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Sample records for atlas electromagnetic calorimeter

  1. The ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    Michel Mathieu, a technician for the ATLAS collaboration, is cabling the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter's first end-cap, before insertion into its cryostat. Millions of wires are connected to the electromagnetic calorimeter on this end-cap that must be carefully fed out from the detector so that data can be read out. Every element on the detector will be attached to one of these wires so that a full digital map of the end-cap can be recreated.

  2. The ATLAS Electromagnetic Calorimeter Calibration Workshop

    CERN Multimedia

    Hong Ma; Isabelle Wingerter

    The ATLAS Electromagnetic Calorimeter Calibration Workshop took place at LAPP-Annecy from the 1st to the 3rd of October; 45 people attended the workshop. A detailed program was setup before the workshop. The agenda was organised around very focused presentations where questions were raised to allow arguments to be exchanged and answers to be proposed. The main topics were: Electronics calibration Handling of problematic channels Cluster level corrections for electrons and photons Absolute energy scale Streams for calibration samples Calibration constants processing Learning from commissioning Forty-five people attended the workshop. The workshop was on the whole lively and fruitful. Based on years of experience with test beam analysis and Monte Carlo simulation, and the recent operation of the detector in the commissioning, the methods to calibrate the electromagnetic calorimeter are well known. Some of the procedures are being exercised in the commisssioning, which have demonstrated the c...

  3. Geant4 for the atlas electromagnetic calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kordas, K.; Parrour, G.; Simion, St.

    2001-04-01

    We have recently employed the Geant4 tool-kit for the simulation of the barrel part of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter. The two approaches used for the description of this geometry are presented and compared. Subsequently, we test the new simulation tool against the predictions of Geant3, the previous generation of the Geant simulation. We do so for muons. With the caveat of some differences in the detector geometry implementations in Geant4 and Geant3, we also show some extremely preliminary results for electrons. A comparison between the two geometry models has shown that there are very small differences, which are under study, but in general the tailored geometry approach is proven sound. We also investigated a way to reduce significantly the memory usage of the straight-forward 'static' geometry description. Comparing Geant4 against Geant3, we find that the mean energy depositions for 50 and 100 GeV muons are in agreement between the two simulations, but the two yield significantly different distributions. Preliminary results on electrons are encouraging and we plan to study these particles next, including comparisons with test beam data. (authors)

  4. Discussion on the electromagnetic calorimeters of ATLAS and CMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleksa, Martin, E-mail: martin.aleksa@cern.ch [CERN, Geneva 23, 1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Diemoz, Marcella [INFN Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, 00185 Rome (Italy)

    2013-12-21

    This document summarizes a discussion on the electromagnetic calorimeters of ATLAS and CMS, two experiments at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC), that took place at the 13th Vienna Conference on Instrumentation in February 2013. During the discussion each electromagnetic calorimeter and its performance was described in response to ten questions chosen to cover a wide range from the design and construction of the calorimeters over the calibration and performance to their role in the discovery of the Higgs boson and upgrade plans.

  5. Optimizing the energy measurement of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lampl, W.

    2005-12-01

    This PhD-thesis addresses the calibration of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter. ATLAS is a high-energy physics experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) which is currently under construction at CERN in Geneva. LHC and ATLAS are foreseen to start up in 2007. In summer 2004, an extensive beam-test was carried out. This means that individual detector modules are exposed to a particle beam of known energy in order to verify the detector performance. At this occasion, all ATLAS subdetectors where operated together for the first time. The thesis contains a comprehensive description of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter, the reconstruction software and the test-beam experiment that was carried out at CERN in 2004. Furthermore, the physics of the electromagnetic shower is discussed in detail. Data from the test beam as well as a detailed Monte-Carlo simulation are used to develop a novel energy-reconstruction method for the ATLAS EM calorimeter that achieves an excellent energy resolution (sampling term ∼ 11 %) as well as a very good linearity (< 0.4 %). Data taken during the beam test is also used to verify the accuracy of the simulation and to test the new energy-reconstruction method. (author)

  6. Electromagnetic Cell Level Calibration for ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Modules

    CERN Document Server

    Kulchitskii, Yu A; Budagov, Yu A; Khubua, J I; Rusakovitch, N A; Vinogradov, V B; Henriques, A; Davidek, T; Tokar, S; Solodkov, A; Vichou, I

    2006-01-01

    We have determined the electromagnetic calibration constants of 11% TileCal modules exposed to electron beams with incident angles of 20 and 90 degrees. The gain of all the calorimeter cells have been pre-equalized using the radioactive Cs-source that will be also used in situ. The average values for these modules are equal to: for the flat filter method 1.154+/-0.002 pC/GeV and 1.192+/-0.002 pC/GeV for 20 and 90 degrees, for the fit method 1.040+/-0.002 pC/GeV and 1.068+/-0.003 pC/GeV, respectively. These average values for all cells of calibrated modules agree with the weighted average calibration constants for separate modules within the errors. Using the individual calibration constants for every module the RMS spread value of constants will be 1.9+/-0.1 %. In the case of the global constant this value will be 2.6+/-0.1 %. Finally, we present the global constants which should be used for the electromagnetic calibration of the ATLAS Tile hadronic calorimeter data in the ATHENA framework. These constants ar...

  7. Energy reconstruction and calibration algorithms for the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Delmastro, M

    2003-01-01

    The work of this thesis is devoted to the study, development and optimization of the algorithms of energy reconstruction and calibration for the electromagnetic calorimeter (EMC) of the ATLAS experiment, presently under installation and commissioning at the CERN Large Hadron Collider in Geneva (Switzerland). A deep study of the electrical characteristics of the detector and of the signals formation and propagation is conduced: an electrical model of the detector is developed and analyzed through simulations; a hardware model (mock-up) of a group of the EMC readout cells has been built, allowing the direct collection and properties study of the signals emerging from the EMC cells. We analyze the existing multiple-sampled signal reconstruction strategy, showing the need of an improvement in order to reach the advertised performances of the detector. The optimal filtering reconstruction technique is studied and implemented, taking into account the differences between the ionization and calibration waveforms as e...

  8. Prediction of signal amplitude and shape for the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Collard, C; Henrot-Versillé, S; Serin, L

    2007-01-01

    A quantitative description of calibration pulses is made,using measured properties of detector cells,and preamplifiers and shaping amplifier characteristics.The calculations are compared to commissioning data taken with the electromagnetic liquid argon calorimeter installed in the Atlas pit.

  9. Drift time measurement in the ATLAS liquid argon electromagnetic calorimeter using cosmic muons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aad..[], G.; Dam, Mogens; Hansen, Jørgen Beck

    2010-01-01

    The ionization signals in the liquid argon of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter are studied in detail using cosmic muons. In particular, the drift time of the ionization electrons is measured and used to assess the intrinsic uniformity of the calorimeter gaps and estimate its impact...... on the constant term of the energy resolution. The drift times of electrons in the cells of the second layer of the calorimeter are uniform at the level of 1.3% in the barrel and 2.8% in the endcaps. This leads to an estimated contribution to the constant term of (0.29^{+0.05}_{-0.04})% in the barrel and (0...

  10. The ATLAS Liquid Argon Electromagnetic Calorimeter Construction, commissioning and elected test beam results

    CERN Document Server

    Hervás, L

    2004-01-01

    The construction of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Electromagnetic Calorimeter has been completed and commissioning is in progress to prepare the cryostats for lowering into the ATLAS pit. After a brief description of the detector, its construction and readout electronics, this paper summarizes results of quality checks (electrical, connectivity) carried out during the integration of the calorimeter wheels into the cryostats. We present also selected results of its performance, such as linearity, energy resolution, timing resolution, uniformity of the energy response, obtained in beam tests with several series modules. 16 Refs.

  11. Frozen-shower simulation of electromagnetic showers in the ATLAS forward calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Gasnikova, Ksenia; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Accurate simulation of calorimeter response for high energy electromagnetic particles is essential for the LHC experiments. Detailed simulation of the electromagnetic showers using Geant4 is however very CPU intensive and various fast simulation methods were proposed instead. The frozen shower simulation substitutes the full propagation of the showers for energies below 1~GeV by showers taken from a pre-simulated library. The method is used for production of the main ATLAS Monte Carlo samples, greatly improving the production time. The frozen showers describe shower shapes, sampling fraction, sampling and noise-related fluctuations very well, while description of the constant term, related to calorimeter non-uniformity, requires a careful choice of the shower library binning. A new method is proposed to tune the binning variables, using multivariate techniques. The method is tested and optimized for the description of the ATLAS forward calorimeter.

  12. Insertion of the first half-barrel of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter into its cryostat

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    The first cylinder of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter barrel and the presampler have been inserted in the cryostat.The ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter is intended to detect electrons, positrons and photons by measuring the energy they deposit on being absorbed. The cylinder of the calorimeter is in two halves, that will be sunk in a liquid-argon bath cooled to 90 kelvin (-180°C). Each half-barrel is 3.2 metres long, 53 cm thick and formed by assembling 16 modules. Each module is made up of alternate lead absorbers and electrodes pressed into 64 layers folded accordion-fashion. The presampler, set up inside the cylinder, is an integral part of the calorimeter system: It measures the energy lost by a particle before it reaches the calorimeter. To ensure an ultra-clean environment, a tent (visible here) was erected round the calorimeter and entry point to the cryostat. The detector and presampler, fitted together, could then be slid gradually into the cryostat like a drawer. To do so, the insertion team...

  13. Insertion of the first half-barrel of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter into its cryostat

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    The first cylinder of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter barrel and the presampler have been inserted in the cryostat. The ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter is intended to detect electrons, positrons and photons by measuring the energy they deposit on being absorbed. The cylinder of the calorimeter is in two halves, that will be sunk in a liquid-argon bath cooled to 90 kelvin (-180°C). Each half-barrel is 3.2 metres long, 53 cm thick and formed by assembling 16 modules. Each module is made up of alternate lead absorbers and electrodes pressed into 64 layers folded accordion-fashion. The presampler, set up inside the cylinder, is an integral part of the calorimeter system: It measures the energy lost by a particle before it reaches the calorimeter. To ensure an ultra-clean environment, a tent was erected round the calorimeter and entry point to the cryostat. The detector and presampler, fitted together, could then be slid gradually into the cryostat like a drawer. To do so, the insertion team had to fine-t...

  14. Performance of an endcap prototype of the ATLAS accordion electromagnetic calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Gingrich, D M; Boos, E; Zhautykov, B O; Aubert, Bernard; Bazan, A; Beaugiraud, B; Boniface, J; Colas, Jacques; Jézéquel, S; Le Flour, T; Maire, M; Rival, F; Stipcevic, M; Thion, J; Van den Plas, D; Wingerter-Seez, I; Zitoun, R; Zolnierowski, Y; Chmeissani, M; Fernández, E; Garrido, L; Martínez, M; Padilla, C; Gordon, H A; Radeka, V; Rahm, David Charles; Stephani, D; Baisin, L; Berset, J C; Chevalley, J L; Gianotti, F; Gildemeister, O; Marin, C P; Nessi, Marzio; Poggioli, Luc; Richter, W; Vuillemin, V; Baze, J M; Gosset, L G; Lavocat, P; Lottin, J P; Mansoulié, B; Meyer, J P; Renardy, J F; Schwindling, J; Teiger, J; Collot, J; de Saintignon, P; Dzahini, D; Hostachy, J Y; Laborie, G; Mahout, G; Merchez, E; Pouxe, J; Hervás, L; Labarga, L; Scheel, C V; Chekhtman, A; Dargent, P; Dinkespiler, B; Etienne, F; Fassnacht, P; Fouchez, D; Martin, L; Martin, O; Miotto, A; Monnier, E; Nagy, E; Olivetto, C; Tisserant, S; Battistoni, G; Camin, D V; Cavalli, D; Costa, G; Cozzi, L; Resconi, S; Fedyakin, N N; Ferrari, A; Mandelli, L; Mazzanti, M; Perini, L; Sala, P R; Azuelos, Georges; Beaudoin, G; Depommier, P; León-Florián, E; Leroy, C; Roy, P; Serman, M; Augé, E; Chase, Robert L; Chollet, J C; de La Taille, C; Fayard, Louis; Fournier, D; Hrisoho, A T; Merkel, B; Noppe, J M; Parrour, G; Pétroff, P; Schaffer, A C; Seguin-Moreau, N; Serin, L; Tisserand, V; Vichou, I; Canton, B; David, J; Genat, J F; Imbault, D; Le Dortz, O; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Schwemling, P; Eek, L O; Lund-Jensen, B; Söderqvist, J; Lefebvre, M; Robertson, S; White, J

    1997-01-01

    The design and construction of a lead-liquid argon endcap calorimeter prototype using an accordion geometry and conceived as a sector of the inner wheel of the endcap calorimeter of the future ATLAS experiment at the LHC is described. The performance obtained using electron beam data is presented. The main results are an energy resolution with a sampling term below $11\\%/\\sqrt{E(\\rm GeV)}$ and a small local constant term, a good linearity of the response with the incident energy and a global constant term of 0.8\\% over an extended area in the rapidity range of $2.2 < \\eta <2.9$. These properties make the design suitable for the ATLAS electromagnetic endcap calorimeter.

  15. Characterisation and exploitation of Atlas electromagnetic calorimeter performances: muons study and timing resolution use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camard, A.

    2004-10-01

    The ATLAS detector in LHC involves electromagnetic calorimeters. The purpose of this work is to study the calorimeter response to the muons contaminating the beam used to test the different modules of ATLAS. We have showed how data analysis from the testing beam can be used to assure that the required performance for the study of the detector response to muons provides a complementary diagnostic tool for electrons. We have taken part into the design of a testing bench aimed at assessing the performance of the receiver circuit for timing and triggering signals. We have developed, in the framework of a quick simulation of ATLAS, a tool for the reconstruction in a simple and fast manner of the localization of the main event vertex by using the measurement of the arrival time of particles with ATLAS's calorimeters. It is likely that this tool will be fully used during the starting phase of the ATLAS experiment because it is easier to operate it quickly and is less sensitive to the background noise than traditional tools based on charged-particle tracks recognition inside the detector

  16. Drift Time Measurement in the ATLAS Liquid Argon Electromagnetic Calorimeter using Cosmic Muons

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, G.; Abdallah, J.; Abdelalim, A.A.; Abdesselam, A.; Abdinov, O.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Acharya, B.S.; Adams, D.L.; Addy, T.N.; Adelman, J.; Adorisio, C.; Adragna, P.; Adye, T.; Aefsky, S.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J.A.; Aharrouche, M.; Ahlen, S.P.; Ahles, F.; Ahmad, A.; Ahmed, H.; Ahsan, M.; Aielli, G.; Akdogan, T.; Akesson, T.P.A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A.V.; Aktas, A.; Alam, M.S.; Alam, M.A.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I.N.; Alessandria, F.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Aliyev, M.; Allport, P.P.; Allwood-Spiers, S.E.; Almond, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alon, R.; Alonso, A.; Alviggi, M.G.; Amako, K.; Amelung, C.; Ammosov, V.V.; Amorim, A.; Amorós, G.; Amram, N.; Anastopoulos, C.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C.F.; Anderson, K.J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Anduaga, X.S.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anjos, N.; Antonaki, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonelli, S.; Antos, J.; Antunovic, B.; Anulli, F.; Aoun, S.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Arce, A.T.H.; Archambault, J.P.; Arfaoui, S.; Arguin, J.F.; Argyropoulos, T.; Arik, E.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A.J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnault, C.; Artamonov, A.; Arutinov, D.; Asai, M.; Asai, S.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Ask, S.; Asman, B.; Asner, D.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astbury, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Atoian, G.; Auerbach, B.; Auge, E.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Austin, N.; Avolio, G.; Avramidou, R.; Axen, D.; Ay, C.; Azuelos, G.; Azuma, Y.; Baak, M.A.; Bacci, C.; Bach, A.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Badescu, E.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Bailey, D.C.; Bain, T.; Baines, J.T.; Baker, O.K.; Baker, M.D.; Baker, S.; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F; Banas, E.; Banerjee, P.; Banerjee, S.; Banfi, D.; Bangert, A.; Bansal, V.; Baranov, S.P.; Baranov, S.; Barashkou, A.; Barber, T.; Barberio, E.L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Bardin, D.Y.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnett, B.M.; Barnett, R.M.; Baron, S.; Baroncelli, A.; Barr, A.J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J; Barrillon, P.; Barros, N.; Bartoldus, R.; Bartsch, D.; Bastos, J.; Bates, R.L.; Batkova, L.; Batley, J.R.; Battaglia, A.; Battistin, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H.S.; Bazalova, M.; Beare, B.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P.H.; Beccherle, R.; Becerici, N.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, G.A.; Beck, H.P.; Beckingham, M.; Becks, K.H.; Bedajanek, I.; Beddall, A.J.; Beddall, A.; Bednár, P.; Bednyakov, V.A.; Bee, C.; Begel, M.; Behar Harpaz, S; Behera, P.K.; Beimforde, M.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, P.J.; Bell, W.H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellina, F.; Bellomo, M.; Belloni, A.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Ben Ami, S; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bendel, M.; Benedict, B.H.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benincasa, G.P.; Benjamin, D.P.; Benoit, M.; Bensinger, J.R.; Benslama, K.; Bentvelsen, S.; Beretta, M.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Berglund, E.; Beringer, J.; Bernardet, K.; Bernat, P.; Bernhard, R.; Bernius, C.; Berry, T.; Bertin, A.; Besana, M.I.; Besson, N.; Bethke, S.; Bianchi, R.M.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Biesiada, J.; Biglietti, M.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biscarat, C.; Bitenc, U.; Black, K.M.; Blair, R.E.; Blanchard, J.B.; Blanchot, G.; Blocker, C.; Blocki, J.; Blondel, A.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G.J.; Bocci, A.; Boehler, M.; Boek, J.; Boelaert, N.; Böser, S.; Bogaerts, J.A.; Bogouch, A.; Bohm, C.; Bohm, J.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Boldyrev, A.; Bondarenko, V.G.; Bondioli, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Bordoni, S.; Borer, C.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borjanovic, I.; Borroni, S.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Bosteels, M.; Boterenbrood, H.; Bouchami, J.; Boudreau, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E.V.; Boulahouache, C.; Bourdarios, C.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I.R.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Braem, A.; Branchini, P.; Brandenburg, G.W.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J.E.; Braun, H.M.; Brelier, B.; Bremer, J.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Breton, D.; Britton, D.; Brochu, F.M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Brodbeck, T.J.; Brodet, E.; Broggi, F.; Bromberg, C.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, W.K.; Brown, G.; Brubaker, E.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P A; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Brunet, S.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Buanes, T.; Bucci, F.; Buchanan, J.; Buchholz, P.; Buckley, A.G.; Budagov, I.A.; Budick, B.; Büscher, V.; Bugge, L.; Bulekov, O.; Bunse, M.; Buran, T.; Burckhart, H.; Burdin, S.; Burgess, T.; Burke, S.; Busato, E.; Bussey, P.; Buszello, C.P.; Butin, F.; Butler, B.; Butler, J.M.; Buttar, C.M.; Butterworth, J.M.; Byatt, T.; Caballero, J.; Cabrera Urbán, S; Caforio, D.; Cakir, O.; Calafiura, P.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Calkins, R.; Caloba, L.P.; Caloi, R.; Calvet, D.; Camarri, P.; Cambiaghi, M.; Cameron, D.; Campabadal Segura, F; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Canale, V.; Canelli, F.; Canepa, A.; Cantero, J.; Capasso, L.; Capeans Garrido, M D M; Caprini, I.; Caprini, M.; Capua, M.; Caputo, R.; Caracinha, D.; Caramarcu, C.; Cardarelli, R.; Carli, T.; Carlino, G.; Carminati, L.; Caron, B.; Caron, S.; Carrillo Montoya, G D; Carron Montero, S; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Carvalho, J.; Casadei, D.; Casado, M.P.; Cascella, M.; Caso, C.; Castaneda Hernadez, A M; Castaneda-Miranda, E.; Castillo Gimenez, V; Castro, N.; Cataldi, G.; Catinaccio, A.; Catmore, J.R.; Cattai, A.; Cattani, G.; Caughron, S.; Cauz, D.; Cavalleri, P.; Cavalli, D.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cavasinni, V.; Ceradini, F.; Cerqueira, A.S.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Cerutti, F.; Cetin, S.A.; Cevenini, F.; Chafaq, A.; Chakraborty, D.; Chan, K.; Chapman, J.D.; Chapman, J.W.; Chareyre, E.; Charlton, D.G.; Chavda, V.; Cheatham, S.; Chekanov, S.; Chekulaev, S.V.; Chelkov, G.A.; Chen, H.; Chen, S.; Chen, T.; Chen, X.; Cheng, S.; Cheplakov, A.; Chepurnov, V.F.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R; Tcherniatine, V.; Chesneanu, D.; Cheu, E.; Cheung, S.L.; Chevalier, L.; Chevallier, F.; Chiarella, V.; Chiefari, G.; Chikovani, L.; Childers, J.T.; Chilingarov, A.; Chiodini, G.; Chizhov, M.; Choudalakis, G.; Chouridou, S.; Christidi, I.A.; Christov, A.; Chromek-Burckhart, D.; Chu, M.L.; Chudoba, J.; Ciapetti, G.; Ciftci, A.K.; Ciftci, R.; Cinca, D.; Cindro, V.; Ciobotaru, M.D.; Ciocca, C.; Ciocio, A.; Cirilli, M.; Citterio, M.; Clark, A.; Cleland, W.; Clemens, J.C.; Clement, B.; Clement, C.; Coadou, Y.; Cobal, M.; Coccaro, A.; Cochran, J.; Coelli, S.; Coggeshall, J.; Cogneras, E.; Cojocaru, C.D.; Colas, J.; Cole, B.; Colijn, A.P.; Collard, C.; Collins, N.J.; Collins-Tooth, C.; Collot, J.; Colon, G.; Conde Muiño, P; Coniavitis, E.; Consonni, M.; Constantinescu, S.; Conta, C.; Conventi, F.; Cook, J.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, B.D.; Cooper-Sarkar, A.M.; Cooper-Smith, N.J.; Copic, K.; Cornelissen, T.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Corso-Radu, A.; Cortes-Gonzalez, A.; Cortiana, G.; Costa, G.; Costa, M.J.; Costanzo, D.; Costin, T.; Côté, D.; Coura Torres, R; Courneyea, L.; Cowan, G.; Cowden, C.; Cox, B.E.; Cranmer, K.; Cranshaw, J.; Cristinziani, M.; Crosetti, G.; Crupi, R.; Crépé-Renaudin, S.; Cuenca Almenar, C; Cuhadar Donszelmann, T; Curatolo, M.; Curtis, C.J.; Cwetanski, P.; Czyczula, Z.; D'Auria, S.; D'Onofrio, M.; D'Orazio, A.; Da Silva, P V M; Da Via, C; Dabrowski, W.; Dai, T.; Dallapiccola, C.; Dallison, S.J.; Daly, C.H.; Dam, M.; Danielsson, H.O.; Dannheim, D.; Dao, V.; Darbo, G.; Darlea, G.L.; Davey, W.; Davidek, T.; Davidson, N.; Davidson, R.; Davies, M.; Davison, A.R.; Dawson, I.; Dawson, J.W.; Daya, R.K.; De, K.; de Asmundis, R; De Castro, S; De Castro Faria Salgado, P E; De Cecco, S; de Graat, J; De Groot, N; de Jong, P; De La Cruz-Burelo, E; De La Taille, C; De Mora, L; De Oliveira Branco, M; De Pedis, D; De Salvo, A; De Sanctis, U; De Santo, A; De Vivie De Regie, J B; De Zorzi, G; Dean, S.; Deberg, H.; Dedes, G.; Dedovich, D.V.; Defay, P.O.; Degenhardt, J.; Dehchar, M.; Del Papa, C; Del Peso, J; Del Prete, T; Dell'Acqua, A.; Dell'Asta, L.; Della Pietra, M; della Volpe, D; Delmastro, M.; Delruelle, N.; Delsart, P.A.; Deluca, C.; Demers, S.; Demichev, M.; Demirkoz, B.; Deng, J.; Deng, W.; Denisov, S.P.; Dennis, C.; Derkaoui, J.E.; Derue, F.; Dervan, P.; Desch, K.; Deviveiros, P.O.; Dewhurst, A.; DeWilde, B.; Dhaliwal, S.; Dhullipudi, R.; Di Ciaccio, A; Di Ciaccio, L; Di Domenico, A; Di Girolamo, A; Di Girolamo, B; Di Luise, S; Di Mattia, A; Di Nardo, R; Di Simone, A; Di Sipio, R; Diaz, M.A.; Diblen, F.; Diehl, E.B.; Dietrich, J.; Dietzsch, T.A.; Diglio, S.; Dindar Yagci, K; Dingfelder, D.J.; Dionisi, C.; Dita, P.; Dita, S.; Dittus, F.; Djama, F.; Djilkibaev, R.; Djobava, T.; do Vale, M A B; Do Valle Wemans, A; Doan, T.K.O.; Dobbs, M.; Dobos, D.; Dobson, E.; Dobson, M.; Dodd, J.; Doherty, T.; Doi, Y.; Dolejsi, J.; Dolenc, I.; Dolezal, Z.; Dolgoshein, B.A.; Dohmae, T.; Donega, M.; Donini, J.; Dopke, J.; Doria, A.; Dos Anjos, A; Dotti, A.; Dova, M.T.; Doxiadis, A.; Doyle, A.T.; Drasal, Z.; Driouichi, C.; Dris, M.; Dubbert, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Dudarev, A.; Dudziak, F.; Dührssen ,.M.; Duflot, L.; 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    2010-01-01

    The ionization signals in the liquid argon of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter are studied in detail using cosmic muons. In particular, the drift time of the ionization electrons is measured and used to assess the intrinsic uniformity of the calorimeter gaps and estimate its impact on the constant term of the energy resolution. The drift times of electrons in the cells of the second layer of the calorimeter are uniform at the level of 1.3% in the barrel and 2.7% in the endcaps. This leads to an estimated contribution to the constant term of 0.29% in the barrel and 0.53% in the endcaps. The same data are used to measure the drift velocity of ionization electrons in liquid argon, which is found to be 4.61 +- 0.07 mm/microsecond at 88.5 K and 1 kV/mm.

  17. In situ commissioning of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter with cosmic muons

    CERN Document Server

    Cooke, M; Plamondon, M; Aleksa, M; Delmastro, M; Fayard, L; Henrot-Versillé, S; Hubaut, F; Lafaye, R; Lampl, W; Lévêque, J; Ma, H; Monnier, E; Parsons, J; Pralavorio, P; Schwemling, Ph; Serin, L; Trocmé, B; Unal, G; Vincter, M; Wilkens, H

    2007-01-01

    In 2006, ATLAS entered the {\\it in situ} commissioning phase. The primary goal of this phase is to verify the detector operation and performance with cosmic muons. Using a dedicated cosmic muon trigger from the hadronic Tile calorimeter, a sample of approximately $120\\,000$ events was collected in several modules of the barrel electromagnetic (EM) calorimeter between August 2006 and March 2007. As cosmic events are generally non-projective and arrive asynchronously with respect to the trigger clock, methods to improve the standard signal reconstruction for this situation are presented. Various selection criteria for projective muons and clustering algorithms have been tested, leading to preliminary results on calorimeter uniformity in $\\eta$ and timing performance.

  18. The ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter, search for new physics at the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafaye, Remi

    2010-01-01

    ATLAS is one of the four experiments operating at the Large Hadron Collider. It was conceived to discover the missing piece of the Standard Model of particle physics, the Higgs boson, and to unveil hints of new physics at the Tera-electron volt scale. The electromagnetic calorimeter, one of the major ATLAS subsystem, uses a liquid argon technology with an accordion geometry. This detector was tested, during construction, in a series of beam tests and later, after its installation, with cosmic muons. The calorimeter physics performances, such as energy resolution, linearity and uniformity, have been studied. If new physics is found at the LHC, the reconstruction of the underlying theory will be the next challenge. Using the example of the TeV-scale supersymmetric Lagrangian, we show how it is possible, thanks to the SFitter program, to study a high-dimensional likelihood map and extract parameter values and confidence levels. Secondary minima and correlations between the parameters are discussed. (author)

  19. Energy Measurement with the ATLAS Electromagnetic Calorimeter at the Per Mill Accuracy Level

    CERN Document Server

    Teischinger, Florian; Fabjan, Christian

    The ATLAS experiment is designed to study the proton-proton collisions produced at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. It is made up of various sub-detectors to measure the properties of all the particles produced at the proton-proton collision. Over the last three years of running around 20 x 10^14 collisions of proton data have been recorded. Liquid argon (LAr) sampling calorimeters are used for all electromagnetic calorimetry and for hadronic calorimetry in the end-caps. The Inner Detector, on the other hand, measures the transverse momentum of charged particles down to a momentum of 0.5 GeV. This thesis deals with the absolute measurement of the energy in the electromagnetic calorimeter and the improvement of the systematic uncertainties. A method using the ratio of the energy E in the calorimeter and the momentum measurement p in the Inner Detector (E/p) was used to extract the energy scale of the electromagnetic LAr calorimeter for electrons and positrons. To investigate and further reduce the syst...

  20. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE COHERENT NOISE, ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY AND ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE OF THE ATLAS EM CALORIMETER FRONT END BOARD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CHASE, B.; CITTERIO, M.; LANNI, F.; MAKOWIECKI, D.; RADEKA, S.; RESCIA, S.; TAKAI, H.

    1999-01-01

    The ATLAS Electromagnetic (EM) calorimeter (EMCAL) Front End Board (FEB) will be located in custom-designed enclosures solidly connected to the feedtroughs. It is a complex mixed signal board which includes the preamplifier, shaper, switched capacitor array analog memory unit (SCA), analog to digital conversion, serialization of the data and related control logic. It will be described in detail elsewhere in these proceedings. The electromagnetic interference (either pick-up from the on board digital activity, from power supply ripple or from external sources) which affects coherently large groups of channels (coherent noise) is of particular concern in calorimetry and it has been studied in detail

  1. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE COHERENT NOISE, ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY AND ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE OF THE ATLAS EM CALORIMETER FRONT END BOARD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CHASE, R.L.; CITTERIO, M.; LANNI, F.; MAKOWIECKI, D.; RADEKA, V.; RESCIA, S.; TAKAI, H.; BAN, J.; PARSONS, J.; SIPPACH, W.

    2000-01-01

    The ATLAS Electromagnetic (EM) calorimeter (EMCAL) Front End Board (FEB) will be located in custom-designed enclosures solidly connected to the feedtroughs. It is a complex mixed signal board which includes the preamplifier, shaper, switched capacitor array analog memory unit (SCA), analog to digital conversion, serialization of the data and related control logic. It will be described in detail elsewhere in these proceedings. The electromagnetic interference (either pick-up from the on board digital activity, from power supply ripple or from external sources) which affects coherently large groups of channels (coherent noise) is of particular concern in calorimetry and it has been studied in detail

  2. Electron and photon energy reconstruction in the electromagnetic calorimeter of ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2075753; Mandelli, Luciano

    2007-01-01

    The Atlas LAr electromagnetic calorimeter is designed to provide a precise measurement of electrons and photons energies, in order to meet the requirements coming from the LHC physics program. This request of precision makes important to understand the behavior of the detector in all its aspect. Of fundamental importance to achieve the best possible performances is the calibration of the EM calorimeter, and this is the topic of this thesis. With detailed Monte Carlo simulations of single electrons and photons in the Atlas detector, we find a method to calibrate the electromagnetic calorimeter, based only on the informations that come from it. All the informations needed to develop a calibration method come from the simulations made with the technique of the Calibration Hits, that allows to know the en- ergy deposited in all the materials inside the detector volume, and not only in the active layer of each subdetector as possible in the standard simulations. This technique required a big effort for the develop...

  3. The ATLAS Liquid Argon Electromagnetic EndCap Calorimeter Construction and tests

    CERN Document Server

    Rodier, S; Del Peso, J

    2003-01-01

    This thesis has been carried out within the ATLAS collaboration. ATLAS is one of the two multipurpose experiments approved for data taking at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The main goals of this experiment are, to find the Higgs boson, the missing piece in the otherwise so succesful Standard Model of Particle Physics, and to look for physics beyond the Standard Model up to a scale of 1TeV. For this purpose, electromagnetic (EM) calorimetry play a key role. The ATLAS Collaboration has chosen a Liquid Argon (LAr) option with lead as passive material. The liquid Argon Calorimeter is divided into two main subdetectors, the barrel and the end caps (EC). The design and construction of the LAr EM EC calorimeter is the responsability of the groups at Centre de Physique de Marseille (CPPM) and the Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (UAM)following the guideline developed by the research and development working, group 3 for LHC detectors (RD3). The sharing of responsabilities is such that CPPM provides spacers an...

  4. OPAL detector electromagnetic calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    1988-01-01

    Half of the electromagnetic calorimeter of the OPAL detector is seen in this photo. This calorimeter consists of 4720 blocks of lead glass. It was used to detect and measure the energy of photons, electrons and positrons by absorbing them.

  5. Electromagnetic calorimeter and accurate measurement with the ATLAS detector of the LHC collider; Calorimetrie electromagnetique et mesures de precision avec le detecteur ATLAS aupres du collisionneur LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pralavorio, P

    2007-06-15

    The main purpose of the ATLAS experiment is the understanding of the underlying mechanisms that drive the breaking of the electro-weak symmetry through the discovery of Higgs bosons. An important element to achieve this aim was the design of an electromagnetic calorimeter able to investigate the decay channels: H {yields} {gamma}{gamma} and H {yields} 4e. The high performance of the calorimeter will allow us to get a better accuracy on the measuring values of W and top masses which is essential to indirectly constrain the mass of the Higgs. In the same way, accurate measurements of top and W properties during the decays of top and tWb vertex will be necessary to question the standard model and to see beyond. The author has been working for 9 years in the ATLAS project, he has been involved in the design, construction, qualification and testing phases of the electromagnetic calorimeter of ATLAS. This document is a detailed presentation of the calorimeter, of its qualification and of its expectations when LHC is operating. This document is organized into 4 chapters: 1) assets and weaknesses of the standard model, 2) the ATLAS experiment, 3) the electromagnetic calorimeter, and 4) accurate measurements with ATLAS. This document presented before an academic board will allow its author to manage research works and particularly to tutor thesis students. (A.C.)

  6. The ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters: integration, installation and commissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tikhonov, Yu.

    2008-01-01

    The ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter system consists of an electromagnetic barrel calorimeter and two end-caps with electromagnetic, hadronic and forward calorimeters positioned in three cryostats. Since May 2006 the LAr barrel calorimeter records regular calibration runs and takes cosmic muon data together with tile hadronic calorimeter in the ATLAS cavern. The cosmic runs with end-cap calorimeters started in April 2007. First results of these combined runs are presented

  7. Low-noise current preamplifier for the electromagnetic calorimeter of ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacquier, Yves

    1997-12-01

    The ATLAS detector at CERN is an experiment on the future LHC collider, which seeks new particles, like the Higgs boson, to complete the standard model and develop the supersymmetry model. An important sub-detector in ATLAS is the Liquid Argon calorimeter which measures the energy of electrons and photons. The calorimeter precision is partially limited by the electronic noise of the input preamplifiers, which is then particularly a point of attention. The main study of this thesis is a 'warm' current preamplifier ('0T') placed outside the cryostat, the signal being driven on cables. First, the main characteristics of another type of preamplifier placed in the calorimeter are studied. Then the 0T is modelled, particularly the effects of a cable on the electronic noise and the signal. Different versions are studied, whose measurements are in good agreement with expected values. In the ATLAS Liquid Argon calorimeter conditions the 0T performance are very competitive with a 'cold' preamp, and has the advantage of reliability. Also their location outside the cryostat allows maintenance. But the cable impedance is higher than the input impedance of a cold preamplifier, which is a drawback according to capacitive crosstalk between neighbouring channels. The signal crosstalk is higher, but acceptable. As well, the noise correlation between two channels as a function of cable length is shown as negligible for cable lengths used. The noise autocorrelation function is also studied to optimize a multi-sampling filtering. The model and measurements are in excellent agreement. The 0T has been chosen to equip 200,000 channels of the ATLAS Liquid Argon calorimeter. (author)

  8. PANDA electromagnetic calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semenov, P.A.; Kharlov, Yu.V.; Uzunian, A.V.; Chernichenko, S.K.; Derevschikov, A.A.; Davidenko, A.M.; Goncharenko, Y.M.; Kachanov, V.A.; Konstantinov, A.S.; Kormilitsin, V.A.; Matulenko, Yu.A.; Meschanin, A.P.; Melnick, Y.M.; Minaev, N.G.; Mochalov, V.V.; Morozov, D.A.; Novotny, R.W.; Ryazantsev, A.A.; Soldatov, A.P.; Soloviev, L.F.

    2009-01-01

    PANDA is a challenging experimental setup to be implemented at the high-energy storage ring (HESR) at the international facility FAIR, GSI (Germany). PANDA physics program relies heavily on the capability to measure photons with excellent energy, position and timing resolution. For this purpose PANDA proposed to employ electromagnetic calorimeters using two different technologies: compact crystal calorimeter cooled to -25 deg. C around target and lead-scintillator sandwich calorimeter with optical fibers light collection (so-called shashlyk calorimeter) in the forward region. Institute for High Energy Physics (IHEP) PANDA group reports on two types of measurements performed at IHEP, Protvino: radiation hardness of the PWO crystals at -25 deg. C and testbeam studies of the energy and position resolution of the shashlyk calorimeter prototype in the energy range up to 19 GeV.

  9. Commissioning of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter and Z' → e+e- discovery potential in the first LHC data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangeard, P.S.

    2009-07-01

    After about fifteen years of development, the ATLAS detector is ready to operate and it recorded, in 2008, several millions of cosmic events as well as first LHC data. This achievement is based on the long experience of beam tests and on the large effort towards the detector in situ commissioning undertaken by the ATLAS collaboration. This promises fast ability to perform searches for evidence of the Higgs boson and new physics. I heavily contributed to the in situ commissioning of the electromagnetic calorimeter. To verify its performance, I studied the first cosmic data taken in 2006 which allowed the first in situ analysis of dead channels, energy reconstruction and detector response uniformity. This participation to the commissioning has continued with the study of the single beam data recorded during the first week of LHC operation (Sept. 2008). Expanding on my expertise of the electromagnetic calorimeter, I focused my physics analysis, prepared with simulation, on the promising discovery potential of new physics at LHC via the di-electron/di-photon decay of new heavy gauge boson in the early LHC data (the first 100 pb -1 ). Possible limitations coming from early hardware problems or imperfect electron energy calibration in first data have been estimated. According to the new schedule of LHC operation, this analysis will be possible with 10 TeV pp collisions data in 2010. (author)

  10. STATUS OF THE ATLAS LIQUID ARGON CALORIMETER AND ITS PERFORMANCE

    CERN Document Server

    Berillari, T; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The liquid argon (LAr) calorimeters are used in ATLAS for all electromagnetic and for hadron calorimetry. The LAr calorimeter system consists of an electromagnetic barrel calorimeter and two endcaps with electromagnetic, hadronic and forward calorimeters. The latest status of the detector as well as problems and solutions addressed during the last years will be presented. Aspects of operation of a large detector over a long time period will be summarized and selected topics showing the performance of the detector will be shown.

  11. Top quark studies with Atlas at the LHC. Electromagnetic calorimeter commissioning; Etude du quark top avec Atlas au LHC. Mise en route du calorimetre electromagnetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resende Vaz de Melo Xavier, B

    2007-05-15

    The first proton-proton collisions in the Large Hadron Collider at CERN will take place on 2007. It aims at understanding the origins of mass. and it will also look for new physics. The ATLAS experiment will exploit all those physics potentialities. using a multilayer generalist detector. Quark top studies will be an important step in ATLAS physics program: its properties may reveal hints of new phenomena. One way to look for new physics is through quark top and W boson polarizations. which are studied here. This detailed simulation study has confirmed previous fast simulation results including extensive systematics estimation. ATLAS should thus yield a precision of a few percents with 10 fb{sup -1} of data. that is a year of LHC working. This precision is sufficient to select among several new physics models. Among ATLAS subsystems, the electromagnetic calorimeter plays a crucial role in the characterisation of electrons and photons. which are used in particular for the Higgs boson search. This document deals with the calorimeter commissioning as the time of the first collisions approaches. The detector itself and its electronics will be described, as well as its installation and calibration. Cosmic muons observation will then be presented. as the first overall test of the reading and reconstruction electronics chain in actual working conditions. (author)

  12. The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Henriques Correia, Ana Maria

    2015-01-01

    TileCal is the Hadronic calorimeter covering the most central region of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. It uses iron plates as absorber and plastic scintillating tiles as the active material. Scintillation light produced in the tiles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibres to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The resulting electronic signals from the approximately 10000 PMTs are measured and digitised every 25 ns before being transferred to off-detector data-acquisition systems. This contribution will review in a first part the performances of the calorimeter during run 1, obtained from calibration data, and from studies of the response of particles from collisions. In a second part it will present the solutions being investigated for the ongoing and future upgrades of the calorimeter electronics.

  13. The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriques, A.

    2015-01-01

    TileCal is the Hadronic calorimeter covering the most central region of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. It uses iron plates as absorber and plastic scintillating tiles as the active material. Scintillation light produced in the tiles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibres to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The resulting electronic signals from the approximately 10000 PMTs are measured and digitised every 25 ns before being transferred to off-detector data-acquisition systems. This contribution will review in a first part the performances of the calorimeter during run 1, obtained from calibration data, and from studies of the response of particles from collisions. In a second part it will present the solutions being investigated for the ongoing and future upgrades of the calorimeter electronics. (authors)

  14. Search for Technihadrons in Dielectron channel and alignments of the ATLAS liquid Argon Electromagnetic calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aperio Bella, L.

    2012-01-01

    The LHC campaign in the first years of data taking was successful. The 2011 run has allowed to record more than 5 fb -1 of data at √(s) = 7 TeV with the ATLAS experiment. In the work presented in this this thesis the whole 2011 data set is used to performed different studies. This thesis is organized in five chapters. In the first chapter is presented a theoretical introduction to the Standard Model (SM) and to one of its possible extension the TechniColor model (TC). The second chapter gives an overview of the LHC complex and of the ATLAS detector components. In the third chapter the timing analysis on all the readout channels of the Liquid Argon Calorimeter is reported. A precise timing alignment over the whole calorimeter is used to synchronize the detector readout system with the LHC bunch crossing and has also application in some physics analysis such as those looking for long lived particles. In the searches for new phenomena an excellent electron identification capability, with high efficiency and high jet rejection rate, is required over a broad energy range. The fourth chapter of this thesis presents the measurements of the trigger and the identification electron efficiency using Z → ee events. Finally the last chapter describes a search for resonant deviations from the Standard Model in the high masses of the dielectron spectrum within two different Technicolor scenarios the Low-scale Technicolor and the Minimal Walking Technicolor. The significance of potential excess of the TC candidate events over the SM background expectation is evaluated in the dilepton invariant mass distribution. In the absence of any significant signal 95% confidence level limits are set on the cross section and on the resonance mass. (author)

  15. Non-compensation of the ATLAS barrel combined calorimeter prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kul'chitskij, Yu.A.; Kuz'min, M.V.

    1998-01-01

    The e / π ratio for the ATLAS Barrel Combined Calorimeter Prototype, composed from electromagnetic LArg calorimeter and hadronic Tile calorimeter was investigated. Response of Combined Calorimeter on pions and electrons in the energy region of 20-300 GeV was studied. Found e / h = 1.37 ± 0.01 ± 0.02 is in good agreement with the results from previous Combined Calorimeter tests but has more precisions

  16. Fast shower simulation in the ATLAS calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Barberio, E; Butler, B; Cheung, S L; Dell'Acqua, A; Di Simone, A; Ehrenfeld, W; Gallas, M V; Glazov, A; Marshall, Z; Müller, J; Placakyte, R; Rimoldi, A; Savard, P; Tsulaia, V; Waugh, A; Young, C C

    2008-01-01

    The time to simulate pp collisions in the ATLAS detector is largely dominated by the showering of electromagnetic particles in the heavy parts of the detector, especially the electromagnetic barrel and endcap calorimeters. Two procedures have been developed to accelerate the processing time of electromagnetic particles in these regions: (1) a fast shower parameterisation and (2) a frozen shower library. Both work by generating the response of the calorimeter to electrons and positrons with Geant 4, and then reintroduce the response into the simulation at runtime.

  17. The ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter--status and expected performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schacht, Peter

    2004-01-01

    For the ATLAS detector at the LHC, the liquid argon technique is exploited for the electromagnetic calorimetry in the central part and for the electromagnetic and hadronic calorimetry in the forward and backward regions. The construction of the calorimeter is well advanced with full cold tests of the barrel calorimeter and first endcap calorimeter only months away. The status of the project is discussed as well as the related results from beam test studies of the various calorimeter subdetectors. The results show that the expected performance meets the ATLAS requirements as specified in the ATLAS Technical Design Report

  18. ATLAS: last few metresfor the Calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    On Friday 4th November, the ATLAS Barrel Calorimeter was moved from its assembly point at the side of the ATLAS cavern to the centre of the toroidal magnet system. The detector was finally aligned, to the precision of within a millimetre, on Wednesday 9th November. The ATLAS installation team, led by Tommi Nyman, after having positioned the Barrel Calorimeter in its final location in the ATLAS experimental cavern UX15. The Barrel Calorimeter which will absorb and measure the energy of photons, electrons and hadrons at the core of the ATLAS detector is 8.6 meters in diameter, 6.8 meters long, and weighs over 1600 Tonnes. It consists of two concentric cylindrical detector elements. The innermost comprises aluminium pressure vessels containing the liquid argon electromagnetic calorimeter and the solenoid magnet. The outermost is an assembly of 64 hadron tile calorimeter sectors. Assembled 18 meters away from its final position, the Barrel Calorimeter was relocated with the help of a railway, which allows the ...

  19. Construction of the ATLAS end cap electromagnetic calorimeter and study of its performances; Construction du bouchon du calorimetre electromagnetique d'ATLAS et etudes de ses performances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrillon, P

    2002-09-01

    ATLAS is one of the four experiments which will take place at the LHC, the CERN future protons collider. This accelerator, which should start in 2007, will allow to continue the studies carried out by its predecessors, as the standard model Higgs boson and new physics searches. The very high luminosity -10 fb{sup -1} during the first three functioning years, then 100 fb{sup -1}- and the 14 TeV in the frame center will ease these studies. The Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille took part in the ATLAS collaboration, taking in charge half of the End-cap electromagnetic calorimeter modules construction. The description of this sub-detector and the construction steps, in particular the electrical tests which allow the stacking validation, are presented in this document. These tests results, obtained for the live first production modules, are analysed. The pre-series module (module 0) performances, obtained with beam tests performed at CERN in 1999, are also presented. The detector uniformity studies have allowed to perform important improvements on the calorimeter components. A 0.6% global constant term has been determined in the End-cap internal region (wheel). (author)

  20. Method for a top quark mass measurement with the ATLAS detector at LHC: Study of the ATLAS level-1 electromagnetic calorimeter trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marzin, A.

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS detector at the LHC (CERN) is designed to study the Standard Model, with the precise measurement of its parameters and the search of the Higgs boson, and the physics beyond the Standard Model with the search of new particles predicted by several theories such as Supersymmetry. The top quark is distinguished in the Standard Model by its mass close to the scale of electroweak symmetry breaking and is therefore a good probe to study physics beyond the Standard Model. A precise measurement of the top quark mass is also required to constrain the mass of the Higgs boson via the radiative corrections to the W boson propagator what would be a test of consistency of the standard Model if the Higgs boson is discovered. The first part of this thesis presents the theoretical aspects of the top quark mass. The second part is devoted to the calibration of the ATLAS level-1 electromagnetic calorimeter trigger, and more specifically to the processing of the analogue signal coming form the calorimeter. The performances of this system with cosmic muons and first LHC collisions are also described. At last, the third part describes the methods for a top quark mass measurement which have been developed in the lepton plus jets and dilepton channels. (author) [fr

  1. ELECTROMAGNET CALORIMETER (ECAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    R. Rusack

    Installation is under way of the last piece of the electromagnetic calorimeter. This is the preshower (ES) that sits in front of the two endcap calorimeters. The construction of the ES was completed in December and went through a detailed set of tests in December and January. The two preshower detectors have a total of 4300 silicon sensors with 137,000 strips. After final assembly and system testing in January, only two of the strips were found to be defective. Once CMS was fully opened a new support structure (‘Gazprom’) was put into place underneath the beam pipe, to support the Surkov platform, on which the preshower installation takes place. In the early hours of 26th February the first two Dees, which form the ‘ES+’ endcap,  were transported to P5 , a journey that took two and a half hours. The Dees, still inside environmental protection boxes, were then lowered  underground and moved to the ‘+’ end of CMS. Installation start...

  2. Design of a large dynamics fast acquisition device: application to readout of the electromagnetic calorimeter in the ATLAS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bussat, Jean-Marie

    1998-01-01

    The construction of the new particle accelerator, the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) at CERN is entails many research and development projects. It is the case in electronics where the problem of the acquisition of large dynamic range signals at high sampling frequencies occurs. Typically, the requirements are a dynamic range of about 65,000 (around 16 bits) at 40 MHz. Some solutions to this problem will be presented. One of them is using a commercial analog-to-digital converter. This case brings up the necessity of a signal conditioning equipment. This thesis describes a way of building such a system that will be called 'multi-gain system'. Then, an application of this method is presented. It involves the realization of an automatic gain switching integrated circuit. It is designed for the readout of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter. The choice and the calculation of the components of this systems are described. They are followed by the results of some measurements done on a prototype made using the AMS 1.2μm BiCMOS foundry. Possible enhancements are also presented. We conclude on the feasibility of such a system and its various applications in a number of fields that are not restricted to particle physics. (author)

  3. Electrons identification in the forward region of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter at the LHC and first data analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chareyre, E.

    2010-09-01

    The start up of the ATLAS experiment at the CERN LHC has been done during the autumn 2009. During the construction and integration of the detector, combined beam tests grouping several subsystems have been carried out. In the forward region of the detector (η > 2.5), a combined beam test with electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters has been done, whose data (pions and electrons) has been analyzed. Identification of electrons in this region can be used to study decays of Z and W bosons and also to develop some tools to understand the background noises. A method to estimate rejection of pions and electrons identification efficiency is presented using a discriminant analysis based on the methods of Fisher discriminant and on Boosted Decision Trees. It is shown that a pion rejection higher than 200 with an efficiency of electron identification of 50% can be obtained. Moreover the tools and methods developed during the beam tests have been applied on the first data of the LHC with collisions at 7 TeV. Since the present luminosity of the LHC is not yet sufficient to study precisely production of Z and W bosons by using data, a study using the Pythia generator has been done on electrons physics in the forward region. (author)

  4. Electromagnetic shower detector-calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appel, J.A.

    1975-01-01

    A brief review of the state-of-the-art of electromagnetic calorimeters is presented. The choice of detector based on the experimental requirements in cost, spatial resolution, energy resolution, and hadron rejection is discussed

  5. Test of the little Higgs model in Atlas at LHC: simulation of the digitization of the electromagnetic calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lechowski, M.

    2005-04-01

    LHC is a proton-proton collider with an energy of 14 TeV in the center of mass, which will start operating in 2007 at CERN. Two of its experiments, ATLAS, and CMS, will search and study in particular the Higgs boson, Supersymmetry and other new physics. This thesis was about two aspects of the ATLAS experiment. On one hand the simulation of the liquid Argon electromagnetic calorimeter, with the emulation of the electronic chain in charge of the digitization of the signal and also the evaluation of the electronic noise and the pile-up noise (coming from minimum bias events of inelastic collisions at LHC). These two points have been validated by the analysis of the data taken during beam tests in 2002 and 2004. On the other hand, a physics study concerning the Little Higgs model. This recent model solves the hierarchy problem of the Standard Model, in introducing new heavy particles to cancel quadratic divergences arising in the calculation of the Higgs boson mass. These new particles, with a mass about the TeV/c 2 , are a heavy quark top, heavy gauge bosons Z H , W H and A H , and a heavy Higgs boson triplet. The physics study dealt with the characteristic decays of the model, Z H in Z + H and W H in W + H, with a Higgs mass either at 120 GeV/c 2 decaying in two photons or at 200 GeV/c 2 decaying in ZZ or WW. Results show that in both cases, for 300 fb -1 (3 years at high luminosity), an observation of the signal at 5 σ for Z H et W H masses less than 2 TeV/c 2 is possible, covering a large part of the parameter space. (author)

  6. The CPLEAR Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Adler, R; Bal, F; Behnke, O; Bloch, P; Damianoglou, D; Dechelette, Paul; Dröge, M; Eckart, B; Felder, C; Fetscher, W; Fidecaro, Maria; Garreta, D; Gerber, H J; Gumplinger, P; Guyon, D; Johner, H U; Löfstedt, B; Kern, J; Kokkas, P; Krause, H; Mall, U; Marin, C P; Nanni, F; Pagels, B; Pavlopoulos, P; Petit, P; Polivka, G; Rheme, C; Ruf, T; Santoni, C; Schaller, L A; Schopper, A; Tauscher, Ludwig; Tschopp, H; Weber, P; Wendler, H; Witzig, C; Wolter, M

    1997-01-01

    A large-acceptance lead/gas sampling electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) was constructed for the CPLEAR experiment to detect photons from decays of $\\pi^0$s with momentum $p_{\\pi^0} \\le 800$ MeV$/c$. The main purpose of the ECAL is to determine the decay vertex of neutral-kaon decays $\\ko \\rightarrow \\pi^0\\pi^0 \\rightarrow 4 \\gamma$ and $\\ko \\rightarrow \\pi^0\\pi^0\\pi^0 \\rightarrow 6 \\gamma$. This requires a position-sensitive photon detector with high spatial granularity in $r$-, $\\varphi$-, and $z$-coordinates. The ECAL --- a barrel without end-caps located inside a magnetic field of 0.44 T --- consists of 18 identical concentric layers. Each layer of $1/3$ radiation length (X${_0}$) contains a converter plate followed by small cross-section high-gain tubes of 2640 mm active length which are sandwiched by passive pick-up strip plates. The ECAL, with a total of $6$ X${_0}$, has an energy resolution of $\\sigma (E)/E \\approx 13\\% / \\sqrt{E(\\mathrm{GeV})}$ and a position resolution of 4.5 mm for the shower foot. ...

  7. The ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter: Construction, Integration, Commissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksa, Martin

    2006-01-01

    The ATLAS liquid argon (LAr) calorimeter system consists of an electromagnetic barrel calorimeter and two end caps with electromagnetic, hadronic and forward calorimeters. The liquid argon sampling technique, with an accordion geometry was chosen for the barrel electromagnetic calorimeter (EMB) and adapted to the end cap (EMEC). The hadronic end cap calorimeter (HEC) uses a copper-liquid argon sampling technique with flat plate geometry and is subdivided in depth in two wheels per end-cap. Finally, the forward calorimeter (FCAL) is composed of three modules employing cylindrical electrodes with thin liquid argon gaps.The construction of the full calorimeter system is complete since mid-2004. Production modules constructed in the home institutes were integrated into wheels at CERN in 2003-2004, and inserted into the three cryostats. They passed their first complete cold test before the lowering into the ATLAS cavern. Results of quality checks (e.g. electrical, mechanical, ...) performed on all the 190304 read-out channels after cool down will be reported. End 2004 the ATLAS barrel electromagnetic (EM) calorimeter was installed in the ATLAS cavern and since summer 2005 the front-end electronics are being connected and tested. Results of this first commissioning phase will be shown to demonstrate the high standards of quality control for our detectors

  8. Installing the ATLAS calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2005-01-01

    The eight toroid magnets can be seen surrounding the calorimeter that is later moved into the middle of the detector. This calorimeter will measure the energies of particles produced when protons collide in the centre of the detector.

