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Sample records for atlas silicon microstrip

  1. ATLAS Silicon Microstrip Tracker Operation and Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Moeller, V; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The SemiConductor Tracker (SCT), comprising of silicon micro-strip detectors is one of the key precision tracking devices in the ATLAS Inner Detector. ATLAS is one of the experiments at CERN LHC. The completed SCT is in very good shapes with 99.3% of the SCT’s 4088 modules (a total of 6.3 million strips) are operational. The noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specifications. In the talk the current status of the SCT will be reviewed. We will report on the operation of the detector, its performance and observed problems, with stress on the sensor and electronics performance. In December 2009 the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) recorded the first proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 900 GeV and this was followed by the unprecedented energy of 7 TeV in March 2010. The Semi-Conductor Tracker (SCT) is the key precision tracking device in ATLAS, made from silicon micro-strip detectors processed in the planar p-in-n technology. The signals from the strip...

  2. ATLAS Silicon Microstrip Tracker Operation and Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Vankov, P; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    In December 2009 the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) recorded the first proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 900 GeV and this was followed by the unprecedented energy of 7 TeV in March 2010. The SemiConductor Tracker (SCT) is the key precision tracking device in ATLAS, made up from silicon micro-strip detectors processed in the planar p-in-n technology. The completed SCT has been installed inside the ATLAS experimental hall. After the commissioning phase it arrived to the first LHC pp collision runs in very good shape: 99.3% of the SCT strips are operational, noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specifications, the alignment is already close enough to the ideal one to allow on-line track reconstruction and invariant mass determination. In the talk the current status of the SCT will be reviewed, including results from the latest data-taking periods in 2009 and 2010, and from the detector alignment. We will report on the operation of the detector and ob...

  3. ATLAS Silicon Microstrip Tracker Operation and Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Torchiani, I; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    In December 2009 the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) recorded the first proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 900 GeV. The SemiConductor Tracker (SCT) is the key precision tracking device in ATLAS, made up from silicon micro-strip detectors processed in the planar p-in-n technology. The completed SCT has been installed inside the ATLAS experimental hall. After the commissioning phase it arrived to the first LHC pp collision runs in very good shape: 99.3% of the SCT strips are operational, noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specifications, the alignment is already close enough to the ideal one to allow on-line track reconstruction and invariant mass determination. In the talk the current status of the SCT will be reviewed, including in particular results from the latest data-taking periods of the 2010 running at centre-of-mass energies of 7 TeV, and from the detector alignment. We will report on the operation of the detector and observed problems. The...

  4. ATLAS Silicon Microstrip Tracker Operation and Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Vankov, P; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    In December 2009 the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) recorded the first proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 900 GeV and this was followed by the unprecedented energy of 7 TeV in March 2010. The SemiConductor Tracker (SCT) is the key precision tracking device in ATLAS, made up from silicon micro-strip detectors processed in the planar p-in-n technology. The completed SCT has been installed inside the ATLAS experimental hall. After the commissioning phase it arrived to the first LHC pp collision runs in very good shape: 99.3% of the SCT modules are operational, noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specifications, the alignment is already close enough to the ideal one to allow on-line track reconstruction and invariant mass determination. This overview presents the current status of the SCT, including results from the latest data-taking periods in 2009 and 2010, and from the detector alignment. We report on the operation of the detector and observed pro...

  5. ATLAS Silicon Microstrip Detector Operation and Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Coniavitis, E

    2011-01-01

    In December 2009 the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) recorded the first proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 900 GeV, followed by the unprecedented energy of 7 TeV in March 2010. The Semi-Conductor Tracker (SCT) is the key precision tracking device in ATLAS, made up from silicon micro-strip detectors processed in the planar p-in-n technology. The completed SCT has been installed inside the ATLAS experimental hall. After the commissioning phase it arrived to the first LHC pp collision runs in very good shape: 99.3% of the SCT strips are operational, noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specifications, the alignment is already close enough to the ideal one to allow on-line track reconstruction and invariant mass determination. The current status of the SCT is reviewed, including results from the latest data-taking periods in 2009 and 2010, and from the detector alignment. We report on the operation of the detector and observed problems. The main emphasi...

  6. Test results on silicon micro-strip detectors for ATLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeWitt, J.; Dorfan, D.E.; Dubbs, T.; Grillo, A.A.; Kashigin, S.; Kroeger, W.; Pulliam, T.; Rahn, J.; Rowe, W.A.; Sadrozinski, H.F.-W.; Seiden, A.; Spencer, E.; Webster, A.; Wichmann, R.; Wilder, M.; Williams, D.C.; Dane, J.; Lankford, A.; Pier, S.; Schmid, B.; Bonino, R.; Couyoumtzelis, C.; Demierre, P.; Fujita, K.; Handa, T.; Iwata, Y.; Ohsugi, T.; Iwasaki, H.; Kohriki, T.; Kondo, T.; Terada, S.; Unno, Y.; Takashima, R.; Ciocio, A.; Collins, T.; Emes, J.; Gilchriese, M.G.D.; Haber, C.; Kipnis, I.; Shapiro, M.; Siegrist, J.; Spieler, H.; Moorhead, G.; Nakao, M.; Tamura, N.; Dabrowski, W.; Idzik, M.; Godlewski, J.; Grewal, A.; Nickerson, R.; Wastie, R.; Gao, Y.; Gonzalez, S.; Walsh, A.M.; Feng, Z. [California Univ., Santa Cruz, CA (United States). Inst. for Particle Phys.]|[California Univ., Irvine, CA (United States)]|[Geneva Univ. (Switzerland)]|[Hiroshima Univ. (Japan)]|[KEK, Tsukuba (Japan)]|[Kyoto Univ. Education (Japan)]|[Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)]|[Melbourne Univ. (Australia)]|[Okayama Univ. (Japan)]|[IPNT, Krakow (Poland)]|[INP, Krakow (Poland)]|[Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom)]|[Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States)

    1997-02-11

    We report results from beam tests on silicon microstrip detectors using a binary readout system for ATLAS. The data were collected during the H8 beam test at CERN in August/September 1995 and the KEK test in February 1996. The binary modules tested had been assembled from silicon microstrip detectors of different layout and from front-end electronics chips of different architecture. The efficiency, noise occupancy and position resolution were determined as a function of the threshold setting for various bias voltages and angles of incidence for both irradiated and non-irradiated detectors. In particular, the high spatial resolution of the beam telescope allowed the evaluation of the performance as a function of the track location in between detector strips. (orig.).

  7. The silicon microstrip sensors of the ATLAS semiconductor tracker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ATLAS SCT Collaboration; Spieler, Helmuth G.

    2007-04-13

    This paper describes the AC-coupled, single-sided, p-in-n silicon microstrip sensors used in the Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) of the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The sensor requirements, specifications and designs are discussed, together with the qualification and quality assurance procedures adopted for their production. The measured sensor performance is presented, both initially and after irradiation to the fluence anticipated after 10 years of LHC operation. The sensors are now successfully assembled within the detecting modules of the SCT, and the SCT tracker is completed and integrated within the ATLAS Inner Detector. Hamamatsu Photonics Ltd. supplied 92.2percent of the 15,392 installed sensors, with the remainder supplied by CiS.

  8. Signal generation in highly irradiated silicon microstrip detectors for the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Ruggiero, G

    2003-01-01

    Silicon detectors are the most diffused tracking devices in High Energy Physics (HEP). The reason of such success can be found in the characteristics of the material together with the existing advanced technology for the fabrication of these devices. Nevertheless in many modem HEP experiments the observation of vary rare events require data taking at high luminosity with a consequent extremely intense hadron radiation field that damages the silicon and degrades the performance of these devices. In this thesis work a detailed study of the signal generation in microstrip detectors has been produced with a special care for the ATLAS semiconductor tracker geometry. This has required a development of an appropriate setup to perform measurements with Transient Current/ Charge Technique. This has allowed studying the evolution of the signal in several microstrips detector samples irradiated at fluences covering the range expected in the ATLAS Semiconductor Tracker. For a better understanding of these measurements a ...

  9. Operation and Performance of the ATLAS Silicon Micro-strip Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Pylypchenko, Y; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The SemiConductor Tracker (SCT) is the key precision tracking device in ATLAS, made from silicon micro-strip detectors processed in the planar p-in-n technology. The completed SCT has been installed inside the ATLAS experimental hall since 2007 and has been operational since then. In this talk we will report on the current status of the SemiConductor Tracker, including results from the latest data-taking periods in 2009 and 2010, and from the detector alignment. The main emphasis is given to the performance of the SemiConductor Tracker with the LHC in collision mode and to the performance of individual electronic components.

  10. Operation and Performance of the ATLAS Silicon Micro-strip Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    "Pylypchenko, Y; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The SemiConductor Tracker (SCT) is the key precision tracking device in ATLAS, made from silicon micro-strip detectors processed in the planar p-in-n technology. The completed SCT has been installed inside the ATLAS experimental hall since 2007 and has been operational since then. In this paper the current status of the SemiConductor Tracker is reviewed, including results from the latest data-taking periods in 2009 and 2010, and from the detector alignment. The main emphasis is given to the performance of the SemiConductor Tracker with the LHC in collision mode and to the performance of individual electronic components.

  11. The Silicon Microstrip Sensors of the ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmad, A; Allport, P P; Alonso, J; Andricek, L; Apsimon, R J; Barr, A J; Bates, R L; Beck, G A; Bell, P J; Belymam, A; Benes, J; Berg, C M; Bernabeu, J; Bethke, S; Bingefors, N; Bizzell, J P; Bohm, J; Brenner, R; Brodbeck, T J; Bruckman De Renstrom, P; Buttar, C M; Campbell, D; Carpentieri, C; Carter, A A; Carter, J R; Charlton, D G; Casse, G-L; Chilingarov, A; Cindro, V; Ciocio, A; Civera, J V; Clark, A G; Colijn, A-P; Costa, M J; Dabrowski, W; Danielsen, K M; Dawson, I; Demirkoz, B; Dervan, P; Dolezal, Z; Dorholt, O; Duerdoth, I P; Dwuznik, M; Eckert, S; Ekelöf, T; Eklund, L; Escobar, C; Fasching, D; Feld, L; Ferguson, D P S; Ferrere, D; Fortin, R; Foster, J M; Fox, H; French, R; Fromant, B P; Fujita, K; Fuster, J; Gadomski, S; Gallop, B J; Garcia, C; Garcia-Navarro, J E; Gibson, M D; Gonzalez, S; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S; Goodrick, M J; Gornicki, E; Green, C; Greenall, A; Grigson, C; Grillo, A A; Grosse-Knetter, J; Haber, C; Handa, T; Hara, K; Harper, R S; Hartjes, F G; Hashizaki, T; Hauff, D; Hessey, N P; Hill, J C; Hollins, T I; Holt, S; Horazdovsky, T; Hornung, M; Hovland, K M; Hughes, G; Huse, T; Ikegami, Y; Iwata, Y; Jackson, J N; Jakobs, K; Jared, R C; Johansen, L G; Jones, R W L; Jones, T J; de Jong, P; Joseph, J; Jovanovic, P; Kaplon, J; Kato, Y; Ketterer, C; Kindervaag, I M; Kodys, P; Koffeman, E; Kohriki, T; Kohout, Z; Kondo, T; Koperny, S; van der Kraaij, E; Kral, V; Kramberger, G; Kudlaty, J; Lacasta, C; Limper, M; Linhart, V; Llosa, G; Lozano, M; Ludwig, I; Ludwig, J; Lutz, G; Macpherson, A; McMahon, S J; Macina, D; Magrath, C A; Malecki, P; Mandic, I; Marti-Garcia, S; Matsuo, T; Meinhardt, J; Mellado, B; Mercer, I J; Mikestikova, M; Mikuz, M; Minano, M; Mistry, J; Mitsou, V; Modesto, P; Mohn, B; Molloy, S D; Moorhead, G; Moraes, A; Morgan, D; Morone, M C; Morris, J; Moser, H-G; Moszczynski, A; Muijs, A J M; Nagai, K; Nakamura, Y; Nakano, I; Nicholson, R; Niinikoski, T; Nisius, R; Ohsugi, T; O'Shea, V; Oye, O K; Parzefall, U; Pater, J R; Pernegger, H; Phillips, P W; Posisil, S; Ratoff, P N; Reznicek, P; Richardson, J D; Richter, R H; Robinson, D; Roe, S; Ruggiero, G; Runge, K; Sadrozinski, H F W; Sandaker, H; Schieck, J; Seiden, A; Shinma, S; Siegrist, J; Sloan, T; Smith, N A; Snow, S W; Solar, M; Solberg, A; Sopko, B; Sospedra, L; Spieler, H; Stanecka, E; Stapnes, S; Stastny, J; Stelzer, F; Stradling, A; Stugu, B; Takashima, R; Tanaka, R; Taylor, G; Terada, S; Thompson, R J; Titov, M; Tomeda, Y; Tovey, D R; Turala, M; Turner, P R; Tyndel, M; Ullan, M; Unno, Y; Vickey, T; Vos, M; Wallny, R; Weilhammer, P; Wells, P S; Wilson, J A; Wolter, M; Wormald, M; Wu, S L; Yamashita, T; Zontar, D; Zsenei, A

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the AC-coupled, single-sided, p-in-n silicon microstrip sensors used in the SemiConductor Tracker (SCT) of the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The sensor requirements, specifications and designs are discussed, together with the qualification and quality assurance procedures adopted for their production. The measured sensor performance is presented, both initially and after irradiation to the fluence anticipated after 10 years of LHC operation. The sensors are now successfully assembled within the detecting modules of the SCT, and the SCT tracker is completed and integrated within the ATLAS Inner Detector. Hamamatsu Photonics Ltd supplied 92.2% of the 15,392 installed sensors, with the remainder supplied by CiS.

  12. Radiation hard silicon microstrip detectors for use in ATLAS at CERN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansen, Lars Gimmestad

    2005-07-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN (Geneva, Switzerland) will accelerate protons in colliding beams to a center of mass energy of 14 TeV at very high luminosities. The ATLAS detector is being built to explore the physics in this unprecedented energy range. Tracking of charged particles in high-energy physics (HEP) experiments requires a high spatial resolution and fast signal readout, all with as little material as possible. Silicon microstrip detectors meet these requirements well and have been chosen for the Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) which is part of the inner tracking system of ATLAS and has a total area of 61 m2. During the 10 years of operation at LHC, the total fluence received by the detectors is sufficiently large that they will suffer a severe degradation from radiation induced damage. The damage affects both the physics performance of the detectors as well as their operability and a great challenge has been to develop radiation hard detectors for this environment. An extensive irradiation programme has been carried out where detectors of various designs, including defect engineering by oxygen enriched silicon, have been irradiated to the expected fluence. A subsequent thermal annealing period is included to account for a realistic annual maintenance schedule at room temperature, during which the radiation induced defects alter the detector properties significantly. This thesis presents work that has been carried out in the Bergen ATLAS group with results both from the irradiation programme and from detector testing during the module production. (Author)

  13. Cryogenic Silicon Microstrip Detector Modules for LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Perea-Solano, B

    2004-01-01

    CERN is presently constructing the LHC, which will produce collisions of 7 TeV protons in 4 interaction points at a design luminosity of 1034 cm-2 s-1. The radiation dose resulting from the operation at high luminosity will cause a serious deterioration of the silicon tracker performance. The state-of-art silicon microstrip detectors can tolerate a fluence of about 3 1014 cm-2 of hadrons or charged leptons. This is insufficient, however, for long-term operation in the central parts of the LHC trackers, in particular after the possible luminosity upgrade of the LHC. By operating the detectors at cryogenic temperatures the radiation hardness can be improved by a factor 10. This work proposes a cryogenic microstrip detector module concept which has the features required for the microstrip trackers of the upgraded LHC experiments at CERN. The module can hold an edgeless sensor, being a good candidate for improved luminosity and total cross-section measurements in the ATLAS, CMS and TOTEM experiments. The design o...

  14. Radiation damage studies of silicon microstrip sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Nakayama, T; Hara, K; Shimojima, M; Ikegami, Y; Iwata, Y; Johansen, L G; Kobayashi, H; Kohriki, T; Kondo, T; Nakano, I; Ohsugi, T; Riedler, P; Roe, S; Stapnes, Steinar; Stugu, B; Takashima, R; Tanizaki, K; Terada, S; Unno, Y; Yamamoto, K; Yamamura, K

    2000-01-01

    Various types of large area silicon microstrip detectors were fabricated for the development of radiation-tolerant detectors that will operate in the LHC ATLAS SCT. The detectors were irradiated with 12-GeV protons at KEK to fluences of 1.7*10/sup 14/ and 4.2*10/sup 14 / protons/cm/sup 2/. Irradiated samples included n-on-n detectors with 4 k Omega cm bulk resistivity and p-on-n detectors with 1 k Omega cm and 4 k Omega cm bulk resistivities. Four patterns of p-stop structures are configured in the n-on-n detectors. Although Hamamatsu fabricated most of the detectors, p-on-n detectors by SINTEF are also included, as well as those fabricated in a modified process by Hamamatsu. The detector performances after irradiation that are compared are the probability of creation of faulty coupling capacitors, C-V characteristics, charge curves, and total leakage current. The p-on-n are similar to the n-on-n detectors in these performances, and will remain operational in the ATLAS radiation environment. (12 refs).

  15. The D0 Silicon Microstrip Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmed, S N; Aoki, M; Åsman, B; Austin, S; Bagby, L; Barberis, E; Baringer, P; Bean, A; Bischoff, A; Blekman, F; Bolton, T A; Boswell, C; Bowden, M; Browning, F; Buchholz, D; Burdin, S; Butler, D; Cease, H; Choi, S; Clark, A R; Clutter, J; Cooper, A; Cooper, W E; Corcoran, M; de Jong, S J; Demarteau, M; Demina, R; Desai, S; Derylo, G; Ellison, J; Ermolov, P; Fagan, J; Fast, J; Filthaut, F; Foglesong, J; Fox, H; Galea, C F; Gardner, J; Genik, R J; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Y; Gounder, K; Grinstein, S; Gu, W; Gutierrez, P; Haggerty, H; Hall, R E; Hagopian, S; Hance, R; Harder, K; Heger, P; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hesketh, G; Hover, D; Howell, J; Hrycyk, M; Iashvili, I; Johnson, M; Jöstlein, H; Juste, A; Kahl, W; Kajfasz, E; Karmanov, D; Kesisoglou, S; Khanov, A; King, J; Kleinfelder, S; Kowalski, J; Krempetz, K; Kubantsev, M; Kulik, Y; Landsberg, G; Leflat, A; Lehner, F; Lipton, R; Mao, H S; Martin, M; Mateski, J; Matulik, M; McKenna, M; Melnitchouk, A; Merkin, M; Mihalcea, D; Milgrome, O; Montgomery, H E; Moua, S; Naumann, N A; Nomerotski, A; Olis, D; O'Neil, D C; Garzón, G J Otero y; Parua, N; Pawlak, J; Petteni, M; Quinn, B; Rapidis, P A; Ratzmann, P; Rizatdinova, F; Roco, M; Rucinski, R; Rykalin, V; Schellman, H; Schmitt, W; Sellberg, G; Serritella, C; Shabalina, E; Sidwell, R A; Simak, V; Smith, E; Squires, B; Stanton, N R; Steinbrück, G; Strandberg, J; Strandberg, S; Strauss, M; Stredde, S; Toukhtarov, A; Tripathi, S M; Trippe, T G; Tsybychev, D; Utes, M; van Gemmeren, P; Vaz, M; Weber, M; Wijngaarden, D A; Wish, J; Womersley, J; Yarema, R; Ye, Z; Zieminski, A; Zimmerman, T; Zverev, E G

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the mechanical design, the readout chain, the production, testing and the installation of the Silicon Microstrip Tracker of the D0 experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron collider. In addition, description of the performance of the detector during the experiment data collection between 2001 and 2010 is provided.

  16. Integrated double-sided silicon microstrip detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perevertailo V. L.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The problems of design, technology and manufacturing double-sided silicon microstrip detectors using standard equipment production line in mass production of silicon integrated circuits are considered. The design of prototype high-energy particles detector for experiment ALICE (CERN is presented. The parameters of fabricated detectors are comparable with those of similar foreign detectors, but they are distinguished by lesser cost.

  17. The silicon microstrip tracker for CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Pandoulas, D; Angarano, M M; Azzi, P; Babucci, E; Bacchetta, N; Bader, A J; Bagliesi, G; Bartalini, P; Basti, A; Biggeri, U; Bilei, G M; Bisello, D; Boemi, D; Borrello, L; Bosi, F; Bozzi, C; Braibant, S; Breuker, Horst; Bruzzi, Mara; Candelori, A; Caner, A; Castaldi, R; Castro, A; Catacchini, E; Checcucci, B; Ciampolini, P; Civinini, C; Creanza, D; D'Alessandro, R; Da Rold, M; Demaria, N; De Palma, M; Dell'Orso, R; Della Marina, R; Dutta, S; Eklund, C; Elliot-Peisert, A; Feld, L; Fiore, L; Focardi, E; French, M; Freudenreich, Klaus; Fürtjes, A; Giassi, A; Giraldo, A; Glessing, W D; Gu, W H; Hall, G; Hammarström, R; Hebbeker, T; Honkanen, J A; Hrubec, Josef; Huhtinen, M; Kaminski, A; Karimäki, V; Kellogg, R G; König, S J; Krammer, Manfred; Lariccia, P; Lenzi, M; Loreti, M; Lübelsmeyer, K; Lustermann, W; Mättig, P; Maggi, G; Mannelli, M; Mantovani, G C; Marchioro, A; Mariotti, C; Martignon, G; McEvoy, B; Meschini, M; Messineo, A; My, S; Paccagnella, S; Palla, Fabrizio; Parrini, G; Passeri, D; Pieri, M; Piperov, S; Potenza, R; Raffaelli, F; Raso, G; Raymond, M; Schmitt, B; Selvaggi, G; Servoli, L; Sguazzoni, G; Siedling, R; Silvestris, L; Skog, K; Starodumov, Andrei; Stavitski, I; Stefanini, G; Tempesta, P; Tonelli, G; Tricomi, A; Tuuva, T; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Viertel, Gert M; Wang, Y; Watts, S; Wittmer, B; Xie, Z

    1999-01-01

    The CMS silicon strip tracker involves about 70 m/sup 2/ of instrumented silicon, with approximately 18500 microstrip detectors read out by 5*10/sup 6/ electronics channels. It has to satisfy a set of stringent requirements imposed by the environment and by the physics expected at the LHC: low cell occupancy and good resolution, radiation hardness aided by adequate cooling, low mass combined with high stability. These conditions have been incorporated in a highly modular design of the detector modules and their support structures, chosen to facilitate construction and to allow for easy assembly and maintenance. (3 refs).

  18. D0 layer 0 innermost layer of silicon microstrip tracker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanagaki, K.; /Fermilab

    2006-01-01

    A new inner layer silicon strip detector has been built and will be installed in the existing silicon microstrip tracker in D0. They report on the motivation, design, and performance of this new detector.

  19. New silicon microstrip detectors optimized for tracker alignment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, M., E-mail: Marcos.Fernandez@cern.c [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, Avda. Los Castros S/N, 39005 Santander (Spain); Vila, I.; Jaramillo, R.; Virto, A.L. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, Avda. Los Castros S/N, 39005 Santander (Spain); Lozano, M.; Pellegrini, G.; Bassignana, D. [Centro Nacional de Microelectronica, Campus Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain)

    2010-12-11

    The resolution of tracking systems based on layers of silicon microstrips is comparable to the stability of the structures on which they are mounted. Environmental changes during operation will misalign the modules out of their nominal positions. A straight laser beam that sequentially traverses consecutive layers of microstrips can be used as an artificial track to align them. For such a laser track to reach the last sensor, high transmittance of microstrips to infrared (IR) light is needed. We have simulated the passage of a coherent beam of light through a microstrip detector and identified the minimum set of changes to the design that boosts its transmittance. The simulation has been validated against real microstrip detector samples.

  20. Characterisation of silicon microstrip detectors for the ATLAS Phase-II Upgrade with a micro-focused X-ray beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poley, Luise [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Blue, Andrew; Bates, Richard [Glasgow Univ. (United Kingdom). SUPA School of Physics and Astronomy; and others

    2016-03-15

    The planned HL-LHC (High Luminosity LHC) in 2025 is being designed to maximise the physics potential through a sizable increase in the luminosity, totalling 1 x 10{sup 35} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} after 10 years of operation. A consequence of this increased luminosity is the expected radiation damage at 3000 fb{sup -1}, requiring the tracking detectors to withstand hadron equivalences to over 1 x 10{sup 16} 1 MeV neutrons per cm{sup 2}. With the addition of increased readout rates, a complete re-design of the current ATLAS Inner Detector (ID) is being developed as the Inner Tracker (ITk). Two proposed detectors for the ATLAS strip tracker region of the ITk were characterized at the Diamond Light Source with a 3 μm FWHM 15 keV micro focused X-ray beam. The devices under test were a 320 μm thick silicon stereo (Barrel) ATLAS12 strip mini sensor wire bonded to a 130 nm CMOS binary readout chip (ABC130) and a 320 μm thick full size radial (Endcap) strip sensor - utilizing bi-metal readout layers - wire bonded to 250 nm CMOS binary readout chips (ABCN-25). Sub-strip resolution of the 74.5 μm strips was achieved for both detectors. Investigation of the p-stop diffusion layers between strips is shown in detail for the wire bond pad regions. Inter strip charge collection measurements indicate that the effective width of the strip on the silicon sensors is determined by p-stops regions between the strips rather than the strip pitch. The collected signal allowed for the identification of operating thresholds for both devices, making it possible to compare signal response between different versions of silicon strip detector modules.

  1. First test of cold edgeless silicon microstrip detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avati, V.; Boccone, V.; Borer, K.; Bozzo, M. E-mail: marco.bozzo@cern.ch; Capra, R.; Casagrande, L.; Eggert, K.; Heijne, E.; Klauke, S.; Li, Z.; Maeki, T.; Morelli, A.; Oljemark, F.; Palmieri, V.G.; Perea-Solano, B.; Tapprogge, S

    2004-02-01

    Silicon microstrip detectors will provide the forward tracking in the TOTEM experiment at the LHC. To allow efficient tracking closest to the beam ({approx}1 mm) these detectors should be sensitive up to their physical edge (i.e. edgeless). Edgeless (without guard rings) microstrip planar detectors can be operated at cryogenic temperatures (about 130 deg. K) where leakage currents due to the active edge are drastically reduced. A silicon microstrip prototype, cut perpendicular to the strips, has been tested with a pion beam at CERN to study its efficiency close to the edge by using reference tracks from a simple silicon telescope. Results indicate that the detector measures tracks with good efficiency up to the physical edge of the silicon.

  2. First test of cold edgeless silicon microstrip detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Avati, V; Borer, K; Bozzo, M; Capra, R; Casagrande, L; Eggert, Karsten; Heijne, Erik H M; Klauke, S; Li, Z; Mäki, T; Morelli, A; Oljemark, F; Palmieri, V G; Perea-Solano, B; Tapprogge, Stefan

    2004-01-01

    Silicon microstrip detectors will provide the forward tracking in the TOTEM experiment at the LHC. To allow efficient tracking closest to the beam ( approximately equals 1 mm) these detectors should be sensitive up to their physical edge (i.e. edgeless). Edgeless (without guard rings) microstrip planar detectors can be operated at cryogenic temperatures (about 130 degree K) where leakage currents due to the active edge are drastically reduced. A silicon microstrip prototype, cut perpendicular to the strips, has been tested with a pion beam at CERN to study its efficiency close to the edge by using reference tracks from a simple silicon telescope. Results indicate that the detector measures tracks with good efficiency up to the physical edge of the silicon.

  3. First test of cold edgeless silicon microstrip detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avati, V.; Boccone, V.; Borer, K.; Bozzo, M.; Capra, R.; Casagrande, L.; Eggert, K.; Heijne, E.; Klauke, S.; Li, Z.; Mäki, T.; Morelli, A.; Oljemark, F.; Palmieri, V. G.; Perea-Solano, B.; Tapprogge, S.

    2004-02-01

    Silicon microstrip detectors will provide the forward tracking in the TOTEM experiment at the LHC. To allow efficient tracking closest to the beam (≈1 mm) these detectors should be sensitive up to their physical edge (i.e. edgeless). Edgeless (without guard rings) microstrip planar detectors can be operated at cryogenic temperatures (about 130° K) where leakage currents due to the active edge are drastically reduced. A silicon microstrip prototype, cut perpendicular to the strips, has been tested with a pion beam at CERN to study its efficiency close to the edge by using reference tracks from a simple silicon telescope. Results indicate that the detector measures tracks with good efficiency up to the physical edge of the silicon.

  4. Micro-strip module production for the ATLAS Semi-conductor Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Melone, John

    2006-01-01

    This report will discuss the development and implementation of a process to wirebond and electrically test ATLAS semiconductor tracker silicon micro-strip detectors. It will detail the specific requirements for successful wire-bonding, the steps taken to improve and streamline the process and the criteria to be met during testing before the modules are deemed suitable for use. These detectors form part of the inner detector of the ATLAS experiment which is scheduled to begin in 2007 at the large hadron collider at CERN in Switzerland. The ATLAS experiment will observe and record the products of head on collisions of protons at very high energy. It is expected to shed light on many as yet unanswered questions about the fundamental particles of matter and forces of nature.

  5. Automated assembly in the construction of silicon microstrip detector modules

    CERN Document Server

    Eckert, S; Meinhardt, J; Runge, K; Benes, J

    2002-01-01

    The paper concerns silicon microstrip trackers for future experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It describes a system for the automated assembly of the trackers. The aim is uniform quality and a mechanical precision of better than 5 mu m. It has been implemented based on an industrial gantry robot. The gantry is equipped with a complex vacuum system which dispenses glue, and places the mechanical parts and the ASICS and the four silicon sensors with the required precision. The modules are double sided and 18 cm * 6 cm in dimension. (5 refs).

  6. Charge collection efficiency of standard and oxygenated silicon microstrip detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Stavitski, I; Bisello, D; Bacchetta, N; Candelori, A; Kaminski, A; Wyss, J

    2002-01-01

    Two silicon microstrip detectors, one fabricated from a standard and the second from a highly oxygenated substrate, were non-uniformly irradiated by 24 GeV protons to fluences ranging between 2.3 and 6.3 * 10/sup 14/ cm/sup -2/. Charge collection efficiency measurements, performed by pulsing the detectors with a 1060 mu m wavelength laser, show that the beneficial effect of the oxygenation remains, although reduced with respect to that observed by C-V measurements on diodes fabricated with the detectors. (10 refs).

  7. High Voltage Operation of heavily irradiated silicon microstrip detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Gu, W H; Angarano, M M; Bader, A; Biggeri, U; Boemi, D; Braibant, S; Breuker, H; Bruzzi, Mara; Caner, A; Catacchini, E; Civinini, C; Creanza, D; D'Alessandro, R; Demaria, N; Eklund, C; Peisert, Anna; Feld, L; Fiore, L; Focardi, E; Fürtjes, A; Glessing, B; Hall, G; Hammerstrom, R; Dollan, Ralph; Huhtinen, M; Karimäki, V; König, S; Lenzi, M; Lübelsmeyer, K; Maggi, G; Mannelli, M; Marchioro, A; Mariotti, C; Mättig, P; McEvoy, B; Meschini, M; My, S; Pandoulas, D; Parrini, G; Pieri, M; Dollan, Ralph; Potenza, R; Raso, G; Raymond, M; Schmitt, B; Selvaggi, G; Siedling, R; Silvestris, L; Skog, K; Stefanini, G; Tempesta, P; Tricomi, A; Watts, S; Wittmer, B; De Palma, M

    1999-01-01

    We discuss the results obtained from the R&D studies, done within the CMS experiment at LHC related to the behaviour of silicon microstrip prototype detectors when they are operated at high bias voltages before and after heavy irradiation, simulating up to 10 years of LHC running conditions. We have found detectors from several manufacturesrs that are able to work at V_bias > 500 Volts before and after the irradiation procedure, maintaining an acceptable performance with S/N > 14, efficiency close to 100% and few ghost hits.

  8. ATLAS silicon module assembly and qualification tests at IFIC Valencia

    CERN Document Server

    Bernabeu, J; Costa, M J; Escobar, C; Fuster, J; García, C; García-Navarro, J E; Gonzalez, F; González-Sevilla, S; Lacasta, C; Llosa, G; Martí i García, S; Minano, M; Mitsou, V A; Modesto, P; Nacher, J; Rodriguez-Oliete, R; Sanchez, F J; Sospedra, L; Strachko, V

    2007-01-01

    ATLAS experiment, designed to probe the interactions of particles emerging out of proton proton collisions at energies of up to 14 TeV, will assume operation at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN in 2007. This paper discusses the assembly and the quality control tests of forward detector modules for the ATLAS silicon microstrip detector assembled at the Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular (IFIC) in Valencia. The construction and testing procedures are outlined and the laboratory equipment is briefly described. Emphasis is given on the module quality achieved in terms of mechanical and electrical stability.

  9. ATLAS silicon module assembly and qualification tests at IFIC Valencia

    CERN Document Server

    Bernabeu, J; Costa, M J; Escobar, C; Fuster, J; García, C; García-Navarro, J E; González, F; González-Sevilla, S; Lacasta, C; Llosá, G; Martí i García, S; Miñano, M; Mitsou, V A; Modesto, P; Nácher, J; Rodríguez-Oliete, R; Sánchez,F J; Sospedra, L; Strachko V

    2007-01-01

    ATLAS experiment, designed to probe the interactions of particles emerging out of proton proton collisions at energies of up to 14 TeV, will assume operation at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN in 2007. This paper discusses the assembly and the quality control tests of forward detector modules for the ATLAS silicon microstrip detector assembled at the Instituto de Física Corpuscular (IFIC) in Valencia. The construction and testing procedures are outlined and the laboratory equipment is briefly described. Emphasis is given on the module quality achieved in terms of mechanical and electrical stability.

  10. Development of Microstrip Silicon Detectors for Star and ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Arnold, L; Coffin, J P; Guillaume, G; Guthneck, L; Higueret, S; Hundt, F; Kühn, C E; Lutz, Jean Robert; Pozdniakov, S; Rami, F; Tarchini, A; Boucham, A; Bouvier, S; Erazmus, B; Germain, M; Giliberto, S; Martin, L; Le Moal, C; Roy, C; Colledani, C; Dulinski, W; Turchetta, R

    1998-01-01

    The physics program of STAR and ALICE at ultra-relativistic heavy ion colliders, RHIC and LHC respectively, requires very good tracking capabilities. Some specific quark gluon plasma signatures, based on strange matter measurements implies quite a good secondary vertex reconstruction.For this purpose, the inner trackers of both experiments are composed of high-granularity silicon detectors. The current status of the development of double-sided silicon microstrip detectors is presented in this work.The global performance for tracking purpose adn particle identification are first reviewed. Then tests of the detectors and of the associated readout electronics are described. In-beam measurements of noise, spatial resolution, efficiency and charge matching capability, as well as radiation hardness, are examined.

  11. New results on silicon microstrip detectors of CMS tracker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demaria, N. E-mail: natale.demaria@cern.ch; Albergo, S.; Angarano, M.; Azzi, P.; Babucci, E.; Bacchetta, N.; Bader, A.; Bagliesi, G.; Basti, A.; Biggeri, U.; Bilei, G.M.; Bisello, D.; Boemi, D.; Bolla, G.; Bosi, F.; Borrello, L.; Bortoletto, D.; Bozzi, C.; Braibant, S.; Breuker, H.; Bruzzi, M.; Buffini, A.; Busoni, S.; Candelori, A.; Caner, A.; Castaldi, R.; Castro, A.; Catacchini, E.; Checcucci, B.; Ciampolini, P.; Civinini, C.; Creanza, D.; D' Alessandro, R.; Da Rold, M.; De Palma, M.; Dell' Orso, R.; Marina, R. Della; Dutta, S.; Eklund, C.; Elliott-Peisert, A.; Favro, G.; Feld, L.; Fiore, L.; Focardi, E.; French, M.; Freudenreich, K.; Fuertjes, A.; Giassi, A.; Giorgi, M.; Giraldo, A.; Glessing, B.; Gu, W.H.; Hall, G.; Hammerstrom, R.; Hebbeker, T.; Hrubec, J.; Huhtinen, M.; Kaminsky, A.; Karimaki, V.; Koenig, St.; Krammer, M.; Lariccia, P.; Lenzi, M.; Loreti, M.; Luebelsmeyer, K.; Lustermann, W.; Maettig, P.; Maggi, G.; Mannelli, M.; Mantovani, G.; Marchioro, A.; Mariotti, C.; Martignon, G.; Evoy, B. Mc; Meschini, M.; Messineo, A.; Migliore, E.; My, S.; Paccagnella, A.; Palla, F.; Pandoulas, D.; Papi, A.; Parrini, G.; Passeri, D.; Pieri, M.; Piperov, S.; Potenza, R.; Radicci, V.; Raffaelli, F.; Raymond, M.; Santocchia, A.; Schmitt, B.; Selvaggi, G.; Servoli, L.; Sguazzoni, G.; Siedling, R.; Silvestris, L.; Skog, K.; Starodumov, A.; Stavitski, I.; Stefanini, G.; Tempesta, P.; Tonelli, G.; Tricomi, A.; Tuuva, T.; Vannini, C.; Verdini, P.G.; Viertel, G.; Xie, Z.; Li Yahong; Watts, S.; Wittmer, B

    2000-06-01

    Interstrip and backplane capacitances on silicon microstrip detectors with p{sup +} strip on n substrate of 320 {mu}m thickness were measured for pitches between 60 and 240 {mu}m and width over pitch ratios between 0.13 and 0.5. Parametrisations of capacitance w.r.t. pitch and width were compared with data. The detectors were measured before and after being irradiated to a fluence of 4x10{sup 14} protons/cm{sup 2} of 24 GeV/c momentum. The effect of the crystal orientation of the silicon has been found to have a relevant influence on the surface radiation damage, favouring the choice of a <1 0 0> substrate. Working at high bias (up to 500 V in CMS) might be critical for the stability of detector, for a small width over pitch ratio. The influence found to enhance the stability.

  12. Enabling technologies for silicon microstrip tracking detectors at the HL-LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feld, L.; Karpinski, W.; Klein, K. [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). 1. Physikalisches Institut B; Collaboration: The PETTL Collaboration; and others

    2016-04-15

    While the tracking detectors of the ATLAS and CMS experiments have shown excellent performance in Run 1 of LHC data taking, and are expected to continue to do so during LHC operation at design luminosity, both experiments will have to exchange their tracking systems when the LHC is upgraded to the high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) around the year 2024. The new tracking systems need to operate in an environment in which both the hit densities and the radiation damage will be about an order of magnitude higher than today. In addition, the new trackers need to contribute to the first level trigger in order to maintain a high data-taking efficiency for the interesting processes. Novel detector technologies have to be developed to meet these very challenging goals. The German groups active in the upgrades of the ATLAS and CMS tracking systems have formed a collaborative ''Project on Enabling Technologies for Silicon Microstrip Tracking Detectors at the HL-LHC'' (PETTL), which was supported by the Helmholtz Alliance ''Physics at the Terascale'' during the years 2013 and 2014. The aim of the project was to share experience and to work together on key areas of mutual interest during the R and D phase of these upgrades. The project concentrated on five areas, namely exchange of experience, radiation hardness of silicon sensors, low mass system design, automated precision assembly procedures, and irradiations. This report summarizes the main achievements.

  13. ALIBAVA A portable readout system for silicon microstrip sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Marco-Hernández, R; Casse, G; García, C; Greenall, A; Lacasta, C; Lozano, M; Martí i García, S; Martínez, R; Miñano, M; Pellegrini, G; Smith, N A; Ullán, M

    2007-01-01

    A portable readout system for micro-strip silicon sensors has been developed. The system uses an analogue pipelined readout chip, which was developed for the LHC experiments. The system will be used to characterise the properties of both non-irradiated and irradiated micro-strip sensors. Heavily irradiated sensors will be operated at the Super LHC (SLHC). The system hardware has two main parts: a daughter board and a mother board. The daughter board contains two readout chips, analogue data buffering, power supply regulation and chip-to-sensor fan-in structures. The mother board is intended to process the analogue data that comes from the readout chips and from external trigger signals, to control the whole system and to communicate with a PC via USB. There is provision for an external trigger input (e.g. scintillator trigger) and a synchronised trigger output for pulsing an external excitation source (e.g. laser system). A prototype of the system will be presented.

  14. Silicon microstrip detectors for future tracker alignment systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassignana, D., E-mail: daniela.bassignana@imb-cnm.csic.e [IMB-CNM-CSIC Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Pellegrini, G.; Lozano, M. [IMB-CNM-CSIC Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Fernandez, M.; Vila, I.; Virto, A.; Jaramillo, R.; Munoz, F.J. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, Santander (Spain)

    2011-02-01

    The next experiments at particles colliders will demand stability of the tracking systems to the level of few microns. The available technology cannot provide a supporting structure able to guarantee this degree of stability in working condition, when environmental changes will misalign the detectors out of their nominal position. Based on the successful experience of AMS and CMS tracker systems, we propose to use infrared laser beams traversing consecutive layers of silicon detectors to align them with respect to the beams. For such a laser track to reach the last sensor, high transmittance of microstrip sensors to infrared (IR) light is needed. We simulated the passage of a coherent beam of light through a microstrips detector and we identified the minimum set of changes to the design and technology that boost its transmittance while still respecting its tracking capabilities. The first prototypes are in process at IMB-CNM clean room facilities. We held the fabrication process at an intermediate step and we performed the first measurements of transmittance and reflectance on the sensors.

  15. Enabling Technologies for Silicon Microstrip Tracking Detectors at the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Barth, C; Bloch, I.; Bögelspacher, F.; de Boer, W.; Daniels, M.; Dierlamm, A.; Eber, R.; Eckerlin, G.; Eckstein, D.; Eichhorn, T.; Erfle, J.; Feld, L.; Garutti, E.; Gregor, I. -M.; Guthoff, M.; Hartmann, F.; Hauser, M.; Husemann, U.; Jakobs, K.; Junkes, A.; Karpinski, W.; Klein, K.; Kuehn, S.; Lacker, H.; Mahboubi, K.; Müller, Th.; Mussgiller, A.; Nürnberg, A.; Parzefall, U.; Poehlsen, T.; Poley, L.; Preuten, M.; Rehnisch, L.; Sammet, J.; Schleper, P.; Schuwalow, S.; Sperlich, D.; Stanitzki, M.; Steinbrück, G.; Wlochal, M.

    2016-01-01

    While the tracking detectors of the ATLAS and CMS experiments have shown excellent performance in Run 1 of LHC data taking, and are expected to continue to do so during LHC operation at design luminosity, both experiments will have to exchange their tracking systems when the LHC is upgraded to the high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) around the year 2024. The new tracking systems need to operate in an environment in which both the hit densities and the radiation damage will be about an order of magnitude higher than today. In addition, the new trackers need to contribute to the first level trigger in order to maintain a high data-taking efficiency for the interesting processes. Novel detector technologies have to be developed to meet these very challenging goals. The German groups active in the upgrades of the ATLAS and CMS tracking systems have formed a collaborative "Project on Enabling Technologies for Silicon Microstrip Tracking Detectors at the HL-LHC" (PETTL), which was supported by the Helmholtz Alliance "Phys...

  16. New results on silicon microstrip detectors of CMS tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Demaria, N; Angarano, M M; Azzi, P; Babucci, E; Bacchetta, N; Bader, A J; Bagliesi, G; Basti, A; Biggeri, U; Bilei, G M; Bisello, D; Boemi, D; Bölla, G; Bosi, F; Borello, L; Bortoletto, Daniela; Bozzi, C; Braibant, S; Breuker, Horst; Bruzzi, Mara; Buffini, A; Busoni, S; Candelori, A; Caner, A; Castaldi, R; Castro, A; Catacchini, E; Checcucci, B; Ciampolini, P; Civinini, C; Creanza, D; D'Alessandro, R; Da Rold, M; De Palma, M; Dell'Orso, R; Della Marina, R; Dutta, S; Eklund, C; Peisert, Anna; Favro, G; Feld, L; Fiore, L; Focardi, E; French, M; Freudenreich, Klaus; Fürtjes, A; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Giraldo, A; Glessing, B; Gu, W H; Hall, G; Hammarström, R; Hebbeker, T; Hrubec, Josef; Huhtinen, M; Kaminski, A; Karimäki, V; Saint-Koenig, M; Krammer, Manfred; Lariccia, P; Lenzi, M; Loreti, M; Lübelsmeyer, K; Lustermann, W; Mättig, P; Maggi, G; Mannelli, M; Mantovani, G C; Marchioro, A; Mariotti, C; Martignon, G; McEvoy, B; Meschini, M; Messineo, A; Migliore, E; My, S; Paccagnella, A; Palla, Fabrizio; Pandoulas, D; Papi, A; Parrini, G; Passeri, D; Pieri, M; Piperov, S; Potenza, R; Radicci, V; Raffaelli, F; Raymond, M; Santocchia, A; Schmitt, B; Selvaggi, G; Servoli, L; Sguazzoni, G; Siedling, R; Silvestris, L; Skog, K; Starodumov, Andrei; Stavitski, I; Stefanini, G; Tempesta, P; Tonelli, G; Tricomi, A; Tuuva, T; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Viertel, Gert M; Xie, Z; Li, Y; Watts, S; Wittmer, B

    2000-01-01

    Interstrip and backplane capacitances on silicon microstrip detectors with pf strip on n substrate of 320 mu m thickness were measured for pitches between 60 and 240 mu m and width over pitch ratios between 0.13 and 0.5. Parametrisations of capacitance w.r.t. pitch and width were compared with data. The detectors were measured before and after being irradiated to a fluence of 4*10/sup 14/ protons/cm/sup 2/ of 24 GeV/e momentum. The effect of the crystal orientation of the silicon has been found to have a relevant influence on the surface radiation damage, favouring the choice of a (100) substrate. Working at high bias (up to 500 V in CMS) might be critical for the stability of detector, for a small width over pitch ratio. The influence of having a metal strip larger than the p/sup +/ implant has been studied and found to enhance the stability. (7 refs).

  17. Alibava : A portable readout system for silicon microstrip sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Marco-Hernández, Ricardo; Casse, G; García, C; Greenall, A; Lacasta, C; Lozano, M; Martí i García, S; Martínez, R; Miñano, M; Pellegrini, G; Smith, N A; Ullán, M

    2007-01-01

    A portable readout system for silicon microstrip sensors is currently being developed. This system uses a front-end readout chip, which was developed for the LHC experiments. The system will be used to investigate the main properties of this type of sensors and their future applications. The system is divided in two parts: a daughter board and a mother board. The first one is a small board which contains two readout chips and has fan-ins and sensor support to interface the sensors. The last one is intended to process the analogue data that comes from the readout chips and from external trigger signals, to control the whole system and to communicate with a PC via USB. The core of this board is a FPGA that controls the readout chips, a 10 bit ADC, an integrated TDC and an USB controller. This board also contains the analogue electronics to process the data that comes from the readout chips. There is also provision for an external trigger input (e.g. scintillator trigger) and a 'synchronised' trigger output for ...

  18. Thermal Grease Evaluation for ATLAS Upgrade Micro-Strip Detector.

    CERN Document Server

    Barbier, G; The ATLAS collaboration; Clark, A; Ferrère, D; Pernecker, S; Perrin, E; Streit, KP; Weber, M

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS upgrade detector foreseen at the phase 2 upgrade of LHC requires a complete new inner detector using silicon pixel and strip detectors. For both technologies, a specific mechanical and thermal design is required. Such a design may use soft thermal interfaces such as grease between the various parts. One foreseeable use would be between the cooling pipe and the thermal block allowing the strip modules to be decoupled from the mechanical and cooling structure. This note describes the technique used and the results obtained when characterizing a few grease samples. The results have been compared with thermal FEA simulations. A thermal conductivity measurement for each sample could be extracted from the measurements, with a systematic uncertainty of less than 6%. Some samples were irradiated to the expected fluence at sLHC and their resulting thermal conductivity compared with the non-irradiated samples.

  19. Alignment of Silicon tracking systems R&D on Semitransparent Microstrip Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Duarte, Jordi; Gonzalez, Javier; Jaramillo, Richard; Lopez, Amparo; Martinez, Celso; Moya, David; Ruiz, Alberto; Vila, I; Bassignana, D; Cabruja, E; Lozano, M; Pellegrini, G

    2009-01-01

    We summarize the R&D activities on a novel semitransparent microstrip sensor to be used on laser-based alignment systems for silicon trackers. The new sensor is used both for particle tracking and laser detection. The aim of this research line is to increase the optical transmittance (T) of Silicon microstrips detectors to infrared light, introducing minor modifications to the sensor design still suitable for its industrial production. The optical simulations used in the sensor design have been experimentally validated against several patterned material samples. This activities have been carried out in the context of SiLC collaboration for the next International Linear Collider.

  20. The ATLAS Silicon Pixel Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Alam, M S; Einsweiler, K F; Emes, J; Gilchriese, M G D; Joshi, A; Kleinfelder, S A; Marchesini, R; McCormack, F; Milgrome, O; Palaio, N; Pengg, F; Richardson, J; Zizka, G; Ackers, M; Andreazza, A; Comes, G; Fischer, P; Keil, M; Klasen, V; Kühl, T; Meuser, S; Ockenfels, W; Raith, B; Treis, J; Wermes, N; Gössling, C; Hügging, F G; Wüstenfeld, J; Wunstorf, R; Barberis, D; Beccherle, R; Darbo, G; Gagliardi, G; Gemme, C; Morettini, P; Musico, P; Osculati, B; Parodi, F; Rossi, L; Blanquart, L; Breugnon, P; Calvet, D; Clemens, J-C; Delpierre, P A; Hallewell, G D; Laugier, D; Mouthuy, T; Rozanov, A; Valin, I; Aleppo, M; Caccia, M; Ragusa, F; Troncon, C; Lutz, Gerhard; Richter, R H; Rohe, T; Brandl, A; Gorfine, G; Hoeferkamp, M; Seidel, SC; Boyd, GR; Skubic, P L; Sícho, P; Tomasek, L; Vrba, V; Holder, M; Ziolkowski, M; D'Auria, S; del Papa, C; Charles, E; Fasching, D; Becks, K H; Lenzen, G; Linder, C

    2001-01-01

    Prototype sensors for the ATLAS silicon pixel detector have been developed. The design of the sensors is guided by the need to operate them in the severe LHC radiation environment at up to several hundred volts while maintaining a good signal-to-noise ratio, small cell size, and minimal multiple scattering. The ability to be operated under full bias for electrical characterization prior to the attachment of the readout integrated circuit electronics is also desired.

  1. Production Testing and Quality Assurance of CMS Silicon Microstrip Tracker Readout Chips

    CERN Document Server

    Barrillon, Pierre; Hall, Geoffrey; Leaver, James; Noah, E; Raymond, M; Bisello, Dario; Candelori, Andrea; Kaminski, A; Stefanuti, L; Tessaro, Mario; French, Marcus

    2004-01-01

    The APV25 is the 128 channel CMOS chip developed for readout of the silicon microstrip tracker in the CMS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The detector is now under construction and will be the largest silicon microstrip system ever built, with ~200m^2 of silicon sensors. Around 10^5 chips are required to instrument the system, which must operate for about 10 years in a high radiation environment with little or no possibility of microstrip system ever built, with ~200m^2 of silicon sensors. Around 10^5 chips are required to instrument the system, which must operate for about 10 years in a high radiation environment with little or no possibility of assurance of long term performance of the readout electronics, especially verification of radiation tolerance, is highly desirable. This has been achieved by means of automated probe testing of every chip on the silicon wafers from the foundry, followed by studies of sample die to evaluate in more detail properties of the chips which cannot easily be ex...

  2. Optimization of the Clustering and Tracking Algorithms of the Silicon Microstrip Detectors for the COMPASS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Leeb, Michael

    The COMPASS experiment at CERN uses silicon microstrip detectors for beam defini- tion and during hadron program also for the reconstruction of the primary interaction point. In the year 2009 these detectors were operated continuously at cryogenic temper- atures of 200 K for the first time. The objec- tive of this thesis is the optimization of the data reconstruction algorithms used for the silicon microstrip detectors. The clustering algorithm is extended to increase the capa- bility of resolving several particles in close proximity with respect to each other. Fur- thermore improvements on the simulation of the detector response are presented. In addition, the requirements on the detector alignment in order to make full use of the detector capability are studied. Based on a precise alignment, results on the perfor- mance during cryogenic operation are given and compared to the non-cryogenic detector characteristics.

  3. A CAD investigation of depletion mechanisms in irradiated silicon microstrip detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Passeri, D; Bilei, G M

    1999-01-01

    The numerical simulation of a silicon microstrip detector is discussed. Physical models for the bulk radiation damage have been taken into account, based on a generalized Shockley-Read-Hall expression of the recombination rate. The actual shape of depletion layer, depending on the radiation fluence, has been investigated. The build-up of a dual depletion layer, as reported in some literature works, has been described and interpreted.

  4. First results on charge collection efficiency of heavily irradiated microstrip sensors fabricated on oxygenated p-type silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casse, G. E-mail: gcasse@hep.ph.liv.ac.uk; Allport, P.P.; Marti i Garcia, S.; Lozano, M.; Turner, P.R

    2004-02-01

    Heavy hadron irradiation leads to type inversion of n-type silicon detectors. After type inversion, the charge collected at low bias voltages by silicon microstrip detectors is higher when read out from the n-side compared to p-side read out. The n-side read out has been successfully used in combination with oxygen-enriched n-type silicon substrate to maximise the radiation hardness of microstrip detectors. Alternatively, the n-side read out can be implemented on p-type substrates reducing the complexity of fabrication. Miniature silicon microstrip detectors made on standard and oxygen-enriched p-type substrate have been produced. The charge collection properties of such detectors with and without oxygenation are here compared for the first time after severe charged hadron irradiation.

  5. Radiation damage effects on the silicon microstrip detector in E789 - a fixed target experiment at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapustinsky, J.S.; Apolinski, M.; Boissevain, J.; Brown, C.N.; Brown, G.; Carey, T.A.; Chen, Y.C.; Childers, R.; Cooper, W.E.; Darden, C.W.; Gidal, G.; Glass, H.D.; Gounder, K.N.; Ho, P.M.; Isenhower, D.; Jansen, D.M.; Jeppesen, R.; Kaplan, D.M.; Kiang, G.C.; Kowitt, M.S.; Lane, D.W.; Lederman, L.; Leitch, M.J.; Lillberg, J.W.; Luebke, W.; Luk, K.B.; Martin, V.M.; McGaughey, P.L.; Mishra, C.S.; Moss, J.M.; Peng, J.C.; Preston, R.S.; Pripstein, D.; Sa, J.; Sadler, M.; Schnathorst, R.; Schub, M.H.; Schwint, R.; Snodgrass, D.; Tanikella, V.N.; Teng, P.K.; Wilson, J.W. (Los Alamos National Lab., Los Alamos, NM (United States) Northern Illinois Univ., Dekalb, IL (United States) Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States) Abilene Christian Univ., Abilene, TX (United States) Academia Sinica (Taiwan, Province of China) National Cheng Kung Univ., Tainan (Taiwan, Province of China) Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States) Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1993-05-01

    A Silicon Microstrip Spectrometer has been installed and successfully operated in experiment E789 at Fermilab. The main physics goal of the experiment is to search for charged particle decays of B and D Mesons. Damage effects due to ionizing radiation exposure to the silicon during the experiment are reported. (orig.)

  6. X-ray imaging with a silicon microstrip detector coupled to the RX64 ASIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldazzi, G.; Bollini, D.; Cabal Rodriguez, A.E.; Dabrowski, W.; Diaz Garcia, A.; Gambaccini, M.; Giubellino, P.; Gombia, M.; Grybos, P.; Idzik, M.; Marzari-Chiesa, A.; Montano Zetina, L.M.; Prino, F.; Ramello, L. E-mail: ramello@to.infn.it; Sitta, M.; Swientek, K.; Taibi, A.; Tuffanelli, A.; Wheadon, R.; Wiacek, P

    2003-08-21

    A single photon counting X-ray imaging system, with possible applications to dual energy mammography and angiography, is presented. A silicon microstrip detector with 100 {mu}m pitch strips is coupled to RX64 ASICs, each of them including 64 channels of preamplifier, shaper, discriminator and scaler. The system has low noise, good spatial resolution and high counting rate capability. Results on energy resolution have been obtained with a fluorescence source and quasi-monochromatic X-rays beams. Preliminary images obtained with an angiographic phantom are presented.

  7. Feasibility study for double-sided silicon microstrip detector fabrication at IRST

    CERN Document Server

    Betta, G F D; Bosisio, L; Carmel-Barnea, N; Ferrario, L; Pignatel, Giogrio Umberto; Rachevskaia, I; Zen, M; Zorzi, N

    1999-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the preliminary results of a technological study aimed at the development of a fabrication process for double-sided AC-coupled silicon microstrip detectors. The approach adopted for the fabrication of both single-sided and double-sided detectors is presented, and the results from electrical tests performed on detectors and test structures are reported and discussed. Good electrical characteristics as well as an acceptable number of process-related defects have been obtained for these prototype detectors, thus demonstrating the feasibility of fabricating such devices at the IRST facility. (author)

  8. Electrical production testing of the D0 Silicon microstrip tracker detector modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D0, SMT Production Testing Group; /Fermilab

    2006-03-01

    The D0 Silicon Microstrip Tracker (SMT) is the innermost system of the D0 detector in Run 2. It consists of 912 detector units, corresponding to 5 different types of assemblies, which add up to a system with 792,576 readout channels. The task entrusted to the Production Testing group was to thoroughly debug, test and grade each detector module before its installation in the tracker. This note describes the production testing sequence and the procedures by which the detector modules were electrically tested and characterized at the various stages of their assembly.

  9. A microstrip silicon telescope for high performance particle tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lietti, D.; Berra, A.; Prest, M.; Vallazza, E.

    2013-11-01

    Bent crystals are thin silicon/germanium devices that act as a bulk dipole magnet and thus are able to deflect relativistic charged particle beams with high efficiency (up to 98%). To study their behavior on extracted beamlines in terms of deflection capability and efficiency, a fast and high position resolution telescope is needed such as the INSULAB telescope. It consists in several modules equipped with double or single side silicon detectors readout by different ASICs. The Data Acquisition system is designed to work with pulsed beams minimizing the dead time to allow the collection of a large statistics in a short time. It is based on custom VME readout/memory boards for the data storage and 12 bit ADC custom boards for the signal digitization; the present maximum DAQ rate is 6 kHz. A detailed description of the detectors, the ASICs and the readout system together with the results obtained at the SPS H4 and PS T9 CERN beamlines in terms of spatial resolution and charge sharing are presented.

  10. Quality assurance of double-sided silicon microstrip sensors for the silicon tracking system in the CBM experiment at FAIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larionov, Pavel [Goethe Universitaet, Frankfurt (Germany); Collaboration: CBM-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The Silicon Tracking System (STS) is the core tracking detector of the CBM experiment at FAIR. The system's task is to reconstruct the trajectories of the charged particles produced in the beam-target interactions, provide their momentum determination, and enable the detection of decay topologies. The STS will comprise 1220 double-sided silicon microstrip sensors. After production each sensor will go through a number of Quality Assurance procedures to verify their validity for performance in the STS and also to confirm the manufacturer's data. In this talk, results of the quality assurance procedures that are being applied to the latest STS prototype sensors, including detailed tests of the quality of each single strip, long-term stability and preparations for volume tests during series production, are presented.

  11. A radiographic imaging system based upon a 2-D silicon microstrip sensor

    CERN Document Server

    Papanestis, A; Corrin, E; Raymond, M; Hall, G; Triantis, F A; Manthos, N; Evagelou, I; Van den Stelt, P; Tarrant, T; Speller, R D; Royle, G F

    2000-01-01

    A high resolution, direct-digital detector system based upon a 2-D silicon microstrip sensor has been designed, built and is undergoing evaluation for applications in dentistry and mammography. The sensor parameters and image requirements were selected using Monte Carlo simulations. Sensors selected for evaluation have a strip pitch of 50mum on the p-side and 80mum on the n-side. Front-end electronics and data acquisition are based on the APV6 chip and were adapted from systems used at CERN for high-energy physics experiments. The APV6 chip is not self-triggering so data acquisition is done at a fixed trigger rate. This paper describes the mammographic evaluation of the double sided microstrip sensor. Raw data correction procedures were implemented to remove the effects of dead strips and non-uniform response. Standard test objects (TORMAX) were used to determine limiting spatial resolution and detectability. MTFs were determined using the edge response. The results indicate that the spatial resolution of the...

  12. Investigation of cutting edge in edge-on silicon microstrip detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vrtacnik, D., E-mail: Danilo.Vrtacnik@fe.uni-lj.s [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Ljubljana (Slovenia); Resnik, D.; Mozek, M.; Pecar, B.; Amon, S. [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2010-08-21

    Investigation of cutting edge properties in edge-on silicon microstrip detector has been performed. An advanced approach for reducing dead layer thickness has been introduced. It consists of standard wafer sawing through entire wafer thickness, followed by dry chemical etching and thin layer passivation of the cutting surface. Proposed approach is developed in such a way that no additional photolithographic process steps and critical handling with individual chips are needed after detector fabrication. Results presented in the paper show that this approach results in effective reduction of cutting edge thickness down to 50 {mu}m. Such reduction of dead layer thickness, together with applied efficient current termination technique resulted in substantial improvement of detector structure performance. By described optimization of detector dead layer thickness, detection efficiency has been improved up to 15%.

  13. A VLSI front-end circuit for microstrip silicon detectors for medical imaging applications

    CERN Document Server

    Beccherle, R; Guerra, A D; Folli, M; Marchesini, R; Bisogni, M G; Ceccopieri, A; Rosso, V; Stefanini, A; Tripiccione, R; Kipnis, I

    1999-01-01

    An analog CMOS-Integrated Circuit has been developed as Front-End for a double-sided microstrip silicon detector. The IC processes and discriminates signals in the 5-30 keV energy range. Main features are low noise and precise timing information. Low noise is achieved by optimizing the cascoded integrator with the 8 pF detector capacitance and by using an inherently low noise 1.2 mu m CMOS technology. Timing information is provided by a double discriminator architecture. The output of the circuit is a digital pulse. The leading edge is determined by a fixed threshold discriminator, while the trailing edge is provided by a zero crossing discriminator. In this paper we first describe the architecture of the Front-End chip. We then present the performance of the chip prototype in terms of noise, minimum discrimination threshold and time resolution.

  14. Silicon microstrip detectors for digital mammography - evaluation and spatial resolution study

    CERN Document Server

    Mali, T; Mikuz, M

    2001-01-01

    Silicon microstrip detectors were used to build an experimental X-ray imaging setup. The detectors were used in an 'edge-on' geometry, with the photons hitting the detector from the side. Efficiencies up to 90% at 20 keV photon energy could be achieved. The system was tested using a standard mammographic phantom. Images of modeled microcalcifications with various diameters down to 200 mu m and images of modeled tumors were made. Spatial resolution of the system was studied on an X-ray test pattern with frequency of line-pairs between 1 and 10l p/mm. An appropriate scanning step combined with knowledge of the system's line spread function was used to deconvolve the measured image and increase the spatial resolution. In this way the effective pixel size was reduced as much as for a factor of approx 3.

  15. Silicon Strip detectors for the ATLAS End-Cap Tracker at the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Soldevila Serrano, Urmila

    Inside physics programme of the LHC different experiment upgrades are foreseen. After the phase-II upgrade of the ATLAS detector the luminosity will be increased up to 5-7.5x10E34 cm-2s-1. This will mean a considerable increase in the radiation levels, above 10E16 neq/cm2 in the inner regions. This thesis is focused on the development of silicon microstrip detectors enough radiation hard to cope with the particle fluence expected at the ATLAS detector during HL-LHC experiment. In particular on the electrical characterization of silicon sensors for the ATLAS End-Caps. Different mechanical and thermal tests are shown using a Petal core as well as the electrical characterization of the silicon sensors that will be used with the Petal structure. Charge collection efficiency studies are carried out on sensors with different irradiation fluences using the ALiBaVa system and two kinds of strips connection are also analized (DC and AC ganging) with a laser system. The Petalet project is presented and the electrical c...

  16. Short p-type silicon microstrip detectors in 3D-stc technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckert, S. [Physikalisches Institut, Albert-Ludwigs-Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder Strasse 3b, D-79104 Freiburg i. Br. (Germany)], E-mail: simon.eckert@physik.uni-freiburg.de; Jakobs, K.; Kuehn, S.; Parzefall, U. [Physikalisches Institut, Albert-Ludwigs-Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder Strasse 3b, D-79104 Freiburg i. Br. (Germany); Dalla-Betta, G.-F.; Zoboli, A. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria e Scienza dell' Informazione, Universita degli Studi di Trento, via Sommarive 14, I-38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Pozza, A.; Zorzi, N. [FBK-irst Trento, Microsystems Division, via Sommarive 18, I-38050 Povo di Trento (Italy)

    2008-10-21

    The luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the sLHC, will constitute an extremely challenging radiation environment for tracking detectors. Significant improvements in radiation hardness are needed to cope with the increased radiation dose, requiring new tracking detectors. In the upgraded ATLAS detector the region from 20 to 50 cm distance to the beam will be covered by silicon strip detectors (SSD) with short strips. These will have to withstand a 1 MeV neutron equivalent fluence of about 1x10{sup 15}n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}, hence extreme radiation resistance is necessary. For the short strips, we propose to use SSD realised in the radiation tolerant 3D technology, where rows of columns-etched into the silicon bulk-are joined together to form strips. To demonstrate the feasibility of 3D SSD for the sLHC, we have built prototype modules using 3D-single-type-column (stc) SSD with short strips and front-end electronics from the present ATLAS SCT. The modules were read out with the SCT Data Acquisition system and tested with an IR-laser. We report on the performance of these 3D modules, in particular the noise at 40 MHz which constitutes a measurement of the effective detector capacitance. Conclusions about options for using 3D SSD detectors for tracking at the sLHC are drawn.

  17. The silicon tracking system of the CBM experiment at FAIR. Development of microstrip sensors and signal transmission lines for a low-mass, low-noise system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singla, Minni

    2014-01-29

    In this thesis, different physical and electrical aspects of silicon microstrip sensors and low-mass multi-line readout cables have been investigated. These silicon microstrip sensors and readout cables will be used in the Silicon Tracking System (STS) of the fixed-target heavy-ion Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment which is under development at the upcoming Facility for Antiproton and ion Research (FAIR) in Darmstadt, Germany. The highly segmented low-mass tracking system is a central CBM detector system to resolve the high tracking densities of charged particles originating from beam-target interactions. Considering the low material budget requirement the double-sided silicon microstrip detectors have been used in several planar tracking stations. The readout electronics is planned to be installed at the periphery of the tracking stations along with the cooling system. Low-mass multi-line readout cables shall bridge the distance between the microstrip sensors and the readout electronics. The CBM running operational scenario suggests that some parts of the tracking stations are expected to be exposed to a total integrated particle fluence of the order of 1 x 10{sup 14} n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}. After 1 x 10{sup 14} n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2} the damaged modules in the tracking stations will be replaced. Thus radiation hard sensor is an important requirement for the sensors. Moreover, to cope with the high reaction rates, free-streaming (triggerless) readout electronics with online event reconstruction must be used which require high signal-to-noise (SNR) ratio (i.e., high signal efficiency, low noise contributions). Therefore, reduction in noise is a major goal of the sensor and cable development. For better insight into the different aspects of the silicon microstrip sensors and multi-line readout cables, the simulation study has been performed using SYNOPSYS TCAD tools. 3D models of the silicon microstrip sensors and the readout cables were implemented which is

  18. Test beam results on single-sided irradiated silicon microstrip detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Azzi, Patrizia; Bisello, Dario; Busetto, Giovanni; Castro, Andrea; Loreti, Maurizio; Martignon, G; Pantano, Devis; Stavitski, I

    1999-01-01

    Test beam results on irradiated AC-coupled, poly biased, single sided ( P+/N bulk) silicon microstrip detectors are presented. Detectors were fabricated at SINTEF ( Oslo, Norway); they have 128 strips, strip pitch of 50um, strip width of 12.5um and length of 5.5 cm. Neutron doses were 1*10^13 and 3.6*10^13 n/cm^2 and we estimated the gamma dose from the neutron irradiation facility background to be enough to induce full saturation in the oxide trapped charge value. Reverse-annealing processes were accelerated via heat treatment to ensure stable operational depletion and leakage current values during data taking. Three modules were contructed, one for each value of neutron dose, and one with non irradiated detectors using two crystals bonded together to form a 11cm long readout unit for each of the modules. Data was taken at room temperature using the CERN 120 GeV pion beam at X7 for different beam angle of incidence ( 0, 20, 35) as a function of Vbias up to values of 330V. For the most irradiated module we al...

