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Sample records for atlas silicon strip

  1. Silicon strip detectors for the ATLAS upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez Sevilla, S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider at CERN will extend its current physics program by increasing the peak luminosity by one order of magnitude. For ATLAS, one of the two general-purpose experiments of the LHC, an upgrade scenario will imply the complete replacement of its internal tracker due to the harsh conditions in terms of particle rates and radiation doses. New radiation-hard prototype n-in-p silicon sensors have been produced for the short-strip region of the future ATLAS tracker. The sensors have been irradiated up to the fluences expected in the high-luminous LHC collider. This paper summarizes recent results on the performance of the irradiated n-in-p detectors.

  2. Silicon strip detectors for the ATLAS HL-LHC upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez Sevilla, S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The LHC upgrade is foreseen to increase the ATLAS design luminosity by a factor ten, implying the need to build a new tracker suited to the harsh HL-LHC conditions in terms of particle rates and radiation doses. In order to cope with the increase in pile-up backgrounds at the higher luminosity, an all silicon detector is being designed. To successfully face the increased radiation dose, a new generation of extremely radiation hard silicon detectors is being designed. We give an overview of the ATLAS tracker upgrade project, in particular focusing on the crucial innermost silicon strip layers. Results from a wide range of irradiated silicon detectors for the strip region of the future ATLAS tracker are presented. Layout concepts for lightweight yet mechanically very rigid detector modules with high service integration are shown.

  3. Beam tests of ATLAS SCT silicon strip detector modules

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Campabadal, F.; Fleta, C.; Key, M.; Böhm, Jan; Mikeštíková, Marcela; Šťastný, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 538, - (2005), s. 384-407 ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1P04LA212 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : ATLAS * silicon * micro-strip * beam * test Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 1.224, year: 2005

  4. Radiation damage status of the ATLAS silicon strip detectors (SCT)

    CERN Document Server

    Kondo, Takahiko; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Silicon microstrip detector system (SCT) of the ATLAS experiment at LHC has been working well for about 7 years since 2010. The innermost layer has already received a few times of 10**13 1-MeV neutron-equivalent fluences/cm2. The evolutions of the radiation damage effects on strip sensors such as leakage current and full depletion voltages will be presented.

  5. Silicon Strip Detectors for the ATLAS sLHC Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Miñano, M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    While the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN is continuing to deliver an ever-increasing luminosity to the experiments, plans for an upgraded machine called Super-LHC (sLHC) are progressing. The upgrade is foreseen to increase the LHC design luminosity by a factor ten. The ATLAS experiment will need to build a new tracker for sLHC operation, which needs to be suited to the harsh sLHC conditions in terms of particle rates. In order to cope with the increase in pile-up backgrounds at the higher luminosity, an all silicon detector is being designed. To successfully face the increased radiation dose, a new generation of extremely radiation hard silicon detectors is being designed. The left part of figure 1 shows the simulated layout for the ATLAS tracker upgrade to be installed in the volume taken up by the current ATLAS pixel, strip and transition radiation detectors. Silicon sensors with sufficient radiation hardness are the subject of an international R&D programme, working on pixel and strip sensors. The...

  6. Beam tests of ATLAS SCT silicon strip detector modules

    CERN Document Server

    Campabadal, F; Key, M; Lozano, M; Martínez, C; Pellegrini, G; Rafí, J M; Ullán, M; Johansen, L; Pommeresche, B; Stugu, B; Ciocio, A; Fadeev, V; Gilchriese, M G D; Haber, C; Siegrist, J; Spieler, H; Vu, C; Bell, P J; Charlton, D G; Dowell, John D; Gallop, B J; Homer, R J; Jovanovic, P; Mahout, G; McMahon, T J; Wilson, J A; Barr, A J; Carter, J R; Fromant, B P; Goodrick, M J; Hill, J C; Lester, C G; Palmer, M J; Parker, M A; Robinson, D; Sabetfakhri, A; Shaw, R J; Anghinolfi, F; Chesi, Enrico Guido; Chouridou, S; Fortin, R; Grosse-Knetter, J; Gruwé, M; Ferrari, P; Jarron, P; Kaplon, J; MacPherson, A; Niinikoski, T O; Pernegger, H; Roe, S; Rudge, A; Ruggiero, G; Wallny, R; Weilhammer, P; Bialas, W; Dabrowski, W; Grybos, P; Koperny, S; Blocki, J; Brückman, P; Gadomski, S; Godlewski, J; Górnicki, E; Malecki, P; Moszczynski, A; Stanecka, E; Stodulski, M; Szczygiel, R; Turala, M; Wolter, M; Ahmad, A; Benes, J; Carpentieri, C; Feld, L; Ketterer, C; Ludwig, J; Meinhardt, J; Runge, K; Mikulec, B; Mangin-Brinet, M; D'Onofrio, M; Donega, M; Moêd, S; Sfyrla, A; Ferrère, D; Clark, A G; Perrin, E; Weber, M; Bates, R L; Cheplakov, A P; Saxon, D H; O'Shea, V; Smith, K M; Iwata, Y; Ohsugi, T; Kohriki, T; Kondo, T; Terada, S; Ujiie, N; Ikegami, Y; Unno, Y; Takashima, R; Brodbeck, T; Chilingarov, A G; Hughes, G; Ratoff, P; Sloan, T; Allport, P P; Casse, G L; Greenall, A; Jackson, J N; Jones, T J; King, B T; Maxfield, S J; Smith, N A; Sutcliffe, P; Vossebeld, Joost Herman; Beck, G A; Carter, A A; Lloyd, S L; Martin, A J; Morris, J; Morin, J; Nagai, K; Pritchard, T W; Anderson, B E; Butterworth, J M; Fraser, T J; Jones, T W; Lane, J B; Postranecky, M; Warren, M R M; Cindro, V; Kramberger, G; Mandic, I; Mikuz, M; Duerdoth, I P; Freestone, J; Foster, J M; Ibbotson, M; Loebinger, F K; Pater, J; Snow, S W; Thompson, R J; Atkinson, T M; Bright, G; Kazi, S; Lindsay, S; Moorhead, G F; Taylor, G N; Bachindgagyan, G; Baranova, N; Karmanov, D; Merkine, M; Andricek, L; Bethke, Siegfried; Kudlaty, J; Lutz, Gerhard; Moser, H G; Nisius, R; Richter, R; Schieck, J; Cornelissen, T; Gorfine, G W; Hartjes, F G; Hessey, N P; de Jong, P; Muijs, A J M; Peeters, S J M; Tomeda, Y; Tanaka, R; Nakano, I; Dorholt, O; Danielsen, K M; Huse, T; Sandaker, H; Stapnes, S; Bargassa, Pedrame; Reichold, A; Huffman, T; Nickerson, R B; Weidberg, A; Doucas, G; Hawes, B; Lau, W; Howell, D; Kundu, N; Wastie, R; Böhm, J; Mikestikova, M; Stastny, J; Broklová, Z; Broz, J; Dolezal, Z; Kodys, P; Kubík, P; Reznicek, P; Vorobel, V; Wilhelm, I; Chren, D; Horazdovsky, T; Linhart, V; Pospísil, S; Sinor, M; Solar, M; Sopko, B; Stekl, I; Ardashev, E N; Golovnya, S N; Gorokhov, S A; Kholodenko, A G; Rudenko, R E; Ryadovikov, V N; Vorobev, A P; Adkin, P J; Apsimon, R J; Batchelor, L E; Bizzell, J P; Booker, P; Davis, V R; Easton, J M; Fowler, C; Gibson, M D; Haywood, S J; MacWaters, C; Matheson, J P; Matson, R M; McMahon, S J; Morris, F S; Morrissey, M; Murray, W J; Phillips, P W; Tyndel, M; Villani, E G; Dorfan, D E; Grillo, A A; Rosenbaum, F; Sadrozinski, H F W; Seiden, A; Spencer, E; Wilder, M; Booth, P; Buttar, C M; Dawson, I; Dervan, P; Grigson, C; Harper, R; Moraes, A; Peak, L S; Varvell, K E; Chu Ming Lee; Hou Li Shing; Lee Shih Chang; Teng Ping Kun; Wan Chang Chun; Hara, K; Kato, Y; Kuwano, T; Minagawa, M; Sengoku, H; Bingefors, N; Brenner, R; Ekelöf, T J C; Eklund, L; Bernabeu, J; Civera, J V; Costa, M J; Fuster, J; García, C; García, J E; González-Sevilla, S; Lacasta, C; Llosa, G; Martí i García, S; Modesto, P; Sánchez, J; Sospedra, L; Vos, M; Fasching, D; González, S; Jared, R C; Charles, E

    2005-01-01

    The design and technology of the silicon strip detector modules for the Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) of the ATLAS experiment have been finalised in the last several years. Integral to this process has been the measurement and verification of the tracking performance of the different module types in test beams at the CERN SPS and the KEK PS. Tests have been performed to explore the module performance under various operating conditions including detector bias voltage, magnetic field, incidence angle, and state of irradiation up to 3 multiplied by 1014 protons per square centimetre. A particular emphasis has been the understanding of the operational consequences of the binary readout scheme.

  7. Assembly of an endcap of the ATLAS silicon strip detector at NIKHEF, Amsterdam.

    CERN Multimedia

    Ginter, P

    2005-01-01

    Assembly of an endcap of the ATLAS silicon strip detector (SCT) at NIKHEF, Amsterdam. Technicians are mounting the power distribution cables on the cylinder that houses nine disks with silicon sensors.

  8. Testbeam evaluation of silicon strip modules for ATLAS Phase - II Strip Tracker Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Blue, Andrew; The ATLAS collaboration; Ai, Xiaocong; Allport, Phillip; Arling, Jan-Hendrik; Atkin, Ryan Justin; Bruni, Lucrezia Stella; Carli, Ina; Casse, Gianluigi; Chen, Liejian; Chisholm, Andrew; Cormier, Kyle James Read; Cunningham, William Reilly; Dervan, Paul; Diez Cornell, Sergio; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dopke, Jens; Dreyer, Etienne; Dreyling-Eschweiler, Jan Linus Roderik; Escobar, Carlos; Fabiani, Veronica; Fadeyev, Vitaliy; Fernandez Tejero, Javier; Fleta Corral, Maria Celeste; Gallop, Bruce; Garcia-Argos, Carlos; Greenall, Ashley; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Greig, Graham George; Guescini, Francesco; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hauser, Marc Manuel; Huang, Yanping; Hunter, Robert Francis Holub; Keller, John; Klein, Christoph; Kodys, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Kotek, Zdenek; Kroll, Jiri; Kuehn, Susanne; Lee, Steven Juhyung; Liu, Yi; Lohwasser, Kristin; Meszarosova, Lucia; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mi\\~nano Moya, Mercedes; Mori, Riccardo; Moser, Brian; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Peschke, Richard; Pezzullo, Giuseppe; Phillips, Peter William; Poley, Anne-luise; Queitsch-Maitland, Michaela; Ravotti, Federico; Rodriguez Rodriguez, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    The planned HL-LHC (High Luminosity LHC) is being designed to maximise the physics potential of the LHC with 10 years of operation at instantaneous luminosities of \\mbox{$7.5\\times10^{34}\\;\\mathrm{cm}^{-2}\\mathrm{s}^{-1}$}. A consequence of this increased luminosity is the expected radiation damage requiring the tracking detectors to withstand hadron equivalences to over $1x10^{15}$ 1 MeV neutron equivalent per $cm^{2}$ in the ATLAS Strips system. The silicon strip tracker exploits the concept of modularity. Fast readout electronics, deploying 130nm CMOS front-end electronics are glued on top of a silicon sensor to make a module. The radiation hard n-in-p micro-strip sensors used have been developed by the ATLAS ITk Strip Sensor collaboration and produced by Hamamatsu Photonics. A series of tests were performed at the DESY-II test beam facility to investigate the detailed performance of a strip module with both 2.5cm and 5cm length strips before irradiation. The DURANTA telescope was used to obtain a pointing...

  9. Petalet prototype for the ATLAS silicon strip detector upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sperlich, Dennis [Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin (Germany); Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Bloch, Ingo; Keller, John Stakely; Lohwasser, Kristin; Poley, Louise; Zakharchuk, Nataliia; Diez Cornell, Sergio [DESY (Germany); Hauser, Marc Manuel; Mori, Riccardo; Kuehl, Susanne; Parzefall, Ulrich [Albert-Ludwigs Universitaet Freiburg (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    To achieve more precise measurements and to search new physics phenomena, the luminosity at the LHC is expected to be increased during a series of upgrades in the next years. The latest scheduled upgrade, called the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) is proposed to provide instantaneous luminosity of 5 x 10{sup 34} cm{sup 2}s{sup -1}. The increased luminosity and the radiation damage will affect the current Inner Tracker. In order to cope with the higher radiation dose and occupancy, the ATLAS experiment plans to replace the current Inner Detector with a new all-silicon tracker consisting of ∝8 m{sup 2} pixel and ∝192 m{sup 2} strip detectors. In response to the needs, highly modular structures will be used for the strip system, called Staves for the barrel region and Petals for the end-caps region. A small-scaled prototype for the Petal, the Petalet, is built to study some specialties of this complex wedge-shaped structures. The Petalet consists of one large and two small sized sensors. This report focuses on the recent progress in the prototyping of the Petalet and their electrical performances.

  10. Studies of adhesives and metal contacts on silicon strip sensors for the ATLAS Inner Tracker

    OpenAIRE

    Poley, Anne-Luise

    2018-01-01

    This thesis presents studies investigating the use of adhesives on the active area of silicon strip sensors for the construction of silicon strip detector modules for the ATLAS Phase-II Upgrade. 60 ATLAS07 miniature sensors were tested using three UV cure glues in comparison with the current baseline glue (a non-conductive epoxy).The impact of irradiation on the chemical composition of all adhesives under investigation was studied using three standard methods for chemical analysis: quadrupole...

  11. Silicon Strip Detectors for ATLAS at the HL-LHC Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Hara, K; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The present ATLAS silicon strip (SCT) and transition radiation (TRT) trackers will be replaced with new silicon strip detectors, as part of the Inner Tracker System (ITK), for the Phase-2 upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider, HL-LHC. We have carried out intensive R&D programs to establish radiation harder strip detectors that can survive in a radiation level up to 3000 fb-1 of integrated luminosity based on n+-on-p microstrip detector. We describe main specifications for this year’s sensor fabrication, followed by a description of possible module integration schema

  12. Test-beam evaluation of heavily irradiated silicon strip modules for ATLAS Phase-II Strip Tracker Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Blue, Andrew; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The planned HL-LHC (High Luminosity LHC) is being designed to maximise the physics potential of the LHC with 10 years of operation at instantaneous luminosities of 7.5x1034cm−2s−1. A consequence of this increased luminosity is the expected radiation damage requiring the tracking detectors to withstand hadron equivalences to over 1x1015 1 MeV neutron equivalent per cm2 in the ATLAS Strips system. The silicon strip tracker exploits the concept of modularity. Fast readout electronics, deploying 130nm CMOS front-end electronics are glued on top of a silicon sensor to make a module. The radiation hard n-in-p micro-strip sensors used have been developed by the ATLAS ITk Strip Sensor collaboration and produced by Hamamatsu Photonics. A series of tests were performed at the DESY-II and CERN SPS test beam facilities to investigate the detailed performance of a strip module with both 2.5cm and 5cm length strips before and after irradiation with 8x1014neqcm−2 protons and a total ionising dose of 37.2MRad. The DURA...

  13. Studies of adhesives and metal contacts on silicon strip sensors for the ATLAS Inner Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00407830; Moenig, Klaus

    2018-04-04

    This thesis presents studies investigating the use of adhesives on the active area of silicon strip sensors for the construction of silicon strip detector modules for the ATLAS Phase-II Upgrade. 60 ATLAS07 miniature sensors were tested using three UV cure glues in comparison with the current baseline glue (a non-conductive epoxy). The impact of irradiation on the chemical composition of all adhesives under investigation was studied using three standard methods for chemical analysis: quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectroscopy, gel permeability chromatography and gas chromatography combined with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). GC-MS analyses of glue sample extracts before and after irradiation showed molecule cross-linking and broken chemical bonds to different extents and allowed to quantify the radiation hardness of the adhesives under investigation. Probe station measurements were used to investigate electrical characteristics of sensors partially covered with adhesives in comparison with sensors without adhesiv...

  14. A silicon strip module for the ATLAS inner detector upgrade in the super LHC collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Sevilla, S., E-mail: Sergio.Gonzalez.Sevilla@cern.ch [DPNC, University of Geneva, CH 1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Barbier, G. [DPNC, University of Geneva, CH 1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Anghinolfi, F. [European Organization for Nuclear Research, CERN CH-1211, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Cadoux, F.; Clark, A. [DPNC, University of Geneva, CH 1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Dabrowski, W.; Dwuznik, M. [AGH University of Sceince and Technology, Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, Krakow (Poland); Ferrere, D. [DPNC, University of Geneva, CH 1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Garcia, C. [IFIC, Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular (CSIC-Universitat de Valencia), Edificio Investigacion Paterna, Apartado 22085 46071 Valencia (Spain); Ikegami, Y. [KEK, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Oho 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Hara, K. [University of Tsukuba, School of Pure and Applied Sciences, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan); Jakobs, K. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Kaplon, J. [European Organization for Nuclear Research, CERN CH-1211, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Koriki, T. [KEK, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Oho 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Lacasta, C. [IFIC, Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular (CSIC-Universitat de Valencia), Edificio Investigacion Paterna, Apartado 22085 46071 Valencia (Spain); La Marra, D. [DPNC, University of Geneva, CH 1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Marti i Garcia, S. [IFIC, Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular (CSIC-Universitat de Valencia), Edificio Investigacion Paterna, Apartado 22085 46071 Valencia (Spain); Parzefall, U. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Pohl, M. [DPNC, University of Geneva, CH 1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Terada, S. [KEK, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Oho 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan)

    2011-04-21

    The ATLAS detector is a general purpose experiment designed to fully exploit the discovery potential of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at a nominal luminosity of 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. It is expected that after several years of successful data-taking, the LHC physics program will be extended by increasing the peak luminosity by one order of magnitude. For ATLAS, an upgrade scenario will imply the complete replacement of the Inner Detector (ID), since the current tracker will not provide the required performance due to cumulated radiation damage and a dramatic increase in the detector occupancy. In this paper, a proposal of a double-sided silicon micro-strip module for the short-strip region of the future ATLAS ID is presented. The expected thermal performance based upon detailed FEA simulations is discussed. First electrical results from a prototype version of the next generation readout front-end chips are also shown.

  15. Silicon Strip Detectors for ATLAS at the HL-LHC Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Hara, K; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    present ATLAS silicon strip tracker (SCT) and transition radiation tracker(TRT) are to be replaced with new silicon strip detectors as part of the Inner Tracker System (ITK) for the Phase-II upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider, HL-LHC. We have carried out intensive R&D programs based on n+-on-p microstrip detectors to fabricate improved radiation hard strip detectors that can survive the radiation levels corresponding to the integrated luminosity of up to 3000 fb−1. We describe the main specifications for this year’s sensor fabrication and the related R&D results, followed by a description of the candidate schema for module integration.

  16. ATLAS Tracker Upgrade: Silicon Strip Detectors for the sLHC

    CERN Document Server

    Koehler, M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    To extend the physics potential of the Large Hadron Colider (LHC) at CERN, upgrades of the accelerator complex and the detectors towards the Super-LHC (sLHC) are foreseen. The upgrades, separated in Phase-1 and Phase-2, aim at increasing the luminosity while leaving the energy of the colliding particles (7 TeV per proton beam) unchanged. After the Phase-2 upgrade the instantaneous luminosity will be a factor of 5-10 higher than the design luminosity of the LHC. Due to the increased track rate and extreme radiation levels for the tracking detectors, upgrades of the detectors are necessary. At ATLAS, one of the two general purpose detectors at the LHC, the current inner detector will be replaced by an all-silicon tracker. This article describes the plans for the Phase-2 upgrade of the silicon strip detector of ATLAS. Radiation hard n-in-p silicon detectors with shorter strips than currently installed in ATLAS are planned. Results of measurements with these sensors and plans for module designs will be discussed.

  17. ATLAS Tracker Upgrade: Silicon Strip Detectors and Modules for the sLHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefebvre, Michel; Minano Moya, Mercedes

    2010-01-01

    It is foreseen to increase the luminosity of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN by a factor ten, with the upgraded machine dubbed Super-LHC or sLHC. The ATLAS experiment will require a new tracker for sLHC operation. In order to cope with the increase in pile-up backgrounds at the higher luminosity, an all silicon detector is being designed. The new strip detector will use significantly shorter strips than the current SCT in order to minimise the occupancy. As the increased luminosity will mean a corresponding increase in radiation dose, a new generation of extremely radiation hard silicon detectors is required. Extensive R programmes are underway to develop silicon sensors with sufficient radiation hardness. In parallel, new front-end electronics and readout systems are being designed to cope with the higher data rates. The challenges of powering and cooling a very large strip detector will be discussed. Ideas on possible schemes for the layout and support mechanics will be shown. (authors)

  18. ATLAS Tracker Upgrade: Silicon Strip Detectors for the sLHC

    CERN Document Server

    Koehler, M

    2010-01-01

    It is foreseen to increase the luminosity of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN by a factor ten, with the upgraded machine dubbed Super-LHC or sLHC. The ATLAS experiment will require a new tracker for sLHC operation. In order to cope with the increase in pile-up backgrounds at the higher luminosity, an all silicon detector is being designed. The new strip detector will use significantly shorter strips than the current SCT in order to minimise the occupancy. As the increased luminosity will mean a corresponding increase in radiation dose, a new generation of extremely radiation hard silicon detectors is required. Extensive R&D programmes are underway to develop silicon sensors with sufficient radiation hardness. In parallel, new front-end electronics and readout systems are being designed to cope with the higher data rates. The challenges of powering and cooling a very large strip detector will be discussed. Ideas on possible schemes for the layout and support mechanics will be shown. A key issue ...

  19. ATLAS Tracker Upgrade: Silicon Strip Detectors and Modules for the SLHC

    CERN Document Server

    Minano, M

    2010-01-01

    It is foreseen to increase the luminosity of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN by a factor ten, with the upgraded machine dubbed Super-LHC or sLHC. The ATLAS experiment will require a new tracker for sLHC operation. In order to cope with the increase in pile-up backgrounds at the higher luminosity, an all silicon detector is being designed. The new strip detector will use significantly shorter strips than the current SCT in order to minimise the occupancy. As the increased luminosity will mean a corresponding increase in radiation dose, a new generation of extremely radiation hard silicon detectors is required. Extensive R&D programmes are underway to develop silicon sensors with sufficient radiation hardness. In parallel, new front-end electronics and readout systems are being designed to cope with the higher data rates. The challenges of powering and cooling a very large strip detector will be discussed. Ideas on possible schemes for the layout and support mechanics will be shown.

  20. Atlas Tracker Upgrade: Silicon Strip Detectors and Modules for the SLHC

    CERN Document Server

    Minano, M

    2010-01-01

    It is foreseen to increase the luminosity of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN by a significant factor, with the upgraded machine dubbed Super-LHC. The ATLAS experiment will require a new tracker for Super-LHC operation. In order to cope with the increase in pile-up backgrounds at the higher luminosity, an all silicon detector is being designed. The new strip detector will use significantly shorter strips than the current SCT in order to minimise the occupancy. As the increased luminosity will imply a corresponding increase in radiation dose, a new generation of extremely radiation hard silicon detectors is required. Extensive R&D programmes are underway to develop silicon sensors with sufficient radiation hardness. In parallel, new front-end electronics and readout systems are being designed to cope with the higher data rates. The challenges of powering and cooling a very large strip detector will be discussed. Ideas on possible schemes for the layout and support mechanics will be shown.

  1. Silicon Strip detectors for the ATLAS End-Cap Tracker at the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00232570

    Inside physics programme of the LHC different experiment upgrades are foreseen. After the phase-II upgrade of the ATLAS detector the luminosity will be increased up to 5-7.5x10E34 cm-2s-1. This will mean a considerable increase in the radiation levels, above 10E16 neq/cm2 in the inner regions. This thesis is focused on the development of silicon microstrip detectors enough radiation hard to cope with the particle fluence expected at the ATLAS detector during HL-LHC experiment. In particular on the electrical characterization of silicon sensors for the ATLAS End-Caps. Different mechanical and thermal tests are shown using a Petal core as well as the electrical characterization of the silicon sensors that will be used with the Petal structure. Charge collection efficiency studies are carried out on sensors with different irradiation fluences using the ALiBaVa system and two kinds of strips connection are also analized (DC and AC ganging) with a laser system. The Petalet project is presented and the electrical c...

  2. Evaluation of the performance of irradiated silicon strip sensors for the forward detector of the ATLAS Inner Tracker Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, R., E-mail: riccardo.mori@physik.uni-freiburg.de [Physikalisches Institut, Universität Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Allport, P.P.; Baca, M.; Broughton, J.; Chisholm, A.; Nikolopoulos, K.; Pyatt, S.; Thomas, J.P.; Wilson, J.A. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Kierstead, J.; Kuczewski, P.; Lynn, D. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Physics Department and Instrumentation Division, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); Arratia-Munoz, M.I.; Hommels, L.B.A. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Ullan, M.; Fleta, C.; Fernandez-Tejero, J. [Centro Nacional de Microelectronica (IMB-CNM, CSIC), Campus UAB-Bellaterra, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Bloch, I.; Gregor, I.M.; Lohwasser, K. [DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hambrug (Germany); and others

    2016-09-21

    The upgrade to the High-Luminosity LHC foreseen in about ten years represents a great challenge for the ATLAS inner tracker and the silicon strip sensors in the forward region. Several strip sensor designs were developed by the ATLAS collaboration and fabricated by Hamamatsu in order to maintain enough performance in terms of charge collection efficiency and its uniformity throughout the active region. Of particular attention, in the case of a stereo-strip sensor, is the area near the sensor edge where shorter strips were ganged to the complete ones. In this work the electrical and charge collection test results on irradiated miniature sensors with forward geometry are presented. Results from charge collection efficiency measurements show that at the maximum expected fluence, the collected charge is roughly halved with respect to the one obtained prior to irradiation. Laser measurements show a good signal uniformity over the sensor. Ganged strips have a similar efficiency as standard strips.

  3. A silicon strip module for the ATLAS inner detector upgrade in the super LHC collider

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez-Sevilla, S; Parzefall, U; Clark, A; Ikegami, Y; Hara, K; Garcia, C; Jakobs, K; Dwuznik, M; Terada, S; Barbier, G; Koriki, T; Lacasta, C; Unno, Y; Anghinolfi, F; Cadoux, F; Garcia, S M I; Ferrere, D; La Marra, D; Pohl, M; Dabrowski, W; Kaplon, J

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS detector is a general purpose experiment designed to fully exploit the discovery potential of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at a nominal luminosity of 10(34)cm(-2)s(-1). It is expected that after several years of successful data-taking, the LHC physics program will be extended by increasing the peak luminosity by one order of magnitude. For ATLAS, an upgrade scenario will imply the complete replacement of the Inner Detector (ID), since the current tracker will not provide the required performance due to cumulated radiation damage and a dramatic increase in the detector occupancy. In this paper, a proposal of a double-sided silicon micro-strip module for the short-strip region of the future ATLAS ID is presented. The expected thermal performance based upon detailed FEA simulations is discussed. First electrical results from a prototype version of the next generation readout front-end chips are also shown. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A Forward Silicon Strip System for the ATLAS HL-LHC Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Wonsak, S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The LHC is successfully accumulating luminosity at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV this year. At the same time, plans are rapidly progressing for a series of upgrades, culminating roughly eight years from now in the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) project. The HL-LHC is expected to deliver approximately five times the LHC nominal instantaneous luminosity, resulting in a total integrated luminosity of around 3000 fb-1 by 2030. The ATLAS experiment has a rather well advanced plan to build and install a completely new Inner Tracker (IT) system entirely based on silicon detectors by 2020. This new IT will be made from several pixel and strip layers. The silicon strip detector system will consist of single-sided p-type detectors with five barrel layers and six endcap (EC) disks on each forward side. Each disk will consist of 32 trapezoidal objects dubbed “petals”, with all services (cooling, read-out, command lines, LV and HV power) integrated into the petal. Each petal will contain 18 silicon sensors grouped in...

  5. Noise analysis due to strip resistance in the ATLAS SCT silicon strip module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kipnis, I.

    1996-08-01

    The module is made out of four 6 cm x 6 cm single sided Si microstrip detectors. Two detectors are butt glued to form a 12 cm long mechanical unit and strips of the two detectors are electrically connected to form 12 cm long strips. The butt gluing is followed by a back to back attachment. The module in this note is the Rφ module where the electronics is oriented parallel to the strip direction and bonded directly to the strips. This module concept provides the maximum signal-to-noise ratio, particularly when the front-end electronics is placed near the middle rather than at the end. From the noise analysis, it is concluded that the worst-case ΔENC (far-end injection) between end- and center-tapped modules will be 120 to 210 el. rms (9 to 15%) for a non-irradiated detector and 75 to 130 el. rms (5 to 9%) for an irradiated detector, for a metal strip resistance of 10 to 20 Ω/cm

  6. Alternative glues for the production of ATLAS silicon strip modules for the Phase-II upgrade of the ATLAS Inner Detector

    OpenAIRE

    Poley, Luise; Bloch, Ingo; Edwards, Sam; Friedrich, Conrad; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Jones, Tim; Lacker, Heiko; Pyatt, Simon; Rehnisch, Laura; Sperlich, Dennis; Wilson, John

    2015-01-01

    The Phase-II upgrade of the ATLAS detector for the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) includes the replacement of the current Inner Detector with an all-silicon tracker consisting of pixel and strip detectors. The current Phase-II detector layout requires the construction of 20,000 strip detector modules consisting of sensor, circuit boards and readout chips, which are connected mechanically using adhesives. The adhesive between readout chips and circuit board is a silver epoxy gl...

  7. Prototyping of petalets for the Phase-II upgrade of the silicon strip tracking detector of the ATLAS experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehn, S.; Benítez, V.; Fernández-Tejero, J.; Fleta, C.; Lozano, M.; Ullán, M.; Lacker, H.; Rehnisch, L.; Sperlich, D.; Ariza, D.; Bloch, I.; Díez, S.; Gregor, I.; Keller, J.; Lohwasser, K.; Poley, L.; Prahl, V.; Zakharchuk, N.; Hauser, M.; Jakobs, K.; Mahboubi, K.; Mori, R.; Parzefall, U.; Bernabéu, J.; Lacasta, C.; Marco-Hernandez, R.; Rodriguez Rodriguez, D.; Santoyo, D.; Solaz Contell, C.; Soldevila Serrano, U.; Affolder, T.; Greenall, A.; Gallop, B.; Phillips, P. W.; Cindro, V.

    2018-03-01

    In the high luminosity era of the Large Hadron Collider, the instantaneous luminosity is expected to reach unprecedented values, resulting in about 200 proton-proton interactions in a typical bunch crossing. To cope with the resultant increase in occupancy, bandwidth and radiation damage, the ATLAS Inner Detector will be replaced by an all-silicon system, the Inner Tracker (ITk). The ITk consists of a silicon pixel and a strip detector and exploits the concept of modularity. Prototyping and testing of various strip detector components has been carried out. This paper presents the developments and results obtained with reduced-size structures equivalent to those foreseen to be used in the forward region of the silicon strip detector. Referred to as petalets, these structures are built around a composite sandwich with embedded cooling pipes and electrical tapes for routing the signals and power. Detector modules built using electronic flex boards and silicon strip sensors are glued on both the front and back side surfaces of the carbon structure. Details are given on the assembly, testing and evaluation of several petalets. Measurement results of both mechanical and electrical quantities are shown. Moreover, an outlook is given for improved prototyping plans for large structures.

  8. Alternative glues for the production of ATLAS silicon strip modules for the Phase-II upgrade of the ATLAS inner detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poley, Luise; Bloch, Ingo; Edwards, Sam

    2016-04-01

    The Phase-II upgrade of the ATLAS detector for the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) includes the replacement of the current Inner Detector with an all-silicon tracker consisting of pixel and strip detectors. The current Phase-II detector layout requires the construction of 20,000 strip detector modules consisting of sensor, circuit boards and readout chips, which are connected mechanically using adhesives. The adhesive between readout chips and circuit board is a silver epoxy glue as was used in the current ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker (SCT). This glue has several disadvantages, which motivated the search for an alternative. This paper presents a study concerning the use of six ultra-violet (UV) cure glues and a glue pad for use in the assembly of silicon strip detector modules for the ATLAS upgrade. Trials were carried out to determine the ease of use, the thermal conduction and shear strength, thermal cycling, radiation hardness, corrosion resistance and shear strength tests. These investigations led to the exclusion of three UV cure glues as well as the glue pad. Three UV cure glues were found to be possible better alternatives. Results from electrical tests of first prototype modules constructed using these glues are presented.

  9. Alternative glues for the production of ATLAS silicon strip modules for the Phase-II upgrade of the ATLAS inner detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poley, Luise [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Humboldt Univ. Berlin (Germany); Bloch, Ingo [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Edwards, Sam [Birmingham Univ. (United Kingdom); and others

    2016-04-15

    The Phase-II upgrade of the ATLAS detector for the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) includes the replacement of the current Inner Detector with an all-silicon tracker consisting of pixel and strip detectors. The current Phase-II detector layout requires the construction of 20,000 strip detector modules consisting of sensor, circuit boards and readout chips, which are connected mechanically using adhesives. The adhesive between readout chips and circuit board is a silver epoxy glue as was used in the current ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker (SCT). This glue has several disadvantages, which motivated the search for an alternative. This paper presents a study concerning the use of six ultra-violet (UV) cure glues and a glue pad for use in the assembly of silicon strip detector modules for the ATLAS upgrade. Trials were carried out to determine the ease of use, the thermal conduction and shear strength, thermal cycling, radiation hardness, corrosion resistance and shear strength tests. These investigations led to the exclusion of three UV cure glues as well as the glue pad. Three UV cure glues were found to be possible better alternatives. Results from electrical tests of first prototype modules constructed using these glues are presented.

  10. Alternative glues for the production of ATLAS silicon strip modules for the Phase-II upgrade of the ATLAS Inner Detector

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00407830; Bloch, Ingo; Edwards, Sam; Friedrich, Conrad; Gregor, Ingrid M.; Jones, T; Lacker, Heiko; Pyatt, Simon; Rehnisch, Laura; Sperlich, Dennis; Wilson, John

    2016-05-24

    The Phase-II upgrade of the ATLAS detector for the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) includes the replacement of the current Inner Detector with an all-silicon tracker consisting of pixel and strip detectors. The current Phase-II detector layout requires the construction of 20,000 strip detector modules consisting of sensor, circuit boards and readout chips, which are connected mechanically using adhesives. The adhesive between readout chips and circuit board is a silver epoxy glue as was used in the current ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker (SCT). This glue has several disadvantages, which motivated the search for an alternative. This paper presents a study concerning the use of six ultra-violet (UV) cure glues and a glue pad for use in the assembly of silicon strip detector modules for the ATLAS upgrade. Trials were carried out to determine the ease of use, the thermal conduction and shear strength, thermal cycling, radiation hardness, corrosion resistance and shear strength tests. These investigatio...

  11. Alternative glues for the production of ATLAS silicon strip modules for the Phase-II upgrade of the ATLAS Inner Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poley, L.; Bloch, I.; Edwards, S.; Friedrich, C.; Gregor, I.-M.; Jones, T.; Lacker, H.; Pyatt, S.; Rehnisch, L.; Sperlich, D.; Wilson, J.

    2016-05-01

    The Phase-II upgrade of the ATLAS detector for the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) includes the replacement of the current Inner Detector with an all-silicon tracker consisting of pixel and strip detectors. The current Phase-II detector layout requires the construction of 20,000 strip detector modules consisting of sensor, circuit boards and readout chips, which are connected mechanically using adhesives. The adhesive used initially between readout chips and circuit board is a silver epoxy glue as was used in the current ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker (SCT). However, this glue has several disadvantages, which motivated the search for an alternative. This paper presents a study of six ultra-violet (UV) cure glues and a glue pad for possible use in the assembly of silicon strip detector modules for the ATLAS upgrade. Trials were carried out to determine the ease of use, thermal conduction and shear strength. Samples were thermally cycled, radiation hardness and corrosion resistance were also determined. These investigations led to the exclusion of three UV cure glues as well as the glue pad. Three UV cure glues were found to be possible better alternatives than silver loaded glue. Results from electrical tests of first prototype modules constructed using these glues are presented.

  12. Alternative glues for the production of ATLAS silicon strip modules for the Phase-II upgrade of the ATLAS Inner Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poley, L.; Bloch, I.; Friedrich, C.; Gregor, I.-M.; Edwards, S.; Pyatt, S.; Wilson, J.; Jones, T.; Lacker, H.; Rehnisch, L.; Sperlich, D.

    2016-01-01

    The Phase-II upgrade of the ATLAS detector for the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) includes the replacement of the current Inner Detector with an all-silicon tracker consisting of pixel and strip detectors. The current Phase-II detector layout requires the construction of 20,000 strip detector modules consisting of sensor, circuit boards and readout chips, which are connected mechanically using adhesives. The adhesive used initially between readout chips and circuit board is a silver epoxy glue as was used in the current ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker (SCT). However, this glue has several disadvantages, which motivated the search for an alternative. This paper presents a study of six ultra-violet (UV) cure glues and a glue pad for possible use in the assembly of silicon strip detector modules for the ATLAS upgrade. Trials were carried out to determine the ease of use, thermal conduction and shear strength. Samples were thermally cycled, radiation hardness and corrosion resistance were also determined. These investigations led to the exclusion of three UV cure glues as well as the glue pad. Three UV cure glues were found to be possible better alternatives than silver loaded glue. Results from electrical tests of first prototype modules constructed using these glues are presented.

  13. The silicon strips Inner Tracker (ITk) of the ATLAS Phase-II upgrade detector

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00220523; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The inner detector of the present ATLAS detector has been designed and developed to function in the environment of the present Large Hadron Collider (LHC). At the next-generation tracking detector proposed for the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), the so-called ATLAS Phase-II Upgrade, the particle densities and radiation levels will be higher by as much as a factor of ten. The new detectors must be faster, they need to be more highly segmented, and covering more area. They also need to be more resistant to radiation, and they require much greater power delivery to the front-end systems. At the same time, they cannot introduce excess material which could undermine performance. For those reasons, the inner tracker of the ATLAS detector must be redesigned and rebuilt completely. The inner detector of the current detector will be replaced by the Inner Tracker (ITk). It consists of an innermost pixel detector and an outer strips tracker. This contribution focuses on the strips tracker. The basic detection unit of the ...

  14. A Silicon Strip Detector for the Phase II High Luminosity Upgrade of the ATLAS Detector at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00425747; McMahon, Stephen J

    2015-01-01

    ATLAS is a particle physics experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) that detects proton-proton collisions at a centre of mass energy of 14 TeV. The Semiconductor Tracker is part of the Inner Detector, implemented using silicon microstrip detectors with binary read-out, providing momentum measurement of charged particles with excellent resolution. The operation of the LHC and the ATLAS experiment started in 2010, with ten years of operation expected until major upgrades are needed in the accelerator and the experiments. The ATLAS tracker will need to be completely replaced due to the radiation damage and occupancy of some detector elements and the data links at high luminosities. These upgrades after the first ten years of operation are named the Phase-II Upgrade and involve a re-design of the LHC, resulting in the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC). This thesis presents the work carried out in the testing of the ATLAS Phase-II Upgrade electronic systems in the future strips tracker a...

  15. Radiation Hard GaNFET High Voltage Multiplexing (HV Mux) for the ATLAS Upgrade Silicon Strip Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Lynn, David; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The outer radii of the inner tracker (ITk) for the Phase-II Upgrade of the ATLAS experiment will consist of groups of silicon strip sensors mounted on common support structures. Lack of space creates a need to remotely disable a failing sensor from the common HV bus. We have developed circuitry consisting of a GaNFET transistor and a HV Multiplier circuit to disable a failed sensor. We will present two variants of the HV Mux circuitry and show irradiation results on individual components with an emphasis on the GaNFET results. We will also discuss the reliability of the HV Mux circuitry and show plans to ensure reliability during production.

  16. Characterisation of strip silicon detectors for the ATLAS Phase-II Upgrade with a micro-focused X-ray beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poley, L.; Blue, A.; Bates, R.; Bloch, I.; Díez, S.; Fernandez-Tejero, J.; Fleta, C.; Gallop, B.; Greenall, A.; Gregor, I.-M.; Hara, K.; Ikegami, Y.; Lacasta, C.; Lohwasser, K.; Maneuski, D.; Nagorski, S.; Pape, I.; Phillips, P. W.; Sperlich, D.; Sawhney, K.; Soldevila, U.; Ullan, M.; Unno, Y.; Warren, M.

    2016-07-01

    The planned HL-LHC (High Luminosity LHC) in 2025 is being designed to maximise the physics potential through a sizable increase in the luminosity up to 6·1034 cm-2s-1. A consequence of this increased luminosity is the expected radiation damage at 3000 fb-1 after ten years of operation, requiring the tracking detectors to withstand fluences to over 1·1016 1 MeV neq/cm2. In order to cope with the consequent increased readout rates, a complete re-design of the current ATLAS Inner Detector (ID) is being developed as the Inner Tracker (ITk). Two proposed detectors for the ATLAS strip tracker region of the ITk were characterized at the Diamond Light Source with a 3 μm FWHM 15 keV micro focused X-ray beam. The devices under test were a 320 μm thick silicon stereo (Barrel) ATLAS12 strip mini sensor wire bonded to a 130 nm CMOS binary readout chip (ABC130) and a 320 μm thick full size radial (end-cap) strip sensor - utilizing bi-metal readout layers - wire bonded to 250 nm CMOS binary readout chips (ABCN-25). A resolution better than the inter strip pitch of the 74.5 μm strips was achieved for both detectors. The effect of the p-stop diffusion layers between strips was investigated in detail for the wire bond pad regions. Inter strip charge collection measurements indicate that the effective width of the strip on the silicon sensors is determined by p-stop regions between the strips rather than the strip pitch.

  17. ATLAS Silicon Microstrip Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Haefner, Petra; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    The SemiConductor Tracker (SCT), made up from silicon micro-strip detectors is the key precision tracking device in ATLAS, one of the experiments at CERN LHC. The completed SCT is in very good shape: 99.3% of the SCT strips are operational, noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specifications. In the talk the current status of the SCT will be reviewed. We will report on the operation of the detector and observed problems, with stress on the sensor and electronics performance. TWEPP Summary In December 2009 the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) recorded the first proton- proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 900 GeV and this was followed by the unprecedented energy of 7 TeV in March 2010. The SemiConductor Tracker (SCT) is the key precision tracking device in ATLAS, made up from silicon micro-strip detectors processed in the planar p-in-n technology. The signal from the strips is processed in the front-end ASICS ABCD3TA, working in the binary readout mode. Data i...

  18. ALICE Silicon Strip Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Nooren, G

    2013-01-01

    The Silicon Strip Detector (SSD) constitutes the two outermost layers of the Inner Tracking System (ITS) of the ALICE Experiment. The SSD plays a crucial role in the tracking of the particles produced in the collisions connecting the tracks from the external detectors (Time Projection Chamber) to the ITS. The SSD also contributes to the particle identification through the measurement of their energy loss.

  19. Mechanical studies towards a silicon micro-strip super module for the ATLAS inner detector upgrade at the high luminosity LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbier, G; Cadoux, F; Clark, A; Favre, Y; Ferrere, D; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S; Iacobucci, G; Marra, D La; Perrin, E; Seez, W; Endo, M; Hanagaki, K; Hara, K; Ikegami, Y; Nakamura, K; Takubo, Y; Terada, S; Jinnouchi, O; Nishimura, R; Takashima, R

    2014-01-01

    It is expected that after several years of data-taking, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) physics programme will be extended to the so-called High-Luminosity LHC, where the instantaneous luminosity will be increased up to 5 × 10 34  cm −2  s −1 . For the general-purpose ATLAS experiment at the LHC, a complete replacement of its internal tracking detector will be necessary, as the existing detector will not provide the required performance due to the cumulated radiation damage and the increase in the detector occupancy. The baseline layout for the new ATLAS tracker is an all-silicon-based detector, with pixel sensors in the inner layers and silicon micro-strip detectors at intermediate and outer radii. The super-module (SM) is an integration concept proposed for the barrel strip region of the future ATLAS tracker, where double-sided stereo silicon micro-strip modules (DSM) are assembled into a low-mass local support (LS) structure. Mechanical aspects of the proposed LS structure are described

  20. Studies of adhesives and metal contacts on silicon strip sensors for the ATLAS Inner Tracker

    OpenAIRE

    Poley, Anne-Luise

    2018-01-01

    In dieser Dissertationen werden Untersuchungen zur Verwendung von Klebstoffen auf der Oberfläche von Silizium-Streifen-Sensoren für die Konstruktion von Detektormodulen für das ATLAS Phase-II Upgrade vorgestellt. Drei UV-härtende Klebstoffe wurden im Vergleich zu dem derzeitigen Standard-Klebstoff an 60 ATLAS07 Miniatur-Sensoren getestet. Der Einfluss von Bestrahlung auf die chemische Zusammensetzung aller verwendeten Klebstoffe wurde unter Verwendung von Standardmethoden zur chemischen A...

  1. 3D silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parzefall, Ulrich; Bates, Richard; Boscardin, Maurizio; Dalla Betta, Gian-Franco; Eckert, Simon; Eklund, Lars; Fleta, Celeste; Jakobs, Karl; Kuehn, Susanne; Lozano, Manuel; Pahn, Gregor; Parkes, Chris; Pellegrini, Giulio; Pennicard, David; Piemonte, Claudio; Ronchin, Sabina; Szumlak, Tomasz; Zoboli, Andrea; Zorzi, Nicola

    2009-01-01

    While the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN has started operation in autumn 2008, plans for a luminosity upgrade to the Super-LHC (sLHC) have already been developed for several years. This projected luminosity increase by an order of magnitude gives rise to a challenging radiation environment for tracking detectors at the LHC experiments. Significant improvements in radiation hardness are required with respect to the LHC. Using a strawman layout for the new tracker of the ATLAS experiment as an example, silicon strip detectors (SSDs) with short strips of 2-3 cm length are foreseen to cover the region from 28 to 60 cm distance to the beam. These SSD will be exposed to radiation levels up to 10 15 N eq /cm 2 , which makes radiation resistance a major concern for the upgraded ATLAS tracker. Several approaches to increasing the radiation hardness of silicon detectors exist. In this article, it is proposed to combine the radiation hard 3D-design originally conceived for pixel-style applications with the benefits of the established planar technology for strip detectors by using SSDs that have regularly spaced doped columns extending into the silicon bulk under the detector strips. The first 3D SSDs to become available for testing were made in the Single Type Column (STC) design, a technological simplification of the original 3D design. With such 3D SSDs, a small number of prototype sLHC detector modules with LHC-speed front-end electronics as used in the semiconductor tracking systems of present LHC experiments were built. Modules were tested before and after irradiation to fluences of 10 15 N eq /cm 2 . The tests were performed with three systems: a highly focused IR-laser with 5μm spot size to make position-resolved scans of the charge collection efficiency, an Sr 90 β-source set-up to measure the signal levels for a minimum ionizing particle (MIP), and a beam test with 180 GeV pions at CERN. This article gives a brief overview of the results obtained with 3D-STC-modules.

  2. 3D silicon strip detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parzefall, Ulrich [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany)], E-mail: ulrich.parzefall@physik.uni-freiburg.de; Bates, Richard [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Boscardin, Maurizio [FBK-irst, Center for Materials and Microsystems, via Sommarive 18, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Dalla Betta, Gian-Franco [INFN and Universita' di Trento, via Sommarive 14, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Eckert, Simon [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Eklund, Lars; Fleta, Celeste [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Jakobs, Karl; Kuehn, Susanne [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Lozano, Manuel [Instituto de Microelectronica de Barcelona, IMB-CNM, CSIC, Barcelona (Spain); Pahn, Gregor [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Parkes, Chris [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Pellegrini, Giulio [Instituto de Microelectronica de Barcelona, IMB-CNM, CSIC, Barcelona (Spain); Pennicard, David [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Piemonte, Claudio; Ronchin, Sabina [FBK-irst, Center for Materials and Microsystems, via Sommarive 18, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Szumlak, Tomasz [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Zoboli, Andrea [INFN and Universita' di Trento, via Sommarive 14, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Zorzi, Nicola [FBK-irst, Center for Materials and Microsystems, via Sommarive 18, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy)

    2009-06-01

    While the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN has started operation in autumn 2008, plans for a luminosity upgrade to the Super-LHC (sLHC) have already been developed for several years. This projected luminosity increase by an order of magnitude gives rise to a challenging radiation environment for tracking detectors at the LHC experiments. Significant improvements in radiation hardness are required with respect to the LHC. Using a strawman layout for the new tracker of the ATLAS experiment as an example, silicon strip detectors (SSDs) with short strips of 2-3 cm length are foreseen to cover the region from 28 to 60 cm distance to the beam. These SSD will be exposed to radiation levels up to 10{sup 15}N{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}, which makes radiation resistance a major concern for the upgraded ATLAS tracker. Several approaches to increasing the radiation hardness of silicon detectors exist. In this article, it is proposed to combine the radiation hard 3D-design originally conceived for pixel-style applications with the benefits of the established planar technology for strip detectors by using SSDs that have regularly spaced doped columns extending into the silicon bulk under the detector strips. The first 3D SSDs to become available for testing were made in the Single Type Column (STC) design, a technological simplification of the original 3D design. With such 3D SSDs, a small number of prototype sLHC detector modules with LHC-speed front-end electronics as used in the semiconductor tracking systems of present LHC experiments were built. Modules were tested before and after irradiation to fluences of 10{sup 15}N{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}. The tests were performed with three systems: a highly focused IR-laser with 5{mu}m spot size to make position-resolved scans of the charge collection efficiency, an Sr{sup 90}{beta}-source set-up to measure the signal levels for a minimum ionizing particle (MIP), and a beam test with 180 GeV pions at CERN. This article gives a brief overview of

  3. Characterisation of strip silicon detectors for the ATLAS Phase-II Upgrade with a micro-focused X-ray beam

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00407830; Blue, Andrew; Bates, Richard; Bloch, Ingo; Diez, Sergio; Fernandez-Tejero, Javier; Fleta, Celeste; Gallop, Bruce; Greenall, Ashley; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Hara, Kazuhiko; Ikegami, Yoichi; Lacasta, Carlos; Lohwasser, Kristin; Maneuski, Dzmitry; Nagorski, Sebastian; Pape, Ian; Phillips, Peter W.; Sperlich, Dennis; Sawhney, Kawal; Soldevila, Urmila; Ullan, Miguel; Unno, Yoshinobu; Warren, Matt

    2016-07-29

    The planned HL-LHC (High Luminosity LHC) in 2025 is being designed to maximise the physics potential through a sizable increase in the luminosity, totalling 1x10^35 cm^-2 s^-1 after 10 years of operation. A consequence of this increased luminosity is the expected radiation damage at 3000 fb^-1, requiring the tracking detectors to withstand hadron equivalences to over 1x10^16 1 MeV neutrons per cm^2. With the addition of increased readout rates, a complete re-design of the current ATLAS Inner Detector (ID) is being developed as the Inner Tracker (ITk). Two proposed detectors for the ATLAS strip tracker region of the ITk were characterized at the Diamond Light Source with a 3 micron FWHM 15 keV micro focused X-ray beam. The devices under test were a 320 micron thick silicon stereo (Barrel) ATLAS12 strip mini sensor wire bonded to a 130 nm CMOS binary readout chip (ABC130) and a 320 micron thick full size radial (Endcap) strip sensor - utilizing bi-metal readout layers - wire bonded to 250 nm CMOS binary readout...

  4. Design and performance of the ABCD3TA ASIC for readout of silicon strip detectors in the ATLAS semiconductor tracker

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Campabadal, F.; Fleta, C.; Key, M.; Böhm, Jan; Mikeštíková, Marcela; Šťastný, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 552, - (2005), s. 292-328 ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1P04LA212 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : front-end electronics * binary readout * silicon strip detectors * application specific integrated circuits * quality assurance Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 1.224, year: 2005

  5. Collected charge and Lorentz angle measurement on non-irradiated ATLAS silicon micro-strip sensors for the HL-LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yildirim, Eda

    2017-02-15

    In this thesis, the collected charge and the Lorentz angle on non-irradiated and the irradiated miniature of the current test silicon micro-strip sensors (ATLAS12) of the future ATLAS inner tracker are measured. The samples are irradiated up to 5 x 10{sup 15} 1 MeV n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2} and some of them also measured after short-term annealing (80 min at 60 C). The measurements are performed at the DESY II test beam, which provides the advantage of tracking to suppress noise hits. The collected charge is measured at various bias voltages for each sample. The results are compared with the measurements performed using a Sr{sup 90} radioactive source. It is shown that the measurements with beam and radioactive source are consistent with each other, and the advantage of tracking at the beam measurements provides the measurement of collected charge on highly irradiated sensors at lower bias voltages. The Lorentz angle is measured for each sample at different magnetic field strengths between 0 T and 1 T, the results are extrapolated to 2 T, which is the magnetic field in the inner tracker of the ATLAS detector. Most of the measurements are performed at -500 V bias voltage, which is the planned operation bias voltage of the future strip tracker. Some samples are also measured at different bias voltages to observe the effect of bias voltage on the Lorentz angle. The signal reconstruction of the strip sensors are performed using the lowest possible signal-to-noise thresholds. For non-irradiated samples, the measured Lorentz angle agrees with the prediction of the BFK model. On the irradiated samples, the results suggest that the Lorentz angle decreases with increasing bias voltage due to the increasing electric field in the sensor. The Lorentz angle decreases with increasing irradiation level; however, if the sample is under-depleted, the effect of electric field dominates and the Lorentz angle increases. Once the irradiation level becomes too high, hence the collected charge

  6. Noise evaluation of silicon strip super-module with ABCN250 readout chips for the ATLAS detector upgrade at the High Luminosity LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todome, K., E-mail: todome@hep.phys.titech.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Ookayama 2-12-1, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Solid State Div., Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., 1126-1, Ichino-cho, Higashi-ku, Hamamatsu-shi, Shizuoka 435-8558 (Japan); Jinnouchi, O. [Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Ookayama 2-12-1, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Solid State Div., Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., 1126-1, Ichino-cho, Higashi-ku, Hamamatsu-shi, Shizuoka 435-8558 (Japan); Clark, A.; Barbier, G.; Cadoux, F.; Favre, Y.; Ferrere, D.; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S.; Iacobucci, G.; La Marra, D.; Perrin, E.; Weber, M. [DPNC, University of Geneva, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Solid State Div., Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., 1126-1, Ichino-cho, Higashi-ku, Hamamatsu-shi, Shizuoka 435-8558 (Japan); Ikegami, Y.; Nakamura, K.; Takubo, Y.; Unno, Y. [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Study, KEK, Oho 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Solid State Div., Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., 1126-1, Ichino-cho, Higashi-ku, Hamamatsu-shi, Shizuoka 435-8558 (Japan); Takashima, R. [Department of Science Education, Kyoto University of Education, Kyoto 612-8522 (Japan); Solid State Div., Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., 1126-1, Ichino-cho, Higashi-ku, Hamamatsu-shi, Shizuoka 435-8558 (Japan); Tojo, J. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Solid State Div., Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., 1126-1, Ichino-cho, Higashi-ku, Hamamatsu-shi, Shizuoka 435-8558 (Japan); Kono, T. [Ochadai Academic Production, Ochanomizu University, 2-1-1, Otsuka, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-8610 (Japan); Solid State Div., Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., 1126-1, Ichino-cho, Higashi-ku, Hamamatsu-shi, Shizuoka 435-8558 (Japan); and others

    2016-09-21

    Toward High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), the whole ATLAS inner tracker will be replaced, including the semiconductor tracker (SCT) which is the silicon micro strip detector for tracking charged particles. In development of the SCT, integration of the detector is the important issue. One of the concepts of integration is the “super-module” in which individual modules are assembled to produce the SCT ladder. A super-module prototype has been developed to demonstrate its functionality. One of the concerns in integrating the super-modules is the electrical coupling between each module, because it may increase intrinsic noise of the system. To investigate the electrical performance of the prototype, the new Data Acquisition (DAQ) system has been developed by using SEABAS. The electric performance of the super-module prototype, especially the input noise and random noise hit rate, was investigated by using SEABAS system.

  7. Prototype Strip Barrel Modules for the ATLAS ITk Strip Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Sawyer, Craig; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The module design for the Phase II Upgrade of the new ATLAS Inner Tracker (ITk) detector at the LHC employs integrated low mass assembly using single-sided flexible circuits with readout ASICs and a powering circuit incorporating control and monitoring of HV, LV and temperature on the module. Both readout and powering circuits are glued directly onto the silicon sensor surface resulting in a fully integrated, extremely low radiation length module which simultaneously reduces the material requirements of the local support structure by allowing a reduced width stave structure to be employed. Such a module concept has now been fully demonstrated using so-called ABC130 and HCC130 ASICs fabricated in 130nm CMOS technology to readout ATLAS12 n+-in-p silicon strip sensors. Low voltage powering for these demonstrator modules has been realised by utilising a DCDC powerboard based around the CERN FEAST ASIC. This powerboard incorporates an HV multiplexing switch based on a Panasonic GaN transistor. Control and monitori...

  8. ATLAS Silicon Microstrip Tracker Operation and Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Nagai, K; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The Semi-Conductor Tracker (SCT) is one of the key precision tracking devices in the ATLAS experiment at CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The SCT was constructed of 4088 modules for a total of 6.3 million silicon strips and was installed into the ATLAS experiment in 2007. The SCT has been fully operational since then, and achieves a good tracking performance from the startup of the LHC operation.

  9. A new strips tracker for the upgraded ATLAS ITk detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, C.

    2018-01-01

    The ATLAS detector has been designed and developed to function in the environment of the present Large Hadron Collider (LHC). At the next-generation tracking detector proposed for the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), the so-called ATLAS Phase-II Upgrade, the fluences and radiation levels will be higher by as much as a factor of ten. The new sub-detectors must thus be faster, of larger area, more segmented and more radiation hard while the amount of inactive material should be minimized and the power supply to the front-end systems should be increased. For those reasons, the current inner tracker of the ATLAS detector will be fully replaced by an all-silicon tracking system that consists of a pixel detector at small radius close to the beam line and a large area strip tracker surrounding it. This document gives an overview of the design of the strip inner tracker (Strip ITk) and summarises the intensive R&D activities performed over the last years by the numerous institutes within the Strips ITk collaboration. These studies are accompanied with a strong prototyping effort to contribute to the optimisation of the Strip ITk's structure and components. This effort culminated recently in the release of the ATLAS Strips ITk Technical Design Report (TDR).

  10. The CMS silicon strip tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Focardi, E.; Albergo, S.; Angarano, M.; Azzi, P.; Babucci, E.; Bacchetta, N.; Bader, A.; Bagliesi, G.; Bartalini, P.; Basti, A.; Biggeri, U.; Bilei, G.M.; Bisello, D.; Boemi, D.; Bosi, F.; Borrello, L.; Bozzi, C.; Braibant, S.; Breuker, H.; Bruzzi, M.; Candelori, A.; Caner, A.; Castaldi, R.; Castro, A.; Catacchini, E.; Checcucci, B.; Ciampolini, P.; Civinini, C.; Creanza, D.; D'Alessandro, R.; Da Rold, M.; Demaria, N.; De Palma, M.; Dell'Orso, R.; Marina, R. Della; Dutta, S.; Eklund, C.; Elliott-Peisert, A.; Feld, L.; Fiore, L.; French, M.; Freudenreich, K.; Fuertjes, A.; Giassi, A.; Giraldo, A.; Glessing, B.; Gu, W.H.; Hall, G.; Hammerstrom, R.; Hebbeker, T.; Hrubec, J.; Huhtinen, M.; Kaminsky, A.; Karimaki, V.; Koenig, St.; Krammer, M.; Lariccia, P.; Lenzi, M.; Loreti, M.; Luebelsmeyer, K.; Lustermann, W.; Maettig, P.; Maggi, G.; Mannelli, M.; Mantovani, G.; Marchioro, A.; Mariotti, C.; Martignon, G.; Evoy, B. Mc; Meschini, M.; Messineo, A.; My, S.; Paccagnella, A.; Palla, F.; Pandoulas, D.; Parrini, G.; Passeri, D.; Pieri, M.; Piperov, S.; Potenza, R.; Raffaelli, F.; Raso, G.; Raymond, M.; Santocchia, A.; Schmitt, B.; Selvaggi, G.; Servoli, L.; Sguazzoni, G.; Siedling, R.; Silvestris, L.; Skog, K.; Starodumov, A.; Stavitski, I.; Stefanini, G.; Tempesta, P.; Tonelli, G.; Tricomi, A.; Tuuva, T.; Vannini, C.; Verdini, P.G.; Viertel, G.; Xie, Z.; Wang, Y.; Watts, S.; Wittmer, B.

    1999-01-01

    The Silicon Strip Tracker (SST) is the intermediate part of the CMS Central Tracker System. SST is based on microstrip silicon devices and in combination with pixel detectors and the Microstrip Gas Chambers aims at performing pattern recognition, track reconstruction and momentum measurements for all tracks with p T ≥2 GeV/c originating from high luminosity interactions at √s=14 TeV at LHC. We aim at exploiting the advantages and the physics potential of the precise tracking performance provided by the microstrip silicon detectors on a large scale apparatus and in a much more difficult environment than ever. In this paper we describe the actual SST layout and the readout system. (author)

  11. ATLAS Silicon Microstrip Tracker Operation and Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Yamada, M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The SemiConductor Tracker (SCT), comprising of silicon micro-strip detectors is one of the key precision tracking devices in the ATLAS Inner Detector. ATLAS is one of the experiments at CERN LHC. The completed SCT is in very good shapes with 99.3% of the SCT’s 4088 modules (a total of 6.3 million strips) are operational. The noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specifications. In the talk the current status of the SCT will be reviewed. We will report on the operation of the detector, its performance and observed problems, with stress on the sensor and electronics performance.

  12. The ATLAS Silicon Microstrip Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Haefner, Petra

    2010-01-01

    In December 2009 the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) recorded the first proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 900 GeV. This was followed by collisions at the unprecedented energy of 7 TeV in March 2010. The SemiConductor Tracker (SCT) is a precision tracking device in ATLAS made up from silicon micro-strip detectors processed in the planar p-in-n technology. The signal from the strips is processed in the front-end ASICs working in binary readout mode. Data is transferred to the off-detector readout electronics via optical fibers. The completed SCT has been installed inside the ATLAS experiment. Since then the detector was operated for two years under realistic conditions. Calibration data has been taken and analysed to determine the performance of the system. In addition, extensive commissioning with cosmic ray events has been performed both with and without magnetic field. The sensor behaviour in magnetic field was studied by measurements of the Lorentz angle. After ...

  13. ATLAS Silicon Microstrip Tracker Operation and Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Yamada, M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The SemiConductor Tracker (SCT), comprising of silicon micro-strip detectors is one of the key precision tracking devices in the ATLAS Inner Detector. ATLAS is one of the experiments at CERN LHC. The completed SCT is in very good shapes with 99.3% of the SCT’s 4088 modules (a total of 6.3 million strips) are operational. The noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specifications. In the talk the current status of the SCT will be reviewed. We will report on the operation of the detector, its performance and observed problems, with stress on the sensor and electronics performance. In December 2009 the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) recorded the first proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 900 GeV and this was followed by the unprecedented energy of 7 TeV in March 2010. The Semi-Conductor Tracker (SCT) is the key precision tracking device in ATLAS, made from silicon micro-strip detectors processed in the planar p-in-n technology. The signals from the strip...

  14. The ATLAS tracker strip detector for HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Cormier, Kyle James Read; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    As part of the ATLAS upgrades for the High Luminsotiy LHC (HL-LHC) the current ATLAS Inner Detector (ID) will be replaced by a new Inner Tracker (ITk). The ITk will consist of two main components: semi-conductor pixels at the innermost radii, and silicon strips covering larger radii out as far as the ATLAS solenoid magnet including the volume currently occupied by the ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT). The primary challenges faced by the ITk are the higher planned read out rate of ATLAS, the high density of charged particles in HL-LHC conditions for which tracks need to be resolved, and the corresponding high radiation doses that the detector and electronics will receive. The ITk strips community is currently working on designing and testing all aspects of the sensors, readout, mechanics, cooling and integration to meet these goals and a Technical Design Report is being prepared. This talk is an overview of the strip detector component of the ITk, highlighting the current status and the road ahead.

  15. The ATLAS tracker strip detector for HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00512833; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    As part of the ATLAS upgrades for the High Luminsotiy LHC (HL-LHC) the current ATLAS Inner Detector (ID) will be replaced by a new Inner Tracker (ITk). The ITk will consist of two main components: semi-conductor pixels at the innermost radii, and silicon strips covering larger radii out as far as the ATLAS solenoid magnet including the volume currently occupied by the ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT). The primary challenges faced by the ITk are the higher planned read out rate of ATLAS, the high density of charged particles in HL-LHC conditions for which tracks need to be resolved, and the corresponding high radiation doses that the detector and electronics will receive. The ITk strips community is currently working on designing and testing all aspects of the sensors, readout, mechanics, cooling and integration to meet these goals and a Technical Design Report is being prepared. This talk is an overview of the strip detector component of the ITk, highlighting the current status and the road ahead.

  16. CMS Silicon Strip Tracker Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Agram, Jean-Laurent

    2012-01-01

    The CMS Silicon Strip Tracker (SST), consisting of 9.6 million readout channels from 15148 modules and covering an area of 198 square meters, needs to be precisely calibrated in order to correctly reconstruct the events recorded. Calibration constants are derived from different workflows, from promptly reconstructed events with particles as well as from commissioning events gathered just before the acquisition of physics runs. The performance of the SST has been carefully studied since the beginning of data taking: the noise of the detector, data integrity, signal-over-noise ratio, hit reconstruction efficiency and resolution have been all investigated with time and for different conditions. In this paper we describe the reconstruction strategies, the calibration procedures and the detector performance results from the latest CMS operation.

  17. Strip interpolation in silicon and germanium strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wulf, E. A.; Phlips, B. F.; Johnson, W. N.; Kurfess, J. D.; Lister, C. J.; Kondev, F.; Physics; Naval Research Lab.

    2004-01-01

    The position resolution of double-sided strip detectors is limited by the strip pitch and a reduction in strip pitch necessitates more electronics. Improved position resolution would improve the imaging capabilities of Compton telescopes and PET detectors. Digitizing the preamplifier waveform yields more information than can be extracted with regular shaping electronics. In addition to the energy, depth of interaction, and which strip was hit, the digitized preamplifier signals can locate the interaction position to less than the strip pitch of the detector by looking at induced signals in neighboring strips. This allows the position of the interaction to be interpolated in three dimensions and improve the imaging capabilities of the system. In a 2 mm thick silicon strip detector with a strip pitch of 0.891 mm, strip interpolation located the interaction of 356 keV gamma rays to 0.3 mm FWHM. In a 2 cm thick germanium detector with a strip pitch of 5 mm, strip interpolation of 356 keV gamma rays yielded a position resolution of 1.5 mm FWHM

  18. ATLAS Silicon Microstrip Tracker Operation and Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Chalupkova, I; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The Semi-Conductor Tracker (SCT) is a silicon strip detector and one of the key precision tracking devices in the Inner Detector of the ATLAS experiment at CERN LHC. The SCT is constructed of 4088 silicon detector modules for a total of 6.3 million strips. Each module is designed, constructed and tested to operate as a stand-alone unit, mechanically, electrically, optically and thermally. The modules are mounted into two types of structures: one barrel (4 cylinders) and two end-cap systems (9 disks on each end of the barrel). The SCT silicon micro-strip sensors are processed in the planar p-in-n technology. The signals from the strips are processed in the front-end ASICS ABCD3TA, working in the binary readout mode. Data is transferred to the off-detector readout electronics via optical fibers. The completed SCT has been installed inside the ATLAS experimental cavern since 2007 and has been operational since then. Calibration data has been taken regularly and analyzed to determine the noise performance of the ...

  19. ATLAS Silicon Microstrip Tracker Operation and Performance

    CERN Document Server

    NAGAI, K; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The Semi-Conductor Tracker (SCT) is a silicon strip detector and one of the key precision tracking devices in the Inner Detector of the ATLAS experiment at CERN LHC. The SCT is constructed of 4088 silicon detector modules for a total of 6.3 million strips. Each module is designed, constructed and tested to operate as a stand-alone unit, mechanically, electrically, optically and thermally. The modules are mounted into two types of structures: one barrel (4 cylinders) and two end-cap systems (9 disks on each end of the barrel). The SCT silicon micro-strip sensors are processed in the planar p-in-n technology. The signals from the strips are processed in the front-end ASICS ABCD3TA, working in the binary readout mode. Data is transferred to the off-detector readout electronics via optical fibres. The completed SCT has been installed inside the ATLAS experimental cavern since 2007 and has been operational since then. Calibration data has been taken regularly and analysed to determine the noise performance of the ...

  20. The ATLAS ITk strip detector. Status of R&D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García Argos, Carlos, E-mail: carlos.garcia.argos@cern.ch

    2017-02-11

    While the LHC at CERN is ramping up luminosity after the discovery of the Higgs Boson in the ATLAS and CMS experiments in 2012, upgrades to the LHC and experiments are planned. The major upgrade is foreseen for 2024, with a roughly tenfold increase in luminosity, resulting in corresponding increases in particle rates and radiation doses. In ATLAS the entire Inner Detector will be replaced for Phase-II running with an all-silicon system. This paper concentrates on the strip part. Its layout foresees low-mass and modular yet highly integrated double-sided structures for the barrel and forward region. The design features conceptually simple modules made from electronic hybrids glued directly onto the silicon. Modules will then be assembled on both sides of large carbon-core structures with integrated cooling and electrical services.

  1. The charge collection in silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehringer, T.; Hubbeling, L.; Weilhammer, P.; Kemmer, J.; Koetz, U.; Riebesell, M.; Belau, E.; Klanner, R.; Lutz, G.; Neugebauer, E.; Seebrunner, H.J.; Wylie, A.

    1983-02-01

    The charge collection in silicon detectors has been studied, by measuring the response to high-energy particles of a 20μm pitch strip detector as a function of applied voltage and magnetic field. The results are well described by a simple model. The model is used to predict the spatial resolution of silicon strip detectors and to propose a detector with optimized spatial resolution. (orig.)

  2. Simulation studies for the ATLAS upgrade Strip tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Jike; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    ATLAS is making extensive efforts towards preparing a detector upgrade for the High luminosity operations of the LHC (HL-LHC), which will commence operation in ~10 years. The current ATLAS Inner Detector will be replaced by a all-silicon tracker (comprising an inner Pixel tracker and outer Strip tracker). The software currently used for the new silicon tracker is broadly inherited from that used for the LHC Run 1 and 2, but many new developments have been made to better fulfil the future detector and operation requirements. One aspect in particular which will be highlighted is the simulation software for the Strip tracker. The available geometry description software (including the detailed description for all the sensitive elements, the services, etc.) did not allow for accurate modeling of the planned detector design. A range of sensors/layouts for the Strip tracker are being considered and must be studied in detailed simulations in order to assess the performance and ascertain that requirements are met. For...

  3. ATLAS Silicon Microstrip Tracker Operation and Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Chalupkova, I; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The Semi-Conductor Tracker (SCT) is a silicon strip detector and one of the key precision tracking devices in the Inner Detector (ID) of the ATLAS experiment at CERN LHC. The SCT is constructed of 4088 silicon detector modules with a total of 6.3 million strips. Each module is designed, constructed and tested to operate as a stand-alone unit, mechanically, electrically, optically and thermally. The modules are mounted into two types of structures: one barrel (4 cylinders) and two end-cap systems (9 disks on each side of the barrel). The SCT silicon microstrip sensors are processed in the planar p-in-n technology. The signals from the strips are processed in the front-end ASICs ABCD3TA, working in the binary readout mode. Data is transferred to the off-detector readout electronics via optical fibres. SCT has been installed inside the ATLAS experimental cavern since 2007 and has been operational ever since. Calibration data has been taken regularly and analysed to determine the noise performance of the system. ...