  9. Fast shower simulation in the ATLAS calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barberio, E; Boudreau, J; Mueller, J; Tsulaia, V; Butler, B; Young, C C; Cheung, S L; Savard, P; Dell'Acqua, A; Simone, A D; Gallas, M V; Ehrenfeld, W; Glazov, A; Placakyte, R; Marshall, Z; Rimoldi, A; Waugh, A

    2008-01-01

    The time to simulate pp collisions in the ATLAS detector is largely dominated by the showering of electromagnetic particles in the heavy parts of the detector, especially the electromagnetic barrel and endcap calorimeters. Two procedures have been developed to accelerate the processing time of electromagnetic particles in these regions: (1) a fast shower parameterisation and (2) a frozen shower library. Both work by generating the response of the calorimeter to electrons and positrons with Geant 4, and then reintroduce the response into the simulation at runtime. In the fast shower parameterisation technique, a parameterisation is tuned to single electrons and used later by simulation. In the frozen shower technique, actual showers from low-energy particles are used in the simulation. Full Geant 4 simulation is used to develop showers down to ∼ 1GeV, at which point the shower is terminated by substituting a frozen shower. Judicious use of both techniques over the entire electromagnetic portion of the ATLAS calorimeter produces an important improvement of CPU time. We discuss the algorithms and their performance in this paper

  10. Study of an automatic readout integrated circuit for the signal shaping of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter; Etude d`un circuit integre de commutation automatique de gain pour le circuit de mise en forme du signal du calorimetre electromagnetique d`ATLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bussat, J.M. [Laboratoire d`Annecy-le-Vieux de Physique des Particules, 74 - Annecy-le-Vieux (France)

    1996-12-01

    This paper describes the present state of the development of an automatic readout integrated circuit that can be used, connected to the four gain shaper of LAL, at the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter.

  11. Drift time measurement in the ATLAS liquid argon electromagnetic calorimeter using cosmic muons

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Bazalová, Magdalena; Böhm, Jan; Chudoba, Jiří; Gallus, Petr; Gunther, Jaroslav; Havránek, Miroslav; Jahoda, M.; Juránek, Vojtěch; Kepka, Oldřich; Kupčo, Alexander; Kus, V.; Kvasnička, J.; Lipinský, L.; Lokajíček, Miloš; Marčišovský, Michal; Myška, Miroslav; Němeček, Stanislav; Panušková, M.; Popule, Jiří; Růžička, Pavel; Schovancová, Jaroslava; Šícho, Petr; Sluka, T.; Staroba, Pavel; Šťastný, Jan; Taševský, Marek; Tic, Tomáš; Tomášek, Lukáš; Tomášek, Michal; Valenta, Jan; Vrba, Václav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 70, č. 3 (2010), s. 755-758 ISSN 1434-6044 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC527; GA MŠk LA08015; GA MŠk LA08032 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : ATLAS * LAr Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 3.248, year: 2010 http://arxiv.org/pdf/1002.4189

  12. Atlas electromagnetic calorimeter and electron reconstruction commissioning with the first LHC collision data: study of the W' -> eν heavy gauge boson discovery potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuna, M.

    2010-09-01

    ATLAS is a general purpose particle detector based at the Large Hadron Collider which has been delivering collisions since the beginning of 2010, with an energy in the center of mass of √(s) = 7 TeV. The electron and the discovery potential it carries is the subject of my thesis. The electromagnetic calorimeter is a crucial sub-detector for the measurement of electrons kinematic properties. In order to verify its functioning, I contributed to the first in situ data analysis, cosmic muons in 2008 and LHC beam data in 2009. These analyses showed the electromagnetic calorimeter was operational and efficient over its whole coverage. The knowledge of the electrons energy losses before they reach the calorimeter is mandatory to achieve precise measurements. For that purpose, I contributed to a method evaluating the amount of material upstream using Monte-Carlo simulations of high transverse momentum electrons. The information from the electrons allows the mapping of the material from the inner tracker to the calorimeter entrance. In 2009 and 2010, the LHC collisions at √(s) = 900 GeV and √(s) = 7 TeV collisions provided ATLAS with its first electron candidates and enabled the verification of their reconstruction performance. In this prospect, I compared the electron identification variables of data and simulation. Finally, I prepared the search for a charged heavy gauge boson W' decaying in an electron and a neutrino, using a calorimetry only definition of missing transverse energy in order to improve the method's robustness in the perspective of an early data analysis. (author)

  13. The ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achenbach, R; Andrei, V; Adragna, P; Apostologlou, P; Barnett, B M; Brawn, I P; Davis, A O; Edwards, J P; Asman, B; Bohm, C; Ay, C; Bauss, B; Bendel, M; Dahlhoff, A; Eckweiler, S; Booth, J R A; Thomas, P Bright; Charlton, D G; Collins, N J; Curtis, C J

    2008-01-01

    The ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger uses reduced-granularity information from all the ATLAS calorimeters to search for high transverse-energy electrons, photons, τ leptons and jets, as well as high missing and total transverse energy. The calorimeter trigger electronics has a fixed latency of about 1 μs, using programmable custom-built digital electronics. This paper describes the Calorimeter Trigger hardware, as installed in the ATLAS electronics cavern

  14. The ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achenbach, R; Andrei, V [Kirchhoff-Institut fuer Physik, University of Heidelberg, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Adragna, P [Physics Department, Queen Mary, University of London, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Apostologlou, P; Barnett, B M; Brawn, I P; Davis, A O; Edwards, J P [STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Asman, B; Bohm, C [Fysikum, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Ay, C; Bauss, B; Bendel, M; Dahlhoff, A; Eckweiler, S [Institut fuer Physik, University of Mainz, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Booth, J R A; Thomas, P Bright; Charlton, D G; Collins, N J; Curtis, C J [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom)], E-mail: e.eisenhandler@qmul.ac.uk (and others)

    2008-03-15

    The ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger uses reduced-granularity information from all the ATLAS calorimeters to search for high transverse-energy electrons, photons, {tau} leptons and jets, as well as high missing and total transverse energy. The calorimeter trigger electronics has a fixed latency of about 1 {mu}s, using programmable custom-built digital electronics. This paper describes the Calorimeter Trigger hardware, as installed in the ATLAS electronics cavern.

  15. Characterisation and exploitation of Atlas electromagnetic calorimeter performances: muons study and timing resolution use; Caracterisation et exploitation des performances du calorimetre electromagneique d'Atlas: etude des muons et mise a profit de la resolution en temps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camard, A

    2004-10-01

    The ATLAS detector in LHC involves electromagnetic calorimeters. The purpose of this work is to study the calorimeter response to the muons contaminating the beam used to test the different modules of ATLAS. We have showed how data analysis from the testing beam can be used to assure that the required performance for the study of the detector response to muons provides a complementary diagnostic tool for electrons. We have taken part into the design of a testing bench aimed at assessing the performance of the receiver circuit for timing and triggering signals. We have developed, in the framework of a quick simulation of ATLAS, a tool for the reconstruction in a simple and fast manner of the localization of the main event vertex by using the measurement of the arrival time of particles with ATLAS's calorimeters. It is likely that this tool will be fully used during the starting phase of the ATLAS experiment because it is easier to operate it quickly and is less sensitive to the background noise than traditional tools based on charged-particle tracks recognition inside the detector.

  16. Performance of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrynevich, A.

    2017-06-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central scintillator-steel sampling hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC . Jointly with other calorimeters it is designed for energy reconstruction of hadrons, jets, tau-particles and missing transverse energy. The scintillation light produced in the scintillator tiles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibers to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The analog signals from the PMTs are amplified, shaped and digitized by sampling the signal every 25 ns. The TileCal frontend electronics reads out the signals produced by about 10000 channels measuring energies ranging from ~30 MeV to ~2 TeV . Each stage of the signal production from scintillation light to the signal reconstruction is monitored and calibrated. The performance of the calorimeter has been established with cosmic ray muons and the large sample of the proton-proton collisions. The response of high momentum isolated muons is used to study the energy response at the electromagnetic scale, isolated hadrons are used as a probe of the hadronic response and its modelling by the Monte Carlo simulations. The calorimeter time resolution is studied with multijet events. Results on the calorimeter operation and performance are presented, including the calibration, stability, absolute energy scale, uniformity and time resolution. These results show that the TileCal performance is within the design requirements and has given essential contribution to reconstructed objects and physics results.

  17. Preparation of the Atlas experiment: electronic calibration of the electromagnetic calorimeter, measurement of the W boson polarization in top quark decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labbe, J.

    2009-07-01

    The CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will probe the fundamental constituents of matter at an unprecedented microscopic scale. This instrument will lead to further tests and constraints of the Standard Model and its potential extensions at the energies of few TeV. The ATLAS experiment is therefore installed at one of the four interaction points of the LHC. The top quark will be abundantly produced at LHC. Competitive results on its production and decay mechanisms should be quickly obtained. Unlike the other quarks, the top quark does not have time to hadronize before it decays, then allowing spin effects to be measured. It decays into a W boson and a bottom quark, which are polarized by the parity symmetry violation of the weak interaction. In this thesis, the polarization of the W bosons produced in the decay of top quark pairs into a charged lepton and many jets is studied. This measurement is performed by predicting the experimental angular distribution of the charged lepton for each helicity state of the W boson. It allows to constraint the interaction vertex between the top quark, the W boson and bottom quark. The sensitivity of the ATLAS experiment on anomalous couplings of this vertex is estimated in a generic, model-independent, approach. The validation of ATLAS's results will require a good knowledge of all its instruments. Its electromagnetic calorimeter is in particular characterized with an electronic calibration. This thesis presents the jitter and crosstalk studies realized on the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter during its final installation. Moreover, the interest of crosstalk analyzes for problematic channels identification is shown. The slides made for the defence of the thesis have been added at the end of the document. (author)

  18. Readiness of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter for LHC Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, G.; Abdallah, J.; Abdelalim, A.A.; Abdesselam, A.; Abdinov, O.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Acharya, B.S.; Adams, D.L.; Addy, T.N.; Adelman, J.; Adorisio, C.; Adragna, P.; Adye, T.; Aefsky, S.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J.A.; Aharrouche, M.; Ahlen, S.P.; Ahles, F.; Ahmad, A.; Ahmed, H.; Ahsan, M.; Aielli, G.; Akdogan, T.; Akesson, T.P.A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A.V.; Aktas, A.; Alam, M.S.; Alam, M.A.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I.N.; Alessandria, F.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Aliyev, M.; Allport, P.P.; Allwood-Spiers, S.E.; Almond, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alon, R.; Alonso, A.; Alviggi, M.G.; Amako, K.; Amelung, C.; Ammosov, V.V.; Amorim, A.; Amorós, G.; Amram, N.; Anastopoulos, C.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C.F.; Anderson, K.J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Anduaga, X.S.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anjos, N.; Antonaki, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonelli, S.; Antunovic, B.; Anulli, F.; Aoun, S.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Arce, A.T.H.; Archambault, J.P.; Arfaoui, S.; Arguin, J-F; Argyropoulos, T.; Arik, E.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A.J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnault, C.; Artamonov, A.; Arutinov, D.; Asai, M.; Asai, S.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Ask, S.; Asman, B.; Asner, D.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astbury, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Atoian, G.; Auerbach, B.; Auge, E.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Austin, N.; Avolio, G.; Avramidou, R.; Axen, D.; Ay, C.; Azuelos, G.; Azuma, Y.; Baak, M.A.; Baccaglioni, G.; Bacci, C.; Bach, A.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Badescu, E.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Bailey, D.C.; Bain, T.; Baines, J.T.; Baker, O.K.; Baker, M.D.; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F; Banas, E.; Banerjee, P.; Banerjee, S.; Banfi, D.; Bangert, A.; Bansal, V.; Baranov, S.P.; Baranov, S.; Barashkou, A.; Barber, T.; Barberio, E.L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Bardin, D.Y.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnett, B.M.; Barnett, R.M.; Baron, S.; Baroncelli, A.; Barr, A.J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Barrillon, P.; Barros, N.; Bartoldus, R.; Bartsch, D.; Bastos, J.; Bates, R.L.; Bathe, S.; Batkova, L.; Batley, J.R.; Battaglia, A.; Battistin, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H.S.; Bazalova, M.; Beare, B.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P.H.; Beccherle, R.; Becerici, N.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, G.A.; Beck, H.P.; Beckingham, M.; Becks, K.H.; Bedajanek, I.; Beddall, A.J.; Beddall, A.; Bednár, P.; Bednyakov, V.A.; Bee, C.; Begel, M.; Behar Harpaz, S; Behera, P.K.; Beimforde, M.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, P.J.; Bell, W.H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellina, F.; Bellomo, M.; Belloni, A.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Ben Ami, S; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bendel, M.; Benedict, B.H.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benincasa, G.P.; Benjamin, D.P.; Benoit, M.; Bensinger, J.R.; Benslama, K.; Bentvelsen, S.; Beretta, M.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Berglund, E.; Beringer, J.; Bernardet, K.; Bernat, P.; Bernhard, R.; Bernius, C.; Berry, T.; Bertin, A.; Besson, N.; Bethke, S.; Bianchi, R.M.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Biesiada, J.; Biglietti, M.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biscarat, C.; Bitenc, U.; Black, K.M.; Blair, R.E.; Blanchard, J-B; Blanchot, G.; Blocker, C.; Blocki, J.; Blondel, A.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G.J.; Bocci, A.; Boehler, M.; Boek, J.; Boelaert, N.; Böser, S.; Bogaerts, J.A.; Bogouch, A.; Bohm, C.; Bohm, J.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Boldyrev, A.; Bondarenko, V.G.; Bondioli, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Booth, J.R.A.; Bordoni, S.; Borer, C.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borjanovic, I.; Borroni, S.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Bosteels, M.; Boterenbrood, H.; Bouchami, J.; Boudreau, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E.V.; Boulahouache, C.; Bourdarios, C.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I.R.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Braem, A.; Branchini, P.; Brandenburg, G.W.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J.E.; Braun, H.M.; Brelier, B.; Bremer, J.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Breton, D.; Brett, N.D.; Britton, D.; Brochu, F.M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Brodbeck, T.J.; Brodet, E.; Broggi, F.; Bromberg, C.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, W.K.; Brown, G.; Brubaker, E.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P A; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Brunet, S.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Buanes, T.; Bucci, F.; Buchanan, J.; Buchholz, P.; Buckley, A.G.; Budagov, I.A.; Budick, B.; Büscher, V.; Bugge, L.; Bulekov, O.; Bunse, M.; Buran, T.; Burckhart, H.; Burdin, S.; Burgess, T.; Burke, S.; Busato, E.; Bussey, P.; Buszello, C.P.; Butin, F.; Butler, B.; Butler, J.M.; Buttar, C.M.; Butterworth, J.M.; Byatt, T.; Caballero, J.; Cabrera Urbán, S; Caforio, D.; Cakir, O.; Calafiura, P.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Calkins, R.; Caloba, L.P.; Caloi, R.; Calvet, D.; Camarri, P.; Cambiaghi, M.; Cameron, D.; Campabadal-Segura, F.; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Canale, V.; Canelli, F.; Canepa, A.; Cantero, J.; Capasso, L.; Capeans-Garrido, M.D.M.; Caprini, I.; Caprini, M.; Capua, M.; Caputo, R.; Caracinha, D.; Caramarcu, C.; Cardarelli, R.; Carli, T.; Carlino, G.; Carminati, L.; Caron, B.; Caron, S.; Carrillo Montoya, G D; Carron Montero, S; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Carvalho, J.; Casadei, D.; Casado, M.P.; Cascella, M.; Caso, C.; Castaneda Hernadez, A M; Castaneda-Miranda, E.; Castillo Gimenez, V; Castro, N.; Cataldi, G.; Catinaccio, A.; Catmore, J.R.; Cattai, A.; Cattani, G.; Caughron, S.; Cauz, D.; Cavalleri, P.; Cavalli, D.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cavasinni, V.; Ceradini, F.; Cerqueira, A.S.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Cerutti, F.; Cetin, S.A.; Cevenini, F.; Chafaq, A.; Chakraborty, D.; Chan, K.; Chapman, J.D.; Chapman, J.W.; Chareyre, E.; Charlton, D.G.; Chavda, V.; Cheatham, S.; Chekanov, S.; Chekulaev, S.V.; Chelkov, G.A.; Chen, H.; Chen, S.; Chen, T.; Chen, X.; Cheng, S.; Cheplakov, A.; Chepurnov, V.F.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R; Tcherniatine, V.; Chesneanu, D.; Cheu, E.; Cheung, S.L.; Chevalier, L.; Chevallier, F.; Chiarella, V.; Chiefari, G.; Chikovani, L.; Childers, J.T.; Chilingarov, A.; Chiodini, G.; Chizhov, M.; Choudalakis, G.; Chouridou, S.; Chren, D.; Christidi, I.A.; Christov, A.; Chromek-Burckhart, D.; Chu, M.L.; Chudoba, J.; Ciapetti, G.; Ciftci, A.K.; Ciftci, R.; Cinca, D.; Cindro, V.; Ciobotaru, M.D.; Ciocca, C.; Ciocio, A.; Cirilli, M.; Citterio, M.; Clark, A.; Cleland, W.; Clemens, J.C.; Clement, B.; Clement, C.; Clements, D.; Coadou, Y.; Cobal, M.; Coccaro, A.; Cochran, J.; Coelli, S.; Coggeshall, J.; Cogneras, E.; Cojocaru, C.D.; Colas, J.; Cole, B.; Colijn, A.P.; Collard, C.; Collins, N.J.; Collins-Tooth, C.; Collot, J.; Colon, G.; Coluccia, R.; Conde Muiño, P; Coniavitis, E.; Consonni, M.; Constantinescu, S.; Conta, C.; Conventi, F.; Cook, J.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, B.D.; Cooper-Sarkar, A.M.; Cooper-Smith, N.J.; Copic, K.; Cornelissen, T.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Corso-Radu, A.; Cortes-Gonzalez, A.; Cortiana, G.; Costa, G.; Costa, M.J.; Costanzo, D.; Costin, T.; Côté, D.; Coura Torres, R; Courneyea, L.; Cowan, G.; Cowden, C.; Cox, B.E.; Cranmer, K.; Cranshaw, J.; Cristinziani, M.; Crosetti, G.; Crupi, R.; Crépé-Renaudin, S.; Cuenca Almenar, C; Cuhadar Donszelmann, T; Curatolo, M.; Curtis, C.J.; Cwetanski, P.; Czyczula, Z.; D'Auria, S.; D'Onofrio, M.; D'Orazio, A.; Da Silva, P V M; Da Via, C; Dabrowski, W.; Dai, T.; Dallapiccola, C.; Dallison, S.J.; Daly, C.H.; Dam, M.; Danielsson, H.O.; Dannheim, D.; Dao, V.; Darbo, G.; Darlea, G.L.; Davey, W.; Davidek, T.; Davidson, N.; Davidson, R.; Davison, A.R.; Dawson, I.; Dawson, J.W.; Daya, R.K.; De, K.; de Asmundis, R; De Castro, S; De Castro Faria Salgado, P E; De Cecco, S; de Graat, J; De Groot, N; de Jong, P; De La Cruz Burelo, E; De La Taille, C; De Mora, L; De Oliveira Branco, M; De Pedis, D; De Salvo, A; De Sanctis, U; De Santo, A; De Vivie De Regie, J B; De Zorzi, G; Dean, S.; Deberg, H.; Dedes, G.; Dedovich, D.V.; Defay, P.O.; Degenhardt, J.; Dehchar, M.; Del Papa, C; Del Peso, J; Del Prete, T; Dell'Acqua, A.; Dell'Asta, L.; Della Pietra, M; della Volpe, D; Delmastro, M.; Delruelle, N.; Delsart, P.A.; Deluca, C.; Demers, S.; Demichev, M.; Demirkoz, B.; Deng, J.; Deng, W.; Denisov, S.P.; Dennis, C.; Derkaoui, J.E.; Derue, F.; Dervan, P.; Desch, K.; Deviveiros, P.O.; Dewhurst, A.; DeWilde, B.; Dhaliwal, S.; Dhullipudi, R.; Di Ciaccio, A; Di Ciaccio, L; Di Domenico, A; Di Girolamo, A; Di Girolamo, B; Di Luise, S; Di Mattia, A; Di Nardo, R; Di Simone, A; Di Sipio, R; Diaz, M.A.; Diblen, F.; Diehl, E.B.; Dietrich, J.; Diglio, S.; Dindar Yagci, K; Dingfelder, D.J.; Dionisi, C.; Dita, P.; Dita, S.; Dittus, F.; Djama, F.; Djilkibaev, R.; Djobava, T.; do Vale, M A B; Do Valle Wemans, A; Dobbs, M.; Dobos, D.; Dobson, E.; Dobson, M.; Dodd, J.; Dogan, O.B.; Doherty, T.; Doi, Y.; Dolejsi, J.; Dolenc, I.; Dolezal, Z.; Dolgoshein, B.A.; Dohmae, T.; Donega, M.; Donini, J.; Dopke, J.; Doria, A.; Dos Anjos, A; Dotti, A.; Dova, M.T.; Doxiadis, A.; Doyle, A.T.; Drasal, Z.; Driouichi, C.; Dris, M.; Dubbert, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Dudarev, A.; Dudziak, F.; Dührssen ,.M.; Duflot, L.; Dufour, M-A; Dunford, M.; Duperrin, A.; Duran-Yildiz, H.; Dushkin, A.; Duxfield, R.; Dwuznik, M.; Düren, M.; Ebenstein, W.L.; Ebke, J.; Eckert, S.; Eckweiler, S.; Edmonds, K.; Edwards, C.A.; Eerola, P.; Egorov, K.; Ehrenfeld, W.; Ehrich, T.; Eifert, T.; Eigen, G.; Einsweiler, K.; Eisenhandler, E.; Ekelof, T.; El Kacimi, M; Ellert, M.; Elles, S.; Ellinghaus, F.; Ellis, K.; Ellis, N.; Elmsheuser, J.; Elsing, M.; Ely, R.; Emeliyanov, D.; Engelmann, R.; Engl, A.; Epp, B.; Eppig, A.; Epshteyn, V.S.; Ereditato, A.; Eriksson, D.; Ermoline, I.; Ernst, J.; Ernst, M.; Ernwein, J.; Errede, D.; Errede, S.; Ertel, E.; Escalier, M.; Escobar, C.; Espinal Curull, X; Esposito, B.; Etienne, F.; Etienvre, A.I.; Etzion, E.; Evans, H.; Fabbri, L.; Fabre, C.; Faccioli, P.; Facius, K.; Fakhrutdinov, R.M.; Falciano, S.; Falou, A.C.; Fang, Y.; Fanti, M.; Farbin, A.; Farilla, A.; Farley, J.; Farooque, T.; Farrington, S.M.; Farthouat, P.; Fassi, F.; Fassnacht, P.; Fassouliotis, D.; Fatholahzadeh, B.; Fayard, L.; Fayette, F.; Febbraro, R.; Federic, P.; Fedin, O.L.; Fedorko, I.; Fedorko, W.; Feligioni, L.; Felzmann, C.U.; Feng, C.; Feng, E.J.; Fenyuk, A.B.; Ferencei, J.; Ferland, J.; Fernandes, B.; Fernando, W.; Ferrag, S.; Ferrando, J.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrari, P.; Ferrari, R.; Ferrer, A.; Ferrer, M.L.; Ferrere, D.; Ferretti, C.; Fiascaris, M.; Fiedler, F.; Filipcic, A.; Filippas, A.; Filthaut, F.; Fincke-Keeler, M.; Fiolhais, M.C.N.; Fiorini, L.; Firan, A.; Fischer, G.; Fisher, M.J.; Flechl, M.; Fleck, I.; Fleckner, J.; Fleischmann, P.; Fleischmann, S.; Flick, T.; Flores-Castillo, L.R.; Flowerdew, M.J.; Föhlisch, F.; Fokitis, M.; Fonseca Martin, T; Forbush, D.A.; Formica, A.; Forti, A.; Fortin, D.; Foster, J.M.; Fournier, D.; Foussat, A.; Fowler, A.J.; Fowler, K.; Fox, H.; Francavilla, P.; Franchino, S.; Francis, D.; Franklin, M.; Franz, S.; Fraternali, M.; Fratina, S.; Freestone, J.; French, S.T.; Froeschl, R.; Froidevaux, D.; Frost, J.A.; Fukunaga, C.; Fullana Torregrosa, E; Fuster, J.; 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Petersen, B.A.; Petersen, J.; Petersen, T.C.; Petit, E.; Petridou, C.; Petrolo, E.; Petrucci, F.; Petschull, D.; Petteni, M.; Pezoa, R.; Pfeifer, B.; Phan, A.; Phillips, A.W.; Piacquadio, G.; Piccinini, M.; Piegaia, R.; Pilcher, J.E.; Pilkington, A.D.; Pina, J.; Pinamonti, M.; Pinfold, J.L.; Ping, J.; Pinto, B.; Pirotte, O.; Pizio, C.; Placakyte, R.; Plamondon, M.; Plano, W.G.; Pleier, M-A; Poblaguev, A.; Poddar, S.; Podlyski, F.; Poffenberger, P.; Poggioli, L.; Pohl, M.; Polci, F.; Polesello, G.; Policicchio, A.; Polini, A.; Poll, J.; Polychronakos, V.; Pomarede, D.M.; Pomeroy, D.; Pommès, K.; Pontecorvo, L.; Pope, B.G.; Popovic, D.S.; Poppleton, A.; Popule, J.; Portell Bueso, X; Porter, R.; Pospelov, G.E.; Pospichal, P.; Pospisil, S.; Potekhin, M.; Potrap, I.N.; Potter, C.J.; Potter, C.T.; Potter, K.P.; Poulard, G.; Poveda, J.; Prabhu, R.; Pralavorio, P.; Prasad, S.; Pravahan, R.; Preda, T.; Pretzl, K.; Pribyl, L.; Price, D.; Price, L.E.; Prichard, P.M.; Prieur, D.; Primavera, M.; Prokofiev, K.; Prokoshin, F.; Protopopescu, S.; Proudfoot, J.; Prudent, X.; Przysiezniak, H.; Psoroulas, S.; Ptacek, E.; Puigdengoles, C.; Purdham, J.; Purohit, M.; Puzo, P.; Pylypchenko, Y.; Qi, M.; Qian, J.; Qian, W.; Qian, Z.; Qin, Z.; Qing, D.; Quadt, A.; Quarrie, D.R.; Quayle, W.B.; Quinonez, F.; Raas, M.; Radeka, V.; Radescu, V.; Radics, B.; Rador, T.; Ragusa, F.; Rahal, G.; Rahimi, A.M.; Rahm, D.; Rajagopalan, S.; Rammes, M.; Ratoff, P.N.; Rauscher, F.; Rauter, E.; Raymond, M.; Read, A.L.; Rebuzzi, D.M.; Redelbach, A.; Redlinger, G.; Reece, R.; Reeves, K.; Reinherz-Aronis, E.; Reinsch, A.; Reisinger, I.; Reljic, D.; Rembser, C.; Ren, Z.L.; Renkel, P.; Rescia, S.; Rescigno, M.; Resconi, S.; Resende, B.; Reznicek, P.; Rezvani, R.; Richards, A.; Richards, R.A.; Richter, D.; Richter, R.; Richter-Was, E.; Ridel, M.; Rieke, S.; Rijpstra, M.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Rimoldi, A.; Rinaldi, L.; Rios, R.R.; Riu, I.; Rivoltella, G.; Rizatdinova, F.; Rizvi, E.R.; Roa-Romero, D.A.; Robertson, S.H.; Robichaud-Veronneau, A.; Robinson, D.; Robinson, M.; Robson, A.; Rocha de Lima, J G; Roda, C.; Rodriguez, D.; Rodriguez Garcia, Y; Roe, S.; Røhne, O.; Rojo, V.; Rolli, S.; Romaniouk, A.; Romanov, V.M.; Romeo, G.; Romero-Maltrana, D.; Roos, L.; Ros, E.; Rosati, S.; Rosenbaum, G.A.; Rosenberg, E.I.; Rosselet, L.; Rossi, L.P.; Rotaru, M.; Rothberg, J.; Rottländer, I.; Rousseau, D.; Royon, C.R.; Rozanov, A.; Rozen, Y.; Ruan, X.; Ruckert, B.; Ruckstuhl, N.; Rud, V.I.; Rudolph, G.; Rühr, F.; Ruggieri, F.; Ruiz-Martinez, A.; Rumyantsev, L.; Rusakovich, N.A.; Rutherfoord, J.P.; Ruwiedel, C.; Ruzicka, P.; Ryabov, Y.F.; Ryadovikov, V.; Ryan, P.; Rybkin, G.; Rzaeva, S.; Saavedra, A.F.; Sadrozinski, H.F-W.; Sadykov, R.; Sakamoto, H.; Salamanna, G.; Salamon, A.; Saleem, M.; Salihagic, D.; Salnikov, A.; Salt, J.; Salvachua-Ferrando, B.M.; Salvatore, D.; Salvatore, F.; Salvucci, A.; Salzburger, A.; Sampsonidis, D.; Samset, B.H.; Sanchis Lozano, M A; Sandaker, H.; Sander, H.G.; Sanders, M.P.; Sandhoff, M.; Sandstroem, R.; Sandvoss, S.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Sanny, B.; Sansoni, A.; Santamarina Rios, C; Santi, L.; Santoni, C.; Santonico, R.; Santos, D.; Santos, J.; Saraiva, J.G.; Sarangi, T.; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E.; Sarri, F.; Sasaki, O.; Sasaki, T.; Sasao, N.; Satsounkevitch, I.; Sauvage, G.; Savard, P.; Savine, A.Y.; Savinov, V.; Sawyer, L.; Saxon, D.H.; Says, L.P.; Sbarra, C.; Sbrizzi, A.; Scannicchio, D.A.; Schaarschmidt, J.; Schacht, P.; Schäfer, U.; Schaetzel, S.; Schaffer, A.C.; Schaile, D.; Schamberger, R.D.; Schamov, A.G.; Schegelsky, V.A.; Scheirich, D.; Schernau, M.; Scherzer, M.I.; Schiavi, C.; Schieck, J.; Schioppa, M.; Schlenker, S.; Schlereth, J.L.; Schmid, P.; Schmidt, M.P.; Schmieden, K.; Schmitt, C.; Schmitz, M.; Schott, M.; Schouten, D.; Schovancova, J.; Schram, M.; Schreiner, A.; Schroeder, C.; Schroer, N.; Schroers, M.; Schuler, G.; Schultes, J.; Schultz-Coulon, H-C; Schumacher, J.; Schumacher, M.; Schumm, B.A.; Schune, Ph; Schwanenberger, C.; Schwartzman, A.; Schwemling, Ph; Schwienhorst, R.; Schwierz, R.; Schwindling, J.; Scott, W.G.; Searcy, J.; Sedykh, E.; Segura, E.; Seidel, S.C.; Seiden, A.; Seifert, F.; Seixas, J.M.; Sekhniaidze, G.; Seliverstov, D.M.; Sellden, B.; Seman, M.; Semprini-Cesari, N.; Serfon, C.; Serin, L.; Seuster, R.; Severini, H.; Sevior, M.E.; Sfyrla, A.; Shamim, M.; Shan, L.Y.; Shank, J.T.; Shao, Q.T.; Shapiro, M.; Shatalov, P.B.; Shaver, L.; Shaw, C.; Shaw, K.; Sherman, D.; Sherwood, P.; Shibata, A.; Shimojima, M.; Shin, T.; Shmeleva, A.; Shochet, M.J.; Shupe, M.A.; Sicho, P.; Sidoti, A.; Siebel, A.; Siegert, F.; Siegrist, J.; Sijacki, Dj; Silbert, O.; Silva, J.; Silver, Y.; Silverstein, D.; Silverstein, S.B.; Simak, V.; Simic, Lj; Simion, S.; Simmons, B.; Simonyan, M.; Sinervo, P.; Sinev, N.B.; Sipica, V.; Siragusa, G.; Sisakyan, A.N.; Sivoklokov, S.Yu.; Sjoelin, J.; Sjursen, T.B.; Skubic, P.; Skvorodnev, N.; Slater, M.; Slavicek, T.; Sliwa, K.; Sloper, J.; Sluka, T.; Smakhtin, V.; Smirnov, S.Yu.; Smirnov, Y.; Smirnova, L.N.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, B.C.; Smith, D.; Smith, K.M.; Smizanska, M.; Smolek, K.; Snesarev, A.A.; Snow, S.W.; Snow, J.; Snuverink, J.; Snyder, S.; Soares, M.; Sobie, R.; Sodomka, J.; Soffer, A.; Solans, C.A.; Solar, M.; Solfaroli-Camillocci, E.; Solodkov, A.A.; Solovyanov, O.V.; Soluk, R.; Sondericker, J.; Sopko, V.; Sopko, B.; Sosebee, M.; Sosnovtsev, V.V.; Sospedra-Suay, L.; Soukharev, A.; Spagnolo, S.; Spanò, F.; Speckmayer, P.; Spencer, E.; Spighi, R.; Spigo, G.; Spila, F.; Spiwoks, R.; Spousta, M.; Spreitzer, T.; Spurlock, B.; St Denis, R D; Stahl, T.; Stamen, R.; Stancu, S.N.; Stanecka, E.; Stanek, R.W.; Stanescu, C.; Stapnes, S.; Starchenko, E.A.; Stark, J.; Staroba, P.; Starovoitov, P.; Stastny, J.; Staude, A.; Stavina, P.; Stavropoulos, G.; Steinbach, P.; Steinberg, P.; Stekl, I.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer, H.J.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stenzel, H.; Stevenson, K.; Stewart, G.; Stockton, M.C.; Stoerig, K.; Stoicea, G.; Stonjek, S.; Strachota, P.; Stradling, A.; Straessner, A.; Strandberg, J.; Strandberg, S.; Strandlie, A.; Strauss, M.; Strizenec, P.; Ströhmer, R.; Strom, D.M.; Strong, J.A.; Stroynowski, R.; Strube, J.; Stugu, B.; Stumer, I.; Soh, D.A.; Su, D.; Suchkov, S.I.; Sugaya, Y.; Sugimoto, T.; Suhr, C.; Suk, M.; Sulin, V.V.; Sultansoy, S.; Sumida, T.; Sun, X.; Sundermann, J.E.; Suruliz, K.; Sushkov, S.; Susinno, G.; Sutton, M.R.; Suzuki, T.; Suzuki, Y.; Sviridov, Yu M; Sykora, I.; Sykora, T.; Szymocha, T.; Sánchez, J.; Ta, D.; Tackmann, K.; Taffard, A.; Tafirout, R.; Taga, A.; Takahashi, Y.; Takai, H.; Takashima, R.; Takeda, H.; Takeshita, T.; Talby, M.; Talyshev, A.; Tamsett, M.C.; Tanaka, J.; Tanaka, R.; Tanaka, S.; Tanaka, S.; Tappern, G.P.; Tapprogge, S.; Tardif, D.; Tarem, S.; Tarrade, F.; Tartarelli, G.F.; Tas, P.; Tasevsky, M.; Tassi, E.; Taylor, C.; Taylor, F.E.; Taylor, G.N.; Taylor, R.P.; Taylor, W.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Ten Kate, H; Teng, P.K.; Terada, S.; Terashi, K.; Terron, J.; Terwort, M.; Testa, M.; Teuscher, R.J.; Tevlin, C.M.; Thadome, J.; Thananuwong, R.; Thioye, M.; Thoma, S.; Thomas, J.P.; Thomas, T.L.; Thompson, E.N.; Thompson, P.D.; Thompson, P.D.; Thompson, R.J.; Thompson, A.S.; Thomson, E.; Thun, R.P.; Tic, T.; Tikhomirov, V.O.; Tikhonov, Y.A.; Timmermans, C.J.W.P.; Tipton, P.; Tique-Aires-Viegas, F.J.; Tisserant, S.; Tobias, J.; Toczek, B.; Todorov, T.; Todorova-Nova, S.; Toggerson, B.; Tojo, J.; Tokár, S.; Tokushuku, K.; Tollefson, K.; Tomasek, L.; Tomasek, M.; Tomasz, F.; Tomoto, M.; Tompkins, D.; Tompkins, L.; Toms, K.; Tong, G.; Tonoyan, A.; Topfel, C.; Topilin, N.D.; Torrence, E.; Torró Pastor, E; Toth, J.; Touchard, F.; Tovey, D.R.; Tovey, S.N.; Trefzger, T.; Tremblet, L.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I.M.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Trinh, T.N.; Tripiana, M.F.; Triplett, N.; Trivedi, A.; Trocmé, B.; Troncon, C.; Trzupek, A.; Tsarouchas, C.; Tseng, J.C-L.; Tsiafis, I.; Tsiakiris, M.; Tsiareshka, P.V.; Tsionou, D.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Tskhadadze, E.G.; Tsukerman, I.I.; Tsulaia, V.; Tsung, J-W; Tsuno, S.; Tsybychev, D.; Turala, M.; Turecek, D.; Turk Cakir, I; Turlay, E.; Tuts, P.M.; Twomey, M.S.; Tylmad, M.; Tyndel, M.; Tzanakos, G.; Uchida, K.; Ueda, I.; Uhlenbrock, M.; Uhrmacher, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Underwood, D.G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Unno, Y.; Urbaniec, D.; Urkovsky, E.; Urquijo, P.; Urrejola, P.; Usai, G.; Uslenghi, M.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Vahsen, S.; Valenta, J.; Valente, P.; Valentinetti, S.; Valkar, S.; Valladolid Gallego, E; Vallecorsa, S.; Valls Ferrer, J A; Van Berg, R; van der Graaf, H; van der Kraaij, E; van der Poel, E; Van Der Ster, D; van Eldik, N; van Gemmeren, P; van Kesteren, Z; van Vulpen, I; Vandelli, W.; Vandoni, G.; Vaniachine, A.; Vankov, P.; Vannucci, F.; Varela Rodriguez, F; Vari, R.; Varnes, E.W.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K.E.; Vasilyeva, L.; Vassilakopoulos, V.I.; Vazeille, F.; Vegni, G.; Veillet, J.J.; Vellidis, C.; Veloso, F.; Veness, R.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Ventura, D.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J.C.; Vetterli, M.C.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Viehhauser, G.H.A.; Villa, M.; Villani, E.G.; Villaplana Perez, M; Villate, J.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M.G.; Vinek, E.; Vinogradov, V.B.; Viret, S.; Virzi, J.; Vitale, A.; Vitells, O.V.; Vivarelli, I.; Vives Vaques, F; Vlachos, S.; Vlasak, M.; Vlasov, N.; Vogt, H.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, M.; Volpini, G.; von der Schmitt, H; von Loeben, J; von Radziewski, H; von Toerne, E; Vorobel, V.; Vorobiev, A.P.; Vorwerk, V.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Voss, T.T.; Vossebeld, J.H.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vu Anh, T; Vudragovic, D.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Wagner, P.; Wahlen, H.; Walbersloh, J.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wall, R.; Wang, C.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.C.; Wang, S.M.; Ward, C.P.; Warsinsky, M.; Wastie, R.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, M.F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, A.T.; Waugh, B.M.; Webel, M.; Weber, J.; Weber, M.D.; Weber, M.; Weber, M.S.; Weber, P.; Weidberg, A.R.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Wellenstein, H.; Wells, P.S.; Wen, M.; Wenaus, T.; Wendler, S.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, P.; Werth, M.; Werthenbach, U.; Wessels, M.; Whalen, K.; Wheeler-Ellis, S.J.; Whitaker, S.P.; White, A.; White, M.J.; White, S.; Whiteson, D.; Whittington, D.; Wicek, F.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, F.J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik, L.A.M.; Wildauer, A.; Wildt, M.A.; Wilhelm, I.; Wilkens, H.G.; Williams, E.; Williams, H.H.; Willis, W.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, J.A.; Wilson, M.G.; Wilson, A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winklmeier, F.; Wittgen, M.; Wolter, M.W.; Wolters, H.; Wosiek, B.K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M.J.; Wraight, K.; Wright, C.; Wright, D.; Wrona, B.; Wu, S.L.; Wu, X.; Wulf, E.; Xella, S.; Xie, S.; Xie, Y.; Xu, D.; Xu, N.; Yamada, M.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamamura, T.; Yamanaka, K.; Yamaoka, J.; Yamazaki, T.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, U.K.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Z.; Yao, W-M; Yao, Y.; Yasu, Y.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yilmaz, M.; Yoosoofmiya, R.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Young, C.; Youssef, S.P.; Yu, D.; Yu, J.; Yu, M.; Yu, X.; Yuan, J.; Yuan, L.; Yurkewicz, A.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A.M.; Zajacova, Z.; Zambrano, V.; Zanello, L.; Zarzhitsky, P.; Zaytsev, A.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeller, M.; Zema, P.F.; Zemla, A.; Zendler, C.; Zenin, O.; Zenis, T.; Zenonos, Z.; Zenz, S.; Zerwas, D.; Zevi della Porta, G; Zhan, Z.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, Q.; Zhang, X.; Zhao, L.; Zhao, T.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, S.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, N.; Zhou, Y.; Zhu, C.G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhuravlov, V.; Zilka, B.; Zimmermann, R.; Zimmermann, S.; Zimmermann, S.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zitoun, R.; Zivkovic, L.; Zmouchko, V.V.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; zur Nedden, M; Zutshi, V.

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter has been operating continuously since August 2006. At this time, only part of the calorimeter was readout, but since the beginning of 2008, all calorimeter cells have been connected to the ATLAS readout system in preparation for LHC collisions. This paper gives an overview of the liquid argon calorimeter performance measured in situ with random triggers, calibration data, cosmic muons, and LHC beam splash events. Results on the detector operation, timing performance, electronics noise, and gain stability are presented. High energy deposits from radiative cosmic muons and beam splash events allow to check the intrinsic constant term of the energy resolution. The uniformity of the electromagnetic barrel calorimeter response along eta (averaged over phi) is measured at the percent level using minimum ionizing cosmic muons. Finally, studies of electromagnetic showers from radiative muons have been used to cross-check the Monte Carlo simulation. The performance results obtained u...

  19. ELECTROMAGNETIC CALORIMETER (ECAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    Roger Rusack

    Occupancy of the trigger primitives during a global run: the observed pattern is consistent with the polar angle dependence of the transverse energy equivalent of the electronic noise in the endcaps.   Progress on ECAL since the last CMS week has been mostly on three major fronts: we have continued with the installation and commissioning of the preshower detectors; the endcap calorimeter trigger has been installed and tested; and there have been many changes to the calorimeter detector control and safety systems. Both Preshower (ES) endcaps were installed in CMS on schedule, just before Easter. There followed a campaign of "first commissioning" to ensure that all services were correctly connected (electrical, optical, cooling, etc.). Apart from some optical ribbons that had to be replaced the process went rather smoothly, finishing on 23rd April. All power supplies are installed and operational. The cooling system (two branches of the joint Tracker-Preshower system) is fully fun...

  20. Fast Calorimeter Simulation in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Schaarschmidt, Jana; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Producing the very large samples of simulated events required by many physics and performance studies with the ATLAS detector using the full GEANT4 detector simulation is highly CPU intensive. Fast simulation tools are a useful way of reducing CPU requirements when detailed detector simulations are not needed. During the LHC Run-1, a fast calorimeter simulation (FastCaloSim) was successfully used in ATLAS. FastCaloSim provides a simulation of the particle energy response at the calorimeter read-out cell level, taking into account the detailed particle shower shapes and the correlations between the energy depositions in the various calorimeter layers. It is interfaced to the standard ATLAS digitization and reconstruction software, and it can be tuned to data more easily than GEANT4. It is 500 times faster than full simulation in the calorimeter system. Now an improved version of FastCaloSim is in development, incorporating the experience with the version used during Run-1. The new FastCaloSim makes use of mach...

  1. Test beam results on Atlas electromagnetic end-cap calorimeter: Electrons-jets separation; Resultats des tests en faisceau sur les bouchons du calorimetre electromagnetique d'ATLAS - separation electrons-jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serfon, C

    2005-05-15

    ATLAS is one of the four experiments being built on the future proton-proton collider at CERN: the LHC. This experiment has a large physics program, from Standard Model to new physics. The search for the Higgs boson in two photons or in four leptons, or the search of Z' or W' needs a good energy resolution for the electromagnetic calorimeter. This thesis describes the beam tests performed on three modules of the electromagnetic end cap calorimeter. A 0.6% non-uniformity, and a 0.7% energy resolution global constant term (dominant at high energy) has been obtained. Moreover, a study on the separation between electrons and jets is also performed. This study shows that a jets rejection factor of 10{sup 5} can be obtained keeping an electron efficiency better than 78%. (author)

  2. ELECTROMAGNETIC CALORIMETER (ECAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Bloch

    ECAL crystal calorimeter (EB + EE) The Barrel and Endcaps ECAL calorimeters have been used routinely in global runs. The CRAFT data have confirmed that ECAL performance is the same with or without magnetic field. The CRUZET and CRAFT runs have allowed experience to be gained with ECAL operation in many areas, in particular for the trigger and the calibration sequence using gap events (laser events and LED pulsing). More details can be found in the Commissioning/DPG report in this bulletin.   The last components remaining to be installed and commissioned are the specific Endcap Trigger modules (TCC-48). Most of the modules have been delivered to LLR and half of them are already at CERN. In parallel, large progress has been made on the validation of the TCC-48 firmware. Preshower (ES) The Preshower project has also made impressive progress during Autumn. All the elements required to complete the detector assembly are at hand. Ladder assembly, test and calibration with cosmic rays at the operating ...

  3. The new ATLAS Fast Calorimeter Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00223142; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Current and future need for large scale simulated samples motivate the development of reliable fast simulation techniques. The new Fast Calorimeter Simulation is an improved parameterized response of single particles in the ATLAS calorimeter that aims to accurately emulate the key features of the detailed calorimeter response as simulated with Geant4, yet approximately ten times faster. Principal component analysis and machine learning techniques are used to improve the performance and decrease the memory need compared to the current version of the ATLAS Fast Calorimeter Simulation. A prototype of this new Fast Calorimeter Simulation is in development and its integration into the ATLAS simulation infrastructure is ongoing.

  4. The new ATLAS Fast Calorimeter Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaarschmidt, J.; ATLAS Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    Current and future need for large scale simulated samples motivate the development of reliable fast simulation techniques. The new Fast Calorimeter Simulation is an improved parameterized response of single particles in the ATLAS calorimeter that aims to accurately emulate the key features of the detailed calorimeter response as simulated with Geant4, yet approximately ten times faster. Principal component analysis and machine learning techniques are used to improve the performance and decrease the memory need compared to the current version of the ATLAS Fast Calorimeter Simulation. A prototype of this new Fast Calorimeter Simulation is in development and its integration into the ATLAS simulation infrastructure is ongoing.

  5. Next Generation CALICE Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    OpenAIRE

    Grondin, Denis; Jeans, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents mechanical R&D for the CALICE Silicon-tungsten electromagnetic calorimeter. After the physics ECAL prototype, tested in 2006 (DESY-CERN), 2007 (CERN), 2008 (FNAL) and before the design of different 'modules 0' (barrel and endcap) for a final detector, a technological ECAL prototype, called the EUDET module, is under design in order to have a close to full scale technological solution which could be used for the final detector, taking into account future industrialisation o...

  6. Next Generation CALICE Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    OpenAIRE

    Grondin, Denis; Jeans, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents mechanical R&D for the CALICE Silicon-tungsten electromagnetic calorimeter. After the physics ECAL prototype, tested in 2006 (DESY-CERN), 2007 (CERN), 2008 (FNAL) and before the design of different "modules 0" (barrel and endcap) for a final detector, a technological ECAL prototype, called the EUDET module, is under design in order to have a close to full scale technological solution which could be used for the final detector, taking into account future industrialisation o...

  7. The KLOE fiber electromagnetic calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incagli, Marco

    1998-01-01

    The construction and equipment of the KLOE electromagnetic calorimeter has ended in March 1997. In parallel to the construction, all modules have been tested at the Cosmic Ray Test Stand (CRTS) facility, in Frascati National Laboratories (Rome). The construction technique, based on scintillating fibers alternated to very thin (0.5 mm) grooved lead planes, is described and the main results both from the CRTS and from a preliminary Test Beam with low energy electrons and muons are reported in this note

  8. Electromagnetic Calorimeter for HADES Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez-Ramos P.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL is being developed to complement dilepton spectrometer HADES. ECAL will enable the HADES@FAIR experiment to measure data on neutral meson production in heavy ion collisions at the energy range of 2-10 AGeV on the beam of future accelerator SIS100@FAIR. We will report results of the last beam test with quasi-monoenergetic photons carried out in MAMI facility at Johannes Gutenberg Universität Mainz.

  9. The STAR endcap electromagnetic calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allgower, C.E.; Anderson, B.D.; Baldwin, A.R.; Balewski, J.; Belt-Tonjes, M.; Bland, L.C.; Brown, R.L.; Cadman, R.V.; Christie, W.; Cyliax, I.; Dunin, V.; Efimov, L.; Eppley, G.; Gagliardi, C.A.; Gagunashvili, N.; Hallman, T.; Hunt, W.; Jacobs, W.W.; Klyachko, A.; Krueger, K.; Kulikov, A.; Ogawa, A.; Panebratsev, Y.; Planinic, M.; Puskar-Pasewicz, J.; Rakness, G.; Razin, S.; Rogachevski, O.; Shimansky, S.; Solberg, K.A.; Sowinski, J.; Spinka, H.; Stephenson, E.J.; Tikhomirov, V.; Tokarev, M.; Tribble, R.E.; Underwood, D.; Vander Molen, A.M.; Vigdor, S.E.; Watson, J.W.; Westfall, G.; Wissink, S.W.; Yokosawa, A.; Yurevich, V.; Zhang, W.-M.; Zubarev, A.

    2003-01-01

    The STAR endcap electromagnetic calorimeter will provide full azimuthal coverage for high-p T photons, electrons and electromagnetically decaying mesons over the pseudorapidity range 1.086≤η≤2.00. It includes a scintillating-strip shower-maximum detector to provide π 0 /γ discrimination and preshower and postshower layers to aid in distinguishing between electrons and charged hadrons. The triggering capabilities and coverage it offers are crucial for much of the spin physics program to be carried out in polarized proton-proton collisions

  10. The STAR endcap electromagnetic calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allgower, C.E.; Anderson, B.D.; Baldwin, A.R.; Balewski, J.; Belt-Tonjes, M.; Bland, L.C.; Brown, R.L.; Cadman, R.V.; Christie, W.; Cyliax, I.; Dunin, V.; Efimov, L.; Eppley, G.; Gagliardi, C.A.; Gagunashvili, N.; Hallman, T.; Hunt, W.; Jacobs, W.W.; Klyachko, A.; Krueger, K.; Kulikov, A.; Ogawa, A.; Panebratsev, Y.; Planinic, M.; Puskar-Pasewicz, J.; Rakness, G.; Razin, S.; Rogachevski, O.; Shimansky, S.; Solberg, K.A.; Sowinski, J.; Spinka, H.; Stephenson, E.J.; Tikhomirov, V.; Tokarev, M.; Tribble, R.E.; Underwood, D.; Vander Molen, A.M.; Vigdor, S.E. E-mail: vigdor@iucf.indiana.edu; Watson, J.W.; Westfall, G.; Wissink, S.W.; Yokosawa, A.; Yurevich, V.; Zhang, W.-M.; Zubarev, A

    2003-03-01

    The STAR endcap electromagnetic calorimeter will provide full azimuthal coverage for high-p{sub T} photons, electrons and electromagnetically decaying mesons over the pseudorapidity range 1.086{<=}{eta}{<=}2.00. It includes a scintillating-strip shower-maximum detector to provide {pi}{sup 0}/{gamma} discrimination and preshower and postshower layers to aid in distinguishing between electrons and charged hadrons. The triggering capabilities and coverage it offers are crucial for much of the spin physics program to be carried out in polarized proton-proton collisions.

  11. Status of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter and its Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Barillari, T; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is designed to study the proton-proton collisions produced at the LHC with a centre-of-mass energy of 14 TeV. Liquid argon (LAr) sampling calorimeters are used in ATLAS for all electromagnetic calorimetry covering the pseudorapidity region |eta|<3.2, as well as for hadronic calorimetry from |eta|=1.4 to |eta|=4.8. The calorimeter system consists of an electromagnetic barrel calorimeter and two endcaps with electromagnetic (EMEC), hadronic (HEC) and forward (FCAL) calorimeters. The lead-liquid argon sampling technique with an accordion geometry was chosen for the barrel electromagnetic calorimeter (EMB) and adapted to the endcap (EMEC). This geometry allows a uniform acceptance over the whole azimuthal range without any gap. The hadronic endcap calorimeter (HEC) uses a copper-liquid argon sampling technique with plate geometry and is subdivided into two wheels in depth per end-cap. Finally, the forward calorimeter (FCAL) is composed of three modules featuring cylindrical electrodes ...

  12. Upgrading ATLAS Fast Calorimeter Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Heath, Matthew Peter; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Producing the very large samples of simulated events required by many physics and performance studies with the ATLAS detector using the full GEANT4 detector simulation is highly CPU intensive. Fast simulation tools are a useful way of reducing CPU requirements when detailed detector simulations are not needed. During the LHC Run-1, a fast calorimeter simulation (FastCaloSim) was successfully used in ATLAS. FastCaloSim provides a simulation of the particle energy response at the calorimeter read-out cell level, taking into account the detailed particle shower shapes and the correlations between the energy depositions in the various calorimeter layers. It is interfaced to the standard ATLAS digitization and reconstruction software, and it can be tuned to data more easily than Geant4. Now an improved version of FastCaloSim is in development, incorporating the experience with the version used during Run-1. The new FastCaloSim aims to overcome some limitations of the first version by improving the description of s...

  13. ELECTROMAGNETIC CALORIMETER (ECAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Bloch

    ECAL Barrel (EB) The cabling of the ECAL Barrel services on YB0 was completed early December 2007. The team has now commissioned the complete Barrel. To run all the supermodules in parallel, it is necessary to remove the heat from the service cables on YB0. The corresponding thermal screens are being installed and, for the time being, a max¬imum of 25 supermodules has been run concurrently. EB is read out regularly with a local DAQ as well as with the central DAQ and trigger. The calorimeter trigger has also been commissioned, allowing us to trigger on cosmic muons. ECAL Endcaps (EE) The Endcaps crystal production will be completed before the end of March 2008, as planned. The gluing of the VPTs (Vacuum Photo Triodes) on the crystals and the assembly of Supercrystals (sets of 25 crystals) are proceeding at the pace of 16 Supercrystals (400 channels) per week. Two thirds of the Supercrystals needed for the complete EE have been produced. Their mounting on the Dee backplates (including the connectio...

  14. Performance of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Hrynevich, Aliaksei; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central scintillator-steel sampling hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. Jointly with other calorimeters it is designed for energy reconstruction of hadrons, jets, tau-particles and missing transverse energy. The scintillation light produced in the scintillator tiles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibers to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The analog signals from the PMTs are amplified, shaped and digitized by sampling the signal every 25 ns. The TileCal frontend electronics reads out the signals produced by about 10000 channels measuring energies ranging from ~30 MeV to ~2 TeV. Each stage of the signal production from scintillation light to the signal reconstruction is monitored and calibrated. The performance of the calorimeter has been established with cosmic ray muons and the large sample of the proton-proton collisions. The response of high momentum isolated muons is used to study the energy response at the electromagnetic scale, isolated hadr...

  15. Two different cases of calorimetry in high energy physics: the ATLAS liquid argon electromagnetic end cap and the ZEUS forward plug calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Lopez, G.

