Lyrae stars indicate the presence of a population as old and metal-poor as (at least) the Galactic globular cluster M68.

  2. Genetics problem solving and worldview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Esther

    The research goal was to determine whether worldview relates to traditional and real-world genetics problem solving. Traditionally, scientific literacy emphasized content knowledge alone because it was sufficient to solve traditional problems. The contemporary definition of scientific literacy is, "The knowledge and understanding of scientific concepts and processes required for personal decision-making, participation in civic and cultural affairs and economic productivity" (NRC, 1996). An expanded definition of scientific literacy is needed to solve socioscientific issues (SSI), complex social issues with conceptual, procedural, or technological associations with science. Teaching content knowledge alone assumes that students will find the scientific explanation of a phenomenon to be superior to a non-science explanation. Formal science and everyday ways of thinking about science are two different cultures (Palmer, 1999). Students address this rift with cognitive apartheid, the boxing away of science knowledge from other types of knowledge (Jedege & Aikenhead, 1999). By addressing worldview, cognitive apartheid may decrease and scientific literacy may increase. Introductory biology students at the University of Minnesota during fall semester 2005 completed a written questionnaire-including a genetics content-knowledge test, four genetic dilemmas, the Worldview Assessment Instrument (WAI) and some items about demographics and religiosity. Six students responded to the interview protocol. Based on statistical analysis and interview data, this study concluded the following: (1) Worldview, in the form of metaphysics, relates to solving traditional genetic dilemmas. (2) Worldview, in the form of agency, relates to solving traditional genetics problems. (3) Thus, worldview must be addressed in curriculum, instruction, and assessment.

  3. Faint Submillimeter Galaxies Revealed by Multifield Deep ALMA Observations: Number Counts, Spatial Clustering, and Dark Submillimeter Emitters

    CERN Document Server

    Ono, Yoshiaki; Kurono, Yasutaka; Momose, Rieko

    2014-01-01

    We present the statistics of faint submillimeter/millimeter galaxies (SMGs) and serendipitous detections of submillimeter/millimeter emitters (SMEs) with no multi-wavelength continuum counterpart revealed by the deep ALMA observations. We identify faint SMGs with flux densities of 0.1-1.0 mJy in the deep Band 6 and Band 7 maps of 10 independent fields that reduce cosmic variance effects. The differential number counts at 1.2 mm are found to increase with decreasing flux density down to 0.1 mJy. Our number counts indicate that the faint (0.1-1.0 mJy, or SFR_IR ~ 30-300 Msun/yr) SMGs contribute nearly a half of the extragalactic background light (EBL), while the remaining half of the EBL is mostly contributed by very faint sources with flux densities of 1 mJy) SMGs, but comparable with abundant high-z star-forming populations such as sBzKs, LBGs, and LAEs. Finally, we report the serendipitous detections of SMEs with continuum counterparts neither in our 1.2 mm-band nor multi-wavelength images including ultra de...

  4. Infrared-Faint Radio Sources: A Cosmological View - AGN Number Counts, the Cosmic X-Ray Background and SMBH Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Zinn, Peter-Christian; Middelberg, Enno; Ibar, Edo

    2011-01-01

    Context. Infrared Faint Radio Sources (IFRS) are extragalactic emitters clearly detected at radio wavelengths but barely detected or undetected at optical and infrared wavelengths, with 5 sigma sensitivities as low as 1 uJy. Aims. Recent SED-modelling and analysis of their radio properties shows that IFRS are consistent with a population of (potentially extremely obscured) high-redshift AGN at 3

  5. Faint submillimeter galaxies revealed by multifield deep ALMA observations: number counts, spatial clustering, and a dark submillimeter line emitter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Yoshiaki; Ouchi, Masami; Momose, Rieko [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Kurono, Yasutaka, E-mail: ono@icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Joint ALMA Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago 763-0355 (Chile)

    2014-11-01

    We present the statistics of faint submillimeter/millimeter galaxies (SMGs) and serendipitous detections of a submillimeter/millimeter line emitter (SLE) with no multi-wavelength continuum counterpart revealed by the deep ALMA observations. We identify faint SMGs with flux densities of 0.1-1.0 mJy in the deep Band-6 and Band-7 maps of 10 independent fields that reduce cosmic variance effects. The differential number counts at 1.2 mm are found to increase with decreasing flux density down to 0.1 mJy. Our number counts indicate that the faint (0.1-1.0 mJy, or SFR{sub IR} ∼ 30-300 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}) SMGs contribute nearly a half of the extragalactic background light (EBL), while the remaining half of the EBL is mostly contributed by very faint sources with flux densities of <0.1 mJy (SFR{sub IR} ≲ 30 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}). We conduct counts-in-cells analysis with multifield ALMA data for the faint SMGs, and obtain a coarse estimate of galaxy bias, b {sub g} < 4. The galaxy bias suggests that the dark halo masses of the faint SMGs are ≲ 7 × 10{sup 12} M {sub ☉}, which is smaller than those of bright (>1 mJy) SMGs, but consistent with abundant high-z star-forming populations, such as sBzKs, LBGs, and LAEs. Finally, we report the serendipitous detection of SLE-1, which has no continuum counterparts in our 1.2 mm-band or multi-wavelength images, including ultra deep HST/WFC3 and Spitzer data. The SLE has a significant line at 249.9 GHz with a signal-to-noise ratio of 7.1. If the SLE is not a spurious source made by the unknown systematic noise of ALMA, the strong upper limits of our multi-wavelength data suggest that the SLE would be a faint galaxy at z ≳ 6.

  6. Exoplanet Atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Seager, S

    2010-01-01

    At the dawn of the first discovery of exoplanets orbiting sun-like stars in the mid-1990s, few believed that observations of exoplanet atmospheres would ever be possible. After the 2002 Hubble Space Telescope detection of a transiting exoplanet atmosphere, many skeptics discounted it as a one-object, one-method success. Nevertheless, the field is now firmly established, with over two dozen exoplanet atmospheres observed today. Hot Jupiters are the type of exoplanet currently most amenable to study. Highlights include: detection of molecular spectral features; observation of day-night temperature gradients; and constraints on vertical atmospheric structure. Atmospheres of giant planets far from their host stars are also being studied with direct imaging. The ultimate exoplanet goal is to answer the enigmatic and ancient question, "Are we alone?" via detection of atmospheric biosignatures. Two exciting prospects are the immediate focus on transiting super Earths orbiting in the habitable zone of M-dwarfs, and u...

  7. Methods of solving nonstandard problems

    CERN Document Server

    Grigorieva, Ellina

    2015-01-01

    This book, written by an accomplished female mathematician, is the second to explore nonstandard mathematical problems – those that are not directly solved by standard mathematical methods but instead rely on insight and the synthesis of a variety of mathematical ideas.   It promotes mental activity as well as greater mathematical skills, and is an ideal resource for successful preparation for the mathematics Olympiad. Numerous strategies and techniques are presented that can be used to solve intriguing and challenging problems of the type often found in competitions.  The author uses a friendly, non-intimidating approach to emphasize connections between different fields of mathematics and often proposes several different ways to attack the same problem.  Topics covered include functions and their properties, polynomials, trigonometric and transcendental equations and inequalities, optimization, differential equations, nonlinear systems, and word problems.   Over 360 problems are included with hints, ...

  8. Problem Solving in Latino Families

    OpenAIRE

    Torres, Eliza

    2012-01-01

    This study examined parent engagement, child engagement, and quality of problem solving in a sample of families engaged in a trial of parent management training intervention. Data were collected for treatment and control groups at preintervention and 2, 4, and 6 months after the initial assessment. Variables in this study were measured utilizing a global coding scheme used to categorize parent-child behavioral observations. The coding scheme was developed by Forgatch, Knutson, and Mayne. Prel...

  9. On solving stochastic MADM problems

    OpenAIRE

    Văduva Ion; Resteanu Cornel

    2009-01-01

    The paper examines a MADM problem with stochastic attributes. The transformation of a stochastic MADM problem into a cardinal problem is done by the standardization of the probability distribution of each attribute X and calculating the information of each attribute as Shannon's entropy or Onicescu's informational energy. Some well known (performant) methods to solve a cardinal MADM problem are presented and a method for combining results of several methods to give a final MADM solution is di...

  10. Solving Public Transit Scheduling Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Mesquita, Marta; Moz, Margarida; Paias, Ana; Paixão, José; Pato, Margarida Vaz; Respício, Ana

    2008-01-01

    Operational planning within public transit companies has been extensively tackled but still remains a challenging area for operations research models and techniques. This phase of the planning process comprises vehicle scheduling, crew scheduling and rostering problems. In this paper, a new integer mathematical formulation to describe the integrated vehicle-crew-rostering problem is presented. The method proposed to solve this multi-objective problem is a sequential algorithm considered withi...

  11. Human Problem Solving in 2006

    OpenAIRE

    Pizlo, Zygmunt

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a bibliography of a little more than 100 references related to human problem solving, arranged by subject matter. The references were taken from PsycInfo and Compendex databases. Only journal papers, books and dissertations are included. The topics include human development, education, neuroscience, research in applied settings, as well as animal studies. A few references from artificial intelligence are also given.

  12. Solving the drift control problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melda Ormeci Matoglu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We model the problem of managing capacity in a build-to-order environment as a Brownian drift control problem. We formulate a structured linear program that models a practical discretization of the problem and exploit a strong relationship between relative value functions and dual solutions to develop a functional lower bound for the continuous problem from a dual solution to the discrete problem. Refining the discretization proves a functional strong duality for the continuous problem. The linear programming formulation is so badly scaled, however, that solving it is beyond the capabilities of standard solvers. By demonstrating the equivalence between strongly feasible bases and deterministic unichain policies, we combinatorialize the pivoting process and by exploiting the relationship between dual solutions and relative value functions, develop a mechanism for solving the LP without ever computing its coefficients. Finally, we exploit the relationship between relative value functions and dual solutions to develop a scheme analogous to column generation for refining the discretization so as to drive the gap between the discrete approximation and the continuous problem to zero quickly while keeping the LP small. Computational studies show our scheme is much faster than simply solving a regular discretization of the problem both in terms of finding a policy with a low average cost and in terms of providing a lower bound on the optimal average cost.

  13. Pluto's atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airborne CCD photometer observations of Pluto's June 9, 1988 stellar occultation have yielded an occultation lightcurve, probing two regions on the sunrise limb 2000 km apart, which reveals an upper atmosphere overlying an extinction layer with an abrupt upper boundary. The extinction layer may surround the entire planet. Attention is given to a model atmosphere whose occultation lightcurve closely duplicates observations; fits of the model to the immersion and emersion lightcurves exhibit no significant derived atmosphere-structure differences. Assuming a pure methane atmosphere, surface pressures of the order of 3 microbars are consistent with the occultation data. 43 references

  14. Atmospheric electricity

    CERN Document Server

    Chalmers, J Alan

    1957-01-01

    Atmospheric Electricity brings together numerous studies on various aspects of atmospheric electricity. This book is composed of 13 chapters that cover the main problems in the field, including the maintenance of the negative charge on the earth and the origin of the charges in thunderstorms. After a brief overview of the historical developments of atmospheric electricity, this book goes on dealing with the general principles, results, methods, and the MKS system of the field. The succeeding chapters are devoted to some aspects of electricity in the atmosphere, such as the occurrence and d

  15. Mass and environment as drivers of galaxy evolution. III. The constancy of the faint-end slope and the merging of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using our continuity approach, we explore the underlying connections between the evolution of the faint-end slope αs of the stellar mass function of star-forming galaxies, the logarithmic slope β of the specific star formation rate (sSFR)-mass relation, and the merging of galaxies. We derive analytically the consequences of the observed constancy of αs since redshifts of at least z ∼ 2. If the logarithmic slope β of the sSFR-mass relation is negative, then the faint-end slope αs should quickly diverge due to the differential mass increase of galaxies on the star-forming main sequence, and this will also quickly destroy the Schechter form of the mass function. This problem can be solved by removing low-mass galaxies by merging them into more massive galaxies. We quantify this process by introducing the specific merger mass rate (sMMR) as the specific rate of mass added to a given galaxy through mergers. For a modest negative value of β ∼ –0.1, an average sMMR ∼ 0.1 sSFR across the population is required to keep αs constant with epoch, as observed. This in turn implies a merger rate of ∼0.2 sSFR for major mergers, which is consistent with the available observational estimates. More negative values of β require higher sMMR and higher merger rates, and the steepening of the mass function becomes impossible to control for β < –(αs + 2). The close link that is required between the in situ sSFR and the sMMR probably arises because both are closely linked to the buildup of dark matter halos. These new findings further develop the formalism for the evolving galaxy population that we introduced earlier and show how striking symmetries in the galaxy population can emerge as the result of deep links between the physical processes involved.

  16. The composition of planetary atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    IR observations have proven to be efficient for the detection of thin atmospheres on faint objects (Triton, Pluto, Io). Also, they were especially successful for the determination of the chemical atmospheric composition of the giant planets and for the related determination of abundance ratios in these planets. Jupiter is the most extensively studied, and IR spectroscopy has led to the discovery of a large number of molecules and to the determination of major abundance ratios: H2/He, D/H, 12C/13C, 15N/14N, N/H, P/N, C/H. The authors' conclusion is that these ratios are close to the cosmic values while other authors conclude to a significant enrichment of most of the elements with respect to H. This controversy is reviewed and analyzed. Concerning the other outer planets, the H2/He ratio, in spite of large uncertainties, seems to be solar, too, and the C/H ratio, following most of the studies, is significantly enriched on Uranus and Neptune. (Auth.)

  17. Assessing Algebraic Solving Ability: A Theoretical Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Lim Hooi; Yew, Wun Thiam

    2012-01-01

    Algebraic solving ability had been discussed by many educators and researchers. There exists no definite definition for algebraic solving ability as it can be viewed from different perspectives. In this paper, the nature of algebraic solving ability in terms of algebraic processes that demonstrate the ability in solving algebraic problem is…

  18. Journey toward Teaching Mathematics through Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakshaug, Lynae E.; Wohlhuter, Kay A.

    2010-01-01

    Teaching mathematics through problem solving is a challenge for teachers who learned mathematics by doing exercises. How do teachers develop their own problem solving abilities as well as their abilities to teach mathematics through problem solving? A group of teachers began the journey of learning to teach through problem solving while taking a…

  19. APPLICATION OF A DAMPED LOCALLY OPTIMIZED COMBINATION OF IMAGES METHOD TO THE SPECTRAL CHARACTERIZATION OF FAINT COMPANIONS USING AN INTEGRAL FIELD SPECTROGRAPH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-contrast imaging instruments are now being equipped with integral field spectrographs (IFSs) to facilitate the detection and characterization of faint substellar companions. Algorithms currently envisioned to handle IFS data, such as the Locally Optimized Combination of Images (LOCI) algorithm, rely on aggressive point-spread function (PSF) subtraction, which is ideal for initially identifying companions but results in significantly biased photometry and spectroscopy owing to unwanted mixing with residual starlight. This spectrophotometric issue is further complicated by the fact that algorithmic color response is a function of the companion's spectrum, making it difficult to calibrate the effects of the reduction without using iterations involving a series of injected synthetic companions. In this paper, we introduce a new PSF calibration method, which we call 'damped LOCI', that seeks to alleviate these concerns. By modifying the cost function that determines the weighting coefficients used to construct PSF reference images, and also forcing those coefficients to be positive, it is possible to extract companion spectra with a precision that is set by calibration of the instrument response and transmission of the atmosphere, and not by post-processing. We demonstrate the utility of this approach using on-sky data obtained with the Project 1640 IFS at Palomar. Damped LOCI does not require any iterations on the underlying spectral type of the companion, nor does it rely on priors involving the chromatic and statistical properties of speckles. It is a general technique that can readily be applied to other current and planned instruments that employ IFSs.

  20. DISCOVERY OF A CLOSE PAIR OF FAINT DWARF GALAXIES IN THE HALO OF CENTAURUS A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the Panoramic Imaging Survey of Centaurus and Sculptor (PISCeS), we report the discovery of a pair of faint dwarf galaxies (CenA-MM-Dw1 and CenA-MM-Dw2) at a projected distance of ∼90 kpc from the nearby elliptical galaxy NGC 5128 (CenA). We measure a tip of the red giant branch distance to each dwarf, finding D = 3.63 ± 0.41 Mpc for CenA-MM-Dw1 and D = 3.60 ± 0.41 Mpc for CenA-MM-Dw2, both of which are consistent with the distance to NGC 5128. A qualitative analysis of the color-magnitude diagrams indicates stellar populations consisting of an old, metal-poor red giant branch (≳12 Gyr, [Fe/H] ∼ –1.7 to –1.9). In addition, CenA-MM-Dw1 seems to host an intermediate-age population as indicated by its candidate asymptotic giant branch stars. The derived luminosities (MV = –10.9 ± 0.3 for CenA-MM-Dw1 and –8.4 ± 0.6 for CenA-MM-Dw2) and half-light radii (rh = 1.4 ± 0.04 kpc for CenA-MM-Dw1 and 0.36 ± 0.08 kpc for CenA-MM-Dw2) are consistent with those of Local Group dwarfs. CenA-MM-Dw1's low central surface brightness (μ V, 0 = 27.3 ± 0.1 mag arcsec–2) places it among the faintest and most extended M31 satellites. Most intriguingly, CenA-MM-Dw1 and CenA-MM-Dw2 have a projected separation of only 3 arcmin (∼3 kpc): we are possibly observing the first, faint satellite of a satellite in an external group of galaxies

  1. Star formation rate and extinction in faint z ∼ 4 Lyman break galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    To, Chun-Hao; Wang, Wei-Hao [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Owen, Frazer N. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 0, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States)

    2014-09-10

    We present a statistical detection of 1.5 GHz radio continuum emission from a sample of faint z ∼ 4 Lyman break galaxies (LBGs). To constrain their extinction and intrinsic star formation rate (SFR), we combine the latest ultradeep Very Large Array 1.5 GHz radio image and the Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) optical images in the GOODS-N. We select a large sample of 1771 z ∼ 4 LBGs from the ACS catalog using B {sub F435W}-dropout color criteria. Our LBG samples have I {sub F775W} ∼ 25-28 (AB), ∼0-3 mag fainter than M{sub UV}{sup ⋆} at z ∼ 4. In our stacked radio images, we find the LBGs to be point-like under our 2'' angular resolution. We measure their mean 1.5 GHz flux by stacking the measurements on the individual objects. We achieve a statistical detection of S {sub 1.5} {sub GHz} = 0.210 ± 0.075 μJy at ∼3σ for the first time on such a faint LBG population at z ∼ 4. The measurement takes into account the effects of source size and blending of multiple objects. The detection is visually confirmed by stacking the radio images of the LBGs, and the uncertainty is quantified with Monte Carlo simulations on the radio image. The stacked radio flux corresponds to an obscured SFR of 16.0 ± 5.7 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}, and implies a rest-frame UV extinction correction factor of 3.8. This extinction correction is in excellent agreement with that derived from the observed UV continuum spectral slope, using the local calibration of Meurer et al. This result supports the use of the local calibration on high-redshift LBGs to derive the extinction correction and SFR, and also disfavors a steep reddening curve such as that of the Small Magellanic Cloud.

  2. Emotional Intelligence and Problem Solving

    OpenAIRE

    İşmen, A. Esra

    2013-01-01

    One of the two goals of this study is to investigate relationship between emotional intelligence and perception of problem solving skill and the other is to gather some data for the theories which are using information processing approach to explain the emotional Intelligence.The sample consisted of 225 students (undergraduated and master-without thesis) from the Istanbul University. EQ-NED (Ergin, İşmen, Özabacı, 1999) was applied to sample group to determine their emotional intelligence and...

  3. Solving the Dark Matter Problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosmological observations have firmly established that the majority of matter in the universe is of an unknown type, called 'dark matter'. A compelling hypothesis is that the dark matter consists of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) in the mass range around 100 GeV. If the WIMP hypothesis is correct, such particles could be created and studied at accelerators. Furthermore they could be directly detected as the primary component of our galaxy. Solving the dark matter problem requires that the connection be made between the two. We describe some theoretical and experimental avenues that might lead to this connection.

  4. Problem solving through recreational mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Averbach, Bonnie

    1999-01-01

    Historically, many of the most important mathematical concepts arose from problems that were recreational in origin. This book takes advantage of that fact, using recreational mathematics - problems, puzzles and games - to teach students how to think critically. Encouraging active participation rather than just observation, the book focuses less on mathematical results than on how these results can be applied to thinking about problems and solving them. Each chapter contains a diverse array of problems in such areas as logic, number and graph theory, two-player games of strategy, solitaire ga

  5. Solving Equations of Multibody Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Abhinandan; Lim, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    Darts++ is a computer program for solving the equations of motion of a multibody system or of a multibody model of a dynamic system. It is intended especially for use in dynamical simulations performed in designing and analyzing, and developing software for the control of, complex mechanical systems. Darts++ is based on the Spatial-Operator- Algebra formulation for multibody dynamics. This software reads a description of a multibody system from a model data file, then constructs and implements an efficient algorithm that solves the dynamical equations of the system. The efficiency and, hence, the computational speed is sufficient to make Darts++ suitable for use in realtime closed-loop simulations. Darts++ features an object-oriented software architecture that enables reconfiguration of system topology at run time; in contrast, in related prior software, system topology is fixed during initialization. Darts++ provides an interface to scripting languages, including Tcl and Python, that enable the user to configure and interact with simulation objects at run time.

  6. STAR FORMATION IN ULTRA-FAINT DWARFS: CONTINUOUS OR SINGLE-AGE BURSTS?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We model the chemical evolution of six ultra-faint dwarfs (UFDs): Bootes I, Canes Venatici II, Coma Berenices, Hercules, Leo IV, and Ursa Major I based on their recently determined star formation histories. We show that two single-age bursts cannot explain the observed [α/Fe] versus [Fe/H] distribution in these galaxies and that some self-enrichment is required within the first burst. An alternative scenario is modeled, in which star formation is continuous except for short interruptions when one or more supernovae temporarily blow the dense gas out from the center of the system. This model allows for self-enrichment and can reproduce the chemical abundances of the UFDs in which the second burst is only a trace population. We conclude that the most likely star formation history is one or two extended periods of star formation, with the first burst lasting for at least 100 Myr. As found in earlier work, the observed properties of UFDs can be explained by formation at a low mass (Mvir∼107 M⊙), rather than being stripped remnants of much larger systems

  7. STAR FORMATION IN ULTRA-FAINT DWARFS: CONTINUOUS OR SINGLE-AGE BURSTS?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webster, David; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Sutherland, Ralph, E-mail: d.webster@physics.usyd.edu.au [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Cotter Rd, Weston, ACT 2611 (Australia)

    2015-01-30

    We model the chemical evolution of six ultra-faint dwarfs (UFDs): Bootes I, Canes Venatici II, Coma Berenices, Hercules, Leo IV, and Ursa Major I based on their recently determined star formation histories. We show that two single-age bursts cannot explain the observed [α/Fe] versus [Fe/H] distribution in these galaxies and that some self-enrichment is required within the first burst. An alternative scenario is modeled, in which star formation is continuous except for short interruptions when one or more supernovae temporarily blow the dense gas out from the center of the system. This model allows for self-enrichment and can reproduce the chemical abundances of the UFDs in which the second burst is only a trace population. We conclude that the most likely star formation history is one or two extended periods of star formation, with the first burst lasting for at least 100 Myr. As found in earlier work, the observed properties of UFDs can be explained by formation at a low mass (M{sub vir}∼10{sup 7} M{sub ⊙}), rather than being stripped remnants of much larger systems.

  8. Ultra-Light Dark Matter in Ultra-Faint Dwarf Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Calabrese, Erminia

    2016-01-01

    Cold Dark Matter (CDM) models struggle to match the observations at galactic scales. The tension can be reduced either by dramatic baryonic feedback effects or by modifying the particle physics of CDM. Here, we consider an ultra-light scalar field DM particle manifesting a wave nature below a DM particle mass-dependent Jeans scale. For DM mass $m\\sim10^{-22}{\\rm eV}$, this scenario delays galaxy formation and avoids cusps in the center of the dark matter haloes. We use new measurements of half-light mass in ultra-faint dwarf galaxies Draco II and Triangulum II to estimate the mass of the DM particle in this model. We find that if the stellar populations are within the core of the density profile then the data are in agreement with a wave dark matter model having a DM particle with $m\\sim 3.7-5.6\\times 10^{-22}{\\rm eV}$. The presence of this extremely light particle will contribute to the formation of a central solitonic core replacing the cusp of a Navarro-Frenk-White profile and bringing predictions closer t...

  9. The 2013 outburst of a transient very faint X-ray binary, 23" from Sgr A*

    CERN Document Server

    Koch, E W; Heinke, C O; Mori, K; Rea, N; Degenaar, N; Haggard, D; Wijnands, R; Ponti, G; Miller, J M; Yusef-Zadeh, F; Dufour, F; Cotton, W D; Baganoff, F K; Reynolds, M T

    2014-01-01

    We report observations using the Swift/XRT, NuSTAR, and Chandra X-ray telescopes of the transient X-ray source CXOGC J174540.0-290005, during its 2013 outburst. Due to its location in the field of multiple observing campaigns targeting Sgr A*, this is one of the best-studied outbursts of a very faint X-ray binary (VFXB; peak $L_X<10^{36}$ erg/s) yet recorded, with detections in 173 ks of X-ray observations over 50 days. VFXBs are of particular interest, due to their unusually low outburst luminosities and time-averaged mass transfer rates, which are hard to explain within standard accretion physics and binary evolution. The 2013 outburst of CXOGC J174540.0-290005 peaked at $L_X$(2-10 keV)=$5.0\\times10^{35}$ erg/s, and all data above $10^{34}$ ergs/s were well-fit by an absorbed power-law of photon index $\\sim1.7$, extending from 2 keV out to $\\sim$70 keV. We discuss the implications of these observations for the accretion state of CXOGC J174540.0-290005.

  10. Rapidly-evolving faint transients from stripped-envelope electro-capture supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Moriya, Takashi J

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the expected rates and bolometric light-curve properties of stripped-envelope electron-capture supernovae (ECSNe) using stellar models from the Binary Population and Spectral Synthesis (BPASS) code. We expect that 0.8 per cent (Z=0.020) and 1.2 per cent (Z=0.004) of core-collapse supernovae are stripped-envelope ECSNe. Their typical ejecta masses are estimated to be 0.3 Msun (Z=0.020) and 0.7 Msun (Z=0.004). Assuming ECSN explosion properties from numerical explosion simulations, the explosion energy of 1.5e50 erg and the 56Ni mass of 2.5e-3 Msun, we find that stripped-envelope ECSNe have a typical rise time of around 10 days and peak luminosity of around 8e40 erg/s (-13.6 mag). Their typical ejecta velocities are around 7000 km/s (Z=0.020) and 4000 km/s (Z=0.004). Thus, stripped-envelope ECSNe are observed as rapidly-evolving faint transients with relatively small velocities. SN 2008ha-like supernovae which are the faintest kind of SN 2002cx-like (a.k.a. Type Iax) supernovae may be related to ...

  11. The Search for Faint Radio Supernova Remnants in the Outer Galaxy: Five New Discoveries

    CERN Document Server

    Gerbrandt, Stephanie; Kothes, Roland; Geisbuesch, Joern; Tung, Albert

    2014-01-01

    High resolution and sensitivity large-scale radio surveys of the Milky Way are critical in the discovery of very low surface brightness supernova remnants (SNRs), which may constitute a significant portion of the Galactic SNRs still unaccounted for (ostensibly the Missing SNR problem). The overall purpose here is to present the results of a systematic, deep data-mining of the Canadian Galactic Plane Survey (CGPS) for faint, extended non-thermal and polarized emission structures that are likely the shells of uncatalogued supernova remnants. We examine 5$\\times$5 degree mosaics from the entire 1420 MHz continuum and polarization dataset of the CGPS after removing unresolved point sources and subsequently smoothing them. Newly revealed extended emission objects are compared to similarly-prepared CGPS 408 MHz continuum mosaics, as well as to source-removed mosaics from various existing radio surveys at 4.8 GHz, 2.7 GHz, and 327 MHz, to identify candidates with non-thermal emission characteristics. We integrate fl...

  12. Exploding Satellites -- The Tidal Debris of the Ultra-Faint Dwarf Galaxy Hercules

    CERN Document Server

    Küpper, Andreas H W; Mieske, Steffen; Collins, Michelle L M; Tollerud, Erik J

    2016-01-01

    The ultra-faint satellite galaxy Hercules has a strongly elongated and irregular morphology with detections of tidal features up to 1.3 deg (3 kpc) from its center. This suggests that Hercules may be dissolving under the Milky Way's gravitational influence, and hence could be a tidal stream in formation rather than a bound, dark-matter dominated satellite. Using Bayesian inference in combination with N-body simulations, we show that Hercules has to be on a very eccentric orbit (epsilon~0.95) within the Milky Way in this scenario. On such an orbit, Hercules "explodes" as a consequence of the last tidal shock at pericenter 0.5 Gyr ago. It is currently decelerating towards apocenter of its orbit with a velocity of V=157 km/s -- of which 99% is directed radially outwards. Due to differential orbital precession caused by the non-spherical nature of the Galactic potential, its debris fans out nearly perpendicular to its orbit. This explains why Hercules has an elongated shape without showing a distance gradient alo...

  13. Stellar Kinematics and Metallicities in the Ultra-Faint Dwarf Galaxy Reticulum II

    CERN Document Server

    Simon, J D; Li, T S; Nord, B; Geha, M; Bechtol, K; Balbinot, E; Buckley-Geer, E; Lin, H; Marshall, J; Santiago, B; Strigari, L; Wang, M; Wechsler, R H; Yanny, B; Abbott, T; Bauer, A H; Bernstein, G M; Bertin, E; Brooks, D; Burke, D L; Capozzi, D; Rosell, A Carnero; Kind, M Carrasco; D'Andrea, C B; da Costa, L N; DePoy, D L; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Dodelson, S; Cunha, C E; Estrada, J; Evrard, A E; Neto, A Fausti; Fernandez, E; Finley, D A; Flaugher, B; Frieman, J; Gaztanaga, E; Gerdes, D; Gruen, D; Gruendl, R A; Honscheid, K; James, D; Kuehn, K; Kuropatkin, N; Lahav, O; Maia, M A G; March, M; Martini, P; Miller, C J; Miquel, R; Ogando, R; Romer, A K; Roodman, A; Rykoff, E S; Sako, M; Sanchez, E; Schubnell, M; Sevilla, I; Smith, R C; Soares-Santos, M; Sobreira, F; Suchyta, E; Swanson, M E C; Tarle, G; Thaler, J; Tucker, D; Vikram, V; Walker, A R; Wester, W

    2015-01-01

    We present Magellan/M2FS, VLT/GIRAFFE, and Gemini South/GMOS spectroscopy of the newly discovered Milky Way satellite Reticulum II. Based on the spectra of 25 Ret II member stars selected from Dark Energy Survey imaging, we measure a mean heliocentric velocity of 62.8 +/- 0.5 km/s and a velocity dispersion of 3.3 +/- 0.7 km/s. The mass-to-light ratio of Ret II within its half-light radius is 470 +/- 210 Msun/Lsun, demonstrating that it is a strongly dark matter-dominated system. Despite its spatial proximity to the Magellanic Clouds, the radial velocity of Ret II differs from that of the LMC and SMC by 199 and 83 km/s, respectively, suggesting that it is not gravitationally bound to the Magellanic system. The likely member stars of Ret II span 1.3 dex in metallicity, with a dispersion of 0.28 +/- 0.09 dex, and we identify several extremely metal-poor stars with [Fe/H] < -3. In combination with its luminosity, size, and ellipticity, these results confirm that Ret II is an ultra-faint dwarf galaxy. With a me...

  14. A Normal Abundance of Faint Satellites in the Fossil Group NGC 6482

    CERN Document Server

    Lieder, S; Sánchez-Janssen, R; Hilker, M; Lisker, T; Tanaka, M

    2013-01-01

    Fossil groups are considered the end product in a galaxy group's evolution -- a massive central galaxy that dominates the luminosity budget of the group, as the outcome of efficient merging between intermediate-luminosity members. Little is however known about the faint satellite systems of fossil groups. Here we present a SUBARU/Suprime-Cam wide-field, deep imaging study in the B- and R-band of the nearest fossil group NGC 6482 (M_{tot}\\sim4\\times10^{12}M_{\\sun}), covering the virial radius out to 310 kpc. We perform detailed completeness estimations and select group member candidates by a combination of automated object detection and visual inspection. A fiducial sample of 48 member candidates down to M_R -10.5 mag is detected, making this study the deepest of a fossil group up to now. We investigate the photometric scaling relations, the colour-magnitude relation, and the luminosity function of our galaxy sample. We find evidence of recent and ongoing merger events among bright group galaxies. The colour-m...