  19. Performance of CMS silicon microstrip detectors with the APV6 readout chip

    CERN Document Server

    Meschini, M; Angarano, M M; Azzi, P; Babucci, E; Bacchetta, N; Bader, A J; Bagliesi, G; Basti, A; Biggeri, U; Bilei, G M; Bisello, D; Boemi, D; Bosi, F; Borrello, L; Bozzi, C; Braibant, S; Breuker, Horst; Bruzzi, Mara; Buffini, A; Busoni, S; Candelori, A; Caner, A; Castaldi, R; Castro, A; Catacchini, E; Checcucci, B; Ciampolini, P; Civinini, C; Creanza, D; D'Alessandro, R; Da Rold, M; Demaria, N; De Palma, M; Dell'Orso, R; Della Marina, R; Dutta, S; Eklund, C; Peisert, Anna; Feld, L; Fiore, L; Focardi, E; French, M; Freudenreich, Klaus; Fürtjes, A; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Giraldo, A; Glessing, B; Gu, W H; Hall, G; Hammarström, R; Hebbeker, T; Hrubec, Josef; Huhtinen, M; Kaminski, A; Karimäki, V; Saint-Koenig, M; Krammer, Manfred; Lariccia, P; Lenzi, M; Loreti, M; Lübelsmeyer, K; Lustermann, W; Mättig, P; Maggi, G; Mannelli, M; Mantovani, G C; Marchioro, A; Mariotti, C; Martignon, G; McEvoy, B; Messineo, A; My, S; Paccagnella, A; Palla, Fabrizio; Pandoulas, D; Papi, A; Parrini, G; Passeri, D; Pieri, M; Piperov, S; Potenza, R; Radicci, V; Raffaelli, F; Raymond, M; Santocchia, A; Schmitt, B; Selvaggi, G; Servoli, L; Sguazzoni, G; Siedling, R; Silvestris, L; Skog, K; Starodumov, Andrei; Stavitski, I; Stefanini, G; Tempesta, P; Tonelli, G; Tricomi, A; Tuuva, T; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Viertel, Gert M; Xie, Z; Li Ya Hong; Watts, S; Wittmer, B

    2000-01-01

    We present results obtained with full-size wedge silicon microstrip detectors bonded to APV6 (Raymond et al., Proceedings of the 3rd Workshop on Electronics for LHC Experiments, CERN/LHCC/97-60) readout chips. We used two identical modules, each consisting of two crystals bonded together. One module was irradiated with 1.7*10/sup 14/ neutrons/cm/sup 2/. The detectors have been characterized both in the laboratory and by exposing them to a beam of minimum ionizing particles. The results obtained are a good starting point for the evaluation of the performance of the "ensemble" detector plus readout chip in a version very similar to the final production one. We detected the signal from minimum ionizing particles with a signal-to- noise ratio ranging from 9.3 for the irradiated detector up to 20.5 for the non-irradiated detector, provided the parameters of the readout chips are carefully tuned. (9 refs).

  20. Performance of CMS silicon microstrip detectors with the APV6 readout chip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meschini, M. E-mail: meschini@fi.infn.it; Albergo, S.; Angarano, M.; Azzi, P.; Babucci, E.; Bacchetta, N.; Bader, A.; Bagliesi, G.; Basti, A.; Biggeri, U.; Bilei, G.M.; Bisello, D.; Boemi, D.; Bosi, F.; Borrello, L.; Bozzi, C.; Braibant, S.; Breuker, H.; Bruzzi, M.; Buffini, A.; Busoni, S.; Candelori, A.; Caner, A.; Castaldi, R.; Castro, A.; Catacchini, E.; Checcucci, B.; Ciampolini, P.; Civinini, C.; Creanza, D.; D' Alessandro, R.; Da Rold, M.; Demaria, N.; De Palma, M.; Dell' Orso, R.; Marina, R. Della; Dutta, S.; Eklund, C.; Elliott-Peisert, A.; Feld, L.; Fiore, L.; Focardi, E.; French, M.; Freudenreich, K.; Fuertjes, A.; Giassi, A.; Giorgi, M.; Giraldo, A.; Glessing, B.; Gu, W.H.; Hall, G.; Hammerstrom, R.; Hebbeker, T.; Hrubec, J.; Huhtinen, M.; Kaminsky, A.; Karimaki, V.; Koenig, St.; Krammer, M.; Lariccia, P.; Lenzi, M.; Loreti, M.; Luebelsmeyer, K.; Lustermann, W.; Maettig, P.; Maggi, G.; Mannelli, M.; Mantovani, G.; Marchioro, A.; Mariotti, C.; Martignon, G.; McEvoy, B.; Messineo, A.; My, S.; Paccagnella, A.; Palla, F.; Pandoulas, D.; Papi, A.; Parrini, G.; Passeri, D.; Pieri, M.; Piperov, S.; Potenza, R.; Radicci, V.; Raffaelli, F.; Raymond, M.; Santocchia, A.; Schmitt, B.; Selvaggi, G.; Servoli, L.; Sguazzoni, G.; Siedling, R.; Silvestris, L.; Skog, K.; Starodumov, A.; Stavitski, I.; Stefanini, G.; Tempesta, P.; Tonelli, G.; Tricomi, A.; Tuuva, T.; Vannini, C.; Verdini, P.G.; Viertel, G.; Xie, Z.; Li Yahong; Watts, S.; Wittmer, B

    2000-06-01

    We present results obtained with full-size wedge silicon microstrip detectors bonded to APV6 (Raymond et al., Proceedings of the 3rd Workshop on Electronics for LHC Experiments, CERN/LHCC/97-60) readout chips. We used two identical modules, each consisting of two crystals bonded together. One module was irradiated with 1.7x10{sup 14} neutrons/cm{sup 2}. The detectors have been characterized both in the laboratory and by exposing them to a beam of minimum ionizing particles. The results obtained are a good starting point for the evaluation of the performance of the 'ensemble' detector plus readout chip in a version very similar to the final production one. We detected the signal from minimum ionizing particles with a signal-to-noise ratio ranging from 9.3 for the irradiated detector up to 20.5 for the non-irradiated detector, provided the parameters of the readout chips are carefully tuned.

  1. Digital X-ray imaging using silicon microstrip detectors: a design study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speller, R. D.; Royle, G. J.; Triantis, F. A.; Manthos, N.; Van der Stelt, P. F.; di Valentin, M.

    2001-01-01

    This paper considers the basic design parameters for using silicon microstrip detectors for 2-D medical imaging. In particular, mammographic and dental imaging are considered. Monte Carlo modeling techniques have been used to investigate detector efficiency, strip pitch, image quality, imaging geometry and signal processing requirements. Different phantoms are used for each part of the study. It is shown that signal processing times are a major factor in the operation of a clinical detector system if ambiguities are to be avoided in a double-sided strip detector. However, the use of the models allows conclusions to be made that alleviate the timing requirements. It has been shown that using a strip structure of 50-100 μm provides appropriate image resolution and image quality can be maintained with pixel counts of 50-100 in both dental and mammographic work. Under these conditions current front-end electronics designs can provide the signal processing times with an acceptably small number of multihit events (<5%).

  2. ATLAS SCT - Progress on the Silicon Modules

    CERN Multimedia

    Tyndel, M.

    The ATLAS SCT consists of 4088 silicon modules. Each module is made up of 4 silicon sensors with 1536 readout strips. Individual strips are connected to FE amplifiers, discriminators and pipelines on the module, i.e. there are 12 radiation hard ASICs, each containing 128 channels on the module. The sensors and the ASICs were developed for the ATLAS experiment and production is proceeding smoothly with over half the components delivered. The components of a module - 4 silicon sensors, a Cu/polyimide hybrid and pitch adaptor, and 12 ASICs - need to be carefully and precisely assembled onto a carbon and ceramic framework, which supports the module and removes the heat. Eleven production clusters are preparing to carry this out over the next two years. An important milestone for the barrel modules has been passed with the first cluster (KEK) now in production (~40 modules produced). A second cluster UK-B has qualified by producing five modules within specification (see below) and is about to start production. T...

  3. Characterisation of micro-strip and pixel silicon detectors before and after hadron irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allport, P. P.; Ball, K.; Casse, G.; Chmill, V.; Forshaw, D.; Hadfield, K.; Pritchard, A.; Pool, P.; Tsurin, I.

    2012-01-01

    The use of segmented silicon detectors for tracking and vertexing in particle physics has grown substantially since their introduction in 1980. It is now anticipated that roughly 50,000 six inch wafers of high resistivity silicon will need to be processed into sensors to be deployed in the upgraded experiments in the future high luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) at CERN. These detectors will also face an extremely severe radiation environment, varying with distance from the interaction point. The volume of required sensors is large and their delivery is required during a relatively short time, demanding a high throughput from the chosen suppliers. The current situation internationally, in this highly specialist market, means that security of supply for large orders can therefore be an issue and bringing additional potential vendors into the field can only be an advantage. Semiconductor companies that could include planar sensors suitable for particle physics in their product lines will, however, need to prove their products meet all the stringent technical requirements. A semiconductor company with very widespread experience of producing science grade CCDs (including deep depletion devices) has adapted their CCD process to fabricate for the first time several wafers of pixel and micro-strip radiation hard sensors, suitable for future high energy physics experiments. The results of the pre-irradiation characterization of devices fabricated with different processing parameters and the measurements of charge collection properties after different hadron irradiation doses up to those anticipated for the (larger area) outer pixel layers at the high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) are presented and compared with results from more established particle physics suppliers.

  4. Testbeam studies of silicon microstrip sensor architectures modified to facilitate detector module mass production

    CERN Document Server

    Poley, Anne-luise; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    For the High Luminosity Upgrade of the LHC, the Inner Detector of the ATLAS detector will be replaced by an all-silicon tracker, consisting of pixel and strip sensor detector modules. Silicon strip sensors are being developed to meet both the tracking requirements in a high particle density environment and constraints imposed by the construction process. Several thousand wire bonds per module, connecting sensor strips and readout channels, need to be produced with high reliability and speed, requiring wire bond pads of sufficient size on each sensor strip. These sensor bond pads change the local sensor architecture and the resulting electric field and thus alter the sensor performance. These sensor regions with bond pads, which account for up to 10 % of a silicon strip sensor, were studied using both an electron beam at DESY and a micro-focused X-ray beam at the Diamond Light Source. This contribution presents measurements of the effective strip width in sensor regions where the structure of standard parallel...

  5. Development of a Test System for the Quality Assurance of Silicon Microstrip Detectors for the Inner Tracking System of the CMS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Axer, Markus

    2003-01-01

    The inner tracking system of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) which is being built at the European Laboratory for Particle Physics CERN (Geneva, Switzerland) will be equipped with two different technologies of silicon detectors. While the innermost tracker will be composed of silicon pixel detectors, silicon microstrip detectors are envisaged for the outer tracker architecture. The silicon microstrip tracker will house about 15,000 single detector modules each composed of a set of silicon sensors, the readout electronics (front end hybrid), and a support frame. It will provide a total active area of 198 m2 and ten million analogue channels read out at the collider frequency of 40 MHz. This large number of modules to be produced and integrated into the tracking system is an unprecedented challenge involving industrial companies and various research institutes from many different countries. This thesis deals with the physics of silicon sensors and the preparation of ...

  6. Silicon sensor technologies for ATLAS IBL upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Grenier, P; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    New pixel sensors are currently under development for ATLAS Upgrades. The first upgrade stage will consist in the construction of a new pixel layer that will be installed in the detector during the 2013 LHC shutdown. The new layer (Insertable-B-Layer, IBL) will be inserted between the inner most layer of the current pixel detector and the beam pipe at a radius of 3.2cm. The expected high radiation levels require the use of radiation hard technology for both the front-end chip and the sensor. Two different pixel sensor technologies are envisaged for the IBL. The sensor choice will occur in July 2011. One option is developed by the ATLAS Planar Pixel Sensor (PPS) Collaboration and is based on classical n-in-n planar silicon sensors which have been used for the ATLAS Pixel detector. For the IBL, two changes were required: The thickness was reduced from 250 um to 200 um to improve the radiation hardness. In addition, so-called "slim edges" were designed to reduce the inactive edge of the sensors from 1100 um to o...

  7. Silicon microstrip detectors in 3D technology for the sLHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parzefall, Ulrich [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany)], E-mail: ulrich.parzefall@physik.uni-freiburg.de; Dalla Betta, Gian-Franco [INFN and Universita' di Trento, via Sommarive 14, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Eckert, Simon [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Eklund, Lars; Fleta, Celeste [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Jakobs, Karl; Kuehn, Susanne; Pahn, Gregor [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Parkes, Chris; Pennicard, David [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Ronchin, Sabina [FBK-irst, Center for Materials and Microsystems, via Sommarive 18, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Zoboli, Andrea [INFN and Universita' di Trento, via Sommarive 14, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Zorzi, Nicola [FBK-irst, Center for Materials and Microsystems, via Sommarive 18, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy)

    2009-08-01

    The projected luminosity upgrade of the large hadron collider (LHC), the sLHC, will constitute a challenging radiation environment for tracking detectors. Massive improvements in radiation hardness are required with respect to the LHC. In the layout for the new ATLAS tracker, silicon strip detectors (SSDs) with short strips cover the region from 28 to 60 cm distance to the beam. These SSDs will be exposed to fluences up to 10{sup 15}N{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}, hence radiation resistance is the major concern. It is advantageous to fuse the superior radiation hardness of the 3D design originally conceived for pixel-style applications with the benefits of the well-known planar technology for strip detectors. This is achieved by ganging rows of 3D columns together to form strips. Several prototype sLHC detector modules using 3D SSD with short strips, processed on p-type silicon, and LHC-speed front-end electronics from the present ATLAS semi-conductor tracker (SCT) were built. The modules were tested before and after irradiation to fluences of 10{sup 15}N{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}. The tests were performed with three systems: a highly focused IR-laser with 5{mu}m spot size to make position-resolved scans of the charge collection efficiency (CCE), a Sr{sup 90}{beta}-source set-up to measure the signal levels for a minimum ionizing particles (MIPs), and a beam test with 180 GeV pions at CERN. This article gives a brief overview of the performance of these 3D modules, and draws conclusions about options for using 3D strip sensors as tracking detectors at the sLHC.

  8. A silicon strip module for the ATLAS inner detector upgrade in the super LHC collider

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez-Sevilla, S; Parzefall, U; Clark, A; Ikegami, Y; Hara, K; Garcia, C; Jakobs, K; Dwuznik, M; Terada, S; Barbier, G; Koriki, T; Lacasta, C; Unno, Y; Anghinolfi, F; Cadoux, F; Garcia, S M I; Ferrere, D; La Marra, D; Pohl, M; Dabrowski, W; Kaplon, J

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS detector is a general purpose experiment designed to fully exploit the discovery potential of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at a nominal luminosity of 10(34)cm(-2)s(-1). It is expected that after several years of successful data-taking, the LHC physics program will be extended by increasing the peak luminosity by one order of magnitude. For ATLAS, an upgrade scenario will imply the complete replacement of the Inner Detector (ID), since the current tracker will not provide the required performance due to cumulated radiation damage and a dramatic increase in the detector occupancy. In this paper, a proposal of a double-sided silicon micro-strip module for the short-strip region of the future ATLAS ID is presented. The expected thermal performance based upon detailed FEA simulations is discussed. First electrical results from a prototype version of the next generation readout front-end chips are also shown. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. ATLAS Inner Detector (Pixel Detector and Silicon Tracker)

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Outreach

    2006-01-01

    To raise awareness of the basic functions of the Pixel Detector and Silicon Tracker in the ATLAS detector on the LHC at CERN. This colorful 3D animation is an excerpt from the film "ATLAS-Episode II, The Particles Strike Back." Shot with a bug's eye view of the inside of the detector. The viewer is taken on a tour of the inner workings of the detector, seeing critical pieces of the detector and hearing short explanations of how each works.

  10. Characterization of micro-strip detectors made with high resistivity n- and p-type Czochralski silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macchiolo, A. [INFN and Universita degli Studi di Florence (Italy)]. E-mail: Anna.Macchiolo@fi.infn.it; Borrello, L. [INFN and Universita degli Studi di Pisa (Italy); Boscardin, M. [ITC-IRST Trento, Povo, Trento (Italy); Bruzzi, M. [INFN and Universita degli Studi di Florence (Italy); Creanza, D. [INFN and Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica, Bari (Italy); Dalla Betta, G.-F. [ITC-IRST Trento, Povo, Trento (Italy); DePalma, M. [INFN and Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica, Bari (Italy); Focardi, E. [INFN and Universita degli Studi di Florence (Italy); Manna, N. [INFN and Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica, Bari (Italy); Menichelli, D. [INFN and Universita degli Studi di Florence (Italy); Messineo, A. [INFN and Universita degli Studi di Pisa (Italy); Piemonte, C. [ITC-IRST Trento, Povo, Trento (Italy); Radicci, V. [INFN and Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica, Bari (Italy); Ronchin, S. [ITC-IRST Trento, Povo, Trento (Italy); Scaringella, M. [INFN and Universita degli Studi di Florence (Italy); Segneri, G. [INFN and Universita degli Studi di Pisa (Italy); Sentenac, D. [INFN and Universita degli Studi di Pisa (Italy); Zorzi, N. [ITC-IRST Trento, Povo, Trento (Italy)

    2007-04-01

    The results of the pre- and post-irradiation characterization of n- and p-type magnetic Czochralski silicon micro-strip sensors are reported. This work has been carried out within the INFN funded SMART project aimed at the development of radiation-hard semiconductor detectors for the luminosity upgrade of the large Hadron collider (LHC). The detectors have been fabricated at ITC-IRST (Trento, Italy) on 4 in wafers and the layout contains 10 mini-sensors. The devices have been irradiated with 24 GeV/c and 26 MeV protons in two different irradiation campaigns up to an equivalent fluence of 3.4x10{sup 15} 1-MeV n/cm{sup 2}. The post-irradiation results show an improved radiation hardness of the magnetic Czochralski mini-sensors with respect to the reference float-zone sample.

  11. A Silicon Strip Detector for the Phase II High Luminosity Upgrade of the ATLAS Detector at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00425747; McMahon, Stephen J

    2015-01-01

    ATLAS is a particle physics experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) that detects proton-proton collisions at a centre of mass energy of 14 TeV. The Semiconductor Tracker is part of the Inner Detector, implemented using silicon microstrip detectors with binary read-out, providing momentum measurement of charged particles with excellent resolution. The operation of the LHC and the ATLAS experiment started in 2010, with ten years of operation expected until major upgrades are needed in the accelerator and the experiments. The ATLAS tracker will need to be completely replaced due to the radiation damage and occupancy of some detector elements and the data links at high luminosities. These upgrades after the first ten years of operation are named the Phase-II Upgrade and involve a re-design of the LHC, resulting in the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC). This thesis presents the work carried out in the testing of the ATLAS Phase-II Upgrade electronic systems in the future strips tracker a...

  12. Characterization of silicon microstrip sensors with a pulsed infrared laser system for the CBM experiment at FAIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Pradeep [Goethe Univ., Frankfurt (Germany); GSI (Germany); Eschke, Juergen [GSI (Germany); FAIR (Germany); Collaboration: CBM-Collaboration

    2014-07-01

    The Silicon Tracking System (STS) for the Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at FAIR will comprise more than 1200 double-sided silicon microstrip sensors. For the quality assurance of the prototype sensors a laser test system has been built up. The aim of the sensor scans with the pulsed infrared laser system is to determine the charge sharing between strips and to measure the uniformity of the sensor response over the whole active area. The laser system measures the sensor response in an automatized procedure at several thousand positions across the sensor with focused infrared laser light (σ∼15 μm, λ=1060 nm). The duration (5 ns) and power (few mW) of the laser pulses are selected such, that the absorption of the laser light in the 300 μm thick silicon sensors produces a number of about 24k electrons, which is similar to the charge created by minimum ionizing particles in these sensors. Results from the characterization of monolithic active pixel sensors, to understand the spot-size of the laser, and laser scans for different sensors are presented.

  13. Experience on 3D Silicon Sensors for ATLAS IBL

    CERN Document Server

    Darbo, G; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    To extend the physics reach of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), upgrades to the accelerator are planned which will increase the peak luminosity by a factor 5-10. To cope with the increased occupancy and radiation damage, the ATLAS experiment plans to introduce an all-silicon inner tracker with the high luminosity upgrade (HL-LHC). The detector proximity to the interaction point will require new radiation hard technologies for both sensors and front end electronics. 3D silicon sensors, where plasma micromachining is used to etch deep narrow apertures in the silicon substrate to form electrodes of PIN junctions, represent possible solutions for inner layers. Based on the gained experience with 3D silicon sensors for the ATLAS IBL project and the on-going developments on light materials, interconnectivity and cooling, we will discuss possible solutions to these requirements as well as key design aspects and device fabrication plans.

  14. Investigation of design parameters and choice of substrate resistivity and crystal orientation for the CMS silicon microstrip detector

    CERN Document Server

    Braibant, S

    2000-01-01

    The electrical characteristics ( interstrip and backplane capacitance, leakage current, depletion and breakdown voltage) of silicon microstrip detectors were measured for strip pitches between 60 um and 240 um and various strip implant and metal widths on multi-geometry devices. Both AC and DC coupled devices wereinvestigated. Measurements on detectors were performed before and after irradiation with 24 GeV/c protons up to a fluence of 4.1x10E14 cm-2. We found that the total strip capacitance can be parametrized as a linear function of the ratio of the implant width over the read-out pitch only. We found a significant increase in the interstrip capacitance after radiation on detectors with standard <111> crystal orientation but not on sensors with <100> crystal orientation. We analyzed the measured depletion voltages as a function of the detector geometrical parameters ( read-out pitch, strip width and substrate thickness) found in the literature and we found a linear dependence in...

  15. Charge collection efficiency and resolution of an irradiated double sided silicon microstrip detector operated at cryogenic temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Bartalini, P; Buytaert, J; Chabaud, V; Collins, P; Dijkstra, H; Dormond, O; Frei, R; Parkes, C; Ruf, T; Saladino, S; Saladino, Stefania

    1999-01-01

    99-026 This paper presents results on the measurement of the cluster shapes, resolution and charge collection efficiency of a double sided silicon microstrip detector after irradiation with 24 GeV protons to a fluence of 3.5 x 10^14 p/cm2 and operated at cryogenic temperatures. An empirical model is presented which describes the expected cluster shapes as a function of depletion depth, and is shown to agree with the data. It is observed that the clusters on the p-side broaden if the detector is under-depleted, leading to a degradation of resolution and efficiency.The model is used to make predictions for detector types envisaged for the LHC experiments. The results also show that at cryogenic temperature the charge collection efficiency varies depending on the operating conditions of the detector and can reach values of 100 % at unexpectedly low bias voltage. By analysing the cluster shapes it is shown that these variations are due to changes in depletion depth. This phenomenon, known as the ``Lazarus effect'...

  16. Charge collection and charge sharing in heavily irradiated n-side read-out silicon microstrip detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casse, G. E-mail: gcasse@hep.ph.liv.ac.uk; Allport, P.P.; Biagi, S.F.; Bowcock, T.J.V.; Greenall, A.; Turner, P.R

    2003-09-21

    Hadron radiation damage of n-bulk silicon detectors leads to a change in the effective space charge from positive to negative. This effect is called type inversion. Type inversion occurs after exposure to a fluence of a few 10{sup 13} proton cm{sup -2} and is characterized by migration of the diode junction to the n{sup +} implanted side (n-side) of the detector. After inversion the charge collection efficiency (CCE) of segmented detectors at low voltage is higher when the n-side, rather than the p-side, is read out. A p-side read out (p-in-n) and an n-side read out (n-in-n) strip detector with identical strip geometry and a wafer thickness of 200 {mu}m were simultaneously and inhomogenously irradiated to a maximum fluence of 7x10{sup 14} proton cm{sup -2} with 24 GeV c{sup -1} protons. A comparison of the CCE at very high irradiation doses is shown with these two read out geometries. The inhomogeneous irradiation induces an inhomogenous distribution of the effective space charge with a transverse component of the electric field that could in principle affect the resolution properties of the microstrip detector. The inter-strip charge sharing properties, as a function of dose, for the n-in-n detector have been measured. No systematic distortion of the reconstructed cluster position was detected within the limits of the measurement accuracy. The detectors were manufactured using oxygen enriched silicon substrates to limit the degradation of the full depletion voltage under charged hadron irradiation. The measured CCE confirms that the use of oxygenated n-in-n detectors is viable up to fluences of 7x10{sup 14} proton cm{sup -2}.

  17. The front-end amplifier for the silicon microstrip sensors of the PANDA MVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Pietro, Valentino; Brinkmann, Kai-Thomas; Riccardi, Alberto [II. Physikalisches Institut, JLU Giessen (Germany); Rivetti, Angelo; Rolo, Manuel [INFN Sezione di Torino (Italy)

    2015-07-01

    The most common readout systems designed for the nuclear physics detectors are based on amplitude measurements. The information that needs to be preserved is the charge delivered by a particle hitting the sensor. The electronic chain employed in these cases is made from two main building blocks: front-end amplifier and ADC. One of the issues associated with the implementation of such an architecture in scaled CMOS technologies is the dynamic range, because the charge information is extrapolated through the sampling of the peak of the front-end output signal. It is therefore interesting to explore the possibility of using time-based architectures offering better performances from that point of view. In fact, in these topologies the linearity between the charge and the signal duration can be maintained even if some building blocks in the chain saturate. The main drawback is the loss in resolution since a duration measurement involves the difference between two time measurements. This work will present the design of a front-end optimized for fast Time-over-Threshold applications. The circuit has been developed for the microstrip detectors of the PANDA experiment. The key features of the front-end amplifier are illustrated and both schematic level, and post-layout simulations are discussed.

  18. Silicon Strip Detectors for the ATLAS sLHC Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Miñano, M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    While the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN is continuing to deliver an ever-increasing luminosity to the experiments, plans for an upgraded machine called Super-LHC (sLHC) are progressing. The upgrade is foreseen to increase the LHC design luminosity by a factor ten. The ATLAS experiment will need to build a new tracker for sLHC operation, which needs to be suited to the harsh sLHC conditions in terms of particle rates. In order to cope with the increase in pile-up backgrounds at the higher luminosity, an all silicon detector is being designed. To successfully face the increased radiation dose, a new generation of extremely radiation hard silicon detectors is being designed. The left part of figure 1 shows the simulated layout for the ATLAS tracker upgrade to be installed in the volume taken up by the current ATLAS pixel, strip and transition radiation detectors. Silicon sensors with sufficient radiation hardness are the subject of an international R&D programme, working on pixel and strip sensors. The...

  19. Readout electronics development for the ATLAS silicon tracker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borer, K. [Bern Univ. (Switzerland); Beringer, J. [Bern Univ. (Switzerland); Anghinolfi, F. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Aspell, P. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Chilingarov, A. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)]|[Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Jarron, P. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Heijne, E.H.M. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Santiard, J.C. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Verweij, H. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Goessling, C. [Institut fur Physik, Univ. Dortmund, D-4600 Dortmund (Germany); Lisowski, B. [Institut fur Physik, Univ. Dortmund, D-4600 Dortmund (Germany); Reichold, A. [Institut fur Physik, Univ. Dortmund, D-4600 Dortmund (Germany); Bonino, R. [DPNC, University of Geneva, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Clark, A.G. [DPNC, University of Geneva, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Kambara, H. [DPNC, University of Geneva, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); La Marra, D. [DPNC, University of Geneva, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Leger, A. [DPNC, University of Geneva, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Wu, X. [DPNC, University of Geneva, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Richeux, J.P. [DPNC, University of Geneva, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Taylor, G.N. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3052 (Australia); Fedotov, M. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Kuper, E. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Velikzhanin, Yu. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Campbell, D. [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Murray, P. [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Seller, P. [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)

    1995-06-01

    We present the status of the development of the readout electronics for the large area silicon tracker of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC, carried out by the CERN RD2 project. Our basic readout concept is to integrate a fast amplifier, analog memory, sparse data scan circuit and analog-to-digital convertor (ADC) on a single VLSI chip. This architecture will provide full analog information of charged particle hits associated unambiguously to one LHC beam crossing, which is expected to be at a frequency of 40 MHz. The expected low occupancy of the ATLAS inner silicon detectors allows us to use a low speed (5 MHz) on-chip ADC with a multiplexing scheme. The functionality of the fast amplifier and analog memory have been demonstrated with various prototype chips. Most recently we have successfully tested improved versions of the amplifier and the analog memory. A piecewise linear ADC has been fabricated and performed satisfactorily up to 5 MHz. A new chip including amplifier, analog memory, memory controller, ADC, and data buffer has been designed and submitted for fabrication and will be tested on a prototype of the ATLAS silicon tracker module with realistic electrical and mechanical constraints. (orig.).

  20. Development of the microstrip silicon detector for imaging of fast processes at a synchrotron radiation beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulchenko, V.; Pruuel, E.; Shekhtman, L.; Ten, K.; Tolochko, B.; Zhulanov, V.

    2017-02-01

    In situ imaging of explosions allows to study material properties under very high pressures and temperatures. Synchrotron radiation (SR) is a powerful tool for such studies because of its unique time structure. Flashes of X-rays from individual bunches in a storage ring are so short that an object under study does not move more than 1-10 μm during exposure. If a detector is able to store images synchronously with bunches of an SR source the time resolution of such method will be determined by the duration of SR flash from individual bunch. New beam line at the VEPP-4M storage ring will allow to get X-Ray flux from each bunch close to 106 photons/channel where channel area is 0.05×0.5 mm2 and average beam energy is about 30 keV. Bunches in the machine can be grouped into trains with 20 ns time gap. In order to meet these requirements a new detector development was started based on Si microstrip technology. The detector with a new dedicated front-end chip will be able to record images with maximum signal equivalent to 106 photons/channel, with signal to noise ratio of ∼103, spatial resolution of 50 μm and maximum frame rate of 50 MHz. The detector has to drive very high peak and average currents without affecting the front-end chip, therefore a specific design of Si sensor should be developed. The front-end chip has to provide signal measurements with the dynamic range of about 104 or more and recording of the signal to an analogue memory with the rate of 50 MHz. The concept of such detector is discussed in the paper. The results of the simulations of the main detector parameters and the results of the first measurements with the prototype sensors are presented.

  1. Improvement in breakdown characteristics with multiguard structures in microstrip silicon detectors for CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Bacchetta, N; Candelori, A; Da Rold, M; Descovich, M; Kaminski, A; Messineo, A; Rizzo, F; Verzellesi, G

    2001-01-01

    To obtain full charge collection the CMS silicon detectors should be able to operate at high bias voltage. We observed that multiguard structures enhance the breakdown performance of the devices on several tens of baby detectors designed for CMS. The beneficial effects of the multiguard structures still remains after the strong neutron irradiation performed to simulate the operation at the LHC. (3 refs).

  2. Characterisation of micro-strip and pixel silicon detectors before and after hadron irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Allport, P.P

    2012-01-01

    The use of segmented silicon detectors for tracking and vertexing in particle physics has grown substantially since their introduction in 1980. It is now anticipated that roughly 50,000 six inch wafers of high resistivity silicon will need to be processed into sensors to be deployed in the upgraded experiments in the future high luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) at CERN. These detectors will also face an extremely severe radiation environment, varying with distance from the interaction point. The volume of required sensors is large and their delivery is required during a relatively short time, demanding a high throughput from the chosen suppliers. The current situation internationally, in this highly specialist market, means that security of supply for large orders can therefore be an issue and bringing additional potential vendors into the field can only be an advantage. Semiconductor companies that could include planar sensors suitable for particle physics in their product lines will, however, need to prove their pro...

  3. Thick silicon microstrip detectors simulation for PACT: Pair and Compton Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, M.; Laurent, P.; Lebrun, F.; Tatischeff, V.; Dolgorouky, Y.; Bertoli, W.; Breelle, E.

    2016-11-01

    PACT is a space borne Pair and Compton Telescope that aims to make a sensitive survey of the gamma-ray sky between 100 keV and 100 MeV. It is based upon two main components: a silicon-based gamma-ray tracker and a crystal-based calorimeter. In this paper we will explain the imaging technique of PACT as a Multi-layered Compton telescope (0.1-10 MeV) and its major improvements over its predecessor COMPTEL. Then we will present a simulation study to optimize the silicon tracker of PACT. This tracker is formed of thousands of identical silicon double sided strip detectors (DSSDs). We have developed a simulation model (using SILVACO) to simulate the DSSD performance while varying its thickness, impurity concentration of the bulk material, electrode pitch, and electrode width. We will present a comprehensive overview of the impact of each varied parameter on the DSSD performance, in view of the application to PACT. The considered DSSD parameters are its depletion voltage, capacitance, and leakage current. After the selection of the PACT DSSD, we will present a simulation of the performance of the PACT telescope in the 0.1-10 MeV range.

  4. Microstrip antennas in subsurface sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volgyi, Ferenc

    2000-07-01

    This paper reviews the various applications of microstrip antennas with special emphasis on subsurface sensing, microwave moisture measurement and nondestructive testing of dielectric materials. With reference to the literature, we first describe the commonly used GPR-antennas, the printed Vivaldi-antennas, and microstrip antennas used in moisture content measurement. Furthermore, attention is given to the problems of new antenna technologies, showing examples for active integrated antennas, a photonic band gap patch antenna and a silicon micromachined patch antenna. The reminder of the paper summarizes relevant R&D activities in microstrip antennas at BUTE/DMT, focusing on near-field experiments, monitoring of particleboards and WLAN- applications of patch radiators.

  5. ATLAS' inner silicon tracker on track for completion

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Last week, the team working at the SR1 facility on the inner detector of the ATLAS experiment reached a project milestone after the delivery of the last Semi-conductor Tracker (SCT) barrel to CERN. The third barrel before its insertion into the support structure.The insertion of a completed barrel to its support structure is one of the highlights of the assembly and test sequence of the SCT in SR1. The inner detector will eventually sit in the 2 teslas magnetic field of the ATLAS solenoid, tracking charged particles from proton-proton collisions at the centre of ATLAS. The particles will be measured by a pixel detector (consisting of 3 pixel layers), an SCT (4 silicon strip layers) and a transition radiation tracker (TRT) (consisting of more than 52,000 straw tubes - see Bulletin 14/2005). The SCT has a silicon surface area of 61m2 with about 6 million operational channels so that all tracks can be identified and precisely measured. During 2004 a team of physicists, engineers, and technicians from several...

  6. A binary readout chip for silicon microstrip detector in proton imaging application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipala, V.; Bruzzi, M.; Bondì, M.; Bonanno, D.; Cadeddu, S.; Carpinelli, M.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Civinini, C.; Cuttone, G.; Lai, A.; Leonora, E.; Lo Presti, D.; Maccioni, G.; Pallotta, S.; Randazzo, N.; Scaringella, M.; Talamonti, C.; Tesi, M.; Vanzi, E.

    2017-01-01

    The mixed-signal PRIMA-chip has been developed for sensitive-position silicon detector in proton imaging application. The chip is based upon the binary readout architecture which, providing fully parallel signal processing, is a good solution for high intensity radiation application. It includes 32-front-end channels with a charge preamplifier, a shaper and a comparator. In order to adjust the comparator thresholds, each channel contains a 8-bit DAC, programmed using an I2C like interface. The PRIMA-chip has been fabricated using the AMS 0.35 μm standard CMOS process and its performances have been tested coupling it to the detectors used in the tracker assembled for the pCT (proton Computed Tomography) apparatus.

  7. Coupling Between Microstrip Lines and Finite Ground Coplanar Lines Embedded in Polyimide Layers for 3D-MMICs on Silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponchak, G. E.; Bushyager, N.; Papapolymerou, J.; Tentzeris, E. M.; Laskar, J.

    2002-01-01

    Three-dimensional circuits built upon multiple layers of polyimide are required for constructing Si/SiGe monolithic microwave/mm-wave integrated circuits on CMOS (low resistivity) Si wafers. It is expected that these circuits will replace the ones fabricated on GaAs and reduce the overall system cost. However, the closely spaced transmission lines that are required for a high-density circuit environment are susceptible to high levels of cross-coupling, which degrades the overall circuit performance. In this paper, theoretical and experimental results on coupling and ways to reduce it are presented for two types of transmission lines: a) the microstrip line and b) the Finite Ground Coplanar (FGC) line. For microstrip lines it is shown that a fence of metalized via-holes can significantly reduce coupling, especially in the case when both lines are on the same polyimide layer or when the shielding structure extends through several polyimide layers. For closely spaced microstrip lines, coupling is lower for a metal filled trench shield than a via-hole fence. Coupling amongst microstrip lines is dependent on the ratio of line separation to polyimide thickness and is primarily due to magnetic fields. For FGC lines it is shown that they have in general low coupling that can be reduced significantly when there is even a small gap between the ground planes of each line. FGC lines have approximately 8 dB lower coupling than coupled coplanar waveguides (CPW). In addition, forward and backward characteristics of the FGC lines do not resemble those of other transmission lines such as microstrip. Therefore, the coupling mechanism of the FGC lines is different compared to thin film microstrip lines.

  8. Development and evaluation of test stations for the quality assurance of the silicon micro-strip detector modules for the CMS experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poettgens, M.

    2007-11-22

    CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) is one of four large-scale detectors which will be operated at the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) at the European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN). For the search for new physics the reconstruction of the collision products and their properties is essential. In the innermost part of the CMS detector the traces of ionizing particles are measured utilizing a silicon tracker. A large fraction of this detector is equipped with silicon micro-strip modules which provide a precise space resolution in 1-dimension. A module consists of a sensor for detection of particles, the corresponding read-out electronics (hybrid) and a mechanical support structure. Since the 15,148 modules, which will be installed in the silicon micro-strip detector, have a total sensitive surface area of about 198 m{sup 2}, the inner tracker of CMS is the largest silicon tracking detector, which has ever been built. While the sensors and hybrids are produced in industry, the construction of the modules and the control of the quality is done by the members of the 21 participating institutes. Since the access to the silicon micro-strip tracker will be very limited after the installation in the CMS detector the installed modules must be of high quality. For this reason the modules are thoroughly tested and the test results are uploaded to a central database. By the development of a read-out system and the corresponding software the III. Physikalisches Institut made an important contribution for the electrical and functional quality control of hybrids and modules. The read-out system provides all features for the operation and test of hybrids and modules and stands out due to high reliability and simple handling. Because a very user-friedly and highly automated software it became the official test tool and was integrated in various test stands. The test stands, in which the read-out system is integrated in, are described and the tests which are implemented in the

  9. Silicon Strip Detectors for the ATLAS sLHC Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Soldevila, U; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    While the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN is continuing to deliver an ever-increasing luminosity to the experiments, plans for an upgraded machine called Super-LHC (sLHC) are progressing. The upgrade is foreseen to increase the LHC design luminosity by a factor ten. The ATLAS experiment will need to build a new tracker for sLHC operation, which needs to be suited to the harsh sLHC conditions in terms of particle rates and radiation doses. In order to cope with the increase in pile-up backgrounds at the higher luminosity, an all silicon detector is being designed. To successfully face the increased radiation dose, a new generation of extremely radiation hard silicon detectors is being designed. Silicon sensors with sufficient radiation hardness are the subject of an international R&amp;D programme, working on pixel and strip sensors. The efforts presented here concentrate on the innermost strip layers. We have developed a large number of prototype planar detectors produced on p-type wafers in a...

  10. Silicon strip detectors for the ATLAS HL-LHC upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Bernabeu, J; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    While the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN is continuing to deliver an ever-increasing luminosity to the experiments, plans for an upgraded machine called Super-LHC (sLHC) are progressing. The upgrade is foreseen to increase the LHC design luminosity by a factor ten. The ATLAS experiment will need to build a new tracker for sLHC operation, which needs to be suited to the harsh sLHC conditions in terms of particle rates and radiation doses. In order to cope with the increase in pile-up backgrounds at the higher luminosity, an all silicon detector is being designed. To successfully face the increased radiation dose, a new generation of extremely radiation hard silicon detectors is being designed. Silicon sensors with sufficient radiation hardness are the subject of an international R&D programme, working on pixel and strip sensors. The efforts presented here concentrate on the innermost strip layers. We have developed a large number of prototype planar detectors produced on p-type wafers in a number of d...

  11. Characterization of silicon microstrip sensors, front-end electronics, and prototype tracking detectors for the CBM experiment at FAIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorokin, Iurii

    2013-07-01

    The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment will explore the phase diagram of strongly interacting matter in the region of high net baryonic densities. The matter at the extreme conditions will be studied in collisions of a heavy ion beam with a fixed heavy element target. The present work is devoted to the development of the main component of the CBM experiment - the Silicon Tracking System (STS). The STS has to enable reconstruction of up to 1000 charged particle tracks per nucleus-nucleus interaction at the rate of up to 10 MHz, provide a momentum resolution Δp/p of 1 %, and withstand the radiation load of up to 10{sup 14} n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2} (n{sub eq}-neutron equivalent). The STS will be based on double-sided silicon microstrip sensors, that will be arranged in 8 planes in the aperture of the dipole magnet. Selftriggering readout electronics will be located on the periphery of the detecting planes, and connected to the sensors with low mass microcables. In the stage of R and D, as well as in the stages of pre-series and series production, characterization of the sensors, of the front-end electronics, and of the complete detector modules has to be performed. In the present work the required techniques were developed, and the performance of the latest detector prototypes was evaluated. A particular attention is paid to evaluation of the signal amplitude, as it is one of the most important detector characteristics. Techniques for measuring the passive electrical characteristics of the sensors were developed. These include: the coupling and the interstrip capacitances, the interstrip resistance, the bias resistance, the strip leakage current, the bulk capacitance, and the bulk leakage current. The techniques will be applied for the quality assurance of the sensors during the pre-series and the series production. Extensive characterization of the prototype readout chip, n-XYTER, was performed. The register settings were optimized, and the dependence of the

  12. Characterization of silicon micro-strip sensors with a pulsed infra-red laser system for the CBM experiment at FAIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Pradeep [Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); GSI Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Eschke, Juergen [GSI Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Facility for Anti-proton and Ion Research, GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Collaboration: CBM-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The Silicon Tracking System (STS) of the CBM experiment at FAIR is composed of 8 tracking stations comprising of 1292 double-sided silicon micro-strip sensors. A Laser Test System (LTS) has been developed for the quality assurance of prototype sensors. The aim is to scan sensors with a pulsed infra-red laser driven by step motor to determine the charge sharing in-between strips and to measure qualitative uniformity of the sensor response over the whole active area. Several prototype sensors with strip pitch of 50 and 58 μm have been tested, as well as a prototype module with realistic mechanical arrangement of sensor and read-out cables. The LTS is designed to measure sensor response in an automatized procedure across the sensor with focused laser beam (spot-size ∼ 12 μm, wavelength = 1060 nm). The pulse with duration (∼ 10 ns) and power (∼ 5 mW) of the laser pulses is selected such, that the absorption of the laser light in the 300 μm thick silicon sensors produces a number of about 24000 electrons, which is similar to the charge created by minimum ionizing particles (MIP) in these sensors. Results from laser scans of prototype sensors and detector module are reported.

  13. Silicon Strip Detectors for the ATLAS HL-LHC Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Miñano, M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    While the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN is continuing to deliver an ever-increasing luminosity to the experiments, plans for an upgraded machine called High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) are progressing. The upgrade is foreseen to increase the LHC design luminosity up to 5 x 1034 cm-2 s-1. The ATLAS experiment will need to build a new tracker for HL operation, which would cope with the increase in pile-up backgrounds at the higher luminosity. A new generation of extremely radiation hard silicon detectors is being designed. Silicon sensors with sufficient radiation hardness are the subject of an international R&D programme, working on pixel and strip sensors. The efforts presented here concentrate on the innermost strip layers. We have developed a large number of prototype planar detectors produced on p-type wafers in a number of different designs. The irradiated sensors were subsequently tested in order to study the radiation-induced degradation, and determine their performance after irradiation of up to ...

  14. Noise studies of n-strip on n-bulk silicon microstrip detectors using fast binary readout electronics after irradiation to 3x10 sup 1 sup 4 p cm sup - sup 2

    CERN Document Server

    Robinson, D; Bizzell, J; Buttar, C; Carter, A A; Carter, J R; Goodrick, M; Greenall, A; Hill, J C; Morgan, D; Munday, D J; Ohsugi, T; Phillips, P W; Riedler, P; Smith, N A; Terada, S; Turner, P R; Unno, Y

    1999-01-01

    N-strip on n-bulk silicon microstrip detectors were irradiated at the CERN PS to 3x10 sup 1 sup 4 p cm sup - sup 2 and their post-irradiation performance evaluated using fast binary readout electronics. Strip noise measurements demonstrate that detectors using conventional p-stop strip isolation are vulnerable to microdischarge at high bias voltages after irradiation. However, a novel isolation technique is shown to suppress microdischarge and lead to excellent post-irradiation characteristics.

  15. Electrical Design and Performance of Single- and Double-Sided Silicon Modules for the ATLAS Phase II Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Gregor, IM; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    For the planned replacement of the ATLAS tracker during the Phase II Upgrade, the design and construction of a Silicon Strip Detector is currently being planned. In this note, the design plans for the readout structures (hybrids), Silicon-strip modules, readout and powering bus tapes and end-of-substructure cards for the ATLAS Silicon strip system are described. Specific tooling and adhesive requirements are detailed. This document is one of five supporting documents for the silicon strip chapter of the ATLAS Phase II Letter of Intent.

  16. Investigations into the impact of bond pads and p-stop implants on the detection efficiency of silicon micro-strip sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Poley, Luise; Blue, Andrew; Benoit, Mathieu; Bloch, Ingo; Diez, Sergio; Fadeyev, Vitaliy; Gallop, Bruce; Greenall, Ashley; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Keller, John; Lacasta, Carlos; Maneuski, Dzmitry; Meng, Lingxin; Milovanovic, Marko; Pape, Ian; Phillips, Peter W; Rehnisch, Laura; Sperlich, Dennis; Sawyer, Craig; Stegler, Martin; Unno, Yoshinobu; Warren, Matt; Yildirim, Eda

    2016-01-01

    The High Luminosity Upgrade of the LHC will require the replacement of the Inner Detector of ATLAS with the Inner Tracker (ITk) in order to cope with higher radiation levels and higher track densities. Prototype silicon strip detector modules are currently developed and their performance is studied in both particle test beams and X-ray beams. In previous test beam studies of prototype modules, silicon sensor strips were found to respond in regions varying from the strip pitch of 74.5 {\\upmu}m. The variations have been linked to local features of the sensor architecture. This paper presents results of detailed sensor measurements in both X-ray and particle beams investigating the impact of sensor features (metal pads and p-stops) on the responding area of a sensor strip.

  17. Silicon strip staves and petals for the ATLAS Upgrade tracker of the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Diez, S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the baseline integration structures for the silicon strip sensors to be used in the ATLAS detector for the Phase-II upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) machine, the so-called High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC). Highly modular structures have been developed for the integration of the silicon strips sensors, readout electronics, cooling, and support structures, called `staves' for the barrel region and `petals' for the end-caps of the ATLAS strips tracker. This work describes the status of the current prototypes, the building procedure, designed for mass production even at a prototyping stage, and their electrical performances.

  18. Silicon strip staves and petals for the ATLAS Upgrade tracker of the HL-LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez, Sergio; Atlas Collaboration

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the baseline integration structures for the silicon strip sensors to be used in the ATLAS detector for the Phase-II upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) machine, the so-called High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC). Highly modular structures have been developed for the integration of the silicon strips sensors, readout electronics, cooling, and support structures, called 'staves' for the barrel region and 'petals' for the end-caps of the ATLAS strips tracker. This work describes the status of the current prototypes, the building procedure, designed for mass production even at a prototyping stage, and their electrical performances.

  19. Development of fluorocarbon evaporative cooling recirculators and controls for the ATLAS inner silicon tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Bayer, C; Bonneau, P; Bosteels, Michel; Burckhart, H J; Cragg, D; English, R; Hallewell, G D; Hallgren, Björn I; Ilie, S; Kersten, S; Kind, P; Langedrag, K; Lindsay, S; Merkel, M; Stapnes, Steinar; Thadome, J; Vacek, V

    2000-01-01

    We report on the development of evaporative fluorocarbon cooling recirculators and their control systems for the ATLAS inner silicon tracker. We have developed a prototype circulator using a dry, hermetic compressor with C/sub 3/F/sup 8/ refrigerant, and have prototyped the remote-control analog pneumatic links for the regulation of coolant mass flows and operating temperatures that will be necessary in the magnetic field and radiation environment around ATLAS. pressure and flow measurement and control use 150+ channels of standard ATLAS LMB ("Local Monitor Board") DAQ and DACs on a multi-drop CAN network administered through a BridgeVIEW user interface. A hardwired thermal interlock system has been developed to cut power to individual silicon modules should their temperatures exceed safe values. Highly satisfactory performance of the circulator under steady state, partial-load and transient conditions was seen, with proportional fluid flow tuned to varying circuit power. Future developments, including a 6 kW...

  20. Fast Tracking for the Second Level Trigger of the ATLAS Experiment Using Silicon Detectors Data

    CERN Document Server

    Schiavi, C; Parodi, F; Kostantinidis, N; Sutton, M; Baines, J T M; Emeliyanov, D; Drevermann, H; 2004 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium And Medical Imaging Conference

    2005-01-01

    Online track reconstruction is an important ingredient for event selection at Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiments. In the ATLAS experiment the first stage where this goal will be achievable is the software-based Second Level Trigger (LVL2). In this contribution we present an algorithm for fast pattern recognition and reconstruction of charged tracks and of the primary vertex in the framework of the High Level Trigger (HLT) of ATLAS. The pattern recognition makes extensive use of Monte Carlo Look Up Tables to quickly identify, in the innermost layers of the ATLAS silicon detectors, triplets of space points reconstructed from hits produced by the same track. The reconstruction strategy is compared, in the ATLAS LVL2 framework, with an alternative tracking algorithm, showing the complementarity of the two approaches. The algorithm’s performance is presented for different event topologies and luminosities, showing good tracking capabilities and uniform results with mean execution times which are compatible ...

  1. Long-term Running Experience with the Silicon Micro-strip Tracker at the D{\\O} detector

    CERN Document Server

    Jung, Andreas W; Edmunds, D; Johnson, M; Matulik, M; Utes, M; Zmuda, T

    2012-01-01

    The SiliconMicro-strip Tracker (SMT) at the D{\\O} experiment in the Fermilab Tevatron collider has been operating since 2001. In 2006, an additional layer, referred to as 'Layer 0', was installed to improve impact parameter resolution and compensate for detector degradation due to radiation damage to the original innermost SMT layer. The SMT detector provides valuable tracking and vertexing information for the experiment. This contribution will highlight aspects of the long term operation of the SMT, including the impact of the silicon readout test-stand. Due to the full integration of the test-stand into the D{\\O} trigger framework, this test-stand provides an advantageous tool for training of new experts and studying subtle effects in the SMT while minimizing impact on the global data acquisition.

  2. Test Beam Results of 3D Silicon Pixel Sensors for the ATLAS upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Grenier, P; Barbero, M; Bates, R; Bolle, E; Borri, M; Boscardin, M; Buttar, C; Capua, M; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cobal, M; Cristofoli, A; Dalla Betta, G F; Darbo, G; Da Via, C; Devetak, E; DeWilde, B; Di Girolamo, B; Dobos, D; Einsweiler, K; Esseni, D; Fazio, S; Fleta, C; Freestone, J; Gallrapp, C; Garcia-Sciveres, M; Gariano, G; Gemme, C; Giordani, M P; Gjersdal, H; Grinstein, S; Hansen, T; Hansen, T E; Hansson, P; Hasi, J; Helle, K; Hoeferkamp, M; Hugging, F; Jackson, P; Jakobs, K; Kalliopuska, J; Karagounis, M; Kenney, C; Köhler, M; Kocian, M; Kok, A; Kolya, S; Korokolov, I; Kostyukhin, V; Krüger, H; La Rosa, A; Lai, C H; Lietaer, N; Lozano, M; Mastroberardino, A; Micelli, A; Nellist, C; Oja, A; Oshea, V; Padilla, C; Palestri, P; Parker, S; Parzefall, U; Pater, J; Pellegrini, G; Pernegger, H; Piemonte, C; Pospisil, S; Povoli, M; Roe, S; Rohne, O; Ronchin, S; Rovani, A; Ruscino, E; Sandaker, H; Seidel, S; Selmi, L; Silverstein, D; Sjøbaek, K; Slavicek, T; Stapnes, S; Stugu, B; Stupak, J; Su, D; Susinno, G; Thompson, R; Tsung, J W; Tsybychev, D; Watts, S J; Wermes, N; Young, C; Zorzi, N

    2011-01-01

    Results on beam tests of 3D silicon pixel sensors aimed at the ATLAS Insertable-B-Layer and High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC)) upgrades are presented. Measurements include charge collection, tracking efficiency and charge sharing between pixel cells, as a function of track incident angle, and were performed with and without a 1.6 T magnetic field oriented as the ATLAS Inner Detector solenoid field. Sensors were bump bonded to the front-end chip currently used in the ATLAS pixel detector. Full 3D sensors, with electrodes penetrating through the entire wafer thickness and active edge, and double-sided 3D sensors with partially overlapping bias and read-out electrodes were tested and showed comparable performance.

  3. Test beam results of 3D silicon pixel sensors for the ATLAS upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grenier, P., E-mail: grenier@slac.stanford.ed [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (United States); Alimonti, G. [INFN Sezione di Milano (Italy); Barbero, M. [Bonn University (Germany); Bates, R. [Glasgow University (United Kingdom); Bolle, E. [Oslo University (Norway); Borri, M. [University of Manchester (United Kingdom); Boscardin, M. [FBK-irst, Trento (Italy); Buttar, C. [Glasgow University (United Kingdom); Capua, M. [INFN Gruppo Collegato di Cosenza and Universita della Calabria (Italy); Cavalli-Sforza, M. [IFAE Barcelona (Spain); Cobal, M.; Cristofoli, A. [INFN Gruppo Collegato di Udine and Universita di Udine (Italy); Dalla Betta, G.-F. [INFN Gruppo Collegato di Trento and DISI Universita di Trento (Italy); Darbo, G. [INFN Sezione di Genova (Italy); Da Via, C. [University of Manchester (United Kingdom); Devetak, E.; DeWilde, B. [Stony Brook University (United States); Di Girolamo, B.; Dobos, D. [CERN (Switzerland); Einsweiler, K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (United States)

    2011-05-11

    Results on beam tests of 3D silicon pixel sensors aimed at the ATLAS Insertable B-Layer and High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) upgrades are presented. Measurements include charge collection, tracking efficiency and charge sharing between pixel cells, as a function of track incident angle, and were performed with and without a 1.6 T magnetic field oriented as the ATLAS inner detector solenoid field. Sensors were bump-bonded to the front-end chip currently used in the ATLAS pixel detector. Full 3D sensors, with electrodes penetrating through the entire wafer thickness and active edge, and double-sided 3D sensors with partially overlapping bias and read-out electrodes were tested and showed comparable performance.

  4. Hyperon production in proton-nucleus collisions at a center-of-mass energy of {radical}(s{sub NN}) = 41.6 GeV at HERA-B and design of silicon microstrip detectors for tracking at LHCb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agari, Michaela

    2006-07-01

    The topics of this thesis are the measurements of hyperon production in protonnucleus collisions at {radical}(s)=41.6 GeV with the Hera-B detector located at DESY, Hamburg (Germany), and the design of silicon microstrip sensors for the LHCb experiment at CERN, Geneva (Switzerland). {lambda}, {xi} and {omega} hyperons and their antiparticles were reconstructed from 113.5 . 10{sup 6} inelastic collisions of protons with fixed carbon, titanium and tungsten targets. With these samples, antiparticle-to-particle ratios, cross sections integrated for the accessible kinematic region of Hera-B and single differential cross sections as function of transverse momentum, d{sigma}/dp{sub T}{sup 2} (for {lambda} and {xi}) and rapidity, d{sigma}/dy (for {lambda} only), have been been measured as well as the dependence of these quantities on the atomic number of the target nucleus, as parameterized using the Glauber model. The obtained ratios follow the same trend as found for the energy dependence of measurements from nucleus-nucleus collisions. Silicon microstrip sensors have been designed for the tracking system of the LHCb detector. Evaluating the performance in beam tests at CERN, the strip geometry and sensor thickness were varied optimizing for a large signal-to-noise ratio, a small number of read-out channels and a low occupancy. The detector is currently being built to be operational for first proton-proton collisions in autumn 2007. (orig.)

  5. Hyperon production in proton-nucleus collisions at a center-of-mass energy of $\\sqrt(S_NN)=41.6 GeV$ at HERA-B and design of silicon microstrip detectors for tracking at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Agari, M

    2006-01-01

    The topics of this thesis are the measurements of hyperon production in protonnucleus collisions at ps = 41.6 GeV with the Hera-B detector located at DESY, Hamburg (Germany), and the design of silicon microstrip sensors for the LHCb experiment at CERN, Geneva (Switzerland), and hyperons and their antiparticles were reconstructed from 113.5A.106 inelastic collisions of protons with fixed carbon, titanium and tungsten targets. With these samples, antiparticle-to-particle ratios, cross sections integrated for the accessible kinematic region of Hera-B and single differential cross sections as function of transverse momentum, $d\\sigma /dp^{2}_{T}$ (for and) and rapidity, $d\\sigma /dy$ (for only), have been been measured as well as the dependence of these quantities on the atomic number of the target nucleus, as parameterized using the Glauber model. The obtained ratios follow the same trend as found for the energy dependence of measurements from nucleus-nucleus collisions. Silicon microstrip sensors have been desi...

  6. Performance of silicon pixel detectors at small track incidence angles for the ATLAS Inner Tracker upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viel, Simon; Banerjee, Swagato; Brandt, Gerhard; Carney, Rebecca; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Hard, Andrew Straiton; Kaplan, Laser Seymour; Kashif, Lashkar; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Rieger, Julia; Wolf, Julian; Wu, Sau Lan; Yang, Hongtao

    2016-09-01

    In order to enable the ATLAS experiment to successfully track charged particles produced in high-energy collisions at the High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider, the current ATLAS Inner Detector will be replaced by the Inner Tracker (ITk), entirely composed of silicon pixel and strip detectors. An extension of the tracking coverage of the ITk to very forward pseudorapidity values is proposed, using pixel modules placed in a long cylindrical layer around the beam pipe. The measurement of long pixel clusters, detected when charged particles cross the silicon sensor at small incidence angles, has potential to significantly improve the tracking efficiency, fake track rejection, and resolution of the ITk in the very forward region. The performance of state-of-the-art pixel modules at small track incidence angles is studied using test beam data collected at SLAC and CERN.

  7. Performance of Silicon Pixel Detectors at Small Track Incidence Angles for the ATLAS Inner Tracker Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Viel, Simon; The ATLAS collaboration; Brandt, Gerhard; Carney, Rebecca; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Hard, Andrew; Kaplan, Laser Seymour; Kashif, Lashkar; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Rieger, Julia; Wolf, Julian Choate; Wu, Sau Lan; Yang, Hongtao

    2015-01-01

    In order to enable the ATLAS experiment to successfully track charged particles produced in high-energy collisions at the High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider, the current ATLAS Inner Detector will be replaced by the Inner Tracker (ITk), entirely composed of silicon pixel and strip detectors. An extension of the tracking coverage of the ITk to very forward pseudorapidity values is proposed, using pixel modules placed in a long cylindrical layer around the beam pipe. The measurement of long pixel clusters, detected when charged particles cross the silicon sensor at small incidence angles, has potential to significantly improve the tracking efficiency, fake track rejection, and resolution of the ITk in the very forward region. The performance of state-of-the-art pixel modules at small track incidence angles is studied using test beam data collected at SLAC and CERN.

  8. Performance of silicon pixel detectors at small track incidence angles for the ATLAS Inner Tracker upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viel, Simon, E-mail: sviel@lbl.gov [Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and University of California, Berkeley, CA, United States of America (United States); Banerjee, Swagato [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, United States of America (United States); Brandt, Gerhard; Carney, Rebecca; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice [Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and University of California, Berkeley, CA, United States of America (United States); Hard, Andrew Straiton; Kaplan, Laser Seymour; Kashif, Lashkar [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, United States of America (United States); Pranko, Aliaksandr [Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and University of California, Berkeley, CA, United States of America (United States); Rieger, Julia [Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and University of California, Berkeley, CA, United States of America (United States); II Physikalisches Institut, Georg-August-Universität, Göttingen (Germany); Wolf, Julian [Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and University of California, Berkeley, CA, United States of America (United States); Wu, Sau Lan; Yang, Hongtao [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, United States of America (United States)

    2016-09-21

    In order to enable the ATLAS experiment to successfully track charged particles produced in high-energy collisions at the High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider, the current ATLAS Inner Detector will be replaced by the Inner Tracker (ITk), entirely composed of silicon pixel and strip detectors. An extension of the tracking coverage of the ITk to very forward pseudorapidity values is proposed, using pixel modules placed in a long cylindrical layer around the beam pipe. The measurement of long pixel clusters, detected when charged particles cross the silicon sensor at small incidence angles, has potential to significantly improve the tracking efficiency, fake track rejection, and resolution of the ITk in the very forward region. The performance of state-of-the-art pixel modules at small track incidence angles is studied using test beam data collected at SLAC and CERN. - Highlights: • Extended inner pixel barrel layers are proposed for the ATLAS ITk upgrade. • Test beam results at small track incidence angles validate this ATLAS ITk design. • Long pixel clusters are reconstructed with high efficiency at low threshold values. • Excellent angular resolution is achieved using pixel cluster length information.

  9. ATLAS helps shed light on the retina

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Technology developed for high-energy physics has led to the discovery of a retinal cell that eluded biologists for 40 years. The 512 electrode array, inspired by silicon microstrip detector technology in ATLAS, records the electrical activity of retinal neurones.ATLAS expertise have crossed over to biology enabling the discovery of a retinal cell type that may help humans see motion. The research, carried out by ATLAS collaborators at the University of California, Santa Cruz, and by neurobiologists at the Salk Institute in La Jolla, California, appeared in the 10 October issue of the Journal of Neuroscience and may help open biologists’ eyes to the uses of techniques developed in high-energy physics. At least 22 different types of primate retinal output cell are known from anatomical studies, but the functions of only a handful of these have been determined. The cells discovered have been ca...

  10. Advanced Alignment of the ATLAS Tracking System

    CERN Document Server

    Butti, P; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    In order to reconstruct the trajectories of charged particles, the ATLAS experiment exploits a tracking system built using different technologies, planar silicon modules or microstrips (PIX and SCT detectors) and gaseous drift tubes (TRT), all embedded in a 2T solenoidal magnetic field. Misalignments and deformations of the active detector elements deteriorate the track reconstruction resolution and lead to systematic biases on the measured track parameters. The alignment procedures exploits various advanced tools and techniques in order to determine for module positions and correct for deformations. For the LHC Run II, the system is being upgraded with the installation of a new pixel layer, the Insertable B-layer (IBL).

  11. Silicon sensor technologies for the ATLAS IBL upgrade.

    CERN Document Server

    Grenier, P

    2012-01-01

    An overview of radiation hard planar and 3D pixel sensor technologies currently under development for ATLAS upgrades is presented. The first upgrade will be the installation in 2013 of an additional pixel layer inside the current inner detector, the Insertable B Layer (IBL). The two technologies are competing to equip the IBL. The IBL sensor qualification procedure is described. Beam test results of un-irradiated and irradiated planar and 3D sensors are presented.

  12. ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker Operation and Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Tojo, J; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The SemiConductor Tracker (SCT), comprising of silicon micro-strip detectors is one of the key precision tracking devices in the ATLAS Inner Detector. ATLAS is one of the experiments at CERN LHC. The completed SCT is in very good shapes with 99.3% of the SCT’s 4088 modules (a total of 6.3 million strips) are operational. The noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specifications. In the talk the current status of the SCT will be reviewed. We will report on the operation of the detector, its performance and observed problems, with stress on the sensor and electronics performance. In December 2009 the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) recorded the first proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 900 GeV and this was followed by the unprecedented energy of 7 TeV in March 2010. The Semi- Conductor Tracker (SCT) is the key precision tracking device in ATLAS, made from silicon micro-strip detectors processed in the planar p-in-n technology. The signals from the stri...

  13. Novel silicon n-in-p pixel sensors for the future ATLAS upgrades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Rosa, A., E-mail: alessandro.larosa@cern.ch [Section de Physique (DPNC), Université de Genève, 24 quai Ernest Ansermet, Genève 4, CH-1211 (Switzerland); Gallrapp, C. [CERN, Geneva 23, CH-1211 (Switzerland); Macchiolo, A.; Nisius, R. [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut) Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805 München (Germany); Pernegger, H. [CERN, Geneva 23, CH-1211 (Switzerland); Richter, R.H. [Max-Planck-Institut Halbleiterlabor, Otto Hahn Ring 6, D-81739 München (Germany); Weigell, P. [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut) Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805 München (Germany)

    2013-08-01

    In view of the LHC upgrade phases towards HL-LHC the ATLAS experiment plans to upgrade the inner detector with an all silicon system. The n-in-p silicon technology is a promising candidate for the pixel upgrade thanks to its radiation hardness and cost effectiveness that allow for enlarging the area instrumented with pixel detectors. We present the characterization and performance of novel n-in-p planar pixel sensors produced by CiS (Germany) connected by bump bonding to the ATLAS readout chip FE-I3. These results are obtained before and after irradiation up to a fluence of 10{sup 16}1-MeV n{sub eq}cm{sup −2}, and prove the operability of this kind of sensors in the harsh radiation environment foreseen for the pixel system at HL-LHC. We also present an overview of the new pixel production, which is on-going at CiS for sensors compatible with the new ATLAS readout chip FE-I4.

  14. Novel Silicon n-in-p Pixel Sensors for the future ATLAS Upgrades

    CERN Document Server

    La Rosa, A; Macchiolo, A; Nisius, R; Pernegger, H; Richter,R H; Weigell, P

    2013-01-01

    In view of the LHC upgrade phases towards HL-LHC the ATLAS experiment plans to upgrade the Inner Detector with an all silicon system. The n-in-p silicon technology is a promising candidate for the pixel upgrade thanks to its radiation hardness and cost eectiveness, that allow for enlarging the area instrumented with pixel detectors. We present the characterization and performance of novel n-in-p planar pixel sensors produced by CiS (Germany) connected by bump bonding to the ATLAS readout chip FE-I3. These results are obtained before and after irradiation up to a fluence of 1016 1-MeV $n_{eq}cm^{-2}$, and prove the operability of this kind of sensors in the harsh radiation environment foreseen for the pixel system at HL-LHC. We also present an overview of the new pixel production, which is on-going at CiS for sensors compatible with the new ATLAS readout chip FE-I4.

  15. Design,construction and commissioning of a cylinder of double-sided silicon micro-strips detectors for the Star experiment at RHIC; Developpement et mise en oeuvre de detecteurs silicium a micropistes pour l'experience star

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guedon, M

    2005-05-15

    This study has been performed in the frame of quark gluon plasma physics research in the STAR experiment at RHIC. It deals with the design, the construction and the commissioning of a barrel of silicon-strip detectors (SSD). Added to the Silicon Vertex Tracker (SVT) of the STAR detector, it extends the capabilities of track reconstruction for charged particles emitted in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions. It also contributes to the general study of the quark-gluon plasma production undertaken at STAR. The SSD is a cylinder of 1 m long and of 23 cm radius, and it is composed of 320 compact identical modules. Each module includes one double-sided silicon micro-strip detector, 12 readout chips ALICE 128C, 12 TAB ribbons, 2 COSTAR control chips and 2 hybrids supporting all the components. The document explains why the SSD is an important and relevant element, and justifies the technological choices as well as their validation by in-beam characterization. All component functionalities, characteristics and test procedures are presented. The data and test results are stored in a database for tracing purpose. Component and module production is described. Two parallel studies have been performed, analysed and described. One on the temperature dependence of the module performances and the other one on the optimal adjustments of the analogue blocks inside the ALICE 128C chip. The SSD installation on the RHIC site as well as the commissioning are presented together with the first data takings. (author)

  16. Prototype Active Silicon Sensor in 150 nm HR-CMOS Technology for ATLAS Inner Detector Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Rymaszewski, Piotr; Breugnon, Patrick; Godiot, Stépahnie; Gonella, Laura; Hemperek, Tomasz; Hirono, Toko; Hügging, Fabian; Krüger, Hans; Liu, Jian; Pangaud, Patrick; Peric, Ivan; Rozanov, Alexandre; Wang, Anqing; Wermes, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    The LHC Phase-II upgrade will lead to a significant increase in luminosity, which in turn will bring new challenges for the operation of inner tracking detectors. A possible solution is to use active silicon sensors, taking advantage of commercial CMOS technologies. Currently ATLAS R&D programme is qualifying a few commercial technologies in terms of suitability for this task. In this paper a prototype designed in one of them (LFoundry 150 nm process) will be discussed. The chip architecture will be described, including different pixel types incorporated into the design, followed by simulation and measurement results.

  17. Silicon strip prototypes for the ATLAS Upgrade tracker of the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Díez, S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the integration structures for the silicon strips tracker of the ATLAS detector for the Phase-II upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), also referred to as High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC). Silicon strip sensors are arranged in highly modular structures, called `staves' and `petals'. This paper focuses on the prototyping effort developed by the strips tracker barrel community, as well as on the description of one of the latest stave prototypes. This new prototype is composed of a particular core structure, in which a shield-less bus tape is embedded in between carbon fiber lay-ups. Electrical and thermal performances of the prototype are presented, as well as a description of the assembly procedures and tools.