    2000-03-01

    The thesis is organised as follows: chapter 1 introduces the basic concepts of calorimetry in high energy physics; chapters 2-5 are devoted to the ATLAS EMEC calorimeter; chapters 6-7 deal with the ZEUS FPC; finally chapter 8 compares the performance of the two calorimeters

  16. Calibration of Tilecal hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batkova, L.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of a precise calibration of a calorimeter is to get the best response relationship between the calorimeter and the energy of incident particles. Different types of particles interact through various types of interactions with the environment. Therefore, calorimeters are optimized to detect one type of particle (electromagnetic particles and hadrons). Within current high energy physics experiments, where the detectors reached gigantic proportions, calorimeters hold two important features: - serve to measure power showers by complete absorption method; - reconstruct a direction of showers of particles after their interaction with the environment of calorimeter. To deterioration of the resolving power of the hadronic calorimeter contributes incompensation of its response to hadrons and electromagnetic particles (e, μ). They record more energy from electrons as from pions of the same nominal power. During building of experiment of the ATLAS the prototypes of Tile calorimeter were calibrated using Cs and then were tested by means of calibration particle beams (e, μ, π). The work is aimed to evaluation of the response of the muon beam calibration experiment ATLAS. The scope of the work is to determine correction factors for the calibration constants obtained from the primary calibration of the calorimeter by cesium for end Tilecal calorimeter modules. Tile calorimeter modules consist of three layers A, BC and D. A correction factor for calibration constant for A layer was determined by electron beam firing angle less than 20 grad. Muons are used to determine correction factors for the remaining two layers of the end calorimeter module, where the electrons of given energy do not penetrate. (author)

  17. Status of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter and its performance after one year of LHC operation

    CERN Document Server

    "March, L; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is designed to study the proton-proton collisions produced at the LHC with a centre-of-mass energy of 14 TeV. Liquid argon (LAr) sampling calorimeters are used in ATLAS for all electromagnetic calorimetry and partly for hadronic calorimetry. The calorimeter system consists of an electromagnetic barrel calorimeter and two endcaps with electromagnetic (EMEC), hadronic (HEC) and forward (FCAL) calorimeters. The different parts of the LAr calorimeter have been installed inside the ATLAS cavern between October 2004 and April 2006. Since October 2006 the detector has been operated with liquid argon at nominal high voltage, and fully equipped with readout electronics including a LVL1 calorimeter trigger system. First cosmic runs were recorded and used in various stages of commissioning. Starting in September 2008 beam related events were collected for the first time with single beams circulating in the LHC ring providing first beam-gas interactions and then beam-collimator splash events. The fir...

  18. Non-compensation of an electromagnetic compartment of a combined calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kil'chitskij, Yu.A.; Kuz'min, M.V.; Vinogradov, V.B.

    1999-01-01

    The method of extraction of the e/h ratio, the degree of noncompensation of the electromagnetic compartment of the ATLAS barrel combined prototype calorimeter is suggested. The e/h ratio of 1.74 ± 0.04 has been determined on the basis of the 1996 combined calorimeter test beam data. This value agrees with the prediction that e/h > 1.7 for this electromagnetic calorimeter

  19. ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter Module Zero

    CERN Multimedia

    1993-01-01

    This module was built and tested with beam to validate the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter design. One original design feature is the folding. 10 000 lead plates and electrodes are folded into an accordion shape and immersed in liquid argon. As they cross the folds, particles are slowed down by the lead. As they collide with the lead atoms, electrons and photons are ejected. There is a knock-on effect and as they continue on into the argon, a whole shower is produced. The electrodes collect up all the electrons and this signal gives a measurement of the energy of the initial particle. The M0 was fabricated by French institutes (LAL, LAPP, Saclay, Jussieu) in the years 1993-1994. It was tested in the H6/H8 beam lines in 1994, leading to the Technical Design Report in 1996.

  20. ATLAS calorimeters: Run-2 performances and Phase-II upgrades

    CERN Document Server

    Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS detector was designed and built to study proton-proton collisions produced at the LHC at centre-of-mass energies up to 14 TeV and instantaneous luminosities up to $10^{34} cm^{-2} s^{-1}$. A Liquid Argon-lead sampling (LAr) calorimeter is employed as electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters, except in the barrel region, where a scintillator-steel sampling calorimeter (TileCal) is used as hadronic calorimeter. This presentation gives first an overview of the detector operation and data quality, as well as of the achieved performances of the ATLAS calorimetry system. Additionally the upgrade projects of the ATLAS calorimeter system for the high luminosity phase of the LHC (HL-LHC) are presented. For the HL-LHC, the instantaneous luminosity is expected to increase up to $L \\simeq 7.5 × 10^{34} cm^{-2} s^{-1}$ and the average pile-up up to 200 interactions per bunch crossing. The major R&D item is the upgrade of the electronics for both LAr and Tile calorimeters in order to cope with longer latenc...

  1. The ATLAS hadronic tile calorimeter from construction toward physics

    CERN Document Server

    Adragna, P; Anderson, K; Antonaki, A; Batusov, V; Bednar, P; Binet, S; Biscarat, C; Blanchot, G; Bogush, A A; Bohm, C; Boldea, V; Bosman, M; Bromberg, C; Budagov, Yu A; Caloba, L; Calvet, D; Carvalho, J; Castelo, J; Castillo, M V; Sforza, M C; Cavasinni, V; Cerqueira, A S; Chadelas, R; Costanzo, D; Cogswell, F; Constantinescu, S; Crouau, M; Cuenca, C; Damazio, D O; Daudon, F; David, M; Davidek, T; De, K; Del Prete, T; Di Girolamo, B; Dita, S; Dolejsi, J; Dolezal, Z; Dotti, A; Downing, R; Efthymiopoulos, I; Errede, D; Errede, S; Farbin, A; Fassouliotis, D; Fedorko, I; Fenyuk, A; Ferdi, C; Ferrer, A; Flaminio, V; Fullana, E; Garde, V; Giakoumopoulou, V; Gildemeister, O; Gilewsky, V; Giangiobbe, V; Giokaris, N; Gomes, A; González, V; Grabskii, V; Grenier, P; Gris, P; Guarino, V; Guicheney, C; Sen-Gupta, A; Hakobyan, H; Haney, M; Henriques, A; Higón, E; Holmgren, S O; Hurwitz, M; Huston, J; Iglesias, C; And, K J; Junk, T; Karyukhin, A N; Khubua, J; Klereborn, J; Korolkov, I Ya; Krivkova, P; Kulchitskii, Yu A; Kurochkin, Yu; Kuzhir, P; Lambert, D; Le Compte, T; Lefèvre, R; Leitner, R; Lembesi, M; Li, J; Liablin, M; Lokajícek, M; Lomakin, Y; Amengual, J M L; Lupi, A; Maidantchik, C; Maio, A; Maliukov, S; Manousakis, A; Marques, C; Marroquim, F; Martin, F; Mazzoni, E; Montarou, G; Merritt, F S; Myagkov, A; Miller, R; Minashvili, I A; Miralles, L; Némécek, S; Nessi, M; Nodulman, L; Norniella, O; Onofre, A; Oreglia, M J; Pantea, D; Pallin, D; Pilcher, J E; Pina, J; Pinhão, J; Podlyski, F; Portell, X; Poveda, J; Price, L E; Pribyl, L; Proudfoot, J; Ramstedt, M; Reinmuth, G; Richards, R; Roda, C; Romanov, V; Rosnet, P; Roy, P; Rumiantsau, V; Russakovich, N; Salto, O; Salvachúa, B; Sanchis, E; Sanders, H; Santoni, C; Santos, J; Saraiva, J G; Sarri, F; Satsunkevich, I S; Says, L P; Schlager, G; Schlereth, J L; Seixas, J M; Selldén, B; Shevtsov, P; Shochet, M; Da Silva, P; Silva, J; Simaitis, V; Sissakian, A N; Solodkov, A; Solovyanov, O; Sosebee, M; Spanó, F; Stanek, R; Starchenko, E A; Starovoitov, P; Suk, M; Sykora, I; Tang, F; Tas, P; Teuscher, R; Tokar, S; Topilin, N; Torres, J; Tsulaia, V; Underwood, D; Usai, G; Valkár, S; Valls, J A; Vartapetian, A H; Vazeille, F; Vichou, I; Vinogradov, V; Vivarelli, I; Volpi, M; White, A; Zaitsev, A; Zenine, A; Zenis, T

    2006-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter, which constitutes the central section of the ATLAS hadronic calorimeter, is a non-compensating sampling device made of iron and scintillating tiles. The construction phase of the calorimeter is nearly complete, and most of the effort now is directed toward the final assembly and commissioning in the underground experimental hall. The layout of the calorimeter and the tasks carried out during construction are described, first with a brief reminder of the requirements that drove the calorimeter design. During the last few years a comprehensive test-beam program has been followed in order to establish the calorimeter electromagnetic energy scale, to study its uniformity, and to compare real data to Monte Carlo simulation. The test-beam setup and first results from the data are described. During the test-beam period in 2004, lasting several months, data have been acquired with a complete slice of the central ATLAS calorimeter. The data collected in the test-beam are crucial in order to study...

  2. Testbeam studies of production modules of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adragna, P.; Alexa, C.; Anderson, K.; Antonaki, A.; Arabidze, A.; Batkova, L.; Batusov, V.; Beck, H.P.; Bednar, P.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Biscarat, C.; Blanchot, G.; Bogush, A.; Bohm, C.; Boldea, V.; Bosman, M.; Bromberg, C.; Budagov, J.; Burckhart-Chromek, D.; Caprini, M.

    2009-01-01

    We report test beam studies of 11% of the production ATLAS Tile Calorimeter modules. The modules were equipped with production front-end electronics and all the calibration systems planned for the final detector. The studies used muon, electron and hadron beams ranging in energy from 3 to 350 GeV. Two independent studies showed that the light yield of the calorimeter was ∼70pe/GeV, exceeding the design goal by 40%. Electron beams provided a calibration of the modules at the electromagnetic energy scale. Over 200 calorimeter cells the variation of the response was 2.4%. The linearity with energy was also measured. Muon beams provided an intercalibration of the response of all calorimeter cells. The response to muons entering in the ATLAS projective geometry showed an RMS variation of 2.5% for 91 measurements over a range of rapidities and modules. The mean response to hadrons of fixed energy had an RMS variation of 1.4% for the modules and projective angles studied. The response to hadrons normalized to incident beam energy showed an 8% increase between 10 and 350 GeV, fully consistent with expectations for a noncompensating calorimeter. The measured energy resolution for hadrons of σ/E=52.9%/√(E)+5.7% was also consistent with expectations. Other auxiliary studies were made of saturation recovery of the readout system, the time resolution of the calorimeter and the performance of the trigger signals from the calorimeter.

  3. Testbeam studies of production modules of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adragna, P [Pisa University and INFN, Pisa (Italy); Alexa, C [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest (Romania); Anderson, K [University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Antonaki, A; Arabidze, A [University of Athens, Athens (Greece); Batkova, L [Comenius University, Bratislava (Slovakia); Batusov, V [JINR, Dubna (Russian Federation); Beck, H P [Laboratory for High Energy Physics, University of Bern (Switzerland); Bednar, P [Comenius University, Bratislava (Slovakia); Bergeaas Kuutmann, E [Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden); Biscarat, C [LPC Clermont-Ferrand, Universite Blaise Pascal, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Blanchot, G [Institut de Fisica d' Altes Energies, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Bogush, A [Institute of Physics, National Academy of Sciences, Minsk (Belarus); Bohm, C [Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden); Boldea, V [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest (Romania); Bosman, M [Institut de Fisica d' Altes Energies, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Bromberg, C [Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan (United States); Budagov, J [JINR, Dubna (Russian Federation); Burckhart-Chromek, D [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Caprini, M [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest (Romania)

    2009-07-21

    We report test beam studies of 11% of the production ATLAS Tile Calorimeter modules. The modules were equipped with production front-end electronics and all the calibration systems planned for the final detector. The studies used muon, electron and hadron beams ranging in energy from 3 to 350 GeV. Two independent studies showed that the light yield of the calorimeter was {approx}70pe/GeV, exceeding the design goal by 40%. Electron beams provided a calibration of the modules at the electromagnetic energy scale. Over 200 calorimeter cells the variation of the response was 2.4%. The linearity with energy was also measured. Muon beams provided an intercalibration of the response of all calorimeter cells. The response to muons entering in the ATLAS projective geometry showed an RMS variation of 2.5% for 91 measurements over a range of rapidities and modules. The mean response to hadrons of fixed energy had an RMS variation of 1.4% for the modules and projective angles studied. The response to hadrons normalized to incident beam energy showed an 8% increase between 10 and 350 GeV, fully consistent with expectations for a noncompensating calorimeter. The measured energy resolution for hadrons of {sigma}/E=52.9%/{radical}(E)+5.7% was also consistent with expectations. Other auxiliary studies were made of saturation recovery of the readout system, the time resolution of the calorimeter and the performance of the trigger signals from the calorimeter.

  4. ATLAS Tile calorimeter calibration and monitoring systems

    CERN Document Server

    Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter is the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment and provides important information for reconstruction of hadrons, jets, hadronic decays of tau leptons and missing transverse energy. This sampling calorimeter uses steel plates as absorber and scintillating tiles as active medium. The light produced by the passage of charged particles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibres to photomultiplier tubes, located in the outer part of the calorimeter. The readout is segmented into about 5000 cells (longitudinally and transversally), each of them being read out by two photomultiplier in parallel. To calibrate and monitor the stability and performance of each part of the readout chain during the data taking, a set of calibration systems is used. The calibration system comprises Cesium radioactive sources, laser, charge injection elements and an integrator based readout system. Combined information from all systems allows to monitor and equalise the calorimeter r...

  5. Upgrading the Fast Calorimeter Simulation in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Schaarschmidt, Jana; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The tremendous need for simulated samples now and even more so in the future, encourage the development of fast simulation techniques. The Fast Calorimeter Simulation is a faster though less accurate alternative to the full calorimeter simulation with Geant4. It is based on parametrizing the longitudunal and lateral energy deposits of single particles in the ATLAS calorimeter. Principal component analysis and machine learning techniques are used to improve the performance and decrease the memory need compared to the current version of the ATLAS Fast Calorimeter Simulation. The parametrizations are expanded to cover very high energies and very forward detector regions, to increase the applicability of the tool. A prototype of this upgraded Fast Calorimeter Simulation has been developed and first validations with single particles show substantial improvements over the previous version.

  6. ATLAS Tile calorimeter calibration and monitoring systems

    CERN Document Server

    Marjanovic, Marija; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment. This sampling calorimeter uses steel plates as absorber and scintillating tiles as active medium. The light produced by the passage of charged particles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibers to photo-multiplier tubes (PMTs), located in the outer part of the calorimeter. The readout is segmented into about 5000 cells, each one being read out by two PMTs in parallel. To calibrate and monitor the stability and performance of the full readout chain during the data taking, a set of calibration sub-systems is used. The TileCal calibration system comprises Cesium radioactive sources, laser, charge injection elements, and an integrator based readout system. Combined information from all systems allows to monitor and to equalize the calorimeter response at each stage of the signal evolution, from scintillation light to digitization. Calibration runs are monitored from a data quality perspective and u...

  7. ATLAS Tile calorimeter calibration and monitoring systems

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00445232; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment and provides important information for reconstruction of hadrons, jets, hadronic decays of tau leptons and missing transverse energy. This sampling calorimeter uses steel plates as absorber and scintillating tiles as active medium. The light produced by the passage of charged particles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibres to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs), located on the outside of the calorimeter. The readout is segmented into about 5000 cells (longitudinally and transversally), each of them being read out by two PMTs in parallel. To calibrate and monitor the stability and performance of each part of the readout chain during the data taking, a set of calibration systems is used. The TileCal calibration system comprises Cesium radioactive sources, laser and charge injection elements and it allows to monitor and equalize the calorimeter response at each stage of the signal production, from scin...

  8. ATLAS Tile calorimeter calibration and monitoring systems

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00445232; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment and provides important information for reconstruction of hadrons, jets, hadronic decays of tau leptons and missing transverse energy. This sampling calorimeter uses steel plates as absorber and scintillating tiles as active medium. The light produced by the passage of charged particles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibres to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs), located on the outside of the calorimeter. The readout is segmented into about 5000 cells (longitudinally and transversally), each of them being read out by two PMTs in parallel. To calibrate and monitor the stability and performance of each part of the readout chain during the data taking, a set of calibration systems is used. The TileCal calibration system comprises cesium radioactive sources, Laser and charge injection elements, and allows for monitoring and equalization of the calorimeter response at each stage of the signal production, ...

  9. ATLAS: First rehearsal for the tile calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The dry run assembly of the first barrel of the ATLAS tile hadron calorimeter has been successfully completed. It is now being dismantled again so that it can be lowered into the ATLAS cavern where it will be reassembled in October 2004.

  10. ATLAS Calorimeters: Run-2 performance and Phase-II upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS detector was designed and built to study proton-proton collisions produced at the LHC at centre-of-mass energies up to 14 TeV and instantaneous luminosities up to 10^{34} cm^{−2} s^{−1}. A liquid argon (LAr)-lead sampling calorimeter is employed as electromagnetic calorimeter and hadronic calorimter, except in the barrel region, where a scintillator-steel sampling calorimeter (TileCal) is used as hadronic calorimter. This presentation will give first an overview of the detector operation and data quality, as well as the achieved performance of the ATLAS calorimetry system. Additionally, the upgrade projects of the ATLAS calorimeter system for the high luminosity phase of the LHC (HL-LHC) will be presented. For the HL-LHC, the instantaneous luminosity is expected to increase up to L ≃ 7.5 × 10^{34} cm^{−2} s^{−1} and the average pile-up up to 200 interactions per bunch crossing. The major R&D item is the upgrade of the electronics for both LAr and Tile calorimeters in order to cope wit...

  11. Performance of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Heelan, Louise; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS Tile hadronic calorimeter (TileCal) provides highly-segmented energy measurements of incoming particles. It is a key detector for the measurement of hadrons, jets, tau leptons and missing transverse energy. It is also useful for identification and reconstruction of muons due to good signal to noise ratio. The calorimeter consists of thin steel plates and 460,000 scintillating tiles configured into 5000 cells, each viewed by two photomultipliers. The calorimeter response and its readout electronics is monitored to better than 1% using radioactive source, laser and charge injection systems. The calibration and performance of the calorimeter have been established through test beam measurements, cosmic ray muons and the large sample of proton-proton collisions acquired in 2011 and 2012. Results on the calorimeter performance are presented, including the absolute energy scale, timing, noise and associated stabilities. The results demonstrate that the Tile Calorimeter has performed well within the design ...

  12. Calibration of the electromagnetic calorimeter of the Atlas detector: reconstruction of events with non-pointing photons in the frame of a GMSB supersymmetric model; Etalonnage du calorimetre electromagnetique du detecteur Atlas: reconstruction des evenements avec des photons non pointants das le cadre d'un modele supersymetrique GMSB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prieur, D

    2005-04-15

    The analysis of test-beam data is focused on the calibration of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter. An electrical model has been developed to predict the shape of the physics pulse out of the calibration signal in order to produce optimal filtering coefficients. They are used to compute energy while minimizing electronic noise and getting rid of any possible time shift. Using these coefficients, the uniformity response is 0.6%, in agreement with the 0.7% global constant term required for the whole calorimeter. The study of non pointing photon is driven by the detection of long lived neutralinos predicted by GMSB SUSY models. A systematic study with a detailed simulation of the ATLAS detector was performed to determine the electromagnetic calorimeter angular resolution for such photons. Results were used to parametrized the detector response and to reconstruct SUSY events from this model. (author)

  13. Performance of the ATLAS Zero Degree Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Leite, M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The ATLAS Zero Degree Calorimeter (ZDC) at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is a set of two sampling calorimeters modules symmetrically located at 140m from the ATLAS interaction point. The ZDC covers a pseudorapidity range of |eta| > 8.3 and it is both longitudinally and transversely segmented, thus providing energy and position information of the incident particles. The ZDC is installed between the two LHC beam pipes, in a configuration such that only the neutral particles produced at the interaction region can reach this calorimeter. The ZDC uses Tungsten plates as absorber material and rods made of quartz interspersed in the absorber as active media. The energetic charged particles crossing the quartz rods produces Cherenkov light which is then detected by photomultipliers and sent to the front end electronics for processing, in a total of 120 individual electronic channels. The Tungsten plates and quartz rods are arranged in a way to segment the calorimeters in 4 longitudinal sections. The first section (...

  14. The electromagnetic calorimeter of the NOMAD experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Autiero, D; Baldo-Ceolin, M; Barichello, G; Bianchi-Bonaiti, V; Bobisut, F; Cardini, A; Cattaneo, P W; Cavasinni, V; Conta, C; Del Prete, T; De Santo, A; Di Lella, L; Ferrari, R; Flaminio, V; Fraternali, M; Gibin, D; Gninenko, S N; Guglielmi, A; Iacopini, E; Kovzelev, A V; La Rotonda, L; Lanza, A; Laveder, M; Lazzeroni, C; Livan, M; Mezzetto, M; Orestano, D; Pastore, F; Pennacchio, E; Petti, R; Polesello, G; Renzoni, G; Rimoldi, A; Roda, C; Sconza, A; Sobczynski, C; Valdata-Nappi, M; Vascon, M; Vercesi, V; Visentin, L; Volkov, S A [Pisa Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Pisa (Italy); [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Padova and INFN, Sezione di Padova, Padova (Italy); [Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica, Universita di Pavia and INFN, Sezione di Pavia, Pavia (Italy); [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Firenze and INFN, Sezione di Firenze, Firenze (Italy); [Institute of Nuclear Research, INR, Moscow (Russian Federation); [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita della Calabria and INFN, Gruppo Collegato di Cosenza, Cosenza (Italy)

    1996-05-01

    A description is given of the NOMAD electromagnetic calorimeter, consisting of 875 lead-glass counters read out by two-stage photomultipliers and a low noise electronic chain. The detector operates in a 0.4 T magnetic field transverse to the counter axis. The paper discusses the design criteria, the lead-glass characteristics, the properties of the read out chain and provides a summary of the calorimeter performance. (orig.).

  15. The electromagnetic calorimeter of the NOMAD experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autiero, D.; Baldo-Ceolin, M.; Barichello, G.; Bianchi-Bonaiti, V.; Bobisut, F.; Cardini, A.; Cattaneo, P.W.; Cavasinni, V.; Conta, C.; Del Prete, T.; De Santo, A.; Di Lella, L.; Ferrari, R.; Flaminio, V.; Fraternali, M.; Gibin, D.; Gninenko, S.N.; Guglielmi, A.; Iacopini, E.; Kovzelev, A.V.; La Rotonda, L.; Lanza, A.; Laveder, M.; Lazzeroni, C.; Livan, M.; Mezzetto, M.; Orestano, D.; Pastore, F.; Pennacchio, E.; Petti, R.; Polesello, G.; Renzoni, G.; Rimoldi, A.; Roda, C.; Sconza, A.; Sobczynski, C.; Valdata-Nappi, M.; Vascon, M.; Vercesi, V.; Visentin, L.; Volkov, S.A.

    1996-01-01

    A description is given of the NOMAD electromagnetic calorimeter, consisting of 875 lead-glass counters read out by two-stage photomultipliers and a low noise electronic chain. The detector operates in a 0.4 T magnetic field transverse to the counter axis. The paper discusses the design criteria, the lead-glass characteristics, the properties of the read out chain and provides a summary of the calorimeter performance. (orig.)

  16. Commissioning of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Cooke, M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2009-01-01

    Since the first modules of the ATLAS LAr calorimeters were read out in situ in 2006, commissioning studies have been performed. These studies include the testing of the electronics calibration system, surveys for dead or problematic channels, investigations of the quality of the physics pulse shape prediction , and tests of energy and time reconstruction with cosmic or single beam induced signals. The results of these commissioning studies indicate the LAr calorimeters are prepared for LHC collisions and positioned to meet the physics objectives of the ATLAS experiment.

  17. Calibration of the ATLAS Tile hadronic calorimeter using muons

    CERN Document Server

    van Woerden, M C; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the barrel hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is a sampling calorimeter using plastic scintillator as the active material and iron as the absorber. TileCal , together with the electromagnetic calorimeter, provides precise measurements of hadrons, jets, taus and the missing transverse energy. Cosmic rays muons and muon events produced by scraping 450 GeV protons in one collimator of the LHC machine have been used to test the calibration of the calorimeter. The analysis of the cosmic rays data shows: a) the response of the third longitudinal layer of the Barrel differs from those of the first and second Barrel layers by about 3-4%, respectively and b) the differences between the energy scales of each layer obtained in this analysis and the value set at beam tests using electrons are found to range between -3% and +1%. In the case of the scraping beam data, the responses of all the layer pairs were found to be consisten...

  18. The ATLAS High-Level Calorimeter Trigger in Run-2

    CERN Document Server

    Wiglesworth, Craig; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The ATLAS Experiment uses a two-level triggering system to identify and record collision events containing a wide variety of physics signatures. It reduces the event rate from the bunch-crossing rate of 40 MHz to an average recording rate of 1 kHz, whilst maintaining high efficiency for interesting collision events. It is composed of an initial hardware-based level-1 trigger followed by a software-based high-level trigger. A central component of the high-level trigger is the calorimeter trigger. This is responsible for processing data from the electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters in order to identify electrons, photons, taus, jets and missing transverse energy. In this talk I will present the performance of the high-level calorimeter trigger in Run-2, noting the improvements that have been made in response to the challenges of operating at high luminosity.

  19. Qualification procedure of the electromagnetic calorimeter of the ATLAS detector; Conception et mise au point de la procedure de qualification du calorimetre electromagnetique a argon liquide du detecteur ATLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massol, N

    2000-04-19

    LHC is the next collider based at CERN in Europe. The purpose of this machine is the Higgs boson and SUSY particles search. The detectors must have an excellent electromagnetic calorimetry to measure electron and photon energy. To maximize the signal to noise ratio for a low mass Higgs, it is fundamental to obtain a constant term as small as possible. LAPP is participating in the construction of the liquid argon electromagnetic calorimeter of the ATLAS collaboration. This technology is well adapted to the LHC experimental conditions. A systematic procedure to qualify the modules of this detector is an essential step to guarantee a 0,7% constant term, which is the collaboration objective. The procedure detailed in this thesis consists of quality monitoring during mechanical assembly and of a set of electrical tests such as electrical continuity, cell and cross-talk capacitance measurement, and high-voltage behaviour. For the whole test, it has been necessary to develop dedicated electronic cards, to develop measurement methods, and the whole operation software. Making the procedure automatic will guarantee the quality of each module during assembly, cabling, and test in liquid argon. (author)

  20. Preparation of the ATLAS experiment in the LHC proton collider, performances of the electromagnetic calorimeter and its potentialities for the top quark; Preparation de l'experience ATLAS aupres du futur grand collisionneur de protons LHC: performances du calorimetre electromagnetique et potentiels pour la physique du quark top

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubaut, F

    2007-03-15

    ATLAS is the biggest and the more complex detector ever built, it will operate on the LHC and is the outcome of a huge international collaboration of 2000 physicists. This document reviews the theoretical and experimental achievements of one of them, his collaboration spread over 7 years and has followed 2 axis. First, the design, construction and test of the electromagnetic calorimeter of ATLAS and secondly, the development of analysis strategies in the physics of the top quark. The expected important production of top quarks in LHC will allow an accurate measurement of the properties of this particle and in the same way will provide new testing areas for the standard model. The top quark, being extremely massive, might play a significant role in the mechanism of electro-weak symmetry breaking. This document is organized into 5 chapters: 1) ATLAS detector, performance and progress, 2) the optimization of the energy measurement with the electromagnetic calorimeter, 3) the performance of the electromagnetic calorimeter, 4) the physics of the top quark, and 5) the potentialities of ATLAS in the top quark sector. This document presented before an academic board will allow its author to manage research works and particularly to tutor thesis students. (A.C.)

  1. Performance of the Electronic Readout of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, H; Aleksa, M; Aperio Bella, L; Archambault, JP; Arfaoui, S; Arnaez, O; Auge, E; Aurousseau, M; Bahinipati, S; Ban, J; Banfi, D; Barajas, A; Barillari, T; Bazan, A; Bellachia, F; Beloborodova, O; Benchekroun, D; Benslama, K; Berger, N; Berghaus, F; Bernat, P; Bernier, R; Besson, N; Binet, S; Blanchard, JB; Blondel, A; Bobrovnikov, V; Bohner, O; Boonekamp, M; Bordoni, S; Bouchel, M; Bourdarios, C; Bozzone, A; Braun, HM; Breton, D; Brettel, H; Brooijmans, G; Caputo, R; Carli, T; Carminati, L; Caughron, S; Cavalleri, P; Cavalli, D; Chareyre, E; Chase, RL; Chekulaev, SV; Chen, H; Cheplakov, A; Chiche, R; Citterio, M; Cojocaru, C; Colas, J; Collard, C; Collot, J; Consonni, M; Cooke, M; Copic, K; Costa, GC; Courneyea, L; Cuisy, D; Cwienk, WD; Damazio, D; Dannheim, D; De Cecco, S; De La Broise, X; De La Taille, C; de Vivie, JB; Debennerot, B; Delagnes, E; Delmastro, M; Derue, F; Dhaliwal, S; Di Ciaccio, L; Doan, O; Dudziak, F; Duflot, L; Dumont-Dayot, N; Dzahini, D; Elles, S; Ertel, E; Escalier, M; Etienvre, AI; Falleau, I; Fanti, M; Farooque, T; Favre, P; Fayard, Louis; Fent, J; Ferencei, J; Fischer, A; Fournier, D; Fournier, L; Fras, M; Froeschl, R; Gadfort, T; Gallin-Martel, ML; Gibson, A; Gillberg, D; Gingrich, DM; Göpfert, T; Goodson, J; Gouighri, M; Goy, C; Grassi, V; Gray, J; Guillemin, T; Guo, B; Habring, J; Handel, C; Heelan, L; Heintz, H; Helary, L; Henrot-Versille, S; Hervas, L; Hobbs, J; Hoffman, J; Hostachy, JY; Hoummada, A; Hrivnac, J; Hrynova, T; Hubaut, F; Huber, J; Iconomidou-Fayard, L; Iengo, P; Imbert, P; Ishmukhametov, R; Jantsch, A; Javadov, N; Jezequel, S; Jimenez Belenguer, M; Ju, XY; Kado, M; Kalinowski, A; Kar, D; Karev, A; Katsanos, I; Kazarinov, M; Kerschen, N; Kierstead, J; Kim, MS; Kiryunin, A; Kladiva, E; Knecht, N; Kobel, M; Koletsou, I; König, S; Krieger, P; Kukhtin, V; Kuna, M; Kurchaninov, L; Labbe, J; Lacour, D; Ladygin, E; Lafaye, R; Laforge, B; Lamarra, D; Lampl, W; Lanni, F; Laplace, S; Laskus, H; Le Coguie, A; Le Dortz, O; Le Maner, C; Lechowski, M; Lee, SC; Lefebvre, M; Leonhardt, K; Lethiec, L; Leveque, J; Liang, Z; Liu, C; Liu, T; Liu, Y; Loch, P; Lu, J; Ma, H; Mader, W; Majewski, S; Makovec, N; Makowiecki, D; Mandelli, L; Mangeard, PS; Mansoulie, B; Marchand, JF; Marchiori, G; Martin, D; Martin-Chassard, G; Martin dit Latour, B; Marzin, A; Maslennikov, A; Massol, N; Matricon, P; Maximov, D; Mazzanti, M; McCarthy, T; McPherson, R; Menke, S; Meyer, JP; Ming, Y; Monnier, E; Mooshofer, P; Neganov, A; Niedercorn, F; Nikolic-Audit, I; Nugent, IM; Oakham, G; Oberlack, H; Ocariz, J; Odier, J; Oram, CJ; Orlov, I; Orr, R; Parsons, JA; Peleganchuk, S; Penson, A; Perini, L; Perrodo, P; Perrot, G; Perus, A; Petit, E; Pisarev, I; Plamondon, M; Poffenberger, P; Poggioli, L; Pospelov, G; Pralavorio, P; Prast, J; Prudent, X; Przysiezniak, H; Puzo, P; Quentin, M; Radeka, V; Rajagopalan, S; Rauter, E; Reimann, O; Rescia, S; Resende, B; Richer, JP; Ridel, M; Rios, R; Roos, L; Rosenbaum, G; Rosenzweig, H; Rossetto, O; Roudil, W; Rousseau, D; Ruan, X; Rudert, A; Rusakovich, N; Rusquart, P; Rutherfoord, J; Sauvage, G; Savine, A; Schaarschmidt, J; Schacht, P; Schaffer, A; Schram, M; Schwemling, P; Seguin Moreau, N; Seifert, F; Serin, L; Seuster, R; Shalyugin, A; Shupe, M; Simion, S; Sinervo, P; Sippach, W; Skovpen, K; Sliwa, R; Soukharev, A; Spano, F; Stavina, P; Straessner, A; Strizenec, P; Stroynowski, R; Talyshev, A; Tapprogge, S; Tarrade, F; Tartarelli, GF; Teuscher, R; Tikhonov, Yu; Tocut, V; Tompkins, D; Thompson, P; Tisserant, S; Todorov, T; Tomasz, F; Trincaz-Duvoid, S; Trinh, Thi N; Trochet, S; Trocme, B; Tschann-Grimm, K; Tsionou, D; Ueno, R; Unal, G; Urbaniec, D; Usov, Y; Voss, K; Veillet, JJ; Vincter, M; Vogt, S; Weng, Z; Whalen, K; Wicek, F; Wilkens, H; Wingerter-Seez, I; Wulf, E; Yang, Z; Ye, J; Yuan, L; Yurkewicz, A; Zarzhitsky, P; Zerwas, D; Zhang, H; Zhang, L; Zhou, N; Zimmer, J; Zitoun, R; Zivkovic, L

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS detector has been designed for operation at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. ATLAS includes electromagnetic and hadronic liquid argon calorimeters, with almost 200,000 channels of data that must be sampled at the LHC bunch crossing frequency of 40 MHz. The calorimeter electronics calibration and readout are performed by custom electronics developed specifically for these purposes. This paper describes the system performance of the ATLAS liquid argon calibration and readout electronics, including noise, energy and time resolution, and long term stability, with data taken mainly from full-system calibration runs performed after installation of the system in the ATLAS detector hall at CERN.

  2. Important ATLAS Forward Calorimeter Milestone Reached

    CERN Document Server

    Loch, P.

    The ATLAS Forward Calorimeter working group has reached an important milestone in the production of their detectors. The mechanical assembly of the first electromagnetic module (FCal1C) has been completed at the University of Arizona on February 25, 2002, only ten days after the originally scheduled date. The photo shows the University of Arizona FCal group in the clean room, together with the assembled FCal1C module. The module consists of a stack of 18 round copper plates, each about one inch thick. Each plate is about 90 cm in diameter, and has 12260 precision-drilled holes in it, to accommodate the tube/rod electrode assembly. The machining of the plates, which was done at the Science Technology Center (STC) at Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada, required high precision to allow for easy insertion of the electrode copper tube. The plates have been carefully cleaned at the University of Arizona, to remove any machining residue and metal flakes. This process alone took about eleven weeks. Exactly 122...

  3. ATLAS Tile Calorimeter calibration and monitoring systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-González, Arely

    2018-01-01

    The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter is the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment and provides important information for reconstruction of hadrons, jets, hadronic decays of tau leptons and missing transverse energy. This sampling calorimeter uses steel plates as absorber and scintillating tiles as active medium. The light produced by the passage of charged particles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibres to photomultiplier tubes, located in the outer part of the calorimeter. Neutral particles may also produce a signal after interacting with the material and producing charged particles. The readout is segmented into about 5000 cells, each of them being read out by two photomultipliers in parallel. To calibrate and monitor the stability and performance of each part of the readout chain during the data taking, a set of calibration systems is used. This comprises Cesium radioactive sources, Laser, charge injection elements and an integrator based readout system. Information from all systems allows to monitor and equalise the calorimeter response at each stage of the signal production, from scintillation light to digitisation. Calibration runs are monitored from a data quality perspective and used as a cross-check for physics runs. The data quality efficiency achieved during 2016 was 98.9%. These calibration and stability of the calorimeter reported here show that the TileCal performance is within the design requirements and has given essential contribution to reconstructed objects and physics results.

  4. Performance of the ATLAS hadronic Tile calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Van Daalen, Tal Roelof; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Performance of the ATLAS hadronic Tile calorimeter The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC is the central hadronic calorimeter designed for the reconstruction of hadrons, jets, tau-particles and missing transverse energy. TileCal is a scintillator-steel sampling calorimeter and it covers the region of pseudorapidity < 1.7. The scintillation light produced in the scintillator tiles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibers to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The analog signals from the PMTs are amplified, shaped and digitized every 25 ns by sampling the signal. About 10000 channels of the front-end electronics measure the signals of the calorimeter with energies ranging from ~30 MeV to ~2 TeV. Each step of the signal reconstruction from scintillation light to the digital pulse reconstruction is monitored and calibrated. The performance of the calorimeter has been studied in-situ employing cosmic ray muons and a large sample of proton-proton collisions acquired during the operations...

  5. The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter gets into shape!

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The last of the 64 modules for one of the ATLAS Hadron tile calorimeter barrels has just arrived at CERN. This arrival puts an end to two and a half years work assembling and testing all the modules in the Institut de Física d'Altes Energies (IFAE), in Barcelona.

  6. Upgrading the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Oreglia, M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The ATLAS detector hadron calorimeter electronics are being redesigned to address issues associated with the High Luminosity mode of LHC running in Phase-2. We describe the issues and solutions and also discuss a demonstrator unit to be installed on the detector in 2014.

  7. Commissioning of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Cooke, Mark S

    2009-01-01

    A selection of ATLAS liquid argon (LAr) calorimeter commissioning studies are presented. These include a coherent noise study, a measurement of the quality of the physics pulse shape prediction, and energy and time reconstruction analyses with cosmic and single beam signals.

  8. The new ATLAS Fast Calorimeter Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Dias, Flavia; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    A very large number of simulated events is required for physics and performance studies with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. Producing these with the full GEANT4 detector simulation is highly CPU intensive. As a very detailed detector simulation is not always required, fast simulation tools have been developed to reduce the calorimeter simulation time by a few orders of magnitude. The fast simulation of ATLAS for the calorimeter systems used in Run 1, called Fast Calorimeter Simulation (FastCaloSim), provides a parameterized simulation of the particle energy response at the calorimeter read-out cell level. It is then interfaced to the ATLAS digitization and reconstruction software. In Run 1, about 13 billion events were simulated in ATLAS, out of which 50% were produced using fast simulation. For Run 2, a new parameterisation is being developed to improve the original version: It incorporates developments in geometry and physics lists of the last five years and benefits from knowledge acquire...

  9. Laser calibration of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Di Gregorio, Giulia; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    High performance stability of the ATLAS Tile calorimeter is achieved with a set of calibration procedures. One step of the calibrtion procedure is based on measurements of the response stability to laser excitation of the photomultipliers (PMTs) that are used to readout the calorimeter cells. A facility to study in lab the PMT stability response is operating in the PISA-INFN laboratories since 2015. Goals of the test in lab are to study the time evolution of the PMT response to reproduce and to understand the origin of the resonse drifts seen with the PMT mounted on the Tile calorimeter in its normal operation during LHC run I and run II. A new statistical approach was developed to measure the drift of the absolute gain. This approach was applied to both the ATLAS laser calibration data and to the data collected in the Pisa local laboratory. The preliminary results from these two studies are shown.

  10. ATLAS Tile calorimeter calibration and monitoring systems

    CERN Document Server

    Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment and provides important information for reconstruction of hadrons, jets, hadronic decays of tau leptons and missing transverse energy. This sampling calorimeter uses steel plates as absorber and scintillating tiles as active medium. The light produced by the passage of charged particles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibres to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). PMT signals are then digitized at 40 MHz and stored on detector and are only transferred off detector once the first level trigger acceptance has been confirmed. The readout is segmented into about 5000 cells (longitudinally and transversally), each of them being read out by two PMTs in parallel. To calibrate and monitor the stability and performance of each part of the readout chain, a set of calibration systems is used. The TileCal calibration system comprises Cesium radioactive sources, laser, charge injection elements and an integrator b...

  11. Laser Calibration of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Di Gregorio, Giulia; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    High performance stability of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter is achieved with a set of calibration procedures. One step of the calibration procedure is based on measurements of the response stability to laser excitation of the PMTs that are used to readout the calorimeter cells. A facility to study in lab the PMT stability response is operating in the PISA-INFN laboratories since 2015. Goals of the tests in lab are to study the time evolution of the PMT response to reproduce and to understand the origin of the response drifts seen with the PMT mounted on the Tile calorimeter in its normal operating during LHC run I and run II. A new statistical approach was developed to measure drift of the absolute gain. This approach was applied to both the ATLAS laser calibration data and to data collected in the Pisa local laboratory. The preliminary results from these two studies are shown.

  12. CALICE silicon-tungsten electromagnetic calorimeter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A highly granular electromagnetic calorimeter prototype based on tungsten absorber and sampling units equipped with silicon pads as sensitive devices for signal collection is under construction. The full prototype will have in total 30 layers and be read out by about 10000 Si cells of 1 × 1 cm2. A first module consisting of 14 ...

  13. The BaBar electromagnetic calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Lewandowski, B

    2002-01-01

    The BaBar electromagnetic calorimeter is a hermetic, total-absorption array of CsI(Tl)-crystals, operated at the asymmetric e sup - e sup + -collider PEP-II at SLAC. The design and the status of the performance as of February 2002 is presented.

  14. The electromagnetic calorimeter of the CMS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diemoza, M.

    2003-01-01

    The Electromagnetic Calorimeter of the CMS experiment is made of about 80000 Lead Tungstate scintillating crystals. This project aims to achieve an extreme precision in photons and electrons energy measurement. General motivations, main technical challenges and key points in energy resolution will be discussed in the following

  15. Upgrading the Atlas Tile Calorimeter Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Popeneciu, G; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    Tile Calorimeter is the central hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. Around 2024, after the upgrade of the LHC the peak luminosity will increase by a factor of 5 compared to the design value, thus requiring an upgrade of the Tile Calorimeter readout electronics. Except the photomultipliers tubes (PMTs), most of the on- and off-detector electronics will be replaced, with the aim of digitizing all PMT pulses at the front-end level and sending them with 10 Gb/s optical links to the back-end electronics. One demonstrator prototype module is planned to be inserted in Tile Calorimeter in 2015 that will include hybrid electronic components able to probe the new design.

  16. Performance of the ATLAS hadronic Tile calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00304670; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC is the central hadronic calorimeter designed for energy reconstruction of hadrons, jets, tau-particles and missing transverse energy. TileCal is a scintillator-steel sampling calorimeter and it covers the region of pseudorapidity < 1.7. The scintillation light produced in the scintillator tiles is transmitted to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). Signals from the PMTs are amplified, shaped and digitized by sampling the signal every 25 ns. Each stage of the signal production from scintillation light to the signal reconstruction is monitored and calibrated. Results on the calorimeter operation and performance are presented, including the calibration, stability, absolute energy scale, uniformity and time resolution. These results show that the TileCal performance is within the design requirements and has given essential contribution to reconstructed objects and physics results.

  17. The new ATLAS Fast Calorimeter Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Jacka, Petr; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    With the huge amount of data collected with ATLAS, there is a need to produce a large number of simulated events. These productions are very CPU and time consuming when using the full GEANT4 simulation. FastCaloSim is a program to quickly simulate the ATLAS calorimeter response, based on a parameterization of the GEANT4 energy deposits of several kinds of particles in a grid of energy and eta. A new version of FastCaloSim is under development and its integration into the ATLAS simulation infrastructure is ongoing. The use of machine learning techniques improves the performance and decreases the memory usage. Dedicated parameterizations for the forward calorimeters are being studied. First results of the new FastCaloSim show substantial improvements of the description of energy and shower shape variables, including the variables for jet substructure.

  18. Electromagnetic calorimeter on liquid krypton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazzotti, M.; Bianco, G.L.; Lanni, F.; Maggi, B.; Palombo, F.; Sala, A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on use of noble condensed gases as calorimeter media that is attractive due to the possibility to get not only good energy resolution (like in NaI and CsI calorimeters) but better space resolution for photons. Longitudinal segmentation can provide information for particle identification by dE/dx and also e/π-separation based on longitudinal structure of the shower. The best material for this aim is of course liquid Zenon, but it is impossible to get the necessary amount of it in reasonable time. Therefore, the authors have stopped their choice on the next candidate-liquid Krypton (LKr). Its sufficient amount can be obtained before to the beginning of the experiment

  19. Testbeam Studies of Production Modules of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Adragna, P; Anderson, K; Antonaki, A; Arabidze, A; Batkova, L; Batusov, V; Beck, H P; Bednar, P; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E; Biscarat, C; Blanchot, G; Bogush, A; Bohm, C; Boldea, V; Bosman, M; Bromberg, C; Budagov, Yu A; Burckhart-Chromek, D; Caprini, M; Caloba, L; Calvet, D; Carli, T; Carvalho, J; Cascella, M; Castelo, J; Castillo, M V; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cavasinni, V; Cerqueira, A S; Clément, C; Cobal, M; Cogswell, F; Constantinescu, S; Costanzo, D; Corso-Radu, A; Cuenca, C; Damazio, D O; David, M; Davidek, T; De, K; Del Prete, T; Di Girolamo, B; Dita, S; Djobava, T; Dobson, M; Dolejsi, J; Dolezal, Z; Dotti, A; Downing, R; Efthymiopoulos, I; Eriksson, D; Errede, D; Errede, S; Farbin, A; Fassouliotis, D; Febbraro, R; Fedorko, I; Fenyuk, A; Ferdi, C; Ferrer, A; Flaminio, V; Francis, D; Fullana, E; Gadomski, S; Gameiro, S; Garde, V; Gellerstedt, K; Giakoumopoulou, V; Gildemeister, O; Gilewsky, V; Giokaris, N; Gollub, N; Gomes, A; González, V; Gorini, B; Grenier, P; Gris, P; Gruwé, M; Guarino, V; Guicheney, C; Sen-Gupta, A; Haeberli, C; Hakobyan, H; Haney, M; Hellman, S; Henriques, A; Higón, E; Holmgren, S; Hurwitz, M; Huston, J; Iglesias, C; Isaev, A; Jen-La Plante, I; Jon-And, K; Joos, M; Junk, T; Karyukhin, A; Kazarov, A; Khandanyan, H; Khramov, J; Khubua, J; Kolos, S; Korolkov, I; Krivkova, P; Kulchitsky, Y; Kurochkin, Yu; Kuzhir, P; Le Compte, T; Lefèvre, R; Lehmann, G; Leitner, R; Lembesi, M; Lesser, J; Li, J; Liablin, M; Lokajícek, M; Lomakin, Y; Lupi, A; Maidantchik, C; Maio, A; Makouski, M; Maliukov, S; Manousakis, A; Mapelli, L; Marques, C; Marroquim, F; Martin, F; Mazzoni, E; Merritt, F S; Myagkov, A; Miller, R; Minashvili, I; Miralles, L; Montarou, G; Mosidze, M; Némécek, S; Nessi, M; Nodulman, L; Nordkvist, B; Norniella, O; Onofre, A; Oreglia, M; Pallin, D; Pantea, D; Petersen, J; Pilcher, J E; Pina, J; Pinhão, J; Podlyski, F; Portell, X; Poveda, J; Pribyl, L; Price, L E; Proudfoot, J; Ramstedt, M; Richards, R; Roda, C; Romanov, V; Rosnet, P; Roy, P; Ruiz, A; Rumiantsev, V; Russakovich, N; Salto, O; Salvachúa, B; Sanchis, E; Sanders, H; Santoni, C; Santos, J; Saraiva, J G; Sarri, F; Satsunkevitch, I; Says, L-P; Schlager, G; Schlereth, J L; Seixas, J M; Selldén, B; Shalanda, N; Shevtsov, P; Shochet, M; Silva, J; Da Silva, P; Simaitis, V; Simonyan, M; Sisakian, A; Sjölin, J; Solans, C; Solodkov, A; Soloviev, I; Solovyanov, O; Sosebee, M; Spanó, F; Stanek, R; Starchenko, E; Starovoitov, P; Stavina, P; Suk, M; Sykora, I; Tang, F; Tas, P; Teuscher, R; Tokar, S; Topilin, N; Torres, J; Tremblet, L; Tsiareshka, P; Tylmad, M; Underwood, D; Ünel, G; Usai, G; Valero, A; Valkár, S; Valls, J A; Vartapetian, A; Vazeille, F; Vichou, I; Vinogradov, V; Vivarelli, I; Volpi, M; White, A; Zaitsev, A; Zenine, A; Zenis, T

    2009-01-01

    We report test beam studies of {11\\,\\%} of the production ATLAS Tile Calorimeter modules. The modules were equipped with production front-end electronics and all the calibration systems planned for the final detector. The studies used muon, electron and hadron beams ranging in energy from 3~GeV to 350~GeV. Two independent studies showed that the light yield of the calorimeter was $\\sim 70$~pe/GeV, exceeding the design goal by {40\\,\\%}. Electron beams provided a calibration of the modules at the electromagnetic energy scale. Over 200~calorimeter cells the variation of the response was {2.4\\,\\%}. The linearity with energy was also measured. Muon beams provided an intercalibration of the response of all calorimeter cells. The response to muons entering in the ATLAS projective geometry showed an RMS variation of 2.5\\,\\% for 91~measurements over a range of rapidities and modules. The mean response to hadrons of fixed energy had an RMS variation of {1.4\\,\\%} for the modules and projective angles studied. The respon...

  20. Performance of the ATLAS hadronic Tile calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Bartos, Pavol; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Performance of the ATLAS hadronic Tile calorimeter The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC is the central hadronic calorimeter designed for energy reconstruction of hadrons, jets, tau-particles and missing transverse energy. TileCal is a scintillator-steel sampling calorimeter and it covers the region of pseudorapidity < 1.7. The scintillation light produced in the scintillator tiles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibers to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The analog signals from the PMTs are amplified, shaped and digitized by sampling the signal every 25 ns. The TileCal frontend electronics reads out the signals produced by about 10000 channels measuring energies ranging from ~30 MeV to ~2 TeV. Each stage of the signal production from scintillation light to the signal reconstruction is monitored and calibrated. The performance of the calorimeter have been studied in-situ employing cosmic ray muons and a large sample of proton-proton collisions acquired during the operations o...

  1. ATLAS Tile calorimeter calibration and monitoring systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomont, Arthur; ATLAS Collaboration

    2017-11-01

    The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment and provides important information for reconstruction of hadrons, jets, hadronic decays of tau leptons and missing transverse energy. This sampling calorimeter uses steel plates as absorber and scintillating tiles as active medium. The light produced by the passage of charged particles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibres to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs), located on the outside of the calorimeter. The readout is segmented into about 5000 cells (longitudinally and transversally), each of them being read out by two PMTs in parallel. To calibrate and monitor the stability and performance of each part of the readout chain during the data taking, a set of calibration systems is used. The TileCal calibration system comprises cesium radioactive sources, Laser and charge injection elements, and allows for monitoring and equalization of the calorimeter response at each stage of the signal production, from scintillation light to digitization. Based on LHC Run 1 experience, several calibration systems were improved for Run 2. The lessons learned, the modifications, and the current LHC Run 2 performance are discussed.

  2. The new ATLAS Fast Calorimeter Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00223142; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Many physics and performance studies with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider require very large samples of simulated events, and producing these using the full GEANT4 detector simulation is highly CPU intensive. Often, a very detailed detector simulation is not needed, and in these cases fast simulation tools can be used to reduce the calorimeter simulation time by a few orders of magnitude. The new ATLAS Fast Calorimeter Simulation (FastCaloSim) is an improved parametrisation compared to the one used in the LHC Run-1. It provides a simulation of the particle energy response at the calorimeter read-out cell level, taking into account the detailed particle shower shapes and the correlations between the energy depositions in the various calorimeter layers. It is interfaced to the standard ATLAS digitization and reconstruction software, and can be tuned to data more easily than with GEANT4. The new FastCaloSim incorporates developments in geometry and physics lists of the last five years and benefit...

  3. The new ATLAS Fast Calorimeter Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00176100; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The physics and performance studies of the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider re- quire a large number of simulated events. A GEANT4 based detailed simulation of the ATLAS calorimeter systems is highly CPU intensive and such resolution is often unnecessary. To reduce the calorimeter simulation time by a few orders of magnitude, fast simulation tools have been developed. The Fast Calorimeter Simulation (FastCaloSim) provides a parameterised simulation of the particle energy response at the calorimeter read-out cell level. In Run 1, about 13 billion events were simulated in ATLAS, out of which 50% were produced using fast simulation. For Run 2, a new parameterisation is being developed to improve the original version: it incorporates developments in geometry and physics lists during the last five years and benefits from the knowledge acquired from the Run 1 data. The algorithm uses machine learning techniques to improve the parameterisations and to optimise the amount of information to be stored in the...

  4. Upgrading the ATLAS Fast Calorimeter Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Hubacek, Zdenek; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Many physics and performance studies with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider require very large samples of simulated events, and producing these using the full GEANT4 detector simulation is highly CPU intensive. Often, a very detailed detector simulation is not needed, and in these cases fast simulation tools can be used to reduce the calorimeter simulation time by a few orders of magnitude. In ATLAS, a fast simulation of the calorimeter systems was developed, called Fast Calorimeter Simulation (FastCaloSim). It provides a parametrized simulation of the particle energy response at the calorimeter read-out cell level. It is interfaced to the standard ATLAS digitization and reconstruction software, and can be tuned to data more easily than with GEANT4. The original version of FastCaloSim has been very important in the LHC Run-1, with several billion events simulated. An improved parametrisation is being developed, to eventually address shortcomings of the original version. It incorporates developme...