  15. The Dark Energy Survey view of the Sagittarius stream: Discovery of two faint stellar system candidates

    CERN Document Server

    Luque, E; Santiago, B; Yanny, B; Vivas, A K; Queiroz, A; Drlica-Wagner, A; Morganson, E; Balbinot, E; Marshall, J L; Li, T S; Neto, A Fausti; da Costa, L N; Maia, M A G; Bechtol, K; Kim, A G; Bernstein, G M; Dodelson, S; Whiteway, L; Diehl, H T; Finley, D A; Abbott, T; Abdalla, F B; Allam, S; Annis, J; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bertin, E; Brooks, D; Burke, D L; Rosell, A Carnero; Kind, M Carrasco; Carretero, J; Cunha, C E; D'Andrea, C B; Desai, S; Doel, P; Evrard, A E; Flaugher, B; Fosalba, P; Gerdes, D W; Goldstein, D A; Gruen, D; Gruendl, R A; Gutierrez, G; James, D J; Kuehn, K; Kuropatkin, N; Lahav, O; Martini, P; Miquel, R; Nord, B; Ogando, R; Plazas, A A; Romer, A K; Sanchez, E; Scarpine, V; Schubnell, M; Sevilla-Noarbe, I; Smith, R C; Soares-Santos, M; Sobreira, F; Suchyta, E; Swanson, M E C; Tarle, G; Thomas, D; Walker, A R

    2016-01-01

    We report the discovery of two new candidate stellar systems in the constellation of Cetus using the data from the first two years of the Dark Energy Survey (DES). The objects, DES J0111-1341 and DES J0225+0304, are located at a heliocentric distance of ~ 24 kpc and appear to have old and metal-poor populations. Their distances to the Sagittarius orbital plane, ~ 1.47 kpc (DES J0111-1341) and ~ 0.51 kpc (DES J0225+0304), indicate that they are possibly associated with the Sagittarius dwarf stream. The half-light radius (r_h ~ 4.10 pc) and luminosity (M_V ~ +0.5) of DES J0111-1341 are consistent with it being an ultra-faint stellar cluster, while the half-light radius (r_h ~ 18.70 pc) and luminosity (M_V ~ -1.2) of DES J0225+0304 place it in an ambiguous region of size-luminosity space between stellar clusters and dwarf galaxies. Determinations of the characteristic parameters of the Sagittarius stream, metallicity spread (-2.18 < [Fe/H] < -0.95) and distance gradient (23 kpc < D_sun < 29 kpc), wit...

  16. Ultra faint dwarf galaxies: an arena for testing dark matter versus modified gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Weikang

    2016-01-01

    The scenario consistent with a wealth of observations for the missing mass problem is that of weakly interacting dark matter particles. However, arguments or proposals for a Newtonian or relativistic modified gravity scenario continue to be made. A distinguishing characteristic between the two scenarios is that dark matter particles can produce a gravitational effect, in principle, without the need of baryons while this is not the case for the modified gravity scenario where such an effect must be correlated with the amount of baryonic matter. We consider here ultra-faint dwarf (UFD) galaxies as a promising arena to test the two scenarios based on the above assertion. We compare the correlation of the luminosity with the velocity dispersion between samples of UFD and non-UFD galaxies, finding a trend of loss of correlation for the UFD galaxies. For example, we find for 28 non-UFD galaxies a strong correlation coefficient of -0.688 which drops to -0.077 for the 23 UFD galaxies. Incoming and future data will de...

  17. Methods for Estimating Fluxes and Absorptions of Faint X-ray Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Getman, Konstantin V; Broos, Patrick S; Townsley, Leisa K; Garmire, Gordon P

    2009-01-01

    X-ray sources with very few counts can be identified with low-noise X-ray detectors such as ACIS onboard the Chandra X-ray Observatory. These sources are often too faint for parametric spectral modeling using well-established methods such as fitting with XSPEC. We discuss the estimation of apparent and intrinsic broad-band X-ray fluxes and soft X-ray absorption from gas along the line of sight to these sources, using nonparametric methods. Apparent flux is estimated from the ratio of the source count rate to the instrumental effective area averaged over the chosen band. Absorption, intrinsic flux, and errors on these quantities are estimated from comparison of source photometric quantities with those of high S/N spectra that were simulated using spectral models characteristic of the class of astrophysical sources under study. The concept of this method is similar to the long-standing use of color-magnitude diagrams in optical and infrared astronomy, with X-ray median energy replacing color index and X-ray sou...

  18. The Distribution of Alpha Elements in Ultra-Faint Dwarf Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Vargas, Luis C; Kirby, Evan N; Simon, Joshua D

    2013-01-01

    The Milky Way ultra-faint dwarf galaxies (UFDs) contain some of the oldest, most metal-poor stars in the Universe. We present [Mg/Fe], [Si/Fe], [Ca/Fe], [Ti/Fe], and mean [alpha/Fe], abundance ratios for 61 individual red giant branch stars across 8 UFDs. This is the largest sample of alpha abundances published to date in galaxies with absolute magnitudes M_V > -8, including the first measurements for Segue 1, Canes Venatici II, Ursa Major I, and Leo T. Abundances were determined via medium-resolution Keck/DEIMOS spectroscopy and spectral synthesis. The sample spans the metallicity range -3.4 < [Fe/H] < -1.1. With the possible exception of Segue 1 and Ursa Major II, the individual UFDs show on average lower [alpha/Fe] at higher metallicities, consistent with enrichment from Type Ia supernovae. Thus even the faintest galaxies have undergone at least a limited level of chemical self-enrichment. Together with recent photometric studies, this suggests that star formation in the UFDs was not a single burst, ...

  19. The Quenching of the Ultra-Faint Dwarf Galaxies in the Reionization Era

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Thomas M; Geha, Marla; Simon, Joshua D; Vargas, Luis C; VandenBerg, Don A; Kirby, Evan N; Kalirai, Jason S; Avila, Roberto J; Gennaro, Mario; Ferguson, Henry C; Munoz, Ricardo R; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Renzini, Alvio

    2014-01-01

    We present new constraints on the star formation histories of six ultra-faint dwarf galaxies: Bootes I, Canes Venatici II, Coma Berenices, Hercules, Leo IV, and Ursa Major I. Our analysis employs a combination of high-precision photometry obtained with the Advanced Camera for Surveys on the Hubble Space Telescope, medium-resolution spectroscopy obtained with the DEep Imaging Multi-Object Spectrograph on the W.M. Keck Observatory, and updated Victoria-Regina isochrones tailored to the abundance patterns appropriate for these galaxies. The data for five of these Milky Way satellites are best fit by a star formation history where at least 75% of the stars formed by z~10 (13.3 Gyr ago). All of the galaxies are consistent with 80% of the stars forming by z~6 (12.8 Gyr ago) and 100% of the stars forming by z~3 (11.6 Gyr ago). The similarly ancient populations of these galaxies support the hypothesis that star formation in the smallest dark matter sub-halos was suppressed by a global outside influence, such as the r...

  20. Star Formation Rate and Extinction in Faint z~4 Lyman-Break Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    To, Chun-Hao; Owen, Frazer N

    2014-01-01

    We present a statistical detection of 1.5 GHz radio continuum emission from a sample of faint z~4 Lyman-break galaxies (LBGs). LBGs are key tracers of the high-redshift star formation history and important sources of UV photons that ionized the intergalactic medium in the early universe. In order to better constrain the extinction and intrinsic star formation rate (SFR) of high-redshift LBGs, we combine the latest ultradeep Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array 1.5 GHz radio image and the Hubble Space Telescope Advance Camera for Surveys (ACS) optical images in the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey-North. We select a large sample of 1771 z~4 LBGs from the ACS catalogue using $\\bband$-dropout color criteria. Our LBG samples have $\\iband$~25-28 (AB), ~0-3 magnitudes fainter than M*_UV at z~4. In our stacked radio images, we find the LBGs to be point-like under our 2" angular resolution. We measure their mean 1.5 GHz flux by stacking the measurements on the individual objects. We achieve a statistical detection ...

  1. The Phoenix Deep Survey: X-ray properties of faint radio sources

    CERN Document Server

    Georgakakis, A; Sullivan, M; Afonso, J; Georgantopoulos, I; Mobasher, B; Cram, L E

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we use a 50ks XMM-Newton pointing overlapping with the Phoenix Deep Survey, a homogeneous radio survey reaching muJy sensitivities, to explore the X-ray properties and the evolution of star-forming galaxies. UV, optical and NIR photometry is available and is used to estimate photometric redshifts and spectral types for radio sources brighter than R=21.5mag (total of 82). Sources with R3.5sigma) is detected in the 0.5-2keV band corresponding to a mean flux of ~3e-16cgs for both subsamples. This flux translates to mean luminosities of ~5e40 and 1.5e41cgs for the z=0.240 and 0.455 subsamples respectively. Only a marginally significant signal (2.6sigma) is detected in the 2-8keV band for the z=0.455 subsample. We argue that the stacked signal above is dominated by star-formation. The mean L_X/L_B ratio and the mean L_X of the two subsamples are found to be higher than optically selected spirals and similar to starbursts. We also find that the mean L_X and L_1.4 of the faint radio sources studied her...

  2. Faint Fuzzy Star Clusters in NGC1023 as Remnants of Merged Star Cluster Complexes

    CERN Document Server

    Bruens, R C; Fellhauer, M

    2009-01-01

    In the lenticular galaxy NGC1023 a third population of globular clusters (GCs), called faint fuzzies (FFs), was discovered next to the blue and red GC populations by Larsen & Brodie. While these FFs have colors comparable to the red population, the new population is fainter, larger (R_eff > 7 pc) and, most importantly, shows clear signs of co-rotation with the galactic disk of NGC1023. We present N-body simulations verifying the hypothesis that these disk-associated FFs are related to the young massive cluster complexes (CCs) observed by Bastian et. al in M51, who discovered a mass-radius relation for these CCs. Our models have an initial configuration based on the observations from M51 and are placed on various orbits in a galactic potential derived for NGC1023. All computations end up with a stable object containing 10 to 60% of the initial CC mass after an integration time of 5 Gyr. A conversion to visual magnitudes demonstrates that the resulting objects cover exactly the observed range for FFs. Moreo...

  3. FAINT END OF 1.3 mm NUMBER COUNTS REVEALED BY ALMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the faint end of number counts at 1.3 mm (238 GHz) obtained with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). Band 6 observations were carried out targeting 20 star-forming galaxies at z ∼ 1.4 in the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Survey field. In the observations, we serendipitously detect 15 sources (≥3.8σ, S1.3 mm = 0.15-0.61 mJy) other than the targeted sources. We create number counts by using these ''sub-mJy sources'', which probe the faintest flux range among surveys at millimeter wavelengths. The number counts are consistent with (flux-scaled) number counts at 850 μm and 870 μm obtained with gravitational lensing clusters. The ALMA number counts agree well with model predictions, which suggest that these sub-mJy populations are more like ''normal'' star-forming galaxies than ''classical'' submillimeter galaxies with intense star-forming activity. In this flux range, ∼80% of the extragalactic background light at 1.3 mm is resolved into individual sources

  4. The nature of very faint X-ray binaries; hints from light curves

    CERN Document Server

    Heinke, C O; Degenaar, N; Wijnands, R

    2014-01-01

    Very faint X-ray binaries (VFXBs), defined as having peak luminosities Lx of 10^34-10^36 erg/s, have been uncovered in significant numbers, but remain poorly understood. We analyse three published outburst light curves of two transient VFXBs using the exponential and linear decay formalism of King and Ritter (1998). The decay timescales and brink luminosities suggest orbital periods of order 1 hour. We review various estimates of VFXB properties, and compare these with suggested explanations of the nature of VFXBs. We suggest that: 1) VFXB outbursts showing linear decays might be explained as partial drainings of the disc of "normal" X-ray transients, and many VFXB outbursts may belong to this category; 2) VFXB outbursts showing exponential decays are best explained by old, short-period systems involving mass transfer from a low-mass white dwarf or brown dwarf; 3) persistent (or quasi-persistent) VFXBs, which maintain an Lx of 10^34-10^35 erg/s for years, may be explained by magnetospheric choking of the accr...

  5. The faint radio source population at 15.7 GHz - II. Multi-wavelength properties

    CERN Document Server

    Whittam, I H; Green, D A; Jarvis, M J; Vaccari, M

    2015-01-01

    A complete, flux density limited sample of 96 faint ($> 0.5$ mJy) radio sources is selected from the 10C survey at 15.7 GHz in the Lockman Hole. We have matched this sample to a range of multi-wavelength catalogues, including SERVS, SWIRE, UKIDSS and optical data; multi-wavelength counterparts are found for 80 of the 96 sources and spectroscopic redshifts are available for 24 sources. Photometric reshifts are estimated for the sources with multi-wavelength data available; the median redshift of the sample is 0.91 with an interquartile range of 0.84. Radio-to-optical ratios show that at least 94 per cent of the sample are radio loud, indicating that the 10C sample is dominated by radio galaxies. This is in contrast to samples selected at lower frequencies, where radio-quiet AGN and starforming galaxies are present in significant numbers at these flux density levels. All six radio-quiet sources have rising radio spectra, suggesting that they are dominated by AGN emission. These results confirm the conclusions o...

  6. A faint type of supernova from a white dwarf with a helium-rich companion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perets, H B; Gal-Yam, A; Mazzali, P A; Arnett, D; Kagan, D; Filippenko, A V; Li, W; Arcavi, I; Cenko, S B; Fox, D B; Leonard, D C; Moon, D-S; Sand, D J; Soderberg, A M; Anderson, J P; James, P A; Foley, R J; Ganeshalingam, M; Ofek, E O; Bildsten, L; Nelemans, G; Shen, K J; Weinberg, N N; Metzger, B D; Piro, A L; Quataert, E; Kiewe, M; Poznanski, D

    2010-05-20

    Supernovae are thought to arise from two different physical processes. The cores of massive, short-lived stars undergo gravitational core collapse and typically eject a few solar masses during their explosion. These are thought to appear as type Ib/c and type II supernovae, and are associated with young stellar populations. In contrast, the thermonuclear detonation of a carbon-oxygen white dwarf, whose mass approaches the Chandrasekhar limit, is thought to produce type Ia supernovae. Such supernovae are observed in both young and old stellar environments. Here we report a faint type Ib supernova, SN 2005E, in the halo of the nearby isolated galaxy, NGC 1032. The 'old' environment near the supernova location, and the very low derived ejected mass ( approximately 0.3 solar masses), argue strongly against a core-collapse origin. Spectroscopic observations and analysis reveal high ejecta velocities, dominated by helium-burning products, probably excluding this as a subluminous or a regular type Ia supernova. We conclude that it arises from a low-mass, old progenitor, likely to have been a helium-accreting white dwarf in a binary. The ejecta contain more calcium than observed in other types of supernovae and probably large amounts of radioactive (44)Ti. PMID:20485429

  7. The quenching of the ultra-faint dwarf galaxies in the reionization era

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Thomas M.; Tumlinson, Jason; Kalirai, Jason S.; Avila, Roberto J.; Gennaro, Mario; Ferguson, Henry C., E-mail: tbrown@stsci.edu, E-mail: tumlinson@stsci.edu, E-mail: jkalirai@stsci.edu, E-mail: avila@stsci.edu, E-mail: ferguson@stsci.edu, E-mail: gennaro@stsci.edu [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); and others

    2014-12-01

    We present new constraints on the star formation histories of six ultra-faint dwarf galaxies: Bootes I, Canes Venatici II, Coma Berenices, Hercules, Leo IV, and Ursa Major I. Our analysis employs a combination of high-precision photometry obtained with the Advanced Camera for Surveys on the Hubble Space Telescope, medium-resolution spectroscopy obtained with the DEep Imaging Multi-Object Spectrograph on the W. M. Keck Observatory, and updated Victoria-Regina isochrones tailored to the abundance patterns appropriate for these galaxies. The data for five of these Milky Way satellites are best fit by a star formation history where at least 75% of the stars formed by z ∼ 10 (13.3 Gyr ago). All of the galaxies are consistent with 80% of the stars forming by z ∼ 6 (12.8 Gyr ago) and 100% of the stars forming by z ∼ 3 (11.6 Gyr ago). The similarly ancient populations of these galaxies support the hypothesis that star formation in the smallest dark-matter sub-halos was suppressed by a global outside influence, such as the reionization of the universe.

  8. The relation between atomic gas and star formation rate densities in faint irregular galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Roychowdhury, Sambit; Kaisin, Serafim S; Karachentsev, Igor D

    2014-01-01

    We use data for faint (M_B > -14.5) dwarf irregular galaxies drawn from the FIGGS survey to study the correlation between the atomic gas density (Sigma_gas,atomic) and star formation rate (Sigma_SFR) in the galaxies. The estimated gas phase metallicity of our sample galaxies is Z ~ 0.1 Z_sun. Understanding star formation in such molecule poor gas is of particular importance since it is likely to be of direct relevance to simulations of early galaxy formation. For about 20% (9/43) of our sample galaxies, we find that the HI distribution is significantly disturbed, with little correspondence between the optical and HI distributions. We exclude these galaxies from the comparison. We also exclude galaxies with very low star formation rates, for which stochastic effects make it difficult to estimate the true star formation rates. For the remaining galaxies we compute the Sigma_gas,atomic and Sigma_SFR averaged over the entire star forming disk of the galaxy. For these galaxies we find a nearly linear relation betw...

  9. THE OLD ENVIRONMENT OF THE FAINT CALCIUM-RICH SUPERNOVA SN 2005cz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The supernova SN 2005cz has recently attracted some attention due to the fact that it was spectroscopically similar to type Ib supernovae (SNe Ib), a class that is presumed to result from the core collapse of massive stars, yet it occurred in an elliptical galaxy, where one expects very few massive stars to exist. Two explanations for this remarkable event were put forward. Perets et al. associate SN 2005cz with the class of Ca-rich, faint SNe Ib, which likely result from old double-white-dwarf systems with an He-rich secondary. On the other hand, Kawabata et al. suggest that SN 2005cz is indeed a core-collapse event (in a binary system), albeit of a star at the lower end of the mass range, 10-12 Msun. The existence of this star in its elliptical host is explained as resulting from low-level star formation (SF) activity in that galaxy. Here we present extensive observations of the location of SN 2005cz, sensitive to a variety of SF tracers, including optical spectroscopy, Hα emission, UV emission, and Hubble Space Telescope photometry. We show that NGC 4589, the host galaxy of SN 2005cz, does not show any signatures of a young stellar population or recent SF activity either close to or far from the location of SN 2005cz.

  10. Stacking Star Clusters in M51: Searching for Faint X-Ray Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Vulic, N; Gallagher, S C

    2012-01-01

    The population of low-luminosity (< 10^35 erg/s) X-Ray Binaries (XRBs) has been investigated in our Galaxy and M31 but not further. To address this problem, we have used data from the Chandra X-Ray Observatory and the Hubble Space Telescope to investigate the faint population of XRBs in the grand-design spiral galaxy M51. A matching analysis found 25 star clusters coincident with 20 X-ray point sources within 1.5" (60 pc). From X-ray and optical color-color plots we determine that this population is dominated by high-mass XRBs. A stacking analysis of the X-ray data at the positions of optically-identified star clusters was completed to probe low-luminosity X-ray sources. No cluster type had a significant detection in any X-ray energy band. An average globular cluster had the largest upper limit, 9.23 x 10^34 erg/s, in the full-band (0.3 - 8 keV) while on average the complete sample of clusters had the lowest upper limit, 6.46 x 10^33 erg/s in the hard-band (2 - 8 keV). We determined average luminosities of...

  11. Detection of a faint fast-moving near-Earth asteroid using synthetic tracking technique

    CERN Document Server

    Zhai, Chengxing; Nemati, Bijan; Werne, Thomas A; Zhou, Hanying; Turyshev, Slava G; Sandhu, Jagmit; Hallinan, Gregg W; Harding, Leon K

    2014-01-01

    We report a detection of a faint near-Earth asteroid (NEA), which was done using our synthetic tracking technique and the CHIMERA instrument on the Palomar 200-inch telescope. This asteroid, with apparent magnitude of 23, was moving at 5.97 degrees per day and was detected at a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 15 using 30 sec of data taken at a 16.7 Hz frame rate. The detection was confirmed by a second observation one hour later at the same SNR. The asteroid moved 7 arcseconds in sky over the 30 sec of integration time because of its high proper motion. The synthetic tracking using 16.7 Hz frames avoided the trailing loss suffered by conventional techniques relying on 30-sec exposure, which would degrade the surface brightness of image on CCD to an approximate magnitude of 25. This detection was a result of our 12-hour blind search conducted on the Palomar 200-inch telescope over two nights on September 11 and 12, 2013 scanning twice over six 5.0 deg x 0.043 deg fields. The fact that we detected only one NEA, ...

  12. Evolution of faint radio sources in the VIDEO-XMM3 field

    CERN Document Server

    McAlpine, K; Bonfield, D G

    2013-01-01

    It has been speculated that low luminosity radio-loud AGN have the potential to serve as an important source of AGN feedback, and may be responsible for suppressing star-formation activity in massive elliptical galaxies at late times. As such the cosmic evolution of these sources is vitally important to understanding the significance of such AGN feedback processes and their influence on the global star-formation history of the universe. In this paper we present a new investigation of the evolution of faint radio sources out to $z{\\sim}2.5$. We combine a 1 square degree VLA radio survey, complete to a depth of 100 $\\mu$Jy, with accurate 10 band photometric redshifts from the VIDEO and CFHTLS surveys. The results indicate that the radio population experiences mild positive evolution out to $z{\\sim}1.2$ increasing their space density by a factor of $\\sim$3, consistent with results of several previous studies. Beyond $z$=1.2 there is evidence of a slowing down of this evolution. Star-forming galaxies drive the mo...

  13. Evolution of faint radio sources in the VIDEO-XMM3 field

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlpine, K.; Jarvis, M. J.; Bonfield, D. G.

    2013-12-01

    It has been speculated that low-luminosity radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGN) have the potential to serve as an important source of AGN feedback, and may be responsible for suppressing star formation activity in massive elliptical galaxies at late times. As such the cosmic evolution of these sources is vitally important to understand the significance of such AGN feedback processes and their influence on the global star formation history of the Universe. In this paper, we present a new investigation of the evolution of faint radio sources out to z ˜ 2.5. We combine a 1 square degree Very Large Array radio survey, complete to a depth of 100 μJy, with accurate 10 band photometric redshifts from the following surveys: Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy Deep Extragalactic Observations and Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey. The results indicate that the radio population experiences mild positive evolution out to z ˜ 1.2 increasing their space density by a factor of ˜3, consistent with results of several previous studies. Beyond z = 1.2, there is evidence of a slowing down of this evolution. Star-forming galaxies drive the more rapid evolution at low redshifts, z 1.2. The evolution is best fitted by pure luminosity evolution with star-forming galaxies evolving as (1 + z)2.47 ± 0.12 and AGN as (1 + z)1.18 ± 0.21.

  14. Investigation of the optical fields of flat-spectrum radio sources to faint limiting magnitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A deep optical survey of the fields of 16 flat-spectrum radio sources has been carried out using the Hale 5-m telescope, with a prototype charge-coupled device as a detector. These sources are members of a complete sample, selected as having S(2.7 GHz) > 1.5 Jy, and were either unidentified, or were identified with very faint objects on the prints of the Palomar Sky Survey. Identifications are found for 12 of these objects; six are galaxies and six are stellar objects. Identifications for the 2.7-GHz sample are therefore now 96 per cent complete, allowing much improved redshift distributions to be derived. Values of V/Vsub(max) for the sample members have also been calculated, with the result that for the flat-spectrum quasars is 0.68, rather than the values nearer 0.5 derived from studies of deeper samples. This result indicates that both the steep-spectrum and flat-spectrum quasars undergo similar degrees of cosmological evolution. (author)

  15. Isophotal shapes of early-type galaxies to very faint levels

    CERN Document Server

    Chaware, Laxmikant; Kembhavi, Ajit K; Pandey, S K

    2014-01-01

    We report on a study of the isophotal shapes of early-type galaxies, to very faint levels reaching ~ 0.1% of the sky brightness. The galaxies are from the Large Format Camera (LFC) fields obtained using the Palomar 5 m Hale telescope, with integrated exposures ranging from 1 to 4 hours in the SDSS r, i and z bands. The shapes of isophotes of early-type galaxies are important as they are correlated with the physical properties of the galaxies and are influenced by galaxy formation processes. In this paper we report on a sample of 132 E and SO galaxies in one LFC field. We have redshifts for 53 of these, obtained using AAOmega on the Anglo-Australian Telescope. The shapes of early-type galaxies often vary with radius. We derive average values of isophotal shape parameters in four different radial bins along the semi-major axis in each galaxy. We obtain empirical fitting formulae for the probability distribution of the sophotal parameters in each bin and investigate for possible correlations with other global pr...

  16. Investigations of the optical fields of 3CR radio sources to faint limiting magnitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A deep optical survey of the fields of 18 3CR radio sources has been carried out with the Hale 5-m telescope, using a prototype charged-coupled device as a detector. These sources were among the few 3CR objects which were either previously unidentified or associated with very faint images at the plate limit for which confirmation was required. Ten new identifications are proposed, and candidates for the remaining eight sources are confirmed. Of these identifications, four are considered provisional, since they are displaced from the radio source axes. In addition, the candidate for one is classed as a confirmed identification, although the optical field is crowded and an unambiguous identification cannot be made on positional arguments alone. A subsample of 60 sources from the 3CR catalogue, considered by previous workers, is now (provisionally) completely identified. These new results are used to construct luminosity distributions at S(178) >= 20 Jy and S(178) >= 10 Jy, and the implications of the complete identification rate for models of source evolution formulated by other workers are examined. (author)

  17. The faint outer regions of the Pegasus Dwarf Irregular galaxy: a much larger and undisturbed galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Kniazev, Alexei; Hoffman, G Lyle; Grebel, Eva K; Zucker, Daniel B; Pustilnik, Simon A

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the spatial extent and structure of the Pegasus dwarf irregular galaxy using deep, wide-field, multicolour CCD photometry from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and new deep HI observations. We study an area of ~0.6 square degrees centred on the Pegasus dwarf that was imaged by SDSS. Using effective filtering in colour-magnitude space we reduce the contamination by foreground Galactic field stars and increase significantly the contrast in the outer regions of the Pegasus dwarf. Our extended surface photometry, reaches down to a surface brightness magnitude mu_r~32 mag/sq.arcsec. It reveals a stellar body with a diameter of ~8 kpc that follows a Sersic surface brightness distribution law, which is composed of a significantly older stellar population than that observed in the ~2 kpc main body. The galaxy is at least five times more extended than listed in NED. The faint extensions of the galaxy are not equally distributed around its circumference; the north-west end is more jagged than the sout...

  18. Herschel Discovery of a New class of Cold, Faint Debris Discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiroa, C.; Marshall, J. P.; Mora, A.; Krivov, A. V.; Montesinos, B.; Absil, O.; Ardila, D.; Arevalo, M.; Augereau, J. -Ch.; Bayo, A.; Danchi, W.; del Burgo, C.; Ertel, S.; Fridlund, M.; Gonzalez-Garcia, B. M.; Heras, A. M.; Lebreton, J.; Liseau, R.; Maldonado, J.; Meeus, G.; Montes, D.; Pilbratt, G. L.; Roberge, A.; Sanz-Forcada, J.; Stapelfeldt, K.

    2012-01-01

    We present Herschel PACS 100 and 160 micron observations of the solar-type stars alpha Men, HD 88230 and HD 210277, which form part of the FGK stars sample of the Herschel Open Time Key Programme (OTKP) DUNES (DUst around NEarby Stars). Our observations show small infrared excesses at 160 micron for all three stars. HD 210277 also shows a small excess at 100 micron. while the 100 micron fluxes of a Men and HD 88230 agree with the stellar photospheric predictions. We attribute these infrared excesses to a new class of cold, faint debris discs. alpha Men and HD 88230 are spatially resolved in the PACS 160 micron images, while HD 210277 is point-like at that wavelength. The projected linear sizes of the extended emission lie in the range from approximately 115 to <= 250 AU. The estimated black body temperatures from the 100 and 160 micron fluxes are approximately < 22 K, while the fractional luminosity of the cold dust is L(dust)/ L(star) approximates 10(exp -6), close to the luminosity of the Solar-System's Kuiper belt. These debris discs are the coldest and faintest discs discovered so far around mature stars and cannot easily be explained by invoking "classical" debris disc models.

  19. Discovery of a faint star-forming multiply lensed Lyman-alpha blob

    CERN Document Server

    Caminha, G B; Rosati, P; Caputi, K I; Battaia, F Arrigoni; Balestra, I; Grillo, C; Mercurio, A; Nonino, M; Vanzella, E

    2015-01-01

    We report the discovery of a multiply lensed Lyman-$\\alpha$ blob (LAB) behind the galaxy cluster AS1063 using the Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) on the Very Large Telescope. The background source is at $z=$ 3.117 and is intrinsically faint compared to almost all previously reported LABs. We used our highly precise strong lensing model to reconstruct the source properties finding a luminosity of $L_{\\rm Ly\\alpha}$=$1.9\\times10^{42}$ erg s$^{-1}$, extending to 33 kpc. We find that the LAB is associated with a group of galaxies, and possibly a protocluster, in keeping with previous studies that find LABs in overdensities. In addition to Ly$\\alpha$ emission, we find CIV, HeII, and OIII] UV emission lines arising from the centre of the nebula. We used the compactness of these lines in combination with the line ratios to conclude that the Ly$\\alpha$ nebula is likely powered by embedded star formation. Resonant scattering of the Ly$\\alpha$ photons then produces the extended shape of the emission. Thanks to...

  20. Star/galaxy separation at faint magnitudes: Application to a simulated Dark Energy Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Soumagnac, M T; Lahav, O; Kirk, D; Sevilla, I; Bertin, E; Rowe, B T P; Annis, J; Busha, M T; Da Costa, L N; Frieman, J A; Gaztanaga, E; Jarvis, M; Lin, H; Percival, W J; Santiago, B X; Sabiu, C G; Wechsler, R H; Wolz, L; Yanny, B

    2013-01-01

    We address the problem of separating stars from galaxies in future large photometric surveys. We focus our analysis on simulations of the Dark Energy Survey (DES). In the first part of the paper, we derive the science requirements on star/galaxy separation, for measurement of the cosmological parameters with the Gravitational Weak Lensing and Large Scale Structure probes. These requirements are dictated by the need to control both the statistical and systematic errors on the cosmological parameters, and by Point Spread Function calibration. We formulate the requirements in terms of the completeness and purity provided by a given star/galaxy classifier. In order to achieve these requirements at faint magnitudes, we propose a new method for star/galaxy separation in the second part of the paper. We first use Principal Component Analysis to outline the correlations between the objects parameters and extract from it the most relevant information. We then use the reduced set of parameters as input to an Artificial...

  1. The first VLBI image of an infrared-faint radio source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middelberg, E.; Norris, R. P.; Tingay, S.; Mao, M. Y.; Phillips, C. J.; Hotan, A. W.

    2008-11-01

    Context: We investigate the joint evolution of active galactic nuclei and star formation in the Universe. Aims: In the 1.4 GHz survey with the Australia Telescope Compact Array of the Chandra Deep Field South and the European Large Area ISO Survey - S1 we have identified a class of objects which are strong in the radio but have no detectable infrared and optical counterparts. This class has been called Infrared-Faint Radio Sources, or IFRS. 53 sources out of 2002 have been classified as IFRS. It is not known what these objects are. Methods: To address the many possible explanations as to what the nature of these objects is we have observed four sources with the Australian Long Baseline Array. Results: We have detected and imaged one of the four sources observed. Assuming that the source is at a high redshift, we find its properties in agreement with properties of Compact Steep Spectrum sources. However, due to the lack of optical and infrared data the constraints are not particularly strong.