  18. Testbeam Studies with Silicon Strip Module Prototypes for the ATLAS-Detector towards the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Moser, Brian

    2016-01-01

    In this report I give a brief overview about my studies as a summer student at CERN from July to September 2016. I worked on testbeam studies with prototype modules for the High-Luminosity LHC (Phase-II) upgrade of the silicon strip tracker of the ATLAS detector.

  19. Planar n{sup +}-in-n silicon pixel sensors for the ATLAS IBL upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goessling, C.; Klingenberg, R. [Lehrstuhl fuer Experimentelle Physik IV, TU Dortmund, 44221 Dortmund (Germany); Muenstermann, D., E-mail: Daniel.Muenstermann@TU-Dortmund.de [Lehrstuhl fuer Experimentelle Physik IV, TU Dortmund, 44221 Dortmund (Germany); Rummler, A.; Troska, G.; Wittig, T. [Lehrstuhl fuer Experimentelle Physik IV, TU Dortmund, 44221 Dortmund (Germany)

    2011-09-11

    The ATLAS experiment at the LHC is planning to upgrade its pixel detector by the installation of a 4th pixel layer, the insertable b-layer IBL with a mean sensor radius of only 32 mm from the beam axis. Being very close to the beam, the radiation damage of the IBL sensors might be as high as 5x10{sup 15} n{sub eq} cm{sup -2} at their end-of-life. To investigate the radiation hardness and suitability of the current ATLAS pixel sensors for IBL fluences, n{sup +}-in-n silicon pixel sensors from the ATLAS Pixel production have been irradiated by reactor neutrons to the IBL design fluence and been tested with pions at the SPS and with electrons from a {sup 90}Sr source in the laboratory. The collected charge was found to exceed 10 000 electrons per MIP at 1 kV of bias voltage which is in agreement with data collected with strip sensors. With an expected threshold of 3000-4000 electrons, this result suggests that planar n{sup +}-in-n pixel sensors are radiation hard enough to be used as IBL sensor technology.

  20. Test Beam Results of 3D Silicon Pixel Sensors for the ATLAS upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grenier, P.; /SLAC; Alimonti, G.; /INFN, Milan; Barbero, M.; /Bonn U.; Bates, R.; /Glasgow U.; Bolle, E.; /Oslo U.; Borri, M.; /Manchester U.; Boscardin, M.; /Fond. Bruno Kessler, Povo; Buttar, C.; /Glasgow U.; Capua, M.; /Calabria U. /INFN, Cosenza; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; /Barcelona, IFAE; Cobal, M.; /Udine U. /INFN, Udine; Cristofoli, A.; /Udine U. /INFN, Udine; Dalla Betta, G.F.; /Trento U. /INFN, Trento; Darbo, G.; /INFN, Genoa; Da Via, C.; /Manchester U.; Devetak, E.; /SUNY, Stony Brook; DeWilde, B.; /SUNY, Stony Brook; Di Girolamo, B.; /CERN; Dobos, D.; /CERN; Einsweiler, K.; /LBL, Berkeley; Esseni, D.; /Udine U. /INFN, Udine /Calabria U. /INFN, Cosenza /Barcelona, Inst. Microelectron. /Manchester U. /CERN /LBL, Berkeley /INFN, Genoa /INFN, Genoa /Udine U. /INFN, Udine /Oslo U. /ICREA, Barcelona /Barcelona, IFAE /SINTEF, Oslo /SINTEF, Oslo /SLAC /SLAC /Bergen U. /New Mexico U. /Bonn U. /SLAC /Freiburg U. /VTT Electronics, Espoo /Bonn U. /SLAC /Freiburg U. /SLAC /SINTEF, Oslo /Manchester U. /Barcelona, IFAE /Bonn U. /Bonn U. /CERN /Manchester U. /SINTEF, Oslo /Barcelona, Inst. Microelectron. /Calabria U. /INFN, Cosenza /Udine U. /INFN, Udine /Manchester U. /VTT Electronics, Espoo /Glasgow U. /Barcelona, IFAE /Udine U. /INFN, Udine /Hawaii U. /Freiburg U. /Manchester U. /Barcelona, Inst. Microelectron. /CERN /Fond. Bruno Kessler, Povo /Prague, Tech. U. /Trento U. /INFN, Trento /CERN /Oslo U. /Fond. Bruno Kessler, Povo /INFN, Genoa /INFN, Genoa /Bergen U. /New Mexico U. /Udine U. /INFN, Udine /SLAC /Oslo U. /Prague, Tech. U. /Oslo U. /Bergen U. /SUNY, Stony Brook /SLAC /Calabria U. /INFN, Cosenza /Manchester U. /Bonn U. /SUNY, Stony Brook /Manchester U. /Bonn U. /SLAC /Fond. Bruno Kessler, Povo

    2011-08-19

    Results on beam tests of 3D silicon pixel sensors aimed at the ATLAS Insertable-B-Layer and High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) upgrades are presented. Measurements include charge collection, tracking efficiency and charge sharing between pixel cells, as a function of track incident angle, and were performed with and without a 1.6 T magnetic field oriented as the ATLAS Inner Detector solenoid field. Sensors were bump bonded to the front-end chip currently used in the ATLAS pixel detector. Full 3D sensors, with electrodes penetrating through the entire wafer thickness and active edge, and double-sided 3D sensors with partially overlapping bias and read-out electrodes were tested and showed comparable performance. Full and partial 3D pixel detectors have been tested, with and without a 1.6T magnetic field, in high energy pion beams at the CERN SPS North Area in 2009. Sensors characteristics have been measured as a function of the beam incident angle and compared to a regular planar pixel device. Overall full and partial 3D devices have similar behavior. Magnetic field has no sizeable effect on 3D performances. Due to electrode inefficiency 3D devices exhibit some loss of tracking efficiency for normal incident tracks but recover full efficiency with tilted tracks. As expected due to the electric field configuration 3D sensors have little charge sharing between cells.

  1. The heart of ATLAS Commissioning and performance of the ATLAS silicon tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Magrath, Caroline Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has been built under the french-swiss border near Geneva, Switzerland. Two opposing beams of protons will collide with a centre of mass energy of 14 TeV, an energy seven million times that of the first accelerator. The LHC takes particle physics research to a new frontier. On September 10th 2008, the first single pilot beam of $2 x 10^9$ protons was circulated successfully through the entire LHC, with an injection energy of 0.45 TeV. The first collisions are expected in Summer 2009. One of the experiments designed to search for new particle phenomena is the ATLAS experiment. This is a general purpose detector capable of detecting and measuring the broadest range of particle signals. At the heart of the ATLAS detector lies the SemiConductor Tracker (SCT). It is a central part of the inner detector providing precision measurements of particle trajectories over a large $\\eta$ range. The work presented in this thesis focuses on the performance and commissioning of the SCT detector....

  2. Laser characterisation of a 3D single-type column p-type prototype module read out with ATLAS SCT electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrich, T. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder Str. 3, 79104 Freiburg (Germany); Kuehn, S. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder Str. 3, 79104 Freiburg (Germany)], E-mail: susanne.kuehn@physik.uni-freiburg.de; Boscardin, M.; Dalla Betta, G.-F. [ITC-irst Trento, Microsystems Division, via Sommarive, 18 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Eckert, S.; Jakobs, K.; Maassen, M.; Parzefall, U. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder Str. 3, 79104 Freiburg (Germany); Piemonte, C.; Pozza, A.; Ronchin, S.; Zorzi, N. [ITC-irst Trento, Microsystems Division, via Sommarive, 18 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy)

    2007-12-11

    In this paper measurements of a 3D single-type column (3D-stc) microstrip silicon device are shown. The 3D-stc sensor has n-type columns in p-type substrate. It has been connected to an ATLAS SCT ABCD3T chip and is readout with ATLAS SCT electronics at 40 MHz. Spatial measurements were done with a laser setup to investigate the expected low field region in 3D devices. An influence of the p-stops on the collected charge has been observed.

  3. Silicon strip tracking detector development and prototyping for the Phase-2 Upgrade of the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Kuehn, Susanne; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    In about ten years from now, the Phase-2 upgrade of the LHC is planned. This will result in a severe radiation dose and high particle rates for the multipurpose exeperiments because of a foreseen luminosity of ten times higher the LHC design luminosity. Several detector components will have to be upgraded in the experiments. In the ATLAS experiment the current inner detector will be replaced by an all silicon tracking detector aiming for high performance. The poster will present the development and the latest prototyping of the upgrade silicon strip tracking detector. Its layout foresees low mass and modular double-sided structures for the barrel and forward region. Silicon sensors and readout electronics, so-called modules, are planned to be assembled double-sided on larger carbon-core structures. The modularity allows assembly and testing at multiple sites. Many components need to be developed and their prototyping towards full-size components is ongoing. New developments and test results will be presented....

  4. Characterization of silicon 3D pixel detectors for the ATLAS Forward Physics experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Paz, I.; Cavallaro, E.; Lange, J. [Institut de Fisica d' Altes Energies - IFAE, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Grinstein, S. [Institut de Fisica d' Altes Energies - IFAE, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Catalan Institution for Research and Advanced Studies - ICREA, Barcelona (Spain)

    2015-07-01

    The ATLAS Forward Physics (AFP) project aims to measure protons scattered under a small angle from the pp collisions in ATLAS. In order to perform such measurements, a new silicon tracker, together with a time-of-flight detector for pile-up removal, are planned to be installed at ∼210 m from the interaction point and at 2-3 mm from the LHC proton beam. To cope with such configuration and maximize the physics outcome, the tracker has to fulfil three main requirements: endure highly non-uniform radiation doses, due to the very inhomogeneous beam profile, have slim and efficient edges to improve the acceptance of the tracker, and provide good position resolution. Recent laboratory and beam test characterization results of AFP prototypes will be presented. Slim-edged 3D pixel detectors down to 100-200 μm were studied and later non-uniformly irradiated (with a peak fluence of several 10{sup 15} n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}) to determine the fulfilment of the AFP requirements. (authors)

  5. 3D silicon pixel detectors for the ATLAS Forward Physics experiment

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00397348; Cavallaro, E.; Grinstein, S.; López Paz, I.

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS Forward Physics (AFP) project plans to install 3D silicon pixel detectors about 210 m away from the interaction point and very close to the beamline (2-3 mm). This implies the need of slim edges of about 100-200 $\\mu$m width for the sensor side facing the beam to minimise the dead area. Another challenge is an expected non-uniform irradiation of the pixel sensors. It is studied if these requirements can be met using slightly-modified FE-I4 3D pixel sensors from the ATLAS Insertable B-Layer production. AFP-compatible slim edges are obtained with a simple diamond-saw cut. Electrical characterisations and beam tests are carried out and no detrimental impact on the leakage current and hit efficiency is observed. For devices without a 3D guard ring a remaining insensitive edge of less than 15 $\\mu$m width is found. Moreover, 3D detectors are non-uniformly irradiated up to fluences of several 10$^{15}$ n$_{eq}$/cm$^2$ with either a focussed 23 GeV proton beam or a 23 MeV proton beam through holes in Al ma...

  6. Characterization and Performance of Silicon n-in-p Pixel Detectors for the ATLAS Upgrades

    CERN Document Server

    Weigell, Philipp; Gallrapp, Christian; La Rosa, Alessandro; Macchiolo, Anna; Nisius, Richard; Pernegger, Heinz; Richter, Rainer

    2011-01-01

    The existing ATLAS Tracker will be at its functional limit for particle fluences of 10^15 neq/cm^2 (LHC). Thus for the upgrades at smaller radii like in the case of the planned Insertable B-Layer (IBL) and for increased LHC luminosities (super LHC) the development of new structures and materials which can cope with the resulting particle fluences is needed. N-in-p silicon devices are a promising candidate for tracking detectors to achieve these goals, since they are radiation hard, cost efficient and are not type inverted after irradiation. A n-in-p pixel production based on a MPP/HLL design and performed by CiS (Erfurt, Germany) on 300 \\mu m thick Float-Zone material is characterised and the electrical properties of sensors and single chip modules (SCM) are presented, including noise, charge collection efficiencies, and measurements with MIPs as well as an 241Am source. The SCMs are built with sensors connected to the current the ATLAS read-out chip FE-I3. The characterisation has been performed with the ATL...

  7. The microstrip proportional counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, B. D.

    1992-01-01

    Microstrip detectors in which the usual discrete anode and cathode wires are replaced by conducting strips on an insulating or partially insulating substrate are fabricated using integrated circuit-type photolithographic techniques and hence offer very high spatial accuracy and uniformity, together with the capability of producing extremely fine electrode structures. Microstrip proportional counters have now been variously reported having an energy resolution of better than 11 percent FWHM at 5.9 keV. They have been fabricated with anode bars down to 2 microns and on a variety of substrate materials including thin films which can be molded to different shapes. This review will examine the development of the microstrip detector with emphasis on the qualities which make this detector particularly interesting for use in astronomy.

  8. Design and development of a vertex reconstruction for the CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) data. Study of gaseous and silicon micro-strips detectors (MSGC); Conception d'un algorithme de reconstruction de vertex pour les donnees de CMS. Etude de detecteurs gazeux (MSGC) et silicium a micropistes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreau, St

    2002-12-01

    The work presented in this thesis has contributed to the development of the Compact Muon Solenoid detector (CMS) that will be installed at the future Large Hadron Collider (LHC) which will start running in summer 2007. This report is organised in three parts: the study of gaseous detectors and silicon micro-strips detectors, and a development of a software for the reconstruction and analysis of CMS data in the framework of ORCA. First, the micro-strips gaseous detectors (MSGC) study was on the ultimate critical irradiation test before their substitution in the CMS tracker. This test showed a really small number of lost anodes and a stable signal to noise ratio. This test proved that the described MSGC fulfill all the requirements to be integrated in the CMS tracker. The following contribution described a study of silicon micro-strips detectors and its electronics exposed to a 40 MHz bunched LHC like beam. These tests indicated a good behaviour of the data acquisition and control system. The signal to noise ratio, the bunch crossing identification and the cluster finding efficiency had also be analysed. The last study concern the design and the development of an ORCA algorithm dedicates to secondary vertex reconstruction. This iterative algorithm aims to be use for b tagging. This part analyse also primary vertex reconstruction in events without and with pile up. (author)

  9. An Uncoventional Approach for a Straw Tube-Microstrip Detector

    OpenAIRE

    Basile, E.; Bellucci, F; Benussi, L.; Bertani, M.; Bianco, S.; Caponero, M. A.; Colonna, D.; Di Falco, F.; Fabbri, F. L.; Felli, F; Giardoni, M; La Monaca, A; Mensitieri, G.; Ortenzi, B; Pallotta, M.

    2004-01-01

    We report on a novel concept of silicon microstrips and straw tubes detector, where integration is accomplished by a straw module with straws not subjected to mechanical tension in a Rohacell lattice and carbon fiber reinforced plastic shell. Results on mechanical and test beam performances are reported on as well.

  10. Silicon strip tracking detector development and prototyping for the Phase-II upgrade of the ATLAS experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehn, S.

    2016-07-01

    In about ten years from now, the Phase-II upgrade of the LHC will be carried out. Due to increased luminosity, a severe radiation dose and high particle rates will occur for the experiments. In consequence, several detector components will have to be upgraded. In the ATLAS experiment, the current inner detector will be replaced by an all-silicon tracking detector with the goal of at least delivering the present detector performance also in the harsh Phase-II LHC conditions. This report presents the current planning and results from first prototype measurements of the upgrade silicon strip tracking detector.

  11. Silicon strip prototypes for the Phase-II upgrade of the ATLAS tracker for the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00474514

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the integration structures for the silicon strips tracker of the ATLAS detector proposed for the Phase-II upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), also referred to as High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC). In this proposed detector Silicon strip sensors are arranged in highly modular structures, called `staves' and `petals'. This paper presents performance results from the latest prototype stave built at Berkeley. This new, double-sided prototype is composed of a specialized core structure, in which a shield-less bus tape is embedded in between carbon fiber lay-ups. A detailed description of the prototype and its electrical performance are discussed in detail.

  12. Alternative glues for the production of ATLAS silicon strip modules for the Phase-II upgrade of the ATLAS Inner Detector

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00407830; Bloch, Ingo; Edwards, Sam; Friedrich, Conrad; Gregor, Ingrid M.; Jones, T; Lacker, Heiko; Pyatt, Simon; Rehnisch, Laura; Sperlich, Dennis; Wilson, John

    2016-01-01

    The Phase-II upgrade of the ATLAS detector for the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) includes the replacement of the current Inner Detector with an all-silicon tracker consisting of pixel and strip detectors. The current Phase-II detector layout requires the construction of 20,000 strip detector modules consisting of sensor, circuit boards and readout chips, which are connected mechanically using adhesives. The adhesive between readout chips and circuit board is a silver epoxy glue as was used in the current ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker (SCT). This glue has several disadvantages, which motivated the search for an alternative. This paper presents a study concerning the use of six ultra-violet (UV) cure glues and a glue pad for use in the assembly of silicon strip detector modules for the ATLAS upgrade. Trials were carried out to determine the ease of use, the thermal conduction and shear strength, thermal cycling, radiation hardness, corrosion resistance and shear strength tests. These investigatio...

  13. Alternative glues for the production of ATLAS silicon strip modules for the Phase-II upgrade of the ATLAS inner detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poley, Luise [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Humboldt Univ. Berlin (Germany); Bloch, Ingo [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Edwards, Sam [Birmingham Univ. (United Kingdom); and others

    2016-04-15

    The Phase-II upgrade of the ATLAS detector for the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) includes the replacement of the current Inner Detector with an all-silicon tracker consisting of pixel and strip detectors. The current Phase-II detector layout requires the construction of 20,000 strip detector modules consisting of sensor, circuit boards and readout chips, which are connected mechanically using adhesives. The adhesive between readout chips and circuit board is a silver epoxy glue as was used in the current ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker (SCT). This glue has several disadvantages, which motivated the search for an alternative. This paper presents a study concerning the use of six ultra-violet (UV) cure glues and a glue pad for use in the assembly of silicon strip detector modules for the ATLAS upgrade. Trials were carried out to determine the ease of use, the thermal conduction and shear strength, thermal cycling, radiation hardness, corrosion resistance and shear strength tests. These investigations led to the exclusion of three UV cure glues as well as the glue pad. Three UV cure glues were found to be possible better alternatives. Results from electrical tests of first prototype modules constructed using these glues are presented.

  14. Development and characterization of diamond and 3D-silicon pixel detectors with ATLAS-pixel readout electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathes, Markus

    2008-12-15

    Hybrid pixel detectors are used for particle tracking in the innermost layers of current high energy experiments like ATLAS. After the proposed luminosity upgrade of the LHC, they will have to survive very high radiation fluences of up to 10{sup 16} particles per cm{sup 2} per life time. New sensor concepts and materials are required, which promise to be more radiation tolerant than the currently used planar silicon sensors. Most prominent candidates are so-called 3D-silicon and single crystal or poly-crystalline diamond sensors. Using the ATLAS pixel electronics different detector prototypes with a pixel geometry of 400 x 50 {mu}m{sup 2} have been built. In particular three devices have been studied in detail: a 3D-silicon and a single crystal diamond detector with an active area of about 1 cm{sup 2} and a poly-crystalline diamond detector of the same size as a current ATLAS pixel detector module (2 x 6 cm{sup 2}). To characterize the devices regarding their particle detection efficiency and spatial resolution, the charge collection inside a pixel cell as well as the charge sharing between adjacent pixels was studied using a high energy particle beam. (orig.)

  15. Frequency scanning microstrip antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Magnus; Jørgensen, Rolf

    1979-01-01

    The principles of using radiating microstrip resonators as elements in a frequency scanning antenna array are described. The resonators are cascade-coupled. This gives a scan of the main lobe due to the phase-shift in the resonator in addition to that created by the transmission line phase...

  16. The ATLAS Inner Detector operation,data quality and tracking performance.

    CERN Document Server

    Stanecka, E; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS Inner Detector comprises silicon and gas based detectors. The Semi-Conductor Tracker (SCT) and the Pixel Detector are the key precision tracking silicon devices in the Inner Detector of the ATLAS experiment at CERN LHC. And the the Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT), the outermost of the three subsystems of the ATLAS Inner Detector is made of thin-walled proportional-mode drift tubes (straws). The Pixel Detector consists of approximately 80 million pixels that are individually read out via chips bump-bonded to 1744 n-in-n silicon substrates. The SCT is a silicon strip detector and is constructed of 4088 silicon detector modules for a total of 6.3 million strips. Each module is designed, constructed and tested to operate as a stand-alone unit, mechanically, electrically, optically and thermally. The SCT silicon micro-strip sensors are processed in the planar p-in-n technology. The signals from the strips are processed in the front-end ASICS ABCD3TA, working in the binary readout mode. The TRT is made...

  17. Tracking and vertexing performance of the ATLAS Inner Detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Marti, S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at the LHC is equipped with a charged particle tracking system, the Inner Detector, built on three subdetectors, which provide high precision measurements made from a fine detector granularity. The Pixel and microstrip (SCT) subdetectors, which use the silicon technology, are complemented with the Transition Radiation Tracker. Since the LHC startup in 2009, the ATLAS inner tracker has played a central role in many ATLAS physics analyses. Rapid improvements in the calibration and alignment of the detector allowed it to reach nearly the nominal performance in the timespan of a few months. The tracking performance proved to be stable as the LHC luminosity increased by five orders of magnitude during the 2010 proton run, while the performance was only slightly degraded in the extremely dense heavy ion collisions. New developments in the offline reconstruction for the 2011 run will improve the tracking performance in high pile-up conditions.

  18. Alignment of the ATLAS Inner Detector in the LHC Run II

    CERN Document Server

    Barranco Navarro, Laura; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    ATLAS physics goals require excellent resolution, unbiased measurement of all charged particle kinematic parameters. These critically depend on the layout and performance of the tracking system and on the quality of its offline alignment. ATLAS is equipped with a tracking system built using different technologies, silicon planar sensors (pixel and micro-strip) and gaseous drift- tubes, all embedded in a 2T solenoidal magnetic field. For the Run II of the LHC, the system was upgraded with the installation of a new pixel layer, the Insertable B-layer (IBL). An outline of the track based alignment approach and its implementation within the ATLAS software will be presented. Special attention will be paid to integration of the IBL into the alignment framework, techniques allowing to identify and eliminate tracking systematics as well as strategies to deal with time-dependent alignment. Performance from the commissioning of Cosmic data and potentially early LHC Run II proton-proton collisions will be discussed.

  19. The Optical Links of the ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Abdesselam, A; Apsimon, R; Band, C; Barr, C; Batchelor, L; Bates, R; Bell, P; Bernabeu, J; Bizzell, J; Brenner, R; Brodbeck, T; Bruckman De Renstrom, P; Buttar, C; Carter, J; Charlton, D; Cheplakov, A; Chilingarov, A; Chu, M-L; Colijn, A-P; Dawson, I; Demirkõz, B; de Jong, P; Dervan, P; Dolezal, Z; Dowell, J; Escobar, P; Spencer, E; Ekelöf, T J C; Eklund, L; Ferrere, D; Fraser, T; French, M; French, R; Fuster, J; Gallop, B; García, C; Goodrick, M; Greenall, A; Grillo, A; Grosse-Knetter, J; Hartjes, F; Hessey, N; Hill, J C; Homer, J; Hou, L; Hughes, G; Ikegami, Y; Issever, C; Jackson, J; Jones, M; Jones, T J; Jovanovic, P; Koffeman, E; Kodys, P; Kohriki, T; Lee, S-C; Lester, C; Limper, M; Lindsay, S W; Lozano, M; Macwaters, C; Magrath, C; Mahout, G; Mandic, I; Matheson, J; McMahon, T; Mikulec, B; Muijs, A; Morrissey, M; Nichols, A; Nickerson, R; O'Shea, V; Pagenis, S; Parker, M; Pater, J; Perrin, E; Pernegger, H; Peeters, S; Phillips, P; Postranecky, M; Robinson, D; Robson, A; Rudge, A; Sandaker, H; Sedlak, K; Smith, N A; Stapnes, S; Stugu, B; Teng, P K; Terada, S; Tricoli, A; Tyndel, M; Ujiie, N; Ullán, M; Unno, Y; van der Kraaij, E; Van Vulpen, I; Viehhauser, G; Vossebeld, J H; Warren, M; Wastie, R; Weidberg, A; Wells, P; White, D; Wilson, J

    2007-01-01

    Optical links are used for the readout of the 4088 silicon microstrip modules that make up the SemiConductor Tracker of the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The optical link requirements are reviewed, with particular emphasis on the very demanding environment at the LHC. The on-detector components have to operate in high radiation levels for 10 years, with no maintenance, and there are very strict requirements on power consumption, material and space. A novel concept for the packaging of the on-detector optoelectronics has been developed to meet these requirements. The system architecture, including its redundancy features, is explained and the critical on-detector components are described. The results of the extensive Quality Assurance performed during all steps of the assembly are discussed. Optical links are used for the readout of the 4088 silicon microstrip modules that make up the SemiConductor Tracker of the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The optical ...

  20. The electronics hybrid of the ATLAS-SCT endcap detector modules

    CERN Document Server

    Ketterer, C

    2004-01-01

    An electronics hybrid has been developed for the ATLAS silicon microstrip tracker endcaps. The high-density interconnect board carries 12 readout ASICs, as well as ASICs for the optical data transmission. Special requirements are that this hybrid has to be double sided, radiation hard, and low mass. A six-layer flexible circuit in copper-polyimide technology has been chosen for this purpose. It is folded around a highly heat conducting carbon-carbon composite substrate to form the rigid double-sided hybrid. Adequate thermal, mechanical, and electrical performance of the hybrid has been demonstrated. The production of the hybrids started in May 2003. (12 refs).

  1. Production Performance of the ATLAS Semiconductor Tracker Readout System

    CERN Document Server

    Mitsou, V A

    2006-01-01

    The ATLAS Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) together with the pixel and the transition radiation detectors will form the tracking system of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. It will consist of 20000 single-sided silicon microstrip sensors assembled back-to-back into modules mounted on four concentric barrels and two end-cap detectors formed by nine disks each. The SCT module production and testing has finished while the macro-assembly is well under way. After an overview of the layout and the operating environment of the SCT, a description of the readout electronics design and operation requirements will be given. The quality control procedure and the DAQ software for assuring the electrical functionality of hybrids and modules will be discussed. The focus will be on the electrical performance results obtained during the assembly and testing of the end-cap SCT modules.

  2. Optically controlled photonic bandgap structures for microstrip circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Cadman, D A

    2003-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the optical control of microwave photonic bandgap circuits using high resistivity silicon. Photoconducting processes that occur within silicon are investigated. The influence of excess carrier density on carrier mobility and lifetime is examined. In addition, electron-hole pair recombination mechanisms (Shockley-Read-Hall, Auger, radiative and surface) are investigated. The microwave properties of silicon are examined, in particular the variation of silicon reflectivity with excess carrier density. Filtering properties of microstrip photonic bandgap structures and how they may be controlled optically are studied. A proof-of-concept microstrip photonic bandgap structure with optical control is designed, simulated and measured. With no optical illumination incident upon the silicon, the microstrip photonic bandgap structure's filtering properties are well-defined; a 3dB stopband width of 2.6GHz, a 6dB bandwidth of 2GHz and stopband depth of -11.6dB at the centre frequency of 9.9GHz...

  3. An on-line acoustic fluorocarbon coolant mixture analyzer for the ATLAS silicon tracker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, R. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Univ. of Glasgow, G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Battistin, M. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Berry, S.; Bitadze, A. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Univ. of Glasgow, G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Bonneau, P. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Bousson, N. [Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille, 163 Avenue de Luminy, 13288 Marseille Cedex 09 (France); Boyd, G. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Botelho-Direito, J.; DiGirolamo, B. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Doubek, M. [Czech Technical Univ., Technicka 4, 166 07 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Egorov, K. [Physics Dept., Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Godlewski, J. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Hallewell, G. [Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille, 163 Avenue de Luminy, 13288 Marseille Cedex 09 (France); Katunin, S. [B.P. Konstantinov Petersburg Nuclear Physics Inst. PNPI, 188300 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Mathieu, M.; McMahon, S. [Rutherford Appelton Laboratory - Science and Technology Facilities Council, Chilton, Didcot OX11 OQX (United Kingdom); Nagai, K. [Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, Univ. of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Perez-Rodriguez, E. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Rozanov, A. [Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille, 163 Avenue de Luminy, 13288 Marseille Cedex 09 (France); Vacek, V.; Vitek, M. [Czech Technical Univ., Technicka 4, 166 07 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)

    2011-07-01

    The ATLAS silicon tracker community foresees an upgrade from the present octafluoro-propane (C{sub 3}F{sub 8}) evaporative cooling fluid - to a composite fluid with a probable 10-20% admixture of hexafluoro-ethane (C{sub 2}F{sub 6}). Such a fluid will allow a lower evaporation temperature and will afford the tracker silicon substrates a better safety margin against leakage current-induced thermal runaway caused by cumulative radiation damage as the luminosity profile at the CERN Large Hadron Collider increases. Central to the use of this new fluid is a new custom-developed speed-of-sound instrument for continuous real-time measurement of the C{sub 3}F{sub 8}/C{sub 2}F{sub 6} mixture ratio and flow. An acoustic vapour mixture analyzer/flow meter with new custom electronics allowing ultrasonic frequency transmission through gas mixtures has been developed for this application. Synchronous with the emission of an ultrasound 'chirp' from an acoustic transmitter, a fast readout clock (40 MHz) is started. The clock is stopped on receipt of an above threshold sound pulse at the receiver. Sound is alternately transmitted parallel and anti-parallel with the vapour flow for volume flow measurement from transducers that can serve as acoustic transmitters or receivers. In the development version, continuous real-time measurement of C{sub 3}F{sub 8}/C{sub 2}F{sub 6} flow and calculation of the mixture ratio is performed within a graphical user interface developed in PVSS-II, the Supervisory, Control and Data Acquisition standard chosen for LHC and its experiments at CERN. The described instrument has numerous potential applications - including refrigerant leak detection, the analysis of hydrocarbons, vapour mixtures for semiconductor manufacture and anesthetic gas mixtures. (authors)

  4. A combined ultrasonic flow meter and binary vapour mixture analyzer for the ATLAS silicon tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Bates, R; Berry, S; Berthoud, J; Bitadze, A; Bonneau, P; Botelho-Direito, J; Bousson, N; Boyd, G; Bozza, G; Da Riva, E; Degeorge, C; DiGirolamo, B; Doubek, M; Giugni, D; Godlewski, J; Hallewell, G; Katunin, S; Lombard, D; Mathieu, M; McMahon, S; Nagai, K; Perez-Rodriguez, E; Rossi, C; Rozanov, A; Vacek, V; Vitek, M; Zwalinski, L

    2013-01-01

    An upgrade to the ATLAS silicon tracker cooling control system may require a change from C3F8 (octafluoro-propane) evaporative coolant to a blend containing 10-25% of C2F6 (hexafluoro-ethane). Such a change will reduce the evaporation temperature to assure thermal stability following radiation damage accumulated at full LHC luminosity. Central to this upgrade is a new ultrasonic instrument in which sound transit times are continuously measured in opposite directions in flowing gas at known temperature and pressure to deduce the C3F8/C2F6 flow rate and mixture composition. The instrument and its Supervisory, Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) software are described in this paper. Several geometries for the instrument are in use or under evaluation. An instrument with a pinched axial geometry intended for analysis and measurement of moderate flow rates has demonstrated a mixture resolution of 3.10-3 for C3F8/C2F6 molar mixtures with 20%C2F6, and a flow resolution of 2% of full scale for mass flows up to 30gs-...

  5. Silicon strip prototypes for the ATLAS Upgrade tracker of the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Diez, S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    We present the development of a low mass, highly modular structure for the strip tracker region of the upgraded ATLAS detector of the HL-LHC. The design of this double-sided structure, called “stavelet”, has been modified with respect to the baseline design in order to reduce significantly the amount of material, keeping the same electrical and thermal performances of previous single-sided stave prototypes. The aluminium shielding layers of the bus tapes that constitute the power and data traces have been removed, allowing an effective reduction of the percentage radiation length approximately equal to 15 % with respect to the previous prototypes. A new co-curing process for the bus tapes and carbon fibre facings has been investigated. In this process, the bus tapes are embedded in between the carbon fibre facings, acting as an effective shielding for the sensor modules. Precision mechanical assembly tools have also been developed, allowing for controlled placement and gluing of the silicon modules onto t...

  6. Development of Edgeless Silicon Pixel Sensors on p-type substrate for the ATLAS High-Luminosity Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Calderini, G; Bomben, M; Boscardin, M; Bosisio, L; Chauveau, J; Giacomini, G; La Rosa, A; Marchiori, G; Zorzi, N

    2014-01-01

    In view of the LHC upgrade for the high luminosity phase (HL-LHC), the ATLAS experiment is planning to replace the inner detector with an all-silicon system. The n-in-p bulk technology represents a valid solution for the modules of most of the layers, given the significant radiation hardness of this option and the reduced cost. The large area necessary to instrument the outer layers will demand to tile the sensors, a solution for which the inefficient region at the border of each sensor needs to be reduced to the minimum size. This paper reports on a joint R&D project by the ATLAS LPNHE Paris group and FBK Trento on a novel n-in-p edgeless planar pixel design, based on the deep-trench process available at FBK.

  7. Performance, high voltage operation and radiation hardness of full-size ATLAS charge division silicon detectors with LHC electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allport, P. P.; Booth, P. S. L.; Carter, J. R.; Goodrick, M. J.; Green, C.; Greenall, A.; Hanlon, M.; Hill, J. C.; Jackson, J. N.; Jones, T. J.; Martí i García, S.; Munday, D. J.; Murray, W.; Richardson, J. D.; Robinson, D.; Sheridan, A. E.; Smith, N. A.; Tyndel, M.; Wyllie, K.

    1998-02-01

    ATLAS silicon detectors designed for charge division read-out were produced during 1995 and have been extensively studied both in the laboratory and test beam at the CERN SPS. Data have been taken with the analogue read-out FELIX-128 chip and studies simulating other read-out architectures under consideration by ATLAS have been performed. To evaluate survival in the harsh environment of the LHC, detectors have been tested to high voltage, both before and after radiation damage by protons exceeding the expected charged hadron dose after 10 years of LHC operation. These tests have all employed analogue read-out to be sensitive to changes in noise and charge collection efficiency as a function of the detector damage.

  8. Evaluation of the performance of irradiated silicon strip sensors for the forward detector of the ATLAS Inner Tracker Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, R.; Allport, P. P.; Baca, M.; Broughton, J.; Chisholm, A.; Nikolopoulos, K.; Pyatt, S.; Thomas, J. P.; Wilson, J. A.; Kierstead, J.; Kuczewski, P.; Lynn, D.; Arratia-Munoz, M. I.; Hommels, L. B. A.; Ullan, M.; Fleta, C.; Fernandez-Tejero, J.; Bloch, I.; Gregor, I. M.; Lohwasser, K.; Poley, L.; Tackmann, K.; Trofimov, A.; Yildirim, E.; Hauser, M.; Jakobs, K.; Kuehn, S.; Mahboubi, K.; Parzefall, U.; Clark, A.; Ferrere, D.; Sevilla, S. Gonzalez; Ashby, J.; Blue, A.; Bates, R.; Buttar, C.; Doherty, F.; McMullen, T.; McEwan, F.; O'Shea, V.; Kamada, S.; Yamamura, K.; Ikegami, Y.; Nakamura, K.; Takubo, Y.; Unno, Y.; Takashima, R.; Chilingarov, A.; Fox, H.; Affolder, A. A.; Casse, G.; Dervan, P.; Forshaw, D.; Greenall, A.; Wonsak, S.; Wormald, M.; Cindro, V.; Kramberger, G.; Mandić, I.; Mikuž, M.; Gorelov, I.; Hoeferkamp, M.; Palni, P.; Seidel, S.; Taylor, A.; Toms, K.; Wang, R.; Hessey, N. P.; Valencic, N.; Hanagaki, K.; Dolezal, Z.; Kodys, P.; Bohm, J.; Stastny, J.; Mikestikova, M.; Bevan, A.; Beck, G.; Milke, C.; Domingo, M.; Fadeyev, V.; Galloway, Z.; Hibbard-Lubow, D.; Liang, Z.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Seiden, A.; To, K.; French, R.; Hodgson, P.; Marin-Reyes, H.; Parker, K.; Jinnouchi, O.; Hara, K.; Sato, K.; Sato, K.; Hagihara, M.; Iwabuchi, S.; Bernabeu, J.; Civera, J. V.; Garcia, C.; Lacasta, C.; Garcia, S. Marti i.; Rodriguez, D.; Santoyo, D.; Solaz, C.; Soldevila, U.

    2016-09-01

    The upgrade to the High-Luminosity LHC foreseen in about ten years represents a great challenge for the ATLAS inner tracker and the silicon strip sensors in the forward region. Several strip sensor designs were developed by the ATLAS collaboration and fabricated by Hamamatsu in order to maintain enough performance in terms of charge collection efficiency and its uniformity throughout the active region. Of particular attention, in the case of a stereo-strip sensor, is the area near the sensor edge where shorter strips were ganged to the complete ones. In this work the electrical and charge collection test results on irradiated miniature sensors with forward geometry are presented. Results from charge collection efficiency measurements show that at the maximum expected fluence, the collected charge is roughly halved with respect to the one obtained prior to irradiation. Laser measurements show a good signal uniformity over the sensor. Ganged strips have a similar efficiency as standard strips.

  9. Evaluation of the performance of irradiated silicon strip sensors for the forward detector of the ATLAS Inner Tracker Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, R., E-mail: riccardo.mori@physik.uni-freiburg.de [Physikalisches Institut, Universität Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Allport, P.P.; Baca, M.; Broughton, J.; Chisholm, A.; Nikolopoulos, K.; Pyatt, S.; Thomas, J.P.; Wilson, J.A. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Kierstead, J.; Kuczewski, P.; Lynn, D. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Physics Department and Instrumentation Division, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); Arratia-Munoz, M.I.; Hommels, L.B.A. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Ullan, M.; Fleta, C.; Fernandez-Tejero, J. [Centro Nacional de Microelectronica (IMB-CNM, CSIC), Campus UAB-Bellaterra, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Bloch, I.; Gregor, I.M.; Lohwasser, K. [DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hambrug (Germany); and others

    2016-09-21

    The upgrade to the High-Luminosity LHC foreseen in about ten years represents a great challenge for the ATLAS inner tracker and the silicon strip sensors in the forward region. Several strip sensor designs were developed by the ATLAS collaboration and fabricated by Hamamatsu in order to maintain enough performance in terms of charge collection efficiency and its uniformity throughout the active region. Of particular attention, in the case of a stereo-strip sensor, is the area near the sensor edge where shorter strips were ganged to the complete ones. In this work the electrical and charge collection test results on irradiated miniature sensors with forward geometry are presented. Results from charge collection efficiency measurements show that at the maximum expected fluence, the collected charge is roughly halved with respect to the one obtained prior to irradiation. Laser measurements show a good signal uniformity over the sensor. Ganged strips have a similar efficiency as standard strips.

  10. A CMOS readout circuit for microstrip detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasri, B.; Fiorini, C.

    2015-03-01

    In this work, we present the design and the results of a CMOS analog channel for silicon microstrips detectors. The readout circuit was initially conceived for the outer layers of the SuperB silicon vertex tracker (SVT), but can serve more generally other microstrip-based detection systems. The strip detectors considered show a very high stray capacitance and high series resistance. Therefore, the noise optimization was the first priority design concern. A necessary compromise on the best peaking time to achieve an acceptable noise level together with efficiency and timing accuracy has been investigated. The ASIC is composed by a preamplifier, shaping amplifier and a Time over Threshold (T.o.T) block for the digitalization of the signals. The chosen shaping function is the third-order semi-Gaussian function implemented with complex poles. An inverter stage is employed in the analog channel in order to operate with signals delivered from both p and n strips. The circuit includes the possibility to select the peaking time of the shaper output from four values: 250 ns, 375 ns, 500 ns and 750 ns. In this way, the noise performances and the signal occupancy can be optimized according to the real background during the experiment. The ASIC prototype has been fabricated in the 130 nm IBM technology which is considered intrinsically radiation hard. The results of the experimental characterization of a produced prototype are satisfactorily matched with simulation.

  11. Effect of SiO$_{2}$ passivating layer in segmented silicon planar detectors on the detector response

    CERN Document Server

    Verbitskaya, Elena; Eremin, Vladimir; Golubkov, S; Konkov, K; Roe, Shaun; Ruggiero, G; Sidorov, A; Weilhammer, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Silicon detectors with a fine segmentation (micropixel and microstrip) are the main type of detectors used in the inner trackers of LHC experiments. Due to the high luminosity of the LHC machines they are required to have a fast response to fit the short shaping time of 25 ns and to be radiation hard. Evaluation of silicon microstrip detectors developed for the ATLAS silicon tracker and carried out under collaboration of CERN and PTI has shown the reversal of the pulse polarity in the detector response to short- range radiation. Since the negative signal is of about 30% of the normal positive one, the effect strongly reduces the charge collection efficiency in irradiated detectors. The investigation presents the consideration on the origin of a negative response in Si microstrip detectors and the experimental proof of the model. The study of the effect has been carried out using "baby" strip detectors with a special design: each strip has a window in a metallization, which covers the p/sup +/ implant. The sca...

  12. Optimisation of Microstrip Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. El Hamchary

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available When choosing the most appropriate microstrip antenna configuration for particular applications, the kind of excitation of the radiating element is an essential factor that requires careful considerations. For controlling the distribution of energy of the linear or planar array of elements and for coupling energy to the individual elements, a wide variety of feed mechanisms are available. In this paper, the coaxial antenna feeding is assumed and the best (optimised feeding is found. Then, antenna characteristics such as radiation pattern, return loss, input impedance, and VSWR are obtained.

  13. Performance of Edgeless Silicon Pixel Sensors on p-type substrate for the ATLAS High-Luminosity Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00052711; Boscardin, Maurizio; Bosisio, Luciano; Calderini, Giovanni; Chauveau, Jacques; Ducourthial, Audrey; Giacomini, Gabriele; Marchiori, Giovanni; Zorzi, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    In view of the LHC upgrade phases towards the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), the ATLAS experiment plans to upgrade the Inner Detector with an all-silicon system. The n-on-p silicon technology is a promising candidate to achieve a large area instrumented with pixel sensors, since it is radiation hard and cost effective. The paper reports on the performance of novel n-on-p edgeless planar pixel sensors produced by FBK-CMM, making use of the active trench for the reduction of the dead area at the periphery of the device. After discussing the sensor technology an overview of the first beam test results will be given.

  14. Detector Developments for the LHC CMS TOB Silicon Detector Modules and ATLAS TileCal Read-Out Driver

    CERN Document Server

    Poveda, J; Ferrer, A

    2005-01-01

    This Research Report is divided in two different parts corresponding to two different periods of time working in different collaborations. First, a general approach to the framework where this work is set is presented at the Introduction: the CERN laboratory near Geneva, the LHC accelerator and its two general purpose experiments CMS and ATLAS. The first part of this report consists in the study of the performance of the silicon strip detectors specifically designed for the Tracker Outer Barrel (TOB) of the CMS Tracker detector. Results of the performance of CMS TOB silicon detector modules mounted on the first assembled double-sided rod at CERN are presented. These results are given in terms of noise, noise occupancies, signal to noise ratios and signal efficiencies. The detector signal efficiencies and noise occupancies are also shown as a function of threshold for a particular clustering algorithm. Signal efficiencies versus noise occupancy plots as a function of the threshold level, which could also be us...

  15. Development of Edgeless Silicon Pixel Sensors on p-type substrate for the ATLAS High-Luminosity Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calderini, G. [Laboratoire de Physique Nucléaire et des Hautes Energies (LPNHE), Paris (France); Dipartimento di Fisica E. Fermi, Universitá di Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Bagolini, A. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi (FBK-CMM), Povo di Trento (Italy); Beccherle, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sez. di Pisa (Italy); Bomben, M. [Laboratoire de Physique Nucléaire et des Hautes Energies (LPNHE), Paris (France); Boscardin, M. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi (FBK-CMM), Povo di Trento (Italy); Bosisio, L. [Università degli studi di Trieste (Italy); INFN-Trieste (Italy); Chauveau, J. [Laboratoire de Physique Nucléaire et des Hautes Energies (LPNHE), Paris (France); Giacomini, G. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi (FBK-CMM), Povo di Trento (Italy); La Rosa, A. [Section de Physique (DPNC), Universitè de Geneve, Geneve (Switzerland); Marchiori, G. [Laboratoire de Physique Nucléaire et des Hautes Energies (LPNHE), Paris (France); Zorzi, N. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi (FBK-CMM), Povo di Trento (Italy)

    2016-09-21

    In view of the LHC upgrade phases towards the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), the ATLAS experiment plans to upgrade the Inner Detector with an all-silicon system. The n-on-p silicon technology is a promising candidate to achieve a large area instrumented with pixel sensors, since it is radiation hard and cost effective. The presentation describes the performance of novel n-in-p edgeless planar pixel sensors produced by FBK-CMM, making use of the active trench for the reduction of the dead area at the periphery of the device. After discussing the sensor technology, some feedback from preliminary results of the first beam test will be discussed.

  16. Development of Edgeless Silicon Pixel Sensors on p-type substrate for the ATLAS High-Luminosity Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderini, G.; Bagolini, A.; Beccherle, R.; Bomben, M.; Boscardin, M.; Bosisio, L.; Chauveau, J.; Giacomini, G.; La Rosa, A.; Marchiori, G.; Zorzi, N.

    2016-09-01

    In view of the LHC upgrade phases towards the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), the ATLAS experiment plans to upgrade the Inner Detector with an all-silicon system. The n-on-p silicon technology is a promising candidate to achieve a large area instrumented with pixel sensors, since it is radiation hard and cost effective. The presentation describes the performance of novel n-in-p edgeless planar pixel sensors produced by FBK-CMM, making use of the active trench for the reduction of the dead area at the periphery of the device. After discussing the sensor technology, some feedback from preliminary results of the first beam test will be discussed.

  17. ATLAS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — ATLAS is a particle physics experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research. Scientists from Brookhaven have played...

  18. Production of ALICE microstrip detectors at ITC-irst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregori, Paolo [ITC-irst, Via Sommarive 18, I-38050 Povo, Trento (Italy)]. E-mail: gregori@itc.it; Bellutti, Pierluigi [ITC-irst, Via Sommarive 18, I-38050 Povo, Trento (Italy); Boscardin, Maurizio [ITC-irst, Via Sommarive 18, I-38050 Povo, Trento (Italy); Collini, Amos [ITC-irst, Via Sommarive 18, I-38050 Povo, Trento (Italy); Dalla Betta, Gian-Franco [ITC-irst, Via Sommarive 18, I-38050 Povo, Trento (Italy); DIT, Universita di Trento, Via Sommarive 14, I-38050 Povo, Trento (Italy); Pucker, Georg [ITC-irst, Via Sommarive 18, I-38050 Povo, Trento (Italy); Zorzi, Nicola [ITC-irst, Via Sommarive 18, I-38050 Povo, Trento (Italy)

    2007-03-01

    We report on the results from the production of 600 double-sided silicon microstrip detectors for the ALICE experiment. We present the fabrication process and some selected results from the electrical characterization of detectors and test structures. The large amount of experimental data allowed a statistically relevant analysis to be performed. The main technological aspects related to production yield optimization will also be addressed.

  19. A Combined On-Line Acoustic Flowmeter and Fluorocarbon Coolant Mixture Analyzer for The ATLAS Silicon Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Bitadze, A; Battistin, M; Berry, S; Bonneau, P; Botelho-Direito, J; DiGirolamo, B; Godlewski, J; Perez-Rodriguez, E; Zwalinski, L; Bousson, N; Hallewell, G; Mathieu, M; Rozanov, A; Boyd, G; Doubek, M; Vacek, V; Vitek, M; Egorov, K; Katunin, S; McMahon, S; Nagai, K

    2011-01-01

    An upgrade to the ATLAS silicon tracker cooling control system may require a change from C3F8 (octafluoro-propane) to a blend containing 10-30% of C2F6 (hexafluoro-ethane) to reduce the evaporation temperature and better protect the silicon from cumulative radiation damage with increasing LHC luminosity. Central to this upgrade is a new acoustic instrument for the real-time measurement of the C3F8/C2F6 mixture ratio and flow. The instrument and its Supervisory, Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) software are described in this paper. The instrument has demonstrated a resolution of 3.10-3 for C3F8/C2F6 mixtures with ~20%C2F6, and flow resolution of 2% of full scale for mass flows up to 30gs-1. In mixtures of widely-differing molecular weight (mw), higher mixture precision is possible: a sensitivity of < 5.10-4 to leaks of C3F8 into the ATLAS pixel detector nitrogen envelope (mw difference 160) has been seen. The instrument has many potential applications, including the analysis of mixtures of hydrocarbons,...

  20. 3D silicon sensors: Design, large area production and quality assurance for the ATLAS IBL pixel detector upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da Via, Cinzia [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Boscardin, Maurizio [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, FBK-CMM, Via Sommarive 18, I-38123 Trento (Italy); Dalla Betta, Gian-Franco, E-mail: dallabe@disi.unitn.it [DISI, Universita degli Studi di Trento and INFN, Via Sommarive 14, I-38123 Trento (Italy); Darbo, Giovanni [INFN Sezione di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, I-14146 Genova (Italy); Fleta, Celeste [Centro Nacional de Microelectronica, CNM-IMB (CSIC), Barcelona E-08193 (Spain); Gemme, Claudia [INFN Sezione di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, I-14146 Genova (Italy); Grenier, Philippe [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Grinstein, Sebastian [Institut de Fisica d' Altes Energies (IFAE) and ICREA, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (UAB), E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Hansen, Thor-Erik [SINTEF MiNaLab, Blindern, N-0314 Oslo (Norway); Hasi, Jasmine; Kenney, Chris [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Kok, Angela [SINTEF MiNaLab, Blindern, N-0314 Oslo (Norway); Parker, Sherwood [University of Hawaii, c/o Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Pellegrini, Giulio [Centro Nacional de Microelectronica, CNM-IMB (CSIC), Barcelona E-08193 (Spain); Vianello, Elisa; Zorzi, Nicola [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, FBK-CMM, Via Sommarive 18, I-38123 Trento (Italy)

    2012-12-01

    3D silicon sensors, where electrodes penetrate the silicon substrate fully or partially, have successfully been fabricated in different processing facilities in Europe and USA. The key to 3D fabrication is the use of plasma micro-machining to etch narrow deep vertical openings allowing dopants to be diffused in and form electrodes of pin junctions. Similar openings can be used at the sensor's edge to reduce the perimeter's dead volume to as low as {approx}4 {mu}m. Since 2009 four industrial partners of the 3D ATLAS R and D Collaboration started a joint effort aimed at one common design and compatible processing strategy for the production of 3D sensors for the LHC Upgrade and in particular for the ATLAS pixel Insertable B-Layer (IBL). In this project, aimed for installation in 2013, a new layer will be inserted as close as 3.4 cm from the proton beams inside the existing pixel layers of the ATLAS experiment. The detector proximity to the interaction point will therefore require new radiation hard technologies for both sensors and front end electronics. The latter, called FE-I4, is processed at IBM and is the biggest front end of this kind ever designed with a surface of {approx}4 cm{sup 2}. The performance of 3D devices from several wafers was evaluated before and after bump-bonding. Key design aspects, device fabrication plans and quality assurance tests during the 3D sensors prototyping phase are discussed in this paper.

  1. TEM wave propagation in a microstrip line on a substrate of circular segment cross section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malits, P.; Haridim, M.; Chulski, S.

    2015-12-01

    TEM mode wave propagation in a microstrip transmission line on a dielectric substrate of circular segment cross section is of concern. A suggested design of a microstrip is convenient for manufacturing and allows to miniaturize microstrips since there is no lateral fringing effect of the substrate in the transmitted fundamental TEM mode. By using the bipolar orthogonal coordinates, the plane potential problem is reformulated in the form of trigonometric dual integral equations. The discontinuous integrals containing Legendre functions of complex degree and the Abel integral equation are employed to reduce the dual equations to a Fredholm equation of the second kind. The structure of the Fredholm integral equation allows to obtain a simple approximate solution. Basing on this solution, rigorous approximate formulas for the characteristic impedance are derived. The characteristic impedance of a microstrip transmission line on a silicon substrate is computed and plotted as an example.

  2. ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Barrel and END-CAP Toroids In order to produce a powerful magnetic field to bend the paths of the muons, the ATLAS detector uses an exceptionally large system of air-core toroids arranged outside the calorimeter volumes. The large volume magnetic field has a wide angular coverage and strengths of up to 4.7tesla. The toroids system contains over 100km of superconducting wire and has a design current of 20 500 amperes. (ATLAS brochure: The Technical Challenges)

  3. Development of a modular test system for the silicon sensor R&D of the ATLAS Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, H.; Benoit, M.; Chen, H.; Chen, K.; Di Bello, F.A.; Iacobucci, G.; Lanni, F.; Peric, I.; Ristic, B.; Pinto, M. Vicente Barreto; Wu, W.; Xu, L.; Jin, G.

    2016-01-01

    High Voltage CMOS sensors are a promising technology for tracking detectors in collider experiments. Extensive R&D studies are being carried out by the ATLAS Collaboration for a possible use of HV-CMOS in the High Luminosity LHC upgrade of the Inner Tracker detector. CaRIBOu (Control and Readout Itk BOard) is a modular test system developed to test Silicon based detectors. It currently includes five custom designed boards, a Xilinx ZC706 development board, FELIX (Front-End LInk eXchange) PCIe card and a host computer. A software program has been developed in Python to control the CaRIBOu hardware. CaRIBOu has been used in the testbeam of the HV-CMOS sensor CCPDv4 at CERN. Preliminary results have shown that the test system is very versatile. Further development is ongoing to adapt to different sensors, and to make it available to various lab test stands.

  4. Development of a modular test system for the silicon sensor R&D of the ATLAS Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H.; Benoit, M.; Chen, H.; Chen, K.; Di Bello, F. A.; Iacobucci, G.; Lanni, F.; Peric, I.; Ristic, B.; Barreto Pinto, M. Vicente; Wu, W.; Xu, L.; Jin, G.

    2017-01-01

    High Voltage CMOS sensors are a promising technology for tracking detectors in collider experiments. Extensive R&D studies are being carried out by the ATLAS Collaboration for a possible use of HV-CMOS in the High Luminosity LHC upgrade of the Inner Tracker detector. CaRIBOu (Control and Readout Itk BOard) is a modular test system developed to test Silicon based detectors. It currently includes five custom designed boards, a Xilinx ZC706 development board, FELIX (Front-End LInk eXchange) PCIe card and a host computer. A software program has been developed in Python to control the CaRIBOu hardware. CaRIBOu has been used in the testbeam of the HV-CMOS sensor AMS180v4 at CERN. Preliminary results have shown that the test system is very versatile. Further development is ongoing to adapt to different sensors, and to make it available to various lab test stands.

  5. A Novel Approach for an Integrated Straw tube-Microstrip Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Basile, E; Bellucci, F; Benussi, L; Bertani, M; Bettuzzi, M; Bianco, S; Caponero, M A; Casali, F; Colonna, D; Fabbri, F L; Falco, F D; Felli, F; Giardoni, M; La Monaca, A; Massa, F; Mensitieri, G; Ortenzi, B; Pallotta, M; Paolozzi, A; Passamonti, L; Petrilli, E; Pierluigi, D; Pucci, C; Russo, A; Saviano, G

    2006-01-01

    We report on a novel concept of silicon microstrips and straw tubes detector, where integration is accomplished by a straw module with straws not subjected to mechanical tension in a Rohacell $^{\\circledR}$ lattice and carbon fiber reinforced plastic shell. Results on mechanical and test beam performances are reported on as well.