  5. Test of the little Higgs model in Atlas at LHC: simulation of the digitization of the electromagnetic calorimeter; Test du modele du petit Higgs dans ATLAS au LHC: simulation de la numerisation du calorimetre electromagnetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lechowski, M

    2005-04-15

    LHC is a proton-proton collider with an energy of 14 TeV in the center of mass, which will start operating in 2007 at CERN. Two of its experiments, ATLAS, and CMS, will search and study in particular the Higgs boson, Supersymmetry and other new physics. This thesis was about two aspects of the ATLAS experiment. On one hand the simulation of the liquid Argon electromagnetic calorimeter, with the emulation of the electronic chain in charge of the digitization of the signal and also the evaluation of the electronic noise and the pile-up noise (coming from minimum bias events of inelastic collisions at LHC). These two points have been validated by the analysis of the data taken during beam tests in 2002 and 2004. On the other hand, a physics study concerning the Little Higgs model. This recent model solves the hierarchy problem of the Standard Model, in introducing new heavy particles to cancel quadratic divergences arising in the calculation of the Higgs boson mass. These new particles, with a mass about the TeV/c{sup 2}, are a heavy quark top, heavy gauge bosons Z{sub H}, W{sub H} and A{sub H}, and a heavy Higgs boson triplet. The physics study dealt with the characteristic decays of the model, Z{sub H} in Z + H and W{sub H} in W + H, with a Higgs mass either at 120 GeV/c{sup 2} decaying in two photons or at 200 GeV/c{sup 2} decaying in ZZ or WW. Results show that in both cases, for 300 fb{sup -1} (3 years at high luminosity), an observation of the signal at 5 {sigma} for Z{sub H} et W{sub H} masses less than 2 TeV/c{sup 2} is possible, covering a large part of the parameter space. (author)

  6. The zero degree calorimeter for the ATLAS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leite, Marco

    2009-01-01

    Full text. The Zero Degree Calorimeter (ZDC) of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC will measure neutral particles (photons and neutrons) produced at very forward directions in heavy ions and low luminosity p + p collisions. While its main application will be the determination of the centrality of the heavy ions collisions and trigger integration in ATLAS, the design of the ZDC also provides many other interesting heavy ion physics possibilities, like the measurements of the direct flow (by directly measuring the reaction plane formed by the spectator neutrons transverse momentum), ultra-peripheral quarkonia photo-production etc. During low luminosity p+p runs, the ZDC will give valuable information about forward neutron and neutral mesons cross-section production at the LHC energies. The ZDC will also be used in independent luminosity measurements during the early stages of the LHC operation, helping to achieve a better understanding of the standard ATLAS luminosity monitor system (LUCID). The ZDC comprises two sampling calorimeter modules, symmetrically located along the beam line and each one separated 140m from the ATLAS interaction point. This is the region where the accelerator neutral beam absorbers are installed, and the ZDC is strategically inserted inside a slot in these absorbers, extending the ATLAS pseudo-rapidity calorimeter coverage to |η| > 8. Each ZDC module is divided in 4 sections: one electromagnetic followed by three hadronic sections. Built using Tungsten absorber blocs interspersed by quartz fibers for the sampling of the shower, each one of these modules provides energy measurements of the incident particles. The electromagnetic and the first hadronic section can also perform position measurements perpendicular to the projected beam direction due to their segmentation. Instrumenting this realm presents several challenges due to the extremely high radiation levels. To account for the large energy dynamic range (14 bits equivalent), a combination

  7. Optics robustness of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Costa Batalha Pedro, Rute; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    TileCal, the central hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS detector is composed of plastic scintillators interleaved by iron plates, and wavelength shifting optical fibres. The optical properties of these components are known to suffer from natural ageing and degrade due to exposure to radiation. The calorimeter was designed for 10 years of LHC operating at the design luminosity of $10^{34}$ cm$^{-1}$s$^{-1}$. Irradiation tests of scintillators and fibres shown that their light yield decrease about 10 for the maximum dose expected after the 10 years of LHC operation. The robustness of the TileCal optics components is evaluated using the calibration systems of the calorimeter: Cs-137 gamma source, laser light, and integrated photomultiplier signals of particles from collisions. It is observed that the loss of light yield increases with exposure to radiation as expected. The decrease in the light yield during the years 2015-2017 corresponding to the LHC Run 2 will be reported.

  8. Upgrading the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrió Fernando

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This work summarizes the status of the on-detector and off-detector electronics developments for the Phase 2 Upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter at the LHC scheduled around 2022. A demonstrator prototype for a slice of the calorimeter including most of the new electronics is planned to be installed in ATLAS in the middle of 2014 during the first Long Shutdown. For the on-detector readout, three different front-end boards (FEB alternatives are being studied: a new version of the 3-in-1 card, the QIE chip and a dedicated ASIC called FATALIC. The Main Board will provide communication and control to the FEBs and the Daughter Board will transmit the digitized data to the off-detector electronics in the counting room, where the super Read-Out Driver (sROD will perform processing tasks on them and will be the interface to the trigger levels 0, 1 and 2.

  9. Upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Carrio, F; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    This presentation summarizes the status of the on-detector and off-detector electronics developments for the Phase II Upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter at the LHC scheduled around 2024. A demonstrator prototype for a slice of the calorimeter including most of the new electronics is planned to be installed in ATLAS in middle 2014 during the Long Shutdown. For the on-detector readout, three different front-end boards (FEB) alternatives are being studied: a new version of the 3-in-1 card, the QIE chip and a dedicated ASIC called FATALIC. The MainBoard will provide communication and control to the FEBs and the DaughterBoard will transmit the digitized data to the off-detector electronics in the counting room, where the sROD will perform processing tasks on them.

  10. Upgrading the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Carrio, F

    2013-01-01

    This work summarizes the status of the on-detector and off-detector electronics developments for the Phase II Upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter at the LHC scheduled around 2022. A demonstrator prototype for a slice of the calorimeter including most of the new electronics is planned to be installed in ATLAS in middle 2014 during the Long Shutdown. For the on-detector readout, three different front-end boards (FEB) alternatives are being studied: a new version of the 3-in-1 card, the QIE chip and a dedicated ASIC called FATALIC. The MainBoard will provide communication and control to the FEBs and the DaughterBoard will transmit the digitized data to the off-detector electronics in the counting room, where the sROD will perform processing tasks on them.

  11. First physics pulses in the Barrel Electromagnetic Calorimeter with cosmics

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Serin

    2006-01-01

    The electromagnetic barrel calorimeter has been installed in its final position in October 2005. Since then, the calorimeter is being equipped with front-end electronics. Starting in April 2006, electronics calibration runs are taken a few times per week to debug the electronics and to study the performance in the pit (stability, noise). Today, 10 out of the 32 Front End crates are being read out, amounting to about 35000 channels. cool down, few little typos --> After a 6-week cool down, the barrel cryostat was filled with Liquid Argon in May. The presence of a few shorts (~1MΩ) at the edges of the modules was indicating the possibility of conducting dust having entered into the calorimeter with the flowing liquid. In order to try to improve this situation, the calorimeter was emptied and filled again, but this time by condensating the argon instead of flowing it in liquid phase. The new High Voltage tests are not showing any significant improvement but the situation is statisfactory for ATLAS runn...

  12. Electron Reconstruction in the CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Meschi, Emilio; Seez, Christopher; Vikas, Pratibha

    2001-01-01

    This note describes the reconstruction of electrons using the electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) alone. This represents the first step in the High Level Trigger reconstruction and selection chain. By making "super-clusters" (i.e. clusters of clusters) much of the energy radiated by bremsstrahlung in the tracker material can be recovered. Representative performance figures for energy and position resolution in the barrel are given.

  13. Performance of the ATLAS hadronic Tile calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Mlynarikova, Michaela; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC is the central hadronic calorimeter designed for reconstruction of hadrons, jets, tau-particles and missing transverse energy. TileCal is a scintillator-steel sampling calorimeter and it covers the region of pseudorapidity < 1.7. The scintillation light produced in the scintillator tiles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibers to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The analog signals from the PMTs are amplified, shaped and digitized by sampling the signal every 25 ns. The TileCal frontend electronics reads out the signals produced by about 10000 channels measuring energies ranging from ~30 MeV to ~2 TeV. Each stage of the signal production from scintillation light to the signal reconstruction is monitored and calibrated. The performance of the calorimeter has been studied in-situ employing cosmic ray muons and a large sample of proton-proton collisions acquired during the operations of the LHC. Prompt isolated muons of high momentum fro...

  14. Status of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter and its performance after one year of LHC operation

    CERN Document Server

    "Hoffman, J A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is designed to study the proton-proton collisions produced at the LHC with a centre-of-mass energy of 14 TeV. Liquid argon (LAr) sampling calorimeters are used in ATLAS for all electromagnetic calorimetry covering the pseudorapidity region η<3.2, as well as for hadronic calorimetry from η=1.4 to η=4.8. The calorimeter system consists of an electromagnetic barrel calorimeter and two endcaps with electromagnetic (EMEC), hadronic (HEC) and forward (FCAL) calorimeters. The lead-liquid argon sampling technique with an accordion geometry was chosen for the barrel electromagnetic calorimeter (EMB) and adapted to the endcap (EMEC). This geometry allows a uniform acceptance over the whole azimuthal range without any gap. The hadronic endcap calorimeter (HEC) uses a copper-liquid argon sampling technique with plate geometry and is subdivided into two wheels in depth per end-cap. Finally, the forward calorimeter (FCAL) is composed of three modules featuring cylindrical electrodes with thin...

  15. The new ATLAS Fast Calorimeter Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Hasib, Ahmed; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Producing the very large samples of simulated events required by many physics and performance studies with the ATLAS detector using the full GEANT4 detector simulation is highly CPU intensive. Fast simulation tools are a useful way of reducing CPU requirements when detailed detector simulations are not needed. During the LHC Run-1, a fast calorimeter simulation (FastCaloSim) was successfully used in ATLAS. FastCaloSim provides a simulation of the particle energy response at the calorimeter read-out cell level, taking into account the detailed particle shower shapes and the correlations between the energy depositions in the various calorimeter layers. It is interfaced to the standard ATLAS digitization and reconstruction software, and it can be tuned to data more easily than GEANT4. Now an improved version of FastCaloSim is in development, incorporating the experience with the version used during Run-1. The new FastCaloSim makes use of statistical techniques such as principal component analysis, and a neural n...

  16. The New ATLAS Fast Calorimeter Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Heath, Matthew Peter; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Producing the large samples of simulated events required by many physics and performance studies with the ATLAS detector using the full GEANT4 detector simulation is highly CPU intensive. Fast simulation tools are a useful way of reducing the CPU requirements when detailed detector simulations are not needed. During Run-1 of the LHC, a fast calorimeter simulation (FastCaloSim) was successfully used in ATLAS. FastCaloSim provides a simulation of the particle energy response at the calorimeter read-out cell level, taking into account the detailed particle shower shapes and the correlations between the energy depositions in the various calorimeter layers. It is interfaced to the standard ATLAS digitisation and reconstruction software, and it can be tuned to data more easily than Geant4. Now an improved version of FastCaloSim is in development, incorporating the experience with the version used during Run-1. The new FastCaloSim aims to overcome some limitations of the first version by improving the description of...

  17. ATLAS Tile Calorimeter time calibration, monitoring and performance

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00075913; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the hadronic calorimeter covering the central region of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. This sampling device is made of plastic scintillating tiles alternated with iron plates and its response is calibrated to electromagnetic scale by means of several dedicated calibration systems. The accurate time calibration is important for the energy reconstruction, non-collision background removal as well as for specific physics analyses. The initial time calibration with so-called splash events and subsequent fine-tuning with collision data are presented. The monitoring of the time calibration with laser system and physics collision data is discussed as well as the corrections for sudden changes performed still before the recorded data are processed for physics analyses. Finally, the time resolution as measured with jets and isolated muons particles is presented.

  18. Calibration of the Electromagnetic Calorimeter of the ATLAS Experiment and Application to the Measurement of (BE)H Boson Couplings in the Diphoton Channel with Run 2 Data of the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00436282

    The discovery of the Higgs boson was a major success of the run 1 of the LHC. The era of precision measurements began as any deviation from the expected Standard Model (SM) value would be an indirect hint of new physics Beyond the Standard Model (BSM). This is important since no direct evidence was found. This thesis has a first focus on the calibration of the electromagnetic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment. The final step of this calibration uses the knowledge of the lineshape of the Z boson in order to correct the measured energy of electrons and photons. Recommendations for the beginning of run 2 have been given to provide calibration constants for early analyses. Run 2 calibration constants have been computed and the performances of run 1 have been reached and improved : the systematic uncertainty on the resolution constant term of the electromagnetic calorimeter, which was dominant for the Higgs boson couplings measurement at run 1, has been divided by a factor 3. The measurement of the H boson coupl...

  19. Performance of the ATLAS hadronic Tile calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Mlynarikova, Michaela; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC is the central hadronic calorimeter designed for reconstruction of hadrons, jets, tau-particles and missing transverse energy. TileCal is a scintillator-steel sampling calorimeter and it covers the region of pseudorapidity < 1.7. The scintillation light produced in the scintillator tiles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibers to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The analog signals from the PMTs are amplified, shaped and digitized by sampling the signal every 25 ns. The TileCal frontend electronics reads out the signals produced by about 10000 channels measuring energies ranging from ~30 MeV to ~2 TeV. Each stage of the signal production from scintillation light to the signal reconstruction is monitored and calibrated. The performance of the calorimeter has been studied in-situ employing cosmic ray muons and a large sample of proton-proton collisions acquired during the operations of the LHC. Prompt isolated muons of high momentum from elec...

  20. The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Performance at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Molander, S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. The TileCal pays a major role in detecting hadrons, jets, hadronic decays of tau leptons and measuring the missing transverse energy. Due to the very good signal to noise ratio it assists the muon spectrometer in the identification and reconstruction of muons, which are also a tool for the in situ energy scale validation. The results presented here stem from the data collection in dedicated calibration runs, in cosmic rays data-taking and in LHC collisions along 3 years of operation. The uniformity, stability and precision of the energy scale, the time measurement capabilities and the robustness of the performance against pile-up are exposed through the usage of hadronic and muon final states and confirm the design expectations.

  1. Instrumented module of the ATLAS tile calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    1998-01-01

    The ATLAS tile calorimeter consists of steel absorber plates interspersed with plastic scintillator tiles. Interactions of high-energy hadrons in the plates transform the incident energy into a 'hadronic shower'. When shower particles traverse the scintillating tiles, the latter emit an amount of light proportional to the incident energy. This light is transmitted along readout fibres to a photomultiplier, where a detectable electrical signal is produced. These pictures show one of 64 modules or 'wedges' of the barrel part of the tile calorimeter, which are arranged to form a cylinder around the beam axis. The wedge has been instrumented with scintillators and readout fibres. Photos 03, 06: Checking the routing of the readout fibres into the girder that houses the photomultipliers. Photo 04: A view of the fibre bundles inside the girder.

  2. Upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrió, F

    2015-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the hadronic calorimeter covering the central region of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. The TileCal readout consists of about 10000 channels. The bulk of its upgrade will occur for the High Luminosity LHC phase (Phase-II) where the peak luminosity will increase 5 times compared to the design luminosity (10 34 cm −2 s −1 ) but with maintained energy (i.e. 7+7 TeV). An additional increase of the average luminosity with a factor of 2 can be achieved by luminosity levelling. This upgrade is expected to happen around 2024. The TileCal upgrade aims at replacing the majority of the on- and off- detector electronics to the extent that all calorimeter signals will be digitized and sent to the off-detector electronics in the counting room. To achieve the required reliability, redundancy has been introduced at different levels. Three different options are presently being investigated for the front-end electronic upgrade. Extensive test beam studies will determine which option will be selected. 10 Gbps optical links are used to read out all digitized data to the counting room while 5 Gbps down-links are used for synchronization, configuration and detector control. For the off-detector electronics a pre-processor (sROD) is being developed, which takes care of the initial trigger processing while temporarily storing the main data flow in pipeline and derandomizer memories. One demonstrator prototype module with the new calorimeter module electronics, but still compatible with the present system, is planned to be inserted in ATLAS this year

  3. ATLAS detector performance in Run1: Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Burghgrave, B; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    ATLAS operated with an excellent efficiency during the Run 1 data taking period, recording respectively in 2011 and 2012 an integrated luminosity of 5.3 fb-1 at √s = 7 TeV and 21.6 fb-1 at √s = 8TeV. The Liquid Argon and Tile Calorimeter contributed to this effort by operating with a good data quality efficiency, improving over the whole Run 1. This poster presents the Run 1 overall status and performance, LS1 works and Preparations for Run 2.

  4. Mechanical construction and installation of the ATLAS tile calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdallah, J [IFIC, Centro Mixto Universidad de Valencia-CSIC, E46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain); Adragna, P; Bosi, F [Pisa University and INFN, Pisa (Italy); Alexa, C; Boldea, V [Institute of Atomic Physics, Bucharest (Romania); Alves, R [LIP and FCTUC University of Coimbra (Portugal); Amaral, P; Andresen, X; Behrens, A; Blocki, J [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Ananiev, A [LIP and IDMEC-IST, Lisbon (Portugal); Anderson, K [University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Antonaki, A [University of Athens, Athens (Greece); Batusov, V [JINR, Dubna (Russian Federation); Bednar, P [Comenius University, Bratislava (Slovakia); Bergeaas, E; Bohm, C [Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden); Biscarat, C [LPC Clermont-Ferrand, Université Blaise Pascal, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Blanch, O; Blanchot, G [Institut de Fisica d' Altes Energies, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); others, and

    2013-11-01

    This paper summarises the mechanical construction and installation of the Tile Calorimeter for the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider in CERN, Switzerland. The Tile Calorimeter is a sampling calorimeter using scintillator as the sensitive detector and steel as the absorber and covers the central region of the ATLAS experiment up to pseudorapidities ±1.7. The mechanical construction of the Tile Calorimeter occurred over a period of about 10 years beginning in 1995 with the completion of the Technical Design Report and ending in 2006 with the installation of the final module in the ATLAS cavern. During this period approximately 2600 metric tons of steel were transformed into a laminated structure to form the absorber of the sampling calorimeter. Following instrumentation and testing, which is described elsewhere, the modules were installed in the ATLAS cavern with a remarkable accuracy for a structure of this size and weight.

  5. Mechanical construction and installation of the ATLAS tile calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdallah, J; Adragna, P; Bosi, F; Alexa, C; Boldea, V; Alves, R; Amaral, P; Andresen, X; Behrens, A; Blocki, J; Ananiev, A; Anderson, K; Antonaki, A; Batusov, V; Bednar, P; Bergeaas, E; Bohm, C; Biscarat, C; Blanch, O; Blanchot, G

    2013-01-01

    This paper summarises the mechanical construction and installation of the Tile Calorimeter for the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider in CERN, Switzerland. The Tile Calorimeter is a sampling calorimeter using scintillator as the sensitive detector and steel as the absorber and covers the central region of the ATLAS experiment up to pseudorapidities ±1.7. The mechanical construction of the Tile Calorimeter occurred over a period of about 10 years beginning in 1995 with the completion of the Technical Design Report and ending in 2006 with the installation of the final module in the ATLAS cavern. During this period approximately 2600 metric tons of steel were transformed into a laminated structure to form the absorber of the sampling calorimeter. Following instrumentation and testing, which is described elsewhere, the modules were installed in the ATLAS cavern with a remarkable accuracy for a structure of this size and weight

  6. Calibration of the ATLAS calorimeters and discovery potential for massive top quark resonances at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Bergeaas Kuutmann, E; Jon-And, K; Hellman, S

    2010-01-01

    ATLAS is a multi-purpose detector which has recently started to take data at the LHC at CERN. This thesis describes the tests and calibrations of the central calorimeters of ATLAS and outlines a search for heavy top quark pair resonances.The calorimeter tests were performed before the ATLAS detector was assembled at the LHC, in such a way that particle beams of known energy were targeted at the calorimeter modules. In one of the studies presented here, modules of the hadronic barrel calorimeter, TileCal, were exposed to beams of pions of energies between 3 and 9 GeV. It is shown that muons from pion decays in the beam can be separated from the pions, and that the simulation of the detector correctly describes the muon behaviour. In the second calorimeter study, a scheme for local hadronic calibration is developed and applied to single pion test beam data in a wide range of energies, measured by the combination of the electromagnetic barrel calorimeter and the TileCal hadronic calorimeter. The calibration meth...

  7. Upgrading the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Souza, J; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the hadronic calorimeter covering the central region of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. The TileCal readout consists of about 10000 channels. Its main upgrade will occur for the High Luminosity LHC phase (phase 2) where the peak luminosity will increase 5-fold compared to the design luminosity (10exp34 cm−2s−1) but with maintained energy (i.e. 7+7 TeV). An additional increase of the average luminosity with a factor of 2 can be achieved by luminosity leveling. This upgrade will probably happen around 2023. The upgrade aims at replacing the majority of the on- and off-detector electronics so that all calorimeter signals are directly digitized and sent to the off-detector electronics in the counting room. To achieve the required reliability, redundancy has been introduced at different levels. The smallest independent on-detector electronics module has been reduced from 45 channels to 6, greatly reducing the consequences of a failure in the on-detector electronics. The size of t...

  8. Upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Reed, Robert; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the main hadronic calorimeter covering the central region of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. TileCal readout consists of about 10000 channels. The bulk of its upgrade will occur for the High Luminosity LHC operation (Phase 2 around 2023) where the peak luminosity will increase 5x compared to the design luminosity (10^{34} cm^{-2}s^{-1}) but with maintained energy (i.e. 7+7 TeV). The TileCal upgrade aims to replace the majority of the on- and off-detector electronics so that all calorimeter signals can be digitized and directly sent to the off-detector electronics in the counting room. This will reduce pile-up problems and allow more complex trigger algorithms. To achieve the required reliability, redundancy has been introduced at different levels. Three different options are presently being investigated for the front-end electronic upgrade. Extensive test beam studies will determine which option will be selected. 10 Gbps optical links are used to read out all digitized data to t...

  9. Upgrading the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Oreglia, M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the hadronic calorimeter covering the most central region of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. The TileCal readout consists of about 10000 channels. The main upgrade will occur for the High Luminosity LHC phase (phase 2) which is scheduled around 2022. The upgrade aims at replacing the majority of the on- and off- detector electronics so that all calorimeter signals are directly digitized and sent to the off-detector electronics in the counting room. An ambitious upgrade development program is pursued studying different electronics options. Three different options are presently being investigated for the front-end electronic upgrade. Which one to use will be decided after extensive test beam studies. High speed optical links are used to read out all digitized data to the counting room. For the off-detector electronics a new back-end architecture is being developed, including the initial trigger processing and pipeline memories. A demonstrator prototype read-out for a slice of the ...

  10. Upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Moreno, P; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the hadronic calorimeter covering the central region of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. The TileCal readout consists of about 10000 channels. The bulk of its upgrade will occur for the High Luminosity LHC phase (phase 2) where the peak luminosity will increase 5x compared to the design luminosity (10^34 cm−2s−1) but with maintained energy (i.e. 7+7 TeV). An additional increase of the average luminosity with a factor of 2 can be achieved by luminosity leveling. This upgrade is expected to happen around 2023. The TileCal upgrade aims at replacing the majority of the on- and off-detector electronics to the extent that all calorimeter signals will be digitized and sent to the off-detector electronics in the counting room. To achieve the required reliability, redundancy has been introduced at different levels. Three different options are presently being investigated for the front-end electronic upgrade. Extensive test beam studies will determine which option will be selected. 10 ...

  11. Upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Moreno, P; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central hadronic calorimeter covering the central region of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. The TileCal readout consists of about 10000 channels. The bulk of its upgrade will occur for the High Luminosity LHC phase (Phase 2) where the peak luminosity will increase 5$\\times$ compared to the design luminosity ($10^{34} cm^{-2}s^{-1}$) but with maintained energy (i.e. 7+7 TeV). The TileCal upgrade aims at replacing the majority of the on- and off-detector electronics to the extent that all calorimeter signals will be digitized and sent to the off-detector electronics in the counting room. To achieve the required reliability, redundancy has been introduced at different levels. Three different options are presently being investigated for the front-end electronic upgrade. Extensive test beam studies will determine which option will be selected. 10 Gbps optical links are used to read out all digitized data to the counting room while 5 Gbps down-links are used for synchronization, c...

  12. Upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Carrio, F

    2015-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the hadronic calorimeter covering the central region of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. The TileCal readout consists of about 10000 channels. The bulk of its upgrade will occur for the High Luminosity LHC phase (P hase - II ) where the pea k luminosity will increase 5 times compared to the design luminosity (10 34 cm −2 s −1 ) but with maintained energy (i.e. 7+7 TeV). An additional increase of the average luminosity with a factor of 2 can be achieved by luminosity levelling. This upgrade is expe cted to happen around 202 4 . The TileCal upgrade aims at replacing the majority of the on - and off - detector electronics to the extent that all calorimeter signals will be digitized and sent to the off - detector electronics in the counting room. To achieve th e required reliability, redundancy has been introduced at different levels. Three different options are presently being investiga...

  13. Upgrading the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Carrio, F; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the hadronic calorimeter covering the most central region of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. The TileCal readout consists of about 10000 channels. Its main upgrade will occur for the High Luminosity LHC phase (phase 2) where the luminosity will have increased 5-fold compared to the design luminosity (1034 cm−2s−1) but with maintained energy (i.e. 7+7 TeV). An additional luminosity increase by a factor of 2 can be achieved by luminosity leveling. This upgrade will probably happen around 2022. The upgrade aims at replacing the majority of the on- and off- detector electronics so that all calorimeter signals are directly digitized and sent to the off-detector electronics in the counting room. To achieve the required reliability, redundancy has been introduced at different levels. An ambitious upgrade development program is pursued studying different electronics options. Three different options are presently being investigated for the front-end electronic upgrade. Which one to u...

  14. Performance of the ATLAS Tile calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Bertoli, Gabriele; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC is the central hadronic calorimeter designed for energy reconstruction of hadrons, jets, tau­particles and missing transverse energy. TileCal is a scintillator­steel sampling calorimeter and it covers the region of pseudorapidity < 1.7. The scintillation light produced in the tiles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibers to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The analog signals from the PMTs are amplified, shaped and digitized by sampling the signal every 25 ns. The TileCal front­end electronics read out the signals produced by about 10000 channels measuring energies ranging from ~30 MeV to ~2 TeV. The read­out system is responsible for reconstructing the data in real­time. The digitized signals are reconstructed with the Optimal Filtering algorithm, which computes for each channel the signal amplitude, time and quality factor at the required high rate. Each stage of the signal production from scintillation light to the signal reconstruc...

  15. Results from a combined test of an electromagnetic liquid argon calorimeter with a hadronic scintillating-tile calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Alifanov, A; Amaral, P; Ambrosini, G; Amorim, A; Anderson, K J; Astvatsaturov, A R; Aubert, Bernard; Augé, E; Autiero, D; Azuelos, Georges; Badaud, F; Baisin, L; Battistoni, G; Bazan, A; Bee, C P; Bellettini, Giorgio; Berglund, S R; Berset, J C; Blaj, C; Blanchot, G; Blucher, E; Bogush, A A; Bohm, C; Boldea, V; Borisov, O N; Bosman, M; Bouhemaid, N; Brette, P; Bromberg, C; Brossard, M; Budagov, Yu A; Buono, S; Calôba, L P; Camin, D V; Canton, B; Casado, M P; Cavalli, D; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cavasinni, V; Chadelas, R; Chase, Robert L; Chekhtman, A; Chevaleyre, J C; Chevalley, J L; Chirikov-Zorin, I E; Chlachidze, G; Chollet, J C; Cobal, M; Cogswell, F; Colas, Jacques; Collot, J; Cologna, S; Constantinescu, S; Costa, G; Costanzo, D; Cozzi, L; Crouau, M; Dargent, P; Daudon, F; David, M; Davidek, T; Dawson, J; De, K; de La Taille, C; Del Prete, T; Depommier, P; de Saintignon, P; De Santo, A; Dinkespiler, B; Di Girolamo, B; Dita, S; Dolejsi, J; Dolezal, Z; Downing, R; Dugne, J J; Duval, P Y; Dzahini, D; Efthymiopoulos, I; Errede, D; Errede, S; Etienne, F; Evans, H; Fassnacht, P; Fedyakin, N N; Ferrari, A; Ferreira, P; Ferrer, A; Flaminio, Vincenzo; Fouchez, D; Fournier, D; Fumagalli, G; Gallas, E J; Gaspar, M; Gianotti, F; Gildemeister, O; Gingrich, D M; Glagolev, V V; Golubev, V B; Gómez, A; González, J; Gordon, H A; Grabskii, V; Hakopian, H H; Haney, M; Hellman, S; Henriques, A; Holmgren, S O; Honoré, P F; Hostachy, J Y; Huston, J; Ivanyushenkov, Yu M; Jézéquel, S; Johansson, E K; Jon-And, K; Jones, R; Juste, A; Kakurin, S; Karapetian, G V; Karyukhin, A N; Khokhlov, Yu A; Klioukhine, V I; Kolomoets, V; Kopikov, S V; Kostrikov, M E; Kovtun, V E; Kukhtin, V V; Kulagin, M; Kulchitskii, Yu A; Laborie, G; Lami, S; Lapin, V; Lebedev, A; Lefebvre, M; Le Flour, T; Leitner, R; León-Florián, E; Leroy, C; Le Van-Suu, A; Li, J; Liba, I; Linossier, O; Lokajícek, M; Lomakin, Yu F; Lomakina, O V; Lund-Jensen, B; Mahout, G; Maio, A; Malyukov, S N; Mandelli, L; Mansoulié, B; Mapelli, Livio P; Marin, C P; Marroquin, F; Martin, L; Mazzanti, M; Mazzoni, E; Merritt, F S; Michel, B; Miller, R; Minashvili, I A; Miotto, A; Miralles, L; Mnatzakanian, E A; Monnier, E; Montarou, G; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Muanza, G S; Nagy, E; Némécek, S; Nessi, Marzio; Nicoleau, S; Noppe, J M; Olivetto, C; Orteu, S; Padilla, C; Pallin, D; Pantea, D; Parrour, G; Pereira, A; Perini, L; Perlas, J A; Pétroff, P; Pilcher, J E; Pinfold, James L; Poggioli, Luc; Poirot, S; Polesello, G; Price, L; Protopopov, Yu; Proudfoot, J; Pukhov, O; Radeka, V; Rahm, David Charles; Reinmuth, G; Renardy, J F; Renzoni, G; Resconi, S; Richards, R; Riu, I; Romanov, V; Ronceux, B; Rumyantsev, V; Rusakovitch, N A; Sala, P R; Sanders, H; Sauvage, G; Savard, P; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Sawyer, L; Says, L P; Schaffer, A C; Scheel, C V; Schwemling, P; Schindling, J; Seguin-Moreau, N; Seixas, J M; Selldén, B; Seman, M; Semenov, A A; Senchyshyn, V G; Serin, L; Shchelchkov, A S; Shevtsov, V P; Shochet, M J; Sidorov, V; Simaitis, V J; Simion, S; Sissakian, A N; Solodkov, A A; Sonderegger, P; Soustruznik, K; Stanek, R; Starchenko, E A; Stephani, D; Stephens, R; Studenov, S; Suk, M; Surkov, A; Tang, F; Tardell, S; Tas, P; Teiger, J; Teubert, F; Thaler, J J; Tisserant, S; Tokár, S; Topilin, N D; Trka, Z; Turcot, A S; Turcotte, M; Valkár, S; Vartapetian, A H; Vazeille, F; Vichou, I; Vinogradov, V; Vorozhtsov, S B; Vuillemin, V; Wagner, D; White, Alan R; Wingerter-Seez, I; Yamdagni, N; Yarygin, G; Yosef, C; Zaitsev, A; Zdrazil, M; Zitoun, R; Zolnierowski, Y

    1996-01-01

    The first combined test of an electromagnetic liquid argon accordion calorimeter and a hadronic scintillating-tile calorimeter was carried out at the CERN SPS. These devices are prototypes of the barrel calorimeter of the future ATLAS experiment at the LHC. The energy resolution of pions in the energy range from 20 to 300~GeV at an incident angle $\\theta$ of about 11$^\\circ$ is well-described by the expression $\\sigma/E = ((46.5 \\pm 6.0)\\%/\\sqrt{E} +(1.2 \\pm 0.3)\\%) \\oplus (3.2 \\pm 0.4)~\\mbox{GeV}/E$. Shower profiles, shower leakage, and the angular resolution of hadronic showers were also studied.

  16. Results from a new combined test of an electromagnetic liquid argon calorimeter with a hadronic scintillating-tile calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Akhmadaliev, S Z; Amaral, P; Ambrosini, G; Amorim, A; Anderson, K; Andrieux, M L; Aubert, Bernard; Augé, E; Badaud, F; Baisin, L; Barreiro, F; Battistoni, G; Bazan, A; Bazizi, K; Bee, C P; Belorgey, J; Belymam, A; Benchekroun, D; Berglund, S R; Berset, J C; Blanchot, G; Bogush, A A; Bohm, C; Boldea, V; Bonivento, W; Borgeaud, P; Borisov, O N; Bosman, M; Bouhemaid, N; Breton, D; Brette, P; Bromberg, C; Budagov, Yu A; Burdin, S V; Calôba, L P; Camarena, F; Camin, D V; Canton, B; Caprini, M; Carvalho, J; Casado, M P; Cases, R; Castillo, M V; Cavalli, D; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cavasinni, V; Chadelas, R; Chalifour, M; Chekhtman, A; Chevalley, J L; Chirikov-Zorin, I E; Chlachidze, G; Chollet, J C; Citterio, M; Cleland, W E; Clément, C; Cobal, M; Cogswell, F; Colas, Jacques; Collot, J; Cologna, S; Constantinescu, S; Costa, G; Costanzo, D; Coulon, J P; Crouau, M; Dargent, P; Daudon, F; David, M; Davidek, T; Dawson, J; De, K; Delagnes, E; de La Taille, C; Del Peso, J; Del Prete, T; de Saintignon, P; Di Girolamo, B; Dinkespiler, B; Dita, S; Djama, F; Dodd, J; Dolejsi, J; Dolezal, Z; Downing, R; Dugne, J J; Duval, P Y; Dzahini, D; Efthymiopoulos, I; Errede, D; Errede, S; Etienne, F; Evans, H; Eynard, G; Farida, F; Fassnacht, P; Fedyakin, N N; Fernández de Troconiz, J; Ferrari, A; Ferrer, A; Flaminio, Vincenzo; Fournier, D; Fumagalli, G; Gallas, E J; García, G; Gaspar, M; Gianotti, F; Gildemeister, O; Glagolev, V; Glebov, V Yu; Gómez, A; González, V; González de la Hoz, S; Gordeev, A; Gordon, H A; Grabskii, V; Graugès-Pous, E; Grenier, P; Hakopian, H H; Haney, M; Hébrard, C; Henriques, A; Henry-Coüannier, F; Hervás, L; Higón, E; Holmgren, S O; Hostachy, J Y; Hoummada, A; Huet, M; Huston, J; Imbault, D; Ivanyushenkov, Yu M; Jacquier, Y; Jézéquel, S; Johansson, E K; Jon-And, K; Jones, R; Juste, A; Kakurin, S; Karst, P; Karyukhin, A N; Khokhlov, Yu A; Khubua, J I; Klioukhine, V I; Kolachev, G M; Kolomoets, V; Kopikov, S V; Kostrikov, M E; Kovtun, V E; Kozlov, V; Krivkova, P; Kukhtin, V V; Kulagin, M; Kulchitskii, Yu A; Kuzmin, M V; Labarga, L; Laborie, G; Lacour, D; Lami, S; Lapin, V; Le Dortz, O; Lefebvre, M; Le Flour, T; Leitner, R; Leltchouk, M; Le Van-Suu, A; Li, J; Liapis, C; Linossier, O; Lissauer, D; Lobkowicz, F; Lokajícek, M; Lomakin, Yu F; Lomakina, O V; López-Amengual, J M; Lottin, J P; Lund-Jensen, B; Lundqvist, J M; Maio, A; Makowiecki, D S; Malyukov, S N; Mandelli, L; Mansoulié, B; Mapelli, Livio P; Marin, C P; Marrocchesi, P S; Marroquin, F; Martin, L; Martin, O; Martin, P; Maslennikov, A M; Massol, N; Mazzanti, M; Mazzoni, E; Merritt, F S; Michel, B; Miller, R; Minashvili, I A; Miralles, L; Mirea, A; Mnatzakanian, E A; Monnier, E; Montarou, G; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Mosidze, M D; Moynot, M; Muanza, G S; Nagy, E; Nayman, P; Némécek, S; Nessi, Marzio; Nicod, D; Nicoleau, S; Niculescu, M; Noppe, J M; Onofre, A; Pallin, D; Pantea, D; Paoletti, R; Park, I C; Parrour, G; Parsons, J; Pascual, J I; Pereira, A; Perini, L; Perlas, J A; Perrodo, P; Petroff, P; Pilcher, J E; Pinhão, J; Plothow-Besch, Hartmute; Poggioli, Luc; Poirot, S; Price, L; Protopopov, Yu; Proudfoot, J; Pukhov, O; Puzo, P; Radeka, V; Rahm, David Charles; Reinmuth, G; Renardy, J F; Renzoni, G; Rescia, S; Resconi, S; Richards, R; Richer, J P; Riu, I; Roda, C; Roldán, J; Romance, J B; Romanov, V; Romero, P; Rusakovitch, N A; Sala, P R; Sanchis, E; Sanders, H; Santoni, C; Santos, J; Sauvage, D; Sauvage, G; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Sawyer, L; Says, L P; Schaffer, A C; Schwemling, P; Schwindling, J; Seguin-Moreau, N; Seidl, W; Seixas, J M; Selldén, B; Seman, M; Semenov, A A; Senchyshyn, V G; Serin, L; Shaldaev, E; Shchelchkov, A S; Shochet, M J; Sidorov, V; Silva, J; Simaitis, V J; Simion, S; Sissakian, A N; Soloviev, I V; Snopkov, R; Söderqvist, J; Solodkov, A A; Sonderegger, P; Soustruznik, K; Spanó, F; Spiwoks, R; Stanek, R; Starchenko, E A; Stavina, P; Stephens, R; Studenov, S; Suk, M; Surkov, A; Sykora, I; Taguet, J P; Takai, H; Tang, F; Tardell, S; Tas, P; Teiger, J; Teubert, F; Thaler, J J; Thion, J; Tikhonov, Yu A; Tisserand, V; Tisserant, S; Tokar, S; Topilin, N D; Trka, Z; Turcotte, M; Valkár, S; Varanda, M J; Vartapetian, A H; Vazeille, F; Vichou, I; Vincent, P; Vinogradov, V; Vorozhtsov, S B; Vuillemin, V; Walter, C; White, A; Wielers, M; Wingerter-Seez, I; Wolters, H; Yamdagni, N; Yarygin, G; Yosef, C; Zaitsev, A; Zitoun, R; Zolnierowski, Y

    2000-01-01

    A new combined test of an electromagnetic liquid argon accordion calorimeter and a hadronic scintillating-tile calorimeter was carried out at the CERN SPS. These devices are prototypes of the barrel calorimeter of the future ATLAS experiment at the LHC. The energy resolution of pions in the energy range from 10 to 300 GeV at an incident angle theta of about 12 degrees is well described by the expression sigma /E=((41.9+or-1.6)%/ square root E+(1.8+or-0.1)%)(+) (1.8+or-0.1)/E, where E is in GeV. The response to electrons and muons was evaluated. Shower profiles, shower leakage and the angular resolution of hadronic showers were also studied. Results are compared with those from the previous beam test. (22 refs).

  17. Performance of the ATLAS Calorimeters and Commissioning for LHC Run-2

    CERN Document Server

    Rossetti, Valerio; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS general-purpose experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is equipped with electromagnetic and hadronic liquid-argon (LAr) calorimeters and a hadronic scintillator-steel sampling calorimeter (TileCal) for measuring energy and direction of final state particles in the pseudorapidity range $|\\eta| < 4.9$. The calibration and performance of the calorimetry system was established during beam tests, cosmic ray muon measurements and in particular the first three years of pp collision data-taking. During this period, referred to as Run-1, approximately 27~fb$^{-1}$ of data have been collected at the center-of-mass energies of 7 and 8~TeV. Results on the calorimeter operation, monitoring and data quality, as well as their performance will be presented, including the calibration and stability of the electromagnetic scale, response uniformity and time resolution. These results demonstrate that the LAr and Tile calorimeters perform excellently within their design requirements. The calorimetry system thu...

  18. Calibration and performance of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter during the Run 2 of the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Solovyanov, Oleg; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is a hadronic calorimeter covering the central region of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. It is a non-compensating sampling calorimeter comprised of steel and scintillating plastic tiles which are read-out by photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The TileCal is regularly monitored and calibrated by several different calibration systems: a Cs radioactive source that illuminates the scintillating tiles directly, a laser light system to directly test the PMT response and a charge injection system (CIS) for the front-end electronics. These calibrations systems, in conjunction with data collected during proton-proton collisions, provide extensive monitoring of the instrument and a means for equalising the calorimeter response at each stage of the signal propagation. The performance of the calorimeter and its calibration has been established with cosmic ray muons and the large sample of the proton-proton collisions to study the energy response at the electromagnetic scale, probe of the hadron...

  19. Study of a novel electromagnetic liquid argon calorimeter - the TGT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, C. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). 1. Physikalisches Inst.; Braunschweig, W. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). 1. Physikalisches Inst.; Geulig, E. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). 1. Physikalisches Inst.; Schoentag, M. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). 1. Physikalisches Inst.; Siedling, R. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). 1. Physikalisches Inst.; Wlochal, M. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). 1. Physikalisches Inst.; Putzer, A. [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland); Wotschack, J. [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland); Cheplakov, A. [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Feshchenko, A. [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Kazarinov, M. [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Kukhtin, V. [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Ladygin, E. [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Obudovskij, V. [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Geweniger, C. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Hochenergiephysik; Hanke, P. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Hochenergiephysik; Kluge, E.E. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Hochenergiephysik; Krause, J. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Hochenergiephysik; Schmidt, M. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Hochenergiephysik; Stenzel, H. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Hochenergiephysik; Tittel, K. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Hochenergiephysik; Wunsch, M. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Hochenergiephysik; Zerwas, D. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Hochenergiephysik; Bruncko, D. [Slovenska Akademia Vied, Kosice (Slovakia). Ustav Experimentalnej Fyziky; Jusko, A. [Slovenska Akademia Vied, Kosice (Slovakia). Ustav Experimentalnej Fyziky; Kocper, B.; RD33 Collaboration

    1994-11-01

    The concept and the basic design of a fast, highly granular and compact electromagnetic liquid argon calorimeter are described. This novel calorimeter offers uniform energy response and constant energy resolution independent of the production angle of an impinging particle and of its impact position at the calorimeter. An example of a calorimeter with full rapidity coverage in an application in a collider detector is given. An important aspect of the concept is the electronics for fast signal processing matched to the short charge collection time. We report on the experience with the realization of a prototype calorimeter module and on its performance in a testbeam exposure. (orig.)

  20. Study of a novel electromagnetic liquid argon calorimeter TGT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, C.; Braunschweig, W.; Geulig, E.

    1994-01-01

    The concept and the basic design of a fast, highly granular and compact electromagnetic liquid argon calorimeter are described. This novel calorimeter offers uniform energy response and constant energy resolution independent of the production angle of an impinging particle and of its impact position at the calorimeter. An example of a calorimeter with full rapidity coverage in an application in a collider detector is given. An important aspect of the concept is the electronics for fast signal processing matched to the short charge collection time. We report on the experience with the realization of a prototype calorimeter module and on its performance in a test beam exposure. 15 refs., 16 figs., 2 tabs

  1. Study of a novel electromagnetic liquid argon calorimeter - the TGT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, C.; Braunschweig, W.; Geulig, E. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). 1. Physikalisches Inst.] [and others

    1995-04-21

    The concept and the basic design of a fast, highly granular and compact electromagnetic liquid argon calorimeter are described. This novel calorimeter offers uniform energy response and constant energy resolution independent of the production angle of an impinging particle and of its impact position at the calorimeter. An example of a calorimeter with full rapidity coverage in an application in a collider detector is given. An important aspect of the concept is the electronics for fast signal processing matched to the short charge collection time. We report on the experience with the realization of a prototype calorimeter module and on its performance in a testbeam exposure. ((orig.)).

  2. Study of a novel electromagnetic liquid argon calorimeter - the TGT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, C.; Braunschweig, W.; Geulig, E.

    1995-01-01

    The concept and the basic design of a fast, highly granular and compact electromagnetic liquid argon calorimeter are described. This novel calorimeter offers uniform energy response and constant energy resolution independent of the production angle of an impinging particle and of its impact position at the calorimeter. An example of a calorimeter with full rapidity coverage in an application in a collider detector is given. An important aspect of the concept is the electronics for fast signal processing matched to the short charge collection time. We report on the experience with the realization of a prototype calorimeter module and on its performance in a testbeam exposure. ((orig.))

  3. Electromagnetic Calorimeter Calibration with $\\pi^{0}$

    CERN Multimedia

    Puig Navarro, A

    2009-01-01

    Several methods can be used in order to achieve precise calibration of the LHCb Electromagnetic Calorimeter (ECAL) once reasonable cell equalization has been reached. At low transverse energy, the standard calibration procedure is an iterative method based on the fit of the $\\gamma\\gamma$ invariant mass distribution for each cell of the decay $\\pi^{0}\\to\\gamma\\gamma$ with resolved photons. A new technique for generating the combinatorial background of such decays directly from data has been developed. Knowledge of the background could allow an alternative calibration method based on a event by event fit of the same $\\gamma\\gamma$ invariant mass distribution where contributions from groups of cells are considered in a single fit. The background generation procedure and this possible new calibration method are presented in this poster, in addition to an overview of the LHCb Calorimetry system and ECAL calibration techniques.

  4. Tests of gas sampling electromagnetic shower calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbaro-Galtieri, A.; Carithers, W.; Day, C.; Johnson, K.J.; Wenzel, W.A.; Videau, H.

    1983-01-01

    An electromagnetic shower gas-sampling calorimeter has been tested in both Geiger and proportional discharge modes for incident electron energies in the range 0.125-16 GeV. The 0.2 radiation length-thick layers were lead-fiberglass laminates with cathode strips normal to the sense wires. The 5x10 mm 2 Geiger cells were formed with uniformly spaced nylon fibers perpendicular to the wires. Proportional mode measurements were carried out in the pressure range 1-10 atm. A Monte Carlo simulation is in good agreement with measured shower characteristics and has been used to predict the behavior for oblique of incidence and for various Geiger cell dimensions. (orig.)

  5. Trigger circuits for the PHENIX electromagnetic calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, S.S.; Britton, C.L. Jr.; Winterberg, A.L.; Young, G.R.

    1997-11-01

    Monolithic and discrete circuits have been developed to provide trigger signals for the PHENIX electromagnetic calorimeter detector. These trigger circuits are deadtimeless and create overlapping 4 by 4 energy sums, a cosmic muon trigger, and a 144 channel energy sum. The front end electronics of the PHENIX system sample the energy and timing channels at each bunch crossing (BC) but it is not known immediately if this data is of interest. The information from the trigger circuits is used to determine if the data collected is of interest and should be digitized and stored or discarded. This paper presents details of the design, issues affecting circuit performance, characterization of prototypes fabricated in 1.2 microm Orbit CMOS, and integration of the circuits into the EMCal electronics system

  6. The contribution to the calibration of LAr calorimeters at the ATLAS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pecsy, M.

    2011-01-01

    The presented thesis brings various contributions to the testing and validation of the ATLAS detector calorimeter calibration. Since the ATLAS calorimeter is non-compensating, the sophisticated software calibration of the calorimeter response is needed. One of the ATLAS official calibration methods is the local hadron calibration. This method is based on detailed simulations providing information about the true deposited energy in calorimeter. Such calibration consists of several independent steps, starting with the basic electromagnetic scale signal calibration and proceeding to the particle energy calibration. Calibration starts from the topological clusters reconstruction and calibration at EM scale. These clusters are classified as EM or hadronic and the hadronic ones receive weights to correct for the invisible energy deposits of hadrons. To get the nal reconstructed energy the out-of-cluster and dead material corrections are applied in next steps. The tests of calorimeter response with the rst real data from cosmic-ray muons and the LHC collisions data are presented in the thesis. The detailed studies of the full hadronic calibration performance in the special combined end-cap calorimeter beam test 2004 are presented as well. To optimise the performance of the calibration, the Monte-Carlo based studies are necessary. Two alternative methods of cluster classification are discussed, and the software tool of particle track extrapolation has been developed. (author)

  7. ATLAS Calorimeter system: Run-2 performance, Phase-1 and Phase-2 upgrades

    CERN Document Server

    Starz, Steffen; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The ATLAS detector was designed and built to study proton-proton collisions produced at the LHC at centre-of-mass energies up to 14 TeV and instantaneous luminosities up to 10^{34} cm^{−2} s^{−1}. A liquid argon-lead sampling calorimeter (LAr) is employed as electromagnetic calorimeter and hadronic calorimeter, except in the barrel region, where a scintillator-steel sampling calorimeter (TileCal) is used as hadronic calorimeter. ATLAS recorded 87 fb^{-1} of data at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV between 2015 and 2017. In order to achieve the level-1 acceptance rate of 100 kHz, certain adjustments have been performed. The calorimetry system performed accordingly to its design values and have played a crucial role in the ATLAS physics programme. This contribution will give an overview of the detector operation, monitoring and data quality, as well as the achieved performance, including the calibration and stability of the energy scale, noise level, response uniformity and time resolution of the ATLAS cal...

  8. Moving one of the ATLAS end-cap calorimeters

    CERN Multimedia

    Claudia Marcelloni

    2007-01-01

    One of the end-cap calorimeters for the ATLAS experiment is moved using a set of rails. This calorimeter will measure the energy of particles that are produced close to the axis of the beam when two protons collide. It is kept cool inside a cryostat to allow the detector to work at maximum efficiency.

  9. ATLAS Tile Calorimeter central barrel assembly and installation.

    CERN Multimedia

    nikolai topilin

    2009-01-01

    These photos belong to the self-published book by Nikolai Topilin "ATLAS Hadron Calorimeter Assembly". The book is a collection of souvenirs from the years of assembly and installation of the Tile Hadron Calorimeter, which extended from November 2002 until May 2006.

  10. Upgrading the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Popeneciu, G; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. Around 2023, after the upgrade of the LHC (High Luminosity LHC, phase 2) the peak luminosity will increase by a factor of 5 compared to the design value (1034 cm-2 s-1), thus requiring an upgrade of the TileCal readout electronics. Except the 9852 photomultipliers (PMTs), most of the on- and off-detector electronics will be replaced, with the aim of digitizing all PMT pulses at 40 MHz at the front-end level and sending them with 10 Gbps optical links to the back-end electronics. Moreover, to increase reliability, redundancy will be introduced at different levels. Three different options are currently being investigated for the front-end electronics and extensive test beam studies are planned to select the best option. One demonstrator prototype module is also planned to be inserted in TileCal in 2014 that will include hybrid electronic components able to probe the new design, but still compatible with the presen...

  11. Experimental study of the test module of the electromagnetic end-cap calorimeter for the ATLAS experiment. Study of the spin correlation in the production of pairs tt-bar; Etude experimentale des performances du module 0 du calorimetre electromagnetique bouchon d'ATLAS. Etude de la correlation de spin dans la production des paires tt-bar au LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinz, L

    2001-06-01

    LHC, the future CERN proton collider, will start in 2006. It will be devoted to a better understanding of the Standard Model and new physics research. With a 10 {integral}b{sup -1} per year at low luminosity during the first three years, then 100 {integral}b{sup -1} per year, and energy of 14 TeV in the center of mass, the LHC is designed to discover the Standard or SUSY Higgs boson, or probe signature of new physics. ATLAS, one of the four experiments at the LHC, can study a large physics range, as Higgs boson, top and bottom, gauge bosons and new particles expected by SUSY model or other models beyond the Standard Model. The CPPM laboratory is responsible of a part of the electromagnetic end-cap calorimeter for the ATLAS experiment. In 1999, an ATLAS-like prototype of module was stacked in Marseille and intensively tested at CERN. Description of the calorimeter and a part of test-beam results are presented in this PhD manuscript. In parallel, a study about potentiality of the tt-bar spin correlation measurement was done. The high tt-bar statistic produced at the LHC allows to explore the quark top properties in details and being sensitive to new physics phenomena. Signatures of such physics can be extracted from tt-bar decay product angular distributions which are sensitive to tt-bar spin correlation. (authors)

  12. Topological cell clustering in the ATLAS calorimeters and its performance in LHC Run 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aad, G. [CPPM, Aix-Marseille Univ. et CNRS/IN2P3, Marseille (France); Abbott, B. [Oklahoma Univ., Norman, OK (United States). Homer L. Dodge Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Abdallah, J. [Academia Sinica, Taipei (China). Inst. of Physics; Collaboration: ATLAS Collaboration; and others

    2017-07-15

    The reconstruction of the signal from hadrons and jets emerging from the proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and entering the ATLAS calorimeters is based on a three-dimensional topological clustering of individual calorimeter cell signals. The cluster formation follows cell signal-significance patterns generated by electromagnetic and hadronic showers. In this, the clustering algorithm implicitly performs a topological noise suppression by removing cells with insignificant signals which are not in close proximity to cells with significant signals. The resulting topological cell clusters have shape and location information, which is exploited to apply a local energy calibration and corrections depending on the nature of the cluster. Topological cell clustering is established as a well-performing calorimeter signal definition for jet and missing transverse momentum reconstruction in ATLAS. (orig.)

  13. Calibration of the Atlas electromagnetic calorimeter. Search for the Higgs boson in its invisible decays; Etalonnage du calorimetre electromagnetique d'ATLAS. Recherche du boson de Higgs dans ses desintegrations invisibles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neukermans, L

    2002-05-01

    The most promising channels for an intermediate mass Higgs boson discovery at LHC are leptonic and photonic decays. Therefore, a good uniformity of response of the electromagnetic calorimeter is required to reach the 0.7% constant term needed. This thesis deals with the absolute calibration of this detector. An electrical description of the calibration system, the detector and its read-out chain has been made for a better comprehension of the signal pulse shapes. A method, using a convolution of the calibration waveforms, has been developed to predict physics response, leading to absolute calibration. The level of accuracy obtained allows to reach the 0.3% contribution to the constant term required. Test beam analysis of a prototype module showed the performance of the electromagnetic calorimeter in terms of local resolution and linearity. A uniformity study has been made, leading to a 0.8% dispersion on a {delta}{eta} x {delta}{phi} = 1.2 x 0.75 area. In a second part, the observability of an invisible Higgs boson produced via weak boson fusion at the LHC is presented. A level 1 trigger strategy for this purely jet and missing E{sub T} final states is discussed. A method to measure the level of background using physics events is presented. This analysis shows that an invisible branching ratio of 25% could be reached at 95% CL with only 30 fb{sup -1} for a Higgs boson mass of 120 GeV/c{sup 2}. (author)

  14. ATLAS LAr Calorimeter Performance and Commissioning for LHC Run-2

    CERN Document Server

    Spettel, Fabian; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS detector was designed and built to study proton-proton colli- sions produced at the LHC at centre-of-mass energies up to 14 TeV and in- stantaneous luminosities up to $10^{34} \\text{cm}^{-2} \\text{s}^{-1}$. Liquid argon (LAr) sampling calorimeters are employed for all electromagnetic calorimetry in the pseudorapidity region $|\\eta|<3.2$, and for hadronic calorimetry in the region from $|\\eta|=1.5$ to $|\\eta|=4.9$. In the first LHC run a total luminosity of 27 $\\text{fb}^{-1}$ as been collected at center-of-mass energies of 7-8 TeV with very high operational efficiency of the LAr Calorimeters and excellent performance. The well calibrated and highly granular detector achieved its design values both in energy measurement as well as in direction resolution, which was a main ingredient for the successul discovery of a Higgs boson in the di-photon decay channel. The talk will give an overview of the procedures applied to calibrate the 180.000 read-out channels electronically as well as from using refe...

  15. ATLAS LAr Calorimeter Performance in LHC Run-2

    CERN Document Server

    Morgenstern, Stefanie; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Liquid-argon (LAr) sampling calorimeters are employed by ATLAS for all electromagnetic calorimetry in the pseudo-rapidity region $\\eta<3.2$, and for hadronic and forward calorimetry in the region from $\\eta=1.5$ to $\\eta=4.9$. In the first LHC run a total luminosity of $27\\,\\mathrm{fb}^{-1}$ has been collected at centre-of-mass energies of $7-8\\,\\mathrm{TeV}$. After detector consolidation during a long shutdown, Run-2 started in 2015 and $86.4\\,\\mathrm{fb}^{-1}$ of data at a centre-of-mass energy of $13\\,\\mathrm{TeV}$ have been recorded. In order to realize the level-1 acceptance rate of $100\\,\\mathrm{kHz}$ in Run-2 data taking, the number of readout samples recorded and used for the energy and the time measurement has been modified from five to four while keeping the expected performance. The well calibrated and highly granular LAr calorimeter reached its design values both in energy measurement as well as in direction resolution. This contribution will give an overview of the detector operation, hardware...