  2. The first VLBI image of an Infrared-Faint Radio Source

    CERN Document Server

    Middelberg, E; Tingay, S; Mao, M Y; Phillips, C J; Hotan, A W

    2008-01-01

    Context: To investigate the joint evolution of active galactic nuclei and star formation in the Universe. Aims: In the 1.4 GHz survey with the Australia Telescope Compact Array of the Chandra Deep Field South and the European Large Area ISO Survey - S1 we have identified a class of objects which are strong in the radio but have no detectable infrared and optical counterparts. This class has been called Infrared-Faint Radio Sources, or IFRS. 53 sources out of 2002 have been classified as IFRS. It is not known what these objects are. Methods: To address the many possible explanations as to what the nature of these objects is we have observed four sources with the Australian Long Baseline Array. Results: We have detected and imaged one of the four sources observed. Assuming that the source is at a high redshift, we find its properties in agreement with properties of Compact Steep Spectrum sources. However, due to the lack of optical and infrared data the constraints are not particularly strong.

  3. A search for AGN activity in Infrared-Faint Radio Sources (IFRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenc, Emil; Middelberg, Enno; Norris, Ray; Mao, Minnie

    2010-04-01

    We propose to observe a large sample of radio sources from the ATLAS (Australia Telescope Large Area Survey) source catalogue with the LBA, to determine their compactness. The sample consists of 36 sources with no counterpart in the co-located SWIRE survey (3.6 um to 160 um), carried out with the Spitzer Space Telescope. This rare class of sources, dubber Infrared-Faint Radio Sources (IFRS), is inconsistent with current galaxy evolution models. VLBI observations are an essential way to obtain further clues on what these objects are and why they are hidden from infrared observations. We will measure the flux densities on long baselines to determine their compactness. Only five IFRS have been previously targeted with VLBI observations (resulting in two detections). We propose using single baseline (Parkes-ATCA) eVLBI observations with the LBA at 1 Gbps to maximise sensitivity. With the observations proposed here we will increase the number of VLBI-observed IFRS from 5 to 36, allowing us to draw statistical conclusions about this intriguing new class of objects.

  4. Correction of the geomagnetically induced image motion problem on the Hubble Space Telescope's Faint Object Spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, John E.; Hartig, George F.; Beaver, Edward A.; Hier, Richard G.

    1993-11-01

    During the Science Verification phase of the Hubble Space Telescope mission, it was determined that the Faint Object Spectrograph's (FOS) Red detector displayed significant image motions which correlated with orbital changes in the geomagnetic field. The Blue detector exhibited similar but less pronounced motions. The cause of this motion was determined to be inadequate magnetic shielding of the instrument's Digicon detectors. The results of these motions were decreases in onboard target acquisition accuracy, spectral resolution, and photometric accuracy. The Space Telescope Science Institute and the FOS Investigation Definition Team, set about correcting this Geomagnetically-induced Image Motion Problem (GIMP) through a real-time on-board correction scheme. This correction required modifications to almost all aspects of the HST ground system as well as additional NSSC1 flight software and the use of an existing software 'hook' in the FOS microprocessor firmware. This paper presents a detailed description of the problem, the proposed solution, and results of on-orbit testing of the correction mechanism.

  5. VLBA observations of radio faint Fermi-LAT sources above 10 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Lico, R; Orienti, M; D'Ammando, F

    2016-01-01

    The first Fermi-LAT High-energy source catalog (1FHL), containing gamma-ray sources detected above 10 GeV, is an ideal sample to characterize the physical properties of the most extreme gamma-ray sources. We investigate the pc scale properties of a sub-sample of radio faint 1FHL sources with the aim to confirm the proposed blazar associations, by revealing a compact high brightness temperature radio core, and we propose new low-frequency counterparts for the unassociated gamma-ray sources (UGS). Moreover, we increase the number of 1FHL sources with high resolution observations to explore the possible connection between radio and gamma rays at E >10 GeV. We observed 84 1FHL sources, mostly blazars of High Synchrotron Peaked (HSP) type, in the northern sky with the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) at 5 GHz. These sources lack high resolution radio observations and have at least one NVSS counterpart within the 95% confidence radius. For those sources without a well identified radio counterpart we exploit the VLBA...

  6. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Infrared-faint radio sources catalog (Collier+, 2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, J. D.; Banfield, J. K.; Norris, R. P.; Schnitzeler, D. H. F. M.; Kimball, A. E.; Filipovic, M. D.; Jarrett, T. H.; Lonsdale, C. J.; Tothill, N. F. H.

    2014-11-01

    The 20cm radio data come from the Unified Radio Catalog (URC) compiled by Kimball & Ivezic (2008AJ....136..684K). This radio catalogue combines data from the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) VLA Sky Survey (NVSS; Condon et al., 1998, Cat. VIII/65), Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty Centimeters (FIRST; Becker, White & Helfand, 1995, cat. VIII/92), Green Bank 6cm survey (GB6; Gregory et al., 1996, Cat. VIII/40), the Westerbork Northern Sky Survey (WENSS; Rengelink et al. 1997; de Bruyn et al. 2000, Cat. VIII/62) and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 6 (SDSS DR6; Adelman-McCarthy et al., 2008, Cat. II/282). We use updated NVSS and FIRST data from the URC version 2.0 (Kimball & Ivezic, in preparation), which includes a number of new sources as well as updated positions and flux densities. The IR data come from WISE (Wright et al. (WISE Team) 2009, Cat. II/311), which is an all-sky survey centred at 3.4, 4.6, 12 and 22um (referred to as bands W1, W2, W3 and W4), with respective angular resolutions of 6.1, 6.4, 6.5 and 12.0-arcsec (full width at half-maximum, FWHM), and typical 5σ sensitivity levels of 0.08, 0.11, 1 and 6mJy, with sensitivity increasing towards the ecliptic poles. (1 data file).

  7. Structural parameters of 11 faint Galactic globular clusters derived with 2MASS

    CERN Document Server

    Bonatto, C

    2007-01-01

    The determination of structural parameters of 11 faint Galactic globular clusters that, in most cases, had not been previously studied in this context. The clusters are IC1257, Lynga7, Terzan4, Terzan10, BH176, ESO452-SC11, ESO280-SC08, 2MASS-GC01, 2MASS-GC02, GLIMPSE-C01 and AL3, which are projected not far from the central region of the Galaxy. Field-star contamination is significant in the colour-magnitude diagrams. Stellar radial number-density and surface-brightness profiles are built with 2MASS photometry that, for the present clusters, corresponds basically to giant-branch stars. Field-star decontamination is essential for clusters in dense fields. With decontaminated photometry we also compute the total MV of four such globular clusters, using M4 as a template. King-like functions are fitted to the radial profiles, from which the core, half-light, half-star count and tidal radii are derived, together with the concentration parameter. Parameters derived here are compared to the equivalent ones of other...

  8. GHOSTS I: A New Faint very Isolated Dwarf Galaxy at D = 12 +/- 2 Mpc

    CERN Document Server

    Monachesi, Antonela; Radburn-Smith, David J; de Jong, Roelof S; Bailin, Jeremy; Dalcanton, Julianne J; Holwerda, Benne W; Ford, H Alyson; Streich, David; Vlajic, Marija; Zucker, Daniel B

    2013-01-01

    We report the discovery of a new faint dwarf galaxy, GHOSTS I, using HST/ACS data from one of our GHOSTS (Galaxy Halos, Outer disks, Substructure, Thick disk, and Star clusters) fields. Its detected individual stars populate an approximately one magnitude range of its luminosity function (LF). Using synthetic color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) to compare with the galaxy's CMD, we find that the colors and magnitudes of GHOSTS I's individual stars are most consistent with being young helium-burning and asymptotic giant branch stars at a distance of 12 +/- 2 Mpc. Morphologically, GHOSTS I appears to be actively forming stars, so we tentatively classify it as a dwarf irregular (dIrr) galaxy, although future HST observations deep enough to resolve a larger magnitude range in its LF are required to make a more secure classification. GHOSTS I's absolute magnitude is $M_V = -9.85^{+ 0.40}_{- 0.33}$, making it one of the least luminous dIrr galaxies known, and its metallicity is lower than [Fe/H] =-1.5 dex. The half-ligh...

  9. Accurate Stellar Kinematics at Faint Magnitudes: application to the Bootes~I dwarf spheroidal galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Koposov, Sergey E; Walker, M G; Belokurov, V; Evans, N Wyn; Fellhauer, M; Gieren, W; Geisler, D; Monaco, L; Norris, J E; Okamoto, S; Penarrubia, J; Wilkinson, M; Wyse, R F G; Zucker, D B

    2011-01-01

    We develop, implement and characterise an enhanced data reduction approach which delivers precise, accurate, radial velocities from moderate resolution spectroscopy with the fibre-fed VLT/FLAMES+GIRAFFE facility. This facility, with appropriate care, delivers radial velocities adequate to resolve the intrinsic velocity dispersions of the very faint dSph dwarf galaxies. Importantly, repeated measurements let us reliably calibrate our individual velocity errors ($0.2 \\leq \\delta_V\\leq 5$ km s$^{-1}$) and directly detect stars with variable radial velocities. We show, by application to the Bootes-1 dwarf spheroidal, that the intrinsic velocity dispersion of this system is significantly below 6.5\\,km/s reported by previous studies. Our data favor a two-population model of Bootes-1, consisting of a majority `cold' stellar component, with velocity dispersion $2.4^{+0.9}_{-0.5}$\\,km/s, and a minority `hot' stellar component, with velocity dispersion $\\sim 9$\\,km/s, although we can not completely rule out a single co...

  10. A Hero's Dark Horse: Discovery of an Ultra-Faint Milky Way Satellite in Pegasus

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Dongwon; Mackey, Dougal; Da Costa, Gary S; Milone, Antonino P

    2015-01-01

    We report the discovery of an ultra-faint Milky Way satellite galaxy in the constellation of Pegasus. The concentration of stars was detected by applying our overdensity detection algorithm to the SDSS-DR 10 and confirmed with deeper photometry from the Dark Energy Camera at the 4-m Blanco telescope. Fitting model isochrones indicates that this object, Pegasus III, features an old and metal-poor stellar population ([Fe/H]$\\sim-2.1$) at a heliocentric distance of $205\\pm20$ kpc. The new stellar system has an estimated half-light radius of $r_h=110\\pm6$ pc and a total luminosity of $M_{V}\\sim-4.1\\pm0.5$ that places it into the domain of dwarf galaxies on the size--luminosity plane. Pegasus III is spatially close to the MW satellite Pisces II. It is possible that the two might be physically associated, similar to the Leo IV and Leo V pair. Pegasus III is also well aligned with the Vast Polar Structure, which suggests a possible physical association.

  11. Ultra-light dark matter in ultra-faint dwarf galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Erminia; Spergel, David N.

    2016-08-01

    Cold Dark Matter (CDM) models struggle to match the observations at galactic scales. The tension can be reduced either by dramatic baryonic feedback effects or by modifying the particle physics of CDM. Here, we consider an ultra-light scalar field DM particle manifesting a wave nature below a DM particle mass-dependent Jeans scale. For DM mass m ˜ 10-22 eV, this scenario delays galaxy formation and avoids cusps in the centre of the dark matter haloes. We use new measurements of half-light mass in ultra-faint dwarf galaxies Draco II and Triangulum II to estimate the mass of the DM particle in this model. We find that if the stellar populations are within the core of the density profile then the data are in agreement with a Wave Dark Matter model having a DM particle with m ˜ 3.7-5.6 × 10-22 eV. The presence of this extremely light particle will contribute to the formation of a central solitonic core replacing the cusp of a Navarro-Frenk-White profile and bringing predictions closer to observations of cored central density in dwarf galaxies.

  12. Antlia B: A faint dwarf galaxy member of the NGC 3109 association

    CERN Document Server

    Sand, D J; Crnojević, D; Hargis, J R; Willman, B; Strader, J; Grillmair, C J

    2015-01-01

    We report the discovery of Antlia B, a faint dwarf galaxy at a projected distance of $\\sim$72 kpc from NGC 3109 ($M_{V}$$\\sim$$-$15 mag), the primary galaxy of the NGC 3109 dwarf association at the edge of the Local Group. The tip of the red giant branch distance to Antlia B is $D$=1.29$\\pm$0.10 Mpc, which is consistent with the distance to NGC 3109. A qualitative analysis indicates the new dwarf's stellar population has both an old, metal poor red giant branch ($\\gtrsim$10 Gyr, [Fe/H]$\\sim$$-$2), and a younger blue population with an age of $\\sim$200-400 Myr, analogous to the original Antlia dwarf, another likely satellite of NGC 3109. Antlia B has \\ion{H}{1} gas at a velocity of $v_{helio,HI}$=376 km s$^{-1}$, confirming the association with NGC 3109 ($v_{helio}$=403 km s$^{-1}$). The HI gas mass (M$_{HI}$=2.8$\\pm$0.2$\\times$10$^{5}$ M$_{\\odot}$), stellar luminosity ($M_{V}$=$-$9.7$\\pm$0.6 mag) and half light radius ($r_{h}$=273$\\pm$29 pc) are all consistent with the properties of dwarf irregular and dwarf ...

  13. Chemical abundances in the multiple sub-giant branch of 47 Tucanae: insights on its faint sub-giant branch component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, A. F.; Milone, A. P.; Casagrande, L.; Collet, R.; Dotter, A.; Johnson, C. I.; Lind, K.; Bedin, L. R.; Jerjen, H.; Aparicio, A.; Sbordone, L.

    2016-06-01

    The globular cluster 47 Tuc exhibits a complex sub-giant branch (SGB) with a faint-SGB comprising only about the 10 per cent of the cluster mass and a bright-SGB hosting at least two distinct populations. We present a spectroscopic analysis of 62 SGB stars including 21 faint-SGB stars. We thus provide the first chemical analysis of the intriguing faint-SGB population and compare its abundances with those of the dominant populations. We have inferred abundances of Fe, representative light elements C, N, Na, and Al, α elements Mg and Si for individual stars. Oxygen has been obtained by co-adding spectra of stars on different sequences. In addition, we have analysed 12 stars along the two main RGBs of 47 Tuc. Our principal results are (i) star-to-star variations in C/N/Na among RGB and bright-SGB stars; (ii) substantial N and Na enhancements for the minor population corresponding to the faint-SGB; (iii) no high enrichment in C+N+O for faint-SGB stars. Specifically, the C+N+O of the faint-SGB is a factor of 1.1 higher than the bright-SGB, which, considering random (±1.3) plus systematic errors (±0.3), means that their C+N+O is consistent within observational uncertainties. However, a small C+N+O enrichment for the faint-SGB, similar to what predicted on theoretical ground, cannot be excluded. The N and Na enrichment of the faint-SGB qualitatively agrees with this population possibly being He-enhanced, as suggested by theory. The iron abundance of the bright and faint-SGB is the same to a level of ˜0.10 dex, and no other significant difference for the analysed elements has been detected.

  14. Articulating Atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinch, Sofie

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an architectural approach to designing computational interfaces by articulating the notion of atmosphere in the field of interaction design. It draws upon the concept of kinesthetic interaction and a philosophical notion on atmosphere emphasizing the importance of bodily...... experience in space, presented as middle ground experience. In the field of HCI, middle ground experiences complete the unarticulated spectrum between designing for foreground of attention or background awareness. When “Articulating Atmospheres through Middle Ground Experiences in Interaction Design......” implications and qualities of the approach are identified through concrete examples of a design case, which also investigates the qualities and implications of addressing atmospheres both as design concern and user experience....

  15. Exoplanetary Atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Madhusudhan, Nikku; Fortney, Jonathan; Barman, Travis

    2014-01-01

    The study of exoplanetary atmospheres is one of the most exciting and dynamic frontiers in astronomy. Over the past two decades ongoing surveys have revealed an astonishing diversity in the planetary masses, radii, temperatures, orbital parameters, and host stellar properties of exoplanetary systems. We are now moving into an era where we can begin to address fundamental questions concerning the diversity of exoplanetary compositions, atmospheric and interior processes, and formation histories, just as have been pursued for solar system planets over the past century. Exoplanetary atmospheres provide a direct means to address these questions via their observable spectral signatures. In the last decade, and particularly in the last five years, tremendous progress has been made in detecting atmospheric signatures of exoplanets through photometric and spectroscopic methods using a variety of space-borne and/or ground-based observational facilities. These observations are beginning to provide important constraints...

  16. DEEP SPITZER OBSERVATIONS OF INFRARED-FAINT RADIO SOURCES: HIGH-REDSHIFT RADIO-LOUD ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Infrared-faint radio sources (IFRSs) are a rare class of objects which are relatively bright at radio wavelengths but very faint at infrared and optical wavelengths. Here we present sensitive near-infrared observations of a sample of these sources taken as part of the Spitzer Extragalactic Representative Volume Survey. Nearly all the IFRSs are undetected at a level of ∼1 μJy in these new deep observations, and even the detections are consistent with confusion with unrelated galaxies. A stacked image implies that the median flux density is S3.6μm ∼ 0.2 μJy or less, giving extreme values of the radio-infrared flux density ratio. Comparison of these objects with known classes of object suggests that the majority are probably high-redshift radio-loud galaxies, possibly suffering from significant dust extinction.

  17. Staging atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Mikkel; Bjerregaard, Peter; Sørensen, Tim Flohr

    2015-01-01

    . Nevertheless, people’s experience of the environment is sought manipulated in a variety of contexts, often without offering a less ‘true’ experience of a situation than if it had not been manipulated by people. In fact, orchestrations of space are often central to sociality, politics and aesthetics. This...... introduction seeks to outline how a number of scholars have addressed the relationship between staged atmospheres and experience, and thus highlight both the philosophical, social and political aspects of atmospheres...

  18. Sweating the small stuff: simulating dwarf galaxies, ultra-faint dwarf galaxies, and their own tiny satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Coral; Oñorbe, Jose; Bullock, James S.; Boylan-Kolchin, Michael; Elbert, Oliver D.; Garrison-Kimmel, Shea; Hopkins, Philip F.; Kereš, Dušan

    2015-10-01

    We present Feedback in Realistic Environment (FIRE)/GIZMO hydrodynamic zoom-in simulations of isolated dark matter haloes, two each at the mass of classical dwarf galaxies (Mvir ≃ 1010 M⊙) and ultra-faint galaxies (Mvir ≃ 109 M⊙), and with two feedback implementations. The resulting central galaxies lie on an extrapolated abundance matching relation from M⋆ ≃ 106 to 104 M⊙ without a break. Every host is filled with subhaloes, many of which form stars. Each of our dwarfs with M⋆ ≃ 106 M⊙ has 1-2 well-resolved satellites with M⋆ = 3-200 × 103 M⊙. Even our isolated ultra-faint galaxies have star-forming subhaloes. If this is representative, dwarf galaxies throughout the Universe should commonly host tiny satellite galaxies of their own. We combine our results with the Exploring the Local Volume in Simulations (ELVIS) simulations to show that targeting ˜ 50 kpc regions around nearby isolated dwarfs could increase the chances of discovering ultra-faint galaxies by ˜35 per cent compared to random pointings, and specifically identify the region around the Phoenix dwarf galaxy as a good potential target. The well-resolved ultra-faint galaxies in our simulations (M⋆ ≃ 3-30 × 103 M⊙) form within Mpeak ≃ 0.5-3 × 109 M⊙ haloes. Each has a uniformly ancient stellar population ( > 10 Gyr) owing to reionization-related quenching. More massive systems, in contrast, all have late-time star formation. Our results suggest that Mhalo ≃ 5 × 109 M⊙ is a probable dividing line between haloes hosting reionization `fossils' and those hosting dwarfs that can continue to form stars in isolation after reionization.

  19. The response of the ionosphere to faint and bright solar flares as deduced from global GPS network data

    OpenAIRE

    Leonovich, L. A.; Grechnev, V. V.; Altynsev, A. T.; Afraimovich, E. L.

    2002-01-01

    Results derived from analysing the ionosphere response to faint and bright solar flares are presented. The analysis used technology of a global detection of ionospheric effects from solar flares as developed by the authors, on the basis of phase measurements of the Total Electron Content (TEC) in the ionosphere using an international GPS network. The essence of the method is that use is made of appropriate filtering and a coherent processing of variations in the TEC which is determined from G...

  20. Maze-solving by chemotaxis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, A. M.

    2010-06-01

    Here, we report on numerical simulations showing that chemotaxis will take a body through a maze via the shortest possible route to the source of a chemoattractant. This is a robust finding that does not depend on the geometrical makeup of the maze. The predictions are supported by recent experimental studies which have shown that by moving down gradients in pH , a droplet of organic solvent can find the shortest of multiple possible paths through a maze to an acid-soaked exit. They are also consistent with numerical and experimental evidence that plant-parasitic nematodes take the shortest route through the labyrinth of air-filled pores within soil to preferred host plants that produce volatile chemoattractants. The predictions support the view that maze-solving is a robust property of chemotaxis and is not specific to particular kinds of maze or to the fractal structure of air-filled channels within soils.

  1. Solving the structure of metakaolin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proffen, Thomas E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; White, Claire E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Provis, John L [UNIV. OF MELBOURNE; Riley, Daniel P [UNIV. OF MELBOURNE; Van Deventer, Jannie S J [UNIV. OF MELBOURNE

    2009-01-01

    Metakaolin has been used extensively as a cement additive and paint extender, and recently as a geopolymer precursor. This disordered layered aluminosilicate is formed via the dehydroxylation of kaolinite. However, an accurate representation of its atomic structure has bever before been presented. Here, a novel synergy between total scattering and density functional modeling is presented to solve the structure of metakaolin. The metastable structure is elucidated by iterating between least-squares real-space refinement using neutron pair distribution function data, and geometry optimization using density functional modeling. The resulting structural representation is both energetically feasible and in excellent agreement with experimental data. This accurate structure of metakaolin provides new insight into the local environment of the aluminum atoms, with evidence of the existence of tri-coordinated aluminum. By the availability of this detailed atomic description, there exists the opportunity to tailor chemical and mechanical processes involving metakaolin at the atomic level to obtain optimal performance at the macro-scale.

  2. Sweating the small stuff: simulating dwarf galaxies, ultra-faint dwarf galaxies, and their own tiny satellites

    CERN Document Server

    Wheeler, Coral; Bullock, James S; Boylan-Kolchin, Michael; Elbert, Oliver; Garrison-Kimmel, Shea; Hopkins, Philip F; Keres, Dusan

    2015-01-01

    We present FIRE/Gizmo hydrodynamic zoom-in simulations of isolated dark matter halos, two each at the mass of classical dwarf galaxies ($M_{\\rm vir} \\simeq 10^{10} M_{\\odot}$) and ultra-faint galaxies ($M_{\\rm vir} \\simeq 10^9 M_{\\odot}$), and with two feedback implementations. The resultant central galaxies lie on an extrapolated abundance matching relation from $M_{\\star} \\simeq 10^6$ to $10^4 M_{\\odot}$ without a break. Every host is filled with subhalos, many of which form stars. Our dwarfs with $M_{\\star} \\simeq 10^6 M_{\\odot}$ each have 1-2 well-resolved satellites with $M_{\\star} = 3-200 \\times 10^3 M_{\\odot}$. Even our isolated ultra-faint galaxies have star-forming subhalos. If this is representative, dwarf galaxies throughout the universe should commonly host tiny satellite galaxies of their own. We combine our results with the ELVIS simulations to show that targeting $\\sim 50~ \\rm kpc$ regions around nearby isolated dwarfs could increase the chances of discovering ultra-faint galaxies by $\\sim 35\\%...

  3. A Spectroscopic Survey of Faint Quasars in the SDSS Deep Stripe: I. Preliminary Results from the Co-added Catalog

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, L; Cool, R J; Eisenstein, D J; Fan, X; Johnston, D; Richards, G T; Schneider, D P; Scranton, R; Strauss, M A; Zehavi, I

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present the first results of a deep spectroscopic survey of faint quasars in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Southern Survey, a deep survey carried out by repeatedly imaging a 270 deg^2 area. Quasar candidates were selected from the deep data with good completeness over 02.0) at the faint end, indicating a break in the QLF slope. Using a luminosity-dependent density evolution model, we find that the quasar density at M_{g}<-22.5 peaks at z~2, which is later in cosmic time than the peak of z~2.5 found from surveys of more luminous objects. The SFQS QLF is consistent with the results of the 2dF QSO Redshift Survey, the SDSS, and the 2dF-SDSS LRG and QSO Survey, but probes fainter quasars. We plan to obtain more quasars from future observations and establish a complete faint quasar sample with more than 1000 objects over 10 deg^2.

  4. The Little Galaxies that Could (Reionize the Universe): Predicting Faint End Slopes & Escape Fractions at z > 4

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Lauren; Karcher, Michael; Quinn, Tom; Wadsley, James

    2016-01-01

    The sources that reionized the universe are still unknown, but likely candidates are faint but numerous galaxies. In this paper we present results from running a high resolution, uniform volume simulation, the Vulcan, to predict the number densities of undetectable, faint galaxies and their escape fractions of ionizing radiation, $f_\\mathrm{esc}$, during reionization. Our approach combines a high spatial resolution, a realistic treatment of feedback and hydro processes, a strict threshold for minimum number of resolution elements per galaxy, and a converged measurement of $f_\\mathrm{esc}$. We calibrate our physical model using a novel approach to create realistic galaxies at z=0, so the simulation is predictive at high redshifts. With this approach we can (1) robustly predict the evolution of the galaxy UV luminosity function at faint magnitudes down to $M_\\mathrm{UV}$~-15, two magnitudes fainter than observations, and (2) estimate $f_\\mathrm{esc}$ over a large range of galaxy masses based on the detailed ste...

  5. The LyA-LyC Connection: Evidence for an Enhanced Contribution of UV-faint Galaxies to Cosmic Reionization

    CERN Document Server

    Dijkstra, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The escape of ionizing Lyman Continuum (LyC) photons requires the existence of low-N_HI sightlines, which also promote escape of Lyman-Alpha (Lya). We use a suite of 2500 Lya Monte-Carlo radiative transfer simulations through models of dusty, clumpy interstellar (`multiphase') media from Gronke & Dijkstra (2016), and compare the escape fractions of Lya [f_esc(Lya)] and LyC radiation [f_esc(LyC)]. We find that f_esc(LyC) and f_esc(Lya) are correlated: galaxies with a low f_esc(Lya) consistently have a low f_esc(LyC), while galaxies with a high f_esc(Lya) exhibit a large dispersion in f_esc(LyC). We argue that there is increasing observational evidence that Lya escapes more easily from UV-faint galaxies. The correlation between f_esc(LyC) and f_esc(Lya) then implies that UV-faint galaxies contribute more to the ionizing background than implied by the faint-end slope of the UV-luminosity function. In multiphase gases, the ionizing escape fraction is most strongly affected by the cloud covering factor, f_cl, ...

  6. Global modelling of the early Martian climate under a denser CO2 atmosphere: Water cycle and ice evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Wordsworth, R.; Forget, F.; Millour, E.; Head, J.; Madeleine, J.-B.; Charnay, B.

    2012-01-01

    We discuss 3D global simulations of the early Martian climate that we have performed assuming a faint young Sun and denser CO2 atmosphere. We include a self-consistent representation of the water cycle, with atmosphere-surface interactions, atmospheric transport, and the radiative effects of CO2 and H2O gas and clouds taken into account. We find that for atmospheric pressures greater than a fraction of a bar, the adiabatic cooling effect causes temperatures in the southern highland valley net...

  7. Problem Solving Applications in Chemistry Laboratory

    OpenAIRE

    Temel, Senar

    2013-01-01

    In the study, it was aimed to examine perception level of problem solving skills of teacher candidates participating in problem solving applications in chemistry laboratory and the effect of these applications on their perception of problem solving skills. Also it has been examined whether there is a significant relationship between perception of problem solving skills of teacher candidates and science process skills and logical thinking abilities. 72 teacher candidates participated in the st...

  8. Solving rational expectations models using Excel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strulik, Holger

    2004-01-01

    Problems of discrete time optimal control can be solved using backward iteration and Microsoft Excel. The author explains the method in general and shows how the basic models of neoclassical growth and real business cycles are solved......Problems of discrete time optimal control can be solved using backward iteration and Microsoft Excel. The author explains the method in general and shows how the basic models of neoclassical growth and real business cycles are solved...

  9. The very soft X-ray emission of X-ray-faint early-type galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, S.; Fabbiano, G.

    1994-01-01

    A recent reanaylsis of Einstein data, and new ROSAT observations, have revealed the presence of at least two components in the X-ray spectra of X-ray faint early-type galaxies: a relatively hard component (kT greater than 1.5 keV), and a very soft component (kT approximately 0.2-0.3 keV). In this paper we address the problem of the nature of the very soft component and whether it can be due to a hot interstellar medium (ISM), or is most likely originated by the collective emission of very soft stellar sources. To this purpose, hydrodynamical evolutionary sequences for the secular behavior of gas flows in ellipticals have been performed, varying the Type Ia supernovae rate of explosion, and the dark matter amount and distribution. The results are compared with the observational X-ray data: the average Einstein spectrum for six X-ray faint early-type galaxies (among which are NGC 4365 and NGC 4697), and the spectrum obtained by the ROSAT pointed observation of NGC 4365. The very soft component could be entirely explained with a hot ISM only in galaxies such as NGC 4697, i.e., when the depth of the potential well-on which the average ISM temperature strongly depends-is quite shallow; in NGC 4365 a diffuse hot ISM would have a temperature larger than that of the very soft component, because of the deeper potential well. So, in NGC 4365 the softest contribution to the X-ray emission comes certainly from stellar sources. As stellar soft X-ray emitters, we consider late-type stellar coronae, supersoft sources such as those discovered by ROSAT in the Magellanic Clouds and M31, and RS CVn systems. All these candidates can be substantial contributors to the very soft emission, though none of them, taken separately, plausibly accounts entirely for its properties. We finally present a model for the X-ray emission of NGC 4365, to reproduce in detail the results of the ROSAT pointed observation, including the Position Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC) spectrum and radial

  10. Atmospheric science and power production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randerson, D. (ed.)

    1984-07-01

    This is the third in a series of scientific publications sponsored by the US Atomic Energy Commission and the two later organizations, the US Energy Research and Development Adminstration, and the US Department of Energy. The first book, Meteorology and Atomic Energy, was published in 1955; the second, in 1968. The present volume is designed to update and to expand upon many of the important concepts presented previously. However, the present edition draws heavily on recent contributions made by atmospheric science to the analysis of air quality and on results originating from research conducted and completed in the 1970s. Special emphasis is placed on how atmospheric science can contribute to solving problems relating to the fate of combustion products released into the atmosphere. The framework of this book is built around the concept of air-quality modeling. Fundamentals are addressed first to equip the reader with basic background information and to focus on available meteorological instrumentation and to emphasize the importance of data management procedures. Atmospheric physics and field experiments are described in detail to provide an overview of atmospheric boundary layer processes, of how air flows around obstacles, and of the mechanism of plume rise. Atmospheric chemistry and removal processes are also detailed to provide fundamental knowledge on how gases and particulate matter can be transformed while in the atmosphere and how they can be removed from the atmosphere. The book closes with a review of how air-quality models are being applied to solve a wide variety of problems. Separate analytics have been prepared for each chapter.

  11. GPU-accelerated Faint Streak Detection for Uncued Surveillance of LEO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, P.; Ackermann, M.; McGraw, J. T.

    2013-09-01

    By astronomical standards, small objects (GGT), Inc. of Gilroy, CA, in collaboration with the University of New Mexico (UNM), is building two proof-of-concept wide-field imaging systems to test, develop and prove a novel streak detection technique. The imaging systems are built from off-the-shelf optics and detectors resulting in a 350mm aperture and a 6 square degree field of view. For streak detection, field of view is of critical importance because the maximum exposure time on the object is limited by its crossing time. In this way, wider fields of view impact surveys for LEO objects both by increasing the survey volume and increasing sensitivity. Using our newly GPU-accelerated detection scheme, the proof-of-concept systems are expected to be able to detect objects fainter than 12th magnitude moving at 1 degree per second and possibly as faint as 13th magnitude for slower moving objects. Meter-class optical systems using these techniques should be able to detect objects fainter than 14th magnitude, which is roughly equivalent to a golf ball at 1000km altitude. The goal of this work is to demonstrate a scalable system for near real time detection of fast moving objects that can be then handed off to other instruments capable of tracking and characterizing them. The two proof-of-concept systems, separated by ~30km, work together by taking simultaneous images of the same volume to constrain the orbits of detected objects using parallax measurements. These detections will then be followed-up by photometric observations taken at UNM to independently assess the objects and the quality of the derived orbits. We believe this will demonstrate the potential of small telescope arrays for detecting and cataloguing heretofore unknown LEO objects.