  4. The ATLAS Tracker Upgrade: Short Strips Detectors for the SLHC

    CERN Document Server

    Soldevila, U; Lacasta, C; Marti i García, S; Miñano, M

    2009-01-01

    It is foreseen to increase the luminosity of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN around 2018 by about an order of magnitude, with the upgraded machine dubbed Super-LHC or sLHC. The ATLAS experiment will require a new tracker for SLHC operation. In order to cope with the order of magnitude increase in pile-up backgrounds at the higher luminosity, an all silicon detector is being designed. The new strip detector will use significantly shorter strips than the current SCT in order to minimise the occupancy. As the increased luminosity will mean a corresponding increase in radiation dose, a new generation of extremely radiation hard silicon detectors is required. A massive R&D programme is underway to develop silicon sensors with sufficient radiation hardness. New front-end electronics and readout systems are being designed to cope with the higher data rates. The challenges of powering and cooling a very large strip detector will be discussed. Ideas on possible schemes for the layout and support mechanics ...

  5. ATLAS ITk Strip Detector for High-Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Kroll, Jiri; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is currently preparing for an upgrade of the tracking system in the course of the High-Luminosity LHC that is scheduled for 2026. The expected peak instantaneous luminosity up to 7.5E34 per second and cm2 corresponding to approximately 200 inelastic proton-proton interactions per beam crossing, radiation damage at an integrated luminosity of 3000/fb and hadron fluencies over 1E16 1 MeV neutron equivalent per cm2, as well as fast hardware tracking capability that will bring Level-0 trigger rate of a few MHz down to a Level-1 trigger rate below 1 MHz require a replacement of existing Inner Detector by an all-silicon Inner Tracker (ITk) with a pixel detector surrounded by a strip detector. The current prototyping phase, that is working with ITk Strip Detector consisting of a four-layer barrel and a forward region composed of six discs on each side of the barrel, has resulted in the ATLAS ITk Strip Detector Technical Design Report (TDR), which starts the pre-production readiness phase at the ...

  6. ATLAS ITk Strip Detector for High-Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Kroll, Jiri; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is currently preparing for an upgrade of the tracking system in the course of the High-Luminosity LHC that is scheduled for 2026. The expected peak instantaneous luminosity up to $7.5\\times10^{34}\\;\\mathrm{cm}^{-2}\\mathrm{s}^{-1}$ corresponding to approximately 200 inelastic proton-proton interactions per beam crossing, radiation damage at an integrated luminosity of $3000\\;\\mathrm{fb}^{-1}$ and hadron fluencies over $2\\times10^{16}\\;\\mathrm{n}_{\\mathrm{eq}}/\\mathrm{cm}^{2}$, as well as fast hardware tracking capability that will bring Level-0 trigger rate of a few MHz down to a Level-1 trigger rate below 1 MHz require a replacement of existing Inner Detector by an all-silicon Inner Tracker with a pixel detector surrounded by a strip detector. The current prototyping phase, that is working with ITk Strip Detector consisting of a four-layer barrel and a forward region composed of six disks on each side of the barrel, has resulted in the ATLAS Inner Tracker Strip Detector Technical Design R...

  7. ATLAS SCT - Progress on the Silicon Modules

    CERN Multimedia

    Tyndel, M.

    The ATLAS SCT consists of 4088 silicon modules. Each module is made up of 4 silicon sensors with 1536 readout strips. Individual strips are connected to FE amplifiers, discriminators and pipelines on the module, i.e. there are 12 radiation hard ASICs, each containing 128 channels on the module. The sensors and the ASICs were developed for the ATLAS experiment and production is proceeding smoothly with over half the components delivered. The components of a module - 4 silicon sensors, a Cu/polyimide hybrid and pitch adaptor, and 12 ASICs - need to be carefully and precisely assembled onto a carbon and ceramic framework, which supports the module and removes the heat. Eleven production clusters are preparing to carry this out over the next two years. An important milestone for the barrel modules has been passed with the first cluster (KEK) now in production (~40 modules produced). A second cluster UK-B has qualified by producing five modules within specification (see below) and is about to start production. T...

  8. Charge collection in silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraner, H.W.; Beuttenmuller, R.; Ludlam, T.; Hanson, A.L.; Jones, K.W.; Radeka, V.; Heijne, E.H.M.

    1982-11-01

    The use of position sensitive silicon detectors as very high resolution tracking devices in high energy physics experiments has been a subject of intense development over the past few years. Typical applications call for the detection of minimum ionizing particles with position measurement accuracy of 10 μm in each detector plane. The most straightforward detector geometry is that in which one of the collecting electrodes is subdivided into closely spaced strips, giving a high degree of segmentation in one coordinate. Each strip may be read out as a separate detection element, or, alternatively, resistive and/or capacitive coupling between adjacent strips may be exploited to interpolate the position via charge division measrurements. With readout techniques that couple several strips, the numer of readout channels can, in principle, be reduced by large factors without sacrificing the intrinsic position accuracy. The testing of individual strip properties and charge division between strips has been carried out with minimum ionizing particles or beams for the most part except in one case which used alphs particless scans. This paper describes the use of a highly collimated MeV proton beam for studies of the position sensing properties of representative one dimensional strip detectors

  9. ATLAS Silicon Microstrip Tracker Operation and Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Barone, G; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The Semi-Conductor Tracker (SCT) is a silicon strip detector and one of the key precision tracking devices in the Inner Detector of the ATLAS experiment at CERN LHC. The SCT is constructed of 4088 silicon detector modules for a total of 6.3 million strips. Each module is designed, constructed and tested to operate as a stand-alone unit, mechanically, electrically, optically and thermally. The modules are mounted into two types of structures: one barrel (4 cylinders) and two end-cap systems (9 disks on each end of the barrel). In the talk the current results from the successful operation of the SCT Detector at the LHC and its status after three years of operation will be presented. We will report on the operation of the detector including an overview of the issues we encountered and the observation of significant increases in leakage currents (as expected) from bulk damage due to non-ionising radiation. The main emphasis will be given to the tracking performance of the SCT and the data quality during the >2 ye...

  10. Technical Design Report for the ATLAS Inner Tracker Strip Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Collaboration, ATLAS

    2017-01-01

    This is the first of two Technical Design Report documents that describe the upgrade of the central tracking system for the ATLAS experiment for the operation at the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) starting in the middle of 2026. At this time the LHC will have been upgraded to reach a peak instantaneous luminosity of 7.5x10^34 cm^[-2]s^[-1], which corresponds to approximately 200 inelastic proton-proton collisions per beam crossing. The new Inner Tracker (ITk) will be operational for more than ten years, during which ATLAS aims to accumulate a total data set of 3,000 fb^[-1]. Meeting these requirements presents a unique challenge for the design of an all-silicon tracking system that consists of a pixel detector at small radius close to the beam line and a large-area strip tracking detector surrounding it. This document presents in detail the requirements of the new tracker, its layout and expected performance including the results of several benchmark physics studies at the highest numbers of collisions per beam...

  11. The Argonne silicon strip-detector array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuosmaa, A H; Back, B B; Betts, R R; Freer, M; Gehring, J; Glagola, B G; Happ, Th; Henderson, D J; Wilt, P [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Bearden, I G [Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1992-08-01

    Many nuclear physics experiments require the ability to analyze events in which large numbers of charged particles are detected and identified simultaneously, with good resolution and high efficiency, either alone, or in coincidence with gamma rays. The authors have constructed a compact large-area detector array to measure these processes efficiently and with excellent energy resolution. The array consists of four double-sided silicon strip detectors, each 5x5 cm{sup 2} in area, with front and back sides divided into 16 strips. To exploit the capability of the device fully, a system to read each strip-detector segment has been designed and constructed, based around a custom-built multi-channel preamplifier. The remainder of the system consists of high-density CAMAC modules, including multi-channel discriminators, charge-sensing analog-to-digital converters, and time-to-digital converters. The array`s performance has been evaluated using alpha-particle sources, and in a number of experiments conducted at Argonne and elsewhere. Energy resolutions of {Delta}E {approx} 20-30 keV have been observed for 5 to 8 MeV alpha particles, as well as time resolutions {Delta}T {<=} 500 ps. 4 figs.

  12. Investigation of the impact of mechanical stress on the properties of silicon strip sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Affolder, Tony; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The new ATLAS tracker for phase II will be composed of silicon pixel and strip sensor modules. The strip sensor module consists of silicon sensors, boards and readout chips. Adhesives are used to connect the modular components thermally and mechanically. It was shown that the silicon sensor is exposed to mechanical stress, due to temperature difference between construction and operation. Mechanical stress can damage the sensor and can change the electrical properties. The thermal induced tensile stress near to the surface of a silicon sensor in a module was simulated and the results are compared to a cooled module. A four point bending setup was used to measure the maximum tensile stress of silicon detectors and to verify the piezoresistive effects on two recent development sensor types used in ATLAS (ATLAS07 and ATLAS12). Changes in the interstrip, bulk and bias resistance and capacitance as well as the coupling capacitance and the implant resistance were measured. The Leakage current was observed to decreas...

  13. Staves and Petals: Multi-module Local Support Structures of the ATLAS ITk Strips Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez Rodriguez, Daniel; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS Inner Tracker (ITk) is an all-silicon tracker that will replace the existing inner detector at the Phase-II Upgrade of ATLAS. The outermost part of the tracker consists of the strips tracker, in which the sensor elements consist of silicon micro-strip sensors with strip lengths varying from 1.7 to up to 10 cm. The current design is part of the ATLAS ITk Strip Detector Technical Design Report (TDR) and envisions a four-layer barrel and two six-disk end-cap regions. The sensor and readout units (``modules'') are directly glued onto multi-module, low-mass, high thermal performance carbon fibre structures, called “staves” for the barrel and ``petals'' for the end-cap. They provide cooling, power, data and control lines to the modules with a minimal amount of external services. An extensive prototyping program was put in place over the last years to fully characterise these structures mechanically, thermally, and electrically. Thermo-mechanical stave and petal prototypes have recently been built and ...

  14. ATLAS Silicon Microstrip Tracker Operation and Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Rosendahl, P L; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The Semi-Conductor Tracker (SCT) is a silicon microstrip detector part of the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Together with the rest for the ATLAS Inner Detector (ID) it provides vital precision tracking information of charged particles. In this paper the performance and operational status of the SCT in the last two years of ATLAS data taking are reviewed.

  15. Design of the first full size ATLAS ITk Strip sensor for the endcap region

    CERN Document Server

    Lacasta, Carlos; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS collaboration is designing the full silicon tracker (ITk) that will operate in the HL-LHC replacing the current design. The silicon microstrip sensors for the barrel and the endcap regions in the ITk are fabricated in 6 inch, p-type, float-zone wafers, where large-area strip sensor designs are laid out together with a number of miniature sensors. The radiation tolerance and specific system issues like the need for slim edge of 450 µm have been tested with square shaped sensors intended for the barrel part of the tracker. This work presents the design of the first full size silicon microstrip sensor for the endcap region with a slim edge of 450 µm. The strip endcaps will consist of several wheels with two layers of silicon strip sensors each. The strips have to lie along the azimuthal direction, apart from a small stereo angle rotation (20 mrad on each side, giving 40 mrad total) for measuring the second coordinate of tracks. This stereo angle is built into the strip layout of the sensor and, in or...

  16. Design of the first full size ATLAS ITk Strip sensor for the endcap region

    CERN Document Server

    Lacasta, Carlos; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The ATLAS collaboration is designing the full silicon tracker (ITk) that will operate in the HL-LHC replacing the current design. The silicon microstrip sensors for the barrel and the endcap regions in the ITk are fabricated in 6 inch, p-type, float-zone wafers, where large-area strip sensor designs are laid out together with a number of miniature sensors. The radiation tolerance and specific system issues like the need for slim edge of 450 μm have been tested with square shaped sensors intended for the barrel part of the tracker. This work presents the design of the first full size silicon microstrip sensor for the endcap region with a slim edge of 450 μm. The strip endcaps will consist of several wheels with two layers of silicon strip sensors each. The strips have to lie along the azimuthal direction, apart from a small stereo angle rotation (20 mrad on each side, giving 40 mrad total) for measuring the second coordinate of tracks. This stereo angle is built into the strip layout of the sensor and, in or...

  17. Search for heavy lepton resonances decaying to a Z boson and a lepton in proton-proton collisions at √(s)=8 TeV with the ATLAS detector and investigations of radiation tolerant silicon-strip detectors for the high-luminosity LHC upgrade of the ATLAS inner detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiik-Fuchs, Liv

    2017-03-09

    The success of particle physics experiments, like those at the Large Hardon Collider (LHC) at CERN, relies on a worldwide interdisciplinary collaboration in a variety of different fields. This thesis contributes to two vital aspects in this area of research:in the first part of a search for heavy trilepton resonances decaying to a Z boson and an electron or muon is presented, while the second part focusses on research and development of radiation tolerant silicon tracking detectors designed for the upgrade of the ATLAS detector for the future luminosity upgrade of the LHC. The search for trilepton resonances is based on pp collision data taken at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV by the ATLAS experiment at the LHC corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 20.3 fb{sup -1}. To reconstruct the narrow resonance, events with at least three leptons (electrons or muons) with a high-transverse momentum are selected. Two of these leptons are required to be consistent with originating from a Z boson decay. Since no significant excess above Standard Model background predictions is observed, 95% confidence level upper limits on the production cross section of trilepton resonances beyond the Standard Model are derived. The results of this analysis are interpreted in the context of vector-like lepton and type-III seesaw models. For the vector-like lepton model, most heavy lepton mass values in the range 113-176 GeV are excluded. For the type-III seesaw model, most mass values in the range 100-474 GeV are excluded. The second part of this thesis focusses on the development of radiation-tolerant silicon strip detectors for the luminosity upgrade of the ATLAS detector envisaged to commence in the year 2016. This thesis includes the results of several studies which contribute to multiple key aspects required for a successful upgrade of the silicon strip detector of the ATLAS Inner Tracker. Among these are the results of a beam test providing the first comparative results between

  18. Search for heavy lepton resonances decaying to a Z boson and a lepton in proton-proton collisions at √(s)=8 TeV with the ATLAS detector and investigations of radiation tolerant silicon-strip detectors for the high-luminosity LHC upgrade of the ATLAS inner detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiik-Fuchs, Liv

    2017-01-01

    The success of particle physics experiments, like those at the Large Hardon Collider (LHC) at CERN, relies on a worldwide interdisciplinary collaboration in a variety of different fields. This thesis contributes to two vital aspects in this area of research:in the first part of a search for heavy trilepton resonances decaying to a Z boson and an electron or muon is presented, while the second part focusses on research and development of radiation tolerant silicon tracking detectors designed for the upgrade of the ATLAS detector for the future luminosity upgrade of the LHC. The search for trilepton resonances is based on pp collision data taken at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV by the ATLAS experiment at the LHC corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 20.3 fb"-"1. To reconstruct the narrow resonance, events with at least three leptons (electrons or muons) with a high-transverse momentum are selected. Two of these leptons are required to be consistent with originating from a Z boson decay. Since no significant excess above Standard Model background predictions is observed, 95% confidence level upper limits on the production cross section of trilepton resonances beyond the Standard Model are derived. The results of this analysis are interpreted in the context of vector-like lepton and type-III seesaw models. For the vector-like lepton model, most heavy lepton mass values in the range 113-176 GeV are excluded. For the type-III seesaw model, most mass values in the range 100-474 GeV are excluded. The second part of this thesis focusses on the development of radiation-tolerant silicon strip detectors for the luminosity upgrade of the ATLAS detector envisaged to commence in the year 2016. This thesis includes the results of several studies which contribute to multiple key aspects required for a successful upgrade of the silicon strip detector of the ATLAS Inner Tracker. Among these are the results of a beam test providing the first comparative results between

  19. Digital autoradiography using silicon strip detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overdick, M.

    1998-05-01

    Spatially resolving radiation detection systems operating in real time can be used to acquire autoradiographic images. An overview over alternatives to traditional autoradiography is given and the special features of these filmless methods are discussed. On this basis the design of a system for digital autoradiography using silicon strip detectors is presented. Special emphasis is put on the physical background of the detection process in the semiconductor and on the self-triggering read-out technique. The practical performance of the system is analyzed with respect to energy and spatial resolution. This analysis is complemented by case studies from cell biology (especially electrophoresis), botany and mineralogy. Also the results from a time-resolved autoradiographic experiment are presented. (orig.) 80 refs.

  20. The GLAST silicon-strip tracking system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Robert P.

    2000-01-01

    The GLAST instrument concept is a gamma-ray pair conversion telescope that uses silicon microstrip detector technology to track the electron-positron pairs resulting from gamma-ray conversions in thin lead foils. A cesium iodide calorimeter following the tracker is used to measure the gamma-ray energy. Silicon strip technology is mature and robust, with an excellent heritage in space science and particle physics. It has many characteristics important for optimal performance of a pair conversion telescope, including high efficiency in thin detector planes, low noise, and excellent resolution and two-track separation. The large size of GLAST and high channel count in the tracker puts demands on the readout technology to operate at very low power, yet with sufficiently low noise occupancy to allow self triggering. A prototype system employing custom-designed ASIC's has been built and tested that meets the design goal of approximately 200 W per channel power consumption with a noise occupancy of less than one hit per trigger per 10,000 channels. Detailed design of the full-scale tracker is well advanced, with non-flight prototypes built for all components, and a complete 50,000 channel engineering demonstration tower module is currently under construction and will be tested in particle beams in late 1999. The flight-instrument conceptual design is for a 4x4 array of tower modules with an aperture of 2.9 m2 and an effective area of greater than 8000 cm2

  1. The GLAST Silicon-Strip Tracking System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R

    2004-01-01

    The GLAST instrument concept is a gamma-ray pair conversion telescope that uses silicon microstrip detector technology to track the electron-positron pairs resulting from gamma ray conversions in thin lead foils. A cesium iodide calorimeter following the tracker is used to measure the gamma-ray energy. Silicon strip technology is mature and robust, with an excellent heritage in space science and particle physics. It has many characteristics important for optimal performance of a pair conversion telescope, including high efficiency in thin detector planes, low noise, and excellent resolution and two-track separation. The large size of GLAST and high channel count in the tracker puts demands on the readout technology to operate at very low power, yet with sufficiently low noise occupancy to allow self triggering. A prototype system employing custom-designed ASIC's has been built and tested that meets the design goal of approximately 200 (micro)W per channel power consumption with a noise occupancy of less than one hit per trigger per 10,000 channels. Detailed design of the full-scale tracker is well advanced, with non-flight prototypes built for all components, and a complete 50,000 channel engineering demonstration tower module is currently under construction and will be tested in particle beams in late 1999. The flight-instrument conceptual design is for a 4 x 4 array of tower modules with an aperture of 2.9 m 2 and an effective area of greater than 8000 cm 2

  2. ATLAS Silicon Microstrip Tracker Operation and Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Barone, G; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The Semi-Conductor Tracker (SCT) is a silicon strip detector and one of the key precision tracking devices of the Inner Detector of the ATLAS experiment at CERN LHC. The SCT is constructed of $4088$ silicon detector modules for a total of 6.3 million channels. Each module is designed, constructed and tested to operate as a stand-alone unit, mechanically, electrically, optically and thermally. The modules are mounted into two types of structures: one barrel ($4$ cylinders) and two end-cap systems (9 disks on each). The current results from the successful operation of the SCT Detector at the LHC and its status after three years of operation will be presented. The operation of the detector including an overview of the main issues encountered is reported. The main emphasis is be given to the tracking performance of the SCT and the data quality during the $>2$ years of data taking of proton-proton collision data at $7$ TeV (and short periods of heavy ion collisions). The SCT has been fully operational throughout a...

  3. Modules and Front-End Electronics Developments for the ATLAS ITk Strips Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Argos, Carlos; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is currently preparing for an upgrade of the tracking system in the course of the High Luminosity LHC, scheduled for 2024. The existing Inner Detector will be replaced by an all-silicon Inner Tracker (ITk) with a pixel detector surrounded by a strip detector. The ITk strip detector consists of a four layer barrel and a forward region composed of six discs on each side of the barrel. The basic unit of the detector is the silicon-strip module, consisting of a sensor and one or more hybrid circuits that hold the read-out electronics. The geometries of the barrel and end-cap modules take into account the regions that they have to cover. In the central region, the detectors are rectangular with straight strips, whereas on the forward region the modules require wedge shaped sensors with varying strip length and pitch. The current prototyping phase has resulted in the ITk Strip Detector Technical Design Report (TDR), which kicks-off the pre-production readiness phase at the involved institutes. ...

  4. Modules and Front-End Electronics Developments for the ATLAS ITk Strips Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Argos, Carlos; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is currently preparing for an upgrade of the tracking system in the course of the High Luminosity LHC, scheduled for 2024. The existing Inner Detector will be replaced by an all-silicon Inner Tracker (ITk) with a pixel detector surrounded by a strip detector. The ITk strip detector consists of a four layer barrel and a forward region composed of six discs on each side of the barrel. The basic unit of the detector is the silicon-strip module, consisting of a sensor and one or more hybrid circuits that hold the read-out electronics. The geometries of the barrel and end-cap modules take into account the regions that they have to cover. In the central region, the detectors are rectangular with straight strips, whereas in the forward region the modules require wedge shaped sensors with varying strip length and pitch. The current prototyping phase has resulted in the ITk Strip Detector Technical Design Report (TDR), which kicks-off the pre-production readiness phase at the involved institutes. ...

  5. Commissioning and first data with the ATLAS silicon microstrip tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohne, Ole Myren

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at the CERN large hadron collider (LHC) has started taking data this autumn with the inauguration of the LHC. The semiconductor tracker (SCT) is the key precision tracking device in ATLAS, made up from silicon micro-strip detectors processed in the planar p-in-n technology. The completed SCT has recently been installed inside the ATLAS experimental hall. Quick tests were performed last year to verify the connectivity of the electrical and optical services. Problems observed with the heaters for the evaporative cooling system have been resolved. This has enabled extended operation of the full detector under realistic conditions. Calibration data has been taken and analysed to determine the noise performance of the system. In addition, extensive commissioning with cosmic ray events has been performed. The cosmic muon data has been used to align the detector, to check the timing of the front-end electronics as well as to measure the hit efficiency of modules. The current status of the SCT will be reviewed, including results from the latest data-taking periods in autumn 2008, and from the detector alignment. We will report on the commissioning of the detector, including overviews on services, connectivity and observed problems. Particular emphasis will also be placed on the SCT data taken in the latest running period with the entire ATLAS detector participating. The SCT commissioning and running experience will then be used to extract valuable lessons for future silicon strip detector projects.

  6. Staves and Petals: Multi-module Local Support Structures of the ATLAS ITk Strips Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Argos, Carlos; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS Inner Tracker (ITk) is an all-silicon tracker that will replace the existing inner detector at the Phase-II Upgrade of ATLAS. The outermost part of the tracker consists of the strips tracker, in which the sensors elements consist of silicon micro-strip sensors with strip lengths varying from 1.7 to up to 10 cm. The current design, at the moment under internal review in the Strips part of the Technical Design Report (TDR), envisions a four-layer barrel and two six-disk endcap regions. The sensor and readout units (“modules”) are directly glued onto multi-module, low-mass, high thermal performance carbon fiber structures, called “staves” for the barrel and “petals” for the endcap. They provide cooling, power, data and control lines to the modules with a minimal amount of external services. An extensive prototyping program was put in place over the last years to fully characterize these structures mechanically, thermally, and electrically. Thermo-mechanical stave and petal prototypes have r...

  7. The New Silicon Strip Detectors for the CMS Tracker Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Dragicevic, Marko

    2010-01-01

    The first introductory part of the thesis describes the concept of the CMS experiment. The tasks of the various detector systems and their technical implementations in CMS are explained. To facilitate the understanding of the basic principles of silicon strip sensors, the subsequent chapter discusses the fundamentals in semiconductor technology, with particular emphasis on silicon. The necessary process steps to manufacture strip sensors in a so-called planar process are described in detail. Furthermore, the effects of irradiation on silicon strip sensors are discussed. To conclude the introductory part of the thesis, the design of the silicon strip sensors of the CMS Tracker are described in detail. The choice of the substrate material and the complex geometry of the sensors are reviewed and the quality assurance procedures for the production of the sensors are presented. Furthermore the design of the detector modules are described. The main part of this thesis starts with a discussion on the demands on the ...

  8. Quality Tests of Double-Sided Silicon Strip Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Cambon, T; CERN. Geneva; Fintz, P; Guillaume, G; Jundt, F; Kuhn, C; Lutz, Jean Robert; Pagès, P; Pozdniakov, S; Rami, F; Sparavec, K; Dulinski, W; Arnold, L

    1997-01-01

    The quality of the SiO2 insulator (AC coupling between metal and implanted strips) of double-sided Silicon strip detectors has been studied by using a probe station. Some tests performed on 23 wafers are described and the results are discussed. Remark This note seems to cause problems with ghostview but it can be printed without any problem.

  9. Fast timing readout for silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jhingan, A.; Saneesh, N.; Kumar, M.

    2016-01-01

    The development and performance of a 16 channel hybrid fast timing amplifier (FTA), for extracting timing information from silicon strip detectors (SSD), is described. The FTA will be used in a time of flight (TOF) measurement, in which one SSD is used to obtain the ion velocity (A) as well as the energy information of a scattered particle. The TOF information with a thin transmission SSD, acting as ΔE detector (Z) in a detector telescope, will provide a unique detection system for the identification of reaction products in the slowed down beam campaign of low energy branch (LEB) at NUSTAR-FAIR. Such a system will also provide large solid angle coverage with ~ 100% detection efficiency, and adequate segmentation for angular information. A good timing resolution (≤ 100 ps) enables to have shorter flight paths, thus a closely packed 4π array should be feasible. Preamplifiers for energy readout in SSD are easily available. A major constraint with SSDs is the missing high density multichannel preamplifiers which can provide both fast timing as well as energy. Provision of both timing and energy processing, generally makes circuit bulky, with higher power consumption, which may not be suitable in SSD arrays. In case of DSSSD, the problem was overcome by using timing from one side and energy from the other side. A custom designed 16 channel FTA has been developed for DSSSD design W from Micron Semiconductors, UK

  10. Compton recoil electron tracking with silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neill, T.J.; Ait-Ouamer, F.; Schwartz, I.; Tumer, O.T.; White, R.S.; Zych, A.D.

    1992-01-01

    The application of silicon strip detectors to Compton gamma ray astronomy telescopes is described in this paper. The Silicon Compton Recoil Telescope (SCRT) tracks Compton recoil electrons in silicon strip converters to provide a unique direction for Compton scattered gamma rays above 1 MeV. With strip detectors of modest positional and energy resolutions of 1 mm FWHM and 3% at 662 keV, respectively, 'true imaging' can be achieved to provide an order of magnitude improvement in sensitivity to 1.6 x 10 - 6 γ/cm 2 -s at 2 MeV. The results of extensive Monte Carlo calculations of recoil electrons traversing multiple layers of 200 micron silicon wafers are presented. Multiple Coulomb scattering of the recoil electron in the silicon wafer of the Compton interaction and the next adjacent wafer is the basic limitation to determining the electron's initial direction

  11. Effect of gamma irradiation on leakage current in CMOS read-out chips for the ATLAS upgrade silicon strip tracker at the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Stucci, Stefania Antonia; Lynn, Dave; Kierstead, James; Kuczewski, Philip; van Nieuwenhuizen, Gerrit J; Rosin, Guy; Tricoli, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    The increase of the leakage current of NMOS transistors in detector readout chips in certain 130 nm CMOS technologies during exposure to ionising radiation needs special consideration in the design of detector systems, as this can result in a large increase of the supply current and power dissipation. As part of the R&D; program for the upgrade of the ATLAS inner detector tracker for the High Luminosity upgrade of the LHC at CERN, a dedicated set of irradiations have been carried out with the $^60$Co gamma-ray source at the Brookhaven National Laboratory. Measurements will be presented that characterise the increase in the digital leakage current in the 130 nm-technology ABC130 readout chips. The variation of the current as a function of time and total ionising dose has been studied under various conditions of dose rate, temperature and power applied to the chip. The range of variation of dose rates and temperatures has been set to be close to those expected at the High Luminosity LHC, i.e. in the range 0...

  12. Radiation Damage Effects and Performance of Silicon Strip Detectors using LHC Readout Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2067734

    1998-01-01

    Future high energy physics experiments as the ATLAS experiment at CERN, will use silicon strip detectors for fast and high precision tracking information. The high hadron fluences in these experiments cause permanent damage in the silicon.Additional energy levels are introduced in the bandgap thus changing the electrical properties such as leakage current and full depletion voltage V_fd .Very high leakage currents are observed after irradiation and lead to higher electronic noise and thus decrease the spatial resolution.V_fd increases to a few hundred volts after irradiation and eventually beyond the point of stable operating voltages. Prototype detectors with either p-implanted strips (p-in-n) and n-implanted strip detectors (n-in-n) were irradiated to the maximum expected fluence in ATLAS.The irradiation and the following study of the current and V_fd were carried out under ATLAS operational conditions.The evolution of V_fd after irradiation is compared to models based on diode irradiations.The qualitative ...

  13. Experience with the silicon strip detector of ALICE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nooren, G.J.L.

    2009-01-01

    The Silicon Strip Detector (SSD) forms the two outermost layers of the ALICE Inner Track- ing System (ITS), connecting the TPC with the inner layers of the ITS. The SSD consists of 1698 double-sided silicon microstrip modules, 95 μm pitch, distributed in two cylindrical bar- rels, whose radii are

  14. Strip defect recognition in electrical tests of silicon microstrip sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentan, Manfred, E-mail: valentan@mpp.mpg.de

    2017-02-11

    This contribution describes the measurement procedure and data analysis of AC-coupled double-sided silicon microstrip sensors with polysilicon resistor biasing. The most thorough test of a strip sensor is an electrical measurement of all strips of the sensor; the measured observables include e.g. the strip's current and the coupling capacitance. These measurements are performed to find defective strips, e.g. broken capacitors (pinholes) or implant shorts between two adjacent strips. When a strip has a defect, its observables will show a deviation from the “typical value”. To recognize and quantify certain defects, it is necessary to determine these typical values, i.e. the values the observables would have without the defect. As a novel approach, local least-median-of-squares linear fits are applied to determine these “would-be” values of the observables. A least-median-of-squares fit is robust against outliers, i.e. it ignores the observable values of defective strips. Knowing the typical values allows to recognize, distinguish and quantify a whole range of strip defects. This contribution explains how the various defects appear in the data and in which order the defects can be recognized. The method has been used to find strip defects on 30 double-sided trapezoidal microstrip sensors for the Belle II Silicon Vertex Detector, which have been measured at the Institute of High Energy Physics, Vienna (Austria).

  15. Efficiency measurements for 3D silicon strip detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parzefall, Ulrich, E-mail: ulrich.parzefall@physik.uni-freiburg.d [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Dalla Betta, Gian-Franco [INFN Trento and Universita di Trento, via Sommarive 14, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Boscardin, Maurizio [FBK-irst, Center for Materials and Microsystems, via Sommarive 18, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Eckert, Simon [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Eklund, Lars; Fleta, Celeste [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Jakobs, Karl; Koehler, Michael; Kuehn, Susanne; Pahn, Gregor [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Parkes, Chris; Pennicard, David [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Ronchin, Sabina [FBK-irst, Center for Materials and Microsystems, via Sommarive 18, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Zoboli, Andrea [INFN Trento and Universita di Trento, via Sommarive 14, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Zorzi, Nicola [FBK-irst, Center for Materials and Microsystems, via Sommarive 18, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy)

    2010-11-01

    Silicon strip detectors are widely used as part of the inner tracking layers in particle physics experiments. For applications at the luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the sLHC, silicon detectors with extreme radiation hardness are required. The 3D detector design, where electrodes are processed from underneath the strips into the silicon bulk material, provides a way to enhance the radiation tolerance of standard planar silicon strip detectors. Detectors with several innovative 3D designs that constitute a simpler and more cost-effective processing than the 3D design initially proposed were connected to read-out electronics from LHC experiments and subsequently tested. Results on the amount of charge collected, the noise and the uniformity of charge collection are given.

  16. ATLAS ITk short-strip stave prototype module with integrated DCDC powering and control

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)397167; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    During the Phase II upgrade, the ATLAS detector at the LHC will be upgraded with a new Inner Tracker (ITk) detector. The ITk prototype barrel module design has adopted an integrated low mass assembly featuring single-sided flexible circuits, with readout ASICs, glued to the silicon strip sensor. Further integration has been achieved by the attachment of module DCDC powering, a HV sensor biasing switch and autonomous monitoring and control to the sensor. This low mass integrated module approach benefits further in a reduced width stave structure to which the modules are attached. The results of preliminary electrical tests of such an integrated module are presented.

  17. The ATLAS Tracker Upgrade Short Strips Detectors for the sLHC

    CERN Document Server

    Soldevila, U; Lacasta, C; Marti i García, S; Miñano, M

    2010-01-01

    It is foreseen to increase the luminosity of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN around 2018 by about an order of magnitude, with the upgraded machine dubbed Super-LHC or sLHC. The ATLAS experiment will require a new tracker for SLHC operation. In order to cope with the order of magnitude increase in pile-up backgrounds at the higher luminosity, an all silicon detector is being designed. The new strip detector will use significantly shorter strips than the current SCT in order to minimise the occupancy. As the increased luminosity will mean a corresponding increase in radiation dose, a new generation of extremely radiation hard silicon detectors is required. A massive R&D programme is underway to develop silicon sensors with sufficient radiation hardness. New front-end electronics and readout systems are being designed to cope with the higher data rates. The challenges of powering and cooling a very large strip detector will be discussed. Ideas on possible schemes for the layout and support mechanics ...

  18. Investigation of HV/HR-CMOS technology for the ATLAS Phase-II Strip Tracker Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadeyev, V.; Galloway, Z.; Grabas, H.; Grillo, A.A.; Liang, Z.; Martinez-Mckinney, F.; Seiden, A.; Volk, J.; Affolder, A.; Buckland, M.; Meng, L.; Arndt, K.; Bortoletto, D.; Huffman, T.; John, J.; McMahon, S.; Nickerson, R.; Phillips, P.; Plackett, R.; Shipsey, I.

    2016-01-01

    ATLAS has formed strip CMOS project to study the use of CMOS MAPS devices as silicon strip sensors for the Phase-II Strip Tracker Upgrade. This choice of sensors promises several advantages over the conventional baseline design, such as better resolution, less material in the tracking volume, and faster construction speed. At the same time, many design features of the sensors are driven by the requirement of minimizing the impact on the rest of the detector. Hence the target devices feature long pixels which are grouped to form a virtual strip with binary-encoded z position. The key performance aspects are radiation hardness compatibility with HL-LHC environment, as well as extraction of the full hit position with full-reticle readout architecture. To date, several test chips have been submitted using two different CMOS technologies. The AMS 350 nm is a high voltage CMOS process (HV-CMOS), that features the sensor bias of up to 120 V. The TowerJazz 180 nm high resistivity CMOS process (HR-CMOS) uses a high resistivity epitaxial layer to provide the depletion region on top of the substrate. We have evaluated passive pixel performance, and charge collection projections. The results strongly support the radiation tolerance of these devices to radiation dose of the HL-LHC in the strip tracker region. We also describe design features for the next chip submission that are motivated by our technology evaluation.

  19. Investigation of HV/HR-CMOS technology for the ATLAS Phase-II Strip Tracker Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadeyev, V.; Galloway, Z.; Grabas, H.; Grillo, A. A.; Liang, Z.; Martinez-Mckinney, F.; Seiden, A.; Volk, J.; Affolder, A.; Buckland, M.; Meng, L.; Arndt, K.; Bortoletto, D.; Huffman, T.; John, J.; McMahon, S.; Nickerson, R.; Phillips, P.; Plackett, R.; Shipsey, I.; Vigani, L.; Bates, R.; Blue, A.; Buttar, C.; Kanisauskas, K.; Maneuski, D.; Benoit, M.; Di Bello, F.; Caragiulo, P.; Dragone, A.; Grenier, P.; Kenney, C.; Rubbo, F.; Segal, J.; Su, D.; Tamma, C.; Das, D.; Dopke, J.; Turchetta, R.; Wilson, F.; Worm, S.; Ehrler, F.; Peric, I.; Gregor, I. M.; Stanitzki, M.; Hoeferkamp, M.; Seidel, S.; Hommels, L. B. A.; Kramberger, G.; Mandić, I.; Mikuž, M.; Muenstermann, D.; Wang, R.; Zhang, J.; Warren, M.; Song, W.; Xiu, Q.; Zhu, H.

    2016-09-01

    ATLAS has formed strip CMOS project to study the use of CMOS MAPS devices as silicon strip sensors for the Phase-II Strip Tracker Upgrade. This choice of sensors promises several advantages over the conventional baseline design, such as better resolution, less material in the tracking volume, and faster construction speed. At the same time, many design features of the sensors are driven by the requirement of minimizing the impact on the rest of the detector. Hence the target devices feature long pixels which are grouped to form a virtual strip with binary-encoded z position. The key performance aspects are radiation hardness compatibility with HL-LHC environment, as well as extraction of the full hit position with full-reticle readout architecture. To date, several test chips have been submitted using two different CMOS technologies. The AMS 350 nm is a high voltage CMOS process (HV-CMOS), that features the sensor bias of up to 120 V. The TowerJazz 180 nm high resistivity CMOS process (HR-CMOS) uses a high resistivity epitaxial layer to provide the depletion region on top of the substrate. We have evaluated passive pixel performance, and charge collection projections. The results strongly support the radiation tolerance of these devices to radiation dose of the HL-LHC in the strip tracker region. We also describe design features for the next chip submission that are motivated by our technology evaluation.

  20. Investigation of HV/HR-CMOS technology for the ATLAS Phase-II Strip Tracker Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fadeyev, V., E-mail: fadeyev@ucsc.edu [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Galloway, Z.; Grabas, H.; Grillo, A.A.; Liang, Z.; Martinez-Mckinney, F.; Seiden, A.; Volk, J. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Affolder, A.; Buckland, M.; Meng, L. [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, O. Lodge Laboratory, Oxford Street, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Arndt, K.; Bortoletto, D.; Huffman, T.; John, J.; McMahon, S.; Nickerson, R.; Phillips, P.; Plackett, R.; Shipsey, I. [Department of Physics, Oxford University, Oxford (United Kingdom); and others

    2016-09-21

    ATLAS has formed strip CMOS project to study the use of CMOS MAPS devices as silicon strip sensors for the Phase-II Strip Tracker Upgrade. This choice of sensors promises several advantages over the conventional baseline design, such as better resolution, less material in the tracking volume, and faster construction speed. At the same time, many design features of the sensors are driven by the requirement of minimizing the impact on the rest of the detector. Hence the target devices feature long pixels which are grouped to form a virtual strip with binary-encoded z position. The key performance aspects are radiation hardness compatibility with HL-LHC environment, as well as extraction of the full hit position with full-reticle readout architecture. To date, several test chips have been submitted using two different CMOS technologies. The AMS 350 nm is a high voltage CMOS process (HV-CMOS), that features the sensor bias of up to 120 V. The TowerJazz 180 nm high resistivity CMOS process (HR-CMOS) uses a high resistivity epitaxial layer to provide the depletion region on top of the substrate. We have evaluated passive pixel performance, and charge collection projections. The results strongly support the radiation tolerance of these devices to radiation dose of the HL-LHC in the strip tracker region. We also describe design features for the next chip submission that are motivated by our technology evaluation.

  1. Beam test of CSES silicon strip detector module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Da-Li; Lu, Hong; Wang, Huan-Yu; Li, Xin-Qiao; Xu, Yan-Bing; An, Zheng-Hua; Yu, Xiao-xia; Wang, Hui; Shi, Feng; Wang, Ping; Zhao, Xiao-Yun

    2017-05-01

    The silicon-strip tracker of the China Seismo-Electromagnetic Satellite (CSES) consists of two double-sided silicon strip detectors (DSSDs) which provide incident particle tracking information. A low-noise analog ASIC VA140 was used in this study for DSSD signal readout. A beam test on the DSSD module was performed at the Beijing Test Beam Facility of the Beijing Electron Positron Collider (BEPC) using a 400-800 MeV/c proton beam. The pedestal analysis results, RMSE noise, gain correction, and intensity distribution of incident particles of the DSSD module are presented. Supported by the XXX Civil Space Programme

  2. Distribution of electric field and charge collection in silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anokhin, I.E.; Zinets, O.S.

    1995-01-01

    The distribution of electric field in silicon strip detectors is analyzed in the case of dull depletion as well as for partial depletion. Influence of inhomogeneous electric fields on the charge collection and performances of silicon strip detectors is discussed

  3. Signals from fluorescent materials on the surface of silicon micro-strip sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Sperlich, Dennis; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    For the High-Luminosity Upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, the ATLAS Inner Detector will be replaced with a new, all-silicon tracker. In order to minimise the amount of material in the detector, circuit boards with readout electronics will be glued on to the active area of the sensor. Several adhesives investigated to be used for the construction of detector modules were found to become fluorescent when exposed to UV light. These adhesives could become a light source in the high-radiation environment of the ATLAS detector. The effect of fluorescent material covering the sensor surface in a high- radiation environment has been studied for a silicon micro-strip sensor using a micro-focused X-ray beam. By pointing the beam both inside the sensor and parallel to the sensor surface, the sensor responses from direct hits and fluorescence can be compared with high precision. This contribution presents a setup to study the susceptibility of silicon strip sensors to light contamination from fluorescent mate...

  4. ATLAS' inner silicon tracker on track for completion

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Last week, the team working at the SR1 facility on the inner detector of the ATLAS experiment reached a project milestone after the delivery of the last Semi-conductor Tracker (SCT) barrel to CERN. The third barrel before its insertion into the support structure.The insertion of a completed barrel to its support structure is one of the highlights of the assembly and test sequence of the SCT in SR1. The inner detector will eventually sit in the 2 teslas magnetic field of the ATLAS solenoid, tracking charged particles from proton-proton collisions at the centre of ATLAS. The particles will be measured by a pixel detector (consisting of 3 pixel layers), an SCT (4 silicon strip layers) and a transition radiation tracker (TRT) (consisting of more than 52,000 straw tubes - see Bulletin 14/2005). The SCT has a silicon surface area of 61m2 with about 6 million operational channels so that all tracks can be identified and precisely measured. During 2004 a team of physicists, engineers, and technicians from several...

  5. Silicon μ-strip detectors with SVX chip readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueckner, W.; Dropmann, F.; Godbersen, M.; Konorov, I.; Koenigsmann, K.; Newsom, C.; Paul, S.; Povh, B.; Russ, J.; Timm, S.; Vorwalter, K.; Werding, R.

    1994-01-01

    A new silicon strip detector has been designed and constructed for a fixed target experiment at CERN. The system of about 30 000 channels is equipped with SVX chips and read out via a double buffer into Fastbus memory. Construction and performance during the actual data taking run are discussed. ((orig.))

  6. The silicon strip detector at the Mark 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsen, R.; Golubev, V.; Lueth, V.; Barnett, B.; Dauncey, P.; Matthews, J.; Adolphsen, C.; Burchat, P.; Gratta, G.; King, M.; Labarga, L.; Litke, A.; Turala, M.; Zaccardelli, C.

    1990-04-01

    We have installed a Silicon Strip Vertex Detector in the Mark II detector at the Stanford Linear Collider. We report on the performance of the detector during a recent test run, including backgrounds, stability and charged particle tracking. 10 refs., 9 figs

  7. Development of the H1 backward silicon strip detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eick, W.; Hansen, K.; Lange, W.; Prell, S.; Zimmermann, W.; Bullough, M.A.; Greenwood, N.M.; Lucas, A.D.; Newton, A.M.; Wilburn, C.D.; Horisberger, R.; Pitzl, D.; Haynes, W.J.; Noyes, G.

    1996-10-01

    The development and first results are described of a silicon strip detector telescope for the HERA experiment H1 designed to measure the polar angle of deep inelastic scattered electrons at small Bjorken x and low momentum transfers Q 2 . (orig.)

  8. Development of the H1 backward silicon strip detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eick, W.; Hansen, K.; Lange, W.; Prell, S.; Zimmermann, W.; Bullough, M.A.; Greenwood, N.M.; Lucas, A.D.; Newton, A.M.; Wilburn, C.D.; Horisberger, R.; Pitzl, D.; Haynes, W.J.; Noyes, G.

    1997-01-01

    The development and first results are described of a silicon strip detector telescope for the HERA experiment H1 designed to measure the polar angle of deep inelastic scattered electrons at small Bjorken x and low momentum transfers Q 2 . (orig.)

  9. A new strips tracker for the upgraded ATLAS ITk detector

    CERN Document Server

    David, Claire; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The inner detector of the present ATLAS detector has been designed and developed to function in the environment of the present Large Hadron Collider (LHC). At the next-generation tracking detector proposed for the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), the so-called ATLAS Phase-II Upgrade, the particle densities and radiation levels will be higher by as much as a factor of ten. The new detectors must be faster, they need to be more highly segmented, and covering more area. They also need to be more resistant to radiation, and they require much greater power delivery to the front-end systems. At the same time, they cannot introduce excess material which could undermine performance. For those reasons, the inner tracker of the ATLAS detector must be redesigned and rebuilt completely. The design of the ATLAS Upgrade inner tracker (ITk) has already been defined. It consists of several layers of silicon particle detectors. The innermost layers will be composed of silicon pixel sensors, and the outer layers will consist of s...

  10. Silicon microstrip detectors for the ATLAS SCT

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Robinson, D.; Allport, P.; Andricek, L.; Böhm, Jan; Buttar, C.; Carter, J. R.; Chilingarov, A.; Clark, A. G.; Feriere, D.; Fuster, J.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 485, 1-2 (2002), s. 84-88 ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA MPO RP-4210/69 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010920 Keywords : ATLAS SCT * silicon microstrip detectors * irradiation * quality control Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 1.167, year: 2002

  11. Charge Collection Efficiency Simulations of Irradiated Silicon Strip Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Peltola, T.

    2014-01-01

    During the scheduled high luminosity upgrade of LHC, the world's largest particle physics accelerator at CERN, the position sensitive silicon detectors installed in the vertex and tracking part of the CMS experiment will face more intense radiation environment than the present system was designed for. Thus, to upgrade the tracker to required performance level, comprehensive measurements and simulations studies have already been carried out. Essential information of the performance of an irradiated silicon detector is obtained by monitoring its charge collection efficiency (CCE). From the evolution of CCE with fluence, it is possible to directly observe the effect of the radiation induced defects to the ability of the detector to collect charge carriers generated by traversing minimum ionizing particles (mip). In this paper the numerically simulated CCE and CCE loss between the strips of irradiated silicon strip detectors are presented. The simulations based on Synopsys Sentaurus TCAD framework were performed ...

  12. Evaluation of silicon micro strip detectors with large read-out pitch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senyo, K.; Yamamura, K.; Tsuboyama, T.; Avrillon, S.; Asano, Y.; Bozek, A.; Natkaniec, Z.; Palka, H.; Rozanska, M.; Rybicki, K.

    1996-01-01

    For the development of the silicon micro-strip detector with the pitch of the readout strips as large as 250 μm on the ohmic side, we made samples with different structures. Charge collection was evaluated to optimize the width of implant strips, aluminum read-out strips, and/or the read-out scheme among strips. (orig.)

  13. Strip detector for the ATLAS detector upgrade for the High-Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Veloce, Laurelle Maria; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is currently preparing for an upgrade of the tracking system in the course of the High Luminosity LHC, scheduled for 2025. The expected radiation damage at an integrated luminosity of 3000fb-1 will require the tracking detectors to withstand hadron fluencies to over 1x1016 1 MeV neutron equivalent per cm2. With the addition of increased readout rates, the existing Inner Detector will have to be replaced by an all-silicon Inner Tracker (ITk) with a pixel detector surrounded by a strip detector. The ITk strip detector consists of a four-layer barrel and a forward region composed of six discs on each side of the barrel. The current prototyping phase has resulted in the ITk Strip Detector Technical Design Report (TDR), which starts the pre-production readiness phase at the involved institutes. In this contribution we present the design of the ITk Strip Detector and current status of R&D of various detector components.

  14. Laboratory course on silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montano, Luis M

    2005-01-01

    In this laboratory course we present an elementary introduction to the characteristics and applications of silicon detectors in High-Energy Physics, through performing some measurements which give an overview of the properties of these detectors as position resolution. The principles of operation are described in the activities the students have to develop together with some exercises to reinforce their knowledge on these devices

  15. MUST: A silicon strip detector array for radioactive beam experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Blumenfeld, Y; Sauvestre, J E; Maréchal, F; Ottini, S; Alamanos, N; Barbier, A; Beaumel, D; Bonnereau, B; Charlet, D; Clavelin, J F; Courtat, P; Delbourgo-Salvador, P; Douet, R; Engrand, M; Ethvignot, T; Gillibert, A; Khan, E; Lapoux, V; Lagoyannis, A; Lavergne, L; Lebon, S; Lelong, P; Lesage, A; Le Ven, V; Lhenry, I; Martin, J M; Musumarra, A; Pita, S; Petizon, L; Pollacco, E; Pouthas, J; Richard, A; Rougier, D; Santonocito, D; Scarpaci, J A; Sida, J L; Soulet, C; Stutzmann, J S; Suomijärvi, T; Szmigiel, M; Volkov, P; Voltolini, G

    1999-01-01

    A new and innovative array, MUST, based on silicon strip technology and dedicated to the study of reactions induced by radioactive beams on light particles is described. The detector consists of 8 silicon strip - Si(Li) telescopes used to identify recoiling light charged particles through time of flight, energy loss and energy measurements and to determine precisely their scattering angle through X, Y position measurements. Each 60x60 mm sup 2 double sided silicon strip detector with 60 vertical and 60 horizontal strips yields an X-Y position resolution of 1 mm, an energy resolution of 50 keV, a time resolution of around 1 ns and a 500 keV energy threshold for protons. The backing Si(Li) detectors stop protons up to 25 MeV with a resolution of approximately 50 keV. CsI crystals read out by photo-diodes which stop protons up to 70 MeV are added to the telescopes for applications where higher energy particles need to be detected. The dedicated electronics in VXIbus standard allow us to house the 968 logic and a...

  16. Silicon strip detector qualification for the CMS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaussen, Gordon

    2008-01-01

    To provide the best spatial resolution for the particle trajectory reconstruction and a very fast readout, the inner tracking system of CMS is build up of silicon detectors with a pixel tracker in the center surrounded by a strip tracker. The silicon strip tracker consists of so-called modules representing the smallest detection unit of the tracking device. These modules are mounted on higher-level structures called shells in the tracker inner barrel (TIB), rods in the tracker outer barrel (TOB), disks in the tracker inner disks (TID) and petals in the tracker end caps (TEC). The performance of the participating two shells of the TIB, four rods of the TOB and two petals of the TEC (representing about 1% of the final strip tracker) could be studied in different magnetic fields over a period of approximately two month using cosmic muon signals. The last test before inserting the tracker in the CMS experiment was the Tracker Slice Test performed in spring/summer 2007 at the Tracker Integration Facility (TIF) at CERN after installing all subdetectors in the tracker support tube. Approximately 25% of the strip tracker +z side was powered and read out using a cosmic ray trigger built up of scintillation counters. In total, about 5 million muon events were recorded under various operating conditions. These events together with results from commissioning runs were used to study the detector response like cluster charges, signal-to-noise ratios and single strip noise behaviour as well as to identify faulty channels which turned out to be in the order of a few per mille. The performance of the silicon strip tracker during these different construction stages is discussed in this thesis with a special emphasis on the tracker end caps. (orig.)

  17. Silicon strip detector qualification for the CMS experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaussen, Gordon

    2008-10-06

    To provide the best spatial resolution for the particle trajectory reconstruction and a very fast readout, the inner tracking system of CMS is build up of silicon detectors with a pixel tracker in the center surrounded by a strip tracker. The silicon strip tracker consists of so-called modules representing the smallest detection unit of the tracking device. These modules are mounted on higher-level structures called shells in the tracker inner barrel (TIB), rods in the tracker outer barrel (TOB), disks in the tracker inner disks (TID) and petals in the tracker end caps (TEC). The performance of the participating two shells of the TIB, four rods of the TOB and two petals of the TEC (representing about 1% of the final strip tracker) could be studied in different magnetic fields over a period of approximately two month using cosmic muon signals. The last test before inserting the tracker in the CMS experiment was the Tracker Slice Test performed in spring/summer 2007 at the Tracker Integration Facility (TIF) at CERN after installing all subdetectors in the tracker support tube. Approximately 25% of the strip tracker +z side was powered and read out using a cosmic ray trigger built up of scintillation counters. In total, about 5 million muon events were recorded under various operating conditions. These events together with results from commissioning runs were used to study the detector response like cluster charges, signal-to-noise ratios and single strip noise behaviour as well as to identify faulty channels which turned out to be in the order of a few per mille. The performance of the silicon strip tracker during these different construction stages is discussed in this thesis with a special emphasis on the tracker end caps. (orig.)

  18. Assembly and Electrical Tests of the First Full-size Forward Module for the ATLAS ITk Strip Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Argos, Carlos; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment will replace the existing Inner Detector by an all-silicon detector named the Inner Tracker (ITk) for the High Luminosity LHC upgrades. In the outer region of the Inner Tracker is the strip detector, which consists of a four layer barrel and six discs to each side of the barrel, with silicon-strip modules as basic units. Each module is composed of a sensor and one or more flex circuits that hold the read-out electronics. In the experiment, the modules are mounted on support structures with integrated power and cooling. The modules are designed with geometries that accommodate the central and forward regions, with rectangular sensors in the barrels and wedge shaped sensors in the end-caps. The strips lengths and pitch sizes vary according to the occupancy of the region. In this contribution, we present the construction and results of the electrical tests of the first full-size module of the innermost forward region, named \\textit{Ring 0} in the ATLAS ITk strip detector nomenclature. This m...

  19. Assembly and Electrical Tests of the First Full-size Forward Module for the ATLAS ITk Strip Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Argos, Carlos; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment will replace the existing Inner Detector by an all-silicon detector named the Inner Tracker (ITk) for the High Luminosity LHC upgrades. In the outer region of the Inner Tracker is the strip detector, which consists of a four layer barrel and six discs to each side of the barrel, with silicon-strip modules as basic units. Each module is composed of a sensor and one or more flex circuits that hold the read-out electronics. In the experiment, the modules are mounted on support structures with integrated power and cooling. The modules are designed with geometries that accommodate the central and forward regions, with rectangular sensors in the barrels and wedge shaped sensors in the end-caps. The strips lengths and pitch sizes vary according to the occupancy of the region. In this contribution, we present the construction and the results of the electrical tests of the first full-size module of the innermost forward region, named Ring 0 in the ATLAS ITk strip detector nomenclature. This module...

  20. SVX3: A deadtimeless readout chip for silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, T.; Huffman, T.; Srage, J.; Stroehmer, R.; Yarema, R.; Garcia-Sciveras, M.; Luo, L.; Milgrome, O.

    1997-12-01

    A new silicon strip readout chip called the SVX3 has been designed for the 720,000 channel CDF silicon upgrade at Fermilab. SVX3 incorporates an integrator, analog delay pipeline, ADC, and data sparsification for each of 128 identical channels. Many of the operating parameters are programmable via a serial bit stream, which allows the chip to be used under a variety of conditions. Distinct features of SVX3 include use of a backside substrate contact for optimal ground referencing, and the capability of simultaneous signal acquisition and digital readout allowing deadtimeless operation in the Fermilab Tevatron

  1. The new silicon strip detectors for the CMS tracker upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragicevic, M.

    2010-01-01

    The first introductory part of the thesis describes the concept of the CMS experiment. The tasks of the various detector systems and their technical implementations in CMS are explained. To facilitate the understanding of the basic principles of silicon strip sensors, the subsequent chapter discusses the fundamentals in semiconductor technology, with particular emphasis on silicon. The necessary process steps to manufacture strip sensors in a so-called planar process are described in detail. Furthermore, the effects of irradiation on silicon strip sensors are discussed. To conclude the introductory part of the thesis, the design of the silicon strip sensors of the CMS Tracker are described in detail. The choice of the substrate material and the complex geometry of the sensors are reviewed and the quality assurance procedures for the production of the sensors are presented. Furthermore the design of the detector modules are described. The main part of this thesis starts with a discussion on the demands on the tracker caused by the increase in luminosity which is proposed as an upgrade to the LHC accelerator (sLHC). This chapter motivates the work I have conducted and clarifies why the solutions proposed by myself are important contributions to the upgrade of the CMS tracker. The following chapters present the concepts that are necessary to operate the silicon strip sensors at sLHC luminosities and additional improvements to the construction and quality assurance of the sensors and the detector modules. The most important concepts and works presented in chapters 7 to 9 are: Development of a software framework to enable the flexible and quick design of test structures and sensors. Selecting a suitable sensor material which is sufficiently radiation hard. Design, implementation and production of a standard set of test structures to enable the quality assurance of such sensors and any future developments. Electrical characterisation of the test structures and analysis

  2. A new semicustom integrated bipolar amplifier for silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, T.

    1989-01-01

    The QPA02 is a four channel DC coupled two stage transimpedance amplifier designed at Fermilab on a semicustom linear array (Quickchip 2S) manufactured by Tektronix. The chip was developed as a silicon strip amplifier but may have other applications as well. Each channel consists of a preamplifier and a second stage amplifier/sharper with differential output which can directly drive a transmission line (90 to 140 ohms). External bypass capacitors are the only discrete components required. QPA02 has been tested and demonstrated to be an effective silicon strip amplifier. Other applications may exist which can use this amplifier or a modified version of this amplifier. For example, another design is now in progress for a wire chamber amplifier, QPA03, to be reported later. Only a relatively small effort was required to modify the design and layout for this application. 11 figs

  3. Low dose radiation damage effects in silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiącek, P.; Dąbrowski, W.

    2016-01-01

    The radiation damage effects in silicon segmented detectors caused by X-rays have become recently an important research topic driven mainly by development of new detectors for applications at the European X-ray Free Electron Laser (E-XFEL). However, radiation damage in silicon strip is observed not only after extreme doses up to 1 GGy expected at E-XFEL, but also at doses in the range of tens of Gy, to which the detectors in laboratory instruments like X-ray diffractometers or X-ray spectrometers can be exposed. In this paper we report on investigation of radiation damage effects in a custom developed silicon strip detector used in laboratory diffractometers equipped with X-ray tubes. Our results show that significant degradation of detector performance occurs at low doses, well below 200 Gy, which can be reached during normal operation of laboratory instruments. Degradation of the detector energy resolution can be explained by increasing leakage current and increasing interstrip capacitance of the sensor. Another observed effect caused by accumulation of charge trapped in the surface oxide layer is change of charge division between adjacent strips. In addition, we have observed unexpected anomalies in the annealing process.

  4. Low dose radiation damage effects in silicon strip detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiącek, P.; Dąbrowski, W.

    2016-11-01

    The radiation damage effects in silicon segmented detectors caused by X-rays have become recently an important research topic driven mainly by development of new detectors for applications at the European X-ray Free Electron Laser (E-XFEL). However, radiation damage in silicon strip is observed not only after extreme doses up to 1 GGy expected at E-XFEL, but also at doses in the range of tens of Gy, to which the detectors in laboratory instruments like X-ray diffractometers or X-ray spectrometers can be exposed. In this paper we report on investigation of radiation damage effects in a custom developed silicon strip detector used in laboratory diffractometers equipped with X-ray tubes. Our results show that significant degradation of detector performance occurs at low doses, well below 200 Gy, which can be reached during normal operation of laboratory instruments. Degradation of the detector energy resolution can be explained by increasing leakage current and increasing interstrip capacitance of the sensor. Another observed effect caused by accumulation of charge trapped in the surface oxide layer is change of charge division between adjacent strips. In addition, we have observed unexpected anomalies in the annealing process.

  5. Strip detector for the ATLAS detector upgrade for the high-luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Madaffari, Daniele; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The planned HL-LHC (High Luminosity LHC) in 2025 is being designed to maximise the physics potential of the LHC through a sizeable increase in the luminosity, reaching 1x10$^{35}$ cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$ after 10 years of operation. A consequence of this increased luminosity is the expected radiation damage at an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb$^{-1}$, requiring the tracking detectors to withstand hadron fluencies to over 1x10$^{16}$ 1 MeV neutron equivalent per cm$^2$. With the addition of increased readout rates, a complete re-design of the current ATLAS Inner Detector (ID) is being developed as the Inner Tracker (ITk), which will consist of both strip and pixelated silicon detectors. The physics motivations, required performance characteristics and basic design of the proposed upgrade of the strip detector will be a subject of this talk. Present ideas and solutions for the strip detector and current research and development program will be discussed.

  6. Tuning of the silicon microstrip detector (SCT) digitization parameters at ATLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vishwakarma, Akanksha [Humboldt University, Unter den Linden 6, 10099 Berlin (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The increased luminosity of LHC in RUN-2 causes high radiation exposure of the ATLAS detector. This might bring about changes in the detector responses, especially of the pixel and the silicon strip detector. To study this, several digitization parameters are varied in the simulation and are analysed by comparing with data. In particular, the impact on the reconstructed cluster and track is considered. This investigation is used to optimize data-Monte Carlo agreement.

  7. MUST: A silicon strip detector array for radioactive beam experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumenfeld, Y.; Auger, F.; Sauvestre, J.E.; Marechal, F.; Ottini, S.; Alamanos, N.; Barbier, A.; Beaumel, D.; Bonnereau, B.; Charlet, D.; Clavelin, J.F.; Courtat, P.; Delbourgo-Salvador, P.; Douet, R.; Engrand, M.; Ethvignot, T.; Gillibert, A.; Khan, E.; Lapoux, V.; Lagoyannis, A.; Lavergne, L.; Lebon, S.; Lelong, P.; Lesage, A.; Le Ven, V.; Lhenry, I.; Martin, J.M.; Musumarra, A.; Pita, S.; Petizon, L.; Pollacco, E.; Pouthas, J.; Richard, A.; Rougier, D.; Santonocito, D.; Scarpaci, J.A.; Sida, J.L.; Soulet, C.; Stutzmann, J.S.; Suomijaervi, T.; Szmigiel, M.; Volkov, P.; Voltolini, G.

    1999-01-01

    A new and innovative array, MUST, based on silicon strip technology and dedicated to the study of reactions induced by radioactive beams on light particles is described. The detector consists of 8 silicon strip - Si(Li) telescopes used to identify recoiling light charged particles through time of flight, energy loss and energy measurements and to determine precisely their scattering angle through X, Y position measurements. Each 60x60 mm 2 double sided silicon strip detector with 60 vertical and 60 horizontal strips yields an X-Y position resolution of 1 mm, an energy resolution of 50 keV, a time resolution of around 1 ns and a 500 keV energy threshold for protons. The backing Si(Li) detectors stop protons up to 25 MeV with a resolution of approximately 50 keV. CsI crystals read out by photo-diodes which stop protons up to 70 MeV are added to the telescopes for applications where higher energy particles need to be detected. The dedicated electronics in VXIbus standard allow us to house the 968 logic and analog channels of the array in one crate placed adjacent to the reaction chamber and fully remote controlled, including pulse visualization on oscilloscopes. A stand alone data acquisition system devoted to the MUST array has been developed. Isotope identification of light charged particles over the full energy range has been achieved, and the capability of the system to measure angular distributions of states populated in inverse kinematics reactions has been demonstrated

  8. Investigation of the impact of mechanical stress on the properties of silicon sensor modules for the ATLAS Phase II upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stegler, Martin; Polay, Luise; Spehrlich, Dennis; Bloch, Ingo [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The new ATLAS tracker for phase II will be composed of silicon pixel and strip sensor modules. Such a module consists of silicon sensors, boards and readout chips. In a currently ongoing study new adhesives to connect the modular components thermally and mechanically are examined. It was shown that the silicon sensor is exposed to mechanical stress when part of a module. Mechanical stress can cause damage to a sensor and can change the tensors of electrical properties. The study of the effects of mechanical stress on characteristics of the silicon sensor modules are the focus in this presentation. The thermal induced tensile stress near to the surface of a silicon sensor build in a module was simulated. A four point bending setup was used to measure the maximum tensile stress of silicon and to verify the piezoresistive effect on ATLAS07 sensors. The results of the electrical measurements and simulations of stressed silicon sensor modules are shown in the presentation.

  9. The CMS silicon strip tracker and its electronic readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedl, M.

    2001-05-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN (Geneva, CH) will be the world's biggest accelerator machine when operation starts in 2006. One of its four detector experiments is the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS), consisting of a large-scale silicon tracker and electromagnetic and hadron calorimeters, all embedded in a solenoidal magnetic field of 4 T, and a muon system surrounding the magnet coil. The Silicon Strip Tracker has a sensitive area of 206m 2 with 10 million analog channels which are read out at the collider frequency of 40 MHz. The building blocks of the CMS Tracker are the silicon sensors, APV amplifier ASICs, supporting front-end ASICs, analog and digital optical links as well as data processors and control units in the back-end. Radiation tolerance, readout speed and the huge data volume are challenging requirements. The charge collection in silicon detectors was modeled, which is discussed as well as the concepts of readout amplifiers with respect to the LHC requirements, including the deconvolution method of fast pulse shaping, electronic noise constraints and radiation effects. Moreover, extensive measurements on prototype components of the CMS Tracker and different versions of the APV chip in particular were performed. There was a significant contribution to the construction of several detector modules, characterized them in particle beam tests and quantified radiation induced effects on the APV chip and on silicon detectors. In addition, a prototype of the analog optical link and the analog performance of the back-end digitization unit were evaluated. The results are very encouraging, demonstrating the feasibility of the CMS Silicon Strip Tracker system and motivating progress towards the construction phase. (author)

  10. Field oxide radiation damage measurements in silicon strip detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laakso, M [Particle Detector Group, Fermilab, Batavia, IL (United States) Research Inst. for High Energy Physics (SEFT), Helsinki (Finland); Singh, P; Shepard, P F [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Univ. Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1993-04-01

    Surface radiation damage in planar processed silicon detectors is caused by radiation generated holes being trapped in the silicon dioxide layers on the detector wafer. We have studied charge trapping in thick (field) oxide layers on detector wafers by irradiating FOXFET biased strip detectors and MOS test capacitors. Special emphasis was put on studying how a negative bias voltage across the oxide during irradiation affects hole trapping. In addition to FOXFET biased detectors, negatively biased field oxide layers may exist on the n-side of double-sided strip detectors with field plate based n-strip separation. The results indicate that charge trapping occurred both close to the Si-SiO[sub 2] interface and in the bulk of the oxide. The charge trapped in the bulk was found to modify the electric field in the oxide in a way that leads to saturation in the amount of charge trapped in the bulk when the flatband/threshold voltage shift equals the voltage applied over the oxide during irradiation. After irradiation only charge trapped close to the interface is annealed by electrons tunneling to the oxide from the n-type bulk. (orig.).

  11. Study of inter-strip gap effects and efficiency for full energy detection of double sided silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisichella, M.; Forneris, J.; Grassi, L.

    2015-01-01

    We performed a characterization of Double Sided Silicon Strip Detectors (DSSSD) with the aim to carry out a systematic study of the inter-strip effects on the energy measurement of charged particles. The dependence of the DSSSD response on ion, energy and applied bias has been investigated. (author)

  12. Development and performance of double sided silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batignani, G.; Forti, F.; Moneta, L.; Triggiani, G.; Bosisio, L.; Focardi, E.; Giorgi, M.A.; Parrini, G.; Tonelli, G.

    1991-01-01

    Microstrip silicon detectors with orthogonal readout on opposite sides have been designed and fabricated. The active area of each device is 25 cm 2 and the strip pitch is 25 μm on the junction side and 50 μm on the opposite ohmic side. A space resolution of 15 μm on the junction side (100 μm readout pitch) and 24 μm on the ohmic side (200 μm readout pitch) has been measured. We also report on AC-coupling chips, designed and fabricated in order to allow AC connection of the strips to the amplifiers. These chips are 6.4x5.0 mm 2 and have 100 μm pitch. Both AC-couplers and detectors have been installed as part of the ALEPH minivertex. (orig.)

  13. New developments in double sided silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, H.; Boulos, T.; Cattaneo, P.; Dietl, H.; Hauff, D.; Holl, P.; Lange, E.; Lutz, G.; Moser, H.G.; Schwarz, A.S.; Settles, R.; Struder, L.; Kemmer, J.; Buttler, W.

    1990-01-01

    A new type of double sided silicon strip detector has been built and tested using highly density VLSI readout electronics connected to both sides. Capacitive coupling of the strips to the readout electronics has been achieved by integrating the capacitors into the detector design, which was made possible by introducing a new detector biasing concept. Schemes to simplify the technology of the fabrication of the detectors are discussed. The static performance properties of the devices as well as implications of the use of VLSI electronics in their readout are described. Prototype detectors of the described design equipped with high density readout electronics have been installed in the ALEPH detector at LEP. Test results on the performance are given

  14. Infrared LED Array For Silicon Strip Detector Qualification

    CERN Document Server

    Dirkes, Guido; Hartmann, Frank; Heier, Stefan; Schwerdtfeger, Wolfgang; Waldschmitt, M; Weiler, K W; Weseler, Siegfried

    2003-01-01

    The enormous amount of silicon strip detector modules for the CMS tracker requires a test-sytem to allow qualification of each individual detector module and its front-end electronics within minutes. The objective is to test the detector with a physical signal. Signals are generated in the detector by illumination with lightpulses emitted by a LED at 950~nm and with a rise time of 10~ns. In order to avoid a detector moving, an array of 64 LEDs is used, overlaping the complete detector width. The total length of an array is 15~cm. The spot size of an individual LED is controlled by apertures to illuminate about 25 strips. Furthermore it is possible to simulate the high leakage current of irradiated sensors by constant illumination of the sensor. This provides an effective mean to identfy pinholes on a sensor.

  15. ATLAS silicon microstrip Semiconductor Tracker (SCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unno, Y.

    2000-01-01

    Silicon microstrip semiconductor tracking system (SCT) will be in operation in the ATLAS detector in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. Challenging issues in the SCT are the radiation tolerance to the fluence of 2x10 14 1-MeV-neutron-equivalent particles/cm 2 at the designed luminosity of 1x10 34 cm -2 /s of the proton-proton collisions and the speed of the electronics to identify the crossing bunches at 25 ns. The developments and the status of the SCT are presented from the point of view of these issues. Series production of the SCT will start in the year 2001 and the SCT will be installed into the ATLAS detector during 2003-2004

  16. Silicon strip detector system for Fermilab E706

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engels, E Jr; Mani, S; Plants, D; Shepard, P F; Wilkins, R [Pittsburgh Univ., PA (USA); Hossain, S [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (USA)

    1984-09-15

    Fermilab Experiment E706 is an experiment to study direct photon production in hadron-hadron collisions at the Fermilab Tevatron II. A part of the charged particle spectrometer is a silicon strip detector system used to determine the position of interaction vertices in the production target and to provide angular formation about the secondary hadrons produced in a collision. We present some design criteria, as well as the results of tests of a wafer similar to those to be used in the experiment.

  17. Characterization of a prototype batch of long polyimide cables designed for fast data transmission on ATLAS ITk strip staves

    CERN Document Server

    Dopke, Jens; The ATLAS collaboration; Sawyer, Craig; Sullivan, Stephanie W

    2018-01-01

    The silicon-strip system in the ATLAS ITk detector has individual sensor modules mounted on staves to provide integrated solution for mechanical support, power, cooling, and data transmission. The data and power are transmitted to individual modules on polyimide tapes placed on thermo-mechanical stave cores. The 1.4 m long tapes transmit module data at the rate of 640 Mbps, along with providing several multi-drop clock and command links, and power lines. The first batch of 25 tapes has been produced. We characterized the line impedance and its variation across the batch, examined the tape cross-section, and assessed the variation between design and fabrication.