  16. ATLAS LAr Calorimeter Performance in LHC Run-2

    CERN Document Server

    Morgenstern, Stefanie; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Liquid argon (LAr) sampling calorimeters are employed by ATLAS for all electromagnetic calorimetry in the pseudo-rapidity region eta<3.2, and for hadronic and forward calorimetry in the region from eta=1.5 to eta=4.9. In the first LHC run a total luminosity of 27 fb-1 has been collected at c.o.m energies of 7-8 TeV. After detector consolidation during a long shutdown, Run-2 started in 2015 and 86.4fb-1 of data at a c.o.m energy of 13 TeV have been recorded. In order to realize the level-1 acceptance rate of 100 kHz in Run-2 data taking, the number of read-out samples recorded and used for the energy and the time measurement has been modified from five to four while keeping the expected performance. The well calibrated and highly granular LAr Calorimeter reached its design values both in energy measurement as well as in direction resolution. This contribution will give an overview of the detector operation, hardware improvements, changes in the monitoring and data quality procedures, to cope with increased ...

  17. Noise dependency with pile-up in the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Araque Espinosa, Juan Pedro; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter, TileCal, is the central hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment, positioned between the electromagnetic calorimeter and the muon chambers. It comprises alternating layers of steel (as absorber material) and plastic (as active material), known as tiles. Between 2009 and 2012, the LHC has performed better than expected producing proton-proton collisions at a very high rate. These conditions are really challenging when dealing with the energy measurements in the calorimeter since not only the energy from an interesting event will be measured but a component coming from other collisions which are difficult to distinguish from the interesting one will also be present. This component is referred to as pile-up noise. Studies carried out to better understand how pile-up affects noise under different circumstances are described.

  18. Mechanical construction and installation of the ATLAS tile calorimeter

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Abdallah, J.; Adragna, P.; Alexa, C.; Lokajíček, Miloš; Němeček, Stanislav; Přibyl, Lukáš

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, Nov (2013), 1-26 ISSN 1748-0221 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : calorimeter * ATLAS * iron * scintillation counter * central region * CERN Lab * rapidity * ATLAS * CERN LHC Coll Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.526, year: 2013

  19. Study of the response of the ATLAS central calorimeter to pions of energies from 3 to 9 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abat, E.; Abdallah, J.M.; Addy, T.N.; Adragna, P.; Aharrouche, M.; Ahmad, A.; Akesson, T.P.A.; Aleksa, M.; Alexa, C.; Anderson, K.; Anghinolfi, F.; Antonaki, A.; Arabidze, G.; Arik, E.; Baker, O.K.; Banfi, D.; Baron, S.; Beck, H.P.

    2009-01-01

    A fully instrumented slice of the ATLAS central detector was exposed to test beams from the SPS (Super Proton Synchrotron) at CERN in 2004. In this paper, the response of the central calorimeters to pions with energies in the range between 3 and 9 GeV is presented. The linearity and the resolution of the combined calorimetry (electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters) was measured and compared to the prediction of a detector simulation program using the toolkit Geant 4.

  20. Study of the response of the ATLAS central calorimeter to pions of energies from 3 to 9 GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abat, E [Bogazici University, Faculty of Sciences, Department of Physics, TR - 80815 Bebek-Istanbul (Turkey); Abdallah, J M [Institut de Fisica d' Altes Energies, IFAE, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Edifici Cn, ES - 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Addy, T N [Hampton University, Department of Physics, Hampton VA 23668 (United States); Adragna, P [Queen Mary, University of Landon, Mile End Road, E1 4NS London, United Kingdoom (United Kingdom); Aharrouche, M [Universitaet Mainz, Institut fuer Physik, Staudinger Weg 7, DE 55099 (Germany); Ahmad, A [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3800 (United States); Akesson, T P.A. [Lunds universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysiska institutionen, Box 118, SE - 221 00, Lund (Sweden); Aleksa, M [European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN), CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Alexa, C [National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering (Bucharest -IFIN-HH), P.O. Box MG-6, R-077125 Bucharest (Romania); Anderson, K [University of Chicago, Enrico Fermi Institute, 5640 S. Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Anghinolfi, F [European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN), CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Antonaki, A; Arabidze, G [University of Athens, Nuclear and Particle Physics Department of Physics, Panepistimiopouli Zografou, GR 15771 Athens (Greece); Arik, E [Bogazici University, Faculty of Sciences, Department of Physics, TR - 80815 Bebek-Istanbul (Turkey); Baker, O K [Yale University, Department of Physics , PO Box 208121, New Haven, CT06520-8121 (United States); Banfi, D [Universita di Milano , Dipartimento di Fisica and INFN, via Celoria 16, IT - 20133 Milano (Italy); Baron, S [European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN), CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Beck, H P [University of Bern, Laboratory for High Energy Physics, Sidlerstrasse 5, CH - 3012 Bern (Switzerland)

    2009-08-11

    A fully instrumented slice of the ATLAS central detector was exposed to test beams from the SPS (Super Proton Synchrotron) at CERN in 2004. In this paper, the response of the central calorimeters to pions with energies in the range between 3 and 9 GeV is presented. The linearity and the resolution of the combined calorimetry (electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters) was measured and compared to the prediction of a detector simulation program using the toolkit Geant 4.

  1. Run 1 Performance of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Heelan, Louise; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS Tile hadronic calorimeter (TileCal) provides highly-segmented energy measurements of incoming particles. It is a key detector for the measurement of hadrons, jets, tau leptons and missing transverse energy. It is also useful for identification and reconstruction of muons due to good signal to noise ratio. The calorimeter consists of thin steel plates and 460,000 scintillating tiles configured into 5000 cells, each viewed by two photomultipliers. The calorimeter response and its readout electronics is monitored to better than 1% using radioactive source, laser and charge injection systems. The calibration and performance of the calorimeter have been established through test beam measurements, cosmic ray muons and the large sample of proton-proton collisions acquired in 2011 and 2012. Results on the calorimeter performance are presented, including the absolute energy scale, timing, noise and associated stabilities. The results demonstrate that the Tile Calorimeter has performed well within the design ...

  2. Construction and tests of the Atlas barrel pre sampler and study of the photon/pion rejection in the electromagnetic calorimeter; Realisation du pre-echantillonneur central d'ATLAS et etude de la separation {gamma}/{pi}{sup 0} dans le calorimetre electromagnetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saboumazrag, S

    2004-02-01

    ATLAS is one of the detectors which will equip the future proton-proton collider LHC at CERN. The main motivation for the ATLAS experiment is the quest for the Higgs boson. The observation of this particle would be an important step in the understanding of particle physics in the context of the standard model, with or without supersymmetry. This thesis aims to present the construction of the barrel pre-sampler which will equip the front face of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter. The construction and tests of sectors were achieved at the Laboratory of Subatomic Physics and Cosmology of Grenoble. Two of these sectors were mounted on one module of the electromagnetic calorimeter and tested with electron, photon and muon beams at CERN. I participated in these tests and analysed the data. The results were compared to a Monte-Carlo simulation GEANT3. One of the difficulties lies in the necessity to discard photons coming from {pi}{sup 0} {yields} {gamma}{gamma} events because they can be mistaken for photons released in gamma channels of Higgs boson decay. In the mass range spreading from 95 MeV to 150 MeV, H{sup 0} {yields} {gamma}{gamma} is the most adequate process to detect the Higgs boson. A study of the discard parameter {gamma}/{pi}{sup 0} has been performed. For a photon detection efficiency of 90%, the average discard parameter has been assessed to be 2.5 which is slightly lower than the value given by the simulation.

  3. Calibration of the electromagnetic barrel calorimeter. Identification of the tau leptons and search for a Higgs boson in the channel qqH {yields} qq {tau}{tau} in the Atlas experiment at LHC; Etalonnage du calorimetre electromagnetique tonneau. Identification des leptons taus et recherche d'un boson de Higgs dans le canal qqH {yields} qq {tau}{tau} dans l'experience ATLAS au LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarrade, F

    2006-09-15

    The Standard Model is the theory which describes the fundamental interactions most accurately. However, the Higgs mechanism and its associated boson have not yet been discovered. The ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter will play an important role in its discovery if it exists. In the first part of this work, a final mapping of all barrel electromagnetic calorimeter cells, and in particular the problematic ones, was made. Then, the code for the calorimeter calibration was migrated into the ATLAS software environment (ATHENA), where it was tested and validated with the 2004 test beam data. In this code, the optimal filtering coefficients, which enable to reconstruct the energy deposited in the calorimeter while minimizing the electronic and pile-up noises, are calculated. For this, a model was developed to predict the physics signal waveform from the calibration waveform. In a third part, two algorithms for reconstructing and identifying {tau} leptons in their hadronic decay mode were studied and compared. Finally in a fourth part, one amongst the most important Standard Model Higgs production and decay channels was investigated, namely the weak boson fusion production followed by the Higgs decay into a tau lepton pair, for a low mass Higgs (115 < m{sub Higgs} < 145 GeV/c{sup 2}). This study was performed for 30 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity using fast and fully simulated data. A study of the dominant background Z + n jets (n {<=} 5) was also performed. (author)

  4. The ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger Architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Garvey, J; Mahout, G; Moye, T H; Staley, R J; Watkins, P M; Watson, A T; Achenbach, R; Hanke, P; Kluge, E E; Meier, K; Meshkov, P; Nix, O; Penno, K; Schmitt, K; Ay, Cc; Bauss, B; Dahlhoff, A; Jakobs, K; Mahboubi, K; Schäfer, U; Trefzger, T M; Eisenhandler, E F; Landon, M; Moyse, E; Thomas, J; Apostoglou, P; Barnett, B M; Brawn, I P; Davis, A O; Edwards, J; Gee, C N P; Gillman, A R; Perera, V J O; Qian, W; Bohm, C; Hellman, S; Hidvégi, A; Silverstein, S; RT 2003 13th IEEE-NPSS Real Time Conference

    2004-01-01

    The architecture of the ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger system (L1Calo) is presented. Common approaches have been adopted for data distribution, result merging, readout, and slow control across the three different subsystems. A significant amount of common hardware is utilized, yielding substantial savings in cost, spares, and development effort. A custom, high-density backplane has been developed with data paths suitable for both the em/tt cluster processor (CP) and jet/energy-summation processor (JEP) subsystems. Common modules also provide interfaces to VME, CANbus and the LHC Timing, Trigger and Control system (TTC). A common data merger module (CMM) uses FPGAs with multiple configurations for summing electron/photon and tau/hadron cluster multiplicities, jet multiplicities, or total and missing transverse energy. The CMM performs both crate- and system-level merging. A common, FPGA-based readout driver (ROD) is used by all of the subsystems to send input, intermediate and output data to the data acquis...

  5. Status of the Atlas Calorimeters: their performance after two years of LHC operation and plans for future upgrades

    CERN Document Server

    Solans, CA; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is designed to study the proton-proton collisions produced at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. Its calorimeter system measures the energy and direction of final state particles with pseudo rapidity $|eta| < 4.9$. Accurate identification and measurement of the characteristics of electromagnetic objects (electrons/photons) are performed by liquid argon (LAr)-lead sampling calorimeters in the region $|eta| < 3.2$, using an innovative accordion geometry that provides a fast, uniform azimuthal response without gaps. The hadronic calorimeters measure the properties of hadrons, jets, and tau leptons, and also contribute to the measurement of the missing transverse energy and identification of muons. This is done in the region $|eta| < 1.7$ with a scintillator-steel sampling calorimeter, and in the region $1.4 < |eta| < 3.2$ with a copper-LAr sampling calorimeter. The coverage is extended to $|eta| < 4.9$ by an integrated forward calorimeter (FCal...

  6. The optical instrumentation of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdallah, J [IFIC, Centro Mixto Universidad de Valencia-CSIC, E46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain); Adragna, P; Bosi, F [Pisa University and INFN, Pisa (Italy); Alexa, C; Boldea, V [National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest (Romania); Alves, R [LIP and FCTUC Univ. of Coimbra (Portugal); Amaral, P; Andresen, X [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Ananiev, A [LIP and IDMEC-IST, Lisbon (Portugal); Anderson, K [University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Antonaki, A [University of Athens, Athens (Greece); Batusov, V [JINR, Dubna (Russian Federation); Bednar, P [Comenius University, Bratislava (Slovakia); Bergeaas, E; Bohm, C [Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden); Biscarat, C [LPC Clermont-Ferrand, Universite Blaise Pascal / CNRS-IN2P3, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Blanch, O; Blanchot, G; Bosman, M [Institut de Fisica d' Altes Energies, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Bromberg, C [Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States); others, and

    2013-01-15

    The Tile Calorimeter, covering the central region of the ATLAS experiment up to pseudorapidities of {+-}1.7, is a sampling device built with scintillating tiles that alternate with iron plates. The light is collected in wave-length shifting (WLS) fibers and is read out with photomultipliers. In the characteristic geometry of this calorimeter the tiles lie in planes perpendicular to the beams, resulting in a very simple and modular mechanical and optical layout. This paper focuses on the procedures applied in the optical instrumentation of the calorimeter, which involved the assembly of about 460,000 scintillator tiles and 550,000 WLS fibers. The outcome is a hadronic calorimeter that meets the ATLAS performance requirements, as shown in this paper.

  7. The optical instrumentation of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdallah, J; Adragna, P; Bosi, F; Alexa, C; Boldea, V; Alves, R; Amaral, P; Andresen, X; Ananiev, A; Anderson, K; Antonaki, A; Batusov, V; Bednar, P; Bergeaas, E; Bohm, C; Biscarat, C; Blanch, O; Blanchot, G; Bosman, M; Bromberg, C

    2013-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter, covering the central region of the ATLAS experiment up to pseudorapidities of ±1.7, is a sampling device built with scintillating tiles that alternate with iron plates. The light is collected in wave-length shifting (WLS) fibers and is read out with photomultipliers. In the characteristic geometry of this calorimeter the tiles lie in planes perpendicular to the beams, resulting in a very simple and modular mechanical and optical layout. This paper focuses on the procedures applied in the optical instrumentation of the calorimeter, which involved the assembly of about 460,000 scintillator tiles and 550,000 WLS fibers. The outcome is a hadronic calorimeter that meets the ATLAS performance requirements, as shown in this paper.

  8. Electromagnetic response of a highly granular hadronic calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adloff, C.; Blaha, J.; Blaising, J.J. [Savoie Univ., CNRS/IN2P3, Annecy-le-Vieux (FR). Lab. d' Annecy-le-Vieux de Physique des Particules] (and others)

    2010-12-15

    The CALICE collaboration is studying the design of high performance electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters for future International Linear Collider detectors. For the hadronic calorimeter, one option is a highly granular sampling calorimeter with steel as absorber and scintillator layers as active material. High granularity is obtained by segmenting the scintillator into small tiles individually read out via silicon photo-multipliers (SiPM). A prototype has been built, consisting of thirty-eight sensitive layers, segmented into about eight thousand channels. In 2007 the prototype was exposed to positrons and hadrons using the CERN SPS beam, covering a wide range of beam energies and incidence angles. The challenge of cell equalization and calibration of such a large number of channels is best validated using electromagnetic processes. The response of the prototype steel-scintillator calorimeter, including linearity and uniformity, to electrons is investigated and described. (orig.)

  9. Electromagnetic response of a highly granular hadronic calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adloff, C.; Blaha, J.; Blaising, J.J.

    2010-12-01

    The CALICE collaboration is studying the design of high performance electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters for future International Linear Collider detectors. For the hadronic calorimeter, one option is a highly granular sampling calorimeter with steel as absorber and scintillator layers as active material. High granularity is obtained by segmenting the scintillator into small tiles individually read out via silicon photo-multipliers (SiPM). A prototype has been built, consisting of thirty-eight sensitive layers, segmented into about eight thousand channels. In 2007 the prototype was exposed to positrons and hadrons using the CERN SPS beam, covering a wide range of beam energies and incidence angles. The challenge of cell equalization and calibration of such a large number of channels is best validated using electromagnetic processes. The response of the prototype steel-scintillator calorimeter, including linearity and uniformity, to electrons is investigated and described. (orig.)

  10. Intercalibration of the CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter Using Jet Trigger Events

    CERN Document Server

    Futyan, David

    2004-01-01

    This note describes a strategy for rapidly obtaining electromagnetic calorimeter crystal intercalibration at LHC start-up in the absence of test beam precalibration of the complete detector. In the case of the CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) Electromagnetic Calorimeter, the limit on the precision to which crystals can be intercalibrated in phi using fully simulated jet trigger events, and assuming complete ignorance of the distribution of material in front of the calorimeter, is determined as a function of the pseudorapidity eta. The value of the limit has been found to be close to 1.5% in the barrel and between 3.0% and 1.0% for the fiducial region of the endcaps. The precision is limited by the inhomogeneity of tracker material. With increasing knowledge of the material distribution in the tracker, the attainable precision of the method will increase, with the potential of providing rapid and repeated calibration of the calorimeter.

  11. Signal feedthroughs for the ATLAS barrel and endcap calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axen, D.; Hackenburg, R.; Hoffmann, A.; Kane, S.; Lissauer, D.; Makowiecki, D.; Muller, T.; Pate, D.; Radeka, V.; Rahm, D.; Rehak, M.; Rescia, S.; Sexton, K.; Sondericker, J.; Birney, P.; Dowling, A.W.; Fincke-Keeler, M.; Hodges, T.; Holness, F.; Honkanen, N.

    2005-01-01

    The function, design, construction, testing, and installation of the signal feedthroughs for the barrel and endcap ATLAS liquid argon calorimeters are described. The feedthroughs provide a high density and radiation hard method to extract over 200 000 signals from the cryogenic environment of the calorimeters using an application of a design based on flexible kapton circuit board transmission lines. A model to describe the frequency dependent behavior of the transmission lines is also presented

  12. Performance of the ATLAS forward calorimeter and search for the invisible Higgs via vector boson fusion at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Schram, Malachi

    2008-01-01

    The ATLAS detector will examine proton-proton collisions at 14 TeV provided by CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC). ATLAS is a general purpose detector with tracking, calorime- try and a large muon system. The calorimeter system provides hermetic coverage of a large fraction of the solid angle of the detector. In the region close to the beam line, the calorimeter components are the FCal detectors which provide additional rj coverage im- proving the jet tagging efficiency and the missing energy resolution. The performance of the FCal calorimeter for both electrons and hadrons is one of the major topics of this thesis. The measured electromagnetic response for the FCal 1 module was 12.14±0.06 ADC/GeV which is in good agreement with the predicted value of 12 ADC/GeV from IE the simulation which will be used to provide the initial electromagnetic response for the FCal modules during the early stages of ATLAS data taking. The hadronic per- formance was investigated using two calibration schemes: flat weights and t...

  13. Electromagnetic and Hadron Calorimeters in the MIPP Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nigmanov, T. S.; Gustafson, H. R.; Longo, M. J.; Rajaram, D.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the MIPP experiment is to study the inclusive production of photons, pions, kaons, and nucleons produced in π, K, and p interactions on various targets using beams from the Main Injector at Fermilab. The purpose of the calorimeters is to measure the production of forward-going photons and neutrons. The electromagnetic calorimeter consists of 10 lead plates interspersed with proportional chambers followed by the hadron calorimeter with 64 steel plates interspersed with scintillator. We collected data with a variety of targets with beam energies from 5 GeV/c up to 120 GeV/c. The energy calibration of both calorimeters with electrons, pions, kaons and protons is discussed. The performance of the calorimeters was tested on a neutron sample

  14. Performance of a highly segmented scintillating fibres electromagnetic calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asmone, A.; Bertino, M.; Bini, C.; De Zorzi, G.; Diambrini Palazzi, G.; Di Cosimo, G.; Di Domenico, A.; Garufi, F.; Gauzzi, P.; Zanello, D.

    1993-01-01

    A prototype of scintillating fibres electromagnetic calorimeter has been constructed and tested with 2, 4 and 8 GeV electron beams at the CERN PS. The calorimeter modules consist of a Bi-Pb-Sn alloy and scintillating fibres. The fibres are parallel to the modules longer axis, and nearly parallel to the incident electrons direction. The calorimeter has two different segmentation regions of 24x24 mm 2 and 8x24 mm 2 cross area respectively. Results on energy and impact point space resolution are obtained and compared for the two different granularities. (orig.)

  15. Energy Resolution Performance of the CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Adzic, Petar; Almeida, Carlos; Almeida, Nuno; Anagnostou, Georgios; Anfreville, Marc; Anicin, Ivan; Antunovic, Zeljko; Auffray, Etiennette; Baccaro, Stefania; Baffioni, Stephanie; Barney, David; Barone, Luciano; Barrillon, Pierre; Bartoloni, Alessandro; Beauceron, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Bell, Ken W; Benetta, Robert; Bercher, Michel; Berthon, Ursula; Betev, Botjo; Beuselinck, Raymond; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Biino, Cristina; Bimbot, Stephane; Blaha, Jan; Bloch, Philippe; Blyth, Simon; Bordalo, Paula; Bornheim, Adolf; Bourotte, Jean; Britton1, D; Brown, Robert M; Brunelière, Renaud; Busson, Philippe; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Cavallari, Francesca; Cerutti, Muriel; Chamont, David; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Charlot, Claude; Chatterji, Sudeep; Chen, E Augustine; Chipaux, Rémi; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Cockerill, David J A; Collard, Caroline; Combaret, Christophe; Cossutti, Fabio; Costantini, Silvia; Da Silva, J C; Dafinei, Ioan; Daskalakis, Georgios; Davatz, Giovanna; Debraine, Alain; Decotigny, David; De Min, Alberto; Deiters, Konrad; Dejardin, Marc; Della Negra, Rodolphe; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Depasse, Pierre; Descamp, J; Dewhirst, Guy; Dhawan, Satish; Diemoz, Marcella; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Djambazov, Lubomir; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Drndarevic, Snezana; Dupanloup, Michel; Dzelalija, Mile; Ehlers, Jan; El-Mamouni, H; Peisert, Anna; Evangelou, Ioannis; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Fay, Jean; Ferri, Federico; Flower, Paul S; Franzoni, Giovanni; Funk, Wolfgang; Gaillac, Anne-Marie; Gargiulo, Corrado; Gascon-Shotkin, S; Geerebaert, Yannick; Gentit, François-Xavier; Ghezzi, Alessio; Gilly, Jean; Giolo-Nicollerat, Anne-Sylvie; Givernaud, Alain; Gninenko, Sergei; Go, Apollo; Godinovic, Nikola; Golubev, Nikolai; Golutvin, Igor; Gómez-Reino, Robert; Govoni, Pietro; Grahl1, J; Gras1, P; Greenhalgh, Justin; Guillaud, Jean-Paul; Haguenauer, Maurice; Hamel-de-Montechenault, G; Hansen, Magnus; Heath, Helen F; AHill, J; Hobson, Peter R; Holmes, Daniel; Holzner, André; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Ille, Bernard; Ingram, Quentin; Jain, Adarsh; Jarry, Patrick; Jauffret, C; Jha, Manoj; Karar, Akli; Kataria, Sushil Kumar; Katchanov, V A; Kennedy, Bruce W; Kloukinas, Kostas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Korjik, M; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Krpic, Dragomir; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Lebeau, Michel; Lecomte, Pierre; Lecoq, Paul; Lemaire, Marie-Claude; Lethuillier, Morgan; Lin, Willis; Lintern, A L; Lister, Alison; Litvin, V; Locci, Elizabeth; Lodge, Anthony B; Longo, Egidio; Loukas, Demetrios; Luckey, D; Lustermann, Werner; Lynch, Clare; MacKay, Catherine Kirsty; Malberti, Martina; Maletic, Dimitrije; Mandjavidze, Irakli; Manthos, Nikolaos; Markou, Athanasios; Mathez, Hervé; Mathieu, Antoine; Matveev, Viktor; Maurelli, Georges; Menichetti, Ezio; Meridiani, Paolo; Milenovic, Predrag; Milleret, Gérard; Miné, Philippe; Mur, Michel; Musienko, Yuri; Nardulli, Alessandro; Nash, Jordan; Neal, Homer; Nédélec, Patrick; Negri, Pietro; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Newman26, H B; Nikitenko, Alexander; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Ofierzynski, Radoslaw Adrian; Organtini, Giovanni; Paganini, Pascal; Paganoni, Marco; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paramatti, Riccardo; Pastrone, Nadia; Pauss, Felicitas; Poilleux, Patrick; Puljak, Ivica; Pullia, Antonino; Puzovic, Jovan; Ragazzi, Stefano; Ramos, Sergio; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rander, John; Ranjan, Kirti; Ravat, Olivier; Raymond, M; Razis, Panos A; Redaelli, Nicola; Renker, Dieter; Reucroft, Steve; Reymond, Jean-Marc; Reynaud, Michel; Reynaud, Serge; Romanteau, Thierry; Rondeaux, Françoise; Rosowsky, André; Rovelli, Chiara; Rumerio, Paolo; Rusack, Roger; Rusakov, Sergey V; Ryan, Matthew John; Rykaczewski, Hans; Sakhelashvili, Tariel; Salerno, Roberto; Santos, Marcelino; Seez, Christopher; Semeniouk, Igor; Sharif, Omar; Sharp, Peter; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Shevchenko, Sergey; Shivpuri, Ram Krishen; Sidiropoulos, Georgios; Sillou, Daniel; Singovsky, Alexander; Sirois, Yves; Sirunyan, Albert M; Smith, Brian; Smith, Vincent J; Sproston, Martin; Suter, Henry; Swain, John; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Takahashi, Maiko; Tapper, Robert J; Tcheremoukhine, Alexandre; Teixeira, Isabel; Teixeira, Joao Paulo; Teller, Olivier; Timlin, Claire; ATriantis, F; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Ueno, Koji; Uzunian, Andrey; Varela, Joao; Vaz-Cardoso, N; Verrecchia, Patrice; Vichoudis, Paschalis; Vigano, S; Viertel, Gert; Virdee, Tejinder; Vlassov, E; Wang, Minzu; Weinstein, Alan; Williams, Jennifer C; Yaselli, Ignacio; Zabi, Alexandre; Zamiatin, Nikolai; Zelepoukine, Serguei; Zeller, Michael E; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Yawei; Zhu, Kejun; Zhu, Ren-Yuan

    2006-01-01

    The energy resolution performance of the CMS lead tungstate crystal electromagnetic calorimeter is presented. Measurements were made with an electron beam using a fully equipped supermodule of the calorimeter barrel. Results are given both for electrons incident on the centre of crystals and for electrons distributed uniformly over the calorimeter surface. The electron energy is reconstructed in matrices of 3 times 3 or 5 times 5 crystals centred on the crystal containing the maximum energy. Corrections for variations in the shower containment are applied in the case of uniform incidence. The resolution measured is consistent with the design goals.

  16. LASER monitoring system for the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viret, S.

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN uses a scintillator-iron technique for its hadronic Tile Calorimeter (TileCal). Scintillating light is readout via 9852 photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). Calibration and monitoring of these PMTs are made using a LASER based system. Short light pulses are sent simultaneously into all the TileCal photomultiplier's tubes (PMTs) during ATLAS physics runs, thus providing essential information for ATLAS data quality and monitoring analyses. The experimental setup developed for this purpose is described as well as preliminary results obtained during ATLAS commissioning phase in 2008.

  17. Electron signals in the Forward Calorimeter prototype for ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armitage, J C; Artamonov, A; Babukhadia, L; Dixit, M; Embry, T M; Epshteyn, V; Estabrooks, P; Gravelle, P; Hamm, J; Khovansky, V; Koolbeck, D A; Krieger, P; Loch, P; Losty, M; Mayer, J; Mazini, R; Oakham, F Gerald; O'Neill, M; Orr, R S; Rutherfoord, J P; Ryabinin, M; Savine, A; Seely, C Jason; Shatalov, P; Shaver, L S; Shupe, M A; Stairs, G; Tompkins, D; Trischuk, W; Vincent, K; Zaitsev, V

    2007-01-01

    A pre-production prototype of the Forward Calorimeter (FCal) for the ATLAS detector presently under construction at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, Geneva, Switzerland, was exposed to electrons in the momentum range from 20 to 200 GeV/c in a test beam experiment at CERN in 1998. The measured performance, including a signal linearity within about ±1% and a high energy limit in the relative energy resolution of about 4%, meets the expectations for this kind of calorimeter, and exceeds the physics requirements for successful application in ATLAS

  18. Experimental search of the electroweak symmetry breaking in the H→γγ channel and of a solution to the hierarchy problem in ATLAS. Participation to the preparation of the electronics of the electromagnetic calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escalier, Marc

    2005-01-01

    This thesis deals with the understanding of the spontaneous electroweak symmetry breaking mechanism in the ATLAS experiment at LHC collider, by studying two complementary topics: the search for the Higgs boson in the H→γγ channel, and a search for extra dimensions in the gluon sector. Tests of the electronic of the electromagnetic calorimeter allowed to validate various cards that were under the responsibility of the LPNHE. Using full simulation data of the detector allowed us to precisely compute mass resolution of the di-photon system. Due to recent theoretical improvements, signal and background have been studied at the next order of the perturbative development, which increases cross-sections. With regards to the jet background, a study has been done using discriminating variables in order to obtain, for a 80 % photons efficiency, a rejection factor of 7000. The discovery potential benefits from this change of cross-sections and increases by 50 % in comparison with the same analysis done at the leading order. In addition to this, a new analysis using a maximum likelihood method allowed us to increase by 40 % the discovery potential in comparison with our classical analysis. In conclusion, the Higgs boson of 120 GeV/c 2 can be now discovered in this channel with an integrated luminosity of 10 fb -1 . Furthermore, naturality problem of the Higgs boson mass can be solved by introducing extra dimensions in which gluons can propagate. We have shown that it was possible to discover extra-dimensions up to a compactification scale of 15 TeV. (author)

  19. Experiment search of the electroweak symmetry breaking in the H → γγ channel and of a solution of the hierarchy problem in the Atlas experiment: participation to the tests of the electronics of the electromagnetic calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escalier, M.

    2005-04-01

    This thesis deals with the understanding of the spontaneous electroweak symmetry breaking mechanism in the ATLAS experiment at LHC collider, by studying two complementary topics: the search for the Higgs boson in the H → γγ channel, and a search for extra dimensions in the gluon sector. Tests of the electronic of the electromagnetic calorimeter allowed us to validate various cards that were under the responsibility of the LPNHE. Using full simulation data of the detector allowed us to precisely compute mass resolution of the di-photon system. Due to recent theoretical improvements, signal and background have been studied at the next order of the perturbative development, which increases cross-sections. With regards to the jet background, a study has been done using discriminating variables in order to obtain, for a 80 % photons efficiency, a rejection factor of 7000. The discovery potential benefits from this change of cross-sections and increases by 50 % in comparison with the same analysis done at the leading order. In addition to this, a new analysis using a maximum likelihood method allowed us to increase by 40 % the discovery potential in comparison with our classical analysis. In conclusion, the Higgs boson of 120 GeV/c 2 can be now discovered in this channel with an integrated luminosity of 10 fb -1 . Furthermore, the consistency of the problem of the Higgs boson mass can be solved by introducing extra dimensions in which gluons can propagate. We have shown that it was possible to discover extra-dimensions up to a compactification scale of 15 TeV. (author)

  20. Calibration for the ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter-Trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foehlisch, F.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis describes developments and tests that are necessary to operate the Pre-Processor of the ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger for data acquisition. The major tasks of Pre-Processor comprise the digitizing, time-alignment and the calibration of signals that come from the ATLAS calorimeter. Dedicated hardware has been developed that must be configured in order to fulfill these tasks. Software has been developed that implements the register-model of the Pre-Processor Modules and allows to set up the Pre-Processor. In order to configure the Pre-Processor in the context of an ATLAS run, user-settings and the results of calibration measurements are used to derive adequate settings for registers of the Pre-Processor. The procedures that allow to perform the required measurements and store the results into a database are demonstrated. Furthermore, tests that go along with the ATLAS installation are presented and results are shown. (orig.)

  1. Calibration for the ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter-Trigger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foehlisch, F.

    2007-12-19

    This thesis describes developments and tests that are necessary to operate the Pre-Processor of the ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger for data acquisition. The major tasks of Pre-Processor comprise the digitizing, time-alignment and the calibration of signals that come from the ATLAS calorimeter. Dedicated hardware has been developed that must be configured in order to fulfill these tasks. Software has been developed that implements the register-model of the Pre-Processor Modules and allows to set up the Pre-Processor. In order to configure the Pre-Processor in the context of an ATLAS run, user-settings and the results of calibration measurements are used to derive adequate settings for registers of the Pre-Processor. The procedures that allow to perform the required measurements and store the results into a database are demonstrated. Furthermore, tests that go along with the ATLAS installation are presented and results are shown. (orig.)

  2. Status of the Atlas Calorimeters: their performance during three years of LHC operation and plans for future upgrades.

    CERN Document Server

    Majewski, S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is designed to study the proton-proton collisions produced at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. Its calorimeter system measures the energy and direction of final state particles over the pseudorapidity range $|\\eta| < 4.9$. Accurate identification and measurement of the characteristics of electromagnetic objects (electrons/photons) are performed by liquid argon (LAr)-lead sampling calorimeters in the region $|\\eta| < 3.2$, using an innovative accordion geometry that provides a fast, uniform response without azimuthal gaps. This system played a critical role in the ATLAS analyses contributing to the Higgs boson discovery announced in 2012. The hadronic calorimeters measure the properties of hadrons, jets, and tau leptons, and also contribute to the measurement of the missing transverse energy and the identification of muons. A scintillator-steel sampling calorimeter (TileCal) is employed in the region $|\\eta| < 1.7$, while the region $1.5 < |\\eta| < 3.2$ is covered wi...

  3. The NA62 Liquid Krypton Electromagnetic Calorimeter Level 0 Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00293812; Paoluzzi, Giovanni; Salamon, Andrea; Salina, Gaetano; Santovetti, Emanuele; Scarfi, Francesco M.; Bonaiuto, Vincenzo; Sargeni, Fausto

    2012-01-01

    The NA62 experiment at CERN SPS aims to measure the Branching Ratio of the very rare kaon decay K+ -> pi+ nu nubar collecting O(100) events with a 10% background to make a stringent test of the Standard Model. One of the main backgrounds to the proposed measurement is represented by the K+ -> pi+ pi0 decay. To suppress this background an efficient photo veto system is foreseen. In the 1-10 mrad angular region the NA48 high performance liquid krypton electromagnetic calorimeter is used. The design, implementation and current status of the Liquid Krypton Electromagnetic Calorimeter Level 0 Trigger are presented.

  4. The NA62 Liquid Krypton Electromagnetic Calorimeter Level 0 Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00646848; Fucci, Adolfo; Paoluzzi, Giovanni; Salamon, Andrea; Salina, Gaetano; Santovetti, Emanuele; Scarfi, Francesco M.; Sargeni, Fausto

    2011-01-01

    The NA62 experiment at CERN SPS aims to measure the Branching Ratio of the very rare kaon decay K+ -> pi+ nu nubar collecting O(100) events with a 10% background to make a stringent test of the Standard Model. One of the main backgrounds to the proposed measurement is represented by the K+ -> pi+ pi0 decay. To suppress this background an efficient photo veto system is foreseen. In the 1-10 mrad angular region the NA48 high performance liquid krypton electromagnetic calorimeter is used. The design, implementation and current status of the Liquid Krypton Electromagnetic Calorimeter Level 0 Trigger are presented.

  5. Status of the ATLAS hadronic tile calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitner, R.

    2005-01-01

    Short status of the Tile Calorimeter project is given. Major achievements in the mechanical construction of the detector modules, their instrumentation, cylinders assembly, as well as the principles of the detector front-end electronics, are described. The ideas of Tile Calorimeter module calibration are presented

  6. Calibration and performance of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter during the LHC Run 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerda Alberich, L.

    2018-02-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the hadronic sampling calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). TileCal uses iron absorbers and scintillators as active material and it covers the central region | η| < 1.7. Jointly with the other sub-detectors it is designed for measurements of hadrons, jets, tau-particles and missing transverse energy. It also assists in muon identification. TileCal is regularly monitored and calibrated by several different calibration systems: a Cs radioactive source, a laser light system to check the PMT response, and a charge injection system (CIS) to check the front-end electronics. These calibration systems, in conjunction with data collected during proton-proton collisions, Minimum Bias (MB) events, provide extensive monitoring of the instrument and a means for equalizing the calorimeter response at each stage of the signal propagation. The performance of the calorimeter has been established with cosmic ray muons and the large sample of the proton-proton collisions and compared to Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. The response of high momentum isolated muons is also used to study the energy response at the electromagnetic scale, isolated hadrons are used as a probe of the hadronic response. The calorimeter time resolution is studied with multijet events. A description of the different TileCal calibration systems and the results on the calorimeter performance during the LHC Run 2 are presented. The results on the pile-up noise and response uniformity studies are also discussed.

  7. Arrival of the last cryostat for the ATLAS LAr calorimeter at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Aleksa, M; Oberlack, H

    On Wednesday, 4th June the last cryostat for the ATLAS LAr calorimeter (end-cap A) arrived at CERN and was immediately unloaded from the truck in building 180 (see Figures 1 and 2), where the integration of the LAr calorimeters into their cryostats takes place. The transport from the Italian company SIMIC, where both end-cap calorimeters have been produced took longer than expected due to delays because of the G8 summit. Thanks to the great effort by the CERN Host State office and the French-German steering group that supplies the end-cap cryostat as an in-kind contribution to the LAr collaboration, an exceptional convoy was finally available and the cryostat could make its way to CERN. Fig.1 (left): Truck with the end-cap cryostat. Fig.2 (right): Unloading the cryostat in bldg. 180. Each end-cap cryostat will contain an electromagnetic calorimeter wheel, two wheels of a hadronic calorimeter, and a forward calorimeter. The design of the cryostat as a double vessel structure made of Aluminum fulfills t...

  8. ATLAS LAr Calorimeter Performance in LHC Run-2

    CERN Document Server

    Yatsenko, Elena; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS detector was designed and built to study proton-proton collisions produced at the LHC at centre-of-mass energies up to 14 TeV and instantaneous luminosities up to 1034 cm−2 s−1. Liquid argon (LAr) sampling calorimeters are employed for all electromagnetic calorimetry in the pseudo-rapidity region |η| < 3.2, and for hadronic calorimetry in the region from |η| = 1.5 to |η| = 4.9. In the first LHC run a total luminosity of 27 fb−1 has been collected at center-of-mass energies of 7-8 TeV between year of 2010 to 2012. Following a period of detector consolidation during a long shutdown, Run-2 started with approximately 3.9 fb-1 and 35.6 fb-1 of data at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV recorded in 2015 and 2016, respectively. In order to realize the level-1 acceptance rate of 100 kHz in Run-2 data taking, number of read-out samples for the energy and the time measurement has been modified from five to four with keeping the expected performance. The well calibrated and highly granular Liquid Ar...

  9. The ATLAS Forward Calorimeter C Modules at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Loch, P.

    All three modules of the ATLAS Forward Calorimeter (FCal) for the Liquid Argon Endcap C Cryostat arrived at CERN in July 2002. The modules, which were shipped from Tucson, Arizona, USA (electromagnetic FCal1C), Toronto, Canada (first hadronic FCal2C), and Ottawa, Canada (second hadronic FCal3C), were then cabled in CERN's North Area clean room. Several thousand so-called interconnect boards were mounted on the modules to connect groups of four, six, or nine electrodes in FCal1C, FCal2C and FCal3C, respectively, to one cold signal cable. Great care was taken during this process to avoid electrical shorts in the electrodes. More or less constant testing for shorts and of the connectivity between the interconnect boards and the electrodes, followed by immediate repairs, assured that all three modules were without any electrical problems by the beginning of November 2002. At that time the modules were moved to the H6C cryostat at the end of the H6 beam line in the North Area, and cooled down for the first time to...

  10. ATLAS LAr calorimeter performance and LHC Run-2 commissioning

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00366625; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS detector was built to study proton-proton collisions produced by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at a center of mass energy of up to 14 TeV. The Liquid Argon (LAr) calorimeters are used for all electromagnetic calorimetry as well as the hadronic calorimetry in the endcap and forward regions. They have shown excellent performance during the first LHC data taking campaign, from 2010 to 2012, so-called Run 1, at a peak luminosity of $8 \\times 10^{33} \\text{cm}^{-2}\\text{s}^{-1}$. During the next run, peak luminosities of $1.5 \\times 10^{34} \\text{cm}^{-2}\\text{s}^{-1}$ and even higher are expected at a 25ns bunch spacing. Such a high collision rate may have an impact on the quality of the energy reconstruction which is attempted to be maintained at a high level using a calibration procedure described in this contribution. It also poses major challenges to the first level of the trigger system which is constrained to a maximal rate of 100 kHz. For Run-3, scheduled to start in 2019, instantaneous luminos...

  11. ATLAS LAr Calorimeters Performance in LHC Run-2

    CERN Document Server

    Camincher, Clement; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The ATLAS detector was designed and built to study proton-proton collisions produced at the LHC at centre-of-mass energies up to 14 TeV and instantaneous luminosities above 1034 cm−2 s−1. Liquid argon (LAr) sampling calorimeters are employed for all electromagnetic calorimetry in the pseudo-rapidity region |η| < 3.2, and for hadronic and forward calorimetry in the region from |η| = 1.5 to |η| = 4.9. In the first LHC run a total luminosity of 27 fb−1 has been collected at center-of-mass energies of 7-8 TeV between year of 2010 to 2012. After a period of detector consolidation during a long shutdown, Run-2 started in 2015 and 3.9 fb-1, 35.6 fb-1 and 46.9 fb-1 of data at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV have been recorded up to now per year. In order to realize the level-1 acceptance rate of 100 kHz in Run-2 data taking, the number of read-out samples recorded and used for the energy and the time measurement has been modified from five to four while keeping the expected performance. The well calibra...

  12. Electronics calibration board for the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colas, J.; Dumont-Dayot, N.; Marchand, J.F.; Massol, N.; Perrodo, P.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; De La Taille, C.; Imbert, P.; Richer, J.P.; Seguin Moreau, N.; Serin, L.

    2008-01-01

    To calibrate the energy response of the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter, an electronics calibration board has been designed; it delivers a signal whose shape is close to the calorimeter ionization current signal with amplitude up to 100 mA in 50 Ω with 16 bit dynamic range. The amplitude of this signal is designed to be uniform over all calorimeters channels, stable in time and with an integral linearity much better that the electronics readout. The various R and D phases and most of the difficulties met are discussed and illustrated by many measurements. The custom design circuits are described and the layout of the ATLAS calibration board presented. The procedure used to qualify the boards is explained and the performance obtained illustrated: a dynamic range up to 3 TeV in three energy scales with an integral linearity better than 0.1% in each of them, a response uniformity better than 0.2% and a stability better than 0.1%. The performance of the board is well within the ATLAS requirements. Finally, in situ measurements done on the ATLAS calorimeter are shown to validate these performances

  13. ATLAS barrel hadron tile calorimeter: spacers plates mass production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artikov, A.M.; Budagov, Yu.A.; Khubua, J.

    1999-01-01

    In this article we expose the main problems of the mass production of the so-called 'spacer plates' for the ATLAS Barrel Hadron Tile Calorimeter. We describe all practical solutions of these problems. Particularly we present the measurement procedures and calculation schemes we used for the spacers dimensions determination. The results of the calculations are presented

  14. Calibration and monitoring of the ATLAS Tile calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment and provides important information for reconstruction of hadrons, jets, hadronic decays of tau leptons and missing transverse energy. This sampling calorimeter uses steel plates as absorber and scintillating tiles as active medium. The light produced by the passage of charged particles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibres to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). PMT signals are then digitized at 40~MHz and stored on detector and are only transferred off detector once the first level trigger acceptance has been confirmed. The readout is segmented into about 5000 cells (longitudinally and transversally), each of them being read out by two PMTs in parallel. To calibrate and monitor the stability and performance of each part of the readout chain, a set of calibration systems is used. The TileCal calibration system comprises Cesium radioactive sources, laser, charge injection elements and an integrator b...

  15. Performance of ATLAS L1 Calorimeter Trigger with data

    CERN Document Server

    Bracinik, J; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS first-level calorimeter trigger is a hardware-based system designed to identify high-pT jets, electron/photon and tau candidates and to measure total and missing ET in the ATLAS calorimeters. After more than two years of commissioning in situ with calibration data and cosmic rays, the system has now been extensively used to select the most interesting proton-proton collision events. Final tuning of timing and energy calibration has been carried out in 2010 to improve the trigger response to physics objects. An analysis of the performance of the level-1 calorimeter trigger will be presented, along with the techniques used to achieve these results.

  16. Tests of optical glues for the PANDA electromagnetic calorimeter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dbeyssi, A.; Tomasi-Gustafsson, E.; Hennino, T.; Imre, M.; Kunne, R.; Le Galliard, C.; Marchand, D.; Maroni, A.; Ramstein, B.; Rosier, P.; Bremer, D.; Dormenev, V.; Eissner, T.; Kuske, T.; Novotny, R.; Moeini, H.; Bondarenko, O.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Loehner, H.; Messchendorp, G.; Tambave, G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on the results of tests for low temperature applications of two commercial optical glues in the electromagnetic calorimeter of PANDA at FAIR. Mechanical, thermal and optical properties are presented, as well as radiation hardness to photon and proton radiation. (C) 2013 Elsevier

  17. Feature-extraction algorithms for the PANDA electromagnetic calorimeter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kavatsyuk, M.; Guliyev, E.; Lemmens, P. J. J.; Loehner, H.; Poelman, T. P.; Tambave, G.; Yu, B

    2009-01-01

    The feature-extraction algorithms are discussed which have been developed for the digital front-end electronics of the electromagnetic calorimeter of the PANDA detector at the future FAIR facility. Performance parameters have been derived in test measurements with cosmic rays, particle and photon

  18. Test beam results from the D0 end electromagnetic calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roe, N.A.

    1991-11-01

    Test beam results are presented for the DO end electromagnetic calorimeter. Data were taken with electrons and pions ranging in energy from 5 GeV to 150 GeV. Results from the analysis of the test beam data are presented on energy resolution and linearity, stability and uniformity of response, position resolution and electron-pion separation

  19. Event filter monitoring with the ATLAS tile calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Fiorini, L

    2008-01-01

    The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter detector is presently involved in an intense phase of subsystems integration and commissioning with muons of cosmic origin. Various monitoring programs have been developed at different levels of the data flow to tune the set-up of the detector running conditions and to provide a fast and reliable assessment of the data quality already during data taking. This paper focuses on the monitoring system integrated in the highest level of the ATLAS trigger system, the Event Filter, and its deployment during the Tile Calorimeter commissioning with cosmic ray muons. The key feature of Event Filter monitoring is the capability of performing detector and data quality control on complete physics events at the trigger level, hence before events are stored on disk. In ATLAS' online data flow, this is the only monitoring system capable of giving a comprehensive event quality feedback.

  20. ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY OF A DC POWER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM FOR THE ATLAS LIQUID ARGON CALORIMETER COMPATIBILIDAD ELECTROMAGNÉTICA EN EL SISTEMA DE DISTRIBUCIÓN DE CORRIENTE CONTINUA PARA EL CALORÍMETRO DE ARGÓN LÍQUIDO EN ATLAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Blanchot

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The front-end electronics of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter is powered by DC/DC converters nearby the front-end crates. They are fed by AC/DC converters located in a remote control room through long power cables. The stability of the power distribution scheme is compromised by the impedance of the long interconnection cable, and proper matching of the converters dynamic impedances is required. Also, the long power cable fed by a powerful AC/DC converter is a source of electromagnetic interferences in the experimental area. The optimal grounding and shielding configuration to minimize these EMI is discussed.El Calorímetro de Argón Líquido en ATLAS es alimentado por convertidores DC/DC localizados cerca de sus compartimientos. Ellos son alimentados por convertidores AC/DC localizados en una sala de control lejana conectados mediante cables largos de poder. La estabilidad del sistema de distribución es sensible a la impedancia del cable largo de interconexión y son requeridos los convertidores apropiados para estabilizar la dinámica de la impedancia. También, el cable largo alimentado por el convertidor AC/DC es una fuente de interferencia electromagnética en el área experimental. En este trabajo se analiza La óptima configuración de aterrizamiento y blindaje para minimizar los efectos de EMI.

  1. Recent developments in crystal calorimeters (featuring the CMS PbWO4 electromagnetic calorimeter)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gascon-Shotkin, S.

    2003-01-01

    In the mass range of 110-150 GeV the favored process for Higgs boson detection via p-p collisions is via its decay into two photons, which demands a very high-resolution electromagnetic calorimeter. This physics goal plus the Large Hadron Calorimeter (LHC)-imposed design constraints of 25ns bunch spacing and a hostile radiation environment have led the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) collaboration to the choice of lead tungstate (PbWO 4 ) crystals. These factors plus the presence of a 4T magnetic field and the relatively low room-temperature scintillation photon yield of PbWO 4 make photo detection a real challenge, which CMS has met via the choice of devices providing gain amplification: Avalanche photodiodes (APD) in the central barrel region and vacuum phototriodes (VPT) in the forward and backward endcap regions. In the past year the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter has entered the construction phase. We review progress in the areas of crystals, barrel and endcap photo detection devices, plans for detector calibration as well as the status of assembly and quality control. We also invoke relevant developments in other crystal calorimeters currently in operation or under development. Crystal calorimeters remain the medium of choice for precision energy and position measurements in high energy physics

  2. Digital Filtering Performance in the ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Hadley, D R; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger is a hardware-based system designed to identify high-pT jets, elec- tron/photon and tau candidates, and to measure total and missing ET in the ATLAS Liquid Argon and Tile calorimeters. It is a pipelined processor system, with a new set of inputs being evaluated every 25ns. The overall trigger decision has a latency budget of 2µs, including all transmission delays. The calorimeter trigger uses about 7200 reduced granularity analogue signals, which are first digitized at the 40 MHz LHC bunch-crossing frequency, before being passed to a digital Finite Impulse Re- sponse (FIR) filter. Due to latency and chip real-estate constraints, only a simple 5-element filter with limited precision can be used. Nevertheless, this filter achieves a significant reduction in noise, along with improving the bunch-crossing assignment and energy resolution for small signals. The context in which digital filters are used for the ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger is presented, before descr...

  3. Digital Filter Performance for the ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Hadley, D R; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger is a hardware-based system designed to identify high-pT jets, electron/photon and tau candidates, and to measure total and missing ET in the ATLAS Liquid Argon and Tile calorimeters. It is a pipelined processor system, with a new set of inputs being evaluated every 25ns. The overall trigger decision has a latency budget of 2µs, including all transmission delays. The calorimeter trigger uses about 7200 reduced granularity analogue signals, which are first digitized at the 40 MHz LHC bunch-crossing frequency, before being passed to a digital Finite Impulse Response (FIR) filter. Due to latency and chip real-estate constraints, only a simple 5-element filter with limited precision can be used. Nevertheless this filter achieves a significant reduction in noise, along with improving the bunch-crossing assignment and energy resolution for small signals. The context in which digital filters are used for the ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger will be presented, before describing ...

  4. Performance of a scintillating fibres semiprojective electromagnetic calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertino, M.; Bini, C.; De Zorzi, G.; Diambrini Palazzi, G.; Di Cosimo, G.; Di Domenico, A.; Garufi, F.; Gauzzi, P.; Zanello, D.

    1995-01-01

    A highly segmented scintillating fibres/lead electromagnetic calorimeter has been tested. Each calorimeter module has semiprojective geometry and is shaped as a wedge with an angle of (0.82) . The fibres are however parallel to the wedge axis and the two small lateral regions are not fibre-instrumented. This simple and cheap approach to a projective geometry allows to achieve still good energy and space resolution. Results with electrons in the range 10-100 GeV are presented. ((orig.))

  5. The CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter: Construction, Commissioning and Calibration

    CERN Document Server

    ORIMOTO,Toyoko J.

    2009-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector at the Large Hadron Colider (LHC) is ready for first collisions. The Electromagnetic Calorimeter (ECAL) of CMS, a high resolution detector comprised of nearly 76000 lead tungstate crystals, will play a crucial role in the coming physics searches undertaken by CMS. The design and performance of the CMS ECAL with test beams, cosmic rays, and first single beam data will be presented. In addition, the status of the calorimeter and plans for calibration with first collisions will be discussed. European Physical Society Europhysics Conference on High Energy Physics July 16-22, 2009 Krakow, Poland ∗Speaker.

  6. The CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter: Construction, Commissioning and Calibration

    CERN Document Server

    Orimoto, Toyoko

    2009-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector at the Large Hadron Colider (LHC) is ready for first collisions. The Electromagnetic Calorimeter (ECAL) of CMS, a high resolution detector comprised of nearly 76000 lead tungstate crystals, will play a crucial role in the coming physics searches undertaken by CMS. The design and performance of the CMS ECAL with test beams, cosmic rays, and first single beam data will be presented. In addition, the status of the calorimeter and plans for calibration with first collisions will be discussed.

  7. In-Situ Calibration of the CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Futyan, D I

    2003-01-01

    The in-situ intercalibration of the lead tungstate crystals of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter will be performed using 3 techniques: An energy flow method will be used at startup to intercalibrate to a precision of around 2% within about 3 hours. The energy/momentum measurement of isolated electrons from W decay will then be used to obtain the design goal precision of 0.5% within about 2 months. Global intercalibration of different regions of the calorimeter and the determination of the absolute energy scale will be performed using energetic electrons from Z->ee events.

  8. The ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter: upgrade plans for the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Novgorodova, Olga; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS detector was designed and built to study proton-proton collisions produced at the LHC at centre-of-mass energies up to 14 TeV and instantaneous luminosities up to 10$^{34}$ cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$. Liquid argon (LAr) sampling calorimeters are employed for electromagnetic and hadronic calorimetry. The LAr has to withstand a High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) operation of the collider and associated detectors at luminosities of up to (5-7)$\\times$10$^{34}$ cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$, with the goal of accumulating an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb$^{-1}$. This is well beyond the values for which the detectors were designed. The electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters will be able to tolerate the increased particle flux, but the performance of the forward calorimeter (FCal) will be affected. Two possible solutions for keeping the current performance are being discussed. The electronics readout will also need to withstand a 3-5 times larger radiation environment. In the hadronic endcap calorimeter (HEC) cold GaAs preampl...

  9. Testbeam studies of production modules of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    OpenAIRE

    Adragna, P.; Alexa, C.; Anderson, K.; Antonaki, A.; Arabidze, A.; Batkova, L.; Batusov, V.; Beck, H.P.; Bednar, P.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Biscarat, C.; Blanchot, G.; Bogush, A.; Bohm, C.; Boldea, V.

    2009-01-01

    We report test beam studies of {11\\,\\%} of the production ATLAS Tile Calorimeter modules. The modules were equipped with production front-end electronics and all the calibration systems planned for the final detector. The studies used muon, electron and hadron beams ranging in energy from 3~GeV to 350~GeV. Two independent studies showed that the light yield of the calorimeter was $\\sim 70$~pe/GeV, exceeding the design goal by {40\\,\\%}. Electron beams provided a calibration of the modules at t...

  10. Calibration and Performance of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter During the Run 2 of the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Solovyanov, Oleg; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is a hadronic calorimeter covering the central region of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. It is a non-compensating sampling calorimeter comprised of steel and scintillating plastic tiles which are read-out by photomultiplier tubes (PMT). The TileCal is regularly monitored and calibrated by several di erent calibration systems: a Cs radioactive source that illuminates the scintillating tiles directly, a laser light system to directly test the PMT response, and a charge injection system (CIS) for the front-end electronics. These calibrations systems, in conjunction with data collected during proton-proton collisions, provide extensive monitoring of the instrument and a means for equalizing the calorimeter response at each stage of the signal propagation. The performance of the calorimeter and its calibration has been established with cosmic ray muons and the large sample of the proton-proton collisions to study the energy response at the electromagnetic scale, probe of the hadroni...