  12. MEASURING X-RAY VARIABILITY IN FAINT/SPARSELY SAMPLED ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allevato, V. [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Gustaf Haellstroemin katu 2a, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Paolillo, M. [Department of Physical Sciences, University Federico II, via Cinthia 6, I-80126 Naples (Italy); Papadakis, I. [Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical and Computational Physics, University of Crete, 71003 Heraklion (Greece); Pinto, C. [SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Sorbonnelaan 2, 3584-CA Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2013-07-01

    We study the statistical properties of the normalized excess variance of variability process characterized by a ''red-noise'' power spectral density (PSD), as in the case of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We perform Monte Carlo simulations of light curves, assuming both a continuous and a sparse sampling pattern and various signal-to-noise ratios (S/Ns). We show that the normalized excess variance is a biased estimate of the variance even in the case of continuously sampled light curves. The bias depends on the PSD slope and on the sampling pattern, but not on the S/N. We provide a simple formula to account for the bias, which yields unbiased estimates with an accuracy better than 15%. We show that the normalized excess variance estimates based on single light curves (especially for sparse sampling and S/N < 3) are highly uncertain (even if corrected for bias) and we propose instead the use of an ''ensemble estimate'', based on multiple light curves of the same object, or on the use of light curves of many objects. These estimates have symmetric distributions, known errors, and can also be corrected for biases. We use our results to estimate the ability to measure the intrinsic source variability in current data, and show that they could also be useful in the planning of the observing strategy of future surveys such as those provided by X-ray missions studying distant and/or faint AGN populations and, more in general, in the estimation of the variability amplitude of sources that will result from future surveys such as Pan-STARRS and LSST.

  13. THE DISTRIBUTION OF ALPHA ELEMENTS IN ULTRA-FAINT DWARF GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Milky Way ultra-faint dwarf (UFD) galaxies contain some of the oldest, most metal-poor stars in the universe. We present [Mg/Fe], [Si/Fe], [Ca/Fe], [Ti/Fe], and mean [α/Fe] abundance ratios for 61 individual red giant branch stars across eight UFDs. This is the largest sample of alpha abundances published to date in galaxies with absolute magnitudes MV > –8, including the first measurements for Segue 1, Canes Venatici II, Ursa Major I, and Leo T. Abundances were determined via medium-resolution Keck/DEIMOS spectroscopy and spectral synthesis. The sample spans the metallicity range –3.4 <[Fe/H] < –1.1. With the possible exception of Segue 1 and Ursa Major II, the individual UFDs show on average lower [α/Fe] at higher metallicities, consistent with enrichment from Type Ia supernovae. Thus, even the faintest galaxies have undergone at least a limited level of chemical self-enrichment. Together with recent photometric studies, this suggests that star formation in the UFDs was not a single burst, but instead lasted at least as much as the minimum time delay of the onset of Type Ia supernovae (∼100 Myr) and less than ∼2 Gyr. We further show that the combined population of UFDs has an [α/Fe] abundance pattern that is inconsistent with a flat, Galactic halo-like alpha abundance trend, and is also qualitatively different from that of the more luminous CVn I dSph, which does show a hint of a plateau at very low [Fe/H].

  14. A Deeper Look at Faint Hα Emission in Nearby Dwarf Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Janice C.; Veilleux, Sylvain; McDonald, Michael; Hilbert, Bryan

    2016-02-01

    We present deep Hα imaging of three nearby dwarf galaxies, carefully selected to optimize observations with the Maryland-Magellan Tunable Filter (MMTF) on the Magellan 6.5 m telescope. An effective bandpass of ˜13 Å is used, and the images reach 3σ flux limits of ˜8 × 10-18 erg s-1 cm-2, which is about an order of magnitude lower than standard narrowband observations obtained by the most recent generation of local Hα galaxy surveys. The observations were originally motivated by the finding that the Hα/FUV flux ratio of galaxies systematically declines as global galactic properties such as the star formation rate (SFR) and stellar mass decrease. The three dwarf galaxies selected for study have SFRs that, when calculated from their Hα luminosities using standard conversion recipes, are ˜50% of those based on the FUV. Follow-up studies of many of the potential causes for the trends in the Hα/FUV flux ratio have been performed, but the possibility that previous observations have missed a non-negligible fraction of faint ionized emission in dwarf galaxies has not been investigated. The MMTF observations reveal both diffuse and structured Hα emission (filaments, shells, possible single-star H ii regions) spanning extents up to 2.5 times larger relative to previous observations. However, only up to an additional ˜5% of Hα flux is captured, which does not account for the trends in the Hα/FUV ratio. Beyond investigation of the Hα/FUV ratio, the impact of the newly detected extended flux on our understanding of star formation, the properties of H ii regions, and the propagation of ionizing photons warrant further investigation.

  15. MEASURING X-RAY VARIABILITY IN FAINT/SPARSELY SAMPLED ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the statistical properties of the normalized excess variance of variability process characterized by a ''red-noise'' power spectral density (PSD), as in the case of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We perform Monte Carlo simulations of light curves, assuming both a continuous and a sparse sampling pattern and various signal-to-noise ratios (S/Ns). We show that the normalized excess variance is a biased estimate of the variance even in the case of continuously sampled light curves. The bias depends on the PSD slope and on the sampling pattern, but not on the S/N. We provide a simple formula to account for the bias, which yields unbiased estimates with an accuracy better than 15%. We show that the normalized excess variance estimates based on single light curves (especially for sparse sampling and S/N < 3) are highly uncertain (even if corrected for bias) and we propose instead the use of an ''ensemble estimate'', based on multiple light curves of the same object, or on the use of light curves of many objects. These estimates have symmetric distributions, known errors, and can also be corrected for biases. We use our results to estimate the ability to measure the intrinsic source variability in current data, and show that they could also be useful in the planning of the observing strategy of future surveys such as those provided by X-ray missions studying distant and/or faint AGN populations and, more in general, in the estimation of the variability amplitude of sources that will result from future surveys such as Pan-STARRS and LSST.

  16. Detection of a faint fast-moving near-Earth asteroid using the synthetic tracking technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a detection of a faint near-Earth asteroid (NEA) using our synthetic tracking technique and the CHIMERA instrument on the Palomar 200 inch telescope. With an apparent magnitude of 23 (H = 29, assuming detection at 20 lunar distances), the asteroid was moving at 6.°32 day–1 and was detected at a signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of 15 using 30 s of data taken at a 16.7 Hz frame rate. The detection was confirmed by a second observation 77 minutes later at the same S/N. Because of its high proper motion, the NEA moved 7 arcsec over the 30 s of observation. Synthetic tracking avoided image degradation due to trailing loss that affects conventional techniques relying on 30 s exposures; the trailing loss would have degraded the surface brightness of the NEA image on the CCD down to an approximate magnitude of 25 making the object undetectable. This detection was a result of our 12 hr blind search conducted on the Palomar 200 inch telescope over two nights, scanning twice over six (5.°3 × 0.°046) fields. Detecting only one asteroid is consistent with Harris's estimates for the distribution of the asteroid population, which was used to predict a detection of 1.2 NEAs in the H-magnitude range 28-31 for the two nights. The experimental design, data analysis methods, and algorithms are presented. We also demonstrate milliarcsecond-level astrometry using observations of two known bright asteroids on the same system with synthetic tracking. We conclude by discussing strategies for scheduling observations to detect and characterize small and fast-moving NEAs using the new technique.

  17. Detection of a Faint Fast-moving Near-Earth Asteroid Using the Synthetic Tracking Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Chengxing; Shao, Michael; Nemati, Bijan; Werne, Thomas; Zhou, Hanying; Turyshev, Slava G.; Sandhu, Jagmit; Hallinan, Gregg; Harding, Leon K.

    2014-09-01

    We report a detection of a faint near-Earth asteroid (NEA) using our synthetic tracking technique and the CHIMERA instrument on the Palomar 200 inch telescope. With an apparent magnitude of 23 (H = 29, assuming detection at 20 lunar distances), the asteroid was moving at 6.°32 day-1 and was detected at a signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of 15 using 30 s of data taken at a 16.7 Hz frame rate. The detection was confirmed by a second observation 77 minutes later at the same S/N. Because of its high proper motion, the NEA moved 7 arcsec over the 30 s of observation. Synthetic tracking avoided image degradation due to trailing loss that affects conventional techniques relying on 30 s exposures; the trailing loss would have degraded the surface brightness of the NEA image on the CCD down to an approximate magnitude of 25 making the object undetectable. This detection was a result of our 12 hr blind search conducted on the Palomar 200 inch telescope over two nights, scanning twice over six (5.°3 × 0.°046) fields. Detecting only one asteroid is consistent with Harris's estimates for the distribution of the asteroid population, which was used to predict a detection of 1.2 NEAs in the H-magnitude range 28-31 for the two nights. The experimental design, data analysis methods, and algorithms are presented. We also demonstrate milliarcsecond-level astrometry using observations of two known bright asteroids on the same system with synthetic tracking. We conclude by discussing strategies for scheduling observations to detect and characterize small and fast-moving NEAs using the new technique.

  18. Detection of a faint fast-moving near-Earth asteroid using the synthetic tracking technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhai, Chengxing; Shao, Michael; Nemati, Bijan; Werne, Thomas; Zhou, Hanying; Turyshev, Slava G.; Sandhu, Jagmit [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Hallinan, Gregg; Harding, Leon K., E-mail: chengxing.zhai@jpl.nasa.gov [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2014-09-01

    We report a detection of a faint near-Earth asteroid (NEA) using our synthetic tracking technique and the CHIMERA instrument on the Palomar 200 inch telescope. With an apparent magnitude of 23 (H = 29, assuming detection at 20 lunar distances), the asteroid was moving at 6.°32 day{sup –1} and was detected at a signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of 15 using 30 s of data taken at a 16.7 Hz frame rate. The detection was confirmed by a second observation 77 minutes later at the same S/N. Because of its high proper motion, the NEA moved 7 arcsec over the 30 s of observation. Synthetic tracking avoided image degradation due to trailing loss that affects conventional techniques relying on 30 s exposures; the trailing loss would have degraded the surface brightness of the NEA image on the CCD down to an approximate magnitude of 25 making the object undetectable. This detection was a result of our 12 hr blind search conducted on the Palomar 200 inch telescope over two nights, scanning twice over six (5.°3 × 0.°046) fields. Detecting only one asteroid is consistent with Harris's estimates for the distribution of the asteroid population, which was used to predict a detection of 1.2 NEAs in the H-magnitude range 28-31 for the two nights. The experimental design, data analysis methods, and algorithms are presented. We also demonstrate milliarcsecond-level astrometry using observations of two known bright asteroids on the same system with synthetic tracking. We conclude by discussing strategies for scheduling observations to detect and characterize small and fast-moving NEAs using the new technique.

  19. Discovery of a close pair of faint dwarf galaxies in the halo of Centaurus A

    CERN Document Server

    Crnojević, D; Caldwell, N; Guhathakurta, P; McLeod, B; Seth, A; Simon, J; Strader, J; Toloba, E

    2014-01-01

    As part of the Panoramic Imaging Survey of Centaurus and Sculptor (PISCeS) we report the discovery of a pair of faint dwarf galaxies (CenA-MM-Dw1 and CenA-MM-Dw2) at a projected distance of $\\sim$90 kpc from the nearby elliptical galaxy NGC5128 (CenA). We measure a tip of the red giant branch distance to each dwarf, finding $D=3.63 \\pm 0.41$ Mpc for CenA-MM-Dw1 and $D=3.60 \\pm 0.41$ Mpc for CenA-MM-Dw2, both of which are consistent with the distance to NGC5128. A qualitative analysis of the color magnitude diagrams indicates stellar populations consisting of an old, metal-poor red giant branch ($\\gtrsim 12$ Gyr, [Fe/H]$\\sim-1.7$ to -1.9). In addition, CenA-MM-Dw1 seems to host an intermediate-age population as indicated by its candidate asymptotic giant branch stars. The derived luminosities ($M_V=-10.9\\pm0.3$ for CenA-MM-Dw1 and $-8.4\\pm0.6$ for CenA-MM-Dw2) and half-light radii ($r_{h}=1.4\\pm0.04$ kpc for CenA-MM-Dw1 and $0.36\\pm0.08$ kpc for CenA-MM-Dw2) are consistent with those of Local Group dwarfs. Cen...

  20. GHOSTS I: A new faint very isolated dwarf galaxy at D = 12 ± 2 Mpc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monachesi, Antonela; Bell, Eric F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 830 Dennison Building, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Radburn-Smith, David J.; Dalcanton, Julianne J. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); De Jong, Roelof S.; Streich, David; Vlajić, Marija [Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany); Bailin, Jeremy [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Alabama, Box 870324, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Holwerda, Benne W. [European Space Agency Research Fellow (ESTEC), Keplerlaan 1, 2200-AG Noordwijk (Netherlands); Alyson Ford, H. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 2, Green Bank, WV 24944 (United States); Zucker, Daniel B., E-mail: antonela@umich.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, E7A 317, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia)

    2014-01-10

    We report the discovery of a new faint dwarf galaxy, GHOSTS I, using HST/ACS data from one of our GHOSTS (Galaxy Halos, Outer disks, Substructure, Thick disk, and Star clusters) fields. Its detected individual stars populate an approximately 1 mag range of its luminosity function (LF). Using synthetic color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) to compare with the galaxy's CMD, we find that the colors and magnitudes of GHOSTS I's individual stars are most consistent with being young helium-burning and asymptotic giant branch stars at a distance of ∼12 ± 2 Mpc. Morphologically, GHOSTS I appears to be actively forming stars, so we tentatively classify it as a dwarf irregular (dIrr) galaxy, although future Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations deep enough to resolve a larger magnitude range in its LF are required to make a more secure classification. GHOSTS I's absolute magnitude is M{sub V}∼−9.85{sub −0.33}{sup +0.40}, making it one of the least luminous dIrr galaxies known, and its metallicity is lower than [Fe/H] = –1.5 dex. The half-light radius of GHOSTS I is 226 ± 38 pc and its ellipticity is 0.47 ± 0.07, similar to Milky Way and M31 dwarf satellites at comparable luminosity. There are no luminous massive galaxies or galaxy clusters within ∼4 Mpc from GHOSTS I that could be considered as its host, making it a very isolated dwarf galaxy in the local universe.

  1. Stellar Kinematics and Metallicities in the Ultra-faint Dwarf Galaxy Reticulum II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, J. D.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Li, T. S.; Nord, B.; Geha, M.; Bechtol, K.; Balbinot, E.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Lin, H.; Marshall, J.; Santiago, B.; Strigari, L.; Wang, M.; Wechsler, R. H.; Yanny, B.; Abbott, T.; Bauer, A. H.; Bernstein, G. M.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Burke, D. L.; Capozzi, D.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Carrasco Kind, M.; D'Andrea, C. B.; da Costa, L. N.; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Dodelson, S.; Cunha, C. E.; Estrada, J.; Evrard, A. E.; Fausti Neto, A.; Fernandez, E.; Finley, D. A.; Flaugher, B.; Frieman, J.; Gaztanaga, E.; Gerdes, D.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Honscheid, K.; James, D.; Kent, S.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; Maia, M. A. G.; March, M.; Martini, P.; Miller, C. J.; Miquel, R.; Ogando, R.; Romer, A. K.; Roodman, A.; Rykoff, E. S.; Sako, M.; Sanchez, E.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla, I.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thaler, J.; Tucker, D.; Vikram, V.; Walker, A. R.; Wester, W.; DES Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    We present Magellan/M2FS, Very Large Telescope/GIRAFFE, and Gemini South/GMOS spectroscopy of the newly discovered Milky Way satellite Reticulum II. Based on the spectra of 25 Ret II member stars selected from Dark Energy Survey imaging, we measure a mean heliocentric velocity of 62.8+/- 0.5 {km} {{{s}}}-1 and a velocity dispersion of 3.3+/- 0.7 {km} {{{s}}}-1. The mass-to-light ratio of Ret II within its half-light radius is 470+/- 210 {M}⊙ /{L}⊙ , demonstrating that it is a strongly dark matter-dominated system. Despite its spatial proximity to the Magellanic Clouds, the radial velocity of Ret II differs from that of the LMC and SMC by 199 and 83 {km} {{{s}}}-1, respectively, suggesting that it is not gravitationally bound to the Magellanic system. The likely member stars of Ret II span 1.3 dex in metallicity, with a dispersion of 0.28 ± 0.09 dex, and we identify several extremely metal-poor stars with {{[Fe/H]}}\\lt -3. In combination with its luminosity, size, and ellipticity, these results confirm that Ret II is an ultra-faint dwarf galaxy. With a mean metallicity of {{[Fe/H]}}=-2.65+/- 0.07, Ret II matches Segue 1 as the most metal-poor galaxy known. Although Ret II is the third-closest dwarf galaxy to the Milky Way, the line-of-sight integral of the dark matter density squared is {{log}}10(J)=18.8+/- 0.6 {GeV}{ }2 {{cm}}-5 within 0.°2, indicating that the predicted gamma-ray flux from dark matter annihilation in Ret II is lower than that of several other dwarf galaxies. Based on data obtained from the ESO Science Archive Facility under request number 157689.

  2. King Oedipus and the Problem Solving Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchardt, Donald A.

    An analysis of the problem solving process reveals at least three options: (1) finding the cause, (2) solving the problem, and (3) anticipating potential problems. These methods may be illustrated by examining "Oedipus Tyrannus," a play in which a king attempts to deal with a problem that appears to be beyond his ability to solve, and applying…

  3. Perspectives on Problem Solving and Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.

    2013-01-01

    Most educators claim that problem solving is important, but they take very different perspective on it and there is little agreement on how it should be taught. This article aims to sort out the different perspectives and discusses problem solving as a goal, a method, and a skill. As a goal, problem solving should not be limited to well-structured…

  4. ON ALGEBRICO-DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS-SOLVING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Wenjun(Wu Wen-tsun)

    2004-01-01

    The char-set method of polynomial equations-solving is naturally extended to the differential case which gives rise to an algorithmic method of solving arbitrary systems of algebrico-differential equations. As an illustration of the method, the Devil's Problem of Pommaret is solved in details.

  5. LEGO Robotics: An Authentic Problem Solving Tool?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castledine, Alanah-Rei; Chalmers, Chris

    2011-01-01

    With the current curriculum focus on correlating classroom problem solving lessons to real-world contexts, are LEGO robotics an effective problem solving tool? This present study was designed to investigate this question and to ascertain what problem solving strategies primary students engaged with when working with LEGO robotics and whether the…

  6. Atmospheric thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Iribarne, J V

    1973-01-01

    The thermodynamics of the atmosphere is the subject of several chapters in most textbooks on dynamic meteorology, but there is no work in English to give the subject a specific and more extensive treatment. In writing the present textbook, we have tried to fill this rather remarkable gap in the literature related to atmospheric sciences. Our aim has been to provide students of meteorology with a book that can playa role similar to the textbooks on chemical thermodynamics for the chemists. This implies a previous knowledge of general thermodynamics, such as students acquire in general physics courses; therefore, although the basic principles are reviewed (in the first four chapters), they are only briefly discussed, and emphasis is laid on those topics that will be useful in later chapters, through their application to atmospheric problems. No attempt has been made to introduce the thermodynamics of irreversible processes; on the other hand, consideration of heterogeneous and open homogeneous systems permits a...

  7. Bit Preservation: A Solved Problem?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David S. H. Rosenthal

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available For years, discussions of digital preservation have routinely featured comments such as “bit preservation is a solved problem; the real issues are ...”. Indeed, current digital storage technologies are not just astoundingly cheap and capacious, they are astonishingly reliable. Unfortunately, these attributes drive a kind of “Parkinson’s Law” of storage, in which demands continually push beyond the capabilities of systems implementable at an affordable price. This paper is in four parts:Claims, reviewing a typical claim of storage system reliability, showing that it provides no useful information for bit preservation purposes.Theory, proposing “bit half-life” as an initial, if inadequate, measure of bit preservation performance, expressing bit preservation requirements in terms of it, and showing that the requirements being placed on bit preservation systems are so onerous that the experiments required to prove that a solution exists are not feasible.Practice, reviewing recent research into how well actual storage systems preserve bits, showing that they fail to meet the requirements by many orders of magnitude.Policy, suggesting ways of dealing with this unfortunate situation.

  8. Community-powered problem solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouillart, Francis; Billings, Douglas

    2013-04-01

    Traditionally, companies have managed their constituencies with specific processes: marketing to customers, procuring from vendors, developing HR policies for employees, and so on. The problem is, such processes focus on repeatability and compliance, so they can lead to stagnation. Inviting your constituencies to collectively help you solve problems and exploit opportunities--"co-creation"--is a better approach. It allows you to continually tap the skills and insights of huge numbers of stakeholders and develop new ways to produce value for all. The idea is to provide stakeholders with platforms (physical and digital forums) on which they can interact, get them to start exploring new experiences and connections, and let the system grow organically. A co-creation initiative by a unit of Becton, Dickinson and Company demonstrates how this works. A global leader in syringes, BD set out to deepen its ties with hospital customers and help them reduce the incidence of infections from unsafe injection and syringe disposal practices. The effort began with a cross-functional internal team, brought in the hospital procurement and supply managers BD had relationships with, and then reached out to hospitals' infection-prevention and occupational health leaders. Eventually product designers, nurses, sustainability staffers, and even hospital CFOs were using the platform, contributing data that generated new best practices and reduced infections. PMID:23593769

  9. Atmospheres of Hot Super-Earths

    CERN Document Server

    Castan, Thibaut

    2011-01-01

    Hot super-Earths likely possess minimal atmospheres established through vapor saturation equilibrium with the ground. We solve the hydrodynamics of these tenuous atmospheres at the surface of Corot-7b, Kepler 10b and 55 Cnc-e, including idealized treatments of magnetic drag and ohmic dissipation. We find that atmospheric pressures remain close to their local saturation values in all cases. Despite the emergence of strongly supersonic winds which carry sublimating mass away from the substellar point, the atmospheres do not extend much beyond the day-night terminators. Ground temperatures, which determine the planetary thermal (infrared) signature, are largely unaffected by exchanges with the atmosphere and thus follow the effective irradiation pattern. Atmospheric temperatures, however, which control cloud condensation and thus albedo properties, can deviate substantially from the irradiation pattern. Magnetic drag and ohmic dissipation can also strongly impact the atmospheric behavior, depending on atmospheri...

  10. Atmospheric Smell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenslund, Anette

    awareness. Subsequently, visitor interviews revealed how a museum-staged hospital atmosphere of an art installation was directly addressed owing to its smell. Curiously, this observation speaks against prevailing literature portraying smell as the ‘mute sense’, and what is more, the museum display did not...... alter smell curatorially. Rather, smell was gestured through non-olfactory effects and it was put in words metonymically, gesturing a reversibly synaesthetic atmosphere of a hospital. Visitor conversations revealed how smell could be poignantly picked up in situ, yet not until frequenting the museum...

  11. Chemical abundances in the multiple sub-giant branch of 47 Tucanae: insights on its faint sub-giant branch component

    CERN Document Server

    Marino, A F; Casagrande, L; Collet, R; Dotter, A; Johnson, C I; Lind, K; Bedin, L R; Jerjen, H; Aparicio, A; Sbordone, L

    2016-01-01

    The globular cluster 47 Tuc exhibits a complex sub-giant branch (SGB) with a faint-SGB comprising only about the 10% of the cluster mass and a bright-SGB hosting at least two distinct populations.We present a spectroscopic analysis of 62 SGB stars including 21 faint-SGB stars. We thus provide the first chemical analysis of the intriguing faint-SGB population and compare its abundances with those of the dominant populations. We have inferred abundances of Fe, representative light elements C, N, Na, and Al, {\\alpha} elements Mg and Si for individual stars. Oxygen has been obtained by co-adding spectra of stars on different sequences. In addition, we have analysed 12 stars along the two main RGBs of 47 Tuc. Our principal results are: (i) star-to-star variations in C/N/Na among RGB and bright-SGB stars; (ii) substantial N and Na enhancements for the minor population corresponding to the faint-SGB; (iii) no high enrichment in C+N+O for faint-SGB stars. Specifically, the C+N+O of the faint-SGB is a factor of 1.1 hi...

  12. Analytical investigation of the atmospheric radiation limits in semigray atmospheres in radiative equilibrium

    OpenAIRE

    Pujol i Sagaró, Toni; North, Gerald R.

    2003-01-01

    We model the wavelength-dependent absorption of atmospheric gases by assuming constant mass absorption coefficients in finite-width spectral bands. Such a semigray atmosphere is analytically solved by a discrete ordinate method. The general solution is analyzed for a water vapor saturated atmosphere that also contains a carbon dioxide-like absorbing gas in the infrared. A multiple stable equilibrium with a relative upper limit in the outgoing long-wave radiation is found. Differing from previ...

  13. Alarming atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund, Marie; Kinch, Sofie

    2014-01-01

    . As a response to this situation, our design artefact, the interactive furniture Kidkit, invites children to become accustomed to the alarming sounds sampled from the ward while they are waiting in the waiting room. Our design acknowledges how atmospheres emerge as temporal negotiations between the...

  14. The FIRST Survey: Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty Centimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Robert H.; White, Richard L.; Helfand, David J.

    1995-09-01

    The FIRST survey to produce Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty centimeters is now underway using the NRAO Very Large Array. We describe here the scientific motivation for a large-area sky survey at radio frequencies which has a sensitivity and angular resolution comparable to the Palomar Observatory Sky Survey, and we recount the history that led to the current survey project. The technical design of the survey is covered in detail, including a description and justification of the grid pattern chosen, the rationale behind the integration time and angular resolution selected, and a summary of the other considerations which informed our planning for the project. A comprehensive description of the automated data analysis pipeline we have developed is presented. We also report here the results of the first year of FIRST observations. A total of 144 hr of time in 1993 April and May was used for a variety of tests, as well as to cover an initial strip of the survey extending between 07h 15m and 16h 30m in a 2°.8 wide declination zone passing through the local zenith (28.2 surface brightnesses well below our threshold. With 480 hr of observing time committed for each of the next three B-configuration periods, FIRST will complete nearly one-half of its goal of covering the 10,000 deg2 of the north Galactic cap scheduled for inclusion in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. All of the FIRST data raw visibilities, self-calibrated UV data sets, individual pointing maps, final merged images, source catalogs, and individual source images are being placed in the public domain as soon as they are verified; all of the 1993 data are now available through the NRAO and/or the STScI archive. We conclude with a brief summary of the scientific significance of FIRST, which represents an improvement by a factor of 50 in both angular resolution and sensitivity over the best available large area radio surveys.

  15. THE AGN, STAR-FORMING, AND MORPHOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF LUMINOUS IR-BRIGHT/OPTICALLY-FAINT GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the active galactic nucleus (AGN), star-forming, and morphological properties of a sample of 13 MIR-luminous (f 24 ∼> 700 μJy) IR-bright/optically-faint galaxies (IRBGs, f24/f R ∼> 1000). While these z ∼ 2 sources were drawn from deep Chandra fields with >200 ks X-ray coverage, only seven are formally detected in the X-ray and four lack X-ray emission at even the 2σ level. Spitzer InfraRed Spectrograph (IRS) spectra, however, confirm that all of the sources are AGN-dominated in the mid-IR, although half have detectable polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission responsible for ∼25% of their mid-infrared flux density. When combined with other samples, this indicates that at least 30%-40% of luminous IRBGs have star formation rates in the ultraluminous infrared galaxy (ULIRG) range (∼100-2000 Msun yr-1). X-ray hardness ratios and MIR to X-ray luminosity ratios indicate that all members of the sample contain heavily X-ray obscured AGNs, 80% of which are candidates to be Compton thick. Furthermore, the mean X-ray luminosity of the sample, log L2-10keV(erg s-1) ∼44.6, indicates that these IRBGs are Type 2 QSOs, at least from the X-ray perspective. While those sources most heavily obscured in the X-ray are also those most likely to display strong silicate absorption in the mid-IR, silicate absorption does not always accompany X-ray obscuration. Finally, ∼70% of the IRBGs are merger candidates, a rate consistent with that of sub-mm galaxies (SMGs), although SMGs appear to be physically larger than IRBGs. These characteristics are consistent with the proposal that these objects represent a later, AGN-dominated, and more relaxed evolutionary stage following soon after the star-formation-dominated one represented by the SMGs.

  16. Detailed Chemical Abundances in the r-process-rich Ultra-faint Dwarf Galaxy Reticulum 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roederer, Ian U.; Mateo, Mario; Bailey, John I., III; Song, Yingyi; Bell, Eric F.; Crane, Jeffrey D.; Loebman, Sarah; Nidever, David L.; Olszewski, Edward W.; Shectman, Stephen A.; Thompson, Ian B.; Valluri, Monica; Walker, Matthew G.

    2016-03-01

    The ultra-faint dwarf (UFD) galaxy Reticulum 2 (Ret 2) was recently discovered in images obtained by the Dark Energy Survey. We have observed the four brightest red giants in Ret 2 at high spectral resolution using the Michigan/Magellan Fiber System. We present detailed abundances for as many as 20 elements per star, including 12 elements heavier than the Fe group. We confirm previous detection of high levels of r-process material in Ret 2 (mean [Eu/Fe] = +1.69 ± 0.05) found in three of these stars (mean [Fe/H] = -2.88 ± 0.10). The abundances closely match the r-process pattern found in the well-studied metal-poor halo star CS 22892-052. Such r-process-enhanced stars have not been found in any other UFD galaxy, though their existence has been predicted by at least one model. The fourth star in Ret 2 ([Fe/H] = -3.42 ± 0.20) contains only trace amounts of Sr ([Sr/Fe] = -1.73 ± 0.43) and no detectable heavier elements. One r-process enhanced star is also enhanced in C (natal [C/Fe] ≈ +1.1). This is only the third such star known, which suggests that the nucleosynthesis sites leading to C and r-process enhancements are decoupled. The r-process-deficient star is enhanced in Mg ([Mg/Fe] = +0.81 ± 0.14), and the other three stars show normal levels of α-enhancement (mean [Mg/Fe] = +0.34 ± 0.03). The abundances of other α and Fe-group elements closely resemble those in UFD galaxies and metal-poor halo stars, suggesting that the nucleosynthesis that led to the large r-process enhancements either produced no light elements or produced light-element abundance signatures indistinguishable from normal supernovae. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  17. IDEAL Problem Solving dalam Pembelajaran Matematika

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eny Susiana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Most educators agree that problem solving is among the most meaningful and importantkinds of learning and thingking. That is, the central focus of learning and instructionshould be learning to solve problems. There are several warrants supporting that claims.They are authenticity, relevance, problem solving engages deeper learning angtherefore enhances meaning making, and constructed to represent problems (problemsolving is more meaningful. It is the reason why we must provide teaching and learningto make student’s problem solving skill in progress. There are many informationprocessingmodels of problem solving, such as simplified model of the problem-solvingprocess by Gicks, Polya’s problem solving process etc. One of them is IDEAL problemsolving. Each letter of IDEAL is stand for an aspect of thinking that is important forproblem solving. IDEAL is identify problem, Define Goal, Explore possible strategies,Anticipate outcme and Act, and Look back and learn. Using peer interaction andquestion prompt in small group in IDEAL problem solving teaching and Learning canimprove problem solving skill.Kata kunci: IDEAL Problem Solving, Interaksi Sebaya, Pertanyaan Penuntun, KelompokKecil.