  18. Signals from fluorescent materials on the surface of silicon micro-strip sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Sperlich, Dennis; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    For the High-Luminosity Upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, the ATLAS Inner Detector will be replaced with a new, all-silicon tracker (ITk). In order to minimise the amount of material in the ITk, circuit boards with readout electronics will be glued onto the active area of the sensor. Several adhesives, investigated to be used for the construction of detector modules, were found to become fluorescent when exposed to UV light. These adhesives could become a light source in the high-radiation environment of the ATLAS detector. The effect of fluorescent material covering the sensor surface in a high-radiation environment has been studied for a silicon micro-strip sensor using a micro-focused X-ray beam. By positioning the beam parallel to the sensor surfave and pointing it both inside the sensor and above the sensor surface inside the deposited glue, the sensor responses from direct hits and fluorescence can be compared with high precision. This contribution presents a setup to study the susceptibilit...

  19. ATLAS silicon microstrip detector system (SCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unno, Y.

    2003-01-01

    The S CT together with the pixel and the transition radiation tracker systems and with a central solenoid forms the central tracking system of the ATLAS detector at LHC. Series production of SCT Silicon microstrip sensors is near completion. The sensors have been shown to be robust against high voltage operation to the 500 V required after fluences of 3x10 14 protons/cm 2 . SCT barrel modules are in series production. A low-noise CCD camera has been used to debug the onset of leakage currents

  20. First bulk and surface results for the ATLAS ITk Strip stereo annulus sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Hunter, Robert Francis Holub; The ATLAS collaboration; Affolder, Tony; Bohm, Jan; Botte, James Michael; Ciungu, Bianca; Dette, Karola; Dolezal, Zdenek; Escobar, Carlos; Fadeyev, Vitaliy

    2018-01-01

    A novel microstrip sensor geometry, the stereo annulus, has been developed for use in the end-cap of the ATLAS experiment's strip tracker upgrade at the HL-LHC. Its first implementation is in the ATLAS12EC sensors a large-area, radiation-hard, single-sided, ac-coupled, \

  1. Study of surface properties of ATLAS12 strip sensors and their radiation resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikestikova, M.; Allport, P. P.; Baca, M.; Broughton, J.; Chisholm, A.; Nikolopoulos, K.; Pyatt, S.; Thomas, J. P.; Wilson, J. A.; Kierstead, J.; Kuczewski, P.; Lynn, D.; Hommels, L. B. A.; Ullan, M.; Bloch, I.; Gregor, I. M.; Tackmann, K.; Hauser, M.; Jakobs, K.; Kuehn, S.; Mahboubi, K.; Mori, R.; Parzefall, U.; Clark, A.; Ferrere, D.; Sevilla, S. Gonzalez; Ashby, J.; Blue, A.; Bates, R.; Buttar, C.; Doherty, F.; McMullen, T.; McEwan, F.; O'Shea, V.; Kamada, S.; Yamamura, K.; Ikegami, Y.; Nakamura, K.; Takubo, Y.; Unno, Y.; Takashima, R.; Chilingarov, A.; Fox, H.; Affolder, A. A.; Casse, G.; Dervan, P.; Forshaw, D.; Greenall, A.; Wonsak, S.; Wormald, M.; Cindro, V.; Kramberger, G.; Mandić, I.; Mikuž, M.; Gorelov, I.; Hoeferkamp, M.; Palni, P.; Seidel, S.; Taylor, A.; Toms, K.; Wang, R.; Hessey, N. P.; Valencic, N.; Hanagaki, K.; Dolezal, Z.; Kodys, P.; Bohm, J.; Stastny, J.; Bevan, A.; Beck, G.; Milke, C.; Domingo, M.; Fadeyev, V.; Galloway, Z.; Hibbard-Lubow, D.; Liang, Z.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Seiden, A.; To, K.; French, R.; Hodgson, P.; Marin-Reyes, H.; Parker, K.; Jinnouchi, O.; Hara, K.; Sato, K.; Hagihara, M.; Iwabuchi, S.; Bernabeu, J.; Civera, J. V.; Garcia, C.; Lacasta, C.; Marti i Garcia, S.; Rodriguez, D.; Santoyo, D.; Solaz, C.; Soldevila, U.

    2016-09-01

    A radiation hard n+-in-p micro-strip sensor for the use in the Upgrade of the strip tracker of the ATLAS experiment at the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) has been developed by the "ATLAS ITk Strip Sensor collaboration" and produced by Hamamatsu Photonics. Surface properties of different types of end-cap and barrel miniature sensors of the latest sensor design ATLAS12 have been studied before and after irradiation. The tested barrel sensors vary in "punch-through protection" (PTP) structure, and the end-cap sensors, whose stereo-strips differ in fan geometry, in strip pitch and in edge strip ganging options. Sensors have been irradiated with proton fluences of up to 1×1016 neq/cm2, by reactor neutron fluence of 1×1015 neq/cm2 and by gamma rays from 60Co up to dose of 1 MGy. The main goal of the present study is to characterize the leakage current for micro-discharge breakdown voltage estimation, the inter-strip resistance and capacitance, the bias resistance and the effectiveness of PTP structures as a function of bias voltage and fluence. It has been verified that the ATLAS12 sensors have high breakdown voltage well above the operational voltage which implies that different geometries of sensors do not influence their stability. The inter-strip isolation is a strong function of irradiation fluence, however the sensor performance is acceptable in the expected range for HL-LHC. New gated PTP structure exhibits low PTP onset voltage and sharp cut-off of effective resistance even at the highest tested radiation fluence. The inter-strip capacitance complies with the technical specification required before irradiation and no radiation-induced degradation was observed. A summary of ATLAS12 sensors tests is presented including a comparison of results from different irradiation sites. The measured characteristics are compared with the previous prototype of the sensor design, ATLAS07.

  2. Silicon sensor technologies for ATLAS IBL upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Grenier, P; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    New pixel sensors are currently under development for ATLAS Upgrades. The first upgrade stage will consist in the construction of a new pixel layer that will be installed in the detector during the 2013 LHC shutdown. The new layer (Insertable-B-Layer, IBL) will be inserted between the inner most layer of the current pixel detector and the beam pipe at a radius of 3.2cm. The expected high radiation levels require the use of radiation hard technology for both the front-end chip and the sensor. Two different pixel sensor technologies are envisaged for the IBL. The sensor choice will occur in July 2011. One option is developed by the ATLAS Planar Pixel Sensor (PPS) Collaboration and is based on classical n-in-n planar silicon sensors which have been used for the ATLAS Pixel detector. For the IBL, two changes were required: The thickness was reduced from 250 um to 200 um to improve the radiation hardness. In addition, so-called "slim edges" were designed to reduce the inactive edge of the sensors from 1100 um to o...

  3. Investigations into the impact of bond pads and p-stop implants on the detection efficiency of silicon micro-strip sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poley, Luise; Lohwasser, Kristin; Blue, Andrew

    2016-11-01

    The High Luminosity Upgrade of the LHC will require the replacement of the Inner Detector of ATLAS with the Inner Tracker (ITk) in order to cope with higher radiation levels and higher track densities. Prototype silicon strip detector modules are currently developed and their performance is studied in both particle test beams and X-ray beams. In previous test beam studies of prototype modules, silicon sensor strips were found to respond in regions varying from the strip pitch of 74.5 μm. The variations have been linked to local features of the sensor architecture. This paper presents results of detailed sensor measurements in both X-ray and particle beams investigating the impact of sensor features (metal pads and p-stops) on the responding area of a sensor strip.

  4. Investigations into the impact of bond pads and p-stop implants on the detection efficiency of silicon micro-strip sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poley, Luise; Lohwasser, Kristin [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Blue, Andrew [Glasgow Univ. (United Kingdom). SUPA School of Physics and Astronomy; and others

    2016-11-15

    The High Luminosity Upgrade of the LHC will require the replacement of the Inner Detector of ATLAS with the Inner Tracker (ITk) in order to cope with higher radiation levels and higher track densities. Prototype silicon strip detector modules are currently developed and their performance is studied in both particle test beams and X-ray beams. In previous test beam studies of prototype modules, silicon sensor strips were found to respond in regions varying from the strip pitch of 74.5 μm. The variations have been linked to local features of the sensor architecture. This paper presents results of detailed sensor measurements in both X-ray and particle beams investigating the impact of sensor features (metal pads and p-stops) on the responding area of a sensor strip.

  5. The ATLAS inner detector semiconductor tracker (Si and GaAs strips): review of the 1995 beam tests at the CERN SPS H8 beamline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moorhead, G.F.

    1995-01-01

    This talk will consist of a brief review of the ATLAS Inner Detector (ID) Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) strip detector (both silicon and gallium arsenide) beam tests conducted at the ATLAS test beam facility at the CERN SPS H8 beamline. It will include a brief overview of the H8 facilities, the experimental layout of the SCT/Strip apparatus, the data acquisition system, some of the online software tools and the high precision silicon hodoscope and timing modules used. A very brief indication of some of the main varieties of detector systems tested and the measurements performed will be given. Throughout some emphasis will be placed on the contributions and-interests of members of the Melbourne group. (author)

  6. Large-scale module production for the CMS silicon strip tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Cattai, A

    2005-01-01

    The Silicon Strip Tracker (SST) for the CMS experiment at LHC consists of 210 m**2 of silicon strip detectors grouped into four distinct sub-systems. We present a brief description of the CMS Tracker, the industrialised detector module production methods and the current status of the SST with reference to some problems encountered at the factories and in the construction centres.

  7. Performance of the CAMEX64 silicon strip readout chip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarema, R.J.

    1989-06-01

    The CAMEX64 is a 64 channel full custom CMOS chip designed specifically for the readout of silicon strip detectors. CAMEX which stands for CMOS Multichannel Analog MultiplEXer for Silicon Strip Detectors was designed by members of the Franhofer Institute for Microelectronic Circuits and Systems and the Max Planck Institute for Physics and Astrophysics. Each CAMEX channel has a switched capacitor charge sensitive amplifier with 4 sampling capacitors and a multiplexing scheme for reading out each of the channels on an analog bus. The device uses multiple sampling capacitors to filter and reduce input noise. Filtering is controlled through sampling techniques using external clocks. The device operates in a double correlated sampling mode and therefore cannot separate detector leakage current from a charge input. Normal operation of this device is similar to all other silicon readout chips designed and built thus far in that there is a data acquisition cycle during which charge is simultaneously accepted on all channels for a short period of time from a detector array, followed by a readout cycle where that charge or hit information is read out. This device works especially well for colliding beam experiments where the time of charge arrival is accurately known. However it can be used in fixed target or asynchronous mode where the time of charge arrival is not well known. In the asynchronous mode it appears that gain is somewhat dependent on the time interval required to decide whether or not to accept charge input information and thus the maximum signal to noise performance found with the synchronous mode may not be achieved in the asynchronous mode. 18 figs., 5 tabs

  8. Characterization of a dose verification system dedicated to radiotherapy treatments based on a silicon detector multi-strips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocca, A.; Cortes Giraldo, M. A.; Gallardo, M. I.; Espino, J. M.; Aranas, R.; Abou Haidar, Z.; Alvarez, M. A. G.; Quesada, J. M.; Vega-Leal, A. P.; Perez Neto, F. J.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present the characterization of a silicon detector multi-strips (SSSSD: Single Sided Silicon Strip Detector), developed by the company Micron Semiconductors Ltd. for use as a verification system for radiotherapy treatments.

  9. Coordinate determination of high energy charged particles by silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anokhin, I.E.; Zinets, O.S.

    2002-01-01

    The coordinate determination accuracy of minimum ionizing and short-range particles by silicon strip detectors has been considered. The charge collection on neighboring strips of the detector is studied and the influence of diffusion and the electric field distribution on the accuracy of the coordinate determination is analyzed. It has been shown that coordinates of both minimum ionizing and short-range particles can be determined with accuracy to a few microns using silicon strip detectors. 11 refs.; 8 figs

  10. EMC Diagnosis and Corrective Actions for Silicon Strip Tracker Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arteche, F.; /CERN /Imperial Coll., London; Rivetta, C.; /SLAC

    2006-06-06

    The tracker sub-system is one of the five sub-detectors of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment under construction at CERN for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) accelerator. The tracker subdetector is designed to reconstruct tracks of charged sub-atomic particles generated after collisions. The tracker system processes analogue signals from 10 million channels distributed across 14000 silicon micro-strip detectors. It is designed to process signals of a few nA and digitize them at 40 MHz. The overall sub-detector is embedded in a high particle radiation environment and a magnetic field of 4 Tesla. The evaluation of the electromagnetic immunity of the system is very important to optimize the performance of the tracker sub-detector and the whole CMS experiment. This paper presents the EMC diagnosis of the CMS silicon tracker sub-detector. Immunity tests were performed using the final prototype of the Silicon Tracker End-Caps (TEC) system to estimate the sensitivity of the system to conducted noise, evaluate the weakest areas of the system and take corrective actions before the integration of the overall detector. This paper shows the results of one of those tests, that is the measurement and analysis of the immunity to CM external conducted noise perturbations.

  11. A silicon strip detector dose magnifying glass for IMRT dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, J. H. D.; Carolan, M.; Lerch, M. L. F.; Petasecca, M.; Khanna, S.; Perevertaylo, V. L.; Metcalfe, P.; Rosenfeld, A. B.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) allows the delivery of escalated radiation dose to tumor while sparing adjacent critical organs. In doing so, IMRT plans tend to incorporate steep dose gradients at interfaces between the target and the organs at risk. Current quality assurance (QA) verification tools such as 2D diode arrays, are limited by their spatial resolution and conventional films are nonreal time. In this article, the authors describe a novel silicon strip detector (CMRP DMG) of high spatial resolution (200 μm) suitable for measuring the high dose gradients in an IMRT delivery. Methods: A full characterization of the detector was performed, including dose per pulse effect, percent depth dose comparison with Farmer ion chamber measurements, stem effect, dose linearity, uniformity, energy response, angular response, and penumbra measurements. They also present the application of the CMRP DMG in the dosimetric verification of a clinical IMRT plan. Results: The detector response changed by 23% for a 390-fold change in the dose per pulse. A correction function is derived to correct for this effect. The strip detector depth dose curve agrees with the Farmer ion chamber within 0.8%. The stem effect was negligible (0.2%). The dose linearity was excellent for the dose range of 3-300 cGy. A uniformity correction method is described to correct for variations in the individual detector pixel responses. The detector showed an over-response relative to tissue dose at lower photon energies with the maximum dose response at 75 kVp nominal photon energy. Penumbra studies using a Varian Clinac 21EX at 1.5 and 10.0 cm depths were measured to be 2.77 and 3.94 mm for the secondary collimators, 3.52 and 5.60 mm for the multileaf collimator rounded leaf ends, respectively. Point doses measured with the strip detector were compared to doses measured with EBT film and doses predicted by the Philips Pinnacle treatment planning system. The differences were 1.1%

  12. Data quality monitoring of the CMS Silicon Strip Tracker detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benucci, L.

    2010-01-01

    The Physics and Data Quality Monitoring (DQM) framework aims at providing a homogeneous monitoring environment across various applications related to data taking at the CMS experiment. In this contribution, the DQM system for the Silicon Strip Tracker will be introduced. The set of elements to assess the status of detector will be mentioned, along with the way to identify problems and trace them to specific tracker elements. Monitoring tools, user interfaces and automated software will be briefly described. The system was used during extensive cosmic data taking of CMS in Autumn 2008, where it demonstrated to have a flexible and robust implementation and has been essential to improve the understanding of the detector. CMS Collaboration believes that this tool is now mature to face the forthcoming data-taking era.

  13. Study of surface properties of ATLAS12 strip sensors and their radiation resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikestikova, M., E-mail: mikestik@fzu.cz [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Institute of Physics, Na Slovance 2, 18221 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Allport, P.P.; Baca, M.; Broughton, J.; Chisholm, A.; Nikolopoulos, K.; Pyatt, S.; Thomas, J.P.; Wilson, J.A. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Kierstead, J.; Kuczewski, P.; Lynn, D. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Physics Department and Instrumentation Division, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); Hommels, L.B.A. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Ullan, M. [Centro Nacional de Microelectronica (IMB-CNM, CSIC), Campus UAB-Bellaterra, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Bloch, I.; Gregor, I.M.; Tackmann, K. [DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Hauser, M.; Jakobs, K.; Kuehn, S. [Physikalisches Institut, Universität Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); and others

    2016-09-21

    A radiation hard n{sup +}-in-p micro-strip sensor for the use in the Upgrade of the strip tracker of the ATLAS experiment at the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) has been developed by the “ATLAS ITk Strip Sensor collaboration” and produced by Hamamatsu Photonics. Surface properties of different types of end-cap and barrel miniature sensors of the latest sensor design ATLAS12 have been studied before and after irradiation. The tested barrel sensors vary in “punch-through protection” (PTP) structure, and the end-cap sensors, whose stereo-strips differ in fan geometry, in strip pitch and in edge strip ganging options. Sensors have been irradiated with proton fluences of up to 1×10{sup 16} n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}, by reactor neutron fluence of 1×10{sup 15} n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2} and by gamma rays from {sup 60}Co up to dose of 1 MGy. The main goal of the present study is to characterize the leakage current for micro-discharge breakdown voltage estimation, the inter-strip resistance and capacitance, the bias resistance and the effectiveness of PTP structures as a function of bias voltage and fluence. It has been verified that the ATLAS12 sensors have high breakdown voltage well above the operational voltage which implies that different geometries of sensors do not influence their stability. The inter-strip isolation is a strong function of irradiation fluence, however the sensor performance is acceptable in the expected range for HL-LHC. New gated PTP structure exhibits low PTP onset voltage and sharp cut-off of effective resistance even at the highest tested radiation fluence. The inter-strip capacitance complies with the technical specification required before irradiation and no radiation-induced degradation was observed. A summary of ATLAS12 sensors tests is presented including a comparison of results from different irradiation sites. The measured characteristics are compared with the previous prototype of the sensor design, ATLAS07. - Highlights:

  14. Developments toward a silicon strip tracker for the PANDA experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaunick, Hans-Georg

    2013-01-01

    The PANDA detector at the future FAIR facility in Darmstadt will be a key experiment in the understanding of the strong interaction at medium energies where perturbative models fail to describe the quark-quark interaction. An important feature of the detector system is the ability to reconstruct secondary decay vertices of short-lived intermediate states by means of a powerful particle tracking system with the the Micro-Vertex Detector (MVD) as central element to perform high-resolution charmonium and open-charm spectroscopy. The MVD is conceived with pixel detectors in the inner parts and double-sided silicon strip detectors at the outer half in a very lightweight design. The PANDA detector system shall be operated in a self-triggering broadband acquisition mode. Implications on the read-out electronics and the construction of the front-end assemblies are analyzed and evaluation of prototype DSSD-detectors wrt. signal-to-noise ratio, noise figures, charge sharing behavior, spatial resolution and radiation degradation discussed. Methods of electrical sensor characterization with different measurement setups are investigated which may be useful for future large-scale QA procedures. A novel algorithm for recovering multiple degenerate cluster hit patterns of double-sided strip sensors is introduced and a possible architecture of a Module Data Concentrator ASIC (MDC) aggregating multiple front-end data streams conceived. A first integrative concept for the construction and assembly of DSSD modules for the barrel part of the MVD is introduced as a conclusion of the thesis. Furthermore, a detailed description of a simplified procedure for the calculation of displacement damage in compound materials is given as reference which was found useful for the retrieval of non-ionizing energy loss for materials other than silicon.

  15. Position calibration of silicon strip detector using quasi-elastic scattering of 16O+197Au

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Wenqi; Hu Hailong; Zhang Gaolong

    2013-01-01

    Background: Elastic scattering is induced by weakly unstable nuclei. Generally, a good angular resolution for angular distribution of elastic scattering is needed. The silicon strip detector is often used for this kind of experiment. Purpose: In order to use silicon strip detector to study the elastic scattering of weakly unbound nuclei, it is important to get the information of its position calibration. It is well known that the elastic scattering of stable nuclei has a good angular distribution and many experimental data have been obtained. Methods: So the scattering of stable nuclei can be used to calibrate the position information of silicon strip detector. In this experiment, the positions of silicon strip detectors are calibrated using 101 MeV and 59 MeV 16 O scattering on the 197 Au target. Results: The quasi-elastic peaks can be observed in the silicon strip detectors and the counts of quasi-elastic 16 O can be obtained. The solid angles of the silicon strip detectors are calibrated by using alpha source which has three alpha energy values. The angular distribution of quasi-elastic scattering of 16 O+ 197 Au is obtained at these two energy values. Conclusions: The experimental data of angular distribution are reasonable and fit for the principle of angular distribution of elastic scattering. It is concluded that in the experiment these silicon strip detectors can accurately give the position information and can be used for the elastic scattering experiment. (authors)

  16. The Laser Alignment System for the CMS silicon strip tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Olzem, Jan

    2009-01-01

    The Laser Alignment System (LAS) of the CMS silicon strip Tracker has been designed for surveying the geometry of the large-scale Tracker support structures. It uses 40 laser beams ($\\lambda$ = 1075 nm) that induce signals on a subset of the Tracker silicon sensors. The positions in space of the laser spots on the sensors are reconstructed with a resolution of 30 $\\mu$m. From this, the LAS is capable of permanent in-time monitoring of the different Tracker components relative to each other with better than 30 $\\mu$m precision. Additionally, it can provide an absolute measurement of the Tracker mechanical structure with an accuracy better than 70 $\\mu$m, thereby supplying additional input to the track based alignment at detector startup. 31 out of the 40 LAS beams have been successfully operated during the CMS cosmic muon data taking campaign in autumn 2008. The alignment of the Tracker Endcap Discs and of the discs with respect to the Tracker Inner Barrel and Tracker Outer Barrel subdetectors was measured w...

  17. Evaluation of the bulk and strip characteristics of large area n-in-p silicon sensors intended for a very high radiation environment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Böhm, Jan; Mikeštíková, Marcela; Affolder, A.A.; Allport, P.P.; Bates, R.; Betancourt, C.; Brown, H.; Buttar, C.; Carter, J. R.; Casse, G.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 636, č. 1 (2011), "S104"-"S110" ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LA08032 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : silicon * micro-strip * ATLAS ID upgrade * SLHC * leakage current * depletion voltage * electrical characteristics * coupling capacitance Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 1.207, year: 2011 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nima.2010.04.093

  18. Comparison of silicon strip tracker module size using large sensors from 6 inch wafers

    CERN Multimedia

    Honma, Alan

    1999-01-01

    Two large silicon strip sensor made from 6 inch wafers are placed next to each other to simulate the size of a CMS outer silicon tracker module. On the left is a prototype 2 sensor CMS inner endcap silicon tracker module made from 4 inch wafers.

  19. Accelerated life test of an ONO stacked insulator film for a silicon micro-strip detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuno, Shoji; Ikeda, Hirokazu; Saitoh, Yutaka

    1996-01-01

    We have used to acquire the signal through an integrated capacitor for a silicon micro-strip detector. When we have been using a double-sided silicon micro-strip detector, we have required a long-term stability and a high feasibility for the integrated capacitor. An oxide-nitride-oxide (ONO) insulator film was theoretically expected to have a superior nature in terms of long term reliability. In order to test long term reliability for integrated capacitor of a silicon micro-strip detector, we made a multi-channel measuring system for capacitors

  20. Results from a beam test of silicon strip sensors manufactured by Infineon Technologies AG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dragicevic, M., E-mail: marko.dragicevic@oeaw.ac.at [Institute of High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna (Austria); Auzinger, G. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna (Austria); CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Bartl, U. [Infineon Technologies Austria AG, Villach (Austria); Bergauer, T. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna (Austria); Gamerith, S.; Hacker, J. [Infineon Technologies Austria AG, Villach (Austria); König, A. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna (Austria); Infineon Technologies Austria AG, Villach (Austria); Kröner, F.; Kucher, E.; Moser, J.; Neidhart, T. [Infineon Technologies Austria AG, Villach (Austria); Schulze, H.-J. [Infineon Technologies AG, Munich (Germany); Schustereder, W. [Infineon Technologies Austria AG, Villach (Austria); Treberspurg, W. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna (Austria); Wübben, T. [Infineon Technologies Austria AG, Villach (Austria)

    2014-11-21

    Most modern particle physics experiments use silicon based sensors for their tracking systems. These sensors are able to detect particles generated in high energy collisions with high spatial resolution and therefore allow the precise reconstruction of particle tracks. So far only a few vendors were capable of producing silicon strip sensors with the quality needed in particle physics experiments. Together with the European-based semiconductor manufacturer Infineon Technologies AG (Infineon) the Institute of High Energy Physics of the Austrian Academy of Sciences (HEPHY) developed planar silicon strip sensors in p-on-n technology. This work presents the first results from a beam test of strip sensors manufactured by Infineon.

  1. Development of n+-in-p large-area silicon microstrip sensors for very high radiation environments – ATLAS12 design and initial results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unno, Y.; Edwards, S.O.; Pyatt, S.; Thomas, J.P.; Wilson, J.A.; Kierstead, J.; Lynn, D.; Carter, J.R.; Hommels, L.B.A.; Robinson, D.; Bloch, I.; Gregor, I.M.; Tackmann, K.; Betancourt, C.; Jakobs, K.; Kuehn, S.; Mori, R.; Parzefall, U.; Wiik-Fucks, L.; Clark, A.

    2014-01-01

    We have been developing a novel radiation-tolerant n + -in-p silicon microstrip sensor for very high radiation environments, aiming for application in the high luminosity large hadron collider. The sensors are fabricated in 6 in., p-type, float-zone wafers, where large-area strip sensor designs are laid out together with a number of miniature sensors. Radiation tolerance has been studied with ATLAS07 sensors and with independent structures. The ATLAS07 design was developed into new ATLAS12 designs. The ATLAS12A large-area sensor is made towards an axial strip sensor and the ATLAS12M towards a stereo strip sensor. New features to the ATLAS12 sensors are two dicing lines: standard edge space of 910 μm and slim edge space of 450 μm, a gated punch-through protection structure, and connection of orphan strips in a triangular corner of stereo strips. We report the design of the ATLAS12 layouts and initial measurements of the leakage current after dicing and the resistivity of the wafers

  2. Characterisation of silicon microstrip detectors for the ATLAS Phase-II Upgrade with a micro-focused X-ray beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poley, Luise; Blue, Andrew; Bates, Richard

    2016-03-01

    The planned HL-LHC (High Luminosity LHC) in 2025 is being designed to maximise the physics potential through a sizable increase in the luminosity, totalling 1 x 10 35 cm -2 s -1 after 10 years of operation. A consequence of this increased luminosity is the expected radiation damage at 3000 fb -1 , requiring the tracking detectors to withstand hadron equivalences to over 1 x 10 16 1 MeV neutrons per cm 2 . With the addition of increased readout rates, a complete re-design of the current ATLAS Inner Detector (ID) is being developed as the Inner Tracker (ITk). Two proposed detectors for the ATLAS strip tracker region of the ITk were characterized at the Diamond Light Source with a 3 μm FWHM 15 keV micro focused X-ray beam. The devices under test were a 320 μm thick silicon stereo (Barrel) ATLAS12 strip mini sensor wire bonded to a 130 nm CMOS binary readout chip (ABC130) and a 320 μm thick full size radial (Endcap) strip sensor - utilizing bi-metal readout layers - wire bonded to 250 nm CMOS binary readout chips (ABCN-25). Sub-strip resolution of the 74.5 μm strips was achieved for both detectors. Investigation of the p-stop diffusion layers between strips is shown in detail for the wire bond pad regions. Inter strip charge collection measurements indicate that the effective width of the strip on the silicon sensors is determined by p-stops regions between the strips rather than the strip pitch. The collected signal allowed for the identification of operating thresholds for both devices, making it possible to compare signal response between different versions of silicon strip detector modules.

  3. Characterisation of silicon microstrip detectors for the ATLAS Phase-II Upgrade with a micro-focused X-ray beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poley, Luise [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Blue, Andrew; Bates, Richard [Glasgow Univ. (United Kingdom). SUPA School of Physics and Astronomy; and others

    2016-03-15

    The planned HL-LHC (High Luminosity LHC) in 2025 is being designed to maximise the physics potential through a sizable increase in the luminosity, totalling 1 x 10{sup 35} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} after 10 years of operation. A consequence of this increased luminosity is the expected radiation damage at 3000 fb{sup -1}, requiring the tracking detectors to withstand hadron equivalences to over 1 x 10{sup 16} 1 MeV neutrons per cm{sup 2}. With the addition of increased readout rates, a complete re-design of the current ATLAS Inner Detector (ID) is being developed as the Inner Tracker (ITk). Two proposed detectors for the ATLAS strip tracker region of the ITk were characterized at the Diamond Light Source with a 3 μm FWHM 15 keV micro focused X-ray beam. The devices under test were a 320 μm thick silicon stereo (Barrel) ATLAS12 strip mini sensor wire bonded to a 130 nm CMOS binary readout chip (ABC130) and a 320 μm thick full size radial (Endcap) strip sensor - utilizing bi-metal readout layers - wire bonded to 250 nm CMOS binary readout chips (ABCN-25). Sub-strip resolution of the 74.5 μm strips was achieved for both detectors. Investigation of the p-stop diffusion layers between strips is shown in detail for the wire bond pad regions. Inter strip charge collection measurements indicate that the effective width of the strip on the silicon sensors is determined by p-stops regions between the strips rather than the strip pitch. The collected signal allowed for the identification of operating thresholds for both devices, making it possible to compare signal response between different versions of silicon strip detector modules.

  4. Performance tests of developed silicon strip detector by using a 150 GeV electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyun, Hyojung; Jung, Sunwoo; Kah, Dongha; Kang, Heedong; Kim, Hongjoo; Park, Hwanbae

    2008-01-01

    We manufactured and characterized a silicon micro-strip detector to be used in a beam tracker. A silicon detector features a DC-coupled silicon strip sensor with VA1 Prime2 analog readout chips. The silicon strip sensors have been fabricated on 5-in. wafers at Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (Daejeon, Korea). The silicon strip sensor is single-sided and has 32 channels with a 1 mm pitch, and its active area is 3.2 by 3.2 cm 2 with 380 μm thickness. The readout electronics consists of VA hybrid, VA Interface, and FlashADC and Control boards. Analog signals from the silicon strip sensor were being processed by the analog readout chips on the VA hybrid board. Analog signals were then changed into digital signals by a 12 bit 25 MHz FlashADC. The digital signals were read out by the Linux-operating PC through the FlashADC-USB2 interface. The DAQ system and analysis programs were written in the framework of ROOT package. The beam test with the silicon detector had been performed at CERN beam facility. We used a 150 GeV electron beam out of the SPS(Super Proton Synchrotron) H2 beam line. We present beam test setup and measurement result of signal-to-noise ratio of each strip channel. (author)

  5. Studying signal collection in the punch-through protection area of a silicon micro-strip sensor using a micro-focused X-ray beam

    CERN Document Server

    Poley, Anne-luise; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    For the Phase-II Upgrade of the ATLAS detector, a new, all-silicon tracker will be constructed in order to cope with the increased track density and radiation level of the High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider. While silicon strip sensors are designed to minimise the fraction of dead material and maximise the active area of a sensor, concessions must be made to the requirements of operating a sensor in a particle physics detector. Sensor geometry features like the punch-through protection deviate from the standard sensor architecture and thereby affect the charge collection in that area. In order to study the signal collection of silicon strip sensors over their punch-through-protection area, ATLAS silicon strip sensors were scanned with a micro-focused X-ray beam at the Diamond Light Source. Due to the highly focused X-ray beam ($\\unit[2\\times3]{\\upmu\\text{m}}^2$) and the short average path length of an electron after interaction with an X-ray photon ($\\unit[\\leq2]{\\upmu\\text{m}}$), local signal collection i...

  6. Measurement of charge collection in irradiated miniature sensors for the upgrade of ATLAS Phase-II Strip tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Cindro, Vladimir; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Miniature sensors with outer dimension of 10 mm x 10 mm were produced together with full size sensors for the innermost ring (R0) of the end-cap part in the upgraded ATLAS inner tracker (ITk). AC and DC coupled n-type strips with three different pitches (wide, default and narrow) were processed on high resistivity p-type FZ silicon substrates by Hamamatsu Photonics. Miniature sensors were irradiated with 70 MeV protons at CYRIC at Tohoku University (Japan) and reactor neutrons at Jožef Stefan Institute (Slovenia) to three different 1 MeV neutron equivalent fluences: 0.5, 1 and 2 x 1015 neqcm-2. The upper fluence range exceeds the highest anticipated in the inner-most part of the ATLAS ITk-Strips over the HL-LHC lifetime (~1.25 x 1015 neqcm2). Charge collection in test sensors has been evaluated systematically using 90Sr β- source and Alibava analogue readout system at reverse bias voltages up to 1000 V.

  7. Measurement of charge collection in irradiated miniature sensors for the upgrade of ATLAS Phase-II Strip tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Cindro, Vladimir; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Miniature sensors with outer dimension of 10 mm x 10 mm have been produced together with full size sensors for the innermost ring (R0) of the end-cap part in the upgraded ATLAS inner tracker (ITk). AC and DC coupled n-type strips with three different pitches (wide, default and narrow) were processed on high resistivity p-type FZ silicon substrates by Hamamatsu Photonics. Miniature sensors were irradiated with 70 MeV protons at CYRIC at Tohoku University (Japan) and reactor neutrons at Jožef Stefan Institute (Slovenia) to three different 1 MeV neutron equivalent fluences: 0.5, 1 and 2 x 1015 neqcm-2. The upper fluence range exceeds the highest anticipated in the inner-most part of the ATLAS ITk-Strips over the HL-LHC lifetime (~1.5 x 1015 neqcm2). Charge collection in test sensors has been evaluated systematically using 90Sr β-source and Alibava analogue readout system at reverse bias voltages up to 1000 V.

  8. Performance of silicon pixel detectors at small track incidence angles for the ATLAS Inner Tracker upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viel, Simon; Banerjee, Swagato; Brandt, Gerhard; Carney, Rebecca; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Hard, Andrew Straiton; Kaplan, Laser Seymour; Kashif, Lashkar; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Rieger, Julia; Wolf, Julian; Wu, Sau Lan; Yang, Hongtao

    2016-01-01

    In order to enable the ATLAS experiment to successfully track charged particles produced in high-energy collisions at the High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider, the current ATLAS Inner Detector will be replaced by the Inner Tracker (ITk), entirely composed of silicon pixel and strip detectors. An extension of the tracking coverage of the ITk to very forward pseudorapidity values is proposed, using pixel modules placed in a long cylindrical layer around the beam pipe. The measurement of long pixel clusters, detected when charged particles cross the silicon sensor at small incidence angles, has potential to significantly improve the tracking efficiency, fake track rejection, and resolution of the ITk in the very forward region. The performance of state-of-the-art pixel modules at small track incidence angles is studied using test beam data collected at SLAC and CERN. - Highlights: • Extended inner pixel barrel layers are proposed for the ATLAS ITk upgrade. • Test beam results at small track incidence angles validate this ATLAS ITk design. • Long pixel clusters are reconstructed with high efficiency at low threshold values. • Excellent angular resolution is achieved using pixel cluster length information.

  9. Performance of silicon pixel detectors at small track incidence angles for the ATLAS Inner Tracker upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viel, Simon, E-mail: sviel@lbl.gov [Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and University of California, Berkeley, CA, United States of America (United States); Banerjee, Swagato [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, United States of America (United States); Brandt, Gerhard; Carney, Rebecca; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice [Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and University of California, Berkeley, CA, United States of America (United States); Hard, Andrew Straiton; Kaplan, Laser Seymour; Kashif, Lashkar [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, United States of America (United States); Pranko, Aliaksandr [Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and University of California, Berkeley, CA, United States of America (United States); Rieger, Julia [Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and University of California, Berkeley, CA, United States of America (United States); II Physikalisches Institut, Georg-August-Universität, Göttingen (Germany); Wolf, Julian [Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and University of California, Berkeley, CA, United States of America (United States); Wu, Sau Lan; Yang, Hongtao [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, United States of America (United States)

    2016-09-21

    In order to enable the ATLAS experiment to successfully track charged particles produced in high-energy collisions at the High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider, the current ATLAS Inner Detector will be replaced by the Inner Tracker (ITk), entirely composed of silicon pixel and strip detectors. An extension of the tracking coverage of the ITk to very forward pseudorapidity values is proposed, using pixel modules placed in a long cylindrical layer around the beam pipe. The measurement of long pixel clusters, detected when charged particles cross the silicon sensor at small incidence angles, has potential to significantly improve the tracking efficiency, fake track rejection, and resolution of the ITk in the very forward region. The performance of state-of-the-art pixel modules at small track incidence angles is studied using test beam data collected at SLAC and CERN. - Highlights: • Extended inner pixel barrel layers are proposed for the ATLAS ITk upgrade. • Test beam results at small track incidence angles validate this ATLAS ITk design. • Long pixel clusters are reconstructed with high efficiency at low threshold values. • Excellent angular resolution is achieved using pixel cluster length information.

  10. First results from a silicon-strip detector with VLSI readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anzivino, G.; Horisberger, R.; Hubbeling, L.; Hyams, B.; Parker, S.; Breakstone, A.; Litke, A.M.; Walker, J.T.; Bingefors, N.

    1986-01-01

    A 256-strip silicon detector with 25 μm strip pitch, connected to two 128-channel NMOS VLSI chips (Microplex), has been tested using straight-through tracks from a ruthenium beta source. The readout channels have a pitch of 47.5 μm. A single multiplexed output provides voltages proportional to the integrated charge from each strip. The most probable signal height from the beta traversals is approximately 14 times the rms noise in any single channel. (orig.)

  11. Signal collection and position reconstruction of silicon strip detectors with 200 μm readout pitch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krammer, M.; Pernegger, H.

    1997-01-01

    Silicon strip detectors with large readout pitch and intermediate strips offer an interesting approach to reduce the number of readout channels in the tracking systems of future collider experiments without compromising too much on the spatial resolution. Various detector geometries with a readout pitch of 200 μm have been studied for their signal response and spatial resolution. (orig.)

  12. Quality assurance and irradiation studies on CMS silicon strip sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Furgeri, Alexander

    The high luminosity at the Large Hadron Collider at the European Particle Physics Laboratory CERN in Geneva causes a harsh radiation environment for the detectors. The most inner layers of the tracker are irradiated to an equivalent fluence of 1.6e14 1MeV-neutrons per cmˆ2. The radiation causes damage in the silicon lattice of the sensors. This increases the leakage current and changes the full depletion voltage. Both of these parameters are after irradiation neither stable with time nor with temperatures above 0oC. This thesis presents the changes of the leakage currents, the full depletion voltages, and all strip parameters of the sensors after proton and neutron irradiation. After irradiation annealing studies have been carried out. All observed effects are used to simulate the evolution of full depletion voltage for different annealing times and annealing temperatures in order to keep the power consumption as low as possible. From the observed radiation damage and annealing effects the sensors of the tra...

  13. A Proposal to Upgrade the Silicon Strip Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matis, Howard; Michael, LeVine; Jonathan, Bouchet; Stephane, Bouvier; Artemios, Geromitsos; Gerard, Guilloux; Sonia, Kabana; Christophe, Renard; Howard, Matis; Jim, Thomas; Vi Nham, Tram

    2007-01-01

    The STAR Silicon Strip Detector (SSD) was built by a collaboration of Nantes, Strasbourg and Warsaw collaborators. It is a beautiful detector; it can provide 500 mu m scale pointing resolution at the vertex when working in combination with the TPC. It was first used in Run 4, when half the SSD was installed in an engineering run. The full detector was installed for Run 5 (the Cu-Cu run) and the operation and performance of the detector was very successful. However, in preparation for Run 6, two noisy ladders (out of 20) were replaced and this required that the SSD be removed from the STAR detector. The re-installation of the SSD was not fully successful and so for the next two Runs, 6 and 7, the SSD suffered a cooling system failure that allowed a large fraction of the ladders to overheat and become noisy, or fail. (The cause of the SSD cooling failure was rather trivial but the SSD could not be removed between Runs 6 and 7 due to the inability of the STAR detector to roll along its tracks at that time.)

  14. Position-sensitive silicon strip detector characterization using particle beams

    CERN Document Server

    Maenpaeae, Teppo

    2012-01-01

    Silicon strip detectors are fast, cost-effective and have an excellent spatial resolution.They are widely used in many high-energy physics experiments. Modern high energyphysics experiments impose harsh operation conditions on the detectors, e.g., of LHCexperiments. The high radiation doses cause the detectors to eventually fail as a resultof excessive radiation damage. This has led to a need to study radiation tolerance usingvarious techniques. At the same time, a need to operate sensors approaching the endtheir lifetimes has arisen.The goal of this work is to demonstrate that novel detectors can survive the environment that is foreseen for future high-energy physics experiments. To reach this goal,measurement apparatuses are built. The devices are then used to measure the propertiesof irradiated detectors. The measurement data are analyzed, and conclusions are drawn.Three measurement apparatuses built as a part of this work are described: two telescopes measuring the tracks of the beam of a particle acceler...

  15. Systematic characterization and quality assurance of silicon micro-strip sensors for the Silicon Tracking System of the CBM experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, P.

    2014-07-01

    The Silicon Tracking System (STS) is the central detector of the Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at future Facility for Anti-proton and Ion Research (FAIR) at Darmstadt. The task of the STS is to reconstruct trajectories of charged particles originating at relatively high multiplicities from the high rate beam-target interactions. The tracker comprises of 300 μm thick silicon double-sided micro-strip sensors. These sensors should be radiation hard in order to reconstruct charged particles up to a maximum radiation dose of 1 × 1014neqcm-2. Systematic characterization allows us to investigate the sensor response and perform quality assurance (QA) tests. In this paper, systematic characterization of prototype double-sided silicon micro-strip sensors will be discussed. This procedure includes visual, passive electrical, and radiation hardness test. Presented results include tests on three different prototypes of silicon micro-strip sensors.

  16. Systematic characterization and quality assurance of silicon micro-strip sensors for the Silicon Tracking System of the CBM experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, P

    2014-01-01

    The Silicon Tracking System (STS) is the central detector of the Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at future Facility for Anti-proton and Ion Research (FAIR) at Darmstadt. The task of the STS is to reconstruct trajectories of charged particles originating at relatively high multiplicities from the high rate beam-target interactions. The tracker comprises of 300 μm thick silicon double-sided micro-strip sensors. These sensors should be radiation hard in order to reconstruct charged particles up to a maximum radiation dose of 1 × 10 14 n eq cm −2 . Systematic characterization allows us to investigate the sensor response and perform quality assurance (QA) tests. In this paper, systematic characterization of prototype double-sided silicon micro-strip sensors will be discussed. This procedure includes visual, passive electrical, and radiation hardness test. Presented results include tests on three different prototypes of silicon micro-strip sensors

  17. Annealing studies of irradiated p-type sensors designed for the upgrade of ATLAS Phase-II Strip Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The upgrade for the High Luminosity LHC in 2025 will challenge the silicon strip detector performance with high fluence and long operation time. Sensors have been designed and tests on charge collection and electrical performance have been carried out in order to evaluate their behavior. Besides that, it is important to understand and predict the long-term evolution of the sensor properties. In this work, we present detailed studies on the annealing behavior of ATLAS12 strip sensors designed by the ITK Strip Sensor Working Group and irradiated from 510^13 to 210^15 n_eq/cm^2. Systematic charge collection, leakage current and impedance measurements have been carried out during the annealing time at 23 and 60°C until break-down or the appearance of charge multiplication. Sensors showing charge multiplication have been then kept at high voltage for a long time in order to monitor their stability. The difference in the annealing behavior between the two temperatures has been analyzed. From the impedance measurem...

  18. Annealing Studies of irradiated p-type Sensors Designed for the Upgrade of ATLAS Phase-II Strip Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The upgrade for the High Luminosity LHC in 2025 will challenge the silicon strip detector performance with high fluence and long operation time. Sensors have been designed and tests on charge collection and electrical performance have been carried out in order to evaluate their behaviour. Besides that, it is important to understand and predict the long-term evolution of the sensor prop- erties. In this work, detailed studies on the annealing behaviour of ATLAS12 strip sensors designed by the ITK Strip Sensor Working Group and irradiated from 5 × 1013 neqcm−2 to 2 × 1015 neqcm−2 are presented. Systematic charge collection, leakage current and impedance measurements have been carried out during the annealing time at 23 and 60◦C until break-down or the appearance of charge multiplication. Sensors showing charge multiplication have been then kept at high voltage for a long time in order to monitor their stability. The difference in the annealing behaviour between the two temperatures has been analysed and...

  19. Experience on 3D silicon sensors for ATLAS IBL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darbo, G.

    2015-01-01

    3D silicon sensors, where plasma micro-machining is used to etch deep narrow apertures in the silicon substrate to form electrodes of PIN junctions, represent possible solutions for inner pixel layers of the tracking detectors in high energy physics experiments. This type of sensors has been developed for the Insertable B-Layer (IBL), an additional pixel layer that has been installed in ATLAS during the present shutdown of the LHC collider at CERN. It is presented here the experience in designing, testing and qualifying sensors and detector modules that have been used to equip part of the IBL. Based on the gained experience with 3D silicon sensors for the ATLAS IBL, we discuss possible new developments for the upgrade of ATLAS and CMS at the high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC)

  20. First thin AC-coupled silicon strip sensors on 8-inch wafers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergauer, T., E-mail: thomas.bergauer@oeaw.ac.at [Institute of High Energy Physics of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, Nikolsdorfer Gasse 18, 1050 Wien (Vienna) (Austria); Dragicevic, M.; König, A. [Institute of High Energy Physics of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, Nikolsdorfer Gasse 18, 1050 Wien (Vienna) (Austria); Hacker, J.; Bartl, U. [Infineon Technologies Austria AG, Siemensstrasse 2, 9500 Villach (Austria)

    2016-09-11

    The Institute of High Energy Physics (HEPHY) in Vienna and the semiconductor manufacturer Infineon Technologies Austria AG developed a production process for planar AC-coupled silicon strip sensors manufactured on 200 μm thick 8-inch p-type wafers. In late 2015, the first wafers were delivered featuring the world's largest AC-coupled silicon strip sensors. Detailed electrical measurements were carried out at HEPHY, where single strip and global parameters were measured. Mechanical studies were conducted and the long-term behavior was investigated using a climate chamber. Furthermore, the electrical properties of various test structures were investigated to validate the quality of the manufacturing process.

  1. Systematic irradiation studies and quality assurance of silicon strip sensors for the CBM Silicon Tracking System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larionov, Pavel

    2016-10-01

    The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at the upcoming Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) is designed to investigate the phase diagram of strongly interacting matter at neutron star core densities under laboratory conditions. This work is a contribution to the development of the main tracking detector of the CBM experiment - the Silicon Tracking System (STS), designed to provide the tracking and the momentum information for charged particles in a high multiplicity environment. The STS will be composed of about 900 highly segmented double-sided silicon strip sensors and is expected to face a harsh radiation environment up to 1 x 10 14 cm -2 in 1 MeV neutron equivalent fluence after several years of operation. The two most limiting factors of the successful operation of the system are the radiation damage and the quality of produced silicon sensors. It is therefore of importance to ensure both the radiation tolerance of the STS sensors and their quality during the production phase. The first part of this work details the investigation of the radiation tolerance of the STS sensors. Series of irradiations of miniature sensors as well as full-size prototype sensors were performed with reactor neutrons and 23 MeV protons to a broad range of fluences, up to 2 x 10 14 n eq /cm 2 . The evolution of the main sensor characteristics (leakage current, full depletion voltage and charge collection) was extensively studied both as a function of accumulated fluence and time after irradiation. In particular, charge collection measurements of miniature sensors demonstrated the ability of the sensors to yield approx. 90% to 95% of the signal after irradiation up to the lifetime fluence, depending on the readout side. First results on the charge collection performance of irradiated full-size prototype sensors have been obtained, serving as an input data for further final signal-to-noise evaluation in the whole readout chain. Operational stability of these

  2. Systematic irradiation studies and quality assurance of silicon strip sensors for the CBM Silicon Tracking System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larionov, Pavel

    2016-10-15

    The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at the upcoming Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) is designed to investigate the phase diagram of strongly interacting matter at neutron star core densities under laboratory conditions. This work is a contribution to the development of the main tracking detector of the CBM experiment - the Silicon Tracking System (STS), designed to provide the tracking and the momentum information for charged particles in a high multiplicity environment. The STS will be composed of about 900 highly segmented double-sided silicon strip sensors and is expected to face a harsh radiation environment up to 1 x 10{sup 14} cm{sup -2} in 1 MeV neutron equivalent fluence after several years of operation. The two most limiting factors of the successful operation of the system are the radiation damage and the quality of produced silicon sensors. It is therefore of importance to ensure both the radiation tolerance of the STS sensors and their quality during the production phase. The first part of this work details the investigation of the radiation tolerance of the STS sensors. Series of irradiations of miniature sensors as well as full-size prototype sensors were performed with reactor neutrons and 23 MeV protons to a broad range of fluences, up to 2 x 10{sup 14} n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}. The evolution of the main sensor characteristics (leakage current, full depletion voltage and charge collection) was extensively studied both as a function of accumulated fluence and time after irradiation. In particular, charge collection measurements of miniature sensors demonstrated the ability of the sensors to yield approx. 90% to 95% of the signal after irradiation up to the lifetime fluence, depending on the readout side. First results on the charge collection performance of irradiated full-size prototype sensors have been obtained, serving as an input data for further final signal-to-noise evaluation in the whole readout chain. Operational

  3. Proposed method of assembly for the BCD silicon strip vertex detector modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindenmeyer, C.

    1989-01-01

    The BCD Silicon strip Vertex Detector is constructed of 10 identical central region modules and 18 similar forward region modules. This memo describes a method of assembling these modules from individual silicon wafers. Each wafer is fitted with associated front end electronics and cables and has been tested to insure that only good wafers reach the final assembly stage. 5 figs

  4. The development of two ASIC's for a fast silicon strip detector readout system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christain, D.; Haldeman, M.; Yarema, R.; Zimmerman, T.; Newcomer, F.M.; VanBerg, R.

    1989-01-01

    A high speed, low noise readout system for silicon strip detectors is being developed for Fermilab E771, which will begin taking data in 1989. E771 is a fixed target experiment designed to study the production of B hadrons by an 800 GeV/c proton beam. The experimental apparatus consists of an open geometry magnetic spectrometer featuring good muon and electron identification and a 16000 channel silicon microstrip vertex detector. This paper reviews the design and prototyping of two application specific integrated circuits (ASIC's) an amplifier and a discriminator, which are being produced for the silicon strip detector readout system

  5. Reception Test of Petals for the End Cap TEC+ of the CMS Silicon Strip Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Bremer, R; Klein, Katja; Schmitz, Stefan Antonius; Adler, Volker; Adolphi, Roman; Ageron, Michel; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Atz, Bernd; Barvich, Tobias; Baulieu, Guillaume; Beaumont, Willem; Beissel, Franz; Bergauer, Thomas; Berst, Jean-Daniel; Blüm, Peter; Bock, E; Bogelsbacher, F; de Boer, Wim; Bonnet, Jean-Luc; Bonnevaux, Alain; Boudoul, Gaelle; Bouhali, Othmane; Braunschweig, Wolfgang; Brom, Jean-Marie; Butz, Erik; Chabanat, Eric; Chabert, Eric Christian; Clerbaux, Barbara; Contardo, Didier; De Callatay, Bernard; Dehm, Philip; Delaere, Christophe; Della Negra, Rodolphe; Dewulf, Jean-Paul; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Didierjean, Francois; Dierlamm, Alexander; Dirkes, Guido; Dragicevic, Marko; Drouhin, Frédéric; Ernenwein, Jean-Pierre; Esser, Hans; Estre, Nicolas; Fahrer, Manuel; Fernández, J; Florins, Benoit; Flossdorf, Alexander; Flucke, Gero; Flügge, Günter; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Freudenreich, Klaus; Frey, Martin; Friedl, Markus; Furgeri, Alexander; Giraud, Noël; Goerlach, Ulrich; Goorens, Robert; Graehling, Philippe; Grégoire, Ghislain; Gregoriev, E; Gross, Laurent; Hansel, S; Haroutunian, Roger; Hartmann, Frank; Heier, Stefan; Hermanns, Thomas; Heydhausen, Dirk; Heyninck, Jan; Hosselet, J; Hrubec, Josef; Jahn, Dieter; Juillot, Pierre; Kaminski, Jochen; Karpinski, Waclaw; Kaussen, Gordon; Keutgen, Thomas; Klanner, Robert; König, Stefan; Kosbow, M; Krammer, Manfred; Ledermann, Bernhard; Lemaître, Vincent; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Linn, Alexander; Lounis, Abdenour; Lübelsmeyer, Klaus; Lumb, Nicholas; Maazouzi, Chaker; Mahmoud, Tariq; Michotte, Daniel; Militaru, Otilia; Mirabito, Laurent; Müller, Thomas; Neukermans, Lionel; Ollivetto, C; Olzem, Jan; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Pandoulas, Demetrios; Pein, Uwe; Pernicka, Manfred; Perriès, Stephane; Piaseki, C; Pierschel, Gerhard; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Poettgens, Michael; Pooth, Oliver; Rouby, Xavier; Sabellek, Andreas; Schael, Stefan; Schirm, Norbert; Schleper, Peter; Schultz von Dratzig, Arndt; Siedling, Rolf; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stahl, Achim; Steck, Pia; Steinbruck, G; Stoye, Markus; Strub, Roger; Tavernier, Stefaan; Teyssier, Daniel; Theel, Andreas; Trocmé, Benjamin; Udo, Fred; Van der Donckt, M; Van der Velde, C; Van Hove, Pierre; Vanlaer, Pascal; Van Lancker, Luc; Van Staa, Rolf; Vanzetto, Sylvain; Weber, Markus; Weiler, Thomas; Weseler, Siegfried; Wickens, John; Wittmer, Bruno; Wlochal, Michael; De Wolf, Eddi A; Zhukov, Valery; Zoeller, Marc Henning

    2009-01-01

    The silicon strip tracker of the CMS experiment has been completed and was inserted into the CMS detector in late 2007. The largest sub system of the tracker are its end caps, comprising two large end caps (TEC) each containing 3200 silicon strip modules. To ease construction, the end caps feature a modular design: groups of about 20 silicon modules are placed on sub-assemblies called petals and these self-contained elements are then mounted onto the TEC support structures. Each end cap consists of 144 such petals, which were built and fully qualified by several institutes across Europe. From

  6. Combined effect of bulk and surface damage on strip insulation properties of proton irradiated n$^{+}$-p silicon strip sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Dalal, R; Ranjan, K; Moll, M; Elliott-Peisert, A

    2014-01-01

    Silicon sensors in next generation hadron colliders willface a tremendously harsh radiation environment. Requirement tostudy rarest reaction channels with statistical constraints hasresulted in a huge increment in radiation flux, resulting in bothsurface damage and bulk damage. For sensors which are used in acharged hadron environment, both of these degrading processes takeplace simultaneously. Recently it has been observed in protonirradiated n$^{+}$-p Si strip sensors that n$^{+}$ strips had a goodinter-strip insulation with low values of p-spray and p-stop dopingdensities which is contrary to the expected behaviour from thecurrent understanding of radiation damage. In this work a simulationmodel has been devised incorporating radiation damage to understandand provide a possible explanation to the observed behaviour ofirradiated sensors.

  7. The silicon microstrip sensors of the ATLAS semiconductor tracker

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ahmad, A.; Albrechtskirchinger, Z.; Allport, P.; Böhm, Jan; Mikeštíková, Marcela; Šťastný, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 578, - (2007), s. 98-118 ISSN 0168-9002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : ATLAS * SCT * silicon * microstrip * module * LHC Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 1.114, year: 2007

  8. Measurement of delta-rays in ATLAS silicon sensors

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    In the inner detector of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC, $\\delta$-rays originating from particle interactions in the silicon sensors may cause additional hit channels. A method for identifying silicon hit clusters that are enlarged due to the emission of a $\\delta$-ray is presented. Using pp collision data the expectation is confirmed that the $\\delta$-ray production rate depends linearly on the path length of the particle in silicon, independently of layer radius and detector technology. The range of the $\\delta$-rays, which is a property of the material and should not depend on anything else, is indeed found to be constant as a function of detector layer, path length in silicon and momentum of the particle traversing the silicon. As a by-product of this analysis a method is proposed that could correct for the effect of these $\\delta$-rays, and this could be used to improve track reconstruction.

  9. Crystalline Silicon Interconnected Strips (XIS). Introduction to a New, Integrated Device and Module Concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Roosmalen, J.; Bronsveld, P.; Mewe, A.; Janssen, G.; Stodolny, M.; Cobussen-Pool, E.; Bennett, I.; Weeber, A.; Geerligs, B. [ECN Solar Energy, P.O. Box 1, NL-1755 ZG, Petten (Netherlands)

    2012-06-15

    A new device concept for high efficiency, low cost, wafer based silicon solar cells is introduced. To significantly lower the costs of Si photovoltaics, high efficiencies and large reductions of metals and silicon costs are required. To enable this, the device architecture was adapted into low current devices by applying thin silicon strips, to which a special high efficiency back-contact heterojunction cell design was applied. Standard industrial production processes can be used for our fully integrated cell and module design, with a cost reduction potential below 0.5 euro/Wp. First devices have been realized demonstrating the principle of a series connected back contact hybrid silicon heterojunction module concept.

  10. Evaluation of FOXFET biased ac-coupled silicon strip detector prototypes for CDF SVX upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laakso, M.

    1992-03-01

    Silicon microstrip detectors for high-precision charged particle position measurements have been used in nuclear and particle physics for years. The detectors have evolved from simple surface barrier strip detectors with metal strips to highly complicated double-sided AC-coupled junction detectors. The feature of AC-coupling the readout electrodes from the diode strips necessitates the manufacture of a separate biasing structure for the strips, which comprises a common bias line together with a means for preventing the signal from one strip from spreading to its neighbors through the bias line. The obvious solution to this is to bias the strips through individual high value resistors. These resistors can be integrated on the detector wafer by depositing a layer of resistive polycrystalline silicon and patterning it to form the individual resistors. To circumvent the extra processing step required for polysilicon resistor processing and the rather difficult tuning of the process to obtain uniform and high enough resistance values throughout the large detector area, alternative methods for strip biasing have been devised. These include the usage of electron accumulation layer resistance for N + - strips or the usage of the phenomenon known as the punch-through effect for P + - strips. In this paper we present measurement results about the operation and radiation resistance of detectors with a punch-through effect based biasing structure known as a Field OXide Field-Effect Transistor (FOXFET), and present a model describing the FOXFET behavior. The studied detectors were prototypes for detectors to be used in the CDF silicon vertex detector upgrade

  11. Evaluation of FOXFET biased ac-coupled silicon strip detector prototypes for CDF SVX upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laakso, M. (Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States) Research Inst. for High Energy Physics (SEFT), Helsinki (Finland))

    1992-03-01

    Silicon microstrip detectors for high-precision charged particle position measurements have been used in nuclear and particle physics for years. The detectors have evolved from simple surface barrier strip detectors with metal strips to highly complicated double-sided AC-coupled junction detectors. The feature of AC-coupling the readout electrodes from the diode strips necessitates the manufacture of a separate biasing structure for the strips, which comprises a common bias line together with a means for preventing the signal from one strip from spreading to its neighbors through the bias line. The obvious solution to this is to bias the strips through individual high value resistors. These resistors can be integrated on the detector wafer by depositing a layer of resistive polycrystalline silicon and patterning it to form the individual resistors. To circumvent the extra processing step required for polysilicon resistor processing and the rather difficult tuning of the process to obtain uniform and high enough resistance values throughout the large detector area, alternative methods for strip biasing have been devised. These include the usage of electron accumulation layer resistance for N{sup +}{minus} strips or the usage of the phenomenon known as the punch-through effect for P{sup +}{minus} strips. In this paper we present measurement results about the operation and radiation resistance of detectors with a punch-through effect based biasing structure known as a Field OXide Field-Effect Transistor (FOXFET), and present a model describing the FOXFET behavior. The studied detectors were prototypes for detectors to be used in the CDF silicon vertex detector upgrade.

  12. Investigation of the charge collection for strongly irradiated silicon strip detectors of the CMS ECAL Preshower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloch, Ph.; Peisert, A.; Chang, Y.H.; Chen, A.E.; Hou, S.; Lin, W.T.; Cheremukhin, A.E.; Golutvin, I.A.; Urkinbaev, A.R.; Zamyatin, N.I.; Loukas, D.

    2001-01-01

    Strongly irradiated (2.3·10 14 n/cm 2 ) silicon strip detectors of different size, thickness and different design options were tested in a muon beam at CERN in 1999. A charge collection efficiency in excess of 85% and a signal-to-noise ratio of about 6 are obtained in all cases at high enough bias voltage. Details of the charge collection in the interstrip and the guard ring region and cross-talk between strips were also studied. We find that the charge collection efficiency and the cross-talk between strips depend on the interstrip distance

  13. P-Type Silicon Strip Sensors for the Future CMS Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    The Tracker Group of the CMS Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The upgrade to the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) is expected to increase the LHC design luminosity by an order of magnitude. This will require silicon tracking detectors with a significantly higher radiation hardness. The CMS Tracker Collaboration has conducted an irradiation and measurement campaign to identify suitable silicon sensor materials and strip designs for the future outer tracker at CMS. Based on these results, the collaboration has chosen to use n-in-p type strip and macro-pixel sensors and focus further investigations on the optimization of that sensor type. This paper describes the main measurement results and conclusions that motivated this decision.