  6. Operation and performance of the ATLAS semiconductor tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdel Khalek, Samah; Abdinov, Ovsat; Aben, Rosemarie; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abreu, Ricardo; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adye, Tim; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Agustoni, Marco; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alio, Lion; Alison, John; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allison, Lee John; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Altheimer, Andrew David; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; Amidei, Dante; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amoroso, Simone; Amram, Nir; Amundsen, Glenn; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Anduaga, Xabier; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Angelozzi, Ivan; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Araque, Juan Pedro; Arce, Ayana; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnal, Vanessa; Arnold, Hannah; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ashkenazi, Adi; Ask, Stefan; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Atkinson, Markus; Atlay, Naim Bora; Auerbach, Benjamin; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Bacci, Cesare; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Backus Mayes, John; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagiacchi, Paolo; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bai, Yu; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Sarah; Balek, Petr; Balli, Fabrice; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Swagato; Banfi, Danilo; Bangert, Andrea Michelle; Bannoura, Arwa A E; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Barnovska, Zuzana; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartos, Pavol; Bartsch, Valeria; Bassalat, Ahmed; Basye, Austin; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battistin, Michele; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Anne Kathrin; Becker, Sebastian; Beckingham, Matthew; Becot, Cyril; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bedikian, Sourpouhi; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Beermann, Thomas; Begel, Michael; Behr, Katharina; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belloni, Alberto; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Berglund, Elina; Beringer, Jürg; Bernabéu, José; Bernard, Clare; Bernat, Pauline; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertolucci, Federico; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia, Olga; Besson, Nathalie; Betancourt, Christopher; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianchini, Louis; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilbao De Mendizabal, Javier; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Black, Curtis; Black, James; Black, Kevin; Blackburn, Daniel; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blazek, Tomas; Bloch, Ingo; Blocker, Craig; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Boddy, Christopher Richard; Boehler, Michael; Boek, Jennifer; Boek, Thorsten Tobias; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bogouch, Andrei; Bohm, Christian; Bohm, Jan; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Boldyrev, Alexey; Bomben, Marco; Bona, Marcella; Boonekamp, Maarten; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Borri, Marcello; Borroni, Sara; Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Bortolotto, Valerio; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Boterenbrood, Hendrik; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouffard, Julian; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; Bourdarios, Claire; Bousson, Nicolas; Boutouil, Sara; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, Ivanka; Bracinik, Juraj; Branchini, Paolo; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Brazzale, Simone Federico; Brelier, Bertrand; Brendlinger, Kurt; Brennan, Amelia Jean; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Bristow, Kieran; Bristow, Timothy Michael; Britton, Dave; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Bromberg, Carl; Bronner, Johanna; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, Timothy; Brooks, William; Brosamer, Jacquelyn; Brost, Elizabeth; Brown, Gareth; Brown, Jonathan; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Brunet, Sylvie; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruschi, Marco; Bryngemark, Lene; Buanes, Trygve; Buat, Quentin; Bucci, Francesca; Buchholz, Peter; Buckingham, Ryan; Buckley, Andrew; Buda, Stelian Ioan; Budagov, Ioulian; Buehrer, Felix; Bugge, Lars; Bugge, Magnar Kopangen; Bulekov, Oleg; Bundock, Aaron Colin; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burghgrave, Blake; Burke, Stephen; Burmeister, Ingo; Busato, Emmanuel; Büscher, Daniel; Büscher, Volker; Bussey, Peter; Buszello, Claus-Peter; Butler, Bart; Butler, John; Butt, Aatif Imtiaz; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Butti, Pierfrancesco; Buttinger, William; Buzatu, Adrian; Byszewski, Marcin; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cakir, Orhan; Calafiura, Paolo; Calandri, Alessandro; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Calkins, Robert; Caloba, Luiz; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarda, Stefano; Cameron, David; Caminada, Lea Michaela; Caminal Armadans, Roger; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Campoverde, Angel; Canale, Vincenzo; Canepa, Anadi; Cantero, Josu; Cantrill, Robert; Cao, Tingting; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Cardarelli, Roberto; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Sascha; Carquin, Edson; Carrillo-Montoya, German D; Carter, Antony; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castelli, Angelantonio; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Catastini, Pierluigi; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Cattani, Giordano; Caughron, Seth; Cavaliere, Viviana; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Cerio, Benjamin; Cerny, Karel; Cerqueira, Augusto Santiago; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cerv, Matevz; Cervelli, Alberto; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chalupkova, Ina; Chan, Kevin; Chang, Philip; Chapleau, Bertrand; Chapman, John Derek; Charfeddine, Driss; Charlton, Dave; Chau, Chav Chhiv; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Cheatham, Susan; Chegwidden, Andrew; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Karen; Chen, Liming; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Xin; Chen, Yujiao; Cheng, Hok Chuen; Cheng, Yangyang; Cheplakov, Alexander; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiarella, Vitaliano; Chiefari, Giovanni; Childers, John Taylor; Chilingarov, Alexandre; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chislett, Rebecca Thalatta; Chitan, Adrian; Chizhov, Mihail; Chouridou, Sofia; Chow, Bonnie Kar Bo; Christidi, Ilektra-Athanasia; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chu, Ming-Lee; Chudoba, Jiri; Chwastowski, Janusz; Chytka, Ladislav; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Ciftci, Rena; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirkovic, Predrag; Citron, Zvi Hirsh; Citterio, Mauro; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Philip James; Clarke, Robert; Cleland, Bill; Clemens, Jean-Claude; Clement, Christophe; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Coffey, Laurel; Cogan, Joshua Godfrey; Coggeshall, James; Cole, Brian; Cole, Stephen; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collins-Tooth, Christopher; Collot, Johann; Colombo, Tommaso; Colon, German; Compostella, Gabriele; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Conidi, Maria Chiara; Connell, Simon Henry; Connelly, Ian; Consonni, Sofia Maria; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conti, Geraldine; Conventi, Francesco; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cooper-Smith, Neil; Copic, Katherine; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Corso-Radu, Alina; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Côté, David; Cottin, Giovanna; Cowan, Glen; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Cree, Graham; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Crescioli, Francesco; Crispin Ortuzar, Mireia; Cristinziani, Markus; Croft, Vince; Crosetti, Giovanni; Cuciuc, Constantin-Mihai; Cuenca Almenar, Cristóbal; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Cummings, Jane; Curatolo, Maria; Cuthbert, Cameron; Czirr, Hendrik; Czodrowski, Patrick; Czyczula, Zofia; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, Mario Jose; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dafinca, Alexandru; Dai, Tiesheng; Dale, Orjan; Dallaire, Frederick; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Daniells, Andrew Christopher; Dano Hoffmann, Maria; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darlea, Georgiana Lavinia; Darmora, Smita; Dassoulas, James; Dattagupta, Aparajita; Davey, Will; David, Claire; Davidek, Tomas; Davies, Eleanor; Davies, Merlin; Davignon, Olivier; Davison, Adam; Davison, Peter; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Daya-Ishmukhametova, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; de Graat, Julien; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De la Torre, Hector; De Lorenzi, Francesco; De Nooij, Lucie; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; De Zorzi, Guido; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dechenaux, Benjamin; Dedovich, Dmitri; Degenhardt, James; Deigaard, Ingrid; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Deliot, Frederic; Delitzsch, Chris Malena; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Dell'Orso, Mauro; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demilly, Aurelien; Denisov, Sergey; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Deterre, Cecile; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Domenico, Antonio; Di Donato, Camilla; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; 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Edson, William; Edwards, Nicholas Charles; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Enari, Yuji; Endner, Oliver Chris; Endo, Masaki; Engelmann, Roderich; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Eriksson, Daniel; Ernis, Gunar; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Ernwein, Jean; Errede, Deborah; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Esch, Hendrik; Escobar, Carlos; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evans, Hal; Fabbri, Laura; Facini, Gabriel; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Faltova, Jana; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farooque, Trisha; Farrell, Steven; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassi, Farida; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Favareto, Andrea; Fayard, Louis; Federic, Pavol; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Wojciech; Fehling-Kaschek, Mirjam; Feigl, Simon; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Feng, Haolu; Fenyuk, Alexander; Fernandez Perez, Sonia; Ferrag, Samir; Ferrando, James; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filipuzzi, Marco; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Finelli, Kevin Daniel; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Julia; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Fitzgerald, Eric Andrew; Flechl, Martin; Fleck, Ivor; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Fletcher, Gareth Thomas; Fletcher, Gregory; Flick, Tobias; Floderus, Anders; Flores Castillo, Luis; Florez Bustos, Andres Carlos; Flowerdew, Michael; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fortin, Dominique; Fournier, Daniel; Fox, Harald; Fracchia, Silvia; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchini, Matteo; Franchino, Silvia; Francis, David; Franklin, Melissa; Franz, Sebastien; Fraternali, Marco; French, Sky; Friedrich, Conrad; Friedrich, Felix; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fulsom, Bryan Gregory; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gabrielli, Alessandro; Gabrielli, Andrea; Gadatsch, Stefan; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Galhardo, Bruno; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallo, Valentina Santina; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galster, Gorm Aske Gram Krohn; Gan, KK; Gandrajula, Reddy Pratap; Gao, Jun; Gao, Yongsheng; Garay Walls, Francisca; Garberson, Ford; García, Carmen; Garcia Argos, Carlos; García Navarro, José Enrique; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garonne, Vincent; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gauzzi, Paolo; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gecse, Zoltan; Gee, Norman; Geerts, Daniël Alphonsus Adrianus; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Gemmell, Alistair; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Matthias; George, Simon; Gerbaudo, Davide; Gershon, Avi; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghodbane, Nabil; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Giannetti, Paola; Gianotti, Fabiola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Stephen; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gillam, Thomas; Gillberg, Dag; Gilles, Geoffrey; Gingrich, Douglas; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giordano, Raffaele; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giugni, Danilo; Giuliani, Claudia; Giulini, Maddalena; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gkialas, Ioannis; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glaysher, Paul; Glazov, Alexandre; Glonti, George; Goblirsch-Kolb, Maximilian; Goddard, Jack Robert; Godfrey, Jennifer; Godlewski, Jan; Goeringer, Christian; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golubkov, Dmitry; Gomes, Agostinho; Gomez Fajardo, Luz Stella; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez Silva, Laura; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goodrick, Maurice; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorfine, Grant; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Goshaw, Alfred; Gössling, Claus; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gouighri, Mohamed; Goujdami, Driss; Goulette, Marc Phillippe; Goussiou, Anna; Goy, Corinne; Gozpinar, Serdar; Grabas, Herve Marie Xavier; Graber, Lars; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Grafström, Per; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Gramling, Johanna; Gramstad, Eirik; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Gray, Heather; Graziani, Enrico; Grebenyuk, Oleg; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grigalashvili, Nugzar; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grishkevich, Yaroslav; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Grohs, Johannes Philipp; Grohsjean, Alexander; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Grossi, Giulio Cornelio; Groth-Jensen, Jacob; Grout, Zara Jane; Grybel, Kai; Guan, Liang; Guescini, Francesco; Guest, Daniel; Gueta, Orel; Guicheney, Christophe; Guido, Elisa; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Gumpert, Christian; Gunther, Jaroslav; Guo, Jun; Gupta, Shaun; Gutierrez, Phillip; Gutierrez Ortiz, Nicolas Gilberto; Gutschow, Christian; Guttman, Nir; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Haddad, Nacim; Haefner, Petra; Hageboeck, Stephan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haleem, Mahsana; Hall, David; Halladjian, Garabed; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamer, Matthias; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamilton, Samuel; Hamnett, Phillip George; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Hanke, Paul; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hard, Andrew; Harenberg, Torsten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harper, Devin; Harrington, Robert; Harris, Orin; Harrison, Paul Fraser; Hartjes, Fred; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hasib, A; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauschild, Michael; Hauser, Reiner; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Anthony David; Hayashi, Takayasu; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Heck, Tobias; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heim, Timon; Heinemann, Beate; Heinrich, Lukas; Heisterkamp, Simon; Hejbal, Jiri; Helary, Louis; Heller, Claudio; Heller, Matthieu; Hellman, Sten; Hellmich, Dennis; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, James; Henderson, Robert; Hengler, Christopher; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Hensel, Carsten; Herbert, Geoffrey Henry; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herrberg-Schubert, Ruth; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hickling, Robert; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Ewan; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillert, Sonja; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hirose, Minoru; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoffman, Julia; Hoffmann, Dirk; Hofmann, Julia Isabell; Hohlfeld, Marc; Holmes, Tova Ray; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howard, Jacob; Howarth, James; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Diedi; Hu, Xueye; Huang, Yanping; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Hülsing, Tobias Alexander; Hurwitz, Martina; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Idarraga, John; Ideal, Emma; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Iizawa, Tomoya; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikematsu, Katsumasa; Ikeno, Masahiro; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Inamaru, Yuki; Ince, Tayfun; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Iturbe Ponce, Julia Mariana; Ivarsson, Jenny; Ivashin, Anton; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, John; Jackson, Matthew; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jakubek, Jan; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansen, Eric; Jansen, Hendrik; Janssen, Jens; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Javadov, Namig; Javůrek, Tomáš; Jeanty, Laura; Jeng, Geng-yuan; Jennens, David; Jenni, Peter; Jentzsch, Jennifer; Jeske, Carl; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Ji, Haoshuang; Ji, Weina; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jimenez Belenguer, Marcos; Jin, Shan; Jinaru, Adam; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Johansson, Erik; Johansson, Per; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tim; Jongmanns, Jan; Jorge, Pedro; Joseph, John; Joshi, Kiran Daniel; Jovicevic, Jelena; Ju, Xiangyang; Jung, Christian; Jungst, Ralph Markus; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kama, Sami; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kaneti, Steven; Kanno, Takayuki; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kar, Deepak; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karastathis, Nikolaos; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karpov, Sergey; Karthik, Krishnaiyengar; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kasieczka, Gregor; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katre, Akshay; Katzy, Judith; Kaushik, Venkatesh; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kazama, Shingo; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Keeler, Richard; Keener, Paul; Kehoe, Robert; Keil, Markus; Keller, John; Keoshkerian, Houry; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Kessoku, Kohei; Keung, Justin; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Khodinov, Alexander; Khomich, Andrei; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khoriauli, Gia; Khoroshilov, Andrey; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kim, Hee Yeun; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Shinhong; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Robert Steven Beaufoy; King, Samuel Burton; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kiss, Florian; Kitamura, Takumi; Kittelmann, Thomas; Kiuchi, Kenji; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klok, Peter; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koevesarki, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Kohlmann, Simon; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolanoski, Hermann; Koletsou, Iro; Koll, James; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kondrashova, Nataliia; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; König, Sebastian; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Köpke, Lutz; Kopp, Anna Katharina; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Korotkov, Vladislav; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotov, Sergey; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kral, Vlastimil; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasnopevtsev, Dimitriy; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, Jana; Kravchenko, Anton; Kreiss, Sven; Kretz, Moritz; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Peter; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Kruker, Tobias; Krumnack, Nils; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kruse, Amanda; Kruse, Mark; Kruskal, Michael; Kubik, Petr; Kubota, Takashi; Kuday, Sinan; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuhl, Andrew; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuna, Marine; Kunkle, Joshua; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kurumida, Rie; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rotonda, Laura; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Laier, Heiko; Lambourne, Luke; Lammers, Sabine; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lançon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lange, Clemens; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Law, Alexander; Laycock, Paul; Le, Bao Tran; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Menedeu, Eve; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Claire, Alexandra; Lee, Hurng-Chun; Lee, Jason; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Guillaume; Lefebvre, Michel; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehan, Allan; Lehmacher, Marc; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leister, Andrew Gerard; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatjana; Lenzen, Georg; Lenzi, Bruno; Leone, Robert; Leonhardt, Kathrin; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Leroy, Claude; Lester, Christopher; Lester, Christopher Michael; Levchenko, Mikhail; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levy, Mark; Lewis, Adrian; Lewis, George; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bing; Li, Bo; Li, Haifeng; Li, Ho Ling; Li, Liang; Li, Shu; Li, Yichen; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Lichard, Peter; Lie, Ki; Liebal, Jessica; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Limper, Maaike; Lin, Simon; Linde, Frank; Lindquist, Brian Edward; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Dong; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Livermore, Sarah; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loddenkoetter, Thomas; Loebinger, Fred; Loevschall-Jensen, Ask Emil; Loginov, Andrey; Loh, Chang Wei; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Lombardo, Vincenzo Paolo; Long, Brian Alexander; Long, Jonathan; Long, Robin Eamonn; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lopez Paredes, Brais; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lowe, Andrew; Lu, Feng; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Luehring, Frederick; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lundberg, Olof; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lungwitz, Matthias; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Machado Miguens, Joana; Macina, Daniela; Madaffari, Daniele; Madar, Romain; Maddocks, Harvey Jonathan; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Maeno, Mayuko; Maeno, Tadashi; Magradze, Erekle; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahlstedt, Joern; Mahmoud, Sara; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Mal, Prolay; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Mandelli, Beatrice; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Manfredini, Alessandro; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany Andreina; Mann, Alexander; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mantifel, Rodger; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchand, Jean-Francois; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marino, Christopher; Marques, Carlos; Marroquim, Fernando; Marsden, Stephen Philip; Marshall, Zach; Marti, Lukas Fritz; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian; Martin, Brian; Martin, Jean-Pierre; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Homero; Martinez, Mario; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massol, Nicolas; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Matricon, Pierre; Matsunaga, Hiroyuki; Matsushita, Takashi; Mättig, Peter; Mättig, Stefan; Mattmann, Johannes; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Mazzaferro, Luca; Mc Goldrick, Garrin; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; Mclaughlan, Tom; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Meade, Andrew; Mechnich, Joerg; Medinnis, Michael; Meehan, Samuel; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meineck, Christian; Meirose, Bernhard; Melachrinos, Constantinos; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Meloni, Federico; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mergelmeyer, Sebastian; Meric, Nicolas; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Merritt, Hayes; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Middleton, Robin; Migas, Sylwia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Miller, David; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Milstein, Dmitry; Minaenko, Andrey; Miñano Moya, Mercedes; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirabelli, Giovanni; Mitani, Takashi; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Mitsui, Shingo; Miucci, Antonio; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mochizuki, Kazuya; Moeller, Victoria; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Molander, Simon; Moles-Valls, Regina; Mönig, Klaus; Monini, Caterina; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Moraes, Arthur; Morange, Nicolas; Morel, Julien; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morgenstern, Marcus; Morii, Masahiro; Moritz, Sebastian; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Muanza, Steve; Mudd, Richard; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Mueller, Thibaut; Mueller, Timo; Muenstermann, Daniel; Munwes, Yonathan; Murillo Quijada, Javier Alberto; Murray, Bill; Musheghyan, Haykuhi; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagai, Yoshikazu; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagarkar, Advait; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagel, Martin; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Namasivayam, Harisankar; Nanava, Gizo; Narayan, Rohin; Nattermann, Till; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Negri, Andrea; Negri, Guido; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nelson, Andrew; Nelson, Timothy Knight; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newcomer, Mitchel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen, Duong Hai; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolics, Katalin; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Norberg, Scarlet; Nordberg, Markus; Nowak, Sebastian; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; Nuti, Francesco; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'grady, Fionnbarr; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Obermann, Theresa; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohman, Henrik; Ohshima, Takayoshi; Okamura, Wataru; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Olchevski, Alexander; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ouellette, Eric; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Oussoren, Koen Pieter; Ouyang, Qun; Ovcharova, Ana; Owen, Mark; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pachal, Katherine; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagáčová, Martina; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Pahl, Christoph; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Palestini, Sandro; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Palmer, Jody; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Panikashvili, Natalia; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Paolozzi, Lorenzo; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Passeri, Antonio; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Patricelli, Sergio; Pauly, Thilo; Pearce, James; Pedersen, Maiken; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedro, Rute; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Pelikan, Daniel; Peng, Haiping; Penning, Bjoern; Penwell, John; Perepelitsa, Dennis; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perez Reale, Valeria; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrino, Roberto; Peschke, Richard; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Peters, Yvonne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Jorgen; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Petteni, Michele; Pettersson, Nora Emilia; Pezoa, Raquel; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Pianori, Elisabetta; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pieron, Jacek Piotr; Pignotti, David; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinder, Alex; Pinfold, James; Pingel, Almut; Pinto, Belmiro; Pires, Sylvestre; Pitt, Michael; Pizio, Caterina; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskot, Vojtech; Plotnikova, Elena; Plucinski, Pawel; Poddar, Sahill; Podlyski, Fabrice; Poettgen, Ruth; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, David-leon; Pohl, Martin; Polesello, Giacomo; Policicchio, Antonio; Polifka, Richard; Polini, Alessandro; Pollard, Christopher Samuel; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Portell Bueso, Xavier; Pospelov, Guennady; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potamianos, Karolos; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prasad, Srivas; Pravahan, Rishiraj; Prell, Soeren; Price, Darren; Price, Joe; Price, Lawrence; Prieur, Damien; Primavera, Margherita; Proissl, Manuel; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopapadaki, Eftychia-sofia; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Przybycien, Mariusz; Przysiezniak, Helenka; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Pueschel, Elisa; Puldon, David; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Qian, Jianming; Qin, Gang; Qin, Yang; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Quilty, Donnchadha; Qureshi, Anum; Radeka, Veljko; Radescu, Voica; Radhakrishnan, Sooraj Krishnan; Radloff, Peter; Rados, Pere; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Randle-Conde, Aidan Sean; Rangel-Smith, Camila; Rao, Kanury; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Tobias Christian; Ravenscroft, Thomas; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Rehnisch, Laura; Reinsch, Andreas; Reisin, Hernan; Relich, Matthew; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Zhongliang; Renaud, Adrien; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Resende, Bernardo; Rezanova, Olga; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richter, Robert; Ridel, Melissa; Rieck, Patrick; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Ritsch, Elmar; Riu, Imma; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Roda, Chiara; Rodrigues, Luis; Roe, Shaun; Røhne, Ole; Rolli, Simona; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romeo, Gaston; Romero Adam, Elena; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Matthew; Rosendahl, Peter Lundgaard; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rosten, Rachel; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rubinskiy, Igor; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Christian; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Ruschke, Alexander; Rutherfoord, John; Ruthmann, Nils; Ryabov, Yury; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryder, Nick; Saavedra, Aldo; Sacerdoti, Sabrina; Saddique, Asif; Sadeh, Iftach; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Yuki; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Saleem, Muhammad; Salek, David; Sales De Bruin, Pedro Henrique; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvachua Ferrando, Belén; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Sanchez, Arturo; Sánchez, Javier; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sandaker, Heidi; Sandbach, Ruth Laura; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Tanya; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sankey, Dave; Sansoni, Andrea; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Santoyo Castillo, Itzebelt; Sapp, Kevin; Sapronov, Andrey; Saraiva, João; Sarrazin, Bjorn; Sartisohn, Georg; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasaki, Yuichi; Satsounkevitch, Igor; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Savard, Pierre; Savu, Dan Octavian; Sawyer, Craig; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, James; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scanlon, Tim; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schaefer, Douglas; Schaefer, Ralph; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schäfer, Uli; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R. Dean; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Scherzer, Max; Schiavi, Carlo; Schieck, Jochen; Schillo, Christian; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmidt, Evelyn; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Christopher; Schmitt, Sebastian; Schneider, Basil; Schnellbach, Yan Jie; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schoeffel, Laurent; Schoening, Andre; Schoenrock, Bradley Daniel; Schorlemmer, Andre Lukas; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schram, Malachi; Schramm, Steven; Schreyer, Manuel; Schroeder, Christian; Schuh, Natascha; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwegler, Philipp; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Schwoerer, Maud; Sciacca, Gianfranco; Scifo, Estelle; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scott, Bill; Scuri, Fabrizio; Scutti, Federico; Searcy, Jacob; Sedov, George; Sedykh, Evgeny; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sekula, Stephen; Selbach, Karoline Elfriede; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Sellers, Graham; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Serre, Thomas; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sforza, Federico; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shank, James; Shao, Qi Tao; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Shaw, Rick; Sherwood, Peter; Shimizu, Shima; Shimmin, Chase Owen; Shimojima, Makoto; Shiyakova, Mariya; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shochet, Mel; Short, Daniel; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Shushkevich, Stanislav; Sicho, Petr; Sidorov, Dmitri; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silbert, Ohad; Silva, José; Silver, Yiftah; Silverstein, Daniel; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simioni, Eduard; Simmons, Brinick; Simoniello, Rosa; Simonyan, Margar; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sipica, Valentin; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sircar, Anirvan; Sisakyan, Alexei; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skovpen, Kirill; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smestad, Lillian; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snidero, Giacomo; Snow, Joel; Snyder, Scott; Sobie, Randall; Socher, Felix; Sodomka, Jaromir; Soffer, Abner; Soh, Dart-yin; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solfaroli Camillocci, Elena; Solodkov, Alexander; Solovyanov, Oleg; Solovyev, Victor; Sommer, Philip; Song, Hong Ye; Soni, Nitesh; Sood, Alexander; Sopczak, Andre; Sopko, Vit; Sopko, Bruno; Sorin, Veronica; Sosebee, Mark; Soualah, Rachik; Soueid, Paul; Soukharev, Andrey; South, David; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spanò, Francesco; Spearman, William Robert; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; Spurlock, Barry; St Denis, Richard Dante; Staerz, Steffen; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanescu-Bellu, Madalina; Stanitzki, Marcel Michael; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staszewski, Rafal; Stavina, Pavel; Steele, Genevieve; Steinberg, Peter; Stekl, Ivan; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stern, Sebastian; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoebe, Michael; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stolte, Philipp; Stonjek, Stefan; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Stramaglia, Maria Elena; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strauss, Emanuel; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Stucci, Stefania Antonia; Stugu, Bjarne; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Su, Dong; Su, Jun; Subramania, Halasya Siva; Subramaniam, Rajivalochan; Succurro, Antonella; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suhr, Chad; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Yu; Svatos, Michal; Swedish, Stephen; Swiatlowski, Maximilian; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Ta, Duc; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taenzer, Joe; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takahashi, Yuta; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tam, Jason; Tamsett, Matthew; Tan, Kong Guan; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Satoshi; Tanaka, Shuji; Tanasijczuk, Andres Jorge; Tani, Kazutoshi; Tannoury, Nancy; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tashiro, Takuya; Tassi, Enrico; Tavares Delgado, Ademar; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Wendy; Teischinger, Florian Alfred; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, Matilde; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terzo, Stefano; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Therhaag, Jan; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thoma, Sascha; Thomas, Juergen; Thomas-Wilsker, Joshuha; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Peter; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thong, Wai Meng; Thun, Rudolf; Tian, Feng; Tibbetts, Mark James; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tiouchichine, Elodie; Tipton, Paul; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Toggerson, Brokk; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tomlinson, Lee; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Topilin, Nikolai; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Tran, Huong Lan; Trefzger, Thomas; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alessandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Tripiana, Martin; Triplett, Nathan; Trischuk, William; Trocmé, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trovatelli, Monica; True, Patrick; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsirintanis, Nikolaos; Tsiskaridze, Shota; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tuna, Alexander Naip; Tupputi, Salvatore; Turchikhin, Semen; Turecek, Daniel; Turk Cakir, Ilkay; Turra, Ruggero; Tuts, Michael; Tykhonov, Andrii; Tylmad, Maja; Tyndel, Mike; Uchida, Kirika; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ughetto, Michael; Ugland, Maren; Uhlenbrock, Mathias; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Ungaro, Francesca; Unno, Yoshinobu; Urbaniec, Dustin; Urquijo, Phillip; Usai, Giulio; Usanova, Anna; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Valencic, Nika; Valentinetti, Sara; Valero, Alberto; Valery, Loic; Valkar, Stefan; Valladolid Gallego, Eva; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; Van Berg, Richard; Van Der Deijl, Pieter; van der Geer, Rogier; van der Graaf, Harry; Van Der Leeuw, Robin; van der Ster, Daniel; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; Van Nieuwkoop, Jacobus; van Vulpen, Ivo; van Woerden, Marius Cornelis; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vanguri, Rami; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vannucci, Francois; Vardanyan, Gagik; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varol, Tulin; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Veatch, Jason; Veloso, Filipe; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Venturini, Alessio; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Viazlo, Oleksandr; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Vigne, Ralph; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Virzi, Joseph; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vives Vaque, Francesc; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vladoiu, Dan; Vlasak, Michal; Vogel, Adrian; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Radziewski, Holger; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorobev, Konstantin; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vu Anh, Tuan; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Vykydal, Zdenek; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wagner, Peter; Wahrmund, Sebastian; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wall, Richard; Waller, Peter; Walsh, Brian; Wang, Chao; Wang, Chiho; Wang, Fuquan; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Kuhan; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Wang, Tan; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Wanotayaroj, Chaowaroj; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Wardrope, David Robert; Warren, Matthew; Warsinsky, Markus; Washbrook, Andrew; Wasicki, Christoph; Watanabe, Ippei; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Ian; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Ben; Webb, Samuel; Weber, Michele; Weber, Stefan Wolf; Webster, Jordan S; Weidberg, Anthony; Weigell, Philipp; Weinert, Benjamin; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Weits, Hartger; Wells, Phillippa; Wenaus, Torre; Wendland, Dennis; Weng, Zhili; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Wessels, Martin; Wetter, Jeffrey; Whalen, Kathleen; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Ryan; White, Sebastian; Whiteson, Daniel; Wicke, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; Wijeratne, Peter Alexander; Wildauer, Andreas; Wildt, Martin Andre; Wilkens, Henric George; Will, Jonas Zacharias; Williams, Hugh; Williams, Sarah; Willis, Christopher; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, John; Wilson, Alan; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winklmeier, Frank; Wittgen, Matthias; Wittig, Tobias; Wittkowski, Josephine; Wollstadt, Simon Jakob; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wozniak, Krzysztof; Wright, Michael; Wu, Mengqing; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wulf, Evan; Wyatt, Terry Richard; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xiao, Meng; Xu, Da; Xu, Lailin; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yamada, Miho; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Yohei; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Kyoko; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamamura, Taiki; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamauchi, Katsuya; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Hongtao; Yang, Un-Ki; Yang, Yi; Yanush, Serguei; Yao, Liwen; Yao, Weiming; Yasu, Yoshiji; Yatsenko, Elena; Yau Wong, Kaven Henry; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yen, Andy L; Yildirim, Eda; Yilmaz, Metin; Yoosoofmiya, Reza; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Rikutaro; Yoshihara, Keisuke; Young, Charles; Young, Christopher John; Youssef, Saul; Yu, David Ren-Hwa; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jiaming; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yurkewicz, Adam; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zaman, Aungshuman; Zambito, Stefano; Zanello, Lucia; Zanzi, Daniele; Zaytsev, Alexander; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zengel, Keith; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zerwas, Dirk; Zevi della Porta, Giovanni; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Fangzhou; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Lei; Zhou, Ning; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zibell, Andre; Zieminska, Daria; Zimine, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Christoph; Zimmermann, Robert; Zimmermann, Simone; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Zinonos, Zinonas; Ziolkowski, Michael; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; zur Nedden, Martin; Zurzolo, Giovanni; Zutshi, Vishnu; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2014-01-01

    The semiconductor tracker is a silicon microstrip detector forming part of the inner tracking system of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. The operation and performance of the semiconductor tracker during the first years of LHC running are described. More than 99% of the detector modules were operational during this period, with an average intrinsic hit efficiency of (99.74 +/- 0.04)%. The evolution of the noise occupancy is discussed, and measurements of the Lorentz angle, delta-ray production and energy loss presented. The alignment of the detector is found to be stable at the few-micron level over long periods of time. Radiation damage measurements, which include the evolution of detector leakage currents, are found to be consistent with predictions and are used in the verification of radiation background simulations.

  7. 3D active edge silicon sensors: Device processing, yield and QA for the ATLAS-IBL production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da Vià, Cinzia, E-mail: cinzia.da.via@cern.ch [School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, M13 9PL Manchester (United Kingdom); Boscardil, Maurizio [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, FBK-CMM, Via Sommarive 18, I-38123 Trento (Italy); Dalla Betta, GianFranco [DISI, Università degli Studi di Trento and INFN, Via Sommarive 14, I-38123 Trento (Italy); Darbo, Giovanni [INFN Sezione di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, I-14146 Genova (Italy); Fleta, Celeste [Centro Nacional de Microelectronica, CNM-IMB (CSIC), Barcelona E-08193 (Spain); Gemme, Claudia [INFN Sezione di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, I-14146 Genova (Italy); Giacomini, Gabriele [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, FBK-CMM, Via Sommarive 18, I-38123 Trento (Italy); Grenier, Philippe [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Rd, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Grinstein, Sebastian [Institut de Fisica d' Altes Energies (IFAE) and ICREA, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (UAB) E-08193, Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Hansen, Thor-Erik [SINTEF MiNaLab, Blindern, N-0314 Oslo (Norway); Hasi, Jasmine; Kenney, Christopher [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Rd, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Kok, Angela [SINTEF MiNaLab, Blindern, N-0314 Oslo (Norway); La Rosa, Alessandro [CERN CH 1211, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Micelli, Andrea [Tne University of Udine and INFN, via del Cotonificio 108, 33100 Udine (Italy); Parker, Sherwood [University of Hawaii, c/o Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Pellegrini, Giulio [Centro Nacional de Microelectronica, CNM-IMB (CSIC), Barcelona E-08193 (Spain); Pohl, David-Leon [Physikalisches Institut der Universität Bonn, Nußallee 12 D-53115, Bonn, Federal Republic of Germany (Germany); Povoli, Marco [DISI, Università degli Studi di Trento and INFN, Via Sommarive 14, I-38123 Trento (Italy); and others

    2013-01-21

    3D silicon sensors, where plasma micromachining is used to etch deep narrow apertures in the silicon substrate to form electrodes of PIN junctions, were successfully manufactured in facilities in Europe and USA. In 2011 the technology underwent a qualification process to establish its maturity for a medium scale production for the construction of a pixel layer for vertex detection, the Insertable B-Layer (IBL) at the CERN-LHC ATLAS experiment. The IBL collaboration, following that recommendation from the review panel, decided to complete the production of planar and 3D sensors and endorsed the proposal to build enough modules for a mixed IBL sensor scenario where 25% of 3D modules populate the forward and backward part of each stave. The production of planar sensors will also allow coverage of 100% of the IBL, in case that option was required. This paper will describe the processing strategy which allowed successful 3D sensor production, some of the Quality Assurance (QA) tests performed during the pre-production phase and the production yield to date.

  8. ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

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Shupe, M A; Wolin, S; Oshita, H; Gaudio, G; Das, R; Konig, A C; Croft, V A; Harvey, A; Maaroufi, F; Melo, I; Greenwood jr, Z D; Shabalina, E; Mchedlidze, G; Drechsler, E; Rieger, J K; Blackston, M; Colombo, T

    2002-01-01

    % ATLAS \\\\ \\\\ ATLAS is a general-purpose experiment for recording proton-proton collisions at LHC. The ATLAS collaboration consists of 144 participating institutions (June 1998) with more than 1750~physicists and engineers (700 from non-Member States). The detector design has been optimized to cover the largest possible range of LHC physics: searches for Higgs bosons and alternative schemes for the spontaneous symmetry-breaking mechanism; searches for supersymmetric particles, new gauge bosons, leptoquarks, and quark and lepton compositeness indicating extensions to the Standard Model and new physics beyond it; studies of the origin of CP violation via high-precision measurements of CP-violating B-decays; high-precision measurements of the third quark family such as the top-quark mass and decay properties, rare decays of B-hadrons, spectroscopy of rare B-hadrons, and $ B ^0 _{s} $-mixing. \\\\ \\\\The ATLAS dectector, shown in the Figure includes an inner tracking detector inside a 2~T~solenoid providing an axial...

  9. Evaluation of the breakdown behaviour of ATLAS silicon pixel sensors after partial guard-ring removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goessling, C.; Klingenberg, R. [Lehrstuhl fuer Experimentelle Physik IV, TU Dortmund, 44221 Dortmund (Germany); Muenstermann, D., E-mail: Daniel.Muenstermann@TU-Dortmund.d [Lehrstuhl fuer Experimentelle Physik IV, TU Dortmund, 44221 Dortmund (Germany); Wittig, T. [Lehrstuhl fuer Experimentelle Physik IV, TU Dortmund, 44221 Dortmund (Germany)

    2010-12-11

    To avoid geometrical inefficiencies in the ATLAS pixel detector, the concept of shingling is used up to now in the barrel section. For the upgrades of ATLAS, it is desired to avoid this as it increases the volume and material budget of the pixel layers and complicates the cooling. A direct planar edge-to-edge arrangement of pixel modules has not been possible in the past due to about 1100{mu}m of inactive edge composed of approximately 600{mu}m of guard rings and 500{mu}m of safety margin. In this work, the safety margin and guard rings of ATLAS SingleChip sensors were cut at different positions using a standard diamond dicing saw and irradiated afterwards to explore the breakdown behaviour and the leakage current development. It is found that the inactive edge can be reduced to about 400{mu}m of guard rings with almost no reduction in pre-irradiation testability and leakage current performance. This is in particular important for the insertable b-layer upgrade of ATLAS (IBL) where inactive edges of less than 450{mu}m width are required.

  10. Input Mezzanine Card for the Fast Tracker at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Iizawa, Tomoya; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The Fast Tracker is an integral part of trigger upgrade program for the ATLAS experiment. At LHC Run 2, which started operations in June 2015 at a center of mass energy of 13 TeV, the luminosity could reach up to 2*1034 cm^2s^1 and an average of 40-50 simultaneous proton collisions per beam crossing will be expected. The higher luminosity demands a more sophisticated trigger system with increased use of tracking information. The FTK is a highly-parallel hardware system that rapidly finds and reconstructs tracks in the ATLAS inner-detector at the triggering stage. This paper focuses on the Mezzanine Board that is input module of entire FTK system. The functions of this board are to receive the pixel and micro-strip data from the ATLAS Silicon read-out drivers, perform clustering, and forward the data to its mother board. Mass production and quality control tests of Mezzanine Boards were completed, and staged installation and commissioning are ongoing. Details of its functionality, mass production, quality cont...

  11. Input Mezzanine Card for the Fast Tracker at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Iizawa, Tomoya; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The Fast Tracker (FTK) is an integral part of trigger upgrade program for the ATLAS experiment. At LHC Run 2, which started operations in June 2015 at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV, the luminosity could reach up to 2*1034 cm-2s-1 and an average of 40-50 simultaneous proton collisions per beam crossing will be expected. The higher luminosity demands a more sophisticated trigger system with increased use of tracking information. The Fast Tracker is a highly-parallel hardware system that rapidly finds and reconstructs tracks in the ATLAS inner-detector at the triggering stage. This paper focuses on the FTK Input Mezzanine Board that is input module of entire system. The functions of this board are to receive the insertable b-layer, pixel and micro-strip data from the ATLAS Silicon read-out drivers, perform clustering, and forward the data to its mother board. Mass production and quality control tests of Mezzanine Boards were completed, and staged installation and commissioning are ongoing. Details of its fun...

  12. A neural network clustering algorithm for the ATLAS silicon pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdel Khalek, Samah; Abdinov, Ovsat; Aben, Rosemarie; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abreu, Ricardo; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adye, Tim; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Agustoni, Marco; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Akerstedt, Henrik; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alio, Lion; Alison, John; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allison, Lee John; Allport, Phillip; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Altheimer, Andrew David; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; Amidei, Dante; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amoroso, Simone; Amram, Nir; Amundsen, Glenn; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Anduaga, Xabier; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Angelozzi, Ivan; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Araque, Juan Pedro; Arce, Ayana; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnal, Vanessa; Arnold, Hannah; Arratia, Miguel; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ashkenazi, Adi; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Atkinson, Markus; Atlay, Naim Bora; Auerbach, Benjamin; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Baas, Alessandra; Bacci, Cesare; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Backus Mayes, John; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagiacchi, Paolo; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bai, Yu; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Balek, Petr; Balli, Fabrice; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Swagato; Bannoura, Arwa A E; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Barnovska, Zuzana; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartos, Pavol; Bartsch, Valeria; Bassalat, Ahmed; Basye, Austin; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Marco; Battistin, Michele; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Anne Kathrin; Becker, Sebastian; Beckingham, Matthew; Becot, Cyril; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bedikian, Sourpouhi; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Beermann, Thomas; Begel, Michael; Behr, Katharina; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Beringer, Jürg; Bernard, Clare; Bernat, Pauline; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertoli, Gabriele; Bertolucci, Federico; Bertsche, David; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia, Olga; Bessner, Martin Florian; Besson, Nathalie; Betancourt, Christopher; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianchini, Louis; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilbao De Mendizabal, Javier; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Black, Curtis; Black, James; Black, Kevin; Blackburn, Daniel; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blazek, Tomas; Bloch, Ingo; Blocker, Craig; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Bock, Christopher; Boddy, Christopher Richard; Boehler, Michael; Boek, Thorsten Tobias; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bogouch, Andrei; Bohm, Christian; Bohm, Jan; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Boldyrev, Alexey; Bomben, Marco; Bona, Marcella; Boonekamp, Maarten; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Borri, Marcello; Borroni, Sara; Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Bortolotto, Valerio; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Boterenbrood, Hendrik; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouffard, Julian; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; Bourdarios, Claire; Bousson, Nicolas; Boutouil, Sara; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bracinik, Juraj; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Brazzale, Simone Federico; Brelier, Bertrand; Brendlinger, Kurt; Brennan, Amelia Jean; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Bristow, Kieran; Bristow, Timothy Michael; Britton, Dave; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Bromberg, Carl; Bronner, Johanna; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, Timothy; Brooks, William; Brosamer, Jacquelyn; Brost, Elizabeth; Brown, Jonathan; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Brunet, Sylvie; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruschi, Marco; Bryngemark, Lene; Buanes, Trygve; Buat, Quentin; Bucci, Francesca; Buchholz, Peter; Buckingham, Ryan; Buckley, Andrew; Buda, Stelian Ioan; Budagov, Ioulian; Buehrer, Felix; Bugge, Lars; Bugge, Magnar Kopangen; Bulekov, Oleg; Bundock, Aaron Colin; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burghgrave, Blake; Burke, Stephen; Burmeister, Ingo; Busato, Emmanuel; Büscher, Daniel; Büscher, Volker; Bussey, Peter; Buszello, Claus-Peter; Butler, Bart; Butler, John; Butt, Aatif Imtiaz; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Butti, Pierfrancesco; Buttinger, William; Buzatu, Adrian; Byszewski, Marcin; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cakir, Orhan; Calafiura, Paolo; Calandri, Alessandro; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Calkins, Robert; Caloba, Luiz; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarda, Stefano; Cameron, David; Caminada, Lea Michaela; Caminal Armadans, Roger; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Campoverde, Angel; Canale, Vincenzo; Canepa, Anadi; Cano Bret, Marc; Cantero, Josu; Cantrill, Robert; Cao, Tingting; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Cardarelli, Roberto; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Sascha; Carquin, Edson; Carrillo-Montoya, German D; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Casolino, Mirkoantonio; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castelli, Angelantonio; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Catastini, Pierluigi; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Cattani, Giordano; Caughron, Seth; Cavaliere, Viviana; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Cerio, Benjamin; Cerny, Karel; Cerqueira, Augusto Santiago; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cerv, Matevz; Cervelli, Alberto; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chalupkova, Ina; Chang, Philip; Chapleau, Bertrand; Chapman, John Derek; Charfeddine, Driss; Charlton, Dave; Chau, Chav Chhiv; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Cheatham, Susan; Chegwidden, Andrew; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Karen; Chen, Liming; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Xin; Chen, Yujiao; Cheng, Hok Chuen; Cheng, Yangyang; Cheplakov, Alexander; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiarella, Vitaliano; Chiefari, Giovanni; Childers, John Taylor; Chilingarov, Alexandre; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chislett, Rebecca Thalatta; Chitan, Adrian; Chizhov, Mihail; Chouridou, Sofia; Chow, Bonnie Kar Bo; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chu, Ming-Lee; Chudoba, Jiri; Chwastowski, Janusz; Chytka, Ladislav; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Ciftci, Rena; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirkovic, Predrag; Citron, Zvi Hirsh; Citterio, Mauro; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Philip James; Clarke, Robert; Cleland, Bill; Clemens, Jean-Claude; Clement, Christophe; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Coffey, Laurel; Cogan, Joshua Godfrey; Coggeshall, James; Cole, Brian; Cole, Stephen; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collot, Johann; Colombo, Tommaso; Colon, German; Compostella, Gabriele; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Conidi, Maria Chiara; Connell, Simon Henry; Connelly, Ian; Consonni, Sofia Maria; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conti, Geraldine; Conventi, Francesco; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cooper-Smith, Neil; Copic, Katherine; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Corso-Radu, Alina; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Côté, David; Cottin, Giovanna; Cowan, Glen; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Cree, Graham; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Crescioli, Francesco; Cribbs, Wayne Allen; Crispin Ortuzar, Mireia; Cristinziani, Markus; Croft, Vince; Crosetti, Giovanni; Cuciuc, Constantin-Mihai; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Cummings, Jane; Curatolo, Maria; Cuthbert, Cameron; Czirr, Hendrik; Czodrowski, Patrick; Czyczula, Zofia; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, Mario Jose; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dafinca, Alexandru; Dai, Tiesheng; Dale, Orjan; Dallaire, Frederick; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Daniells, Andrew Christopher; Dano Hoffmann, Maria; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darmora, Smita; Dassoulas, James; Dattagupta, Aparajita; Davey, Will; David, Claire; Davidek, Tomas; Davies, Eleanor; Davies, Merlin; Davignon, Olivier; Davison, Adam; Davison, Peter; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Daya-Ishmukhametova, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De la Torre, Hector; De Lorenzi, Francesco; De Nooij, Lucie; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; Dearnaley, William James; 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Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gabrielli, Alessandro; Gabrielli, Andrea; Gadatsch, Stefan; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Galhardo, Bruno; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallo, Valentina Santina; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galster, Gorm Aske Gram Krohn; Gan, KK; Gandrajula, Reddy Pratap; Gao, Jun; Gao, Yongsheng; Garay Walls, Francisca; Garberson, Ford; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garonne, Vincent; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gauzzi, Paolo; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gecse, Zoltan; Gee, Norman; Geerts, Daniël Alphonsus Adrianus; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Gemmell, Alistair; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Matthias; George, Simon; Gerbaudo, Davide; Gershon, Avi; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghodbane, Nabil; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Giannetti, Paola; Gianotti, Fabiola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Stephen; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gillam, Thomas; Gillberg, Dag; Gilles, Geoffrey; Gingrich, Douglas; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giordano, Raffaele; Giorgi, Filippo Maria; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giugni, Danilo; Giuliani, Claudia; Giulini, Maddalena; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gkaitatzis, Stamatios; Gkialas, Ioannis; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glaysher, Paul; Glazov, Alexandre; Glonti, George; Goblirsch-Kolb, Maximilian; Goddard, Jack Robert; Godfrey, Jennifer; Godlewski, Jan; Goeringer, Christian; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golubkov, Dmitry; Gomes, Agostinho; Gomez Fajardo, Luz Stella; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Goshaw, Alfred; Gössling, Claus; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gouighri, Mohamed; Goujdami, Driss; Goulette, Marc Phillippe; Goussiou, Anna; Goy, Corinne; Gozpinar, Serdar; Grabas, Herve Marie Xavier; Graber, Lars; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Grafström, Per; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Gramling, Johanna; Gramstad, Eirik; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Gray, Heather; Graziani, Enrico; Grebenyuk, Oleg; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grishkevich, Yaroslav; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Grohs, Johannes Philipp; Grohsjean, Alexander; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Grossi, Giulio Cornelio; Groth-Jensen, Jacob; Grout, Zara Jane; Guan, Liang; Guescini, Francesco; Guest, Daniel; Gueta, Orel; Guicheney, Christophe; Guido, Elisa; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Gumpert, Christian; Gunther, Jaroslav; Guo, Jun; Gupta, Shaun; Gutierrez, Phillip; Gutierrez Ortiz, Nicolas Gilberto; Gutschow, Christian; Guttman, Nir; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Haddad, Nacim; Haefner, Petra; Hageböck, Stephan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haleem, Mahsana; Hall, David; Halladjian, Garabed; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamer, Matthias; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamilton, Samuel; Hamnett, Phillip George; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Hanke, Paul; Hanna, Remie; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hard, Andrew; Harenberg, Torsten; Hariri, Faten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harper, Devin; Harrington, Robert; Harris, Orin; Harrison, Paul Fraser; Hartjes, Fred; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hasib, A; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauschild, Michael; Hauser, Reiner; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Anthony David; Hayashi, Takayasu; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Heck, Tobias; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heim, Timon; Heinemann, Beate; Heinrich, Lukas; Hejbal, Jiri; Helary, Louis; Heller, Claudio; Heller, Matthieu; Hellman, Sten; Hellmich, Dennis; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, James; Henderson, Robert; Heng, Yang; Hengler, Christopher; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Hensel, Carsten; Herbert, Geoffrey Henry; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herrberg-Schubert, Ruth; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hickling, Robert; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Ewan; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillert, Sonja; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hirose, Minoru; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoffman, Julia; Hoffmann, Dirk; Hofmann, Julia Isabell; Hohlfeld, Marc; Holmes, Tova Ray; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howard, Jacob; Howarth, James; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hsu, Catherine; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Diedi; Hu, Xueye; Huang, Yanping; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Hülsing, Tobias Alexander; Hurwitz, Martina; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Ideal, Emma; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Iizawa, Tomoya; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikematsu, Katsumasa; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Iurii; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Inamaru, Yuki; Ince, Tayfun; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Iturbe Ponce, Julia Mariana; Iuppa, Roberto; Ivarsson, Jenny; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, Matthew; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jakubek, Jan; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansen, Eric; Jansen, Hendrik; Janssen, Jens; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Javadov, Namig; Javůrek, Tomáš; Jeanty, Laura; Jejelava, Juansher; Jeng, Geng-yuan; Jennens, David; Jenni, Peter; Jentzsch, Jennifer; Jeske, Carl; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Ji, Haoshuang; Ji, Weina; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jimenez Belenguer, Marcos; Jin, Shan; Jinaru, Adam; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Johansson, Erik; Johansson, Per; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tim; Jongmanns, Jan; Jorge, Pedro; Joshi, Kiran Daniel; Jovicevic, Jelena; Ju, Xiangyang; Jung, Christian; Jungst, Ralph Markus; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalderon, Charles William; Kama, Sami; Kamenshchikov, Andrey; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kaneti, Steven; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kar, Deepak; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karastathis, Nikolaos; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karpov, Sergey; Karpova, Zoya; Karthik, Krishnaiyengar; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kasieczka, Gregor; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katre, Akshay; Katzy, Judith; Kaushik, Venkatesh; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kazama, Shingo; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keil, Markus; Keller, John; Kempster, Jacob Julian; Keoshkerian, Houry; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Kessoku, Kohei; Keung, Justin; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Khodinov, Alexander; Khomich, Andrei; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khoriauli, Gia; Khoroshilov, Andrey; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kim, Hee Yeun; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Shinhong; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Robert Steven Beaufoy; King, Samuel Burton; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kiss, Florian; Kittelmann, Thomas; Kiuchi, Kenji; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klok, Peter; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Kobayashi, Dai; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koevesarki, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Kohlmann, Simon; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolanoski, Hermann; Koletsou, Iro; Koll, James; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kondrashova, Nataliia; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; König, Sebastian; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Köpke, Lutz; Kopp, Anna Katharina; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Korotkov, Vladislav; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kral, Vlastimil; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasnopevtsev, Dimitriy; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, Jana; Kravchenko, Anton; Kreiss, Sven; Kretz, Moritz; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Peter; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Kruker, Tobias; Krumnack, Nils; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kruse, Amanda; Kruse, Mark; Kruskal, Michael; Kubota, Takashi; Kuday, Sinan; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuhl, Andrew; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuna, Marine; Kunkle, Joshua; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kurumida, Rie; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rotonda, Laura; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Laier, Heiko; Lambourne, Luke; Lammers, Sabine; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lançon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Law, Alexander; Laycock, Paul; Le, Bao Tran; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Menedeu, Eve; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Claire, Alexandra; Lee, Hurng-Chun; Lee, Jason; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Guillaume; Lefebvre, Michel; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehan, Allan; Lehmacher, Marc; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leight, William Axel; Leisos, Antonios; Leister, Andrew Gerard; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatjana; Lenzen, Georg; Lenzi, Bruno; Leone, Robert; Leone, Sandra; Leonhardt, Kathrin; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Leroy, Claude; Lester, Christopher; Lester, Christopher Michael; Levchenko, Mikhail; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levy, Mark; Lewis, Adrian; Lewis, George; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bing; Li, Bo; Li, Haifeng; Li, Ho Ling; Li, Lei; Li, Liang; Li, Shu; Li, Yichen; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Lichard, Peter; Lie, Ki; Liebal, Jessica; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Lin, Simon; Lin, Tai-Hua; Linde, Frank; Lindquist, Brian Edward; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Dong; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Livermore, Sarah; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loddenkoetter, Thomas; Loebinger, Fred; Loevschall-Jensen, Ask Emil; Loginov, Andrey; Loh, Chang Wei; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Lombardo, Vincenzo Paolo; Long, Brian Alexander; Long, Jonathan; Long, Robin Eamonn; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lopez Paredes, Brais; Lopez Paz, Ivan; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lowe, Andrew; Lu, Feng; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Luehring, Frederick; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lundberg, Olof; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lungwitz, Matthias; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Machado Miguens, Joana; Macina, Daniela; Madaffari, Daniele; Madar, Romain; Maddocks, Harvey Jonathan; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Maeno, Mayuko; Maeno, Tadashi; Magradze, Erekle; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahlstedt, Joern; Mahmoud, Sara; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maier, Andreas Alexander; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Mal, Prolay; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Mandelli, Beatrice; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Manfredini, Alessandro; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany Andreina; Mann, Alexander; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mantifel, Rodger; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchand, Jean-Francois; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marino, Christopher; Marjanovic, Marija; Marques, Carlos; Marroquim, Fernando; Marsden, Stephen Philip; Marshall, Zach; Marti, Lukas Fritz; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian; Martin, Brian; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Homero; Martinez, Mario; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massol, Nicolas; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mättig, Peter; Mattmann, Johannes; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Mazzaferro, Luca; Mc Goldrick, Garrin; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Meade, Andrew; Mechnich, Joerg; Medinnis, Michael; Meehan, Samuel; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meineck, Christian; Meirose, Bernhard; Melachrinos, Constantinos; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Meloni, Federico; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mergelmeyer, Sebastian; Meric, Nicolas; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Merritt, Hayes; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Middleton, Robin; Migas, Sylwia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Milic, Adriana; Miller, David; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Milstein, Dmitry; Minaenko, Andrey; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirabelli, Giovanni; Mitani, Takashi; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Mitsui, Shingo; Miucci, Antonio; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mochizuki, Kazuya; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Molander, Simon; Moles-Valls, Regina; Mönig, Klaus; Monini, Caterina; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Moraes, Arthur; Morange, Nicolas; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morgenstern, Marcus; Morii, Masahiro; Moritz, Sebastian; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Motohashi, Kazuki; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Muanza, Steve; Mudd, Richard; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Mueller, Thibaut; Mueller, Timo; Muenstermann, Daniel; Munwes, Yonathan; Murillo Quijada, Javier Alberto; Murray, Bill; Musheghyan, Haykuhi; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagai, Yoshikazu; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagarkar, Advait; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagel, Martin; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Namasivayam, Harisankar; Nanava, Gizo; Narayan, Rohin; Nattermann, Till; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Nef, Pascal Daniel; Negri, Andrea; Negri, Guido; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nelson, Andrew; Nelson, Timothy Knight; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen, Duong Hai; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolics, Katalin; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Norberg, Scarlet; Nordberg, Markus; Novgorodova, Olga; Nowak, Sebastian; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; Nuti, Francesco; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'grady, Fionnbarr; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Obermann, Theresa; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohman, Henrik; Ohshima, Takayoshi; Okamura, Wataru; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Olchevski, Alexander; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ouellette, Eric; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Oussoren, Koen Pieter; Ouyang, Qun; Ovcharova, Ana; Owen, Mark; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pachal, Katherine; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagáčová, Martina; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Pahl, Christoph; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Palestini, Sandro; Palka, Marek; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Palmer, Jody; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Panikashvili, Natalia; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Paolozzi, Lorenzo; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Passeri, Antonio; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Patricelli, Sergio; Pauly, Thilo; Pearce, James; Pedersen, Maiken; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedro, Rute; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Pelikan, Daniel; Peng, Haiping; Penning, Bjoern; Penwell, John; Perepelitsa, Dennis; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perez Reale, Valeria; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrino, Roberto; Peschke, Richard; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Peters, Yvonne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Pettersson, Nora Emilia; Pezoa, Raquel; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Pianori, Elisabetta; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pignotti, David; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinder, Alex; Pinfold, James; Pingel, Almut; Pinto, Belmiro; Pires, Sylvestre; Pitt, Michael; Pizio, Caterina; Plazak, Lukas; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskot, Vojtech; Plotnikova, Elena; Plucinski, Pawel; Poddar, Sahill; Podlyski, Fabrice; Poettgen, Ruth; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, David-leon; Pohl, Martin; Polesello, Giacomo; Policicchio, Antonio; Polifka, Richard; Polini, Alessandro; Pollard, Christopher Samuel; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Portell Bueso, Xavier; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potamianos, Karolos; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prasad, Srivas; Pravahan, Rishiraj; Prell, Soeren; Price, Darren; Price, Joe; Price, Lawrence; Prieur, Damien; Primavera, Margherita; Proissl, Manuel; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopapadaki, Eftychia-sofia; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Przybycien, Mariusz; Przysiezniak, Helenka; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Puddu, Daniele; Pueschel, Elisa; Puldon, David; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Qian, Jianming; Qin, Gang; Qin, Yang; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Queitsch-Maitland, Michaela; Quilty, Donnchadha; Qureshi, Anum; Radeka, Veljko; Radescu, Voica; Radhakrishnan, Sooraj Krishnan; Radloff, Peter; Rados, Pere; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Randle-Conde, Aidan Sean; Rangel-Smith, Camila; Rao, Kanury; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Tobias Christian; Ravenscroft, Thomas; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Readioff, Nathan Peter; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Rehnisch, Laura; Reisin, Hernan; Relich, Matthew; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Huan; Ren, Zhongliang; Renaud, Adrien; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Rezanova, Olga; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richter, Robert; Ridel, Melissa; Rieck, Patrick; Rieger, Julia; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Ritsch, Elmar; Riu, Imma; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Roda, Chiara; Rodrigues, Luis; Roe, Shaun; Røhne, Ole; Rolli, Simona; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romero Adam, Elena; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Matthew; Rosendahl, Peter Lundgaard; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rosten, Rachel; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rubinskiy, Igor; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Christian; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Ruschke, Alexander; Rutherfoord, John; Ruthmann, Nils; Ryabov, Yury; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryder, Nick; Saavedra, Aldo; Sacerdoti, Sabrina; Saddique, Asif; Sadeh, Iftach; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Yuki; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Saleem, Muhammad; Salek, David; Sales De Bruin, Pedro Henrique; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvachua Ferrando, Belén; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Sanchez, Arturo; Sánchez, Javier; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sandaker, Heidi; Sandbach, Ruth Laura; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Tanya; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sankey, Dave; Sansoni, Andrea; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Santoyo Castillo, Itzebelt; Sapp, Kevin; Sapronov, Andrey; Saraiva, João; Sarrazin, Bjorn; Sartisohn, Georg; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasaki, Yuichi; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Savard, Pierre; Savu, Dan Octavian; Sawyer, Craig; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, David; Saxon, James; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scanlon, Tim; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Scarfone, Valerio; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schaefer, Douglas; Schaefer, Ralph; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schäfer, Uli; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R. Dean; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Scherzer, Max; Schiavi, Carlo; Schieck, Jochen; Schillo, Christian; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmidt, Evelyn; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Christopher; Schmitt, Sebastian; Schneider, Basil; Schnellbach, Yan Jie; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schoeffel, Laurent; Schoening, Andre; Schoenrock, Bradley Daniel; Schorlemmer, Andre Lukas; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schramm, Steven; Schreyer, Manuel; Schroeder, Christian; Schuh, Natascha; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwanenberger, Christian; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwegler, Philipp; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Schwoerer, Maud; Sciacca, Gianfranco; Scifo, Estelle; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scott, Bill; Scuri, Fabrizio; Scutti, Federico; Searcy, Jacob; Sedov, George; Sedykh, Evgeny; 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Simonyan, Margar; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sipica, Valentin; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sircar, Anirvan; Sisakyan, Alexei; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skovpen, Kirill; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smestad, Lillian; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Kenway; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snidero, Giacomo; Snyder, Scott; Sobie, Randall; Socher, Felix; Soffer, Abner; Soh, Dart-yin; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solfaroli Camillocci, Elena; Solodkov, Alexander; Soloshenko, Alexei; Solovyanov, Oleg; Solovyev, Victor; Sommer, Philip; Song, Hong Ye; Soni, Nitesh; Sood, Alexander; Sopczak, Andre; Sopko, Bruno; Sopko, Vit; Sorin, Veronica; Sosebee, Mark; Soualah, Rachik; Soueid, Paul; Soukharev, Andrey; South, David; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spanò, Francesco; Spearman, William Robert; Spettel, Fabian; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; Spurlock, Barry; St Denis, Richard Dante; Staerz, Steffen; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanescu-Bellu, Madalina; Stanitzki, Marcel Michael; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staszewski, Rafal; Stavina, Pavel; Steinberg, Peter; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stern, Sebastian; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoebe, Michael; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stolte, Philipp; Stonjek, Stefan; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Stramaglia, Maria Elena; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strauss, Emanuel; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Stucci, Stefania Antonia; Stugu, Bjarne; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Su, Dong; Su, Jun; Subramania, Halasya Siva; Subramaniam, Rajivalochan; Succurro, Antonella; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suhr, Chad; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Yu; Svatos, Michal; Swedish, Stephen; Swiatlowski, Maximilian; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Ta, Duc; Taccini, Cecilia; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taenzer, Joe; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takahashi, Yuta; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tam, Jason; Tan, Kong Guan; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Satoshi; Tanaka, Shuji; Tanasijczuk, Andres Jorge; Tannenwald, Benjamin Bordy; Tannoury, Nancy; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tashiro, Takuya; Tassi, Enrico; Tavares Delgado, Ademar; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Wendy; Teischinger, Florian Alfred; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, Matilde; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Teoh, Jia Jian; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terzo, Stefano; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Therhaag, Jan; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thomas, Juergen; Thomas-Wilsker, Joshuha; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Peter; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thong, Wai Meng; Thun, Rudolf; Tian, Feng; Tibbetts, Mark James; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tiouchichine, Elodie; Tipton, Paul; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Toggerson, Brokk; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tomlinson, Lee; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Topilin, Nikolai; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Tran, Huong Lan; Trefzger, Thomas; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alessandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Tripiana, Martin; Triplett, Nathan; Trischuk, William; Trocmé, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trovatelli, Monica; True, Patrick; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsirintanis, Nikolaos; Tsiskaridze, Shota; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tuna, Alexander Naip; Tupputi, Salvatore; Turchikhin, Semen; Turecek, Daniel; Turk Cakir, Ilkay; Turra, Ruggero; Tuts, Michael; Tykhonov, Andrii; Tylmad, Maja; Tyndel, Mike; Uchida, Kirika; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ughetto, Michael; Ugland, Maren; Uhlenbrock, Mathias; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Ungaro, Francesca; Unno, Yoshinobu; Urbaniec, Dustin; Urquijo, Phillip; Usai, Giulio; Usanova, Anna; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Valencic, Nika; Valentinetti, Sara; Valero, Alberto; Valery, Loic; Valkar, Stefan; Valladolid Gallego, Eva; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; Van Den Wollenberg, Wouter; Van Der Deijl, Pieter; van der Geer, Rogier; van der Graaf, Harry; Van Der Leeuw, Robin; van der Ster, Daniel; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; Van Nieuwkoop, Jacobus; van Vulpen, Ivo; van Woerden, Marius Cornelis; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vanguri, Rami; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vannucci, Francois; Vardanyan, Gagik; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varol, Tulin; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Veatch, Jason; Veloso, Filipe; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Venturini, Alessio; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Viazlo, Oleksandr; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Vigne, Ralph; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Virzi, Joseph; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vives Vaque, Francesc; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vladoiu, Dan; Vlasak, Michal; Vogel, Adrian; Vogel, Marcelo; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Radziewski, Holger; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorobev, Konstantin; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vu Anh, Tuan; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Vykydal, Zdenek; Wagner, Peter; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wahlberg, Hernan; Wahrmund, Sebastian; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wall, Richard; Waller, Peter; Walsh, Brian; Wang, Chao; Wang, Chiho; Wang, Fuquan; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Kuhan; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Wang, Tan; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Wanotayaroj, Chaowaroj; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Wardrope, David Robert; Warsinsky, Markus; Washbrook, Andrew; Wasicki, Christoph; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Ian; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Ben; Webb, Samuel; Weber, Michele; Weber, Stefan Wolf; Webster, Jordan S; Weidberg, Anthony; Weigell, Philipp; Weinert, Benjamin; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Weits, Hartger; Wells, Phillippa; Wenaus, Torre; Wendland, Dennis; Weng, Zhili; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Wessels, Martin; Wetter, Jeffrey; Whalen, Kathleen; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Ryan; White, Sebastian; Whiteson, Daniel; Wicke, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; Wijeratne, Peter Alexander; Wildauer, Andreas; Wildt, Martin Andre; Wilkens, Henric George; Will, Jonas Zacharias; Williams, Hugh; Williams, Sarah; Willis, Christopher; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, Alan; Wilson, John; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winklmeier, Frank; Winter, Benedict Tobias; Wittgen, Matthias; Wittig, Tobias; Wittkowski, Josephine; Wollstadt, Simon Jakob; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wozniak, Krzysztof; Wright, Michael; Wu, Mengqing; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wulf, Evan; Wyatt, Terry Richard; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xiao, Meng; Xu, Da; Xu, Lailin; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yamada, Miho; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Yohei; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Kyoko; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamamura, Taiki; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamauchi, Katsuya; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Hongtao; Yang, Un-Ki; Yang, Yi; Yanush, Serguei; Yao, Liwen; Yao, Weiming; Yasu, Yoshiji; Yatsenko, Elena; Yau Wong, Kaven Henry; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yen, Andy L; Yildirim, Eda; Yilmaz, Metin; Yoosoofmiya, Reza; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Rikutaro; Yoshihara, Keisuke; Young, Charles; Young, Christopher John; Youssef, Saul; Yu, David Ren-Hwa; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jiaming; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yurkewicz, Adam; Yusuff, Imran; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zaman, Aungshuman; Zambito, Stefano; Zanello, Lucia; Zanzi, Daniele; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zengel, Keith; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zerwas, Dirk; Zevi della Porta, Giovanni; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Fangzhou; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Lei; Zhou, Ning; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhukov, Konstantin; Zibell, Andre; Zieminska, Daria; Zimine, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Christoph; Zimmermann, Robert; Zimmermann, Simone; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Zinonos, Zinonas; Ziolkowski, Michael; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; zur Nedden, Martin; Zurzolo, Giovanni; Zutshi, Vishnu; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2014-01-01

    A novel technique to identify and split clusters created by multiple charged particles in the ATLAS pixel detector using a set of artificial neural networks is presented. Such merged clusters are a common feature of tracks originating from highly energetic objects, such as jets. Neural networks are trained using Monte Carlo samples produced with a detailed detector simulation. This technique replaces the former clustering approach based on a connected component analysis and charge interpolation. The performance of the neural network splitting technique is quantified using data from proton-proton collisions at the LHC collected by the ATLAS detector in 2011 and from Monte Carlo simulations. This technique reduces the number of clusters shared between tracks in highly energetic jets by up to a factor of three. It also provides more precise position and error estimates of the clusters in both the transverse and longitudinal impact parameter resolution.

  13. Neural network based cluster creation in the ATLAS silicon Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Andreazza, A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The read-out from individual pixels on planar semi-conductor sensors are grouped into clusters to reconstruct the location where a charged particle passed through the sensor. The resolution given by individual pixel sizes is significantly improved by using the information from the charge sharing between pixels. Such analog cluster creation techniques have been used by the ATLAS experiment for many years to obtain an excellent performance. However, in dense environments, such as those inside high-energy jets, clusters have an increased probability of merging the charge deposited by multiple particles. Recently, a neural network based algorithm which estimates both the cluster position and whether a cluster should be split has been developed for the ATLAS Pixel Detector. The algorithm significantly reduces ambiguities in the assignment of pixel detector measurement to tracks within jets and improves the position accuracy with respect to standard interpolation techniques by taking into account the 2-dimensional ...

  14. Neural network based cluster creation in the ATLAS silicon Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Perez Cavalcanti, T; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The hit signals read out from pixels on planar semi-conductor sensors are grouped into clusters, to reconstruct the location where a charged particle passed through. The resolution of the individual pixel sizes can be improved significantly using the information from the cluster of adjacent pixels. Such analog cluster creation techniques have been used by the ATLAS experiment for many years giving an excellent performance. However, in dense environments, such as those inside high-energy jets, is likely that the charge deposited by two or more close-by tracks merges into one single cluster. A new pattern recognition algorithm based on neural network methods has been developed for the ATLAS Pixel Detector. This can identify the shared clusters, split them if necessary, and estimate the positions of all particles traversing the cluster. The algorithm significantly reduces ambiguities in the assignment of pixel detector measurements to tracks within jets, and improves the positional accuracy with respect to stand...

  15. Total Ionizing Dose Testing of the ABC130 ASIC for the ATLAS Phase-II Semiconductor Tracker Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Morningstar, Alan

    2015-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider's (LHC) current inner detector was not built to withstand the radiation damage from the 3000 $\\text{fb}^{-1}$ of integrated luminosity that is planned for the high luminosity LHC (HL-LHC). Therefore, the ATLAS inner detector (ID) must be completely upgraded. As a part of this upgrade, the semiconductor tracker (SCT) and transition radiation tracker (TRT) will be replaced with new silicon microstrip sensors {[}1{]}. These silicon strips will be read out by the ABC130 chip and thus the ABC130 must be able to withstand an expected 30 Mrad of radiation over 10 years. The ABC130 chip was irradiated with 70 Mrad of x-ray radiation over the course of 2 days and the results are discussed in this report.

  16. The large silicon tracker for the AMS experiment on the International Space Station Alpha (ISSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauluzzi, M.

    1996-02-01

    The design of the high precision microstrip silicon tracker for the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer experiment (AMS) is presented. We emphasize features of the silicon tracker which make it suitable for a space born experiment and for equipping large active areas.

  17. Commissioning of Silicon detectors for the COMPASS experiment at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Wagner, R M

    2001-01-01

    This document describes the silicon microstrip detectors used in the COMPASS experiment. The main features of silicon microstrip detectors, mechanisms of radiation damages and the principles of the Lazarus effect are reviewed. The specific realization of silicon microstrip detectors in the COMPASS experiment is described. Production and tests done in the lab are discussed. Here, emphasis is placed on the noise performance of the detectors. The analysis of readout and performance tests in a test beam at CERN is done. Commissioning, debugging and first tests of the detectors and of the readout system on the COMPASS beam line in the 2001 beam time are presented.

  18. The DELPHI silicon tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Pernegger, H

    1997-01-01

    The DELPHI collaboration has upgraded the Silicon Vertex Detector in order to cope with the physics requirements for LEP200. The new detector consists of a barrel section with three layers of microstrip detectors and a forward extension made of hybrid pixel and large pitch strip detectors. The layout of the detector and the techniques used for the different parts of the new silicon detector shall be described.

  19. A new micro-strip tracker for the new generation of experiments at hadron colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinardo, Mauro E. [Univ. of Milan (Italy)

    2005-12-01

    This thesis concerns the development and characterization of a prototype Silicon micro-strip detector that can be used in the forward (high rapidity) region of a hadron collider. These detectors must operate in a high radiation environment without any important degradation of their performance. The innovative feature of these detectors is the readout electronics, which, being completely data-driven, allows for the direct use of the detector information at the lowest level of the trigger. All the particle hits on the detector can be readout in real-time without any external trigger and any particular limitation due to dead-time. In this way, all the detector information is available to elaborate a very selective trigger decision based on a fast reconstruction of tracks and vertex topology. These detectors, together with the new approach to the trigger, have been developed in the context of the BTeV R&D program; our aim was to define the features and the design parameters of an optimal experiment for heavy flavour physics at hadron colliders. Application of these detectors goes well beyond the BTeV project and, in particular, involves the future upgrades of experiments at hadron colliders, such as Atlas, CMS and LHCb. These experiments, indeed, are already considering for their future high-intensity runs a new trigger strategy a la BTeV. Their aim is to select directly at trigger level events containing Bhadrons, which, on several cases, come from the decay of Higgs bosons, Zo's or W±'s; the track information can also help on improving the performance of the electron and muon selection at the trigger level. For this reason, they are going to develop new detectors with practically the same characteristics as those of BTeV. To this extent, the work accomplished in this thesis could serve as guide-line for those upgrades.

  20. The ATLAS Semiconductor tracker: operations and performance

    CERN Document Server

    Pani, P; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    Tracker After more than 3 years of successful operation at the LHC, we report on the operation and performance of the Semi-Conductor Tracker (SCT) functioning in a high luminosity, high radiation environment. The SCT is part of the ATLAS experiment at CERN and is constructed of 4088 silicon detector modules for a total of 6.3 million strips. Each module is designed, constructed and tested to operate as a stand-alone unit, mechanically, electrically, optically and thermally. The modules are mounted into two types of structures: one barrel (4 cylinders) and two end-cap systems (9 disks on each end of the barrel). The SCT silicon micro-strip sensors are processed in the planar p-in-n technology. The signals are processed in the front-end ABCD3TA ASICs, which use a binary readout architecture. Data is transferred to the off-detector readout electronics via optical fibers. We find 99.3% of the SCT modules are operational, noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specifications; the alignment is very cl...

  1. Microstrip fractal-shaped antennas: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Anguera Pros, Jaume; Borja, C.; Puente Baliarda, Carles

    2007-01-01

    A review of electromagnetic features of microstrip antennas using fractal geometries is presented divided in four main areas: multi-frequency antennas, combination of multi- frequency with broadband techniques, high-directivity patches, and arrays with microstrip elements operating in localized modes Peer Reviewed

  2. WIRELESS ENERGY TRANSFER USING MICROSTRIP ANTENNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leong Kah Meng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a concept on wireless energy transmission using microstrip antenna pairs. Microstrip antenna is chosen in its implementation in wireless energy transfer application primarily due to its characteristics: Its ease of analysis, fabrication and their attractive radiation characteristics. The outcome of this research is the fabrication of two microstrip antennas with resonant frequency of 1.94 GHz and 2.5 GHz respectively. The performance and the power gain for each of microstrip antennas which act as the transmitter and receiver respectively were evaluated within certain distance. The limitations of the experiment as well as the possible solutions in increasing system efficiency are being discussed. Experiment shows that the microstrip antenna with a lower resonant frequency performs better in long distance wireless energy transmission.

  3. Evaluation of Bulk and Surface Radiation Damage of Silicon Sensors for the ATLAS Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Mikeštíková, Marcela; Št'astný, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The electrical characteristics of different types of end-cap miniature n + -in- p strip sensors, ATLAS12A, were evaluated in Institute of Physics in Prague before and after proton and gamma irradiation. We report here on the bulk damage aspects, including the increase of leakage current and evaluation of the full depletion voltage and the surface damage, including the decrease of inter-strip resistance, changes in inter-strip capacitance and the effectiveness of punch-through protection structure. It was verified that different geometries of end-cap sensors do not influence their stability; the sensors should provide acceptable strip isolation and n ew gate PTP structure functions well even at the highest tested proton fluence 2× 10 15 n eq / cm 2

  4. The LHCb Silicon Tracker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobin, Mark, E-mail: Mark.Tobin@epfl.ch

    2016-09-21

    The LHCb experiment is dedicated to the study of heavy flavour physics at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The primary goal of the experiment is to search for indirect evidence of new physics via measurements of CP violation and rare decays of beauty and charm hadrons. The LHCb detector has a large-area silicon micro-strip detector located upstream of a dipole magnet, and three tracking stations with silicon micro-strip detectors in the innermost region downstream of the magnet. These two sub-detectors form the LHCb Silicon Tracker (ST). This paper gives an overview of the performance and operation of the ST during LHC Run 1. Measurements of the observed radiation damage are shown and compared to the expectation from simulation.

  5. Microstrip and printed antenna design

    CERN Document Server

    Bancroft, Randy

    2009-01-01

    The approach in this book is historical and practical. It covers abasic designsa in more detail than other microstrip antenna books that tend to skip important electrical properties and implementation aspects of these types of antennas. Examples include: quarter-wave patch, quarter by quarter patch, detailed design method for rectangular circularly polarized patch, the use of the TM11 (linear and broadside CP), TM21 (monopole CP pattern) and TM02 (monopole linear) circular patch modes in designs, dual-band antenna designs which allow for independent dual-band frequencies. Limits on broadband m

  6. Spiral Microstrip Antenna with Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shively, David G. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A spiral microstrip antenna having resistor elements embedded in each of the spiral arms is provided. The antenna is constructed using a conductive back plane as a base. The back plane supports a dielectric slab having a thickness between one-sixteenth and one-quarter of an inch. A square spiral, having either two or four arms, is attached to the dielectric slab. Each arm of the spiral has resistor elements thereby dissipating an excess energy not already emitted through radiation. The entire configuration provides a thin, flat, high gain, wide bandwidth antenna which requires no underlying cavity. The configuration allows the antenna to be mounted conformably on an aircraft surface.

  7. Microstrip microwave band gap structures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V Subramanian

    2008-04-01

    Microwave band gap structures exhibit certain stop band characteristics based on the periodicity, impedance contrast and effective refractive index contrast. These structures though formed in one-, two- and three-dimensional periodicity, are huge in size. In this paper, microstrip-based microwave band gap structures are formed by removing the substrate material in a periodic manner. This paper also demonstrates that these structures can serve as a non-destructive characterization tool for materials, a duplexor and frequency selective coupler. The paper presents both experimental results and theoretical simulation based on a commercially available finite element methodology for comparison.

  8. Infrared-transparent microstrip detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, M. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria (IFCA), Ed. Juan Jorda, E-39005 Santander (Spain)], E-mail: Marcos.Fernandez@cern.ch; Duarte, J.; Gonzalez, J.; Heinemeyer, S.; Jaramillo, R.; Lopez, A.; Martinez, C.; Ruiz, A.; Vila, I. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria (IFCA), Ed. Juan Jorda, E-39005 Santander (Spain); Cabruja, E.; Lozano, M.; Pellegrini, G. [Centro Nacional de Microelectronica CNM-IMB, Campus Universidad Autonoma Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)

    2009-01-01

    The two main limiting factors in the accuracy of an optomechanical position monitoring system based on laser sources and photosensors are mechanical transfer between the monitored imaging sensors to the active particle tracking elements and non-straight propagation of the reference laser lines. Laser based alignment systems of Si trackers that use their own tracking detectors as photosensors are not affected by the first factor. Improving the transmittance of Si to infrared beams certainly minimizes the second one. Simulation of the passage of a light beam through a real microstrip detector and analysis of first measurements of samples are presented in this paper.

  9. Search for WW and WZ production in lepton, neutrino plus jets final states at CDF Run II and Silicon module production and detector control system for the ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sfyrla, Anna [Univ. of Geneva (Switzerland)

    2008-03-10

    In the first part of this work, we present a search for WW and WZ production in charged lepton, neutrino plus jets final states produced in p$\\bar{p}$ collisions with √s = 1.96 TeV at the Fermilab Tevatron, using 1.2 fb-1 of data accumulated with the CDF II detector. This channel is yet to be observed in hadron colliders due to the large singleWplus jets background. However, this decay mode has a much larger branching fraction than the cleaner fully leptonic mode making it more sensitive to anomalous triple gauge couplings that manifest themselves at higher transverse W momentum. Because the final state is topologically similar to associated production of a Higgs boson with a W, the techniques developed in this analysis are also applicable in that search. An Artificial Neural Network has been used for the event selection optimization. The theoretical prediction for the cross section is σWW/WZtheory x Br(W → ℓv; W/Z → jj) = 2.09 ± 0.14 pb. They measured NSignal = 410 ± 212(stat) ± 102(sys) signal events that correspond to a cross section σWW/WZ x Br(W → ℓv; W/Z → jj) = 1.47 ± 0.77(stat) ± 0.38(sys) pb. The 95% CL upper limit to the cross section is estimated to be σ x Br(W → ℓv; W/Z → jj) < 2.88 pb. The second part of the present work is technical and concerns the ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker (SCT) assembly phase. Although technical, the work in the SCT assembly phase is of prime importance for the good performance of the detector during data taking. The production at the University of Geneva of approximately one third of the silicon microstrip end-cap modules is presented. This collaborative effort of the university of Geneva group that lasted two years, resulted in 655 produced modules, 97% of which were good modules, constructed within the mechanical and electrical specifications and delivered in the SCT collaboration for assembly on the end-cap disks. The SCT end-caps and barrels

  10. Characterisation of strip silicon detectors for the ATLAS Phase-II Upgrade with a micro-focused X-ray beam

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00407830; Blue, Andrew; Bates, Richard; Bloch, Ingo; Diez, Sergio; Fernandez-Tejero, Javier; Fleta, Celeste; Gallop, Bruce; Greenall, Ashley; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Hara, Kazuhiko; Ikegami, Yoichi; Lacasta, Carlos; Lohwasser, Kristin; Maneuski, Dzmitry; Nagorski, Sebastian; Pape, Ian; Phillips, Peter W.; Sperlich, Dennis; Sawhney, Kawal; Soldevila, Urmila; Ullan, Miguel; Unno, Yoshinobu; Warren, Matt

    2016-01-01

    The planned HL-LHC (High Luminosity LHC) in 2025 is being designed to maximise the physics potential through a sizable increase in the luminosity, totalling 1x10^35 cm^-2 s^-1 after 10 years of operation. A consequence of this increased luminosity is the expected radiation damage at 3000 fb^-1, requiring the tracking detectors to withstand hadron equivalences to over 1x10^16 1 MeV neutrons per cm^2. With the addition of increased readout rates, a complete re-design of the current ATLAS Inner Detector (ID) is being developed as the Inner Tracker (ITk). Two proposed detectors for the ATLAS strip tracker region of the ITk were characterized at the Diamond Light Source with a 3 micron FWHM 15 keV micro focused X-ray beam. The devices under test were a 320 micron thick silicon stereo (Barrel) ATLAS12 strip mini sensor wire bonded to a 130 nm CMOS binary readout chip (ABC130) and a 320 micron thick full size radial (Endcap) strip sensor - utilizing bi-metal readout layers - wire bonded to 250 nm CMOS binary readout...