  18. Distance Measurement Solves Astrophysical Mysteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-08-01

    Location, location, and location. The old real-estate adage about what's really important proved applicable to astrophysics as astronomers used the sharp radio "vision" of the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) to pinpoint the distance to a pulsar. Their accurate distance measurement then resolved a dispute over the pulsar's birthplace, allowed the astronomers to determine the size of its neutron star and possibly solve a mystery about cosmic rays. "Getting an accurate distance to this pulsar gave us a real bonanza," said Walter Brisken, of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Socorro, NM. Monogem Ring The Monogem Ring, in X-Ray Image by ROSAT satellite CREDIT: Max-Planck Institute, American Astronomical Society (Click on Image for Larger Version) The pulsar, called PSR B0656+14, is in the constellation Gemini, and appears to be near the center of a circular supernova remnant that straddles Gemini and its neighboring constellation, Monoceros, and is thus called the Monogem Ring. Since pulsars are superdense, spinning neutron stars left over when a massive star explodes as a supernova, it was logical to assume that the Monogem Ring, the shell of debris from a supernova explosion, was the remnant of the blast that created the pulsar. However, astronomers using indirect methods of determining the distance to the pulsar had concluded that it was nearly 2500 light-years from Earth. On the other hand, the supernova remnant was determined to be only about 1000 light-years from Earth. It seemed unlikely that the two were related, but instead appeared nearby in the sky purely by a chance juxtaposition. Brisken and his colleagues used the VLBA to make precise measurements of the sky position of PSR B0656+14 from 2000 to 2002. They were able to detect the slight offset in the object's apparent position when viewed from opposite sides of Earth's orbit around the Sun. This effect, called parallax, provides a direct measurement of

  19. SELFI: an object-based, Bayesian method for faint emission line source detection in MUSE deep field data cubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meillier, Céline; Chatelain, Florent; Michel, Olivier; Bacon, Roland; Piqueras, Laure; Bacher, Raphael; Ayasso, Hacheme

    2016-04-01

    We present SELFI, the Source Emission Line FInder, a new Bayesian method optimized for detection of faint galaxies in Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) deep fields. MUSE is the new panoramic integral field spectrograph at the Very Large Telescope (VLT) that has unique capabilities for spectroscopic investigation of the deep sky. It has provided data cubes with 324 million voxels over a single 1 arcmin2 field of view. To address the challenge of faint-galaxy detection in these large data cubes, we developed a new method that processes 3D data either for modeling or for estimation and extraction of source configurations. This object-based approach yields a natural sparse representation of the sources in massive data fields, such as MUSE data cubes. In the Bayesian framework, the parameters that describe the observed sources are considered random variables. The Bayesian model leads to a general and robust algorithm where the parameters are estimated in a fully data-driven way. This detection algorithm was applied to the MUSE observation of Hubble Deep Field-South. With 27 h total integration time, these observations provide a catalog of 189 sources of various categories and with secured redshift. The algorithm retrieved 91% of the galaxies with only 9% false detection. This method also allowed the discovery of three new Lyα emitters and one [OII] emitter, all without any Hubble Space Telescope counterpart. We analyzed the reasons for failure for some targets, and found that the most important limitation of the method is when faint sources are located in the vicinity of bright spatially resolved galaxies that cannot be approximated by the Sérsic elliptical profile. The software and its documentation are available on the MUSE science web service (muse-vlt.eu/science).

  20. Discovery of Faint Radio Structures over 50 Square Degrees Down to 3 arcmin Scales near the NGP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronberg, Philipp P.; Kothes, R.; Salter, C. J.; Perillat, P.

    2006-12-01

    We present a deep, 8o diameter, 0.4 GHz radio image near the North Galactic Pole using a first time combination of the Arecibo 305-m telescope and the wide-angle interferometer at the DRAO. The uniquely complementary nature of these two instruments permits a distortion-free image sensitive to radiation on all scales from 8o down to that of an individual galaxy halo at the 100 Mpc distance of the Great Wall, all in a single pointing. Faint, previously unseen diffuse patches of distributed radio ``glow'' are detected, well above our detection limit, and on a range of angular scales. The emission could compete with CMB fluctuations as a CMB foreground at high multipole scales around 30GHz if its radio spectrum continues up to these GHz bands. This new faint radio emission appears to be a mix of foreground Galactic, and extragalactic ``glow’. The latter implies i.g. magnetic field strengths at or above 0.1 microgauss on Mpc scales in certain areas. A striking anticorrelation is also found between the diffuse radio glow and some regions of high optical galaxy surface density. This suggests that cosmological Large Scale Structure (LSS), normally defined by the baryonic (and/or dark) matter density, is not uniquely traced by the faint continuum radio glow. More likely, the radio glow is a proxy for IGM energy density, at least in the low redshift universe. Its detailed relation to the WHIM, and diffuse X-ray glow is unclear, and must await future, more sensitive detectors for these latter two IGM components. Support for this project is acknowledged from the DOE's LDRD program at LANL, the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC), and the National Science Foundation.

  1. Atmospheric Neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Gaisser, Thomas K

    2016-01-01

    In view of the observation by IceCube of high-energy astrophysical neutrinos, it is important to quantify the uncertainty in the background of atmospheric neutrinos. There are two sources of uncertainty, the imperfect knowledge of the spectrum and composition of the primary cosmic rays that produce the neutrinos and the limited understanding of hadron production, including charm, at high energy. This paper is an overview of both aspects.

  2. General problem solving: Navy requirements and solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Lyons, Norman; Knott, Kathleen

    1985-01-01

    This research is a preliminary study with two major objectives. The first is to perform a literature survey of the problem solving and artificial intelligence literature relevant to Navy needs. The second objective is to investigate approaches to problem solving that could be taught to Naval officers for use in their jobs. This survey has found a growing interest in the area of problem solving. This interest began with work in cognitive psychology and artificial intelligence in the 1950's and...

  3. Modeling and solving linear programming with R

    OpenAIRE

    Sallán Leyes, José María; Lordan González, Oriol; Fernández Alarcón, Vicenç

    2015-01-01

    Linear programming is one of the most extensively used techniques in the toolbox of quantitative methods of optimization. One of the reasons of the popularity of linear programming is that it allows to model a large variety of situations with a simple framework. Furthermore, a linear program is relatively easy to solve. The simplex method allows to solve most linear programs efficiently, and the Karmarkar interior-point method allows a more efficient solving of some kinds of linear programmin...

  4. AGN Search From Multicolor CCD Photometric Observations of Faint ROSAT X-ray Sources in a One Square Degree Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Suijian; Zhou, Xu; Zhang, H.

    We present the optical identifications of 75 X-ray sources in a 1 sq. deg. overlapping region, T329 of BATC sky survey with a medium deep ROSAT survey (Molthagen et al. 1997), based on multi-color CCD imaging observations made for the T329 utilizing BAO 60/90 cm Schmidt telescope with 15 intermediate-band filters covering the wavelength range 3360-9745 AA. These X-ray sources are relatively faint (CR MOFS) of SAO 6m telescope, which will help to form a complete, X-ray flux limited AGN sample in a 1 square degree field.

  5. FAR-INFRARED AND MOLECULAR CO EMISSION FROM THE HOST GALAXIES OF FAINT QUASARS AT z ∼ 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present new millimeter and radio observations of nine z ∼ 6 quasars discovered in deep optical and near-infrared surveys. We observed the 250 GHz continuum in eight of the nine objects and detected three of them. New 1.4 GHz radio continuum data have been obtained for four sources, and one has been detected. We searched for molecular CO (6-5) line emission in the three 250 GHz detections and detected two of them. Combined with previous millimeter and radio observations, we study the far-infrared (FIR) and radio emission and quasar-host galaxy evolution with a sample of 18 z ∼ 6 quasars that are faint at UV and optical wavelengths (rest-frame 1450 A magnitudes of m1450 ≥ 20.2). The average FIR-to-active galactic nucleus (AGN) UV luminosity ratio of this faint quasar sample is about two times higher than that of the bright quasars at z ∼ 6 (m1450 FIR ∼ Lbol0.62. Five of the 18 faint z ∼ 6 quasars have been detected at 250 GHz. These 250 GHz detections, as well as most of the millimeter-detected optically bright z ∼ 6 quasars, follow a shallower trend of LFIR ∼ Lbol0.45 defined by the starburst-AGN systems in local and high-z universe. The millimeter continuum detections in the five objects and molecular CO detections in three of them reveal a few x 108 Msun of FIR-emitting warm dust and 1010 Msun of molecular gas in the quasar host galaxies. All these results argue for massive star formation in the quasar host galaxies, with estimated star formation rates of a few hundred Msun yr-1. Additionally, the higher FIR-to-AGN luminosity ratio found in these 250 GHz detected faint quasars also suggests a higher ratio between star formation rate and supermassive black hole accretion rate than the UV/optically most luminous quasars at z ∼ 6.

  6. Applying Cooperative Techniques in Teaching Problem Solving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krisztina Barczi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Teaching how to solve problems – from solving simple equations to solving difficult competition tasks – has been one of the greatest challenges for mathematics education for many years. Trying to find an effective method is an important educational task. Among others, the question arises as to whether a method in which students help each other might be useful. The present article describes part of an experiment that was designed to determine the effects of cooperative teaching techniques on the development of problem-solving skills.

  7. Fibonacci's Triangle: A Vehicle for Problem Solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouellette, Hugh

    1979-01-01

    A method for solving certain types of problems is illustrated by problems related to Fibonacci's triangle. The method involves pattern recognition, generalizing, algebraic manipulation, and mathematical induction. (MP)

  8. Mobile serious games for collaborative problem solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Jaime; Mendoza, Claudia; Salinas, Alvaro

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the results obtained from the implementation of a series of learning activities based on mobile serious games (MSG) for the development of problem-solving and collaborative skills in Chilean 8th grade students. Three MSGs were developed and played by teams of four students, who had to solve the problems posed by the game collaboratively. The data shows that the experimental group had a higher perception of their own skills of collaboration and of the plan execution dimension of problem solving than the control group, providing empirical evidence regarding the contribution of MSGs to the development of collaborative problem-solving skills. PMID:19592762

  9. Characterizing Transiting Planet Atmospheres through 2025

    CERN Document Server

    Cowan, N B; Angerhausen, D; Batalha, N E; Clampin, M; Colon, K; Crossfield, I J M; Fortney, J J; Gaudi, B S; Harrington, J; Iro, N; Lillie, C F; Linsky, J L; Lopez-Morales, M; Mandell, A M; Stevenson, K B; SAG-X, on behalf of ExoPAG

    2015-01-01

    [Abridged] We have only been able to comprehensively characterize the atmospheres of a handful of transiting planets, because most orbit faint stars. TESS will discover transiting planets orbiting the brightest stars, enabling, in principle, an atmospheric survey of 10^2 to 10^3 bright hot Jupiters and warm sub-Neptunes. Uniform observations of such a statistically significant sample would provide leverage to understand---and learn from---the diversity of short-period planets. We argue that the best way to maximize the scientific returns of TESS is with a follow-up space mission consisting of a ~1 m telescope with an optical--NIR spectrograph: it could measure molecular absorption for non-terrestrial planets, as well as eclipses and phase variations for the hottest jovians. Such a mission could observe up to 10^3 transits per year, thus enabling it to survey a large fraction of the bright (J<11) TESS planets. JWST could be used to perform detailed atmospheric characterization of the most interesting transi...

  10. Computational investigations of atmospheric pressure discharges

    OpenAIRE

    Iqbal, Muhammad Munawar

    2010-01-01

    This research work presents the numerical simulations of multispecies multi-dimensional fluid model of atmospheric pressure discharge. The semi-implicit sequential iterative scheme is used to solve the coupled system of plasma fluid model equations with a proper set of boundary conditions. A one- dimensional self consistent drift-diffusion fluid model is developed to investigate the characteristics of atmospheric pressure discharge in pure helium and He-N2 gases. The uniform atmos...

  11. Problem Solving Software: What Does It Teach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffield, Judith A.

    The purpose of this study was to examine the potential of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) for teaching problem solving skills. It was conducted in three phases. During the first phase, two pieces of problem solving software, "The King's Rule" and "Safari Search," were identified and analyzed. During the second phase, two groups of six…

  12. Mathematical Problem Solving through Sequential Process Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codina, A.; Cañadas, M. C.; Castro, E.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The macroscopic perspective is one of the frameworks for research on problem solving in mathematics education. Coming from this perspective, our study addresses the stages of thought in mathematical problem solving, offering an innovative approach because we apply sequential relations and global interrelations between the different…

  13. Student Modeling Based on Problem Solving Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelánek, Radek; Jarušek, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Student modeling in intelligent tutoring systems is mostly concerned with modeling correctness of students' answers. As interactive problem solving activities become increasingly common in educational systems, it is useful to focus also on timing information associated with problem solving. We argue that the focus on timing is natural for certain…

  14. Conceptual Problem Solving in High School Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docktor, Jennifer L.; Strand, Natalie E.; Mestre, José P.; Ross, Brian H.

    2015-01-01

    Problem solving is a critical element of learning physics. However, traditional instruction often emphasizes the quantitative aspects of problem solving such as equations and mathematical procedures rather than qualitative analysis for selecting appropriate concepts and principles. This study describes the development and evaluation of an…

  15. Metacognition: Student Reflections on Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wismath, Shelly; Orr, Doug; Good, Brandon

    2014-01-01

    Twenty-first century teaching and learning focus on the fundamental skills of critical thinking and problem solving, creativity and innovation, and collaboration and communication. Metacognition is a crucial aspect of both problem solving and critical thinking, but it is often difficult to get students to engage in authentic metacognitive…

  16. Teaching Effective Problem Solving Strategies for Interns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Louis L.

    2005-01-01

    This qualitative study investigates what problem solving strategies interns learn from their clinical teachers during their internships. Twenty-four interns who completed their internship in the elementary grades shared what problem solving strategies had the greatest impact upon them in learning how to deal with problems during their internship.…

  17. Parallel Algorithm Solves Coupled Differential Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, A.

    1987-01-01

    Numerical methods adapted to concurrent processing. Algorithm solves set of coupled partial differential equations by numerical integration. Adapted to run on hypercube computer, algorithm separates problem into smaller problems solved concurrently. Increase in computing speed with concurrent processing over that achievable with conventional sequential processing appreciable, especially for large problems.

  18. Lesion mapping of social problem solving

    OpenAIRE

    Aron K Barbey; Colom, Roberto; Paul, Erick J.; Chau, Aileen; Solomon, Jeffrey; Grafman, Jordan H.

    2014-01-01

    Barbey et al. investigate the neurobiology of social problem solving and its relation to psychometric intelligence, emotional intelligence, and personality in 144 patients with focal lesions. Results reveal the neural architecture of social problem solving and provide an integrative framework for understanding the social, psychometric, and emotional foundations of human intelligence.

  19. Measuring Problem Solving Skills in "Portal 2"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shute, Valerie J.; Wang, Lubin

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines possible improvement to problem solving skills as a function of playing the video game "Portal 2." Stealth assessment is used in the game to evaluate students' problem solving abilities--specifically basic and flexible rule application. The stealth assessment measures will be validated against commonly accepted…

  20. Artificial Ant Species on Solving Optimization Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Pintea, Camelia-M.

    2013-01-01

    During the last years several ant-based techniques were involved to solve hard and complex optimization problems. The current paper is a short study about the influence of artificial ant species in solving optimization problems. There are studied the artificial Pharaoh Ants, Lasius Niger and also artificial ants with no special specificity used commonly in Ant Colony Optimization.

  1. Taking "From Scratch" out of Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Wayne

    2007-01-01

    Solving problems and creating processes and procedures from the ground up has long been part of the IT department's way of operating. IT staffs will continue to encounter new problems to solve and new technologies to be implemented. They also must involve their constituents in the creation of solutions. Nonetheless, for many issues they no longer…

  2. A Multivariate Model of Physics Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Farley, John

    2013-01-01

    A model of expertise in physics problem solving was tested on undergraduate science, physics, and engineering majors enrolled in an introductory-level physics course. Structural equation modeling was used to test hypothesized relationships among variables linked to expertise in physics problem solving including motivation, metacognitive planning,…

  3. Error Detection Processes in Problem Solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allwood, Carl Martin

    1984-01-01

    Describes a study which analyzed problem solvers' error detection processes by instructing subjects to think aloud when solving statistical problems. Effects of evaluative episodes on error detection, detection of different error types, error detection processes per se, and relationship of error detection behavior to problem-solving proficiency…

  4. Infrared-faint radio sources remain undetected at far-infrared wavelengths. Deep photometric observations using the Herschel Space Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Herzog, Andreas; Middelberg, Enno; Spitler, Lee R; Leipski, Christian; Parker, Quentin A

    2015-01-01

    Showing 1.4 GHz flux densities in the range of a few to a few tens of mJy, infrared-faint radio sources (IFRS) are a type of galaxy characterised by faint or absent near-infrared counterparts and consequently extreme radio-to-infrared flux density ratios up to several thousand. Recent studies showed that IFRS are radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at redshifts >=2. This work explores the far-infrared emission of IFRS, providing crucial information on the star forming and AGN activity of IFRS and on the potential link between IFRS and high-redshift radio galaxies (HzRGs). A sample of six IFRS was observed with the Herschel Space Observatory between 100 um and 500 um. Using these results, we constrained the nature of IFRS by modelling their broad-band spectral energy distribution (SED). Furthermore, we set an upper limit on their infrared SED and decomposed their emission into contributions from an AGN and from star forming activity. All six observed IFRS were undetected in all five Herschel far-infrared ...

  5. MOA-2008-BLG-379Lb: A Massive Planet from a High Magnification Event with a Faint Source

    CERN Document Server

    Suzuki, D; Sumi, T; Bennett, D P; Bond, I A; Abe, F; Botzler, C S; Freeman, M; Fukagawa, M; Fukui, A; Furusawa, K; Itow, Y; Ling, C H; Masuda, K; Matsubara, Y; Muraki, Y; Ohnishi, K; Rattenbury, N; Saito, To; Shibai, H; Sullivan, D J; Suzuki, K; Sweatman, W L; Takino, S; Tristram, P J; Wada, K; Yock, P C M; Szymański, M K; Kubiak, M; Soszyński, I; Pietrzyński, G; Poleski, R; Ulaczyk, K; Wyrzykowski, Ł

    2013-01-01

    We report analysis of high microlensing event MOA-2008-BLG-379, which has a strong microlensing anomaly at its peak, due to a massive planet with a mass ratio of q = 6.9 x 10^{-3}. Because the faint source star crosses the large resonant caustic, the planetary signal dominates the light curve. This is unusual for planetary microlensing events, and as a result, the planetary nature of this light curve was not immediately noticed. The planetary nature of the event was found when the MOA Collaboration conducted a systematic study of binary microlensing events previously identified by the MOA alert system. We have conducted a Bayesian analysis based on a standard Galactic model to estimate the physical parameters of the lens system. This yields a host star mass of M_L = 0.66_{-0.33}^{+0.29} M_Sun orbited by a planet of mass m_P = 4.8_{-2.4}^{+2.1} M_Jup at an orbital separation of a = 4.1_{-1.5}^{+1.9} AU at a distance of D_L = 3.6 +/- 1.3 kpc. The faint source magnitude of I_S = 21.30 and relatively high lens-so...

  6. Hydra II: a faint and compact Milky Way dwarf galaxy found in the Survey of the Magellanic Stellar History

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Nicolas F; Besla, Gurtina; Olsen, Knut; Walker, Alistair R; Vivas, A Katherina; Gruendl, Robert A; Muñoz, Ricardo R; Blum, Robert D; Saha, Abhijit; Conn, Blair C; Bell, Eric F; Chu, You-Hua; Cioni, Maria-Rosa L; de Boer, Thomas J L; Gallart, Carme; Jin, Shoko; Kunder, Andrea; Majewski, Steven R; Martinez-Delgado, David; Monachesi, Antonela; Monelli, Matteo; Monteagudo, Lara; Noël, Noelia E D; Olszewski, Edward W; Stringfellow, Guy S; van der Marel, Roeland P; Zaritsky, Denis

    2015-01-01

    We present the discovery of a new dwarf galaxy, Hydra II, found serendipitously within the data from the ongoing Survey of the MAgellanic Stellar History (SMASH) conducted with the Dark Energy Camera on the Blanco 4m Telescope. The new satellite is compact (r_h = 68 +/- 11 pc) and faint (M_V = -4.8 +/- 0.3), but well within the realm of dwarf galaxies. The stellar distribution of HydraII in the color-magnitude diagram is well-described by a metal-poor ([Fe/H] = -2.2) and old (13 Gyr) isochrone and shows a distinct blue horizontal branch, some possible red clump stars, and faint stars that are suggestive of blue stragglers. At a heliocentric distance of 134 +/- 10 kpc, Hydra II is located in a region of the Galactic halo that models have suggested may host material from the leading arm of the Magellanic Stream. A comparison with N-body simulations hints that the new dwarf galaxy could be or could have been a satellite of the Magellanic Clouds.

  7. Faint open clusters with 2MASS: BH 63, Lyng\\aa 2, Lyng\\aa 12 and King 20

    CERN Document Server

    Bica, E; Blumberg, R; Bica, Eduardo; Bonatto, Charles; Blumberg, Renato

    2006-01-01

    Structural and dynamical parameters of faint open clusters are probed with quality 2MASS-photometry and analytical procedures developed for bright clusters. We derive fundamental parameters of the faint open clusters Lynga2, BH63, Lyng12 and King20, the last three of which have no prior determinations. We also focus on the structure and dynamical state of these clusters. 2MASS photometry with errors smaller than 0.2mag are used to build CMDs, RDPs, CMDs, luminosity and mass functions. Colour-magnitude filters are used to isolate probable member stars. Field-star decontamination is applied to Lynga2, Lynga12 and King20. Reddening values are in the range 0.22-1.9, with BH63 the most reddened object. Ages of Lynga2, King20, Lynga12 and BH63 are ~90, ~200, ~560 and 700Myr, respectively. The RDPs of Lynga12 and King20 are well-represented by King profiles. Total stellar masses (extrapolating the MFs to stars with 0.08Mo) range from ~340Mo (BH63) to ~2300Mo (Lynga12). Observed masses are \\~1/4$ of these values. In ...

  8. DETECTIONS OF FAINT Lyα EMITTERS AT z = 5.7: GALAXY BUILDING BLOCKS AND ENGINES OF REIONIZATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report results of an unprecedentedly deep, blind search for Lyα emitters (LAEs) at z = 5.7 using the Inamori-Magellan Areal Camera and Spectrograph (IMACS), with the goal of identifying missing sources of reionization that could also be basic building blocks for today's L* galaxies. We describe how improvements in wide field imaging with the Baade telescope, upgrades to IMACS, and the accumulation of ∼20 hr of integration per field in excellent seeing led to the detection of single-emission-line sources as faint as F ∼ 2 x 10-18 erg s-1 cm-2, a sensitivity five times deeper than our first search. A reasonable correction for foreground interlopers implies a steep rise of approximately an order of magnitude in source density for a factor of four drop in flux, from F = 10-17.0 erg s-1 cm-2 to F = 10-17.6 (2.5 x 10-18) erg s-1 cm-2. At this flux the putative LAEs have reached a surface density of ∼1 arcmin-2-a comoving volume density of 4 x 10-3 Mpc-3, several times the density of L* galaxies today. Such a population of faint LAEs would account for a significant fraction of the critical flux density required to complete reionization at this epoch, and would be good candidates for building blocks of stellar mass ∼108-109 Msun for the young galaxies of this epoch.

  9. Hydra II: A Faint and Compact Milky Way Dwarf Galaxy Found in the Survey of the Magellanic Stellar History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Nicolas F.; Nidever, David L.; Besla, Gurtina; Olsen, Knut; Walker, Alistair R.; Vivas, A. Katherina; Gruendl, Robert A.; Kaleida, Catherine C.; Muñoz, Ricardo R.; Blum, Robert D.; Saha, Abhijit; Conn, Blair C.; Bell, Eric F.; Chu, You-Hua; Cioni, Maria-Rosa L.; de Boer, Thomas J. L.; Gallart, Carme; Jin, Shoko; Kunder, Andrea; Majewski, Steven R.; Martinez-Delgado, David; Monachesi, Antonela; Monelli, Matteo; Monteagudo, Lara; Noël, Noelia E. D.; Olszewski, Edward W.; Stringfellow, Guy S.; van der Marel, Roeland P.; Zaritsky, Dennis

    2015-05-01

    We present the discovery of a new dwarf galaxy, Hydra II, found serendipitously within the data from the ongoing Survey of the Magellanic Stellar History conducted with the Dark Energy Camera on the Blanco 4 m Telescope. The new satellite is compact ({{r}h}=68 ± 11 pc) and faint ({{M}V}=-4.8 ± 0.3), but well within the realm of dwarf galaxies. The stellar distribution of Hydra II in the color-magnitude diagram is well-described by a metal-poor ([Fe/H]=-2.2) and old (13 Gyr) isochrone and shows a distinct blue horizontal branch, some possible red clump stars, and faint stars that are suggestive of blue stragglers. At a heliocentric distance of 134 ± 10 kpc, Hydra II is located in a region of the Galactic halo that models have suggested may host material from the leading arm of the Magellanic Stream. A comparison with N-body simulations hints that the new dwarf galaxy could be or could have been a satellite of the Magellanic Clouds.

  10. Faint Submillimeter Galaxies identified through their optical/near-infrared colours I: spatial clustering and halo masses

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Chian-Chou; Swinbank, A M; Simpson, James M; Almaini, Omar; Conselice, Christopher J; Hartley, Will G; Mortlock, Alice; Simpson, Chris; Wilkinson, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    The properties of submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) that are fainter than the confusion limit of blank-field single-dish surveys ($S_{850} \\lesssim$ 2 mJy) are poorly constrained. Using a newly developed color selection technique, Optical-Infrared Triple Color (OIRTC), that has been shown to successfully {select} such faint SMGs, we identify a sample of 2938 OIRTC-selected galaxies, dubbed Triple Color Galaxies (TCGs), in the UKIDSS-UDS field. We show that these galaxies have a median 850 $\\mu$m flux of S$_{850} = 0.96\\pm0.04$ mJy (equivalent to a star-formation rate SFR $\\sim60-100$ M$_\\odot$ yr$^{-1}$ based on SED fitting), representing the first large sample of faint SMGs that bridges the gap between bright SMGs and normal star-forming galaxies in S$_{850}$ and $L_{\\rm IR}$. We assess the basic properties of TCGs and their relationship with other galaxy populations at $z\\sim2$. We measure the two-point autocorrelation function for this population and derive a typical halo mass of log$_{10}$(M$_{\\rm halo}$) $=1...

  11. Towards a Solution to the Early Faint Sun Paradox: A Lower Cosmic Ray Flux from a Stronger Solar Wind

    CERN Document Server

    Shaviv, N J

    2003-01-01

    The solar luminosity obtained in standard solar models should have gradually increased by about 30% over the past 4.5 billion years. Under the faint sun, Earth should have been frozen solid for most of its existence. Yet, running water is observed to have been present since very early in Earth's history. This enigma is known as the faint sun paradox. We show here that it can be significantly extenuated once we consider the cooling effect that cosmic rays are suspected to have on the global climate and that the younger sun must have had a stronger solar wind, such that it was more effective at stopping cosmic rays from reaching Earth. We therefore find that even modest greenhouse warming in sufficient to completely resolve the paradox. When coupled to the variable star formation rate in the Milky Way, we recover that the past Eon and the Eon between 2 and 3 Gyr before present should have had glaciations, while others not. As to the future, we find that without human intervention, the average global temperature...

  12. Fostering Student Engagement: Creative Problem-Solving in Small Group Facilitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Patricia L.

    2015-01-01

    Creative Problem-Solving (CPS) can be a transformative teaching methodology that supports a dialogical learning atmosphere that can transcend the traditional classroom and inspire excellence in students by linking real life experiences with the curriculum. It supports a sense of inquiry that incorporates both experiential learning and the…

  13. Disciplinary Foundations for Solving Interdisciplinary Scientific Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongmei; Shen, Ji

    2015-10-01

    Problem-solving has been one of the major strands in science education research. But much of the problem-solving research has been conducted on discipline-based contexts; little research has been done on how students, especially individuals, solve interdisciplinary problems. To understand how individuals reason about interdisciplinary problems, we conducted an interview study with 16 graduate students coming from a variety of disciplinary backgrounds. During the interviews, we asked participants to solve two interdisciplinary science problems on the topic of osmosis. We investigated participants' problem reasoning processes and probed in their attitudes toward general interdisciplinary approach and specific interdisciplinary problems. Through a careful inductive content analysis of their responses, we studied how disciplinary, cognitive, and affective factors influenced their interdisciplinary problems-solving. We found that participants' prior discipline-based science learning experiences had both positive and negative influences on their interdisciplinary problem-solving. These influences were embodied in their conceptualization of the interdisciplinary problems, the strategies they used to integrate different disciplinary knowledge, and the attitudes they had toward interdisciplinary approach in general and specific interdisciplinary problems. This study sheds light on interdisciplinary science education by revealing the complex relationship between disciplinary learning and interdisciplinary problem-solving.

  14. Lesion mapping of social problem solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbey, Aron K; Colom, Roberto; Paul, Erick J; Chau, Aileen; Solomon, Jeffrey; Grafman, Jordan H

    2014-10-01

    Accumulating neuroscience evidence indicates that human intelligence is supported by a distributed network of frontal and parietal regions that enable complex, goal-directed behaviour. However, the contributions of this network to social aspects of intellectual function remain to be well characterized. Here, we report a human lesion study (n = 144) that investigates the neural bases of social problem solving (measured by the Everyday Problem Solving Inventory) and examine the degree to which individual differences in performance are predicted by a broad spectrum of psychological variables, including psychometric intelligence (measured by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale), emotional intelligence (measured by the Mayer, Salovey, Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test), and personality traits (measured by the Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness Personality Inventory). Scores for each variable were obtained, followed by voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that working memory, processing speed, and emotional intelligence predict individual differences in everyday problem solving. A targeted analysis of specific everyday problem solving domains (involving friends, home management, consumerism, work, information management, and family) revealed psychological variables that selectively contribute to each. Lesion mapping results indicated that social problem solving, psychometric intelligence, and emotional intelligence are supported by a shared network of frontal, temporal, and parietal regions, including white matter association tracts that bind these areas into a coordinated system. The results support an integrative framework for understanding social intelligence and make specific recommendations for the application of the Everyday Problem Solving Inventory to the study of social problem solving in health and disease. PMID:25070511

  15. Solutions to the Atmospheric Neutrino Problem

    CERN Document Server

    González-Garciá, M Concepción

    2000-01-01

    In this talk I review the present status of the atmospheric neutrino anomaly and discuss some solutions that have been presented in the literature to solve this problem. In particular I review the "standard" solution in terms of neutrino oscillations as well as alternative scenarios such as the possibility of flavour changing neutrino interactions with the Earth and neutrino decay.

  16. Problem solving in a dynamic environment

    CERN Document Server

    Yan, Hong Ng

    1995-01-01

    This book looks at the process of human cognition and the way complex problems are solved by decomposing them into a list of strategic objectives, before focusing individually on each objective to plan for a tactical solution. This process has been formulated by military planners in the form of the Standard Operating Procedure, by which problem solving is organised into four different stages: deliberation, planning, war meeting and plan execution. This has enabled the development of a methodology for problem solving in a dynamic environment. This is illustrated with the help of a six-case stud

  17. Solving the Satisfiability Problem Through Boolean Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Roli, Andrea; Milano, Michela

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present a new approach to solve the satisfiability problem (SAT), based on boolean networks (BN). We define a mapping between a SAT instance and a BN, and we solve SAT problem by simulating the BN dynamics. We prove that BN fixed points correspond to the SAT solutions. The mapping presented allows to develop a new class of algorithms to solve SAT. Moreover, this new approach suggests new ways to combine symbolic and connectionist computation and provides a general framework f...

  18. Solving the Satisfiability Problem Through Boolean Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Roli, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present a new approach to solve the satisfiability problem (SAT), based on boolean networks (BN). We define a mapping between a SAT instance and a BN, and we solve SAT problem by simulating the BN dynamics. We prove that BN fixed points correspond to the SAT solutions. The mapping presented allows to develop a new class of algorithms to solve SAT. Moreover, this new approach suggests new ways to combine symbolic and connectionist computation and provides a general framework for local search algorithms.

  19. Solving Hashiwokakero Puzzle Game with Hashi Solving Techniques and Depth First Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Firsandaya Malik

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Hashiwokakero is a logic puzzle game that sharpen the brain and very popular in Japan. This paper discusses about how to find a solution in the Hashi puzzle game using Hashi Solving techniques, such as: Just Enough Neighbor, One Unsolved neighbor, Few Neighbor, Leftovers and Isolation. Hashi Solving techniques are used to find and build bridges that can definitely be built across the island, while Depth First Search (DFS will search and build bridges that have not been found by Hashi Solving techniques. The results shown that Hashi Solving Techniques and DFS able to solve every Hashi puzzle scenario.