  14. Commissioning and Performance of the CMS Silicon Strip Tracker with Cosmic Ray Muons

    CERN Document Server

    Chatrchyan, S; Sirunyan, A M; Adam, W; Arnold, B; Bergauer, H; Bergauer, T; Dragicevic, M; Eichberger, M; Erö, J; Friedl, M; Frühwirth, R; Ghete, V M; Hammer, J; Hänsel, S; Hoch, M; Hörmann, N; Hrubec, J; Jeitler, M; Kasieczka, G; Kastner, K; Krammer, M; Liko, D; Magrans de Abril, I; Mikulec, I; Mittermayr, F; Neuherz, B; Oberegger, M; Padrta, M; Pernicka, M; Rohringer, H; Schmid, S; Schöfbeck, R; Schreiner, T; Stark, R; Steininger, H; Strauss, J; Taurok, A; Teischinger, F; Themel, T; Uhl, D; Wagner, P; Waltenberger, W; Walzel, G; Widl, E; Wulz, C E; Chekhovsky, V; Dvornikov, O; Emeliantchik, I; Litomin, A; Makarenko, V; Marfin, I; Mossolov, V; Shumeiko, N; Solin, A; Stefanovitch, R; Suarez Gonzalez, J; Tikhonov, A; Fedorov, A; Karneyeu, A; Korzhik, M; Panov, V; Zuyeuski, R; Kuchinsky, P; Beaumont, W; Benucci, L; Cardaci, M; De Wolf, E A; Delmeire, E; Druzhkin, D; Hashemi, M; Janssen, X; Maes, T; Mucibello, L; Ochesanu, S; Rougny, R; Selvaggi, M; Van Haevermaet, H; Van Mechelen, P; Van Remortel, N; Adler, V; Beauceron, S; Blyweert, S; D'Hondt, J; De Weirdt, S; Devroede, O; Heyninck, J; Kalogeropoulos, A; Maes, J; Maes, M; Mozer, M U; Tavernier, S; Van Doninck, W; Van Mulders, P; Villella, I; Bouhali, O; Chabert, E C; Charaf, O; Clerbaux, B; De Lentdecker, G; Dero, V; Elgammal, S; Gay, A P R; Hammad, G H; Marage, P E; Rugovac, S; Vander Velde, C; Vanlaer, P; Wickens, J; Grunewald, M; Klein, B; Marinov, A; Ryckbosch, D; Thyssen, F; Tytgat, M; Vanelderen, L; Verwilligen, P; Basegmez, S; Bruno, G; Caudron, J; Delaere, C; Demin, P; Favart, D; Giammanco, A; Grégoire, G; Lemaitre, V; Militaru, O; Ovyn, S; Piotrzkowski, K; Quertenmont, L; Schul, N; Beliy, N; Daubie, E; Alves, G A; Pol, M E; Souza, M H G; Carvalho, W; De Jesus Damiao, D; De Oliveira Martins, C; Fonseca De Souza, S; Mundim, L; Oguri, V; Santoro, A; Silva Do Amaral, S M; Sznajder, A; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T R; Ferreira Dias, M A; Gregores, E M; Novaes, S F; Abadjiev, K; Anguelov, T; Damgov, J; Darmenov, N; Dimitrov, L; Genchev, V; Iaydjiev, P; Piperov, S; Stoykova, S; Sultanov, G; Trayanov, R; Vankov, I; Dimitrov, A; Dyulendarova, M; Kozhuharov, V; Litov, L; Marinova, E; Mateev, M; Pavlov, B; Petkov, P; Toteva, Z; Chen, G M; Chen, H S; Guan, W; Jiang, C H; Liang, D; Liu, B; Meng, X; Tao, J; Wang, J; Wang, Z; Xue, Z; Zhang, Z; Ban, Y; Cai, J; Ge, Y; Guo, S; Hu, Z; Mao, Y; Qian, S J; Teng, H; Zhu, B; Avila, C; Baquero Ruiz, M; Carrillo Montoya, C A; Gomez, A; Gomez Moreno, B; Ocampo Rios, A A; Osorio Oliveros, A F; Reyes Romero, D; Sanabria, J C; Godinovic, N; Lelas, K; Plestina, R; Polic, D; Puljak, I; Antunovic, Z; Dzelalija, M; Brigljevic, V; Duric, S; Kadija, K; Morovic, S; Fereos, R; Galanti, M; Mousa, J; Papadakis, A; Ptochos, F; Razis, P A; Tsiakkouri, D; Zinonos, Z; Hektor, A; Kadastik, M; Kannike, K; Müntel, M; Raidal, M; Rebane, L; Anttila, E; Czellar, S; Härkönen, J; Heikkinen, A; Karimäki, V; Kinnunen, R; Klem, J; Kortelainen, M J; Lampén, T; Lassila-Perini, K; Lehti, S; Lindén, T; Luukka, P; Mäenpää, T; Nysten, J; Tuominen, E; Tuominiemi, J; Ungaro, D; Wendland, L; Banzuzi, K; Korpela, A; Tuuva, T; Nedelec, P; Sillou, D; Besancon, M; Chipaux, R; Dejardin, M; Denegri, D; Descamps, J; Fabbro, B; Faure, J L; Ferri, F; Ganjour, S; Gentit, F X; Givernaud, A; Gras, P; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Jarry, P; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Malcles, J; Marionneau, M; Millischer, L; Rander, J; Rosowsky, A; Rousseau, D; Titov, M; Verrecchia, P; Baffioni, S; Bianchini, L; Bluj, M; Busson, P; Charlot, C; Dobrzynski, L; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Haguenauer, M; Miné, P; Paganini, P; Sirois, Y; Thiebaux, C; Zabi, A; Agram, J L; Besson, A; Bloch, D; Bodin, D; Brom, J M; Conte, E; Drouhin, F; Fontaine, J C; Gelé, D; Goerlach, U; Gross, L; Juillot, P; Le Bihan, A C; Patois, Y; Speck, J; Van Hove, P; Baty, C; Bedjidian, M; Blaha, J; Boudoul, G; Brun, H; Chanon, N; Chierici, R; Contardo, D; Depasse, P; Dupasquier, T; El Mamouni, H; Fassi, F; Fay, J; Gascon, S; Ille, B; Kurca, T; Le Grand, T; Lethuillier, M; Lumb, N; Mirabito, L; Perries, S; Vander Donckt, M; Verdier, P; Djaoshvili, N; Roinishvili, N; Roinishvili, V; Amaglobeli, N; Adolphi, R; Anagnostou, G; Brauer, R; Braunschweig, W; Edelhoff, M; Esser, H; Feld, L; Karpinski, W; Khomich, A; Klein, K; Mohr, N; Ostaptchouk, A; Pandoulas, D; Pierschel, G; Raupach, F; Schael, S; Schultz von Dratzig, A; Schwering, G; Sprenger, D; Thomas, M; Weber, M; Wittmer, B; Wlochal, M; Actis, O; Altenhöfer, G; Bender, W; Biallass, P; Erdmann, M; Fetchenhauer, G; Frangenheim, J; Hebbeker, T; Hilgers, G; Hinzmann, A; Hoepfner, K; Hof, C; Kirsch, M; Klimkovich, T; Kreuzer, P; Lanske, D; Merschmeyer, M; Meyer, A; Philipps, B; Pieta, H; Reithler, H; Schmitz, S A; Sonnenschein, L; Sowa, M; Steggemann, J; Szczesny, H; Teyssier, D; Zeidler, C; Bontenackels, M; Davids, M; Duda, M; Flügge, G; Geenen, H; Giffels, M; Haj Ahmad, W; Hermanns, T; Heydhausen, D; Kalinin, S; Kress, T; Linn, A; Nowack, A; Perchalla, L; Poettgens, M; Pooth, O; Sauerland, P; Stahl, A; Tornier, D; Zoeller, M H; Aldaya Martin, M; Behrens, U; Borras, K; Campbell, A; Castro, E; Dammann, D; Eckerlin, G; Flossdorf, A; Flucke, G; Geiser, A; Hatton, D; Hauk, J; Jung, H; Kasemann, M; Katkov, I; Kleinwort, C; Kluge, H; Knutsson, A; Kuznetsova, E; Lange, W; Lohmann, W; Mankel, R; Marienfeld, M; Meyer, A B; Miglioranzi, S; Mnich, J; Ohlerich, M; Olzem, J; Parenti, A; Rosemann, C; Schmidt, R; Schoerner-Sadenius, T; Volyanskyy, D; Wissing, C; Zeuner, W D; Autermann, C; Bechtel, F; Draeger, J; Eckstein, D; Gebbert, U; Kaschube, K; Kaussen, G; Klanner, R; Mura, B; Naumann-Emme, S; Nowak, F; Pein, U; Sander, C; Schleper, P; Schum, T; Stadie, H; Steinbrück, G; Thomsen, J; Wolf, R; Bauer, J; Blüm, P; Buege, V; Cakir, A; Chwalek, T; De Boer, W; Dierlamm, A; Dirkes, G; Feindt, M; Felzmann, U; Frey, M; Furgeri, A; Gruschke, J; Hackstein, C; Hartmann, F; Heier, S; Heinrich, M; Held, H; Hirschbuehl, D; Hoffmann, K H; Honc, S; Jung, C; Kuhr, T; Liamsuwan, T; Martschei, D; Mueller, S; Müller, Th; Neuland, M B; 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Kaur, R; Kohli, J M; Mehta, M Z; Nishu, N; Saini, L K; Sharma, A; Singh, A; Singh, J B; Singh, S P; Ahuja, S; Arora, S; Bhattacharya, S; Chauhan, S; Choudhary, B C; Gupta, P; Jain, S; Jha, M; Kumar, A; Ranjan, K; Shivpuri, R K; Srivastava, A K; Choudhury, R K; Dutta, D; Kailas, S; Kataria, S K; Mohanty, A K; Pant, L M; Shukla, P; Topkar, A; Aziz, T; Guchait, M; Gurtu, A; Maity, M; Majumder, D; Majumder, G; Mazumdar, K; Nayak, A; Saha, A; Sudhakar, K; Banerjee, S; Dugad, S; Mondal, N K; Arfaei, H; Bakhshiansohi, H; Fahim, A; Jafari, A; Mohammadi Najafabadi, M; Moshaii, A; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, S; Rouhani, S; Safarzadeh, B; Zeinali, M; Felcini, M; Abbrescia, M; Barbone, L; Chiumarulo, F; Clemente, A; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; Cuscela, G; De Filippis, N; De Palma, M; De Robertis, G; Donvito, G; Fedele, F; Fiore, L; Franco, M; Iaselli, G; Lacalamita, N; Loddo, F; Lusito, L; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Manna, N; Marangelli, B; My, S; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Papagni, G; Piccolomo, S; Pierro, G A; Pinto, C; 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Dykstra, D; Eartly, D P; Elias, J E; Elvira, V D; Evans, D; Feng, L; Fischler, M; Fisk, I; Foulkes, S; Freeman, J; Gartung, P; Gottschalk, E; Grassi, T; Green, D; Guo, Y; Gutsche, O; Hahn, A; Hanlon, J; Harris, R M; Holzman, B; Howell, J; Hufnagel, D; James, E; Jensen, H; Johnson, M; Jones, C D; Joshi, U; Juska, E; Kaiser, J; Klima, B; Kossiakov, S; Kousouris, K; Kwan, S; Lei, C M; Limon, P; Lopez Perez, J A; Los, S; Lueking, L; Lukhanin, G; Lusin, S; Lykken, J; Maeshima, K; Marraffino, J M; Mason, D; McBride, P; Miao, T; Mishra, K; Moccia, S; Mommsen, R; Mrenna, S; Muhammad, A S; Newman-Holmes, C; Noeding, C; O'Dell, V; Prokofyev, O; Rivera, R; Rivetta, C H; Ronzhin, A; Rossman, P; Ryu, S; Sekhri, V; Sexton-Kennedy, E; Sfiligoi, I; Sharma, S; Shaw, T M; Shpakov, D; Skup, E; Smith, R P; Soha, A; Spalding, W J; Spiegel, L; Suzuki, I; Tan, P; Tanenbaum, W; Tkaczyk, S; Trentadue, R; Uplegger, L; Vaandering, E W; Vidal, R; Whitmore, J; Wicklund, E; Wu, W; Yarba, J; Yumiceva, F; Yun, J C; Acosta, D; Avery, P; Barashko, V; Bourilkov, D; Chen, M; Di Giovanni, G P; Dobur, D; Drozdetskiy, A; Field, R D; Fu, Y; Furic, I K; Gartner, J; Holmes, D; Kim, B; Klimenko, S; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kotov, K; Kropivnitskaya, A; Kypreos, T; Madorsky, A; Matchev, K; Mitselmakher, G; Pakhotin, Y; Piedra Gomez, J; Prescott, C; Rapsevicius, V; Remington, R; Schmitt, M; Scurlock, B; Wang, D; Yelton, J; Ceron, C; Gaultney, V; Kramer, L; Lebolo, L M; Linn, S; Markowitz, P; Martinez, G; Rodriguez, J L; Adams, T; Askew, A; Baer, H; Bertoldi, M; Chen, J; Dharmaratna, W G D; Gleyzer, S V; Haas, J; Hagopian, S; Hagopian, V; Jenkins, M; Johnson, K F; Prettner, E; Prosper, H; Sekmen, S; Baarmand, M M; Guragain, S; Hohlmann, M; Kalakhety, H; Mermerkaya, H; Ralich, R; Vodopiyanov, I; Abelev, B; Adams, M R; Anghel, I M; Apanasevich, L; Bazterra, V E; Betts, R R; Callner, J; Castro, M A; Cavanaugh, R; Dragoiu, C; Garcia-Solis, E J; Gerber, C E; Hofman, D J; Khalatian, S; Mironov, C; Shabalina, E; Smoron, A; Varelas, N; Akgun, U; Albayrak, E A; Ayan, A S; Bilki, B; Briggs, R; Cankocak, K; Chung, K; Clarida, W; Debbins, P; Duru, F; Ingram, F D; Lae, C K; McCliment, E; Merlo, J P; Mestvirishvili, A; Miller, M J; Moeller, A; Nachtman, J; Newsom, C R; Norbeck, E; Olson, J; Onel, Y; Ozok, F; Parsons, J; Schmidt, I; Sen, S; Wetzel, J; Yetkin, T; Yi, K; Barnett, B A; Blumenfeld, B; Bonato, A; Chien, C Y; Fehling, D; Giurgiu, G; Gritsan, A V; Guo, Z J; Maksimovic, P; Rappoccio, S; Swartz, M; Tran, N V; Zhang, Y; Baringer, P; Bean, A; Grachov, O; Murray, M; Radicci, V; Sanders, S; Wood, J S; Zhukova, V; Bandurin, D; Bolton, T; Kaadze, K; Liu, A; Maravin, Y; Onoprienko, D; Svintradze, I; Wan, Z; Gronberg, J; Hollar, J; Lange, D; Wright, D; Baden, D; Bard, R; Boutemeur, M; Eno, S C; Ferencek, D; Hadley, N J; Kellogg, R G; Kirn, M; Kunori, S; Rossato, K; Rumerio, P; Santanastasio, F; Skuja, A; Temple, J; Tonjes, M B; Tonwar, S C; Toole, T; Twedt, E; Alver, B; Bauer, G; Bendavid, J; Busza, W; Butz, E; Cali, I A; Chan, M; D'Enterria, D; Everaerts, P; Gomez Ceballos, G; Hahn, K A; Harris, P; Jaditz, S; Kim, Y; Klute, M; Lee, Y J; Li, W; Loizides, C; Ma, T; Miller, M; Nahn, S; Paus, C; Roland, C; Roland, G; Rudolph, M; Stephans, G; Sumorok, K; Sung, K; Vaurynovich, S; Wenger, E A; Wyslouch, B; Xie, S; Yilmaz, Y; Yoon, A S; Bailleux, D; Cooper, S I; Cushman, P; Dahmes, B; De Benedetti, A; Dolgopolov, A; Dudero, P R; Egeland, R; Franzoni, G; Haupt, J; Inyakin, A; Klapoetke, K; Kubota, Y; Mans, J; Mirman, N; Petyt, D; Rekovic, V; Rusack, R; Schroeder, M; Singovsky, A; Zhang, J; Cremaldi, L M; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Perera, L; Rahmat, R; Sanders, D A; Sonnek, P; Summers, D; Bloom, K; Bockelman, B; Bose, S; Butt, J; Claes, D R; Dominguez, A; Eads, M; Keller, J; Kelly, T; Kravchenko, I; Lazo-Flores, J; Lundstedt, C; Malbouisson, H; Malik, S; Snow, G R; Baur, U; Iashvili, I; Kharchilava, A; Kumar, A; Smith, K; Strang, M; Alverson, G; Barberis, E; Boeriu, O; Eulisse, G; Govi, G; McCauley, T; Musienko, Y; Muzaffar, S; Osborne, I; Paul, T; Reucroft, S; Swain, J; Taylor, L; Tuura, L; Anastassov, A; Gobbi, B; Kubik, A; Ofierzynski, R A; Pozdnyakov, A; Schmitt, M; Stoynev, S; Velasco, M; Won, S; Antonelli, L; Berry, D; Hildreth, M; Jessop, C; Karmgard, D J; Kolberg, T; Lannon, K; Lynch, S; Marinelli, N; Morse, D M; Ruchti, R; Slaunwhite, J; Warchol, J; Wayne, M; Bylsma, B; Durkin, L S; Gilmore, J; Gu, J; Killewald, P; Ling, T Y; Williams, G; Adam, N; Berry, E; Elmer, P; Garmash, A; Gerbaudo, D; Halyo, V; Hunt, A; Jones, J; Laird, E; Marlow, D; Medvedeva, T; Mooney, M; Olsen, J; Piroué, P; Stickland, D; Tully, C; Werner, J S; Wildish, T; Xie, Z; Zuranski, A; Acosta, J G; Bonnett Del Alamo, M; Huang, X T; Lopez, A; Mendez, H; Oliveros, S; Ramirez Vargas, J E; Santacruz, N; Zatzerklyany, A; Alagoz, E; Antillon, E; Barnes, V E; Bolla, G; Bortoletto, D; Everett, A; Garfinkel, A F; Gecse, Z; Gutay, L; Ippolito, N; Jones, M; Koybasi, O; Laasanen, A T; Leonardo, N; Liu, C; Maroussov, V; Merkel, P; Miller, D H; Neumeister, N; Sedov, A; Shipsey, I; Yoo, H D; Zheng, Y; Jindal, P; Parashar, N; Cuplov, V; Ecklund, K M; Geurts, F J M; Liu, J H; Maronde, D; Matveev, M; Padley, B P; Redjimi, R; Roberts, J; Sabbatini, L; Tumanov, A; Betchart, B; Bodek, A; Budd, H; Chung, Y S; de Barbaro, P; Demina, R; Flacher, H; Gotra, Y; Harel, A; Korjenevski, S; Miner, D C; Orbaker, D; Petrillo, G; Vishnevskiy, D; Zielinski, M; Bhatti, A; Demortier, L; Goulianos, K; Hatakeyama, K; Lungu, G; Mesropian, C; Yan, M; Atramentov, O; Bartz, E; Gershtein, Y; Halkiadakis, E; Hits, D; Lath, A; Rose, K; Schnetzer, S; Somalwar, S; Stone, R; Thomas, S; Watts, T L; Cerizza, G; Hollingsworth, M; Spanier, S; Yang, Z C; York, A; Asaadi, J; Aurisano, A; Eusebi, R; Golyash, A; Gurrola, A; Kamon, T; Nguyen, C N; Pivarski, J; Safonov, A; Sengupta, S; Toback, D; Weinberger, M; Akchurin, N; Berntzon, L; Gumus, K; Jeong, C; Kim, H; Lee, S W; Popescu, S; Roh, Y; Sill, A; Volobouev, I; Washington, E; Wigmans, R; Yazgan, E; Engh, D; Florez, C; Johns, W; Pathak, S; Sheldon, P; Andelin, D; Arenton, M W; Balazs, M; Boutle, S; Buehler, M; Conetti, S; Cox, B; Hirosky, R; Ledovskoy, A; Neu, C; Phillips II, D; Ronquest, M; Yohay, R; Gollapinni, S; Gunthoti, K; Harr, R; Karchin, P E; Mattson, M; Sakharov, A; Anderson, M; Bachtis, M; Bellinger, J N; Carlsmith, D; Crotty, I; Dasu, S; Dutta, S; Efron, J; Feyzi, F; Flood, K; Gray, L; Grogg, K S; Grothe, M; Hall-Wilton, R; Jaworski, M; Klabbers, P; Klukas, J; Lanaro, A; Lazaridis, C; Leonard, J; Loveless, R; Magrans de Abril, M; Mohapatra, A; Ott, G; Polese, G; Reeder, D; Savin, A; Smith, W H; Sourkov, A; Swanson, J; Weinberg, M; Wenman, D; Wensveen, M; White, A

    2010-01-01

    During autumn 2008, the Silicon Strip Tracker was operated with the full CMS experiment in a comprehensive test, in the presence of the 3.8 T magnetic field produced by the CMS superconducting solenoid. Cosmic ray muons were detected in the muon chambers and used to trigger the readout of all CMS sub-detectors. About 15 million events with a muon in the tracker were collected. The efficiency of hit and track reconstruction were measured to be higher than 99% and consistent with expectations from Monte Carlo simulation. This article details the commissioning and performance of the Silicon Strip Tracker with cosmic ray muons.

  15. Stand-alone Cosmic Muon Reconstruction Before Installation of the CMS Silicon Strip Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, W.; Dragicevic, M.; Friedl, M.; Fruhwirth, R.; Hansel, S.; Hrubec, J.; Krammer, M.; Oberegger, M.; Pernicka, M.; Schmid, S.; Stark, R.; Steininger, H.; Uhl, D.; Waltenberger, W.; Widl, E.; Van Mechelen, P.; Cardaci, M.; Beaumont, W.; de Langhe, E.; de Wolf, E.A.; Delmeire, E.; Hashemi, M.; Bouhali, O.; Charaf, O.; Clerbaux, B.; Dewulf, J.-P.; Elgammal, S.; Hammad, G.; de Lentdecker, G.; Marage, P.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Wickens, J.; Adler, V.; Devroede, O.; De Weirdt, S.; D'Hondt, J.; Goorens, R.; Heyninck, J.; Maes, J.; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Tavernier, S.; Van Lancker, L.; Van Mulders, P.; Villella, I.; Wastiels, C.; Bonnet, J.-L.; Bruno, G.; De Callatay, B.; Florins, B.; Giammanco, A.; Gregoire, G.; Keutgen, Th.; Kcira, D.; Lemaitre, V.; Michotte, D.; Militaru, O.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Quertermont, L.; Roberfroid, V.; Rouby, X.; Teyssier, D.; Daubie, E.; Anttila, E.; Czellar, S.; Engstrom, P.; Harkonen, J.; Karimaki, V.; Kostesmaa, J.; Kuronen, A.; Lampen, T.; Linden, T.; Luukka, P.-R.; Maenpaa, T.; Michal, S.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Ageron, M.; Baulieu, G.; Bonnevaux, A.; Boudoul, G.; Chabanat, E.; Chabert, E.; Chierici, R.; Contardo, D.; Della Negra, R.; Dupasquier, T.; Gelin, G.; Giraud, N.; Guillot, G.; Estre, N.; Haroutunian, R.; Lumb, N.; Perries, S.; Schirra, F.; Trocme, B.; Vanzetto, S.; Agram, J.-L.; Blaes, R.; Drouhin, F.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Berst, J.-D.; Brom, J.-M.; Didierjean, F.; Goerlach, U.; Graehling, P.; Gross, L.; Hosselet, J.; Juillot, P.; Lounis, A.; Maazouzi, C.; Olivetto, C.; Strub, R.; Van Hove, P.; Anagnostou, G.; Brauer, R.; Esser, H.; Feld, L.; Karpinski, W.; Klein, K.; Kukulies, C.; Olzem, J.; Ostapchuk, A.; Pandoulas, D.; Pierschel, G.; Raupach, F.; Schael, S.; Schwering, G.; Sprenger, D.; Thomas, M.; Weber, M.; Wittmer, B.; Wlochal, M.; Beissel, F.; Bock, E.; Flugge, G.; Gillissen, C.; Hermanns, T.; Heydhausen, D.; Jahn, D.; Kaussen, G.; Linn, A.; Perchalla, L.; Poettgens, M.; Pooth, O.; Stahl, A.; Zoeller, M.H.; Buhmann, P.; Butz, E.; Flucke, G.; Hamdorf, R.; Hauk, J.; Klanner, R.; Pein, U.; Schleper, P.; Steinbruck, G.; Blum, P.; De Boer, W.; Dierlamm, A.; Dirkes, G.; Fahrer, M.; Frey, M.; Furgeri, A.; Hartmann, F.; Heier, S.; Hoffmann, K.-H.; Kaminski, J.; Ledermann, B.; Liamsuwan, T.; Muller, S.; Muller, Th.; Schilling, F.-P.; Simonis, H.-J.; Steck, P.; Zhukov, V.; Cariola, P.; De Robertis, G.; Ferorelli, R.; Fiore, L.; Preda, M.; Sala, G.; Silvestris, L.; Tempesta, P.; Zito, G.; Creanza, D.; De Filippis, N.; De Palma, M.; Giordano, D.; Maggi, G.; Manna, N.; My, S.; Selvaggi, G.; Albergo, S.; Chiorboli, M.; Costa, S.; Galanti, M.; Giudice, N.; Guardone, N.; Noto, F.; Potenza, R.; Saizu, M.A.; Sparti, V.; Sutera, C.; Tricomi, A.; Tuve, C.; Brianzi, M.; Civinini, C.; Maletta, F.; Manolescu, F.; Meschini, M.; Paoletti, S.; Sguazzoni, G.; Broccolo, B.; Ciulli, V.; D'Alessandro, R.; Focardi, E.; Frosali, S.; Genta, C.; Landi, G.; Lenzi, P.; Macchiolo, A.; Magini, N.; Parrini, G.; Scarlini, E.; Cerati, G.; Azzi, P.; Bacchetta, N.; Candelori, A.; Dorigo, T.; Kaminsky, A.; Karaevski, S.; Khomenkov, V.; Reznikov, S.; Tessaro, M.; Bisello, D.; De Mattia, M.; Giubilato, P.; Loreti, M.; Mattiazzo, S.; Nigro, M.; Paccagnella, A.; Pantano, D.; Pozzobon, N.; Tosi, M.; Bilei, G.M.; Checcucci, B.; Fano, L.; Servoli, L.; Ambroglini, F.; Babucci, E.; Benedetti, D.; Biasini, M.; Caponeri, B.; Covarelli, R.; Giorgi, M.; Lariccia, P.; Mantovani, G.; Marcantonini, M.; Postolache, V.; Santocchia, A.; Spiga, D.; Bagliesi, G.; Balestri, G.; Berretta, L.; Bianucci, S.; Boccali, T.; Bosi, F.; Bracci, F.; Castaldi, R.; Ceccanti, M.; Cecchi, R.; Cerri, C.; Cucoanes, A .S.; Dell'Orso, R.; Dobur, D.; Dutta, S.; Giassi, A.; Giusti, S.; Kartashov, D.; Kraan, A.; Lomtadze, T.; Lungu, G.A.; Magazzu, G.; Mammini, P.; Mariani, F.; Martinelli, G.; Moggi, A.; Palla, F.; Palmonari, F.; Petragnani, G.; Profeti, A.; Raffaelli, F.; Rizzi, D.; Sanguinetti, G.; Sarkar, S.; Sentenac, D.; Serban, A.T.; Slav, A.; Soldani, A.; Spagnolo, P.; Tenchini, R.; Tolaini, S.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P.G.; Vos, M.; Zaccarelli, L.; Avanzini, C.; Basti, A.; Benucci, L.; Bocci, A.; Cazzola, U.; Fiori, F.; Linari, S.; Massa, M.; Messineo, A.; Segneri, G.; Tonelli, G.; Azzurri, P.; Bernardini, J.; Borrello, L.; Calzolari, F.; Foa, L.; Gennai, S.; Ligabue, F.; Petrucciani, G.; Rizzi, A.; Yang, Z.; Benotto, F.; Demaria, N.; Dumitrache, F.; Farano, R.; Borgia, M.A.; Castello, R.; Costa, M.; Migliore, E.; Romero, A.; Abbaneo, D.; Abbas, M.; Ahmed, I.; Akhtar, I.; Albert, E.; Bloch, C.; Breuker, H.; Butt, S.; Buchmuller, O.; Cattai, A.; Delaere, C.; Delattre, M.; Edera, L.M.; Engstrom, P.; Eppard, M.; Gateau, M.; Gill, K.; Giolo-Nicollerat, A.-S.; Grabit, R.; Honma, A.; Huhtinen, M.; Kloukinas, K.; Kortesmaa, J.; Kottelat, L.J.; Kuronen, A.; Leonardo, N.; Ljuslin, C.; Mannelli, M.; Masetti, L.; Marchioro, A.; Mersi, S.; Michal, S.; Mirabito, L.; Muffat-Joly, J.; Onnela, A.; Paillard, C.; Pal, I.; Pernot, J.F.; Petagna, P.; Petit, P.; Piccut, C.; Pioppi, M.; Postema, H.; Ranieri, R.; Ricci, D.; Rolandi, G.; Ronga, F.; Sigaud, C.; Syed, A.; Siegrist, P.; Tropea, P.; Troska, J.; Tsirou, A.; Vander Donckt, M.; Vasey, F.; Alagoz, E.; Amsler, Claude; Chiochia, V.; Regenfus, Christian; Robmann, P.; Rochet, J.; Rommerskirchen, T.; Schmidt, A.; Steiner, S.; Wilke, L.; Church, I.; Cole, J.; Coughlan, J.; Gay, A.; Taghavi, S.; Tomalin, I.; Bainbridge, R.; Cripps, N.; Fulcher, J.; Hall, G.; Noy, M.; Pesaresi, M.; Radicci, V.; Raymond, D.M.; Sharp, P.; Stoye, M.; Wingham, M.; Zorba, O.; Goitom, I.; Hobson, P.R.; Reid, I.; Teodorescu, L.; Hanson, G.; Jeng, G.-Y.; Liu, H.; Pasztor, G.; Satpathy, A.; Stringer, R.; Mangano, B.; Affolder, K.; Affolder, T.; Allen, A.; Barge, D.; Burke, S.; Callahan, D.; Campagnari, C.; Crook, A.; D'Alfonso, M.; Dietch, J.; Garberson, Jeffrey Ford; Hale, D.; Incandela, H.; Incandela, J.; Jaditz, S.; Kalavase, P.; Kreyer, S.; Kyre, S.; Lamb, J.; Mc Guinness, C.; Mills, C.; Nguyen, H.; Nikolic, M.; Lowette, S.; Rebassoo, F.; Ribnik, J.; Richman, J.; Rubinstein, N.; Sanhueza, S.; Shah, Y.; Simms, L.; Staszak, D.; Stoner, J.; Stuart, D.; Swain, S.; Vlimant, J.-R.; White, D.; Ulmer, K.A.; Wagner, S.R.; Bagby, L.; Bhat, P.C.; Burkett, K.; Cihangir, S.; Gutsche, O.; Jensen, H.; Johnson, M.; Luzhetskiy, N.; Mason, D.; Miao, T.; Moccia, S.; Noeding, C.; Ronzhin, A.; Skup, E.; Spalding, W.J.; Spiegel, L.; Tkaczyk, S.; Yumiceva, F.; Zatserklyaniy, A.; Zerev, E.; Anghel, I.; Bazterra, V.E.; Gerber, C.E.; Khalatian, S.; Shabalina, E.; Baringer, Philip S.; Bean, A.; Chen, J.; Hinchey, C.; Martin, C.; Moulik, T.; Robinson, R.; Gritsan, A.V.; Lae, C.K.; Tran, N.V.; Everaerts, P.; Hahn, K.A.; Harris, P.; Nahn, S.; Rudolph, M.; Sung, K.; Betchart, B.; Demina, R.; Gotra, Y.; Korjenevski, S.; Miner, D.; Orbaker, D.; Christofek, L.; Hooper, R.; Landsberg, G.; Nguyen, D.; Narain, M.; Speer, T.; Tsang, K.V.

    2009-01-01

    The subsystems of the CMS silicon strip tracker were integrated and commissioned at the Tracker Integration Facility (TIF) in the period from November 2006 to July 2007. As part of the commissioning, large samples of cosmic ray data were recorded under various running conditions in the absence of a magnetic field. Cosmic rays detected by scintillation counters were used to trigger the readout of up to 15% of the final silicon strip detector, and over 4.7 million events were recorded. This document describes the cosmic track reconstruction and presents results on the performance of track and hit reconstruction as from dedicated analyses.

  16. Dispersion tailoring of a silicon strip waveguide employing Titania-Alumina thin-film coating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Kai; Christensen, Jesper B.; Christensen, Erik N.

    2017-01-01

    We numerically demonstrate dispersion tailoring of a silicon strip waveguide employing Titania-Alumina thin-film coating using a finite-difference mode solver. The proposed structure exhibits spectrally-flattened near-zero anomalous dispersion within the telecom wavelength range. We also numerica......We numerically demonstrate dispersion tailoring of a silicon strip waveguide employing Titania-Alumina thin-film coating using a finite-difference mode solver. The proposed structure exhibits spectrally-flattened near-zero anomalous dispersion within the telecom wavelength range. We also...

  17. ATLAS silicon module assembly and qualification tests at IFIC Valencia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernabeu, J; Civera, J V; Costa, M J; Escobar, C; Fuster, J; Garcia, C; Garcia-Navarro, J E; Gonzalez, F; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S; Lacasta, C; Llosa, G; Marti-Garcia, S; Minano, M; Mitsou, V A; Modesto, P; Nacher, J; Rodriguez-Oliete, R; Sanchez, F J; Sospedra, L; Strachko, V

    2007-01-01

    ATLAS experiment, designed to probe the interactions of particles emerging out of proton proton collisions at energies of up to 14 TeV, will assume operation at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN in 2007. This paper discusses the assembly and the quality control tests of forward detector modules for the ATLAS silicon microstrip detector assembled at the Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular (IFIC) in Valencia. The construction and testing procedures are outlined and the laboratory equipment is briefly described. Emphasis is given on the module quality achieved in terms of mechanical and electrical stability

  18. Influence for high intensity irradiation on characteristics of silicon strip-detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anokhin, I.E.; Pugatch, V.M.; Zinets, O.S.

    1995-01-01

    Full text: Silicon strip detectors (SSD) are widely used for the coordinate determination of short-range as well as minimum ionizing particles with high spatial resolution. Submicron position sensitivity of strip-detectors for short-range particles has been studied by means of two dimensional analyses of charges collected by neighboring strips as well as by measurement of charge collection times [1]. Silicon strip detectors was also used for testing high energy electron beam [2]. Under large fluences the radiation defects are stored and such characteristics of strip-detectors as an accuracy of the coordinate determination and the registration efficiency are significantly changed. Radiation defects lead to a decrease of the lifetime and mobility of charge carriers and therefore to changes of conditions for the charge collection in detectors. The inhomogeneity in spatial distribution if defects and electrical field plays an important role in the charge collection. In this report the role of the diffusion and drift in the charge collection in silicon strip-detectors under irradiation up to 10 Mrad has been studied. The electric field distribution and its dependence on the radiation dose in the detector have been calculated. It is shown that for particles incident between adjacent strips the coordinate determination precision depends strongly on the detector geometry and the electric field distribution, particularly in the vicinity of strips. Measuring simultaneously the collected charges and collection times on adjacent strips one can essentially improve reliability of the coordinate determination for short-range particles. Usually SSD are fabricated on n-type wafers. It is well known that under high intensity irradiation n-Si material converts into p-Si as far as p-type silicon is more radiative hard than n-type silicon [3] it is reasonable to fabricate SSD using high resistivity p-Si. Characteristics of SSD in basis n-and P-Si have been compared and higher

  19. Cross-talk studies on FPCB of double-sided silicon micro-strip detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Lei; Li, Zhankui; Li, Haixia; Wang, Pengfei; Wang, Zhusheng; Chen, Cuihong; Liu, Fengqiong; Li, Ronghua; Wang, Xiuhua; Li, Chunyan; Zu, Kailing

    2014-01-01

    Double-sided silicon micro-strip detector's parameters and a test method and the results of cross-talk of FPCB are given in this abstract. In addition, the value of our detector's readout signal has little relation to FPCB's cross-talk.

  20. Experimentally validated dispersion tailoring in a silicon strip waveguide with alumina thin-film coating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Kai; Christensen, Jesper Bjerge; Shi, Xiaodong

    2018-01-01

    We propose a silicon strip waveguide structure with alumina thin-film coating in-between the core and the cladding for group-velocity dispersion tailoring. By carefully designing the core dimension and the coating thickness, a spectrally-flattened near-zero anomalous group-velocity dispersion...

  1. A low power bipolar amplifier integrated circuit for the ZEUS silicon strip system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barberis, E. (Inst. for Particle Physics, Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States)); Cartiglia, N. (Inst. for Particle Physics, Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States)); Dorfan, D.E. (Inst. for Particle Physics, Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States)); Spencer, E. (Inst. for Particle Physics, Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States))

    1993-05-01

    A fast low power bipolar chip consisting of 64 amplifier-comparators has been developed for use with silicon strip detectors for systems where high radiation levels and high occupancy considerations are important. The design is described and test results are presented. (orig.)

  2. Readout electronics development for the ATLAS silicon tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borer, K.; Beringer, J.; Anghinolfi, F.; Aspell, P.; Chilingarov, A.; Jarron, P.; Heijne, E.H.M.; Santiard, J.C.; Verweij, H.; Goessling, C.; Lisowski, B.; Reichold, A.; Bonino, R.; Clark, A.G.; Kambara, H.; La Marra, D.; Leger, A.; Wu, X.; Richeux, J.P.; Taylor, G.N.; Fedotov, M.; Kuper, E.; Velikzhanin, Yu.; Campbell, D.; Murray, P.; Seller, P.

    1995-01-01

    We present the status of the development of the readout electronics for the large area silicon tracker of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC, carried out by the CERN RD2 project. Our basic readout concept is to integrate a fast amplifier, analog memory, sparse data scan circuit and analog-to-digital convertor (ADC) on a single VLSI chip. This architecture will provide full analog information of charged particle hits associated unambiguously to one LHC beam crossing, which is expected to be at a frequency of 40 MHz. The expected low occupancy of the ATLAS inner silicon detectors allows us to use a low speed (5 MHz) on-chip ADC with a multiplexing scheme. The functionality of the fast amplifier and analog memory have been demonstrated with various prototype chips. Most recently we have successfully tested improved versions of the amplifier and the analog memory. A piecewise linear ADC has been fabricated and performed satisfactorily up to 5 MHz. A new chip including amplifier, analog memory, memory controller, ADC, and data buffer has been designed and submitted for fabrication and will be tested on a prototype of the ATLAS silicon tracker module with realistic electrical and mechanical constraints. (orig.)

  3. The Strip Silicon Photo-Multiplier: An innovation for enhanced time and position measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doroud, K., E-mail: Katayoun.Doroud@cern.ch [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Williams, M.C.S. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); INFN, Bologna (Italy); Yamamoto, K. [Solid State Division, Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., Hamamatsu (Japan)

    2017-05-01

    There is considerable R&D concerning precise time measurement from a variety of detectors, and in particular for the Silicon PhotoMultiplier (SiPM). In this paper we discuss a new geometry for the SiPM in the form of a strip. A strip can be read out at both end, with each end coupled to an individual TDC (time to digital converter). The time difference is related to the position of the firing SPAD along the length of the strip, while the average of the two times gives the time of the hit. Results from the testing of the first prototype Strip SiPMs are presented in this paper.

  4. Beam splash effects on ATLAS silicon microstrip detectors evaluated using 1-w Nd YAG laser

    CERN Document Server

    Hara, K; Kohriki, T; Kuwano, T; Moorhead, G F; Terada, S; Unno, Y

    2005-01-01

    On an incident of accelerator beam loss, the tracking detector located close to the beam line is subjected to receive intensive radiation in a short period. We used a 1-W focused Nd: YAG laser and simulated the effects on the ATLAS microstrip detector. The laser corresponds to intensity of up to 1 multiplied by 109mips/pulse with a pulse width of about 10 ns. We observed breaks on Al strips on extreme conditions, depending on the laser intensity and bias voltage applied to the silicon sensor. The break can be interpreted as the oxide breakdown due to a large voltage locally created across the oxide by the intensive signal charges. The robustness of the Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) module including readout ASICs is also evaluated.

  5. Interference coupling mechanisms in Silicon Strip Detectors - CMS tracker "wings" A learned lesson for SLHC

    CERN Document Server

    Arteche, F; Rivetta, C

    2009-01-01

    The identification of coupling mechanisms between noise sources and sensitive areas of the front-end electronics (FEE) in the previous CMS tracker sub-system is critical to optimize the design and integration of integrated circuits, sensors and power distribution circuitry for the proposed SLHC Silicon Strip Tracker systems. This paper presents a validated model of the noise sensitivity observed in the Silicon Strip Detector-FEE of the CMS tracker that allows quantifying both the impact of the noise coupling mechanisms and the system immunity against electromagnetic interferences. This model has been validated based on simulations using finite element models and immunity tests conducted on prototypes of the Silicon Tracker End-Caps (TEC) and Outer Barrel (TOB) systems. The results of these studies show important recommendations and criteria to be applied in the design of future detectors to increase the immunity against electromagnetic noise.

  6. Integration of the End Cap TEC+ of the CMS Silicon Strip Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Adler, Volker; Ageron, Michel; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Atz, Bernd; Barvich, Tobias; Baulieu, Guillaume; Beaumont, Willem; Beissel, Franz; Bergauer, Thomas; Berst, Jean-Daniel; Blüm, Peter; Bock, E; Bogelsbacher, F; de Boer, Wim; Bonnet, Jean-Luc; Bonnevaux, Alain; Boudoul, Gaelle; Bouhali, Othmane; Braunschweig, Wolfgang; Bremer, R; Brom, Jean-Marie; Butz, Erik; Chabanat, Eric; Chabert, Eric Christian; Clerbaux, Barbara; Contardo, Didier; De Callatay, Bernard; Dehm, Philip; Delaere, Christophe; Della Negra, Rodolphe; Dewulf, Jean-Paul; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Didierjean, Francois; Dierlamm, Alexander; Dirkes, Guido; Dragicevic, Marko; Drouhin, Frédéric; Ernenwein, Jean-Pierre; Esser, Hans; Estre, Nicolas; Fahrer, Manuel; Feld, Lutz; Fernández, J; Florins, Benoit; Flossdorf, Alexander; Flucke, Gero; Flügge, Günter; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Freudenreich, Klaus; Frey, Martin; Friedl, Markus; Furgeri, Alexander; Giraud, Noël; Goerlach, Ulrich; Goorens, Robert; Graehling, Philippe; Grégoire, Ghislain; Gregoriev, E; Gross, Laurent; Hansel, S; Haroutunian, Roger; Hartmann, Frank; Heier, Stefan; Hermanns, Thomas; Heydhausen, Dirk; Heyninck, Jan; Hosselet, J; Hrubec, Josef; Jahn, Dieter; Juillot, Pierre; Kaminski, Jochen; Karpinski, Waclaw; Kaussen, Gordon; Keutgen, Thomas; Klanner, Robert; Klein, Katja; König, Stefan; Kosbow, M; Krammer, Manfred; Ledermann, Bernhard; Lemaître, Vincent; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Linn, Alexander; Lounis, Abdenour; Lübelsmeyer, Klaus; Lumb, Nicholas; Maazouzi, Chaker; Mahmoud, Tariq; Michotte, Daniel; Militaru, Otilia; Mirabito, Laurent; Müller, Thomas; Neukermans, Lionel; Ollivetto, C; Olzem, Jan; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Pandoulas, Demetrios; Pein, Uwe; Pernicka, Manfred; Perriès, Stephane; Piaseki, C; Pierschel, Gerhard; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Poettgens, Michael; Pooth, Oliver; Rouby, Xavier; Sabellek, Andreas; Schael, Stefan; Schirm, Norbert; Schleper, Peter; Schmitz, Stefan Antonius; Schultz von Dratzig, Arndt; Siedling, Rolf; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stahl, Achim; Steck, Pia; Steinbruck, G; Stoye, Markus; Strub, Roger; Tavernier, Stefaan; Teyssier, Daniel; Theel, Andreas; Trocmé, Benjamin; Udo, Fred; Van der Donckt, M; Van der Velde, C; Van Hove, Pierre; Vanlaer, Pascal; Van Lancker, Luc; Van Staa, Rolf; Vanzetto, Sylvain; Weber, Markus; Weiler, Thomas; Weseler, Siegfried; Wickens, John; Wittmer, Bruno; Wlochal, Michael; De Wolf, Eddi A; Zhukov, Valery; Zoeller, Marc Henning

    2009-01-01

    The silicon strip tracker of the CMS experiment has been completed and inserted into the CMS detector in late 2007. The largest sub-system of the tracker is its end cap system, comprising two large end caps (TEC) each containing 3200 silicon strip modules. To ease construction, the end caps feature a modular design: groups of about 20 silicon modules are placed on sub-assemblies called petals and these self-contained elements are then mounted into the TEC support structures. Each end cap consists of 144 petals, and the insertion of these petals into the end cap structure is referred to as TEC integration. The two end caps were integrated independently in Aachen (TEC+) and at CERN (TEC--). This note deals with the integration of TEC+, describing procedures for end cap integration and for quality control during testing of integrated sections of the end cap and presenting results from the testing.

  7. Fabrication of silicon strip detectors using a step-and-repeat lithography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, S.

    1991-11-01

    In this work we describe the use of a step-and-repeat lithography system (stepper) for the fabrication of silicon strip detectors. Although the field size of the stepper is only 20 mm in diameter, we have fabricated much larger detectors by printing a repetitive strip detector pattern in a step-and-repeat fashion. The basic unit cell is 7 mm in length. The stepper employs a laser interferometer for stage placement, and the resulting high precision allows one to accurately place the repetitive patterns on the wafer. A small overlap between the patterns ensures a continuous strip. A detector consisting of 512 strips on a 50 μm pitch has been fabricated using this technique. The dimensions of the detector are 6.3 cm by 2.56 cm. Yields of over 99% have been achieved, where yield is defined as the percentage of strips with reverse leakage current below 1 nA. In addition to the inherent advantages of a step-and-repeat system, this technique offers great flexibility in the fabrication of large-area strip detectors since the length and width of the detector can be changed by simply reprogramming the stepper computer. Hence various geometry strip detectors can be fabricated with only one set of masks, as opposed to a separate set of masks for each geometry as would be required with a contact or proximity aligner

  8. Development of AC-coupled, poly-silicon biased, p-on-n silicon strip detectors in India for HEP experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Geetika; Dalal, Ranjeet; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Ranjan, Kirti; Dierlamm, Alexander; Hartmann, Frank; Eber, Robert; Demarteau, Marcel

    2018-02-01

    P-on-n silicon strip sensors having multiple guard-ring structures have been developed for High Energy Physics applications. The study constitutes the optimization of the sensor design, and fabrication of AC-coupled, poly-silicon biased sensors of strip width of 30 μm and strip pitch of 55 μm. The silicon wafers used for the fabrication are of 4 inch n-type, having an average resistivity of 2-5 k Ω cm, with a thickness of 300 μm. The electrical characterization of these detectors comprises of: (a) global measurements of total leakage current, and backplane capacitance; (b) strip and voltage scans of strip leakage current, poly-silicon resistance, interstrip capacitance, interstrip resistance, coupling capacitance, and dielectric current; and (c) charge collection measurements using ALiBaVa setup. The results of the same are reported here.

  9. ATLAS ITk Short-Strip Stave prototypes with 130nm chipset

    CERN Document Server

    Phillips, Peter William; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS ITk is working to deliver a new Inner Tracking detector for use at HL-LHC. The strip tracker community has recently constructed partially loaded, double sided demonstrator staves using the HCC / ABC130 chipset in 130nm CMOS technology. Mindful of the need to maximise power efficiency whilst minimising the cost and material of associated cable plant, the system design includes the integration of a low-mass DC-DC converter and sensor bias (HV) switch within each module. This paper documents the first results from the demonstrator staves. The system concept and the roadmap toward a full system test are also outlined.

  10. ATLAS ITk short-strip stave prototypes with 130 nm chipset

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00116199; The ATLAS collaboration; Dopke, Jens; Sawyer, Craig

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS ITk Collaboration is working to deliver a new Inner Tracking detector for use at HL-LHC. The strip tracker community has recently constructed a partially loaded, double-sided demonstrator stave using the HCC / ABC130 chipset in 130 nm CMOS technology. Mindful of the need to maximise power efficiency whilst minimising the cost and material of associated cable plant, the system design includes the integration of a low-mass DC-DC converter and sensor bias (HV) switch within each module. This paper documents the first results from the demonstrator stave. The system concept is also outlined.

  11. Initial beam test results from a silicon-strip detector with VLSI readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adolphsen, C.; Litke, A.; Schwarz, A.

    1986-01-01

    Silicon detectors with 256 strips, having a pitch of 25 μm, and connected to two 128 channel NMOS VLSI chips each (Microplex), have been tested in relativistic charged particle beams at CERN and at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The readout chips have an input channel pitch of 47.5 μm and a single multiplexed output which provides voltages proportional to the integrated charge from each strip. The most probable signal height from minimum ionizing tracks was 15 times the rms noise in any single channel. Two-track traversals with a separation of 100 μm were cleanly resolved

  12. A Method to Simulate the Observed Surface Properties of Proton Irradiated Silicon Strip Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Peltola, Timo Hannu Tapani

    2014-01-01

    A defect model of Synopsys Sentaurus TCAD simulation package for the bulk properties of proton irradiated devices has been producing simulations closely matching to measurements of silicon strip detectors. However, the model does not provide the expected behavior due to the fluence increased surface damage. The solution requires an approach that does not affect the accurate bulk properties produced by the proton model, but only adds to it the required radiation induced properties close to the surface. These include the observed position dependency of the strip detector's...

  13. Development of a Compton camera for medical applications based on silicon strip and scintillation detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krimmer, J., E-mail: j.krimmer@ipnl.in2p3.fr [Institut de Physique Nucléaire de Lyon, Université de Lyon, Université Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3 UMR 5822, 69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Ley, J.-L. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire de Lyon, Université de Lyon, Université Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3 UMR 5822, 69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Abellan, C.; Cachemiche, J.-P. [Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS/IN2P3, CPPM UMR 7346, 13288 Marseille (France); Caponetto, L.; Chen, X.; Dahoumane, M.; Dauvergne, D. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire de Lyon, Université de Lyon, Université Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3 UMR 5822, 69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Freud, N. [Université de Lyon, CREATIS, CNRS UMR5220, Inserm U1044, INSA - Lyon, Université Lyon 1, Centre Léon Bérard (France); Joly, B.; Lambert, D.; Lestand, L. [Clermont Université, Université Blaise Pascal, CNRS/IN2P3, Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire, BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France); Létang, J.M. [Université de Lyon, CREATIS, CNRS UMR5220, Inserm U1044, INSA - Lyon, Université Lyon 1, Centre Léon Bérard (France); Magne, M. [Clermont Université, Université Blaise Pascal, CNRS/IN2P3, Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire, BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France); and others

    2015-07-01

    A Compton camera is being developed for the purpose of ion-range monitoring during hadrontherapy via the detection of prompt-gamma rays. The system consists of a scintillating fiber beam tagging hodoscope, a stack of double sided silicon strip detectors (90×90×2 mm{sup 3}, 2×64 strips) as scatter detectors, as well as bismuth germanate (BGO) scintillation detectors (38×35×30 mm{sup 3}, 100 blocks) as absorbers. The individual components will be described, together with the status of their characterization.

  14. Effects of the interstrip gap on the efficiency and response of Double Sided Silicon Strip Detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torresi D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work the effects of the segmentation of the electrodes of Double Sided Silicon Strip Detectors (DSSSDs are investigated. In order to characterize the response of the DSSSDs we perform a first experiment by using tandem beams of different energies directly sent on the detector and a second experiment by mean of a proton microbeam. Results show that the effective width of the inter-strip region and the efficiency for full energy detection, varies with both detected energy and bias voltage. The experimental results are qualitatively reproduced by a simplified model based on the Shockley-Ramo-Gunn framework.

  15. Measurement of the spatial resolution of wide-pitch silicon strip detectors with large incident angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawasaki, T.; Hazumi, M.; Nagashima, Y.

    1996-01-01

    As a part of R ampersand D for the BELLE experiment at KEK-B, we measured the spatial resolution of silicon strip detectors for particles with incident angles ranging from 0 degrees to 75 degrees. These detectors have strips with pitches of 50, 125 and 250 μm on the ohmic side. We have obtained the incident angle dependence which agreed well with a Monte Carlo simulation. The resolution was found to be 11 μm for normal incidence with a pitch of 50 μm, and 29 μm for incident angle of 75 degrees with a pitch of 250μm

  16. Development of microstructure and texture in strip casting grain oriented silicon steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yang; Xu, Yun-Bo, E-mail: yunbo_xu@126.com; Zhang, Yuan-Xiang; Fang, Feng; Lu, Xiang; Liu, Hai-Tao; Wang, Guo-Dong

    2015-04-01

    Grain oriented silicon steel was produced by strip casting and two-stage cold rolling processes. The development of microstructure and texture was investigated by using optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction and electron backscattered diffraction. It is shown that the microstructure and texture evolutions of strip casting grain oriented silicon steel are significantly distinct from those in the conventional processing route. The as-cast strip is composed of coarse solidification grains and characterized by pronounced 〈001〉//ND texture together with very weak Goss texture. The initial coarse microstructure enhances {111} shear bands formation during the first cold rolling and then leads to the homogeneously distributed Goss grains through the thickness of intermediate annealed sheet. After the secondary cold rolling and primary annealing, strong γ fiber texture with a peak at {111}〈112〉 dominates the primary recrystallization texture, which is beneficial to the abnormal growth of Goss grain during the subsequent high temperature annealing. Therefore, the secondary recrystallization of Goss orientation evolves completely after the high temperature annealing and the grain oriented silicon steel with a good magnetic properties (B{sub 8}=1.94 T, P{sub 1.7/50}=1.3 W/kg) can be prepared. - Highlights: • Grain oriented silicon steel was developed by a novel ultra-short process. • Many evenly distributed Goss “seeds” were originated from cold rolled shear bands. • More MnS inhibitors were obtained due to the rapid cooling of strip casing. • The magnetic induction of grain oriented silicon steel was significantly improved.

  17. The depletion properties of silicon microstrip detectors with variable strip pitch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krizmanic, J.F.

    1994-01-01

    We have investigated the depletion properties of trapezoidal shaped silicon microstrip detectors which have variable strip pitch. Four types of detectors were examined: three detectors have constant strip width and a fourth has a varying strip width. The detectors are single sided with readout performed via p + strips. The depletion properties of the devices were measured using two different methods. The first used capacitance versus voltage measurements, while the second used a 1060 nm wavelength laser coupled to a single mode fiber with a mode field diameter less than 10 μm. The small laser spot size allowed for the depletion depth to be measured in a localized area of the detector. The laser induced charge on an electrode was measured as a function of reverse bias voltage using a sensitive charge preamplifier. The depletion voltages of the detectors demonstrate a strong dependence upon the ratio of strip width to strip pitch. Moreover, these measurements show that a large value of this ratio yields a lower depletion voltage and vice versa. (orig.)

  18. Status of the Silicon Strip Detector at CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Simonis, H J

    2008-01-01

    The CMS Tracker is the world's largest silicon detector. It has only recently been moved underground and installed in the 4T solenoid. Prior to this there has been an intensive testing on the surface, which confirms that the detector system fully meets the design specifications. Irradiation studies with the sensor material shows that the system will survive for at least 10 years in the harsh radiation environment prevailing within the Tracker volume. The planning phase for SLHC as the successor of LHC, with a ten times higher luminosity at the same energy has already begun. First R\\&D studies for more robust detector materials and a new Tracker layout have started.

  19. The silicon microstrip sensors of the ATLAS semiconductor tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ATLAS SCT Collaboration; Spieler, Helmuth G.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the AC-coupled, single-sided, p-in-n silicon microstrip sensors used in the Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) of the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The sensor requirements, specifications and designs are discussed, together with the qualification and quality assurance procedures adopted for their production. The measured sensor performance is presented, both initially and after irradiation to the fluence anticipated after 10 years of LHC operation. The sensors are now successfully assembled within the detecting modules of the SCT, and the SCT tracker is completed and integrated within the ATLAS Inner Detector. Hamamatsu Photonics Ltd. supplied 92.2percent of the 15,392 installed sensors, with the remainder supplied by CiS

  20. The silicon microstrip sensors of the ATLAS semiconductor tracker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ATLAS SCT Collaboration; Spieler, Helmuth G.

    2007-04-13

    This paper describes the AC-coupled, single-sided, p-in-n silicon microstrip sensors used in the Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) of the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The sensor requirements, specifications and designs are discussed, together with the qualification and quality assurance procedures adopted for their production. The measured sensor performance is presented, both initially and after irradiation to the fluence anticipated after 10 years of LHC operation. The sensors are now successfully assembled within the detecting modules of the SCT, and the SCT tracker is completed and integrated within the ATLAS Inner Detector. Hamamatsu Photonics Ltd. supplied 92.2percent of the 15,392 installed sensors, with the remainder supplied by CiS.

  1. A Method to Simulate the Observed Surface Properties of Proton Irradiated Silicon Strip Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00335524; Bhardwaj, A.; Dalal, R.; Eber, R.; Eichhorn, T.; Lalwani, K.; Messineo, A.; Printz, M.; Ranjan, K.

    2015-04-23

    During the scheduled high luminosity upgrade of LHC, the world's largest particle physics accelerator at CERN, the position sensitive silicon detectors installed in the vertex and tracking part of the CMS experiment will face more intense radiation environment than the present system was designed for. To upgrade the tracker to required performance level, extensive measurements and simulations studies have already been carried out. A defect model of Synopsys Sentaurus TCAD simulation package for the bulk properties of proton irradiated devices has been producing simulations closely matching with measurements of silicon strip detectors. However, the model does not provide expected behavior due to the fluence increased surface damage. The solution requires an approach that does not affect the accurate bulk properties produced by the proton model, but only adds to it the required radiation induced properties close to the surface. These include the observed position dependency of the strip detector's charge collec...

  2. Degradation of charge sharing after neutron irradiation in strip silicon detectors with different geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casse, G.; Dervan, P.; Forshaw, D.; Greenall, A.; Huse, T.; Tsurin, I.; Wormald, M.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the CERN/RD50 collaboration is the improvement of the radiation tolerance of semiconductor detectors for future experiments at high-luminosity colliders. In the RD50 framework, evidence of enhanced signal charge in severely irradiated silicon detectors (diodes, segmented planar and 3D devices) was found. The underlying mechanism was labelled charge multiplication. This has been one of the most exciting results from the research activity of RD50 because it could allow for a greatly extended radiation tolerance, if the mechanism is to be found controllable and tuneable. The charge multiplication mechanism is governed by impact ionisation from electrons drifting in high electric field. The electric field profile is influenced by the geometry of the implanted electrodes. In order to investigate the influence of the diode implantation geometry on charge multiplication, the RD50 collaboration has commissioned the production of miniature microstrip silicon sensors with various choices of strip pitch and strip width over pitch (w/p) ratios. Moreover, some of the sensors were produced interleaving readout strips with dummy intermediate ones in order to modify the electric field profile. These geometrical solutions can influence both charge multiplication and charge sharing between adjacent strips. The initial results of this study are here presented

  3. A fast ADC system for silicon μstrips readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inzani, P.; Pedrini, D.; Sala, S.

    1986-01-01

    A new fast ADC module has been designed. It is part of a large readout system for a high resolution vertex detector consisting of 12 silicon microstrip planes with more than 8000 channels. The module employs a set of monolithic gated integrators on input (LeCroy MIQ 401) multiplexed on a single 8 bit FADC (Thompson EFX8308). A built-in preprocessing, performed through look up tables, accomplishes equalization and reduction of the data and makes high level trigger feasible. As an additional feature, fast histogramming of all the channels in parallel has been made possible with an internal memory. Special care has been paid to realize a low cost and low power consumption system

  4. Studies on the application of silicon strip counters in the ELAN experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Listl, R.

    1989-02-01

    In this thesis it had to be shown whether it is possible to perform at the external electron beam at ELSA with its high background particle identification and track reconstruction with a strip counter. In order to have an as good as possible separation between true and false events a coincidence apparture was constructed. Because the signals which the strip counter yields are very small, it had to be provided that all disturbing signals are suppressed. The evaluation shows that by means of the taken measures coincident events can be well separated from background events. In 60% of all events a unique assignment of the event to only one strip is possible. The random rate can be reduced by additional detectors and the by this possible track reconstruction. By improvement of the duty cycle here a further improvement should arise. It is thus possible to perform with a silicon strip counter measurements at the ELAN experiment. By this the possibility results to improve the start-position resolution, the start-angle measurement, and the momentum reconstruction by this, that now a point (track) near to the target can be obtained. If the strip counter is added to the trigger one has a quite strong suppression of the background. (orig./HSI) [de

  5. Study of the effects of neutron irradiation on silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giubellino, P.; Panizza, G.; Hall, G.; Sotthibandhu, S.; Ziock, H.J.; Ferguson, P.; Sommer, W.F.; Edwards, M.; Cartiglia, N.; Hubbard, B.; Leslie, J.; Pitzl, D.; O'Shaughnessy, K.; Rowe, W.; Sadrozinski, H.F.W.; Seiden, A.; Spencer, E.

    1992-01-01

    Silicon strip detectors and test structures were exposed to neutron fluences up to Φ=6.1x10 14 n/cm 2 , using the ISIS neutron source at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (UK). In this paper we report some of our results concerning the effects of displacement damage, with a comparison of devices made of silicon of different resistivity. The various samples exposed showed a very similar dependence of the leakage current on the fluence received. We studied the change of effective doping concentration, and observed a behaviour suggesting the onset of type inversion at a fluence of ∝2.0x10 13 n/cm 2 , a value which depends on the initial doping concentration. The linear increase of the depletion voltage for fluences higher than the inversion point could eventually determine the maximum fluence tolerable by silicon detectors. (orig.)

  6. Study of the effects of neutron irradiation on silicon strip detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giubellino, P.; Panizza, G. (INFN Torino (Italy)); Hall, G.; Sotthibandhu, S. (Imperial Coll., London (United Kingdom)); Ziock, H.J.; Ferguson, P.; Sommer, W.F. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Edwards, M. (Rutherford Appleton Lab., Chilton (United Kingdom)); Cartiglia, N.; Hubbard, B.; Leslie, J.; Pitzl, D.; O' Shaughnessy, K.; Rowe, W.; Sadrozinski, H.F.W.; Seiden, A.; Spencer, E. (Santa Cruz Inst. for Particle Physics, Univ. California, CA (United States))

    1992-05-01

    Silicon strip detectors and test structures were exposed to neutron fluences up to {Phi}=6.1x10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2}, using the ISIS neutron source at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (UK). In this paper we report some of our results concerning the effects of displacement damage, with a comparison of devices made of silicon of different resistivity. The various samples exposed showed a very similar dependence of the leakage current on the fluence received. We studied the change of effective doping concentration, and observed a behaviour suggesting the onset of type inversion at a fluence of {proportional to}2.0x10{sup 13} n/cm{sup 2}, a value which depends on the initial doping concentration. The linear increase of the depletion voltage for fluences higher than the inversion point could eventually determine the maximum fluence tolerable by silicon detectors. (orig.).

  7. Upgrade of the ATLAS Silicon Tracker for the sLHC

    CERN Document Server

    Minano, M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2009-01-01

    While the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will start taking data this year, scenarios for a machine upgrade to achieve a much higher luminosity are being developed. In the current planning, it is foreseen to increase the luminosity of the LHC at CERN around 2016 by about an order of magnitude, with the upgraded muchine dubbed Super-LHC or SLHC. As radiation damage scales with integrated luminosity, the particle physics experiments at the SLHC will need to be equipped with a new generation of radiation-hard detectors. This is of particular importance for the semiconductor tracking detectors located close to the LHC interaction region, where the higest radiation doses occur. The ATLAS experiment will require a new particle tracking system for SLHC operation. In order to cope with the increase in background events by about one order of magnitude at the higher luminosity, an all silicon detector with enhanced radiation hardness is being designed. The new silicon strip detector will use significantly shorter stri...

  8. Small-Strip Thin Gap Chambers for the Muon Spectrometer Upgrade of the ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00221766; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS muon system upgrade to be installed during the LHC long shutdown in 2018/19, the so called New Small Wheel (NSW), is designed to cope with the increased instantaneous luminosity in LHC Run 3. The small-strip Thin Gap Chambers (sTGC) will provide the NSW with fast trigger and high precision tracking. The construction protocol has been validated by test beam experiments on a full-size prototype sTGC detector, showing the performance requirements are met. The intrinsic spatial resolution for a single layer has been found to be about 50$\\mu$m at perpendicular incident angle, and the pads transition region has been measured to be about 4mm.

  9. Performance Test Results of a Single-sided Silicon Strip Detector with a Radioactive Source and a Proton Beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ki, Y. I.; Kah, D. H.; Son, D. H.; Kang, H. D.; Kim, H. J.; Kim, H. O.; Bae, J. B.; Ryu, S.; Park, H.; Kim, K. R.

    2007-01-01

    Due to high intrinsic precision and high speed properties of a silicon material, the silicon detector has been used in various applications such as medical imaging detector, radiation detector, positioning detectors in space science and experimental particle physics. High technology, modern equipment, and deep expertise are required to design and fabricate good quality of silicon sensors. Only few facilities in the world can develop silicon sensors which meet requirements of sensor performances. That is one of main reasons that the silicon sensor is so expensive and it takes time to purchase the silicon sensor once it is ordered. We designed and fabricated AC-coupled single-sided silicon strip sensors and developed front-end electronics and DAQ system to read out sensor signals. The silicon strip sensors were fabricated on a 5-in. n-type silicon wafer which has an orientation, high resistivity (>5 kΩ · cm) and a thickness of 380 μm. We measured the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of each channel by using a radioactive source and a 45 MeV proton beam from the MC-50 cyclotron at the Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Science (KIRAMS) in Seoul. We present the measurement results of the SNRs of the silicon strip sensor with a proton beam and radioactive sources

  10. A readout system for position sensitive measurements of X-ray using silicon strip detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Dabrowski, W; Grybos, P; Idzik, M; Kudlaty, J

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we describe the development of a readout system for X-ray measurements using silicon strip detectors. The limitation concerning the inherent spatial resolution of silicon strip detectors has been evaluated by Monte Carlo simulation and the results are discussed. The developed readout system is based on the binary readout architecture and consists of two ASICs: RX32 front-end chip comprising 32 channels of preamplifiers, shapers and discriminators, and COUNT32 counter chip comprising 32 20-bit asynchronous counters and the readout logic. This work focuses on the design and performance of the front-end chip. The RX32 chip has been optimised for a low detector capacitance, in the range of 1-3 pF, and high counting rate applications. It can be used with DC coupled detectors allowing the leakage current up to a few nA per strip. For the prototype chip manufactured in a CMOS process all basic parameters have been evaluated by electronic measurements. The noise below 140 el rms has been achieved for a ...

  11. Small-Strip Thin Gap Chambers for the Muon Spectrometer Upgrade of the ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Perez Codina, Estel; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    For the forthcoming Phase-I upgrade to the LHC (2018/19), the first station of the ATLAS muon end-cap system, Small Wheel, needs to be replaced. The New Small Wheel (NSW) will have to operate in a high background radiation region while reconstructing muon tracks with high precision and providing information for the Level-1 trigger. In particular, the precision reconstruction of tracks requires a spatial resolution of about 100 μm, and the Level-1 trigger track segments have to be reconstructed with an angular resolution of approximately 1 mrad. The NSWs consist of eight layers each of Micromegas and small-strip Thin Gap Chambers (sTGC), both providing trigger and tracking capabilities. The single sTGC planes of a quadruplet consists of an anode layer of 50μm gold plated tungsten wire sandwiched between two resistive cathode layers. Behind one of the resistive cathode layers, a PCB with precise machined strips (thus the name sTGC) spaced every 3.2mm allows to achieve a position resolution that ranges from 70...

  12. Technology Development on P-type Silicon Strip Detectors for Proton Beam Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aouadi, K.; Bouterfa, M.; Delamare, R.; Flandre, D.; Bertrand, D.; Henry, F.

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we present a technology for the fabrication of n-in-p silicon strip detectors, which is based on the use of Al 2 O 3 oxide compared to p-spray insulation scheme. This technology has been developed using the best technological parameters deduced from simulations, particularly for the p-spray implantation parameters. Different wafers were processed towards the fabrication of the radiation detectors with p-spray insulation and Al 2 O 3 . The evaluation of the prototype detectors has been carried out by performing the electrical characterization of the devices through the measurement of current-voltage and capacitance-voltage characteristics, as well as the measurement of detection response under radiation. The results of electrical measurements indicate that detectors fabricated with Al 2 O 3 exhibit a dark current several times lower than p-spray detectors and show an excellent electrical insulation between strips with a higher inter-strip resistance. Response of Al 2 O 3 strip detector under radiation has been found better. The resulting improved output signal dynamic range finally makes the use of Al 2 O 3 more attractive. (authors)

  13. Prototyping of Silicon Strip Detectors for the Inner Tracker of the ALICE Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Sokolov, Oleksiy

    2006-01-01

    The ALICE experiment at CERN will study heavy ion collisions at a center-of-mass energy 5.5∼TeV per nucleon. Particle tracking around the interaction region at radii r<45 cm is done by the Inner Tracking System (ITS), consisting of six cylindrical layers of silicon detectors. The outer two layers of the ITS use double-sided silicon strip detectors. This thesis focuses on testing of these detectors and performance studies of the detector module prototypes at the beam test. Silicon strip detector layers will require about 20 thousand HAL25 front-end readout chips and about 3.5 thousand hybrids each containing 6 HAL25 chips. During the assembly procedure, chips are bonded on a patterned TAB aluminium microcables which connect to all the chip input and output pads, and then the chips are assembled on the hybrids. Bonding failures at the chip or hybrid level may either render the component non-functional or deteriorate its the performance such that it can not be used for the module production. After each bond...

  14. A high rate, low noise, x-ray silicon strip detector system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludewigt, B.; Jaklevic, J.; Kipnis, I.; Rossington, C.; Spieler, H.

    1993-11-01

    An x-ray detector system, based on a silicon strip detector wire-bonded to a low noise charge-senstive amplifier integrated circuit, has been developed for synchrotron radiation experiments which require very high count rates and good energy resolution. Noise measurements and x-ray spectra were taken using a 6 mm long, 55 μm pitch strip detector in conjunction with a prototype 16-channel charge-sensitive preamplifier, both fabricated using standard 1.2 μm CMOS technology. The detector system currently achieves an energy resolution of 350 eV FWHM at 5.9 key, 2 μs peaking time, when cooled to -5 degree C

  15. Developing silicon strip detectors with a large-scale commercial foundry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    König, A., E-mail: axel.koenig@oeaw.ac.at [Institute of High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna (Austria); Bartl, U. [Infineon Technologies Austria AG, Villach (Austria); Bergauer, T.; Dragicevic, M. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna (Austria); Hacker, J. [Infineon Technologies Austria AG, Villach (Austria); Treberspurg, W. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna (Austria)

    2016-07-11

    Since 2009 the Institute of High Energy Physics (HEPHY) in Vienna is developing a production process for planar silicon strip sensors on 6-in. wafers together with the semiconductor manufacturer Infineon Technologies. Four runs with several batches of wafers, each comprising six different sensors, were manufactured and characterized. A brief summary of the recently completed 6-in. campaign is given. Milestones in sensor development as well as techniques to improve the sensor quality are discussed. Particular emphasis is placed on a failure causing areas of defective strips which accompanied the whole campaign. Beam tests at different irradiation facilities were conducted to validate the key capability of particle detection. Another major aspect is to prove the radiation hardness of sensors produced by Infineon. Therefore, neutron irradiation studies were performed.

  16. Large tuning of birefringence in two strip silicon waveguides via optomechanical motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jing; Povinelli, Michelle L

    2009-09-28

    We present an optomechanical method to tune phase and group birefringence in parallel silicon strip waveguides. We first calculate the deformation of suspended, parallel strip waveguides due to optical forces. We optimize the frequency and polarization of the pump light to obtain a 9 nm deformation for an optical power of 20 mW. Widely tunable phase and group birefringence can be achieved by varying the pump power, with maximum values of 0.026 and 0.13, respectively. The giant phase birefringence allows linear to circular polarization conversion within 30 microm for a pump power of 67 mW. The group birefringence gives a tunable differential group delay of 6fs between orthogonal polarizations. We also evaluate the tuning performance of waveguides with different cross sections.

  17. Gamma Large Area Silicon Telescope (GLAST): Applying silicon strip detector technology to the detection of gamma rays in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atwood, W.B.

    1993-06-01

    The recent discoveries and excitement generated by space satellite experiment EGRET (presently operating on Compton Gamma Ray Observatory -- CGRO) have prompted an investigation into modern detector technologies for the next generation space based gamma ray telescopes. The GLAST proposal is based on silicon strip detectors as the open-quotes technology of choiceclose quotes for space application: no consumables, no gas volume, robust (versus fragile), long lived, and self triggerable. The GLAST detector basically has two components: a tracking module preceding a calorimeter. The tracking module has planes of crossed strip (x,y) 300 μm pitch silicon detectors coupled to a thin radiator to measure the coordinates of converted electron-positron pairs. The gap between the layers (∼5 cm) provides a lever arm for track fitting resulting in an angular resolution of <0.1 degree at high energy. The status of this R ampersand D effort is discussed including details on triggering the instrument, the organization of the detector electronics and readout, and work on computer simulations to model this instrument

  18. A Low Mass On-Chip Readout Scheme for Double-Sided Silicon Strip Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irmler, C., E-mail: christian.irmler@oeaw.ac.at [HEPHY Vienna – Institute of High Energy Physics of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, Nikolsdorfer Gasse 18, A-1050 Vienna (Austria); Bergauer, T.; Frankenberger, A.; Friedl, M.; Gfall, I. [HEPHY Vienna – Institute of High Energy Physics of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, Nikolsdorfer Gasse 18, A-1050 Vienna (Austria); Higuchi, T. [University of Tokyo, Kavli Institute for Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Ishikawa, A. [Tohoku University, Department of Physics, Aoba Aramaki Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Joo, C. [Seoul National University, High Energy Physics Laboratory, 25-107 Shinlim-dong, Kwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kah, D.H.; Kang, K.H. [Kyungpook National University, Department of Physics, 1370 Sankyuk Dong, Buk Gu, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Rao, K.K. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Experimental High Energy Physics Group, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005 (India); Kato, E. [Tohoku University, Department of Physics, Aoba Aramaki Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Mohanty, G.B. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Experimental High Energy Physics Group, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005 (India); Negishi, K. [Tohoku University, Department of Physics, Aoba Aramaki Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Onuki, Y.; Shimizu, N. [University of Tokyo, Department of Physics, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Tsuboyama, T. [KEK, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Valentan, M. [HEPHY Vienna – Institute of High Energy Physics of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, Nikolsdorfer Gasse 18, A-1050 Vienna (Austria)

    2013-12-21

    B-factories like the KEKB in Tsukuba, Japan, operate at relatively low energies and thus require detectors with very low material budget in order to minimize multiple scattering. On the other hand, front-end chips with short shaping time like the APV25 have to be placed as close to the sensor strips as possible to reduce the capacitive load, which mainly determines the noise figure. In order to achieve both – minimal material budget and low noise – we developed a readout scheme for double-sided silicon detectors, where the APV25 chips are placed on a flexible circuit, which is glued onto the top side of the sensor. The bottom-side strips are connected by two flexible circuits, which are bent around the edge of the sensor. This so-called “Origami” design will be utilized to build the Silicon Vertex Detector of the Belle II experiment, which will consist of four layers made from ladders with up to five double-sided silicon strip sensors in a row. Each ladder will be supported by two ribs made of a carbon fiber and Airex foam core sandwich. The heat dissipated by the front-end chips will be removed by a highly efficient two-phase CO{sub 2} system. Thanks to the Origami concept, all APV25 chips are aligned in a row and thus can be cooled by a single thin cooling pipe per ladder. We present the concept and the assembly procedure of the Origami chip-on-sensor modules.

  19. A Low Mass On-Chip Readout Scheme for Double-Sided Silicon Strip Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irmler, C.; Bergauer, T.; Frankenberger, A.; Friedl, M.; Gfall, I.; Higuchi, T.; Ishikawa, A.; Joo, C.; Kah, D.H.; Kang, K.H.; Rao, K.K.; Kato, E.; Mohanty, G.B.; Negishi, K.; Onuki, Y.; Shimizu, N.; Tsuboyama, T.; Valentan, M.

    2013-01-01

    B-factories like the KEKB in Tsukuba, Japan, operate at relatively low energies and thus require detectors with very low material budget in order to minimize multiple scattering. On the other hand, front-end chips with short shaping time like the APV25 have to be placed as close to the sensor strips as possible to reduce the capacitive load, which mainly determines the noise figure. In order to achieve both – minimal material budget and low noise – we developed a readout scheme for double-sided silicon detectors, where the APV25 chips are placed on a flexible circuit, which is glued onto the top side of the sensor. The bottom-side strips are connected by two flexible circuits, which are bent around the edge of the sensor. This so-called “Origami” design will be utilized to build the Silicon Vertex Detector of the Belle II experiment, which will consist of four layers made from ladders with up to five double-sided silicon strip sensors in a row. Each ladder will be supported by two ribs made of a carbon fiber and Airex foam core sandwich. The heat dissipated by the front-end chips will be removed by a highly efficient two-phase CO 2 system. Thanks to the Origami concept, all APV25 chips are aligned in a row and thus can be cooled by a single thin cooling pipe per ladder. We present the concept and the assembly procedure of the Origami chip-on-sensor modules

  20. A programmable electronic Microplex Driver Unit for readout of silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bairstow, R.

    1990-08-01

    The unit provides the necessary signals to drive arrays of Microplex devices used to readout silicon strip Vertex detectors as used in DELPHI and OPAL at CERN. The unit has a CAMAC interface allowing operation of the unit by computer in a Remote-control mode. The computer can control all the essential parameters of the drive signals, together with the operational characteristics of the system. Alternatively, the unit can be used in a stand-alone Local-control mode. In this case the front panel controls and displays enable the user to set up the unit. (author)

  1. A double sided silicon strip detector as a DRAGON end detector

    CERN Document Server

    Wrede, C; Rogers, J G; D'Auria, J M

    2003-01-01

    The new DRAGON facility (detector of recoils and gammas of nuclear reactions), located at the TRlUMF-ISAC Radioactive Beams facility in Vancouver, Canada is now operational. This facility is used to study radiative proton capture reactions in inverse kinematics (heavy ion beam onto a light gaseous target) with both stable beams and radioactive beams of mass A=13-26 in the energy range 0.15-1.5 MeV/u. A double sided silicon strip detector (DSSSD) has been used to detect recoil ions. Tests have been performed to determine the performance of this DSSSD.

  2. The SVX3D integrated circuit for dead-timeless silicon strip readout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Sciveres, M. E-mail: mgs@lbl.gov; Milgrome, O.; Zimmerman, T.; Volobouev, I.; Ely, R.P.; Connolly, A.; Fish, D.; Affolder, T.; Sill, A

    1999-10-01

    The revision D of the SVX3 readout IC has been fabricated in the Honeywell radiation-hard 0.8 {mu}m bulk CMOS process, for instrumenting 712,704 silicon strips in the upgrade to the Collider Detector at Fermilab. This final revision incorporates new features and changes to the original architecture that were added to meet the goal of dead-timeless operation. This paper describes the features central to dead-timeless operation, and presents test data for un-irradiated and irradiated SVX3D chips. (author)

  3. A CMOS 130nm Evaluation digitzer chip for silicon strips readout

    CERN Document Server

    Da Silva, W; Dhellot, M; Fougeron, D; Genat, J F; Hermel, R; Huppert, J f; Kapusta, F; Lebbolo, H; Pham, T H; Rossel, F; Savoy-navarro, A; Sefri, R; Vilalte

    2007-01-01

    A CMOS 130nm evaluation chip intended to read Silicon strip detectors at the ILC has been designed and successfully tested. Optimized for a detector capacitance of 10 pF, it includes four channels of charge integration, pulse shaping, a 16-deep analogue sampler triggered on input analogue sums, and parallel analogue to digital conversion. Tests results of the full chain are reported, demonstrating the behaviour and performance of the full sampling process and analogue to digital conversion. Each channel dissipates less than one milli-Watt static power.

  4. Detector and Front-end electronics for ALICE and STAR silicon strip layers

    CERN Document Server

    Arnold, L; Coffin, J P; Guillaume, G; Higueret, S; Jundt, F; Kühn, C E; Lutz, Jean Robert; Suire, C; Tarchini, A; Berst, D; Blondé, J P; Clauss, G; Colledani, C; Deptuch, G; Dulinski, W; Hu, Y; Hébrard, L; Kucewicz, W; Boucham, A; Bouvier, S; Ravel, O; Retière, F

    1998-01-01

    Detector modules consisting of Silicon Strip Detector (SSD) and Front End Electronics (FEE) assembly have been designed in order to provide the two outer layers of the ALICE Inner Tracker System (ITS) [1] as well as the outer layer of the STAR Silicon Vertex Tracker (SVT) [2]. Several prototypes have beenproduced and tested in the SPS and PS beam at CERN to validate the final design. Double-sided, AC-coupled SSD detectors provided by two different manufacturers and also a pair of single-sided SSD have been asssociated to new low-power CMOS ALICE128C ASIC chips in a new detector module assembly. The same detectors have also been associated to current Viking electronics for reference purpose. These prototype detector modules are described and some first results are presented.

  5. A test-bench for measurement of electrical static parameters of strip silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golutvin, I.A.; Dmitriev, A.Yu.; Elsha, V.V.