  11. R & D for the CMS silicon tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Feld, L; Angarano, M M; Azzi, P; Babucci, E; Bacchetta, N; Bader, A J; Bagliesi, G; Barr, A J; Bartalini, P; Basti, A; Biggeri, U; Bilei, G M; Bisello, D; Boemi, D; Bosi, F; Borrello, L; Bozzi, C; Braibant, S; Breuker, Horst; Bruzzi, Mara; Candelori, A; Caner, A; Castaldi, R; Castro, A; Catacchini, E; Checcucci, B; Ciampolini, P; Civinini, C; Creanza, D; D'Alessandro, R; Da Rold, M; Demaria, N; De Palma, M; Dell'Orso, R; Della Marina, R; Dutta, S; Eklund, C; Peisert, Anna; Fiore, L; Focardi, E; French, M; Freudenreich, Klaus; Fürtjes, A; Giassi, A; Giraldo, A; Glessing, W D; Gu, W H; Hall, G; Hammarström, R; Hebbeker, T; Honkanen, J A; Hrubec, Josef; Huhtinen, M; Kaminski, A; Karimäki, V; Kellogg, R G; König, S J; Krammer, Manfred; Lariccia, P; Lenzi, M; Loreti, M; Lübelsmeyer, K; Lustermann, W; Mättig, P; Maggi, G; Mannelli, M; Mantovani, G C; Marchioro, A; Mariotti, C; Martignon, G; McEvoy, B; Meschini, M; Messineo, A; My, S; Paccagnella, A; Palla, Fabrizio; Pandoulas, D; Parrini, G; Passeri, D; Pieri, M; Piperov, S; Potenza, R; Raffaelli, F; Raso, G; Raymond, M; Schmitt, B; Selvaggi, G; Servoli, L; Sguazzoni, G; Siedling, R; Silvestris, L; Skog, K; Starodumov, Andrei; Stavitski, I; Stefanini, G; Tempesta, P; Tonelli, G; Tricomi, A; Tuuva, T; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Viertel, Gert M; Xie, Z; Wang, Y; Watts, S; Wittmer, B

    1999-01-01

    The CMS silicon tracker, consisting of about 70 m/sup 2/ of silicon microstrip devices, has to be operated for at least 10 years in a harsh radiation environment. The main implications of this environment on the detector design are summarized and an overview of the expected performance is given. (2 refs).

  12. Microstrip antenna on tunable substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, K. A.; Varadan, Vijay K.; Varadan, Vasundara V.; Mohanan, P.

    1995-05-01

    The tunable patch antenna configurations are becoming popular and attractive in many aspects. This was mainly due to the advent of ferrite thin film technology and tunable substrate materials. The integration of monolithic microwave circuits and antennas are becoming easy today. In the development of magnetic tuning of microstrip patch on ferrite substrate is presented by Rainville and Harackewiez. Radiation characteristics of such antennas are presented by Pozer. Band width and radiation characteristics of such tunable antennas are measured and compared. Usually the substrate losses are considered in the analysis and metallization losses are assumed to be ideal. The analysis of magnetic tunable radiator including metallization and ferrite substrate losses are presented. However, all such tuning and integration of circuits and antennas are mainly on ferrite substrate due to magnetic tuning. Recently, Varadan et al. established that the BaxSr1-xTiO3 series ferroelectric materials such as Barium Strontium Titanate (BST) are well suited for microwave phase shifter applications. It could be possible to change the dielectric constant of these materials more than 50% depending on the BST composition, by changing the applied bias voltage. Also, the porosity of BST can be controlled during processing to produce dielectric constants in the range of 15 to 1500, with some trade off in tunability. In this paper, we are presenting the possibility of designing a microstrip patch antenna on such tunable substrate. Such antennas are having the major advantage of electronic tunability and compact size.

  13. Characterisation of strip silicon detectors for the ATLAS Phase-II Upgrade with a micro-focused X-ray beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poley, L.; Blue, A.; Bates, R.; Bloch, I.; Díez, S.; Fernandez-Tejero, J.; Fleta, C.; Gallop, B.; Greenall, A.; Gregor, I.-M.; Hara, K.; Ikegami, Y.; Lacasta, C.; Lohwasser, K.; Maneuski, D.; Nagorski, S.; Pape, I.; Phillips, P. W.; Sperlich, D.; Sawhney, K.; Soldevila, U.; Ullan, M.; Unno, Y.; Warren, M.

    2016-07-01

    The planned HL-LHC (High Luminosity LHC) in 2025 is being designed to maximise the physics potential through a sizable increase in the luminosity up to 6·1034 cm-2s-1. A consequence of this increased luminosity is the expected radiation damage at 3000 fb-1 after ten years of operation, requiring the tracking detectors to withstand fluences to over 1·1016 1 MeV neq/cm2. In order to cope with the consequent increased readout rates, a complete re-design of the current ATLAS Inner Detector (ID) is being developed as the Inner Tracker (ITk). Two proposed detectors for the ATLAS strip tracker region of the ITk were characterized at the Diamond Light Source with a 3 μm FWHM 15 keV micro focused X-ray beam. The devices under test were a 320 μm thick silicon stereo (Barrel) ATLAS12 strip mini sensor wire bonded to a 130 nm CMOS binary readout chip (ABC130) and a 320 μm thick full size radial (end-cap) strip sensor - utilizing bi-metal readout layers - wire bonded to 250 nm CMOS binary readout chips (ABCN-25). A resolution better than the inter strip pitch of the 74.5 μm strips was achieved for both detectors. The effect of the p-stop diffusion layers between strips was investigated in detail for the wire bond pad regions. Inter strip charge collection measurements indicate that the effective width of the strip on the silicon sensors is determined by p-stop regions between the strips rather than the strip pitch.

  14. Design and characterization of integrated front-end transistors in a micro-strip detector technology

    CERN Document Server

    Simi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bondioli, M; Boscardin, M; Bosisio, L; Dalla Betta, Gian Franco; Dittongo, S; Forti, F; Giorgi, M; Gregori, P; Manghisoni, M; Morganti, M; Ratti, L; Re, V; Rizzo, G; Speziali, V; Zorzi, N

    2002-01-01

    We present the developments in a research program aimed at the realization of silicon micro-strip detectors with front-end electronics integrated in a high resistivity substrate to be used in high-energy physics, space and medical/industrial imaging applications. We report on the fabrication process developed at IRST (Trento, Italy), the characterization of the basic wafer parameters and measurements of the relevant working characteristics of the integrated transistors and related test structures.

  15. A new silicon tracker for proton imaging and dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J. T.; Waltham, C.; Price, T.; Allinson, N. M.; Allport, P. P.; Casse, G. L.; Kacperek, A.; Manger, S.; Smith, N. A.; Tsurin, I.

    2016-09-01

    For many years, silicon micro-strip detectors have been successfully used as tracking detectors for particle and nuclear physics experiments. A new application of this technology is to the field of particle therapy where radiotherapy is carried out by use of charged particles such as protons or carbon ions. Such a treatment has been shown to have advantages over standard x-ray radiotherapy and as a result of this, many new centres offering particle therapy are currently under construction around the world today. The Proton Radiotherapy, Verification and Dosimetry Applications (PRaVDA) consortium are developing instrumentation for particle therapy based upon technology from high-energy physics. The characteristics of a new silicon micro-strip tracker for particle therapy will be presented. The array uses specifically designed, large area sensors with technology choices that follow closely those taken for the ATLAS experiment at the HL-LHC. These detectors will be arranged into four units each with three layers in an x-u-v configuration to be suitable for fast proton tracking with minimal ambiguities. The sensors will form a tracker capable of tracing the path of ~200 MeV protons entering and exiting a patient allowing a new mode of imaging known as proton computed tomography (pCT). This will aid the accurate delivery of treatment doses and in addition, the tracker will also be used to monitor the beam profile and total dose delivered during the high fluences used for treatment. We present here details of the design, construction and assembly of one of the four units that will make up the complete tracker along with its characterisation using radiation tests carried out using a 90Sr source in the laboratory and a 60 MeV proton beam at the Clatterbridge Cancer Centre.

  16. A new silicon tracker for proton imaging and dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, J.T., E-mail: jtaylor@hep.ph.liv.ac.uk [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Oxford Street, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Waltham, C. [Laboratory of Vision Engineering, School of Computer Science, University of Lincoln, Lincoln LN6 7TS (United Kingdom); Price, T. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B25 2TT (United Kingdom); Allinson, N.M. [Laboratory of Vision Engineering, School of Computer Science, University of Lincoln, Lincoln LN6 7TS (United Kingdom); Allport, P.P. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B25 2TT (United Kingdom); Casse, G.L. [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Oxford Street, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Kacperek, A. [Douglas Cyclotron, The Clatterbridge Cancer Centre NHS Foundation Trust, Clatterbridge Road, Bebington, Wirral CH63 4JY (United Kingdom); Manger, S. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Smith, N.A.; Tsurin, I. [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Oxford Street, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom)

    2016-09-21

    For many years, silicon micro-strip detectors have been successfully used as tracking detectors for particle and nuclear physics experiments. A new application of this technology is to the field of particle therapy where radiotherapy is carried out by use of charged particles such as protons or carbon ions. Such a treatment has been shown to have advantages over standard x-ray radiotherapy and as a result of this, many new centres offering particle therapy are currently under construction around the world today. The Proton Radiotherapy, Verification and Dosimetry Applications (PRaVDA) consortium are developing instrumentation for particle therapy based upon technology from high-energy physics. The characteristics of a new silicon micro-strip tracker for particle therapy will be presented. The array uses specifically designed, large area sensors with technology choices that follow closely those taken for the ATLAS experiment at the HL-LHC. These detectors will be arranged into four units each with three layers in an x–u–v configuration to be suitable for fast proton tracking with minimal ambiguities. The sensors will form a tracker capable of tracing the path of ~200 MeV protons entering and exiting a patient allowing a new mode of imaging known as proton computed tomography (pCT). This will aid the accurate delivery of treatment doses and in addition, the tracker will also be used to monitor the beam profile and total dose delivered during the high fluences used for treatment. We present here details of the design, construction and assembly of one of the four units that will make up the complete tracker along with its characterisation using radiation tests carried out using a {sup 90}Sr source in the laboratory and a 60 MeV proton beam at the Clatterbridge Cancer Centre.

  17. Alignment of the ATLAS Inner Detector upgraded for the LHC Run II

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00386283; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    ATLAS is a multipurpose experiment at the LHC proton-proton collider. Its physics goals require high resolution, unbiased measurement of all charged particle kinematic parameters. These critically depend on the layout and performance of the tracking system, notably quality of its offline alignment. ATLAS is equipped with a tracking system built using different technologies, silicon planar sensors (pixel and micro-strip) and gaseous drift- tubes, all embedded in a 2T solenoidal magnetic field. For the LHC Run II, the system has been upgraded with the installation of a new pixel layer, the Insertable B-layer (IBL). Offline track alignment of the ATLAS tracking system has to deal with about 700,000 degrees of freedom (DoF) defining its geometrical parameters. The task requires using very large data sets and represents a considerable numerical challenge in terms of both CPU time and precision. The adopted strategy uses a hierarchical approach to alignment, combining local and global least squares techniques. An o...

  18. Microstrip proportional counter development at MSFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, M. A.; Kolodziejczak, J. J.; Ramsey, B. D.

    1992-01-01

    Microstrip detectors are an exciting new development in proportional counter design fabricated using integrated circuit-type photolithography techniques; they therefore offer very high spatial accuracy and uniformity. A development program is underway at NASA-Marshall to produce large-area microstrips for use in an X-ray detector balloon flight program and to investigate the general performance limits of these new devices. Microstrips tested so far have been fabricated both in-house using standard photolithographic techniques and by an outside contractor using electron beam technology. Various substrate materials have been tested along with different electrode configurations. The distributions of pickup on subdivided cathodes on both top and bottom surfaces of the microstrips are also being investigated for use as two-dimensional imaging detectors. Data from these tests in the development of a large-area device will be presented.

  19. Some Recent Developments of Microstrip Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the microstrip antenna has been extensively studied in the past few decades as one of the standard planar antennas, it still has a huge potential for further developments. The paper suggests three areas for further research based on our previous works on microstrip antenna elements and arrays. One is exploring the variety of microstrip antenna topologies to meet the desired requirement such as ultrawide band (UWB, high gain, miniaturization, circular polarization, multipolarized, and so on. Another is to apply microstrip antenna to form composite antenna which is more potent than the individual antenna. The last is growing towards highly integration of antenna/array and feeding network or operating at relatively high frequencies, like sub-millimeter wave or terahertz (THz wave regime, by using the advanced machining techniques. To support our points of view, some examples of antennas developed in our group are presented and discussed.

  20. An analysis technique for microstrip antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, P. K.; Bailey, M. C.

    1977-01-01

    The paper presents a combined numerical and empirical approach to the analysis of microstrip antennas over a wide range of frequencies. The method involves representing the antenna by a fine wire grid immersed in a dielectric medium and then using Richmond's reaction formulation (1974) to evaluate the piecewise sinusoidal currents on the grid segments. The calculated results are then modified to account for the finite dielectric discontinuity. The method is applied to round and square microstrip antennas.

  1. Performances of miniature microstrip detectors made on oxygen enriched p-type substrates after very high proton irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casse, G. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, P.O. Box 147, Liverpool L69 3BX (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: gcasse@hep.ph.liv.ac.uk; Allport, P.P. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, P.O. Box 147, Liverpool L69 3BX (United Kingdom); Marti i Garcia, S. [IFIC CSIC, Edificio Institutos de Investigacion Apartado de Correos 22085 E-46071, Valencia-Spain (Spain); Lozano, M. [IMB-CNM (CSIC), Campus Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Turner, P.R. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, P.O. Box 147, Liverpool L69 3BX (United Kingdom)

    2004-12-11

    Silicon microstrip detectors with n-type implant read-out strips on FZ p-type bulk (n-in-p) show superior charge collection properties, after heavy irradiation, to the more standard p-strips in n-type silicon (p-in-n). It is also well established that oxygen-enriched n-type silicon substrates show better performance, in terms of degradation of the full depletion voltage after charged hadron irradiation, than the standard FZ silicon used for high energy physics detectors. Silicon microstrip detectors combining both the advantages of oxygenation and of n-strip read-out (n-in-n) have achieved high radiation tolerance to charged hadrons. The manufacturing of n-in-n detectors though requires double-sided processing, resulting in more complicated and expensive devices than standard p-in-n. A cheaper single-sided option, that still combines these advantages, is to use n-in-p devices. P-type FZ wafers have been oxygen-enriched by high temperature diffusion from an oxide layer and successfully used to process miniature (1x1 cm{sup 2}) microstrip detectors. These detectors have been irradiated with 24 GeV/c protons in the CERN/PS T7 irradiation area up to {approx}7.5x10{sup 15} cm{sup -2}. We report results with these irradiated detectors in terms of the charge collection efficiency as a function of the applied bias voltage.

  2. Performances of miniature microstrip detectors made on oxygen enriched p-type substrates after very high proton irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casse, G.; Allport, P. P.; Martí i Garcia, S.; Lozano, M.; Turner, P. R.

    2004-12-01

    Silicon microstrip detectors with n-type implant read-out strips on FZ p-type bulk (n-in-p) show superior charge collection properties, after heavy irradiation, to the more standard p-strips in n-type silicon (p-in-n). It is also well established that oxygen-enriched n-type silicon substrates show better performance, in terms of degradation of the full depletion voltage after charged hadron irradiation, than the standard FZ silicon used for high energy physics detectors. Silicon microstrip detectors combining both the advantages of oxygenation and of n-strip read-out (n-in-n) have achieved high radiation tolerance to charged hadrons. The manufacturing of n-in-n detectors though requires double-sided processing, resulting in more complicated and expensive devices than standard p-in-n. A cheaper single-sided option, that still combines these advantages, is to use n-in-p devices. P-type FZ wafers have been oxygen-enriched by high temperature diffusion from an oxide layer and succesfully used to process miniature (1×1 cm 2) microstrip detectors. These detectors have been irradiated with 24 GeV/c protons in the CERN/PS T7 irradiation area up to ˜7.5×10 15 cm -2. We report results with these irradiated detectors in terms of the charge collection efficiency as a function of the applied bias voltage.

  3. Laboratory course on silicon sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Crescio, E; Roe, S; Rudge, A

    2003-01-01

    The laboratory course consisted of four different mini sessions, in order to give the student some hands-on experience on various aspects of silicon sensors and related integrated electronics. The four experiments were. 1. Characterisation of silicon diodes for particle detection 2. Study of noise performance of the Viking readout circuit 3. Study of the position resolution of a silicon microstrip sensor 4. Study of charge transport in silicon with a fast amplifier The data in the following were obtained during the ICFA school by the students.

  4. The ATLAS SemiConductorTracker

    CERN Document Server

    Mikuz, M

    2004-01-01

    The ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker (SCT) is presented. About 16000 silicon micro-strip sensors with a total active surface of over 60 m /sup 2/ and with 6.3 million read-out channels are built into 4088 modules arranged into four barrel layers and nine disks covering each of the forward regions up to an eta of 2.5. Challenges are imposed by the hostile radiation environment with particle fluences up to 2*10 /sup 14/ cm/sup -2/ 1 MeV neutron NIEL equivalent and 100 kGy TID, the 25 ns LHC bunch crossing time and the need for a hermetic, lightweight tracker. The solution adopted is carefully designed strip detectors operated at -7 degrees C, biased up to 500 V and read out by binary rad-hard fast BiCMOS electronics. A zero-CTE carbon fibre structure provides mechanical support. 30 kW of power are supplied on aluminium/Kapton tapes and cooled by C/sub 3/F/sub 8/ evaporative cooling. Data and commands are transferred by optical links. Prototypes of detector modules have been built, irradiated to the maximum expected ...

  5. Potential applications of microstrip devices with traveling wave resonators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glushechenko E. N.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The shortcomings of the known microwave filters in microstrip lines are considered, the advantages of the use of directional traveling-wave filters in microstrip performance and examples of their potential applications are shown.

  6. Performance and Operation Experience of the ATLAS Semiconductor Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Gallop, B J

    2014-01-01

    We report on the operation and performance of the ATLAS Semi-Conductor Tracker (SCT), which has been functioning for 3 years in a high luminosity, high radiation environment. The SCT is constructed of 4088 silicon detector modules, for a total of 6.3 million strips. Each module operates as a stand-alone unit, mechanically, electrically, optically and thermally. The modules are mounted into two types of structures: one barrel, made of 4 cylinders, and two end-cap systems made of 9 disks. The SCT silicon micro-strip sensors are processed in the planar p-in-n technology. The signals are processed in the front-end ABCD3TA ASICs, which use a binary readout architecture. Data is transferred to the off-detector readout electronics via optical fibres. We find $99.3\\%$ of the SCT modules are operational, the noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specifications; the alignment is very close to the ideal to allow on-line track reconstruction and invariant mass determination. We will report on the operation...

  7. Performance and Operation Experience of the ATLAS Semiconductor Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Gallop, B J; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    We report on the operation and performance of the ATLAS Semi-Conductor Tracker (SCT), which has been functioning for 3 years in a high luminosity, high radiation environment. The SCT is constructed of 4088 silicon detector modules, for a total of 6.3 million strips. Each module operates as a stand-alone unit, mechanically, electrically, optically and thermally. The modules are mounted into two types of structures: one barrel, made of 4 cylinders, and two end-cap systems made of 9 disks. The SCT silicon micro-strip sensors are processed in the planar p-in-n technology. The signals are processed in the front-end ABCD3TA ASICs, which use a binary readout architecture. Data is transferred to the off-detector readout electronics via optical fibres. We find 99.3% of the SCT modules are operational, the noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specifications; the alignment is very close to the ideal to allow on-line track reconstruction and invariant mass determination. We will report on the operation an...

  8. Performance and operation experience of the Atlas Semiconductor Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Liang, Z; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    We report on the operation and performance of the ATLAS Semi-Conductor Tracker (SCT), which has been functioning for 3 years in the high luminosity, high radiation environment of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. We’ll also report on the few improvements of the SCT foreseen for the high energy run of the LHC. The SCT is constructed of 4088 silicon detector modules, for a total of 6.3 million strips. Each module operates as a stand-alone unit, mechanically, electrically, optically and thermally. The modules are mounted into two types of structures: one barrel, made of 4 cylinders, and two end-cap systems made of 9 disks. The SCT silicon micro-strip sensors are processed in the planar p-in-n technology. The signals are processed in the front-end ABCD3TA ASICs, which use a binary readout architecture. Data is transferred to the off-detector readout electronics via optical fibres. We find 99.3% of the SCT modules are operational, the noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specifications; the alig...

  9. Noise evaluation of silicon strip super-module with ABCN250 readout chips for the ATLAS detector upgrade at the High Luminosity LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todome, K., E-mail: todome@hep.phys.titech.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Ookayama 2-12-1, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Solid State Div., Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., 1126-1, Ichino-cho, Higashi-ku, Hamamatsu-shi, Shizuoka 435-8558 (Japan); Jinnouchi, O. [Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Ookayama 2-12-1, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Solid State Div., Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., 1126-1, Ichino-cho, Higashi-ku, Hamamatsu-shi, Shizuoka 435-8558 (Japan); Clark, A.; Barbier, G.; Cadoux, F.; Favre, Y.; Ferrere, D.; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S.; Iacobucci, G.; La Marra, D.; Perrin, E.; Weber, M. [DPNC, University of Geneva, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Solid State Div., Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., 1126-1, Ichino-cho, Higashi-ku, Hamamatsu-shi, Shizuoka 435-8558 (Japan); Ikegami, Y.; Nakamura, K.; Takubo, Y.; Unno, Y. [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Study, KEK, Oho 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Solid State Div., Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., 1126-1, Ichino-cho, Higashi-ku, Hamamatsu-shi, Shizuoka 435-8558 (Japan); Takashima, R. [Department of Science Education, Kyoto University of Education, Kyoto 612-8522 (Japan); Solid State Div., Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., 1126-1, Ichino-cho, Higashi-ku, Hamamatsu-shi, Shizuoka 435-8558 (Japan); Tojo, J. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Solid State Div., Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., 1126-1, Ichino-cho, Higashi-ku, Hamamatsu-shi, Shizuoka 435-8558 (Japan); Kono, T. [Ochadai Academic Production, Ochanomizu University, 2-1-1, Otsuka, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-8610 (Japan); Solid State Div., Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., 1126-1, Ichino-cho, Higashi-ku, Hamamatsu-shi, Shizuoka 435-8558 (Japan); and others

    2016-09-21

    Toward High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), the whole ATLAS inner tracker will be replaced, including the semiconductor tracker (SCT) which is the silicon micro strip detector for tracking charged particles. In development of the SCT, integration of the detector is the important issue. One of the concepts of integration is the “super-module” in which individual modules are assembled to produce the SCT ladder. A super-module prototype has been developed to demonstrate its functionality. One of the concerns in integrating the super-modules is the electrical coupling between each module, because it may increase intrinsic noise of the system. To investigate the electrical performance of the prototype, the new Data Acquisition (DAQ) system has been developed by using SEABAS. The electric performance of the super-module prototype, especially the input noise and random noise hit rate, was investigated by using SEABAS system.

  10. A Microstrip Reflect Array Using Crossed Dipoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozar, David M.; Targonski, Stephen D.

    1998-01-01

    Microstrip reflect arrays offer a flat profile and light weight, combined with many of the electrical characteristics of reflector antennas. Previous work [1]-[7] has demonstrated a variety of microstrip reflect arrays, using different elements at a range of frequencies. In this paper we describe the use of crossed dipoles as reflecting elements in a microstrip reflectarray. Theory of the solution will be described, with experimental results for a 6" square reflectarray operating at 28 GHz. The performance of crossed dipoles will be directly compared with microstrip patches, in terms of bandwidth and loss. We also comment on the principle of operation of reflectarray elements, including crossed dipoles, patches of variable length, and patch elements with tuning stubs. This research was prompted by the proposed concept of overlaying a flat printed reflectarray on the surface of a spacecraft solar panel. Combining solar panel and antenna apertures in this way would lead to a reduction in weight and simpler deployment, with some loss of flexibility in independently pointing the solar panel and the antenna. Using crossed dipoles as reflectarray elements will minimize the aperture blockage of the solar cells, in contrast to the use of elements such as microstrip patches.

  11. CMS silicon tracker developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Civinini, C. E-mail: carlo.civinini@fi.infn.it; Albergo, S.; Angarano, M.; Azzi, P.; Babucci, E.; Bacchetta, N.; Bader, A.; Bagliesi, G.; Basti, A.; Biggeri, U.; Bilei, G.M.; Bisello, D.; Boemi, D.; Bosi, F.; Borrello, L.; Bozzi, C.; Braibant, S.; Breuker, H.; Bruzzi, M.; Buffini, A.; Busoni, S.; Candelori, A.; Caner, A.; Castaldi, R.; Castro, A.; Catacchini, E.; Checcucci, B.; Ciampolini, P.; Creanza, D.; D' Alessandro, R.; Da Rold, M.; Demaria, N.; De Palma, M.; Dell' Orso, R.; Della Marina, R.D.R.; Dutta, S.; Eklund, C.; Feld, L.; Fiore, L.; Focardi, E.; French, M.; Freudenreich, K.; Frey, A.; Fuertjes, A.; Giassi, A.; Giorgi, M.; Giraldo, A.; Glessing, B.; Gu, W.H.; Hall, G.; Hammarstrom, R.; Hebbeker, T.; Honma, A.; Hrubec, J.; Huhtinen, M.; Kaminsky, A.; Karimaki, V.; Koenig, St.; Krammer, M.; Lariccia, P.; Lenzi, M.; Loreti, M.; Luebelsmeyer, K.; Lustermann, W.; Maettig, P.; Maggi, G.; Mannelli, M.; Mantovani, G.; Marchioro, A.; Mariotti, C.; Martignon, G.; Evoy, B. Mc; Meschini, M.; Messineo, A.; Migliore, E.; My, S.; Paccagnella, A.; Palla, F.; Pandoulas, D.; Papi, A.; Parrini, G.; Passeri, D.; Pieri, M.; Piperov, S.; Potenza, R.; Radicci, V.; Raffaelli, F.; Raymond, M.; Santocchia, A.; Schmitt, B.; Selvaggi, G.; Servoli, L.; Sguazzoni, G.; Siedling, R.; Silvestris, L.; Starodumov, A.; Stavitski, I.; Stefanini, G.; Surrow, B.; Tempesta, P.; Tonelli, G.; Tricomi, A.; Tuuva, T.; Vannini, C.; Verdini, P.G.; Viertel, G.; Xie, Z.; Yahong, Li; Watts, S.; Wittmer, B

    2002-01-21

    The CMS Silicon tracker consists of 70 m{sup 2} of microstrip sensors which design will be finalized at the end of 1999 on the basis of systematic studies of device characteristics as function of the most important parameters. A fundamental constraint comes from the fact that the detector has to be operated in a very hostile radiation environment with full efficiency. We present an overview of the current results and prospects for converging on a final set of parameters for the silicon tracker sensors.

  12. CMS silicon tracker developments

    CERN Document Server

    Civinini, C; Angarano, M M; Azzi, P; Babucci, E; Bacchetta, N; Bader, A; Bagliesi, G; Basti, A; Biggeri, U; Bilei, G M; Bisello, D; Boemi, D; Bosi, F; Borrello, L; Bozzi, C; Braibant, S; Breuker, Horst; Bruzzi, Mara; Buffini, A; Busoni, S; Candelori, A; Caner, A; Castaldi, R; Castro, A; Catacchini, E; Checcucci, B; Ciampolini, P; Creanza, D; D'Alessandro, R; Da Rold, M; Demaria, N; De Palma, M; Dell'Orso, R; Della Marina, R; Dutta, S; Eklund, C; Feld, L; Fiore, L; Focardi, E; French, M; Freudenreich, Klaus; Frey, A; Fürtjes, A; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M; Giraldo, A; Glessing, B; Gu, W H; Hall, G; Hammarström, R; Hebbeker, T; Honma, A; Hrubec, Josef; Huhtinen, M; Kaminski, A; Karimäki, V; König, S; Krammer, Manfred; Lariccia, P; Lenzi, M; Loreti, M; Lübelsmeyer, K; Lustermann, W; Mättig, P; Maggi, G; Mannelli, M; Mantovani, G C; Marchioro, A; Mariotti, C; Martignon, G; McEvoy, B; Meschini, M; Messineo, A; Migliore, E; My, S; Paccagnella, A; Palla, Fabrizio; Pandoulas, D; Papi, A; Parrini, G; Passeri, D; Pieri, M; Piperov, S; Potenza, R; Radicci, V; Raffaelli, F; Raymond, M; Santocchia, A; Schmitt, B; Selvaggi, G; Servoli, L; Sguazzoni, G; Siedling, R; Silvestris, L; Starodumov, Andrei; Stavitski, I; Stefanini, G; Surrow, B; Tempesta, P; Tonelli, G; Tricomi, A; Tuuva, T; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Viertel, Gert M; Xie, Z; Li Ya Hong; Watts, S; Wittmer, B

    2002-01-01

    The CMS Silicon tracker consists of 70 m/sup 2/ of microstrip sensors which design will be finalized at the end of 1999 on the basis of systematic studies of device characteristics as function of the most important parameters. A fundamental constraint comes from the fact that the detector has to be operated in a very hostile radiation environment with full efficiency. We present an overview of the current results and prospects for converging on a final set of parameters for the silicon tracker sensors. (9 refs).

  13. Impedance properties of circular microstrip antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, M. D.; Bailey, M. C.

    1983-01-01

    A moment method solution to the input impedance of a circular microstrip antenna excited by either a microstrip feed or a coaxial probe is presented. Using the exact dyadic Green's function and the Fourier transform the problem is formulated in terms of Richmond's reaction integral equation from which the unknown patch current can be solved for. The patch current is expanded in terms of regular surface patch modes and an attachment mode (for probe excited case) which insures continuity of the current at probe/patch junction, proper polarization and p-dependance of patch current in the vicinity of the probe. The input impedance of a circular microstrip antenna is computed and compared with earlier results. Effect of attachment mode on the input impedance is also discussed.

  14. A Microstripe Slotted Patch Antenna Using Amc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manju Saini,

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Microstrip patch antenna offer an attractive solution to compact and ease-low-cost design of modern wireless communication system due to their many advantages as light weight and low volume, low profile, planer configuration which can be easily made conformal to low fabrication cost and capability of obtaining dual and triple frequency operations. A microstrip patch antenna with bandwidth enhancement by means of artificial magnetic conductor (AMC/electromagnetic band-gap structure (EBG is studied in this paper. The three different geometry shapes, the U, E and H are developed from rectangular patch. The antennas studied in this paper are simulated using sonnet software and results compared with the conventional rectangular patch antenna. The results obtained clearly shows that , bandwidth of conventional rectangular microstrip antenna can be enhanced has been studied

  15. Swept frequency technique for dispersion measurement of microstrip lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Richard Q.

    1987-01-01

    Microstrip lines used in microwave integrated circuits are dispersive. Because a microstrip line is an open structure, the dispersion can not be derived with pure TEM, TE, or TM mode analysis. Dispersion analysis has commonly been done using a spectral domain approach, and dispersion measurement has been made with high Q microstrip ring resonators. Since the dispersion of a microstrip line is fully characterized by the frequency dependent phase velocity of the line, dispersion measurement of microstrip lines requires the measurement of the line wavelength as a function of frequency. In this paper, a swept frequency technique for dispersion measurement is described.

  16. The ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker operation and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pater, J. R.

    2012-04-01

    The ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker (SCT) is a key precision tracking detector in the ATLAS experiment at CERN's Large Hadron Collider. The SCT is composed of 4088 planar p-in-n silicon micro-strip detectors. The signals from the strips are processed in the front-end ABCD3TA ASICs, which operate in binary readout mode; data are transferred to the off-detector readout electronics via optical fibres. The SCT was completed in 2007. An extensive commissioning phase followed, during which calibration data were collected and analysed to determine the noise performance of the system, and further performance parameters of the detector were determined using cosmic ray data, both with and without magnetic field. After the commissioning phase, the SCT was ready for the first LHC proton-proton collisions in December 2009. From the beginning of data taking, the completed SCT has been in very good shape with more than 99% of its 6.3 million strips operational; the detector is well timed-in and the operational channels are 99.9% efficient in data acquisition. The noise occupancy and hit efficiency are better than the design specifications. The detector geometry is monitored continuously with a laser-based alignment system and is stable to the few-micron level; the alignment accuracy as determined by tracks is near specification and improving as statistics increase. The sensor behaviour in the 2T solenoidal magnetic field has been studied by measuring the Lorentz angle. Radiation damage in the silicon is monitored by periodic measurements of the leakage current; these measurements are in reasonable agreement with predictions.

  17. Graphene-based Electronically Tuneable Microstrip Attenuator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Pierantoni

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design of a graphene- based electronically tuneable microstrip attenuator operating at a frequency of 5 GHz. The use of graphene as a variable resistor is discussed and the modelling of its electromagnetic properties at microwave frequencies is fully addressed. The design of the graphene-based attenuator is described. The structure integrates a patch of graphene, whose characteristics can range from being a fairly good conductor to a highly lossy material, depending on the applied voltage. By applying the proper voltage through two high-impedance bias lines, the surface resistivity of graphene can be modified, thereby changing the insertion loss of the microstrip attenuator.

  18. Study of stacked microstrip phased arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arts, M. J.; Smolders, A. B.

    1993-06-01

    Two theoretical methods for studying stacked-patch microstrip phased arrays are compared: (1) the element-by-element approach (finite array approach) of Pozar (1986) and Smolders (1992); and (2) the infinite approach of Pozar and Shaubert (1984) and Liu et al. (1988). Both theories were found to give almost the same results for a 7 x 7 stacked microstrip antenna, except for edge array elements and for large scan angles. Edge array elements could only be analyzed properly by using a finite array approach. Coupling measurements were made on a 7 x 7 array with a single patch layer, and the results agreed well with calculations.

  19. A $B_4C$-silicon target for the detection of neutrino interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Barichello, G; Daniels, D C; do Couto e Silva, E; Dumps, Ludwig; Ellis, M; Ferrère, D; Gómez-Cadenas, J J; Gössling, C; Gouanère, M; Hernando, J A; Huta, W; Jiménez, J M; Kokkonen, J; Kuznetsov, V E; Linssen, Lucie; Long, J; Lisowski, B; Lupi, A; Runólfsson, O; Schmidt, B; Soler, F J P; Steele, D; Stipcevic, M; Veltri, M; Voillat, D

    1998-01-01

    This note describes the construction of a target for neutrino interactions composed of passive boron carbide plates interleaved with silicon microstrip detectors. The target contains four layers of passive material with a total mass of 45 kg and 600 single--sided silicon microstrip detectors with a total surface of 1.14 m$^2$ distributed over five layers. It is installed in the NOMAD spectrometer at the CERN SPS neutrino beam. During the 1997 run about 8000 \

  20. Charge collection and field profile studies of heavily irradiated strip sensors for the ATLAS inner tracker upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, K.; Allport, P. P.; Baca, M.; Broughton, J.; Chisholm, A.; Nikolopoulos, K.; Pyatt, S.; Thomas, J. P.; Wilson, J. A.; Kierstead, J.; Kuczewski, P.; Lynn, D.; Arratia, M.; Hommels, L. B. A.; Ullan, M.; Bloch, I.; Gregor, I. M.; Tackmann, K.; Trofimov, A.; Yildirim, E.; Hauser, M.; Jakobs, K.; Kuehn, S.; Mahboubi, K.; Mori, R.; Parzefall, U.; Clark, A.; Ferrere, D.; Gonzalez Sevilla, S.; Ashby, J.; Blue, A.; Bates, R.; Buttar, C.; Doherty, F.; McMullen, T.; McEwan, F.; O'Shea, V.; Kamada, S.; Yamamura, K.; Ikegami, Y.; Nakamura, K.; Takubo, Y.; Unno, Y.; Takashima, R.; Chilingarov, A.; Fox, H.; Affolder, A. A.; Casse, G.; Dervan, P.; Forshaw, D.; Greenall, A.; Wonsak, S.; Wormald, M.; Cindro, V.; Kramberger, G.; Mandić, I.; Mikuž, M.; Gorelov, I.; Hoeferkamp, M.; Palni, P.; Seidel, S.; Taylor, A.; Toms, K.; Wang, R.; Hessey, N. P.; Valencic, N.; Hanagaki, K.; Dolezal, Z.; Kodys, P.; Bohm, J.; Mikestikova, M.; Bevan, A.; Beck, G.; Milke, C.; Domingo, M.; Fadeyev, V.; Galloway, Z.; Hibbard-Lubow, D.; Liang, Z.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Seiden, A.; To, K.; French, R.; Hodgson, P.; Marin-Reyes, H.; Parker, K.; Jinnouchi, O.; Hara, K.; Sato, K.; Sato, K.; Hagihara, M.; Iwabuchi, S.; Bernabeu, J.; Civera, J. V.; Garcia, C.; Lacasta, C.; Marti i. Garcia, S.; Rodriguez, D.; Santoyo, D.; Solaz, C.; Soldevila, U.

    2016-09-01

    The ATLAS group has evaluated the charge collection in silicon microstrip sensors irradiated up to a fluence of 1 ×1016 neq/cm2, exceeding the maximum of 1.6 ×1015 neq/cm2 expected for the strip tracker during the high luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) period including a safety factor of 2. The ATLAS12, n+-on-p type sensor, which is fabricated by Hamamatsu Photonics (HPK) on float zone (FZ) substrates, is the latest barrel sensor prototype. The charge collection from the irradiated 1×1 cm2 barrel test sensors has been evaluated systematically using penetrating β-rays and an Alibava readout system. The data obtained at different measurement sites are compared with each other and with the results obtained from the previous ATLAS07 design. The results are very consistent, in particular, when the deposit charge is normalized by the sensor's active thickness derived from the edge transient current technique (edge-TCT) measurements. The measurements obtained using β-rays are verified to be consistent with the measurements using an electron beam. The edge-TCT is also effective for evaluating the field profiles across the depth. The differences between the irradiated ATLAS07 and ATLAS12 samples have been examined along with the differences among the samples irradiated with different radiation sources: neutrons, protons, and pions. The studies of the bulk properties of the devices show that the devices can yield a sufficiently large signal for the expected fluence range in the HL-LHC, thereby acting as precision tracking sensors.

  1. 10 GHz bandstop microstrip filter using excitation of magnetostatic surface wave in a patterned Ni78Fe22 ferromagnetic film

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vroubel, M.; Zhuang, Y.; Rejaei, B.; Burghartz, J.N.

    2006-01-01

    Various microstrips with a ferromagnetic core were designed and fabricated on a silicon substrate. The core was formed by a 0.5-μm-thick Ni78Fe22 film, patterned into rectangular prisms. Measurement results for attenuation constant versus frequency show a peak value of ∼ 50 dB/cm around 10 GHz. Elec

  2. Radiation tests of ATLAS full-sized n-in-n prototype detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allport, P.P.; Booth, P.S.L.; Green, C.; Greenall, A.; Hanlon, M.; Jackson, J.N.; Jones, T.J.; Garcia, S.M.I.; Orme, E.; Richardson, J.D.; Smith, N.A.; Turner, P.R.; Wormald, M.P. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, Department of Physics, The University of Liverpool, P.O. Box 147, Liverpool L69 EBX (United Kingdom); Apsimon, R.J.; Bizzell, J.; Tyndel, M. [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot EBX (United Kingdom); Becker, C.; Thuene, R.; Wunstorf, R.; Wuestenfeld, J. [Experimentelle Physik, Universitaet Dortmund EBX (Germany); Bonino, R.; Perrin, E.; Clark, A.G.; Couyoumtzelis, C.; Kowalewski, R.; Macina, D.; Vuaridel, B. [Section de Physique, Universite de Geneve EBX (Switzerland); Boulter, B.; Riedler, P.; Roe, S. [European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN) Geneva (Switzerland); Carter, A.A.; Newman-Coburn, D. [Department of Physics, Queen Mary and Westfield College, London (United Kingdom); Carter, J.R.; Goodrick, M.J.; Hill, J.C.; Munday, D.J.; Robinson, D.; Wyllie, K.H. [Cavendish Laboratory, The University of Cambridge EBX (United Kingdom); O' Shea, V. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Glasgow EBX (United Kingdom)

    1998-11-21

    ATLAS Technical Proposal, CERN/LHCC/94-43 has adopted n-side read out All rights reserved.)s. (Copyrbaseline technology for the silicon microstrips due to the anticipated radiation tolerance of such a design ATLAS Inner Detector Technical Design Report, CERN/LHCC/97-17. This results from the reasonable efficiencies anticipated for charge collection, even when the detectors are run well below the final depletion voltage.Full-sized prototypes 64x63.6 mm{sup 2} detectors have been produced with a range of manufacturers to a common specification and shown to work well in test-beam with ATLAS electronics. A selection of detectors was also scanned in the CERN PS beam for runs of two weeks giving an integrated dose over the full surface of 2x10{sup 14} p/cm{sup 2}. This dose corresponds to the highest charged hadron fluence expected in 10 yr of operation in ATLAS.Results are presented on these detectors both from parametric measurements and from studies using analogue LHC speed electronics. The detectors are shown to remain fully operational after these doses and to yield high signal/noise for read-out of 12 cm strip length. The performance partially depleted is also shown to match expectations and operation at down to half the final depletion voltage gives adequate efficiencies. Uncertainties in the anticipated dose and damage effects argue strongly for this additional robustness in detectors which must operate with very limited access in the hostile environment of the LHC for 10 yr. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  3. A COMPACT CIRCULARLY POLARIZED SLOTTED MICROSTRIP ANTENNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Jebaraj

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Slot antennas are often used at UHF and microwave frequencies. In slot antenna for RFID reader applications the frequency ranges from 902-923MHz to achieve circular polarization. The shapes and size of the slot, as well as the driving frequency, determine the radiation distribution pattern. The proposed compact size circularly polarized slotted microstrip antenna are summarized with design rules. The circularly polarized radiation in square patch antenna can be obtained by perturbation technique with different shapes of slot in the orthogonal direction. A single feed configuration based symmetric slotted microstrip antenna is adapted to realize the compact circularly polarized microstrip antennas. Based on the perimeter, the size of the slot on microstrip slot antenna are studied and compared. The Operating frequency of the antenna is 912MHz that can be tuned by varying the perimeter of the slot while the keeping the circularly polarized radiation unchanged. The schematic and layout are configured by using Advanced Design System (ADS. Return loss, Resonant Frequency, Axial Ratio (AR, and Gain were determined for the proposed system using ADS. A measured 3dB Axial Ratio (AR bandwidth around 6MHz with 16MHz impedance bandwidth has been achieved for the antenna on a RO3004C substrate with dielectric constant 3.38.

  4. Development of ALICE microstrip detectors at IRST

    CERN Document Server

    Boscardin, M; Dalla Betta, Gian Franco; Gregori, P; Rachevskaia, I; Zorzi, N

    2001-01-01

    We report on the development of double-sided, AC-coupled, microstrip detectors oriented to the A Large Ion Collider Experiment (ALICE). The main design and processing issues are presented, together with some selected results from the electrical characterization of detectors and related test structures. (3 refs).

  5. Coplanar waveguide feed for microstrip patch antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. L.; Williams, J. T.

    1992-01-01

    A coplanar waveguide (CPW) loop is shown to be an effective low VSWR feed for microstrip antennas. The low VSWR transition between the CPW and the antenna is obtained without the use of a matching circuit, and it is relatively insensitive to the position of the antenna and the feed.

  6. Two-dimensional microstrip detector for neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oed, A. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1997-04-01

    Because of their robust design, gas microstrip detectors, which were developed at ILL, can be assembled relatively quickly, provided the prefabricated components are available. At the beginning of 1996, orders were received for the construction of three two-dimensional neutron detectors. These detectors have been completed. The detectors are outlined below. (author). 2 refs.

  7. Passive and active reconfigurable microstrip reflectarray antennas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hajian, M.

    2008-01-01

    Novel solutions for conceiving microstrip reflectarray antennas (MRA) using various types of patches are presented in this PhD thesis. The approach is based on the integration of a varactor diode active device into elementary hollow patch radiators. In the first part of the thesis, a new concept for

  8. Alignment of the ATLAS Inner Detector Upgraded for the LHC Run II

    CERN Document Server

    Jimenez Pena, Javier

    2015-01-01

    ATLAS is equipped with a tracking system built using different technologies, silicon planar sensors (pixel and micro-strip) and gaseous drift- tubes, all embedded in a 2T solenoidal magnetic field. For the LHC Run II, the system has been upgraded with the installation of a new pixel layer, the Insertable Barrel Layer (IBL). An outline of the track based alignment approach and its implementation within the ATLAS software will be presented. Special attention will be paid to integration to the alignment framework of the IBL, which plays the key role in precise reconstruction of the collider luminous region, interaction vertices and identification of long-lived heavy flavour states. In order to detect as soon as possible deformations and misalignments of the tracking system that may affect the data taking, a fast alignment chain was implemented at CERN’s Tier-0. Last upgrades and tests of this fast chain will be covered. Performance from Cosmic Ray commissioning run will be discussed.

  9. Plasma Microdischarge as Power-Induced Limiter Element in Microstrip Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Pascaud, Romain; Pizarro, Francisco; Callegari, Thierry; Liard, Laurent; Pascal, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    The use of micro-hollow cathode sustained discharges (MCSD) as power-induced limiter elements in microstrip devices is proposed to protect receivers against high-power microwave (HPM) threats. The basic principle of the MCSD and its integration into a microstrip circuit are exposed. The power-limiting capability of such a solution has been experimentally assessed for three microstrip circuits, namely a microstrip transmission line, a microstrip ring filter, and a microstrip antenna.

  10. ATLAS Inner Detector Alignment

    CERN Document Server

    Bocci, A

    2008-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is a multi-purpose particle detector that will study high-energy particle collisions produced by the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. In order to achieve its physics goals, the ATLAS tracking requires that the positions of the silicon detector elements have to be known to a precision better than 10 μm. Several track-based alignment algorithms have been developed for the Inner Detector. An extensive validation has been performed with simulated events and real data coming from the ATLAS. Results from such validation are reported in this paper.

  11. Flexible Microstrip Circuits for Superconducting Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chervenak, James; Mateo, Jennette

    2013-01-01

    Flexible circuits with superconducting wiring atop polyimide thin films are being studied to connect large numbers of wires between stages in cryogenic apparatus with low heat load. The feasibility of a full microstrip process, consisting of two layers of superconducting material separated by a thin dielectric layer on 5 mil (approximately 0.13 mm) Kapton sheets, where manageable residual stress remains in the polyimide film after processing, has been demonstrated. The goal is a 2-mil (approximately 0.051-mm) process using spin-on polyimide to take advantage of the smoother polyimide surface for achieving highquality metal films. Integration of microstrip wiring with this polyimide film may require high-temperature bakes to relax the stress in the polyimide film between metallization steps.

  12. MICROSTRIP COUPLER DESIGN USING BAT ALGORITHM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EzgiDeniz Ulker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary and swarm algorithms have found many applications in design problems since todays computing power enables these algorithms to find solutions to complicated design problems very fast. Newly proposed hybridalgorithm, bat algorithm, has been applied for the design of microwave microstrip couplers for the first time. Simulation results indicate that the bat algorithm is a very fast algorithm and it produces very reliable results.

  13. U-Slotted Microstrip Patch Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogesh Bhomia

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A new U–slotted microstrip antenna is proposed. A patch antenna is a narrowband, wide-beam antenna These antennas are low profile, conformal to planar and non-planar surface, simple and inexpensive to manufacture using modern printed circuit technology, mechanically robust when mounted on rigid surface, compatible with MMIC designs and when the particular shape and mode are selected they are very versatile in terms of resonant frequency, polarization, field pattern and impedance. Microstrip antenna consist of a very thin metallic strip (patch placed a small fraction of a wavelength above a ground plane. The patch is generally made of conducting material such as copper or gold and can take any possible shape. This paper presents a design of U - slotted microstrip patch antenna and experimentally studied on IE3D software. This design is achieved by cutting U shape in a patch. With U - slotted shapes patch antenna is designed on a FR4 substrate of thickness 1.524 mm and relative permittivity of 4.4 and mounted above the ground plane at a height of 6 mm. Bandwidth as high as 39% are achieved with stable pattern characteristics, such as gain and cross polarization, within its bandwidth. Impedance bandwidth, antenna gain and return loss are observed for the proposed antenna. Details of the measured and simulated results are presented and discussed

  14. Performance and operation experience of the ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Robichaud Veronneau, A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    After more than 3 years of successful operation at the LHC, we report on the operation and performance of the SemiConductor Tracker (SCT) functioning in a high luminosity, high radiation environment. The SCT is part of the ATLAS experiment at CERN and is constructed of 4088 silicon detector modules for a total of 6.3 million strips. Each module is designed, constructed and tested to operate as a stand-alone unit, mechanically, electrically, optically and thermally. The modules are mounted into two types of structures: one barrel (4 cylinders) and two end-cap systems (9 disks on each end of the barrel). The SCT silicon micro-strip sensors were produced in the planar p-in-n technology. The signals are processed in the front-end ABCD3TA ASICs, which use a binary readout architecture. Data is transferred to the off-detector readout electronics via optical fibers. We find 99.3% of the SCT modules are operational, noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specifications; the alignment is very close to th...

  15. Studies of double-sided silicon microstrip detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, S. C.; Bruner, N. L.; Frautschi, M. A.; Hoeferkamp, M. R.; Patton, A.

    1996-02-01

    The electrical characteristics of detectors manufactured by SINTEF/SI with a variety of geometrical and processing options have been investigated. The detectors' leakage current, depletion voltage, bias resistance, interstrip, coupling capacitance, and coupling capacitor breakdown voltage were studied.

  16. Bonding of the Inner Tracker Silicon Microstrip Modules

    CERN Document Server

    Bosi, Filippo; Brianzi, Mirko; Cariola, P; Costa, Salvatore; Demaria, Natale; Dumitrache, Floarea; Farano, R; Fiore, Luigi; Galet, G; Giudice, Nunzio; Kaminski, A; Mammini, Paolo; Manolescu, Florentina; Pantano, Devis; Profeti, Alessandro; Raimondo, F S; Saizu, Mirela Angela; Scarlini, Enrico; Tempesta, Paolo; Tessaro, Mario

    2008-01-01

    Microbonding of the CMS Tracker Inner Barrel (TIB) and Tracker Inner Disks (TID) modules was shared among six different Italian Institutes. The organization devised and the infrastructure deployed to handle this task is illustrated. Microbonding specifications and procedures for the different types of TIB and TID modules are given. The tooling specially designed and developed for these types of modules is described. Experience of production is presented. Attained production rates are given. An analysis of the microbonding quality achieved is presented, based on bond strengths measured in sample bond pull tests as well as on rates of bonding failures. Italian Bonding Centers routinely performed well above minimum specifications and a very low global introduced failure rate, at the strip level, of only $\\sim$0.015 \\% is observed.

  17. Custom real-time ultrasonic instrumentation for simultaneous mixture and flow analysis of binary gases in the CERN ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Alhroob, M.; Berry, S.; Bitadze, A.; Bonneau, P.; Boyd, G.; Crespo-Lopez, O.; Degeorge, C.; Deterre, C.; Di Girolamo, B.; Doubek, M.; Favre, G.; Hallewell, G.; Hasib, A.; Katunin, S.; Lombard, D.; Madsen, A.; McMahon, S.; Nagai, K.; O'Rourke, A.; Pearson, B.; Robinson, D.; Rossi, C.; Rozanov, A.; Stanecka, E.; Strauss, M.; Vacek, V.; Vaglio, R.; Young, J.; Zwalinski, L.

    2016-01-01

    Custom ultrasonic instruments have been developed for simultaneous monitoring of binary gas mixture and flow in the ATLAS Inner Detector. Sound transit times are measured in opposite directions in flowing gas. Flow rate and sound velocity are respectively calculated from their difference and average. Gas composition is evaluated in real-time by comparison with a sound velocity/composition database, based on the direct dependence of sound velocity on component concentrations in a mixture at known temperature and pressure. Five devices are integrated into the ATLAS Detector Control System. Three instruments monitor coolant leaks into N2 envelopes of the silicon microstrip and Pixel detectors. Resolutions better than ±2×10−5±2×10−5 and ±2×10−4±2×10−4 are seen for C3F8 and CO2 leak concentrations in N2 respectively. A fourth instrument detects sub-percent levels of air ingress into the C3F8 condenser of the new thermosiphon coolant recirculator. Following extensive studies a fifth instrument was b...

  18. GaAs IMPATT diodes for microstrip circuit applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisseman, W. R.; Tserng, H. Q.; Shaw, D. W.; Mcquiddy, D. N.

    1972-01-01

    GaAs IMPATT diodes with plated heat sinks are shown to be particularly well suited for microstrip circuit applications. Details of materials growth and device fabrication procedures are given, and experimental results are presented for a GaAs IMPATT microstrip oscillator operating at X band.

  19. Design and development of micro-strip stacked module prototypes for tracking at S-LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernardini, J [Scuola Normale Superiore (SNS) di Pisa, P.zza Cavalieri 7, Pisa (Italy); Bosi, F; Dell' Orso, R; Fiori, F; Messineo, A; Palla, F; Profeti, A; Verdini, P G, E-mail: francesco.fiori@pi.infn.i [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) Pisa, L.go B. Pontecorvo 3, Pisa (Italy)

    2010-11-15

    Experience at high luminosity hadron collider experiments shows that tracking information enhances the trigger rejection capabilities while retaining high efficiency for interesting physics events [1]. The design of a tracking based trigger for Super LHC (S-LHC), the high luminosity upgrade of the LHC collider [2], is an extremely challenging task requiring the identification of high-momentum tracks as a part of the Level 1 trigger decision. Simulation studies show that this can be achieved by correlating hits on two closely spaced silicon strip sensors. This paper focuses on the design and development of micro-strip stacked prototype modules and their performance. The prototypes have been built with the silicon sensors and electronics used to equip the present CMS Tracker [3]. Correlation of signals collected from sensors are processed off detector. Preliminary results in terms of signal over noise and tracking performance with cosmic rays will be also shown.

  20. 2D position sensitive microstrip sensors with charge division along the strip Studies on the position measurement error

    CERN Document Server

    Bassignana, D; Fernandez, M; Jaramillo, R; Lozano, M; Munoz, F.J; Pellegrini, G; Quirion, D; Vila, I; Vitorero, F

    2013-01-01

    Position sensitivity in semiconductor detectors of ionizing radiation is usually achieved by the segmentation of the sensing diode junction in many small sensing elements read out separately as in the case of conventional microstrips and pixel detectors. Alternatively, position sensitivity can be obtained by splitting the ionization signal collected by one single electrode amongst more than one readout channel with the ratio of the collected charges depending on the position where the signal was primary generated. Following this later approach, we implemented the charge division method in a conventional microstrip detector to obtain position sensitivity along the strip. We manufactured a proofof-concept demonstrator where the conventional aluminum electrodes were replaced by slightly resistive electrodes made of strongly doped poly-crystalline silicon and being readout at both strip ends. Here, we partially summarize the laser characterization of this first proof-of-concept demonstrator with special emphasis ...

  1. 2D Position Sensitive Microstrip Sensors with Charge Division Along the Strip: Studies on the position measurement error

    CERN Document Server

    Bassignana, D; Fernandez, M; Jaramillo, R; Lozano, M; Munoz, F J; Pellegrini, G; Quirion, D; Vila, I; Vitorero, F

    2013-01-01

    Position sensitivity in semiconductor detectors of ionizing radiation is usually achieved by the segmentation of the sensing diode junction in many small sensing elements read out separately as in the case of conventional microstrips and pixel detectors. Alternatively, position sensitivity can be obtained by splitting the ionization signal collected by one single electrode amongst more than one readout channel with the ratio of the collected charges depending on the position where the signal was primary generated. Following this later approach, we implemented the charge division method in a conventional microstrip detector to obtain position sensitivity along the strip. We manufactured a proof-of-concept demonstrator where the conventional aluminum electrodes were replaced by slightly resistive electrodes made of strongly doped poly-crystalline silicon and being readout at both strip ends. Here, we partially summarize the laser characterization of this first proof-of-concept demonstrator with special emphas...

  2. Input impedance characteristics of microstrip structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Nazarko

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Electromagnetic crystals (EC and EC-inhomogeneities are one of the main directions of microstrip devices development. In the article the input impedance characteristics of EC- and traditional microstrip inhomogeneities and filter based on EC-inhomogeneities are investigated. Transmission coefficient characteristics. Transmission coefficient characteristics of low impedance EC- and traditional inhomogeneities are considered. Characteristics are calculated in the software package Microwave Studio. It is shown that the efficiency of EC-inhomogeneity is much higher. Input impedance characteristics of low impedance inhomogeneities. Dependences of input impedance active and reactive parts of EC- and traditional inhomogeneities are given. Dependences of the active part illustrate significant low impedance transformation of nominal impedance. The conditions of impedance matching of structure and input medium are set. Input impedance characteristics of high impedance inhomogeneities. Input impedance characteristics of high impedance EC- and traditional inhomogeneities are considered. It was shown that the band of transformation by high impedance inhomogeneities is much narrower than one by low impedance inhomogeneities. Characteristics of the reflection coefficient of inhomogeneities are presented. Input impedance characteristics of narrowband filter. The structure of narrowband filter based on the scheme of Fabry-Perot resonator is presented. The structure of the filter is fulfilled by high impedance EC-inhomogeneities as a reflectors. Experimental and theoretical amplitude-frequency characteristics of the filter are presented. Input impedance characteristics of the filter are shown. Conclusions. Input impedance characteristics of the structure allow to analyse its wave properties, especially resonant. EC-inhomogeneity compared with traditional microstrip provide substantially more significant transformation of the the input impedance.

  3. Analysis of Coupling between DR and Microstrip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO Juan; LIU Guanghu

    2003-01-01

    The coupling between dielectric resonator (DR) and microstrip is theoretically analyzed in this paper. The equivalent circuit and corresponding components' expression are achieved. Also, the formula of the coupling ratio is deduced, which is the critical parameter to calculate the values of components. The analysis of the paper can be used in modeling and strict design in DR applications such as dielectric resonator oscillators(DROs)and DR filters. At the end of the paper, an example of DRO design based on the analysis above is given. The coincidence between modulation and measure shows the significance of the paper.

  4. Microstrip antenna gain enhancement with metamaterial radome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attachi, S.; Saleh, C.; Bouzouad, M.

    2017-01-01

    In this work, a high gain patch antenna using multilayer FSS radome is proposed for millimeter-wave applications. The antenna operating frequency is 43.5 GHz. The antenna/radome system consists of one, two, three, or four layers of metasurfaces placed in the near-field region of a microstrip patch antenna. The antenna/radome system gain is improved by 9 dBi compared to the patch antenna alone, and the radiation pattern half-power beamwidth is reduces to 20° in both E- and H-planes.

  5. Control and data acquisition electronics for the CDF Silicon Vertex Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, K.J.; Nelson, C.A.; Shaw, T.M.; Wesson, T.R.

    1991-11-01

    A control and data acquisition system has been designed for the CDF Silicon Vertex Detector (SVX) at Fermilab. The system controls the operation of the SVX Rev D integrated circuit (SVX IC) that is used to instrument a 46,000 microstrip silicon detector. The system consists of a Fastbus Sequencer, a Crate Controller and Digitizer modules. 11 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Performance and Operation Experience of the ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker in LHC Run 1 (2009-2012)

    CERN Document Server

    Robichaud-Veronneau, A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    After more than 3 years of successful operation at the LHC, we report on the operation and performance of the Semi-Conductor Tracker (SCT) functioning in a high luminosity, high radiation environment. The SCT is part of the ATLAS experiment at CERN and is constructed of 4088 silicon detector modules for a total of 6.3 million strips. Each module is designed, constructed and tested to operate as a stand-alone unit, mechanically, electrically, optically and thermally. The modules are mounted into two types of structures: one barrel (4 cylinders) and two end-cap systems (9 disks on each end of the barrel). The SCT silicon micro-strip sensors are processed in the planar p-in-n technology. The signals are processed in the front-end ABCD3TA ASICs, which use a binary readout architecture. Data is transferred to the off-detector readout electronics via optical fibers. We find 99.3% of the SCT modules are operational, noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specifications; the alignment is very close to t...

  7. Luminosity measurements in ATLAS with MPX detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sopczak, Andre; Benes, Petr; Bergmann, Benedikt; Biskup, Bartolomej; Jakubek, Jan; Pospisil, Stanislav; Solc, Jaroslav; Sopko, Vit; Suk, Michal; Turecek, Daniel; Vykydal, Zdenek [IEAP CTU Prague (Czech Republic); Asbah, Nedaa; Leroy, Claude; Soueid, Paul [Universite de Montreal (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    The ATLAS-MPX detectors are based on Medipix2 silicon devices designed by CERN for the detection of different types of radiation. These detectors are successfully operating in the ATLAS detector at 16 places and collect data independent of the ATLAS data-recording chain. Recently it has been recognized that these detectors are well suited for luminosity measurements. Results from these studies are presented.

  8. Microstrip SQUID amplifiers for quantum information science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defeo, M. P.; Plourde, B. L. T.

    2012-02-01

    Recent progress in SQUID amplifiers suggests that these devices might approach quantum-limited sensitivity in the microwave range, thus making them a viable option for measurement of superconducting quantum systems. In the microstrip SQUID amplifier configuration, gains of around 20dB are possible at frequencies of several hundred MHz, and the gain is limited by the maximum voltage modulation available from the SQUID. One route for increasing the voltage modulation involves using larger resistive shunts, however maintaining non-hysteretic device operation requires smaller junction capacitances than is possible with conventional photolithographically patterned junctions. Operating at higher frequencies requires a shorter input coil which reduces mutual inductance between the coil and washer and therefore gain. We have fabricated microstrip SQUID amplifiers using submicron Al-AlOx-Al junctions and large shunts. The input coil and SQUID washer are optimized for producing high gain at frequencies in the gigahertz range. Recent measurements of gain and noise temperature will be discussed as well as demonstrations of these devices as a first stage of amplification for a superconducting system

  9. Novel method for planar microstrip antenna matching impedance

    CERN Document Server

    Ali, Mahdi; Samet, Mounir

    2010-01-01

    Because all microstrip antennas have to be matched to the standard generator impedance or load, the input impedance matching method for antenna is particularly important. In this paper a new methodology in achieving matching impedance of a planar microstrip antenna for wireless application is described. The method is based on embedding an Interdigital capacitor. The fine results obtained by using a microstrip Interdigital capacitor for matching antenna impedance led to an efficient method to improve array antenna performance. In fact, a substantial saving on the whole surfaces as well as enhancement of the gain, the directivity and the power radiated was achieved.

  10. Analysis of a digital microstrip optical switch: a novel method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ruwaihi, Khalid M.; Hindy, Moataza A.

    1997-02-01

    A time domain analysis of an optically controlled digital microstrip switch for microwave integrated circuits on Si substrates is studied. A new model for high-frequency pulse propagation on a microstrip optical switch for different optical parameters is presented. A frequency-dependent macromodel for a microstrip line with a gap is implemented in Spice 3, taking into consideration high-frequency pulse dispersion, conductor and dielectric losses, metallization thickness, gap length, and different optical parameters such as optical energy, surface recombination velocities, and diffusion of generated carriers. In addition, the developed model has been used to optimize the switching frequency, gap length, level of optical power, and suitable substrate material parameters.

  11. Analysis of a microstrip reflectarray antenna for microspacecraft applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, J.

    1995-01-01

    A microstrip reflectarray is a flat reflector antenna that can be mounted conformally onto a spacecraft's outside structure without consuming a significant amount of spacecraft volume and mass. For large apertures (2 m or larger), the antenna's reflecting surface, being flat, can be more easily and reliably deployed than a curved parabolic reflector. This article presents the study results on a microstrip reflect-array with circular polarization. Its efficiency and bandwidth characteristics are analyzed. Numerous advantages of this antenna system are discussed. Three new concepts using this microstrip reflectarray are also proposed.

  12. Analysis of a digital microstrip optical switch: a novel method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ruwaihi, K M; Hindy, M A

    1997-02-20

    A time domain analysis of an optically controlled digital microstrip switch for microwave integrated circuits on Si substrates is studied. A new model for high-frequency pulse propagation on a microstrip optical switch for different optical parameters is presented. A frequency-dependent macromodel for a microstrip line with a gap is implemented in Spice 3, taking into consideration high-frequency pulse dispersion, conductor and dielectric losses, metallization thickness, gap length, and different optical parameters such as optical energy, surface recombination velocities, and diffusion of generated carriers. In addition, the developed model has been used to optimize the switching frequency, gap length, level of optical power, and suitable substrate material parameters.

  13. Silicon detectors for neutrino oscillation experiments

    CERN Document Server

    do Couto e Silva, E

    1998-01-01

    This note describes the technique of using a target equipped with high resolution silicon microstrip detectors for the detection of the topological signature of decays in neutrino oscillation ex periments. Two detectors are presented. The first detector is installed in the NOMAD spectrometer at the CERN SPS neutrino beam. The target consists of four layers passive boron carbide plate s (total mass of 45 kg) interleaved with five layers of silicon microstrip detectors. A total of 600 single--sided silicon microstrip detectors are used amounting to a total area of 1.14 m$^2$. The silicon tracker is made with the longest ladders built to date (72 cm). During the 1997 run about 8000 charged current interactions were estimated to have occurred in the target and data tak ing will continue in 1998. For these events it will be possible to perform a precise measurement of both vertex and kinematical variables. The second detector was installed in September 1997 in a CERN PS pion beam to investigate the possibility of ...

  14. The CMS silicon tracker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Focardi, E. E-mail: focardi@pi.infn.it; Albergo, S.; Angarano, M.; Azzi, P.; Babucci, E.; Bacchetta, N.; Bader, A.; Bagliesi, G.; Basti, A.; Biggeri, U.; Bilei, G.M.; Bisello, D.; Boemi, D.; Bosi, F.; Borrello, L.; Bozzi, C.; Braibant, S.; Breuker, H.; Bruzzi, M.; Buffini, A.; Busoni, S.; Candelori, A.; Caner, A.; Castaldi, R.; Castro, A.; Catacchini, E.; Checcucci, B; Ciampolini, P.; Civinini, C.; Creanza, D.; D' Alessandro, R.; Da Rold, M.; Demaria, N.; De Palma, M.; Dell' Orso, R.; Della Marina, R.; Dutta, S.; Eklund, C.; Feld, L.; Fiore, L.; French, M.; Freudenreich, K.; Frey, A.; Fuertjes, A.; Giassi, A.; Giorgi, M.; Giraldo, A.; Glessing, B.; Gu, W.H.; Hall, G.; Hammarstrom, R.; Hebbeker, T.; Honma, A.; Hrubec, J.; Huhtinen, M.; Kaminsky, A.; Karimaki, V.; Koenig, St.; Krammer, M.; Lariccia, P.; Lenzi, M.; Loreti, M.; Leubelsmeyer, K.; Lustermann, W.; Maettig, P.; Maggi, G.; Mannelli, M.; Mantovani, G.; Marchioro, A.; Mariotti, C.; Martignon, G.; Evoy, B.Mc; Meschini, M.; Messineo, A.; Migliore, E.; My, S.; Paccagnella, A.; Palla, F.; Pandoulas, D.; Papi, A.; Parrini, G.; Passeri, D.; Pieri, M.; Piperov, S.; Potenza, R.; Radicci, V.; Raffaelli, F.; Raymond, M.; Rizzo, F.; Santocchia, A.; Schmitt, B.; Selvaggi, G.; Servoli, L.; Sguazzoni, G.; Siedling, R.; Silvestris, L.; Starodumov, A.; Stavitski, I.; Stefanini, G.; Surrow, B.; Tempesta, P.; Tonelli, G.; Tricomi, A.; Tuuva, T.; Vannini, C.; Verdini, P.G.; Viertel, G.; Xie, Z.; Yahong, Li; Watts, S.; Wittmer, B

    2000-10-11

    This paper describes the Silicon microstrip Tracker of the CMS experiment at LHC. It consists of a barrel part with 5 layers and two endcaps with 10 disks each. About 10 000 single-sided equivalent modules have to be built, each one carrying two daisy-chained silicon detectors and their front-end electronics. Back-to-back modules are used to read-out the radial coordinate. The tracker will be operated in an environment kept at a temperature of T=-10 deg. C to minimize the Si sensors radiation damage. Heavily irradiated detectors will be safely operated due to the high-voltage capability of the sensors. Full-size mechanical prototypes have been built to check the system aspects before starting the construction.