  20. Productive Dialog During Collaborative Problem Solving

    CERN Document Server

    Hausmann, Robert G M; van de Sande, Carla; VanLehn, Kurt

    2008-01-01

    Collaboration is an important problem-solving skill; however, novice collaboration generally benefits from some kind of support. One possibility for supporting productive conversations between collaborators is to encourage pairs of students to provide explanations for their problem-solving steps. To test this possibility, we contrasted individuals who were instructed to self-explain problem-solving steps with dyads who were instructed to jointly explain problem-solving steps in the context of an intelligent tutoring system (ITS). The results suggest that collaboratively developed explanations prompted students to remediate their errors in dialog, as opposed to relying on the ITS for assistance, which is provided in the form of on-demand hints. The paper concludes with a discussion about implications for combining proven learning interventions.

  1. Exact Algorithms for Solving Stochastic Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt; Koucky, Michal; Lauritzen, Niels;

    2012-01-01

    Shapley's discounted stochastic games, Everett's recursive games and Gillette's undiscounted stochastic games are classical models of game theory describing two-player zero-sum games of potentially infinite duration. We describe algorithms for exactly solving these games....

  2. Information problem solving and mental effort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Frerejean, Jimmy

    2012-01-01

    Brand-Gruwel, S., & Frerejean, J. (2012, 5 September). Information problem solving and mental effort. Presentation at the EARLI ASC 2012 "Using eye tracking to design and evaluate education & training methods", Heerlen, The Netherlands.

  3. Physics: Quantum problems solved through games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniscalco, Sabrina

    2016-04-01

    Humans are better than computers at performing certain tasks because of their intuition and superior visual processing. Video games are now being used to channel these abilities to solve problems in quantum physics. See Letter p.210

  4. Problem Solving, Patterns, Probability, Pascal, and Palindromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hylton-Lindsay, Althea Antoinette

    2003-01-01

    Presents a problem-solving activity, the birth order problem, and several solution-seeking strategies. Includes responses of current and prospective teachers and a comparison of various strategies. (YDS)

  5. Assertiveness and problem solving in midwives

    OpenAIRE

    Yurtsal, Zeliha Burcu; Özdemir, Levent

    2015-01-01

    Background: Midwifery profession is required to bring solutions to problems and a midwife is expected to be an assertive person and to develop midwifery care. This study was planned to examine the relationship between assertiveness and problem-solving skills of midwives. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted with 201 midwives between July 2008 and February 2009 in the city center of Sivas. The Rathus Assertiveness Schedule (RAS) and Problem Solving Inventory (PSI) we...

  6. Methods for solving mathematical physics problems

    CERN Document Server

    Agoshkov, VI; Shutyaev, VP

    2006-01-01

    The book examines the classic and generally accepted methods for solving mathematical physics problems (method of the potential theory, the eigenfunction method, integral transformation methods, discretisation characterisation methods, splitting methods). A separate chapter is devoted to methods for solving nonlinear equations. The book offers a large number of examples of how these methods are applied to the solution of specific mathematical physics problems, applied in the areas of science and social activities, such as energy, environmental protection, hydrodynamics, theory of elasticity, etc.

  7. Cooperative problem solving in rooks (Corvus frugilegus)

    OpenAIRE

    Seed, Amanda M; Clayton, Nicola S.; Emery, Nathan J

    2008-01-01

    Recent work has shown that captive rooks, like chimpanzees and other primates, develop cooperative alliances with their conspecifics. Furthermore, the pressures hypothesized to have favoured social intelligence in primates also apply to corvids. We tested cooperative problem-solving in rooks to compare their performance and cognition with primates. Without training, eight rooks quickly solved a problem in which two individuals had to pull both ends of a string simultaneously in order to pull ...

  8. Solving traveling salesman problems by genetic algorithms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The gene section ordering on solving traveling salesman problems is analyzed by numerical experiments. Some improved crossover operations are presented. Several combinations of genetic operations are examined and the functions of these operations are analyzed. The essentiality of the ordering of the gene section and the significance of the evolutionary inversion operation are discussed. Some results and conclusions are obtained and given, which provide useful information for the implementation of the genetic operations for solving the traveling salesman problem.

  9. Problem, Problem Solving And Critical Thinking

    OpenAIRE

    TÜRNÜKLÜ, Elif B.; YEŞİLDERE, Sibel

    2005-01-01

    Critical thinking is an essential skill that all people from various sectors should have and need. Problem solving skill which is one of the main purpose of mathematics teaching can be effective in developing critical thinking. The purpose of this study is to emphasize the importance of problem solving in developing critical thinking skills and to expose critical thinking to the pre-service primary mathematics teachers. Aiming these, some mathematical critical thinking problems are prepa...

  10. Techniques for solving Boolean equation systems

    OpenAIRE

    Keinänen, Misa

    2006-01-01

    Boolean equation systems are ordered sequences of Boolean equations decorated with least and greatest fixpoint operators. Boolean equation systems provide a useful framework for formal verification because various specification and verification problems, for instance, μ-calculus model checking can be represented as the problem of solving Boolean equation systems. The general problem of solving a Boolean equation system is a computationally hard task, and no polynomial time solution technique ...

  11. Problem Solving Methods in Engineering Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvig, Susanne C

    1999-01-01

    This short paper discusses typical engineering tasks and problem solving methods, based on a field study of engineering tasks at a Danish engineering firm. The field study has identified ten classes of design tasks and in this paper these classes are related to problem solving methods. The...... described work is part of a project that aims at establishing a coherent framework for future development of integrated design tools....

  12. Solving hard industrial combinatorial problems with SAT

    OpenAIRE

    Abío Roig, Ignasi

    2013-01-01

    The topic of this thesis is the development of SAT-based techniques and tools for solving industrial combinatorial problems. First, it describes the architecture of state-of-the-art SAT and SMT Solvers based on the classical DPLL procedure. These systems can be used as black boxes for solving combinatorial problems. However, sometimes we can increase their efficiency with slight modifications of the basic algorithm. Therefore, the study and development of techniques for adjusting SAT Solvers ...

  13. On Using Unsatisfiability for Solving Maximum Satisfiability

    OpenAIRE

    Marques-Silva, Joao; Planes, Jordi

    2007-01-01

    Maximum Satisfiability (MaxSAT) is a well-known optimization pro- blem, with several practical applications. The most widely known MAXS AT algorithms are ineffective at solving hard problems instances from practical application domains. Recent work proposed using efficient Boolean Satisfiability (SAT) solvers for solving the MaxSAT problem, based on identifying and eliminating unsatisfiable subformulas. However, these algorithms do not scale in practice. This paper analyzes existing MaxSAT al...

  14. Introductory Problem Solving in Computer Science

    OpenAIRE

    Barnes, David J; Fincher, Sally; Thompson, Simon

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes our experiences in devising a lightweight, informal methodology for problem solving in introductory, university level, computer science. We first describe the original context of the experiment and the background to the methodology. We then give the details of the steps of the Problem Solving Cycle - Understanding, Designing, Writing and Reviewing - and the lessons we learned about our teaching from devising the material. We also present practical examples of how it has b...

  15. Insightful Problem Solving in an Asian Elephant

    OpenAIRE

    Preston Foerder; Marie Galloway; Tony Barthel; Moore, Donald E.; Diana Reiss

    2011-01-01

    The "aha" moment or the sudden arrival of the solution to a problem is a common human experience. Spontaneous problem solving without evident trial and error behavior in humans and other animals has been referred to as insight. Surprisingly, elephants, thought to be highly intelligent, have failed to exhibit insightful problem solving in previous cognitive studies. We tested whether three Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) would use sticks or other objects to obtain food items placed out-of-re...

  16. Free Radicals and Reactive Intermediates for the SAGE III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James G.

    2001-01-01

    This grant provided partial support for participation in the SAGE III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment. The NASA-sponsored SOLVE mission was conducted Jointly with the European Commission-sponsored Third European Stratospheric Experiment on Ozone (THESEO 2000). Researchers examined processes that control ozone amounts at mid to high latitudes during the arctic winter and acquired correlative data needed to validate the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) III satellite measurements that are used to quantitatively assess high-latitude ozone loss. The campaign began in September 1999 with intercomparison flights out of NASA Dryden Flight Research Center in Edwards. CA. and continued through March 2000. with midwinter deployments out of Kiruna. Sweden. SOLVE was co-sponsored by the Upper Atmosphere Research Program (UARP). Atmospheric Effects of Aviation Project (AEAP). Atmospheric Chemistry Modeling and Analysis Program (ACMAP). and Earth Observing System (EOS) of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise (ESE) as part of the validation program for the SAGE III instrument.

  17. Atmospheric neutrinos and the νe/νμ ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work calculates analytically the atmospheric neutrino flux by solving the one-dimensional equations which describe the hadrons and leptons diffusion in the atmosphere, and compares the results with those obtained by using simulation calculations performed by Gaisser and coworkers, and analytically obtained by Bugaev and Naumov

  18. Could HPS Improve Problem-Solving?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Ricardo Lopes

    2013-05-01

    It is generally accepted nowadays that History and Philosophy of Science (HPS) is useful in understanding scientific concepts, theories and even some experiments. Problem-solving strategies are a significant topic, since students' careers depend on their skill to solve problems. These are the reasons for addressing the question of whether problem solving could be improved by means of HPS. Three typical problems in introductory courses of mechanics—the inclined plane, the simple pendulum and the Atwood machine—are taken as the object of the present study. The solving strategies of these problems in the eighteenth and nineteenth century constitute the historical component of the study. Its philosophical component stems from the foundations of mechanics research literature. The use of HPS leads us to see those problems in a different way. These different ways can be tested, for which experiments are proposed. The traditional solving strategies for the incline and pendulum problems are adequate for some situations but not in general. The recourse to apparent weights in the Atwood machine problem leads us to a new insight and a solving strategy for composed Atwood machines. Educational implications also concern the development of logical thinking by means of the variety of lines of thought provided by HPS.

  19. Conceptual problem solving in high school physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docktor, Jennifer L.; Strand, Natalie E.; Mestre, José P.; Ross, Brian H.

    2015-12-01

    Problem solving is a critical element of learning physics. However, traditional instruction often emphasizes the quantitative aspects of problem solving such as equations and mathematical procedures rather than qualitative analysis for selecting appropriate concepts and principles. This study describes the development and evaluation of an instructional approach called Conceptual Problem Solving (CPS) which guides students to identify principles, justify their use, and plan their solution in writing before solving a problem. The CPS approach was implemented by high school physics teachers at three schools for major theorems and conservation laws in mechanics and CPS-taught classes were compared to control classes taught using traditional problem solving methods. Information about the teachers' implementation of the approach was gathered from classroom observations and interviews, and the effectiveness of the approach was evaluated from a series of written assessments. Results indicated that teachers found CPS easy to integrate into their curricula, students engaged in classroom discussions and produced problem solutions of a higher quality than before, and students scored higher on conceptual and problem solving measures.

  20. First results from the Edinburgh-Cape faint blue object survey - Normal stars at high galactic latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilkenny, D.; O'Donoghue, D.; Stobie, R. S.

    1991-02-01

    A simple analysis using low-dispersion Reticon spectroscopy and Stromgren photometry is presented for a sample of 20 apparently normal early-type stars detected in the Edinburgh-Cape faint blue object survey of high galactic latitudes. Four stars are not normal, showing high gravity or helium abundance anomalies; 12 stars appear to be at moderate distances from the galactic plane and four stars have derived z-distances greater than about 5 kpc. The sample was selected from 33 survey fields completed to B = 16.5 mag and indicates that the total galactic population of 'very high-z' B stars is only of the order 100-1000. The Dyson and Hartquist (1983) model for the formation of such objects by cloudlet-cloudlet collisions within high-velocity clouds cannot therefore be ruled out on the basis of star formation rates.

  1. MOA-2008-BLG-379Lb: A massive planet from a high magnification event with a faint source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, D.; Sumi, T.; Fukagawa, M.; Shibai, H. [Department of Earth and Space Science, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, 1-1 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Udalski, A. [Warsaw University Observatory, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warszawa (Poland); Bennett, D. P. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Bond, I. A.; Ling, C. H. [Institute of Information and Mathematical Sciences, Massey University, Private Bag 102-904, North Shore Mail Centre, Auckland (New Zealand); Abe, F.; Furusawa, K.; Itow, Y.; Masuda, K.; Matsubara, Y. [Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8601 (Japan); Botzler, C. S.; Freeman, M.; Rattenbury, N. [Department of Physics, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Fukui, A. [Okayama Astrophysical Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory, 3037-5 Honjo, Kamogata, Asakuchi, Okayama 719-0232 (Japan); Muraki, Y. [Department of Physics, Konan University, Nishiokamoto 8-9-1, Kobe 658-8501 (Japan); Ohnishi, K. [Nagano National College of Technology, Nagano 381-8550 (Japan); Saito, To. [Tokyo Metropolitan College of Industrial Technology, Tokyo 116-8523 (Japan); Collaboration: MOA Collaboration; OGLE Collaboration; and others

    2014-01-10

    We report on the analysis of the high microlensing event MOA-2008-BLG-379, which has a strong microlensing anomaly at its peak due to a massive planet with a mass ratio of q = 6.9 × 10{sup –3}. Because the faint source star crosses the large resonant caustic, the planetary signal dominates the light curve. This is unusual for planetary microlensing events, and as a result, the planetary nature of this light curve was not immediately noticed. The planetary nature of the event was found when the Microlensing Observations in Astrophysics (MOA) Collaboration conducted a systematic study of binary microlensing events previously identified by the MOA alert system. We have conducted a Bayesian analysis based on a standard Galactic model to estimate the physical parameters of the lens system. This yields a host star mass of M{sub L}=3.3{sub −1.2}{sup +1.7} M{sub ⊙} orbited by a planet of mass m{sub P}=0.56{sub −0.27}{sup +0.24} M{sub Jup} at an orbital separation of a=3.3{sub −1.2}{sup +1.3} AU at a distance of D{sub L}=4.1{sub −1.9}{sup +1.7} kpc. The faint source magnitude of I {sub S} = 21.30 and relatively high lens-source relative proper motion of μ{sub rel} = 7.6 ± 1.6 mas yr{sup –1} imply that high angular resolution adaptive optics or Hubble Space Telescope observations are likely to be able to detect the source star, which would determine the masses and distance of the planet and its host star.

  2. Deconvolution of post-adaptive optics images of faint circumstellar environments by means of the inexact Bregman procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benfenati, A.; La Camera, A.; Carbillet, M.

    2016-02-01

    Aims: High-dynamic range images of astrophysical objects present some difficulties in their restoration because of the presence of very bright point-wise sources surrounded by faint and smooth structures. We propose a method that enables the restoration of this kind of images by taking these kinds of sources into account and, at the same time, improving the contrast enhancement in the final image. Moreover, the proposed approach can help to detect the position of the bright sources. Methods: The classical variational scheme in the presence of Poisson noise aims to find the minimum of a functional compound of the generalized Kullback-Leibler function and a regularization functional: the latter function is employed to preserve some characteristic in the restored image. The inexact Bregman procedure substitutes the regularization function with its inexact Bregman distance. This proposed scheme allows us to take under control the level of inexactness arising in the computed solution and permits us to employ an overestimation of the regularization parameter (which balances the trade-off between the Kullback-Leibler and the Bregman distance). This aspect is fundamental, since the estimation of this kind of parameter is very difficult in the presence of Poisson noise. Results: The inexact Bregman procedure is tested on a bright unresolved binary star with a faint circumstellar environment. When the sources' position is exactly known, this scheme provides us with very satisfactory results. In case of inexact knowledge of the sources' position, it can in addition give some useful information on the true positions. Finally, the inexact Bregman scheme can be also used when information about the binary star's position concerns a connected region instead of isolated pixels.

  3. The Effect of Learning Environments Based on Problem Solving on Students’ Achievements of Problem Solving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilhan KARATAS

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Problem solving is recognized as an important life skill involving a range of processes including analyzing, interpreting, reasoning, predicting, evaluating and reflecting. For that reason educatingstudents as efficient problem solvers is an important role of mathematics education. Problem solving skill is the centre of mathematics curriculum. Students’ gaining of that skill in school mathematics is closely related with the learning environment to beformed and the roles given to the students. The aim of this study is to create a problem solving based learning environment to enhance the students’ problem solving skill. Within this scope, students’practiced activities and problems that provide them to proceed in Polya (1945’s problem solving phases and throughout the study, students’ success in problem solving have been evaluated. While experimental group students received problem solving based learning environment performed, control group students have continued their present program in this quise1experimental study. Eleven problem solving activities were given to the students at the beginning, middle and end of the study and the students’ performances wereanalyzed based on problem solving phases. The findings illustrated that the experimental group students’ success in problem solving activities has increased while the control group students’ success has not changed significantly.

  4. On the properties of galaxies at the faint-end of the H$\\alpha$ luminosity function at $z\\sim0.62$

    CERN Document Server

    Gómez-Guijarro, Carlos; Villar, Víctor; Rodríguez-Muñoz, Lucía; Clément, Benjamin; Cuby, Jean-Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    Studies measuring the star formation rate density, luminosity function and properties of star-forming galaxies are numerous. However, it exists a gap at $0.5faint H$\\alpha$ emitters at $z\\sim0.62$. We focus on their contribution to the faint-end of the luminosity function and derived star formation rate density, characterising their morphologies and basic photometric and spectroscopic properties. We use a narrow-band technique in the near-infrared, with a filter centered at 1.06 $\\mu$m. The data come from ultra-deep VLT/HAWK-I observations in the GOODS-S field with a total of 31.9 h in the narrow-band filter. We perform a visual classification of the sample and study their morphologies from structural parameters available in CANDELS. Our 28 H$\\alpha$-selected sample of faint star-forming galaxies reveals a robust faint-end slope of the luminosity function $\\alpha=-1.46_{-0.08}^{+0.16}$. The derived star formation...

  5. Behavioral avoidance and self-reported fainting symptoms in blood/injury fearful individuals: an experimental test of disgust domain specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatunji, Bunmi O; Connolly, Kevin M; David, Bieke

    2008-06-01

    This study examined the specificity of disgust in predicting avoidance in blood/injury (BI) phobia. Participants high (n=38) and low (n=46) in BI fear completed measures of disgust across multiple domains and severity of BI-related fear. They then completed three randomly presented behavioral avoidance tasks (BATs) that consisted of exposure to a 15'' severed deer leg (BI task), a live spider (spider task), and a 'contaminated' cookie (cookie task). Fainting symptoms associated with each BAT were recorded as well. When controlling for gender and BI fear group membership, mutilation disgust contributed unique variance to avoidance on the BI task and animal disgust contributed unique variance to avoidance on the spider task. None of the disgust domains contributed unique variance to avoidance on the cookie task. For the high BI fear group, self-reported fainting symptoms were more pronounced during the BI and spider BAT than during the cookie BAT. Although mutilation disgust was significantly associated with self-reported fainting symptoms on the BI task among the high BI fear group, this relationship became nonsignificant when controlling for BI-related fear severity. Implications of the domain specificity of disgust and its relevance for understanding fainting responses in BI phobia are discussed. PMID:17920808

  6. Extremely Small Sizes for Faint z~2-8 Galaxies in the Hubble Frontier Fields: A Key Input For Establishing their Volume Density and UV Emissivity

    CERN Document Server

    Bouwens, R J; Oesch, P A; Atek, H; Lam, D; Stefanon, M

    2016-01-01

    We provide the first observational constraints on the sizes of the faintest galaxies lensed by the Hubble Frontier Fields (HFF) clusters. Ionizing radiation from faint galaxies likely drives cosmic reionization, and the HFF initiative provides a key opportunity to find such galaxies. Yet, we cannot really assess their ionizing emissivity without a robust measurement of their sizes, since this is key to quantifying both their prevalence and the faint-end slope to the UV luminosity function. Here we provide the first such size constraints with 2 new techniques. The first utilizes the fact that the detectability of highly-magnified galaxies as a function of shear is very dependent on a galaxy's size. Only the most compact galaxies will remain detectable in regions of high shear (vs. a larger detectable size range for low shear), a phenomenon we carefully quantify using simulations. Remarkably, however, no correlation is found between the surface density of faint galaxies and the predicted shear, using 87 faint h...

  7. The Effect of Problem Solving Teaching with Texts of Turkish Lesson on Students’ Problem Solving Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Havva ILGIN

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this research, by carrying out activities based on texts, effect of providing problem solving skill on students’ levels of problem solving attainment was tried to be identified. Research was performed according to pretest-posttest Experimental Model with Control Group, in 2008-2009 educational year at second grade of an elementary school in Denizli province. For nine weeks, four hours in a week, while teacher guide book was being followed in control group in Turkish language lesson, texts were carried out with problem solving activities in experimental group. In the research, “Problem Solving Test” which were used as data collection tools, were developed by benefiting from matching of attainment-problem solving steps-cognitive domain steps. Problem Solving Test is made up of 16 multiple choice and 9 open ended questions. In the analysis of data, t test was used. It was found that problem solving teaching succeeded at “identifying different possible solutions in the light of collected data, applying the decided way of solution, evaluating types of solutions, evaluating used problem solving method” stages of problem solving.

  8. Why students still can't solve physics problems after solving over 2000 problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Taejin; Lee, Gyoungho

    2014-09-01

    This study investigates the belief that solving a large number of physics problems helps students better learn physics. We investigated the number of problems solved, student confidence in solving these problems, academic achievement, and the level of conceptual understanding of 49 science high school students enrolled in upper-level physics classes from Spring 2010 to Summer 2011. The participants solved an average of 2200 physics problems before entering high school. Despite having solved so many problems, no statistically significant correlation was found between the number of problems solved and academic achievement on either a mid-term or physics competition examination. In addition, no significant correlation was found between the number of physics problems solved and performance on the Force Concept Inventory (FCI). Lastly, four students were selected from the 49 participants with varying levels of experience and FCI scores for a case study. We determined that their problem solving and learning strategies was more influential in their success than the number of problems they had solved.

  9. The Lyα luminosity function at z = 5.7 - 6.6 and the steep drop of the faint end: implications for reionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Sérgio; Sobral, David; Matthee, Jorryt

    2016-08-01

    We present new results from the widest narrow band survey search for Lyα emitters at z = 5.7, just after reionization. We survey a total of 7 deg2 spread over the COSMOS, UDS and SA22 fields. We find over 11,000 line emitters, out of which 514 are robust Lyα candidates at z = 5.7 within a volume of 6.3 × 106 Mpc3. Our Lyα emitters span a wide range in Lyα luminosities, from faint to bright (LLyα ˜ 1042.5 - 44 erg s-1) and rest-frame equivalent widths (EW0 ˜ 25 - 1000 Å) in a single, homogeneous data-set. By combining all our fields we find that the faint end slope of the z = 5.7 Lyα luminosity function is very steep, with α =-2.3^{+0.4}_{-0.3}. We also present an updated z = 6.6 Lyα luminosity function, based on comparable volumes and obtained with the same methods, which we directly compare with that at z = 5.7. We find a significant decline of the number density of faint Lyα emitters from z = 5.7 to z = 6.6 (by 0.5 ± 0.1 dex), but no evolution at the bright end/no evolution in L★. Faint Lyα emitters at z = 6.6 show much more extended haloes than those at z = 5.7, suggesting that neutral Hydrogen plays an important role, increasing the scattering and leading to observations missing faint Lyα emission within the epoch of reionization. All together, our results suggest that we are observing patchy reionization which happens first around the brightest Lyα emitters, allowing the number densities of those sources to remain unaffected by the increase of neutral Hydrogen fraction from z ˜ 5 to z ˜ 7.

  10. Transform methods for solving partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Duffy, Dean G

    2004-01-01

    Transform methods provide a bridge between the commonly used method of separation of variables and numerical techniques for solving linear partial differential equations. While in some ways similar to separation of variables, transform methods can be effective for a wider class of problems. Even when the inverse of the transform cannot be found analytically, numeric and asymptotic techniques now exist for their inversion, and because the problem retains some of its analytic aspect, one can gain greater physical insight than typically obtained from a purely numerical approach. Transform Methods for Solving Partial Differential Equations, Second Edition illustrates the use of Laplace, Fourier, and Hankel transforms to solve partial differential equations encountered in science and engineering. The author has expanded the second edition to provide a broader perspective on the applicability and use of transform methods and incorporated a number of significant refinements: New in the Second Edition: ·...

  11. On Teaching Problem Solving in School Mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkki Pehkonen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article begins with a brief overview of the situation throughout the world regarding problem solving. The activities of the ProMath group are then described, as the purpose of this international research group is to improve mathematics teaching in school. One mathematics teaching method that seems to be functioning in school is the use of open problems (i.e., problem fields. Next we discuss the objectives of the Finnish curriculum that are connected with problem solving. Some examples and research results are taken from a Finnish–Chilean research project that monitors the development of problem-solving skills in third grade pupils. Finally, some ideas on “teacher change” are put forward. It is not possible to change teachers, but only to provide hints for possible change routes: the teachers themselves should work out the ideas and their implementation.

  12. Solving jigsaw puzzles using image features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ture R.; Drewsen, Peter; Hansen, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we describe a method for automatic solving of the jigsaw puzzle problem based on using image features instead of the shape of the pieces. The image features are used for obtaining an accurate measure for edge similarity to be used in a new edge matching algorithm. The algorithm is...... used in a general puzzle solving method which is based on a greedy algorithm previously proved successful. We have been able to solve computer generated puzzles of 320 pieces as well as a real puzzle of 54 pieces by exclusively using image information. Additionally, we investigate a new scalable...... algorithm which exploits the divide and conquer paradigm to reduce the combinatorially complex problem by classifying the puzzle pieces and comparing pieces drawn from the same group. The paper includes a brief preliminary investigation of some image features used in the classification....

  13. Vacuum engineering, calculations, formulas, and solved exercises

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, Armand

    1992-01-01

    This book was written with two main objectives in mind-to summarize and organize the vast material of vacuum technology in sets of useful formulas, and to provide a collection of worked out exercises showing how to use these formulas for solving technological problems. It is an ideal reference source for those with little time to devote to a full mathematical treatment of the many problems issued in vacuum practice, but who have a working knowledge of the essentials of vacuum technology, elementary physics, and mathematics. This time saving book employs a problem-solving approach throughout, p

  14. Partitioning SAT Instances for Distributed Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyvärinen, Antti E. J.; Junttila, Tommi; Niemelä, Ilkka

    In this paper we study the problem of solving hard propositional satisfiability problem (SAT) instances in a computing grid or cloud, where run times and communication between parallel running computations are limited.We study analytically an approach where the instance is partitioned iteratively into a tree of subproblems and each node in the tree is solved in parallel.We present new methods for constructing partitions which combine clause learning and lookahead. The methods are incorporated into the iterative approach and its performance is demonstrated with an extensive comparison against the best sequential solvers in the SAT competition 2009 as well as against two efficient parallel solvers.

  15. A Novel Approach for Solving Semidefinite Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Wei Jiao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel linearizing alternating direction augmented Lagrangian approach is proposed for effectively solving semidefinite programs (SDP. For every iteration, by fixing the other variables, the proposed approach alternatively optimizes the dual variables and the dual slack variables; then the primal variables, that is, Lagrange multipliers, are updated. In addition, the proposed approach renews all the variables in closed forms without solving any system of linear equations. Global convergence of the proposed approach is proved under mild conditions, and two numerical problems are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the presented approach.

  16. Mobile serious games for collaborative problem solving

    OpenAIRE

    Jaime Sanchez

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the results obtained from the realization of a series of learning activities based on mobile serious games (MSG) for the development of problem-solving and collaborative skills in Chilean 8th grade students. Three MSGs were developed and played by teams of four students, who had to solve the problems presented in the game collaboratively. The data shows that the participating students had a better perception of their own skills of collaboration and of one of the problem-so...

  17. Learning via problem solving in mathematics education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piet Human

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Three forms of mathematics education at school level are distinguished: direct expository teaching with an emphasis on procedures, with the expectation that learners will at some later stage make logical and functional sense of what they have learnt and practised (the prevalent form, mathematically rigorous teaching in terms of fundamental mathematical concepts, as in the so-called “modern mathematics” programmes of the sixties, teaching and learning in the context of engaging with meaningful problems and focused both on learning to become good problem solvers (teaching for problem solving andutilising problems as vehicles for the development of mathematical knowledge andproficiency by learners (problem-centred learning, in conjunction with substantialteacher-led social interaction and mathematical discourse in classrooms.Direct expository teaching of mathematical procedures dominated in school systems after World War II, and was augmented by the “modern mathematics” movement in the period 1960-1970. The latter was experienced as a major failure, and was soon abandoned. Persistent poor outcomes of direct expository procedural teaching of mathematics for the majority of learners, as are still being experienced in South Africa, triggered a world-wide movement promoting teaching mathematics for and via problem solving in the seventies and eighties of the previous century. This movement took the form of a variety of curriculum experiments in which problem solving was the dominant classroom activity, mainly in the USA, Netherlands, France and South Africa. While initially focusing on basic arithmetic (computation with whole numbers and elementary calculus, the problem-solving movement started to address other mathematical topics (for example, elementary statistics, algebra, differential equations around the turn of the century. The movement also spread rapidly to other countries, including Japan, Singapore and Australia. Parallel with the

  18. First Super-Earth Atmosphere Analysed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    The atmosphere around a super-Earth exoplanet has been analysed for the first time by an international team of astronomers using ESO's Very Large Telescope. The planet, which is known as GJ 1214b, was studied as it passed in front of its parent star and some of the starlight passed through the planet's atmosphere. We now know that the atmosphere is either mostly water in the form of steam or is dominated by thick clouds or hazes. The results will appear in the 2 December 2010 issue of the journal Nature. The planet GJ 1214b was confirmed in 2009 using the HARPS instrument on ESO's 3.6-metre telescope in Chile (eso0950) [1]. Initial findings suggested that this planet had an atmosphere, which has now been confirmed and studied in detail by an international team of astronomers, led by Jacob Bean (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics), using the FORS instrument on ESO's Very Large Telescope. "This is the first super-Earth to have its atmosphere analysed. We've reached a real milestone on the road toward characterising these worlds," said Bean. GJ 1214b has a radius of about 2.6 times that of the Earth and is about 6.5 times as massive, putting it squarely into the class of exoplanets known as super-Earths. Its host star lies about 40 light-years from Earth in the constellation of Ophiuchus (the Serpent Bearer). It is a faint star [2], but it is also small, which means that the size of the planet is large compared to the stellar disc, making it relatively easy to study [3]. The planet travels across the disc of its parent star once every 38 hours as it orbits at a distance of only two million kilometres: about seventy times closer than the Earth orbits the Sun. To study the atmosphere, the team observed the light coming from the star as the planet passed in front of it [4]. During these transits, some of the starlight passes through the planet's atmosphere and, depending on the chemical composition and weather on the planet, specific wavelengths of light are

  19. Encouraging Sixth-Grade Students' Problem-Solving Performance by Teaching through Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostic, Jonathan D.; Pape, Stephen J.; Jacobbe, Tim

    2016-01-01

    This teaching experiment provided students with continuous engagement in a problem-solving based instructional approach during one mathematics unit. Three sections of sixth-grade mathematics were sampled from a school in Florida, U.S.A. and one section was randomly assigned to experience teaching through problem solving. Students' problem-solving…

  20. Students' Errors in Solving the Permutation and Combination Problems Based on Problem Solving Steps of Polya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukoriyanto; Nusantara, Toto; Subanji; Chandra, Tjang Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This article was written based on the results of a study evaluating students' errors in problem solving of permutation and combination in terms of problem solving steps according to Polya. Twenty-five students were asked to do four problems related to permutation and combination. The research results showed that the students still did a mistake in…

  1. The Effect of Learning Environments Based on Problem Solving on Students' Achievements of Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatas, Ilhan; Baki, Adnan

    2013-01-01

    Problem solving is recognized as an important life skill involving a range of processes including analyzing, interpreting, reasoning, predicting, evaluating and reflecting. For that reason educating students as efficient problem solvers is an important role of mathematics education. Problem solving skill is the centre of mathematics curriculum.…

  2. Preschoolers' Cooperative Problem Solving: Integrating Play and Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramani, Geetha B.; Brownell, Celia A.