    2003-01-01

    An automated test-bench for electrical parameters input control of the strip silicon detectors, used in the End-Cap Preshower detector of the CMS experiment, is described. The test-bench application allows one to solve a problem of silicon detectors input control in conditions of mass production - 1800 detectors over 2 years. The test-bench software is realized in Delphi environment and contains a user-friendly operator interface for data processing and visualization as well as up-to-date facilities for MS-Windows used for the network database. High operating characteristics and reliability of the test-bench were confirmed while more than 800 detectors were tested. Some technical solutions applied to the test-bench could be useful for design and construction of automated facilities for electrical parameters measurements of the microstrip detectors input control. (author)

  6. A Test-Bench for Measurement of Electrical Static Parameters of Strip Silicon Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Golutvin, I A; Danilevich, V G; Dmitriev, A Yu; Elsha, V V; Zamiatin, Y I; Zubarev, E V; Ziaziulia, F E; Kozus, V I; Lomako, V M; Stepankov, D V; Khomich, A P; Shumeiko, N M; Cheremuhin, A E

    2003-01-01

    An automated test-bench for electrical parameters input control of the strip silicon detectors, used in the End-Cap Preshower detector of the CMS experiment, is described. The test-bench application allows one to solve a problem of silicon detectors input control in conditions of mass production - 1800 detectors over 2 years. The test-bench software is realized in Delphi environment and contains a user-friendly operator interface for measurement data processing and visualization as well as up-to-date facilities for MS-Windows used for the network database. High operating characteristics and reliability of the test-bench were confirmed while more than 800 detectors were tested. Some technical solutions applied to the test-bench could be useful for design and construction of automated facilities for electrical parameters measurements of the microstrip detectors input control.

  7. Study of 236U/238U ratio at CIRCE using a 16-strip silicon detector with a TOF system

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cesare, M.; De Cesare, N.; D'Onofrio, A.; Gialanella, L.; Terrasi, F.

    2015-04-01

    Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) is presently the most sensitive technique for the measurement of long-lived actinides, e.g. 236U and xPu isotopes. A new actinide AMS system, based on a 3-MV pelletron tandem accelerator, is operated at the Center for Isotopic Research on Cultural and Environmental Heritage (CIRCE) in Caserta, Italy. In this paper we report on the procedure adopted to increase the 236U abundance sensitivity as low as possible. The energy and position determinations of the 236U ions, using a 16-strip silicon detector have been obtained. A 236U/238U isotopic ratio background level of about 2.9×10-11 was obtained, summing over all the strips, using a Time of Flight-Energy (TOF-E) system with a 16-strip silicon detector (4.9×10-12 just with one strip).

  8. Study of 236U/238U ratio at CIRCE using a 16-strip silicon detector with a TOF system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Cesare M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS is presently the most sensitive technique for the measurement of long-lived actinides, e.g. 236U and xPu isotopes. A new actinide AMS system, based on a 3-MV pelletron tandem accelerator, is operated at the Center for Isotopic Research on Cultural and Environmental Heritage (CIRCE in Caserta, Italy. In this paper we report on the procedure adopted to increase the 236U abundance sensitivity as low as possible. The energy and position determinations of the 236U ions, using a 16-strip silicon detector have been obtained. A 236U/238U isotopic ratio background level of about 2.9×10−11 was obtained, summing over all the strips, using a Time of Flight-Energy (TOF-E system with a 16-strip silicon detector (4.9×10−12 just with one strip.

  9. The PASTA chip for the silicon micro strip sensor of the PANDA MVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riccardi, Alberto; Brinkmann, Kai-Thomas; Di Pietro, Valentino; Quagli, Tommaso; Schnell, Robert; Zaunick, Hans-Georg [II. Physikalisches Institut, Justus-Liebig-Universitaet, Giessen (Germany); Ritman, James; Stockmanns, Tobias; Zambanini, Andre [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany); Rivetti, Angelo; Rolo, Manuel [INFN Sezione di Torino (Italy); Collaboration: PANDA-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    In the Micro Vertex Detector, which is the innermost detector of PANDA, there are two different types of sensors: hybrid pixel and double sided micro strips. My work is focused on the development of the ASIC readout for the strips, which in the PANDA experiment must cope with a hit rate up to 50 kHz per channel. The energy loss measurement of the particles crossing the silicon sensor is obtained by implementing the Time over Threshold technique. The first PASTA (PANDA Strip ASIC) prototype is based on a Time to Digital Converter with an analog clock interpolator which combines good time resolution with a low power consumption. A full size chip was developed in a 0.11μ m CMOS technology and delivered in Autumn 2015. It features 64 channels with both analog and digital parts, a digital global controller, LVDS drivers and integrated bias. In the presentation, an overview of PASTA and the results of the first tests is presented.

  10. Optimizing the quality of silicon strip sensors produced by Infineon Technologies Austria AG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treberspurg, W; Bergauer, T; Dragicevic, M; König, A; Bartl, U; Hacker, J; Wübben, T

    2014-01-01

    The tracking systems of most modern particle physics experiments are realized by silicon based sensors. The size of such systems has continuously increased and nowadays a sensitive area of several 100 m 2 has to be covered. This large amount of sensors might exceed the production capabilities of existing companies and institutes. Therefore the Institute of High Energy Physics of the Austrian Academy of Sciences (HEPHY) and the European semiconductor manufacturer Infineon Technologies Austria AG developed together a production process for p-on-n strip sensors. Although the first prototype run has shown a promising quality, it has been observed that weak strips exist, which are mainly located at distinctive areas on each wafer. At these areas the affected parameters are correlated to each other. A similar behaviour could be reproduced with a smaller second batch, whose sensors have been used for further analysis and advanced measurements. This paper sums up the characteristic behaviour of the specific effect and presents different possibilities how to cure the sensors. The systematic accumulation of weak strips can be traced back to a specific operation during the fabrication process. All data strongly indicate that the effect is caused by local charging effects on an isolating layer

  11. Transparent silicon strip sensors for the optical alignment of particle detector systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, W.; Kroha, H.; Widmann, P.

    1995-05-01

    Modern large-area precision tracking detectors require increasing accuracy for the alignment of their components. A novel multi-point laser alignment system has been developed for such applications. The position of detector components with respect to reference laser beams is monitored by semi-transparent optical position sensors which work on the principle of silicon strip photodiodes. Two types of custom designed transparent strip sensors, based on crystalline and on amorphous silicon as active material, have been studied. The sensors are optimised for the typical diameters of collimated laser beams of 3-5 mm over distances of 10-20 m. They provide very high position resolution, on the order of 1 μm, uniformly over a wide measurement range of several centimeters. The preparation of the sensor surfaces requires special attention in order to achieve high light transmittance and minimum distortion of the traversing laser beams. At selected wavelengths, produced by laser diodes, transmission rates above 90% have been achieved. This allows to position more than 30 sensors along one laser beam. The sensors will be equipped with custom designed integrated readout electronics. (orig.)

  12. Impact of low-dose electron irradiation on n+p silicon strip sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, W.; Dragicevic, M.; Friedl, M.; Fruehwirth, R.; Hoch, M.; Hrubec, J.; Krammer, M.; Treberspurg, W.; Waltenberger, W.; Alderweireldt, S.; Beaumont, W.; Janssen, X.; Luyckx, S.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Spilbeeck, A.; Barria, P.; Caillol, C.; Clerbaux, B.; De Lentdecker, G.; Dobur, D.; Favart, L.; Grebenyuk, A.; Lenzi, Th.; Leonard, A.; Maerschalk, Th.; Mohammadi, A.; Pernie, L.; Randle-Conde, A.; Reis, T.; Seva, T.; Thomas, L.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Wang, J.; Zenoni, F.; Abu Zeid, S.; Blekman, F.; De Bruyn, I.; D'Hondt, J.; Daci, N.; Deroover, K.; Heracleous, N.; Keaveney, J.; Lowette, S.; Moreels, L.; Olbrechts, A.; Python, Q.; Tavernier, S.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Onsem, G.; Van Parijs, I.; Strom, D.A.; Basegmez, S.; Bruno, G.; Castello, R.; Caudron, A.; Ceard, L.; De Callatay, B.; Delaere, C.; Pree, T.Du; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Jez, P.; Michotte, D.; Nuttens, C.; Perrini, L.; Pagano, D.; Quertenmont, L.; Selvaggi, M.; Marono, M.Vidal; Beliy, N.; Caebergs, T.; Daubie, E.; Hammad, G.H.; Harkonen, J.; Lampen, T.; Luukka, P.R.; Maenpaa, T.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuovinen, E.; Eerola, P.; Tuuva, T.; Beaulieu, G.; Boudoul, G.; Combaret, C.; Contardo, D.; Gallbit, G.; Lumb, N.; Mathez, H.; Mirabito, L.; Perries, S.; Sabes, D.; Vander Donckt, M.; Verdier, P.; Viret, S.; Zoccarato, Y.; Agram, J.L.; Conte, E.; Fontaine, J.Ch.; Andrea, J.; Bloch, D.; Bonnin, C.; Brom, J.M.; Chabert, E.; Charles, L.; Goetzmann, Ch.; Gross, L.; Hosselet, J.; Mathieu, C.; Richer, M.; Skovpen, K.; Autermann, C.; Edelhoff, M.; Esser, H.; Feld, L.; Karpinski, W.; Klein, K.; Lipinski, M.; Ostapchuk, A.; Pierschel, G.; Preuten, M.; Raupach, F.; Sammet, J.; Schael, S.; Schwering, G.; Wittmer, B.; Wlochal, M.; Zhukov, V.; Pistone, C.; Fluegge, G.; Kuensken, A.; Geisler, M.; Pooth, O.; Stahl, A.; Bartosik, N.; Behr, J.; Burgmeier, A.; Calligaris, L.; Dolinska, G.; Eckerlin, G.; Eckstein, D.; Eichhorn, T.; Fluke, G.; Garcia, J.Garay; Gizhko, A.; Hansen, K.; Harb, A.; Hauk, J.; Kalogeropoulos, A.; Kleinwort, C.; Korol, I.; Lange, W.; Lohmann, W.; Mankel, R.; Maser, H.; Mittag, G.; Muhl, C.; Mussgiller, A.; Nayak, A.; Ntomari, E.; Perrey, H.; Pitzl, D.; Schroeder, M.; Seitz, C.; Spannagel, S.; Zuber, A.; Biskop, H.; Blobel, V.; Buhmann, P.; Centis-Vignali, M.; Draeger, A.R.; Erfle, J.; Garutti, E.; Haller, J.; Henkel, Ch.; Hoffmann, M.; Junkes, A.; Klanner, R.; Lapsien, T.; Mattig, S.; Matysek, M.; Perieanu, A.; Poehlsen, J.; Poehlsen, T.; Scharf, Ch.; Schleper, P.; Schmidt, A.; Schuwalow, S.; Schwandt, J.; Sola, V.; Steinbruck, G.; Vormwald, B.; Wellhausen, J.; Barvich, T.; Barth, Ch.; Boegelspacher, F.; De Boer, W.; Butz, E.; Casele, M.; Colombo, F.; Dierlamm, A.; Eber, R.; Freund, B.; Hartmann, F.; Hauth, Th.; Heindl, S.; Hoffmann, K.H.; Husemann, U.; Kornmeyer, A.; Mallows, S.; Muller, Th.; Nuernberg, A.; Printz, M.; Simonis, H.J.; Steck, P.; Weber, M.; Weiler, Th.; Bhardwaj, A.; Kumar, A.; Ranjan, K.; Bakhshiansohl, H.; Behnamian, H.; Khakzad, M.; Naseri, M.; Cariola, P.; De Robertis, G.; Fiore, L.; Franco, M.; Loddo, F.; Sala, G.; Silvestris, L.; Creanza, D.; De Palma, M.; Maggi, G.; My, S.; Selvaggi, G.; Albergo, S.; Cappello, G.; Chiorboli, M.; Costa, S.; Giordano, F.; Di Mattia, A.; Potenza, R.; Saizu, M.A.; Tricomi, A.; Tuve, C.; Barbagli, G.; Brianzi, M.; Ciaranfi, R.; Civinini, C.; Gallo, E.; Meschini, M.; Paoletti, S.; Sguazzoni, G.; Ciulli, V.; D'Alessandro, R.; Gonzi, S.; Gori, V.; Focardi, E.; Lenzi, P.; Scarlini, E.; Tropiano, A.; Viliani, L.; Ferro, F.; Robutti, E.; Lo Vetere, M.; Gennai, S.; Malvezzi, S.; Menasce, D.; Moroni, L.; Pedrini, D.; Dinardo, M.; Fiorendi, S.; Manzoni, R.A.; Azzi, P.; Bacchetta, N.; Bisello, D.; Dall'Osso, M.; Dorigo, T.; Giubilato, P.; Pozzobon, N.; Tosi, M.; Zucchetta, A.; De Canio, F.; Gaioni, L.; Manghisoni, M.; Nodari, B.; Re, V.; Traversi, G.; Comotti, D.; Ratti, L.; Bilei, G.M.; Bissi, L.; Checcucci, B.; Magalotti, D.; Menichelli, M.; Saha, A.; Servoli, L.; Storchi, L.; Biasini, M.; Conti, E.; Ciangottini, D.; Fano, L.; Lariccia, P.; Mantovani, G.; Passeri, D.; Placidi, P.; Salvatore, M.; Santocchia, A.; Solestizi, L.A.; Spiezia, A.; Demaria, N.; Rivetti, A.; Bellan, R.; Casasso, S.; Costa, M.; Covarelli, R.; Migliore, E.; Monteil, E.; Musich, M.; Pacher, L.; Ravera, F.; Romero, A.; Solano, A.; Trapani, P.; Jaramillo Echeverria, R.; Fernandez, M.; Gomez, G.; Moya, D.; F. Gonzalez Sanchez, J.; Munoz Sanchez, F.J.; Vila, I.; Virto, A.L.; Abbaneo, D.; Ahmed, I.; Albert, E.; Auzinger, G.; Berruti, G.; Bianchi, G.; Blanchot, G.; Breuker, H.; Ceresa, D.; Christiansen, J.; Cichy, K.; Daguin, J.; D'Alfonso, M.; D'Auria, A.; Detraz, S.; De Visscher, S.; Deyrail, D.; Faccio, F.; Felici, D.; Frank, N.; Gill, K.; Giordano, D.; Harris, P.; Honma, A.; Kaplon, J.; Kornmayer, A.; Kortelainen, M.; Kottelat, L.; Kovacs, M.; Mannelli, M.; Marchioro, A.; Marconi, S.; Martina, S.; Mersi, S.; Michelis, S.; Moll, M.; Onnela, A.; Pakulski, T.; Pavis, S.; Peisert, A.; Pernot, J.F.; Petagna, P.; Petrucciani, G.; Postema, H.; Rose, P.; Rzonca, M.; Stoye, M.; Tropea, P.; Troska, J.; Tsirou, A.; Vasey, F.; Vichoudis, P.; Verlaat, B.; Zwalinski, L.; Bachmair, F.; Becker, R.; Bani, L.; di Calafiori, D.; Casal, B.; Djambazov, L.; Donega, M.; Dunser, M.; Eller, P.; Grab, C.; Hits, D.; Horisberger, U.; Hoss, J.; Kasieczka, G.; Lustermann, W.; Mangano, B.; Marionneau, M.; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, P.; Masciovecchio, M.; Perrozzi, L.; Roeser, U.; Rossini, M.; Starodumov, A.; Takahashi, M.; Wallny, R.; Amsler, C.; Bosiger, K.; Caminada, L.; Canelli, F.; Chiochia, V.; De Cosa, A.; Galloni, C.; Hreus, T.; Kilminster, B.; Lange, C.; Maier, R.; Ngadiuba, J.; Pinna, D.; Robmann, P.; Taroni, S.; Yang, Y.; Bertl, W.; Deiters, K.; Erdmann, W.; Horisberger, R.; Kaestli, H.C.; Kotlinski, D.; Langenegger, U.; Meier, B.; Rohe, T.; Streuli, S.; Chen, P.H.; Dietz, C.; Grundler, U.; Hou, W.S.; Lu, R.S.; Moya, M.; Wilken, R.; Cussans, D.; Flacher, H.; Goldstein, J.; Grimes, M.; Jacob, J.; El Nasr-Storey, S.Seif; Cole, J.; Hobson, P.; Leggat, D.; Reid, I.D.; Teodorescu, L.; Bainbridge, R.; Dauncey, P.; Fulcher, J.; Hall, G.; Magnan, A.M.; Pesaresi, M.; Raymond, D.M.; Uchida, K.; Coughlan, J.A.; Harder, K.; Ilic, J.; Tomalin, I.R.; Garabedian, A.; Heintz, U.; Narain, M.; Nelson, J.; Sagir, S.; Speer, T.; Swanson, J.; Tersegno, D.; Watson-Daniels, J.; Chertok, M.; Conway, J.; Conway, R.; Flores, C.; Lander, R.; Pellett, D.; Ricci-Tam, F.; Squires, M.; Thomson, J.; Yohay, R.; Burt, K.; Ellison, J.; Hanson, G.; Malberti, M.; Olmedo, M.; Cerati, G.; Sharma, V.; Vartak, A.; Yagil, A.; Della Porta, G.Zevi; Dutta, V.; Gouskos, L.; Incandela, J.; Kyre, S.; McColl, N.; Mullin, S.; White, D.; Cumalat, J.P.; Ford, W.T.; Gaz, A.; Krohn, M.; Stenson, K.; Wagner, S.R.; Baldin, B.; Bolla, G.; Burkett, K.; Butler, J.; Cheung, H.; Chramowicz, J.; Christian, D.; Cooper, W.E.; Deptuch, G.; Derylo, G.; Gingu, C.; Gruenendahl, S.; Hasegawa, S.; Hoff, J.; Howell, J.; Hrycyk, M.; Jindariani, S.; Johnson, M.; Jung, A.; Joshi, U.; Kahlid, F.; Lei, C.M.; Lipton, R.; Liu, T.; Los, S.; Matulik, M.; Merkel, P.; Nahn, S.; Prosser, A.; Rivera, R.; Shenai, A.; Spiegel, L.; Tran, N.; Uplegger, L.; Voirin, E.; Yin, H.; Adams, M.R.; Berry, D.R.; Evdokimov, A.; Evdokimov, O.; Gerber, C.E.; Hofman, D.J.; Kapustka, B.K.; O'Brien, C.; Sandoval Gonzalez, D.I.; Trauger, H.; Turner, P.; Parashar, N.; Stupak, J., III; Bortoletto, D.; Bubna, M.; Hinton, N.; Jones, M.; Miller, D.H.; Shi, X.; Tan, P.; Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Benelli, G.; Gray, J.; Majumder, D.; Noonan, D.; Sanders, S.; Stringer, R.; Ivanov, A.; Makouski, M.; Skhirtladze, N.; Taylor, R.; Anderson, I.; Fehling, D.; Gritsan, A.; Maksimovic, P.; Martin, C.; Nash, K.; Osherson, M.; Swartz, M.; Xiao, M.; Acosta, J.G.; Cremaldi, L.M.; Oliveros, S.; Perera, L.; Summers, D.; Bloom, K.; Bose, S.; Claes, D.R.; Dominguez, A.; Fangmeier, C.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Meier, F.; Monroy, J.; Hahn, K.; Sevova, S.; Sung, K.; Trovato, M.; Bartz, E.; Duggan, D.; Halkiadakis, E.; Lath, A.; Park, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Stone, R.; Walker, M.; Malik, S.; Mendez, H.; Ramirez Vargas, J.E.; Alyari, M.; Dolen, J.; George, J.; Godshalk, A.; Iashvili, I.; Kaisen, J.; Kharchilava, A.; Kumar, A.; Rappoccio, S.; Alexander, J.; Chaves, J.; Chu, J.; Dittmer, S.; Kaufman, G.; Mirman, N.; Ryd, A.; Salvati, E.; Skinnari, L.; Thom, J.; Thompson, J.; Tucker, J.; Winstrom, L.; Akgun, B.; Ecklund, K.M.; Nussbaum, T.; Zabel, J.; Betchart, B.; Demina, R.; Hindrichs, O.; Petrillo, G.; Eusebi, R.; Osipenkov, I.; Perloff, A.; Ulmer, K.A.; Delannoy, A.G.; D'Angelo, P.; Johns, W.

    2015-01-01

    The response of n+p silicon strip sensors to electrons from a Sr-90 source was measured using a multi-channel read-out system with 25 ns sampling time. The measurements were performed over a period of several weeks, during which the operating conditions were varied. The sensors were fabricated by Hamamatsu Photonics K.K. on 200 micrometer thick float-zone and magnetic-Czochralski silicon. Their pitch was 80 micrometer, and both p-stop and p-spray isolation of the n+ strips were studied. The electrons from the Sr-90 source were collimated to a spot with a full-width-at-half-maximum of 2 mm at the sensor surface, and the dose rate in the SiO2 at the maximum was about 50 Gy/d. After only a few hours of making measurements, significant changes in charge collection and charge sharing were observed. Annealing studies, with temperatures up to 80{\\deg}C and annealing times of 18 hours, showed that the changes can only be partially annealed. The observations can be qualitatively explained by the increase of the positi...

  13. Output factor determination for dose measurements in axial and perpendicular planes using a silicon strip detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Haïdar, Z.; Bocci, A.; Alvarez, M. A. G.; Espino, J. M.; Gallardo, M. I.; Cortés-Giraldo, M. A.; Ovejero, M. C.; Quesada, J. M.; Arráns, R.; Prieto, M. Ruiz; Vega-Leal, A. Pérez; Nieto, F. J. Pérez

    2012-04-01

    In this work we present the output factor measurements of a clinical linear accelerator using a silicon strip detector coupled to a new system for complex radiation therapy treatment verification. The objective of these measurements is to validate the system we built for treatment verification. The measurements were performed at the Virgin Macarena University Hospital in Seville. Irradiations were carried out with a Siemens ONCOR™ linac used to deliver radiotherapy treatment for cancer patients. The linac was operating in 6 MV photon mode; the different sizes of the fields were defined with the collimation system provided within the accelerator head. The output factor was measured with the silicon strip detector in two different layouts using two phantoms. In the first, the active area of the detector was placed perpendicular to the beam axis. In the second, the innovation consisted of a cylindrical phantom where the detector was placed in an axial plane with respect to the beam. The measured data were compared with data given by a commercial treatment planning system. Results were shown to be in a very good agreement between the compared set of data.

  14. Beam loss studies on silicon strip detector modules for the CMS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Fahrer, Manuel

    2006-01-01

    The large beam energy of the LHC demands for a save beam abort system. Nevertheless, failures cannot be excluded with last assurance and are predicted to occur once per year. As the CMS experiment is placed in the neighboured LHC octant, it is affected by such events. The effect of an unsynchronized beam abort on the silicon strip modules of the CMS tracking detector has been investigated in this thesis by performing one accelerator and two lab experiments. The dynamical behaviour of operational parameters of modules and components has been recorded during simulated beam loss events to be able to disentangle the reasons of possible damages. The first study with high intensive proton bunches at the CERN PS ensured the robustness of the module design against beam losses. A further lab experiment with pulsed IR LEDs clarified the physical and electrical processes during such events. The silicon strip sensors on a module are protected against beam losses by a part of the module design that originally has not been...

  15. Studies for the Commissioning of the CERN CMS Silicon Strip Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Bloch, Christoph; Abbaneo, Duccio; Fabjan, Christian Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    In 2008 the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN will start producing proton-proton collisions of unprecedented energy. One of its main experiments is the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS), a general purpose detector, optimized for the search of the Higgs boson and super symmetric particles. The discovery potential of the CMS detector relies on a high precision tracking system, made of a pixel detector and the largest silicon strip Tracker ever built. In order to operate successfully a device as complex as the CMS silicon strip Tracker, and to fully exploit its potential, the properties of the hardware need to be characterized as precisely as possible, and the reconstruction software needs to be commissioned with physics signals. A number of issues were identified and studied to commission the detector, some of which concern the entire Tracker, while some are specific to the Tracker Outer Barrel (TOB): - the time evolution of the signals in the readout electronics need to be precisely measured and correctly simulate...

  16. Silicon strip detector for a novel 2D dosimetric method for radiotherapy treatment verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocci, A.; Cortés-Giraldo, M. A.; Gallardo, M. I.; Espino, J. M.; Arráns, R.; Alvarez, M. A. G.; Abou-Haïdar, Z.; Quesada, J. M.; Pérez Vega-Leal, A.; Pérez Nieto, F. J.

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this work is to characterize a silicon strip detector and its associated data acquisition system, based on discrete electronics, to obtain in a near future absorbed dose maps in axial planes for complex radiotherapy treatments, using a novel technique. The experimental setup is based on two phantom prototypes: the first one is a polyethylene slab phantom used to characterize the detector in terms of linearity, percent depth dose, reproducibility, uniformity and penumbra. The second one is a cylindrical phantom, specifically designed and built to recreate conditions close to those normally found in clinical environments, for treatment planning assessment. This system has been used to study the dosimetric response of the detector, in the axial plane of the phantom, as a function of its angle with respect to the irradiation beam. A software has been developed to operate the rotation of this phantom and to acquire signals from the silicon strip detector. As an innovation, the detector was positioned inside the cylindrical phantom parallel to the beam axis. Irradiation experiments were carried out with a Siemens PRIMUS linac operating in the 6 MV photon mode at the Virgen Macarena Hospital. Monte Carlo simulations were performed using Geant4 toolkit and results were compared to Treatment Planning System (TPS) calculations for the absorbed dose-to-water case. Geant4 simulations were used to estimate the sensitivity of the detector in different experimental configurations, in relation to the absorbed dose in each strip. A final calibration of the detector in this clinical setup was obtained by comparing experimental data with TPS calculations.

  17. Impact of low-dose electron irradiation on n{sup +}p silicon strip sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-12-11

    The response of n{sup +}p silicon strip sensors to electrons from a {sup 90}Sr source was measured using a multi-channel read-out system with 25 ns sampling time. The measurements were performed over a period of several weeks, during which the operating conditions were varied. The sensors were fabricated by Hamamatsu Photonics on 200 μm thick float-zone and magnetic-Czochralski silicon. Their pitch was 80 μm, and both p-stop and p-spray isolation of the n{sup +} strips were studied. The electrons from the {sup 90}Sr source were collimated to a spot with a full-width-at-half-maximum of 2 mm at the sensor surface, and the dose rate in the SiO{sub 2} at the maximum was about 50 Gy(SiO{sub 2})/d. After only a few hours of making measurements, significant changes in charge collection and charge sharing were observed. Annealing studies, with temperatures up to 80 °C and annealing times of 18 h showed that the changes can only be partially annealed. The observations can be qualitatively explained by the increase of the positive oxide-charge density due to the ionization of the SiO{sub 2} by the radiation from the β source. TCAD simulations of the electric field in the sensor for different oxide-charge densities and different boundary conditions at the sensor surface support this explanation. The relevance of the measurements for the design of n{sup +}p strip sensors is discussed.

  18. A silicon strip detector used as a high rate focal plane sensor for electrons in a magnetic spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Miyoshi, T; Fujii, Y; Hashimoto, O; Hungerford, E V; Sato, Y; Sarsour, M; Takahashi, T; Tang, L; Ukai, M; Yamaguchi, H

    2003-01-01

    A silicon strip detector was developed as a focal plane sensor for a 300 MeV electron spectrometer and operated in a high rate environment. The detector with 500 mu m pitch provided good position resolution for electrons crossing the focal plane of the magnetic spectrometer system which was mounted in Hall C of the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. The design of the silicon strip detector and the performance under high counting rate (<=2.0x10 sup 8 s sup - sup 1 for approx 1000 SSD channels) and high dose are discussed.

  19. A phononic crystal strip based on silicon for support tether applications in silicon-based MEMS resonators and effects of temperature and dopant on its band gap characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi Dep Ha

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Phononic crystals (PnCs and n-type doped silicon technique have been widely employed in silicon-based MEMS resonators to obtain high quality factor (Q as well as temperature-induced frequency stability. For the PnCs, their band gaps play an important role in the acoustic wave propagation. Also, the temperature and dopant doped into silicon can cause the change in its material properties such as elastic constants, Young’s modulus. Therefore, in order to design the simultaneous high Q and frequency stability silicon-based MEMS resonators by two these techniques, a careful design should study effects of temperature and dopant on the band gap characteristics to examine the acoustic wave propagation in the PnC. Based on these, this paper presents (1 a proposed silicon-based PnC strip structure for support tether applications in low frequency silicon-based MEMS resonators, (2 influences of temperature and dopant on band gap characteristics of the PnC strips. The simulation results show that the largest band gap can achieve up to 33.56 at 57.59 MHz and increase 1280.13 % (also increase 131.89 % for ratio of the widest gaps compared with the counterpart without hole. The band gap properties of the PnC strips is insignificantly effected by temperature and electron doping concentration. Also, the quality factor of two designed length extensional mode MEMS resonators with proposed PnC strip based support tethers is up to 1084.59% and 43846.36% over the same resonators with PnC strip without hole and circled corners, respectively. This theoretical study uses the finite element analysis in COMSOL Multiphysics and MATLAB softwares as simulation tools. This findings provides a background in combination of PnC and dopant techniques for high performance silicon-based MEMS resonators as well as PnC-based MEMS devices.

  20. A phononic crystal strip based on silicon for support tether applications in silicon-based MEMS resonators and effects of temperature and dopant on its band gap characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Thi Dep, E-mail: hathidep@yahoo.com [School of Electronic Engineering, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 611731 (China); Faculty of Electronic Technology, Industrial University of Ho Chi Minh City, Hochiminh City (Viet Nam); Bao, JingFu, E-mail: baojingfu@uestc.edu.cn [School of Electronic Engineering, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 611731 (China)

    2016-04-15

    Phononic crystals (PnCs) and n-type doped silicon technique have been widely employed in silicon-based MEMS resonators to obtain high quality factor (Q) as well as temperature-induced frequency stability. For the PnCs, their band gaps play an important role in the acoustic wave propagation. Also, the temperature and dopant doped into silicon can cause the change in its material properties such as elastic constants, Young’s modulus. Therefore, in order to design the simultaneous high Q and frequency stability silicon-based MEMS resonators by two these techniques, a careful design should study effects of temperature and dopant on the band gap characteristics to examine the acoustic wave propagation in the PnC. Based on these, this paper presents (1) a proposed silicon-based PnC strip structure for support tether applications in low frequency silicon-based MEMS resonators, (2) influences of temperature and dopant on band gap characteristics of the PnC strips. The simulation results show that the largest band gap can achieve up to 33.56 at 57.59 MHz and increase 1280.13 % (also increase 131.89 % for ratio of the widest gaps) compared with the counterpart without hole. The band gap properties of the PnC strips is insignificantly effected by temperature and electron doping concentration. Also, the quality factor of two designed length extensional mode MEMS resonators with proposed PnC strip based support tethers is up to 1084.59% and 43846.36% over the same resonators with PnC strip without hole and circled corners, respectively. This theoretical study uses the finite element analysis in COMSOL Multiphysics and MATLAB softwares as simulation tools. This findings provides a background in combination of PnC and dopant techniques for high performance silicon-based MEMS resonators as well as PnC-based MEMS devices.

  1. LabVIEW-based control and acquisition system for the dosimetric characterization of a silicon strip detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovejero, M C; Pérez Vega-Leal, A; Gallardo, M I; Espino, J M; Selva, A; Cortés-Giraldo, M A; Arráns, R

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this work is to present a new data acquisition, control, and analysis software system written in LabVIEW. This system has been designed to obtain the dosimetry of a silicon strip detector in polyethylene. It allows the full automation of the experiments and data analysis required for the dosimetric characterization of silicon detectors. It becomes a useful tool that can be applied in the daily routine check of a beam accelerator.

  2. The ATLAS Inner Detector commissioning and calibration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aad, G.; et al., [Unknown; Bentvelsen, S.; Colijn, A.P.; de Jong, P.; Doxiadis, A.; Garitaonandia, H.; Gosselink, M.; Kayl, M.S.; Koffeman, E.; Lee, H.; Mechnich, J.; Mussche, I.; Ottersbach, J.P.; Rijpstra, M.; Ruckstuhl, N.; Tsiakiris, M.; van der Kraaij, E.; van der Poel, E.; van Kesteren, Z.; van Vulpen, I.; Vermeulen, J.C.; Vreeswijk, M.

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS Inner Detector is a composite tracking system consisting of silicon pixels, silicon strips and straw tubes in a 2 T magnetic field. Its installation was completed in August 2008 and the detector took part in data-taking with single LHC beams and cosmic rays. The initial detector operation,

  3. A digital X-ray imaging system based on silicon strip detectors working in edge-on configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolanos, L. [CEADEN, Calle 30 502 e/ 5ta y 7ma Avenida, Playa, Ciudad Habana (Cuba); Boscardin, M. [IRST, Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Via Sommarive 18, Povo, 38100 Trento (Italy); Cabal, A.E. [CEADEN, Calle 30 502 e/ 5ta y 7ma Avenida, Playa, Ciudad Habana (Cuba); Diaz, M. [InSTEC, Ave. Salvador Allende esq. Luaces, Quinta de los Molinos, Ciudad Habana (Cuba); Grybos, P.; Maj, P. [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Automatics, Computer Science and Electronics, Department of Measurement and Instrumentation, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Cracow (Poland); Prino, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Ramello, L. [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Avanzate, Universita del Piemonte Orientale, Via T. Michel 11, 15100 Alessandria (Italy)], E-mail: luciano.ramello@mfn.unipmn.it; Szczygiel, R. [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Automatics, Computer Science and Electronics, Department of Measurement and Instrumentation, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Cracow (Poland)

    2009-09-21

    We present the energy resolution and imaging performance of a digital X-ray imaging system based on a 512-strip silicon strip detector (SSD) working in the edge-on configuration. The SSDs tested in the system are 300 {mu}m thick with 1 or 2-cm-long strips and 100 {mu}m pitch. To ensure a very small dead area of the SSD working in edge-on configuration, the detector is cut perpendicular to the strips at a distance of only 20 {mu}m from the end of the strips. The 512-strip silicon detector is read out by eight 64-channel integrated circuits called DEDIX [Grybos et al., IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-54 (2007) 1207]. The DEDIX IC operates in a single photon counting mode with two independent amplitude discriminators per channel. The readout electronic channel connected to a detector with effective input capacitance of about 2 pF has an average equivalent noise charge (ENC) of about 163 el. rms and is able to count 1 Mcps of average rate of input pulses. The system consisting of 512 channels has an excellent channel-to-channel uniformity-the effective threshold spread calculated to the charge-sensitive amplifier inputs is 12 el. rms (at one sigma level). With this system a few test images of a phantom have been taken in the 10-30 keV energy range.

  4. Build-up of the silicon micro-strip detector array in ETF of HIRFL-CSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Pengfei; Li Zhankui; Li Haixia

    2014-01-01

    Silicon micro-strip detectors have been widely used in the world-famous nuclear physics laboratories due to their better position resolution and energy resolution. Double-sided silicon micro-strip detectors with a position resolution of 0.5 mm × 0.5 mm, have been fabricated in the IMP (Institute of Modern Physics, CAS) by using microelectronics technology. These detectors have been used in the ETF (External Target Facility) of HIRFL-CSR, as ΔE detectors of the ΔE-E telescope system and the track detectors. With the help of flexibility printed circuit board (FPCB) and the integrated ASIC chips, a compact multi-channel front-end electronic board has been designed to fulfill the acquisition of the energy and position information of the Silicon micro-strip detectors. It is described in this paper that the build-up of the Silicon micro-strip detector array in ETF of HIRFL-CSR, the determination of the energy resolution of the detector units, and the energy resolution of approximately 1% obtained for 5∼9 MeV α particles in vacuum. (authors)

  5. Size of silicon strip sensor from 6 inch wafer (right) compared to that from a 4 inch wafer (left).

    CERN Multimedia

    Honma, Alan

    1999-01-01

    Silicon strip sensors made from 6 inch wafers will allow for much larger surface area coverage at a reduced cost per unit surface area. A prototype sensor of size 8cm x 11cm made by Hamamatsu from a 6 inch wafer is shown next to a traditional 6cm x 6cm sensor from a 4 inch wafer.

  6. Electromagnetic noise studies in a silicon strip detector, used as part of a luminosity monitor at LEP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ødegaard, Trygve; Tafjord, Harald; Buran, Torleiv

    1995-02-01

    As part of the luminosity monitor, SAT, in the DELPHI [1] experiment at CERN's Large Electron Positron collider, a tracking detector constructed from silicon strip detector elements was installed in front of an electromagnetic calorimeter. The luminosity was measured by counting the number of Bhabha events at the interaction point of the electron and the positron beans. The tracking detector reconstructs from the interaction point and the calorimeter measures the corresponding particles' energies. The SAT Tracker [2] consists of 504 silicon strip detectors. The strips are DC-coupled to CMOS VLSI-chips, baptized Balder [3,4]. The chip performs amplification, zero-suppression, digitalisation, and multiplexing. The requirements of good space resolution and high efficiency put strong requirements on noise control. A short description of the geometry and the relevant circuit layout is given. We describe the efforts made to minimise the electromagnetic noise in the detector and present some numbers of the noise level using various techniques.

  7. Status of the silicon strip high-rate FASTBUS readout system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, H.; Barsotti, E.; Bowden, M.; Christian, D.; Chramowicz, J.; Fachin, M.; Haldeman, M.; Hoff, J.; Holmes, S.; Rotolo, C.; Romero, A.; Slimmer, D.; Swoboda, C.; Trendler, R.; Urish, J.; Yarema, R.; Zimmerman, T.; Zimmermann, S.; Kowald, W.; MacManus, A.; Recagni, M.; Segal, J.; Spentzouris, P.

    1991-11-01

    Our new readout system was developed in collaboration with, and largely to the specification of, the E771 experimenters. E771 is a fixed target experiment designed to study the production of B hadrons by an 800 GeV/c proton beam. The experiment will operate at rates of up to 200 million beam protons per second and 10 million interactions per second. The experimental apparatus will consist of an open geometry magnetic spectrometer featuring good muon and electron identification (much of which was used in E705), and a compact 16000 channel Silicon Strip Detector. In order to satisfy the experimenter's desire to instrument 16000 SSD elements in a package only 5 cm wide, 5 cm high, and 21 cm deep, and in order to meet the performance specifications, we have made extensive use of Application Specific Integrated Circuits'' (ASIC's).

  8. High energy X-ray photon counting imaging using linear accelerator and silicon strip detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Y., E-mail: cycjty@sophie.q.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Bioengineering, the University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Shimazoe, K.; Yan, X. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, the University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Ueda, O.; Ishikura, T. [Fuji Electric Co., Ltd., Fuji, Hino, Tokyo 191-8502 (Japan); Fujiwara, T. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Uesaka, M.; Ohno, M. [Nuclear Professional School, the University of Tokyo, 2-22 Shirakata-shirane, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan); Tomita, H. [Department of Quantum Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo, Chikusa, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Yoshihara, Y. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, the University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Takahashi, H. [Department of Bioengineering, the University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, the University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

    2016-09-11

    A photon counting imaging detector system for high energy X-rays is developed for on-site non-destructive testing of thick objects. One-dimensional silicon strip (1 mm pitch) detectors are stacked to form a two-dimensional edge-on module. Each detector is connected to a 48-channel application specific integrated circuit (ASIC). The threshold-triggered events are recorded by a field programmable gate array based counter in each channel. The detector prototype is tested using 950 kV linear accelerator X-rays. The fast CR shaper (300 ns pulse width) of the ASIC makes it possible to deal with the high instant count rate during the 2 μs beam pulse. The preliminary imaging results of several metal and concrete samples are demonstrated.

  9. High energy X-ray photon counting imaging using linear accelerator and silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Y.; Shimazoe, K.; Yan, X.; Ueda, O.; Ishikura, T.; Fujiwara, T.; Uesaka, M.; Ohno, M.; Tomita, H.; Yoshihara, Y.; Takahashi, H.

    2016-01-01

    A photon counting imaging detector system for high energy X-rays is developed for on-site non-destructive testing of thick objects. One-dimensional silicon strip (1 mm pitch) detectors are stacked to form a two-dimensional edge-on module. Each detector is connected to a 48-channel application specific integrated circuit (ASIC). The threshold-triggered events are recorded by a field programmable gate array based counter in each channel. The detector prototype is tested using 950 kV linear accelerator X-rays. The fast CR shaper (300 ns pulse width) of the ASIC makes it possible to deal with the high instant count rate during the 2 μs beam pulse. The preliminary imaging results of several metal and concrete samples are demonstrated.

  10. Status of the silicon strip high-rate FASTBUS readout system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, H.; Barsotti, E.; Bowden, M.; Christian, D.; Chramowicz, J.; Fachin, M.; Haldeman, M.; Hoff, J.; Holmes, S.; Rotolo, C.; Romero, A.; Slimmer, D.; Swoboda, C.; Trendler, R.; Urish, J.; Yarema, R.; Zimmerman, T.; Zimmermann, S.; Kowald, W.; MacManus, A.; Recagni, M.; Segal, J.; Spentzouris, P.

    1991-11-01

    Our new readout system was developed in collaboration with, and largely to the specification of, the E771 experimenters. E771 is a fixed target experiment designed to study the production of B hadrons by an 800 GeV/c proton beam. The experiment will operate at rates of up to 200 million beam protons per second and 10 million interactions per second. The experimental apparatus will consist of an open geometry magnetic spectrometer featuring good muon and electron identification (much of which was used in E705), and a compact 16000 channel Silicon Strip Detector. In order to satisfy the experimenter's desire to instrument 16000 SSD elements in a package only 5 cm wide, 5 cm high, and 21 cm deep, and in order to meet the performance specifications, we have made extensive use of ''Application Specific Integrated Circuits'' (ASIC's)

  11. Edge-TCT for the investigation of radiation damaged silicon strip sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feindt, Finn

    2017-02-15

    The edge Transient Current Technique (TCT) is a method for the investigation of silicon sensors. This method requires infrared light from a sub-ns pulsed laser to be focused to a μm-size spot and scanned across the polished cut edge of a sensor. Electron-hole pairs are generated along the light beam in the sensor. These charge carriers drift in the electric field and induce transient currents on the sensor electrodes. The current transients are analyzed as a function of the applied voltage, temperature, absorbed dose and position of the laser-light focus, in order to determine the the drift velocities, electric field and the charge collection in the strip sensor. In the scope of this work, a new edge-TCT setup is commissioned, a procedure for the polishing of the cut edge is implemented and a method to position the focus of the laser light with respect to the sensor is developed. First edge-TCT measurements are performed on non-irradiated, 285 μm thick n-type strip sensors, and the pulse shape and charge collection is studied under different conditions. Furthermore, the prompt current of the transients is extracted, which is the first step towards the determination of the electric field. A new method to measure the attenuation of light in silicon is tested on a non-irradiated sensor and on sensors irradiated with up to a 1 MeV neutron equivalent fluence of 1.14 x 10{sup 15} cm{sup -2}, using laser light with a wavelength of 1052 nm.

  12. Edge-TCT for the investigation of radiation damaged silicon strip sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feindt, Finn

    2017-02-01

    The edge Transient Current Technique (TCT) is a method for the investigation of silicon sensors. This method requires infrared light from a sub-ns pulsed laser to be focused to a μm-size spot and scanned across the polished cut edge of a sensor. Electron-hole pairs are generated along the light beam in the sensor. These charge carriers drift in the electric field and induce transient currents on the sensor electrodes. The current transients are analyzed as a function of the applied voltage, temperature, absorbed dose and position of the laser-light focus, in order to determine the the drift velocities, electric field and the charge collection in the strip sensor. In the scope of this work, a new edge-TCT setup is commissioned, a procedure for the polishing of the cut edge is implemented and a method to position the focus of the laser light with respect to the sensor is developed. First edge-TCT measurements are performed on non-irradiated, 285 μm thick n-type strip sensors, and the pulse shape and charge collection is studied under different conditions. Furthermore, the prompt current of the transients is extracted, which is the first step towards the determination of the electric field. A new method to measure the attenuation of light in silicon is tested on a non-irradiated sensor and on sensors irradiated with up to a 1 MeV neutron equivalent fluence of 1.14 x 10"1"5 cm"-"2, using laser light with a wavelength of 1052 nm.

  13. The PASTA chip - A free-running readout ASIC for silicon strip sensors in PANDA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goerres, Andre; Stockmanns, Tobias; Ritman, James [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, Juelich (Germany); Rivetti, Angelo [INFN Sezione di Torino, Torino (Italy); Collaboration: PANDA-Collaboration

    2014-07-01

    The PANDA experiment is a multi purpose detector, investigating hadron physics in the charm quark mass regime. It is one of the main experiments at the future FAIR accelerator facility, using pp annihilations from a 1.5-15 GeV/c anti-proton beam. Because of the broad physics spectrum and the similarity of event and background signals, PANDA does not rely on a hardware-level trigger decision. The innermost of PANDA's sub-systems is the Micro Vertex Detector (MVD), consisting of silicon pixel and strip sensors. The latter will be read out by a specialized, free-running readout front-end called PANDA Strip ASIC (PASTA). It has to face a high event rate of up to 40 kHz/ch in an radiation-intense environment. To fulfill the MVD's requirements, it has to give accurate timing information to incoming events (<10 ns) and determine the collected charge with an 8-bit precision. The design has to meet cooling and placing restrictions, leading to a very low power consumption (<4 mW/ch) and limited dimensions. Therefore, a simple, time-based readout approach is chosen. In this talk, the conceptual design of the front-end is presented.

  14. The PASTA chip. A free-running readout ASIC for silicon strip sensors in PANDA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goerres, Andre; Stockmanns, Tobias; Ritman, James [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Juelich (Germany); Rivetti, Angelo [INFN Sezione di Torino, Torino (Italy); Collaboration: PANDA-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The PANDA experiment is a multi purpose detector, investigating hadron physics in the charm quark mass regime. It is one of the main experiments at the future FAIR accelerator facility, using anti pp annihilations from a 1.5-15 GeV/c anti-proton beam. Because of the broad physics spectrum and the similarity of event and background signals, PANDA does an event selection based on the complete raw data of the detector. The innermost of PANDA's sub-systems is the Micro Vertex Detector (MVD), consisting of silicon pixel and strip sensors. The latter will be read out by a specialized, free-running readout front-end called PANDA Strip ASIC (PASTA). It has to face a high event rate of up to 40 kHz/ch in an radiation-intense environment. To fulfill the MVD's requirements, it has to give accurate timing information to incoming events (<10 ns) and determine the collected charge with an 8-bit precision. All this has to be done with a very low power design (<4 mW/ch) on a small footprint with less than 21 mm{sup 2} and 60 μm input pitch for 64 channels per chip. Therefore, a simple, time-based readout approach with two independent thresholds is chosen. In this talk, the conceptual design of the full front-end and some aspects of the digital part are presented.

  15. Ion-implanted capacitively coupled silicon strip detectors with integrated polysilicon bias resistors processed on a 100 mm wafer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hietanen, I.; Lindgren, J.; Orava, R.; Tuuva, T.; Voutilainen, M.; Brenner, R.; Andersson, M.; Leinonen, K.; Ronkainen, H.

    1991-01-01

    Double-sided silicon strip detectors with integrated coupling capacitors and polysilicon resistors have been processed on a 100 mm wafer. A detector with an active area of 19x19 mm 2 was connected to LSI readout electronics and tested. The strip pitch of the detector is 25 μm on the p-side and 50 μm on the n-side. The readout pitch is 50 μm on both sides. The number of readout strips is 774 and the total number of strips is 1161. On the p-side a signal-to-noise of 35 has been measured using a 90 Sr β-source. The n-side has been studied using a laser. (orig.)

  16. The End-Of-Substructure Card for the ATLAS ITk Strip Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Goettlicher, Peter; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The End-Of-Substructure Card (EoS) is the interface between the building block of the ITk Strip Tracker (staves and petals) and the outside world. In the ITk the modules consisting of the silicon sensor itself and the hybrids with the readout ASICS are placed on a common structure called a stave (in the barrel) and petal (in the end-cap). All module use a common bus-tape co-cured to carbon-fiber based structure to distribute power and signals. The data lines and command lines are then connected from the bus-tape to EoS. The power, both low and high voltage, are also distributed via the bus tape and coonected to the EoS. All these connections will be made using wire-bonds. The card concept is build around using the lpGBT chip set and the VTRx optical link, both common developments for the LHC Upgrades. The command signals will be coming in on a 10 Gbit/s link and will be de-multiplexed by the lpGBt and send to the stave/petal. The incoming data from the sensor, which depending on the type of stave or petal wil...

  17. The ITk strips tracker for the phase-II upgrade of the ATLAS detector of the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Koutoulaki, Afroditi; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The inner detector of the present ATLAS detector has been designed and developed to function in the environment of the present Large Hadron Collider (LHC). At the next-generation tracking detector proposed for the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), the so-called ATLAS Phase-II Upgrade, the particle densities and radiation levels will be higher by as much as a factor of ten. The new detectors must be faster, they need to be more highly segmented, and covering more area. They also need to be more resistant to radiation, and they require much greater power delivery to the front-end systems. At the same time, they cannot introduce excess material which could undermine performance. For those reasons, the inner tracker of the ATLAS detector must be redesigned and rebuilt completely. The design of the ATLAS Upgrade inner tracker (ITk) has already been defined. It consists of several layers of silicon particle detectors. The innermost layers will be composed of silicon pixel sensors, and the outer layers will consist of s...

  18. Integration of the End Cap TEC+ of the CMS Silicon Strip Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Bremer, Richard; Feld, Lutz

    2008-01-01

    At the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) ne ar Geneva the new proton-proton collider ring LHC and the experiments that will be operated a t this accelerator are currently being finalised. Among these experiments is the multi-purpose det ector CMS whose aim it is to discover and investigate new physical phenomena that might become ac cessible by virtue of the high center- of-mass energy and luminosity of the LHC. Two of the most inte nsively studied possibilities are the discovery of the Higgs Boson and of particles from the spectr um of supersymmetric extensions of the Standard Model. CMS is the first large experiment of high- energy particle physics whose inner tracking system is exclusively instrumented with silicon d etector modules. This tracker comprises 15 148 silicon strip modules enclosing the interaction poin t in 10–12 layers. The 1. Physikalisches Institut B of RWTH Aachen was deeply involved in the completi on of the end caps of the tracking system. The institute played a leading...

  19. System tests with silicon strip module prototypes for the Phase-2-upgrade of the CMS tracker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feld, Lutz; Karpinski, Waclaw; Klein, Katja; Preuten, Marius [I. Physikalisches Institut B, RWTH Aachen University (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    To prepare the CMS experiment for the High Luminosity LHC and its instantaneous luminosity of 5 . 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}, in the Long Shutdown 3 (around 2024) the CMS Silicon Tracker will be replaced. The Silicon Strip Modules for the new Tracker will host two vertically stacked sensors. The combination of hit information from both sensors will allow the estimation of the transverse momentum (p{sub T}) of charged particles in the module front-end. This can be used to identify hits from potential interesting high-p{sub T} tracks (above 2 GeV) for the first trigger level. The CMS Binary Chip (CBC) provides the analogue readout of two sensors and a digital section, into which the momentum discrimination is integrated. The modules will host a new DC-DC converter chain, which will allow individual powering of each module. First measurements with early prototypes on the interplay between DC-DC powering and the read-out functions of the module are presented in this talk.

  20. Evaluation of Bulk and Surface Radiation Damage of Silicon Sensors for the ATLAS Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Mikeštíková, Marcela; Št'astný, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The electrical characteristics of different types of end-cap miniature n + -in- p strip sensors, ATLAS12A, were evaluated in Institute of Physics in Prague before and after proton and gamma irradiation. We report here on the bulk damage aspects, including the increase of leakage current and evaluation of the full depletion voltage and the surface damage, including the decrease of inter-strip resistance, changes in inter-strip capacitance and the effectiveness of punch-through protection structure. It was verified that different geometries of end-cap sensors do not influence their stability; the sensors should provide acceptable strip isolation and n ew gate PTP structure functions well even at the highest tested proton fluence 2× 10 15 n eq / cm 2

  1. Building a Stereo-angle into strip-sensors for the ATLAS-Upgrade Inner-Tracker Endcaps

    CERN Document Server

    Hessey, NP; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The Strips Endcap detector for the ATLAS Upgrade needs several sensor shapes, each of which is approximately a wedge shape like the current SCT. For the Endcap to use a stave-like approach as proposed for the barrel, care is needed to design the shapes to avoid clashes and minimise gaps between them. This note gives the basic formulae for one way of building up a petal. It allows for a stereo-angle to be built into the wafer, and takes into account the maximum usable wafer size.

  2. Design and test of a prototype silicon detector module for ATLAS Semiconductor Tracker endcaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, A.G.; Donega, M.; D'Onofrio, M.

    2005-01-01

    The ATLAS Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) will be a central part of the tracking system of the ATLAS experiment. The SCT consists of four concentric barrels of silicon detectors as well as two silicon endcap detectors formed by nine disks each. The layout of the forward silicon detector module presented in this paper is based on the approved layout of the silicon detectors of the SCT, their geometry and arrangement in disks, but uses otherwise components identical to the barrel modules of the SCT. The module layout is optimized for excellent thermal management and electrical performance, while keeping the assembly simple and adequate for a large scale module production. This paper summarizes the design and layout of the module and present results of a limited prototype production, which has been extensively tested in the laboratory and testbeam. The module design was not finally adopted for series production because a dedicated forward hybrid layout was pursued

  3. Development of a multi-channel front-end electronics module based on ASIC for silicon strip array detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xingwen; Yan Duo; Su Hong; Qian Yi; Kong Jie; Zhang Xueheng; Li Zhankui; Li Haixia

    2014-01-01

    The silicon strip array detector is one of external target facility subsystems in the Cooling Storage Ring on the Heavy Ion Research Facility at Lanzhou (HIRFL-CSR). Using the ASICs, the front-end electronics module has been developed for the silicon strip array detectors and can implement measurement of energy of 96 channels. The performance of the front-end electronics module has been tested. The energy linearity of the front-end electronics module is better than 0.3% for the dynamic range of 0.1∼0.7 V. The energy resolution is better than 0.45%. The maximum channel crosstalk is better than 10%. The channel consistency is better than 1.3%. After continuously working for 24 h at room temperature, the maximum drift of the zero-peak is 1.48 mV. (authors)

  4. Non-invasive characterization and quality assurance of silicon micro-strip detectors using pulsed infrared laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, P.

    2016-01-01

    The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at FAIR is composed of 8 tracking stations consisting of roughly 1300 double sided silicon micro-strip detectors of 3 different dimensions. For the quality assurance of prototype micro-strip detectors a non-invasive detector charaterization is developed. The test system is using a pulsed infrared laser for charge injection and characterization, called Laser Test System (LTS). The system is aimed to develop a set of characterization procedures which are non-invasive (non-destructive) in nature and could be used for quality assurances of several silicon micro-strip detectors in an efficient, reliable and reproducible way. The procedures developed (as reported here) uses the LTS to scan sensors with a pulsed infra-red laser driven by step motor to determine the charge sharing in-between strips and to measure qualitative uniformity of the sensor response over the whole active area. The prototype detector modules which are tested with the LTS so far have 1024 strips with a pitch of 58 μm on each side. They are read-out using a self-triggering prototype read-out electronic ASIC called n-XYTER. The LTS is designed to measure sensor response in an automatized procedure at several thousand positions across the sensor with focused infra-red laser light (spot size ≈ 12 μm, wavelength = 1060 nm). The pulse with a duration of ≈ 10 ns and power ≈ 5 mW of the laser pulse is selected such, that the absorption of the laser light in the 300 μm thick silicon sensor produces ≈ 24000 electrons, which is similar to the charge created by minimum ionizing particles (MIP) in these sensors. The laser scans different prototype sensors and various non-invasive techniques to determine characteristics of the detector modules for the quality assurance is reported.

  5. A novel ultra-low carbon grain oriented silicon steel produced by twin-roll strip casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yang, E-mail: wy069024019@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Rolling and Automation, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Zhang, Yuan-Xiang; Lu, Xiang; Fang, Feng; Xu, Yun-Bo; Cao, Guang-Ming; Li, Cheng-Gang [State Key Laboratory of Rolling and Automation, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Misra, R.D.K. [Laboratory for Excellence in Advanced Steel Research, Department of Metallurgical, Materials and Biomedical Engineering, University of Texas at El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Wang, Guo-Dong [State Key Laboratory of Rolling and Automation, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China)

    2016-12-01

    A novel ultra-low carbon grain oriented silicon steel was successfully produced by strip casting and two-stage cold rolling method. The microstructure, texture and precipitate evolution under different first cold rolling reduction were investigated. It was shown that the as-cast strip was mainly composed of equiaxed grains and characterized by very weak Goss texture ({110}<001>) and λ-fiber (<001>//ND). The coarse sulfides of size ~100 nm were precipitated at grain boundaries during strip casting, while nitrides remained in solution in the as-cast strip and the fine AlN particles of size ~20–50 nm, which were used as grain growth inhibitors, were formed in intermediate annealed sheet after first cold rolling. In addition, the suitable Goss nuclei for secondary recrystallization were also formed during intermediate annealing, which is totally different from the conventional process that the Goss nuclei originated in the subsurface layer of the hot rolled sheet. Furthermore, the number of AlN inhibitors and the intensity of desirable Goss texture increased with increasing first cold rolling reduction. After secondary recrystallization annealing, very large grains of size ~10–40 mm were formed and the final magnetic induction, B{sub 8}, was as high as 1.9 T. - Highlights: • A novel chemical composition base on strip casting silicon steel was proposed. • The ultra-low carbon design could shorten the processing routes. • The novel composition and processes were beneficial to obtain more inhibitors. • The magnetic induction of grain oriented silicon steel was significantly improved.

  6. Study of built-in amplifier performance on HV-CMOS sensor for the ATLAS phase-II strip tracker upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Z., E-mail: zhijun.liang@cern.ch [University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics (SCIPP) (United States); Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China); Affolder, A. [University of Liverpool (United Kingdom); Arndt, K. [University of Oxford (United Kingdom); Bates, R. [SUPA – School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Benoit, M.; Di Bello, F. [University of Geneva (Switzerland); Blue, A. [SUPA – School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Bortoletto, D. [University of Oxford (United Kingdom); Buckland, M. [University of Liverpool (United Kingdom); CERN, European Center for Nuclear Research (Switzerland); Buttar, C. [SUPA – School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Caragiulo, P. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (United States); Das, D.; Dopke, J. [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot (United Kingdom); Dragone, A. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (United States); Ehrler, F. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany); Fadeyev, V.; Galloway, Z.; Grabas, H. [University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics (SCIPP) (United States); Gregor, I.M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (Germany); Grenier, P. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (United States); and others

    2016-09-21

    This paper focuses on the performance of analog readout electronics (built-in amplifier) integrated on the high-voltage (HV) CMOS silicon sensor chip, as well as its radiation hardness. Since the total collected charge from minimum ionizing particle (MIP) for the CMOS sensor is 10 times lower than for a conventional planar sensor, it is crucial to integrate a low noise built-in amplifier on the sensor chip to improve the signal to noise ratio of the system. As part of the investigation for the ATLAS strip detector upgrade, a test chip that comprises several pixel arrays with different geometries, as well as standalone built-in amplifiers and built-in amplifiers in pixel arrays has been fabricated in a 0.35 μm high-voltage CMOS process. Measurements of the gain and the noise of both the standalone amplifiers and built-in amplifiers in pixel arrays were performed before and after gamma radiation of up to 60 Mrad. Of special interest is the variation of the noise as a function of the sensor capacitance. We optimized the configuration of the amplifier for a fast rise time to adapt to the LHC bunch crossing period of 25 ns, and measured the timing characteristics including jitter. Our results indicate an adequate amplifier performance for monolithic structures used in HV-CMOS technology. The results have been incorporated in the next submission of a large-structure chip.

  7. P-stop isolation study of irradiated n-in-p type silicon strip sensors for harsh radiation environment

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2084505

    2015-01-01

    In order to determine the most radiation hard silicon sensors for the CMS Experiment after the Phase II Upgrade in 2023 a comprehensive study of silicon sensors after a fluence of up to $1.5\\times10^{15} n_{eq}/cm^{2}$ corresponding to $3000 fb^{-1}$ after the HL-LHC era has been carried out. The results led to the decision that the future Outer Tracker (20~cm${<}R{<}$110~cm) of CMS will consist of n-in-p type sensors. This technology is more radiation hard but also the manufacturing is more challenging compared to p-in-n type sensors due to additional process steps in order to suppress the accumulation of electrons between the readout strips. One possible isolation technique of adjacent strips is the p-stop structure which is a p-type material implantation with a certain pattern for each individual strip. However, electrical breakdown and charge collection studies indicate that the process parameters of the p-stop structure have to be carefully calibrated in order to achieve a sufficient strip isolatio...

  8. ATLAS irradiation studies of n-in-n and p-in-n silicon microstrip detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Allport, P P; Buttar, C M; Carter, J; Drage, L M; Ferrère, D; Morgan, D; Riedler, P; Robinson, D

    1999-01-01

    Prior to the module production of the ATLAS silicon microstrip tracker for the barrel and the forward wheels, the characterisation of full-size prototype silicon detectors after radiation to fluences corresponding to 10 years of ATLAS operation is required. The behaviour of p-in-n and n-in-n detectors produced by several manufacturers before and after irradiation to a fluence of 3*10/sup 14/ protons/cm/sup 2/ at the CERN PS facility is discussed. This article summarises some recent results from the ATLAS SCT collaboration. The measurements of leakage current, full depletion voltage, signal-to-noise ratio and charge collection efficiency are presented. Despite the better efficiency performance of n-in-n detectors below depletion, the collaboration chose the p-in-n technology due to its simpler and less costly production since good charge collection efficiencies were achieved at the desired maximum bias voltage. (14 refs).

  9. Development of fluorocarbon evaporative cooling recirculators and controls for the ATLAS inner silicon tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Bayer, C; Bonneau, P; Bosteels, Michel; Burckhart, H J; Cragg, D; English, R; Hallewell, G D; Hallgren, Björn I; Ilie, S; Kersten, S; Kind, P; Langedrag, K; Lindsay, S; Merkel, M; Stapnes, Steinar; Thadome, J; Vacek, V

    2000-01-01

    We report on the development of evaporative fluorocarbon cooling recirculators and their control systems for the ATLAS inner silicon tracker. We have developed a prototype circulator using a dry, hermetic compressor with C/sub 3/F/sup 8/ refrigerant, and have prototyped the remote-control analog pneumatic links for the regulation of coolant mass flows and operating temperatures that will be necessary in the magnetic field and radiation environment around ATLAS. pressure and flow measurement and control use 150+ channels of standard ATLAS LMB ("Local Monitor Board") DAQ and DACs on a multi-drop CAN network administered through a BridgeVIEW user interface. A hardwired thermal interlock system has been developed to cut power to individual silicon modules should their temperatures exceed safe values. Highly satisfactory performance of the circulator under steady state, partial-load and transient conditions was seen, with proportional fluid flow tuned to varying circuit power. Future developments, including a 6 kW...

  10. Characterization and calibration of radiation-damaged double-sided silicon strip detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaya, L. [Institut für Kernphysik, Universität zu Köln, D-50937 Köln (Germany); Vogt, A., E-mail: andreas.vogt@ikp.uni-koeln.de [Institut für Kernphysik, Universität zu Köln, D-50937 Köln (Germany); Reiter, P.; Birkenbach, B.; Hirsch, R.; Arnswald, K.; Hess, H.; Seidlitz, M.; Steinbach, T.; Warr, N.; Wolf, K. [Institut für Kernphysik, Universität zu Köln, D-50937 Köln (Germany); Stahl, C.; Pietralla, N. [Institut für Kernphysik, Technische Universität Darmstadt, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Limböck, T.; Meerholz, K. [Physikalische Chemie, Universität zu Köln, D-50939 Köln (Germany); Lutter, R. [Maier-Leibnitz-Laboratorium, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2017-05-21

    Double-sided silicon strip detectors (DSSSD) are commonly used for event-by-event identification of charged particles as well as the reconstruction of particle trajectories in nuclear physics experiments with stable and radioactive beams. Intersecting areas of both p- and n-doped front- and back-side segments form individual virtual pixel segments allowing for a high detector granularity. DSSSDs are employed in demanding experimental environments and have to withstand high count rates of impinging nuclei. The illumination of the detector is often not homogeneous. Consequently, radiation damage of the detector is distributed non-uniformly. Position-dependent incomplete charge collection due to radiation damage limits the performance and lifetime of the detectors, the response of different channels may vary drastically. Position-resolved charge-collection losses between front- and back-side segments are investigated in an in-beam experiment and by performing radioactive source measurements. A novel position-resolved calibration method based on mutual consistency of p-side and n-side charges yields a significant enhancement of the energy resolution and the performance of radiation-damaged parts of the detector.

  11. Fast CMOS binary front-end for silicon strip detectors at LHC experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Kaplon, Jan

    2004-01-01

    We present the design and the test results of a front-end circuit developed in a 0.25 mu m CMOS technology. The aim of this work is to study the performance of a deep submicron process in applications for fast binary front-end for silicon strip detectors. The channel comprises a fast transimpedance preamplifier working with an active feedback loop, two stages of the amplifier-integrator circuits providing 22 ns peaking time and two-stage differential discriminator. Particular effort has been made to minimize the current and the power consumption of the preamplifier, while keeping the required noise and timing performance. For a detector capacitance of 20 pF noise below 1500 e/sup -/ ENC has been achieved for 300 mu A bias current in the input transistor, which is comparable with levels achieved in the past for a front-end using bipolar input transistor. The total supply current of the front-end is 600 mu A and the power dissipation is 1.5 mW per channel. The offset spread of the comparator is below 3 mV rms.

  12. Lithium analysis using a double-sided silicon strip detector at LIBAF

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Rosa, Nathaly; Kristiansson, Per; Nilsson, E. J. Charlotta; Ros, Linus; Elfman, Mikael; Pallon, Jan

    2017-08-01

    Quantification and mapping possibilities of lithium in geological material, by Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA), was evaluated at the Lund Ion Beam Analysis Facility (LIBAF). LiF and two Standard Reference Materials, (SRM 610 and SRM 612) were used in the investigation. The main part of the data was obtained at the beam energy 635 keV studying the high Q-value reaction 7Li(p, α)4He, but reaction yield and detection limits were also briefly investigated as a function of the energy. A double-sided silicon strip detector (DSSSD) was used to detect the α -particles emitted in the reaction in the backward direction. The combination of the high Q-value, a reasonably good cross-section and the possibility to use a high beam current have been demonstrated to allow for measurement of concentrations down below 50 ppm. Proton energies below 800 keV were demonstrated to be appropriate energies for extracting lithium in combination with boron analysis.

  13. Development of double-sided silicon strip detectors (DSSD) for a Compton telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Shin'ichiro; Watanabe, Shin; Tanaka, Takaaki; Nakazawa, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Yasuda, Hajimu; Tajima, Hiroyasu; Kuroda, Yoshikatsu; Onishi, Mitsunobu; Genba, Kei

    2007-01-01

    The low noise double-sided silicon strip detector (DSSD) technology is used to construct a next generation Compton telescope which is required to have both high-energy resolution and high-Compton reconstruction efficiency. In this paper, we present the result of a newly designed stacked DSSD module with high-energy resolution in highly packed mechanical structure. The system is designed to obtain good P-side and N-side noise performance by means of DC-coupled read-out. Since there are no decoupling capacitors in front-end electronics before the read-out ASICs, a high density stacked module with a pitch of 2 mm can be constructed. By using a prototype with four-layer of DSSDs with an area of 2.56cmx2.56cm, we have succeeded to operate the system. The energy resolution at 59.5 keV is measured to be 1.6 keV (FWHM) for the P-side and 2.8 keV (FWHM) for the N-side, respectively. In addition to the DSSD used in the prototype, a 4 cm wide DSSD with a thickness of 300μm is also developed. With this device, an energy resolution of 1.5 keV (FWHM) was obtained. A method to model the detector energy response to properly handle split events is also discussed

  14. Integration of the end cap TEC+ of the CMS silicon strip tracker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bremer, Richard

    2008-04-28

    CMS is the first large experiment of high-energy particle physics whose inner tracking system is exclusively instrumented with silicon detector modules. This tracker comprises 15 148 silicon strip modules enclosing the interaction point in 10-12 layers. The 1. Physikalisches Institut B of RWTH Aachen was deeply involved in the completion of the end caps of the tracking system. The institute played a leading role in the end cap design, produced virtually all support structures and several important electrical components, designed and built the laser alignment system of the tracker, performed system tests and finally integrated one of the two end caps in Aachen. This integration constitutes the central part of the present thesis work. The main focus was on the development of methods to recognise defects early in the integration process and to assert the detector's functionality. Characteristic quantities such as the detector noise or the optical gain of the readout chain were determined during integration as well as during a series of tests performed after transport of the end cap from Aachen to CERN. The procedures followed during the mechanical integration of the detector and during the commissioning of integrated sectors are explained, and the software packages developed for quality assurance are described. In addition, results of the detector readout are presented. During the integration phase, sub-structures of the end cap - named petals - were subjected to a reception test which has also been designed and operated as part of this thesis work. The test setup and software developed for the test are introduced and an account of the analysis of the recorded data is given. Before the end cap project entered the production phase, a final test beam experiment was performed in which the suitability of a system of two fully equipped petals for operation at the LHC was checked. The measured ratio of the signal induced in the silicon sensors by minimal ionising

  15. Integration of the end cap TEC+ of the CMS silicon strip tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bremer, Richard

    2008-01-01

    CMS is the first large experiment of high-energy particle physics whose inner tracking system is exclusively instrumented with silicon detector modules. This tracker comprises 15 148 silicon strip modules enclosing the interaction point in 10-12 layers. The 1. Physikalisches Institut B of RWTH Aachen was deeply involved in the completion of the end caps of the tracking system. The institute played a leading role in the end cap design, produced virtually all support structures and several important electrical components, designed and built the laser alignment system of the tracker, performed system tests and finally integrated one of the two end caps in Aachen. This integration constitutes the central part of the present thesis work. The main focus was on the development of methods to recognise defects early in the integration process and to assert the detector's functionality. Characteristic quantities such as the detector noise or the optical gain of the readout chain were determined during integration as well as during a series of tests performed after transport of the end cap from Aachen to CERN. The procedures followed during the mechanical integration of the detector and during the commissioning of integrated sectors are explained, and the software packages developed for quality assurance are described. In addition, results of the detector readout are presented. During the integration phase, sub-structures of the end cap - named petals - were subjected to a reception test which has also been designed and operated as part of this thesis work. The test setup and software developed for the test are introduced and an account of the analysis of the recorded data is given. Before the end cap project entered the production phase, a final test beam experiment was performed in which the suitability of a system of two fully equipped petals for operation at the LHC was checked. The measured ratio of the signal induced in the silicon sensors by minimal ionising particles

  16. ATLAS ITk Short Strip Prototype Module with Integrated DCDC Powering and Control Phase II Upgrade of the ATLAS Inner Tracker detector at the HL - LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Greenall, Ashley; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The prototype Barrel module design, for the Phase II upgrade of the of the new Inner Tracker (ITk) detector at the LHC, has adopted an integrated low mass assembly featuring single-sided flexible circuits, with readout ASICs, glued to the silicon strip sensor. Further integration has been achieved by the attachment of module DCDC powering, HV sensor biasing switch and autonomous monitoring and control to the sensor. This low mass, integrated module approach benefits further in a reduced width stave structure to which the modules are attached. The results of preliminary electrical tests of such an integrated module will be presented.