  15. The target silicon detector for the FOCUS spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Link, J.M.; Reyes, M.; Yager, P.M.; Anjos, J.C.; Bediaga, I.; Goebel, C.; Magnin, J.; Massafferri, A.; Miranda, J.M. de; Pepe, I.M.; Reis, A.C. dos; Carrillo, S.; Casimiro, E.; Cuautle, E.; Sanchez-Hernandez, A.; Uribe, C.; Vazquez, F.; Agostino, L.; Cinquini, L.; Cumalat, J.P.; O' Reilly, B.; Ramirez, J.E.; Segoni, I.; Butler, J.N.; Cheung, H.W.K.; Chiodini, G.; Gaines, I.; Garbincius, P.H.; Garren, L.A.; Gottschalk, E.; Kasper, P.H.; Kreymer, A.E.; Kutschke, R.; Benussi, L.; Bianco, S.; Fabbri, F.L.; Zallo, A.; Cawlfield, C.; Kim, D.Y.; Rahimi, A.; Wiss, J.; Gardner, R.; Kryemadhi, A.; Chung, Y.S.; Kang, J.S.; Ko, B.R.; Kwak, J.W.; Lee, K.B.; Cho, K.; Park, H.; Alimonti, G.; Barberis, S.; Boschini, M.; D' Angelo, P.; DiCorato, M.; Dini, P.; Edera, L.; Erba, S.; Giammarchi, M.; Inzani, P.; Leveraro, F.; Malvezzi, S.; Menasce, D.; Mezzadri, M.; Milazzo, L.; Moroni, L.; Pedrini, D.; Pontoglio, C.; Prelz, F.; Rovere, M.; Sala, S.; Davenport III, T.F.; Arena, V.; Boca, G.; Bonomi, G.; Gianini, G.; Liguori, G.; Merlo, M.M.; Pantea, D.; Ratti, S.P.; Riccardi, C.; Vitulo, P.; Hernandez, H.; Lopez, A.M.; Mendez, H.; Mendez, L.; Montiel, E.; Olaya, D.; Paris, A.; Quinones, J.; Rivera, C.; Xiong, W.; Zhang, Y.; Purohit, M.; Copty, N.; Wilson, J.R.; Handler, T.; Mitchell, R.; Engh, D.; Helms, R.W.; Hosack, M.; Johns, W.E. E-mail: will.johns@vanderbilt.edu; Nehring, M.; Sheldon, P.D.; Stenson, K.; Webster, M.; Sheaff, M

    2004-01-11

    We describe a silicon microstrip detector interleaved with segments of a beryllium oxide target which was used in the FOCUS photoproduction experiment at Fermilab. The detector was designed to improve the vertex resolution and to enhance the reconstruction efficiency of short-lived charm particles.

  16. A thermosiphon for ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    Rosaria Marraffino

    2013-01-01

    A new thermosiphon cooling system, designed for the ATLAS silicon detectors by CERN’s EN-CV team in collaboration with the experiment, will replace the current system in the next LHC run in 2015. Using the basic properties of density difference and making gravity do the hard work, the thermosiphon promises to be a very reliable solution that will ensure the long-term stability of the whole system.   Former compressor-based cooling system of the ATLAS inner detectors. The system is currently being replaced by the innovative thermosiphon. (Photo courtesy of Olivier Crespo-Lopez). Reliability is the major issue for the present cooling system of the ATLAS silicon detectors. The system was designed 13 years ago using a compressor-based cooling cycle. “The current cooling system uses oil-free compressors to avoid fluid pollution in the delicate parts of the silicon detectors,” says Michele Battistin, EN-CV-PJ section leader and project leader of the ATLAS thermosiphon....

  17. Designing of Circular and Square Type Fractal Microstrip Patch Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Yogesh Bhomia

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a design of microstrip patch antenna combining circular and square slots by cutting different slots on rectangular microstrip antenna and experimentally studied on IE3D software. This design is achieved by cutting multi shapes in square pattern combining with circular and square slots & placing a microstrip line feed. This design has been studied in III iterations. The radiation pattern of the proposed microstrip antennas maintained because of the self similarity and centro-symmetry of the fractal shapes. With fractal shapes patch antenna is designed on a FR4 substrate of relative permittivity of 4.4 and thickness 1.524mm and mounted above the ground plane at a height of 6 mm. Details of the measured and simulated results of the case-by-case iterations are presented & discussed

  18. 2-D electromagnetic simulation of passive microstrip circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Dueñas Jiménez, Alejandro

    2009-01-01

    A reference for circuit design engineers and microwave engineers. It uses a simple 2-D electromagnetic simulation procedure to provide basic knowledge and practical insight into quotidian problems of microstrip passive circuits applied to microwave systems and digital technologies.

  19. Compact Magic-T using microstrip-slotline transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    U-Yen, Kongpop (Inventor); Wollack, Edward J. (Inventor); Doiron, Terence (Inventor); Moseley, Samuel H. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The design of a compact low-loss Magic-T is described. The planar Magic-T incorporates a compact microstrip-slotline tee junction and small microstrip-slotline transition area to reduce slotline radiation. The Magic-T produces broadband in-phase and out-of-phase power combiner/divider responses, has low in-band insertion loss, and small in-band phase and amplitude imbalance.

  20. Performance Comparison of Thin and Thick Film Microstrip Rejection Filters

    OpenAIRE

    Mandhare, M. M.; S.A. Gangal; M. S. Setty; Karekar, R. N.

    1988-01-01

    A performance comparison of microstripline circuits using thin and thick film techniques has been studied, in which a Microstrip rejection filter, in the X-band of microwaves, is used as test circuit. A thick film technique is capable of giving good adhesive films with comparable d.c. sheet resistivity, but other parameters such as open area (porosity), particle size, and edge definition are inferior to thin-film microstrip filters. Despite this drawback, the average value of transmission, tr...

  1. Dual-Frequency Operation of Bow-Tie Microstrip Antenna

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟顺时; 张需溥

    2005-01-01

    Characteristics of a single-feed dual-frequency bow-tie microstrip antenna are studied. By using the variation method, simple formulas for resonant frequencies of the bow-tie microstrip antenna are derived. It is shown that the dual-frequency ratio can be controlled easily by choosing the parameters of the antenna. This design gives compact antenna size and simple antenna structure. Experimental results are presented, verifying the validity of the design.

  2. A telescope with microstrip gas chambers for the detection of charged products in heavy-ion reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramegna, F.; Abbondanno, U.; Andreano, A.; Bassini, R.; Bonutti, F.; Bruno, M.; Casini, G.; D'Agostino, M.; Manzin, G.; Margagliotti, G. V.; Mastinu, P. F.; Milazzo, P. M.; Moroni, A.; Squarcini, M.; Tonetto, F.; Vannini, G.; Vannucci, L.

    1997-02-01

    Prototypes of a ΔE-E telescope, designed to detect and identify with low-energy threshold both light charged particles and heavy fragments, are described. They are based on a gas drift chamber which conveys primary ionization electrons on gas microstrip devices where multiplication occurs and the energy loss signals are generated. Silicon detectors or CsI(T1) crystals operate as residual energy detectors. The prototypes were tested both with a source and heavy ion beams. Performances, mainly related to energy resolution, charge identification and angle resolution, are reported.

  3. A telescope with microstrip gas chambers for the detection of charged products in heavy-ion reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gramegna, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Legnaro (Italy). Lab. Nazionali di Legnaro; Abbondanno, U. [Ist. Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste and Dipt. di Fisica dell`Univ. (Italy); Andreano, A. [Ist. Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Milano (Italy); Bassini, R. [Ist. Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Milano (Italy); Bonutti, F. [Ist. Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste and Dipt. di Fisica dell`Univ. (Italy); Bruno, M. [Ist. Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bologna and Dipt. di Fisica dell`Univ. (Italy); Casini, G. [Ist. Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Firenze (Italy); D`Agostino, M. [Ist. Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bologna and Dipt. di Fisica dell`Univ. (Italy); Manzin, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Legnaro (Italy). Lab. Nazionali di Legnaro; Margagliotti, G.V. [Ist. Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste and Dipt. di Fisica dell`Univ. (Italy); Mastinu, P.F. [Ist. Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bologna (Italy)]|[Dipt. di Fisica dell`Univ., Padova (Italy); Milazzo, P.M. [Ist. Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste and Dipt. di Fisica dell`Univ. (Italy); Moroni, A. [Ist. Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Milano (Italy); Squarcini, M. [Ist. Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Firenze (Italy); Tonetto, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Legnaro (Italy). Lab. Nazionali di Legnaro; Vannini, G. [Ist. Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste and Dipt. di Fisica dell`Univ. (Italy); Vannucci, L. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Legnaro (Italy). Lab. Nazionali di Legnaro

    1997-04-21

    Prototypes of a {Delta}E-E telescope, designed to detect and identify with low-energy threshold both light charged particles and heavy fragments, are described. They are based on a gas drift chamber which conveys primary ionization electrons on gas microstrip devices where multiplication occurs and the energy loss signals are generated. Silicon detectors or Csl(Tl) crystals operate as residual energy detectors. The prototypes were tested both with a source and heavy ion beams. Performances, mainly related to energy resolution, charge identification and angle resolution, are reported. (orig.).

  4. Cryogenic detector modules and edgeless silicon sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouby, X. [Universite Catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)]. E-mail: rouby@fynu.ucl.ac.be; Eremin, V. [Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); Grohmann, S. [ILK Dresden, Bertolt-Brecht-Allee 20, D-01309 Dresden (Germany); Haerkoenen, J. [Helsinki Institute of Physics, 00014 Helsinki (Finland); Li, Z. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); Luukka, P. [Helsinki Institute of Physics, 00014 Helsinki (Finland); Militaru, O. [Universite Catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Niinikoski, T. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Nuessle, G. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Perea Solano, B. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Piotrzkowski, K. [Universite Catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Tuovinen, E. [Helsinki Institute of Physics, 00014 Helsinki (Finland); Verbitskaya, E. [Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation)

    2007-01-11

    We are studying the operation of silicon microstrip detector with readout electronics in the temperature range from 90 to 130K. The sensor can be operated in the current-injection mode which significantly improves its radiation hardness. A first module prototype has been built, with APV25 readout chips and an embedded microtube, providing efficient low-mass cooling of the whole module with a two-phase flow of N{sub 2} or Ar. First pedestal and pulse shape temperature dependencies are presented for this module. We have also built an edgeless test module with two pairs of laser cut sensors, with both angular and parallel cuts with respect to the strips (at 120{mu}m pitch). We are studying the efficiency of the microstrip sensors very close (<200{mu}m) to the physical border of the cut silicon crystal and present here some electrical characteristics.

  5. Metamaterial Embedded Wearable Rectangular Microstrip Patch Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. G. Joshi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an indigenous low-cost metamaterial embedded wearable rectangular microstrip patch antenna using polyester substrate for IEEE 802.11a WLAN applications. The proposed antenna resonates at 5.10 GHz with a bandwidth and gain of 97 MHz and 4.92 dBi, respectively. The electrical size of this antenna is 0.254λ×0.5λ. The slots are cut in rectangular patch to reduce the bending effect. This leads to mismatch the impedance at WLAN frequency band; hence, a metamaterial square SRR is embedded inside the slot. A prototype antenna has been fabricated and tested, and the measured results are presented in this paper. The simulated and measured results of the proposed antenna are found to be in good agreement. The bending effect on the performance of this antenna is experimentally verified.

  6. 3D, Flash, Induced Current Readout for Silicon Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, Sherwood I. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    2014-06-07

    A new method for silicon microstrip and pixel detector readout using (1) 65 nm-technology current amplifers which can, for the first time with silicon microstrop and pixel detectors, have response times far shorter than the charge collection time (2) 3D trench electrodes large enough to subtend a reasonable solid angle at most track locations and so have adequate sensitivity over a substantial volume of pixel, (3) induced signals in addition to, or in place of, collected charge

  7. Bandwidth Improvement of UWB Microstrip Antenna Using Finite Ground Plane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Mishra

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Microstrip antennas play a vital role in communication system. It is required in high performance wireless applications. But due to its resonant nature microstrip antennas have some considerable drawbacks like narrowband performance. Extensive study has been carried out on microstrip patch antennas in the recent past, but it still have large scope for improvement in the near future. To overcome narrow bandwidth problem, number of methods and techniques have been suggested and investigated, keeping in mind that the basic advantages of microstrip antenna should not be altered such as low profile, light weight, low cost and simple printed circuit structure. The area of investigation includes modification in geometrical shape of the antenna, use of resonators, use of dipole, and many other parameters. This paper presents a comparison between conventional microstrip antenna and microstip antenna with finite ground plane at ultra wideband. HFSS simulation tool is used here for antenna simulation. For feeding purpose microstrip feed line is used (50Ω. Optimized result provides impedance bandwidth of 7.2GHz with VSWR<2, operating frequency range is from 6.5GHz to 13.7GHz. Proposed antenna is useful for many ultra wideband applications.

  8. Ultra WideBand Matching of the Rectangular Microstrip Patch Antennas (RMPA Using Microstrip Non Uniform Transmission Lines (MNUTL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngendakumana Gaspard

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Simulating and modeling configurations of Rectangular Microstrip Patch Antennas (RMPA are dealt with in this paper. Microstrip Non Uniform Transmission Lines (MNUTL are used to feed the RMPA leading to ultrawideband impedance matching. Microstrip linear and sinus tapered characteristic impedance lines and Microstrip uniform lines are both taken to feed the same antenna patch and finally to compare their performances. The analysis is based upon the Finite Difference Time Domain method FDTD combined with the Absorbing Boundary Conditions Perfectly Matched Layers (ABC PML. An RMPA whose resonance frequency is 7.5 GHz is analyzed over a frequency band from 5GHz to 16GHz by calculating the return loss and the input impedance from the time-domain simulated data.

  9. Sensors for the End-cap prototype of the Inner Tracker in the ATLAS Detector Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benítez, V.; Ullán, M.; Quirion, D.; Pellegrini, G.; Fleta, C.; Lozano, M.; Sperlich, D.; Hauser, M.; Wonsak, S.; Parzefall, U.; Mahboubi, K.; Kuehn, S.; Mori, R.; Jakobs, K.; Bernabeu, J.; García, C.; Lacasta, C.; Marco, R.; Rodriguez, D.; Santoyo, D.; Solaz, C.; Soldevila, U.; Ariza, D.; Bloch, I.; Diez, S.; Gregor, I. M.; Keller, J.; Lohwasser, K.; Peschke, R.; Poley, L.; Brenner, R.; Affolder, A.

    2016-10-01

    The new silicon microstrip sensors of the End-cap part of the HL-LHC ATLAS Inner Tracker (ITk) present a number of challenges due to their complex design features such as the multiple different sensor shapes, the varying strip pitch, or the built-in stereo angle. In order to investigate these specific problems, the "petalet" prototype was defined as a small End-cap prototype. The sensors for the petalet prototype include several new layout and technological solutions to investigate the issues, they have been tested in detail by the collaboration. The sensor description and detailed test results are presented in this paper. New software tools have been developed for the automatic layout generation of the complex designs. The sensors have been fabricated, characterized and delivered to the institutes in the collaboration for their assembly on petalet prototypes. This paper describes the lessons learnt from the design and tests of the new solutions implemented on these sensors, which are being used for the full petal sensor development. This has resulted in the ITk strip community acquiring the necessary expertise to develop the full End-cap structure, the petal.

  10. Commissioning of the ATLAS pixel detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ATLAS Collaboration; Golling, Tobias

    2008-09-01

    The ATLAS pixel detector is a high precision silicon tracking device located closest to the LHC interaction point. It belongs to the first generation of its kind in a hadron collider experiment. It will provide crucial pattern recognition information and will largely determine the ability of ATLAS to precisely track particle trajectories and find secondary vertices. It was the last detector to be installed in ATLAS in June 2007, has been fully connected and tested in-situ during spring and summer 2008, and is ready for the imminent LHC turn-on. The highlights of the past and future commissioning activities of the ATLAS pixel system are presented.

  11. Feasibility studies of microelectrode silicon detectors with integrated electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Dalla Betta, Gian Franco; Bettarini, S; Boscardin, M; Bosisio, L; Carpinelli, M; Dittongo, S; Forti, F; Giorgi, M; Gregori, P; Lusiani, A; Manghisoni, M; Pignatel, Giogrio Umberto; Rama, M; Ratti, L; Re, V; Sandrelli, F; Speziali, V; Svelto, F; Zorzi, N

    2002-01-01

    We describe our experience on design and fabrication, on high-resistivity silicon substrates, of microstrip detectors and integrated electronics, devoted to high-energy physics experiments and medical/industrial imaging applications. We report on the full program of our collaboration, with particular regards to the tuning of a new fabrication process, allowing for the production of good quality transistors, while keeping under control the basic detector parameters, such as leakage current. Experimental results on JFET and bipolar transistors are presented, and a microstrip detector with an integrated JFET in source-follower configuration is introduced.

  12. Belle II silicon vertex detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, K.; Aihara, H.; Angelini, C.; Aziz, T.; Babu, V.; Bacher, S.; Bahinipati, S.; Barberio, E.; Baroncelli, Ti.; Baroncelli, To.; Basith, A. K.; Batignani, G.; Bauer, A.; Behera, P. K.; Bergauer, T.; Bettarini, S.; Bhuyan, B.; Bilka, T.; Bosi, F.; Bosisio, L.; Bozek, A.; Buchsteiner, F.; Casarosa, G.; Ceccanti, M.; Červenkov, D.; Chendvankar, S. R.; Dash, N.; Divekar, S. T.; Doležal, Z.; Dutta, D.; Enami, K.; Forti, F.; Friedl, M.; Hara, K.; Higuchi, T.; Horiguchi, T.; Irmler, C.; Ishikawa, A.; Jeon, H. B.; Joo, C. W.; Kandra, J.; Kang, K. H.; Kato, E.; Kawasaki, T.; Kodyš, P.; Kohriki, T.; Koike, S.; Kolwalkar, M. M.; Kvasnička, P.; Lanceri, L.; Lettenbicher, J.; Maki, M.; Mammini, P.; Mayekar, S. N.; Mohanty, G. B.; Mohanty, S.; Morii, T.; Nakamura, K. R.; Natkaniec, Z.; Negishi, K.; Nisar, N. K.; Onuki, Y.; Ostrowicz, W.; Paladino, A.; Paoloni, E.; Park, H.; Pilo, F.; Profeti, A.; Rashevskaya, I.; Rao, K. K.; Rizzo, G.; Rozanska, M.; Sandilya, S.; Sasaki, J.; Sato, N.; Schultschik, S.; Schwanda, C.; Seino, Y.; Shimizu, N.; Stypula, J.; Suzuki, J.; Tanaka, S.; Tanida, K.; Taylor, G. N.; Thalmeier, R.; Thomas, R.; Tsuboyama, T.; Uozumi, S.; Urquijo, P.; Vitale, L.; Volpi, M.; Watanuki, S.; Watson, I. J.; Webb, J.; Wiechczynski, J.; Williams, S.; Würkner, B.; Yamamoto, H.; Yin, H.; Yoshinobu, T.

    2016-09-01

    The Belle II experiment at the SuperKEKB collider in Japan is designed to indirectly probe new physics using approximately 50 times the data recorded by its predecessor. An accurate determination of the decay-point position of subatomic particles such as beauty and charm hadrons as well as a precise measurement of low-momentum charged particles will play a key role in this pursuit. These will be accomplished by an inner tracking device comprising two layers of pixelated silicon detector and four layers of silicon vertex detector based on double-sided microstrip sensors. We describe herein the design, prototyping and construction efforts of the Belle-II silicon vertex detector.

  13. Belle II silicon vertex detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamczyk, K. [H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow 31-342 (Poland); Aihara, H. [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Angelini, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Aziz, T.; Babu, V. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India); Bacher, S. [H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow 31-342 (Poland); Bahinipati, S. [Indian Institute of Technology Bhubaneswar, Satya Nagar (India); Barberio, E.; Baroncelli, Ti.; Baroncelli, To. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Basith, A.K. [Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Batignani, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bauer, A. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, 1050 Vienna (Austria); Behera, P.K. [Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Bergauer, T. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, 1050 Vienna (Austria); Bettarini, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bhuyan, B. [Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Assam 781039 (India); Bilka, T. [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, 121 16 Prague (Czech Republic); Bosi, F. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bosisio, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); INFN Sezione di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); and others

    2016-09-21

    The Belle II experiment at the SuperKEKB collider in Japan is designed to indirectly probe new physics using approximately 50 times the data recorded by its predecessor. An accurate determination of the decay-point position of subatomic particles such as beauty and charm hadrons as well as a precise measurement of low-momentum charged particles will play a key role in this pursuit. These will be accomplished by an inner tracking device comprising two layers of pixelated silicon detector and four layers of silicon vertex detector based on double-sided microstrip sensors. We describe herein the design, prototyping and construction efforts of the Belle-II silicon vertex detector.

  14. ATLAS semiconductor tracker installed into its barrel

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2005-01-01

    The ATLAS silicon tracker is installed in the silicon tracker barrel. Absolute precision was required in this operation to ensure that the tracker was inserted without damage through minimal clearance. The installation was performed in a clean room on the CERN site so that no impurities in the air would contaminate the tracker's systems.

  15. Microstrip coupling techniques applied to thin-film Josephson junctions at microwave frequencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, O H; Pedersen, Niels Falsig; Mygind, Jesper

    1981-01-01

    Three different schemes for coupling to low impedance Josephson devices have been investigated. They all employ superconducting thin-film microstrip circuit techniques. The schemes are: (i) a quarterwave stepped impedance transformer, (ii) a microstrip resonator, (iii) an adjustable impedance...... transformer in inverted microstrip. Using single microbridges to probe the performance we found that the most primising scheme in terms of coupling efficiency and useful bandwidth was the adjustable inverted microstrip transformer....

  16. A New Defected Ground Structure for Different Microstrip Circuit Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Das

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a microstrip transmission line combined with a new U-headed dumb-bell defected ground structure (DGS is investigated. The proposed DGS of two U-shape slots connected by a thin transverse slot is placed in the ground plane of a microstrip line. A finite cutoff frequency and attenuation pole is observed and thus, the equivalent circuit of the DGS unit can be represented by a parallel LC resonant circuit in series with the transmission line. A two-cell DGS microstrip line yields a better lowpass filtering characteristics. The simulation is carried out by the MoM based IE3D software and in the experimental measurements a vector network analyzer is used. The effects of the transverse slot width and the distance between arms of the U-slot on the filter response curve are studied. This DGS is utilized for different microstrip circuit applications. The DGS is placed in the ground of a capacitive loaded microstrip line and a very low cutoff frequency is obtained. The DGS is adopted under the coupled lines of a parallel line coupler and an improvement in coupling coefficient is noticed. The proposed DGS is also incorporated in the ground plane under the feed lines and the coupled lines of a bandpass filter to improve separately the stopband and passband performances.

  17. Studies on activation in the ATLAS cavern with MPX detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergmann, Benedikt; Sopczak, Andre; Biskup, Bartolomej; Jakubek, Jan; Pospisil, Stanislav; Solc, Jaroslav; Sopko, Vit; Suk, Michal; Turecek, Daniel; Vykydal, Zdenek; Benes, Petr [IEAP CTU Prague (Czech Republic); Asbah, Nedaa; Leroy, Claude; Soueid, Paul [Universite de Montreal (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    The ATLAS-MPX detectors are based on Medipix2 silicon devices designed by CERN for the detection of different types of radiation. These detectors are successfully operating in the ATLAS detector at 16 positions and collect data independent of the ATLAS data-recording chain. Their data was used to study the activation of the surrounding material and the ATLAS-MPX detectors itself during and after collisions. As the detectors also offer the possibility to distinguish between different types of radiation, an attempt was made to estimate the corresponding dose rates at different locations in the ATLAS detector and in the cavern. First results are presented.

  18. Performance of NBPE in Rectangular Microstrip Patch Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tushar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we use a rectangular microstrip patch antenna with fed patch contains four notches of equal Length and width (L×W and having one parasitic patch, to achieve dual band operation of proposed microstrip patch antenna, is analyzed using circuit theory concept. The theoretical and simulated results of proposed antenna are compared. The return loss of NBPE using rectangular microstrip patch antenna decreased and bandwidth at dual operating frequency 1.44 GHz & 1.80 GHz are increased at a substrate height of 1.6 mm. This paper shows the decreased in return loss & improves in Gain as well as bandwidth using NBPE. These structures are simulated using IE3D version 12.29 Zeland software incorporation.

  19. A Cryogenic Waveguide Mount for Microstrip Circuit and Material Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    U-yen, Kongpop; Brown, Ari D.; Moseley, Samuel H.; Noroozian, Omid; Wollack, Edward J.

    2016-01-01

    A waveguide split-block fixture used in the characterization of thin-film superconducting planar circuitry at millimeter wavelengths is described in detail. The test fixture is realized from a pair of mode converters, which transition from rectangular-waveguide to on-chip microstrip-line signal propagation via a stepped ridge-guide impedance transformer. The observed performance of the W-band package at 4.2K has a maximum in-band transmission ripple of 2dB between 1.53 and 1.89 times the waveguide cutoff frequency. This metrology approach enables the characterization of superconducting microstrip test structures as a function temperature and frequency. The limitations of the method are discussed and representative data for superconducting Nb and NbTiN thin film microstrip resonators on single-crystal Si dielectric substrates are presented.

  20. RHOMBUS SHAPED RECONFIGURABLE MICROSTRIP ANTENNA FOR CDMA WIRELESS APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Madhusudhana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Rhombus Shaped Reconfigurable microstrip antenna is designed to operate at 1.74GHz. The proposed antenna is a Rhombus shaped microstrip antenna which gives a good size reduction with good impedance bandwidth in terms of with and without capacitor. The Designed antenna is expected to reduction in size and increase in Bandwidth. The Simulation is carried out by using IE3D software and practical results are measured by Vector Network analyzer. Comparative analysis has made between with and without capacitor as a lumped element. The size reduction of Rhombus shaped Reconfigurable microstrip antenna with capacitor gives best possible size reduction of 75.95% with overall bandwidth 86MHz. Acceptable agreement is obtained between the simulated and measured antenna performance parameter.

  1. Search for the $B^{0}_{d} \\to µµK^0$ Decay at CDF and Studies of ATLAS Silicon Tracker Modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zsenei, Andras [Univ. of Geneva (Switzerland)

    2003-01-01

    The presented results show that SCT modules meet the performance required for providing precise tracking in the ATLAS experiment. The low occupancy coupled with the high tracking efficiency ensures that the SCT together with the Pixel detector provides enough precision points for excellent secondary vertex reconstruction and impact parameter resolution.

  2. Microstrip Yagi array for MSAT vehicle antenna application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, John; Densmore, Arthur; Pozar, David

    1990-01-01

    A microstrip Yagi array was developed for the MSAT system as a low-cost mechanically steered medium-gain vehicle antenna. Because its parasitic reflector and director patches are not connected to any of the RF power distributing circuit, while still contributing to achieve the MSAT required directional beam, the antenna becomes a very efficient radiating system. With the complete monopulse beamforming circuit etched on a thin stripline board, the planar microstrip Yagi array is capable of achieving a very low profile. A theoretical model using the Method of Moments was developed to facilitate the ease of design and understanding of this antenna.

  3. Enhancing the Performance of Microstrip Circuit Using Defected Ground Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Devesh Kumar Mahor; Atal Verma; Veerendra Singh Jadaun; Pavan Kumar Sharma

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses how to enhance the  performance  of  microstrip circuits using DGS. A DGS is a defected ground    structure where  the ground plane metal  of  a  microstrip  circuit  is intentially modified  to  enhance   performance.        Finally, the main application of DGS in microwave technology  fields  are summarized and the evolution trend of DGS is given.  

  4. Microstrip antenna for polarimetric C-band SAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granholm, Johan; Woelders, Kim; Dich, Mikael

    1994-01-01

    The paper outlines the design and the measured performance of a 224-element dual-linearly polarized microstrip array antenna with low cross-polarization. The array is currently being flown on the Danish high-resolution polarimetric C-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR)......The paper outlines the design and the measured performance of a 224-element dual-linearly polarized microstrip array antenna with low cross-polarization. The array is currently being flown on the Danish high-resolution polarimetric C-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR)...

  5. Analysis of superconducting microstrip resonator at various microwave power levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, G.P.; Jacob, M.V.; Jayakumar, M.; Bhatnagar, P.K. [Department of Electronic Science, University of Delhi, South Campus, Benito Juarez Road, New Delhi 110021 (India); Kataria, N.D. [National Physical Laboratory, K. S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110 012 (India)

    1997-05-01

    The real and imaginary parts of the surface impedance of YBCO superconductors have been studied at different microwave power levels. Using the relations for the critical current density and the grain boundary resistance, a relation for calculating the power dependence of the surface resistance has been obtained. Also, a relation to find the resonant frequency of a superconducting microstrip resonator at various input power levels has been derived. Measurements have been carried out on various microstrip resonators to study the variation of surface resistance and resonant frequency at different rf power levels. The experimental results are in good agreement with theoretical results. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  6. Tracking and Alignment Performance of the LHCb silicon detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Borghi, Silvia

    2011-01-01

    The LHCb experiment is primarily dedicated to the study of new physics through the heavy flavour decays. The tracking system of LHCb is composed of a silicon micro-strip vertex detector, two silicon strip tracker detectors and straw-tube drift chambers in front of and behind a dipole generating a magnetic field. This system provides precise measure of the vertex position and high momentum resolution. The performances of the silicon tracking subdetectors in terms of hit resolution and detector efficiencies, as well as on the overall track reconstruction performance and the alignment status, are reported.

  7. Analysis of microstrip dipoles and slots transversely coupled to a microstrip line using the FDTD method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulintseff, A. N.

    1993-01-01

    Printed dipole elements and their complement, linear slots, are elementary radiators that have found use in low-profile antenna arrays. Low-profile antenna arrays, in addition to their small size and low weight characteristics, offer the potential advantage of low-cost, high-volume production with easy integration with active integrated circuit components. The design of such arrays requires that the radiation and impedance characteristics of the radiating elements be known. The FDTD (Finite-Difference Time-Domain) method is a general, straight-forward implementation of Maxwell's equations and offers a relatively simple way of analyzing both printed dipole and slot elements. Investigated in this work is the application of the FDTD method to the analysis of printed dipole and slot elements transversely coupled to an infinite transmission line in a multilayered configuration. Such dipole and slot elements may be used in dipole and slot series-fed-type linear arrays, where element offsets and interelement line lengths are used to obtain the desired amplitude distribution and beam direction, respectively. The design of such arrays is achieved using transmission line theory with equivalent circuit models for the radiating elements. In an equivalent circuit model, the dipole represents a shunt impedance to the transmission line, where the impedance is a function of dipole offset, length, and width. Similarly, the slot represents a series impedance to the transmission line. The FDTD method is applied to single dipole and slot elements transversely coupled to an infinite microstrip line using a fixed rectangular grid with Mur's second order absorbing boundary conditions. Frequency-dependent circuit and scattering parameters are obtained by saving desired time-domain quantities and using the Fourier transform. A Gaussian pulse excitation is applied to the microstrip transmission line, where the resulting reflected signal due to the presence of the radiating element is used

  8. Anatomy atlases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosse, C

    1999-01-01

    Anatomy atlases are unlike other knowledge sources in the health sciences in that they communicate knowledge through annotated images without the support of narrative text. An analysis of the knowledge component represented by images and the history of anatomy atlases suggest some distinctions that should be made between atlas and textbook illustrations. Textbook and atlas should synergistically promote the generation of a mental model of anatomy. The objective of such a model is to support anatomical reasoning and thereby replace memorization of anatomical facts. Criteria are suggested for selecting anatomy texts and atlases that complement one another, and the advantages and disadvantages of hard copy and computer-based anatomy atlases are considered.

  9. Characterisation of an inhomogeneously irradiated microstrip detector using a fine spot infrared laser

    CERN Document Server

    Casse, G; Bowcock, T J V; Greenall, A; Phillips, JP; Turner, PR; Wright, V

    2001-01-01

    A prototype silicon microstrip detector for the LHCb vertex locator (VELO) has been partially irradiated using a 24 GeV/c proton beam at the CERN-PS accelerator. The detector possesses a radial strip geometry designed to measure the azimuthal coordinate (Phi) of tracks within the VELO. The peak fluence received by the detector was measured to be 4.6×10 14 p/cm 2 though the non-uniform nature of the exposure left part of the detector unirradiated. The inhomogeneous irradiation introduced a damage profile in the detector approximating to that expected in the VELO. High irradiation gradients are important to study as they can modify the electric field within the silicon. Of special interest are changes in the component of the electric field parallel to the strip plane but perpendicular to the strips which lead to systematic shifts in the reconstructed cluster position. If these (flux and position dependent) shifts are sufficiently large they could contribute to a degraded spatial resolution of the detector. In ...

  10. Design and development of micro-strip stacked module prototypes to measure flying particle directions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernardini, J. [Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa, Piazza dei Cavalieri, 7 - 56126 Pisa (Italy); Bosi, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Sezione di Pisa, Edificio C - Polo Fibonacci Largo B. Pontecorvo, 3 - 56127 Pisa (Italy); Dell' Orso, R., E-mail: roberto.dellorso@pi.infn.it [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Sezione di Pisa, Edificio C - Polo Fibonacci Largo B. Pontecorvo, 3 - 56127 Pisa (Italy); Fiori, F.; Messineo, A. [Universita degli Studi di Pisa, Lungarno Pacinotti, 43 - 56126 Pisa (Italy); Palla, F.; Profeti, A.; Verdini, P.G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Sezione di Pisa, Edificio C - Polo Fibonacci Largo B. Pontecorvo, 3 - 56127 Pisa (Italy)

    2011-06-15

    Experience at high luminosity hadron collider experiments shows that tracking information enhances the trigger rejection capabilities while retaining high efficiency for interesting physics events [F. Palla and G. Parrini, Tracking in the trigger: from the CDF experience to CMS upgrade, 2007. Published in PoS VER-TEX2007:034, 2007]. The design of a tracking based trigger for Super LHC (S-LHC), the already envisaged high luminosity upgrade of the LHC collider, is an extremely challenging task, and requires the identification of high-momentum particle tracks as a part of the Level 1 Trigger. Simulation studies show that this can be achieved by correlating hits on two closely spaced silicon strip sensors. This work focuses on the design and development of micro-strip stacked prototype modules and will also discuss the technical challenges in the construction and the final detector performance. Studies of possible sensor geometries and wire-bonding techniques will be also presented. The prototypes have been built with the silicon sensors and electronics used to equip the present CMS Tracker [CMS Collaboration, The CMS experiment at the CERN LHC, JINST 3:S08004:26-89, 2008]. Correlation of signals collected from sensors are processed off detector. We will present the results of tests performed on the prototype modules in terms of the noise performance of the proposed stack geometry. Preliminary results in terms of signal over noise and tracking performance with cosmic rays will also be shown.

  11. Characterisation of an inhomogeneously irradiated microstrip detector using a fine spot infrared laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casse, G. E-mail: gcasse@hep.ph.liv.ac.uk; Allport, P.P.; Biagi, S.F.; Bowcock, T.J.V.; Greenall, A.; Turner, P.R

    2003-10-11

    A prototype silicon microstrip detector with p-strip read-out on oxygen enriched n-type substrate has been non-homogeneously irradiated using a 24 GeV/c proton beam at the CERN-PS accelerator. The detector has a semicircular shape with radial strip geometry. The peak fluence received by the detector was 4.6x10{sup 14} p/cm{sup 2} though the non-uniform nature of the exposure left part of the detector unirradiated. The inhomogeneous irradiation introduced a damage profile in the detector approximating to that expected in the inner LHC region. High-irradiation gradients are important to study as they can modify the electric field within the silicon. Of special interest are changes in the component of the electric field parallel to the strip plane but perpendicular to the strips, which could lead to systematic shifts in the reconstructed cluster position. If these (flux and position dependent) shifts are sufficiently large they could contribute to degrading the spatial resolution of the detector. In order to quantify these effects, a precision narrow focus light spot from an infrared laser was used to investigate the charge collection properties of the sensor. Particular attention was devoted to the regions where a high gradient of the fluence will have introduced a large gradient in the effective local space charge. The results reported below place limits on the 'distortions' due to non-uniform irradiation.

  12. A Custom Probe Station for Microstrip Detector Quality Assurance of the CBM Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panasenko, I.; Lavrik, E.; Lymanets, A.; Schmidt, H. R.

    2016-08-01

    The double-sided silicon microstrip sensors with 58µm pitch are the main building blocks of the Silicon Tracking System (STS) — the central detector of the Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) Experiment. The STS will employ about 1200 such sensors arranged on eight traking stations. Electrical characterization of the sensors is necessary to ensure their compliance with the specifications. For this purpuse a custom probe station is being developed at Tuebingen University. One of the main requirements is a high accuracy and a repeatability better than 1 µm to allow an automatic, succesive positioning on all 1024 pads of a sensor, as well as a positioning range in accordance with the size of STS sensors. The probe station is controlled via dedicated software developed at Tuebingen University. It allows to inspect the required ~10% of the sensors on the series production stage with characterization time 4-5 hours per one double-sided sensor. The construction of the probe station and first measurements are discussed in this paper.

  13. Design and development of micro-strip stacked module prototypes to measure flying particle directions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernardini, J [Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa, Piazza dei Cavalieri, 7, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Bosi, F; Dell' Orso, R; Palla, F; Profeti, A; Verdini, P G [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare sezione di Pisa, Edificio C - Polo Fibonacci Largo B. Pontecorvo, 3 - 56127 Pisa (Italy); Fiori, F; Messineo, A, E-mail: alberto.messineo@infn.i [Universita degli Studi di Pisa, Lungarno Pacinotti, 43 - 56126 Pisa (Italy)

    2010-07-15

    Experience at high luminosity hadron collider experiments shows that tracking information enhances the trigger rejection capabilities while retaining high efficiency for interesting physics events. The design of a tracking based trigger for Super LHC (S-LHC), the already envisaged high luminosity upgrade of the LHC collider, is an extremely challenging task, and requires the identification of high-momentum particle tracks as a part of the Level 1 Trigger. Simulation studies show that this can be achieved by correlating hits on two closely spaced silicon strip sensors. This work focuses on the design and development of micro-strip stacked prototype modules and will also discuss the technical challenges in the construction and final detector performance. Studies of possible sensor spacing and wire-bonding techniques will be also presented. The prototypes have been built with the silicon sensors and electronics used to equip the present CMS Tracker. Correlation of signals collected from sensors are processed off detector. We will present the results of tests performed on the prototype modules in terms of the noise performance of the proposed stack geometry. Preliminary results in terms of signal over noise and tracking performance with cosmic rays will also be shown.

  14. CMS silicon tracker milestone 200

    CERN Document Server

    Dierlamm, A

    2002-01-01

    The tracker of CMS will fully consist of silicon micro-strip and pixel sensors. Building a detector with 210 m/sup 2/ sensor surface in about 3 years requires a tightly controlled construction schedule. All different aspects of the production are exercised within a pre- production of 200 modules (Milestone 200) to identify and eliminate possible bottlenecks and to test the complete electronic chain. The quality, process stability and radiation hardness of the silicon sensors will be permanently monitored. Automatic assembly procedure and industrial bonding machines will guarantee a fast and reliable construction. All modules will be tested for signal, noise and pedestals at room temperature and operation temperature of -10 degrees C. Quality assurance of the Milestone 200 sensors and modules including irradiation and stability tests are presented. (6 refs).

  15. Geometrical optimization of microstripe arrays for microbead magnetophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Anders Dahl; Rozlosnik, Noemi; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt

    2015-01-01

    Manipulation of magnetic beads plays an increasingly important role in molecular diagnostics. Magnetophoresis is a promising technique for selective transportation of magnetic beads in lab-on-a-chip systems. We investigate periodic arrays of exchange-biased permalloy microstripes fabricated using...

  16. Microstripes for transport and separation of magnetic particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donolato, Marco; Dalslet, Bjarke Thomas; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt

    2012-01-01

    We present a simple technique for creating an on-chip magnetic particle conveyor based on exchange-biased permalloy microstripes. The particle transportation relies on an array of stripes with a spacing smaller than their width in conjunction with a periodic sequence of four different externally...

  17. Stripline/Microstrip Transition in Multilayer Circuit Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epp, Larry; Khan, Abdur

    2005-01-01

    A stripline-to-microstrip transition has been incorporated into a multilayer circuit board that supports a distributed solid-state microwave power amplifier, for the purpose of coupling the microwave signal from a buried-layer stripline to a top-layer microstrip. The design of the transition could be adapted to multilayer circuit boards in such products as cellular telephones (for connecting between circuit-board signal lines and antennas), transmitters for Earth/satellite communication systems, and computer mother boards (if processor speeds increase into the range of tens of gigahertz). The transition is designed to satisfy the following requirements in addition to the basic coupling requirement described above: (1) The transition must traverse multiple layers, including intermediate layers that contain DC circuitry. (2) The transition must work at a frequency of 32 GHz with low loss and low reflection. (3) The power delivered by the transition to top-layer microstrip must be split equally in opposite directions along the microstrip. Referring to the figure, this amounts to a requirement that when power is supplied to input port 1, equal amounts of power flow through output ports 2 and 3. (4) The signal-line via that is necessarily a part of such a transition must not be what is known in the art as a blind via; that is, it must span the entire thickness of the circuit board.

  18. Front-Side Microstrip Line Feeding a Raised Antenna Patch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Richard; Hoppe, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    An improved design concept for a printed-circuit patch antenna and the transmission line that feeds the patch calls for (1) a microstrip transmission line on the front (radiative) side of a printed-circuit board based on a thin, high-permittivity dielectric substrate; (2) using the conductor covering the back side of the circuit board as a common ground plane for both the microstrip line and the antenna patch; (3) supporting the antenna patch in front of the circuit board on a much thicker, lower-permittivity dielectric spacer layer; and (4) connecting the microstrip transmission line to the patch by use of a thin wire or narrow ribbon that extends through the thickness of the spacer and is oriented perpendicularly to the circuit-board plane. The thickness of the substrate is typically chosen so that a microstrip transmission line of practical width has an impedance between 50 and 100 ohms. The advantages of this design concept are best understood in the context of the disadvantages of prior design concepts, as explained

  19. Microwave microstrip resonators tuning without quality factor deterioration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Y. Serhienko

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Stub and ring resonators with resonance frequency micromechanical tuning are presented. Benefits and main differences of micromechanical resonance frequency tuning method from other methods are shown. Normalized dependences of effective permittivity on normalized air gap values for various microstrip line electrode width to substrate height ratios are obtained. Effective permittivity analytical formulas for the case of infinitely wide electrodes are derived. Calculated and experimental dependences of resonance frequency on air gap value and stub experimental unloaded quality factor dependences are given. Air gap influence on resonance frequency value depending on substrate permittivity is shown in terms of the resonance frequency sensitivity. Error estimation for measured experimental data is presented. Adding tunable heterogeneity between the microstrip resonator signal electrode and the substrate provides not only the resonance frequency tuning but preserves unloaded quality factor. The preservation of the unloaded quality factor during the resonance frequency tuning achieved due to the metal and dielectric loss reduction. Air gap doesn’t have dissipative losses and has permittivity of one, which makes it the best solution for unloaded quality factor preservation. Another important conclusion is that insertion of the air heterogeneity reduces values of dielectric and metal losses arising when substrates with high permittivity are used. For dielectric loss reduction, it is important to maintain low ratio of microstrip line width to substrate height. In contrast to dielectric losses for metal loss reduction the ratio of microstrip line width to substrate height should be high. However, that ratio is limited by impedance permissible range.

  20. Extended analysis of closed-ring microstrip antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, M. A.

    1989-02-01

    Gauss' hypergeometric function and Euler's transformation are employed to analyze the radiation characteristics of a closed-ring microstrip antenna. The method takes into account ohmic and dielectric losses, and it is used to determine relations between efficiency and bandwidth. It is found that at higher frequencies, narrower ring structures can have small Q-factors, high gain, and large bandwidth.

  1. Magic-T Junction using Microstrip/Slotline Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    U-yen, Kongpop; Wollack, Edward J.; Doiron, Terence

    2008-01-01

    An improved broadband planar magic-T junction that incorporates microstrip/slotline transitions has been developed. In comparison with a prior broadband magic-T junction incorporating microstrip/slotline transitions, this junction offers superior broadband performance. In addition, because this junction is geometrically simpler and its performance is less affected by fabrication tolerances, the benefits of the improved design can be realized at lower fabrication cost. There are potential uses for junctions like this one in commercial microwave communication receivers, radar and polarimeter systems, and industrial microwave instrumentation. A magic-T junction is a four-port waveguide junction consisting of a combination of an H-type and an E-type junction. An E-type junction is so named because it includes a junction arm that extends from a main waveguide in the same direction as that of the electric (E) field in the waveguide. An H-type junction is so named because it includes a junction arm parallel to the magnetic (H) field in a main waveguide. A magic-T junction includes two input ports (here labeled 1 and 2, respectively) and two output ports (here labeled E and H, respectively). In an ideal case, (1) a magic-T junction is lossless, (2) the input signals add (that is, they combine in phase with each other) at port H, and (3) the input signals subtract (that is, they combine in opposite phase) at port E. The prior junction over which the present junction is an improvement affords in-phase-combining characterized by a broadband frequency response, and features a small slotline area to minimize in-band loss. However, with respect to isolation between ports 1 and 2 and return loss at port E, it exhibits narrowband frequency responses. In addition, its performance is sensitive to misalignment of microstrip and slotline components: this sensitivity is attributable to a limited number of quarter-wavelength (lambda/4) transmission-line sections for matching impedances

  2. Irradiation tests of double-sided silicon strip detectors with a special guard ring structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abt, I. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Andricek, L. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Bauer, C. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Baumann, I. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Fox, H. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Halley, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Knoepfle, K.T. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Kroha, H. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Richter, R.H. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Riechmann, K. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Rietz, M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Ruebsam, R. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Seywerd, H. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); St Denis, R. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany)

    1995-12-01

    The results of the first irradiation tests of newly designed silicon microstrip detectors performed with 21 MeV protons at the Max-Planck-Institut in Heidelberg are presented. The detectors were developed and produced by the semiconductor laboratory of the Max-Planck-Institut in Munich. Novel guard ring structures allow operation of the detectors at voltages exceeding 300 V. (orig.)

  3. ATLAS Detector Upgrade Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobre, M.; ATLAS Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    After the successful operation at the centre-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV in 2010-2012, the LHC was ramped up and successfully took data at the centre-of-mass energies of 13 TeV in 2015 and 2016. Meanwhile, plans are actively advancing for a series of upgrades of the accelerator, culminating roughly ten years from now in the high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) project, which will deliver of the order of five times the LHC nominal instantaneous luminosity along with luminosity levelling. The ultimate goal is to extend the dataset from about few hundred fb ‑1 expected for LHC running by the end of 2018 to 3000 fb ‑1 by around 2035 for ATLAS and CMS. The challenge of coping with the HL-LHC instantaneous and integrated luminosity, along with the associated radiation levels, requires further major changes to the ATLAS detector. The designs are developing rapidly for a new all-silicon tracker, significant upgrades of the calorimeter and muon systems, as well as improved triggers and data acquisition. ATLAS is also examining potential benefits of extensions to larger pseudorapidity, particularly in tracking and muon systems. This report summarizes various improvements to the ATLAS detector required to cope with the anticipated evolution of the LHC luminosity during this decade and the next. A brief overview is also given on physics prospects with a pp centre-of-mass energy of 14 TeV.

  4. 2D position sensitive microstrip sensors with charge division along the strip: Studies on the position measurement error

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassignana, D. [Centro Nacional de Microelectrónica de Barcelona IMB-CNM (CSIC), Campus Univ. Autónoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Curras, E.; Fernandez, M.; Jaramillo, R. [Instituto de Física de Cantabria IFCA (CSIC-UC), Avd. de los Castros s/n, 39005 Santander (Spain); Lozano, M. [Centro Nacional de Microelectrónica de Barcelona IMB-CNM (CSIC), Campus Univ. Autónoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Munoz, F.J. [Instituto de Física de Cantabria IFCA (CSIC-UC), Avd. de los Castros s/n, 39005 Santander (Spain); Pellegrini, G.; Quirion, D. [Centro Nacional de Microelectrónica de Barcelona IMB-CNM (CSIC), Campus Univ. Autónoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Vila, I., E-mail: vila@ifca.unican.es [Instituto de Física de Cantabria IFCA (CSIC-UC), Avd. de los Castros s/n, 39005 Santander (Spain); Vitorero, F. [Instituto de Física de Cantabria IFCA (CSIC-UC), Avd. de los Castros s/n, 39005 Santander (Spain)

    2013-12-21

    Position sensitivity in semiconductor detectors of ionizing radiation is usually achieved by the segmentation of the sensing diode junction in many small sensing elements read out separately as in the case of conventional microstrips and pixel detectors. Alternatively, position sensitivity can be obtained by splitting the ionization signal collected by one single electrode amongst more than one readout channel with the ratio of the collected charges depending on the position where the signal was primary generated. Following this later approach, we implemented the charge division method in a conventional microstrip detector to obtain position sensitivity along the strip. We manufactured a proof-of-concept demonstrator where the conventional aluminum electrodes were replaced by slightly resistive electrodes made of strongly doped poly-crystalline silicon and being readout at both strip ends. Here, we partially summarize the laser characterization of this first proof-of-concept demonstrator with special emphasis on the study on how the different noise sources are affecting the device position error along the strip.

  5. ATLAS IBL operational experience

    CERN Document Server

    Takubo, Yosuke; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The Insertable B-Layer (IBL) is the inner most pixel layer in the ATLAS experiment, which was installed at 3.3 cm radius from the beam axis in 2014 to improve the tracking performance. To cope with the high radiation and hit occupancy due to proximity to the interaction point, a new read-out chip and two different silicon sensor technologies (planar and 3D) have been developed for the IBL. After the long shut-down period over 2013 and 2014, the ATLAS experiment started data-taking in May 2015 for Run-2 of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The IBL has been operated successfully since the beginning of Run-2 and shows excellent performance with the low dead module fraction, high data-taking efficiency and improved tracking capability. The experience and challenges in the operation of the IBL is described as well as its performance.

  6. Average Power Handling Capability of Microstrip Passive Circuits Considering Metal Housing and Environment Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez-Soriano, Miguel Ángel; Queré, Yves; Le Saux, Vincent; Quendo, Cédric; Cadiou, Stephane

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the average power handling capability (APHC) of microstrip passive circuits considering the metal housing and environment conditions is investigated in detail. A systematic method is proposed for the computation of the APHC of microstrip circuits in open and enclosed metal housing configurations, typically used in microwave components. The method also yields an estimate of the maximum temperature in a microstrip circuit for a given input power. Closed-form equations accounting ...

  7. Effect of different substrates on Compact stacked square Microstrip Antenna

    CERN Document Server

    De, Asok; Malhotra, Sagar; Arora, Pushkar; Bazaz, Rishik

    2010-01-01

    Selection of the most suitable substrate for a Microstrip antenna is a matter of prime importance. This is because many limitations of the microstrip antenna such as high return loss, low gain and low efficiency can be overcome by selecting an appropriate substrate for fabrication of the antenna, without shifting the resonant frequency significantly. The substate properties such as its dielectric constant, loss tangent have a pronounced effect on the antenna characteristics. Some of the critical properties that are to be taken care of while selecting a dielectric are homogeneity, moisture absorption and adhesion of metal- foil cladding. In this paper a comprehensive study of the effect of variation of substrate material on the antenna properties has been presented.

  8. Design of A Pentagon Microstrip Antenna for Radar Altimeter Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. RamaDevi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In the navigational applications, radar and satellite requires a device that is a radar altimeter. Theworking frequency of this system is 4.2 to 4.3GHz and also requires less weight, low profile, and high gainantennas. The above mentioned application is possible with microstrip antenna as also known as planarantenna. In this paper, the microstrip antennas are designed at 4.3GHz (C-band in rectangular andcircular shape patch antennas in single element and arrays with parasitic elements placed in H-planecoupling. The performance of all these shapes is analyzed in terms of radiation pattern, half power points,and gain and impedance bandwidth in MATLAB. This work extended here with designed in different shapeslike Rhombic, Pentagon, Octagon and Edges-12 etc. Further these parameters are simulated in ANSOFTHFSSTMV9.0 simulator.

  9. MULTILAYER MICROSTRIP ANTENNA QUALITY FACTOR OPTIMIZATION FOR BANDWIDTH ENHANCEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. SRIVASTAVA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The impedance bandwidth, one of the important characteristics of microstrip patch antennas, can be significantly improved by using a multilayer dielectric configuration. In this paper the focus is on bandwidth enhancement technique of a multilayer patch antenna for X-band applications. In order to enhance the bandwidth, antenna losses are contained by controlling those quality factors which can have a significant impact on the bandwidth for a given permittivity and thickness of the substrate. This has been achieved by conformal transformation of the multidielectric microstrip antenna. For the ease of analysis Wheelers transformation is used to map the complex permittivity of a multilayer substrate to a single layer. Method of Moments and Finite Difference Time Domain approaches are used for the computation of results.

  10. High Efficiency and Broadband Microstrip Leaky-Wave Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onofrio Losito

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel layout of leaky-wave antennas based on tapered design has been proposed and investigated. The new tapered leaky-wave antenna (LWA was designed running a simple procedure which uses an FDTD code, and using a suitable metal walls down the centerline along the length of the antenna connecting the conductor strip and the ground plane, which allows to use only half of the structure, the adoption of a simple feeding, and the reduction of sidelobes. The good performance of this new tapered microstrip LWA, with reference to conventional uniform microstrip LWAs, is mainly the wider band of 33% for VSWR <2, higher gain (12 dBi, and higher efficiency (up to 85%. Furthermore, from the theoretical analysis we can see that, decreasing the relative dielectric constant of the substrate, the bandwidth of the leaky-wave antenna becomes much wider, improving its performance.

  11. Computational Investigation of Microstrip Antennas in Plasma Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Vyas, Hardik; Gupta, Sanjeev

    2016-01-01

    Microstrip antennas are extensively used in spacecraft systems and other applications where they encounter a plasma environment. A detailed computational investigation of change in antenna radiation properties in the presence of plasma has been presented in this paper. The study shows antenna properties such as the resonant frequency, return loss, radiation properties and the different characteristics of the antenna changes when it is surrounded by plasma. Particular focus of the work is to understand the causes behind these changes by correlating the complex propagation constant in the plasma medium, field distribution on the patch and effective dielectric of the antenna substrate with antenna parameter variations. The study also provides important insights to explore the possibilities of designing tunable microstrip antenna where the substrate can be replaced with plasma and important antenna characteristics can be controlled by varying the plasma density.

  12. HYBRID METHOD FOR ANALYSE DISCONTINUITIES IN SHIELDED MICROSTRIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHAMMED EL AMINE EL GOUZI

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A rigorous full-wave analysis is employed to analyze discontinuity in shielded Microstrip (open end, uniform bend. An accurate and efficient method of moments solution combined with the source method(SM formulation is proposed in order to achieve a full-wave characterization of the analyzed structures. A wavelet matrix transform(WMT, operated by wavelet-like transform (WLT allows a significant reduction of the central processing unit time and the memory storage.

  13. Theoretical and experimental investigation of microstrip rhombic resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Charchafchi, S. H.; Boulkos, J.

    1990-06-01

    The resonant behavior of a novel microstrip rhombic resonator is investigated by analyzing an equivalent circuit based on transmission line modeling. Design curves showing the dependence of resonator performance on its parameters, as well as the substrate parameters, are presented. Experiments carried out showed a significant reduction in insertion loss when the rhombic resonator is dielectrically shielded. The resonator could be used as a microwave bandpass filter or a stabilization circuit for microwave oscillators in both hybrid and monolithic integrated circuits.

  14. Thermal imaging of hot spots in nanostructured microstripes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saïdi, E.; Lesueur, J.; Aigouy, L.; Labéguerie-Egéa, J.; Mortier, M.

    2010-03-01

    By scanning thermal microscopy, we study the behavior of nanostructured metallic microstripes heated by Joule effect. Regularly spaced indentations have been made along the thin film stripe in order to create hot spots. For the designed stripe geometry, we observe that heat remains confined in the wire and in particular at shrinkage points within ~1μm2. Thermal maps have been obtained with a good lateral resolution (< 300nm) and a good temperature sensitivity (~1K).

  15. Practical Aspects of the Transmission Line Stub Matching in Microstrip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Novak

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available While designing microwave circuits with microstrip lines using open or shorted stubs for matching or realization of filters, the actual circuit can be substantially mismatched when the length of the open stub is below 30 degrees of electrical length, or shorted stub is over 60 degrees of electrical length. Realization of such stubs could lead to practical difficulties because the normal etching accuracy does not support the exact lengths required for such stubs.

  16. A new model for broadband waveguide to microstrip transition design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponchak, George E.; Downey, Alan N.

    1986-01-01

    A new model is presented which permits the prediction of the resonant frequencies created by antipodal finline waveguide to microstrip transitions. The transition is modeled as a tapered transmission line in series with an infinite set of coupled resonant circuits. The resonant circuits are modeled as simple microwave resonant cavities of which the resonant frequencies are easily determined. The model is developed and the resonant frequencies determined for several different transitions. Experimental results are given to confirm the models.

  17. SIMPLE MODEL FOR THE INPUT IMPEDANCE OF RECTANGULAR MICROSTRIP ANTENNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celal YILDIZ

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available A very simple model for the input impedance of a coax-fed rectangular microstrip patch antenna is presented. It is based on the cavity model and the equivalent resonant circuits. The theoretical input impedance results obtained from this model are in good agreement with the experimental results available in the literature. This model is well suited for computer-aided design (CAD.

  18. The Renormalization Effects in the Microstrip-SQUID Amplifier

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, G P; Tsifrinovich, V I

    2011-01-01

    The peculiarities of the microstrip-DC SQUID amplifier caused by the resonant structure of the input circuit are analyzed. It is shown that the mutual inductance, that couples the input circuit and the SQUID loop, depends on the frequency of electromagnetic field. The renormalization of the SQUID parameters due to the screening effect of the input circuit vanishes when the Josephson frequency is much greater than the signal frequency.

  19. Corner-Fed Microstrip Antenna Analysis for Dual Polarization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    This paper investigates a corner-fed microstrip patch antenna by means of the cavity model with proposedfeed modeling. The input impedance and radiation patterns for a corner feed are calculated. The mutual coupling be-tween two corner feeds is investigated. An improvement in mutual coupling has been found for corner feeds relativeto edge feeds, which is helpful for the design of dual-polarized antenna arrays in wireless communication and radarapplications

  20. Input impedance and mutual coupling of rectangular microstrip antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozar, D. M.

    1982-01-01

    A moment method solution to the problem of input impedance and mutual coupling of rectangular microstrip antenna elements is presented. The formulation uses the grounded dielectric slab Green's function to account rigorously for the presence of the substrate and surface waves. Both entire basis (EB) and piecewise sinusoidal (PWS) expansion modes are used, and their relative advantages are noted. Calculations of input impedance and mutual coupling are compared with measured data and other calculations.

  1. SIERPIENSKI & CROWN SQUARE FRACTAL SHAPES SLOTTED MICROSTRIP PATCH ANTENNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Yogesh Bhomia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new Sierpienski & Crown Square Fractal Shapes Slotted Microstrip Patch Antenna is proposed. A patch antenna is a narrowband, wide-beam antenna. These antennas are low profile, conformal to planar and non-planar surface, simple and inexpensive to manufacture using modern printed circuit technology, mechanically robust when mounted on rigid surface, compatible with MMIC designs and when the particular shape and mode are selected they are very versatile in terms of resonant frequency, polarization, field pattern and impedance. Microstrip patch antenna consist of a very thin metallic strip (patch placed a small fraction of a wavelength above a ground plane. The patch is generally made of conducting material such as copper or gold and can take any possible shape. This paper presents a design of Sierpienski & Crown Square Fractal Shapes Slotted Microstrip Patch Antenna and experimentally studied on IE3D software. This design is achieved by cutting Sierpienski & Crown Square Fractal Shapes Slottes in a patch. With Sierpienski & Crown Square Fractal Shapes patch antenna is designed on a FR4 substrate of thickness 1.524 mm and relative permittivity of 4.4 and mounted above the ground plane at a height of 6 mm. Bandwidth as high as 36.6% are achieved with stable pattern characteristics, such as gain and cross polarization, within its bandwidth. Impedance bandwidth, antenna gain and return loss are observed for the proposed antenna. Details of the measured and simulated results are presented and discussed.

  2. Microstrip Yagi array antenna for mobile satellite vehicle application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, John; Densmore, Arthur C.

    1991-01-01

    A novel antenna structure formed by combining the Yagi-Uda array concept and the microstrip radiator technique is discussed. This antenna, called the microstrip Yagi array, has been developed for the mobile satellite (MSAT) system as a low-profile, low-cost, and mechanically steered medium-gain land-vehicle antenna. With the antenna's active patches (driven elements) and parasitic patches (reflector and director elements) located on the same horizontal plane, the main beam of the array can be tilted, by the effect of mutual coupling, in the elevation direction providing optimal coverage for users in the continental United States. Because the parasitic patches are not connected to any of the lossy RF power distributing circuit the antenna is an efficient radiating system. With the complete monopulse beamforming and power distributing circuits etched on a single thin stripline board underneath the microstrip Yagi array, the overall L-band antenna system has achieved a very low profile for vehicle's rooftop mounting, as well as a low manufacturing cost. Experimental results demonstrate the performance of this antenna.

  3. High performance millimeter-wave microstrip circulators and isolators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Ming; Pan, J. J.

    1990-01-01

    Millimeter wave systems, phased array antennas, and high performance components all require wideband circulators (and isolators) to perform diplexing and switching, to improve isolation and Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR), and to construct IMPATT diode reflection amplifiers. Presently, most of the millimeter-wave circulators and isolators are available in the configurations of waveguide or stripline, both of which suffer from the shortcomings of bulky size/weight, narrow bandwidth, and poor compatibility with monolithic millimeter-wave integrated circuits (MMIC). MMW microstrip circulators/isolators can eliminate or improve these shortcomings. Stub-tuned microstrip circulator configuration were developed utilizing the electromagnetic fields perturbation technique, the adhesion problems of microstrip metallization on new ferrite substrate were overcome, the fabrication, assembly, packaging techniques were improved, and then successfully designed, fabricated a Ka band circulator which has isolation and return loss of greater than 16dB, insertion loss less than 0.7dB. To assess the steady and reliable performance of the circulator, a temperature cycling test was done over the range of -20 to +50 C for 3 continuous cycles and found no significant impact or variation of circulator performance.

  4. Pentagonal shaped microstrip patch antenna in wireless capsule endoscopy system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bondili Kohitha Bai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless capsule endoscopy is a best option for exploring inaccessible areas of small intestine for inspection of gastrointestinal tract. This technique brings less pain compare to conventional endoscopy technique. The wireless endoscopy system comprises of three main modules: an ingestible capsule that is swallowed by the patient, an external control unit and display device for image display. In this paper we proposed pentagonal shape microstrip patch antenna for wireless capsule endoscopy system. Inhibiting characteristics of a single microstrip patch like low gain, light weight, thin thickness and smaller bandwidth, make it more popular. This kind of antenna is aggressive miniaturized to meet the requirements of the wireless capsule endoscope. The simulation results show that the designed Circular Polarization (CP pentagonal shaped microstrip patch antenna gives axial ratio of 0.6023 at 2.38 GHz and CP axial ratio bandwidth of 36MHz with 1.5%. The antenna designed for wireless capsule endoscopy is a proposed one, which may work effectively when compared to other antennas in the capsule.

  5. Wideband E-Shaped Microstrip Antenna for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Elangovan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN is currently receiving significant attention due to their unlimited potential. However, it is still very early in the lifetime of such systems and many research challenges exist, out of which one of the challenges is sensor processing and fusion under limited capacities, the most important component in sensor is its TX/RX antenna. Approach: For high-speed wireless local area networks and other wireless communication systems covering the 5.33-5.71 GHz frequency band. In this frequency band microstrip antennas have attracted with its low-profile in nature. In this study, microstrip antenna is proposed to meet the challenges, which combines the advantages of compactness with the low cost and low profile of a patch antenna. Results: The key parameters governing the antenna optimization have been determined with the help of High Frequency Simulation Software (HFSS. As a consequence, 5.5GHz microstrip antenna with size 22×16×3.2 mm has been realized on duroid with 2.2. Conclusion: This combination of performance metrics is highly desirable for autonomous distributed sensor network applications where a small sensor node volume and excellent power efficiency are required.

  6. Present status of silicon detectors in COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Angerer, H; Esposito, A; Friedrich, J M; Gerassimov, S G; Grube, B; Ketzer, B; Konorov, I; Kühn, R; Paul, S; Schmitt, L; Wagner, R M; Wiesmann, M

    2003-01-01

    In 2002 the COMPASS experiment at CERN has started to take first physics data. The fixed target experiment at the SPS uses muon and hadron beams of very high intensity to investigate the structure of the nucleon. For beam definition and small angle tracking silicon microstrip detectors are used. This article describes the requirements which are set by the physics program of COMPASS for these detectors and the ways they were met, amongst which the operation at a temperature around 130 K (Lazarus effect) is the most prominent. Measurements at low temperatures as well as first results from the operation at room temperature in the COMPASS physics run 2002 are presented.

  7. Electrical Characteristics of Silicon Pixel Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Gorelov, I; Hoeferkamp, M; Mata-Bruni, V; Santistevan, G; Seidel, S C; Ciocio, A; Einsweiler, K F; Emes, J; Gilchriese, M G D; Joshi, A; Kleinfelder, S A; Marchesini, R; McCormack, F; Milgrome, O; Palaio, N; Pengg, F; Richardson, J; Zizka, G; Ackers, M; Comes, G; Fischer, P; Keil, M; Klasen, V; Kühl, T; Meuser, S; Ockenfels, W; Raith, B; Treis, J; Wermes, N; Gössling, C; Hügging, F G; Klaiber Lodewigs, Jonas M; Krasel, O; Wüstenfeld, J; Wunstorf, R; Barberis, D; Beccherle, R; Caso, Carlo; Cervetto, M; Darbo, G; Gagliardi, G; Gemme, C; Morettini, P; Netchaeva, P; Osculati, B; Rossi, L; Charles, E; Fasching, D; Blanquart, L; Breugnon, P; Calvet, D; Clemens, J-C; Delpierre, P A; Hallewell, G D; Laugier, D; Mouthuy, T; Rozanov, A; Valin, I; Andreazza, A; Caccia, M; Citterio, M; Lari, T; Meroni, C; Ragusa, F; Troncon, C; Vegni, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Richter, R H; Rohe, T; Boyd, GR; Skubic, P L; Sícho, P; Tomasek, L; Vrba, V; Holder, M; Ziolkowski, M; Cauz, D; Cobal-Grassmann, M; D'Auria, S; De Lotto, B; del Papa, C; Grassmann, H; Santi, L; Becks, K H; Lenzen, G; Linder, C

    2001-01-01

    Prototype sensors for the ATLAS silicon pixel detector have been electrically characterized. The current and voltage characteristics, charge collection efficiencies, and resolutions have been examined. Devices were fabricated on oxygenated and standard detector-grade silicon wafers. Results from prototypes which examine p-stop and standard and moderated p-spray isolation are presented for a variety of geometrical options. Some of the comparisons relate unirradiated sensors with those that have received fluences relevant to LHC operation.

  8. Temperature effects on radiation damage to silicon detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barberis, E.; Cartiglia, N.; Leslie, J.; Pitzl, D.; Rowe, W.A.; Sadrozinski, H.F.W. (SCIPP, Univ. California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States)); Boissevain, J.G.; Ferguson, P.; Holzscheiter, K.; Kapustinsky, J.S.; Palounek, A.P.T.; Sommer, W.F.; Sondheim, W.E.; Ziock, H.J. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Ellison, J.A.; Fleming, J.K.; Jerger, S.; Joyce, D.; Lietzke, C.; Wimpenny, S.J. (Univ. California, Riverside, CA (United States)); Matthews, J.A.J.; Skinner, D. (Univ. New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States))

    1993-03-01

    Motivated by the large particle fluences anticipated for the SSC and LHC, we are performing a systematic study of radiation damage to silicon microstrip detectors. Here we report radiation effects on detectors cooled to 0deg C (the proposed operating point for a large SSC silicon tracker) including leakage currents and change in depletion voltage. We also present results on the annealing behavior of the radiation damage. Finally, we report results of charge collection measurements of the damaged detectors made with an [sup 241]Am [alpha] source. (orig.).

  9. ATLAS ITk Pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Gemme, Claudia; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The high luminosity upgrade of the LHC (HL-LHC) in 2026 will provide new challenge to the ATLAS tracker. The current inner detector will be replaced with a whole silicon tracker which will consist of a five barrel layer Pixel detector surrounded by a four barrel layer Strip detector. The expected high radiation level are requiring the development of upgraded silicon sensors as well as new a front-end chip. The dense tracking environment will require finer granularity detectors. The data rates will require new technologies for high bandwidth data transmission and handling. The current status of the HL-LHC ATLA Pixel detector developments as well as the various layout options will be reviewed.