  11. Calibration and Monitoring systems of the ATLAS Tile Hadron Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    BOUMEDIENE, D; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The TileCal is the hadronic calorimeter covering the most central region of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. It is a sampling calorimeter with iron plates as absorber and plastic scintillating tiles as the active material. The scintillation light produced by the passage of charged particles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibers to about 10000 photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). Integrated on the calorimeter there is a composite device that allows to monitor and/or equalize the signals at various stages of its formation. This device is based on signal generation from different sources: radioactive, LASER and charge injection and minimum bias events produces in proton-proton collisions. In this contribution is given a brief description of the different systems hardware and presented the latest results on their performance, like the determination of the conversion factors, linearity and stability.

  12. Beam Tests on the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Demonstrator Module

    CERN Document Server

    Valdes Santurio, Eduardo; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) Phase II upgrade aims to increase the accelerator luminosity by a factor of 5-10. Due to the expected higher radiation levels and the aging of the current electronics, a new read-out system of the ATLAS experiment hadronic calorimeter (TileCal) is needed. A prototype of the electronics – the Demonstrator - has been tested exposing a module of the calorimeter to particles at the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) accelerator of CERN. Data were collected with beams of muons, electrons and hadrons and muons, at various incident energies and impact angles. The measurements aim to check the calibration and to determine the performance the detector exploiting the features of the interactions of the muons, electrons and hadrons with matter. We present the current status and results where the new Demonstrator new electronics were situated in calorimeter modules and exposed to beams of muons, electrons and hadrons with different energies and impact angles.

  13. ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger: Initial Timing and Energy Calibration

    CERN Document Server

    Childers, J T; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger identifies high-pT objects in the Liquid Argon and Tile Calorimeters with a fixed latency of ~2.0 µs using a hardware-based, pipelined system built with custom electronics. The Preprocessor Module conditions and digitizes about 7200 pre-summed analogue signals from the calorimeters at the LHC bunch-crossing frequency of 40 MHz, and performs bunch-crossing identification (BCID) and deposited energy measurement for each input signal. This information is passed to further processors for object classification and total energy calculation, and the results used to make the Level-1 trigger decision for the ATLAS detector. The BCID and energy measurement in the trigger depend on precise timing adjustment to achieve correct sampling of the input signal peak. Test pulses from the calorimeters were analysed to derive the initial timing and energy calibration, and first data from the LHC restart in autumn 2009 and early 2010 were used for validation and further optimization. The res...

  14. ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Upgrades for HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Angelidakis, Stylianos; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The High-Luminosity phase of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN is expected to begin in 2026, delivering a luminosity of ~5×10^34 cm −2 s −1 , with up to 200 interactions per 25 ns bunch crossing. In order to cope with the expected high trigger rates and intense radiation conditions, the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter will be upgraded with readout architectures that will allow to maintain an optimal performance in its future operation.

  15. Work on a ATLAS tile calorimeter Barrel

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    2000-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter is designed as one barrel and two extended barrel hadron parts. The calorimeter consists of a cylindrical structure with inner and outer radius of 2280 and 4230 mm respectively. The barrel part is 5640 mm in length along the beam axis, while each of the extended barrel cylinders is 2910 mm long. Each detector cylinder is built of 64 independent wedges along the azimuthal direction. Between the barrel and the extended barrels there is a gap of about 600 mm, which is needed for the Inner Detector and the Liquid Argon cables, electronics and services. The barrel covers the region -1.0

  16. ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger: Status and Development

    CERN Document Server

    Bracinik, J; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger seeds all the calorimeter-based triggers in the ATLAS experiment at LHC. The inputs to the system are analogue signals of reduced granularity, formed by summing cells from both the ATLAS Liquid Argon and Tile calorimeters. Several stages of analogue then digital processing, largely performed in FPGAs, refine these signals via configurable and flexible algorithms into identified physics objects, for example electron, tau or jet candidates. The complete processing chain is performed in a pipelined system at the LHC bunch-crossing frequency, and with a fixed latency of about 1us. The first LHC run from 2009-2013 provided a varied and challenging environment for first level triggers. While the energy and luminosity were below the LHC design, the pile-up conditions were similar to the nominal conditions. The physics ambitions of the experiment also tested the performance of the Level-1 system while keeping within the rate limits set by detector readout. This presentation will ...

  17. Hadron Energy Reconstruction for ATLAS Barrel Combined Calorimeter Using Non-Parametrical Method

    CERN Document Server

    Kulchitskii, Yu A

    2000-01-01

    Hadron energy reconstruction for the ATLAS barrel prototype combined calorimeter in the framework of the non-parametrical method is discussed. The non-parametrical method utilizes only the known e/h ratios and the electron calibration constants and does not require the determination of any parameters by a minimization technique. Thus, this technique lends itself to fast energy reconstruction in a first level trigger. The reconstructed mean values of the hadron energies are within \\pm1% of the true values and the fractional energy resolution is [(58\\pm 3)%{\\sqrt{GeV}}/\\sqrt{E}+(2.5\\pm0.3)%]\\bigoplus(1.7\\pm0.2) GeV/E. The value of the e/h ratio obtained for the electromagnetic compartment of the combined calorimeter is 1.74\\pm0.04. Results of a study of the longitudinal hadronic shower development are also presented.

  18. Fast simulation of electromagnetic showers in the ZEUS calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peso, J. del; Ros, E.

    1991-02-01

    We present a fast Monte Carlo algorithm for the generation of electromagnetic showers in the uranium-scintillator sampling calorimeter of the ZEUS experiment. This algorithm includes a simulation of longitudinal and transverse profiles, their fluctuations and the correlation between these fluctuations as well. The tuning of this fast Monte Carlo with data generated with EGS is described and its performance together with some applications is discussed. (orig.)

  19. Performance of prototypes for the ALICE electromagnetic calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, J.; Awes, T.; Badala, A.; Baumgart, S.; Bellwied, R.; Benhabib, L.; Bernard, C.; Bianchi, N.; Blanco, F.; Bortoli, Y.; Bourdaud, G.; Bourrion, O.; Boyer, B.; Bruna, E.; Butterworth, J.; Caines, H.; Calvo Diaz Aldagalan, D.; Capitani, G.P.; Carcagno, Y.; Casanova Diaz, A.

    2010-01-01

    The performance of prototypes for the ALICE electromagnetic sampling calorimeter has been studied in test beam measurements at FNAL and CERN. A 4x4 array of final design modules showed an energy resolution of about 11%/√(E(GeV))+1.7% with a uniformity of the response to electrons of 1% and a good linearity in the energy range from 10 to 100 GeV. The electromagnetic shower position resolution was found to be described by 1.5mm+5.3mm/√(E(GeV)). For an electron identification efficiency of 90% a hadron rejection factor of >600 was obtained.

  20. The monitoring and data quality assessment of the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simard, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is designed to study the proton-proton (pp) collisions produced at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. Liquid argon (LAr) sampling calorimeters are used for all electromagnetic calorimetry in the pseudo-rapidity region |η| < 3.2, as well as for hadronic calorimetry in the range 1.5 < |η| < 4.9. The electromagnetic calorimeters use lead as passive material and are characterized by an accordion geometry that allows a fast and uniform response without azimuthal gaps. Copper and tungsten were chosen as passive material for the hadronic calorimetry; while a classic parallel-plate geometry was adopted at large polar angles, an innovative design based on cylindrical electrodes with thin liquid argon gaps is employed at low angles, where the particle flux is higher. All detectors are housed in three cryostats maintained at about 88.5 K. The 182,468 cells are read out via front-end boards housed in on-detector crates that also contain monitoring, calibration, trigger and timing boards. In the first three years of LHC operation, approximately 27 fb −1 of pp collision data were collected at centre-of-mass energies of 7-8 TeV. Throughout this period, the calorimeter consistently operated with performances very close to specifications, with high data-taking efficiency. This is in large part due to a sophisticated data monitoring procedure designed to quickly identify issues that would degrade the detector performance, to ensure that only the best quality data are used for physics analysis. After a description of the detector design, main characteristics and operation principles, this paper details the data quality assessment procedures developed during the 2011 and 2012 LHC data-taking periods, when more than 98% of the luminosity recorded by ATLAS had high quality LAr calorimeter data suitable for physics analysis

  1. Design of a large dynamics fast acquisition device: application to readout of the electromagnetic calorimeter in the ATLAS experiment; Conception d`un dispositif d`acquisition rapide de grande dynamique: application a la lecture du calorimetre electromagnetique de l`experience ATLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bussat, Jean-Marie [Universite de Paris Sud, 91 - Orsay (France)

    1998-06-05

    The construction of the new particle accelerator, the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) at CERN is entails many research and development projects. It is the case in electronics where the problem of the acquisition of large dynamic range signals at high sampling frequencies occurs. Typically, the requirements are a dynamic range of about 65,000 (around 16 bits) at 40 MHz. Some solutions to this problem will be presented. One of them is using a commercial analog-to-digital converter. This case brings up the necessity of a signal conditioning equipment. This thesis describes a way of building such a system that will be called `multi-gain system`. Then, an application of this method is presented. It involves the realization of an automatic gain switching integrated circuit. It is designed for the readout of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter. The choice and the calculation of the components of this systems are described. They are followed by the results of some measurements done on a prototype made using the AMS 1.2{mu}m BiCMOS foundry. Possible enhancements are also presented. We conclude on the feasibility of such a system and its various applications in a number of fields that are not restricted to particle physics. (author) 33 refs., 132 figs., 22 tabs.

  2. The ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter: upgrade plans for the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Novgorodova, O; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS detector was designed and built to study proton-proton collisions produced at the LHC at centre-of-mass energies up to 14 TeV and instantaneous luminosities up to 1034cm-2s-1. Liquid argon (LAr) sampling calorimeters are employed for all electromagnetic calorimetry in the pseudorapidity region |η|<3.2, and for hadronic calorimetry in the region from |η|=1.5 to |η|=4.9. Although the nominal LHC experimental programme is still in progress, plans for a High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) are already being developed for operation of the collider and associated detectors at luminosities of up to (5-7)×1034 cm-2s-1, with the goal of accumulating an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb-1. The proposed instantaneous and integrated luminosities are both well beyond the values for which the detectors were designed. The electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters will be able to tolerate the increased particle flux, but the performance of the forward calorimeter (FCal) will be affected. Two solutions for this are un...

  3. Performance of the ATLAS Calorimeters in LHC Run-1 and Run-2

    CERN Document Server

    Burghgrave, Blake; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is equipped with electromagnetic and hadronic liquid-argon (LAr) calorimeters and a hadronic scintillator-steel sampling calorimeter (TileCal) for measuring energy and direction of final state particles in the pseudorapidity range |η|<4.9. The calibration and performance of the calorimetry system was established during beam tests, cosmic ray muon measurements and in particular the first three years of pp collision data-taking. During this period, referred to as Run-1, approximately 27~fb−1 of data have been collected at the center-of-mass energies of 7 and 8~TeV. Following a period of detector consolidation during a long shutdown, Run-2 started in 2015 with approximately 3.9~fb−1 of data at a center-of-mass energy of 13~TeV recorded in this year. Results on the calorimeter operation, monitoring and data quality, as well as their performance will be presented, including the calibration and stability of the electromagnetic scale, response uniformit...

  4. Performance of the ATLAS Calorimeters in LHC Run-1 and Run-2

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00354209; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is equipped with electromagnetic and hadronic liquid-argon (LAr) calorimeters and a hadronic scintillator-steel sampling calorimeter (TileCal) for measuring energy and direction of final state particles in the pseudorapidity range $|\\eta|<4.9$. The calibration and performance of the calorimetry system was established through beam tests, cosmic ray muon measurements and in particular the first three years of pp collision data-taking. During this period, referred to as Run-1, approximately 27~\\ifb of proton-proton collision data were collected at the center-of-mass energies of 7 and 8~TeV. Following a period of detector consolidation during a long shutdown, Run-2 started in 2015 with approximately 3.9~\\ifb of data at a center-of-mass energy of 13~TeV recorded in the first year. We present a summary of the calorimeter operation, monitoring and data quality, as well as their performance, including the calibration and stability of the electromagnetic scale...

  5. Status of the Atlas Liquid Argon Calorimeter and its Performance after Three Years of LHC Operation

    CERN Document Server

    Lampl, W; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is designed to study the proton-proton collisions produced at the Large Hadron Collider(LHC) at CERN. Liquid argon sampling calorimeters are used for all electromagnetic calorimetry covering the pseudo- rapidity region up to 3.2, as well as for hadronic calorimetry in the range 1.5-4.9. The electromagnetic calorimeters use lead as passive material and are characterized by an accordion geometry that allows a fast and uniform azimuthal response without any gap. Copper and tungsten were chosen as passive material for the hadronic calorimetry; whereas a classic plate geometry was adopted at large polar angles, an innovative one based on cylindrical electrodes with thin argon gaps was designed for the coverage at low angles, where the particles flow is higher. All detectors are housed in three cryostats kept at approximately 89 K. After installation in 2004-2006, the calorimeters were extensively commissioned over the three-year period prior to first collisions in 2009, using cosmic rays and s...

  6. Status of the Atlas Liquid Argon Calorimeter and its Performance after Three Years of LHC Operation

    CERN Document Server

    Lampl, W; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is designed to study the proton-proton collisions pro- duced at the Large Hadron Collider(LHC) at CERN. Liquid argon sampling calorimeters are used for all electromagnetic calorimetry covering the pseudo- rapidity region up to 3.2, as well as for hadronic calorimetry in the range 1.5-4.9. The electromagnetic calorimeters use lead as passive material and are characterised by an accordion geometry that allows a fast and uniform az- imuthal response without any gap. Copper and tungsten were chosen as pas- sive material for the hadronic calorimetry; whereas a classic plate geometry was adopted at large polar angles, an innovative one based on cylindrical elec- trodes with thin argon gaps was designed for the coverage at low angles, where the particles flow is higher. All detectors are housed in three cryostats kept at approximately 89 K. After installation in 2004-2006, the calorimeters were extensively commissioned over the three-year period prior to first collisions in 2009, using cosmic ra...

  7. A first-level calorimeter trigger for the ATLAS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perera, V.; Edwards, J.; Gee, N.

    1995-01-01

    In the RD27 collaboration the authors have carried out system studies on the implementation of the first level calorimeter trigger processor system for the ATLAS experiment to be mounted at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. A demonstrator trigger system operated successfully with the RD3 and RD33 calorimeters at the full 40 MHz LHC bunch crossing (BC) rate. The prototype application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs) in this system each processed data from only a single trigger cell and its environment, which would lead to an extremely large system for ATLAS. Using eight-bit parallel data even the use of ASICs, processing multiple trigger cells would demand unacceptably large numbers of input pins and module connections. Initial studies of this I/O problem produced a solution based on asynchronous transmission of zero-suppressed and BC-tagged data on 160 Mbit/s serial links. This approach appeared to be feasible but would have introduced additional latency of about 20 BCs. Further studies have led to the design of a fully-synchronous calorimeter trigger processor system using commercial high-speed optical links. The links will terminate in multi-chip modules (MCMs) incorporating custom-designed integrated optics, and the trigger algorithms will be implemented in ASICs

  8. Precision Timing of the ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Davygora, Yuriy; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger is one of the main elements of the first-stage online selection of LHC collision events measured at the ATLAS experiment. Using 7168 pre-summed trigger tower signals from the Liquid Argon and Tile calorimeters as input, the hardware-based system identifies high-pT objects and determines the total and missing transverse energy sums within a fixed latency of 2.5 us. The Preprocessor system digitizes the analogue calorimeter signals at the LHC bunch-crossing frequency of 40MHz and provides bunch-crossing identification and energy measurement. Prerequisite for high stability and accuracy of this procedure is a timing synchronization at the nanosecond level of the signals which belong to the same collision event. The synchronization of the trigger tower signals was first established in the analysis of beam splash events in November 2009 and then refined and sustained with data from proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7TeV, recorded at the LHC in 2010 and 201...

  9. Studies of the LHC detection systems: scintillating fibers projective electromagnetic calorimeter prototype and light reading by avalanche photodiodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouhemaid, N.

    1995-01-01

    In this thesis a study concerning the hardware detection system of ATLAS experiment in preparation for L.H.C. is presented. The study is divided in two parts. After a general introduction of the L.H.C. and the ATLAS detector, the first part concerning the electromagnetic calorimeter, and the second part concerning the readout with avalanche photodiodes, are discussed. For both subjects the basic principles are presented before various test results are described. Within the RD1 program three different electromagnetic calorimeter prototypes, which all use the lead scintillating fibres technique, have been built. The first is a non-projective, compensating calorimeter called ''500μm'', the second is a pseudo projective, non-compensating, called ''1 mm'', and the third is fully projective, called ''Radial''. The last prototype is discussed in more detail. Avalanches photodiodes which are used as readout of the ''1 mm'' calorimeter, have been exposed to both, a dedicated test bench in the laboratory as well as to test beams. The results of these tests are also presented. (author). 35 refs., 96 figs., 30 tabs

  10. Upgrade of the ATLAS Calorimeters for Higher LHC Luminosities

    CERN Document Server

    Carbone, Ryne Michael; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The upgrade of the LHC will bring instantaneous and total luminosities which are a factor 5-7 beyond the original design of the ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) and Tile Calorimeters and their read-out systems. Due to radiation requirements and a new hardware trigger concept the read-out electronics will be improved in two phases. In Phase-I, a dedicated read-out of the LAr Calorimeters will provide higher granularity input to the trigger, in order to mitigate pile-up effects and to reduce the background rates. In Phase-II, completely new read-out electronics will allow a digital processing of all LAr and Tile Calorimeter channels at the full 40 MHz bunch-crossing frequency and a transfer of calibrated energy inputs to the trigger. Results from system design and performance of the developed read-out components, including fully functioning demonstrator systems already operated on the detector, will be reported. Furthermore, the current Forward Calorimeter (FCal) may suffer from signal degradation and argon bubble form...

  11. Performance of an electromagnetic calorimeter with lead-tungstate crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohara, R.; Sugitate, T.; Sugita, N.; Tsuchimoto, Y.; Toyoda, D.; Homma, K.; Yamazaki, H.

    2003-01-01

    The performance of an electromagnetic calorimeter with lead-tungstate (PWO) crystals was tested by using 1 GeV photons. The calorimeter consisted of nine crystals of 20 x 20 x 200 mm in size arranged in a 3 x 3 array. The energy resolution was obtained to be σ E /E = (2.50 ± 0.75%) / √E + (1.25 ± 0.34%) with a photomultiplier tube (PMT) reading all signals. Another setup, reading the central cell with an avalanche photo diode (APD) and the surrounding 8 cells with the PMT, was also studied, however, its energy resolution was not scaled with the stochastic function and we found the resolution of about 10% around 1 GeV. (author)

  12. Projective geometry for the NICA/MPD Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basylev, S.; Dabrowska, B.; Egorov, D.; Filippov, I.; Golovatyuk, V.; Krechetov, Yu.; Shutov, A.; Shutov, V.; Terletskiy, A.; Tyapkin, I.

    2018-02-01

    A Multi Purpose Detector (MPD) is being constructed for the Heavy-Ion Collider at Dubna (NICA). One of the important components of MPD setup is an Electromagnetic Calorimeter, which will operate in the magnetic field of MPD solenoid 0.5 T and provide good energy and space resolution to detect particles in the energy range from ~20 MeV to few GeV . For this purpose the, so-called, "shashlyk" sampling structure with the fiber readout to the silicon Multi Pixel Avalanche Photodetector is used. Serious modifications in comparison to conventional "shaslyk" calorimeter are proposed to improve the properties of device. These modifications are presented in the report along with the beam test results obtained with the MPD/NICA module prototypes.

  13. Readiness of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter for LHC collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, G.; Abdallah, J.; Abdelalim, A.A.; Abdesselam, A.; Abdinov, O.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Acharya, B.S.; Adams, D.L.; Addy, T.N.; Adelman, J.; Adorisio, C.; Adragna, P.; Adye, T.; Aefsky, S.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J.A.; Aharrouche, M.; Ahlen, S.P.; Ahles, F.; Ahmad, A.; Ahsan, M.; Aielli, G.; Akdogan, T.; Akesson, T.P.A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A.V.; Aktas, A.; Alam, M.S.; Alam, M.A.; Albrand, S.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I.N.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Aliyev, M.; Allport, P.P.; Allwood-Spiers, S.E.; Almond, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alon, R.; Alonso, A.; Alviggi, M.G.; Amako, K.; Amelung, C.; Amorim, A.; Amoros, G.; Amram, N.; Anastopoulos, C.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C.F.; Anderson, K.J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Anduaga, X.S.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonaki, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonelli, S.; Antos, J.; Antunovic, B.; Anulli, F.; Aoun, S.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Arce, A.T.H.; Archambault, J.P.; Arfaoui, S.; Arguin, J-F.; Argyropoulos, T.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A.J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnault, C.; Artamonov, A.; Arutinov, D.; Asai, M.; Asai, S.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Ask, S.; Asman, B.; Asner, D.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Atoian, G.; Auerbach, B.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Austin, N.; Avolio, G.; Avramidou, R.; Ay, C.; Azuelos, G.; Azuma, Y.; Baak, M.A.; Bach, A.M.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Badescu, E.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Bain, T.; Baines, J.T.; Baker, O.K.; Baker, M.D.; Baker, S; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, P.; Banerjee, S.; Banfi, D.; Bangert, A.; Bansal, V.; Baranov, S.P.; Barashkou, A.; Barber, T.; Barberio, E.L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Bardin, D.Y.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnett, B.M.; Barnett, R.M.; Baroncelli, A.; Barr, A.J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimaraes da Costa, J.; Barrillon, P.; Bartoldus, R.; Bartsch, D.; Bates, R.L.; Batkova, L.; Batley, J.R.; Battaglia, A.; Battistin, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H.S.; Bazalova, M.; Beare, B.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P.H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, G.A.; Beck, H.P.; Beckingham, M.; Becks, K.H.; Beddall, A.J.; Beddall, A.; Bednyakov, V.A.; Bee, C.; Begel, M.; Behar Harpaz, S.; Behera, P.K.; Beimforde, M.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, P.J.; Bell, W.H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellina, F.; Bellomo, M.; Belloni, A.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Ben Ami, S.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bendel, M.; Benedict, B.H.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benjamin, D.P.; Benoit, M.; Bensinger, J.R.; Benslama, K.; Bentvelsen, S.; Beretta, M.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Berglund, E.; Beringer, J.; Bernat, P.; Bernhard, R.; Bernius, C.; Berry, T.; Bertin, A.; Besana, M.I.; Besson, N.; Bethke, S.; Bianchi, R.M.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Biesiada, J.; Biglietti, M.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biscarat, C.; Bitenc, U.; Black, K.M.; Blair, R.E.; Blanchard, J-B; Blanchot, G.; Blocker, C.; Blondel, A.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G.J.; Bocci, A.; Boehler, M.; Boek, J.; Boelaert, N.; Boser, S.; Bogaerts, J.A.; Bogouch, A.; Bohm, C.; Bohm, J.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Bondarenko, V.G.; Bondioli, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Bordoni, S.; Borer, C.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borjanovic, I.; Borroni, S.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Boterenbrood, H.; Bouchami, J.; Boudreau, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E.V.; Boulahouache, C.; Bourdarios, C.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I.R.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Braem, A.; Branchini, P.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J.E.; Braun, H.M.; Brelier, B.; Bremer, J.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Britton, D.; Brochu, F.M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Brodet, E.; Bromberg, C.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, W.K.; Brown, G.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P.A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Brunet, S.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Bucci, F.; Buchanan, J.; Buchholz, P.; Buckley, A.G.; Budagov, I.A.; Budick, B.; Buscher, V.; Bugge, L.; Bulekov, O.; Bunse, M.; Buran, T.; Burckhart, H.; Burdin, S.; Burgess, T.; Burke, S.; Busato, E.; Bussey, P.; Buszello, C.P.; Butin, F.; Butler, B.; Butler, J.M.; Buttar, C.M.; Butterworth, J.M.; Byatt, T.; Caballero, J.; Cabrera Urban, S.; Caforio, D.; Cakir, O.; Calafiura, P.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Calkins, R.; Caloba, L.P.; Calvet, D.; Camarri, P.; Cameron, D.; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Canale, V.; Canelli, F.; Canepa, A.; Cantero, J.; Capasso, L.; Capeans Garrido, M.D.M.; Caprini, I.; Caprini, M.; Capua, M.; Caputo, R.; Caramarcu, C.; Cardarelli, R.; Carli, T.; Carlino, G.; Carminati, L.; Caron, B.; Caron, S.; Carrillo Montoya, G.D.; Carron Montero, S.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Carvalho, J.; Casadei, D.; Casado, M.P.; Cascella, M.; Castaneda Hernandez, A.M.; Castaneda-Miranda, E.; Castillo Gimenez, V.; Castro, N.F.; Cataldi, G.; Catinaccio, A.; Catmore, J.R.; Cattai, A.; Cattani, G.; Caughron, S.; Cavalleri, P.; Cavalli, D.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cavasinni, V.; Ceradini, F.; Cerqueira, A.S.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Cerutti, F.; Cetin, S.A.; Chafaq, A.; Chakraborty, D.; Chan, K.; Chapman, J.D.; Chapman, J.W.; Chareyre, E.; Charlton, D.G.; Chavda, V.; Cheatham, S.; Chekanov, S.; Chekulaev, S.V.; Chelkov, G.A.; Chen, H.; Chen, S.; Chen, X.; Cheplakov, A.; Chepurnov, V.F.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; Tcherniatine, V.; Chesneanu, D.; Cheu, E.; Cheung, S.L.; Chevalier, L.; Chevallier, F.; Chiefari, G.; Chikovani, L.; Childers, J.T.; Chilingarov, A.; Chiodini, G.; Chizhov, V.; Choudalakis, G.; Chouridou, S.; Christidi, I.A.; Christov, A.; Chromek-Burckhart, D.; Chu, M.L.; Chudoba, J.; Ciapetti, G.; Ciftci, A.K.; Ciftci, R.; Cinca, D.; Cindro, V.; Ciobotaru, M.D.; Ciocca, C.; Ciocio, A.; Cirilli, M.; Clark, A.; Clark, P.J.; Cleland, W.; Clemens, J.C.; Clement, B.; Clement, C.; Coadou, Y.; Cobal, M.; Coccaro, A.; Cochran, J.; Coggeshall, J.; Cogneras, E.; Colijn, A.P.; Collard, C.; Collins, N.J.; Collins-Tooth, C.; Collot, J.; Colon, G.; Conde Muino, P.; Coniavitis, E.; Conidi, M.C.; Consonni, M.; Constantinescu, S.; Conta, C.; Conventi, F.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, B.D.; Cooper-Sarkar, A.M.; Cooper-Smith, N.J.; Copic, K.; Cornelissen, T.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Corso-Radu, A.; Cortes-Gonzalez, A.; Cortiana, G.; Costa, G.; Costa, M.J.; Costanzo, D.; Costin, T.; Cote, D.; Coura Torres, R.; Courneyea, L.; Cowan, G.; Cowden, C.; Cox, B.E.; Cranmer, K.; Cranshaw, J.; Cristinziani, M.; Crosetti, G.; Crupi, R.; Crepe-Renaudin, S.; Cuenca Almenar, C.; Cuhadar Donszelmann, T.; Curatolo, M.; Curtis, C.J.; Cwetanski, P.; Czyczula, Z.; D'Auria, S.; D'Onofrio, M.; D'Orazio, A.; Da Via, C; Dabrowski, W.; Dai, T.; Dallapiccola, C.; Dallison, S.J.; Daly, C.H.; Dam, M.; Danielsson, H.O.; Dannheim, D.; Dao, V.; Darbo, G.; Darlea, G.L.; Davey, W.; Davidek, T.; Davidson, N.; Davidson, R.; Davies, M.; Davison, A.R.; Dawson, I.; Daya, R.K.; De, K.; de Asmundis, R.; De Castro, S.; De Castro Faria Salgado, P.E.; De Cecco, S.; de Graat, J.; De Groot, N.; de Jong, P.; De Mora, L.; De Oliveira Branco, M.; De Pedis, D.; De Salvo, A.; De Sanctis, U.; De Santo, A.; De Vivie De Regie, J.B.; Dean, S.; Dedovich, D.V.; Degenhardt, J.; Dehchar, M.; Del Papa, C.; Del Peso, J.; Del Prete, T.; Dell'Acqua, A.; Dell'Asta, L.; Della Pietra, M.; della Volpe, D.; Delmastro, M.; Delsart, P.A.; Deluca, C.; Demers, S.; Demichev, M.; Demirkoz, B.; Deng, J.; Deng, W.; Denisov, S.P.; Derkaoui, J.E.; Derue, F.; Dervan, P.; Desch, K.; Deviveiros, P.O.; Dewhurst, A.; DeWilde, B.; Dhaliwal, S.; Dhullipudi, R.; Di Ciaccio, A.; Di Ciaccio, L.; Di Girolamo, A.; Di Girolamo, B.; Di Luise, S.; Di Mattia, A.; Di Nardo, R.; Di Simone, A.; Di Sipio, R.; Diaz, M.A.; Diblen, F.; Diehl, E.B.; Dietrich, J.; Dietzsch, T.A.; Diglio, S.; Dindar Yagci, K.; Dingfelder, J.; Dionisi, C.; Dita, P.; Dita, S.; Dittus, F.; Djama, F.; Djilkibaev, R.; Djobava, T.; do Vale, M.A.B.; Do Valle Wemans, A.; Doan, T.K.O.; Dobos, D.; Dobson, E.; Dobson, M.; Doglioni, C.; Doherty, T.; Dolejsi, J.; Dolenc, I.; Dolezal, Z.; Dolgoshein, B.A.; Dohmae, T.; Donega, M.; Donini, J.; Dopke, J.; Doria, A.; Dos Anjos, A.; Dotti, A.; Dova, M.T.; Doxiadis, A.; Doyle, A.T.; Drasal, Z.; Dris, M.; Dubbert, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Dudarev, A.; Dudziak, F.; Duhrssen, M.; Duflot, L.; Dufour, M-A.; Dunford, M.; Duran Yildiz, H.; Duxfield, R.; Dwuznik, M.; Duren, M.; Ebenstein, W.L.; Ebke, J.; Eckweiler, S.; Edmonds, K.; Edwards, C.A.; Egorov, K.; Ehrenfeld, W.; Ehrich, T.; Eifert, T.; Eigen, G.; Einsweiler, K.; Eisenhandler, E.; Ekelof, T.; El Kacimi, M.; Ellert, M.; Elles, S.; Ellinghaus, F.; Ellis, K.; Ellis, N.; Elmsheuser, J.; Elsing, M.; Emeliyanov, D.; Engelmann, R.; Engl, A.; Epp, B.; Eppig, A.; Erdmann, J.; Ereditato, A.; Eriksson, D.; Ermoline, I.; Ernst, J.; Ernst, M.; Ernwein, J.; Errede, D.; Errede, S.; Ertel, E.; Escalier, M.; Escobar, C.; Espinal Curull, X.; Esposito, B.; Etienvre, A.I.; Etzion, E.; Evans, H.; Fabbri, L.; Fabre, C.; Facius, K.; Fakhrutdinov, R.M.; Falciano, S.; Fang, Y.; Fanti, M.; Farbin, A.; Farilla, A.; Farley, J.; Farooque, T.; Farrington, S.M.; Farthouat, P.; Fassnacht, P.; Fassouliotis, D.; Fatholahzadeh, B.; Fayard, L.; Fayette, F.; Febbraro, R.; Federic, P.; Fedin, O.L.; Fedorko, W.; Feligioni, L.; Felzmann, C.U.; Feng, C.; Feng, E.J.; Fenyuk, A.B.; Ferencei, J.; Ferland, J.; Fernandes, B.; Fernando, W.; Ferrag, S.; Ferrando, J.; Ferrara, V.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrari, P.; Ferrari, R.; Ferrer, A.; Ferrer, M.L.; Ferrere, D.; Ferretti, C.; Fiascaris, M.; Fiedler, F.; Filipcic, A.; Filippas, A.; Filthaut, F.; Fincke-Keeler, M.; Fiolhais, M.C.N.; Fiorini, L.; Firan, A.; Fischer, G.; Fisher, M.J.; Flechl, M.; Fleck, I.; Fleckner, J.; Fleischmann, P.; Fleischmann, S.; Flick, T.; Flores Castillo, L.R.; Flowerdew, M.J.; Fonseca Martin, T.; Fopma, J.; Formica, A.; Forti, A.; Fortin, D.; Fournier, D.; Fowler, A.J.; Fowler, K.; Fox, H.; Francavilla, P.; Franchino, S.; Francis, D.; Franklin, M.; Franz, S.; Fraternali, M.; Fratina, S.; Freestone, J.; 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Persembe, S.; Perus, P.; Peshekhonov, V.D.; Petersen, B.A.; Petersen, T.C.; Petit, E.; Petridou, C.; Petrolo, E.; Petrucci, F.; Petschull, D; Petteni, M.; Pezoa, R.; Phan, A.; Phillips, A.W.; Piacquadio, G.; Piccinini, M.; Piegaia, R.; Pilcher, J.E.; Pilkington, A.D.; Pina, J.; Pinamonti, M.; Pinfold, J.L.; Pinto, B.; Pizio, C.; Placakyte, R.; Plamondon, M.; Pleier, M.A.; Poblaguev, A.; Poddar, S.; Podlyski, F.; Poggioli, L.; Pohl, M.; Polci, F.; Polesello, G.; Policicchio, A.; Polini, A.; Poll, J.; Polychronakos, V.; Pomeroy, D.; Pommes, K.; Ponsot, P.; Pontecorvo, L.; Pope, B.G.; Popeneciu, G.A.; Popovic, D.S.; Poppleton, A.; Popule, J.; Portell Bueso, X.; Porter, R.; Pospelov, G.E.; Pospisil, S.; Potekhin, M.; Potrap, I.N.; Potter, C.J.; Potter, C.T.; Potter, K.P.; Poulard, G.; Poveda, J.; Prabhu, R.; Pralavorio, P.; Prasad, S.; Pravahan, R.; Pribyl, L.; Price, D.; Price, L.E.; Prichard, P.M.; Prieur, D.; Primavera, M.; Prokofiev, K.; Prokoshin, F.; Protopopescu, S.; Proudfoot, J.; Prudent, X.; Przysiezniak, H.; Psoroulas, S.; Ptacek, E.; Purdham, J.; Purohit, M.; Puzo, P.; Pylypchenko, Y.; Qi, M.; Qian, J.; Qian, W.; Qin, Z.; Quadt, A.; Quarrie, D.R.; Quayle, W.B.; Quinonez, F.; Raas, M.; Radeka, V.; Radescu, V.; Radics, B.; Rador, T.; Ragusa, F.; Rahal, G.; Rahimi, A.M.; Rajagopalan, S.; Rammensee, M.; Rammes, M.; Rauscher, F.; Rauter, E.; Raymond, M.; Read, A.L.; Rebuzzi, D.M.; Redelbach, A.; Redlinger, G.; Reece, R.; Reeves, K.; Reinherz-Aronis, E.; Reinsch, A; Reisinger, I.; Reljic, D.; Rembser, C.; Ren, Z.L.; Renkel, P.; Rescia, S.; Rescigno, M.; Resconi, S.; Resende, B.; Reznicek, P.; Rezvani, R.; Ribeiro, N.; Richards, A.; Richter, R.; Richter-Was, E.; Ridel, M.; Rijpstra, M.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Rimoldi, A.; Rinaldi, L.; Rios, R.R.; Riu, I.; Rizatdinova, F.; Rizvi, E.; Roa Romero, D.A.; Robertson, S.H.; Robichaud-Veronneau, A.; Robinson, D.; Robinson, JEM; Robinson, M.; Robson, A.; Rocha de Lima, J.G.; Roda, C.; Roda Dos Santos, D.; Rodriguez, D.; Rodriguez Garcia, Y.; Roe, S.; Rohne, O.; Rojo, V.; Rolli, S.; Romaniouk, A.; Romanov, V.M.; Romeo, G.; Romero Maltrana, D.; Roos, L.; Ros, E.; Rosati, S.; Rosenbaum, G.A.; Rosselet, L.; Rossetti, V.; Rossi, L.P.; Rotaru, M.; Rothberg, J.; Rousseau, D.; Royon, C.R.; Rozanov, A.; Rozen, Y.; Ruan, X.; Ruckert, B.; Ruckstuhl, N.; Rud, V.I.; Rudolph, G.; Ruhr, F.; Ruggieri, F.; Ruiz-Martinez, A.; Rumyantsev, L.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakovich, N.A.; Rutherfoord, J.P.; Ruwiedel, C.; Ruzicka, P.; Ryabov, Y.F.; Ryan, P.; Rybkin, G.; Rzaeva, S.; Saavedra, A.F.; Sadrozinski, H.F-W.; Sadykov, R.; Safai Tehrani, F.; Sakamoto, H.; Salamanna, G.; Salamon, A.; Saleem, M.S.; Salihagic, D.; Salnikov, A.; Salt, J.; Salvachua Ferrando, B.M.; Salvatore, D.; Salvatore, F.; Salvucci, A.; Salzburger, A.; Sampsonidis, D.; Samset, B.H.; Sandaker, H.; Sander, H.G.; Sanders, M.P.; Sandhoff, M.; Sandhu, P.; Sandstroem, R.; Sandvoss, S.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Sanny, B.; Sansoni, A.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santoni, C.; Santonico, R.; Saraiva, J.G.; Sarangi, T.; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E.; Sarri, F.; Sasaki, O.; Sasao, N.; Satsounkevitch, I.; Sauvage, G.; Savard, P.; Savine, A.Y.; Savinov, V.; Sawyer, L.; Saxon, D.H.; Says, L.P.; Sbarra, C.; Sbrizzi, A.; Scannicchio, D.A.; Schaarschmidt, J.; Schacht, P.; Schafer, U.; Schaetzel, S.; Schaffer, A.C.; Schaile, D.; Schamberger, R.D.; Schamov, A.G.; Scharf, V.; Schegelsky, V.A.; Scheirich, D.; Schernau, M.; Scherzer, M.I.; Schiavi, C.; Schieck, J.; Schioppa, M.; Schlenker, S.; Schmidt, E.; Schmieden, K.; Schmitt, C.; Schmitz, M.; Schonig, A.; Schott, M.; Schouten, D.; Schovancova, J.; Schram, M.; Schreiner, A.; Schroeder, C.; Schroer, N.; Schroers, M.; Schultes, J.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Schumacher, J.W.; Schumacher, M.; Schumm, B.A.; Schune, Ph.; Schwanenberger, C.; Schwartzman, A.; Schwemling, Ph.; Schwienhorst, R.; Schwierz, R.; Schwindling, J.; Scott, W.G.; Searcy, J.; Sedykh, E.; Segura, E.; Seidel, S.C.; Seiden, A.; Seifert, F.; Seixas, J.M.; Sekhniaidze, G.; Seliverstov, D.M.; Sellden, B.; Semprini-Cesari, N.; Serfon, C.; Serin, L.; Seuster, R.; Severini, H.; Sevior, M.E.; Sfyrla, A.; Shabalina, E.; Shamim, M.; Shan, L.Y.; Shank, J.T.; Shao, Q.T.; Shapiro, M.; Shatalov, P.B.; Shaw, K.; Sherman, D.; Sherwood, P.; Shibata, A.; Shimojima, M.; Shin, T.; Shmeleva, A.; Shochet, M.J.; Shupe, M.A.; Sicho, P.; Sidoti, A.; Siegert, F; Siegrist, J.; Sijacki, Dj.; Silbert, O.; Silva, J.; Silver, Y.; Silverstein, D.; Silverstein, S.B.; Simak, V.; Simic, Lj.; Simion, S.; Simmons, B.; Simonyan, M.; Sinervo, P.; Sinev, N.B.; Sipica, V.; Siragusa, G.; Sisakyan, A.N.; Sivoklokov, S.Yu.; Sjoelin, J.; Sjursen, T.B.; Skovpen, K.; Skubic, P.; Slater, M.; Slavicek, T.; Sliwa, K.; Sloper, J.; Smakhtin, V.; Smirnov, S.Yu.; Smirnov, Y.; Smirnova, L.N.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, B.C.; Smith, D.; Smith, K.M.; Smizanska, M.; Smolek, K.; Snesarev, A.A.; Snow, S.W.; Snow, J.; Snuverink, J.; Snyder, S.; Soares, M.; Sobie, R.; Sodomka, J.; Soffer, A.; Solans, C.A.; Solar, M.; Solc, J.; Solfaroli Camillocci, E.; Solodkov, A.A.; Solovyanov, O.V.; Sondericker, J.; Sopko, V.; Sopko, B.; Sosebee, M.; Soukharev, A.; Spagnolo, S.; Spano, F.; Spighi, R.; Spigo, G.; Spila, F.; Spiwoks, R.; Spousta, M.; Spreitzer, T.; Spurlock, B.; St. Denis, R.D.; Stahl, T.; Stahlman, J.; Stamen, R.; Stancu, S.N.; Stanecka, E.; Stanek, R.W.; Stanescu, C.; Stapnes, S.; Starchenko, E.A.; Stark, J.; Staroba, P.; Starovoitov, P.; Stastny, J.; Stavina, P.; Steele, G.; Steinbach, P.; Steinberg, P.; Stekl, I.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer, H.J.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stenzel, H.; Stevenson, K.; Stewart, G.A.; Stockton, M.C.; Stoerig, K.; Stoicea, G.; Stonjek, S.; Strachota, P.; Stradling, A.R.; Straessner, A.; Strandberg, J.; Strandberg, S.; Strandlie, A.; Strauss, M.; Strizenec, P.; Strohmer, R.; Strom, D.M.; Stroynowski, R.; Strube, J.; Stugu, B.; Sturm, P.; Soh, D.A.; Su, D.; Sugaya, Y.; Sugimoto, T.; Suhr, C.; Suk, M.; Sulin, V.V.; Sultansoy, S.; Sumida, T.; Sun, X.H.; Sundermann, J.E.; Suruliz, K.; Sushkov, S.; Susinno, G.; Sutton, M.R.; Suzuki, T.; Suzuki, Y.; Sykora, I.; Sykora, T.; Szymocha, T.; Sanchez, J.; Ta, D.; Tackmann, K.; Taffard, A.; Tafirout, R.; Taga, A.; Takahashi, Y.; Takai, H.; Takashima, R.; Takeda, H.; Takeshita, T.; Talby, M.; Talyshev, A.; Tamsett, M.C.; Tanaka, J.; Tanaka, R.; Tanaka, S.; Tanaka, S.; Tapprogge, S.; Tardif, D.; Tarem, S.; Tarrade, F.; Tartarelli, G.F.; Tas, P.; Tasevsky, M.; Tassi, E.; Tatarkhanov, M.; Taylor, C.; Taylor, F.E.; Taylor, G.N.; Taylor, R.P.; Taylor, W.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Ten Kate, H.; Teng, P.K.; Tennenbaum-Katan, Y.D.; Terada, S.; Terashi, K.; Terron, J.; Terwort, M.; Testa, M.; Teuscher, R.J.; Therhaag, J.; Thioye, M.; Thoma, S.; Thomas, J.P.; Thompson, E.N.; Thompson, P.D.; Thompson, P.D.; Thompson, R.J.; Thompson, A.S.; Thomson, E.; Thun, R.P.; Tic, T.; Tikhomirov, V.O.; Tikhonov, Y.A.; Tipton, P.; Tique Aires Viegas, F.J.; Tisserant, S.; Toczek, B.; Todorov, T.; Todorova-Nova, S.; Toggerson, B.; Tojo, J.; Tokar, S.; Tokushuku, K.; Tollefson, K.; Tomasek, L.; Tomasek, M.; Tomoto, M.; Tompkins, L.; Toms, K.; Tonoyan, A.; Topfel, C.; Topilin, N.D.; Torchiani, I.; Torrence, E.; Torro Pastor, E.; Toth, J.; Touchard, F.; Tovey, D.R.; Trefzger, T.; Tremblet, L.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I.M.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Trinh, T.N.; Tripiana, M.F.; Triplett, N.; Trischuk, W.; Trivedi, A.; Trocme, B.; Troncon, C.; Trzupek, A.; Tsarouchas, C.; Tseng, J.C-L.; Tsiakiris, M.; Tsiareshka, P.V.; Tsionou, D.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Tskhadadze, E.G.; Tsukerman, I.I.; Tsulaia, V.; Tsung, J.W.; Tsuno, S.; Tsybychev, D.; Tuggle, J.M.; Tunnell, C.D.; Turecek, D.; Turk Cakir, I.; Turlay, E.; Tuts, P.M.; Twomey, M.S.; Tylmad, M.; Tyndel, M.; Uchida, K.; Ueda, I.; Ueno, R.; Ugland, M.; Uhlenbrock, M.; Uhrmacher, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Unno, Y.; Urbaniec, D.; Urkovsky, E.; Urquijo, P.; Urrejola, P.; Usai, G.; Uslenghi, M.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Vahsen, S.; Valente, P.; Valentinetti, S.; Valero, A.; Valkar, S.; Valladolid Gallego, E.; Vallecorsa, S.; Valls Ferrer, J.A.; Van Berg, R.; van der Graaf, H.; van der Kraaij, E.; van der Poel, E.; van der Ster, D.; van Eldik, N.; van Gemmeren, P.; van Kesteren, Z.; van Vulpen, I.; Vandelli, W.; Vaniachine, A.; Vankov, P.; Vannucci, F.; Vari, R.; Varnes, E.W.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K.E.; Vasilyeva, L.; Vassilakopoulos, V.I.; Vazeille, F.; Vellidis, C.; Veloso, F.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Ventura, D.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J.C.; Vetterli, M.C.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Viehhauser, G.H.A.; Villa, M.; Villani, E.G.; Villaplana Perez, M.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M.G.; Vinek, E.; Vinogradov, V.B.; Viret, S.; Virzi, J.; Vitale, A.; Vitells, O.; Vivarelli, I.; Vives Vaque, F.; Vlachos, S.; Vlasak, M.; Vlasov, N.; Vogel, A.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, M.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Loeben, J.; von Radziewski, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vorwerk, V.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Voss, T.T.; Vossebeld, J.H.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M.; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vu Anh, T.; Vudragovic, D.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Wagner, P.; Walbersloh, J.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wall, R.; Wang, C.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, S.M.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C.P.; Warsinsky, M.; Wastie, R.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, M.F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, A.T.; Waugh, B.M.; Weber, M.D.; Weber, M.; Weber, M.S.; Weber, P.; Weidberg, A.R.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Wellenstein, H.; Wells, P.S.; Wenaus, T.; Wendler, S.; Weng, Z.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, P.; Werth, M.; Werthenbach, U.; Wessels, M.; Whalen, K.; White, A.; White, M.J.; White, S.; Whitehead, S.R.; Whiteson, D.; Whittington, D.; Wicek, F.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, F.J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik, L.A.M.; Wildauer, A.; Wildt, M.A.; Wilkens, H.G.; Williams, E.; Williams, H.H.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, J.A.; Wilson, M.G.; Wilson, A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winklmeier, F.; Wittgen, M.; Wolter, M.W.; Wolters, H.; Wosiek, B.K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M.J.; Wraight, K.; Wright, C.; Wright, D.; Wrona, B.; Wu, S.L.; Wu, X.; Wulf, E.; Wynne, B.M.; Xaplanteris, L.; Xella, S.; Xie, S.; Xu, D.; Xu, N.; Yamada, M.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamamura, T.; Yamaoka, J.; Yamazaki, T.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, U.K.; Yang, Z.; Yao, W-M.; Yao, Y.; Yasu, Y.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yilmaz, M.; Yoosoofmiya, R.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Young, C.; Youssef, S.P.; Yu, D.; Yu, J.; Yuan, L.; Yurkewicz, A.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A.M.; Zajacova, Z.; Zambrano, V.; Zanello, L.; Zaytsev, A.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeller, M.; Zemla, A.; Zendler, C.; Zenin, O.; Zenis, T.; Zenonos, Z.; Zenz, S.; Zerwas, D.; Zevi della Porta, G.; Zhan, Z.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, Q.; Zhang, X.; Zhao, L.; Zhao, T.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, N.; Zhou, Y.; Zhu, C.G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhuravlov, V.; Zimmermann, R.; Zimmermann, S.; Zimmermann, S.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zivkovic, L.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; zur Nedden, M.; Zutshi, V.

    2010-01-01

    The Tile hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS detector has undergone extensive testing in the experimental hall since its installation in late 2005. The readout, control and calibration systems have been fully operational since 2007 and the detector successfully collected data from the LHC single beams in 2008 and first collisions in 2009. This paper gives an overview of the Tile Calorimeter performance as measured using random triggers, calibration data, data from cosmic ray muons and single beam data. The detector operation status, noise characteristics and performance of the calibration systems are presented, as well as the validation of the timing and energy calibration carried out with minimum ionising cosmic ray muons data. The calibration systems' precision is well below the design of 1%. The determination of the global energy scale was performed with an uncertainty of 4%.

  14. PHASE-II PLANS FOR ATLAS LIQUID ARGON CALORIMETER UPGRADES.

    CERN Document Server

    Orr, RS; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS detector was designed and built to study proton-proton collisions produced at the LHC at centre-of-mass energies up to 14 TeV and instantaneous luminosities up to 1034cm-2s-1. Although the nominal LHC experimental programme is still in progress, plans are already being developed for operation of the LHC and associated detectors at luminosities of up to 5x1034cm-2s-1, with the goal of accumulating an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb-1. This program is known as the high-luminosity LHC, or HLLHC. The proposed instantaneous and integrated luminosities are both well beyond the values for which the detectors were designed, and it is anticipated that several problems will arise. In this article we discuss problems and proposed solutions, concentrating on the forward calorimeter technologies proposed, and possible changes in the electronics for the hadronic endcap calorimeters

  15. Beam Tests on the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Demonstrator Module

    CERN Document Server

    Valdes Santurio, Eduardo; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) Phase II upgrade aims to increase the accelerator luminosity by a factor of 5-10. Due to the expected higher radiation levels and the aging of the current electronics, a new readout system of the ATLAS experiment hadronic calorimeter (TileCal) is needed. A prototype of the electronics – the Demonstrator - has been tested exposing a module of the calorimeter to particles at the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) accelerator of CERN. Data were collected with beams of muons, electrons and hadrons and muons, at various incident energies and impact angles. The measurements aim to check the calibration and to determine the performance the detector exploiting the features of the interactions of the muons, electrons and hadrons with matter. The results of the ongoing data analysis are discussed in the presentation.

  16. Readout Electronics Upgrades of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Anelli, Christopher Ryan; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The high-luminosity LHC will provide 5-7 times higher luminosites than the orignal design. An improved readout system of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter is needed to readout the 182,500 calorimeter cells at 40 MHz with 16 bit dynamic range in these conditions. Low-noise, low-power, radiation-tolerant and high-bandwidth electronics components are being developed in 65 and 130 nm CMOS technologies. First prototypes of the front-end electronics components show good promise to match the stringent specifications. The off-detector electronics will make use of FPGAs connected through high-speed links to perform energy reconstruction, data reduction and buffering. Results of tests of the first prototypes of front-end components will be presented, along with design studies on the performance of the off-detector readout system.

  17. gFEX, the ATLAS Calorimeter Global Feature Extractor

    CERN Document Server

    Takai, Helio; The ATLAS collaboration; Chen, Hucheng

    2015-01-01

    The global feature extractor (gFEX) is a component of the Level-1 Calorimeter trigger Phase-I upgrade for the ATLAS experiment. It is intended to identify patterns of energy associated with the hadronic decays of high momentum Higgs, W, & Z bosons, top quarks, and exotic particles in real time at the LHC crossing rate. The single processor board will be implemented as a fast reconfigurable processor based on four large FPGAs. The board will receive coarse-granularity information from all the ATLAS calorimeters on 264 optical fibers with the data transferred at the 40 MHz LHC clock frequency. The gFEX will be controlled by a single system-on-chip processor, ZYNQ, that will be used to configure FPGAs, monitor board health, and interface to external signals. Although the board is being designed specifically for the ATLAS experiment, it is sufficiently generic that it could be used for fast data processing at other HEP or NP experiments. We will present the design of the gFEX board and discuss how it is being...

  18. ATLAS tile calorimeter cesium calibration control and analysis software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solovyanov, O; Solodkov, A; Starchenko, E; Karyukhin, A; Isaev, A; Shalanda, N

    2008-01-01

    An online control system to calibrate and monitor ATLAS Barrel hadronic calorimeter (TileCal) with a movable radioactive source, driven by liquid flow, is described. To read out and control the system an online software has been developed, using ATLAS TDAQ components like DVS (Diagnostic and Verification System) to verify the hardware before running, IS (Information Server) for data and status exchange between networked computers, and other components like DDC (DCS to DAQ Connection), to connect to PVSS-based slow control systems of Tile Calorimeter, high voltage and low voltage. A system of scripting facilities, based on Python language, is used to handle all the calibration and monitoring processes from hardware perspective to final data storage, including various abnormal situations. A QT based graphical user interface to display the status of the calibration system during the cesium source scan is described. The software for analysis of the detector response, using online data, is discussed. Performance of the system and first experience from the ATLAS pit are presented

  19. SIGNAL RECONSTRUCTION PERFORMANCE OF THE ATLAS HADRONIC TILE CALORIMETER

    CERN Document Server

    Do Amaral Coutinho, Y; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    "The Tile Calorimeter for the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is a sampling calorimeter with steel as absorber and scintillators as active medium. The scintillators are readout by wavelength shifting fibers coupled to photomultiplier tubes (PMT). The analogue signals from the PMTs are amplified, shaped and digitized by sampling the signal every 25 ns. The TileCal front-end electronics allows to read out the signals produced by about 10000 channels measuring energies ranging from ~30 MeV to ~2 TeV. The read-out system is responsible for reconstructing the data in real-time fulfilling the tight time constraint imposed by the ATLAS first level trigger rate (100 kHz). The main component of the read-out system is the Digital Signal Processor (DSP) which, using an Optimal Filtering reconstruction algorithm, allows to compute for each channel the signal amplitude, time and quality factor at the required high rate. Currently the ATLAS detector and the LHC are undergoing an upgrade program tha...

  20. ATLAS tile calorimeter cesium calibration control and analysis software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solovyanov, O; Solodkov, A; Starchenko, E; Karyukhin, A; Isaev, A; Shalanda, N [Institute for High Energy Physics, Protvino 142281 (Russian Federation)], E-mail: Oleg.Solovyanov@ihep.ru

    2008-07-01

    An online control system to calibrate and monitor ATLAS Barrel hadronic calorimeter (TileCal) with a movable radioactive source, driven by liquid flow, is described. To read out and control the system an online software has been developed, using ATLAS TDAQ components like DVS (Diagnostic and Verification System) to verify the hardware before running, IS (Information Server) for data and status exchange between networked computers, and other components like DDC (DCS to DAQ Connection), to connect to PVSS-based slow control systems of Tile Calorimeter, high voltage and low voltage. A system of scripting facilities, based on Python language, is used to handle all the calibration and monitoring processes from hardware perspective to final data storage, including various abnormal situations. A QT based graphical user interface to display the status of the calibration system during the cesium source scan is described. The software for analysis of the detector response, using online data, is discussed. Performance of the system and first experience from the ATLAS pit are presented.

  1. The electromagnetic calorimeter for the solenoidal tracker at RHIC. A Conceptual Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beddo, M.E.; Bielick, E.; Dawson, J.W. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)] [and others; The STAR EMC Collaboration

    1993-09-22

    This report discusses the following on the electromagnetic calorimeter for the solenoidal tracker at RHIC: conceptual design; the physics of electromagnetic calorimetry in STAR; trigger capability; integration into STAR; and cost, schedule, manpower, and funding.