  17. One dimensional detector for X-ray diffraction with superior energy resolution based on silicon strip detector technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dąbrowski, W; Fiutowski, T; Wiącek, P; Fink, J; Krane, H-G

    2012-01-01

    1-D position sensitive X-ray detectors based on silicon strip detector technology have become standard instruments in X-ray diffraction and are available from several vendors. As these devices have been proven to be very useful and efficient further improvement of their performance is investigated. The silicon strip detectors in X-ray diffraction are primarily used as counting devices and the requirements concerning the spatial resolution, dynamic range and count rate capability are of primary importance. However, there are several experimental issues in which a good energy resolution is important. The energy resolution of silicon strip detectors is limited by the charge sharing effects in the sensor as well as by noise of the front-end electronics. The charge sharing effects in the sensor and various aspects of the electronics, including the baseline fluctuations, which affect the energy resolution, have been analyzed in detail and a new readout concept has been developed. A front-end ASIC with a novel scheme of baseline restoration and novel interstrip logic circuitry has been designed. The interstrip logic is used to reject the events resulting in significant charge sharing between neighboring strips. At the expense of rejecting small fraction of photons entering the detector one can obtain single strip energy spectra almost free of charge sharing effects. In the paper we present the design considerations and measured performance of the detector being developed. The electronic noise of the system at room temperature is typically of the order of 70 el rms for 17 mm long silicon strips and a peaking time of about 1 μs. The energy resolution of 600 eV FWHM has been achieved including the non-reducible charge sharing effects and the electronic noise. This energy resolution is sufficient to address a common problem in X-ray diffraction, i.e. electronic suppression of the fluorescence radiation from samples containing iron or cobalt while irradiated with 8.04 ke

  18. ATLAS strip detector: Operational Experience and Run1 → Run2 transition

    CERN Document Server

    NAGAI, K; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS SCT operational experience and the detector performance during the RUN1 period of LHC will be reported. Additionally the preparation outward to RUN2 during the long shut down 1 will be mentioned.

  19. Construction of the new silicon microstrips tracker for the Phase-II ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Liang, Zhijun; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The inner detector of the present ATLAS detector has been designed and developed to function in the environment of the present Large Hadron Collider (LHC). At the next-generation tracking detector proposed for the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), the so-called ATLAS Phase-II Upgrade, the particle densities and radiation levels will be higher by as much as a factor of ten. The new detectors must be faster, they need to be more highly segmented, and covering more area. They also need to be more resistant to radiation, and they require much greater power delivery to the front-end systems. For those reasons, the inner tracker of the ATLAS detector must be redesigned and rebuilt completely. The design of the ATLAS Upgrade inner tracker (ITk) has already been defined. It consists of several layers of silicon particle detectors. The innermost layers will be composed of silicon pixel sensors, and the outer layers will consist of silicon microstrip sensors. This paper will focus on the latest research and development act...

  20. Electromagnetic noise studies in a silicon strip detector, used as part of a luminosity monitor at LEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oedegaard, T.; Tafjord, H.; Buran, T.

    1994-12-01

    As part of the luminosity monitor SAT in the DELPHI experiment at CERN's Large Electron Positron collider, a tracking detector constructed from silicon strip detector elements was installed in front of an electromagnetic calorimeter. The luminosity was measured by counting the number of Bhabha events at the interaction point of the electron and the positron beams. The tracking detector reconstructs tracks from the interaction point and the calorimeter measures the corresponding particles' energies.The SAT Tracker consists of 504 silicon strip detectors. The strips are DC-coupled to CMOS VLSI-chips, baptized Balder. The chip performs amplification, zero-suppression, digitalisation, and multiplexing. The requirements of good space resolution and high efficiency put strong requirements on noise control. A short description of the geometry and the relevant circuit layout is given. The authors describe the efforts made to minimise the electromagnetic noise in the detector and present some numbers of the noise level using various techniques. 11 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  1. Characterisation of edgeless technologies for pixellated and strip silicon detectors with a micro-focused X-ray beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, R.; Blue, A.; Christophersen, M.; Eklund, L.; Ely, S.; Fadeyev, V.; Gimenez, E.; Kachkanov, V.; Kalliopuska, J.; Macchiolo, A.; Maneuski, D.; Phlips, B. F.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Stewart, G.; Tartoni, N.; Zain, R. M.

    2013-01-01

    Reduced edge or ``edgeless'' detector design offers seamless tileability of sensors for a wide range of applications from particle physics to synchrotron and free election laser (FEL) facilities and medical imaging. Combined with through-silicon-via (TSV) technology, this would allow reduced material trackers for particle physics and an increase in the active area for synchrotron and FEL pixel detector systems. In order to quantify the performance of different edgeless fabrication methods, 2 edgeless detectors were characterized at the Diamond Light Source using an 11 μm FWHM 15 keV micro-focused X-ray beam. The devices under test were: a 150 μm thick silicon active edge pixel sensor fabricated at VTT and bump-bonded to a Medipix2 ROIC; and a 300 μm thick silicon strip sensor fabricated at CIS with edge reduction performed by SCIPP and the NRL and wire bonded to an ALiBaVa readout system. Sub-pixel resolution of the 55 μm active edge pixels was achieved. Further scans showed no drop in charge collection recorded between the centre and edge pixels, with a maximum deviation of 5% in charge collection between scanned edge pixels. Scans across the cleaved and standard guard ring edges of the strip detector also show no reduction in charge collection. These results indicate techniques such as the scribe, cleave and passivate (SCP) and active edge processes offer real potential for reduced edge, tiled sensors for imaging detection applications.

  2. Construction and Quality Assurance of Large Area Resistive Strip Micromegas for the Upgrade of the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Losel, Philipp Jonathan; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    To cope with the increased background induced hit rate of up to ~15 kHz/cm$^2$ in the innermost stations of the muon endcap system of the ATLAS experiment after the high-luminosity upgrade of the LHC, the currently used precision detectors will be replaced by resistive strip Micromegas in 2019. In the "New Small Wheel" the Micromegas will be arranged in two times four detection layers built of trapezoidally shaped quadruplets of four different sizes.The Micromegas quadruplets will consist of 5 panels, 3 drift panels and 2 readout panels, made of aluminum honeycomb core sandwiched by printed circuit boards (PCBs). To achieve 15% transverse momentum resolution for 1 TeV muons and thus a spatial resolution in a single plane of about 100 $\\mu$m, each active plane has to have an accuracy of 80 $\\mu$m perpendicular to the plane and the alignment of the readout strips on the individual PCBs and particularly the alignment within a quadruplet must fulfill a challenging precision of 30 $\\mu$m. The required mechanical p...

  3. Numerical Simulation of a Novel Sensing Approach Based on Abnormal Blocking by Periodic Grating Strips near the Silicon Wire Waveguide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Tsarev

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the physical nature and the numerical modeling of a novel approach of periodic structures for applications as photonic sensors. The sensing is based on the high sensitivity to the cover index change of the notch wavelength. This sensitivity is due to the effect of abnormal blocking of the guided wave propagating along the silicon wire with periodic strips overhead it through the silica buffer. The structure sensing is numerically modeled by 2D and 3D finite difference time domain (FDTD method, taking into account the waveguide dispersion. The modeling of the long structures (more than 1000 strips is accomplished by the 2D method of lines (MoL with a maximal implementation of the analytical feature of the method. It is proved that the effect of abnormal blocking could be used for the construction of novel types of optical sensors.

  4. Noise characterization of silicon strip detectors-comparison of sensors with and without integrated jfet source-follower.

    CERN Document Server

    Giacomini, Gabriele

    Noise is often the main factor limiting the performance of detector systems. In this work a detailed study of the noise contributions in different types of silicon microstrip sensors is carried on. We investigate three sensors with double-sided readout fabricated by different suppliers for the ALICE experiment at the CERN LHC, in addition to detectors including an integrated JFET Source-Follower as a first signal conditioning stage. The latter have been designed as an attempt at improving the performance when very long strips, obtained by gangling together several sensors, are required. After a description of the strip sensors and of their operation, the “static” characterization measurements performed on them (current and capacitance versus voltage and/or frequency) are illustrated and interpreted. Numerical device simulation has been employed as an aid in interpreting some of the measurement results. The commonly used models for expressing the noise of the detector-amplifier system in terms of its relev...

  5. Hadron-therapy beam monitoring: Towards a new generation of ultra-thin p-type silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouterfa, M.; Aouadi, K.; Bertrand, D.; Olbrechts, B.; Delamare, R.; Raskin, J. P.; Gil, E. C.; Flandre, D.

    2011-01-01

    Hadron-therapy has gained increasing interest for cancer treatment especially within the last decade. System commissioning and quality assurance procedures impose to monitor the particle beam using 2D dose measurements. Nowadays, several monitoring systems exist for hadron-therapy but all show a relatively high influence on the beam properties: indeed, most devices consist of several layers of materials that degrade the beam through scattering and energy losses. For precise treatment purposes, ultra-thin silicon strip detectors are investigated in order to reduce this beam scattering. We assess the beam size increase provoked by the Multiple Coulomb Scattering when passing through Si, to derive a target thickness. Monte-Carlo based simulations show a characteristic scattering opening angle lower than 1 mrad for thicknesses below 20 μm. We then evaluated the fabrication process feasibility. We successfully thinned down silicon wafers to thicknesses lower than 10 μm over areas of several cm 2 . Strip detectors are presently being processed and they will tentatively be thinned down to 20 μm. Moreover, two-dimensional TCAD simulations were carried out to investigate the beam detector performances on p-type Si substrates. Additionally, thick and thin substrates have been compared thanks to electrical simulations. Reducing the pitch between the strips increases breakdown voltage, whereas leakage current is quite insensitive to strips geometrical configuration. The samples are to be characterized as soon as possible in one of the IBA hadron-therapy facilities. For hadron-therapy, this would represent a considerable step forward in terms of treatment precision. (authors)

  6. Simulation of thermal properties of the silicon detector modules in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Duerdoth, I P; Yuldashev, B S

    2002-01-01

    The temperature distribution and power flow from cell on the Silicon Module of the Forward Semiconductor Tracker in the ATLAS experiment have been simulated for irradiated detector. Power generated by conduction was compared for the modules with one and two cooling points. To obtain an optimal cooling temperature, the temperature of the hottest cell was plotted against power on the silicon module. The analysis of the approximation function and values for the critical power for each cooling temperature are presented. The optimal value of the cooling temperature occurred to be 260 K. (author)

  7. Beam tests of lead tungstate crystal matrices and a silicon strip preshower detector for the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Auffray, Etiennette; Barney, D; Bassompierre, Gabriel; Benhammou, Ya; Blick, A M; Bloch, P; Bonamy, P; Bourotte, J; Buiron, L; Cavallari, F; Chipaux, Rémi; Cockerill, D J A; Dafinei, I; Davies, G; Depasse, P; Deiters, K; Diemoz, M; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Donskov, S V; Mamouni, H E; Ercoli, C; Faure, J L; Felcini, Marta; Gautheron, F; Géléoc, M; Givernaud, Alain; Gninenko, S N; Godinovic, N; Graham, D J; Guillaud, J P; Guschin, E; Haguenauer, Maurice; Hillemanns, H; Hofer, H; Ille, B; Inyakin, A V; Jääskeläinen, S; Katchanov, V A; Kirn, T; Kloukinas, Kostas C; Korzhik, M V; Lassila-Perini, K M; Lebrun, P; Lecoq, P; Lecoeur, Gérard; Lecomte, P; Leonardi, E; Locci, E; Loos, R; Longo, E; MacKay, C K; Martin, E; Mendiburu, J P; Musienko, Yu V; Nédélec, P; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Organtini, G; Paoletti, S; Pansart, J P; Peigneux, J P; Puljak, I; Qian, S; Reid, E; Renker, D; Rosowsky, A; Rosso, E; Rusack, R W; Rykaczewski, H; Schneegans, M; Seez, Christopher J; Semeniouk, I N; Shagin, P M; Sillou, D; Singovsky, A V; Sougonyaev, V; Soric, I; Verrecchia, P; Vialle, J P; Virdee, Tejinder S; Zhu, R Y

    1998-01-01

    Tests of lead tungstate crystal matrices carried out in high-energy electron beams in 1996, using new crystals, new APDs and an improved test set-up, confirm that an energy resolution of better than 0 .6% at 100 GeV can be obtained when the longitudinal uniformity of the struck crystal is adequate. Light loss measurements under low dose irradiation are reported. It is shown that there is no loss of energy resolution after irradiation and that the calibration change due to light loss can be tracked with a precision monitoring system. Finally, successuful tests with a preshower device, equipped wi th silicon strip detector readout, are described.

  8. Laser tests of silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolezal, Zdenek; Escobar, Carlos; Gadomski, Szymon; Garcia, Carmen; Gonzalez, Sergio; Kodys, Peter; Kubik, Petr; Lacasta, Carlos; Marti, Salvador; Mitsou, Vasiliki A.; Moorhead, Gareth F.; Phillips, Peter W.; Reznicek, Pavel; Slavik, Radan

    2007-01-01

    This paper collects experiences from the development of a silicon sensor laser testing setup and from tests of silicon strip modules (ATLAS End-cap SCT), pixel modules (DEPFET) and large-area diodes using semiconductor lasers. Lasers of 1060 and 680 nm wavelengths were used. A sophisticated method of focusing the laser was developed. Timing and interstrip properties of modules were measured. Analysis of optical effects involved and detailed discussion about the usability of laser testing for particle detectors are presented

  9. Signal generation in highly irradiated silicon microstrip detectors for the ATLAS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggiero, Gennaro

    2003-01-01

    Silicon detectors are the most diffused tracking devices in High Energy Physics (HEP). The reason of such success can be found in the characteristics of the material together with the existing advanced technology for the fabrication of these devices. Nevertheless in many modem HEP experiments the observation of vary rare events require data taking at high luminosity with a consequent extremely intense hadron radiation field that damages the silicon and degrades the performance of these devices. In this thesis work a detailed study of the signal generation in microstrip detectors has been produced with a special care for the ATLAS semiconductor tracker geometry. This has required a development of an appropriate setup to perform measurements with Transient Current/ Charge Technique. This has allowed studying the evolution of the signal in several microstrips detector samples irradiated at fluences covering the range expected in the ATLAS Semiconductor Tracker. For a better understanding of these measurements a powerful software package that simulates the signal generation in these devices has been developed. Moreover in this thesis it has been also shown that the degradation due to radiation in silicon detectors can be strongly reduced if the data taking is done with detectors operated at 130 K. This makes low temperature operation that benefits of the recovery of the charge collection efficiency in highly irradiated silicon detectors (also known as Lazarus effect) an optimal option for future high luminosity experiments. (author)

  10. Construction and performance of the ATLAS silicon microstrip barrel modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, T.; Apsimon, R.; Beck, G.A.; Bell, P.; Brenner, R.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Charlton, D.; Dabrowski, W.; Dorholt, O.; Ekelof, T.; Eklund, L.; Gibson, M.; Gadomski, S.; Grillo, A.; Grosse-Knetter, J.; Haber, C.; Hara, K.; Hill, J.C.; Ikegami, Y.; Iwata, Y.; Johansen, L.G.; Kohriki, T.; Macpherson, A.; McMahon, S.; Moorhead, G.; Morin, J.; Morris, J.; Morrissey, M.; Nagai, K.; Nakano, I.; Pater, J.; Pernegger, H.; Perrin, E.; Phillips, P.; Robinson, D.; Skubic, B.; Spencer, N.; Stapnes, S.; Stugu, B.; Takashima, R.; Terada, S.; Tyndel, M.; Ujiie, N.; Unno, Y.; Vos, M.

    2002-01-01

    The ATLAS Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) consists of four barrel cylinders and 18 end-cap disks. This paper describes the SCT modules of the barrel region, of which more than 2000 are about to be constructed. The module design is fixed. Its design concept is given together with the electrical, thermal and mechanical specifications. The pre-series production of the barrel modules is underway using mass-production procedures and jigs. The pre-series modules have given satisfactory performances on noise, noise occupancy, electrical as well as mechanical and thermal properties. In addition, irradiated modules were demonstrated to work successfully. Also first results from a 10-module system test are given

  11. ATLAS Strip Detector: Operational Experience and Run1-> Run2 Transition

    CERN Document Server

    Nagai, Koichi; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    Large hadron collider was operated very successfully during the Run1 and provided a lot of opportunities of physics studies. It currently has a consolidation work toward to the operation at $\\sqrt{s}=14 \\mathrm{TeV}$ in Run2. The ATLAS experiment has achieved excellent performance in Run1 operation, delivering remarkable physics results. The SemiConductor Tracker contributed to the precise measurement of momentum of charged particles. This paper describes the operation experience of the SemiConductor Tracker in Run1 and the preparation toward to the Run2 operation during the LS1.

  12. Construction and Quality Assurance of Large Area Resistive Strip Micromegas for the Upgrade of the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer at LHC/CERN

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00389527; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Large area Micromegas detectors will be employed for the first time in high-energy physics experiments. To cope with increasing background rates, associated with the steadily increasing luminosity of LHC to 10 times design luminosity, the present detector technology in the current innermost stations of the muon endcap system of the ATLAS experiment (the Small Wheel), will be replaced in 2019 by resistive strip Micromegas and small strip TGC detectors. Both technologies will provide tracking and trigger information. In the ``New Small Wheel'' the Micromegas will be arranged in eight detection layers built of trapezoidally shaped quadruplets of four different sizes covering in total about 1200\\,m$^2$ of detection plane. In order to achieve 15\\,\\% transverse momentum resolution for 1 TeV muons, a challenging mechanical precision is required in the construction of each active plane, with an alignment of the readout strips at the level of 30\\,\\textmu m along the precision coordinate and 80\\,\\textmu m perpendicular...

  13. Radiation hard silicon microstrip detectors for use in ATLAS at CERN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansen, Lars Gimmestad

    2005-07-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN (Geneva, Switzerland) will accelerate protons in colliding beams to a center of mass energy of 14 TeV at very high luminosities. The ATLAS detector is being built to explore the physics in this unprecedented energy range. Tracking of charged particles in high-energy physics (HEP) experiments requires a high spatial resolution and fast signal readout, all with as little material as possible. Silicon microstrip detectors meet these requirements well and have been chosen for the Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) which is part of the inner tracking system of ATLAS and has a total area of 61 m2. During the 10 years of operation at LHC, the total fluence received by the detectors is sufficiently large that they will suffer a severe degradation from radiation induced damage. The damage affects both the physics performance of the detectors as well as their operability and a great challenge has been to develop radiation hard detectors for this environment. An extensive irradiation programme has been carried out where detectors of various designs, including defect engineering by oxygen enriched silicon, have been irradiated to the expected fluence. A subsequent thermal annealing period is included to account for a realistic annual maintenance schedule at room temperature, during which the radiation induced defects alter the detector properties significantly. This thesis presents work that has been carried out in the Bergen ATLAS group with results both from the irradiation programme and from detector testing during the module production. (Author)

  14. Radiation hard silicon microstrip detectors for use in ATLAS at CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansen, Lars Gimmestad

    2005-06-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN (Geneva, Switzerland) will accelerate protons in colliding beams to a center of mass energy of 14 TeV at very high luminosities. The ATLAS detector is being built to explore the physics in this unprecedented energy range. Tracking of charged particles in high-energy physics (HEP) experiments requires a high spatial resolution and fast signal readout, all with as little material as possible. Silicon microstrip detectors meet these requirements well and have been chosen for the Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) which is part of the inner tracking system of ATLAS and has a total area of 61 m2. During the 10 years of operation at LHC, the total fluence received by the detectors is sufficiently large that they will suffer a severe degradation from radiation induced damage. The damage affects both the physics performance of the detectors as well as their operability and a great challenge has been to develop radiation hard detectors for this environment. An extensive irradiation programme has been carried out where detectors of various designs, including defect engineering by oxygen enriched silicon, have been irradiated to the expected fluence. A subsequent thermal annealing period is included to account for a realistic annual maintenance schedule at room temperature, during which the radiation induced defects alter the detector properties significantly. This thesis presents work that has been carried out in the Bergen ATLAS group with results both from the irradiation programme and from detector testing during the module production. (Author)

  15. Low-level determination of silicon in steels by anodic stripping voltammetry on a hanging mercury drop electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahier, A H; Lunardi, S; Nicolle, F; George, S M

    2010-10-15

    The sensitive differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV) proposed originally by Ishiyama et al. (2001) has been revised and improved to allow the accurate measurement of silicon on a hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE) instead of a glassy carbon electrode. We assessed the rate of formation of the partially reduced β-silicododecamolybdate and found that metallic mercury promotes the reaction in the presence of a large concentration of Fe(3+). The scope of the method has been broadened by carrying out the measurements in the presence of a constant amount of Fe(3+). The limit of detection (LOD) of the method described in the present paper is 100 μg Sig(-1) of steel, with a relative precision ranging from 5% to 12%. It can be further enhanced to 700 ng Sig(-1) of steel provided the weight of the sample, the dilution factors, the duration of the electrolysis and the ballast of iron are adequately revised. The tolerance to several interfering species has been examined, especially regarding Al(3+), Cr(3+) and Cr VI species. The method was validated using four low-alloy ferritic steels certified by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Its application to nickel base alloys as well as to less complicated matrixes is straightforward. It has also been successfully applied to the determination of free silicon into silicon carbide nano-powder. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Studies of ageing effects of Small-Strip Thin Gap Chambers for the Muon Spectrometer Upgrade of the ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00425540; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The instantaneous luminosity of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN will be increased by up to seven times its design value by undergoing an extensive upgrade program over the coming decade. The largest upgrade project for the ATLAS Muon System is the replacement of the present first station in the forward regions with the so-called New Small Wheels (NSWs), to be installed during the LHC long shutdown in 2019-2020. Small-Strip Thin Gap Chambers (sTGC) detectors are one chosen technology to provide fast trigger and high precision muon tracking under the high luminosity LHC conditions. The basic sTGC structure consists of a grid of gold-plated tungsten wires sandwiched between two resistive cathode planes at a small distance from the wire plane. We study ageing effects of sTGC detectors with a gas mixture of 55\\% of CO$_{2}$ and 45\\% of n-pentane. A sTGC detector was irradiated with beta-rays from a 10~mCi~$^{90}$Sr source. Three different gas flow rates were tested. We observed no deterioration on pulse height o...

  17. Studies of ageing effects of Small-Strip Thin Gap Chambers for the Muon Spectrometer Upgrade of the ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Gignac, Matthew; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The instantaneous luminosity of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN will be increased up to a factor of five with respect to the design value by undergoing an extensive upgrade program over the coming decade. The largest upgrade project for the ATLAS Muon System is the replacement of the present first station in the forward regions with the so-called New Small Wheels (NSWs), to be installed during the LHC long shutdown in 2019/20. Small-Strip Thin Gap Chambers (sTGC) detectors are one chosen technology to provide fast trigger and high precision muon tracking under the high luminosity LHC conditions. The basic sTGC structure consists of a grid of gold-plated tungsten wires sandwiched between two resistive cathode planes at a small distance from the wire plane. We study ageing effects of sTGC detectors with a gas mixture of 55% of CO_2 and 45% of n-pentane. A sTGC detector was irradiated with beta-rays from a Sr-90 source. Three different gas flow rates were tested. We observed no deterioration on pulse height of...

  18. Practical measurement of silicon in low alloy steels by differential pulse stripping voltammetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahier, A.; Lunardi, S.; Triki, C.

    2005-01-01

    A sensitive differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry has been adapted to allow the determination of Si in low-alloy steels using a hanging mercury drop electrode. The method has been qualified using certified ASTM standards and is now running in routine. The present report describes the experimental details, thereby allowing the reader to carry out the measurements precisely. (author)

  19. The Silicon Microstrip Sensors of the ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmad, A; Allport, P P; Alonso, J; Andricek, L; Apsimon, R J; Barr, A J; Bates, R L; Beck, G A; Bell, P J; Belymam, A; Benes, J; Berg, C M; Bernabeu, J; Bethke, S; Bingefors, N; Bizzell, J P; Bohm, J; Brenner, R; Brodbeck, T J; Bruckman De Renstrom, P; Buttar, C M; Campbell, D; Carpentieri, C; Carter, A A; Carter, J R; Charlton, D G; Casse, G-L; Chilingarov, A; Cindro, V; Ciocio, A; Civera, J V; Clark, A G; Colijn, A-P; Costa, M J; Dabrowski, W; Danielsen, K M; Dawson, I; Demirkoz, B; Dervan, P; Dolezal, Z; Dorholt, O; Duerdoth, I P; Dwuznik, M; Eckert, S; Ekelöf, T; Eklund, L; Escobar, C; Fasching, D; Feld, L; Ferguson, D P S; Ferrere, D; Fortin, R; Foster, J M; Fox, H; French, R; Fromant, B P; Fujita, K; Fuster, J; Gadomski, S; Gallop, B J; Garcia, C; Garcia-Navarro, J E; Gibson, M D; Gonzalez, S; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S; Goodrick, M J; Gornicki, E; Green, C; Greenall, A; Grigson, C; Grillo, A A; Grosse-Knetter, J; Haber, C; Handa, T; Hara, K; Harper, R S; Hartjes, F G; Hashizaki, T; Hauff, D; Hessey, N P; Hill, J C; Hollins, T I; Holt, S; Horazdovsky, T; Hornung, M; Hovland, K M; Hughes, G; Huse, T; Ikegami, Y; Iwata, Y; Jackson, J N; Jakobs, K; Jared, R C; Johansen, L G; Jones, R W L; Jones, T J; de Jong, P; Joseph, J; Jovanovic, P; Kaplon, J; Kato, Y; Ketterer, C; Kindervaag, I M; Kodys, P; Koffeman, E; Kohriki, T; Kohout, Z; Kondo, T; Koperny, S; van der Kraaij, E; Kral, V; Kramberger, G; Kudlaty, J; Lacasta, C; Limper, M; Linhart, V; Llosa, G; Lozano, M; Ludwig, I; Ludwig, J; Lutz, G; Macpherson, A; McMahon, S J; Macina, D; Magrath, C A; Malecki, P; Mandic, I; Marti-Garcia, S; Matsuo, T; Meinhardt, J; Mellado, B; Mercer, I J; Mikestikova, M; Mikuz, M; Minano, M; Mistry, J; Mitsou, V; Modesto, P; Mohn, B; Molloy, S D; Moorhead, G; Moraes, A; Morgan, D; Morone, M C; Morris, J; Moser, H-G; Moszczynski, A; Muijs, A J M; Nagai, K; Nakamura, Y; Nakano, I; Nicholson, R; Niinikoski, T; Nisius, R; Ohsugi, T; O'Shea, V; Oye, O K; Parzefall, U; Pater, J R; Pernegger, H; Phillips, P W; Posisil, S; Ratoff, P N; Reznicek, P; Richardson, J D; Richter, R H; Robinson, D; Roe, S; Ruggiero, G; Runge, K; Sadrozinski, H F W; Sandaker, H; Schieck, J; Seiden, A; Shinma, S; Siegrist, J; Sloan, T; Smith, N A; Snow, S W; Solar, M; Solberg, A; Sopko, B; Sospedra, L; Spieler, H; Stanecka, E; Stapnes, S; Stastny, J; Stelzer, F; Stradling, A; Stugu, B; Takashima, R; Tanaka, R; Taylor, G; Terada, S; Thompson, R J; Titov, M; Tomeda, Y; Tovey, D R; Turala, M; Turner, P R; Tyndel, M; Ullan, M; Unno, Y; Vickey, T; Vos, M; Wallny, R; Weilhammer, P; Wells, P S; Wilson, J A; Wolter, M; Wormald, M; Wu, S L; Yamashita, T; Zontar, D; Zsenei, A

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the AC-coupled, single-sided, p-in-n silicon microstrip sensors used in the SemiConductor Tracker (SCT) of the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The sensor requirements, specifications and designs are discussed, together with the qualification and quality assurance procedures adopted for their production. The measured sensor performance is presented, both initially and after irradiation to the fluence anticipated after 10 years of LHC operation. The sensors are now successfully assembled within the detecting modules of the SCT, and the SCT tracker is completed and integrated within the ATLAS Inner Detector. Hamamatsu Photonics Ltd supplied 92.2% of the 15,392 installed sensors, with the remainder supplied by CiS.

  20. Charge-partitioning study of a wide-pitch silicon micro-strip detector with a 64-channel CMOS preamplifier array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, H.; Tsuboyama, T.; Okuno, S.; Saitoh, Y.; Akamine, T.; Satoh, K.; Inoue, M.; Yamanaka, J.; Mandai, M.; Takeuchi, H.; Kitta, T.; Miyahara, S.; Kamiya, M.

    1996-01-01

    The wider pitch readout operation of a 50 μm-pitch double-sided silicon micro-strip detector has been studied specifically concerning its ohmic side. Every second readout and ganged configuration was examined by employing a newly developed 64-channel preamplifier array. The observed charge responses for collimated IR light were compared with a numerical model. (orig.)

  1. Implementation of a Large Scale Control System for a High-Energy Physics Detector: The CMS Silicon Strip Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Masetti, Lorenzo; Fischer, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Control systems for modern High-Energy Physics (HEP) detectors are large distributed software systems managing a significant data volume and implementing complex operational procedures. The control software for the LHC experiments at CERN is built on top of a commercial software used in industrial automation. However, HEP specific requirements call for extended functionalities. This thesis focuses on the design and implementation of the control system for the CMS Silicon Strip Tracker but presents some general strategies that have been applied in other contexts. Specific design solutions are developed to ensure acceptable response times and to provide the operator with an effective summary of the status of the devices. Detector safety is guaranteed by proper configuration of independent hardware systems. A software protection mechanism is used to avoid the widespread intervention of the hardware safety and to inhibit dangerous commands. A wizard approach allows non expert operators to recover error situations...

  2. Detecting single-electron events in TEM using low-cost electronics and a silicon strip sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gontard, Lionel C; Moldovan, Grigore; Carmona-Galán, Ricardo; Lin, Chao; Kirkland, Angus I

    2014-04-01

    There is great interest in developing novel position-sensitive direct detectors for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) that do not rely in the conversion of electrons into photons. Direct imaging improves contrast and efficiency and allows the operation of the microscope at lower energies and at lower doses without loss in resolution, which is especially important for studying soft materials and biological samples. We investigate the feasibility of employing a silicon strip detector as an imaging detector for TEM. This device, routinely used in high-energy particle physics, can detect small variations in electric current associated with the impact of a single charged particle. The main advantages of using this type of sensor for direct imaging in TEM are its intrinsic radiation hardness and large detection area. Here, we detail design, simulation, fabrication and tests in a TEM of the front-end electronics developed using low-cost discrete components and discuss the limitations and applications of this technology for TEM.

  3. Operation and radiation resistance of a FOXFET biasing structure for silicon strip detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laakso, M [Particle Detector Group, Fermilab, Batavia, IL (United States) Research Inst. for High Energy Physics (SEFT), Helsinski (Finland); Singh, P; Engels, E Jr; Shepard, J; Shepard, P F [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Univ. Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1993-03-01

    AC-coupled strip detectors biased with a FOXFET transistor structure have been studied. Measurement results for the basic operational characteristics of the FOXFET are presented together with a brief description of the physics underlying its operation. Radiation effects were studied using photons from a [sup 137]Cs source. Changes in the FOXFET characteristics as a function of radiation dose up to 1 Mrad are reported. Results about the effect of radiation on the noise from a FOXFET biased detector are discribed. (orig.).

  4. Operation and radiation resistance of a FOXFET biasing structure for silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laakso, M.; Helsinki Univ.; Singh, P.; Engels, E. Jr.; Shepard, P.

    1992-02-01

    AC-coupled strip detectors biased with a FOXFET transistor structure have been studied. Measurement results for the basic operational characteristics of the FOXFET are presented together with a brief description of the physics underlying its operation. Radiation effects were studied using photons from a 137 Cs source. Changes in the FOXFET characteristics as a function of radiation dose up to 1 MRad are reported. Results about the effect of radiation on the noise from a FOXFET biased detector are described. 13 refs

  5. Novel silicon n-on-p edgeless planar pixel sensors for the ATLAS upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bomben, M., E-mail: marco.bomben@cern.ch [Laboratoire de Physique Nucleaire et de Hautes Énergies (LPNHE), Paris (France); Bagolini, A.; Boscardin, M. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi (FBK-CMM) Povo di Trento (Italy); Bosisio, L. [Università di Trieste, Dipartimento di Fisica and INFN, Trieste (Italy); Calderini, G. [Laboratoire de Physique Nucleaire et de Hautes Énergies (LPNHE), Paris (France); Dipartimento di Fisica E. Fermi, Università di Pisa, Pisa (Italy); INFN Sez. di Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Chauveau, J. [Laboratoire de Physique Nucleaire et de Hautes Énergies (LPNHE), Paris (France); Giacomini, G. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi (FBK-CMM) Povo di Trento (Italy); La Rosa, A. [Section de Physique (DPNC), Université de Genève, Genève (Switzerland); Marchiori, G. [Laboratoire de Physique Nucleaire et de Hautes Énergies (LPNHE), Paris (France); Zorzi, N. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi (FBK-CMM) Povo di Trento (Italy)

    2013-12-01

    In view of the LHC upgrade phases towards HL-LHC, the ATLAS experiment plans to upgrade the inner detector with an all-silicon system. The n-on-p silicon technology is a promising candidate for the pixel upgrade thanks to its radiation hardness and cost effectiveness. The edgeless technology would allow for enlarging the area instrumented with pixel detectors. We report on the development of novel n-on-p edgeless planar pixel sensors fabricated at FBK (Trento, Italy), making use of the active edge concept for the reduction of the dead area at the periphery of the device. After discussing the sensor technology and fabrication process, we present device simulations (pre- and post-irradiation) performed for different sensor configurations. First preliminary results obtained with the test-structures of the production are shown.

  6. Novel silicon n-on-p edgeless planar pixel sensors for the ATLAS upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bomben, M.; Bagolini, A.; Boscardin, M.; Bosisio, L.; Calderini, G.; Chauveau, J.; Giacomini, G.; La Rosa, A.; Marchiori, G.; Zorzi, N.

    2013-01-01

    In view of the LHC upgrade phases towards HL-LHC, the ATLAS experiment plans to upgrade the inner detector with an all-silicon system. The n-on-p silicon technology is a promising candidate for the pixel upgrade thanks to its radiation hardness and cost effectiveness. The edgeless technology would allow for enlarging the area instrumented with pixel detectors. We report on the development of novel n-on-p edgeless planar pixel sensors fabricated at FBK (Trento, Italy), making use of the active edge concept for the reduction of the dead area at the periphery of the device. After discussing the sensor technology and fabrication process, we present device simulations (pre- and post-irradiation) performed for different sensor configurations. First preliminary results obtained with the test-structures of the production are shown

  7. The heart of ATLAS Commissioning and performance of the ATLAS silicon tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Magrath, Caroline Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has been built under the french-swiss border near Geneva, Switzerland. Two opposing beams of protons will collide with a centre of mass energy of 14 TeV, an energy seven million times that of the first accelerator. The LHC takes particle physics research to a new frontier. On September 10th 2008, the first single pilot beam of $2 x 10^9$ protons was circulated successfully through the entire LHC, with an injection energy of 0.45 TeV. The first collisions are expected in Summer 2009. One of the experiments designed to search for new particle phenomena is the ATLAS experiment. This is a general purpose detector capable of detecting and measuring the broadest range of particle signals. At the heart of the ATLAS detector lies the SemiConductor Tracker (SCT). It is a central part of the inner detector providing precision measurements of particle trajectories over a large $\\eta$ range. The work presented in this thesis focuses on the performance and commissioning of the SCT detector....

  8. Prototyping of Silicon Strip Detectors for the Inner Tracker of the ALICE Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sokolov, Oleksiy

    2006-01-01

    The ALICE experiment at CERN will study heavy ion collisions at a center-of-mass energy 5.5∼TeV per nucleon. Particle tracking around the interaction region at radii r<45 cm is done by the Inner Tracking System (ITS), consisting of six cylindrical layers of silicon detectors. The outer two layers of

  9. Alignment of the ATLAS Silicon Tracker and measurement of the top quark mass

    CERN Document Server

    Escobar, C; Marti i García, S

    2010-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) era started with its first proton-proton collisions produced in November 2009 at the CERN laboratory. In the coming decade, the high energy physics program will be dominated by the LHC and its experiments. Discoveries such as the Higgs or supersymmetric particles are some of the dreams that hopefully the LHC will bring us. This thesis is framed within the ATLAS experiment, which is one of the four large detectors located at the LHC. The work presented in this thesis is divided in two parts. The first part is dedicated to the alignment of the ATLAS silicon tracking detector using the GlobalChi2 algorithm, which is the actual baseline algorithm. It covers performance studies with Monte Carlo samples with a realistic detector description, with real cosmic rays as well as with first LHC collisions at 900 GeV. The main achievement was the production of a set of alignment constants for the real ATLAS detector. Those constants were obtained from the alignment of real cosmic ray data, ...

  10. Prototyping of Silicon Strip Detectors for the Inner Tracker of the ALICE Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, Oleksiy

    2006-04-01

    The ALICE experiment at CERN will study heavy ion collisions at a center-of-mass energy 5.5˜TeV per nucleon. Particle tracking around the interaction region at radii rrequire about 20 thousand HAL25 front-end readout chips and about 3.5 thousand hybrids each containing 6 HAL25 chips. During the assembly procedure, chips are bonded on a patterned TAB aluminium microcables which connect to all the chip input and output pads, and then the chips are assembled on the hybrids. Bonding failures at the chip or hybrid level may either render the component non-functional or deteriorate its the performance such that it can not be used for the module production. After each bonding operation, the component testing is done to reject the non-functional or poorly performing chips and hybrids. The LabView-controlled test station for this operation has been built at Utrecht University and was successfully used for mass production acceptance tests of chips and hybrids at three production labs. The functionality of the chip registers, bonding quality and analogue functionality of the chips and hybrids are addressed in the test. The test routines were optimized to minimize the testing time to make sure that testing is not a bottleneck of the mass production. For testing of complete modules the laser scanning station with 1060 nm diode laser has been assembled at Utrecht University. The testing method relies of the fact that a response of the detector module to a short collimated laser beam pulse resembles a response to a minimum ionizing particle. A small beam spot size (˜7 μm ) allows to deposit the charge in a narrow region and measure the response of individual detector channels. First several module prototypes have been studied with this setup, the strip gain and charge sharing function have been measured, the later is compared with the model predictions. It was also shown that for a laser beam of a high monochromaticity, interference in the sensor bulk significantly modulates

  11. Search for second generation leptoquarks in $\\sqrt{s}$ = 1.8-TeV $p^-$ pbar at CDF and silicon detector readout electronics development with ATLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kambara, Hisanori [Geneva U.

    1998-02-01

    In this thesis, a search for second generation leptoquark is presented. It is based on the data collected at the Collider Detector at Fermilab with the Tevatron proton-antiproton collisions of $\\sqrt{s}$ = 1.8 TeV. A total integrated luminosity of 110 pb-1 collected during runs in 1992-1995 is used. The search was performed on the charged dimuon plus dijet channel. No evidence for existence of leptoquark was found, and a new production cross section limit is set as a result of this analysis. Using the most recent theoretical calculation of pair leptoquark production [1], a new lower mass limit for second generation scalar leptoquark is extracted. The new limit excludes M(LQ2)< 202 GeV/c2. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC), a proton-proton collider with a center of mass energy ($\\sqrt{s}$) of 14 TeV, is currently under the construction at CERN. It will be utilised to extend the searches for the leptoquarks to higher mass regions. As in CDF, tracking detectors are essential to identify charged leptons decaying from leptoquarks. A silicon strip tracking detector is being developed for the ATLAS experiment. A dense and fast readout system with a good signal to noise ratio and low power consumption are required with high luminosity and short event collision interval (25 ns) expected at the LHC. A description of a prototype front-end micro-electronic chip, the ADAM, for silicon strip detector readout application is presented. Results from a complete laboratory test as well as its performance on a test beam at CERN are reported.

  12. Characterisation of micro-strip and pixel silicon detectors before and after hadron irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Allport, P.P

    2012-01-01

    The use of segmented silicon detectors for tracking and vertexing in particle physics has grown substantially since their introduction in 1980. It is now anticipated that roughly 50,000 six inch wafers of high resistivity silicon will need to be processed into sensors to be deployed in the upgraded experiments in the future high luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) at CERN. These detectors will also face an extremely severe radiation environment, varying with distance from the interaction point. The volume of required sensors is large and their delivery is required during a relatively short time, demanding a high throughput from the chosen suppliers. The current situation internationally, in this highly specialist market, means that security of supply for large orders can therefore be an issue and bringing additional potential vendors into the field can only be an advantage. Semiconductor companies that could include planar sensors suitable for particle physics in their product lines will, however, need to prove their pro...

  13. Application of neural networks to digital pulse shape analysis for an array of silicon strip detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, J.L. [Dpto de Ingeniería Eléctrica y Térmica, Universidad de Huelva (Spain); Martel, I. [Dpto de Física Aplicada, Universidad de Huelva (Spain); CERN, ISOLDE, CH 1211 Geneva, 23 (Switzerland); Jiménez, R. [Dpto de Ingeniería Electrónica, Sist. Informáticos y Automática, Universidad de Huelva (Spain); Galán, J., E-mail: jgalan@diesia.uhu.es [Dpto de Ingeniería Electrónica, Sist. Informáticos y Automática, Universidad de Huelva (Spain); Salmerón, P. [Dpto de Ingeniería Eléctrica y Térmica, Universidad de Huelva (Spain)

    2016-09-11

    The new generation of nuclear physics detectors that used to study nuclear reactions is considering the use of digital pulse shape analysis techniques (DPSA) to obtain the (A,Z) values of the reaction products impinging in solid state detectors. This technique can be an important tool for selecting the relevant reaction channels at the HYDE (HYbrid DEtector ball array) silicon array foreseen for the Low Energy Branch of the FAIR facility (Darmstadt, Germany). In this work we study the feasibility of using artificial neural networks (ANNs) for particle identification with silicon detectors. Multilayer Perceptron networks were trained and tested with recent experimental data, showing excellent identification capabilities with signals of several isotopes ranging from {sup 12}C up to {sup 84}Kr, yielding higher discrimination rates than any other previously reported.

  14. A simple pulse shape discrimination technique applied to a silicon strip detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figuera, P.; Lu, J.; Amorini, F.; Cardella, G.; DiPietro, A.; Papa, M.; Musumarra, A.; Pappalardo, G.; Rizzo, F.; Tudisco, S.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Since the early sixties, it has been known that the shape of signals from solid state detectors can be used for particle identification. Recently, this idea has been revised in a group of papers where it has been shown that the shape of current signals from solid state detectors is mainly governed by the combination of plasma erosion time and charge carrier collection time effects. We will present the results of a systematic study on a pulse shape identification method which, contrary to the techniques proposed, is based on the use of the same electronic chain normally used in the conventional time of flight technique. The method is based on the use of charge preamplifiers, low polarization voltages (i.e. just above full depletion ones), rear side injection of the incident particles, and on a proper setting of the constant fraction discriminators which enhances the dependence of the timing output on the rise time of the input signals (which depends on the charge and energy of the incident ions). The method has been applied to an annular Si strip detector with an inner radius of about 16 mm and an outer radius of about 88 mm. The detector, manufactured by Eurisys Measures (Type Ips.73.74.300.N9), is 300 microns thick and consists of 8 independent sectors each divided into 9 circular strips. On beam tests have been performed at the cyclotron of the Laboratori Nazionali del Sud in Catania using a 25.7 MeV/nucleon 58 Ni beam impinging on a 51 V and 45 Sc composite target. Excellent charge identification from H up to the Ni projectile has been observed and typical charge identification thresholds are: ∼ 1.7 MeV/nucleon for Z ≅ 6, ∼ 3.0 MeV/nucleon for Z ≅ 11, and ∼ 5.5 MeV/nucleon for Z ≅ 20. Isotope identification up to A ≅ 13 has been observed with an energy threshold of about 6 MeV/nucleon. The identification quality has been studied as a function of the constant fraction settings. The method has been applied to all the 72 independent strips

  15. A novel laser alignment system for tracking detectors using transparent silicon strip sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, W.; Kroha, H.; Widmann, P.

    1995-02-01

    Modern large-area precision tracking detectors require increasing accuracy of the geometrical alignment over large distances. A novel optical multi-point alignment system has been developed for the muon spectrometer of the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. The system uses collimated laser beams as alignment references which are monitored by semi-transparent optical position sensors. The custom designed sensors provide very precise and uniform position information on the order of 1 μm over a wide measurement range. At suitable laser wavelengths, produced by laser diodes, transmission rates above 90% have been achieved which allow to align more than 30 sensors along one laser beam. With this capability and equipped with integrated readout electronics, the alignment system offers high flexibility for precision applications in a wide range of detector systems. (orig.)

  16. Spectral CT of the extremities with a silicon strip photon counting detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisniega, A.; Zbijewski, W.; Stayman, J. W.; Xu, J.; Taguchi, K.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2015-03-01

    Purpose: Photon counting x-ray detectors (PCXDs) are an important emerging technology for spectral imaging and material differentiation with numerous potential applications in diagnostic imaging. We report development of a Si-strip PCXD system originally developed for mammography with potential application to spectral CT of musculoskeletal extremities, including challenges associated with sparse sampling, spectral calibration, and optimization for higher energy x-ray beams. Methods: A bench-top CT system was developed incorporating a Si-strip PCXD, fixed anode x-ray source, and rotational and translational motions to execute complex acquisition trajectories. Trajectories involving rotation and translation combined with iterative reconstruction were investigated, including single and multiple axial scans and longitudinal helical scans. The system was calibrated to provide accurate spectral separation in dual-energy three-material decomposition of soft-tissue, bone, and iodine. Image quality and decomposition accuracy were assessed in experiments using a phantom with pairs of bone and iodine inserts (3, 5, 15 and 20 mm) and an anthropomorphic wrist. Results: The designed trajectories improved the sampling distribution from 56% minimum sampling of voxels to 75%. Use of iterative reconstruction (viz., penalized likelihood with edge preserving regularization) in combination with such trajectories resulted in a very low level of artifacts in images of the wrist. For large bone or iodine inserts (>5 mm diameter), the error in the estimated material concentration was errors of 20-40% were observed and motivate improved methods for spectral calibration and optimization of the edge-preserving regularizer. Conclusion: Use of PCXDs for three-material decomposition in joint imaging proved feasible through a combination of rotation-translation acquisition trajectories and iterative reconstruction with optimized regularization.

  17. SiliPET: An ultra high resolution design of a small animal PET scanner based on double sided silicon strip detector stacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavattini, G.; Cesca, N.; Di Domenico, G.; Moretti, E.; Sabba, N.

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the capabilities of a small animal PET scanner, named SiliPET, based on four stacks of double sided silicon strips detectors. Each stack consists of 40 silicon detectors with dimension 60x60x1mm 3 . These are arranged to form a box 5x5x6cm 3 with minor sides opened; the box represents the maximal FOV of the scanner. The performance parameters of SiliPET scanner have been estimated, giving an intrinsic spatial resolution of 0.52mm and a sensitivity of 5.1% at the center of the system

  18. The use of a silicon strip detector dose magnifying glass in stereotactic radiotherapy QA and dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, J. H. D.; Knittel, T.; Downes, S.; Carolan, M.; Lerch, M. L. F.; Petasecca, M.; Perevertaylo, V. L.; Metcalfe, P.; Jackson, M.; Rosenfeld, A. B.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Stereotactic radiosurgery/therapy (SRS/SRT) is the use of radiation ablation in place of conventional surgical excision to remove or create fibrous tissue in small target volumes. The target of the SRT/SRS treatment is often located in close proximity to critical organs, hence the requirement of high geometric precision including a tight margin on the planning target volume and a sharp dose fall off. One of the major problems with quality assurance (QA) of SRT/SRS is the availability of suitable detectors with the required spatial resolution. The authors present a novel detector that they refer to as the dose magnifying glass (DMG), which has a high spatial resolution (0.2 mm) and is capable of meeting the stringent requirements of QA and dosimetry in SRS/SRT therapy. Methods: The DMG is an array of 128 phosphor implanted n + strips on a p-type Si wafer. The sensitive area defined by a single n + strip is 20x2000 μm 2 . The Si wafer is 375 μm thick. It is mounted on a 0.12 mm thick Kapton substrate. The authors studied the dose per pulse (dpp) and angular response of the detector in a custom-made SRS phantom. The DMG was used to determine the centers of rotation and positioning errors for the linear accelerator's gantry, couch, and collimator rotations. They also used the DMG to measure the profiles and the total scatter factor (S cp ) of the SRS cones. Comparisons were made with the EBT2 film and standard S cp values. The DMG was also used for dosimetric verification of a typical SRS treatment with various noncoplanar fields and arc treatments when applied to the phantom. Results: The dose per pulse dependency of the DMG was found to be cp agrees very well with the standard data with an average difference of 1.2±1.1%. Comparison of the relative intensity profiles of the DMG and EBT2 measurements for a simulated SRS treatment shows a maximum difference of 2.5%. Conclusions: The DMG was investigated for dose per pulse and angular dependency. Its

  19. The use of a silicon strip detector dose magnifying glass in stereotactic radiotherapy QA and dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, J H D; Knittel, T; Downes, S; Carolan, M; Lerch, M L F; Petasecca, M; Perevertaylo, V L; Metcalfe, P; Jackson, M; Rosenfeld, A B

    2011-03-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery/therapy (SRS/SRT) is the use of radiation ablation in place of conventional surgical excision to remove or create fibrous tissue in small target volumes. The target of the SRT/SRS treatment is often located in close proximity to critical organs, hence the requirement of high geometric precision including a tight margin on the planning target volume and a sharp dose fall off. One of the major problems with quality assurance (QA) of SRT/SRS is the availability of suitable detectors with the required spatial resolution. The authors present a novel detector that they refer to as the dose magnifying glass (DMG), which has a high spatial resolution (0.2 mm) and is capable of meeting the stringent requirements of QA and dosimetry in SRS/SRT therapy. The DMG is an array of 128 phosphor implanted n+ strips on a p-type Si wafer. The sensitive area defined by a single n+ strip is 20 x 2000 microm2. The Si wafer is 375 microm thick. It is mounted on a 0.12 mm thick Kapton substrate. The authors studied the dose per pulse (dpp) and angular response of the detector in a custom-made SRS phantom. The DMG was used to determine the centers of rotation and positioning errors for the linear accelerator's gantry, couch, and collimator rotations. They also used the DMG to measure the profiles and the total scatter factor (S(cp)) of the SRS cones. Comparisons were made with the EBT2 film and standard S(cp) values. The DMG was also used for dosimetric verification of a typical SRS treatment with various noncoplanar fields and arc treatments when applied to the phantom. The dose per pulse dependency of the DMG was found to be DMG and EBT2 measurements for a simulated SRS treatment shows a maximum difference of 2.5%. The DMG was investigated for dose per pulse and angular dependency. Its application to SRS/SRT delivery verification was demonstrated. The DMG with its high spatial resolution and real time capability allows measurement of dose profiles for cone

  20. The challenge of building large area, high precision small-strip Thin Gap Trigger Chambers for the upgrade of the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Maleev, Victor; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The current innermost stations of the ATLAS muon endcap system must be upgraded in 2018 and 2019 to retain the good precision tracking and trigger capabilities in the high background environment expected with the upcoming luminosity increase of the LHC. Large area small-strip Thin Gap Chambers (sTGC) up to 2 m2 in size and totaling an active area of 1200 m2 will be employed for fast and precise triggering. The precision reconstruction of tracks requires a spatial resolution of about 100 μm to allow the Level-1 trigger track segments to be reconstructed with an angular resolution of 1mrad. The upgraded detector will consist of eight layers each of Micromegas and sTGC’s detectors together forming the ATLAS New Small Wheels. The position of each strip must be known with an accuracy of 30 µm along the precision coordinate and 80 µm along the beam. On such large area detectors, the mechanical precision is a key point and then must be controlled and monitored all along the process of construction and integrati...

  1. The Challenge of Building Large Area, High Precision Small-Strip Thin Gap Trigger Chambers for the Upgrade of the ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Maleev, Victor; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The current innermost stations of the ATLAS muon end-cap system must be upgraded in 2018 and 2019 to retain the good precision tracking and trigger capabilities in the high background environment expected with the upcoming luminosity increase of the LHC. Large area small-strip Thin Gap Chambers (sTGC) up to 2 $m^2$ in size and totaling an active area of 1200 $m^2$ will be employed for fast and precise triggering. The precision reconstruction of tracks requires a spatial resolution of about 100 $\\mu m$ while the Level-1 trigger track segments need to be reconstructed with an angular resolution of 1 mrad. The upgraded detector will consist of eight layers each of Micromegas and sTGC’s detectors together forming the ATLAS New Small Wheels. The position of each strip must be known with an accuracy of 40 $\\mu m$ along the precision coordinate and 80 $\\mu m$ along the beam. On such large area detectors, the mechanical precision is a key point and then must be controlled and monitored all along the process of cons...

  2. Alignment of the CMS Silicon Strip Tracker during stand-alone Commissioning

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, W.; Dragicevic, M.; Friedl, M.; Fruhwirth, R.; Hansel, S.; Hrubec, J.; Krammer, M.; Oberegger, M.; Pernicka, M.; Schmid, S.; Stark, R.; Steininger, H.; Uhl, D.; Waltenberger, W.; Widl, E.; Van Mechelen, P.; Cardaci, M.; Beaumont, W.; de Langhe, E.; de Wolf, E.A.; Delmeire, E.; Hashemi, M.; Bouhali, O.; Charaf, O.; Clerbaux, B.; Dewulf, J.-P.; Elgammal, S.; Hammad, G.; de Lentdecker, G.; Marage, P.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Wickens, J.; Adler, V.; Devroede, O.; De Weirdt, S.; D'Hondt, J.; Goorens, R.; Heyninck, J.; Maes, J.; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Tavernier, S.; Van Lancker, L.; Van Mulders, P.; Villella, I.; Wastiels, C.; Bonnet, J.-L.; Bruno, G.; De Callatay, B.; Florins, B.; Giammanco, A.; Gregoire, G.; Keutgen, Th.; Kcira, D.; Lemaitre, V.; Michotte, D.; Militaru, O.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Quertermont, L.; Roberfroid, V.; Rouby, X.; Teyssier, D.; daubie, E.; Anttila, E.; Czellar, S.; Engstrom, P.; Harkonen, J.; Karimaki, V.; Kostesmaa, J.; Kuronen, A.; Lampen, T.; Linden, T.; Luukka, P.-R.; Maenaa, T.; Michal, S.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Ageron, M.; Baulieu, G.; Bonnevaux, A.; Boudoul, G.; Chabanat, E.; Chabert, E.; Chierici, R.; Contardo, D.; Della Negra, R.; Dupasquier, T.; Gelin, G.; Giraud, N.; Guillot, G.; Estre, N.; Haroutunian, R.; Lumb, N.; Perries, S.; Schirra, F.; Trocme, B.; Vanzetto, S.; Agram, J.-L.; Blaes, R.; Drouhin, F.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Berst, J.-D.; Brom, J.-M.; Didierjean, F.; Goerlach, U.; Graehling, P.; Gross, L.; Hosselet, J.; Juillot, P.; Lounis, A.; Maazouzi, C.; Olivetto, C.; Strub, R.; Van Hove, P.; Anagnostou, G.; Brauer, R.; Esser, H.; Feld, L.; Karpinski, W.; Klein, K.; Kukulies, C.; Olzem, J.; Ostapchuk, A.; Pandoulas, D.; Pierschel, G.; Raupach, F.; Schael, S.; Schwering, G.; Sprenger, D.; Thomas, M.; Weber, M.; Wittmer, B.; Wlochal, M.; Beissel, F.; Bock, E.; Flugge, G.; Gillissen, C.; Hermanns, T.; Heydhausen, D.; Jahn, D.; Kaussen, G.; Linn, A.; Perchalla, L.; Poettgens, M.; Pooth, O.; Stahl, A.; Zoeller, M.H.; Buhmann, P.; Butz, E.; Flucke, G.; Hamdorf, R.; Hauk, J.; Klanner, R.; Pein, U.; Schleper, P.; Steinbruck, G.; Blum, P.; De Boer, W.; Dierlamm, A.; Dirkes, G.; Fahrer, M.; Frey, M.; Furgeri, A.; Hartmann, F.; Heier, S.; Hoffmann, K.-H.; Kaminski, J.; Ledermann, B.; Liamsuwan, T.; Muller, S.; Muller, Th.; Schilling, F.-P.; Simonis, H.-J.; Steck, P.; Zhukov, V.; Cariola, P.; De Robertis, G.; Ferorelli, R.; Fiore, L.; Preda, M.; Sala, G.; Silvestris, L.; Tempesta, P.; Zito, G.; Creanza, D.; De Filippis, N.; De Palma, M.; Giordano, D.; Maggi, G.; Manna, N.; My, S.; Selvaggi, G.; Albergo, S.; Chiorboli, M.; Costa, S.; Galanti, M.; Giudice, N.; Guardone, N.; Noto, F.; Potenza, R.; Saizu, M.A.; Sparti, V.; Sutera, C.; Tricomi, A.; Tuve, C.; Brianzi, M.; Civinini, C.; Maletta, F.; Manolescu, F.; Meschini, M.; Paoletti, S.; Sguazzoni, G.; Broccolo, B.; Ciulli, V.; D'Alessandro, R.; Focardi, E.; Frosali, S.; Genta, C.; Landi, G.; Lenzi, P.; Macchiolo, A.; Magini, N.; Parrini, G.; Scarlini, E.; Cerati, G.; Azzi, P.; Bacchetta, N.; Candelori, A.; Dorigo, T.; Kaminsky, A.; Karaevski, S.; Khomenkov, V.; Reznikov, S.; Tessaro, M.; Bisello, D.; De Mattia, M.; Giubilato, P.; Loreti, M.; Mattiazzo, S.; Nigro, M.; Paccagnella, A.; Pantano, D.; Pozzobon, N.; Tosi, M.; Bilei, G.M.; Checcucci, B.; Fano, L.; Servoli, L.; Ambroglini, F.; Babucci, E.; Benedetti, D.; Biasini, M.; Caponeri, B.; Covarelli, R.; Giorgi, M.; Lariccia, P.; Mantovani, G.; Marcantonini, M.; Postolache, V.; Santocchia, A.; Spiga, D.; Bagliesi, G.; Balestri, G.; Berretta, L.; Bianucci, S.; Boccali, T.; Bosi, F.; Bracci, F.; Castaldi, R.; Ceccanti, M.; Cecchi, R.; Cerri, C.; Cucoanes, A.S.; Dell'Orso, R.; Dobur, D.; Dutta, S.; Giassi, A.; Giusti, S.; Kartashov, D.; Kraan, A.; Lomtadze, T.; Lungu, G.A.; Magazzu, G.; Mammini, P.; Mariani, F.; Martinelli, G.; Moggi, A.; Palla, F.; Palmonari, F.; Petragnani, G.; Profeti, A.; Raffaelli, F.; Rizzi, D.; Sanguinetti, G.; Sarkar, S.; Sentenac, D.; Serban, A.T.; Slav, A.; Soldani, A.; Spagnolo, P.; Tenchini, R.; Tolaini, S.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P.G.; Vos, M.; Zaccarelli, L.; Avanzini, C.; Basti, A.; Benucci, L.; Bocci, A.; Cazzola, U.; Fiori, F.; Linari, S.; Massa, M.; Messineo, A.; Segneri, G.; Tonelli, G.; Azzurri, P.; Bernardini, J.; Borrello, L.; Calzolari, F.; Foa, L.; Gennai, S.; Ligabue, F.; Petrucciani, G.; Rizzi, A.; Yang, Z.; Benotto, F.; Demaria, N.; Dumitrache, F.; Farano, R.; Borgia, M.A.; Castello, R.; Costa, M.; Migliore, E.; Romero, A.; Abbaneo, D.; Abbas, M.; Ahmed, I.; Akhtar, I.; Albert, E.; Bloch, C.; Breuker, H.; Butt, S.; Buchmuller, O.; Cattai, A.; Delaere, C.; Delattre, M.; Edera, L.M.; Engstrom, P.; Eppard, M.; Gateau, M.; Gill, K.; Giolo-Nicollerat, A.-S.; Grabit, R.; Honma, A.; Huhtinen, M.; Kloukinas, K.; Kortesmaa, J.; Kottelat, L.J.; Kuronen, A.; Leonardo, N.; Ljuslin, C.; Mannelli, M.; Masetti, L.; Marchioro, A.; Mersi, S.; Michal, S.; Mirabito, L.; Muffat-Joly, J.; Onnela, A.; Paillard, C.; Pal, I.; Pernot, J.F.; Petagna, P.; Petit, P.; Piccut, C.; Pioppi, M.; Postema, H.; Ranieri, R.; Ricci, D.; Rolandi, G.; Ronga, F.; Sigaud, C.; Syed, A.; Siegrist, P.; Tropea, P.; Troska, J.; Tsirou, A.; Vander Donckt, M.; Vasey, F.; Alagoz, E.; Amsler, Claude; Chiochia, V.; Regenfus, Christian; Robmann, P.; Rochet, J.; Rommerskirchen, T.; Schmidt, A.; Steiner, S.; Wilke, L.; Church, I.; Cole, J.; Coughlan, J.; Gay, A.; Taghavi, S.; Tomalin, I.; Bainbridge, R.; Cripps, N.; Fulcher, J.; Hall, G.; Noy, M.; Pesaresi, M.; Radicci, V.; Raymond, D.M.; Sharp, P.; Stoye, M.; Wingham, M.; Zorba, O.; Goitom, I.; Hobson, P.R.; Reid, I.; Teodorescu, L.; Hanson, G.; Jeng, G.-Y.; Liu, H.; Pasztor, G.; Satpathy, A.; Stringer, R.; Mangano, B.; Affolder, K.; Affolder, T.; Allen, A.; Barge, D.; Burke, S.; Callahan, D.; Campagnari, C.; Crook, A.; D'Alfonso, M.; Dietch, J.; Garberson, Jeffrey Ford; Hale, D.; Incandela, H.; Incandela, J.; Jaditz, S.; Kalavase, P.; Kreyer, S.; Kyre, S.; Lamb, J.; Mc Guinnessr, C.; Mills, C.; Nguyen, H.; Nikolic, M.; Lowette, S.; Rebassoo, F.; Ribnik, J.; Richman, J.; Rubinstein, N.; Sanhueza, S.; Shah, Y.; Simms, L.; Staszak, D.; Stoner, J.; Stuart, D.; Swain, S.; Vlimant, J.-R.; White, D.; Ulmer, K.A.; Wagner, S.R.; Bagby, L.; Bhat, P.C.; Burkett, K.; Cihangir, S.; Gutsche, O.; Jensen, H.; Johnson, M.; Luzhetskiy, N.; Mason, D.; Miao, T.; Moccia, S.; Noeding, C.; Ronzhin, A.; Skup, E.; Spalding, W.J.; Spiegel, L.; Tkaczyk, S.; Yumiceva, F.; Zatserklyaniy, A.; Zerev, E.; Anghel, I.; Bazterra, V.E.; Gerber, C.E.; Khalatian, S.; Shabalina, E.; Baringer, Philip S.; Bean, A.; Chen, J.; Hinchey, C.; Martin, C.; Moulik, T.; Robinson, R.; Gritsan, A.V.; Lae, C.K.; Tran, N.V.; Everaerts, P.; Hahn, K.A.; Harris, P.; Nahn, S.; Rudolph, M.; Sung, K.; Betchart, B.; Demina, R.; Gotra, Y.; Korjenevski, S.; Miner, D.; Orbaker, D.; Christofek, L.; Hooper, R.; Landsberg, G.; Nguyen, D.; Narain, M.; Speer, T.; Tsang, K.V.

    2009-01-01

    The results of the CMS tracker alignment analysis are presented using the data from cosmic tracks, optical survey information, and the laser alignment system at the Tracker Integration Facility at CERN. During several months of operation in the spring and summer of 2007, about five million cosmic track events were collected with a partially active CMS Tracker. This allowed us to perform first alignment of the active silicon modules with the cosmic tracks using three different statistical approaches; validate the survey and laser alignment system performance; and test the stability of Tracker structures under various stresses and temperatures ranging from +15C to -15C. Comparison with simulation shows that the achieved alignment precision in the barrel part of the tracker leads to residual distributions similar to those obtained with a random misalignment of 50 (80) microns in the outer (inner) part of the barrel.

  3. Front-side biasing of n-in-p silicon strip detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Baselga Bacardit, Marta; Dierlamm, Alexander Hermann; Dragicevic, Marko Gerhart; Konig, Axel; Pree, Elias; Metzler, Marius

    2018-01-01

    Front-side biasing is an alternative method to bias a silicon sensor. Instead of directly applying high voltage to the back-side, one can exploit the conductive properties of the edge region to bias a detector exclusively via top-side connections. This option can be beneficial for the detector design and might help to facilitate the assembly process of modules. The effective bias voltage is affected by the resistance of the edge region and the sensor current. The measurements of n-in-p sensors performed to qualify this concept have shown that the voltage drop emerging from this resistance is negligible before irradiation. After irradiation, however, the resistivity of the edge region increases with fluence and saturates in the region of 10$^{7}\\,\\Omega$ at a fluence of 1$\\,\\cdot\\,10^{15}\\,$n$_{\\textrm{eq}}$cm$^{-2}$. The measurements are complemented by TCAD simulations and interpretations of the observed effects.

  4. Development and implementation of quality control strategies for CMS silicon strip tracker modules

    CERN Document Server

    Dirkes, Guido

    The LHC will explore physics at the energy frontier and will address many open questions in particle physics, like the search for the Higgs boson or Supersymmetry. For both high resolution track and vertex reconstruction is vital. The CMS silicon tracker consists of 15232 detector modules. Production and assembly of these will span two and a half years period, during which the quality control chain has to ensure functionality and reliability of the modules produced. The CMS group in Karlsruhe will produce and qualify 1600 modules. Therefore automatic test systems are developed and test strategies are worked out. Already during the RnD phase, first prototype tests were performed and some weak points of the design were uncovered. Two test stations are built. One focuses on a fast functionality test, including an active thermal cycle. The other focuses on debugging and repair requirements, including additional test options with lasers, radioactive sources, probes and infrared LEDs. For quality control measuremen...

  5. Characterization of silicon micro-strip sensors with a pulsed infra-red laser system for the CBM experiment at FAIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Pradeep [Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); GSI Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Eschke, Juergen [GSI Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Facility for Anti-proton and Ion Research, GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Collaboration: CBM-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The Silicon Tracking System (STS) of the CBM experiment at FAIR is composed of 8 tracking stations comprising of 1292 double-sided silicon micro-strip sensors. A Laser Test System (LTS) has been developed for the quality assurance of prototype sensors. The aim is to scan sensors with a pulsed infra-red laser driven by step motor to determine the charge sharing in-between strips and to measure qualitative uniformity of the sensor response over the whole active area. Several prototype sensors with strip pitch of 50 and 58 μm have been tested, as well as a prototype module with realistic mechanical arrangement of sensor and read-out cables. The LTS is designed to measure sensor response in an automatized procedure across the sensor with focused laser beam (spot-size ∼ 12 μm, wavelength = 1060 nm). The pulse with duration (∼ 10 ns) and power (∼ 5 mW) of the laser pulses is selected such, that the absorption of the laser light in the 300 μm thick silicon sensors produces a number of about 24000 electrons, which is similar to the charge created by minimum ionizing particles (MIP) in these sensors. Results from laser scans of prototype sensors and detector module are reported.

  6. Characterization and Performance of Silicon n-in-p Pixel Detectors for the ATLAS Upgrades

    CERN Document Server

    Weigell, Philipp; Gallrapp, Christian; La Rosa, Alessandro; Macchiolo, Anna; Nisius, Richard; Pernegger, Heinz; Richter, Rainer

    2011-01-01

    The existing ATLAS Tracker will be at its functional limit for particle fluences of 10^15 neq/cm^2 (LHC). Thus for the upgrades at smaller radii like in the case of the planned Insertable B-Layer (IBL) and for increased LHC luminosities (super LHC) the development of new structures and materials which can cope with the resulting particle fluences is needed. N-in-p silicon devices are a promising candidate for tracking detectors to achieve these goals, since they are radiation hard, cost efficient and are not type inverted after irradiation. A n-in-p pixel production based on a MPP/HLL design and performed by CiS (Erfurt, Germany) on 300 \\mu m thick Float-Zone material is characterised and the electrical properties of sensors and single chip modules (SCM) are presented, including noise, charge collection efficiencies, and measurements with MIPs as well as an 241Am source. The SCMs are built with sensors connected to the current the ATLAS read-out chip FE-I3. The characterisation has been performed with the ATL...

  7. A silicon strip detector array for energy verification and quality assurance in heavy ion therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debrot, Emily; Newall, Matthew; Guatelli, Susanna; Petasecca, Marco; Matsufuji, Naruhiro; Rosenfeld, Anatoly B

    2018-02-01

    The measurement of depth dose profiles for range and energy verification of heavy ion beams is an important aspect of quality assurance procedures for heavy ion therapy facilities. The steep dose gradients in the Bragg peak region of these profiles require the use of detectors with high spatial resolution. The aim of this work is to characterize a one dimensional monolithic silicon detector array called the "serial Dose Magnifying Glass" (sDMG) as an independent ion beam energy and range verification system used for quality assurance conducted for ion beams used in heavy ion therapy. The sDMG detector consists of two linear arrays of 128 silicon sensitive volumes each with an effective size of 2mm × 50μm × 100μm fabricated on a p-type substrate at a pitch of 200 μm along a single axis of detection. The detector was characterized for beam energy and range verification by measuring the response of the detector when irradiated with a 290 MeV/u 12 C ion broad beam incident along the single axis of the detector embedded in a PMMA phantom. The energy of the 12 C ion beam incident on the detector and the residual energy of an ion beam incident on the phantom was determined from the measured Bragg peak position in the sDMG. Ad hoc Monte Carlo simulations of the experimental setup were also performed to give further insight into the detector response. The relative response profiles along the single axis measured with the sDMG detector were found to have good agreement between experiment and simulation with the position of the Bragg peak determined to fall within 0.2 mm or 1.1% of the range in the detector for the two cases. The energy of the beam incident on the detector was found to vary less than 1% between experiment and simulation. The beam energy incident on the phantom was determined to be (280.9 ± 0.8) MeV/u from the experimental and (280.9 ± 0.2) MeV/u from the simulated profiles. These values coincide with the expected energy of 281 MeV/u. The sDMG detector

  8. Development and evaluation of test stations for the quality assurance of the silicon micro-strip detector modules for the CMS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poettgens, M.

    2007-01-01

    CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) is one of four large-scale detectors which will be operated at the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) at the European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN). For the search for new physics the reconstruction of the collision products and their properties is essential. In the innermost part of the CMS detector the traces of ionizing particles are measured utilizing a silicon tracker. A large fraction of this detector is equipped with silicon micro-strip modules which provide a precise space resolution in 1-dimension. A module consists of a sensor for detection of particles, the corresponding read-out electronics (hybrid) and a mechanical support structure. Since the 15,148 modules, which will be installed in the silicon micro-strip detector, have a total sensitive surface area of about 198 m 2 , the inner tracker of CMS is the largest silicon tracking detector, which has ever been built. While the sensors and hybrids are produced in industry, the construction of the modules and the control of the quality is done by the members of the 21 participating institutes. Since the access to the silicon micro-strip tracker will be very limited after the installation in the CMS detector the installed modules must be of high quality. For this reason the modules are thoroughly tested and the test results are uploaded to a central database. By the development of a read-out system and the corresponding software the III. Physikalisches Institut made an important contribution for the electrical and functional quality control of hybrids and modules. The read-out system provides all features for the operation and test of hybrids and modules and stands out due to high reliability and simple handling. Because a very user-friedly and highly automated software it became the official test tool and was integrated in various test stands. The test stands, in which the read-out system is integrated in, are described and the tests which are implemented in the corresponding

  9. Development and Evaluation of Test Stations for the Quality Assurance of the Silicon Micro-Strip Detector Modules for the CMS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Pöttgens, Michael

    2007-01-01

    CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) is one of four large-scale detectors which will be operated at the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) at the European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN). For the search for new physics the reconstruction of the collision products and their properties is essential. In the innermost part of the CMS detector the traces of ionizing particles are measured utilizing a silicon tracker. A large fraction of this detector is equipped with silicon micro-strip modules which provide a precise space resolution in 1-dimension. A module consists of a sensor for detection of particles, the corresponding read-out electronics (hybrid) and a mechanical support structure. Since the 15,148 modules, which will be installed in the silicon micro-strip detector, have a total sensitive surface area of about 198 m2, the inner tracker of CMS is the largest silicon tracking detector, which has ever been built. While the sensors and hybrids are produced in industry, the construction of the modules and the control o...