    2014-01-01

    Cooperative problem solving with peers plays a central role in promoting children's cognitive and social development. This article reviews research on cooperative problem solving among preschool-age children in experimental settings and social play contexts. Studies suggest that cooperative interactions with peers in experimental settings are…

  3. Does probabilism solve the great quantum mystery?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas MAXWELL

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available I put forward a micro realistic, probabilistic version of quantum theory, which specifies the precise nature of quantum entities thus solving the quantum wave/particle dilemma, and which both reproduces the empirical success of orthodox quantum theory, and yields predictions that differ from orthodox quantum theory for as yet unperformed experiments.

  4. Models of Strategy for Solving Physics Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Jill H.

    A set of computer implemented models are presented which can assist in developing problem solving strategies. The three levels of expertise which are covered are beginners (those who have completed at least one university physics course), intermediates (university level physics majors in their third year of study), and professionals (university…

  5. Solving Mathematical Problems A Personal Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Tao, Terence

    2006-01-01

    Authored by a leading name in mathematics, this engaging and clearly presented text leads the reader through the tactics involved in solving mathematical problems at the Mathematical Olympiad level. With numerous exercises and assuming only basic mathematics, this text is ideal for students of 14 years and above in pure mathematics.

  6. Synthesizing Strategies Creatively: Solving Linear Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, Gregorio A.; Tuba, Imre

    2015-01-01

    New strategies can ignite teachers' imagination to create new lessons or adapt lessons created by others. In this article, the authors present the experience of an algebra teacher and his students solving linear and literal equations and explain how the use of ideas found in past NCTM journals helped bring this lesson to life. The…

  7. Mental Imagery in Creative Problem Solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polland, Mark J.

    In order to investigate the relationship between mental imagery and creative problem solving, a study of 44 separate accounts reporting mental imagery experiences associated with creative discoveries were examined. The data included 29 different scientists, among them Albert Einstein and Stephen Hawking, and 9 artists, musicians, and writers,…

  8. Problem Solving: Can Anybody Do It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Stuart W.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the definition of a problem and at the process of problem solving. An analysis of a number of first and third year chemistry examination papers from English universities revealed that over ninety per cent of the "problems" fell into the "algorithm" category. Using Bloom's taxonomy and the same examination papers, we found that…

  9. Problem-Solving Test: Southwestern Blotting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeberényi, József

    2014-01-01

    Terms to be familiar with before you start to solve the test: Southern blotting, Western blotting, restriction endonucleases, agarose gel electrophoresis, nitrocellulose filter, molecular hybridization, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, proto-oncogene, c-abl, Src-homology domains, tyrosine protein kinase, nuclear localization signal, cDNA,…

  10. Solving Single-digit Sudoku Subproblems

    CERN Document Server

    Eppstein, David

    2012-01-01

    We show that single-digit "Nishio" subproblems in nxn Sudoku puzzles may be solved in time o(2^n), faster than previous solutions such as the pattern overlay method. We also show that single-digit deduction in Sudoku is NP-hard.

  11. Solving Absolute Value Equations Algebraically and Geometrically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiyuan, Wei

    2005-01-01

    The way in which students can improve their comprehension by understanding the geometrical meaning of algebraic equations or solving algebraic equation geometrically is described. Students can experiment with the conditions of the absolute value equation presented, for an interesting way to form an overall understanding of the concept.

  12. Teaching Teamwork and Problem Solving Concurrently

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goltz, Sonia M.; Hietapelto, Amy B.; Reinsch, Roger W.; Tyrell, Sharon K.

    2008-01-01

    Teamwork and problem-solving skills have frequently been identified by business leaders as being key competencies; thus, teaching methods such as problem-based learning and team-based learning have been developed. However, the focus of these methods has been on teaching one skill or the other. A key argument for teaching the skills concurrently is…

  13. Informal Evaluation Strategies for Real Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Arthur K.; Alleman-Brooks, Janet

    1978-01-01

    Examples of possible methods for unobtrusively evaluating student progress through real problem solving outcomes without formal testing are illustrated. These methods include the use of interviews, artifacts, observations, I learned statements, checklists, flow of discussion charts, and self-awareness exercises. (MN)

  14. Assessing Mathematical Problem Solving Using Comparative Judgement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ian; Swan, Malcolm; Pollitt, Alastair

    2015-01-01

    There is an increasing demand from employers and universities for school leavers to be able to apply their mathematical knowledge to problem solving in varied and unfamiliar contexts. These aspects are however neglected in most examinations of mathematics and, consequentially, in classroom teaching. One barrier to the inclusion of mathematical…

  15. A reflexive perspective in problem solving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chio, José Angel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to favour the methodological process of reflexive analysis in problem solving in the general teaching methods that concentrates in strengthening the dimensional analysis, to gain a greater preparation of the students for the solution of mathematical problems.

  16. Making Problem-Solving Simulations More Realistic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, Samuel E.

    2002-01-01

    Many problem-solving activities include mathematical principles but students do not use them during the design and experimentation phases before creating a prototype or product. Restricting the amount and/or type of materials available to students will require them to calculate and requisition the materials needed. (JOW)

  17. Exact Algorithms for Solving Stochastic Games

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, A K; Koucký, M.; Lauritzen, N.; Miltersen, P.B.; Tsigaridas, E.P.

    2012-01-01

    Shapley's discounted stochastic games, Everett's recursive games and Gillette's undiscounted stochastic games are classical models of game theory describing two-player zero-sum games of potentially infinite duration. We describe algorithms for exactly solving these games. When the number of positions of the game is constant, our algorithms run in polynomial time.

  18. Solving the Mystery of the Missing Neutrinos

    OpenAIRE

    Bahcall, John

    2004-01-01

    The three years 2001 to 2003 were the golden years of solar neutrino research. In this period, scientists solved a mystery with which they had been struggling for four decades. The solution turned out to be important for both physics and for astronomy. In this article, I tell the story of those fabulous three years.

  19. Problem-Solving Test: Tryptophan Operon Mutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeberenyi, Jozsef

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a problem-solving test that deals with the regulation of the "trp" operon of "Escherichia coli." Two mutants of this operon are described: in mutant A, the operator region of the operon carries a point mutation so that it is unable to carry out its function; mutant B expresses a "trp" repressor protein unable to bind…

  20. Facilitating problem solving in high school chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabel, Dorothy L.; Sherwood, Robert D.

    The major purpose for conducting this study was to determine whether certain instructional strategies were superior to others in teaching high school chemistry students problem solving. The effectiveness of four instructional strategies for teaching problem solving to students of various proportional reasoning ability, verbal and visual preference, and mathematics anxiety were compared in this aptitude by treatment interaction study. The strategies used were the factor-label method, analogies, diagrams, and proportionality. Six hundred and nine high school students in eight schools were randomly assigned to one of four teaching strategies within each classroom. Students used programmed booklets to study the mole concept, the gas laws, stoichiometry, and molarity. Problem-solving ability was measured by a series of immediate posttests, delayed posttests and the ACS-NSTA Examination in High School Chemistry. Results showed that mathematics anxiety is negatively correlated with science achievement and that problem solving is dependent on students' proportional reasoning ability. The factor-label method was found to be the most desirable method and proportionality the least desirable method for teaching the mole concept. However, the proportionality method was best for teaching the gas laws. Several second-order interactions were found to be significant when mathematics anxiety was one of the aptitudes involved.

  1. Probelm Solving in Pre-Operational Youngsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zetlin, Andrea G.

    1981-01-01

    The problem solving behavior of three groups of trainable retarded youngsters (N=54) and three groups of intellectually average children (N=54) of comparable mental age was examined to determine individual differences in task performance within and between populations and the effect of prompting cues on the performance of those students who do not…

  2. The art and science of problem solving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we will document that real-life problem solving in complex situations demands both rational (scientific) and intuitive (artistic) thinking. First, the concepts of art and science will be discussed; differences and similarities will be enhanced. Thereafter the concept of group problem...

  3. Quantum Algorithm to Solve Satisfiability Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Mao, Wenjin

    2004-01-01

    A new quantum algorithm is proposed to solve Satisfiability(SAT) problems by taking advantage of non-unitary transformation in ground state quantum computer. The energy gap scale of the ground state quantum computer is analyzed for 3-bit Exact Cover problems. The time cost of this algorithm on general SAT problems is discussed.

  4. Instruction Emphasizing Effort Improves Physics Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Daoquan

    2012-01-01

    Effectively using strategies to solve complex problems is an important educational goal and is implicated in successful academic performance. However, people often do not spontaneously use the effective strategies unless they are motivated to do so. The present study was designed to test whether educating students about the importance of effort in…

  5. Should Children Learn to Solve Problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watras, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    In this comparative essay, the author discusses the opposing educational theories of John Dewey and Gregory Bateson. While Dewey believed that the scientific method was the dominant method of solving problems and thereby acquiring knowledge that mattered, Bateson warned that this one-sided approach would lead to actions that could destroy the…

  6. Insightful problem solving in an Asian elephant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foerder, Preston; Galloway, Marie; Barthel, Tony; Moore, Donald E; Reiss, Diana

    2011-01-01

    The "aha" moment or the sudden arrival of the solution to a problem is a common human experience. Spontaneous problem solving without evident trial and error behavior in humans and other animals has been referred to as insight. Surprisingly, elephants, thought to be highly intelligent, have failed to exhibit insightful problem solving in previous cognitive studies. We tested whether three Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) would use sticks or other objects to obtain food items placed out-of-reach and overhead. Without prior trial and error behavior, a 7-year-old male Asian elephant showed spontaneous problem solving by moving a large plastic cube, on which he then stood, to acquire the food. In further testing he showed behavioral flexibility, using this technique to reach other items and retrieving the cube from various locations to use as a tool to acquire food. In the cube's absence, he generalized this tool utilization technique to other objects and, when given smaller objects, stacked them in an attempt to reach the food. The elephant's overall behavior was consistent with the definition of insightful problem solving. Previous failures to demonstrate this ability in elephants may have resulted not from a lack of cognitive ability but from the presentation of tasks requiring trunk-held sticks as potential tools, thereby interfering with the trunk's use as a sensory organ to locate the targeted food. PMID:21876741

  7. Insightful problem solving in an Asian elephant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preston Foerder

    Full Text Available The "aha" moment or the sudden arrival of the solution to a problem is a common human experience. Spontaneous problem solving without evident trial and error behavior in humans and other animals has been referred to as insight. Surprisingly, elephants, thought to be highly intelligent, have failed to exhibit insightful problem solving in previous cognitive studies. We tested whether three Asian elephants (Elephas maximus would use sticks or other objects to obtain food items placed out-of-reach and overhead. Without prior trial and error behavior, a 7-year-old male Asian elephant showed spontaneous problem solving by moving a large plastic cube, on which he then stood, to acquire the food. In further testing he showed behavioral flexibility, using this technique to reach other items and retrieving the cube from various locations to use as a tool to acquire food. In the cube's absence, he generalized this tool utilization technique to other objects and, when given smaller objects, stacked them in an attempt to reach the food. The elephant's overall behavior was consistent with the definition of insightful problem solving. Previous failures to demonstrate this ability in elephants may have resulted not from a lack of cognitive ability but from the presentation of tasks requiring trunk-held sticks as potential tools, thereby interfering with the trunk's use as a sensory organ to locate the targeted food.

  8. BOO-1137-AN EXTREMELY METAL-POOR STAR IN THE ULTRA-FAINT DWARF SPHEROIDAL GALAXY BOOeTES I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present high-resolution (R ∼ 40,000), high-signal-to-noise ratio (20-90) spectra of an extremely metal-poor giant star Boo-1137 in the 'ultra-faint' dwarf spheroidal galaxy (dSph) Booetes I, absolute magnitude MV ∼ -6.3. We derive an iron abundance of [Fe/H] = -3.7, making this the most metal-poor star as yet identified in an ultra-faint dSph. Our derived effective temperature and gravity are consistent with its identification as a red giant in Booetes I. Abundances for a further 15 elements have also been determined. Comparison of the relative abundances, [X/Fe], with those of the extremely metal-poor red giants of the Galactic halo shows that Boo-1137 is 'normal' with respect to C and N, the odd-Z elements Na and Al, the iron-peak elements, and the neutron-capture elements Sr and Ba, in comparison with the bulk of the Milky Way halo population having [Fe/H] ∼<-3.0. The α-elements Mg, Si, Ca, and Ti are all higher by Δ[X/Fe] ∼ 0.2 than the average halo values. Monte Carlo analysis indicates that Δ[α/Fe] values this large are expected with a probability ∼0.02. The elemental abundance pattern in Boo-1137 suggests inhomogeneous chemical evolution, consistent with the wide internal spread in iron abundances we previously reported. The similarity of most of the Boo-1137 relative abundances with respect to halo values, and the fact that the α-elements are all offset by a similar small amount from the halo averages, points to the same underlying galaxy-scale stellar initial mass function, but that Boo-1137 likely originated in a star-forming region where the abundances reflect either poor mixing of supernova (SN) ejecta, or poor sampling of the SN progenitor mass range, or both.

  9. Infrared-faint radio sources remain undetected at far-infrared wavelengths. Deep photometric observations using the Herschel Space Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, A.; Norris, R. P.; Middelberg, E.; Spitler, L. R.; Leipski, C.; Parker, Q. A.

    2015-08-01

    Context. Showing 1.4 GHz flux densities in the range of a few to a few tens of mJy, infrared-faint radio sources (IFRS) are a type of galaxy characterised by faint or absent near-infrared counterparts and consequently extreme radio-to-infrared flux density ratios up to several thousand. Recent studies showed that IFRS are radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at redshifts ≳2, potentially linked to high-redshift radio galaxies (HzRGs). Aims: This work explores the far-infrared emission of IFRS, providing crucial information on the star forming and AGN activity of IFRS. Furthermore, the data enable examining the putative relationship between IFRS and HzRGs and testing whether IFRS are more distant or fainter siblings of these massive galaxies. Methods: A sample of six IFRS was observed with the Herschel Space Observatory between 100 μm and 500 μm. Using these results, we constrained the nature of IFRS by modelling their broad-band spectral energy distribution (SED). Furthermore, we set an upper limit on their infrared SED and decomposed their emission into contributions from an AGN and from star forming activity. Results: All six observed IFRS were undetected in all five Herschel far-infrared channels (stacking limits: σ = 0.74 mJy at 100 μm, σ = 3.45 mJy at 500 μm). Based on our SED modelling, we ruled out the following objects to explain the photometric characteristics of IFRS: (a) known radio-loud quasars and compact steep-spectrum sources at any redshift; (b) starburst galaxies with and without an AGN and Seyfert galaxies at any redshift, even if the templates were modified; and (c) known HzRGs at z ≲ 10.5. We find that the IFRS analysed in this work can only be explained by objects that fulfil the selection criteria of HzRGs. More precisely, IFRS could be (a) known HzRGs at very high redshifts (z ≳ 10.5); (b) low-luminosity siblings of HzRGs with additional dust obscuration at lower redshifts; (c) scaled or unscaled versions of Cygnus A at any

  10. Colorado Assessment of Problem Solving (CAPS) -- Identifying student's problem solving skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Wendy; Wieman, Carl

    2009-05-01

    Problem solving is central to any physics curriculum and physics educators have put extensive effort into understanding successful problem solving; however, there is currently no efficient way to evaluate problem solving skill. Attempts have been made in the past; however, knowledge of the principles required to solve the subject problem are so absolutely critical that they completely overshadow any other skills students may use when solving a problem. The work presented here is unique because CAPS removes the requirement that the student already have a grasp of physics concepts. CAPS has been developed and validated at Colorado and measures a person's competence in 44 separate skills that are used when solving a wide range of in-depth problems including classical mechanics and quantum mechanics problems. Understanding the specific processes that impact how a person solves a problem identifies which components are specific to physics and those that transfer across discipline, and provides insight for improved methods for teaching. 1. Supported in part by funding from National Science Foundation

  11. The Stellar Initial Mass Function of Ultra-Faint Dwarf Galaxies: Evidence for IMF Variations with Galactic Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Geha, M; Tumlinson, J; Kalirai, J; Simon, J D; Kirby, E; VandenBerg, D; Munoz, R M; Avila, R; Guhathakurta, P; Ferguson, H

    2013-01-01

    We present constraints on the stellar initial mass function (IMF) in two ultra-faint dwarf (UFD) galaxies, Hercules and Leo IV, based on deep HST/ACS imaging. The Hercules and Leo IV galaxies are extremely low luminosity (M_V = -6.2, -5.5), metal-poor (= -2.4, -2.5) systems that have old stellar populations (> 11 Gyr). Because they have long relaxation times, we can directly measure the low-mass stellar IMF by counting stars below the main-sequence turnoff without correcting for dynamical evolution. Over the stellar mass range probed by our data, 0.52 - 0.77 Msun, the IMF is best fit by a power-law slope of alpha = 1.2^{+0.4}_{-0.5} for Hercules and alpha = 1.3 +/- 0.8 for Leo IV. For Hercules, the IMF slope is more shallow than a Salpeter IMF (alpha=2.35) at the 5.8-sigma level, and a Kroupa IMF (alpha=2.3 above 0.5 Msun) at 5.4-sigma level. We simultaneously fit for the binary fraction, finding f_binary = 0.47^{+0.16}_{-0.14} for Hercules, and 0.47^{+0.37}_{-0.17} for Leo IV. The UFD binary fractions are co...

  12. The Nature of Faint Blue Stars in the PHL and Ton Catalogues based on Digital Sky Surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Andernach, H; W., W Copo Cordova; Santiago-Bautista, I del C

    2015-01-01

    We determined accurate positions for 3000 of the "faint blue stars" in the PHL (Palomar-Haro-Luyten) and Ton/TonS catalogues. These were published from 1957 to 1962, and, aimed at finding new white dwarfs, provide approximate positions for about 10750 blue stellar objects. Some of these "stars" had become known as quasars, a type of objects unheard-of before 1963. We derived subarcsec positions from a comparison of published finding charts with images from the first-epoch Digitized Sky Survey. Numerous objects are now well known, but unfortunately neither their PHL or Ton numbers, nor their discoverers, are recognized in current databases. A comparison with modern radio, IR, UV and X-ray surveys leads us to suggest that the fraction of extragalactic objects in the PHL and Ton catalogues is at least 15 per cent. However, because we failed to locate the original PHL plates or finding charts, it may be impossible to correctly identify the remaining 7726 PHL objects.

  13. Faint Ultraviolet Objects in the Core of M13 Optical Counterparts of the Low Luminosity X-ray Source?

    CERN Document Server

    Ferraro, F R; Pecci, F F; Rood, R T; Dorman, B; Ferraro, Francesco R.; Paltrinieri, Barbara; Pecci, Flavio Fusi; Rood, Robert T.; Dorman, Ben

    1997-01-01

    The core of the galactic globular cluster M13 (NGC 6205) has been observed with WFPC2 on the Hubble Space Telescope through visual, blue and mid- and far-UV filters in a programme devoted to study the UV population in a sample of Galactic globular clusters. In the UV Color Magnitude Diagrams derived from the HST images we have discovered three faint objects with a strong UV excess, which lie significantly outside the main loci defined by more than 12,000 normal cluster stars. The positions of two of the UV stars are nearly coincident (7" & 1") to those of a low luminosity X-ray source recently found in the core of M13 and to a 3.5-sigma peak in the X-ray contour map. We suggest that the UV stars are physically connected to the X-ray emission. The UV stars are very similar to the quiescent nova in the globular cluster M80, and they might be a, perhaps new, subclass of cataclysmic variable.

  14. THE DISTRIBUTION OF FAINT SATELLITES AROUND CENTRAL GALAXIES IN THE CANADA-FRANCE-HAWAII TELESCOPE LEGACY SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the radial number density profile and the abundance distribution of faint satellites around central galaxies in the low-redshift universe using the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) Legacy Survey. We consider three samples of central galaxies with magnitudes of M r = –21, –22, and –23 selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey group catalog of Yang et al. The satellite distribution around these central galaxies is obtained by cross-correlating these galaxies with the photometric catalog of the CFHT Legacy Survey. The projected radial number density of the satellites obeys a power-law form with the best-fit logarithmic slope of –1.05, independent of both the central galaxy luminosity and the satellite luminosity. The projected cross-correlation function between central and satellite galaxies exhibits a non-monotonic trend with satellite luminosity. It is most pronounced for central galaxies with M r = –21, where the decreasing trend of clustering amplitude with satellite luminosity is reversed when satellites are fainter than central galaxies by more than 2 mag. A comparison with the satellite luminosity functions in the Milky Way (MW) and M31 shows that the MW/M31 system has about twice as many satellites as around a typical central galaxy of similar luminosity. The implications for theoretical models are briefly discussed.

  15. A Common Origin for Globular Clusters and Ultra-faint Dwarfs in Simulations of the First Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Ricotti, Massimo; Gnedin, Nickolay Y

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the first in a series on galaxy formation before reionization, we focus on understanding what determines the size and morphology of stellar objects in the first low mass galaxies, using parsec- scale cosmological simulations performed with an adaptive mesh hydrodynamics code. Although the dense gas in which stars are formed tends to have a disk structure, stars are found in spheroids with little rotation. Halos with masses between 10^6 M_sun and 5x10^8 M_sun form stars stochastically, with stellar masses in the range 10^4 M_sun to 2x10^6 M_sun. Nearly independent of stellar mass, we observe a large range of half-light radii for the stars, from a few parsecs to a few hundred parsecs and surface brightnesses and mass-to-light ratios ranging from those typical of globular clusters to ultra-faint dwarfs. In our simulations, stars form in dense stellar clusters with high gas-to-star conversion efficiencies and rather uniform metallicities. A fraction of these clusters remain bound after the gas is r...

  16. Infrared-Faint Radio Sources: A Cosmological View - AGN Number Counts, the Cosmic X-Ray Background and SMBH Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Zinn, Peter-Christian; Ibar, Edo

    2011-01-01

    Context. Infrared Faint Radio Sources (IFRS) are extragalactic emitters clearly detected at radio wavelengths but barely detected or undetected at optical and infrared wavelengths, with 5 sigma sensitivities as low as 1 uJy. Aims. Recent SED-modelling and analysis of their radio properties shows that IFRS are consistent with a population of (potentially extremely obscured) high-redshift AGN at 3

  17. Detection of Faint BLR Components in the Starburst/Seyfert Galaxy NGC 6221 and Measure of the Central BH Mass

    CERN Document Server

    La Franca, Fabio; Ricci, Federica; Bianchi, Stefano; Marconi, Alessandro; Sani, Eleonora; Vignali, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade, using single epoch virial based techniques in the optical band, it has been possible to measure the central black hole mass on large AGN1 samples. However these measurements use the width of the broad line region as a proxy of the virial velocities and are therefore difficult to be carried out on those obscured (type 2) or low luminosity AGN where the nuclear component does not dominate in the optical. Here we present the optical and near infrared spectrum of the starburst/Seyfert galaxy NGC 6221, observed with X-shooter/VLT. Previous observations of NGC 6221 in the X-ray band show an absorbed (N_H=8.5 +/- 0.4 x 10^21 cm^-2) spectrum typical of a type 2 AGN with luminosity log(L_14-195 keV) = 42.05 erg/s, while in the optical band its spectrum is typical of a reddened (A_V=3) starburst. Our deep X-shooter/VLT observations have allowed us to detect faint broad emission in the H_alpha, HeI and Pa_beta lines (FWHM ~1400-2300 km/s) confirming previous studies indicating that NGC 6221 is a redd...

  18. Properties of galaxies at the faint end of the Hα luminosity function at z ~ 0.62

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Guijarro, Carlos; Gallego, Jesús; Villar, Víctor; Rodríguez-Muñoz, Lucía; Clément, Benjamin; Cuby, Jean-Gabriel

    2016-07-01

    Context. Studies measuring the star formation rate density, luminosity function, and properties of star-forming galaxies are numerous. However, it exists a gap at 0.5 forming galaxies reveals a robust faint-end slope of the luminosity function α = - 1.46-0.08+0.16 . The derived star formation rate density at z ~ 0.62 is ρSFR = 0.036-0.008+0.012 M⊙ yr-1 Mpc-3 . The sample is mainly composed of disks, but an important contribution of compact galaxies with Sérsic indexes n ~ 2 display the highest specific star formation rates. Conclusions: The luminosity function at z ~ 0.62 from our ultra-deep data points towards a steeper α when an individual extinction correction for each object is applied. Compact galaxies are low-mass, low-luminosity, and starburst-dominated objects with a light profile in an intermediate stage from early to late types. Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere (ESO), Chile, Prog-Id 181.A-0485(A).

  19. A Low-Mass Main-Sequence Star and Accretion Disk in the Very Faint Transient M15 X-3

    CERN Document Server

    Arnason, Robin; Heinke, Craig; Cohn, Haldan; Lugger, Phyllis

    2015-01-01

    We present near-simultaneous Chandra/HST observations of the very faint ($L_{x} < 10^{36}$ erg s$^{-1}$) X-ray transient source M15 X-3, as well as unpublished archival Chandra observations of M15 X-3. The Chandra observations constrain the luminosity of M15 X-3 to be $< 10^{34}$ erg s$^{-1}$ in all observed epochs. The X-ray spectrum shows evidence of curvature, and prefers a fit to a broken power-law with break energy $E_{\\rm break} = 2.7^{+0.4}_{-0.6}$ keV, and power law indices of $\\Gamma_{1} = 1.3^{+0.1}_{-0.2}$ and $\\Gamma_{2} = 1.9^{+0.2}_{-0.2}$ over a single power law. We fit our new F438W ($B$), F606W (broad $V$), and F814W ($I$) HST data on the blue optical counterpart with a model for an accretion disk and a metal-poor main sequence star. From this fit, we determine the companion to be consistent with a main sequence star of mass $0.440^{+0.035}_{-0.060}$ $M_{\\odot}$ in a $\\sim$4-hour orbit. X-ray irradiation of the companion is likely to be a factor in the optical emission from the system, ...

  20. A bag of tricks: Proper motions of Galactic stars to identify the Hercules ultra-faint dwarf galaxy members

    CERN Document Server

    Fabrizio, M; Brocato, E; Bellini, A; Libralato, M; Testa, V; Cantiello, M; Musella, I; Clementini, G; Carini, R; Marconi, M; Piotto, G; Ripepi, V; Buonanno, R; Sani, E; Speziali, R

    2014-01-01

    Hercules is the prototype of the ultra-faint dwarf (UFD) galaxies. To date, there are still no firm constraints on its total luminosity, due to the difficulty of disentangling Hercules bona-fide stars from the severe Galactic field contamination. In order to better constrain Hercules properties we aim at removing foreground and background contaminants in the galaxy field using the proper motions of the Milky Way stars and the colour-colour diagram. We have obtained images of Hercules in the rSloan, BBessel and Uspec bands with the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) and LBC-BIN mode capabilities. The rSloan new data-set combined with data from the LBT archive span a time baseline of about 5 yr, allowing us to measure for the first time proper motions of stars in the Hercules direction. The Uspec data along with existing LBT photometry allowed us to use colour-colour diagram to further remove the field contamination. Thanks to a highly-accurate procedure to derive the rSloan-filter geometric distortion solution fo...

  1. A Mass-Dependent Yield Origin of Neutron-Capture Element Abundance Distributions in Ultra-Faint Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Duane M; Tumlinson, Jason; Sen, Bodhisattva; Simon, Joshua D

    2013-01-01

    One way to constrain the nature of the high-redshift progenitors of the Milky Way is to look at the low-metallicity stellar populations of the different Galactic components today. For example, high-resolution spectroscopy of very metal poor (VMP) stars demonstrates remarkable agreement between the distribution of [Ti/Fe] in the stellar populations of the Milky Way halo (MW) and ultra-faint dwarf (UFD) galaxies. In contrast, for the neutron capture (nc) abundance ratio distributions [(Sr,Ba)/Fe], the peak of the small UFD sample (6 stars) exhibits a signicant under-abundance relative to the VMP stars in the larger MW halo sample (~ 300 stars). We present a simple scenario that can simultaneously explain these similarities and differences by assuming: (i) that the MW VMP stars were predominately enriched by a prior generation of stars which possessed a higher total mass than the prior generation of stars that enriched the UFD VMP stars; and (ii) a much stronger mass-dependent yield (MDY) for nc-elements than fo...

  2. Galaxy evolution and large-scale structure in the far-infrared. II. The IRAS faint source survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The new IRAS Faint Source Survey data base is used to confirm the conclusion of Hacking et al. (1987) that the 60 micron source counts fainter than about 0.5 Jy lie in excess of predictions based on nonevolving model populations. The existence of an anisotropy between the northern and southern Galactic caps discovered by Rowan-Robinson et al. (1986) and Needham and Rowan-Robinson (1988) is confirmed, and it is found to extend below their sensitivity limit to about 0.3 Jy in 60 micron flux density. The count anisotropy at f(60) greater than 0.3 can be interpreted reasonably as due to the Local Supercluster; however, no one structure accounting for the fainter anisotropy can be easily identified in either optical or far-IR two-dimensional sky distributions. The far-IR galaxy sky distributions are considerably smoother than distributions from the published optical galaxy catalogs. It is likely that structure of the large size discussed here have been discriminated against in earlier studies due to insufficient volume sampling. 105 refs

  3. Constraints on photoionization feedback from number counts of ultra-faint high-redshift galaxies in the Frontier Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Castellano, M; Ferrara, A; Merlin, E; Fontana, A; Amorín, R; Grazian, A; Mármol-Queralto, E; Michałowski, M J; Mortlock, A; Paris, D; Parsa, S; Pilo, S; Santini, P

    2016-01-01

    We exploit a sample of ultra-faint high-redshift galaxies (demagnified HST $H_{160}$ magnitude $>30$) in the Frontier Fields clusters A2744 and M0416 to constrain a theoretical model for the UV luminosity function (LF) in the presence of photoionization feedback. The objects have been selected on the basis of accurate photometric redshifts computed from multi-band photometry including 7 HST bands and deep $K_s$ and IRAC observations. Magnification is computed on an object-by-object basis from all available lensing models of the two clusters. We take into account source detection completeness as a function of luminosity and size, magnification effects and systematics in the lens modeling of the clusters under investigation. We find that our sample of high-$z$ galaxies constrain the cut-off halo circular velocity below which star-formation is suppressed by photo-ionization feedback to $v_c^{\\rm cut} < 50$ km s$^{-1}$. This circular velocity corresponds to a halo mass of $\\approx5.6\\times10^9~M_\\odot$ and $\\a...

  4. Another Faint UV Object Associated with a Globular Cluster X-Ray Source The Case of M92

    CERN Document Server

    Ferraro, F R; Rood, R T; Pecci, F F; Buonanno, R; Ferraro, Francesco R.; Paltrinieri, Barbara; Rood, Robert T.; Pecci, Flavio Fusi; Buonanno, Roberto

    2000-01-01

    The core of the metal poor Galactic Globular Cluster M92 (NGC 6341) has been observed with WFPC2 on the Hubble Space Telescope through visual, blue and mid-UV filters in a program devoted to study the evolved stellar population in a selected sample of Galactic Globular Clusters. In the UV $(m_{255}, m_{255}-U)$ color magnitude diagram we have discovered a faint `UV-dominant' object. This star lies within the error box of a Low Luminosity Globular Cluster X-ray source (LLGCX) recently found in the core of M92. The properties of the UV star discovered in M92 are very similar to those of other UV stars found in the core of some clusters (M13, 47 Tuc, M80, etc)---all of them are brighter in the UV than in the visible and are located in the vicinity of a LLGCX. We suggest that these stars are a new sub-class of cataclysmic variables.

  5. Chemical compositions of six metal-poor stars in the ultra-faint dwarf spheroidal galaxy Bo\\"otes I

    CERN Document Server

    Ishigaki, Miho N; Arimoto, Nobuo; Okamoto, Sakurako

    2014-01-01

    Ultra-faint dwarf galaxies recently discovered around the Milky Way (MW) contain extremely metal-poor stars, and might represent the building blocks of low-metallicity components of the MW. Among them, the Bo\\"otes I dwarf spheroidal galaxy is of particular interest because of its exclusively old stellar population. We determine chemical compositions of six red giant stars in Bo\\"otes I, based on the high-resolution spectra obtained with the High Dispersion Spectrograph mounted on the Subaru Telescope. Abundances of 12 elements, including C, Na, alpha, Fe-peak, and neutron capture elements, were determined for the sample stars. The abundance results were compared to those in field MW halo stars previously obtained using an abundance analysis technique similar to the present study. We confirm the low metallicity of Boo-094 ([Fe/H]=-3.4). Except for this star, the abundance ratios ([X/Fe]) of elements lighter than zinc are generally homogeneous with small scatter around the mean values in the metallicities span...