  2. Photon reconstruction in the ATLAS Inner Detector and Liquid Argon Barrel Calorimeter at the 2004 Combined Test Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abat, E; Arik, E [Bogazici University, Faculty of Sciences, Department of Physics, TR-80815 Bebek-Istanbul (Turkey); Abdallah, J M [Institut de Fisica d' Altes Energies, IFAE, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Edifici Cn, ES-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Addy, T N [Hampton University, Department of Physics, Hampton, VA 23668 (United States); Adragna, P [Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, E1 4NS, London (United Kingdom); Aharrouche, M [Universitaet Mainz, Institut fuer Physik, Staudinger Weg 7, DE-55099 (Germany); Ahmad, A [Insitute of Physics, Academia Sinica, TW-Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Akesson, T P A [Lunds universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysiska institutionen, Box 118, SE-221 00, Lund (Sweden); Aleksa, M; Anghinolfi, F; Baron, S [European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN), CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Alexa, C [National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering (Bucharest -IFIN-HH), P.O. Box MG-6, R-077125 Bucharest (Romania); Anderson, K [University of Chicago, Enrico Fermi Institute, 5640 S. Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Andreazza, A; Banfi, D [INFN Sezione di Milano, via Celoria 16, IT-20133 Milano (Italy); Antonaki, A; Arabidze, G [University of Athens, Nuclear and Particle Physics Department of Physics, Panepistimiopouli Zografou, GR 15771 Athens (Greece); Atkinson, T [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, AU-Parkvill, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Baines, J [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Science and Technology Facilities Council, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Baker, O K, E-mail: stathes.paganis@cern.ch [Yale University, Department of Physics, PO Box 208121, New Haven, CT06520-8121 (United States)

    2011-04-01

    The reconstruction of photons in the ATLAS detector is studied with data taken during the 2004 Combined Test Beam, where a full slice of the ATLAS detector was exposed to beams of particles of known energy at the CERN SPS. The results presented show significant differences in the longitudinal development of the electromagnetic shower between converted and unconverted photons as well as in the total measured energy. The potential to use the reconstructed converted photons as a means to precisely map the material of the tracker in front of the electromagnetic calorimeter is also considered. All results obtained are compared with a detailed Monte-Carlo simulation of the test-beam setup which is based on the same simulation and reconstruction tools as those used for the ATLAS detector itself.

  3. Photon reconstruction in the ATLAS Inner Detector and Liquid Argon Barrel Calorimeter at the 2004 Combined Test Beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abat, E; Arik, E; Abdallah, J M; Addy, T N; Adragna, P; Aharrouche, M; Ahmad, A; Akesson, T P A; Aleksa, M; Anghinolfi, F; Baron, S; Alexa, C; Anderson, K; Andreazza, A; Banfi, D; Antonaki, A; Arabidze, G; Atkinson, T; Baines, J; Baker, O K

    2011-01-01

    The reconstruction of photons in the ATLAS detector is studied with data taken during the 2004 Combined Test Beam, where a full slice of the ATLAS detector was exposed to beams of particles of known energy at the CERN SPS. The results presented show significant differences in the longitudinal development of the electromagnetic shower between converted and unconverted photons as well as in the total measured energy. The potential to use the reconstructed converted photons as a means to precisely map the material of the tracker in front of the electromagnetic calorimeter is also considered. All results obtained are compared with a detailed Monte-Carlo simulation of the test-beam setup which is based on the same simulation and reconstruction tools as those used for the ATLAS detector itself.

  4. Electronic calibration developed for the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Baek, Y W; David, P Y; Ditta, J; Hermel, V; Fouque, N; Mendiburu, J P; Nédélec, P; Peigneux, J P; Poireau, V; Rebecchi, P; Silou, D

    2004-01-01

    An electronic system, designed to provide a relative calibration for the readout of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter (CMS-ECAL), is described. On request, this system injects a pulse at the input of a predetermined group of preamplifiers with preselected amplitude and a shape identical to the one produced by the photodetectors. Several chips, in DMILL 0.8 mu m technology, have been developed for integration on the front-end electronics. We describe the principle, the testing, the measurement of their precision, and radiation hardness. (6 refs).

  5. ATLAS Tile Calorimeter performance for the phase II upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Sellapillay, Kevissen

    2017-01-01

    The first part of the internship is focused on trying to assess the performance of the upgraded geometry of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter. To do this, we use Monte Carlo generated samples for the upgraded geometry and from the current geometry, then we derive the pT response and resolution. The second part of the study is an analysis of the sensitivity of the two different geometries to a new heavy boson that would decay into a top quark pair $Z^{\\prime} \\rightarrow t\\bar{t}$.

  6. Investigations of Calorimeter Clustering in ATLAS using Machine Learning

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2153685

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN is designed to search for new physics by colliding protons with a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. The ATLAS detector is a multipurpose particle detector built to record these proton-proton collisions. In order to improve sensitivity to new physics at the LHC, luminosity increases are planned for 2018 and beyond. With this greater luminosity comes an increase in the number of simultaneous proton-proton collisions per bunch crossing (pile-up). This extra pile- up has adverse effects on algorithms for clustering the ATLAS detector's calorimeter cells. These adverse effects stem from overlapping energy deposits originating from distinct particles and could lead to diffculties in accurately reconstructing events. Machine learning algorithms provide a new tool that has potential to clustering per- formance. Recent developments in computer science have given rise to new set of machine learning algorithms that, in many circumstances, out-perform more conven- tional algorithms....

  7. Performance of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter after three years of LHC operation and plans for a future upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikiforou, Nikiforos

    2013-06-01

    The ATLAS experiment is designed to study the proton-proton collisions produced at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. Liquid argon sampling calorimeters are used for all electromagnetic calorimetry as well as hadronic calorimetry in the end-caps. After installation in 2004-2006, the calorimeters were extensively commissioned over the three-year period prior to first collisions in 2009, using cosmic rays and single LHC beams. Since then, approximately 27 fb -1 of data have been collected at an unprecedented center of mass energy. During all these stages, the calorimeter and its electronics have been operating almost optimally, with a performance very close to specifications. This paper covers all aspects of these first years of operation. The excellent performance achieved is especially presented in the context of the discovery of the elusive Higgs boson. The future plans to preserve this performance until the end of the LHC program are also presented. (authors)

  8. Performance of prototypes for the ALICE electromagnetic calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, J; Badala, A; Baumgart, S; Bellwied, R; Benhabib, L; Bernard, C; Bianchi, N; Blanco, F; Bortoli, Y; Bourdaud, G; Bourrion, O; Boyer, B; Bruna, E; Butterworth, J; Caines, H; Calvo Diaz Aldagalan, D; Capitani, G P; Carcagno, Y; Casanova Diaz, A; Cherney, M; Conesa Balbastre, G; Cormier, T M; Cunqueiro Mendez, L; Delagrange, H; Del Franco, M; Dialinas, M; Di Nezza, P; Donoghue, A; Elnimr, M; Enokizono, A; Estienne, M; Faivre, J; Fantoni, A; Fichera, F; Foglio, B; Fresneau, S; Fujita, J; Furget, C; Gadrat, S; Garishvili, I; Germain, M; Giudice, N; Gorbunov, Y; Grimaldi, A; Guardone, N; Guernane, R; Hadjidakis, C; Hamblen, J; Harris, J W; Hasch, D; Heinz, M; Hille, P T; Hornback, D; Ichou, R; Jacobs, P; Jangal, S; Jayananda, K; Klay, J L; Knospe, A G; Kox, S; Kral, J; Laloux, P; LaPointe, S; La Rocca, P; Lewis, S; Li, Q; Librizzi, F; Madagodahettige Don, D; Martashvili, I; Mayes, B; Milletto, T; Muccifora, V; Muller, H; Muraz, J F; Nattrass, C; Noto, F; Novitzky, N; Odyniec, G; Orlandi, A; Palmeri, A; Pappalardo, G S; Pavlinov, A; Pesci, W; Petrov, V; Petta, C; Pichot, P; Pinsky, L; Ploskon, M; Pompei, F; Pulvirenti, A; Putschke, J; Pruneau, C A; Rak, J; Rasson, J; Read, K F; Real, J S; Reolon, A R; Riggi, F; Riso, J; Ronchetti, F; Roy, C; Roy, D; Salemi, M; Salur, S; Sharma, M; Silvermyr, D; Smirnov, N; Soltz, R; Sparti, V; Stutzmann, J.-S; Symons, T J.M; Tarazona Martinez, A; Tarini, L; Thomen, R; Timmins, A; van Leeuwen, M; Vieira, R; Viticchie, A; Voloshin, S; Wang, D; Wang, Y; Ward, R M

    2010-01-01

    The performance of prototypes for the ALICE electromagnetic sampling calorimeter has been studied in test beam measurements at FNAL and CERN. A $4\\times4$ array of final design modules showed an energy resolution of about 11% /$\\sqrt{E(\\mathrm{GeV})}$ $\\oplus$ 1.7 % with a uniformity of the response to electrons of 1% and a good linearity in the energy range from 10 to 100 GeV. The electromagnetic shower position resolution was found to be described by 1.5 mm $\\oplus$ 5.3 mm /$\\sqrt{E \\mathrm{(GeV)}}$. For an electron identification efficiency of 90% a hadron rejection factor of $>600$ was obtained.

  9. Research and development for a free-running readout system for the ATLAS LAr Calorimeters at the high luminosity LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hils, Maximilian, E-mail: maximilian.hils@tu-dresden.de

    2016-07-11

    The ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) Calorimeters were designed and built to measure electromagnetic and hadronic energy in proton–proton collisions produced at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at centre-of-mass energies up to 14 TeV and instantaneous luminosities up to 10{sup 34} cm{sup −2} s{sup −1}. The High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) programme is now developed for up to 5–7 times the design luminosity, with the goal of accumulating an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb{sup −1}. In the HL-LHC phase, the increased radiation levels and an improved ATLAS trigger system require a replacement of the Front-end (FE) and Back-end (BE) electronics of the LAr Calorimeters. Results from research and development of individual components and their radiation qualification as well as the overall system design will be presented.

  10. Operation of the ATLAS end-cap calorimeters at sLHC luminosities, an experimental study

    CERN Document Server

    Ferencei, J; The ATLAS collaboration

    2009-01-01

    The expected increase of luminosity at sLHC by a factor of ten with respect to LHC luminosities has serious consequences for the signal reconstruction, radiation hardness requirements and operations of the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeters (EMEC, HEC, FCAL) in the endcap, respectively forward region. Small modules of each type of calorimeter have been built. The layout and the components used are very close to the ones used in the construction of the ATLAS calorimeter. The goal is to simulate in the high intensity proton beam at IHEP /Protvino the particle impact as expected for ATLAS in sLHC. Depending on the position in pseudorapidity |η|, each forward calorimeter has to cope with a different particle and energy flux. Placing absorber elements in-between the various small calorimeter modules, the particle and energy flux as expected in ATLAS later - given the variation due to |η| and longitudinal position - can be simulated very well.

  11. Test beam studies for the atlas tile calorimeter readout electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez Perez, Andrea; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) Phase II upgrade aims to increase the accelerator luminosity by a factor of 5-10. Due to the expected higher radiation levels and the aging of the current electronics, a new readout system for the Tile hadronic calorimeter (TileCal) of the ATLAS experiment is needed. A prototype of the upgrade TileCal electronics has been tested using the beam from the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) accelerator at CERN. Data were collected with beams of muons, electrons and hadrons at various incident energies and impact angles. The muon data allow to study the response dependence on the incident point and angle in a cell and inter-calibration of the response between cells. The electron data are used to determine the linearity of the electron energy measurement. The hadron data allow to determined the calorimeter response to pions, kaons and protons and tune the calorimeter simulation to that data. The results of the ongoing data analyses are discussed in the presentation.

  12. The Phase II Upgrade of the ATLAS Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    This presentation will show the status of the upgrade projects of the ATLAS calorimeter system for the high luminosity phase of the LHC (HL-LHC). For the HL-LHC, the instantaneous luminosity is expected to increase up to L ≃ 7.5 × 1034 cm−2 s−1 and the average pile-up up to 200 interactions per bunch crossing. The Liquid Argon (LAr) calorimeter electronics will need to be replaced to cope with these challenging conditions: the expected radiation doses will indeed exceed the qualification range of the current readout system, and the upgraded trigger system will require much longer data storage in the electronics (up to 60 us), that the current system cannot sustain. The status of the R&D of the low-power ASICs (pre-amplifier, shaper, ADC, serializer and transmitters) and of the readout electronics design will be discussed. Moreover, a High Granularity Timing Detector (HGTD) is proposed to be added in front of the LAr calorimeters in the end-cap region (2.4 <|eta|< 4.2) for pile-up mitigation a...

  13. A conceptual design for the STAR endcap electromagnetic calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bielick, E.; Fornek, T.; Spinka, H.; Underwood, D.G.

    1993-01-01

    In order to make measurements of the gluon spin or helicity distribution in the proton or the gluon spin average distribution in nuclei, both a barrel and an endcap electromagnetic calorimeter must be added to the STAR baseline detector. Information on the gluon will be obtained in inclusive direct-γ + jet and jet + jet production. In order to be sensitive to the proper gluon kinematic regions, either the direct-γ or the jet must be in the endcap electromagnetic calorimeter (EMC). However, the endcap EMC is not large enough to completely contain the jets, so that the barrel EMC is also needed. This note describes a conceptual design for the STAR endcap EMC. Constraints are imposed by the space available between the end of the time projection chamber (TPC) and the inside of the magnet pole tip iron. Severe constraints also occur near |η| = 1, where the barrel and endcap EMC's meet. Cables from detectors inside the EMC, including those from the TPC, will exit from STAR near |η| = 1. The constraints in this region have not yet been seriously studied since no decision on the detailed routing of these cables was available at the time this work was being done. This report includes details of the conceptual design, analytical and finite element calculations of stresses in various structural members for the endcap EMC, and a preliminary cost estimate

  14. Status of the Atlas Calorimeters: their performance after two years of LHC operation and plans for future upgrades.

    CERN Document Server

    Solans, C; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is designed to study the proton-proton collisions produced at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. Its calorimeter system measures the energy and direction of final state particles with pseudo rapidity $|eta| < 4.9$. Accurate identification and measurement of the characteristics of electromagnetic objects (electrons/photons) are performed by liquid argon (LAr)-lead sampling calorimeters in the region $|eta| < 3.2$, using an innovative accordion geometry that provides a fast, uniform azimuthal response without gaps. The hadronic calorimeters measure the properties of hadrons, jets, and tau leptons, and also contribute to the measurement of the missing transverse energy and identification of muons. This is done in the region $|eta| < 1.7$ with a scintillator-steel sampling calorimeter, and in the region $1.4 < |eta| < 3.2$ with a copper-LAr sampling calorimeter. The coverage is extended to $|eta| < 4.9$ by an integrated forward calorimeter (FCal) based on LAr with copp...

  15. Performance of the ATLAS hadronic Tile Calorimeter in Run-2 and its upgrade for the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00223789; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC is the central hadronic calorimeter designed for energy reconstruction of hadrons, jets, tauparticles and missing transverse energy. TileCal is a scintillator-steel sampling calorimeter and it covers the region of pseudo-rapidity up to 1.7, with almost 10000 channels measuring energies ranging from ∼30 MeV to ∼2 TeV. Each stage of the signal production, from scintillation light to the signal reconstruction, is monitored and calibrated. The performance of the Tile calorimeter has been studied in-situ employing cosmic ray muons and a large sample of proton-proton collisions, acquired during the operations of the LHC. Prompt isolated muons of high momentum from electroweak bosons decays are employed to study the energy response of the calorimeter at the electromagnetic scale. The calorimeter response to hadronic particles is evaluated with a sample of isolated hadrons. The modelling of the response by the Monte Carlo simulation is discussed. T...

  16. Electronics development for the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter trigger and readout for future LHC running

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopkins, Walter

    2017-02-11

    The upgrade of the LHC will provide 7 times greater instantaneous and 10 times greater total luminosities than assumed in the original design of the ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) Calorimeters. Radiation tolerance criteria and an improved trigger system with higher acceptance rate and longer latency require an upgrade of the LAr readout electronics. In the first upgrade phase in 2019–2020, a trigger readout with up to 10 times higher granularity will be implemented. This allows an improved reconstruction of electromagnetic and hadronic showers and will reduce the background for electron, photon and energy-flow signals at the first trigger level. The analog and digital signal processing components are currently in their final design stages and a fully functional demonstrator system is operated and tested on the LAr Calorimeters. In a second upgrade stage in 2024–2026, the readout of all 183,000 LAr Calorimeter cells will be performed without trigger selection at 40 MHz sampling rate and 16 bit dynamic range. Calibrated energies of all cells will be available at the second trigger level operating at 1 MHz, in order to allow further mitigation of pile-up effects in energy reconstruction. Radiation tolerant, low-power front-end electronics optimized for high pile-up conditions are currently being developed, including pre-amplifier, ADC and serializer components in 65–180 nm technology. This contribution will give an overview of the future LAr readout electronics and present research results from the two upgrade programs.

  17. Electronics Development for the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter Trigger and Readout for Future LHC Running

    CERN Document Server

    Pacheco Rodriguez, Laura; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The upgrade of the LHC will provide up to 7.5 times greater instantaneous and total luminosities than assumed in the original design of the ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) Calorimeters. The radiation tolerance criteria and the improved trigger system with higher acceptance rate and longer latency require an upgrade of the LAr readout electronics. In the first upgrade phase in 2019-2020, a trigger-readout with up to 10 times higher granularity will be implemented. This allows an improved reconstruction of electromagnetic and hadronic showers and will reduce the background for electron, photon and energy-flow signals at the first trigger level. The analog and digital signal processing components are currently in their final design stages and a fully functional demonstrator system is operated and tested on the LAr Calorimeters. In a second upgrade stage in 2024-2026, the readout of all 183,000 LAr Calorimeter cells will be performed without trigger selection at 40 MHz sampling rate and 16 bit dynamic range. Calibrated ...

  18. Operation and Performance of the ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter and Topological Triggers in Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Weber, Sebastian Mario; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    In Run 2 at CERN's Large Hadron Collider, the ATLAS detector uses a two-level trigger system to reduce the event rate from the nominal collision rate of 40 MHz to the event storage rate of 1 kHz, while preserving interesting physics events. The first step of the trigger system, Level-1, reduces the event rate to 100 kHz within a latency of less than $2.5$ $\\mu\\text{s}$. One component of this system is the Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger (L1Calo), which uses coarse-granularity information from the electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters to identify regions of interest corresponding to electrons, photons, taus, jets, and large amounts of transverse energy and missing transverse energy. In these proceedings, we discuss improved features and performance of the L1Calo system in the challenging, high-luminosity conditions provided by the LHC in Run 2. A new dynamic pedestal correction algorithm reduces pile-up effects and the use of variable thresholds and isolation criteria for electromagnetic objects allows for opt...

  19. The monitoring and data quality assessment of the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Simard, O

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is designed to study the proton-proton ($pp$) collisions produced at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. Liquid argon (LAr) sampling calorimeters are used for all electromagnetic calorimetry in the pseudo-rapidity region $|\\eta|< 3.2$, as well as for hadronic calorimetry in the range $1.5 < |\\eta| < 4.9$. The electromagnetic calorimeters use lead as passive material and are characterized by an accordion geometry that allows a fast and uniform response without azimuthal gaps. Copper and tungsten were chosen as passive material for the hadronic calorimetry; while a classic parallel-plate geometry was adopted at large polar angles, an innovative design based on cylindrical electrodes with thin liquid argon gaps is employed at low angles, where the particle flux is higher. All detectors are housed in three cryostats maintained at about 88.5~K. The 182,468 cells are read out via front-end boards housed in on-detector crates that also contain monitoring, calibration, trigger and t...

  20. The monitoring and data quality assessment of the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Simard, O; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is designed to study the proton-proton collisions produced at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. Liquid argon (LAr) sampling calorimeters are used for all electromagnetic calorimetry in the pseudo-rapidity region |η|< 3.2, as well as for hadronic calorimetry in the range 1.5<|η|<4.9. The electromagnetic calorimeters use lead as passive material and are characterized by an accordion geometry that allows a fast and uniform response without azimuthal gaps. Copper and tungsten were chosen as passive material for the hadronic calorimetry; while a classic parallel-plate geometry was adopted at large polar angles, an innovative design based on cylindrical electrodes with thin liquid argon gaps is employed for the coverage at low angles, where the particle flux is higher. All detectors are housed in three cryostats maintained at about 88.5K. The approximately 200K cells are read out via front-end boards housed in on-detector crates that also contain monitoring, calibration, trigg...

  1. Results from a new combined test of an electromagnetic liquid argon calorimeter with a hadronic scintillating-tile calorimeter

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Akhmadaliev, S.; Albiol, F.; Amaral, P.; Lokajíček, Miloš; Němeček, Stanislav

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 449, - (2000), s. 461-477 ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA MPO RP-4210/69 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010920 Keywords : liquid argon * calorimeter * hadronic scintillating- tile * CERN SPS * ATLAS * LHC * energy resolution * pions Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 0.964, year: 2000

  2. Study of a novel electromagnetic liquid argon calorimeter — the TGT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, C.; Braunschweig, W.; Geulig, E.; Schöntag, M.; Siedling, R.; Wlochal, M.; Putzer, A.; Wotschack, J.; Cheplakov, A.; Feshchenko, A.; Kazarinov, M.; Kukhtin, V.; Ladygin, E.; Obudovskij, V.; Geweniger, C.; Hanke, P.; Kluge, E.-E.; Krause, J.; Schmidt, M.; Stenzel, H.; Tittel, K.; Wunsch, M.; Zerwas, D.; Bruncko, D.; Jusko, A.; Kocper, B.; Lupták, M.; Aderholz, M.; Bán, J.; Brettel, H.; Dydak, F.; Fent, J.; Frey, H.; Huber, J.; Jakobs, K.; Kiesling, C.; Kiryunin, A. E.; Oberlack, H.; Ribarics, P.; Schacht, P.; Stiegler, U.; Bogolyubsky, M. Y.; Buyanov, O. V.; Chekulaev, S. V.; Kurchaninov, L. L.; Levitsky, M. S.; Maximov, V. V.; Minaenko, A. A.; Moiseev, A. M.; Semenov, P. A.; Tikhonov, V. V.; Straumann, U.

    1995-02-01

    The concept and the basic design of a fast, highly granular and compact electromagnetic liquid argon calorimeter are described. This novel calorimeter offers uniform energy response and constant energy resolution independent of the production angle of an impinging particle and of its impact position at the calorimeter. An example of a calorimeter with full rapidity coverage in an application in a collider detector is given. An important aspect of the concept is the electronics for fast signal processing matched to the short charge collection time. We report on the experience with the realization of a prototype calorimeter module and on its performance in a testbeam exposure.

  3. ATLAS electromagnetic end-cap detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    After the insertion of the first end-cap into this cryostat, the team proceed to the wiring operations. Millions of wires are connected to the electromagnetic calorimeter on this end-cap, whch must be carefully fed out from the detector so that data can be read out. The energy of photons, electrons and positrons will be measured as they pass through the end-cap having been created along the line of the beams in the proton-proton collisions.

  4. Design, Construction and Installation of the ATLAS Hadronic Barrel Scintillator-Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Abdallah, J; Alexa, C; Alves, R; Amaral, P; Ananiev, A; Anderson, K; Andresen, X; Antonaki, A; Batusov, V; Bednar, P; Bergeaas, E; Biscarat, C; Blanch, O; Blanchot, G; Bohm, C; Boldea, V; Bosi, F; Bosman, M; Bromberg, C; Budagov, Yu A; Calvet, D; Cardeira, C; Carli, T; Carvalho, J; Cascella, M; Castillo, M V; Costello, J; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cavasinni, V; Cerqueira, A S; Clément, C; Cobal, M; Cogswell, F; Constantinescu, S; Costanzo, D; Da Silva, P; Davidek, M; David, T; Dawson, J; De, K; Del Prete, T; Di Girolamo, B; Dita, S; Dolejsi, J; Dolezal, Z; Dotti, A; Downing, R; Drake, G; Efthymiopoulos, I; Errede, D; Errede, S; Farbin, A; Fassouliotis, D; Feng, E; Fenyuk, A; Ferdi, C; Ferreira, B C; Ferrer, A; Flaminio, V; Flix, J; Francavilla, P; Fullana, E; Garde, V; Gellerstedt, K; Giakoumopoulou, V; Giangiobbe, V; Gildemeister, O; Gilewsky, V; Giokaris, N; Gollub, N; Gomes, A; González, V; Gouveia, J; Grenier, P; Gris, P; Guarino, V; Guicheney, C; Sen-Gupta, A; Hakobyan, H; Haney, M; Hellman, S; Henriques, A; Higón, E; Hill, N; Holmgren, S; Hruska, I; Hurwitz, M; Huston, J; Jen-La Plante, I; Jon-And, K; Junk, T; Karyukhin, A; Khubua, J; Klereborn, J; Kopikov, S; Korolkov, I; Krivkova, P; Kulchitsky, Y; Kurochkin, Yu; Kuzhir, P; Lapin, V; Le Compte, T; Lefèvre, R; Leitner, R; Li, J; Liablin, M; Lokajícek, M; Lomakin, Y; Lourtie, P; Lovas, L; Lupi, A; Maidantchik, C; Maio, A; Maliukov, S; Manousakis, A; Marques, C; Marroquim, F; Martin, F; Mazzoni, E; Merritt, F S; Myagkov, A; Miller, R; Minashvili, I; Miralles, L; Montarou, G; Némécek, S; Nessi, M; Nikitine, I; Nodulman, L; Norniella, O; Onofre, A; Oreglia, M; Palan, B; Pallin, D; Pantea, D; Pereira, A; Pilcher, J E; Pina, J; Pinhão, J; Pod, E; Podlyski, F; Portell, X; Poveda, J; Pribyl, L; Price, L E; Proudfoot, J; Ramalho, M; Ramstedt, M; Raposeiro, L; Reis, J; Richards, R; Roda, C; Romanov, V; Rosnet, P; Roy, P; Ruiz, A; Rumiantsau, V; Russakovich, N; Sada Costa, J; Salto, O; Salvachúa, B; Sanchis, E; Sanders, H; Santoni, C; Santos, J; Saraiva, J G; Sarri, F; Says, L P; Schlager, G; Schlereth, J L; Seixas, J M; Selldén, B; Shalanda, N; Shevtsov, P; Shochet, M; Simaitis, V; Simonyan, M; Sisakian, A; Sjölin, J; Solans, C; Solodkov, A; Solovianov, J; Silva, O; Sosebee, M; Spanó, F; Speckmeyer, P; Stanek, R; Starchenko, E; Starovoitov, P; Suk, M; Sykora, I; Tang, F; Tas, P; Teuscher, R; Tokar, S; Topilin, N; Torres, J; Underwood, D; Usai, G; Valero, A; Valkár, S; Valls, J A; Vartapetian, A; Vazeille, F; Vellidis, C; Ventura, F; Vichou, I; Vivarelli, I; Volpi, M; White, A; Zaitsev, A; Zenin, A; Zenis, T; Zenonos, Z; Zenz, S; Zilka, B

    2007-01-01

    The scintillator tile hadronic calorimeter is a sampling calorimeter using steel as the absorber structure and scintillator as the active medium. The scintillator is located in "pockets" in the steel structure and the wavelength-shifting fibers are contained in channels running radially within the absorber to photomultiplier tubes which are located in the outer support girders of the calorimeter structure. In addition, to its role as a detector for high energy particles, the tile calorimeter provides the direct support of the liquid argon electromagnetic calorimeter in the barrel region, and the liquid argon electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters in the endcap region. Through these, it indirectly supports the inner tracking system and beam pipe. The steel absorber, and in particular the support girders, provide the flux return for the solenoidal field from the central solenoid. Finally, the end surfaces of the barrel calorimeter are used to mount services, power supplies and readout crates for the inner tr...

  5. Electronic front-end for LHCb electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beigbeder, Ch.

    2000-11-01

    The electronic front-end of the LHCb electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters will be described. It consists of a 9U 32 channel board, each channel including shaper-integrator, 12 bit ADC and look-up tables allowing to code the transverse energy information both for readout and for the Level 0 trigger. The readout information is stored in a fixed latency followed by a derandomizer. The trigger information is processed further on the board by FPGA, performing channel addition and comparison to extract the highest transverse energy local cluster for further processing. The system is fully synchronous and allows to extract candidates for calorimetric trigger at every 40 MHz clock cycle. The operation and characteristics (noise, linearity etc.) of a prototype board will be described. (author)

  6. The Production and Qualification of Scintillator Tiles for the ATLAS Hadronic Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Abdallah, J; Alexa, C; Alves, R; Amaral, P; Ananiev, A; Anderson, K; Andresen, X; Antonaki, A; Batusov, V; Bednar, P; Bergeaas, E; Biscarat, C; Blanch, O; Blanchot, G; Bohm, C; Boldea, V; Bosi, F; Bosman, M; Bromberg, C; Budagov, Yu; Calvet, D; Cardeira, C; Carli, T; Carvalho, J; Cascella, M; Castillo, M V; Costello, J; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cavasinni, V; Cerqueira, A S; Clément, C; Cobal, M; Cogswell, F; Constantinescu, S; Costanzo, D; Da Silva, P; David, M; Davidek, T; Dawson, J; De, K; Del Prete, T; Diakov, E; Di Girolamo, B; Dita, S; Dolejsi, J; Dolezal, Z; Dotti, A; Downing, R; Drake, G; Efthymiopoulos, I; Errede, D; Errede, S; Farbin, A; Fassouliotis, D; Feng, E; Fenyuk, A; Ferdi, C; Ferreira, B C; Ferrer, A; Flaminio, V; Flix, J; Francavilla, P; Fullana, E; Garde, V; Gellerstedt, K; Giakoumopoulou, V; Giangiobbe, V; Gildemeister, O; Gilewsky, V; Giokaris, N; Gollub, N; Gomes, A; González, V; Gouveia, J; Grenier, P; Gris, P; Guarino, V; Guicheney, C; Sen-Gupta, A; Hakobyan, H; Haney, M; Hellman, S; Henriques, A; Higón, E; Hill, N; Holmgren, S; Hruska, I; Hurwitz, M; Huston, J; Jen-La Plante, I; Jon-And, K; Junk, T; Karyukhin, A; Khubua, J; Klereborn, J; Konsnantinov, V; Kopikov, S; Korolkov, I; Krivkova, P; Kulchitskii, Yu A; Kurochkin, Yu; Kuzhir, P; Lapin, V; LeCompte, T; Lefèvre, R; Leitner, R; Li, J; Liablin, M; Lokajícek, M; Lomakin, Y; Lourtie, P; Lovas, L; Lupi, A; Maidantchik, C; Maio, A; Maliukov, S; Manousakis, A; Marques, C; Marroquim, F; Martin, F; Mazzoni, E; Merritt, F S; Myagkov, A; Miller, R; Minashvili, I; Miralles, L; Montarou, G; Némécek, S; Nessi, M; Nikitine, I; Nodulman, L; Norniella, O; Onofre, A; Oreglia, M; Palan, B; Pallin, D; Pantea, D; Pereira, A; Pilcher, J E; Pina, J; Pinhão, J; Pod, E; Podlyski, F; Portell, X; Poveda, J; Pribyl, a L; Price, L E; Proudfoot, J; Ramalho, M; Ramstedt, M; Raposeiro, L; Reis, J; Richards, R; Roda, C; Romanov, V; Rosnet, P; Roy, P; Ruiz, A; Rumiantsau, V; Rusakovich, N; Sada Costa, J; Salto, O; Salvachúa, B; Sanchis, E; Sanders, H; Santoni, C; Santos, J; Saraiva, J G; Sarri, F; Says, L P; Schlager, G; Schlereth, J L; Seixas, J M; Selldén, B; Shalanda, N; Shevtsov, P; Shochet, M; Silva, J; Simaitis, V; Simonyan, M; Sisakian, A; Sjölin, J; Solans, C; Solodkov, A; Solovyanov, O; Sosebee, M; Spanó, F; Speckmeyer, P; Stanek, R; Starchenko, E; Starovoitov, P; Suk, M; Sykora, I; Tang, F; Tas, P; Teuscher, R; Tischenko, M; Tokar, S; Topilin, N; Torres, J; Underwood, D; Usai, G; Valero, A; Valkár, S; Valls, J A; Vartapetian, A; Vazeille, F; Vellidis, C; Ventura, F; Vichou, I; Vivarelli, I; Volpi, M; White, A; Zaitsev, A; Zaytsev, Yu; Zenin, A; Zenis, T; Zenonos, Z; Zenz, S; Zilka, B

    2007-01-01

    The production of the scintillator tiles for the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter is presented. In addition to the manufacture and production, the properties of the tiles will be presented including light yield, uniformity and stability.

  7. Test system for the production of the Atlas Tile Calorimeter front-end electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvet, David

    2004-01-01

    The Atlas hadronic Tile Calorimeter front-end electronics is fully included in the so-called 'super-drawers'. The 256 super-drawers needed for the entire calorimeter are assembled and extensively tested in Clermont-Ferrand before being sent to CERN to be inserted in the calorimeter modules. A mobile system has been developed to perform a complete test of the super-drawers during their insertion

  8. Phase-II Plans for ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter Upgrades.

    CERN Document Server

    Orr, RS; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The ATLAS detector was designed and built to study proton-proton collisions produced at the LHC at centre-of-mass energies up to 14 TeV and instantaneous luminosities up to 1034cm-2s-1. Although the nominal LHC experimental programme is still in progress, plans are already being developed for operation of the LHC and associated detectors at luminosities of up to 5x1034 cm-2s-1, with the goal of accumulating an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb-1. This program is known as the high-luminosity LHC, or HL-LHC. The proposed instantaneous and integrated luminosities are both well beyond the values for which the detectors were designed, and it is anticipated that several problems will arise. In this talk we will discuss problems and proposed solutions, concentrating on the forward calorimeter technologies proposed, and possible changes in the electronics for the hadronic endcap calorimters.

  9. ATLAS calorimeter and topological trigger upgrades for Phase 1

    CERN Document Server

    Silverstein, S

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger (L1Calo) collaboration is pursuing two hardware upgrade programs for Phase 1 of the LHC upgrade. The first of these is development of a new mixed-signal multi-chip module (MCM) for the PreProcessor system. based on faster FADCs and a modern FPGA. Designed as a drop-in replacement for the existing MCM, the FPGA also enables future upgrades to the PreProcessor algorithms, including enhanced digital filtering and compensation for time-variation of pedestals. It is also planned to augment the current multiplicity-based trigger by adding topology-based algorithms. This is made possible by adding jet and EM/hadron Regions of Interest (ROIs) to the L1Calo real time data path. A synchronous, pipelined topological processor (TP) based on high-density FPGAs and multi-Gbit optical links gathers all ROI information and performs topological algorithms.

  10. Calibration of the calorimeter of the ATLAS muon cosmic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federic, P.

    2006-01-01

    This summer is for the ATLAS experiment at CERN scheduled calibration with cosmic muons ECC. It is one of the standard methods of calibrating calorimeters. Before these measurements it is necessary to perform precise Monte Carlo simulation, which is essential to a detailed understanding of the physics of the processes. Based on the known data on the spectra of cosmic muons, such as the frequency (flux) or the energy spectrum can be achieved highly accurate results. So far were simulated 3 samples for max. muon angle of incidence 45, 60 and 75 degrees, each containing 1 M events. Based on this we found the first necessary data and in particular, they allow us to determine the best angle for the ratio of the number of muons generated a number of events in the calorimetric system. (author)

  11. Consolidation and upgrades of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Cerda Alberich, Leonor; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    This is a presentation of the status of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter during the EYETS and before starting 2017 data-taking. Updates on the upgrade of the readout system such as doubling the RODs output links and the number of processing units (PUs) are being worked on at the moment as well as items concerning the maintenance of the detector which involves issues such as cooling leaks and consolidation of the Low Voltage Power Supplies, which are being replaced if necessary. Other updates include works on the Tile calibration, in particular on the Cesium system. In addition, the whole Tile readout electronics is being replaced for Phase-II and it is being tested in Test Beam area.

  12. ATLAS Tile Calorimeter extended barrel Side A assembly and installation in the cavern.

    CERN Multimedia

    Nikolai Topilin

    2009-01-01

    These photos belong to the self-published book by Nikolai Topilin "ATLAS Hadron Calorimeter Assembly". The book is a collection of souvenirs from the years of assembly and installation of the Tile Hadron Calorimeter, which extended from November 2002 until May 2006.

  13. ATLAS Tile Calorimeter extended barrel side C, assembly and installation in the cavern.

    CERN Multimedia

    Nikolai Topilin

    2009-01-01

    These photos belong to the self-published book by Nikolai Topilin "ATLAS Hadron Calorimeter Assembly". The book is a collection of souvenirs from the years of assembly and installation of the Tile Hadron Calorimeter, which extended from November 2002 until May 2006.

  14. The Upgrade of the ATLAS First Level Calorimeter Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Yamamoto, Shimpei; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The Level-1 calorimeter trigger (L1Calo) operated successfully during the first data taking phase of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. Based on the lessons learned, a series of upgrades is planned for L1Calo to face the new challenges posed by the upcoming increases of the LHC beam energy and luminosity. The initial upgrade phase in 2013-15 includes substantial improvements to the analogue and digital signal processing to cope with baseline shifts due to signal pile-up. Additionally a newly introduced system will receive real-time data from both the upgraded L1Calo and L1Muon trigger to perform trigger algorithms based on entire event topologies. During the second upgrade phase in 2018-19 major parts of L1Calo will be rebuilt in order to exploit a tenfold increase in the available calorimeter data granularity compared to that of the current system. In this contribution we present the lessons learned during the first period of LHC data taking. Based on these we discuss the expected performance improvements toge...

  15. Upgrade of the ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2072874

    2014-01-01

    The Level-1 calorimeter trigger (L1Calo) operated successfully during the first data taking phase of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. Facing the new challenges posed by the upcoming increases of the LHC beam energy and luminosity, and from the experience of the previous running, a series of upgrades is planned for L1Calo. The initial upgrade phase in 2013-14 includes substantial improvements to the analogue and digital signal processing to cope with baseline shifts due to signal pile-up. Additionally a newly introduced system will receive real-time data from both the upgraded L1Calo and L1Muon trigger to perform trigger algorithms based on entire event topologies. During the second upgrade phase in 2018-19 major parts of L1Calo will be rebuilt in order to exploit a tenfold increase in the available calorimeter data granularity compared to that of the current system. The contribution gives an overview of the existing system and the lessons learned during the first period of LHC data taking. Based on these, the...

  16. Upgrade of the ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Mueller, Felix; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The Level-1 calorimeter trigger (L1Calo) operated successfully during the first data taking phase of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. Based on the lessons learned , a series of upgrades is planned for L1Calo to face the new challenges posed by the upcoming increases of the LHC beam energy and luminosity. The initial upgrade phase in 2013-14 includes substantial improvements to the analogue and digital signal processing to cope with baseline shifts due to signal pile-up. Additionally a newly introduced system will receive real-time data from both the upgraded L1Calo and L1Muon trigger to perform trigger algorithms based on entire event topologies. During the second upgrade phase in 2018-19 major parts of L1Calo will be rebuilt in order to exploit a tenfold increase in the available calorimeter data granularity compared to that of the current system. In this contribution we present the lessons learned during the first period of LHC data taking. Based on these we discuss the expected performance improvements tog...

  17. Construction techniques of the high resolution lead / scintillating fibre electromagnetic calorimeter for the KLOE experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anelli, M.; Bisogni, G.; Ceccarelli, A.

    1997-07-01

    The electromagnetic calorimeter of the KLOE experiment is a lead-scintillating fibre sampling device. This calorimeter is arranged as a 'barrel', closed at both ends with an 'end-cap'. The barrel consists in 24 modules defining a cylinder, 4.3 long, with 4 m inner diameter. Each end-cap consists of 32 modules running vertically along the chords of the circle inscribed into the barrel. In this paper the calorimeter construction techniques are described

  18. Construction techniques of the high resolution lead / scintillating fibre electromagnetic calorimeter for the KLOE experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anelli, M; Bisogni, G; Ceccarelli, A [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Rome (Italy); and others

    1997-07-01

    The electromagnetic calorimeter of the KLOE experiment is a lead-scintillating fibre sampling device. This calorimeter is arranged as a `barrel`, closed at both ends with an `end-cap`. The barrel consists in 24 modules defining a cylinder, 4.3 long, with 4 m inner diameter. Each end-cap consists of 32 modules running vertically along the chords of the circle inscribed into the barrel. In this paper the calorimeter construction techniques are described.

  19. Geometric alignment of the CMD-3 endcap electromagnetic calorimeter using events of two-quantum annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhmetshin, R.R.; Grigoriev, D.N.; Kazanin, V.F.; Kuzmenko, A.E.; Timofeev, A.V.

    2017-01-01

    Since 2010 the electromagnetic endcap calorimeter based on BGO crystals is used in experiments as one of the systems of the CMD-3 detector. The spacial resolution is one of crucial parameters of the calorimeter. Inaccurate knowledge of the real calorimeter position can limit the resolution. In this work the alignment of the center of the calorimeter with respect to the tracking system of the CMD-3 detector has been performed using events of two-quantum annihilation. The alignment technique that has been used to determine the position of the calorimeter is described. Finally, the improvement in spacial resolution of the calorimeter after applying the correction for the real calorimeter position is shown.

  20. Calibration and performance test of the Very-Front-End electronics for the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaha, J. [Czech Technical University in Prague, CTU, Praha (Czech Republic); Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon - IN2P3/CNRS and Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Villeurbanne (France)], E-mail: j.blaha@ipnl.in2p3.fr; Cartiglia, N. [Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, INFN, Torino (Italy); Combaret, C. [Czech Technical University in Prague, CTU, Praha (Czech Republic); Fay, J. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon - IN2P3/CNRS and Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Villeurbanne (France); Lustermann, W. [Eidgenossische Technische Hoschschule, ETH, Zuerich (Switzerland); Maurelli, G. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon - IN2P3/CNRS and Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Villeurbanne (France); Nardulli, A. [Eidgenossische Technische Hoschschule, ETH, Zuerich (Switzerland); Obertino, M. [Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, INFN, Torino (Italy)

    2007-10-15

    The Very-Front-End cards processing signal from photodetectors of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter, have been put through extensive test program to guarantee their functionality and reliability. The characteristics of the VFE cards designed for the calorimeter barrel are presented. The results confirm the high quality of the cards production and show that the specifications are fully reached.

  1. Calibration and performance test of the Very-Front-End electronics for the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaha, J.; Cartiglia, N.; Combaret, C.; Fay, J.; Lustermann, W.; Maurelli, G.; Nardulli, A.; Obertino, M.

    2007-01-01

    The Very-Front-End cards processing signal from photodetectors of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter, have been put through extensive test program to guarantee their functionality and reliability. The characteristics of the VFE cards designed for the calorimeter barrel are presented. The results confirm the high quality of the cards production and show that the specifications are fully reached

  2. Engineering design evaluation of Atlas tile-calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, N.; Guarino, V.; Proudfoot, J.; Stanek, R.; Price, L.; Petereit, E.

    1994-01-01

    In an effort to familiarize themselves with the work that has been done to date on the design of the Tile Cal hadron calorimeter for Atlas, the authors have undertaken a thorough examination of the current designs. They concentrated on the work that has been done by the IHEP Group at Protvino, and in particular the work presented at the last Atlas Week. They constructed six different finite element models as they have learned more about the system. These models were meant to be rough models only and do not represent actual construction in all cases. In some cases, shortcuts were taken in an attempt to set boundary conditions and to reduce the size of the problem to accommodate software limitations, while still providing enough information to further the understanding of the design. After reviewing the analysis and thinking about the construction, the authors have some suggested modifications, which are presented in this paper. It is clear that the work done at both CERN and Protvino has been impressive and thorough. The authors have tried to evaluate and understand both the CERN baseline design and the suggested design option from Protvino

  3. On the energy resolution of the projective prototype of the 'Shashlik' electromagnetic calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bityukov, S.I.; Obraztsov, V.F.; Ostankov, A.P.

    1994-01-01

    The dependences of the energy resolution of a lead/scintillator electromagnetic calorimeter 'Shashlik' type on the attenuation length of fibers and on the dead material between cells have been investigated for gamma-radiation with energy 20,50 and 100 GeV. The simulation includes a projective geometry for the electromagnetic calorimeter and uses the maps of the light collection efficiency. 6 refs., 12 figs

  4. Performances of the ATLAS Hadronic Tile Calorimeter Modules for Electrons and Pions

    CERN Document Server

    Kulchitskii, Yu A

    2004-01-01

    With the aim of establishing of an electromagnetic energy scale of the ATLAS Tile calorimeter and understanding of performance of the calorimeter to electrons 12 \\% of modules have been exposed in electron beams with various energies by three possible ways: cell-scan at $\\theta =20^o$ at the centers of the front face cells, $\\eta$-scan and tilerow scan at $\\theta = 90^o$ for the module side cells. We have extracted the electron calibration constants and electron energy resolutions some of these barrel and extended barrel modules at energies E = 10, 20, 50, 100 and 180 GeV for the cell-scan at $\\theta = 20^o$, the $\\eta$ scan and the tile scan at $90^o$. The average values of these constants are equal to $\\langle R_e \\rangle =1.157\\pm0.002$ pC/GeV for the cell-scan at $\\theta = 20^o$, $\\langle R_e \\rangle =1.143\\pm0.005$ pC/GeV for the $\\eta$-scan and $\\langle R_e\\rangle =1.196\\pm0.005$ pC/GeV for the tile-scan at $\\theta = 90^o$. The RMS values are the following: for the cell-scan is $RMS=2.6\\pm0.1$ \\%, for t...

  5. ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter Performance in Run 1 and Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00286685; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS detector was designed and built to study proton-proton collisions produced at the LHC at centre-of-mass energies up to 14 TeV and instantaneous luminosities up to $10^{34}$ cm$^{−2}$ s$^{−1}$ . Liquid argon (LAr) sampling calorimeters are employed for all electromagnetic calorimetry in the pseudo-rapidity region $\\eta < 3.2$, and for hadronic calorimetry in the region from $\\eta = 1.5$ to $\\eta = 4.9$. In the first LHC run a total luminosity of $27$ fb$^{−1}$ has been collected at center-of-mass energies of 7-8 TeV. Following a period of detector consolidation during a long shutdown, Run-2 started in 2015 with approximately $3.9$ fb$^{-1}$ of data at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV recorded in this year. The well calibrated and highly granular Liquid Argon Calorimeter achieved its design values both in energy measurement as well as in direction resolution, which was a main ingredient for the successful discovery of a Higgs boson in the di-photon decay channel. This contribution will give ...

  6. Performance of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters in LHC Run-1 and Run-2

    CERN Document Server

    Benitez, Jose; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS detector was designed and built to study proton-proton collisions produced at the LHC at centre-of-mass energies up to 14 TeV and instantaneous luminosities up to $10^{34}$ cm$^{-2}$ s${^-1}$. Liquid argon (LAr) sampling calorimeters are employed for all electromagnetic calorimetry in the pseudorapidity region $|\\eta|<3.2$, and for hadronic calorimetry in the region from $|\\eta|=1.5$ to $|\\eta|=4.9$. The calibration and performance of the LAr calorimetry system was established during beam tests, cosmic ray muon measurements and in particular the first three years of pp collision data-taking. During this period, referred to as Run-1, approximately 27~fb$^{-1}$ of data have been collected at the center-of-mass energies of 7 and 8~TeV. Following a period of detector consolidation during a long shutdown, Run-2 started in 2015 with approximately 3.9~fb$^{-1}$ of data at a center-of-mass energy of 13~TeV recorded in this year. Results on the LAr calorimeter operation, monitoring and data quality, as we...

  7. Data Quality system of the ATLAS hadronic Tile calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemecek, Stanislav

    2012-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment. It is subdivided into a large central barrel and two smaller lateral extended barrels. Each barrel consists of 64 wedges, made of iron plates and scintillating tiles. Two edges of each scintillating tile are air-coupled to wave-length shifting (WLS) fibres which collect the scintillating light and transmit it to photo-multipliers. The total number of channels is about 10000. An essential part of the TileCal detector is the Data Quality (DQ) system. The DQ system is designed to check the status of the electronic channels. It is designed to provide information at two levels - online and offline. The online TileCal DQ system monitors continuously the data while they are recorded and provides a fast feedback. The offline DQ system allows a detailed study, if needed it provides corrections to be applied to the recorded data and it allows to validate the data for physics analysis. In addition to the check of physics data the TileCal DQ systems also operate with calibration data. The TileCal calibration system provides well defined signals and the response to the calibration signals allows checking the behaviour of the electronic channels in detail. The Monitoring and Calibration Web System supports data quality analyses at the level of channels. All online, offline and calibration versions of the TileCal DQ system also provide automatic tests, the results of which allow fast and robust feedback.

  8. Research and Development for a Free-Running Readout System for the ATLAS LAr Calorimeters at the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)758889; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) Calorimeters were designed and built to measure electromagnetic and hadronic energy in proton-proton collisions produced at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at centre-of-mass energies up to \\SI{14}{\\tera\\electronvolt} and instantaneous luminosities up to \\SI{d34}{\\per\\centi\\meter\\squared\\per\\second}. The High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) programme is now developed for up to 5-7 times the design luminosity, with the goal of accumulating an integrated luminosity of \\SI{3000}{\\per\\femto\\barn}. In the HL-LHC phase, the increased radiation levels require a replacement of the front-end (FE) electronics of the LAr Calorimeters. Furthermore, the ATLAS trigger system is foreseen to increase the trigger accept rate and the trigger latency which requires a larger data volume to be buffered. Therefore, the LAr Calorimeter read-out will be exchanged with a new FE and a high bandwidth back-end (BE) system for receiving data from all \

  9. Research and Development for a Free-Running Readout System for the ATLAS LAr Calorimeters at the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Hils, Maximilian; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) Calorimeters were designed and built to measure electromagnetic and hadronic energy in proton-proton collisions produced at the LHC at centre-of-mass energies up to 14 TeV and instantaneous luminosities up to $10^{34} \\text{cm}^{-2} \\text{s}^{-1}$. The High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) programme is now developed for up to 5-7 times the design luminosity, with the goal of accumulating an integrated luminosity of $3000~\\text{fb}^{-1}$. In the HL-LHC phase, the increased radiation levels require a replacement of the front-end electronics of the LAr Calorimeters. Furthermore, the ATLAS trigger system is foreseen to increase the trigger accept rate by a factor 10 to 1 MHz and the trigger latency by a factor of 20 which requires a larger data volume to be buffered. Therefore, the LAr Calorimeter read-out will be exchanged with a new front-end and a high bandwidth back-end system for receiving data from all 186.000 channels at 40 MHz LHC bunch-crossing frequency and for off-detector buffering...

  10. Performance of the ATLAS hadronic end-cap calorimeter in beam tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowler, B.; Pinfold, J.; Soukup, J.; Vincter, M.; Cheplakov, A.; Datskov, V.; Fedorov, A.; Javadov, N.; Kalinnikov, V.; Kakurin, S.; Kazarinov, M.; Kukhtin, V.; Ladygin, E.; Lazarev, A.; Neganov, A.; Pisarev, I.; Serochkin, E.; Shilov, S.; Shalyugin, A.; Usov, Yu.; Ban, J.; Bruncko, D.; Chytracek, R.; Jusko, A.; Kladiva, E.; Strizenec, P.; Gaertner, V.; Hiebel, S.; Hohlfeld, M.; Jakobs, K.; Koepke, L.; Marschalkowski, E.; Meder, D.; Othegraven, R.; Schaefer, U.; Thomas, J.; Walkowiak, W.; Zeitnitz, C.; Leroy, C.; Mazini, R.; Mehdiyev, R.; Akimov, A.; Blagov, M.; Komar, A.; Snesarev, A.; Speransky, M.; Sulin, V.; Yakimenko, M.; Aderholz, M.; Brettel, H.; Cwienk, W.; Dulny, B.; Fent, J.; Fischer, A.; Haberer, W.; Huber, J.; Huber, R.; Karev, A.; Kiryunin, A.; Kobler, T.; Kurchaninov, L.; Laskus, H.; Lindenmayer, M.; Mooshofer, P.; Oberlack, H.; Salihagic, D.; Schacht, P.; Stenzel, H.; Striegel, D.; Tribanek, W.; Chekulaev, S.; Denisov, S.; Levitsky, M.; Minaenko, A.; Mitrofanov, G.; Moiseev, A.; Pleskatch, A.; Sytnik, V.; Benoit, P.; Hoyle, K.W.; Honma, A.; Maharaj, R.; Oram, C.J.; Pattyn, E.W.; Rosvick, M.; Sbarra, C.; Wellisch, H-P.; Wielers, M.; Birney, P.S.; Dobbs, M.; Fincke-Keeler, M.; Fortin, D.; Hodges, T.A.; Keeler, R.K.; Langstaff, R.; Lefebvre, M.; Lenckowski, M.; McPherson, R.; O'Neil, D.C.; Forbush, D.; Mockett, P.; Toevs, F.; Braun, H.M.; Thadome, J.