  10. Development and implementation of quality control strategies for CMS silicon strip tracker modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirkes, G.

    2003-01-01

    The CMS group in Karlsruhe is involved in the construction of the silicon trackers end-caps and will produce and qualify the 1 600 modules of ring 5. Therefore automatic test systems for module qualification are developed and test strategies are worked out. For the electrical tests a complete readout system is developed, based on readout modules available within the collaboration and extended by home build modules. These are based on a modular approach with less complex functional units attached to a motherboard and includes key functionalities like clock and trigger generation and their distribution, high and low voltage supply and test signal generation usable with lasers or infrared LEDs. The motherboard is connected to a standard PC, hosting a fast ADC, interface cards to the motherboard and the front-end electronics. Already during the R and D phase of this readout system, first prototype tests were performed and some weak points of the design were uncovered, resulting in changes of the electronics design of the front end hybrids. Two test stations are built. The first one focuses on a fast functionality test, which includes an active thermal cycle with readout at -10 C performed for each individual module. The other test station focuses on debugging and repair requirements. It disposes of sufficient space for a flexible use of the system, including the possibility of additional test options with lasers, radioactive sources, probes and LEDs. For quality control measurements at module level it turned out, that LEDs are of good use: Besides external signal generation by running them in a pulsed way, they can be used for constant illumination of sensors, inducing an artificial leakage current. This led to the discovery of gain losses of complete readout chips induced by shorted AC coupling capacitances of several readout channels, which are called pinholes. Therefore pinholes must be unbonded from the front end preamplifier, which requires faultless

  11. Operational experience of ATLAS SCT and Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Kocian, Martin; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS Inner Detector based on silicon sensors is consisting of a strip detector (SCT) and a pixel detector. It is the crucial component for vertexing and tracking in the ATLAS experiment. With the excellent performance of the LHC well beyond the original specification the silicon tracking detectors are facing substantial challenges in terms of data acquisition, radiation damage to the sensors, and SEUs in the readout ASICs. The approaches on how the detector systems cope with the demands of high luminosity operation while maintaining excellent performance through hardware upgrades, software and firmware algorithms, and operational settings, are presented.

  12. The ATLAS Inner Detector operation,data quality and tracking performance.

    CERN Document Server

    Stanecka, E; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS Inner Detector comprises silicon and gas based detectors. The Semi-Conductor Tracker (SCT) and the Pixel Detector are the key precision tracking silicon devices in the Inner Detector of the ATLAS experiment at CERN LHC. And the the Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT), the outermost of the three subsystems of the ATLAS Inner Detector is made of thin-walled proportional-mode drift tubes (straws). The Pixel Detector consists of approximately 80 million pixels that are individually read out via chips bump-bonded to 1744 n-in-n silicon substrates. The SCT is a silicon strip detector and is constructed of 4088 silicon detector modules for a total of 6.3 million strips. Each module is designed, constructed and tested to operate as a stand-alone unit, mechanically, electrically, optically and thermally. The SCT silicon micro-strip sensors are processed in the planar p-in-n technology. The signals from the strips are processed in the front-end ASICS ABCD3TA, working in the binary readout mode. The TRT is made...

  13. Construction and quality assurance of large area resistive strip Micromegas for the upgrade of the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer at LHC/CERN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lösel, P.

    2017-06-01

    Large area Micromegas detectors will be employed for the first time in high-energy physics experiments. To cope with increasing background rates, associated with the steadily increasing luminosity of LHC to 10 times design luminosity, the present detector technology in the current innermost stations of the muon endcap system of the ATLAS experiment (the Small Wheel), will be replaced in 2019/2020 by resistive strip Micromegas and small strip TGC detectors. Both technologies will provide tracking and trigger information. In the "New Small Wheel" the Micromegas will be arranged in eight detection layers built of trapezoidally shaped quadruplets of four different sizes covering in total about 1200 m2 of detection plane. In order to achieve 15 % transverse momentum resolution for 1 TeV muons, a challenging mechanical precision is required in the construction of each active plane, with an alignment of the readout strips at the level of 30 μm RMS along the precision coordinate and 80 μm RMS perpendicular to the plane. Each individual Micromegas plane must achieve a spatial resolution better than 100 μm at background rates up to 15 kHz/cm2 while being operated in an inhomogeneous magnetic field (B <= 0.3 T). The required mechanical precision for the production of the components and their assembly, on such large area detectors, is a key point and must be controlled during construction and integration. Particularly the alignment of the readout strips within a quadruplet appears to be demanding. The readout strips are etched on PCB boards using photolithographic processes. Depending on the type of the module, 3 or 5 PCB boards need to be joined and precisely aligned to form a full readout plane. The precision in the alignment is reached either by use of precision mechanical holes or by optical masks, both referenced to the strip patterns. Assembly procedures have been developed to build the single panels with the required mechanical precision and to assemble them in a

  14. Evaluation of the data of the HERA-B vertex detector with regards to the physical properties of the applied silicon strip counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, W.

    1999-01-01

    The HERA-B experiment at the DESY laboratory in Hamburg is dedicated to measuring CP-violation in the decays of neutral B-mesons. The primary purpose of the experiment in the measurement of the CP-asymmetry in the decay channel B 0 → J/ψK S 0 . In order to identify the B-mesons and to determine the time-dependent asymmetry, the decay length anti Δ anti l of the B-mesons must be measured to an accuracy of σ Δl ≤ 500 μm. To achieve this aim, HERA-B has a vertex detector which is based on double-sided silicon strip detectors mounted in a Roman pot system. One important specification of the vertex detector is to allow independent tracking with an efficiency above 95%. Therefore, it is required to select hits on the strip detectors with an efficiency above 99% and optimize the suppression of noise. This thesis describes a detailed investigation of the behaviour of the silicon strip detectors used in the vertex detector. The first part presents measurements performed in the laboratory using a tunable infrared dye laser to simulate the passage of charged particles through the detector. This includes measurements of the charge division between adjacent readout strips and mapping of the detector depletion. The results of the measurements agree excellently with the predictions from a detailed model calculation carried out in this thesis. The second part of the thesis the analysis of data recorded with the HERA-B vertex detector during the commissioning run of spring 1999. The analysis focusses on the investigation of cluster shapes and cluster sizes. In particular, the dependence of these distributions from the selection cuts is analyzed. Additionally, the differences between the two detector designs used, p-spray and p-stop detectors with intermediate strip or without respectively, are worked out. The measured distributions agree very well with the predictions from a model calculation taking all relevant detector parameters into account. The results of the data

  15. Development and Characterization of Diamond and 3D-Silicon Pixel Detectors with ATLAS-Pixel Readout Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Mathes, Markus

    2008-01-01

    Hybrid pixel detectors are used for particle tracking in the innermost layers of current high energy experiments like ATLAS. After the proposed luminosity upgrade of the LHC, they will have to survive very high radiation fluences of up to 10^16 particles per cm^2 per life time. New sensor concepts and materials are required, which promise to be more radiation tolerant than the currently used planar silicon sensors. Most prominent candidates are so-called 3D-silicon and single crystal or poly-crystalline diamond sensors. Using the ATLAS pixel electronics different detector prototypes with a pixel geometry of 400 × 50 um^2 have been built. In particular three devices have been studied in detail: a 3D-silicon and a single crystal diamond detector with an active area of about 1 cm^2 and a poly-crystalline diamond detector of the same size as a current ATLAS pixel detector module (2 × 6 cm^2). To characterize the devices regarding their particle detection efficiency and spatial resolution, the charge collection ...

  16. Development and characterization of diamond and 3D-silicon pixel detectors with ATLAS-pixel readout electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathes, Markus

    2008-12-15

    Hybrid pixel detectors are used for particle tracking in the innermost layers of current high energy experiments like ATLAS. After the proposed luminosity upgrade of the LHC, they will have to survive very high radiation fluences of up to 10{sup 16} particles per cm{sup 2} per life time. New sensor concepts and materials are required, which promise to be more radiation tolerant than the currently used planar silicon sensors. Most prominent candidates are so-called 3D-silicon and single crystal or poly-crystalline diamond sensors. Using the ATLAS pixel electronics different detector prototypes with a pixel geometry of 400 x 50 {mu}m{sup 2} have been built. In particular three devices have been studied in detail: a 3D-silicon and a single crystal diamond detector with an active area of about 1 cm{sup 2} and a poly-crystalline diamond detector of the same size as a current ATLAS pixel detector module (2 x 6 cm{sup 2}). To characterize the devices regarding their particle detection efficiency and spatial resolution, the charge collection inside a pixel cell as well as the charge sharing between adjacent pixels was studied using a high energy particle beam. (orig.)

  17. Development and characterization of diamond and 3D-silicon pixel detectors with ATLAS-pixel readout electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathes, Markus

    2008-12-01

    Hybrid pixel detectors are used for particle tracking in the innermost layers of current high energy experiments like ATLAS. After the proposed luminosity upgrade of the LHC, they will have to survive very high radiation fluences of up to 10 16 particles per cm 2 per life time. New sensor concepts and materials are required, which promise to be more radiation tolerant than the currently used planar silicon sensors. Most prominent candidates are so-called 3D-silicon and single crystal or poly-crystalline diamond sensors. Using the ATLAS pixel electronics different detector prototypes with a pixel geometry of 400 x 50 μm 2 have been built. In particular three devices have been studied in detail: a 3D-silicon and a single crystal diamond detector with an active area of about 1 cm 2 and a poly-crystalline diamond detector of the same size as a current ATLAS pixel detector module (2 x 6 cm 2 ). To characterize the devices regarding their particle detection efficiency and spatial resolution, the charge collection inside a pixel cell as well as the charge sharing between adjacent pixels was studied using a high energy particle beam. (orig.)

  18. Characterization of silicon micro-strip sensors with a pulsed infra-red laser system for the CBM experiment at FAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, P.

    2015-01-01

    The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at FAIR is composed of 8 tracking stations consisting of 1292 double sided silicon micro-strip sensors. For the quality assurance of produced prototype sensors a laser test system (LTS) has been developed. The aim of the LTS is to scan sensors with a pulsed infra-red laser driven by step motor to determine the charge sharing in-between strips and to measure qualitative uniformity of the sensor response over the whole active area. The prototype sensors which are tested with the LTS so far have 256 strips with a pitch of 50 μm on each side. They are read-out using a self-triggering prototype read-out electronic ASIC called n-XYTER. The LTS is designed to measure sensor response in an automatized procedure at several thousand positions across the sensor with focused infra-red laser light (spot size ≈ 12 μm , wavelength = 1060 nm). The pulse with duration (≈ 10 ns) and power (≈ 5 mW) of the laser pulses is selected such, that the absorption of the laser light in the 300 μm thick silicon sensors produces a number of about 24000 electrons, which is similar to the charge created by minimum ionizing particles (MIP) in these sensors. Laser scans different prototype sensors is reported

  19. Design and development of a vertex reconstruction for the CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) data. Study of gaseous and silicon micro-strips detectors (MSGC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreau, St.

    2002-12-01

    The work presented in this thesis has contributed to the development of the Compact Muon Solenoid detector (CMS) that will be installed at the future Large Hadron Collider (LHC) which will start running in summer 2007. This report is organised in three parts: the study of gaseous detectors and silicon micro-strips detectors, and a development of a software for the reconstruction and analysis of CMS data in the framework of ORCA. First, the micro-strips gaseous detectors (MSGC) study was on the ultimate critical irradiation test before their substitution in the CMS tracker. This test showed a really small number of lost anodes and a stable signal to noise ratio. This test proved that the described MSGC fulfill all the requirements to be integrated in the CMS tracker. The following contribution described a study of silicon micro-strips detectors and its electronics exposed to a 40 MHz bunched LHC like beam. These tests indicated a good behaviour of the data acquisition and control system. The signal to noise ratio, the bunch crossing identification and the cluster finding efficiency had also be analysed. The last study concern the design and the development of an ORCA algorithm dedicates to secondary vertex reconstruction. This iterative algorithm aims to be use for b tagging. This part analyse also primary vertex reconstruction in events without and with pile up. (author)

  20. SiliPET: An ultra-high resolution design of a small animal PET scanner based on stacks of double-sided silicon strip detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Domenico, Giovanni; Zavattini, Guido; Cesca, Nicola; Auricchio, Natalia; Andritschke, Robert; Schopper, Florian; Kanbach, Gottfried

    2007-01-01

    We investigated with Monte Carlo simulations, using the EGSNrcMP code, the capabilities of a small animal PET scanner based on four stacks of double-sided silicon strip detectors. Each stack consists of 40 silicon detectors with dimension of 60x60x1 mm 3 and 128 orthogonal strips on each side. Two coordinates of the interaction are given by the strips, whereas the third coordinate is given by the detector number in the stack. The stacks are arranged to form a box of 5x5x6 cm 3 with minor sides opened; the box represents the minimal FOV of the scanner. The performance parameters of the SiliPET scanner have been estimated giving a (positron range limited) spatial resolution of 0.52 mm FWHM, and an absolute sensitivity of 5.1% at the center of system. Preliminary results of a proof of principle measurement done with the MEGA advanced Compton imager using a ∼1 mm diameter 22 Na source, showed a focal ray tracing FWHM of 1 mm

  1. A time-based front-end ASIC for the silicon micro strip sensors of the P-bar ANDA Micro Vertex Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietro, V. Di; Brinkmann, K.-Th.; Riccardi, A.; Ritman, J.; Stockmanns, T.; Zambanini, A.; Rivetti, A.; Rolo, M.D.

    2016-01-01

    The P-bar ANDA (Antiproton Annihilation at Darmstadt) experiment foresees many detectors for tracking, particle identification and calorimetry. Among them, the innermost is the MVD (Micro Vertex Detector) responsible for a precise tracking and the reconstruction of secondary vertices. This detector will be built from both hybrid pixel (two inner barrels and six forward disks) and double-sided micro strip (two outer barrels and outer rim of the last two disks) silicon sensors. A time-based approach has been chosen for the readout ASIC of the strip sensors. The PASTA ( P-bar ANDA Strip ASIC) chip aims at high resolution time-stamping and charge information through the Time over Threshold (ToT) technique. It benefits from a Time to Digital Converter (TDC) allowing a time bin width down to 50 ps. The analog front-end was designed to serve both n-type and p-type strips and the performed simulations show remarkable performances in terms of linearity and electronic noise. The TDC consists of an analog interpolator, a digital local controller, and a digital global controller as the common back-end for all of the 64 channels

  2. A time-based front-end ASIC for the silicon micro strip sensors of the bar PANDA Micro Vertex Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pietro, V.; Brinkmann, K.-Th.; Riccardi, A.; Ritman, J.; Rivetti, A.; Rolo, M. D.; Stockmanns, T.; Zambanini, A.

    2016-03-01

    The bar PANDA (Antiproton Annihilation at Darmstadt) experiment foresees many detectors for tracking, particle identification and calorimetry. Among them, the innermost is the MVD (Micro Vertex Detector) responsible for a precise tracking and the reconstruction of secondary vertices. This detector will be built from both hybrid pixel (two inner barrels and six forward disks) and double-sided micro strip (two outer barrels and outer rim of the last two disks) silicon sensors. A time-based approach has been chosen for the readout ASIC of the strip sensors. The PASTA (bar PANDA Strip ASIC) chip aims at high resolution time-stamping and charge information through the Time over Threshold (ToT) technique. It benefits from a Time to Digital Converter (TDC) allowing a time bin width down to 50 ps. The analog front-end was designed to serve both n-type and p-type strips and the performed simulations show remarkable performances in terms of linearity and electronic noise. The TDC consists of an analog interpolator, a digital local controller, and a digital global controller as the common back-end for all of the 64 channels.

  3. 3D silicon pixel detectors for the ATLAS Forward Physics experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, J.; Cavallaro, E.; Grinstein, S.; Paz, I. López

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS Forward Physics (AFP) project plans to install 3D silicon pixel detectors about 210 m away from the interaction point and very close to the beamline (2–3 mm). This implies the need of slim edges of about 100–200 μm width for the sensor side facing the beam to minimise the dead area. Another challenge is an expected non-uniform irradiation of the pixel sensors. It is studied if these requirements can be met using slightly-modified FE-I4 3D pixel sensors from the ATLAS Insertable B-Layer production. AFP-compatible slim edges are obtained with a simple diamond-saw cut. Electrical characterisations and beam tests are carried out and no detrimental impact on the leakage current and hit efficiency is observed. For devices without a 3D guard ring a remaining insensitive edge of less than 15 μm width is found. Moreover, 3D detectors are non-uniformly irradiated up to fluences of several 10 15 n eq /cm 2 with either a focussed 23 GeV proton beam or a 23 MeV proton beam through holes in Al masks. The efficiency in the irradiated region is found to be similar to the one in the non-irradiated region and exceeds 97% in case of favourable chip-parameter settings. Only in a narrow transition area at the edge of the hole in the Al mask, a significantly lower efficiency is seen. A follow-up study of this effect using arrays of small pad diodes for position-resolved dosimetry via the leakage current is carried out

  4. Performance of the ATLAS semiconductor tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Alpigiani, C; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    We report the operation and performance of the ATLAS Semi-Conductor Tracker (SCT) functioning in a high luminosity and high radiation environment. The SCT is part of the inner tracking system of the ATLAS experiment at CERN and is constructed of 4088 modules assembled from silicon-strip sensors for a total of 6.3 million channels more than 99 % of which were fully functional throughout all data taking periods. Noise occupancy and hit efficiency as well as the Lorentz angle and radiation damage measurements will be discussed in details.

  5. Design,construction and commissioning of a cylinder of double-sided silicon micro-strips detectors for the Star experiment at RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guedon, M.

    2005-05-01

    This study has been performed in the frame of quark gluon plasma physics research in the STAR experiment at RHIC. It deals with the design, the construction and the commissioning of a barrel of silicon-strip detectors (SSD). Added to the Silicon Vertex Tracker (SVT) of the STAR detector, it extends the capabilities of track reconstruction for charged particles emitted in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions. It also contributes to the general study of the quark-gluon plasma production undertaken at STAR. The SSD is a cylinder of 1 m long and of 23 cm radius, and it is composed of 320 compact identical modules. Each module includes one double-sided silicon micro-strip detector, 12 readout chips ALICE 128C, 12 TAB ribbons, 2 COSTAR control chips and 2 hybrids supporting all the components. The document explains why the SSD is an important and relevant element, and justifies the technological choices as well as their validation by in-beam characterization. All component functionalities, characteristics and test procedures are presented. The data and test results are stored in a database for tracing purpose. Component and module production is described. Two parallel studies have been performed, analysed and described. One on the temperature dependence of the module performances and the other one on the optimal adjustments of the analogue blocks inside the ALICE 128C chip. The SSD installation on the RHIC site as well as the commissioning are presented together with the first data takings. (author)

  6. ATLAS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — ATLAS is a particle physics experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research. Scientists from Brookhaven have played...

  7. Performance of a Full-Size Small-Strip Thin Gap Chamber Prototype for the ATLAS New Small Wheel Muon Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Abusleme, Angel; Bellerive, A.; Benhammou, Y.; Botte, J.; Cohen, H.; Davies, M.; Du, Y.; Gauthier, L.; Koffas, T.; Kuleshov, S.; Lefebvre, B.; Li, C.; Lupu, N.; Mikenberg, G.; Mori, D.; Ochoa-Ricoux, J.P.; Perez Codina, E.; Rettie, S.; Robichaud-Véronneau, A.; Rojas, R.; Shoa, M.; Smakhtin, V.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Toro, A.; Torres, H.; Ulloa, P.; Vachon, B.; Vasquez, G.; Vdovin, A.; Viel, S.; Walker, P.; Weber, S.; Zhu, C.

    2016-01-01

    The instantaneous luminosity of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN will be increased up to a factor of five with respect to the present design value by undergoing an extensive upgrade program over the coming decade. The most important upgrade project for the ATLAS Muon System is the replacement of the present first station in the forward regions with the so-called New Small Wheels (NSWs). The NSWs will be installed during the LHC long shutdown in 2018/19. Small-Strip Thin Gap Chamber (sTGC) detectors are designed to provide fast trigger and high precision muon tracking under the high luminosity LHC conditions. To validate the design, a full-size prototype sTGC detector of approximately 1.2 $\\times$ $1.0\\, \\mathrm{m}^2$ consisting of four gaps has been constructed. Each gap provides pad, strip and wire readouts. The sTGC intrinsic spatial resolution has been measured in a $32\\, \\mathrm{GeV}$ pion beam test at Fermilab. At perpendicular incidence angle, single gap position resolutions of about $50\\,\\mathrm{\\mu m...

  8. Influence of cold rolling direction on texture, inhibitor and magnetic properties in strip-cast grain-oriented 3% silicon steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, F., E-mail: fangfengdbdx@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Rolling Technology and Automation, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Lu, X.; Zhang, Y.X.; Wang, Y.; Jiao, H.T.; Cao, G.M.; Yuan, G.; Xu, Y.B. [State Key Laboratory of Rolling Technology and Automation, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Misra, R.D.K. [Laboratory for Excellence in Advanced Steel Research, Department of Metallurgical, Materials and Biomedical Engineering, University of Texas at El Paso, EL Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Wang, G.D. [State Key Laboratory of Rolling Technology and Automation, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China)

    2017-02-15

    An unconventional cold rolling scheme (inclined rolling at 0°, 30°, 45°, 90° during second-stage cold rolling process) was adopted to process grain-oriented silicon steel based on strip casting process. The influences of inclination angles on microstructure, texture, inhibitor and magnetic properties were studied by a combination of EBSD, XRD and TEM. It was found that the α-fiber texture was weakened and γ-fiber was strengthened in cold rolled sheet with increase in inclination angle. The primary recrystallization sheet exhibited more homogeneous microstructure with relatively strong γ-fiber, medium α-fiber texture, weak λ-fiber texture and Goss component at high inclination angles. Fine and homogeneous inhibitors were obtained after primary annealing with increase in inclination angle from 0° to 90° because of more uniform deformation after inclined rolling. The grain-oriented silicon steel experienced completely secondary recrystallization at various inclination angles after final annealing process, with superior magnetic properties at 0° and 90°. Furthermore, Goss nuclei capable of final secondary recrystallization in strip casting process newly formed both in-grain shear bands and grain boundaries region during second-stage cold rolling and subsequent annealing process, which is different from the well-accepted results that Goss texture originated from the subsurface layer of the hot rolled sheet or during intermediate annealing process. In addition, the Goss texture that nucleated in-grain shear bands was weaker but more accurate as compared to that in grain boundaries region. - Highlights: • Inclined cold rolling was adopted to process strip-cast grain-oriented silicon steel. • Influence of inclination angles on texture, inhibitor and magnetic properties was studied. • The initial texture was changed with respect to the inclination angle. • Homogeneous inhibitors were obtained after primary annealing at various inclination angles.

  9. An on-line acoustic fluorocarbon coolant mixture analyzer for the ATLAS silicon tracker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, R. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Univ. of Glasgow, G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Battistin, M. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Berry, S.; Bitadze, A. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Univ. of Glasgow, G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Bonneau, P. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Bousson, N. [Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille, 163 Avenue de Luminy, 13288 Marseille Cedex 09 (France); Boyd, G. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Botelho-Direito, J.; DiGirolamo, B. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Doubek, M. [Czech Technical Univ., Technicka 4, 166 07 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Egorov, K. [Physics Dept., Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Godlewski, J. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Hallewell, G. [Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille, 163 Avenue de Luminy, 13288 Marseille Cedex 09 (France); Katunin, S. [B.P. Konstantinov Petersburg Nuclear Physics Inst. PNPI, 188300 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Mathieu, M.; McMahon, S. [Rutherford Appelton Laboratory - Science and Technology Facilities Council, Chilton, Didcot OX11 OQX (United Kingdom); Nagai, K. [Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, Univ. of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Perez-Rodriguez, E. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Rozanov, A. [Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille, 163 Avenue de Luminy, 13288 Marseille Cedex 09 (France); Vacek, V.; Vitek, M. [Czech Technical Univ., Technicka 4, 166 07 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)

    2011-07-01

    The ATLAS silicon tracker community foresees an upgrade from the present octafluoro-propane (C{sub 3}F{sub 8}) evaporative cooling fluid - to a composite fluid with a probable 10-20% admixture of hexafluoro-ethane (C{sub 2}F{sub 6}). Such a fluid will allow a lower evaporation temperature and will afford the tracker silicon substrates a better safety margin against leakage current-induced thermal runaway caused by cumulative radiation damage as the luminosity profile at the CERN Large Hadron Collider increases. Central to the use of this new fluid is a new custom-developed speed-of-sound instrument for continuous real-time measurement of the C{sub 3}F{sub 8}/C{sub 2}F{sub 6} mixture ratio and flow. An acoustic vapour mixture analyzer/flow meter with new custom electronics allowing ultrasonic frequency transmission through gas mixtures has been developed for this application. Synchronous with the emission of an ultrasound 'chirp' from an acoustic transmitter, a fast readout clock (40 MHz) is started. The clock is stopped on receipt of an above threshold sound pulse at the receiver. Sound is alternately transmitted parallel and anti-parallel with the vapour flow for volume flow measurement from transducers that can serve as acoustic transmitters or receivers. In the development version, continuous real-time measurement of C{sub 3}F{sub 8}/C{sub 2}F{sub 6} flow and calculation of the mixture ratio is performed within a graphical user interface developed in PVSS-II, the Supervisory, Control and Data Acquisition standard chosen for LHC and its experiments at CERN. The described instrument has numerous potential applications - including refrigerant leak detection, the analysis of hydrocarbons, vapour mixtures for semiconductor manufacture and anesthetic gas mixtures. (authors)

  10. High coincidence-to-accidental ratio continuous-wave photon-pair generation in a grating-coupled silicon strip waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Kai; Christensen, Erik Nicolai; Christensen, Jesper Bjerge

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate a very high coincidence-to-accidental ratio of 673 using continuous-wave photon-pair generation in a silicon strip waveguide through spontaneous four-wave mixing. This result is obtained by employing on-chip photonic-crystal-based grating couplers for both low-loss fiber......-to-chip coupling and on-chip suppression of generated spontaneous Raman scattering noise. We measure a minimum heralded second-order correlation of g(H)((2)) (0) = 0.12, demonstrating that our source operates in the single- photon regime with low noise. (C) 2017 The Japan Society of Applied Physics...

  11. A combined ultrasonic flow meter and binary vapour mixture analyzer for the ATLAS silicon tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Bates, R; Berry, S; Berthoud, J; Bitadze, A; Bonneau, P; Botelho-Direito, J; Bousson, N; Boyd, G; Bozza, G; Da Riva, E; Degeorge, C; DiGirolamo, B; Doubek, M; Giugni, D; Godlewski, J; Hallewell, G; Katunin, S; Lombard, D; Mathieu, M; McMahon, S; Nagai, K; Perez-Rodriguez, E; Rossi, C; Rozanov, A; Vacek, V; Vitek, M; Zwalinski, L

    2013-01-01

    An upgrade to the ATLAS silicon tracker cooling control system may require a change from C3F8 (octafluoro-propane) evaporative coolant to a blend containing 10-25% of C2F6 (hexafluoro-ethane). Such a change will reduce the evaporation temperature to assure thermal stability following radiation damage accumulated at full LHC luminosity. Central to this upgrade is a new ultrasonic instrument in which sound transit times are continuously measured in opposite directions in flowing gas at known temperature and pressure to deduce the C3F8/C2F6 flow rate and mixture composition. The instrument and its Supervisory, Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) software are described in this paper. Several geometries for the instrument are in use or under evaluation. An instrument with a pinched axial geometry intended for analysis and measurement of moderate flow rates has demonstrated a mixture resolution of 3.10-3 for C3F8/C2F6 molar mixtures with 20%C2F6, and a flow resolution of 2% of full scale for mass flows up to 30gs-...

  12. 3D silicon sensors: Design, large area production and quality assurance for the ATLAS IBL pixel detector upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Via, Cinzia; Boscardin, Maurizio; Dalla Betta, Gian-Franco; Darbo, Giovanni; Fleta, Celeste; Gemme, Claudia; Grenier, Philippe; Grinstein, Sebastian; Hansen, Thor-Erik; Hasi, Jasmine; Kenney, Chris; Kok, Angela; Parker, Sherwood; Pellegrini, Giulio; Vianello, Elisa; Zorzi, Nicola

    2012-12-01

    3D silicon sensors, where electrodes penetrate the silicon substrate fully or partially, have successfully been fabricated in different processing facilities in Europe and USA. The key to 3D fabrication is the use of plasma micro-machining to etch narrow deep vertical openings allowing dopants to be diffused in and form electrodes of pin junctions. Similar openings can be used at the sensor's edge to reduce the perimeter's dead volume to as low as ˜4 μm. Since 2009 four industrial partners of the 3D ATLAS R&D Collaboration started a joint effort aimed at one common design and compatible processing strategy for the production of 3D sensors for the LHC Upgrade and in particular for the ATLAS pixel Insertable B-Layer (IBL). In this project, aimed for installation in 2013, a new layer will be inserted as close as 3.4 cm from the proton beams inside the existing pixel layers of the ATLAS experiment. The detector proximity to the interaction point will therefore require new radiation hard technologies for both sensors and front end electronics. The latter, called FE-I4, is processed at IBM and is the biggest front end of this kind ever designed with a surface of ˜4 cm2. The performance of 3D devices from several wafers was evaluated before and after bump-bonding. Key design aspects, device fabrication plans and quality assurance tests during the 3D sensors prototyping phase are discussed in this paper.

  13. Microstructure and texture evolution of ultra-thin grain-oriented silicon steel sheet fabricated using strip casting and three-stage cold rolling method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Hong-Yu; Liu, Hai-Tao, E-mail: liuht@ral.neu.edu.cn; Wang, Yin-Ping; Wang, Guo-Dong

    2017-03-15

    A 0.1 mm-thick grain-oriented silicon steel sheet was successfully produced using strip casting and three-stage cold rolling method. The microstructure, texture and inhibitor evolution during the processing was briefly analyzed. It was found that Goss texture was absent in the hot rolled sheet because of the lack of shear deformation. After normalizing, a large number of dispersed MnS precipitates with the size range of 15–90 nm were produced. During first cold rolling, dense shear bands were generated in the deformed ferrite grains, resulting in the intense Goss texture after first intermediate annealing. The microstructure was further refined and homogenized during the subsequent cold rolling and annealing processes. After primary recrystallization annealing, a homogeneous microstructure consisting of fine and equiaxed grains was produced while the associated texture was characterized by a strong γ-fiber texture. Finally, a complete secondary recrystallization microstructure consisting of entirely large Goss grains was produced. The magnetic induction B{sub 8} and iron loss P{sub 10/400} was 1.79 T and 6.9 W/kg, respectively. - Highlights: • Ultra-thin grain-oriented silicon steel was produced by strip casting process. • Microstructure, texture and inhibitor evolution was briefly investigated. • Goss texture was absent in primary recrystallization annealed sheet. • MnS precipitates with a size range of 15–90 nm formed after normalizing. • A complete secondary recrystallization microstructure was produced.

  14. ATLAS ITk Pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Gemme, Claudia; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The high luminosity upgrade of the LHC (HL-LHC) in 2026 will provide new challenge to the ATLAS tracker. The current inner detector will be replaced with a whole silicon tracker which will consist of a five barrel layer Pixel detector surrounded by a four barrel layer Strip detector. The expected high radiation level are requiring the development of upgraded silicon sensors as well as new a front-end chip. The dense tracking environment will require finer granularity detectors. The data rates will require new technologies for high bandwidth data transmission and handling. The current status of the HL-LHC ATLA Pixel detector developments as well as the various layout options will be reviewed.

  15. Development of edgeless silicon pixel sensors on p-type substrate for the ATLAS high-luminosity upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calderini, G. [Laboratoire de Physique Nucléaire et des Hautes Energies (LPNHE), Paris (France); Dipartimento di Fisica E. Fermi, Universitá di Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Bagolini, A. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi (FBK-CMM), Povo di Trento (Italy); Bomben, M. [Laboratoire de Physique Nucléaire et des Hautes Energies (LPNHE), Paris (France); Boscardin, M. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi (FBK-CMM), Povo di Trento (Italy); Bosisio, L. [Università degli studi di Trieste and INFN-Trieste (Italy); Chauveau, J. [Laboratoire de Physique Nucléaire et des Hautes Energies (LPNHE), Paris (France); Giacomini, G. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi (FBK-CMM), Povo di Trento (Italy); La Rosa, A. [Section de Physique (DPNC), Universitè de Geneve, Geneve (Switzerland); Marchiori, G. [Laboratoire de Physique Nucléaire et des Hautes Energies (LPNHE), Paris (France); Zorzi, N. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi (FBK-CMM), Povo di Trento (Italy)

    2014-11-21

    In view of the LHC upgrade for the high luminosity phase (HL-LHC), the ATLAS experiment is planning to replace the inner detector with an all-silicon system. The n-in-p bulk technology represents a valid solution for the modules of most of the layers, given the significant radiation hardness of this option and the reduced cost. The large area necessary to instrument the outer layers will demand to tile the sensors, a solution for which the inefficient region at the border of each sensor needs to be reduced to the minimum size. This paper reports on a joint R and D project by the ATLAS LPNHE Paris group and FBK Trento on a novel n-in-p edgeless planar pixel design, based on the deep-trench process available at FBK.

  16. Development and evaluation of test stations for the quality assurance of the silicon micro-strip detector modules for the CMS experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poettgens, M.

    2007-11-22

    CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) is one of four large-scale detectors which will be operated at the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) at the European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN). For the search for new physics the reconstruction of the collision products and their properties is essential. In the innermost part of the CMS detector the traces of ionizing particles are measured utilizing a silicon tracker. A large fraction of this detector is equipped with silicon micro-strip modules which provide a precise space resolution in 1-dimension. A module consists of a sensor for detection of particles, the corresponding read-out electronics (hybrid) and a mechanical support structure. Since the 15,148 modules, which will be installed in the silicon micro-strip detector, have a total sensitive surface area of about 198 m{sup 2}, the inner tracker of CMS is the largest silicon tracking detector, which has ever been built. While the sensors and hybrids are produced in industry, the construction of the modules and the control of the quality is done by the members of the 21 participating institutes. Since the access to the silicon micro-strip tracker will be very limited after the installation in the CMS detector the installed modules must be of high quality. For this reason the modules are thoroughly tested and the test results are uploaded to a central database. By the development of a read-out system and the corresponding software the III. Physikalisches Institut made an important contribution for the electrical and functional quality control of hybrids and modules. The read-out system provides all features for the operation and test of hybrids and modules and stands out due to high reliability and simple handling. Because a very user-friedly and highly automated software it became the official test tool and was integrated in various test stands. The test stands, in which the read-out system is integrated in, are described and the tests which are implemented in the

  17. A silicon photo-multiplier signal readout using strip-line and waveform sampling for Positron Emission Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H.; Chen, C.-T.; Eclov, N.; Ronzhin, A.; Murat, P.; Ramberg, E.; Los, S.; Kao, C.-M.

    2016-09-01

    A strip-line and waveform sampling based readout is a signal multiplexing method that can efficiently reduce the readout channels while fully exploiting the fast time characteristics of photo-detectors such as the SiPM. We have applied this readout method for SiPM-based time-of-flight (TOF) positron emission tomography (PET) detectors. We have prototyped strip-line boards in which 8 SiPMs (pitch 5.2 mm) are connected by using a single strip-line, and the signals appearing at the ends of the strip-line are acquired by using the DRS4 waveform sampler at a nominal sampling frequency of 1-5 GS/s. Experimental tests using laser and LYSO scintillator are carried out to assess the performance of the strip-line board. Each SiPM position, which is inferred from the arrival time difference of the two signals at the ends of the strip-line, is well identified with 2.6 mm FWHM resolution when the SiPMs are coupled to LYSO crystals and irradiated by a 22Na source. The average energy and coincidence time resolution corresponding to 511 keV photons are measured to be ∼32% and ∼510 ps FWHM, respectively, at a 5.0 GS/s DRS4 sampling rate. The results show that the sampling rate can be lowered to 1.5 GS/s without performance degradation. These encouraging initial test results indicate that the strip-line and waveform sampling readout method is applicable for SiPM-based TOF PET development.

  18. Electrical performance of ATLAS-SCT KB end-cap modules

    CERN Document Server

    D'Onofrio, M; Donegà, M; Ferrère, D; Mangin-Brinet, M; Mikulec, B; Weber, M; Ikegami, Y; Kohriki, T; Kondo, T; Terada, S; Unno, Y; Pernegger, H; Roe, S; Wallny, R; Moorhead, G F; Taylor, G; García, J E; Gonzáles, S; Vos, M A; Toczek, B

    2003-01-01

    The Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) is one of the ATLAS Inner Detector elements which aims to track charged particles in the ATLAS experiment. It consists of four cylindrical layers (barrels) of silicon strip detectors, with nine disks in each of the forward and backward directions. Carbon fibre structures will support a total of 4088 modules, which are the basic functional sub-unit of the SCT. Each module consists of single sided silicon micro-strip detectors glued back to back with a 40 mrad stereo-angle, and attached to a hybrid. The scope of this document is to present the electrical performances of prototype end-cap modules proposed for the ATLAS-SCT, as an alternative to the baseline. The layout of these modules is based on the implementation of the barrel module hybrid in the end-cap geometry. A complete set of electrical measurements is summarized in this paper, including irradiated module tests and beam tests.

  19. Development of Edgeless Silicon Pixel Sensors on p-type substrate for the ATLAS High-Luminosity Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calderini, G. [Laboratoire de Physique Nucléaire et des Hautes Energies (LPNHE), Paris (France); Dipartimento di Fisica E. Fermi, Universitá di Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Bagolini, A. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi (FBK-CMM), Povo di Trento (Italy); Beccherle, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sez. di Pisa (Italy); Bomben, M. [Laboratoire de Physique Nucléaire et des Hautes Energies (LPNHE), Paris (France); Boscardin, M. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi (FBK-CMM), Povo di Trento (Italy); Bosisio, L. [Università degli studi di Trieste (Italy); INFN-Trieste (Italy); Chauveau, J. [Laboratoire de Physique Nucléaire et des Hautes Energies (LPNHE), Paris (France); Giacomini, G. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi (FBK-CMM), Povo di Trento (Italy); La Rosa, A. [Section de Physique (DPNC), Universitè de Geneve, Geneve (Switzerland); Marchiori, G. [Laboratoire de Physique Nucléaire et des Hautes Energies (LPNHE), Paris (France); Zorzi, N. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi (FBK-CMM), Povo di Trento (Italy)

    2016-09-21

    In view of the LHC upgrade phases towards the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), the ATLAS experiment plans to upgrade the Inner Detector with an all-silicon system. The n-on-p silicon technology is a promising candidate to achieve a large area instrumented with pixel sensors, since it is radiation hard and cost effective. The presentation describes the performance of novel n-in-p edgeless planar pixel sensors produced by FBK-CMM, making use of the active trench for the reduction of the dead area at the periphery of the device. After discussing the sensor technology, some feedback from preliminary results of the first beam test will be discussed.

  20. Performance of Edgeless Silicon Pixel Sensors on p-type substrate for the ATLAS High-Luminosity Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00052711; Boscardin, Maurizio; Bosisio, Luciano; Calderini, Giovanni; Chauveau, Jacques; Ducourthial, Audrey; Giacomini, Gabriele; Marchiori, Giovanni; Zorzi, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    In view of the LHC upgrade phases towards the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), the ATLAS experiment plans to upgrade the Inner Detector with an all-silicon system. The n-on-p silicon technology is a promising candidate to achieve a large area instrumented with pixel sensors, since it is radiation hard and cost effective. The paper reports on the performance of novel n-on-p edgeless planar pixel sensors produced by FBK-CMM, making use of the active trench for the reduction of the dead area at the periphery of the device. After discussing the sensor technology an overview of the first beam test results will be given.

  1. The ATLAS semi-conductor tracker operation and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, D.

    2013-01-01

    The Semi-Conductor Tracker (SCT) is a silicon strip detector and one of the key precision tracking devices in the Inner Detector of the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The SCT was installed and commissioned within ATLAS in 2007, and has been used to exploit fully the physics potential of the LHC since the first proton–proton collisions at 7 TeV were delivered in 2009. In this paper, its operational status throughout data taking up to the end of 2011 is presented, and its tracking performance is reviewed. -- Highlights: ► The operation and performance of the ATLAS Semi-Conductor Tracker (SCT) is reviewed. ► More than 99% of the SCT strips have remained operational in all data taking periods so far. ► Tracking performance indicators have met or exceeded design specifications. ► Radiation damage effects match closely expectations from delivered fluence.

  2. Commissioning and Performance of the ATLAS Inner Detector with proton-proton Collisions at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Limosani, A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS Inner Detector is a composite tracking system consisting of silicon pixels, silicon strips and straw tubes in a 2 T magnetic field. Its installation was completed in August 2008 and the detector has taken part in datataking with colliding LHC beams. Utilising collision data we present studies of the individual sub-systems, which include measurements of the Lorentz angle, timing, noise characteristics and cluster reconstruction efficiency. We also report results of the post collision alignment of the detector geometry and probe the agreement between data and simulation in the early stages of track reconstruction at ATLAS.

  3. Characterisation of the ATLAS ITK strips front-end chip and development of EUDAQ 2.0 for the EUDET-style pixel telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peschke, Richard

    2017-03-15

    As part of the ATLAS phase-II upgrade a new, all-silicon tracker will be built. The new tracker will consist of silicon pixel sensors and silicon microstrip sensors. For the readout of the microstrip sensor a new readout chip was designed; the so called ATLAS Binary Converter 130 (ABC130) which is based on a 130 nm CMOS technology. The chip consists of an analog Front End built up of 256 channels, each with a preamplifier and a discriminator for converting the analog sensor readout into a binary response. The preamplifier of the ABC130 was designed to have a gain of 90-95 (mV)/(fC). First laboratory measurements with the built-in control circuits have shown a gain of <75 (mV)/(fC). In the course of this thesis a test beam campaign was undertaken to measure the gain in an unbiased system under realistic conditions. The obtained gain varied from ∼90 (mV)/(fC) to ∼100 (mV)/(fC). With this, the values obtained by the test beam campaign are within the specifications. In order to perform the test beam campaign with optimal efficiency, a complete overhaul of the data acquisition framework used for the EUDET type test beam telescopes was necessary. The new version is called EUDAQ 2.0. It is designed to accommodate devices with different integration times such as LHC-type devices with an integration time of only 25 ns, and devices with long integration times such as the MIMOSA26 with an integration time of 114.5 μs. To accomplish this a new synchronization algorithm has been developed. It gives the user full flexibility on the means of synchronizing their own data stream with the system. Beyond this, EUDAQ 2.0 also allows user specific encoding and decoding of data packets. This enables the user to minimize the data overhead and to shift more computation time to the offline stage. To reduce the network overhead EUDAQ 2.0 allows the user to store data locally. The merging is then postponed to the offline stage.

  4. Characterisation of the ATLAS ITK strips front-end chip and development of EUDAQ 2.0 for the EUDET-style pixel telescopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peschke, Richard

    2017-03-01

    As part of the ATLAS phase-II upgrade a new, all-silicon tracker will be built. The new tracker will consist of silicon pixel sensors and silicon microstrip sensors. For the readout of the microstrip sensor a new readout chip was designed; the so called ATLAS Binary Converter 130 (ABC130) which is based on a 130 nm CMOS technology. The chip consists of an analog Front End built up of 256 channels, each with a preamplifier and a discriminator for converting the analog sensor readout into a binary response. The preamplifier of the ABC130 was designed to have a gain of 90-95 (mV)/(fC). First laboratory measurements with the built-in control circuits have shown a gain of <75 (mV)/(fC). In the course of this thesis a test beam campaign was undertaken to measure the gain in an unbiased system under realistic conditions. The obtained gain varied from ∼90 (mV)/(fC) to ∼100 (mV)/(fC). With this, the values obtained by the test beam campaign are within the specifications. In order to perform the test beam campaign with optimal efficiency, a complete overhaul of the data acquisition framework used for the EUDET type test beam telescopes was necessary. The new version is called EUDAQ 2.0. It is designed to accommodate devices with different integration times such as LHC-type devices with an integration time of only 25 ns, and devices with long integration times such as the MIMOSA26 with an integration time of 114.5 μs. To accomplish this a new synchronization algorithm has been developed. It gives the user full flexibility on the means of synchronizing their own data stream with the system. Beyond this, EUDAQ 2.0 also allows user specific encoding and decoding of data packets. This enables the user to minimize the data overhead and to shift more computation time to the offline stage. To reduce the network overhead EUDAQ 2.0 allows the user to store data locally. The merging is then postponed to the offline stage.

  5. A Combined On-Line Acoustic Flowmeter and Fluorocarbon Coolant Mixture Analyzer for The ATLAS Silicon Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Bitadze, A.; Bates, R.; Battistin, M.; Berry, S.; Bonneau, P.; Botelho-Direito, J.; DiGirolamo, B.; Godlewski, J.; Perez-Rodriguez, E.; Zwalinski, L.; Bousson, N.; Hallewell, G.; Mathieu, M.; Rozanov, A.; Boyd, G.; Doubek, M.; Vacek, V.; Vitek, M.; Egorov, K.; Katunin, S.; McMahon, S.; Nagai, K.

    2011-01-01

    An upgrade to the ATLAS silicon tracker cooling control system may require a change from C3F8 (octafluoro-propane) to a blend containing 10-30% of C2F6 (hexafluoro-ethane) to reduce the evaporation temperature and better protect the silicon from cumulative radiation damage with increasing LHC luminosity. Central to this upgrade is a new acoustic instrument for the real-time measurement of the C3F8/C2F6 mixture ratio and flow. The instrument and its Supervisory, Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) software are described in this paper. The instrument has demonstrated a resolution of 3.10-3 for C3F8/C2F6 mixtures with ~20%C2F6, and flow resolution of 2% of full scale for mass flows up to 30gs-1. In mixtures of widely-differing molecular weight (mw), higher mixture precision is possible: a sensitivity of < 5.10-4 to leaks of C3F8 into the ATLAS pixel detector nitrogen envelope (mw difference 160) has been seen. The instrument has many potential applications, including the analysis of mixtures of hydrocarbons,...

  6. A combined on-line acoustic flowmeter and fluorocarbon coolant mixture analyzer for the ATLAS silicon tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, R.; Bitadze, A.; Battistin, M.; Berry, S.; Bonneau, P.; Botelho-Direito, J.; Girolamo, B. Di; Godlewski, J.; Perez-Rodriguez, E.; Zwalinski, L.; Bousson, N.; Hallewell, G.; Mathieu, M.; Rozanov, A.; Boyd, G.; Doubek, M.; Vacek, V.; Vitek, M.; Egorov, K.; Katunin, S.; Konstantinov, B.P.; McMahon, S.; Nagai, K.

    2012-01-01

    An upgrade to the ATLAS silicon tracker cooling control system may require a change from C 3 F 8 (octafluoro-propane) to a blend containing 10-30% of C 2 F 6 (hexafluoro-ethane) to reduce the evaporation temperature and better protect the silicon from cumulative radiation damage with increasing LHC luminosity. Central to this upgrade is a new ultrasonic flowmeter and binary gas analyzer for the real-time measurement of the C 3 F 8 /C 2 F 6 mixture ratio and flow. The instrument and its Supervisory, Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) software are described in this paper. The instrument has demonstrated a resolution of 3.10 -3 for C 3 F 8 /C 2 F 6 mixtures with about 20% C 2 F 6 , and flow resolution of 2% of full scale for mass flows up to 30 gs -1 . In mixtures of widely-differing molecular weight (mw), higher mixture precision is possible: a sensitivity of -4 to leaks of C 3 F 8 into the ATLAS pixel detector nitrogen envelope (mw difference 160) has been seen. The instrument has many potential applications, including the analysis of mixtures of hydrocarbons, vapours for semi-conductor manufacture and anaesthesia. (authors)

  7. ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker Operation and Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Tojo, J; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The SemiConductor Tracker (SCT), comprising of silicon micro-strip detectors is one of the key precision tracking devices in the ATLAS Inner Detector. ATLAS is one of the experiments at CERN LHC. The completed SCT is in very good shapes with 99.3% of the SCT’s 4088 modules (a total of 6.3 million strips) are operational. The noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specifications. In the talk the current status of the SCT will be reviewed. We will report on the operation of the detector, its performance and observed problems, with stress on the sensor and electronics performance. In December 2009 the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) recorded the first proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 900 GeV and this was followed by the unprecedented energy of 7 TeV in March 2010. The Semi- Conductor Tracker (SCT) is the key precision tracking device in ATLAS, made from silicon micro-strip detectors processed in the planar p-in-n technology. The signals from the stri...

  8. Development of n.sup.+./sup.-in-p large-area silicon microstrip sensors for very high radiation environments – ATLAS12 design and initial results

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Unno, Y.; Edwards, S.O.; Pyatt, S.; Böhm, Jan; Mikeštíková, Marcela

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 765, Nov (2014), s. 80-90 ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG13009 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : silicon strip * n + -in-p * P-type * Radiation-tolerant * HL- LHC * PTP Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 1.216, year: 2014

  9. 3D silicon sensors: Design, large area production and quality assurance for the ATLAS IBL pixel detector upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da Via, Cinzia [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Boscardin, Maurizio [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, FBK-CMM, Via Sommarive 18, I-38123 Trento (Italy); Dalla Betta, Gian-Franco, E-mail: dallabe@disi.unitn.it [DISI, Universita degli Studi di Trento and INFN, Via Sommarive 14, I-38123 Trento (Italy); Darbo, Giovanni [INFN Sezione di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, I-14146 Genova (Italy); Fleta, Celeste [Centro Nacional de Microelectronica, CNM-IMB (CSIC), Barcelona E-08193 (Spain); Gemme, Claudia [INFN Sezione di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, I-14146 Genova (Italy); Grenier, Philippe [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Grinstein, Sebastian [Institut de Fisica d' Altes Energies (IFAE) and ICREA, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (UAB), E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Hansen, Thor-Erik [SINTEF MiNaLab, Blindern, N-0314 Oslo (Norway); Hasi, Jasmine; Kenney, Chris [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Kok, Angela [SINTEF MiNaLab, Blindern, N-0314 Oslo (Norway); Parker, Sherwood [University of Hawaii, c/o Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Pellegrini, Giulio [Centro Nacional de Microelectronica, CNM-IMB (CSIC), Barcelona E-08193 (Spain); Vianello, Elisa; Zorzi, Nicola [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, FBK-CMM, Via Sommarive 18, I-38123 Trento (Italy)

    2012-12-01

    3D silicon sensors, where electrodes penetrate the silicon substrate fully or partially, have successfully been fabricated in different processing facilities in Europe and USA. The key to 3D fabrication is the use of plasma micro-machining to etch narrow deep vertical openings allowing dopants to be diffused in and form electrodes of pin junctions. Similar openings can be used at the sensor's edge to reduce the perimeter's dead volume to as low as {approx}4 {mu}m. Since 2009 four industrial partners of the 3D ATLAS R and D Collaboration started a joint effort aimed at one common design and compatible processing strategy for the production of 3D sensors for the LHC Upgrade and in particular for the ATLAS pixel Insertable B-Layer (IBL). In this project, aimed for installation in 2013, a new layer will be inserted as close as 3.4 cm from the proton beams inside the existing pixel layers of the ATLAS experiment. The detector proximity to the interaction point will therefore require new radiation hard technologies for both sensors and front end electronics. The latter, called FE-I4, is processed at IBM and is the biggest front end of this kind ever designed with a surface of {approx}4 cm{sup 2}. The performance of 3D devices from several wafers was evaluated before and after bump-bonding. Key design aspects, device fabrication plans and quality assurance tests during the 3D sensors prototyping phase are discussed in this paper.

  10. ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    Akhnazarov, V; Canepa, A; Bremer, J; Burckhart, H; Cattai, A; Voss, R; Hervas, L; Kaplon, J; Nessi, M; Werner, P; Ten kate, H; Tyrvainen, H; Vandelli, W; Krasznahorkay, A; Gray, H; Alvarez gonzalez, B; Eifert, T F; Rolando, G; Oide, H; Barak, L; Glatzer, J; Backhaus, M; Schaefer, D M; Maciejewski, J P; Milic, A; Jin, S; Von torne, E; Limbach, C; Medinnis, M J; Gregor, I; Levonian, S; Schmitt, S; Waananen, A; Monnier, E; Muanza, S G; Pralavorio, P; Talby, M; Tiouchichine, E; Tocut, V M; Rybkin, G; Wang, S; Lacour, D; Laforge, B; Ocariz, J H; Bertoli, W; Malaescu, B; Sbarra, C; Yamamoto, A; Sasaki, O; Koriki, T; Hara, K; Da silva gomes, A; Carvalho maneira, J; Marcalo da palma, A; Chekulaev, S; Tikhomirov, V; Snesarev, A; Buzykaev, A; Maslennikov, A; Peleganchuk, S; Sukharev, A; Kaplan, B E; Swiatlowski, M J; Nef, P D; Schnoor, U; Oakham, G F; Ueno, R; Orr, R S; Abouzeid, O; Haug, S; Peng, H; Kus, V; Vitek, M; Temming, K K; Dang, N P; Meier, K; Schultz-coulon, H; Geisler, M P; Sander, H; Schaefer, U; Ellinghaus, F; Rieke, S; Nussbaumer, A; Liu, Y; Richter, R; Kortner, S; Fernandez-bosman, M; Ullan comes, M; Espinal curull, J; Chiriotti alvarez, S; Caubet serrabou, M; Valladolid gallego, E; Kaci, M; Carrasco vela, N; Lancon, E C; Besson, N E; Gautard, V; Bracinik, J; Bartsch, V C; Potter, C J; Lester, C G; Moeller, V A; Rosten, J; Crooks, D; Mathieson, K; Houston, S C; Wright, M; Jones, T W; Harris, O B; Byatt, T J; Dobson, E; Hodgson, P; Hodgkinson, M C; Dris, M; Karakostas, K; Ntekas, K; Oren, D; Duchovni, E; Etzion, E; Oren, Y; Ferrer, L M; Testa, M; Doria, A; Merola, L; Sekhniaidze, G; Giordano, R; Ricciardi, S; Milazzo, A; Falciano, S; De pedis, D; Dionisi, C; Veneziano, S; Cardarelli, R; Verzegnassi, C; Soualah, R; Ochi, A; Ohshima, T; Kishiki, S; Linde, F L; Vreeswijk, M; Werneke, P; Muijs, A; Vankov, P H; Jansweijer, P P M; Dale, O; Lund, E; Bruckman de renstrom, P; Dabrowski, W; Adamek, J D; Wolters, H; Micu, L; Pantea, D; Tudorache, V; Mjoernmark, J; Klimek, P J; Ferrari, A; Abdinov, O; Akhoundov, A; Hashimov, R; Shelkov, G; Khubua, J; Ladygin, E; Lazarev, A; Glagolev, V; Dedovich, D; Lykasov, G; Zhemchugov, A; Zolnikov, Y; Ryabenko, M; Sivoklokov, S; Vasilyev, I; Shalimov, A; Lobanov, M; Paramoshkina, E; Mosidze, M; Bingul, A; Nodulman, L J; Guarino, V J; Yoshida, R; Drake, G R; Calafiura, P; Haber, C; Quarrie, D R; Alonso, J R; Anderson, C; Evans, H; Lammers, S W; Baubock, M; Anderson, K; Petti, R; Suhr, C A; Linnemann, J T; Richards, R A; Tollefson, K A; Holzbauer, J L; Stoker, D P; Pier, S; Nelson, A J; Isakov, V; Martin, A J; Adelman, J A; Paganini, M; Gutierrez, P; Snow, J M; Pearson, B L; Cleland, W E; Savinov, V; Wong, W; Goodson, J J; Li, H; Lacey, R A; Gordeev, A; Gordon, H; Lanni, F; Nevski, P; Rescia, S; Kierstead, J A; Liu, Z; Yu, W W H; Bensinger, J; Hashemi, K S; Bogavac, D; Cindro, V; Hoeferkamp, M R; Coelli, S; Iodice, M; Piegaia, R N; Alonso, F; Wahlberg, H P; Barberio, E L; Limosani, A; Rodd, N L; Jennens, D T; Hill, E C; Pospisil, S; 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Wickens, F J; Martin, V J; Jackson, J N; Prichard, P; Kretzschmar, J; Martin, A J; Walker, C J; Potter, K M; Kourkoumelis, C; Tzamarias, S; Houiris, A G; Iliadis, D; Fanti, M; Bertolucci, F; Maleev, V; Sultanov, S; Rosenberg, E I; Krumnack, N E; Bieganek, C; Diehl, E B; Mc kee, S P; Eppig, A P; Harper, D R; Liu, C; Schwarz, T A; Mazor, B; Looper, K A; Wiedenmann, W; Huang, P; Stahlman, J M; Battaglia, M; Nielsen, J A; Zhao, T; Khanov, A; Kaushik, V S; Vichou, E; Liss, A M; Gemme, C; Morettini, P; Parodi, F; Passaggio, S; Rossi, L; Kuzhir, P; Ignatenko, A; Ferrari, R; Spairani, M; Pianori, E; Sekula, S J; Firan, A I; Cao, T; Hetherly, J W; Gouighri, M; Vassilakopoulos, V; Long, M C; Shimojima, M; Sawyer, L H; Brummett, R E; Losada, M A; Schorlemmer, A L; Mantoani, M; Bawa, H S; Mornacchi, G; Nicquevert, B; Palestini, S; Stapnes, S; Veness, R; Kotamaki, M J; Sorde, C; Iengo, P; Campana, S; Goossens, L; Zajacova, Z; Pribyl, L; Poveda torres, J; Marzin, A; Conti, G; Carrillo montoya, G D; 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Vasilyeva, L; Speransky, M; Smirnov, S; Antonov, A; Bulekov, O; Tikhonov, Y; Sargsyan, L; Vardanyan, G; Budick, B; Kocian, M L; Luitz, S; Young, C C; Grenier, P J; Kelsey, M; Black, J E; Kneringer, E; Jussel, P; Horton, A J; Beaudry, J; Chandra, A; Ereditato, A; Topfel, C M; Mathieu, R; Bucci, F; Muenstermann, D; White, R M; He, M; Urban, J; Straka, M; Vrba, V; Schumacher, M; Parzefall, U; Mahboubi, K; Sommer, P O; Koepke, L H; Bethke, S; Moser, H; Wiesmann, M; Walkowiak, W A; Fleck, I J; Martinez-perez, M; Sanchez sanchez, C A; Jorgensen roca, S; Accion garcia, E; Sainz ruiz, C A; Valls ferrer, J A; Amoros vicente, G; Vives torrescasana, R; Ouraou, A; Formica, A; Hassani, S; Watson, M F; Cottin buracchio, G F; Bussey, P J; Saxon, D; Ferrando, J E; Collins-tooth, C L; Hall, D C; Cuhadar donszelmann, T; Dawson, I; Duxfield, R; Argyropoulos, T; Brodet, E; Livneh, R; Shougaev, K; Reinherz, E I; Guttman, N; Beretta, M M; Vilucchi, E; Aloisio, A; Patricelli, S; Caprio, M; Cevenini, F; De vecchi, C; 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Shupe, M A; Wolin, S; Oshita, H; Gaudio, G; Das, R; Konig, A C; Croft, V A; Harvey, A; Maaroufi, F; Melo, I; Greenwood jr, Z D; Shabalina, E; Mchedlidze, G; Drechsler, E; Rieger, J K; Blackston, M; Colombo, T

    2002-01-01

    % ATLAS \\\\ \\\\ ATLAS is a general-purpose experiment for recording proton-proton collisions at LHC. The ATLAS collaboration consists of 144 participating institutions (June 1998) with more than 1750~physicists and engineers (700 from non-Member States). The detector design has been optimized to cover the largest possible range of LHC physics: searches for Higgs bosons and alternative schemes for the spontaneous symmetry-breaking mechanism; searches for supersymmetric particles, new gauge bosons, leptoquarks, and quark and lepton compositeness indicating extensions to the Standard Model and new physics beyond it; studies of the origin of CP violation via high-precision measurements of CP-violating B-decays; high-precision measurements of the third quark family such as the top-quark mass and decay properties, rare decays of B-hadrons, spectroscopy of rare B-hadrons, and $ B ^0 _{s} $-mixing. \\\\ \\\\The ATLAS dectector, shown in the Figure includes an inner tracking detector inside a 2~T~solenoid providing an axial...

  11. The ATLAS Semi-Conductor Tracker Operation and Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Robinson, D; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The Semi-Conductor Tracker (SCT), is a silicon strip detector and one of the key precision tracking devices in the Inner Detector of the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The SCT was installed and commissioned within ATLAS in 2007, and has been has been used to fully exploit the physics potential of the LHC since the first proton-proton collisions at 7 TeV were delivered in 2009. In this paper, its operational status throughout data taking up to the end of 2011 is presented, and its tracking performance is reviewed.

  12. Upgrade of ATLAS ITk Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Huegging, Fabian; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The high luminosity upgrade of the LHC (HL-LHC) in 2026 will provide new challenges to the ATLAS tracker. The current inner detector will be replaced with an entirely-silicon inner tracker (ITk) which will consist of a five barrel layer Pixel detector surrounded by a four barrel layer Strip detector. The expected high radiation levels are requiring the development of upgraded silicon sensors as well as new a front-end chip. The dense tracking environment will require finer granularity detectors and low mass global and local support structures. The data rates will require new technologies for high bandwidth data transmission and handling. The current status of the ITk ATLAS Pixel detector developments as well as different layout options will be reviewed.

  13. A pixel segmented silicon strip detector for ultra fast shaping at low noise and low power consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misiakos, K.; Kavadias, S.

    1996-01-01

    A new radiation imaging device is proposed based on strips segmented into small pixels. Every pixel contains a submicron transistor that is normally biased in weak inversion. The ionization charge, upon collection by the pixel, changes the bias of the transistor to strong inversion and supplies a current up to several tens of a microA. This is a consequence of the small pixel capacitance (12 fF). The drains and sources of the transistors on the same row and column are shorted to bus lines that effectively become the Y and X coordinates. These bus lines are connected to the off chip ICON amplifiers to provide a 10 ns peaking time at a noise of about 150 electrons and 1 nW power consumption, for a 10x10 cm 2 detector and a MIP excitation. The noise performance is dominated by the ICON transistors. The cross talk between adjacent strips can be kept at a few percentage points provided a low transistor bias current is used

  14. Validation of Kalman Filter alignment algorithm with cosmic-ray data using a CMS silicon strip tracker endcap

    CERN Document Server

    Sprenger, D; Adolphi, R; Brauer, R; Feld, L; Klein, K; Ostaptchuk, A; Schael, S; Wittmer, B

    2010-01-01

    A Kalman Filter alignment algorithm has been applied to cosmic-ray data. We discuss the alignment algorithm and an experiment-independent implementation including outlier rejection and treatment of weakly determined parameters. Using this implementation, the algorithm has been applied to data recorded with one CMS silicon tracker endcap. Results are compared to both photogrammetry measurements and data obtained from a dedicated hardware alignment system, and good agreement is observed.

  15. ATLAS ITk and new pixel sensors technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Gaudiello, A

    2016-01-01

    During the 2023–2024 shutdown, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will be upgraded to reach an instantaneous luminosity up to 7×10$^{34}$ cm$^{−2}$s$^{−1}$. This upgrade of the accelerator is called High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC). The ATLAS detector will be changed to meet the challenges of HL-LHC: an average of 200 pile-up events in every bunch crossing, and an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb $^{−1}$ over ten years. The HL-LHC luminosity conditions are too extreme for the current silicon (pixel and strip) detectors and straw tube transition radiation tracker (TRT) of the current ATLAS tracking system. Therefore the ATLAS inner tracker is being completely rebuilt for data-taking and the new system is called Inner Tracker (ITk). During this upgrade the TRT will be removed in favor of an all-new all-silicon tracker composed only by strip and pixel detectors. An overview of new layouts in study will be reported and the new pixel sensor technologies in development will be explained.

  16. Processing of n{sup +}/p{sup −}/p{sup +} strip detectors with atomic layer deposition (ALD) grown Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} field insulator on magnetic Czochralski silicon (MCz-si) substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Härkönen, J., E-mail: jaakko.harkonen@helsinki.fi [Helsinki Institute of Physics (Finland); Tuovinen, E. [Helsinki Institute of Physics (Finland); VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Microsystems and Nanoelectronics (Finland); Luukka, P.; Gädda, A.; Mäenpää, T.; Tuominen, E.; Arsenovich, T. [Helsinki Institute of Physics (Finland); Junkes, A. [Institute for Experimental Physics, University of Hamburg (Germany); Wu, X. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Microsystems and Nanoelectronics (Finland); Picosun Oy, Tietotie 3, FI-02150 Espoo Finland (Finland); Li, Z. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan, Hunan 411105 (China)

    2016-08-21

    Detectors manufactured on p-type silicon material are known to have significant advantages in very harsh radiation environment over n-type detectors, traditionally used in High Energy Physics experiments for particle tracking. In p-type (n{sup +} segmentation on p substrate) position-sensitive strip detectors, however, the fixed oxide charge in the silicon dioxide is positive and, thus, causes electron accumulation at the Si/SiO{sub 2} interface. As a result, unless appropriate interstrip isolation is applied, the n-type strips are short-circuited. Widely adopted methods to terminate surface electron accumulation are segmented p-stop or p-spray field implantations. A different approach to overcome the near-surface electron accumulation at the interface of silicon dioxide and p-type silicon is to deposit a thin film field insulator with negative oxide charge. We have processed silicon strip detectors on p-type Magnetic Czochralski silicon (MCz-Si) substrates with aluminum oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) thin film insulator, grown with Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) method. The electrical characterization by current–voltage and capacitance−voltage measurement shows reliable performance of the aluminum oxide. The final proof of concept was obtained at the test beam with 200 GeV/c muons. For the non-irradiated detector the charge collection efficiency (CCE) was nearly 100% with a signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of about 40, whereas for the 2×10{sup 15} n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2} proton irradiated detector the CCE was 35%, when the sensor was biased at 500 V. These results are comparable with the results from p-type detectors with the p-spray and p-stop interstrip isolation techniques. In addition, interestingly, when the aluminum oxide was irradiated with Co-60 gamma-rays, an accumulation of negative fixed oxide charge in the oxide was observed.

  17. 3D active edge silicon sensors: Device processing, yield and QA for the ATLAS-IBL production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da Vià, Cinzia; Boscardil, Maurizio; Dalla Betta, GianFranco; Darbo, Giovanni; Fleta, Celeste; Gemme, Claudia; Giacomini, Gabriele; Grenier, Philippe; Grinstein, Sebastian; Hansen, Thor-Erik; Hasi, Jasmine; Kenney, Christopher; Kok, Angela; La Rosa, Alessandro; Micelli, Andrea; Parker, Sherwood; Pellegrini, Giulio; Pohl, David-Leon; Povoli, Marco; Vianello, Elisa; Zorzi, Nicola; Watts, S. J.

    2013-01-01

    3D silicon sensors, where plasma micromachining is used to etch deep narrow apertures in the silicon substrate to form electrodes of PIN junctions, were successfully manufactured in facilities in Europe and USA. In 2011 the technology underwent a qualification process to establish its maturity for a medium scale production for the construction of a pixel layer for vertex detection, the Insertable B-Layer (IBL) at the CERN-LHC ATLAS experiment. The IBL collaboration, following that recommendation from the review panel, decided to complete the production of planar and 3D sensors and endorsed the proposal to build enough modules for a mixed IBL sensor scenario where 25% of 3D modules populate the forward and backward part of each stave. The production of planar sensors will also allow coverage of 100% of the IBL, in case that option was required. This paper will describe the processing strategy which allowed successful 3D sensor production, some of the Quality Assurance (QA) tests performed during the pre-production phase and the production yield to date.

  18. 3D active edge silicon sensors: Device processing, yield and QA for the ATLAS-IBL production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da Vià, Cinzia, E-mail: cinzia.da.via@cern.ch [School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, M13 9PL Manchester (United Kingdom); Boscardil, Maurizio [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, FBK-CMM, Via Sommarive 18, I-38123 Trento (Italy); Dalla Betta, GianFranco [DISI, Università degli Studi di Trento and INFN, Via Sommarive 14, I-38123 Trento (Italy); Darbo, Giovanni [INFN Sezione di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, I-14146 Genova (Italy); Fleta, Celeste [Centro Nacional de Microelectronica, CNM-IMB (CSIC), Barcelona E-08193 (Spain); Gemme, Claudia [INFN Sezione di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, I-14146 Genova (Italy); Giacomini, Gabriele [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, FBK-CMM, Via Sommarive 18, I-38123 Trento (Italy); Grenier, Philippe [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Rd, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Grinstein, Sebastian [Institut de Fisica d' Altes Energies (IFAE) and ICREA, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (UAB) E-08193, Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Hansen, Thor-Erik [SINTEF MiNaLab, Blindern, N-0314 Oslo (Norway); Hasi, Jasmine; Kenney, Christopher [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Rd, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Kok, Angela [SINTEF MiNaLab, Blindern, N-0314 Oslo (Norway); La Rosa, Alessandro [CERN CH 1211, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Micelli, Andrea [Tne University of Udine and INFN, via del Cotonificio 108, 33100 Udine (Italy); Parker, Sherwood [University of Hawaii, c/o Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Pellegrini, Giulio [Centro Nacional de Microelectronica, CNM-IMB (CSIC), Barcelona E-08193 (Spain); Pohl, David-Leon [Physikalisches Institut der Universität Bonn, Nußallee 12 D-53115, Bonn, Federal Republic of Germany (Germany); Povoli, Marco [DISI, Università degli Studi di Trento and INFN, Via Sommarive 14, I-38123 Trento (Italy); and others

    2013-01-21

    3D silicon sensors, where plasma micromachining is used to etch deep narrow apertures in the silicon substrate to form electrodes of PIN junctions, were successfully manufactured in facilities in Europe and USA. In 2011 the technology underwent a qualification process to establish its maturity for a medium scale production for the construction of a pixel layer for vertex detection, the Insertable B-Layer (IBL) at the CERN-LHC ATLAS experiment. The IBL collaboration, following that recommendation from the review panel, decided to complete the production of planar and 3D sensors and endorsed the proposal to build enough modules for a mixed IBL sensor scenario where 25% of 3D modules populate the forward and backward part of each stave. The production of planar sensors will also allow coverage of 100% of the IBL, in case that option was required. This paper will describe the processing strategy which allowed successful 3D sensor production, some of the Quality Assurance (QA) tests performed during the pre-production phase and the production yield to date.

  19. Insertable B-Layer integration in the ATLAS experiment and development of future 3D silicon pixel sensors

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00371528; Røhne, Ole

    This work has two distinct objectives: the development of software for the integration of the Insertable B-Layer (IBL) in the ATLAS offline software framework and the study of the performance of 3D silicon sensors produced by SINTEF for future silicon pixel detectors. The former task consists in the implementation of the IBL byte stream converter. This offline tool performs the decoding of the binary-formatted data coming from the detector into information (e.g. hit position and Time over Threshold) that is stored in a format used in the reconstruction data flow. It also encodes the information extracted from simulations into a simulated IBL byte stream. The tool has been successfully used since the beginning of the LHC Run II data taking. The experimental work on SINTEF 3D sensors was performed in the framework of the development of pixel sensors for the next generation of tracking detectors. Preliminary tests on SINTEF 3D sensors showed that the majority of these devices suffers from high leakage currents, ...