  6. Portrait of a dark horse: photometric properties and kinematics of the ultra-faint Milky Way satellite Pegasus III

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Dongwon; Geha, Marla; Chiti, Anirudh; Milone, Antonino P; Mackey, Dougal; Da Costa, Gary; Frebel, Anna; Conn, Blair

    2016-01-01

    Pegasus III (Peg III) is one of the few known ultra-faint stellar systems in the outer halo of the Milky Way. We present the results from a follow-up campaign with Magellan/IMACS and Keck/DEIMOS. Deep stellar photometry down to $r_0\\approx 26$ mag has allowed accurate measurements of its photometric and structural properties. The color-magnitude diagram of Peg III confirms that the stellar system is well described by an old ($\\sim$13.5 Gyr), metal-poor ($\\langle\\lbrack$Fe/H$\\rbrack\\rangle\\sim -2.5$ dex) and $\\alpha$-enhanced ([$\\alpha$/Fe]$\\sim+0.4$ dex.) stellar population at a heliocentric distance of $215\\pm12$ kpc. The revised half-light radius $r_{h}=53\\pm14$ pc, ellipticity $\\epsilon=0.38^{+0.22}_{-0.38}$, and total luminosity $M_{V}=-3.4\\pm0.4$ are in good agreement with the values quoted in our previous paper. We further report on the spectroscopic identification of seven, possibly eight member stars of Peg III. Peg III has a systemic velocity of $-222.9 \\pm 2.6$ km s$^{-1}$ and a velocity dispersion ...

  7. Deflagrations in hybrid CONe white dwarfs: a route to explain the faint Type Iax supernova 2008ha

    CERN Document Server

    Kromer, M; Pakmor, R; Ruiter, A J; Hillebrandt, W; Marquardt, K S; Roepke, F K; Seitenzahl, I R; Sim, S A; Taubenberger, S

    2015-01-01

    Stellar evolution models predict the existence of hybrid white dwarfs (WDs) with a carbon-oxygen core surrounded by an oxygen-neon mantle. Being born with masses ~1.1 Msun, hybrid WDs in a binary system may easily approach the Chandrasekhar mass (MCh) by accretion and give rise to a thermonuclear explosion. Here, we investigate an off-centre deflagration in a near-MCh hybrid WD under the assumption that nuclear burning only occurs in carbon-rich material. Performing hydrodynamics simulations of the explosion and detailed nucleosynthesis post-processing calculations, we find that only 0.014 Msun of material is ejected while the remainder of the mass stays bound. The ejecta consist predominantly of iron-group elements, O, C, Si and S. We also calculate synthetic observables for our model and find reasonable agreement with the faint Type Iax SN 2008ha. This shows for the first time that deflagrations in near-MCh WDs can in principle explain the observed diversity of Type Iax supernovae. Leaving behind a near-MCh...

  8. Pervasive faint Fe XIX emission from a solar active region observed with EUNIS-13: Evidence for nanoflare heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brosius, Jeffrey W. [Catholic University of America at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Solar Physics Laboratory, Code 671, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Daw, Adrian N. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Solar Physics Laboratory, Code 671, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Rabin, D. M., E-mail: Jeffrey.W.Brosius@nasa.gov [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Heliophysics Science Division, Code 670, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2014-08-01

    We present spatially resolved EUV spectroscopic measurements of pervasive, faint Fe XIX 592.2 Å line emission in an active region observed during the 2013 April 23 flight of the Extreme Ultraviolet Normal Incidence Spectrograph (EUNIS-13) sounding rocket instrument. With cooled detectors, high sensitivity, and high spectral resolution, EUNIS-13 resolves the lines of Fe XIX at 592.2 Å (formed at temperature T ≈ 8.9 MK) and Fe XII at 592.6 Å (T ≈ 1.6 MK). The Fe XIX line emission, observed over an area in excess of 4920 arcsec{sup 2} (2.58 × 10{sup 9} km{sup 2}, more than 60% of the active region), provides strong evidence for the nanoflare heating model of the solar corona. No GOES events occurred in the region less than 2 hr before the rocket flight, but a microflare was observed north and east of the region with RHESSI and EUNIS during the flight. The absence of significant upward velocities anywhere in the region, particularly the microflare, indicates that the pervasive Fe XIX emission is not propelled outward from the microflare site, but is most likely attributed to localized heating (not necessarily due to reconnection) consistent with the nanoflare heating model of the solar corona. Assuming ionization equilibrium we estimate Fe XIX/Fe XII emission measure ratios of ∼0.076 just outside the AR core and ∼0.59 in the core.

  9. The faint source population at 15.7 GHz - III. A high-frequency study of HERGs and LERGs

    CERN Document Server

    Whittam, Imogen H; Green, David A; Jarvis, Matt J

    2016-01-01

    A complete sample of 96 faint ($S > 0.5$ mJy) radio galaxies is selected from the Tenth Cambridge (10C) survey at 15.7~GHz. Optical spectra are used to classify 17 of the sources as high-excitation or low-excitation radio galaxies (HERGs and LERGs respectively), for the remaining sources three other methods are used; these are optical compactness, X-ray observations and mid-infrared colour--colour diagrams. 32 sources are HERGs and 35 are LERGs while the remaining 29 sources could not be classified. We find that the 10C HERGs tend to have higher 15.7-GHz flux densities, flatter spectra, smaller linear sizes and be found at higher redshifts than the LERGs. This suggests that the 10C HERGs are more core dominated than the LERGs. Lower-frequency radio images, linear sizes and spectral indices are used to classify the sources according to their radio morphology; 18 are Fanaroff and Riley type I or II sources, a further 13 show some extended emission, and the remaining 65 sources are compact and are referred to as...

  10. Faint COSMOS AGN at z~3.3 - I. Black Hole Properties and Constraints on Early Black Hole Growth

    CERN Document Server

    Trakhtenbrot, Benny; Urry, C Megan; Marchesi, Stefano; Schawinski, Kevin; Elvis, Martin; Rosario, David; Suh, Hyewon; Mejia-Restrepo, Julian; Simmons, Brooke

    2015-01-01

    We present new Keck/MOSFIRE K-band spectroscopy for a sample of 14 faint, X-ray selected Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs) in the COSMOS field. The data covers the spectral region surrounding the broad Balmer emission lines, which enables the estimation of black hole masses (M_BH) and accretion rates (in terms of L/L_Edd). We focus on ten AGN at z~3.3, where the we observe the Hbeta spectral region, while for the other four z~2.4 sources we use the Halpha broad emission line. Compared with previous detailed studies of unobscured AGNs at these high redshifts, our sources are fainter by an order of magnitude, corresponding to number densities of order ~10^-6--10^-5 Mpc^-3. The lower luminosities also allow for a robust identification of the host galaxies emission, necessary to obtain reliable intrinsic AGN luminosities, BH masses and accretion rates. We find the AGNs in our sample to be powered by SMBHs with a typical mass of M_BH~6*10^8 M_Sol - significantly lower than the higher-luminosity, rarer quasars reported...

  11. Detection of satellite remnants in the Galactic Halo with Gaia III. Detection limits for Ultra Faint Dwarf Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Antoja, Teresa; Aguilar, Luis; Figueras, Francesca; Antiche, Erika; Hernandez-Perez, Fabiola; Brown, Anthony; Valenzuela, Octavio; Aparicio, Antonio; Hidalgo, Sebastian; Velazquez, Hector

    2015-01-01

    We present a method to identify Ultra Faint Dwarf Galaxy (UFDG) candidates in the halo of the Milky Way using the future Gaia catalogue and we explore its detection limits and completeness. The method is based on the Wavelet Transform and searches for over-densities in the combined space of sky coordinates and proper motions, using kinematics in the search for the first time. We test the method with a Gaia mock catalogue that has the Gaia Universe Model Snapshot (GUMS) as a background, and use a library of around 30 000 UFDGs simulated as Plummer spheres with a single stellar population. For the UFDGs we use a wide range of structural and orbital parameters that go beyond the range spanned by real systems, where some UFDGs may remain undetected. We characterize the detection limits as function of the number of observable stars by Gaia in the UFDGs with respect to that of the background and their apparent sizes in the sky and proper motion planes. We find that the addition of proper motions in the search impro...

  12. Pervasive faint Fe XIX emission from a solar active region observed with EUNIS-13: Evidence for nanoflare heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present spatially resolved EUV spectroscopic measurements of pervasive, faint Fe XIX 592.2 Å line emission in an active region observed during the 2013 April 23 flight of the Extreme Ultraviolet Normal Incidence Spectrograph (EUNIS-13) sounding rocket instrument. With cooled detectors, high sensitivity, and high spectral resolution, EUNIS-13 resolves the lines of Fe XIX at 592.2 Å (formed at temperature T ≈ 8.9 MK) and Fe XII at 592.6 Å (T ≈ 1.6 MK). The Fe XIX line emission, observed over an area in excess of 4920 arcsec2 (2.58 × 109 km2, more than 60% of the active region), provides strong evidence for the nanoflare heating model of the solar corona. No GOES events occurred in the region less than 2 hr before the rocket flight, but a microflare was observed north and east of the region with RHESSI and EUNIS during the flight. The absence of significant upward velocities anywhere in the region, particularly the microflare, indicates that the pervasive Fe XIX emission is not propelled outward from the microflare site, but is most likely attributed to localized heating (not necessarily due to reconnection) consistent with the nanoflare heating model of the solar corona. Assuming ionization equilibrium we estimate Fe XIX/Fe XII emission measure ratios of ∼0.076 just outside the AR core and ∼0.59 in the core.

  13. Recent Arrival of Faint Cluster Galaxies on the Red-sequence: Luminosity Functions from 119 square degrees of CFHTLS

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Ting; Balogh, Michael L; Bognat, Adam

    2009-01-01

    The global star formation rate has decreased significantly since z ~ 1, for reasons that are not well understood. Red-sequence galaxies, dominating in galaxy clusters, represent the population that have had their star formation shut off, and may therefore be the key to this problem. In this work, we select 127 rich galaxy clusters at 0.17faint end of the LF is very sensitive to how red-sequence galaxies are selected, and an optimal way to minimise the contamination from the blue cloud is to mirror galaxies on the redder side of the colour-magnitude relation (CMR). The LFs of our sample have a significant inflexion centred at Mr' ~- 18.5, suggesting a mixture of two populations. Combining our survey with low redshift samples constructed from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, we show that there is no strong evolu...

  14. Interactive Problem Solving Tutorials Through Visual Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Undreiu, Lucian; Schuster, David; Undreiu, Adriana

    2008-10-01

    We have used LabVIEW visual programming to build an interactive tutorial to promote conceptual understanding in physics problem solving. This programming environment is able to offer a web-accessible problem solving experience that enables students to work at their own pace and receive feedback. Intuitive graphical symbols, modular structures and the ability to create templates are just a few of the advantages this software has to offer. The architecture of an application can be designed in a way that allows instructors with little knowledge of LabVIEW to easily personalize it. Both the physics solution and the interactive pedagogy can be visually programmed in LabVIEW. Our physics pedagogy approach is that of cognitive apprenticeship, in that the tutorial guides students to develop conceptual understanding and physical insight into phenomena, rather than purely formula-based solutions. We demonstrate how this model is reflected in the design and programming of the interactive tutorials.

  15. How to Solve the Torus Puzzle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Nakamura

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider the following sliding puzzle called torus puzzle. In an m by n board, there are mn pieces numbered from 1 to mn. Initially, the pieces are placed in ascending order. Then they are scrambled by rotating the rows and columns without the player’s knowledge. The objective of the torus puzzle is to rearrange the pieces in ascending order by rotating the rows and columns. We provide a solution to this puzzle. In addition, we provide lower and upper bounds on the number of steps for solving the puzzle. Moreover, we consider a variant of the torus puzzle in which each piece is colored either black or white, and we present a hardness result for solving it.

  16. Solving Functional Constraints by Variable Substitution

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yuanlin

    2010-01-01

    Functional constraints and bi-functional constraints are an important constraint class in Constraint Programming (CP) systems, in particular for Constraint Logic Programming (CLP) systems. CP systems with finite domain constraints usually employ CSP-based solvers which use local consistency, for example, arc consistency. We introduce a new approach which is based instead on variable substitution. We obtain efficient algorithms for reducing systems involving functional and bi-functional constraints together with other non-functional constraints. It also solves globally any CSP where there exists a variable such that any other variable is reachable from it through a sequence of functional constraints. Our experiments on random problems show that variable elimination can significantly improve the efficiency of solving problems with functional constraints.

  17. Solving ptychography with a convex relaxation

    CERN Document Server

    Horstmeyer, Roarke; Ou, Xiaoze; Ames, Brendan; Tropp, Joel A; Yang, Changhuei

    2014-01-01

    Ptychography is a powerful computational imaging technique that transforms a collection of low-resolution images into a high-resolution sample reconstruction. Unfortunately, algorithms that are currently used to solve this reconstruction problem lack stability, robustness, and theoretical guarantees. Recently, convex optimization algorithms have improved the accuracy and reliability of several related reconstruction efforts. This paper proposes a convex formulation of the ptychography problem. This formulation has no local minima, it can be solved using a wide range of algorithms, it can incorporate appropriate noise models, and it can include multiple a priori constraints. The paper considers a specific algorithm, based on low-rank factorization, whose runtime and memory usage are near-linear in the size of the output image. Experiments demonstrate that this approach offers a 25% lower background variance on average than alternating projections, the current standard algorithm for ptychographic reconstruction...

  18. Prospects of solving grand challenge problems

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, R

    1995-01-01

    The recent woes of the supercomputer industry and changes in federal funding have caused some scientists to re-evaluate the means by which they hope to solve Grand Challenge problems. I evaluate the potential of Massively Parallel Processors (MPP) within this context and the state of today's MPP. I stress that for solving large-scale problems MPP are crucial and that it is essential to seek a balance between CPU performance, memory access time, inter-node communications, and I/O. To achieve this it is important to preserve certain characteristics of the hardware while selecting the hottest processor to design the machine around. I emphasize that for long term stability and growth of parallel computing priority should be given to standardizing software so that the same code can run on different platforms and on machines ranging from clusters of workstations to MPP.

  19. On Using Unsatisfiability for Solving Maximum Satisfiability

    CERN Document Server

    Marques-Silva, Joao

    2007-01-01

    Maximum Satisfiability (MaxSAT) is a well-known optimization pro- blem, with several practical applications. The most widely known MAXS AT algorithms are ineffective at solving hard problems instances from practical application domains. Recent work proposed using efficient Boolean Satisfiability (SAT) solvers for solving the MaxSAT problem, based on identifying and eliminating unsatisfiable subformulas. However, these algorithms do not scale in practice. This paper analyzes existing MaxSAT algorithms based on unsatisfiable subformula identification. Moreover, the paper proposes a number of key optimizations to these MaxSAT algorithms and a new alternative algorithm. The proposed optimizations and the new algorithm provide significant performance improvements on MaxSAT instances from practical applications. Moreover, the efficiency of the new generation of unsatisfiability-based MaxSAT solvers becomes effectively indexed to the ability of modern SAT solvers to proving unsatisfiability and identifying unsatisfi...

  20. Learning Matlab a problem solving approach

    CERN Document Server

    Gander, Walter

    2015-01-01

    This comprehensive and stimulating introduction to Matlab, a computer language now widely used for technical computing, is based on an introductory course held at Qian Weichang College, Shanghai University, in the fall of 2014.  Teaching and learning a substantial programming language aren’t always straightforward tasks. Accordingly, this textbook is not meant to cover the whole range of this high-performance technical programming environment, but to motivate first- and second-year undergraduate students in mathematics and computer science to learn Matlab by studying representative problems, developing algorithms and programming them in Matlab. While several topics are taken from the field of scientific computing, the main emphasis is on programming. A wealth of examples are completely discussed and solved, allowing students to learn Matlab by doing: by solving problems, comparing approaches and assessing the proposed solutions.

  1. DC-8 MTP calibration for SOLVE-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, M. J.

    2003-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) Microwave Temperature Profiler (MTP) was the only instrument making temperature measurements at and below flight level on the DC-8 during the SOLVE-2 campaign. Many years of careful comparison of MTP measurements with radiosondes near the DC-8 flight track have shown that the flight level temperature can be determined to an accuracy of 0.2K relative to radiosondes.

  2. Multiscale empirical interpolation for solving nonlinear PDEs

    KAUST Repository

    Calo, Victor M.

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we propose a multiscale empirical interpolation method for solving nonlinear multiscale partial differential equations. The proposed method combines empirical interpolation techniques and local multiscale methods, such as the Generalized Multiscale Finite Element Method (GMsFEM). To solve nonlinear equations, the GMsFEM is used to represent the solution on a coarse grid with multiscale basis functions computed offline. Computing the GMsFEM solution involves calculating the system residuals and Jacobians on the fine grid. We use empirical interpolation concepts to evaluate these residuals and Jacobians of the multiscale system with a computational cost which is proportional to the size of the coarse-scale problem rather than the fully-resolved fine scale one. The empirical interpolation method uses basis functions which are built by sampling the nonlinear function we want to approximate a limited number of times. The coefficients needed for this approximation are computed in the offline stage by inverting an inexpensive linear system. The proposed multiscale empirical interpolation techniques: (1) divide computing the nonlinear function into coarse regions; (2) evaluate contributions of nonlinear functions in each coarse region taking advantage of a reduced-order representation of the solution; and (3) introduce multiscale proper-orthogonal-decomposition techniques to find appropriate interpolation vectors. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods on several nonlinear multiscale PDEs that are solved with Newton\\'s methods and fully-implicit time marching schemes. Our numerical results show that the proposed methods provide a robust framework for solving nonlinear multiscale PDEs on a coarse grid with bounded error and significant computational cost reduction.

  3. New numerical methods for solving convection problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New methods for solving one-dimensional convection problems, have appeared recently: VAN LEER's generalization of GODUNOV'S method, BORIS and BOOK's SHASTA-FCT method, CHORIN and SOD's scheme, using a random method due to GLIMM. Its appears in a global analysis certain analogies between these methods. All of them can be interpreted as two-step schemes: a transport step and a projection step

  4. Solving the Price-Earnings Puzzle

    OpenAIRE

    Carl Chiarella; Shenhuai Gao

    2002-01-01

    Accounting and finance professionals have empirically known that in the long run stock prices are roughly proportional to earnings. However, econometric testing could not been able to verify this expected contribution of earnings to stock prices, thus formed the price-earnings (PE) puzzle in the accounting literature. This paper seeks to solve this puzzle by allowing the earnings response coefficient to be a variable instead of a constant, and shows that the PE puzzle turns out to be a phenom...

  5. Nature and Validity of Complex Problem Solving

    OpenAIRE

    Wüstenberg, Sascha

    2013-01-01

    This thesis investigates the nature and validity of complex problem solving (CPS). The main focus lies on analyses of three research questions dealing with CPS’ (1) internal structure, its (2) structural stability combined with comparisons of performance differences across groups, and its (3) construct validity. In previous research, results on CPS’ (1) internal factor structure have been solely based on samples with high cognitive performance, (2) structural stability of CPS across groups ha...

  6. Solving-Problems and Hypermedia Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo LÓPEZ FERNÁNDEZ

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The solving problems like the transfer constitute two nuclei, related, essential in the cognitive investigation and in the mathematical education. No is in and of itself casual that, from the first moment, in the investigations on the application gives the computer science to the teaching the mathematics, cybernetic models were developed that simulated processes problem solving and transfer cotexts (GPS, 1969 and IDEA (Interactive Decision Envisioning Aid, Pea, BrunerCohen, Webster & Mellen, 1987. The present articulates it analyzes, that can contribute to the development in this respect the new technologies hypermedias, give applications that are good to implement processes of learning the heuristic thought and give the capacity of «transfer». From our perspective and from the experience that we have developed in this field, to carry out a function gives analysis and the theories on the problem solving, it requires that we exercise a previous of interpretation the central aspsects over the theories gives the solving problem and transfer starting from the classic theories on the prosecution of the information. In this sense, so much the theory gives the dual memory as the most recent, J. Anderson (1993 based on the mechanisms activation nodes information they allow to establish an interpretation suggester over the mental mechanism that you/they operate in the heuristic processes. On this analysis, the present articulates it develops a theoritical interpretation over the function gives the supports based on technology hypermedia advancing in the definition of a necessary theoretical body, having in it counts that on the other hand the practical experimentation is permanent concluding in the efficiency and effectiveness gives the support hypermedia like mechanism of comunication in the processes heuristic learning.

  7. Hybrid evolutionary algorithms to solve scheduling problems

    OpenAIRE

    Minetti, Gabriela F.; Salto, Carolina; Bermúdez, Carlos; Fernandez, Natalia; Alfonso, Hugo; Gallard, Raúl Hector

    2002-01-01

    The choice of a search algorithm can play a vital role in the success of a scheduling application. Evolutionary algorithms (EAs) can be used to solve this kind of combinatorial optimization problems. Compared to conventional heuristics (CH) and local search techniques (LS), EAs are not well suited for fine-tuninf those structures, which are very close to optimal solutions. Therefore, in complex problems, it is essential to build hybrid evolutionary algorithms (HEA) by incorporating CH and/or ...

  8. Solving the ridematching problem in dynamic ridesharing

    OpenAIRE

    Herbawi, Wesam M. A.

    2013-01-01

    Among the transportation demand management strategies that can be used to reduce the power consumption, air pollution and traffic congestion is the ridesharing. A flexible form of ridesharing in which a rideshare can be arranged on a very short notice is called dynamic ridesharing. Recently there are many active research areas in dynamic ridesharing including but not limited to security, privacy protection, payment and ridematching. This work is mainly focused on solving the ridematching prob...

  9. Ukraine's Participation In Solving Climate Change Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Irina Dubovich; Mariana Bulgakova

    2011-01-01

    Attention is paid to some problems of climate change. The main international agreements on climate change are overviewed. Ukraine's participation in solving global problems of climate change is described. Ukraine's statement about plans to reduce greenhouse gas emissions is analyzed. Characteristic of environmental political and legal prerequisites for the need to create a general agreement on environmental security of the planet – World Environmental Constitution is provided.

  10. Solving multiconstraint assignment problems using learning automata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Geir; Oommen, B John

    2010-02-01

    This paper considers the NP-hard problem of object assignment with respect to multiple constraints: assigning a set of elements (or objects) into mutually exclusive classes (or groups), where the elements which are "similar" to each other are hopefully located in the same class. The literature reports solutions in which the similarity constraint consists of a single index that is inappropriate for the type of multiconstraint problems considered here and where the constraints could simultaneously be contradictory. This feature, where we permit possibly contradictory constraints, distinguishes this paper from the state of the art. Indeed, we are aware of no learning automata (or other heuristic) solutions which solve this problem in its most general setting. Such a scenario is illustrated with the static mapping problem, which consists of distributing the processes of a parallel application onto a set of computing nodes. This is a classical and yet very important problem within the areas of parallel computing, grid computing, and cloud computing. We have developed four learning-automata (LA)-based algorithms to solve this problem: First, a fixed-structure stochastic automata algorithm is presented, where the processes try to form pairs to go onto the same node. This algorithm solves the problem, although it requires some centralized coordination. As it is desirable to avoid centralized control, we subsequently present three different variable-structure stochastic automata (VSSA) algorithms, which have superior partitioning properties in certain settings, although they forfeit some of the scalability features of the fixed-structure algorithm. All three VSSA algorithms model the processes as automata having first the hosting nodes as possible actions; second, the processes as possible actions; and, third, attempting to estimate the process communication digraph prior to probabilistically mapping the processes. This paper, which, we believe, comprehensively reports the

  11. SOLVING TRAFFIC CONGESTION FROM THE DEMAND SIDE

    OpenAIRE

    Ge, Ying-En; Prentkovskis, Olegas; Tang, Chunyan; Saleh, Wafaa; G. H. Bell, Michael; Junevičius, Raimundas

    2015-01-01

    It is nowadays widely accepted that solving traffic congestion from the demand side is more important and more feasible than offering more capacity or facilities for transportation. Following a brief overview of evolution of the concept of Travel Demand Management (TDM), there is a discussion on the TDM foundations that include demand-side strategies, traveler choice and application settings and the new dimensions that ATDM (Active forms of Transportation and Demand Management) bring to TDM, ...

  12. Solving the factorization problem with P systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alberto Leporati; Claudio Zandron; Giancarlo Mauri

    2007-01-01

    P systems have been used many times to face with computationally difficult problems, such as NP-complete decision problems and NP-hard optimization problems. In this paper we focus our attention on another computationally intractable problem: factorization. In particular, we first propose a simple method to encode binary numbers using multisets. Then, we describe three families of P systems: the first two allow to add and to multiply two binary encoded numbers, respectively, and the third solves the factorization problem.

  13. Solving maximum cut problems by simulated annealing

    OpenAIRE

    Myklebust, Tor G. J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper gives a straightforward implementation of simulated annealing for solving maximum cut problems and compares its performance to that of some existing heuristic solvers. The formulation used is classical, dating to a 1989 paper of Johnson, Aragon, McGeoch, and Schevon. This implementation uses no structure peculiar to the maximum cut problem, but its low per-iteration cost allows it to find better solutions than were previously known for 40 of the 89 standard maximum cut instances te...

  14. Solving incomplete markets models by derivative aggregation

    OpenAIRE

    Tobias Grasl

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a novel computational approach to solving models with both uninsurable idiosyncratic and aggregate risk that uses projection methods, simulation and perturbation. The approach is shown to be both as efficient and as accurate as existing methods on a model based on Krusell and Smith (1998), for which prior solutions exist. The approach has the advantage of extending straightforwardly, and with reasonable computational cost, to models with a greater range of diversity betw...

  15. Solving Rubik's Cube Using SAT Solvers

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Jingchao

    2011-01-01

    Rubik's Cube is an easily-understood puzzle, which is originally called the "magic cube". It is a well-known planning problem, which has been studied for a long time. Yet many simple properties remain unknown. This paper studies whether modern SAT solvers are applicable to this puzzle. To our best knowledge, we are the first to translate Rubik's Cube to a SAT problem. To reduce the number of variables and clauses needed for the encoding, we replace a naive approach of 6 Boolean variables to represent each color on each facelet with a new approach of 3 or 2 Boolean variables. In order to be able to solve quickly Rubik's Cube, we replace the direct encoding of 18 turns with the layer encoding of 18-subtype turns based on 6-type turns. To speed up the solving further, we encode some properties of two-phase algorithm as an additional constraint, and restrict some move sequences by adding some constraint clauses. Using only efficient encoding cannot solve this puzzle. For this reason, we improve the existing SAT s...

  16. Optimal Planning and Problem-Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemet, Bradley; Schaffer, Steven; Rabideau, Gregg

    2008-01-01

    CTAEMS MDP Optimal Planner is a problem-solving software designed to command a single spacecraft/rover, or a team of spacecraft/rovers, to perform the best action possible at all times according to an abstract model of the spacecraft/rover and its environment. It also may be useful in solving logistical problems encountered in commercial applications such as shipping and manufacturing. The planner reasons around uncertainty according to specified probabilities of outcomes using a plan hierarchy to avoid exploring certain kinds of suboptimal actions. Also, planned actions are calculated as the state-action space is expanded, rather than afterward, to reduce by an order of magnitude the processing time and memory used. The software solves planning problems with actions that can execute concurrently, that have uncertain duration and quality, and that have functional dependencies on others that affect quality. These problems are modeled in a hierarchical planning language called C_TAEMS, a derivative of the TAEMS language for specifying domains for the DARPA Coordinators program. In realistic environments, actions often have uncertain outcomes and can have complex relationships with other tasks. The planner approaches problems by considering all possible actions that may be taken from any state reachable from a given, initial state, and from within the constraints of a given task hierarchy that specifies what tasks may be performed by which team member.

  17. Geogebra for Solving Problems of Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kllogjeri, Pellumb; Kllogjeri, Adrian

    Today is highly speed progressing the computer-based education, which allowes educators and students to use educational programming language and e-tutors to teach and learn, to interact with one another and share together the results of their work. In this paper we will be concentrated on the use of GeoGebra programme for solving problems of physics. We have brought an example from physics of how can be used GeoGebra for finding the center of mass(centroid) of a picture(or system of polygons). After the problem is solved graphically, there is an application of finding the center of a real object(a plate)by firstly, scanning the object and secondly, by inserting its scanned picture into the drawing pad of GeoGebra window and lastly, by finding its centroid. GeoGebra serve as effective tool in problem-solving. There are many other applications of GeoGebra in the problems of physics, and many more in different fields of mathematics.

  18. Nucleation of atmospheric particles

    OpenAIRE

    Curtius J

    2009-01-01

    Two types of particles exist in the atmosphere, primary and secondary particles. While primary particles such as soot, mineral dust, sea salt particles or pollen are introduced directly as particles into the atmosphere, secondary particles are formed in the atmosphere by condensation of gases. The formation of such new aerosol particles takes place frequently and at a broad variety of atmospheric conditions and geographic locations. A considerable fraction of the atmospheric particles is form...

  19. Measurable relationship between bright galaxies and their faint companions in WHL J085910.0+294957, a galaxy cluster at z = 0.30: vestiges of infallen groups?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Joon Hyeop; Lee, Hye-Ran; Kim, Minjin; Seon, Kwang-Il; Kim, Sang Chul; Yang, Soung-Chul; Ree, Chang Hee; Lee, Jong Chul; Jeong, Hyunjin; Ko, Jongwan [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Changsu, E-mail: jhl@kasi.re.kr [CEOU/Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-20

    The properties of satellite galaxies are closely related to their host galaxies in galaxy groups. In cluster environments, on the other hand, the interaction between close neighbors is known to be limited. Our goal is to examine the relationships between host and satellite galaxies in the harsh environment of a galaxy cluster. To achieve this goal, we study a galaxy cluster WHL J085910.0+294957 at z = 0.30 using deep images obtained with CQUEAN CCD camera mounted on the 2.1 m Otto Struve Telescope. After member selection based on the scaling relations of photometric and structural parameters, we investigate the relationship between bright (M{sub i} ≤ –18) galaxies and their faint (–18 < M{sub i} ≤ –15) companions. The weighted mean color of faint companion galaxies shows no significant dependence (<1σ to bootstrap uncertainties) on cluster-centric distance and local luminosity density as well as the luminosity and concentration of an adjacent bright galaxy. However, the weighted mean color shows marginal dependence (∼2.2σ) on the color of an adjacent bright galaxy when the sample is limited to bright galaxies with at least two faint companions. By using a permutation test, we confirm that the correlation in color between bright galaxies and their faint companions in this cluster is statistically significant with a confidence level of 98.7%. The statistical significance increases if we additionally remove non-members using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey photometric redshift information (∼2.6σ and 99.3%). Our results suggest three possible scenarios: (1) vestiges of infallen groups, (2) dwarf capturing, and (3) tidal tearing of bright galaxies.

  20. Measurable relationship between bright galaxies and their faint companions in WHL J085910.0+294957, a galaxy cluster at z = 0.30: vestiges of infallen groups?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The properties of satellite galaxies are closely related to their host galaxies in galaxy groups. In cluster environments, on the other hand, the interaction between close neighbors is known to be limited. Our goal is to examine the relationships between host and satellite galaxies in the harsh environment of a galaxy cluster. To achieve this goal, we study a galaxy cluster WHL J085910.0+294957 at z = 0.30 using deep images obtained with CQUEAN CCD camera mounted on the 2.1 m Otto Struve Telescope. After member selection based on the scaling relations of photometric and structural parameters, we investigate the relationship between bright (Mi ≤ –18) galaxies and their faint (–18 < Mi ≤ –15) companions. The weighted mean color of faint companion galaxies shows no significant dependence (<1σ to bootstrap uncertainties) on cluster-centric distance and local luminosity density as well as the luminosity and concentration of an adjacent bright galaxy. However, the weighted mean color shows marginal dependence (∼2.2σ) on the color of an adjacent bright galaxy when the sample is limited to bright galaxies with at least two faint companions. By using a permutation test, we confirm that the correlation in color between bright galaxies and their faint companions in this cluster is statistically significant with a confidence level of 98.7%. The statistical significance increases if we additionally remove non-members using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey photometric redshift information (∼2.6σ and 99.3%). Our results suggest three possible scenarios: (1) vestiges of infallen groups, (2) dwarf capturing, and (3) tidal tearing of bright galaxies.