  10. Planar architecture for microstrip interfaced packaging of coplanar-waveguide-based radio frequency microelectromechanical system switches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shailendra; Giridhar, Malalahalli Sreenivasamurthy; Rao, Cheemalamarri Venkata Narasimha; Bhalke, Sangam; Islam, Rifqul

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the architecture of microstrip (MS) interfaced packaging of a coplanar-waveguide (CPW)-based radio frequency microelectromechanical systems (RF MEMS) switch in a hermetic metal-ceramic RF package. The switch is integrated along with CPW to MS (CPW-MS) transitions within the package itself. This makes the MS interfaced packaged switch module readily mountable on MS based RF boards and subsystems. The CPW-MS transition for the package was designed as a separate off-chip entity on an alumina substrate and utilizes via hole. The integrated three-dimensional model of the package consisting of the RF MEMS switch and the transitions was simulated using high frequency structure simulator. The realized module shows an insertion loss of 0.2 and 1.1 dB at 100 MHz and 7 GHz, respectively. The measured isolation is better than 60 dB at 100 MHz and 30 dB at 7 GHz. The return loss is better than 15 dB up to 7 GHz. The estimated packaging and transitioning loss is 0.5 dB at 5 GHz. This packaging architecture is a planar solution for the MS interfaced packaging of CPW based RF MEMS switches for designers who do not have access to high-end technologies, such as zero-level packaging, through silicon via or low temperature co-fired ceramics.

  11. Superconducting NbN microstrip detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Wedenig, R; Berglund, P; Kyynäräinen, J; Da Costa, L N; Valtonen, M J; Linna, R; Salmi, J; Seppä, H; Suni, I

    1999-01-01

    Superconducting NbN strip transmission line counters and coupling circuits were processed on silicon wafers using thin film techniques, and they were characterized with several methods to verify the design principles. The stripline circuits, designed using microwave design rules, were simulated using a circuit design tool enhanced to include modelling of the superconducting lines. The strips, etched out of the 282 nm thick top NbN film with resistivity 284 µ?cm at 20 K, have critical temperatures in the range 12 to 13 K and a critical current density approximately Jc(0) = 3.3·105 A/cm2. The linearized heat transfer coefficient between the strip and the substrate is approximately 1.1·105 W/(m2K) and the healing length is about 1.6 µm between 3 and 5 K temperatures. Traversing 5 MeV a-particles caused the strips to quench. No events due to electrons could be detected in agreement with the predicted signal amplitude which is below the noise threshold of our wideband circuitry. The strip bias current and henc...

  12. Superconducting NbN microstrip detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wedenig, R.; Niinikoski, T.O. E-mail: niinikos@cernvm.cern.ch; Berglund, P.; Kyynaeraeinen, J.; Costa, L.; Valtonen, M.; Linna, R.; Salmi, J.; Seppae, H.; Suni, I

    1999-09-01

    Superconducting NbN strip transmission line counters and coupling circuits were processed on silicon wafers using thin-film techniques, and they were characterized with several methods to verify the design principles. The stripline circuits, designed using microwave design rules, were simulated using a circuit design tool enhanced to include modelling of the superconducting lines. The strips, etched out of the 282 nm thick top NbN film with resistivity 284 {mu}{omega} cm at 20 K, have critical temperatures in the range 12-13 K and a critical current density approximately J{sub c}(0)=3.3x10{sup 5} A/cm{sup 2}. The linearized heat transfer coefficient between the strip and the substrate is approximately 1.1x10{sup 5} W/m{sup 2} K and the healing length is about 1.6 {mu}m between 3 and 5 K temperatures. Traversing 5 MeV {alpha}-particles caused the strips to quench. No events due to electrons could be detected in agreement with the predicted signal amplitude which is below the noise threshold of our wideband circuitry. The strip bias current and hence the signal amplitude were limited due to a microbridge at the isolator step of the impedance transformer.

  13. Broadband Via-Less Microwave Crossover Using Microstrip-CPW Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Thomas; U-Yen, Kongpop; Wollack, Edward; Moseley, Samuel; Hsieh, Wen-Ting

    2011-01-01

    The front-to-back interface between microstrip and CPW (coplanar waveguide) typically requires complex fabrication or has high radiation loss. The microwave crossover typically requires a complex fabrication step. The prior art in microstrip-CPW transition requires a physical vias connection between the microstrip and CPW line on a separate layer. The via-less version of this transition was designed empirically and does not have a close form solution. The prior art of the micro wave crossover requires either additional substrate or wire bond as an air bridge to isolate two microwave lines at the crossing junction. The disadvantages are high radiation loss, no analytical solution to the problem, lengthy simulation time, and complex fabrication procedures to generate air bridges or via. The disadvantage of the prior crossover is a complex fabrication procedure, which also affects the device reliability and yield. This microstrip-CPW transition is visualized as two microstrip-slotline transitions combined in a way that the radiation from two slotlines cancels each other out. The invention is designed based on analytical methods; thus, it significantly reduces the development time. The crossover requires no extra layer to cross two microwave signals and has low radiation loss. The invention is simple to fabricate and design. It produces low radiation loss and can be designed with low insertion loss, with some tradeoff with signal isolation. The microstrip-CPW transition is used as an interface to connect between the device and the circuit outside the package. The via-less microwave crossover is used to allow two signals to cross without using an extra layer or fabrication processing step to enable this function. This design allows the solution to be determined entirely though analytical techniques. In addition, a planar via-less microwave crossover using this technique was proposed. The experimental results show that the proposed crossover at 5 GHz has a minimum

  14. Differential microstrip lines with reduced crosstalk and common mode effect based on spoof surface plasmon polaritons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jin Jei; Hou, Da Jun; Liu, Kexin; Shen, Linfang; Tsai, Chi An; Wu, Chien Jang; Tsai, Dichi; Yang, Tzong-Jer

    2014-11-03

    We apply the concept of spoof surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) to the design of differential microstrip lines by introducing periodic subwavelength corrugations on their edges. The dispersion relation and field distribution of those lines are analyzed numerically. And then through designing practical coupling circuits, we found that compared with conventional differential microstrip lines, the electromagnetic field can be strongly confined inside the grooves of the corrugated microstrip lines, so the crosstalk between the differential pair and the adjacent microstrip lines is greatly reduced, and the conversion from the differential signal to the common mode signal can also be effectively suppressed. The propagation length of those lines is also very long in a wide band. Moreover, the experimental results in time domain demonstrate those lines perform very well in high-speed circuit. Therefore, those novel kinds of spoof SPPs based differential microstrip lines can be widely utilized in high-density microwave circuits and guarantee signal integrity in high-speed systems.

  15. The current distribution on the feeding probe in an air filled rectangular microstrip antenna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, K

    1989-01-01

    The current distribution on the probe and the input impedance of the rectangular air-filled microstrip antenna are calculated using the electrical-field integral equation (EFIE) formulation. A rigorous model for the coaxial line excitation is adopted which makes the formulation valid...... for electrically thick microstrip antennas. The EFIE is solved numerically using the moment method with a piecewise linear approximation of the patch current and a polynomial approximation of the probe current. It was found by numerous calculations that operating the microstrip antenna at the resonant frequency...... of the microstrip patch gives the best results with respect to the sidelobe level and cross-polar level. To validate the calculations, the impedance of the rectangular air-filled microstrip antenna was measured for the case h=6 mm and was found to agree with the calculated impedance...

  16. Transformation of design formulae for feed line of triangular microstrip antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Monika; Singh, Ghanshyam; Bhatnagar, S. K.; Swami, Swati; Vats, Abhijat

    2016-03-01

    In wireless communication system microstrip antenna is the key component. Popular shapes of patch for microstrip are rectangular, triangular and circular. A new transformation design formulae for feed line of rectangular microstrip antenna by using equivalent design concept were presented by the authors. That says one designed antenna for a given frequency on any substrate can be transformed into another substrate material for the same design frequency by simply multiply a factor ψ to the all dimensions of patch, length of feed line and some power of ψ for feed line width (where ψ is the square root of the ratio of dielectric constants of those two designs). This paper presents that the same formulae of that rectangular transformation feed line can also be applicable for triangular shape microstrip antenna transformation. The process was repeated for the triangular shape patch microstrip antenna as applied for rectangular shape and the simulation results were surprisingly the same for it by applying the same transformation formulae.

  17. ATLAS Detector Upgrade Prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Dobre, Monica; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    After the successful operation at the centre-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV in 2010-2012, the LHC is ramped up and successfully took data at the centre-of-mass energies of 13 TeV in 2015. Meanwhile, plans are actively advancing for a series of upgrades of the accelerator, culminating roughly ten years from now in the high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) project, delivering of the order of five times the LHC nominal instantaneous luminosity along with luminosity levelling. The ultimate goal is to extend the dataset from about few hundred f b −1 expected for LHC running to 3000 f b −1 by around 2035 for ATLAS and CMS. The challenge of coping with the HL-LHC instantaneous and integrated luminosity, along with the associated radiation levels, requires further major changes to the ATLAS detector. The designs are developing rapidly for a new all-silicon tracker, significant upgrades of the calorimeter and muon systems, as well as improved triggers and data acquisition. ATLAS is also examining potential benefits of ext...

  18. ATLAS Detector Upgrade Prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Dobre, Monica; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    After the successful operation at the center-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV in 2010 - 2012, the LHC is ramped up and successfully took data at the center-of-mass energies of 13 TeV in 2015. Meanwhile, plans are actively advancing for a series of upgrades of the accelerator, culminating roughly ten years from now in the high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) project, delivering of the order of five times the LHC nominal instantaneous luminosity along with luminosity leveling. The ultimate goal is to extend the dataset from about few hundred fb−1 expected for LHC running to 3000 fb−1 by around 2035 for ATLAS and CMS. The challenge of coping with the HL-LHC instantaneous and integrated luminosity, along with the associated radiation levels, requires further major changes to the ATLAS detector. The designs are developing rapidly for a new all-silicon tracker, significant upgrades of the calorimeter and muon systems, as well as improved triggers and data acquisition. ATLAS is also examining potential benefits of extens...

  19. Moisture Content Determination Using Microstrip Fractal Resonator Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beulah Jackson

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel method for determining the moisture content in spices by means of compact microstrip fractal resonator. The proposed resonator is designed at 1 GHz using FR4 substrate with dielectric constant of 4.6. A resonator sensor in the shape of fractal designed using the tool ADS and working at 0.9 GHz to 3 GHz band is demonstrated. The relative shift in frequency and attenuation was observed to vary with respect to the moisture content/permittivity of the test material independent of its density.

  20. Scanning thermal imaging of an electrically excited aluminum microstripe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Benjamin; Aigouy, Lionel; Latempa, Rossella; Tessier, Gilles; Aprili, Marco; Mortier, Michel; Lesueur, Jérôme; Fournier, Danièle

    2007-07-01

    We study the Joule heating of a 1.25 μm wide aluminum microstripe excited by an electrical current. The temperature changes are measured with a scanning thermal microscope that uses a small fluorescent particle as a sensor. The lateral resolution observed for this sample is better than 300 nm. We have compared the temperature distribution in the stripe with a simple analytical model of heat propagation in the wire and the substrate. A good qualitative agreement is observed, although the measured temperature is much smaller than the estimated one, showing that the heat transfer between the hot wire and the fluorescent probe is not fully efficient.

  1. Snaps to Connect Coaxial and Microstrip Lines in Wearable Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiiti Kellomäki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Commercial snaps (clothing fasteners can be used to connect a coaxial cable to a microstrip line. This is useful in the context of wearable antennas, especially in consumer applications and disposable connections. The measured S-parameters of the transition are presented, and an equivalent circuit and approximate equations are derived for system design purposes. The proposed connection is usable up to 1.5 GHz (10 dB return loss condition, and the frequency range can be extended to 2 GHz if a thinner, more flexible coaxial cable is used.

  2. High rate tests of microstrip gas chambers for CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Malina, R F; Bell, B; Bellazzini, R; Bozzo, M; Brand, C; Brez, A; Caner, A; Cattai, A; Chorowicz, V; Contardo, D; Latronico, L; Lumb, N; Magazzù, C; Martín, J; Massai, M M; Mirabito, L; Morelli, A; Raffo, R; Rolandi, Luigi; Smadja, G; Spandre, G; Spezziga, M; Tsirou, A L

    1999-01-01

    Microstrip gas chambers (MSGC's) have been proposed for equipping the outer region of the tracker of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The MSGC's have undergone extensive development and tests during the last few years and their performance is well established. An important issue that has to be addressed to date is whether MSGC's can maintain their characteristics after a long exposure to an intense flux of particles, similar to LHC. We report results from the most recent beam test addressing this topic. (9 refs).

  3. Analysis of Circular Polarization of Cylindrically Bent Microstrip Antennas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiiti Kellomäki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available When circularly polarized (CP microstrip antennas are bent, the polarization becomes elliptical. We present a simple model that describes the phenomenon. The two linear modes present in a CP patch are modeled separately and added together to produce CP. Bending distorts the almost-spherical equiphase surface of a linearly polarized patch, which leads to phase imbalance in the far-field of a CP patch. The model predicts both the frequency shifting of the axial ratio band as well as the narrowing of the axial ratio beam. Uncontrolled bending is a problem associated especially with flexible textile antennas, and wearable antennas should therefore be designed somewhat conformal.

  4. Supporting ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    maximilien brice

    2003-01-01

    Eighteen feet made of stainless steel will support the barrel ATLAS detector in the cavern at Point 1. In total, the ATLAS feet system will carry approximately 6000 tons, and will give the same inclination to the detector as the LHC accelerator.

  5. Supporting ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Eighteen feet made of stainless steel will support the barrel ATLAS detector in the cavern at Point 1. In total, the ATLAS feet system will carry approximately 6000 tons, and will give the same inclination to the detector as the LHC accelerator. The installation of the feet is scheduled to finish during January 2004 with an installation precision at the 1 mm level despite their height of 5.3 metres. The manufacture was carried out in Russia (Company Izhorskiye Zavody in St. Petersburg), as part of a Russian and JINR Dubna in-kind contribution to ATLAS. Involved in the installation is a team from IHEP-Protvino (Russia), the ATLAS technical co-ordination team at CERN, and the CERN survey team. In all, about 15 people are involved. After the feet are in place, the barrel toroid magnet and the barrel calorimeters will be installed. This will keep the ATLAS team busy for the entire year 2004.

  6. MULTIOBJECTIVE EVOLUTIONARY ALGORITHMS APPLIED TO MICROSTRIP ANTENNAS DESIGN ALGORITMOS EVOLUTIVOS MULTIOBJETIVO APLICADOS A LOS PROYECTOS DE ANTENAS MICROSTRIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Rodrigues Brianeze

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This work presents three of the main evolutionary algorithms: Genetic Algorithm, Evolution Strategy and Evolutionary Programming, applied to microstrip antennas design. Efficiency tests were performed, considering the analysis of key physical and geometrical parameters, evolution type, numerical random generators effects, evolution operators and selection criteria. These algorithms were validated through design of microstrip antennas based on the Resonant Cavity Method, and allow multiobjective optimizations, considering bandwidth, standing wave ratio and relative material permittivity. The optimal results obtained with these optimization processes, were confirmed by CST Microwave Studio commercial package.Este trabajo presenta tres de los principales algoritmos evolutivos: Algoritmo Genético, Estrategia Evolutiva y Programación Evolutiva, aplicados al diseño de antenas de microlíneas (microstrip. Se realizaron pruebas de eficiencia de los algoritmos, considerando el análisis de los parámetros físicos y geométricos, tipo de evolución, efecto de generación de números aleatorios, operadores evolutivos y los criterios de selección. Estos algoritmos fueron validados a través del diseño de antenas de microlíneas basado en el Método de Cavidades Resonantes y permiten optimizaciones multiobjetivo, considerando ancho de banda, razón de onda estacionaria y permitividad relativa del dieléctrico. Los resultados óptimos obtenidos fueron confirmados a través del software comercial CST Microwave Studio.

  7. The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer Silicon Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Burger, W J

    1999-01-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) is designed as a independent module for installation on the International Space Station Alpha (ISSA) in the year 2002 for an operational period of three years. The principal scientific objectives are the searches for antimatter and dark matter in cosmic rays. The AMS uses 5.5 m sup 2 of silicon microstrip sensors to reconstruct charged particle trajectories in the field of a permanent magnet. The detector design and construction covered a 3 yr period which terminated with a test flight on the NASA space shuttle Discovery during June 2-12, 1988. In this contribution, we describe the shuttle version of the AMS silicon tracker, including preliminary results of the tracker performance during the flight. (author)

  8. Optimization of Circular Ring Microstrip Antenna Using Genetic Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathi, V.; Ghobadi, Ch.; Nourinia, J.

    2008-10-01

    Circular ring microstrip antennas have several interesting properties that make it attractive in wireless applications. Although several analysis techniques such as cavity model, generalized transmission line model, Fourier-Hankel transform domain and the method of matched asymptotic expansion have been studied by researchers, there is no efficient design tool that has been incorporated with a suitable optimization algorithm. In this paper, the cavity model analysis along with the genetic optimization algorithm is presented for the design of circular ring microstrip antennas. The method studied here is based on the well-known cavity model and the optimization of the dimensions and feed point location of the circular ring antenna is performed via the genetic optimization algorithm, to achieve an acceptable antenna operation around a desired resonance frequency. The antennas designed by this efficient design procedure were realized experimentally, and the results are compared. In addition, these results are also compared to the results obtained by the commercial electromagnetic simulation tool, the FEM based software, HFSS by ANSOFT.

  9. Recent Progress in Synthesis Techniques of Microstrip Bandpass Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navita Singh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available End-coupled resonator bandpass filters built in microstrip are investigated. The admittance inverter parameters of coupling gaps between resonant sections are deduced from experiment and bandpass filter design rules are developed. This allows easy filter synthesis from “prototype” low-pass designs. Design techniques which were formerly employed in the realization of waveguide and coaxial filters have been applied in the synthesis of strip-line filters having “maximally-flat” and Tchebycheff response characteristics. In this paper, Tchebycheff response characteristics considered for realizing the required circuit parameters in strip line and we would like to give a way to conceive, design bandpass filter for the X-bands and C-band at the frequencies 10.7GHz and 6.2 GHz respectively with three-pole end-coupled microstrip filters, whichdesigned filters for Radar and GSO satellites and which used the capacitive resonators and stepped impedance resonators for filter realization. Therefore, by extension, the RF/microwave applications can be referred to as communications, and other that explore the usage of frequency spectrums, some of these frequency spectrums are further divided into many frequency bands. The design and simulation are performed using 3D full wave electromagnetic simulator IE3D.

  10. Electrically Small Microstrip Quarter-Wave Monopole Antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, W. Robert

    2004-01-01

    Microstrip-patch-style antennas that generate monopole radiation patterns similar to those of quarter-wave whip antennas can be designed to have dimensions smaller than those needed heretofore for this purpose, by taking advantage of a feed configuration different from the conventional one. The large sizes necessitated by the conventional feed configuration have, until now, made such antennas impractical for frequencies below about 800 MHz: for example, at 200 MHz, the conventional feed configuration necessitates a patch diameter of about 8 ft (.2.4 m) . too large, for example, for mounting on the roof of an automobile or on a small or medium-size aircraft. By making it possible to reduce diameters to between a tenth and a third of that necessitated by the conventional feed configuration, the modified configuration makes it possible to install such antennas in places where they could not previously be installed and thereby helps to realize the potential advantages (concealment and/or reduction of aerodynamic drag) of microstrip versus whip antennas. In both the conventional approach and the innovative approach, a microstrip-patch (or microstrip-patch-style) antenna for generating a monopole radiation pattern includes an electrically conductive patch or plate separated from an electrically conductive ground plane by a layer of electrically insulating material. In the conventional approach, the electrically insulating layer is typically a printed-circuit board about 1/16 in. (.1.6 mm) thick. Ordinarily, a coaxial cable from a transmitter, receiver, or transceiver is attached at the center on the ground-plane side, the shield of the cable being electrically connected to the ground plane. In the conventional approach, the coaxial cable is mated with a connector mounted on the ground plane. The center pin of this connector connects to the center of the coaxial cable and passes through a hole in the ground plane and a small hole in the insulating layer and then connects

  11. Multiband Wireless Microstrip Antenna with Embedded Meta-materials for MIMO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Balan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel meta-material embedded symmetric multi-slot antenna is presented. This paper investigates the profound variations of meta-material embedded microstrip antenna characteristics from the conventional microstrip antenna. Microstrip antennas used for MIMO application can be made up by embedding meta-material for good bandwidth requirements and good isolation characteristics. Slot loading method is used for getting multi band. Proposed antenna shows an electromagnetic resonant state at 7.7GHz, with a return loss of -39.99dB and good bandwidth.

  12. Computer Aided Design and Analysis of a 2-4 GHz Broadband Balanced Microstrip Amplifier

    OpenAIRE

    S. H. Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a computer-aided design and analysis of a 2-4 GHz broadband balanced microstrip amplifier using a full computer simulation program developed by the author and others is presented. A short and efficient CAD procedure for broadband amplifier design is introduced. The first step is to design an initial narrow-band high gain microstrip amplifier at 3-GHz central frequency. The second step is to optimize the initial lengths and widths of the input and output microstrip-matching circ...

  13. Ultra-Wideband Fermi Antenna Using Microstrip-to-CPS Balun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Dong-Sik; Kim, Young-Gon; Cho, Young-Ki; Kim, Kang Wook

    A new design and experimental results of a microstrip-fed ultra-wideband Fermi antenna at millimeter-wave frequencies are presented. By utilizing a new microstrip-to-CPS balun (or transition), which provides wider bandwidth than conventional planar balun, the design of microstrip-fed Fermi antenna is greatly simplified. The proposed Fermi antenna demonstrates ultra-wideband performance for the frequency range of 23 to over 58GHz with the antenna gain of 12 to 14dBi and low sidelobe levels. This design yields highly effective solutions to various millimeter-wave phased-arrays and imaging systems.

  14. Expected performance of the ATLAS Inner Tracker upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Viel, Simon; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The design of the ATLAS Inner Tracker upgrade is underway. This tracking detector, consisting of silicon pixel and strip modules, will replace the current ATLAS Inner Detector to reconstruct tracks from charged particles produced at the very high collision rate expected from the High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider. The latest Inner Tracker designs considered, and the most recent expected performance results from simulation are presented.

  15. The ATLAS semiconductor tracker (SCT)

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, J N

    2005-01-01

    The ATLAS detector (CERN/LHCC/94-43 (1994)) is designed to study a wide range of physics at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at luminosities up to 10**3**4 cm**-**2 s**-**1 with a bunch-crossing rate of 40 MHz. The Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) forms a key component of the Inner Detector (vol. 1, ATLAS TDR 4, CERN/LHCC 97-16 (1997); vol. 2, ATLAS TDR 5, CERN/LHCC 97-17 (1997)) which is situated inside a 2 T solenoid field. The ATLAS Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) utilises 4088 silicon modules with binary readout mounted on carbon fibre composite structures arranged in the forms of barrels in the central region and discs in the forward region. The construction of the SCT is now well advanced. The design of the SCT modules, services and support structures will be briefly outlined. A description of the various stages in the construction process will be presented with examples of the performance achieved and the main difficulties encountered. Finally, the current status of the construction is reviewed.

  16. TCT and TFM measurements for ATLAS ITK

    CERN Document Server

    Dungs, Sascha

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS ITK Pixel detector for the Phase-II upgrade of LHC is in a prototyping phase. The CERN ATLAS Pixel group is involved in different activities. One activity is the characterization of pixel sensors with an infrared Laser using a transient current technique (TCT) to measure the depletion depth and charge collection properties and compare it to effective field theory simulations. Another activity is the measurement of the Thermal Figure of Merit (TFM) of different stave prototypes using silicon heaters and an evaporative CO2 cooling system. This document describes the contributions to each of the two activities.

  17. ATLAS Tracker and Pixel Operational Experience

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00222525; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The tracking performance of the ATLAS detector relies critically on the silicon and gaseous tracking subsystems that form the ATLAS Inner Detector. Those subsystems have undergone significant hardware and software upgrades to meet the challenges imposed by the higher collision energy, pileup and luminosity that are being delivered by the LHC during Run2. The key status and performance metrics of the Pixel Detector and the Semi Conductor Tracker, are summarised, and the operational experience and requirements to ensure optimum data quality and data taking efficiency are described.

  18. ATLAS ITk Layout Design and Optimisation

    CERN Document Server

    Calace, Noemi; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Detector design studies are a very crucial activity for the ATLAS Collaboration, in preparation for the future High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) planned to start in 2026. One of the key activities is the design and prototyping of a new Inner Tracker (ITk), fully made of silicon, able to meet the requirements HL-LHC environment assuring at the same time very high tracking performance. A dedicated design process started from Letter of Intent (LoI) layouts is still ongoing to establish the design ATLAS ITk tracker.

  19. Readout and Trigger for the AFP Detector at ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Kocian, Martin; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    AFP, the ATLAS Forward Proton consists of silicon detectors at 205 m and 217 m on each side of ATLAS. In 2016 two detectors in one side were installed. The FEI4 chips are read at 160 Mbps over the optical fibers. The DAQ system uses a FPGA board with Artix chip and a mezzanine card with RCE data processing module based on a Zynq chip with ARM processor running Linux. In this contribution we give an overview of the AFP detector with the commissioning steps taken to integrate with the ATLAS TDAQ. Furthermore first performance results are presented.

  20. Mongolian Atlas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Climatic atlas dated 1985, in Mongolian, with introductory material also in Russian and English. One hundred eight pages in single page PDFs.

  1. DESIGN AND CHARACTERIZATION OF E-SHAPE MICROSTRIP PATCH ANTENNA FOR WIRELESS COMMUNICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Divya

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The area of microstrip antennas has seen some inventive work in recent years and is one of the most dynamic fields of antenna theory. The ever increasing need for mobile communication and the emergence of newer technologies require an efficient design of antenna of smaller size for wider frequency range applications such as Wi-Max. The main aim of this paper is increase the impedance bandwidth of the microstrip patch antenna. A low profile wideband unequal E-shaped microstrip patch antenna for Wi-Max application is proposed in this paper .This proposed antenna is made by using the microstrip feeding method. Its bandwidth is further increased by introducing composite effect of stacking of patches with partial grounding. The antenna is designed and simulated by three-dimensional electromagnetic field software HFSS’12.The properties of the antenna such as bandwidth, S parameter, VSWR have been investigated.

  2. New simple feed network for an array module of four microstrip elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberhart, M. L.; Lo, Y. T.; Lee, R. Q. H.

    1987-01-01

    A simple microstripline feed network for an array module comprising four microstrip elements is described. The advantages and disadvantages of the network are discussed as well as a theoretical explanation for the radiation characteristics of array modules using the network.

  3. Integral-Operator Analysis of Layered Media and Integrated Microstrip Configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yi.

    This dissertation presents a rigorous full-wave integral operator formulation for electromagnetic interactions among microstrip configurations in the layered environment, and a comprehensive study on one of the most essential elements in microwave and millimeter-wave integrated circuits (MMIC's), the microstrip transmission lines. Broad electromagnetic phenomena associated with microstrip transmission lines, including their propagation spectrum, dispersion characteristics, coupling effects, current distributions, characteristic impedances, losses and leakage and/or radiation properties are investigated via the integral equation approach. First, dyadic Green's functions are developed for layered media with both dielectric and magnetic contrast. Based on the Green's functions, an electric field integral equation (EFIE) description for general microstrip circuits is developed, and then applied to microstrip transmission lines. The complete propagation-mode spectrum of microstrip line is identified and an excitation and coupling theory is developed. Propagation modes on isolated and coupled microstrip transmission lines are studied in details. Numerical solutions to the EFIE's are implemented by Galerkin's method of moments. Chebyshev polynomials with square-root edge factors are utilized as basis functions. An accurate circuit modeling of the non-TEM microstrip line structure is described and a full -wave analysis for the characteristic impedance is developed. Also, a EFIE-based full-wave perturbation theory for N coupled microstrip transmission lines is presented. An experimental verification is carried out and the theoretical and experimental results are in a good agreement. Much effort is made in this thesis in developing a unified, consistent, complex integral equation-formulation which correctly handles the problem of general lossy and leaky microstrip lines. In discussions of the bound waveguiding modes and the non-spectral radiative leaky modes, the propagation

  4. Variation in Feed Point within Differed L-Slot Multi-frequency Microstrip Patch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Arya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A rectangular microstrip patch antenna with differed pair of L-slots is presented. The proposed antenna is designed to evaluate the effect of alteration in probe-feed point. The proposed microstrip antenna is suitable for bluetooth, mobile and wireless communication applications simultaneously. It is designed successfully for mobile communication systems and Wireless Local Area Networks (WLAN applications. The results obtained had showed better improvement in the return loss and radiation pattern in comparison to the other existing antennas.

  5. Evaluation of the Reflection Coefficient of Microstrip Elements for Reflectarray Antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengarajan, Sembiam

    2011-01-01

    Basis functions were studied and identified that provide efficient and accurate solutions for the induced patch currents and the reflection phase in microstrip reflect arrays. The integral equation of an infinite array of microstrip elements in the form of patches or crossed dipoles excited by a uniform plane wave is solved by the method-of-moments. Efficient choices of entire domain basis functions that yield accurate results have been described.

  6. Design aspects and comparison between high Tc superconducting coplanar waveguide and microstrip line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, K. S.; Bhasin, K. B.; Itoh, T.

    1991-01-01

    The high T sub c superconducting microstrip line and coplanar waveguide are compared in terms of the loss characteristics and the design aspects. The quality factor Q values for each structure are compared in respect to the same characteristic impedance with the comparable dimensions of the center conductor of the coplanar waveguide and the strip of the microstrip line. Also, the advantages and disadvantages for each structure are discussed in respect to passive microwave circuit applications.

  7. Smaller-loss planar SPP transmission line than conventional microstrip in microwave frequencies

    OpenAIRE

    Hao Chi Zhang; Qian Zhang; Jun Feng Liu; Wenxuan Tang; Yifeng Fan; Tie Jun Cui

    2016-01-01

    Transmission line is a basic component in all passive devices, integrated circuits, and systems. Microstrip is the most popular transmission line in the microwave and millimeter-wave frequencies, and has been widely used in current electronic devices, circuits, and systems. One of the important issues to be solved in such applications is the relatively large transmission loss of microstrip. Here, we propose a method to reduce the loss of microwave transmission line based on the designable wav...

  8. Design aspects and comparison between high T(sub c) superconducting coplanar waveguide and microstrip line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, K. S.; Bhasin, K. B.; Itoh, T.

    1991-01-01

    The high T sub c superconducting microstrip line and coplanar waveguide are compared in terms of the loss characteristics and the design aspects. The quality factor Q values for each structure are compared in respect to the same characteristic impedance with the comparable dimensions of the center conductor of the coplanar waveguide and the strip of the microstrip line. Also, the advantages and disadvantages for each structure are discussed in respect to passive microwave circuit applications.

  9. Millimeter-wave integrated circuits based on novel probe microstrip line and coplanar stripline exciters

    OpenAIRE

    Iezhov, Oleksandr; Omelianenko, Mykhaylo

    2009-01-01

    Novel designs of compact integrated waveguide exciters of microstrip line and coplanar stipline are presented in the paper. An E-plane microstrip 0-π phase-shift modulator with independent p-i-n diode control networks has been designed at 24 GHz on the basis of proposed exciters. The total length of the integrated circuit substrate including exciters is no more than 0.62 of waveguide wavelength.

  10. Localized Mode Enhanced Coupler Based on Quasi-One-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Microstrip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yun-Hui; JIANG Hai-Tao; HE Li; LI Hong-Qiang; ZHANG Ye-Wen; CHEN Hong

    2004-01-01

    We propose a novel localized mode enhanced (LME) coupler based on quasi-one-dimensional photonic crystal microstrips, which is promising to be applied in wavelength division multiplexed microwave communication systems. Compared to the traditional microstrip coupler, the LME structure has two advantages: high efficiency and frequency selectivity. Even in a relatively far coupling distance, this structure can still achieve a high efficiency about 50%. The frequency selectivity can be realized by simply tuning the distance between two transmission lines.

  11. Frequency selective surfaces based high performance microstrip antenna

    CERN Document Server

    Narayan, Shiv; Jha, Rakesh Mohan

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on performance enhancement of printed antennas using frequency selective surfaces (FSS) technology. The growing demand of stealth technology in strategic areas requires high-performance low-RCS (radar cross section) antennas. Such requirements may be accomplished by incorporating FSS into the antenna structure either in its ground plane or as the superstrate, due to the filter characteristics of FSS structure. In view of this, a novel approach based on FSS technology is presented in this book to enhance the performance of printed antennas including out-of-band structural RCS reduction. In this endeavor, the EM design of microstrip patch antennas (MPA) loaded with FSS-based (i) high impedance surface (HIS) ground plane, and (ii) the superstrates are discussed in detail. The EM analysis of proposed FSS-based antenna structures have been carried out using transmission line analogy, in combination with the reciprocity theorem. Further, various types of novel FSS structures are considered in desi...

  12. MUTUAL COUPLING REDUCTION BETWEEN MICROSTRIP ANTENNAS USING ELECTROMAGNETIC BANDGAP STRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.N. Gaikwad

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available When the number of antenna elements is placed in forming the arrays, mutual coupling between the antenna elements is a critical issue. This is particularly concern in phase array antennas. Mutual coupling is a potential source of performance degradation in the form of deviation of the radiation pattern from the desired one, gain reduction due to excitation of surface wave, increased side lobe levels etc. EBG (Electromagnetic Band Gap structure (also called as Photonic Bandgap Structure PBG not only enhances the performance of the patch antennas but also provides greater amount of isolation when placed between the microstrip arrays. This greatly reduces the mutual coupling between the antenna elements. The radiation efficiency, gain, antenna efficiency, VSWR, frequency, directivity etc greatly improves over the conventional patch antennas using EBG. The EBG structure and normal patch antenna is simulated using IE3D antenna simulation software.

  13. Dual-Band Microstrip Patch Antenna Miniaturization Using Metamaterial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrasen Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A dual-band microstrip patch antenna is designed and analyzed using metamaterial artificial substrate. Metamaterial based substrate is designed using Square Split Ring Resonator (SSRR and Wire Strip. The antenna is tuned to work at two resonating frequencies in the frequency range from 1 GHz to 4 GHz depending on the geometric specifications of SSRR, strip line, radiating patch, and feed location point. Proposed antenna provides good return loss behavior at both resonating frequencies. The obtained VSWR at both resonating frequencies is very much near to 1. Proposed antenna covers applications in mobile communication and Wi-MAX. Proposed patch antenna is compared with the conventional patch antenna, which shows the significant miniaturization as compared to conventional patch antenna.

  14. Decentralized adaptive control designs and microstrip antennas for smart structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorrami, Farshad; Jain, Sandeep; Das, Nirod K.

    1996-05-01

    Smart structures lend themselves naturally to a decentralized control design framework, especially with adaptation mechanisms. The main reason being that it is highly undesirable to connect all the sensors and actuators in a large structure to a central processor. It is rather desirable to have local decision-making at each smart patch. Furthermore, this local controllers should be easily `expandable' to `contractible.' This corresponds to the fact that addition/deletion of several smart patches should not require a total redesign of the control system. The decentralized control strategies advocated in this paper are of expandable/contractible type. On another front, we are considering utilization of micro-strip antennas for power transfer to and from smart structures. We have made preliminary contributions in this direction and further developments are underway. These approaches are being pursued for active vibration damping and noise cancellation via piezoelectric ceramics although the methodology is general enough to be applicable to other type of active structures.

  15. Design Analysis of An Electromagnetic Band Gap Microstrip Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Alam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Wideband compact antenna is highly demandable due to the dynamic development in the wireless technology. Approach: A simple, compact EBG microstrip antenna is proposed in this study that covers a wideband of 250 GHz and the design is conformal with the 2.45 GHz ISM band (WLAN, IEEE 802.11b and g/Bluetooth/RFID applications. Results: A 6×6 array of square unit cell formed the EBG structure which is incorporated with the radiating patch to enhance the antenna performances. This design achieved an impedance bandwidth of 10.14% (2.34-2.59 GHz at -10 dB return loss and VSWR ≤ 2. Simulated radiation pattern is almost omnideirectional. Conclusion/Recommendations: The simulated results prove the compatibility of the EBG antenna with the 2.45 GHz ISM band applications. Further enhancement of the antenna performance with improved design is under consideration.

  16. Microstrip Phased Array Antennas Printed on Inclined Planes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Papiernik

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the electromagnetic field radiated by micro-strip patch antennas printed on inclined surfaces. The theoretical approach allows to apply spatial rotations to each source. The computer simulation developed permits us to experiment different antenna structures and two original realisations are proposed: a 2-element array printed on two inclined planes and a 4-element array laid out on a pyramidal surface. In addition, it enables the choice of the phase applied to each radiator to produce a beam deflection function. A good accuracy is obtained between theoretical and experimental results. The aim of this study is to optimise the parameters of such antennas to achieve the desired radiation patterns, from printed phased arrays on conformal surfaces. We also present the theoretical behaviour of a octagonal pyramid.

  17. A Quarter Ellipse Microstrip Resonator for Filters in Microwave Frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Á. Jaramillo-Flórez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the results of computational simulations and construction of quadrant elliptical resonators excited by coplanar slot line waveguide for designing microwave filters in RF communications systems. By means of the equation of optics, are explained the fundamentals of these geometry of resonators proposed. Are described the construction of quadrant elliptical resonators, one of microstrip and other two of cavity, of size different, and an array of four quadrant elliptical resonators in cascade. The results of the measures and the computational calculus of scattering S11 and S21 of elliptical resonators is made for to identify the resonant frequencies of the resonators studied, proving that these have performance in frequency as complete ellipses by the image effect due to their two mirror in both semiaxis, occupying less area, and the possible applications are discussed.

  18. Ka-band MMIC microstrip array for high rate communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, R. Q.; Raquet, C. A.; Tolleson, J. B.; Sanzgiri, S. M.

    1991-01-01

    In a recent technology assessment of alternative communication systems for the space exploration initiative (SEI), Ka-band (18 to 40 GHz) communication technology was identified to meet the mission requirements of telecommunication, navigation, and information management. Compared to the lower frequency bands, Ka-band antennas offer higher gain and broader bandwidths; thus, they are more suitable for high data rate communications. Over the years, NASA has played an important role in monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) phased array technology development, and currently, has an ongoing contract with Texas Instrument (TI) to develop a modular Ka-band MMIC microstrip subarray (NAS3-25718). The TI contract emphasizes MMIC integration technology development and stipulates using existing MMIC devices to minimize the array development cost. The objective of this paper is to present array component technologies and integration techniques used to construct the subarray modules.

  19. Analysis of finite phased arrays of circular microstrip patches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Manohar D.; Bailey, Marion C.

    1989-01-01

    A method is presented for analyzing a finite planar array of circular microstrip patches fed by coaxial probes. The self- and mutual impedances between array elements are calculated using the method of moments with the dyadic Green's function for a dielectric layer on a ground plane. The patch circuits are determined by using the reaction integral equation. The active input impedance as well as the active element pattern of the array are computed from a knowledge of the resultant patch currents. The calculated results for two-element and eight-element linear arrays are in good agreement with experimental data. The active reflection coefficient and element pattern for the center and edge elements of a two-dimensional array as a function of scan angle are also presented.

  20. Microstrip Cross-coupled Interdigital SIR Based Bandpass Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Maharjan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A simple and compact 4.9 GHz bandpass filter for C-band applications is proposed. This paper presents a novel microstrip cross-coupled interdigital half-wavelength stepped impedance resonator (SIR based bandpass filter (BPF.The designed structure is similar to that of a combination of two parallel interdigital capacitors. The scattering parameters of the structure are measured using vector network analyzer (VNA. The self generated capacitive and inductive reactances within the interdigital resonators exhibited in a resonance frequency of 4.9 GHz. The resonant frequency and bandwidth of the capacitive cross-coupled resonator is directly optimized from the physical arrangement of the resonators. The measured insertion loss (S21 and return loss (S11 were 0.3 dB and 28 dB, respectively, at resonance frequency which were almost close to the simulation results.

  1. Series expansions for the mutual coupling in microstrip patch arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, David R.; Richards, William F.; Ali-Khan, Ajaz

    1989-03-01

    A dominant-mode mutual coupling theory is developed for an array of microstrip patches. One of the key features of the formulation is that only values for isolated self- and mutual impedance are needed in the formulation, making the method suitable for either a cavity model or spectral-domain analysis, or compatible with experimental measurements. The formulation is equivalent with Pozar's (1982) moment-method formulation. A series expansion of the solution is derived, allowing for approximate formulas accurate to any specified order. These formulas do not require matrix inversion. Formulas up to third order require less computation time than the exact solution, for single elements of the impedance, admittance, and scattering matrices. These expansions are computationally efficient for large sparse arrays.

  2. Micro-strip metal detector for the beam profile monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugatch, V.; Borysova, M.; Mykhailenko, A.; Fedorovitch, O.; Pylypchenko, Y.; Perevertaylo, V.; Franz, H.; Wittenburg, K.; Schmelling, M.; Bauer, C.

    2007-10-01

    The Micro-strip Metal Detector (MMD) design and production technology, readout electronics as well as areas of applications are described. The MMD was designed for beam profile monitoring of charged particle and synchrotron radiation beams. Using photolithography and plasma-chemistry etching technologies we succeeded in creating detectors with a metal strip's thickness of less than 2 μm and without any other materials in the working area. The principle of operation is based on the Secondary Electron Emission (SEE). The results obtained with the MMD at the monochromatic synchrotron radiation beam at HASYLAB (DESY) are also presented. The current version of the MMD allows measuring a beam profile and position with an accuracy of 20 μm.

  3. Micro-strip metal detector for the beam profile monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pugatch, V.; Borysova, M. [Kyiv Institute for Nuclear Research, Kyiv (Ukraine); Mykhailenko, A. [Kyiv Institute for Nuclear Research, Kyiv (Ukraine)], E-mail: mykhailenko@kinr.kiev.ua; Fedorovitch, O.; Pylypchenko, Y. [Kyiv Institute for Nuclear Research, Kyiv (Ukraine); Perevertaylo, V. [Institute of Micro Devices, Kyiv (Ukraine); Franz, H.; Wittenburg, K. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, Hamburg (Germany); Schmelling, M.; Bauer, C. [Max-Planck-Institute for Nuclear Physics, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2007-10-21

    The Micro-strip Metal Detector (MMD) design and production technology, readout electronics as well as areas of applications are described. The MMD was designed for beam profile monitoring of charged particle and synchrotron radiation beams. Using photolithography and plasma-chemistry etching technologies we succeeded in creating detectors with a metal strip's thickness of less than 2{mu}m and without any other materials in the working area. The principle of operation is based on the Secondary Electron Emission (SEE). The results obtained with the MMD at the monochromatic synchrotron radiation beam at HASYLAB (DESY) are also presented. The current version of the MMD allows measuring a beam profile and position with an accuracy of 20{mu}m.

  4. A MILLIMETER WAVE MICROSTRIP PATCH ANTENNA WITH CPW FEED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GARIMA SANYAL

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work a coplanar waveguide fed rectangular microstrip patch antenna with U slot at 40 Ghz is designed and simulated. Simulated results are presented by using Ansoft HFSS 13 software, a full wave electromagnetic field simulator for arbitrary 3D volumetric passive device modeling that takes advantage of the familiar Microsoft Windows graphical user interface.The patch element is been placed on FR4 Epoxy substrate with relative permittivity 4.4 at a height of 1.8 mm. The gain of the proposed antenna is 5dB.This antenna is smallsize,cheap,compact,easy to fabricate ,achieve return loss of -17.8dB at 40GHz which ranges to -25 dB at 10 0GHz and good VSWR.The approach presented in this paper offers major advantages in millimeter waveapplications as in radar communication.

  5. Modified Microstrip Aperture Coupled Patch Antenna with Sierpinski Fractal Geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A two-layer modified microstrip aperture coupled patch antenna with Sierpinski fractal geometry is presented in this paper. The effects of the two coupling slots and the parasitic patch are discussed. The proposed antenna can work on 956 MHz to 968 MHz, 3.654 GHz to 3.78 GHz, and 8.81 GHz to 9.28 GHz three frequency bands, and the maximum gain in each band is 4.64 dBi, 8.46 dBi, and 7.85 dBi, respectively. The simulated result reveals that the Sierpinski patch antenna we proposed in this paper performs better on radiation properties.

  6. Design of Microstrip UWB bandpass Filter using Multiple Mode Resonator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay Kumar Sharma

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this letter, we present a design of microstrip ultrawideband (UWB bandpass filter (BPF for the use in UWB wireless communication application set by Federal Communications Commission (FCC. The UWB filter is realized with a Basic MMR (Multiple Mode Resonators structure feed by interdigital coupled lines for achieving higher degree of coupling. The structure is optimized for high selectivity, inband and stopband performance. Finally for fabrication of this structure Rogers RT5880 substrate of thickness 0.4mm with Dielectric constant 2.2 is used. The electromagnetic simulation software, Computer Simulation Technology Microwave Studio (CST MWS is used for the simulation and analysis of the designed structure. The comparison between simulated and fabricated measured result shows good agreement. The insertion loss of proposed filter is greater then 0.2 dB at 6.8 GHz and very flat over whole pass band also returns loss is less then -12db.

  7. Computer Aided Design and Analysis of a 2-4 GHz Broadband Balanced Microstrip Amplifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Ibrahim

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a computer-aided design and analysis of a 2-4 GHz broadband balanced microstrip amplifier using a full computer simulation program developed by the author and others is presented. A short and efficient CAD procedure for broadband amplifier design is introduced. The first step is to design an initial narrow-band high gain microstrip amplifier at 3-GHz central frequency. The second step is to optimize the initial lengths and widths of the input and output microstrip-matching circuits to get the broadband amplifier over the range 2-4 GHz. The analysis of both narrow and broadband amplifiers is investigated. In addition, with the design and analysis of a low-pass microstrip filter, the paper introduces the design and analysis of a Lange coupler. The final AC schematic diagram of the designed amplifier with the lengths and widths of microstrip lines is presented.Key Words: Computer-Aided Design and Analysis, Microstrip Amplifier, Microwave Amplifier.

  8. ATLAS IBL sensor qualifiaction

    CERN Document Server

    Weingarten, J; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The upgrade for the ATLAS detector will undergo different phases towards HL-LHC. The first upgrade for the Pixel Detector will consist in the construction of a new pixel layer which will be installed during the first shutdown of the LHC machine (foreseen for 2013-14). The new detector, called Insertable B-Layer (IBL), will be inserted between the existing pixel detector and a new (smaller radius) beam-pipe at a radius of 3.2 cm. The IBL will require the development of several new technologies to cope with increase of radiation or pixel occupancy and also to improve the physics performance which will be achieved by reduction of the pixel size and of the material budget. Two different promising Silicon sensor technologies (Planar n-in-n and 3D) are currently under investigation for the pixel detector. An overview of the sensor technologies qualification with particular emphasis on irradiation and beam tests will be presented.

  9. ATLAS IBL Sensor Qualification

    CERN Document Server

    Weingarten, J; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The upgrade for the ATLAS detector will undergo different phases towards HL-LHC. The first upgrade for the Pixel Detector will consist in the construction of a new pixel layer which will be installed during the first shutdown of the LHC machine (foreseen for 2013-14). The new detector, called Insertable B-Layer (IBL), will be inserted between the existing pixel detector and a new (smaller radius) beam-pipe at a radius of 3.2 cm. The IBL will require the development of several new technologies to cope with increase of radiation or pixel occupancy and also to improve the physics performance which will be achieved by reduction of the pixel size and of the material budget. Two different promising Silicon sensor technologies (Planar n-in-n and 3D) are currently under investigation for the pixel detector. An overview of the sensor technologies qualification with particular emphasis on irradiation and beam tests will be presented.

  10. DAMPE silicon tracker on-board data compression algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Yifan; Qiao, Rui; Peng, Wenxi; Fan, Ruirui; Gong, Ke; Wu, Di; Wang, Huanyu

    2015-01-01

    The Dark Matter Particle Explorer (DAMPE) is an upcoming scientific satellite mission for high energy gamma-ray, electron and cosmic rays detection. The silicon tracker (STK) is a sub detector of the DAMPE payload with an excellent position resolution (readout pitch of 242um), which measures the incident direction of particles, as well as charge. The STK consists 12 layers of Silicon Micro-strip Detector (SMD), equivalent to a total silicon area of 6.5m$^2$. The total readout channels of the STK are 73728, which leads to a huge amount of raw data to be dealt. In this paper, we focus on the on-board data compression algorithm and procedure in the STK, which was initially verified by cosmic-ray measurements.

  11. Commissioning and Performance of the LHCb Silicon Tracker

    CERN Multimedia

    van Tilburg, J; Buechler, A; Bursche , A; Chiapolini, N; Elsaesser, C; Hangartner, V; Salzmann, C; Steiner, S; Steinkamp, O; Staumann, U; Tobin, M; Vollhardt, A; Bay, A; Bettler, M O; Blanc, F; Bressieux, J; Conti, G; Fave, V; Frei, R; Gauvin, N; Gonzalez, R; Haefeli, G; Hicheur, A; Keune, A; Luisier, J; Muresan, R; Nakada, T; Needham, M; Nicolas, L; Knecht, M; Perrin, A; Potterat, C; Schneider, O; Tran, M; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Bauer, C; Britsch, M; Hofmann, W; Maciuc, F; Schmelling, M; Voss, H; Adeva, B; Esperante, D; Fungueiriño Pazos, J; Gallas, A; Pazos-Alvarez, A; Pérez-Trigo, E; Pló Casasús, M; Rogríguez Pérez, P; Saborido, J; Vázquez, P; Iakovenko, V; Okhrimenko, O; Pugatch, V

    2010-01-01

    The LHCb Silicon Tracker is a silicon micro-strip detector with a sensitive area of 12 m$^2$ and a total of 272k readout channels. The Silicon Tracker consists of two parts that use different detector modules. The detector installation was completed by early summer 2008 and the commissioning without beam has reached its finals stage, successfully overcoming most of the encountered problems. Currently, the detector has more than 99% of the channels fully functioning. Commissioning with particles has started using beam-induced events from the LHC injection tests in 2008 and 2009. These events allowed initial studies of the detector performance. Especially, the detector modules could be aligned with an accuracy of about 20 $\\mu$m. Furthermore, with the first beam collisions that took place end of 2009 we could further study the performance and improve the alignment of the detector.

  12. LHCb: Installation and operation of the LHCb Silicon Tracker detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Esperante Pereira, D

    2009-01-01

    The LHCb experiment has been designed to perform high-precision measurements of CP violation and rare decays of B hadrons. The construction and installation phases of the Silicon Tracker (ST) of the experiment were completed by early summer 2008. The LHCb Silicon Tracker sums up to a total sensitive area of about 12 m^2 using silicon micro-strip technology and withstands charged particle fluxes of up to 5 x 10^5cm^−2s^−1. We will report on the preparation of the detectors for the first LHC beams. Selected results from the commissioning in LHCb are shown, including the first beam-related events accumulated during LHC injection tests in September 2008. Lessons are drawn from the experience gathered during the installation and commissioning.

  13. The Spitzer Atlas of Stellar Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Ardila, David R; Makowiecki, Wojciech; Stauffer, John; Song, Inseok; Rho, Jeonghee; Fajardo-Acosta, Sergio; Hoard, D W; Wachter, Stefanie

    2010-01-01

    We present the Spitzer Atlas of Stellar Spectra (SASS), which includes 159 stellar spectra (5 to 32 mic; R~100) taken with the Infrared Spectrograph on the Spitzer Space Telescope. This Atlas gathers representative spectra of a broad section of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, intended to serve as a general stellar spectral reference in the mid-infrared. It includes stars from all luminosity classes, as well as Wolf-Rayet (WR) objects. Furthermore, it includes some objects of intrinsic interest, like blue stragglers and certain pulsating variables. All the spectra have been uniformly reduced, and all are available online. For dwarfs and giants, the spectra of early-type objects are relatively featureless, dominated by Hydrogen lines around A spectral types. Besides these, the most noticeable photospheric features correspond to water vapor and silicon monoxide in late-type objects and methane and ammonia features at the latest spectral types. Most supergiant spectra in the Atlas present evidence of circumstell...

  14. A silicon detector for neutrino physics

    CERN Document Server

    Kokkonen, J

    2002-01-01

    In order to demonstrate the feasibility of conducting future muon neutrino - tau neutrino oscillation searches using a high-resolution, large-area silicon microstrip detector, the Silicon TARget (STAR) detector was built. STAR was installed in the NOMAD short baseline neutrino oscillation experiment at the CERN SPS neutrino beam, where it recorded approximately 10000 neutrino interactions during the operation of the detector in the period 1997-98. It consists of five layers of silicon detectors interleaved with four layers of passive boron carbide as the target. The target mass is 45 kg, while the total silicon surface area is 1.14 square-meters and contains 32000 readout channels. The individual modules have a length of 72 cm, the longest built to date. The detection of tau particles, produced in tau neutrino charged-current interactions, would require a tracking detector with a precision of a few tens of microns in order to measure the position of the neutrino interaction vertex as well as the impact parame...

  15. Antihydrogen annihilation reconstruction with the ALPHA silicon detector

    CERN Document Server

    Andresen, G B; Bertsche, W; Bowe, P D; Butler, E; Cesar, C L; Chapman, S; Charlton, M; Deller, A; Eriksson, S; Fajans, J; Friesen, T; Fujiwara, M C; Gill, D.R; Gutierrez, A; Hangst, J S; Hardy, W N; Hayden, M E; Hayano, R S; Humphries, A J; Hydomako, R; Jonsell, S; Jorgensen, L V; Kurchaninov, L; Madsen, N; Menary, S; Nolan, P; Olchanski, K; Olin, A; Povilus, A; Pusa, P; Sarid, E; Seif el Nasr, S; Silveira, D M; So, C; Storey, J W; Thompson, R I; van der Werf, D P; Yamazaki, Y

    2012-01-01

    The ALPHA experiment has succeeded in trapping antihydrogen, a major milestone on the road to spectroscopic comparisons of antihydrogen with hydrogen. An annihilation vertex detector, which determines the time and position of antiproton annihilations, has been central to this achievement. This detector, an array of double-sided silicon microstrip detector modules arranged in three concentric cylindrical tiers, is sensitive to the passage of charged particles resulting from antiproton annihilation. This article describes the method used to reconstruct the annihilation location and to distinguish the annihilation signal from the cosmic ray background. Recent experimental results using this detector are outlined.

  16. ATLAS Outreach Highlights

    CERN Document Server

    Cheatham, Susan; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS outreach team is very active, promoting particle physics to a broad range of audiences including physicists, general public, policy makers, students and teachers, and media. A selection of current outreach activities and new projects will be presented. Recent highlights include the new ATLAS public website and ATLAS Open Data, the very recent public release of 1 fb-1 of ATLAS data.

  17. Future trends of 3D silicon sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da Vià, Cinzia, E-mail: cinzia.da.via@cern.ch [School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, M13 9PL Manchester (United Kingdom); Boscardin, Maurizio [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, FBK-CMM, Via Sommarive 18, I-38123 Trento (Italy); Dalla Betta, Gian-Franco [DISI, Università degli Studi di Trento and INFN, Via Sommarive 14, I-38123 Trento (Italy); Haughton, Iain [School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, M13 9PL Manchester (United Kingdom); Grenier, Philippe [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Rd, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Grinstein, Sebastian [Institut de Fisica d' Altes Energies (IFAE) and ICREA, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (UAB) E-08193, Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Hansen, Thor-Erik [SINTEF MiNaLab, Blindern, N-0314 Oslo (Norway); Hasi, Jasmine; Kenney, Christopher [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Rd, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Kok, Angela [SINTEF MiNaLab, Blindern, N-0314 Oslo (Norway); Parker, Sherwood [University of Hawaii, c/o Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley CA 94720 (United States); Pellegrini, Giulio [Centro Nacional de Microelectronica, CNM-IMB (CSIC), Barcelona E-08193 (Spain); Povoli, Marco [DISI, Università degli Studi di Trento and INFN, Via Sommarive 14, I-38123 Trento (Italy); Tzhnevyi, Vladislav; Watts, Stephen J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, M13 9PL Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2013-12-11

    Vertex detectors for the next LHC experiments upgrades will need to have low mass while at the same time be radiation hard and with sufficient granularity to fulfil the physics challenges of the next decade. Based on the gained experience with 3D silicon sensors for the ATLAS IBL project and the on-going developments on light materials, interconnectivity and cooling, this paper will discuss possible solutions to these requirements.

  18. Fabrication of ATLAS pixel detector prototypes at IRST

    CERN Document Server

    Boscardin, M; Gregori, P; Zen, M; Zori, N

    2001-01-01

    We report on the development of a fabrication technology for n-on-n silicon pixel detectors oriented to the ATLAS experiment at LHC. The main processing issues and some selected results from the electrical characterization of detector prototypes and related test structures are presented and discussed. (5 refs).

  19. UHF Microstrip Antenna Array for Synthetic- Aperture Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Robert F.; Huang, John

    2003-01-01

    An ultra-high-frequency microstrippatch antenna has been built for use in airborne synthetic-aperture radar (SAR). The antenna design satisfies requirements specific to the GeoSAR program, which is dedicated to the development of a terrain-mapping SAR system that can provide information on geology, seismicity, vegetation, and other terrain-related topics. One of the requirements is for ultra-wide-band performance: the antenna must be capable of operating with dual linear polarization in the frequency range of 350 plus or minus 80 MHz, with a peak gain of 10 dB at the middle frequency of 350 MHz and a gain of at least 8 dB at the upper and lower ends (270 and 430 MHz) of the band. Another requirement is compactness: the antenna must fit in the wingtip pod of a Gulfstream II airplane. The antenna includes a linear array of microstrip-patch radiating elements supported over square cavities. Each patch is square (except for small corner cuts) and has a small square hole at its center.

  20. Development of a microstrip-based neutron detector

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S S Desai; A M Shaikh; V Radhakrishna; K Rajanna

    2004-08-01

    A gas-filled microstrip detector for thermal neutrons has been built and successfully tested in our laboratory. The detector has an active area of 20 mm × 15 mm and consists of alternate anodes and cathodes of widths 12 m and 300 m respectively. The anode to cathode gap is 150 m and the pitch is 612 m. A high resistance, meandering type horizontal strip connects the anodes at one end and aids in position sensing by charge division method. The detector is tested with gas mixtures 3He+Kr (1 : 2) and 3He+CF4 (2 : 1) at pressure of 3 atmospheres and using a Pu-Be neutron source. The pulse height spectrum shows energy resolution of ∼ 8% (FWHM) for the 764 keV peak at anode voltage of 525 V for 3He+Kr and ∼ 15% at anode voltage of 800 V for 3He+CF4. Gas gains up to 6.3 × 103 and 3.6 × 103 are obtained respectively with these gas mixtures. The overall efficiency of the detector along the sensitive length is tested by exposing the active area to neutrons and recording the position spectrum. The detector shows fairly uniform efficiency (∼ 45\\%) over the active length.

  1. Design and construction of CPW fed circular microstrip patch antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Kirti; Singhal, P. K.; Sharma, A. K.; Pal, Manisha

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present feeding approaches of coplanar waveguide fed (CPW) circular microstrip patch antennas, with and without defected ground structure (DGS)`. The antenna feeding impedance is proposed as 50 ohms, built over FR4, a high dielectric constant substrate to obtain broad impedance bandwidth along with stability of the radiation patterns. The antenna with defected ground structure is designed to have band-notched characteristics at 3.5 GHz (for Wi-MAX band-3.3 to 3.7 GHz), at 8.2 GHz (for ITU band-8.025 GHz to 8.4 GHz) so as to avoid interference from these. The FR4 is used as dielectric with value of dielectric loss tangent constant as 0.002 and relative permittivity with 4.4. After applying DGS in ground of the proposed antenna there were improvements concerning bandwidth, and also a small increase in gain was noticed. These antennas are of small sizes with dimensions; 30 mm X 43 mm X 1.6 mm, cheap, compact and easy to fabricate, and achieve good radiation characteristics with higher return loss. This first antenna can have wide application in a great variety of wireless communication and second can operate well as UWB antenna with band notched characteristics. The performance of two antennas is compared in respect to gain, VSWR, return loss and impedance matching.

  2. Operation of sealed microstrip gas chambers at the ILL

    CERN Document Server

    Clergeau, J F; Feltin, D; Fischer, H E; Guérard, B; Hansen, T; Manzin, G; Oed, A; Palleau, P

    2001-01-01

    Microstrip Gas Counters (MSGCs) were introduced at the ILL as a response to the problem of fabricating the large area neutron detector of the D20 neutron powder diffractometer. This banana-like detector consists of 48 MSGCs, each comprising 32 counting cells. It was in operation during 18 months before being stopped due to the progressive deterioration of the anode strips. In order to increase its lifetime, significant modifications were introduced in the recently assembled new version. Another instrument, D4C, was recently equipped with a modular detector made of nine MSGCs, each of them in an individual gas vessel. Besides the unidimensional individual readout MSGC of D20 and D4C, the ILL has developed bidimensional MSGCs with a charge division readout. All these detectors employ sealed vessels containing a gas mixture at a pressure which can be as high as 15 bar, necessitating very clean conditions. This paper describes the experience acquired at the ILL in the fabrication and operation of these detectors.

  3. A compact annular ring microstrip antenna for WSN applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Daihua; Song, Linli; Zhou, Hanchang; Zhang, Zhijie

    2012-01-01

    A compact annular ring microstrip antenna was proposed for a wireless sensor network (WSN) application in the 2.4 GHz band. In this paper the major considerations of the conformal antenna design were the compact size and the impact on antenna's performance of a steel installation base. By using a chip resistor of large resistance (120 Ω) the antenna size was reduced to 38% of that a conventional annular ring patch antenna. With the addition of the steel installation base the resonant frequency of the antenna increases about 4.2% and the bandwidth reduces from 17.5% to 11.7% by adjusting the load resistance simultaneously. Several key parameters were discussed and optimized, and the antenna was fabricated and its performance measured. The antenna is well matched at 2.4 GHz with 34.2 dB return loss and -2.5 dBi peak gain. Meanwhile, it exhibits excellent radiation patterns with very low cross-polarization levels.

  4. A Compact Annular Ring Microstrip Antenna for WSN Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daihua Wang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A compact annular ring microstrip antenna was proposed for a wireless sensor network (WSN application in the 2.4 GHz band. In this paper the major considerations of the conformal antenna design were the compact size and the impact on antenna’s performance of a steel installation base. By using a chip resistor of large resistance (120 Ω the antenna size was reduced to 38% of that a conventional annular ring patch antenna. With the addition of the steel installation base the resonant frequency of the antenna increases about 4.2% and the bandwidth reduces from 17.5% to 11.7% by adjusting the load resistance simultaneously. Several key parameters were discussed and optimized, and the antenna was fabricated and its performance measured. The antenna is well matched at 2.4 GHz with 34.2 dB return loss and –2.5 dBi peak gain. Meanwhile, it exhibits excellent radiation patterns with very low cross-polarization levels.

  5. Modeling of unusual nonlinear behaviors in superconducting microstrip transmission lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javadzadeh, S. Mohammad Hassan, E-mail: smh_javadzadeh@ee.sharif.edu [School of Electrical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11365-9363, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Farzaneh, Forouhar; Fardmanesh, Mehdi [School of Electrical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11365-9363, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► Avoiding of considering just quadratic or modulus nonlinearity. ► Proposing a nonlinear model to predict unusual nonlinear behaviors at low temperatures. ► Description of temperature dependency of nonlinear behaviors in superconducting lines. ► Analytical formulation for each parameter in our proposed model. ► Obtaining very good results which shows this model can predict unusual nonlinear behavior. -- Abstract: There are unusual nonlinear behaviors in superconducting materials, especially at low temperatures. This paper describes the procedure to reliably predict this nonlinearity in superconducting microstrip transmission lines (SMTLs). An accurate nonlinear distributed circuit model, based on simultaneously considering of both quadratic and modulus nonlinearity dependences, is proposed. All parameters of the equivalent circuit can be calculated analytically using proposed closed-form expressions. A numerical method based on Harmonic Balance approach is used to predict nonlinear phenomena like intermodulation distortions and third harmonic generations. Nonlinear analyses of the SMTLs at the different temperatures and the input powers have been presented. This proposed model can describe the unusual behaviors of the nonlinearity at low temperatures, which are frequently observed in the SMTLs.

  6. Planar FET oscillators using periodic microstrip patch antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkeland, Joel; Itoh, Tatsuo

    1989-08-01

    An integrated oscillator/antenna is presented that uses a single microstrip leaky-wave structure as both the resonant and the radiating element. This resonant antenna is connected to a GaAs metal-semiconductor field-effect transistor which acts as the negative resistance element in the oscillator circuit. This type of oscillator is similar in its operating principle to one reported using Gunn diodes and a periodically notched dielectric image guide. This circuit exhibits the high DC-RF conversion efficiency that is typical of field-effect transistor oscillators. The planar circuit is simple and inexpensive to construct, occupies a small volume, and can conform to different surface profiles. Such circuits are suitable for use in millimeter-wave systems as well as at microwave frequencies. A design procedure is given, and the performance of X-band prototype circuits is reported. Prototype circuits showed a 9 dB isotropic conversion gain and 40 MHz tuning range at 9.5 GHz.

  7. A DOUBLE E SHAPED MICROSTRIP PATCH ANTENNA FOR MULTIBAND APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pristin K Mathew

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a dual band Compact double E shaped Microstrip Patch antenna with enhanced gain for Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WI-MAX, Universal Mobile Telecommunication Systems (UMTS and Satellite applications. The modified E shaped patch antenna is designed using CADFEKO and the results of return loss, Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR, gain of the proposed antenna are compared with a conventional E shaped patch antenna. The results show that the double E shaped wideband patch antenna has an impedance bandwidth of 10.7 % with a return loss of -13.6dB, -12.4 dB, -12.1dB and -14.2dB at resonant frequencies of 1.96 GHz, 3.62 GHz, 5.76 GHz and 6.82 GHz, whereas a conventional E shaped patch antenna operates at 2.5 GHz, 3.4 GHz and 5.5 GHz with a return loss of -16 dB each and impedance bandwidth of 10.6 %. Both the antennas uses Coaxial Probe feeding technique and Flame Retardant 4 (FR-4 as the substrate material with a thickness of 2.87 mm. A parametric study has been done so as to understand the effect of each parameter to obtain a better performance and optimised results.

  8. ATLAS Story

    CERN Multimedia

    Nordberg, Markus

    2012-01-01

    This film produced in July 2012 explains how fundamental research connects to Society and what benefits collaborative way of working can and may generate in the future, using ATLAS Collaboration as a case study. The film is intellectually inspired by the book "Collisions and Collaboration" (OUP) by Max Boisot (ed.), see: collisionsandcollaboration.com. The film is directed by Andrew Millington (OMNI Communications)

  9. Probabilistic liver atlas construction

    OpenAIRE

    Dura, Esther; Domingo, Juan; Ayala, Guillermo; Marti-Bonmati, Luis; Goceri, E.

    2017-01-01

    Background Anatomical atlases are 3D volumes or shapes representing an organ or structure of the human body. They contain either the prototypical shape of the object of interest together with other shapes representing its statistical variations (statistical atlas) or a probability map of belonging to the object (probabilistic atlas). Probabilistic atlases are mostly built with simple estimations only involving the data at each spatial location. Results A new method for probabilistic atlas con...

  10. Mixed potential integral equation technique for hybrid microstrip-slotline multilayered circuits using a mixed rectangular-triangular mesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sercu, Jeannick; Fache, Niels; Libbrecht, Frank; Lagasse, Paul

    1995-05-01

    In this paper, a mixed potential integral equation (MPIE) formulation for hybrid microstrip-slotline multilayered circuits is presented. This integral equation is solved with the method of moments (MoM) in combination with Galerkin's method. The vector-valued rooftop functions defined over a mixed rectangular-triangular mesh are used to model the electric and magnetic currents on the microstrip and slotline structures. An efficient calculation technique for the quadruple interaction integrals between two cells in the system matrix equation is presented. Two examples of hybrid microstrip-slotline circuits are discussed. The first example compares the simulation results for a microstrip-slotline transition with measured data. The second example illustrates the use of the simulation technique in the design process of a broadband slot-coupled microstrip line transition.

  11. Computer Aided Design and Simulation of a Multiobjective Microstrip Patch Antenna for Wireless Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chitra Singh

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The utility and attractiveness of microstrip antennas has made it ever more important to find ways to precisely determine the radiation patterns of these antennas. Taking benefit of the added processing power of today’s computers, electromagnetic simulators are emerging to perform both planar and 3D analysis of high-frequency structures. One such tool studied was IE3D, which is a program that utilizes method of moment. This paper makes an investigation of the method used by the program, and then uses IE3D software to construct microstrip antennas and analyze the simulation results. The antenna offers good electrical performance and at the same time preserves the advantages of microstrip antennas such as small size, easy to manufacture as no lumped components are employed in the design and thus, is low cost; and most importantly, it serves multiple wireless applications.