  20. A neural network clustering algorithm for the ATLAS silicon pixel detector

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Böhm, Jan; Chudoba, Jiří; Havránek, Miroslav; Hejbal, Jiří; Jakoubek, Tomáš; Kepka, Oldřich; Kupčo, Alexander; Kůs, Vlastimil; Lokajíček, Miloš; Lysák, Roman; Marčišovský, Michal; Mikeštíková, Marcela; Myška, M.; Němeček, Stanislav; Šícho, Petr; Staroba, Pavel; Svatoš, Michal; Taševský, Marek; Vrba, Václav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 9, Sep (2014), s. 1-38 ISSN 1748-0221 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG13009 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : Monte Carlo * resolution * impact parameter * cluster * ATLAS * tracks * charged particle * CERN LHC Coll * longitudinal * transverse * splitting Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 1.399, year: 2014

  1. First charge collection and position-precision data on the medium-resistivity silicon strip detectors before and after neutron irradiation up to 2x10 sup 1 sup 4 n/cm sup 2

    CERN Document Server

    Li Zheng; Eremin, V; Li, C J; Verbitskaya, E

    1999-01-01

    Test strip detectors of 125 mu m, 500 mu m, and 1 mm pitches with about 1 cm sup 2 areas have been made on medium-resistivity silicon wafers (1.3 and 2.7 k OMEGA cm). Detectors of 500 mu m pitch have been tested for charge collection and position precision before and after neutron irradiation (up to 2x10 sup 1 sup 4 n/cm sup 2) using 820 and 1030 nm laser lights with different beam-spot sizes. It has been found that for a bias of 250 V a strip detector made of 1.3 k OMEGA cm (300 mu m thick) can be fully depleted before and after an irradiation of 2x10 sup 1 sup 4 n/cm sup 2. For a 500 mu m pitch strip detector made of 2.7 k OMEGA cm tested with an 1030 nm laser light with 200 mu m spot size, the position reconstruction error is about 14 mu m before irradiation, and 17 mu m after about 1.7x10 sup 1 sup 3 n/cm sup 2 irradiation. We demonstrated in this work that medium resistivity silicon strip detectors can work just as well as the traditional high-resistivity ones, but with higher radiation tolerance. We als...

  2. Neural network based cluster creation in the ATLAS silicon Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Andreazza, A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The read-out from individual pixels on planar semi-conductor sensors are grouped into clusters to reconstruct the location where a charged particle passed through the sensor. The resolution given by individual pixel sizes is significantly improved by using the information from the charge sharing between pixels. Such analog cluster creation techniques have been used by the ATLAS experiment for many years to obtain an excellent performance. However, in dense environments, such as those inside high-energy jets, clusters have an increased probability of merging the charge deposited by multiple particles. Recently, a neural network based algorithm which estimates both the cluster position and whether a cluster should be split has been developed for the ATLAS Pixel Detector. The algorithm significantly reduces ambiguities in the assignment of pixel detector measurement to tracks within jets and improves the position accuracy with respect to standard interpolation techniques by taking into account the 2-dimensional ...

  3. A neural network clustering algorithm for the ATLAS silicon pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdel Khalek, Samah; Abdinov, Ovsat; Aben, Rosemarie; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abreu, Ricardo; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adye, Tim; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Agustoni, Marco; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Akerstedt, Henrik; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alio, Lion; Alison, John; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allison, Lee John; Allport, Phillip; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Altheimer, Andrew David; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; Amidei, Dante; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amoroso, Simone; Amram, Nir; Amundsen, Glenn; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Anduaga, Xabier; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Angelozzi, Ivan; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Araque, Juan Pedro; Arce, Ayana; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnal, Vanessa; Arnold, Hannah; Arratia, Miguel; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ashkenazi, Adi; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Atkinson, Markus; Atlay, Naim Bora; Auerbach, Benjamin; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Baas, Alessandra; Bacci, Cesare; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Backus Mayes, John; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagiacchi, Paolo; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bai, Yu; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Balek, Petr; Balli, Fabrice; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Swagato; Bannoura, Arwa A E; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Barnovska, Zuzana; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartos, Pavol; Bartsch, Valeria; Bassalat, Ahmed; Basye, Austin; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Marco; Battistin, Michele; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Anne Kathrin; Becker, Sebastian; Beckingham, Matthew; Becot, Cyril; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bedikian, Sourpouhi; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Beermann, Thomas; Begel, Michael; Behr, Katharina; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Beringer, Jürg; Bernard, Clare; Bernat, Pauline; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertoli, Gabriele; Bertolucci, Federico; Bertsche, David; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia, Olga; Bessner, Martin Florian; Besson, Nathalie; Betancourt, Christopher; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianchini, Louis; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilbao De Mendizabal, Javier; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Black, Curtis; Black, James; Black, Kevin; Blackburn, Daniel; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blazek, Tomas; Bloch, Ingo; Blocker, Craig; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Bock, Christopher; Boddy, Christopher Richard; Boehler, Michael; Boek, Thorsten Tobias; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bogouch, Andrei; Bohm, Christian; Bohm, Jan; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Boldyrev, Alexey; Bomben, Marco; Bona, Marcella; Boonekamp, Maarten; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Borri, Marcello; Borroni, Sara; Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Bortolotto, Valerio; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Boterenbrood, Hendrik; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouffard, Julian; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; Bourdarios, Claire; Bousson, Nicolas; Boutouil, Sara; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bracinik, Juraj; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Brazzale, Simone Federico; Brelier, Bertrand; Brendlinger, Kurt; Brennan, Amelia Jean; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Bristow, Kieran; Bristow, Timothy Michael; Britton, Dave; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Bromberg, Carl; Bronner, Johanna; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, Timothy; Brooks, William; Brosamer, Jacquelyn; Brost, Elizabeth; Brown, Jonathan; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Brunet, Sylvie; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruschi, Marco; Bryngemark, Lene; Buanes, Trygve; Buat, Quentin; Bucci, Francesca; Buchholz, Peter; Buckingham, Ryan; Buckley, Andrew; Buda, Stelian Ioan; Budagov, Ioulian; Buehrer, Felix; Bugge, Lars; Bugge, Magnar Kopangen; Bulekov, Oleg; Bundock, Aaron Colin; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burghgrave, Blake; Burke, Stephen; Burmeister, Ingo; Busato, Emmanuel; Büscher, Daniel; Büscher, Volker; Bussey, Peter; Buszello, Claus-Peter; Butler, Bart; Butler, John; Butt, Aatif Imtiaz; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Butti, Pierfrancesco; Buttinger, William; Buzatu, Adrian; Byszewski, Marcin; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cakir, Orhan; Calafiura, Paolo; Calandri, Alessandro; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Calkins, Robert; Caloba, Luiz; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarda, Stefano; Cameron, David; Caminada, Lea Michaela; Caminal Armadans, Roger; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Campoverde, Angel; Canale, Vincenzo; Canepa, Anadi; Cano Bret, Marc; Cantero, Josu; Cantrill, Robert; Cao, Tingting; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Cardarelli, Roberto; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Sascha; Carquin, Edson; Carrillo-Montoya, German D; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Casolino, Mirkoantonio; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castelli, Angelantonio; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Catastini, Pierluigi; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Cattani, Giordano; Caughron, Seth; Cavaliere, Viviana; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Cerio, Benjamin; Cerny, Karel; Santiago Cerqueira, Augusto; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cerv, Matevz; Cervelli, Alberto; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chalupkova, Ina; Chang, Philip; Chapleau, Bertrand; Chapman, John Derek; Charfeddine, Driss; Charlton, Dave; Chau, Chav Chhiv; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Cheatham, Susan; Chegwidden, Andrew; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Karen; Chen, Liming; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Xin; Chen, Yujiao; Cheng, Hok Chuen; Cheng, Yangyang; Cheplakov, Alexander; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiarella, Vitaliano; Chiefari, Giovanni; Childers, John Taylor; Chilingarov, Alexandre; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chislett, Rebecca Thalatta; Chitan, Adrian; Chizhov, Mihail; Chouridou, Sofia; Chow, Bonnie Kar Bo; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chu, Ming-Lee; Chudoba, Jiri; Chwastowski, Janusz; Chytka, Ladislav; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Ciftci, Rena; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirkovic, Predrag; Citron, Zvi Hirsh; Citterio, Mauro; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Philip James; Clarke, Robert; Cleland, Bill; Clemens, Jean-Claude; Clement, Christophe; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Coffey, Laurel; Cogan, Joshua Godfrey; Coggeshall, James; Cole, Brian; Cole, Stephen; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collot, Johann; Colombo, Tommaso; Colon, German; Compostella, Gabriele; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Conidi, Maria Chiara; Connell, Simon Henry; Connelly, Ian; Consonni, Sofia Maria; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conti, Geraldine; Conventi, Francesco; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cooper-Smith, Neil; Copic, Katherine; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Corso-Radu, Alina; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Côté, David; Cottin, Giovanna; Cowan, Glen; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Cree, Graham; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Crescioli, Francesco; Cribbs, Wayne Allen; Crispin Ortuzar, Mireia; Cristinziani, Markus; Croft, Vince; Crosetti, Giovanni; Cuciuc, Constantin-Mihai; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Cummings, Jane; Curatolo, Maria; Cuthbert, Cameron; Czirr, Hendrik; Czodrowski, Patrick; Czyczula, Zofia; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, Mario Jose; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dafinca, Alexandru; Dai, Tiesheng; Dale, Orjan; Dallaire, Frederick; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Daniells, Andrew Christopher; Dano Hoffmann, Maria; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darmora, Smita; Dassoulas, James; Dattagupta, Aparajita; Davey, Will; David, Claire; Davidek, Tomas; Davies, Eleanor; Davies, Merlin; Davignon, Olivier; Davison, Adam; Davison, Peter; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Daya-Ishmukhametova, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De la Torre, Hector; De Lorenzi, Francesco; De Nooij, Lucie; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dechenaux, Benjamin; Dedovich, Dmitri; Deigaard, Ingrid; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Deliot, Frederic; Delitzsch, Chris Malena; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Dell'Orso, Mauro; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demilly, Aurelien; Denisov, Sergey; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Deterre, Cecile; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Domenico, Antonio; Di Donato, Camilla; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Di Valentino, David; Dias, Flavia; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Dietzsch, Thorsten; Diglio, Sara; Dimitrievska, Aleksandra; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dionisi, Carlo; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; Barros do Vale, Maria Aline; Do Valle Wemans, André; Doan, Thi Kieu Oanh; Dobos, Daniel; Doglioni, Caterina; Doherty, Tom; Dohmae, Takeshi; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donati, Simone; Dondero, Paolo; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Doyle, Tony; Dris, Manolis; Dubbert, Jörg; Dube, Sourabh; Dubreuil, Emmanuelle; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Ducu, Otilia Anamaria; Duda, Dominik; Dudarev, Alexey; Dudziak, Fanny; Duflot, Laurent; Duguid, Liam; Dührssen, Michael; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Düren, Michael; Durglishvili, Archil; Dwuznik, Michal; Dyndal, Mateusz; Ebke, Johannes; Edson, William; Edwards, Nicholas Charles; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Enari, Yuji; Endner, Oliver Chris; Endo, Masaki; Engelmann, Roderich; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Eriksson, Daniel; Ernis, Gunar; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Ernwein, Jean; Errede, Deborah; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Esch, Hendrik; Escobar, Carlos; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evans, Hal; Ezhilov, Alexey; Fabbri, Laura; Facini, Gabriel; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Falla, Rebecca Jane; Faltova, Jana; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farooque, Trisha; Farrell, Steven; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassi, Farida; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Favareto, Andrea; Fayard, Louis; Federic, Pavol; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Wojciech; Fehling-Kaschek, Mirjam; Feigl, Simon; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Feng, Haolu; Fenyuk, Alexander; Fernandez Perez, Sonia; Ferrag, Samir; Ferrando, James; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filipuzzi, Marco; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Finelli, Kevin Daniel; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Adam; Fischer, Julia; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Fitzgerald, Eric Andrew; Flechl, Martin; Fleck, Ivor; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Fletcher, Gareth Thomas; Fletcher, Gregory; Flick, Tobias; Floderus, Anders; Flores Castillo, Luis; Florez Bustos, Andres Carlos; Flowerdew, Michael; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fortin, Dominique; Fournier, Daniel; Fox, Harald; Fracchia, Silvia; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchini, Matteo; Franchino, Silvia; Francis, David; Franklin, Melissa; Franz, Sebastien; Fraternali, Marco; French, Sky; Friedrich, Conrad; Friedrich, Felix; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fulsom, Bryan Gregory; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gabrielli, Alessandro; Gabrielli, Andrea; Gadatsch, Stefan; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Galhardo, Bruno; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallo, Valentina Santina; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galster, Gorm Aske Gram Krohn; Gan, KK; Gandrajula, Reddy Pratap; Gao, Jun; Gao, Yongsheng; Garay Walls, Francisca; Garberson, Ford; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garonne, Vincent; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gauzzi, Paolo; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gecse, Zoltan; Gee, Norman; Geerts, Daniël Alphonsus Adrianus; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Gemmell, Alistair; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Matthias; George, Simon; Gerbaudo, Davide; Gershon, Avi; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghodbane, Nabil; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Giannetti, Paola; Gianotti, Fabiola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Stephen; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gillam, Thomas; Gillberg, Dag; Gilles, Geoffrey; Gingrich, Douglas; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giordano, Raffaele; Giorgi, Filippo Maria; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giugni, Danilo; Giuliani, Claudia; Giulini, Maddalena; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gkaitatzis, Stamatios; Gkialas, Ioannis; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glaysher, Paul; Glazov, Alexandre; Glonti, George; Goblirsch-Kolb, Maximilian; Goddard, Jack Robert; Godfrey, Jennifer; Godlewski, Jan; Goeringer, Christian; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golubkov, Dmitry; Gomes, Agostinho; Gomez Fajardo, Luz Stella; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Goshaw, Alfred; Gössling, Claus; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gouighri, Mohamed; Goujdami, Driss; Goulette, Marc Phillippe; Goussiou, Anna; Goy, Corinne; Gozpinar, Serdar; Grabas, Herve Marie Xavier; Graber, Lars; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Grafström, Per; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Gramling, Johanna; Gramstad, Eirik; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Gray, Heather; Graziani, Enrico; Grebenyuk, Oleg; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grishkevich, Yaroslav; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Grohs, Johannes Philipp; Grohsjean, Alexander; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Grossi, Giulio Cornelio; Groth-Jensen, Jacob; Grout, Zara Jane; Guan, Liang; Guescini, Francesco; Guest, Daniel; Gueta, Orel; Guicheney, Christophe; Guido, Elisa; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Gumpert, Christian; Gunther, Jaroslav; Guo, Jun; Gupta, Shaun; Gutierrez, Phillip; Gutierrez Ortiz, Nicolas Gilberto; Gutschow, Christian; Guttman, Nir; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Haddad, Nacim; Haefner, Petra; Hageböck, Stephan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haleem, Mahsana; Hall, David; Halladjian, Garabed; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamer, Matthias; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamilton, Samuel; Hamnett, Phillip George; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Hanke, Paul; Hanna, Remie; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hard, Andrew; Harenberg, Torsten; Hariri, Faten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harper, Devin; Harrington, Robert; Harris, Orin; Harrison, Paul Fraser; Hartjes, Fred; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hasib, A; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauschild, Michael; Hauser, Reiner; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Anthony David; Hayashi, Takayasu; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Heck, Tobias; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heim, Timon; Heinemann, Beate; Heinrich, Lukas; Hejbal, Jiri; Helary, Louis; Heller, Claudio; Heller, Matthieu; Hellman, Sten; Hellmich, Dennis; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, James; Henderson, Robert; Heng, Yang; Hengler, Christopher; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Hensel, Carsten; Herbert, Geoffrey Henry; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herrberg-Schubert, Ruth; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hickling, Robert; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Ewan; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillert, Sonja; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hirose, Minoru; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoffman, Julia; Hoffmann, Dirk; Hofmann, Julia Isabell; Hohlfeld, Marc; Holmes, Tova Ray; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howard, Jacob; Howarth, James; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hsu, Catherine; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Diedi; Hu, Xueye; Huang, Yanping; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Hülsing, Tobias Alexander; Hurwitz, Martina; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Ideal, Emma; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Iizawa, Tomoya; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikematsu, Katsumasa; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Iurii; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Inamaru, Yuki; Ince, Tayfun; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Iturbe Ponce, Julia Mariana; Iuppa, Roberto; Ivarsson, Jenny; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, Matthew; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jakubek, Jan; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansen, Eric; Jansen, Hendrik; Janssen, Jens; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Javadov, Namig; Javůrek, Tomáš; Jeanty, Laura; Jejelava, Juansher; Jeng, Geng-yuan; Jennens, David; Jenni, Peter; Jentzsch, Jennifer; Jeske, Carl; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Ji, Haoshuang; Ji, Weina; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jimenez Belenguer, Marcos; Jin, Shan; Jinaru, Adam; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Johansson, Erik; Johansson, Per; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tim; Jongmanns, Jan; Jorge, Pedro; Joshi, Kiran Daniel; Jovicevic, Jelena; Ju, Xiangyang; Jung, Christian; Jungst, Ralph Markus; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalderon, Charles William; Kama, Sami; Kamenshchikov, Andrey; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kaneti, Steven; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kar, Deepak; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karastathis, Nikolaos; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karpov, Sergey; Karpova, Zoya; Karthik, Krishnaiyengar; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kasieczka, Gregor; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katre, Akshay; Katzy, Judith; Kaushik, Venkatesh; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kazama, Shingo; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keil, Markus; Keller, John; Kempster, Jacob Julian; Keoshkerian, Houry; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Kessoku, Kohei; Keung, Justin; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Khodinov, Alexander; Khomich, Andrei; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khoriauli, Gia; Khoroshilov, Andrey; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kim, Hee Yeun; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Shinhong; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Robert Steven Beaufoy; King, Samuel Burton; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kiss, Florian; Kittelmann, Thomas; Kiuchi, Kenji; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klok, Peter; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Kobayashi, Dai; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koevesarki, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Kohlmann, Simon; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolanoski, Hermann; Koletsou, Iro; Koll, James; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kondrashova, Nataliia; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; König, Sebastian; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Köpke, Lutz; Kopp, Anna Katharina; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Korotkov, Vladislav; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kral, Vlastimil; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasnopevtsev, Dimitriy; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, Jana; Kravchenko, Anton; Kreiss, Sven; Kretz, Moritz; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Peter; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Kruker, Tobias; Krumnack, Nils; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kruse, Amanda; Kruse, Mark; Kruskal, Michael; Kubota, Takashi; Kuday, Sinan; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuhl, Andrew; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuna, Marine; Kunkle, Joshua; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kurumida, Rie; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rotonda, Laura; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Laier, Heiko; Lambourne, Luke; Lammers, Sabine; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lançon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Law, Alexander; Laycock, Paul; Le, Bao Tran; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Menedeu, Eve; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Claire Alexandra; Lee, Hurng-Chun; Lee, Jason; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Guillaume; Lefebvre, Michel; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehan, Allan; Lehmacher, Marc; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leight, William Axel; Leisos, Antonios; Leister, Andrew Gerard; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatjana; Lenzen, Georg; Lenzi, Bruno; Leone, Robert; Leone, Sandra; Leonhardt, Kathrin; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Leroy, Claude; Lester, Christopher; Lester, Christopher Michael; Levchenko, Mikhail; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levy, Mark; Lewis, Adrian; Lewis, George; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bing; Li, Bo; Li, Haifeng; Li, Ho Ling; Li, Lei; Li, Liang; Li, Shu; Li, Yichen; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Lichard, Peter; Lie, Ki; Liebal, Jessica; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Lin, Simon; Lin, Tai-Hua; Linde, Frank; Lindquist, Brian Edward; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Dong; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Livermore, Sarah; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loddenkoetter, Thomas; Loebinger, Fred; Loevschall-Jensen, Ask Emil; Loginov, Andrey; Loh, Chang Wei; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Lombardo, Vincenzo Paolo; Long, Brian Alexander; Long, Jonathan; Long, Robin Eamonn; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lopez Paredes, Brais; Lopez Paz, Ivan; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lowe, Andrew; Lu, Feng; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Luehring, Frederick; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lundberg, Olof; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lungwitz, Matthias; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Machado Miguens, Joana; Macina, Daniela; Madaffari, Daniele; Madar, Romain; Maddocks, Harvey Jonathan; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Maeno, Mayuko; Maeno, Tadashi; Magradze, Erekle; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahlstedt, Joern; Mahmoud, Sara; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maier, Andreas Alexander; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Mal, Prolay; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Mandelli, Beatrice; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Manfredini, Alessandro; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany Andreina; Mann, Alexander; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mantifel, Rodger; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchand, Jean-Francois; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marino, Christopher; Marjanovic, Marija; Marques, Carlos; Marroquim, Fernando; Marsden, Stephen Philip; Marshall, Zach; Marti, Lukas Fritz; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian; Martin, Brian Thomas; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Homero; Martinez, Mario; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massol, Nicolas; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mättig, Peter; Mattmann, Johannes; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Mazzaferro, Luca; Mc Goldrick, Garrin; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Meade, Andrew; Mechnich, Joerg; Medinnis, Michael; Meehan, Samuel; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meineck, Christian; Meirose, Bernhard; Melachrinos, Constantinos; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Meloni, Federico; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mergelmeyer, Sebastian; Meric, Nicolas; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Merritt, Hayes; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Middleton, Robin; Migas, Sylwia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Milic, Adriana; Miller, David; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Milstein, Dmitry; Minaenko, Andrey; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirabelli, Giovanni; Mitani, Takashi; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Mitsui, Shingo; Miucci, Antonio; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mochizuki, Kazuya; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Molander, Simon; Moles-Valls, Regina; Mönig, Klaus; Monini, Caterina; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Moraes, Arthur; Morange, Nicolas; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morgenstern, Marcus; Morii, Masahiro; Moritz, Sebastian; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Motohashi, Kazuki; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Muanza, Steve; Mudd, Richard; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Mueller, Thibaut; Mueller, Timo; Muenstermann, Daniel; Munwes, Yonathan; Murillo Quijada, Javier Alberto; Murray, Bill; Musheghyan, Haykuhi; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagai, Yoshikazu; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagarkar, Advait; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagel, Martin; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Namasivayam, Harisankar; Nanava, Gizo; Narayan, Rohin; Nattermann, Till; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Nef, Pascal Daniel; Negri, Andrea; Negri, Guido; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nelson, Andrew; Nelson, Timothy Knight; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen, Duong Hai; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolics, Katalin; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Norberg, Scarlet; Nordberg, Markus; Novgorodova, Olga; Nowak, Sebastian; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; Nuti, Francesco; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'grady, Fionnbarr; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Obermann, Theresa; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohman, Henrik; Ohshima, Takayoshi; Okamura, Wataru; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Olchevski, Alexander; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ouellette, Eric; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Oussoren, Koen Pieter; Ouyang, Qun; Ovcharova, Ana; Owen, Mark; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pachal, Katherine; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagáčová, Martina; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Pahl, Christoph; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Palestini, Sandro; Palka, Marek; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Palmer, Jody; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Panikashvili, Natalia; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Paolozzi, Lorenzo; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Passeri, Antonio; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Patricelli, Sergio; Pauly, Thilo; Pearce, James; Pedersen, Maiken; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedro, Rute; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Pelikan, Daniel; Peng, Haiping; Penning, Bjoern; Penwell, John; Perepelitsa, Dennis; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perez Reale, Valeria; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrino, Roberto; Peschke, Richard; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Peters, Yvonne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Pettersson, Nora Emilia; Pezoa, Raquel; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Pianori, Elisabetta; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pignotti, David; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinder, Alex; Pinfold, James; Pingel, Almut; Pinto, Belmiro; Pires, Sylvestre; Pitt, Michael; Pizio, Caterina; Plazak, Lukas; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskot, Vojtech; Plotnikova, Elena; Plucinski, Pawel; Poddar, Sahill; Podlyski, Fabrice; Poettgen, Ruth; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, David-leon; Pohl, Martin; Polesello, Giacomo; Policicchio, Antonio; Polifka, Richard; Polini, Alessandro; Pollard, Christopher Samuel; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Portell Bueso, Xavier; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potamianos, Karolos; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prasad, Srivas; Pravahan, Rishiraj; Prell, Soeren; Price, Darren; Price, Joe; Price, Lawrence; Prieur, Damien; Primavera, Margherita; Proissl, Manuel; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopapadaki, Eftychia-sofia; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Przybycien, Mariusz; Przysiezniak, Helenka; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Puddu, Daniele; Pueschel, Elisa; Puldon, David; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Qian, Jianming; Qin, Gang; Qin, Yang; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Queitsch-Maitland, Michaela; Quilty, Donnchadha; Qureshi, Anum; Radeka, Veljko; Radescu, Voica; Radhakrishnan, Sooraj Krishnan; Radloff, Peter; Rados, Pere; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Randle-Conde, Aidan Sean; Rangel-Smith, Camila; Rao, Kanury; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Tobias Christian; Ravenscroft, Thomas; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Readioff, Nathan Peter; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Rehnisch, Laura; Reisin, Hernan; Relich, Matthew; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Huan; Ren, Zhongliang; Renaud, Adrien; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Rezanova, Olga; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richter, Robert; Ridel, Melissa; Rieck, Patrick; Rieger, Julia; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Ritsch, Elmar; Riu, Imma; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Roda, Chiara; Rodrigues, Luis; Roe, Shaun; Røhne, Ole; Rolli, Simona; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romero Adam, Elena; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Matthew; Rosendahl, Peter Lundgaard; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rosten, Rachel; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rubinskiy, Igor; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Christian; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Ruschke, Alexander; Rutherfoord, John; Ruthmann, Nils; Ryabov, Yury; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryder, Nick; Saavedra, Aldo; Sacerdoti, Sabrina; Saddique, Asif; Sadeh, Iftach; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Yuki; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Saleem, Muhammad; Salek, David; Sales De Bruin, Pedro Henrique; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvachua Ferrando, Belén; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Sanchez, Arturo; Sánchez, Javier; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sandaker, Heidi; Sandbach, Ruth Laura; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Tanya; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sankey, Dave; Sansoni, Andrea; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Santoyo Castillo, Itzebelt; Sapp, Kevin; Sapronov, Andrey; Saraiva, João; Sarrazin, Bjorn; Sartisohn, Georg; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasaki, Yuichi; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Savard, Pierre; Savu, Dan Octavian; Sawyer, Craig; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, David; Saxon, James; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scanlon, Tim; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Scarfone, Valerio; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schaefer, Douglas; Schaefer, Ralph; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schäfer, Uli; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R. Dean; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Scherzer, Max; Schiavi, Carlo; Schieck, Jochen; Schillo, Christian; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmidt, Evelyn; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Christopher; Schmitt, Sebastian; Schneider, Basil; Schnellbach, Yan Jie; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schoeffel, Laurent; Schoening, Andre; Schoenrock, Bradley Daniel; Schorlemmer, Andre Lukas; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schramm, Steven; Schreyer, Manuel; Schroeder, Christian; Schuh, Natascha; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwanenberger, Christian; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwegler, Philipp; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Schwoerer, Maud; Sciacca, Gianfranco; Scifo, Estelle; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scott, Bill; Scuri, Fabrizio; Scutti, Federico; Searcy, Jacob; Sedov, George; Sedykh, Evgeny; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sekula, Stephen; Selbach, Karoline Elfriede; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Sellers, Graham; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Serre, Thomas; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sfiligoj, Tina; Sforza, Federico; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shang, Ruo-yu; Shank, James; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Shehu, Ciwake Yusufu; Sherwood, Peter; Shi, Liaoshan; Shimizu, Shima; Shimmin, Chase Owen; Shimojima, Makoto; Shiyakova, Mariya; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shochet, Mel; Short, Daniel; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Shushkevich, Stanislav; Sicho, Petr; Sidiropoulou, Ourania; Sidorov, Dmitri; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silva, José; Silver, Yiftah; Silverstein, Daniel; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simioni, Eduard; Simmons, Brinick; Simoniello, Rosa; Simonyan, Margar; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sipica, Valentin; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sircar, Anirvan; Sisakyan, Alexei; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skovpen, Kirill; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smestad, Lillian; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Kenway; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snidero, Giacomo; Snyder, Scott; Sobie, Randall; Socher, Felix; Soffer, Abner; Soh, Dart-yin; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solfaroli Camillocci, Elena; Solodkov, Alexander; Soloshenko, Alexei; Solovyanov, Oleg; Solovyev, Victor; Sommer, Philip; Song, Hong Ye; Soni, Nitesh; Sood, Alexander; Sopczak, Andre; Sopko, Bruno; Sopko, Vit; Sorin, Veronica; Sosebee, Mark; Soualah, Rachik; Soueid, Paul; Soukharev, Andrey; South, David; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spanò, Francesco; Spearman, William Robert; Spettel, Fabian; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; Spurlock, Barry; St Denis, Richard Dante; Staerz, Steffen; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanescu-Bellu, Madalina; Stanitzki, Marcel Michael; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staszewski, Rafal; Stavina, Pavel; Steinberg, Peter; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stern, Sebastian; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoebe, Michael; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stolte, Philipp; Stonjek, Stefan; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Stramaglia, Maria Elena; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strauss, Emanuel; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Stucci, Stefania Antonia; Stugu, Bjarne; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Su, Dong; Su, Jun; Subramania, Halasya Siva; Subramaniam, Rajivalochan; Succurro, Antonella; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suhr, Chad; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Yu; Svatos, Michal; Swedish, Stephen; Swiatlowski, Maximilian; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Ta, Duc; Taccini, Cecilia; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taenzer, Joe; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takahashi, Yuta; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tam, Jason; Tan, Kong Guan; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Satoshi; Tanaka, Shuji; Tanasijczuk, Andres Jorge; Tannenwald, Benjamin Bordy; Tannoury, Nancy; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tashiro, Takuya; Tassi, Enrico; Tavares Delgado, Ademar; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Wendy; Teischinger, Florian Alfred; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, Matilde; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Teoh, Jia Jian; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terzo, Stefano; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Therhaag, Jan; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thomas, Juergen; Thomas-Wilsker, Joshuha; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Peter; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thong, Wai Meng; Thun, Rudolf; Tian, Feng; Tibbetts, Mark James; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tiouchichine, Elodie; Tipton, Paul; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Toggerson, Brokk; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tomlinson, Lee; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Topilin, Nikolai; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Tran, Huong Lan; Trefzger, Thomas; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alessandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Tripiana, Martin; Triplett, Nathan; Trischuk, William; Trocmé, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trovatelli, Monica; True, Patrick; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsirintanis, Nikolaos; Tsiskaridze, Shota; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tuna, Alexander Naip; Tupputi, Salvatore; Turchikhin, Semen; Turecek, Daniel; Turk Cakir, Ilkay; Turra, Ruggero; Tuts, Michael; Tykhonov, Andrii; Tylmad, Maja; Tyndel, Mike; Uchida, Kirika; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ughetto, Michael; Ugland, Maren; Uhlenbrock, Mathias; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Ungaro, Francesca; Unno, Yoshinobu; Urbaniec, Dustin; Urquijo, Phillip; Usai, Giulio; Usanova, Anna; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Valencic, Nika; Valentinetti, Sara; Valero, Alberto; Valery, Loic; Valkar, Stefan; Valladolid Gallego, Eva; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; Van Den Wollenberg, Wouter; Van Der Deijl, Pieter; van der Geer, Rogier; van der Graaf, Harry; Van Der Leeuw, Robin; van der Ster, Daniel; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; Van Nieuwkoop, Jacobus; van Vulpen, Ivo; van Woerden, Marius Cornelis; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vanguri, Rami; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vannucci, Francois; Vardanyan, Gagik; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varol, Tulin; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Veatch, Jason; Veloso, Filipe; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Venturini, Alessio; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Viazlo, Oleksandr; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Vigne, Ralph; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Virzi, Joseph; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vives Vaque, Francesc; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vladoiu, Dan; Vlasak, Michal; Vogel, Adrian; Vogel, Marcelo; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Radziewski, Holger; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorobev, Konstantin; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vu Anh, Tuan; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Vykydal, Zdenek; Wagner, Peter; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wahlberg, Hernan; Wahrmund, Sebastian; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wall, Richard; Waller, Peter; Walsh, Brian; Wang, Chao; Wang, Chiho; Wang, Fuquan; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Kuhan; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Wang, Tan; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Wanotayaroj, Chaowaroj; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Wardrope, David Robert; Warsinsky, Markus; Washbrook, Andrew; Wasicki, Christoph; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Ian; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Ben; Webb, Samuel; Weber, Michele; Weber, Stefan Wolf; Webster, Jordan S; Weidberg, Anthony; Weigell, Philipp; Weinert, Benjamin; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Weits, Hartger; Wells, Phillippa; Wenaus, Torre; Wendland, Dennis; Weng, Zhili; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Wessels, Martin; Wetter, Jeffrey; Whalen, Kathleen; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Ryan; White, Sebastian; Whiteson, Daniel; Wicke, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; Wijeratne, Peter Alexander; Wildauer, Andreas; Wildt, Martin Andre; Wilkens, Henric George; Will, Jonas Zacharias; Williams, Hugh; Williams, Sarah; Willis, Christopher; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, Alan; Wilson, John; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winklmeier, Frank; Winter, Benedict Tobias; Wittgen, Matthias; Wittig, Tobias; Wittkowski, Josephine; Wollstadt, Simon Jakob; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wozniak, Krzysztof; Wright, Michael; Wu, Mengqing; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wulf, Evan; Wyatt, Terry Richard; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xiao, Meng; Xu, Da; Xu, Lailin; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yamada, Miho; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Yohei; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Kyoko; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamamura, Taiki; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamauchi, Katsuya; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Hongtao; Yang, Un-Ki; Yang, Yi; Yanush, Serguei; Yao, Liwen; Yao, Weiming; Yasu, Yoshiji; Yatsenko, Elena; Yau Wong, Kaven Henry; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yen, Andy L; Yildirim, Eda; Yilmaz, Metin; Yoosoofmiya, Reza; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Rikutaro; Yoshihara, Keisuke; Young, Charles; Young, Christopher John; Youssef, Saul; Yu, David Ren-Hwa; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jiaming; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yurkewicz, Adam; Yusuff, Imran; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zaman, Aungshuman; Zambito, Stefano; Zanello, Lucia; Zanzi, Daniele; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zengel, Keith; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zerwas, Dirk; Zevi della Porta, Giovanni; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Fangzhou; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Lei; Zhou, Ning; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhukov, Konstantin; Zibell, Andre; Zieminska, Daria; Zimine, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Christoph; Zimmermann, Robert; Zimmermann, Simone; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Zinonos, Zinonas; Ziolkowski, Michael; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; zur Nedden, Martin; Zurzolo, Giovanni; Zutshi, Vishnu; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2014-09-15

    A novel technique to identify and split clusters created by multiple charged particles in the ATLAS pixel detector using a set of artificial neural networks is presented. Such merged clusters are a common feature of tracks originating from highly energetic objects, such as jets. Neural networks are trained using Monte Carlo samples produced with a detailed detector simulation. This technique replaces the former clustering approach based on a connected component analysis and charge interpolation. The performance of the neural network splitting technique is quantified using data from proton-proton collisions at the LHC collected by the ATLAS detector in 2011 and from Monte Carlo simulations. This technique reduces the number of clusters shared between tracks in highly energetic jets by up to a factor of three. It also provides more precise position and error estimates of the clusters in both the transverse and longitudinal impact parameter resolution.

  4. Neural network based cluster creation in the ATLAS silicon pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Selbach, K E; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The read-out from individual pixels on planar semi-conductor sensors are grouped into clusters to reconstruct the location where a charged particle passed through the sensor. The resolution given by individual pixel sizes is significantly improved by using the information from the charge sharing between pixels. Such analog cluster creation techniques have been used by the ATLAS experiment for many years to obtain an excellent performance. However, in dense environments, such as those inside high-energy jets, clusters have an increased probability of merging the charge deposited by multiple particles. Recently, a neural network based algorithm which estimates both the cluster position and whether a cluster should be split has been developed for the ATLAS pixel detector. The algorithm significantly reduces ambiguities in the assignment of pixel detector measurement to tracks within jets and improves the position accuracy with respect to standard interpolation techniques by taking into account the 2-dimensional ...

  5. The ATLAS semiconductor tracker: operations and performance

    CERN Document Server

    D'Auria, S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The Semi-Conductor Tracker (SCT) is a silicon strip detector and one of the key precision tracking devices in the Inner Detector of the ATLAS experiment at CERN LHC. The SCT is constructed of 4088 silicon detector modules for a total of 6.3 million strips. Each module is designed, constructed and tested to operate as a stand-alone unit, mechanically, electrically, optically and thermally. The modules are mounted into two types of structures: one barrel (4 cylinders) and two end-cap systems (9 disks on each end of the barrel). The SCT silicon micro-strip sensors are processed in the planar {it p}-in-{it n} technology. The signals are processed in the front-end ASICS ABCD3TA, working in binary readout mode. Data is transferred to the off-detector readout electronics via optical fibres. We find 99.3% of the SCT modules are operational, noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specifications. In the talk the current results from the successful operation of the SCT Detector at the LHC and its status af...

  6. Charged track reconstruction and b-tagging performance in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Favareto, A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS Inner Detector is designed to provide precision tracking informa- tion at LHC luminosities with a hermetic detector covering 5 units in pseudo- rapidity. It features a large silicon tracker subdivided into a pixel and a strip system for precise tracking and primary/secondary vertex reconstruction and to provide excellent b-tagging capabilities. A Transition Radiation Tracker improves the momentum reconstruction and provides electron identification information. The subject of these proceedings is the performance of the ATLAS Inner Detector achieved after its first 2 years of operation. The excellent detector performance and more than a decade of simulation studies provided a good basis for the commissioning of the offline track and vertex reconstruction. Early studies with cosmic events and the ever increasing amount of high quality p-p collision data allowed for rapid progress in understanding of the detector. Today the ATLAS Inner Detector approaches its design values in most relevant performance c...

  7. Tests and final integration of the ATLAS semiconductor tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Mikulec, Bettina

    2005-01-01

    The Silicon Tracker (SCT) is part of the Inner Detector at the ATLAS experiment at CERN. Its basic building blocks are 5 different types of silicon strip modules. In total more than 15000 p-on-n single-sided silicon strip sensors of an area of about 61 m2 were used to produce 4088 SCT modules. An overall module production yield of 92% could be achieved, where the silicon modules comply with the tight electrical, thermal and mechanical specifications. The macro-assembly of 2112 barrel modules to the four barrel support cylinders was successfully carried out. The nine disks of one endcap are fully populated with 988 modules, and for the second endcap more than 50% of the modules are already mounted. Test results operating complete barrels will be presented as well as a description of the test setup. The different integration steps of the SCT with the surrounding Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) will be explained. The installation of SCT and TRT into the ATLAS pit will happen during 2006.

  8. Energy Calibration of a Silicon-Strip Detector for Photon-Counting Spectral CT by Direct Usage of the X-ray Tube Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuejin; Chen, Han; Bornefalk, Hans; Danielsson, Mats; Karlsson, Staffan; Persson, Mats; Xu, Cheng; Huber, Ben

    2015-02-01

    The variation among energy thresholds in a multibin detector for photon-counting spectral CT can lead to ring artefacts in the reconstructed images. Calibration of the energy thresholds can be used to achieve homogeneous threshold settings or to develop compensation methods to reduce the artefacts. We have developed an energy-calibration method for the different comparator thresholds employed in a photon-counting silicon-strip detector. In our case, this corresponds to specifying the linear relation between the threshold positions in units of mV and the actual deposited photon energies in units of keV. This relation is determined by gain and offset values that differ for different detector channels due to variations in the manufacturing process. Typically, the calibration is accomplished by correlating the peak positions of obtained pulse-height spectra to known photon energies, e.g. with the aid of mono-energetic x rays from synchrotron radiation, radioactive isotopes or fluorescence materials. Instead of mono-energetic x rays, the calibration method presented in this paper makes use of a broad x-ray spectrum provided by commercial x-ray tubes. Gain and offset as the calibration parameters are obtained by a regression analysis that adjusts a simulated spectrum of deposited energies to a measured pulse-height spectrum. Besides the basic photon interactions such as Rayleigh scattering, Compton scattering and photo-electric absorption, the simulation takes into account the effect of pulse pileup, charge sharing and the electronic noise of the detector channels. We verify the method for different detector channels with the aid of a table-top setup, where we find the uncertainty of the keV-value of a calibrated threshold to be between 0.1 and 0.2 keV.

  9. Design of the new ATLAS Inner Tracker for the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    ATLAS Collaboration; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    In the high luminosity era of the Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC), the instantaneous luminosity is expected to reach unprecedented values, resulting in about 200 proton-proton interactions in a typical bunch crossing. To cope with this high rate, the ATLAS Inner Detector is being completely redesigned, and will be replaced by an all-silicon system, the Inner Tracker (ITk). This new tracker will have both silicon pixel and silicon strip sub-systems. The components of the Inner Tracker will have to be resistant to the large radiation dose from the particles produced in HL-LHC collisions, and have low mass and sufficient sensor granularity to ensure a good tracking performance over the pseudorapidity range |η|<4. In this talk, first the challenges and second possible solutions to these challenges will be discussed, i.e. designs under consideration for the pixel and strip modules, and the mechanics of local supports in the barrel and endcaps.

  10. Design of the new ATLAS Inner Tracker for the High Luminosity LHC era

    CERN Document Server

    Vickey, Trevor; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: In the high luminosity era of the Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC), the instantaneous luminosity is expected to reach unprecedented values, resulting in about 200 proton-proton interactions in a typical bunch crossing. To cope with this high rate, the ATLAS Inner Detector is being completely redesigned, and will be replaced by an all-silicon system, the Inner Tracker (ITk). This new tracker will have both silicon pixel and silicon strip sub-systems. The components of the Inner Tracker will have to be resistant to the large radiation dose from the particles produced in HL-LHC collisions, and have low mass and sufficient sensor granularity to ensure a good tracking performance over the pseudorapidity range |η|<4. In this talk, first the challenges and second possible solutions to these challenges will be discussed, i.e. designs under consideration for the pixel and strip modules, and the mechanics of local supports in the barrel and endcaps.

  11. Testbeam studies of silicon microstrip sensor architectures modified to facilitate detector module mass production

    CERN Document Server

    Poley, Anne-luise; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    For the High Luminosity Upgrade of the LHC, the Inner Detector of the ATLAS detector will be replaced by an all-silicon tracker, consisting of pixel and strip sensor detector modules. Silicon strip sensors are being developed to meet both the tracking requirements in a high particle density environment and constraints imposed by the construction process. Several thousand wire bonds per module, connecting sensor strips and readout channels, need to be produced with high reliability and speed, requiring wire bond pads of sufficient size on each sensor strip. These sensor bond pads change the local sensor architecture and the resulting electric field and thus alter the sensor performance. These sensor regions with bond pads, which account for up to 10 % of a silicon strip sensor, were studied using both an electron beam at DESY and a micro-focused X-ray beam at the Diamond Light Source. This contribution presents measurements of the effective strip width in sensor regions where the structure of standard parallel...

  12. Design,construction and commissioning of a cylinder of double-sided silicon micro-strips detectors for the Star experiment at RHIC; Developpement et mise en oeuvre de detecteurs silicium a micropistes pour l'experience star

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guedon, M

    2005-05-15

    This study has been performed in the frame of quark gluon plasma physics research in the STAR experiment at RHIC. It deals with the design, the construction and the commissioning of a barrel of silicon-strip detectors (SSD). Added to the Silicon Vertex Tracker (SVT) of the STAR detector, it extends the capabilities of track reconstruction for charged particles emitted in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions. It also contributes to the general study of the quark-gluon plasma production undertaken at STAR. The SSD is a cylinder of 1 m long and of 23 cm radius, and it is composed of 320 compact identical modules. Each module includes one double-sided silicon micro-strip detector, 12 readout chips ALICE 128C, 12 TAB ribbons, 2 COSTAR control chips and 2 hybrids supporting all the components. The document explains why the SSD is an important and relevant element, and justifies the technological choices as well as their validation by in-beam characterization. All component functionalities, characteristics and test procedures are presented. The data and test results are stored in a database for tracing purpose. Component and module production is described. Two parallel studies have been performed, analysed and described. One on the temperature dependence of the module performances and the other one on the optimal adjustments of the analogue blocks inside the ALICE 128C chip. The SSD installation on the RHIC site as well as the commissioning are presented together with the first data takings. (author)

  13. Design,construction and commissioning of a cylinder of double-sided silicon micro-strips detectors for the Star experiment at RHIC; Developpement et mise en oeuvre de detecteurs silicium a micropistes pour l'experience star

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guedon, M

    2005-05-15

    This study has been performed in the frame of quark gluon plasma physics research in the STAR experiment at RHIC. It deals with the design, the construction and the commissioning of a barrel of silicon-strip detectors (SSD). Added to the Silicon Vertex Tracker (SVT) of the STAR detector, it extends the capabilities of track reconstruction for charged particles emitted in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions. It also contributes to the general study of the quark-gluon plasma production undertaken at STAR. The SSD is a cylinder of 1 m long and of 23 cm radius, and it is composed of 320 compact identical modules. Each module includes one double-sided silicon micro-strip detector, 12 readout chips ALICE 128C, 12 TAB ribbons, 2 COSTAR control chips and 2 hybrids supporting all the components. The document explains why the SSD is an important and relevant element, and justifies the technological choices as well as their validation by in-beam characterization. All component functionalities, characteristics and test procedures are presented. The data and test results are stored in a database for tracing purpose. Component and module production is described. Two parallel studies have been performed, analysed and described. One on the temperature dependence of the module performances and the other one on the optimal adjustments of the analogue blocks inside the ALICE 128C chip. The SSD installation on the RHIC site as well as the commissioning are presented together with the first data takings. (author)

  14. T-CAD analysis of electric fields in n-in-p silicon strip detectors in dependence on the p-stop pattern and doping concentration

    CERN Document Server

    Printz, Martin

    2015-01-01

    However, n-in-p detectors necessarily need an isolation layer of the n+ strips due to an accumula- tion layer of electrons caused by positive charge in the SiO$_2$ at the sensor surface. An additional implantation of acceptors like boron between the n+ strips cuts the co...

  15. First charge collection and position-precision data on the medium-resistivity silicon strip detectors before and after neutron irradiation up to 2x1014 n/cm2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zheng; Dezillie, B.; Eremin, V.; Li, C.J.; Verbitskaya, E.

    1999-01-01

    Test strip detectors of 125 μm, 500 μm, and 1 mm pitches with about 1 cm 2 areas have been made on medium-resistivity silicon wafers (1.3 and 2.7 kΩ cm). Detectors of 500 μm pitch have been tested for charge collection and position precision before and after neutron irradiation (up to 2x10 14 n/cm 2 ) using 820 and 1030 nm laser lights with different beam-spot sizes. It has been found that for a bias of 250 V a strip detector made of 1.3 kΩ cm (300 μm thick) can be fully depleted before and after an irradiation of 2x10 14 n/cm 2 . For a 500 μm pitch strip detector made of 2.7 kΩ cm tested with an 1030 nm laser light with 200 μm spot size, the position reconstruction error is about 14 μm before irradiation, and 17 μm after about 1.7x10 13 n/cm 2 irradiation. We demonstrated in this work that medium resistivity silicon strip detectors can work just as well as the traditional high-resistivity ones, but with higher radiation tolerance. We also tested charge sharing and position reconstruction using a 1030 nm wavelength (300 μm absorption length in Si at RT) laser, which provides a simulation of MIP particles in high-physics experiments in terms of charge collection and position reconstruction

  16. Study of prototypes of LFoundry active CMOS pixels sensors for the ATLAS detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigani, L.; Bortoletto, D.; Ambroz, L.; Plackett, R.; Hemperek, T.; Rymaszewski, P.; Wang, T.; Krueger, H.; Hirono, T.; Caicedo Sierra, I.; Wermes, N.; Barbero, M.; Bhat, S.; Breugnon, P.; Chen, Z.; Godiot, S.; Pangaud, P.; Rozanov, A.

    2018-02-01

    Current high energy particle physics experiments at the LHC use hybrid silicon detectors, in both pixel and strip configurations, for their inner trackers. These detectors have proven to be very reliable and performant. Nevertheless, there is great interest in depleted CMOS silicon detectors, which could achieve a similar performance at lower cost of production. We present recent developments of this technology in the framework of the ATLAS CMOS demonstrator project. In particular, studies of two active sensors from LFoundry, CCPD_LF and LFCPIX, are shown.

  17. Study of prototypes of LFoundry active CMOS pixels sensors for the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Vigani, L.; Ambroz, L.; Plackett, R.; Hemperek, T.; Rymaszewski, P.; Wang, T.; Krueger, H.; Hirono, T.; Caicedo Sierra, I.; Wermes, N.; Barbero, M.; Bhat, S.; Breugnon, P.; Chen, Z.; Godiot, S.; Pangaud, P.; Rozanov, A.

    2018-01-01

    Current high energy particle physics experiments at the LHC use hybrid silicon detectors, in both pixel and strip configurations, for their inner trackers. These detectors have proven to be very reliable and performant. Nevertheless, there is great interest in depleted CMOS silicon detectors, which could achieve a similar performance at lower cost of production. We present recent developments of this technology in the framework of the ATLAS CMOS demonstrator project. In particular, studies of two active sensors from LFoundry, CCPD_LF and LFCPIX, are shown.

  18. Short p-type silicon microstrip detectors in 3D-stc technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckert, S. [Physikalisches Institut, Albert-Ludwigs-Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder Strasse 3b, D-79104 Freiburg i. Br. (Germany)], E-mail: simon.eckert@physik.uni-freiburg.de; Jakobs, K.; Kuehn, S.; Parzefall, U. [Physikalisches Institut, Albert-Ludwigs-Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder Strasse 3b, D-79104 Freiburg i. Br. (Germany); Dalla-Betta, G.-F.; Zoboli, A. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria e Scienza dell' Informazione, Universita degli Studi di Trento, via Sommarive 14, I-38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Pozza, A.; Zorzi, N. [FBK-irst Trento, Microsystems Division, via Sommarive 18, I-38050 Povo di Trento (Italy)

    2008-10-21

    The luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the sLHC, will constitute an extremely challenging radiation environment for tracking detectors. Significant improvements in radiation hardness are needed to cope with the increased radiation dose, requiring new tracking detectors. In the upgraded ATLAS detector the region from 20 to 50 cm distance to the beam will be covered by silicon strip detectors (SSD) with short strips. These will have to withstand a 1 MeV neutron equivalent fluence of about 1x10{sup 15}n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}, hence extreme radiation resistance is necessary. For the short strips, we propose to use SSD realised in the radiation tolerant 3D technology, where rows of columns-etched into the silicon bulk-are joined together to form strips. To demonstrate the feasibility of 3D SSD for the sLHC, we have built prototype modules using 3D-single-type-column (stc) SSD with short strips and front-end electronics from the present ATLAS SCT. The modules were read out with the SCT Data Acquisition system and tested with an IR-laser. We report on the performance of these 3D modules, in particular the noise at 40 MHz which constitutes a measurement of the effective detector capacitance. Conclusions about options for using 3D SSD detectors for tracking at the sLHC are drawn.

  19. The status of the ATLAS inner detector

    CERN Document Server

    Moser, H G

    2004-01-01

    The ATLAS inner detector uses three subdetectors for tracking of charged particles from r = 5 cm to r = 107 cm inside a solenoid magnet of 2 T. The innermost detector is a high resolution silicon pixel detector. It provides precise 3D tracking information close to the interaction point allowing secondary vertex reconstruction and hence b identification. It is followed by the SCT, a large area tracking device based on silicon strip detectors. The TRT, based on straw tubes, provides continuous tracking and improves electron identification due to its ability to detect transition radiation. These detectors are presently under construction. This report presents a brief report on the design, construction status and expected performance of the inner detector.

  20. ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker and Pixel Detector: Status and Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Reeves, K; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The Semi-Conductor Tracker (SCT) and the Pixel Detector are the key precision tracking devices in the Inner Detector of the ATLAS experiment at CERN LHC. The SCT is a silicon strip detector and is constructed of 4088 silicon detector modules for a total of 6.3 million strips. Each module is designed, constructed and tested to operate as a stand-alone unit, mechanically, electrically, optically and thermally. The SCT silicon micro-strip sensors are processed in the planar p-in-n technology. The signals from the strips are processed in the front-end ASICS ABCD3TA, working in the binary readout mode. The Pixel Detector consists of approximately 80 million pixels that are individually read out via chips bump-bonded to 1744 n-in-n silicon substrates. In the talk the current status of the SCT and Pixel Detector will be reviewed. We will report on the operation of the detectors including an overview of the issues we encountered and the observation of significant increases in leakage currents (as expected) from bulk ...

  1. Silicon Detectors-Tools for Discovery in Particle Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krammer, Manfred

    2009-01-01

    Since the first application of Silicon strip detectors in high energy physics in the early 1980ies these detectors have enabled the experiments to perform new challenging measurements. With these devices it became possible to determine the decay lengths of heavy quarks, for example in the fixed target experiment NA11 at CERN. In this experiment Silicon tracking detectors were used for the identification of particles containing a c-quark. Later on, the experiments at the Large Electron Positron collider at CERN used already larger and sophisticated assemblies of Silicon detectors to identify and study particles containing the b-quark. A very important contribution to the discovery of the last of the six quarks, the top quark, has been made by even larger Silicon vertex detectors inside the experiments CDF and D0 at Fermilab. Nowadays a mature detector technology, the use of Silicon detectors is no longer restricted to the vertex regions of collider experiments. The two multipurpose experiments ATLAS and CMS at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN contain large tracking detectors made of Silicon. The largest is the CMS Inner Tracker consisting of 200 m 2 of Silicon sensor area. These detectors will be very important for a possible discovery of the Higgs boson or of Super Symmetric particles. This paper explains the first applications of Silicon sensors in particle physics and describes the continuous development of this technology up to the construction of the state of the art Silicon detector of CMS.

  2. The Data Acquisition and Calibration System for the ATLAS Semiconductor Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Abdesselam, A; Barr, A J; Bell, P; Bernabeu, J; Butterworth, J M; Carter, J R; Carter, A A; Charles, E; Clark, A; Colijn, A P; Costa, M J; Dalmau, J M; Demirkoz, B; Dervan, P J; Donega, M; D'Onifrio, M; Escobar, C; Fasching, D; Ferguson, D P S; Ferrari, P; Ferrère, D; Fuster, J; Gallop, B; García, C; González, S; González-Sevilla, S; Goodrick, M J; Gorisek, A; Greenall, A; Grillo, A A; Hessey, N P; Hill, J C; Jackson, J N; Jared, R C; Johannson, P D C; de Jong, P; Joseph, J; Lacasta, C; Lane, J B; Lester, C G; Limper, M; Lindsay, S W; McKay, R L; Magrath, C A; Mangin-Brinet, M; Martí i García, S; Mellado, B; Meyer, W T; Mikulec, B; Minano, M; Mitsou, V A; Moorhead, G; Morrissey, M; Paganis, E; Palmer, M J; Parker, M A; Pernegger, H; Phillips, A; Phillips, P W; Postranecky, M; Robichaud-Véronneau, A; Robinson, D; Roe, S; Sandaker, H; Sciacca, F; Sfyrla, A; Stanecka, E; Stapnes, S; Stradling, A; Tyndel, M; Tricoli, A; Vickey, T; Vossebeld, J H; Warren, M R M; Weidberg, A R; Wells, P S; Wu, S L

    2008-01-01

    The SemiConductor Tracker (SCT) data acquisition (DAQ) system will calibrate, configure, and control the approximately six million front-end channels of the ATLAS silicon strip detector. It will provide a synchronized bunch-crossing clock to the front-end modules, communicate first-level triggers to the front-end chips, and transfer information about hit strips to the ATLAS high-level trigger system. The system has been used extensively for calibration and quality assurance during SCT barrel and endcap assembly and for performance confirmation tests after transport of the barrels and endcaps to CERN. Operating in data-taking mode, the DAQ has recorded nearly twenty million synchronously-triggered events during commissioning tests including almost a million cosmic ray triggered events. In this paper we describe the components of the data acquisition system, discuss its operation in calibration and data-taking modes and present some detector performance results from these tests.

  3. The data acquisition and calibration system for the ATLAS Semiconductor Tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdesselam, A; Barr, A J; Demirkoez, B; Barber, T; Carter, J R; Bell, P; Bernabeu, J; Costa, M J; Escobar, C; Butterworth, J M; Carter, A A; Dalmau, J M; Charles, E; Fasching, D; Ferguson, D P S; Clark, A; Donega, M; D'Onifrio, M; Colijn, A-P; Dervan, P J

    2008-01-01

    The SemiConductor Tracker (SCT) data acquisition (DAQ) system will calibrate, configure, and control the approximately six million front-end channels of the ATLAS silicon strip detector. It will provide a synchronized bunch-crossing clock to the front-end modules, communicate first-level triggers to the front-end chips, and transfer information about hit strips to the ATLAS high-level trigger system. The system has been used extensively for calibration and quality assurance during SCT barrel and endcap assembly and for performance confirmation tests after transport of the barrels and endcaps to CERN. Operating in data-taking mode, the DAQ has recorded nearly twenty million synchronously-triggered events during commissioning tests including almost a million cosmic ray triggered events. In this paper we describe the components of the data acquisition system, discuss its operation in calibration and data-taking modes and present some detector performance results from these tests

  4. Radiation hardness of two CMOS prototypes for the ATLAS HL-LHC upgrade project

    CERN Document Server

    Huffman, B T; Arndt, K; Bates, R; Benoit, M; Di Bello, F; Blue, A; Bortoletto, D; Buckland, M; Buttar, C; Caragiulo, P; Das, D; Dopke, J; Dragone, A; Ehrler, F; Fadeyev, V; Galloway, Z; Grabas, H; Gregor, I M; Grenier, P; Grillo, A; Hoeferkamp, M; Hommels, L B A; John, J; Kanisauskas, K; Kenney, C; Kramberger, J; Liang, Z; Mandic, I; Maneuski, D; Martinez-McKinney, F; McMahon, S; Meng, L; Mikuž, M; Muenstermann, D; Nickerson, R; Peric, I; Phillips, P; Plackett, R; Rubbo, F; Segal, J; Seidel, S; Seiden, A; Shipsey, I; Song, W; Stanitzki, M; Su, D; Tamma, C; Turchetta, R; Vigani, L; olk, J; Wang, R; Warren, M; Wilson, F; Worm, S; Xiu, Q; Zhang, J; Zhu, H

    2016-01-01

    The LHC luminosity upgrade, known as the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), will require the replacement of the existing silicon strip tracker and the transistion radiation tracker. Although a baseline design for this tracker exists the ATLAS collaboration and other non-ATLAS groups are exploring the feasibility of using CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) which would be arranged in a strip-like fashion and would take advantage of the service and support structure already being developed for the upgrade. Two test devices made with theAMSH35 process (a High voltage or HV CMOS process) have been subjected to various radiation environments and have performed well. The results of these tests are presented in this paper.

  5. Background suppression for a top quark mass measurement in the lepton+jets t anti t decay channel and alignment of the ATLAS silicon detectors with cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goettfert, Tobias

    2010-01-01

    The investigation of top quark properties will be amongst the first measurements of observables of the Standard Model of particle physics at the Large Hadron Collider. This thesis deals with the suppression of background sources contributing to the event sample used for the determination of the top quark mass. Several techniques to reduce the contamination of the selected sample with events from W+jets production and combinatorial background from wrong jet associations are evaluated. The usage of the jet merging scales of a k T jet algorithm as event shapes is laid out and a multivariate technique (Fisher discriminant) is applied to discriminate signal from physics background. Several kinematic variables are reviewed upon their capability to suppress wrong jet associations. The second part presents the achievements on the alignment of the silicon part of the Inner Detector of the ATLAS experiment. A well-aligned tracking detector will be crucial for measurements that involve particle trajectories, e.g. for reliably identifying b-quark jets. Around 700,000 tracks from cosmic ray muons are used to infer the alignment of all silicon modules of ATLAS using the track-based local χ 2 alignment algorithm. Various additions to the method that deal with the peculiarities of alignment with cosmic rays are developed and presented. The achieved alignment precision is evaluated and compared to previous results. (orig.)

  6. Background suppression for a top quark mass measurement in the lepton+jets t anti t decay channel and alignment of the ATLAS silicon detectors with cosmic rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goettfert, Tobias

    2010-01-21

    The investigation of top quark properties will be amongst the first measurements of observables of the Standard Model of particle physics at the Large Hadron Collider. This thesis deals with the suppression of background sources contributing to the event sample used for the determination of the top quark mass. Several techniques to reduce the contamination of the selected sample with events from W+jets production and combinatorial background from wrong jet associations are evaluated. The usage of the jet merging scales of a k{sub T} jet algorithm as event shapes is laid out and a multivariate technique (Fisher discriminant) is applied to discriminate signal from physics background. Several kinematic variables are reviewed upon their capability to suppress wrong jet associations. The second part presents the achievements on the alignment of the silicon part of the Inner Detector of the ATLAS experiment. A well-aligned tracking detector will be crucial for measurements that involve particle trajectories, e.g. for reliably identifying b-quark jets. Around 700,000 tracks from cosmic ray muons are used to infer the alignment of all silicon modules of ATLAS using the track-based local {chi}{sup 2} alignment algorithm. Various additions to the method that deal with the peculiarities of alignment with cosmic rays are developed and presented. The achieved alignment precision is evaluated and compared to previous results. (orig.)

  7. Layout and prototyping of the new ATLAS Inner Tracker for the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Mitra, Ankush; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The current inner tracker of the ATLAS experiment is foreseen to be replaced at the High Luminosity era of the LHC to cope with the occuring increase in occupancy, bandwidth and radiation damage. It will be replaced by an all-silicon system, the Inner Tracker (ITk). This new tracker will have both silicon pixel and silicon strip sub-systems aiming to provide tracking coverage up to |η|<4. For a high tracking performance are radiation hard and high-rate capable silicon sensors and readout electronics important. Moreover, services and stable, low mass mechanical structures are essential and give challenges to the system design. In this talk first the tracker layout and challenges, second possible solutions to these challenges will be discussed. The layouts under considerations and their technical realizations in terms of mechanics of local supports will be presented.

  8. Analyses of test beam data for the ATLAS upgrade readout chip (ABC130)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peschke, Richard [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Collaboration: ATLAS-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    As part of the ATLAS phase II upgrade it is planned to replace the current tracker with an all silicon tracker. The outer part of the new tracker will consist of silicon strip detectors. For the readout of the strip detector a new Analog to Binary Converter chip (ABC130) was designed. The chip is processed in the 130 nm technology. In laboratory measurements the preamplifier of the new ABC130 showed a significant lower gain than expected. From the measurements in the laboratory it was not possible to distinguish if the malfunction is in the preamplifier or in the test circuit. Therefore an unbiased test was mandatory. Among other measurements, one was a test beam campaign at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Collider (SLAC). The result of measurement is shown in the presentation.

  9. Commissioning and performance of the ATLAS Inner Detector with the first beam and cosmic data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreazza, A., E-mail: attilio.andreazza@mi.infn.i [Universita degli Studi di Milano and I.N.F.N., Milano (Italy)

    2010-05-21

    The ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) started data-taking in Autumn 2008 with the inauguration of the LHC. The Inner Detector is a tracking system for charged particles based on three technologies: silicon pixels, silicon micro-strips and drift tubes. The detector was commissioned and calibrated in the ATLAS cavern. Cosmic muons data are used for timing the different components of the system, measuring detector performance on particles and cross-checking the calibration results. Cosmic ray data serve also to align the detector prior to the LHC start up, exercising the alignment procedure to be repeated during the accelerator's operation. Tracking performance after this early alignment is suitable for initial LHC collisions.

  10. Alignment of the ATLAS Inner Detector in the LHC Run II

    CERN Document Server

    Barranco Navarro, Laura; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    ATLAS physics goals require excellent resolution, unbiased measurement of all charged particle kinematic parameters. These critically depend on the layout and performance of the tracking system and on the quality of its offline alignment. ATLAS is equipped with a tracking system built using different technologies, silicon planar sensors (pixel and micro-strip) and gaseous drift- tubes, all embedded in a 2T solenoidal magnetic field. For the Run II of the LHC, the system was upgraded with the installation of a new pixel layer, the Insertable B-layer (IBL). An outline of the track based alignment approach and its implementation within the ATLAS software will be presented. Special attention will be paid to integration of the IBL into the alignment framework, techniques allowing to identify and eliminate tracking systematics as well as strategies to deal with time-dependent alignment. Performance from the commissioning of Cosmic data and potentially early LHC Run II proton-proton collisions will be discussed.

  11. Instrumentation of a Level-1 Track Trigger at ATLAS with Double Buffer Front-End Architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Cooper, B; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Around 2021 the Large Hadron Collider will be upgraded to provide instantaneous luminosities 5x10^34, leading to excessive rates from the ATLAS Level-1 trigger. We describe a double-buffer front-end architecture for the ATLAS tracker replacement which should enable tracking information to be used in the Level-1 decision. This will allow Level-1 rates to be controlled whilst preserving high efficiency for single lepton triggers at relatively low transverse momentum thresholds pT ~25 GeV, enabling ATLAS to remain sensitive to physics at the electroweak scale. In particular, a potential hardware solution for the communication between the upgraded silicon barrel strip detectors and the external processing within this architecture will be described, and discrete event simulations used to demonstrate that this fits within the tight latency constraints.

  12. Evaporative cooling in ATLAS – present and future

    CERN Document Server

    Viehhauser, G; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    Evaporative cooling is gaining interest in the particle physics community, due to the promise of reduced material, good temperature uniformity, and the wide range of temperatures accessible. The largest such system to-date operates in ATLAS, where it removes the heat from the semiconductor detector systems (Silicon strips and pixels). During the installation and commissioning of this system many lessons had to be learned. In parallel we have re-evaluated the requirements for the cooling system, in particular for the evaporation temperature, over the full ATLAS operational lifetime, and can compare them to the real system performance. The critical requirement is for thermal stability at the end of the operation in the high-radiation environment. To predict this we have developed a simple thermal model of the detector modules which yields analytical expressions to evaluate the results of changes in the operating conditions. After a comparison of the revised requirements and the actual present cooling system per...

  13. Design, fabrication and characterization of multi-guard-ring furnished p+n-n+ silicon strip detectors for future HEP experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalwani, Kavita; Jain, Geetika; Dalal, Ranjeet; Ranjan, Kirti; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh

    2016-07-01

    Si detectors, in various configurations (strips and pixels), have been playing a key role in High Energy Physics (HEP) experiments due to their excellent vertexing and high precision tracking information. In future HEP experiments like upgrade of the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment (CMS) at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), CERN and the proposed International Linear Collider (ILC), the Si tracking detectors will be operated in a very harsh radiation environment, which leads to both surface and bulk damage in Si detectors which in turn changes their electrical properties, i.e. change in the full depletion voltage, increase in the leakage current and decrease in the charge collection efficiency. In order to achieve the long term durability of Si-detectors in future HEP experiments, it is required to operate these detectors at very high reverse biases, beyond the full depletion voltage, thus requiring higher detector breakdown voltage. Delhi University (DU) is involved in the design, fabrication and characterization of multi-guard-ring furnished ac-coupled, single sided, p+n-n+ Si strip detectors for future HEP experiments. The design has been optimized using a two-dimensional numerical device simulation program (TCAD-Silvaco). The Si strip detectors are fabricated with eight-layers mask process using the planar fabrication technology by Bharat Electronic Lab (BEL), India. Further an electrical characterization set-up is established at DU to ensure the quality performance of fabricated Si strip detectors and test structures. In this work measurement results on non irradiated Si Strip detectors and test structures with multi-guard-rings using Current Voltage (IV) and Capacitance Voltage (CV) characterization set-ups are discussed. The effect of various design parameters, for example guard-ring spacing, number of guard-rings and metal overhang on breakdown voltage of test structures have been studied.

  14. Stripping Voltammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovrić, Milivoj

    Electrochemical stripping means the oxidative or reductive removal of atoms, ions, or compounds from an electrode surface (or from the electrode body, as in the case of liquid mercury electrodes with dissolved metals) [1-5]. In general, these atoms, ions, or compounds have been preliminarily immobilized on the surface of an inert electrode (or within it) as the result of a preconcentration step, while the products of the electrochemical stripping will dissolve in the electrolytic solution. Often the product of the electrochemical stripping is identical to the analyte before the preconcentration. However, there are exemptions to these rules. Electroanalytical stripping methods comprise two steps: first, the accumulation of a dissolved analyte onto, or in, the working electrode, and, second, the subsequent stripping of the accumulated substance by a voltammetric [3, 5], potentiometric [6, 7], or coulometric [8] technique. In stripping voltammetry, the condition is that there are two independent linear relationships: the first one between the activity of accumulated substance and the concentration of analyte in the sample, and the second between the maximum stripping current and the accumulated substance activity. Hence, a cumulative linear relationship between the maximum response and the analyte concentration exists. However, the electrode capacity for the analyte accumulation is limited and the condition of linearity is satisfied only well below the electrode saturation. For this reason, stripping voltammetry is used mainly in trace analysis. The limit of detection depends on the factor of proportionality between the activity of the accumulated substance and the bulk concentration of the analyte. This factor is a constant in the case of a chemical accumulation, but for electrochemical accumulation it depends on the electrode potential. The factor of proportionality between the maximum stripping current and the analyte concentration is rarely known exactly. In fact

  15. Upgrading the ATLAS barrel tracker for the super-LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, Richard L.

    2009-01-01

    It has been proposed to increase the luminosity of the large hadron collider (LHC) at CERN by an order of magnitude, with the upgraded machine dubbed super-LHC. The ATLAS experiment will require a new tracker for this high-luminosity operation due to radiation damage and event density. In order to cope with the order of magnitude increase in pile-up backgrounds at the higher luminosity, an all-silicon tracker is being designed. The new strip detector will use significantly shorter strips than the current silicon tracker in order to minimize the occupancy. As the increased luminosity will mean a corresponding increase in radiation dose, a new generation of extremely radiation-hard silicon detectors is required. An R and D program is underway to develop silicon sensors with sufficient radiation hardness. New front-end electronics and readout systems are being designed to cope with the higher data rates. The challenges facing the sensors and the cooling and mechanical support will be discussed. A possible tracker layout will be described.

  16. The ATLAS Semiconductor tracker: operations and performance

    CERN Document Server

    Pani, P; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    Tracker After more than 3 years of successful operation at the LHC, we report on the operation and performance of the Semi-Conductor Tracker (SCT) functioning in a high luminosity, high radiation environment. The SCT is part of the ATLAS experiment at CERN and is constructed of 4088 silicon detector modules for a total of 6.3 million strips. Each module is designed, constructed and tested to operate as a stand-alone unit, mechanically, electrically, optically and thermally. The modules are mounted into two types of structures: one barrel (4 cylinders) and two end-cap systems (9 disks on each end of the barrel). The SCT silicon micro-strip sensors are processed in the planar p-in-n technology. The signals are processed in the front-end ABCD3TA ASICs, which use a binary readout architecture. Data is transferred to the off-detector readout electronics via optical fibers. We find 99.3% of the SCT modules are operational, noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specifications; the alignment is very cl...

  17. Silicon microstrip detectors in 3D technology for the sLHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parzefall, Ulrich [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany)], E-mail: ulrich.parzefall@physik.uni-freiburg.de; Dalla Betta, Gian-Franco [INFN and Universita' di Trento, via Sommarive 14, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Eckert, Simon [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Eklund, Lars; Fleta, Celeste [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Jakobs, Karl; Kuehn, Susanne; Pahn, Gregor [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Parkes, Chris; Pennicard, David [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Ronchin, Sabina [FBK-irst, Center for Materials and Microsystems, via Sommarive 18, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Zoboli, Andrea [INFN and Universita' di Trento, via Sommarive 14, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Zorzi, Nicola [FBK-irst, Center for Materials and Microsystems, via Sommarive 18, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy)

    2009-08-01

    The projected luminosity upgrade of the large hadron collider (LHC), the sLHC, will constitute a challenging radiation environment for tracking detectors. Massive improvements in radiation hardness are required with respect to the LHC. In the layout for the new ATLAS tracker, silicon strip detectors (SSDs) with short strips cover the