  12. Broadband Slotted Rectangular Shaped Microstrip Antenna For WI-Max Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandan Kumar Dubey

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Many applications require very broadband antenna, but the narrow bandwidth of a microstrip antenna restricts its wide usage. The aim of this paper is to enhance the bandwidth of rectangular microstrip patch antenna. For this purpose, we cut four slots in the proposed antenna. The dielectric substrate material of the antenna is glass epoxy FR4 having εr=4. 4 and loss tangent 0.025. The performance of the final modified antenna is compared with that of a conventional rectangular microstrip antenna. The designed antenna has two resonant frequencies 5.42 GHz and 5.70 GHz. So this antenna is best suitable for the Wi-Max applications. The designed antenna offers much improved impedance bandwidth 10.45 %. This is approximately two times higher than that in a conventional rectangular patch antenna (Bandwidth= 5.34% having the same dimensions.

  13. Smaller-loss planar SPP transmission line than conventional microstrip in microwave frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao Chi; Zhang, Qian; Liu, Jun Feng; Tang, Wenxuan; Fan, Yifeng; Cui, Tie Jun

    2016-03-17

    Transmission line is a basic component in all passive devices, integrated circuits, and systems. Microstrip is the most popular transmission line in the microwave and millimeter-wave frequencies, and has been widely used in current electronic devices, circuits, and systems. One of the important issues to be solved in such applications is the relatively large transmission loss of microstrip. Here, we propose a method to reduce the loss of microwave transmission line based on the designable wavenumber of spoof surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs). Using this characteristic, we analyze and experimentally demonstrate the low-loss feature of the SPP transmission line through the perturbation method and S-parameter measurements, respectively. Both simulation and experimental results show that the SPP transmission line has much smaller transmission loss than traditional microstrip with the same size in the microwave frequencies. Hence, the spoof SPP transmission line may make a big step forward in the low-loss circuits and systems.

  14. A Comprehensive Computational Design for Microstrip Passive and Active Linear Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Sayed A. El-Badawy

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a complete program called HHSS2 is introduced which is a user-oriented program capable of designing linear active and passive microstrip circuits such as amplifiers, oscillators, mixers, lowpass filters, and couplers. The substrate parameters and the characteristic impedance of the microstrip lines are given to the program as a common statement. Examples for the design of a 3-GHz high gain amplifier, 2.6-GHz oscillator, ring coupler operated at 3.33 GHz, Lange coupler operated at 3.3 GHz, and maximally-flat lowpass filter operated at 2 GHz with 0.75 GHz cutoff frequency are introduced.    Key Words: Computational Microstrip Circuit Design, Microwave Circuits, Computer Aided Design.

  15. Proximity fed gap-coupled half E-shaped microstrip antenna array

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amit A Deshmukh; K P Ray

    2015-02-01

    Broadband gap-coupled array configuration of proximity fed rectangular microstrip antenna with half E-shaped microstrip antennas are proposed. The rectangular slot in half E-shaped patch reduces the orthogonal TM01 mode resonance frequency of equivalent rectangular patch and along with TM10 modes of fed and parasitic rectangular patches, yields broader bandwidth of more than 470 MHz (> 45%). An improvement in radiation pattern and gain characteristics over the bandwidth is obtained by gap-coupling half E-shaped patches along all the edges of proximity fed rectangular patch, which yields bandwidth of nearly 510 MHz (∼49%). Further to enhance the gain, a gap-coupled 3 × 3 array configuration of half E-shaped patches with proximity fed rectangular microstrip antenna is proposed. The gap-coupled array configuration yields bandwidth of more than 530 MHz (>50%) with broadside radiation pattern and peak gain of 11 dBi.

  16. N Design of an H-shaped Slot Multi-frequency Microstrip Antenna

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Hong; MOU Hong-jiang

    2014-01-01

    Conventional slot microstrip antenna is analyzed, an h-shaped multi-frequency and miniaturization slot microstrip antenna is proposed. Numerical simulation is performed for the characteristics of the antenna with the software HFSS11.0, which is a kind of simulation software based on Finite Element Method, the simulation results shown that the antenna operated at 2.26~2.42GHz, 2.67~2.82GHz , 4.28~4.39GHz and 5.76~5.89GHz when the return loss S1 <-10dB, the size reduced compare to general microstrip antenna, demonstrated the effectiveness of the design scheme. The antenna structure is simple and easily to be implemented, met the wireless LAN 802.11a/b/g/n mobile terminal antenna miniaturization and multi-band requirements.

  17. Silicon spintronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Ron

    2012-04-23

    Worldwide efforts are underway to integrate semiconductors and magnetic materials, aiming to create a revolutionary and energy-efficient information technology in which digital data are encoded in the spin of electrons. Implementing spin functionality in silicon, the mainstream semiconductor, is vital to establish a spin-based electronics with potential to change information technology beyond imagination. Can silicon spintronics live up to the expectation? Remarkable advances in the creation and control of spin polarization in silicon suggest so. Here, I review the key developments and achievements, and describe the building blocks of silicon spintronics. Unexpected and puzzling results are discussed, and open issues and challenges identified. More surprises lie ahead as silicon spintronics comes of age.

  18. Body conformable 915 MHz microstrip array applicators for large surface area hyperthermia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, E.R.; Tarczy-Hornoch, P.; Kapp, S.; Fessenden, P.; Lohrbach, A.W.; Prionas, S.D. (Stanford University Medical Center, CA (United States)); Wilsey, T. (Carian Associates, Palo Alto, CA (United States))

    1992-01-01

    The optimal treatment with hyperthermia of superficially located tumors which involve large surface areas requires applicators which can physically conform to body contours, and locally alter their power deposition patterns to adjust for nonuniform temperature caused by tissue inhomogeneities and blood flow variations. A series of 915 MHz microstrip array applicators satisfying these criteria have been developed and clinically tested. Clinical and engineering design tradeoffs for practical devices are discussed. Measurements taken in tissue equivalent phantoms and a summary of clinical experiences with these microstrip arrays are presented.

  19. Design of Multilevel Sequential Rotation Feeding Networks Used for Circularly Polarized Microstrip Antenna Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aixin Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sequential rotation feeding networks can significantly improve performance of the circularly polarized microstrip antenna array. In this paper, single, double, and multiple series-parallel sequential rotation feeding networks are examined. Compared with conventional parallel feeding structures, these multilevel feeding techniques present reduction of loss, increase of bandwidth, and improvement of radiation pattern and polarization purity. By using corner-truncated square patch as the array element and adopting appropriate level of sequential rotation series-parallel feeding structures as feeding networks, microstrip arrays can generate excellent circular polarization (CP over a relatively wide frequency band. They can find wide applications in phased array radar and satellite communication systems.

  20. A Review and study of the design technique of Microstrip Patch Antenna Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dileep Kumar shukla

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper,study and survey of microstrip antenna elements is presented, with emphasis on theoretical and practical design techniques and material used, as previous study have been proved that material used play significant role in the performance such as gain ,directivity ,frequency of radiation Available substrate materials are reviewed along with the relation between dielectric constant tolerance and resonant frequency of microstrip patches. Several theoretical analysis techniques are summarized. Practical procedures are given for both standard rectangular and circular patches. The quality, bandwidth, and efficiency factors of typical patch designs are discussed.

  1. Characteristic-Based Time Domain Method for Cylindrically Conformal Microstrip Patch Antennas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Xiao-wen; XIN Li

    2005-01-01

    The characteristics of a cylindrical conformal microstrip patch antenna are analyzed by using the characteristic-based time domain (CBTD) method. A governing equation in the cylindrical coordinate system is formulated directly to facilitate the analysis of cylindrically conformal microstrip patch antennas. The algorithm has second-order accuracy both in time and space domain and has the potential to eliminate the spurious wave reflection from the numerical boundaries of the computational domain. Numerical results demonstrate the important merits and accuracy of the proposed technique in computational electromagnetics.

  2. Operational Studies of Cadmium Zinc Telluride Microstrip Detectors using SVX ASIC Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krizmanic, John; Barbier, L. M.; Barthelmy, S.; Bartlett, L.; Birsa, F.; Gehrels, N.; Hanchak, C.; Kurczynski, P.; Odom, J.; Parsons, A.; Palmer, D.; Sheppard, D.; Snodgrass, S.; Stahle, C. M.; Teegarden, B.; Tueller, J.

    1997-04-01

    We have been investigating the operational properties of cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) microstrip detectors by using SVX ASIC readout electronics. This research is in conjunction with the development of a CZT-based, next generation gamma-ray telescope for use in the gamma-ray Burst ArcSecond Imaging and Spectroscopy (BASIS) experiment. CZT microstrip detectors with 128 channels and 100 micron strip pitch have been fabricated and were interfaced to SVX electronics at Goddard Space Flight Center. Experimental results involving position sensing, spectroscopy, and CZT operational properties will be presented.

  3. A computerised analysis tool for the electrical characterisation of microstrip detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Boscardin, M; Carmel-Barnea, N; Dalla Betta, Gian Franco; Ferrario, L; Rachevskaia, I; Zen, M

    2002-01-01

    We report on a computer tool, based on Perl programming language, providing automatic analysis of experimental data from microstrip detector parametric measurements. Besides handling graphical display of data and statistical calculations, the program is intended to check for possible process-related problems by correlating the various measurements. The proposed software has proved itself to be a useful tool for the development of double-sided AC-coupled microstrip detectors at IRST, successfully identifying several process-related defects, as confirmed by optical inspection of the wafers.

  4. Wideband bandpass filters employing broadside-coupled microstrip lines for MIC and MMIC applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, M.; Nguyen, C.

    1994-01-01

    Wideband bandpass filters employing half-wavelength broadside-coupled microstrip lines suitable for microwave and mm-wave integrated monolithic integrated circuits (MIC and MMIC) are presented. Several filters have been developed at X-band (8 to 12 GHz) with 1 dB insertion loss. Fair agreement between the measured and calculated results has been observed. The analysis of the broadside-coupled microstrip lines used in the filters, based on the quasi-static spectral domain technique, is also described.

  5. Coupling between Microstrip Lines Embedded in Polyimide Layers for 3D-MMICs on Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponchak, George E.; Tentzeris, Emmanouil M.; Papapolymerou, John

    2001-01-01

    Three-dimensional circuits built upon multiple layers of polyimide are required for constructing SilSiGe monolithic microwavdmillimeter-wave integrated circuits on CMOS (low resistivity) Si wafers. However, the closely spaced transmission lines are susceptible to high levels of coupling, which degrades circuit performance. In this paper, Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) analysis and measured characteristics of novel shielding structures that significantly reduce coupling between embedded microstrip lines are presented. A discussion of the electric and magnetic field distributions for the coupled microstrip lines is presented to provide a physical rationale for the presented results.

  6. Analytical and experimental procedures for determining propagation characteristics of millimeter-wave gallium arsenide microstrip lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanofsky, Robert R.

    1989-01-01

    In this report, a thorough analytical procedure is developed for evaluating the frequency-dependent loss characteristics and effective permittivity of microstrip lines. The technique is based on the measured reflection coefficient of microstrip resonator pairs. Experimental data, including quality factor Q, effective relative permittivity, and fringing for 50-omega lines on gallium arsenide (GaAs) from 26.5 to 40.0 GHz are presented. The effects of an imperfect open circuit, coupling losses, and loading of the resonant frequency are considered. A cosine-tapered ridge-guide text fixture is described. It was found to be well suited to the device characterization.

  7. An improved design of spark-protected microstrip gas counters (R-MSGC)

    CERN Document Server

    Oliveira, R; Pietropaolo, F; Picchi, P

    2011-01-01

    We have developed microstrip gas counters manufactured on standard printed circuit board and having the following features: resistive cathode strips, thin (10 micron) metallic anode strips and electrodes protected against surface discharges by a Coverlay layer at their edges. These features allow the detector to operate at gas gains as high as can be achieve with the best microstrip gas counters manufactured on glass substrates. We believe that after further developments this type of detectors can compete in some applications with other micropattern detectors, for example MICROMEGAS.

  8. Design on X-band Wideband and High-gain Multi-layer Microstrip Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soufian LAKRIT

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a wide-band and high-gain microstrip antenna with mullti-layer microstrip patch and an aperture-coupled feeding is proposed. The antenna has a condensed structure where the dimension is about 8.5mm by 7.5mm by 4.662mm leading to good bandwidths covering 8.05 GHz to 12.01 GHz (39.48%, and the gain is up to 5.23dB. The low expenses of this profile and its simple configuration allows for an its easy fabrication, with appropriation with wireless and satellite communication.

  9. Design on X-band Wideband and High-gain Multi-layer Microstrip Antenna

    OpenAIRE

    Soufian LAKRIT; Hassan AMMOR

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a wide-band and high-gain microstrip antenna with mullti-layer microstrip patch and an aperture-coupled feeding is proposed. The antenna has a condensed structure where the dimension is about 8.5mm by 7.5mm by 4.662mm leading to good bandwidths covering 8.05 GHz to 12.01 GHz (39.48%), and the gain is up to 5.23dB. The low expenses of this profile and its simple configuration allows for an its easy fabrication, with appropriation with wireless and satellite communica...

  10. A COMBINED FULL-WAVE BCG-FFT METHOD FOR RADIATION OF MICROSTRIP ANTENNA ARRAYS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Hou; Peng Hongli; Liu Qizhong; Yin Yingzeng; Gong Shuxi

    2001-01-01

    A method of combining BiConjugate Gradient(BCG) with Fast Fourier Transform(FFT) to analyze the radiation of microstrip antenna arrays is presented, where the spatially discrete BCG-FFT for analyzing microstrip structure is used and the del operators on Green's functions are transferred from the singular kernel to the expansion and testing functions. The resultant equations are solved by using BCG method in which the matrix-vector product is evaluated efficiently with FFT. The calculated patterns are in good agreement with the measured data.

  11. Microstrip Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices for Quantum Information Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Feo, Michael P.

    Quantum-limited amplification in the microwave frequency range is of both practical and fundamental importance. The weak signals corresponding to single microwave photons require substantial amplification to resolve. When probing quantum excitations of the electromagnetic field, the substantial noise produced by standard amplifiers dominates the signal, therefore, several averages must be accumulated to achieve even a modest signal-to-noise ratio. Even worse, the back-action on the system due to amplifier noise can hasten the decay of the quantum state. In recent years, low-noise microwave-frequency amplification has been advancing rapidly and one field that would benefit greatly from this is circuit quantum electrodynamics (cQED). The development of circuit quantum electrodynamics—which implements techniques of quantum optics at microwave frequencies—has led to revolutionary progress in the field of quantum information science. cQED employs quantum bits (qubits) and superconducting microwave resonators in place of the atoms and cavities used in quantum optics permitting preparation and control of low energy photon states in macroscopic superconducting circuits at millikelvin temperatures. We have developed a microstrip superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) amplifier (MSA) to provide the first stage of amplification for these systems. Employing sub-micron Josephson tunnel junctions for enhanced gain, these MSAs operate at microwave frequencies and are optimized to perform with near quantum-limited noise characteristics. Our MSA is utilized as the first stage of amplification to probe the dynamics of a SQUID oscillator. The SQUID oscillator is a flux-tunable microwave resonator formed by a capacitively shunted dc SQUID. Josephson plasma oscillations are induced by pulsed microwave excitations at the resonant frequency of the oscillator. Once pulsed, decaying plasma oscillations are observed in the time domain. By measuring with pulse amplitudes

  12. A prototype of radiation imaging detector using silicon strip sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, S.; Hyun, H. J.; Kah, D. H.; Kang, H. D.; Kim, H. J.; Kim, Kyeryung; Kim, Y. I.; Park, H.; Son, D. H.

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this work is to evaluate the performance of a strip sensor with a single photon counting data acquisition system based on VA1 readout chips to study the feasibility of a silicon microstrip detector for medical application. The sensor is an AC-coupled single-sided microstrip sensor and the active area of the sensor is 32.0 mm×32.0 mm with a thickness of 380 μm. The sensor has 64 readout strips with a pitch of 500 μm. The sensor was biased at 45 V and the experiment was performed at room temperature. Two silicon strip sensors were mounted perpendicularly one another to get two-dimensional position information with a 5 mm space gap. Two low noise analog ASICs, VA1 chips, were used for signal readout of the strip sensor. The assembly of sensors and readout electronics was housed in an Al light-tight box. A CsI(Tl) scintillation crystal and a 2-in. photomultiplier tube were used to trigger signal events. The data acquisition system was based on a 64 MHz FADC and control softwares for the PC-Linux platform. Imaging tests were performed by using a lead phantom with a 90Sr radioactive source and a 45 MeV proton beam at Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Science in Seoul, respectively. Results of the S/ N ratio measurement and phantom images are presented.

  13. Detector module development for the CBM Silicon Tracking System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lymanets, Anton [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Tuebingen (Germany); Collaboration: CBM-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    The central detector of the CBM experiment at FAIR, the Silicon Tracking System (STS), is being designed to reconstruct hundreds of charged particles produced at rates up to 10 MHz in interactions of ion beams of up to 45 AGeV projectile energies with nuclear targets. The building block of the tracking system is a module suitable for a low-mass detector construction. In a module, the basic functional unit of the STS, radiation tolerant microstrip sensors are read out through low-mass multi-line cables with self-triggering front-end electronics located at the periphery of the system. Light-weight carbon fibre support structures will carry 10 of such modules and build up the STS stations. In the presentation, the concept of the detector module construction is presented. Quality assurance tests under development for the module components (double-sided silicon microstrip sensors, stacked polyimide microcables, front-end ASICs and boards) and the assembled structures are discussed.

  14. ATLAS Recordings

    CERN Multimedia

    Steven Goldfarb; Mitch McLachlan; Homer A. Neal

    Web Archives of ATLAS Plenary Sessions, Workshops, Meetings, and Tutorials from 2005 until this past month are available via the University of Michigan portal here. Most recent additions include the Trigger-Aware Analysis Tutorial by Monika Wielers on March 23 and the ROOT Workshop held at CERN on March 26-27.Viewing requires a standard web browser with RealPlayer plug-in (included in most browsers automatically) and works on any major platform. Lectures can be viewed directly over the web or downloaded locally.In addition, you will find access to a variety of general tutorials and events via the portal.Feedback WelcomeOur group is making arrangements now to record plenary sessions, tutorials, and other important ATLAS events for 2007. Your suggestions for potential recording, as well as your feedback on existing archives is always welcome. Please contact us at wlap@umich.edu. Thank you.Enjoy the Lectures!

  15. Quality assurance database for the CBM silicon tracking system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lymanets, Anton [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Tuebingen (Germany); Collaboration: CBM-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The Silicon Tracking System is a main tracking device of the CBM Experiment at FAIR. Its construction includes production, quality assurance and assembly of large number of components, e.g., 106 carbon fiber support structures, 1300 silicon microstrip sensors, 16.6k readout chips, analog microcables, etc. Detector construction is distributed over several production and assembly sites and calls for a database that would be extensible and allow tracing the components, integrating the test data, monitoring the component statuses and data flow. A possible implementation of the above-mentioned requirements is being developed at GSI (Darmstadt) based on the FAIR DB Virtual Database Library that provides connectivity to common SQL-Database engines (PostgreSQL, Oracle, etc.). Data structure, database architecture as well as status of implementation are discussed.

  16. Data Quality Monitoring for the CMS Silicon Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Dutta, S; Mennea, Maria Santa; Zito, G

    2006-01-01

    The CMS silicon tracker, consisting of about 17,000 detector modules and divided into micro-strip and pixel sensors, will be the largest silicon tracker ever realized for high energy physics experiments. The detector performance will be monitored using applications based on the CMS Data Quality Monitoring\\,(DQM) framework and running on the High-Level Trigger Farm as well as local DAQ systems. The monitorable quantities of this large number of modules are divided into hierarchical structures reflecting the detector sections. In addition, they are organized into structures corresponding to the levels of data processing. The information produced are delivered to client applications according to their subscription requests. The client applications summarize and visualize the quantities received. We describe here the functionalities of the CMS tracker DQM applications and report preliminary performance tests.

  17. Planar edgeless silicon detectors for the TOTEM experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Ruggiero, G; Noschis, E

    2007-01-01

    Recently the first prototype of microstrip edgeless silicon detector for the TOTEM experiment has been successfully produced and tested. This detector is fabricated with standard planar technology, reach sensitivity 50 μm from the cut edge and can operate with high bias at room temperature. These almost edgeless detectors employ a newly conceived terminating structure, which, although being reduced with respect to the conventional ones, still controls the electric field at the device periphery and prevents leakage current breakdown for high bias. Detectors with the new terminating structure are being produced now and will be installed at LHC in the Roman Pots, a special beam insertion, to allow the TOTEM experiment to detect leading protons at 10 σ from the beam. This paper will describe this new terminating structure for planar silicon detectors, how it applies to big size devices and the experimental tests proving their functionality.

  18. Performance of the CLAS12 Silicon Vertex Tracker modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonioli, Mary Ann [JLAB; Boiarinov, Serguie; Bonneau, Peter R. [JLAB; Elouadrhiri, Latifa [JLAB; Eng, Brian J. [JLAB; Gotra, Yuri N. [JLAB; Kurbatov, Evgeny O. [Moscow State U.; Leffel, Mindy A. [JLAB; Mandal, Saptarshi [JLAB; McMullen, Marc E. [JLAB; Merkin, Mikhail M. [Moscow State U.; Raydo, Benjamin J. [JLAB; Teachey, Robert W, [JLAB; Tucker, Ross J. [Arizona State U.; Ungaro, Maurizio [JLAB; Yegneswaran, Amrit S. [JLAB; Ziegler, Veronique [JLAB

    2013-12-01

    For the 12 GeV upgrade, the CLAS12 experiment has designed a Silicon Vertex Tracker (SVT) using single sided microstrip sensors fabricated by Hamamatsu. The sensors have graded angle design to minimize dead areas and a readout pitch of 156{micro}m, with intermediate strip. Double sided SVT module hosts three daisy-chained sensors on each side with a full strip length of 33 cm. There are 512 channels per module read out by four Fermilab Silicon Strip Readout (FSSR2) chips featuring data driven architecture, mounted on a rigid-flex hybrid. Modules are assembled on the barrel using unique cantilevered geometry to minimize the amount of material in the tracking volume. Design and performance of the SVT modules are presented, focusing on results of electrical measurements.

  19. ATLAS UPGRADES

    CERN Document Server

    Lacasta, C; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    After the successful LHC operation at the center-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV in 2010 - 2012, plans are actively advancing for a series of upgrades of the accelerator, culminating roughly ten years from now in the high luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) project, delivering of the order of five times the LHC nominal instantaneous luminosity along with luminosity leveling. The final goal is to extend the dataset from about few hundred fb−1 expected for LHC running to 3000 fb−1 by around 2035 for ATLAS and CMS. In parallel the experiments need to be keep lockstep with the accelerator to accommodate running beyond the nominal luminosity this decade. Current planning in ATLAS envisions significant upgrades to the detector during the consolidation of the LHC to reach full LHC energy and further upgrades. The challenge of coping with the HL-LHC instantaneous and integrated luminosity, along with the associated radiation levels, requires further major changes to the ATLAS detector. The designs are developing rapidly for ...

  20. Electrical tests of silicon detector modules for the ATLAS experiment and a study of the discovery potential of the $t\\overline{t}H, H \\to W^{+}W^{-}$ process

    CERN Document Server

    Ludwig, Inga

    2011-01-01

    The first part of this thesis was a contribution to the construction of the ATLAS Semiconductor Tracking detector (SCT). About 200 SCT endcap modules were assembled at the University of Freiburg. Before installation in the experiment, each module was subject to thorough testing in order to ensure their functionality within the ATLAS specifications. A large part of these tests concerned the electrical functionality of the readout electronics and the bias current behaviour of the sensors. The responsibility for the electrical characterization of the Freiburg modules was part of this thesis. To be suited for the analysis of physics processes, the signals measured in the detector need to be transferred into particle four-momenta, requiring the reconstruction and identification of different particle types. This thesis contributes to the physics object identification by a study of methods to separate isolated electrons from real electron background produced in the decays of heavy quarks. A standard set of four disc...

  1. The CMS Silicon Tracker Detector: an Overview of the R&D Current Status

    CERN Document Server

    Santocchia, A; Angarano, M; Azzi, P; Babucci, E; Bacchetta, N; Bader, A; Bagliesi, G; Bartalini, P; Basti, A; Biggeri, U; Bilei, G M; Bisello, D; Boemi, D; Da Rold, M; Bosi, F; Borrello, L; Bozzi, C; Breuker, H; Candelori, A; Caner, A; Dell'Orso, R; Castaldi, R; Carstro, A; Checcucci, B; Ciampolini, P; Creanza, D; Elliot-Peisert, A; de Palma, M; Della Marina, R; Bruzzi, M; Catacchini, E; Civinini, C; Connotte, J; Gu, W H; Luebelsmeyer, K; D'Alessandro, R; Pandoulas, D; Sielding, R; Wittmer, B; Fiore, L; Maggi, G; My, S; Raso, G; Selvaggi; Silvestris; Tempesta, P; Piperov, S; Tricomi, A; Potenza, R; French, M; Focardi, E; Meschini, M; Parrini, G; Pieri, M; Glessing, B; Hammerstrom, R; Huhtinen, M; Mannelli, M; Marchioro, A; Schmitt, B; Stefanini, G; Eklund, C; Karimäki, V; Skog, K; Tuuva, T; Hall, G; McEvoy, B; Ramond, M; Watts, S; Giraldo, A; Loreti, M; Martignon, G; Paccagnella, A; Stavitsky, I; Lariccia, P; Mantovani, G; Passeri, D; Servoli, L; Wang, Y; Giassi, A; Verdini, P G; Vannini, C; Tonelli, G; Xie, Z; Messineo, A; Palla, F; Raffaelli, F; Sguazzoni, G; Starodumov, A; Freudenreich, K; Lustermann, W; Viertel, G; Krammer, M; Hrubec, J

    1998-01-01

    The paper describes the Silicon Tracking System of the Compact Muon Solenoid ( CMS) and reviews the most recent results of the R&D activity on radiation resistant microstrip silicon detectors. The Silicon Tracker of CMS consists of 5 layers of microstrip detectors in the barrel and 10 disks on either side of the end-cap region. The detectors of the innermost layers ( 22.5 cm radial distance from the beam pipe) are required to operate up to an integrated fluence of 1.6 10 ^14 1-MeV-equivalent neutrons per cm2. The results, obtained with single-sided prototypes irradiated with a neutron fluence up to 2*10^14 n/cm2 in terms of signal-to-noise ratio, efficiency and spatial resolution are described. We also show a comparison between device simulations, laboratory measurements and experimental results. Lastly we describe the complex system prototypes which have been recently built to address the system aspects of such a large silicon tracker.

  2. Dual-polarization, wideband microstrip antenna array for airborne C-band SAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granholm, Johan; Skou, Niels

    2000-01-01

    The paper describes the development of a C-band, dual linear polarization wideband antenna array, for use in the next-generation of the Danish airborne polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) system. The array is made of probe-fed, stacked microstrip patches. The design and performance...

  3. Probe-Fed Stacked Microstrip Patch Antenna for High-Resolution Polarimetric C-Band SAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granholm, Johan; Skou, Niels

    2000-01-01

    The paper describes a C-band, dual-linear polarization wideband antenna for use in the next-generation of the Danish high-resolution, airborne polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) system, EMISAR. The design and performance of a probe-fed, stacked microstrip patch element, operating from 4...

  4. Bandwidth Enrichment for Micro-strip Patch Antenna Using Pendant Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Bhattacharya, R. Prasanna

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In rapidly expanding market for wireless communication and applications, Micro strip antenna has become widely popular as it is low profile, comfortable to the hosting surfaces, light weight and can be easily integrated with the electronic circuits. Microstrip antenna is widely used in military, mobile communication, global positioning system (GPS, remote sensing etc.

  5. Dual-Frequency, Dual-Polarization Microstrip Antenna Development for High-Resolution, Airborne SAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granholm, Johan; Skou, N.

    2000-01-01

    synthetic aperture radar (SAR) system. The dual-frequency array concept adopted relies on the use of probe-fed perforated, stacked patches for L-band (1.2-1.3 GHz). Inside these perforations probe-fed, wideband stacked microstrip patches for C-band (4.9-5.7 GHz) are placed. Measured impedance and radiation...

  6. Design of Short-Circuited Microstrip Antenna Using Differential Evolution Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arindam Deb

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Differential evolution (DE algorithm is used to design a microstrip antenna, loaded with a shorting pin. The position of probe and the position of shorting pin are optimized using DE. The fitness function for DE is obtained using multiport network modelling technique. Antenna is fabricated and measured results are compared with the theoretical results.

  7. Comparison of CAD Formulas, Method of Moments and Experiments for Rectangular Microstrip Antennas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Novacek

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Calculations of several cases for rectangular microstrip patchantennas using more accurate cavity model have been compared with theconventional cavity calculations, expressions generated by curvefitting to full wave solutions and method of moments. Calculated aswell as experimental values have been studied for different thickness,patch sizes and substrate materials with different permittivities andlosses.

  8. Broadband matching of dual-linear polarisation stacked probe-fed microstrip patch antenna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaworski, G.; Krozer, Viktor

    2004-01-01

    A novel approach for impedance matching of probe-fed, stacked microstrip patch antenna elements is demonstrated. The matching structure is compact and enables more than doubling of the operational bandwidth. A circuit model for the feeding probes is developed and its impact on antenna impedance...

  9. High Frequency Characteristics Of Ferrite Materials And Applications To Microstrip Circuits

    OpenAIRE

    Moataza A. Hindy

    1999-01-01

    Dispersion behavior of the parameters of microstrip lines printed on ferrite substrate is presented. The characteristic impedance for lines on magnetized ferrite substrates are obtained for partially magnetized substrates in the direction of wave propagation and vertically magnetized substrates with variable DC magnetic field. The obtained results are applied to analyze variable phase shifters, controlled resonators, and impedance matching.

  10. Implementation features of the microstrip filters with traveling wave ring resonators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glushechenko E. N.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article prsents a block diagram of a traveling wave directional filter, and a system of analytic expressions which defines the levels of the signals in the filter branches. Implementation features of the filter in the microstrip design are considered. The block diagram of such filter, its base topology and signal system are given.

  11. Dual Polarization Stacked Microstrip Patch Antenna Array With Very Low Cross-Polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granholm, Johan; Woelders, Kim

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the development and performance of a wideband dual linear polarization microstrip antenna array used in the Danish high-resolution airborne multifrequency polarimetric synthetic aperture radar, EMISAR. The antenna was designed for an operating frequency of 1.25 GHz±50 MHz and...

  12. Performance of a Prototype of the Microstrip Gas Chambers for the CMS Experiment at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Albert, E; Bastie, C; Bell, B; Bellazzini, R; Bozzo, M; Brand, C; Brez, A; Caner, A; Cattai, A; Elliot-Peisert, A; Giassi, A; Magazzù, C; Malina, R F; Manola-Poggioli, E; Martín, J; Massai, M M; Raffo, R; Silvestris, L; Spandre, G; Spezziga, M A; Tsirou, A L; Verdini, P G

    1998-01-01

    A set of microstrip gas chamber ( MSGC) prototypes, developed for the barrel Tracking Detector of the CMS experiment at LHC, has been tested in a beam. The chambers were 10 cm long, with Pestov or diamond coated glass substrate. The results on the performance of the chambers are reported. The spatial uniformity of the chambers is also illustrated.

  13. Procedure and comparative analysis of results of silicon tracker modules testing for D0 (FNAL) collider experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Ermolov, P F; Karmanov, D E; Leflat, A; Merkin, M M; Shabalina, E K

    2002-01-01

    The silicon microstrip tracker consists of three main parts: the central cylindrical one, internal disks and face disks. All the parts of the tracker have modular structure. The modulus contains one or several silicon detectors and a flexible printed circuit with an integral read-out system. The methodology for testing the D0 tracker parts on their functional efficiency, reliability and defectiveness is described. Comparison of the results of the disks modules testing with the disk detectors parameters before their assembling is carried out. The comparative analysis results make it possible to optimize the process of the detector mass testing and work out the criteria for the detectors quality evaluation

  14. EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON THE PERFORMANCE OF A CYLINDRICAL MICROSTRIP PRINTED ANTENNA FOR TM01MODE USING DIFFERENT SUBSTRATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Elrashidi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A temperature is one of the parameters that have a great effect on the performance of microstrip antennasfor TM01 mode. The effect of temperature on a resonance frequency, input impedance, voltage standingwave ratio, and return loss on the performance of a cylindrical microstrip printed antenna is studied inthis paper. The effect of temperature on electric and magnetic fields are also studied. Three differentsubstrate materials RT/duroid-5880 PTFE, K-6098 Teflon/Glass, and Epsilam-10 ceramic-filled Teflonare used for verifying the new model for a microstrip antenna for its flexibility on cylindrical bodies.

  15. Atlases: Complex models of geospace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikonović Vesna

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Atlas is modeled contexture contents of treated thematic of space on optimal map union. Atlases are higher form of cartography. Atlases content composition of maps which are different by projection, scale, format methods, contents, usage and so. Atlases can be classified by multi criteria. Modern classification of atlases by technology of making would be on: 1. classical or traditional (printed on paper and 2. electronic (made on electronic media - computer or computer station. Electronic atlases divided in three large groups: view-only electronic atlases, 2. interactive electronic atlases and 3. analytical electronic atlases.

  16. Scanning and Defocusing Properties of Microstrip Reflectarray Antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengarajan, Sembiam

    2011-01-01

    A symmetric reflectarray, consisting of variable-size square patch elements with a commonly used mathematical model for the horn in the form of a cosine function, has been designed using the transmit mode technique for different f/D ratios with 10 dB edge taper. Subsequently, the antennas were analyzed for the radiation pattern and gain. The infinite array model was used to determine the reflection phase of each patch element in the design and analysis codes. By displacing the feed laterally, the scan characteristics were obtained, such as the beam deviation factor, gain loss, and pattern degradation. The properties of reflect arrays were compared to those of the conventional paraboloidal reflectors. The same procedure was used to study the scan properties of offset reflectarrays. There is no cross-polarized radiation in the principal planes for a symmetric system. Cross-polarized radiation exists in non-principal planes off broadside in symmetric systems, with greater levels for larger values of subtended angles. Such cross-polarized radiation level increases with subtended angle just as cross-polarization level increases with decreasing values of f/D ratios for symmetric paraboloids in non-principal planes. Pattern distortions and gain loss were found to be more severe in the case of a microstrip reflectarray compared to the conventional parabolic reflector. The scan performance of the reflect arrays was found to improve with f/D ratios as is true for paraboloids. In general, scanning by means of displaced feed is limited to a few beam - widths in reflectarrays. Feed displacement in the axial direction of a symmetric reflectarray was investigated and compared to that of paraboloids. The gain loss due to the defocused feed of a reflectarray was found to be nearly the same as that of a paraboloid of the same subtended angle for larger values of f/D, and for displacements away from the antenna. The gain loss of an axially defocused reflectarray was found to be

  17. Recent ATLAS Articles on WLAP

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Herr

    As reported in the September 2004 ATLAS eNews, the Web Lecture Archive Project is a system for the archiving and publishing of multimedia presentations, using the Web as medium. We list here newly available WLAP items relating to ATLAS: Atlas Physics Workshop 6-11 June 2005 June 2005 ATLAS Week Plenary Session Click here to browse WLAP for all ATLAS lectures.

  18. Report to users of ATLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, I.; Glagola, B. [eds.

    1995-05-01

    This report contains discussing in the following areas: Status of the Atlas accelerator; highlights of recent research at Atlas; concept for an advanced exotic beam facility based on Atlas; program advisory committee; Atlas executive committee; and Atlas and ANL physics division on the world wide web.

  19. Status of the ATLAS Forward Physics (AFP) Project

    CERN Document Server

    Chytka, L; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS Forward Physics (AFP) project plans to add a set of detectors --- silicon 3D pixel tracking detectors and QUARTIC time of flight detectors --- in the forward region of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. The AFP detectors will be placed around 210 m from the interaction point and are meant to detect protons produced at small angles. The detectors are to be housed in the so called Hamburg beam pipe --- a movable beam pipe allowing horizontal movement of the detectors. The AFP is currently under approval with possible installation in 2014/15.

  20. The Evaporative Cooling System for the ATLAS Inner Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Aitree, D; Anderssen, E C; Akhnazarov, V; Apsimon, R J; Barclay, P; Batchelor, L E; Bates, R L; Battistin, M; Bendotti, J; Berry, S; Bitadze, A; Bizzel, J P; Bonneau, P; Bosteels, Michel; Butterworth, J M; Butterworth, S; Carter, A A; Carter, J R; Catinaccio, A; Corbaz, F; Danielsson, H O; Danilevich, E; Dixon, N; Dixon, S D; Doherty, F; Dorholt, O; Doubrava, M; Egorov, I; Egorov, K; Einsweiler, K; Falou, A C; Feraudet, P; Ferrari, P; Fowler, K; Fraser, J T; French, R S; Galuska, M; Gannaway, F; Gariano, G; Gibson, M D; Gilchriese, M G D; Giugni, D; Godlewski, J; Gousakov, I; Górski, B; Hallewell, G D; Hartman, N; Hawkings, R J; Haywood, S J; Hessey, N P; Infante, S; Jackson, J N; Jones, T J; Kaplon, J; Katunin, S; Lindsay, S; Luisa, L; Massol, N; McEwan, F; McMahon, S J; Menot, C; Mistry, J; Morris, J; Muskett, D M; Nagai, K; Nichols, A; Nicholson, R; Nickerson, R B; Nielsen, S L; Nordahl, P E; Olcese, M; Parodi, M; Pérez-Gómez, F; Pernegger, H; Perrin, E; Rossi, L P; Rovani, A; Ruscino, E; Sandaker, H; Smith, A; Sopko, V; Stapnes, S; Stodulski, M; Tarrant, J; Thadome, J; Tovey, D; Turala, M; Tyndel, M; Vacek, V; van der Kraaij, E; Viehhauser, G H A; Vigeolas, E; Wells, P S; Wenig, S; Werneke, P

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the evaporative system used to cool the silicon detector structures of the inner detector sub-detectors of the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The motivation for an evaporative system, its design and construction are discussed. In detail the particular requirements of the ATLAS inner detector, technical choices and the qualification and manufacture of final components are addressed. Finally results of initial operational tests are reported. Although the entire system described, the paper focuses on the on-detector aspects. Details of the evaporative cooling plant will be discussed elsewhere.

  1. ATLAS Data Access Policy

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    ATLAS has fully supported the principle of open access in its publication policy. This document outlines the policy of ATLAS as regards open access to data at different levels as described in the DPHEP model. The main objective is to make the data available in a usable way to people external to the ATLAS collaboration.

  2. EnviroAtlas - Portland, OR - Atlas Area Boundary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset shows the boundary of the Portland, OR Atlas Area. It represents the outside edge of all the block groups included in the EnviroAtlas Area....

  3. EnviroAtlas - Green Bay, WI - Atlas Area Boundary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset shows the boundary of the Green Bay, WI Atlas Area. It represents the outside edge of all the block groups included in the EnviroAtlas Area....

  4. EnviroAtlas - Paterson, NJ - Atlas Area Boundary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset shows the boundary of the Paterson, NJ Atlas Area. It represents the outside edge of all the block groups included in the EnviroAtlas Area....

  5. EnviroAtlas - Austin, TX - Atlas Area Boundary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset shows the boundary of the Austin, TX Atlas Area. It represents the outside edge of all the block groups included in the EnviroAtlas...

  6. EnviroAtlas - Phoenix, AZ - Atlas Area Boundary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset shows the boundary of the Phoenix, AZ Atlas Area. It represents the outside edge of all the block groups included in the EnviroAtlas Area....

  7. [Atlas fractures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schären, S; Jeanneret, B

    1999-05-01

    Fractures of the atlas account for 1-2% of all vertebral fractures. We divide atlas fractures into 5 groups: isolated fractures of the anterior arch of the atlas, isolated fractures of the posterior arch, combined fractures of the anterior and posterior arch (so-called Jefferson fractures), isolated fractures of the lateral mass and fractures of the transverse process. Isolated fractures of the anterior or posterior arch are benign and are treated conservatively with a soft collar until the neck pain has disappeared. Jefferson fractures are divided into stable and unstable fracture depending on the integrity of the transverse ligament. Stable Jefferson fractures are treated conservatively with good outcome while unstable Jefferson fractures are probably best treated operatively with a posterior atlanto-axial or occipito-axial stabilization and fusion. The authors preferred treatment modality is the immediate open reduction of the dislocated lateral masses combined with a stabilization in the reduced position using a transarticular screw fixation C1/C2 according to Magerl. This has the advantage of saving the atlanto-occipital joints and offering an immediate stability which makes immobilization in an halo or Minerva cast superfluous. In late instabilities C1/2 with incongruency of the lateral masses occurring after primary conservative treatment, an occipito-cervical fusion is indicated. Isolated fractures of the lateral masses are very rare and may, if the lateral mass is totally destroyed, be a reason for an occipito-cervical fusion. Fractures of the transverse processes may be the cause for a thrombosis of the vertebral artery. No treatment is necessary for the fracture itself.

  8. Alignment of the ATLAS Inner Detector Tracking System

    CERN Document Server

    Moles-Valls, R

    2008-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is equipped with a tracking system for c harged particles built on two technologies: silicon and drift tube base detectors. These kind of detectors compose the ATLAS Inner Detector (ID). The Alignment of the ATLAS ID tracking s ystem requires the determination of almost 36000 degrees of freedom. From the tracking point o f view, the alignment parameters should be know to a few microns precision. This permits to att ain optimal measurements of the parameters of the charged particles trajectories, thus ena bling ATLAS to achieve its physics goals. The implementation of the alignment software, its framewor k and the data flow will be discussed. Special attention will be paid to the recent challenges wher e large scale computing simulation of the ATLAS detector has been performed, mimicking the ATLAS o peration, which is going to be very important for the LHC startup scenario. The alignment r esult for several challenges (real cosmic ray data taking and computing system commissioning) will be...

  9. ATLAS experimentet

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Outreach Committee

    2000-01-01

    Filmen innehåller mycket information om fysik och varför LHC behövs tilsammans med stora detektorer och specielt om behovet av ATLAS Experimentet. Mycket bra film för att förklara det okända- som man undersöker i CERN för att ge svar på frågor som människor har försökt förklara under flere tusen år.

  10. The Processing Technology of Copper Based Microstrip Plate%铜基微带板加工技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐浩平; 薛杉; 胡宁

    2013-01-01

    文章对金属基微带板材料性能进行了简单介绍,对铜基微带板的工艺流程及技术进行了详细说明。%In this paper, the material properties of the metal based microstrip plate are introduced and the process and technology of copper based microstrip plate are described in detail.

  11. ATLAS Recordings

    CERN Document Server

    Jeremy Herr; Homer A. Neal; Mitch McLachlan

    The University of Michigan Web Archives for the 2006 ATLAS Week Plenary Sessions, as well as the first of 2007, are now online. In addition, there are a wide variety of Software and Physics Tutorial sessions, recorded over the past couple years, to chose from. All ATLAS-specific archives are accessible here.Viewing requires a standard web browser with RealPlayer plug-in (included in most browsers automatically) and works on any major platform. Lectures can be viewed directly over the web or downloaded locally.In addition, you will find access to a variety of general tutorials and events via the portal. Shaping Collaboration 2006The Michigan group is happy to announce a complete set of recordings from the Shaping Collaboration conference held last December at the CICG in Geneva.The event hosted a mix of Collaborative Tool experts and LHC Users, and featured presentations by the CERN Deputy Director General, Prof. Jos Engelen, the President of Internet2, and chief developers from VRVS/EVO, WLAP, and other tools...

  12. Study of surface properties of ATLAS12 strip sensors and their radiation resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikestikova, M.; Allport, P. P.; Baca, M.; Broughton, J.; Chisholm, A.; Nikolopoulos, K.; Pyatt, S.; Thomas, J. P.; Wilson, J. A.; Kierstead, J.; Kuczewski, P.; Lynn, D.; Hommels, L. B. A.; Ullan, M.; Bloch, I.; Gregor, I. M.; Tackmann, K.; Hauser, M.; Jakobs, K.; Kuehn, S.; Mahboubi, K.; Mori, R.; Parzefall, U.; Clark, A.; Ferrere, D.; Sevilla, S. Gonzalez; Ashby, J.; Blue, A.; Bates, R.; Buttar, C.; Doherty, F.; McMullen, T.; McEwan, F.; O'Shea, V.; Kamada, S.; Yamamura, K.; Ikegami, Y.; Nakamura, K.; Takubo, Y.; Unno, Y.; Takashima, R.; Chilingarov, A.; Fox, H.; Affolder, A. A.; Casse, G.; Dervan, P.; Forshaw, D.; Greenall, A.; Wonsak, S.; Wormald, M.; Cindro, V.; Kramberger, G.; Mandić, I.; Mikuž, M.; Gorelov, I.; Hoeferkamp, M.; Palni, P.; Seidel, S.; Taylor, A.; Toms, K.; Wang, R.; Hessey, N. P.; Valencic, N.; Hanagaki, K.; Dolezal, Z.; Kodys, P.; Bohm, J.; Stastny, J.; Bevan, A.; Beck, G.; Milke, C.; Domingo, M.; Fadeyev, V.; Galloway, Z.; Hibbard-Lubow, D.; Liang, Z.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Seiden, A.; To, K.; French, R.; Hodgson, P.; Marin-Reyes, H.; Parker, K.; Jinnouchi, O.; Hara, K.; Sato, K.; Hagihara, M.; Iwabuchi, S.; Bernabeu, J.; Civera, J. V.; Garcia, C.; Lacasta, C.; Marti i Garcia, S.; Rodriguez, D.; Santoyo, D.; Solaz, C.; Soldevila, U.

    2016-09-01

    A radiation hard n+-in-p micro-strip sensor for the use in the Upgrade of the strip tracker of the ATLAS experiment at the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) has been developed by the "ATLAS ITk Strip Sensor collaboration" and produced by Hamamatsu Photonics. Surface properties of different types of end-cap and barrel miniature sensors of the latest sensor design ATLAS12 have been studied before and after irradiation. The tested barrel sensors vary in "punch-through protection" (PTP) structure, and the end-cap sensors, whose stereo-strips differ in fan geometry, in strip pitch and in edge strip ganging options. Sensors have been irradiated with proton fluences of up to 1×1016 neq/cm2, by reactor neutron fluence of 1×1015 neq/cm2 and by gamma rays from 60Co up to dose of 1 MGy. The main goal of the present study is to characterize the leakage current for micro-discharge breakdown voltage estimation, the inter-strip resistance and capacitance, the bias resistance and the effectiveness of PTP structures as a function of bias voltage and fluence. It has been verified that the ATLAS12 sensors have high breakdown voltage well above the operational voltage which implies that different geometries of sensors do not influence their stability. The inter-strip isolation is a strong function of irradiation fluence, however the sensor performance is acceptable in the expected range for HL-LHC. New gated PTP structure exhibits low PTP onset voltage and sharp cut-off of effective resistance even at the highest tested radiation fluence. The inter-strip capacitance complies with the technical specification required before irradiation and no radiation-induced degradation was observed. A summary of ATLAS12 sensors tests is presented including a comparison of results from different irradiation sites. The measured characteristics are compared with the previous prototype of the sensor design, ATLAS07.

  13. ATLAS Distributed Computing Automation

    CERN Document Server

    Schovancova, J; The ATLAS collaboration; Borrego, C; Campana, S; Di Girolamo, A; Elmsheuser, J; Hejbal, J; Kouba, T; Legger, F; Magradze, E; Medrano Llamas, R; Negri, G; Rinaldi, L; Sciacca, G; Serfon, C; Van Der Ster, D C

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS Experiment benefits from computing resources distributed worldwide at more than 100 WLCG sites. The ATLAS Grid sites provide over 100k CPU job slots, over 100 PB of storage space on disk or tape. Monitoring of status of such a complex infrastructure is essential. The ATLAS Grid infrastructure is monitored 24/7 by two teams of shifters distributed world-wide, by the ATLAS Distributed Computing experts, and by site administrators. In this paper we summarize automation efforts performed within the ATLAS Distributed Computing team in order to reduce manpower costs and improve the reliability of the system. Different aspects of the automation process are described: from the ATLAS Grid site topology provided by the ATLAS Grid Information System, via automatic site testing by the HammerCloud, to automatic exclusion from production or analysis activities.

  14. Charge collection and capacitance-voltage analysis in irradiated n-type magnetic Czochralski silicon detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petterson, M.K.; Sadrozinski, H.F.-W.; Betancourt, C. [SCIPP UC Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, 95064 CA (United States); Bruzzi, M. [INFN, Dipartimento di Energetica, Universita di Firenze, via S. Marta 3, 50139 Florence (Italy)], E-mail: mara.bruzzi@unifi.it; Scaringella, M.; Tosi, C.; Macchiolo, A. [INFN, Dipartimento di Energetica, Universita di Firenze, via S. Marta 3, 50139 Florence (Italy); Manna, N.; Creanza, D. [Universita di Bari (Italy); Boscardin, M.; Piemonte, C.; Zorzi, N. [ITC, IRST, Povo, Trento (Italy); Borrello, L.; Messineo, A. [INFN Pisa (Italy); Dalla Betta, G.F. [Universita di Trento (Italy)

    2007-12-11

    The depletion depth of irradiated n-type silicon microstrip detectors can be inferred from both the reciprocal capacitance and from the amount of collected charge. Capacitance voltage (C-V) measurements at different frequencies and temperatures are being compared with the bias voltage dependence of the charge collection on an irradiated n-type magnetic Czochralski silicon detector. Good agreement between the reciprocal capacitance and the median collected charge is found when the frequency of the C-V measurement is selected such that it scales with the temperature dependence of the leakage current. Measuring C-V characteristics at prescribed combinations of temperature and frequency allows then a realistic estimate of the depletion characteristics of irradiated silicon strip detectors based on C-V data alone.

  15. New technologies of silicon position-sensitive detectors for future tracker systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bassignana, Daniela; Lozano, M

    In view of the new generation of high luminosity colliders, HL-LHC and ILC, a farther investigation of silicon radiation detectors design and technology is demanded, in order to satisfy the stringent requirements of the experiments at such sophisticated machines. In this thesis, innovative technologies of silicon radiation detectors for future tracking systems are proposed. Three dierent devices have been studied and designed with the help of dierent tools for computer simulations. They have been manufactured in the IMB-CNM clean room facilities in Barcelona and characterized with proper experimental set-ups in order to test the detectors capabilities and the quality and suitability of the technologies used for their fabrication. The rst technology deals with the upgrade of dedicated sensors for laser alignment systems in future tracker detectors. The design and technology of common single-sided silicon microstrip detectors have been slightly modied in order to improve IR light transmittance of the devices. T...

  16. The Silicon Wheel of CMS-SiB1 Milestone Report

    CERN Document Server

    Wittmer, Bruno

    1998-01-01

    The CMS Silicon Barrel Detector is a subsystem of the CMS Tracker and consists of seven wheels. For the SiB1-Milestone, that was completed in Summer 1997, one of these wheels has been built and equipped with 14 working silicon microstrip detector modules and 112 dummy modules. The working modules consist of two detectors glued together each one having 1024 strips with a pitch of 50 micron that are read out by eight PreMux 128 Chips. In the dummy modules the Readout Electronics have been substituted by resistors simulating the heat load. The dummy silicon sensors have fiducial marks and were alligned with a precision of 5 micron. The supporting wheel structure is made out of carbon fiber and incorporates all services. The assembly precision of the support structure was better than 100 micron.

  17. Determination of W boson helicity fractions in top quark decays in p$\\bar{p}$ collisions at CDF Run II and production of endcap modules for the ATLAS Silicon Tracker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moed, Shulamit [Univ. of Geneva (Switzerland)

    2007-01-01

    The thesis presented here includes two parts. The first part discusses the production of endcap modules for the ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker at the University of Geneva. The ATLAS experiment is one of the two multi-purpose experiments being built at the LHC at CERN. The University of Geneva invested extensive efforts to create an excellent and efficient module production site, in which 655 endcap outer modules were constructed. The complexity and extreme requirements for 10 years of LHC operation with a high resolution, high efficiency, low noise tracking system resulted in an extremely careful, time consuming production and quality assurance of every single module. At design luminosity about 1000 particles will pass through the tracking system each 25 ns. In addition to requiring fast tracking techniques, the high particle flux causes significant radiation damage. Therefore, modules have to be constructed within tight and accurate mechanical and electrical specification. A description of the ATLAS experiment and the ATLAS Semiconductor tracker is presented, followed by a detailed overview of the module production at the University of Geneva. My personal contribution to the endcap module production at the University of Geneva was taking part, together with other physicists, in selecting components to be assembled to a module, including hybrid reception tests, measuring the I-V curve of the sensors and the modules at different stages of the production, thermal cycling the modules and performing electrical readout tests as an initial quality assurance of the modules before they were shipped to CERN. An elaborated description of all of these activities is given in this thesis. At the beginning of the production period the author developed a statistics package which enabled us to monitor the rate and quality of the module production. This package was then used widely by the ATLAS SCT institutes that built endcap modules of any type, and kept being improved and updated

  18. Detailed studies of full-size ATLAS12 sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hommels, L. B. A.; Allport, P. P.; Baca, M.; Broughton, J.; Chisholm, A.; Nikolopoulos, K.; Pyatt, S.; Thomas, J. P.; Wilson, J. A.; Kierstead, J.; Kuczewski, P.; Lynn, D.; Arratia, M.; Klein, C. T.; Ullan, M.; Fleta, C.; Fernandez-Tejero, J.; Bloch, I.; Gregor, I. M.; Lohwasser, K.; Poley, L.; Tackmann, K.; Trofimov, A.; Yildirim, E.; Hauser, M.; Jakobs, K.; Kuehn, S.; Mahboubi, K.; Mori, R.; Parzefall, U.; Clark, A.; Ferrere, D.; Gonzalez Sevilla, S.; Ashby, J.; Blue, A.; Bates, R.; Buttar, C.; Doherty, F.; McMullen, T.; McEwan, F.; O`Shea, V.; Kamada, S.; Yamamura, K.; Ikegami, Y.; Nakamura, K.; Takubo, Y.; Unno, Y.; Takashima, R.; Chilingarov, A.; Fox, H.; Affolder, A. A.; Casse, G.; Dervan, P.; Forshaw, D.; Greenall, A.; Wonsak, S.; Wormald, M.; Cindro, V.; Kramberger, G.; Mandić, I.; Mikuž, M.; Gorelov, I.; Hoeferkamp, M.; Palni, P.; Seidel, S.; Taylor, A.; Toms, K.; Wang, R.; Hessey, N. P.; Valencic, N.; Hanagaki, K.; Dolezal, Z.; Kodys, P.; Bohm, J.; Stastny, J.; Mikestikova, M.; Bevan, A.; Beck, G.; Milke, C.; Domingo, M.; Fadeyev, V.; Galloway, Z.; Hibbard-Lubow, D.; Liang, Z.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Seiden, A.; To, K.; French, R.; Hodgson, P.; Marin-Reyes, H.; Parker, K.; Jinnouchi, O.; Hara, K.; Sato, K.; Sato, K.; Hagihara, M.; Iwabuchi, S.; Bernabeu, J.; Civera, J. V.; Garcia, C.; Lacasta, C.; Marti i Garcia, S.; Rodriguez, D.; Santoyo, D.; Solaz, C.; Soldevila, U.

    2016-09-01

    The "ATLAS ITk Strip Sensor Collaboration" R&D group has developed a second iteration of single-sided n+-in-p type micro-strip sensors for use in the tracker upgrade of the ATLAS experiment at the High-Luminosity (HL) LHC. The full size sensors measure approximately 97 × 97mm2 and are designed for tolerance against the 1.1 ×1015neq /cm2 fluence expected at the HL-LHC. Each sensor has 4 columns of 1280 individual 23.9 mm long channels, arranged at 74.5 μm pitch. Four batches comprising 120 sensors produced by Hamamatsu Photonics were evaluated for their mechanical, and electrical bulk and strip characteristics. Optical microscopy measurements were performed to obtain the sensor surface profile. Leakage current and bulk capacitance properties were measured for each individual sensor. For sample strips across the sensor batches, the inter-strip capacitance and resistance as well as properties of the punch-through protection structure were measured. A multi-channel probecard was used to measure leakage current, coupling capacitance and bias resistance for each individual channel of 100 sensors in three batches. The compiled results for 120 unirradiated sensors are presented in this paper, including summary results for almost 500,000 strips probed. Results on the reverse bias voltage dependence of various parameters and frequency dependence of tested capacitances are included for validation of the experimental methods used. Comparing results with specified values, almost all sensors fall well within specification.

  19. Silicon Spintronics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, R.

    2008-01-01

    Integration of magnetism and mainstream semiconductor electronics could impact information technology in ways beyond imagination. A pivotal step is implementation of spin-based electronic functionality in silicon devices. Remarkable progress made during the last two years gives confidence that this

  20. Computer-Aided Design of Microstrip GaAs Mesfet Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Niels Ole

    1976-01-01

    Results on computer-aided design of broadband GaAs MESFET amplifiers in microstrip is presented. The analysis of an amplifier is based on measured scattering parameters and a model of the microstrip structure, which includes parasitics and junction effects. The optimized performance of one stage...... amplifiers with lossless distributed matching elements is presented. Realized amplifiers are in good agreement with the theory. One stage amplifiers with a 1 ¿m FET in chip form exhibit 5.8 dB of gain in the range 8-12 GHz, while a gain of 4.5 dB from 4-8 GHz has been obtained with a packaged 1 ¿m FET....

  1. Isolation Improvement of a Microstrip Patch Array Antenna for WCDMA Indoor Repeater Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongmin Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the isolation improvement techniques of a microstrip patch array antenna for the indoor wideband code division multiple access (WCDMA repeater applications. One approach is to construct the single-feed switchable feed network structure with an MS/NRI coupled-line coupler in order to reduce the mutual coupling level between antennas. Another approach is to insert the soft surface unit cells near the edges of the microstrip patch elements in order to reduce backward radiation waves. In order to further improve the isolation level, the server antenna and donor antenna are installedinorthogonal direction. The fabricated antenna exhibits a gain over 7 dBi and higher isolation level between server and donor antennas below −70 dB at WCDMA band.

  2. An Efficient Analysis Method for Cylindrical Conformal Microstrip Antenna Fed by Microstripline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengyou Yin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Firstly, a domain-division solution is provided in this paper, which can solve Hankel function’s singular problem of Sommerfeld integral in calculating the spatial domain Green function for cylindrically stratified media and realize the computation for all elements of -matrix in the method of moment. Then, the arbitrary shape cylindrical conformal microstrip antenna (CCMA fed by microstripline is theoretically analysed using the RWG basis function. Numerical results are presented in the form of mutual coupling between two current modes and electromagnetic characteristics of a CCMA fed by microstripline. The results show that, comparing with the planar counterpart microstrip antenna, the reflection coefficient of the CCMA increases, the current on the microstripline varies sharply, and the backward radiation field appears. However, the frontward radiation field of the CCMA is similar to the planar case.

  3. Novel design for microstrip to stripline transitions for millimeter-wave application in LTCC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xin; Huang, Qi-bo; Zhu, Zheng-xian; Xu, Hui; Zhang, Bo

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents two transitions between microstrip and stripline in Low Temperature Co-fired Ceramic technology, including a vertical transition and a coplanar transition for millimeter-wave application. These interconnects are simulated and optimized by a three-dimensional electromagnetic field simulator. Simulation results show that the return loss of microstrip to stripline vertical transition is less than -22 dB, and insertion losses are greater than 0.5 dB up to 35 GHz, and greater than 1 dB up to 40 GHz. Similarly, the return loss of the coplanar transition is less than -32 dB and insertion loss is better than 0.5 dB. LTCC test structures were fabricated and the performance of all transitions was successfully validated by scattering parameter measurements up to 40 GHz.

  4. Analysis and optimal design of Si microstrip detector with overhanging metal electrode

    CERN Document Server

    Ranjan, Kirti; Chatterji, S; Srivastava-Ajay, K; Shivpuri, R K

    2001-01-01

    The harsh radiation environment to be encountered at LHC (large hadron collider) and RHIC (relativistic heavy ion collider) poses a challenging task for the fabrication of Si microstrip detectors. Due to high luminosities, detectors are required to sustain very high voltage operation well exceeding the bias voltage needed to fully deplete them. The "overhanging" metal contact is now a well established technique for improving the breakdown performance of the Si microstrip detector. Based on computer simulation, the influence of various physical and geometrical parameters on the electrical breakdown of the Si detectors equipped with metal overhangs is extensively analysed. Furthermore, optimization of design parameters is performed to achieve breakdown voltages close to maximum realizable values. The simulation results are found to be in good agreement with experimental data. (17 refs).

  5. Bird Face Microstrip Printed Monopole Antenna Design for Ultra Wide Band Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Mohammad Jakir; Faruque, Mohammad Rashed Iqbal; Islam, Md. Moinul; Islam, Mohammad Tariqul; Rahman, Md. Atiqur

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, a novel bird face microstrip printed monopole ultra-wideband (UWB) antenna is investigated. The proposed compact antenna consists of a ring-shaped with additional slot and slotted ground plane on FR4 material. The overall electrical dimension of the proposed antenna is 0.25 λ×0.36 λ×0.016 λ and is energized by microstrip feed line. The Computer Simulation Technology (CST) and the High Frequency Structural Simulator (HFSS) is applied in this analysis. The impedance bandwidth of the monopole antenna cover 3.1-12.3 GHz (9.2 GHz, BW) frequency range. The messurement displayed that the designed antenna achieved excellent gain and stable omnidirectional radiation patterns within the UWB. The maximum gain of 6.8 dBi and omnidirectional radiation pattern makes the proposed antenna that is suitable for UWB systems.

  6. Quality Factor Effect on the Wireless Range of Microstrip Patch Antenna Strain Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Daliri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently introduced passive wireless strain sensors based on microstrip patch antennas have shown great potential for reliable health and usage monitoring in aerospace and civil industries. However, the wireless interrogation range of these sensors is limited to few centimeters, which restricts their practical application. This paper presents an investigation on the effect of circular microstrip patch antenna (CMPA design on the quality factor and the maximum practical wireless reading range of the sensor. The results reveal that by using appropriate substrate materials the interrogation distance of the CMPA sensor can be increased four-fold, from the previously reported 5 to 20 cm, thus improving considerably the viability of this type of wireless sensors for strain measurement and damage detection.

  7. C-Slot Coaxial fed Microstrip Patch antenna for DTV reception

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    Prof. Jagan Mohan Rao. S

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a novel design of small sized, low profile coaxial fed microstrip patch antenna is proposed for terrestrial DTV signal reception applications in the UHF band frequency range of 540-890MHz. Designed model was C-slot Microstrip antenna. Different parameters like return loss which is 21.44dB at 640MHz, VSWR as 1.1851, gain along θ, Ø directions, radiation pattern in 2D & 3D where the 2-D gain is 7.57dB, axial ratio, E & H field distributions, current distributions are simulated using HFSS 13.0. The measured parameters satisfy required limits hence making the proposed antenna suitable for DTV reception applications in the UHF band.

  8. Coupling Between Microstrip Lines With Finite Width Ground Plane Embedded in Thin Film Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponchak, George E.; Dalton, Edan; Tentzeris, Manos M.; Papapolymerou, John

    2003-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) interconnects built upon multiple layers of polyimide are required for constructing 3D circuits on CMOS (low resistivity) Si wafers, GaAs, and ceramic substrates. Thin film microstrip lines (TFMS) with finite width ground planes embedded in the polyimide are often used. However, the closely spaced TFMS lines a r e susceptible to high levels of coupling, which degrades circuit performance. In this paper, Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) analysis and experimental measurements a r e used to show that the ground planes must be connected by via holes to reduce coupling in both the forward and backward directions. Furthermore, it is shown that coupled microstrip lines establish a slotline type mode between the two ground planes and a dielectric waveguide type mode, and that the via holes recommended here eliminate these two modes.

  9. The analysis of reactively loaded microstrip antennas by finite difference time domain modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, G. S.; Beach, M. A.; Railton, C. J.

    1990-01-01

    In recent years, much interest has been shown in the use of printed circuit antennas in mobile satellite and communications terminals at microwave frequencies. Although such antennas have many advantages in weight and profile size over more conventional reflector/horn configurations, they do, however, suffer from an inherently narrow bandwidth. A way of optimizing the bandwidth of such antennas by an electronic tuning technique using a loaded probe mounted within the antenna structure is examined, and the resulting far-field radiation patterns are shown. Simulation results from a 2D finite difference time domain (FDTD) model for a rectangular microstrip antenna loaded with shorting pins are given and compared to results obtained with an actual antenna. It is hoped that this work will result in a design package for the analysis of microstrip patch antenna elements.

  10. Theoretical and Experimental Results of Substrate Effects on Microstrip Power Divider Designs

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    Suhair Mansoor Mahmood

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of substrate materials on the design of microstrip power divider are investigated theoretically and experimentally. Three dielectric substrate materials, Duroid 3003, G10/FR4 epoxy Glass, and Duroid 3010, are chosen to be studied. A three-way two-stage power divider is designed at S-band frequency of 2.25 GHz and etched on each studied substrate separately. The substrate effects on the characteristics and performance of the microsrip circuits are studied taking into consideration the large difference in dielectric constant and the dissipation factor. The circuit designs presented here are analyzed using the Genesys CAD program and implemented and tested experimentally. The simulated and measured results are compared and discussed, and they indicate that significant changes in the characteristics of the microstrip power divider are observed.

  11. MULTIRESOLUTION MOMENT METHOD BASED ON THE IMPEDANCE OPERATOR FOR THE ANALYSIS OF PLANAR MICROSTRIP STRUCTURES

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    NEJLA OUESLATI,

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an integral equation analysis of planar microstrip circuits. In the developed approach, the Moment Method (MoM with wavelet expansion is combined to the generalized equivalent circuit (GEC to characterize microstrip structures. The interest of the (GEC method is to simplify the implementation of the moment method by the translation of an electromagnetic problem to an electric one with the use of the impedance operator. In the multiresolution moment method (MRMoM-GEC, an excitation on the plane of the circuit is used in conjunction with compactly supported wavelets trial functions. This approach generates a sparse linear system. The application of the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT,especially for large structures, allows a significant reduction of the unit time of central processing.

  12. Gap Excitations and Series Loads in Microstrip Lines: Equivalent Network Characterization with Application to THz Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Andrea; Siegel, Peter H.

    2001-01-01

    At submillimeter wavelengths typical gap discontinuities in microstrip, CPW lines or at antenna terminals, which might contain diodes or active elements, cannot be viewed as simple quasi statically evaluated lumped elements. Planar Schottky diodes at 2.5 THz, for example, have a footprint that is comparable to a wavelength. Thus, apart from modelling the diodes themselves, the connection with their exciting elements (antennas or microstrip) gives rise to parasitics. Full wave or strictly numeric approaches can be used to account for these parasitics but at the expense of generality of the solution and the CPU time of the calculation. In this paper an equivalent network is derived that accurately accounts for large gap discontinuities (with respect to a wavelength) without suffering from the limitations of available numeric techniques.

  13. The effect of coupling line loss in microstrip to dielectric resonator coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearn, C. P.; Bradshaw, E. S.; Trew, R. J.

    1990-01-01

    The interaction between a dielectric resonator and a microstrip transmission line is fundamentally a field phenomenon. However, the model of Figure 1b widely is used to represent the arrangement in Figure 1a, and predicts the behavior encountered in practice. The microstrip line of length l = n(lambda)/4 between the input and coupling planes and the lambda/4 open-circuit stub usually is assumed to be lossless. This paper considers the effect of coupling line loss on the unloaded-Q and coupling coefficient beta of the combination. It shows that transmission line loss can cause the decrease in unloaded-Q that has been observed to occur with tight coupling, and limits the coupling coefficient to a much lower value than would be obtained with a lossless coupling line.

  14. Dual frequency, dual polarized, multi-layered microstrip slot and dipole array antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulintseff, Ann N. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    An antenna array system is disclosed which uses subarrays of slots and subarrays of dipoles on separate planes. The slots and dipoles respectively are interleaved, which is to say there is minimal overlap between them. Each subarray includes a microstrip transmission line and a plurality of elements extending perpendicular thereto. The dipoles form the transmission elements and the slots form the receive elements. The plane in which the slots are formed also forms a ground plane for the dipoles--hence the feed to the dipole is on the opposite side of this ground plane as the feed to the slots. HPAs are located adjacent the dipoles on one side of the substrate and LNAs are located adjacent the slots on the other side of the substrate. The dipoles and slots are tuned by setting different offsets between each element and the microstrip transmission line.

  15. Singularity Processing Method of Microstrip Line Edge Based on LOD-FDTD

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    Lei Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the performance of the accuracy and efficiency for analyzing the microstrip structure, a singularity processing method is proposed theoretically and experimentally based on the fundamental locally one-dimensional finite difference time domain (LOD-FDTD with second-order temporal accuracy (denoted as FLOD2-FDTD. The proposed method can highly improve the performance of the FLOD2-FDTD even when the conductor is embedded into more than