    2002-01-01

    Modules of the ATLAS liquid argon Hadronic End-cap Calorimeter (HEC) were exposed to beams of electrons, muons and pions in the energy range 6≤E≤200 GeV at the CERN SPS. A description of the HEC and of the beam test setup are given. Results on the energy response and resolution are presented and compared with simulations. The ATLAS energy resolution for jets in the end-cap region is inferred and meets the ATLAS requirements

  11. The digital readout system for the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lofstedt, Bo

    2000-01-01

    The CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter is a high-precision detector demanding innovative solutions in order to cope with the high dynamic range and the extreme high resolution of the detector as well as with the harsh environment created by the high level of radiation and the 4 T magnetic field. The readout system is partly placed within the detector and partly in the adjacent counting room. As the on-detector electronics must cope with the harsh environment the use of standard components is excluded for this part of the system. This paper describes the solutions adopted for the high-precision analogue stages, the A-D conversion, the optical transfer of the raw data from the on-detector part to the so-called Upper Level Readout, placed in the counting room, and the functionality of the latter. The ECAL is instrumental in providing information to the first-level trigger process and the generation of this information will be described. Also, the problem of reducing the raw data volume (6x10 12 bytes/s) to a level that can be handled by the central DAQ system (10 5 bytes/s) without degrading the physics performance will be discussed

  12. Energy Resolution of the Barrel of the CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Adzic, Petar; Almeida, Carlos; Almeida, Nuno; Anagnostou, Georgios; Anfreville, Marc; Anicin, Ivan; Antunovic, Zeljko; Auffray, Etiennette; Baccaro, Stefania; Baffioni, Stephanie; Baillon, Paul; Barney, David; Barone, Luciano; Barrillon, Pierre; Bartoloni, Alessandro; Beauceron, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Bell, Ken W; Benetta, Robert; Bercher, Michel; Berthon, Ursula; Betev, Botjo; Beuselinck, Raymond; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Bialas, Wojciech; Biino, Cristina; Bimbot, Stephane; Blaha, Jan; Bloch, Philippe; Blyth, Simon; Bordalo, Paula; Bornheim, Adolf; Bourotte, Jean; Britton, David; Brown, Robert M; Brunelière, Renaud; Busson, Philippe; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Cavallari, Francesca; Cerutti, Muriel; Chamont, David; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Charlot, Claude; Chatterji, Sudeep; Chen, E Augustine; Chipaux, Rémi; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Cockerill, David J A; Collard, Caroline; Combaret, Christophe; Cossutti, Fabio; Da Silva, J C; Dafinei, Ioan; Daskalakis, Georgios; Davatz, Giovanna; Decotigny, David; De Min, Alberto; Deiters, Konrad; Dejardin, Marc; Del Re, Daniele; Della Negra, Rodolphe; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Depasse, Pierre; Descamp, J; Dewhirst, Guy; Dhawan, Satish; Diemoz, Marcella; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Djambazov, Lubomir; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Drndarevic, Snezana; Dupanloup, Michel; Dzelalija, Mile; Ehlers, Jan; El-Mamouni, H; Peisert, Anna; Evangelou, Ioannis; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Fay, Jean; Ferri, Federico; Flower, Paul S; Franzoni, Giovanni; Funk, Wolfgang; Gaillac, Anne-Marie; Gargiulo, Corrado; Gascon-Shotkin, S; Geerebaert, Yannick; Gentit, François-Xavier; Ghezzi, Alessio; Gilly, Jean; Giolo-Nicollerat, Anne-Sylvie; Givernaud, Alain; Gninenko, Sergei; Go, Apollo; Godinovic, Nikola; Golubev, Nikolai; Golutvin, Igor; Gómez-Reino, Robert; Govoni, Pietro; Grahl, James; Gras, Philippe; Greenhalgh, Justin; Guillaud, Jean-Paul; Haguenauer, Maurice; Hamel De Montechenault, G; Hansen, Magnus; Heath, Helen F; Hill, Jack; Hobson, Peter R; Holmes, Daniel; Holzner, André; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Ille, Bernard; Ingram, Quentin; Jain, Adarsh; Jarry, Patrick; Jauffret, C; Jha, Manoj; Karar, M A; Kataria, Sushil Kumar; Katchanov, V A; Kennedy, Bruce W; Kloukinas, Kostas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Korjik, M; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Krpic, Dragomir; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Lebeau, Michel; Lecomte, Pierre; Lecoq, Paul; Lemaire, Marie-Claude; Lethuillier, Morgan; Lin, Willis; Lintern, A L; Lister, Alison; Litvin, V; Locci, Elizabeth; Lodge, Anthony B; Longo, Egidio; Loukas, Demetrios; Luckey, D; Lustermann, Werner; Lynch, Clare; MacKay, Catherine Kirsty; Malberti, Martina; Maletic, Dimitrije; Mandjavidze, Irakli; Manthos, Nikolaos; Markou, Athanasios; Mathez, Hervé; Mathieu, Antoine; Matveev, Viktor; Maurelli, Georges; Menichetti, Ezio; Meridiani, Paolo; Milenovic, Predrag; Milleret, Gérard; Miné, Philippe; Mur, Michel; Musienko, Yuri; Nardulli, Alessandro; Nash, Jordan; Neal, Homer; Nédélec, Patrick; Negri, Pietro; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Newman, Harvey B; Nikitenko, Alexander; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Ofierzynski, Radoslaw Adrian; Organtini, Giovanni; Paganini, Pascal; Paganoni, Marco; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paramatti, Riccardo; Pastrone, Nadia; Pauss, Felicitas; Puljak, Ivica; Pullia, Antonino; Puzovic, Jovan; Ragazzi, Stefano; Ramos, Sergio; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rander, John; Ranjan, Kirti; Ravat, Olivier; Raymond, M; Razis, Panos A; Redaelli, Nicola; Renker, Dieter; Reucroft, Steve; Reymond, Jean-Marc; Reynaud, Michel; Reynaud, Serge; Romanteau, Thierry; Rondeaux, Françoise; Rosowsky, André; Rovelli, Chiara; Rumerio, Paolo; Rusack, Roger; Rusakov, Sergey V; Ryan, Matthew John; Rykaczewski, Hans; Sakhelashvili, Tariel; Salerno, Roberto; Santos, Marcelino; Seez, Christopher; Semeniouk, Igor; Sharif, Omar; Sharp, Peter; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Shevchenko, Sergey; Shivpuri, Ram Krishen; Sidiropoulos, Georgios; Sillou, Daniel; Singovsky, Alexander; Sirois, Y; Sirunyan, Albert M; Smith, Brian; Smith, Vincent J; Sproston, Martin; Suter, Henry; Swain, John; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Takahashi, Maiko; Tapper, Robert J; Tcheremoukhine, Alexandre; Teixeira, Isabel; Teixeira, Joao Paulo; Teller, Olivier; Timlin, Claire; Triantis, F A; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Ueno, Koji; Uzunian, Andrey; Varela, Joao; Vaz-Cardoso, N; Verrecchia, Patrice; Vichoudis, Paschalis; Vigano, S; Viertel, Gert; Virdee, Tejinder; Vlassov, E; Wang, Minzu; Weinstein, Alan; Williams, Jennifer C; Yaselli, Ignacio; Zabi, Alexandre; Zamiatin, Nikolai; Zelepoukine, Serguei; Zeller, Michael E; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Jia-Wen; Zhang, Yawei; Zhu, Kejun; Zhu, Ren-Yuan

    2007-01-01

    The energy resolution of the barrel part of the CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter has been studied using electrons of 20 to 250 GeV in a test beam. The incident electron's energy was reconstructed by summing the energy measured in arrays of 3x3 or 5x5 channels. There was no significant amount of correlated noise observed within these arrays. For electrons incident at the centre of the studied 3x3 arrays of crystals, the mean stochastic term was measured to be 2.8% and the mean constant term to be 0.3%. The amount of the incident electron's energy which is contained within the array depends on its position of incidence. The variation of the containment with position is corrected for using the distribution of the measured energy within the array. For uniform illumination of a crystal with 120 GeV electrons a resolution of 0.5% was achieved. The energy resolution meets the design goal for the detector.

  13. Fine-mesh photodetectors for CMS Endcap Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Bajanov, N A; Gusev, Yu I; Klechneva, T Yu; Kovalev, A I; Levtchenko, L A; Moroz, F V; Seliverstov, D M; Kachanov, V A; Golubev, N A; Frolov, V A; Lukyanov, V N; Mamaeva, G A; Prilutskaya, D M

    2000-01-01

    The behaviour of fine-mesh vacuum phototriodes (VPTs) with the external diameters of 21 and 35 mm has been investigated in an axial magnetic field up to 4 T in view of their applications as readout devices for CMS Endcap Electromagnetic Calorimeter. The measured VPT parameters are: the photocathode's sensitivity and its homogeneity, the gain in zero and 4 T magnetic field at tilt angles corresponding to the pseudorapidity range of CMS ECAL Endcap 1.48-3.0 as a function of fine-mesh cell dimensions, excess noise factor and the stability of the photocathode response under the illumination by light emission diodes (LED) and the irradiation by 14 MeV neutrons. Phototriodes with 100 lines per mm fine-mesh and 25 mm external diameter are found to be the best candidates for coupling with rear PbWO/sub 4/ crystals by dimensions of 30*30 mm, proposed to be used in CMS ECAL Endcaps. VPTs provide a gain of the order (6-8) in a 4 T magnetic field and an excess noise factor of 2-2.5 under illumination of a full photocatho...

  14. Recent progress of Geant4 electromagnetic physics for calorimeter simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incerti, S.; Ivanchenko, V.; Novak, M.

    2018-02-01

    We report on recent progress in the Geant4 electromagnetic (EM) physics sub-packages. New interfaces and models introduced recently in Geant4 10.3 are already used in LHC applications and may be useful for any type of simulation. Additional developments for EM physics are available with the new public version Geant4 10.4 (December, 2017). Important developments for calorimetry applications were carried out for the modeling of single and multiple scattering of charged particles. Corrections to scattering of positrons and to sampling of displacement have recently been added to the Geant4 default Urban model. The fully theory-based Goudsmit-Saunderson (GS) model for electron/positron multiple scattering was recently reviewed and a new improved version is available in Geant4 10.4. For testing purposes for novel calorimeters we provide a configuration of electron scattering based on the GS model or on the single scattering model (SS) instead of the Urban model. In addition, the GS model with Mott corrections enabled is included in the option4 EM physics constructor. This EM configuration provides the most accurate results for scattering of electrons and positrons.

  15. ATLAS LAr Calorimeter Trigger Electronics Phase-1 Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) scheduled for a shut-down period of 2019-2020, referred to as the Phase-I upgrade, will increase the instantaneous luminosity to about three times the design value. Since the current ATLAS trigger system does not allow sufficient increase of the trigger rate, an improvement of the trigger system is required. The Liquid Argon (LAr) Calorimeter read-out will therefore be modified to use digital trigger signals with a higher spatial granularity in order to improve the identification efficiencies of electrons, photons, tau, jets and missing energy, at high background rejection rates at the Level-1 trigger. The new trigger signals will be arranged in 34000 so-called Super Cells which achieves 5-10 times better granularity than the trigger towers currently used and allows an improved background rejection. The readout of the trigger signals will process the signal of the Super Cells at every LHC bunch-crossing at 12-bit precision and a frequency of 40 MHz. The data will...

  16. Upgrade of the ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Wessels, M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger (L1Calo) of the ATLAS experiment has been operating well since the start of LHC data taking, and played a major role in the Higgs boson discovery. To face the new challenges posed by the upcoming increases of the LHC proton beam energy and luminosity, a series of upgrades is planned for L1Calo. The initial upgrade phase in 2013-14 includes substantial improvements to the analogue and digital signal processing to allow more sophisticated digital filters for energy and timing measurement, as well as compensate for pile-up and baseline shifting effects. Two existing digital algorithm processor subsystems will receive substantial hardware and firmware upgrades to increase the real-time data path bandwidth, allowing topological information to be transmitted and processed at Level-1. An entirely new subsystem, the Level-1 Topological Processor, will receive real-time data from both the upgraded L1Calo and Level-1 Muon Trigger to perform trigger algorithms based on entire event topolo...

  17. End-cap calorimeter performance and identification of the t-channel single top quark process with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Cojocaru, Claudiu D

    2008-01-01

    The LHC collider will provide proton-proton collisions with 14 TeV centre of mass energy and an expected peak luminosity of 10 34 cm -2 s -1 . ATLAS is one of the multipurpose detectors that will be used for particles detection and measurement of properties. The first part of this thesis focuses on the study of the response of the ATLAS electromagnetic and hadronic end-cap calorimeters (EMEC and HEC, respectively) in a beam test performed in the summer of 2002. For the EMEC, the dependence of the measured signal versus the beam energy was found to be linear and an electromagnetic conversion constant [Special characters omitted.] = (0.446 ± 0.009) MeV/nA was calculated. The energy resolution for the EMEC was [Special characters omitted.] = [Special characters omitted.] ⊕ (0.4 ± 0.1)%, while for the HEC it was [Special characters omitted.] = [Special characters omitted.] ⊕ (3.0 ± 0.2)%, where the reconstructed energy, E reco , is in GeV. These results feed back into the tuning of the calorimeter Monte Ca...

  18. A cosmic ray muon recorded by the ATLAS barrel tile calorimeter at 18:30, on 21 June 2005.

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    The ATLAS barrel tile calorimeter has recorded its first events underground using a cosmic ray trigger, as part of the detector commissioning programme. The calorimeter has three layers and a pointing geometry. The light trapezoids represent the energy deposited in the tiles of the calorimeter depicted as a thick disk.

  19. Improving jet substructure in ATLAS using unified track and calorimeter information

    CERN Document Server

    Schramm, Steven; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Jet substructure techniques play a critical role in ATLAS in searches for new physics, are increasingly important in measurements of the Standard Model, and are being utilized in the trigger. To date, ATLAS has mostly focused on the use of calorimeter-based jet substructure, which works well for jets initiated by particles with low to moderate boost, but which lacks the angular resolution needed to resolve the desired substructure in the highly-boosted regime. We will present a novel approach designed to mitigate the calorimeter angular resolution limitations, thus providing superior performance to prior methods. Similar to previous methods, the superior angular resolution of the tracker is combined with information from the calorimeters. However, the new method is fundamentally different, as it correlates low-level objects as tracks and individual energy deposits in the calorimeter, before running any jet finding algorithms. The resulting objects are used as inputs to jet reconstruction, and in turn result i...

  20. ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters Operation and Data Quality During the 2016 Proton Run

    CERN Document Server

    Pascuzzi, Vincent; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    ATLAS operated with high efficiency during the 2016 pp data-taking period with 25ns bunch spacing at ⎷s = 13 TeV, recording approximately 34 fb-1 of good physics data. The Liquid Argon (LAr) Calorimeters contributed to to this effort by providing a high data quality efficiency. This poster highlights the overall status, operations, data quality and performance of the LAr Calorimeters in 2016.

  1. Calibration and Performance of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter during the LHC Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Faltova, Jana; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) covers the central part of the ATLAS experiment and provides important information for the reconstruction of hadrons, jets, hadronic decays of tau leptons and missing transverse energy. This sampling hadronic calorimeter uses steel plates as absorber and scintillating tiles as active medium. The light produced by charged particles in tiles is transmitted by wavelength-shifting fibres to photomultipliers, where it is converted to electric pulses and further processed by the on-detector electronics located in the outermost part of the calorimeter. The TileCal calibration system comprises Cesium radioactive sources, laser, charge injection elements and an integrator based readout system. Combined information from all systems allows to monitor and equalize the calorimeter response at each stage of the signal production, from scintillation light to digitisation. The performance of the calorimeter is established with the large sample of the proton-proton collisions. Isolated hadrons a...

  2. Calibration and Performance of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter During the LHC Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Cerda Alberich, Leonor; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the hadronic sampling calorimeter of ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). TileCal uses iron absorbers and scintillators as active material and it covers the central region |η| < 1.7. Jointly with the other calorimeters it is designed for measurements of hadrons, jets, tau-particles and missing transverse energy. It also assists in muon identification. TileCal is regularly monitored and calibrated by several different calibration systems: a Cs radioactive source that illuminates the scintillating tiles directly, a laser light system to directly test the PMT response, and a charge injection system (CIS) for the front-end electronics. These calibrations systems, in conjunction with data collected during proton-proton collisions, provide extensive monitoring of the instrument and a means for equalizing the calorimeter response at each stage of the signal propagation. The performance of the calorimeter has been established with cosmic ray muons and the large sa...

  3. Calibration and Performance of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter During the LHC Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00221190; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) covers the central part of the ATLAS experiment and provides important information for the reconstruction of hadrons, jets, hadronic decays of tau leptons and missing transverse energy. This sampling hadronic calorimeter uses steel plates as absorber and scintillating tiles as active medium. The light produced by charged particles in tiles is transmitted by wavelength-shifting fibres to photomultipliers, where it is converted to electric pulses and further processed by the on-detector electronics located in the outermost part of the calorimeter. The TileCal calibration system comprises Cesium radioactive sources, laser, charge injection elements and an integrator based readout system. Combined information from all systems allows to monitor and equalize the calorimeter response at each stage of the signal production, from scintillation light to digitisation. The performance of the calorimeter has been established with cosmic ray muons and the large sample of the proton-proton col...

  4. Operation and performance of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter in Run 1

    CERN Document Server

    Aaboud, Morad; ATLAS Collaboration; Abbott, Brad; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abeloos, Baptiste; Abhayasinghe, Deshan Kavishka; Abidi, Syed Haider; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abraham, Nicola; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adachi, Shunsuke; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adelman, Jahred; Adersberger, Michael; Adiguzel, Aytul; Adye, Tim; Affolder, Tony; Afik, Yoav; Agheorghiesei, Catalin; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Akatsuka, Shunichi; Akerstedt, Henrik; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akilli, Ece; Akimov, Andrei; Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Albert, Justin; Albicocco, Pietro; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Alderweireldt, Sara; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Ali, Babar; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Alkire, Steven Patrick; Allaire, Corentin; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allen, Benjamin William; Allport, Phillip; Aloisio, Alberto; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Alshehri, Azzah Aziz; Alstaty, Mahmoud; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Álvarez Piqueras, Damián; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amadio, Brian Thomas; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Ambroz, Luca; Amelung, Christoph; Amidei, Dante; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amoroso, Simone; Amrouche, Cherifa Sabrina; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, John Kenneth; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Anelli, Christopher Ryan; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Angelozzi, Ivan; Angerami, Aaron; Anisenkov, Alexey; Annovi, Alberto; Antel, Claire; Anthony, Matthew; Antonelli, Mario; Antrim, Daniel Joseph; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Arabidze, Giorgi; Arai, Yasuo; Araque, Juan Pedro; Araujo Ferraz, Victor; Araujo Pereira, Rodrigo; Arce, Ayana; Ardell, Rose Elisabeth; Arduh, Francisco Anuar; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Armbruster, Aaron James; Armitage, Lewis James; Armstrong III, Alexander; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnold, Hannah; Arratia, Miguel; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Artz, Sebastian; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ashkenazi, Adi; Asimakopoulou, Eleni Myrto; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Atkin, Ryan Justin; Atkinson, Markus; Atlay, Naim Bora; Auerbach, Benjamin; Augsten, Kamil; Avolio, Giuseppe; Avramidou, Rachel Maria; Axen, Bradley; Ayoub, Mohamad Kassem; Azuelos, Georges; Baas, Alessandra; Baca, Matthew John; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bahmani, Marzieh; Bahrasemani, Sina; Bailey, Adam; Baines, John; Bajic, Milena; Bakalis, Christos; Baker, Oliver Keith; Bakker, Pepijn Johannes; Bakshi Gupta, Debottam; Baldin, Evgenii; Balek, Petr; Balli, Fabrice; Balunas, William Keaton; Banas, Elzbieta; Bandyopadhyay, Anjishnu; Banerjee, Swagato; Bannoura, Arwa A E; Barak, Liron; Barbe, William Mickael; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Barillari, Teresa; Barisits, Martin-Stefan; Barkeloo, Jason Tyler Colt; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnea, Rotem; Barnes, Sarah Louise; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Barnovska-Blenessy, Zuzana; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barranco Navarro, Laura; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartos, Pavol; Basalaev, Artem; Bassalat, Ahmed; Bates, Richard; Batista, Santiago Juan; Batlamous, Souad; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Marco; Bauce, Matteo; Bauer, Florian; Bauer, Kevin Thomas; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beacham, James; Beattie, Michael David; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans~Peter; Beck, Helge Christoph; Becker, Kathrin; Becker, Maurice; Becot, Cyril; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bedognetti, Matteo; Bee, Christopher; Beermann, Thomas; Begalli, Marcia; Begel, Michael; Behera, Arabinda; Behr, Janna Katharina; Bell, Andrew Stuart; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Belyaev, Nikita; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bender, Michael; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez, Jose; Benjamin, Douglas; Benoit, Mathieu; Bensinger, James; Bentvelsen, Stan; Beresford, Lydia; Beretta, Matteo; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Bergsten, Laura Jean; Beringer, Jürg; Berlendis, Simon; Bernard, Nathan Rogers; Bernardi, Gregorio; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertoli, Gabriele; Bertram, Iain Alexander; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia Bylund, Olga; Bessner, Martin Florian; Besson, Nathalie; Bethani, Agni; Bethke, Siegfried; Betti, Alessandra; Bevan, Adrian John; Beyer, Julien-christopher; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Biebel, Otmar; Biedermann, Dustin; Bielski, Rafal; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesuz, Nicolo Vladi; Biglietti, Michela; Billoud, Thomas Remy Victor; Bindi, Marcello; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biondi, Silvia; Bisanz, Tobias; Biswal, Jyoti Prakash; Bittrich, Carsten; Bjergaard, David Martin; Black, James; Black, Kevin; Blair, Robert; Blazek, Tomas; Bloch, Ingo; Blocker, Craig; Blue, Andrew; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Blunier, Sylvain; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Boerner, Daniela; Bogavac, Danijela; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bohm, Christian; Boisvert, Veronique; Bokan, Petar; Bold, Tomasz; Boldyrev, Alexey; Bolz, Arthur Eugen; Bomben, Marco; Bona, Marcella; Bonilla, Johan Sebastian; Boonekamp, Maarten; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Bortoletto, Daniela; Bortolotto, Valerio; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Bossio Sola, Jonathan David; Bouaouda, Khalil; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; Bourdarios, Claire; Boutle, Sarah Kate; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bozson, Adam James; Bracinik, Juraj; Brahimi, Nihal; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Braren, Frued; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Breaden Madden, William Dmitri; Brendlinger, Kurt; Brennan, Amelia Jean; Brenner, Lydia; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Brickwedde, Bernard; Briglin, Daniel Lawrence; Britton, Dave; Britzger, Daniel; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, Timothy; Brooks, William; Brost, Elizabeth; Broughton, James; Brown, Heather; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruni, Lucrezia Stella; Bruno, Salvatore; Brunt, Benjamin; Bruschi, Marco; Bruscino, Nello; Bryant, Patrick; Bryngemark, Lene; Buanes, Trygve; Buat, Quentin; Buchholz, Peter; Buckley, Andrew; Budagov, Ioulian; Buehrer, Felix; Bugge, Magnar Kopangen; Bulekov, Oleg; Bullock, Daniel; Burch, Tyler James; Burdin, Sergey; Burgard, Carsten Daniel; Burger, Angela Maria; Burghgrave, Blake; Burka, Klaudia; Burke, Stephen; Burmeister, Ingo; Burr, Jonathan Thomas Peter; Busato, Emmanuel; Büscher, Daniel; Büscher, Volker; Buschmann, Eric; Bussey, Peter; Butler, John; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Butti, Pierfrancesco; Buttinger, William; Buzatu, Adrian; Buzykaev, Aleksey; Cabras, Grazia; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cai, Huacheng; Cairo, Valentina; Cakir, Orhan; Calace, Noemi; Calafiura, Paolo; Calandri, Alessandro; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Callea, Giuseppe; Caloba, Luiz; Calvente Lopez, Sergio; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Calvet, Thomas Philippe; Calvetti, Milene; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarda, Stefano; Camarri, Paolo; Cameron, David; Caminal Armadans, Roger; Camincher, Clement; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Camplani, Alessandra; Campoverde, Angel; Canale, Vincenzo; Cano Bret, Marc; Cantero, Josu; Cao, Tingting; Cao, Yumeng; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capua, Marcella; Carbone, Ryne Michael; Cardarelli, Roberto; Cardillo, Fabio; Carli, Ina; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carlson, Benjamin Taylor; Carminati, Leonardo; Carney, Rebecca; Caron, Sascha; Carquin, Edson; Carrá, Sonia; Carrillo-Montoya, German D; Carrio Argos, Fernando; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Casha, Albert Francis; Casolino, Mirkoantonio; Casper, David William; Castelijn, Remco; Castillo, Florencia Luciana; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Caudron, Julien; Cavaliere, Viviana; Cavallaro, Emanuele; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Celebi, Emre; Ceradini, Filippo; Cerda Alberich, Leonor; Santiago Cerqueira, Augusto; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cervelli, Alberto; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chan, Stephen Kam-wah; Chan, Wing Sheung; Chan, Yat Long; Chang, Philip; Chapman, John Derek; Charlton, David; Chau, Chav Chhiv; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Che, Siinn; Chegwidden, Andrew; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Cheng; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Jing; Chen, Jue; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Shion; Chen, Xin; Chen, Ye; Chen, Yu-Heng; Cheng, Hok Chuen; Cheng, Huajie; Cheplakov, Alexander; Cheremushkina, Evgeniya; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Cheu, Elliott; Cheung, Kingman; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiarella, Vitaliano; Chiarelli, Giorgio; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chitan, Adrian; Chiu, I-huan; Chiu, Yu Him Justin; Chizhov, Mihail; Choi, Kyungeon; Chomont, Arthur Rene; Chouridou, Sofia; Chow, Yun Sang; Christodoulou, Valentinos; Chu, Ming Chung; Chudoba, Jiri; Chuinard, Annabelle Julia; Chwastowski, Janusz; Chytka, Ladislav; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Cioară, Irina Antonela; Ciocio, Alessandra; Ciodaro Xavier, Thiago; Cirotto, Francesco; Citron, Zvi Hirsh; Citterio, Mauro; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Michael; Clark, Philip James; Clement, Christophe; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Coimbra, Artur Emanuel; Colasurdo, Luca; Cole, Brian; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collot, Johann; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Connell, Simon Henry; Connelly, Ian; Constantinescu, Serban; Conventi, Francesco; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cormier, Felix; Cormier, Kyle James Read; Corradi, Massimo; Corrigan, Eric Edward; Corriveau, François; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Cottin, Giovanna; Cowan, Glen; Cox, Brian; Crane, Jonathan; Cranmer, Kyle; Crawley, Samuel Joseph; Creager, Rachael; Cree, Graham; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Crescioli, Francesco; Cristinziani, Markus; Croft, Vince; Crosetti, Giovanni; Cueto, Ana; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Cukierman, Aviv Ruben; Curatolo, Maria; Cúth, Jakub; Czekierda, Sabina; Czodrowski, Patrick; D'amen, Gabriele; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Eramo, Louis; D'Onofrio, Monica; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, Mario Jose; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dado, Tomas; Dahbi, Salah-eddine; Dai, Tiesheng; Dallaire, Frederick; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Damp, Johannes Frederic; Dandoy, Jeffrey; Daneri, Maria Florencia; Dang, Nguyen Phuong; Dann, Nick; Danninger, Matthias; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darmora, Smita; Dartsi, Olympia; Dattagupta, Aparajita; Daubney, Thomas; Davey, Will; David, Claire; Davidek, Tomas; Davis, Douglas; Davydov, Yuri; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Benedetti, Abraham; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De la Torre, Hector; De Lorenzi, Francesco; De Maria, Antonio; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vasconcelos Corga, Kevin; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dedovich, Dmitri; Dehghanian, Nooshin; Del Gaudio, Michela; Del Peso, Jose; Delgove, David; Deliot, Frederic; Delitzsch, Chris Malena; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delporte, Charles; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; DeMarco, David; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Denisov, Sergey; Denysiuk, Denys; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Deterre, Cecile; Dette, Karola; Devesa, Maria Roberta; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Di Bello, Francesco Armando; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Clemente, William Kennedy; Di Donato, Camilla; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Petrillo, Karri Folan; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Di Valentino, David; Diaconu, Cristinel; Diamond, Miriam; Dias, Flavia; Dias do Vale, Tiago; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Dickinson, Jennet; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Díez Cornell, Sergio; Dimitrievska, Aleksandra; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; Djuvsland, Julia Isabell; Barros do Vale, Maria Aline; Dobre, Monica; Dodsworth, David; Doglioni, Caterina; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolezal, Zdenek; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Doyle, Tony; Drechsler, Eric; Dreyer, Etienne; Dreyer, Timo; Dris, Manolis; Du, Yanyan; Duarte-Campderros, Jorge; Dubinin, Filipp; Dubreuil, Arnaud; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Ducourthial, Audrey; Ducu, Otilia Anamaria; Duda, Dominik; Dudarev, Alexey; Dudder, Andreas Christian; Duffield, Emily Marie; Duflot, Laurent; Dührssen, Michael; Dülsen, Carsten; Dumancic, Mirta; Dumitriu, Ana Elena; Duncan, Anna Kathryn; Dunford, Monica; Duperrin, Arnaud; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Düren, Michael; Durglishvili, Archil; Duschinger, Dirk; Dutta, Baishali; Duvnjak, Damir; Dyndal, Mateusz; Dysch, Samuel; Dziedzic, Bartosz Sebastian; Eckardt, Christoph; Ecker, Katharina Maria; Edgar, Ryan Christopher; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; El Kosseifi, Rima; Ellajosyula, Venugopal; Ellert, Mattias; Ellinghaus, Frank; Elliot, Alison; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Enari, Yuji; Ennis, Joseph Stanford; Epland, Matthew Berg; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Errede, Steven; Escalier, Marc; Escobar, Carlos; Esposito, Bellisario; Estrada Pastor, Oscar; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evans, Hal; Ezhilov, Alexey; Ezzi, Mohammed; Fabbri, Federica; Fabbri, Laura; Fabiani, Veronica; Facini, Gabriel; Faisca Rodrigues Pereira, Rui Miguel; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Falke, Peter Johannes; Falke, Saskia; Faltova, Jana; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farina, Edoardo Maria; Farooque, Trisha; Farrell, Steven; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassi, Farida; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Faucci Giannelli, Michele; Favareto, Andrea; Fawcett, William James; Fayard, Louis; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Wojciech; Feickert, Matthew; Feigl, Simon; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Feng, Minyu; Fenton, Michael James; Fenyuk, Alexander; Feremenga, Last; Ferrando, James; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filthaut, Frank; Finelli, Kevin Daniel; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Fischer, Cora; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Flaschel, Nils; Fleck, Ivor; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fletcher, Rob Roy MacGregor; Flick, Tobias; Flierl, Bernhard Matthias; Flores, Lucas Macrorie; Flores Castillo, Luis; Fomin, Nikolai; Forcolin, Giulio Tiziano; Formica, Andrea; Förster, Fabian Alexander; Forti, Alessandra; Foster, Andrew Geoffrey; Fournier, Daniel; Fox, Harald; Fracchia, Silvia; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchini, Matteo; Franchino, Silvia; Francis, David; Franconi, Laura; Franklin, Melissa; Frate, Meghan; Fraternali, Marco; Freeborn, David; Fressard-Batraneanu, Silvia; Freund, Benjamin; Spolidoro Freund, Werner; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fusayasu, Takahiro; Fuster, Juan; Gabizon, Ofir; Gabrielli, Alessandro; Gabrielli, Andrea; Gach, Grzegorz; Gadatsch, Stefan; Gadow, Philipp; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Louis Guillaume; Galea, Cristina; Galhardo, Bruno; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galster, Gorm Aske Gram Krohn; Gamboa Goni, Rodrigo; Gan, KK; Ganguly, Sanmay; Gao, Yanyan; Gao, Yongsheng; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; García Pascual, Juan Antonio; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garonne, Vincent; Gasnikova, Ksenia; Gaudiello, Andrea; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gavrilyuk, Alexander; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Gee, Norman; Geisen, Jannik; Geisen, Marc; Geisler, Manuel Patrice; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Geng, Cong; Gentile, Simonetta; Gentsos, Christos; George, Simon; Gerbaudo, Davide; Gessner, Gregor; Ghasemi, Sara; Ghasemi Bostanabad, Meisam; Ghneimat, Mazuza; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giangiacomi, Nico; Giannetti, Paola; Gibson, Stephen; Gignac, Matthew; Gillberg, Dag; Gilles, Geoffrey; Gingrich, Douglas; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giorgi, Filippo Maria; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giromini, Paolo; Giugliarelli, Gilberto; Giugni, Danilo; Giuli, Francesco; Giulini, Maddalena; Gkaitatzis, Stamatios; Gkialas, Ioannis; Gkougkousis, Evangelos Leonidas; Gkountoumis, Panagiotis; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glaysher, Paul; Glazov, Alexandre; Goblirsch-Kolb, Maximilian; Godlewski, Jan; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golubkov, Dmitry; Gomes, Agostinho; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Gama, Rafael; Gonella, Giulia; Gonella, Laura; Gongadze, Alexi; Gonnella, Francesco; Gonski, Julia; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Goshaw, Alfred; Gössling, Claus; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gottardo, Carlo Alberto; Goudet, Christophe Raymond; Goujdami, Driss; Goussiou, Anna; Govender, Nicolin; Goy, Corinne; Gozani, Eitan; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Gradin, Per Olov Joakim; Graham, Emily Charlotte; Gramling, Johanna; Gramstad, Eirik; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Gratchev, Vadim; Gravila, Paul Mircea; Gray, Chloe; Gray, Heather; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Grefe, Christian; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Grevtsov, Kirill; Griffiths, Justin; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Groh, Sabrina; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Grossi, Giulio Cornelio; Grout, Zara Jane; Grud, Christopher; Grummer, Aidan; Guan, Liang; Guan, Wen; Guenther, Jaroslav; Guerguichon, Antinea; Guescini, Francesco; Guest, Daniel; Gugel, Ralf; Gui, Bin; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Gumpert, Christian; Guo, Jun; Guo, Wen; Guo, Yicheng; Guo, Ziyu; Gupta, Ruchi; Gurbuz, Saime; Gurriana, Luis; Gustavino, Giuliano; Gutelman, Benjamin Jacque; Gutierrez, Phillip; Gutschow, Christian; Guyot, Claude; Guzik, Marcin Pawel; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Hönle, Andreas; Haas, Andy; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Haddad, Nacim; Hadef, Asma; Hageböck, Stephan; Hagihara, Mutsuto; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haleem, Mahsana; Haley, Joseph; Halladjian, Garabed; Hallewell, Gregory David; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamity, Guillermo Nicolas; Han, Kunlin; Han, Liang; Han, Shuo; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hance, Michael; Handl, David Michael; Haney, Bijan; Hankache, Robert; Hanke, Paul; Hansen, Eva; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Maike Christina; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hard, Andrew; Harenberg, Torsten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harrison, Paul Fraser; Hartmann, Nikolai Marcel; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hasib, Ahmed; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauser, Reiner; Hauswald, Lorenz; Havener, Laura Brittany; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hayden, Daniel; Hayes, Christopher; Hays, Chris; Hays, Jonathan Michael; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Heath, Matthew Peter; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heer, Sebastian; Heidegger, Kim Katrin; Heilman, Jesse; Heim, Sarah; Heim, Timon; Heinemann, Beate; Heinrich, Jochen Jens; Heinrich, Lukas; Heinz, Christian; Hejbal, Jiri; Helary, Louis; Held, Alexander; Hellesund, Simen; Hellman, Sten; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, Robert; Heng, Yang; Henkelmann, Steffen; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Herbert, Geoffrey Henry; Herde, Hannah; Herget, Verena; Medina Hernandez, Carlos; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herr, Holger; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Herwig, Theodor Christian; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hetherly, Jeffrey Wayne; Higashino, Satoshi; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hildebrand, Kevin; Hill, Ewan; Hill, John; Hill, Kurt Keys; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillier, Stephen; Hils, Maximilian; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hirose, Minoru; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hiti, Bojan; Hladik, Ondrej; Hlaluku, Dingane Reward; Hoad, Xanthe; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoenig, Friedrich; Hohn, David; Hohov, Dmytro; Holmes, Tova Ray; Holzbock, Michael; Homann, Michael; Honda, Shunsuke; Honda, Takuya; Hong, Tae Min; Hooberman, Benjamin Henry; Hopkins, Walter; Horii, Yasuyuki; Horn, Philipp; Horton, Arthur James; Horyn, Lesya Anna; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hostiuc, Alexandru; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howarth, James; Hoya, Joaquin; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hrdinka, Julia; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hrynevich, Aliaksei; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Qipeng; Hu, Shuyang; Huang, Yanping; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huebner, Michael; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Huhtinen, Mika; Hunter, Robert Francis Holub; Huo, Peng; Hupe, Andre Marc; Hurwitz, Martina; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Hyneman, Rachel; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Idrissi, Zineb; Iengo, Paolo; Ignazzi, Rosanna; Igonkina, Olga; Iguchi, Ryunosuke; Iizawa, Tomoya; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikeno, Masahiro; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Iltzsche, Franziska; Introzzi, Gianluca; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Isacson, Max Fredrik; Ishijima, Naoki; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Ito, Fumiaki; Iturbe Ponce, Julia Mariana; Iuppa, Roberto; Ivina, Anna; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jabbar, Samina; Jacka, Petr; Jackson, Paul; Jacobs, Ruth Magdalena; Jain, Vivek; Jäkel, Gunnar; Jakobi, Katharina Bianca; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansky, Roland; Janssen, Jens; Janus, Michel; Janus, Piotr Andrzej; Jarlskog, Göran; Javadov, Namig; Javůrek, Tomáš; Javurkova, Martina; Jeanneau, Fabien; Jeanty, Laura; Jejelava, Juansher; Jelinskas, Adomas; Jen-La Plante, Imai; Jenni, Peter; Jeong, Jihyun; Jeske, Carl; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Ji, Haoshuang; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Hai; Jiang, Yi; Jiang, Zihao; Jiggins, Stephen; Jimenez Morales, Fabricio Andres; Jimenez Pena, Javier; Jin, Shan; Jinaru, Adam; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Jivan, Harshna; Johansson, Per; Johns, Kenneth; Johnson, Christian; Johnson, William Joseph; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Roger; Jones, Samuel David; Jones, Sarah; Jones, Tim; Jongmanns, Jan; Jorge, Pedro; Jovicevic, Jelena; Ju, Xiangyang; Junggeburth, Johannes Josef; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kaji, Toshiaki; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalderon, Charles William; Kaluza, Adam; Kama, Sami; Kamenshchikov, Andrey; Kanjir, Luka; Kano, Yuya; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kaplan, Laser Seymour; Kar, Deepak; Kareem, Mohammad Jawad; Karentzos, Efstathios; Karpov, Sergey; Karpova, Zoya; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kasahara, Kota; Kashif, Lashkar; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Kato, Chikuma; Katzy, Judith; Kawade, Kentaro; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kay, Ellis; Kazanin, Vassili; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keller, John; Kellermann, Edgar; Kempster, Jacob Julian; Kendrick, James; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Keyes, Robert; Khader, Mazin; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khanov, Alexander; Kharlamov, Alexey; Kharlamova, Tatyana; Khodinov, Alexander; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kido, Shogo; Kiehn, Moritz; Kilby, Callum; Kim, Shinhong; Kim, Young-Kee; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver Maria; King, Barry; Kirchmeier, David; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kitali, Vincent; Kivernyk, Oleh; Kladiva, Eduard; Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, Thorwald; Klein, Matthew Henry; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klingl, Tobias; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klitzner, Felix Fidelio; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Kobayashi, Aine; Kobayashi, Dai; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Köhler, Nicolas Maximilian; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolb, Mathis; Koletsou, Iro; Kondo, Takahiko; Kondrashova, Nataliia; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinides, Vasilis; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Konya, Balazs; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Kopikov, Sergey; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kosek, Tomas; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Koulouris, Aimilianos; Kourkoumeli-Charalampidi, Athina; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kourlitis, Evangelos; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Kowalewska, Anna Bozena; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozakai, Chihiro; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasnopevtsev, Dimitrii; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Krauss, Dominik; Kremer, Jakub Andrzej; Kretzschmar, Jan; Krieger, Peter; Krizka, Karol; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Jiri; Kroll, Joe; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Krumnack, Nils; Kruse, Mark; Kubota, Takashi; Kuday, Sinan; Kuechler, Jan Thomas; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuger, Fabian; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kukla, Romain; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kulinich, Yakov Petrovich; Kuna, Marine; Kunigo, Takuto; Kupco, Alexander; Kupfer, Tobias; Kuprash, Oleg; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurchaninov, Leonid; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kurth, Matthew Glenn; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; Kwan, Tony; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rosa Navarro, Jose Luis; La Rotonda, Laura; La Ruffa, Francesco; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lack, David Philip John; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Lammers, Sabine; Lampl, Walter; Lançon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lanfermann, Marie Christine; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lange, Jörn Christian; Langenberg, Robert Johannes; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Lanza, Agostino; Lapertosa, Alessandro; Laplace, Sandrine; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Lasagni Manghi, Federico; Lassnig, Mario; Lau, Tak Shun; Laudrain, Antoine; Law, Alexander; Laycock, Paul; Lazzaroni, Massimo; Le, Brian; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Quilleuc, Eloi; LeBlanc, Matthew Edgar; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne; Lee, Claire Alexandra; Lee, Graham Richard; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Benoit; Lefebvre, Michel; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Leight, William Axel; Leisos, Antonios; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatjana; Lenzi, Bruno; Leone, Robert; Leone, Sandra; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Lerner, Giuseppe; Leroy, Claude; Les, Robert; Lesage, Arthur; Lester, Christopher; Levchenko, Mikhail; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Lewis, Dave; Li, Bing; Li, Changqiao; Li, Haifeng; Li, Liang; Li, Qi; Li, Quanyin; Li, Shu; Li, Xingguo; Li, Yichen; Liang, Zhijun; Liberti, Barbara; Liblong, Aaron; Lie, Ki; Liem, Sebastian; Limosani, Antonio; Lin, Chiao-ying; Lin, Kuan-yu; Lin, Tai-Hua; Linck, Rebecca Anne; Lindquist, Brian Edward; Lionti, Anthony; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Little, Jared David; Liu, Bingxuan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Hao; Liu, Hongbin; Liu, Jesse; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Peilian; Liu, Yang; Liu, Yanlin; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo, Cheuk Yee; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina Maria; Loch, Peter; Loebinger, Fred; Loesle, Alena; Loew, Kevin Michael; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Long, Brian Alexander; Long, Jonathan David; Long, Robin Eamonn; Longo, Luigi; Looper, Kristina Anne; Lopez, Jorge; Lopez Paz, Ivan; Lopez Solis, Alvaro; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Lösel, Philipp Jonathan; Lou, XinChou; Lou, Xuanhong; Lounis, Abdenour; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lozano Bahilo, Jose Julio; Lu, Haonan; Lu, Nan; Lu, Yun-Ju; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Luedtke, Christian; Luehring, Frederick; Luise, Ilaria; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lundberg, Olof; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lutz, Margaret Susan; Luzi, Pierre Marc; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Lyu, Feng; Lyubushkin, Vladimir; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Ma, Yanhui; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Macdonald, Calum Michael; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Madaffari, Daniele; Madar, Romain; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Madysa, Nico; Maeda, Junpei; Maeland, Steffen; Maeno, Tadashi; Maevskiy, Artem; Magerl, Veronika; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maier, Thomas; Maio, Amélia; Majersky, Oliver; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Claire; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Mancini, Giada; Mandić, Igor; Maneira, José; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany; Mankinen, Katja Hannele; Mann, Alexander; Manousos, Athanasios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mansour, Jason Dhia; Mantoani, Matteo; Manzoni, Stefano; Marceca, Gino; March, Luis; Marchese, Luigi; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marin Tobon, Cesar Augusto; Marjanovic, Marija; Marley, Daniel; Marroquim, Fernando; Marshall, Zach; Martensson, Mikael; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Christopher Blake; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Mario; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martoiu, Victor Sorin; Martyniuk, Alex; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Mason, Lara Hannan; Massa, Lorenzo; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mättig, Peter; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Maznas, Ioannis; Mazza, Simone Michele; Mc Fadden, Neil Christopher; Mc Goldrick, Garrin; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Thomas; McClymont, Laurie; McDonald, Emily; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McKay, Madalyn; McLean, Kayla; McMahon, Steve; McNamara, Peter Charles; McNicol, Christopher John; McPherson, Robert; Mdhluli, Joyful Elma; Meadows, Zachary Alden; Meehan, Samuel; Megy, Theo; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meideck, Thomas; Meirose, Bernhard; Melini, Davide; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Mellenthin, Johannes Donatus; Melo, Matej; Meloni, Federico; Melzer, Alexander; Menary, Stephen Burns; Meng, Lingxin; Meng, Xiangting; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mergelmeyer, Sebastian; Merlassino, Claudia; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer Zu Theenhausen, Hanno; Miano, Fabrizio; Middleton, Robin; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Milesi, Marco; Milic, Adriana; Millar, Declan Andrew; Miller, David; Miller, Robert; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Minaenko, Andrey; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Minegishi, Yuji; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirto, Alessandro; Mistry, Khilesh; Mitani, Takashi; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Miucci, Antonio; Miyagawa, Paul; Mizukami, Atsushi; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Mkrtchyan, Tigran; Mlynarikova, Michaela; Moa, Torbjoern; Mochizuki, Kazuya; Mogg, Philipp; Mohapatra, Soumya; Molander, Simon; Moles-Valls, Regina; Mondragon, Matthew Craig; Mönig, Klaus; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montalbano, Alyssa; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Morange, Nicolas; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morgenstern, Marcus; Morgenstern, Stefanie; Mori, Daniel; Mori, Tatsuya; Morii, Masahiro; Morinaga, Masahiro; Morisbak, Vanja; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, Alice Polyxeni; Morris, John; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Moschovakos, Paris; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Harry James; Moss, Josh; Mosulishvili, Nugzar; Motohashi, Kazuki; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Moyse, Edward; Muanza, Steve; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Ralph Soeren Peter; Muenstermann, Daniel; Mullen, Paul; Mullier, Geoffrey; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Murin, Pavel; Murray, Bill; Murrone, Alessia; Muškinja, Miha; Mwewa, Chilufya; Myagkov, Alexey; Myers, John; Myska, Miroslav; Nachman, Benjamin Philip; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nagai, Koichi; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagata, Kazuki; Nagel, Martin; Nagy, Elemer; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Napolitano, Fabrizio; Naranjo Garcia, Roger Felipe; Narayan, Rohin; Narrias Villar, Daniel Isaac; Naryshkin, Iouri; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Negri, Andrea; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nellist, Clara; Nelson, Michael Edward; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Newman, Paul; Ng, Tsz Yu; Ng, Sam Yanwing; Nguyen, Duong Hai; Nguyen, Hoang Dai Nghia; Nguyen Manh, Tuan; Nibigira, Emery; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nishu, Nishu; Nisius, Richard; Nitsche, Isabel; Nitta, Tatsumi; Nobe, Takuya; Nodulman, Lawrence; Noguchi, Yohei; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nomura, Marcelo Ayumu; Nooney, Tamsin; Nordberg, Markus; Nordkvist, Bjoern; Norjoharuddeen, Nurfikri; Novak, Tadej; Novgorodova, Olga; Novotny, Radek; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Nunes De Moura Junior, Natanael; Nurse, Emily; Nuti, Francesco; O'Connor, Kelsey; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Rourke, Abigail Alexandra; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Obermann, Theresa; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Ochoa-Ricoux, Juan Pedro; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Oide, Hideyuki; Okawa, Hideki; Okazaki, Yuta; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Oleiro Seabra, Luis Filipe; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver, Jason; Olsson, Joakim; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onogi, Kouta; Onyisi, Peter; Oppen, Henrik; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orgill, Emily Claire; Orlando, Nicola; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Ouyang, Qun; Owen, Mark; Owen, Rhys Edward; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pacey, Holly Ann; Pachal, Katherine; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Pacheco Rodriguez, Laura; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganini, Michela; Palacino, Gabriel; Palazzo, Serena; Palestini, Sandro; Palka, Marek; Pallin, Dominique; Panagoulias, Ilias; Pandini, Carlo Enrico; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Panizzo, Giancarlo; Paolozzi, Lorenzo; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Parida, Bibhuti; Parker, Adam Jackson; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parker, Kerry Ann; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pascuzzi, Vincent; Pasner, Jacob Martin; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Pastore, Francesca; Pasuwan, Patrawan; Pataraia, Sophio; Pater, Joleen; Pathak, Atanu; Pauly, Thilo; Pearson, Benjamin; Pedersen, Maiken; Pedraza Diaz, Lucia; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedro, Rute; Pedro Martins, Filipe Manuel; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Penc, Ondrej; Peng, Cong; Peng, Haiping; Peralva, Bernardo; Perego, Marta Maria; Pereira Peixoto, Ana Paula; Perepelitsa, Dennis; Peri, Francesco; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrella, Sabrina; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Peters, Yvonne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petroff, Pierre; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrov, Mariyan; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Pettee, Mariel; Pettersson, Nora Emilia; Peyaud, Alan; Pezoa, Raquel; Pham, Thu; Phillips, Forrest Hays; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Pianori, Elisabetta; Picazio, Attilio; Pickering, Mark Andrew; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinfold, James; Pitt, Michael; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskot, Vojtech; Plotnikova, Elena; Pluth, Daniel; Podberezko, Pavel; Poettgen, Ruth; Poggi, Riccardo; Poggioli, Luc; Pogrebnyak, Ivan; Pohl, David-leon; Pokharel, Ishan; Polesello, Giacomo; Poley, Anne-luise; Policicchio, Antonio; Polifka, Richard; Polini, Alessandro; Pollard, Christopher Samuel; Polychronakos, Venetios; Ponomarenko, Daniil; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Portillo Quintero, Dilia María; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potamianos, Karolos; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potti, Harish; Poulsen, Trine; Poveda, Joaquin; Powell, Thomas Dennis; Pozo Astigarraga, Mikel Eukeni; Pralavorio, Pascal; Prell, Soeren; Price, Darren; Price, Lawrence; Primavera, Margherita; Prince, Sebastien; Proklova, Nadezda; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Przybycien, Mariusz; Puigdengoles, Carles; Puri, Akshat; Puzo, Patrick; Qian, Jianming; Qin, Yang; Quadt, Arnulf; Queitsch-Maitland, Michaela; Qureshi, Anum; Rados, Pere; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Raine, John Andrew; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rashid, Tasneem; Raspopov, Sergii; Ratti, Maria Giulia; Rauch, Daniel; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Stefan; Ravina, Baptiste; Ravinovich, Ilia; Rawling, Jacob Henry; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Readioff, Nathan Peter; Reale, Marilea; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reed, Robert; Reeves, Kendall; Rehnisch, Laura; Reichert, Joseph; Reiss, Andreas; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Huan; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Resseguie, Elodie Deborah; Rettie, Sebastien; Reynolds, Elliot; Rezanova, Olga; Reznicek, Pavel; Richter, Robert; Richter, Stefan; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ricken, Oliver; Ridel, Melissa; Rieck, Patrick; Riegel, Christian Johann; Rifki, Othmane; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rimoldi, Marco; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Ripellino, Giulia; Ristić, Branislav; Ritsch, Elmar; Riu, Imma; Rivera Vergara, Juan Cristobal; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Rizzi, Chiara; Roberts, Rhys Thomas; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Rocco, Elena; Roda, Chiara; Rodina, Yulia; Rodriguez Bosca, Sergi; Rodriguez Perez, Andrea; Rodriguez Rodriguez, Daniel; Rodríguez Vera, Ana María; Roe, Shaun; Rogan, Christopher Sean; Røhne, Ole; Röhrig, Rainer; Roland, Christophe Pol A; Roloff, Jennifer; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Ronzani, Manfredi; Roos, Lydia; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Peyton; Rosien, Nils-Arne; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rossini, Lorenzo; Rosten, Jonatan; Rosten, Rachel; Rotaru, Marina; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Roy, Debarati; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Russell, Heather; Rutherfoord, John; Ruthmann, Nils; Rüttinger, Elias Michael; 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Sasaki, Osamu; Sato, Koji; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Savard, Pierre; Savic, Natascha; Sawada, Ryu; Sawyer, Craig; Sawyer, Lee; Says, Louis-Pierre; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scanlon, Tim; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schachtner, Balthasar Maria; Schaefer, Douglas; Schaefer, Leigh; Schaeffer, Jan; Schaepe, Steffen; Schäfer, Uli; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R Dean; Scharmberg, Nicolas; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schenck, Ferdinand; Schernau, Michael; Schiavi, Carlo; Schier, Sheena; Schildgen, Lara Katharina; Schillaci, Zachary Michael; Schioppa, Enrico Junior; Schioppa, Marco; Schleicher, Katharina; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmidt-Sommerfeld, Korbinian Ralf; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Stefan; Schmitz, Simon; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schoeffel, Laurent; Schoening, Andre; Schopf, Elisabeth; Schott, Matthias; Schouwenberg, Jeroen; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schramm, Steven; Schulte, Alexandra; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwarz, Thomas Andrew; Schweiger, Hansdieter; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Sciandra, Andrea; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scornajenghi, Matteo; Scuri, Fabrizio; Scutti, Federico; Scyboz, Ludovic Michel; Searcy, Jacob; Sebastiani, Cristiano David; Seema, Pienpen; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seiss, Todd; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sekhon, Karishma; Sekula, Stephen; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Sen, Sourav; Senkin, Sergey; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Sessa, Marco; Severini, Horst; Šfiligoj, Tina; Sforza, Federico; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shahinian, Jeffrey David; Shaikh, Nabila Wahab; Shalyugin, Andrey; Shan, Lianyou; Shang, Ruo-yu; Shank, James; Shapiro, Marjorie; Sharma, Abhishek; Sharma, Abhishek; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Shaw, Savanna Marie; Shcherbakova, Anna; Shen, Yu-Ting; Sherafati, Nima; Sherman, Alexander David; Sherwood, Peter; Shi, Liaoshan; Shimizu, Shima; Shimmin, Chase Owen; Shimojima, Makoto; Shipsey, Ian Peter Joseph; Shirabe, Shohei; Shiyakova, Mariya; Shlomi, Jonathan; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shoaleh Saadi, Diane; Shochet, Mel; Shojaii, Seyed Ruhollah; Shope, David Richard; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Sicho, Petr; Sickles, Anne Marie; Sidebo, Per Edvin; Sideras Haddad, Elias; Sidiropoulou, Ourania; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silva, José; Silva Jr, Manuel; Silverstein, Samuel; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simioni, Eduard; Simon, Manuel; Simonenko, Alexander; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sioli, Maximiliano; Siragusa, Giovanni; Siral, Ismet; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sivolella Gomes, Andressa; Sjölin, Jörgen; Skinner, Malcolm Bruce; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Slawinska, Magdalena; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Slovak, Radim; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smiesko, Juraj; Smirnov, Nikita; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Joshua Wyatt; Smith, Matthew; Smith, Russell; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snyder, Ian Michael; Snyder, Scott; Sobie, Randall; Soffa, Aaron Michael; Soffer, Abner; Søgaard, Andreas; Soh, Dart-yin; Sokhrannyi, Grygorii; Solans Sanchez, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solin, Alexandre; Solodkov, Alexander; Soloshenko, Alexei; Solovyanov, Oleg; Solovyev, Victor; Sommer, Philip; Son, Hyungsuk; Song, Weimin; Sopczak, Andre; Sopkova, Filomena; Sosa, David; Sotiropoulou, Calliope Louisa; Sottocornola, Simone; Soualah, Rachik; Soukharev, Andrey; South, David; Sowden, Benjamin; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spalla, Margherita; Spangenberg, Martin; Spanò, Francesco; Sperlich, Dennis; Spettel, Fabian; Spieker, Thomas Malte; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spiller, Laurence Anthony; Spiteri, Dwayne Patrick; Spousta, Martin; Stabile, Alberto; Stamen, Rainer; Stamm, Soren; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanitzki, Marcel Michael; Stapf, Birgit Sylvia; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Giordon; Stark, Jan; Stark, Simon Holm; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Stärz, Steffen; Staszewski, Rafal; Stegler, Martin; Steinberg, Peter; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stevenson, Thomas James; Stewart, Graeme; Stockton, Mark; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stolte, Philipp; Stonjek, Stefan; Straessner, Arno; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Strubig, Antonia; Stucci, Stefania Antonia; Stugu, Bjarne; Stupak, John; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Su, Dong; Su, Jun; Suchek, Stanislav; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultan, D M S; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Siyuan; Sun, Xiaohu; Suruliz, Kerim; Suster, Carl; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Shota; Svatos, Michal; Swiatlowski, Maximilian; Swift, Stewart Patrick; Sydorenko, Alexander; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Ta, Duc; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taenzer, Joe; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Tahirovic, Elvedin; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takasugi, Eric Hayato; Takeda, Kosuke; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Masahiro; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tang, Fukun; Tanioka, Ryo; Tannenwald, Benjamin Bordy; Tapia Araya, Sebastian; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tarek Abouelfadl Mohamed, Ahmed; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarna, Grigore; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tashiro, Takuya; Tassi, Enrico; Tavares Delgado, Ademar; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Aaron; Taylor, Alan James; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Pierre Thor Elliot; Taylor, Wendy; Tee, Amy Selvi; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temple, Darren; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Teoh, Jia Jian; Tepel, Fabian-Phillipp; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terzo, Stefano; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Thais, Savannah Jennifer; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thiele, Fabian; Thomas, Juergen; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Tian, Yun; Ticse Torres, Royer Edson; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tipton, Paul; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todome, Kazuki; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Todt, Stefanie; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tolley, Emma; Tomiwa, Kehinde Gbenga; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Tong, Baojia(Tony); Tornambe, Peter; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Tosciri, Cecilia; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Treado, Colleen Jennifer; Trefzger, Thomas; Tresoldi, Fabio; Tricoli, Alessandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Tripiana, Martin; Trischuk, William; Trocmé, Benjamin; Trofymov, Artur; Troncon, Clara; Trovatelli, Monica; Trovato, Fabrizio; Truong, Loan; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tsai, Fang-ying; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsirintanis, Nikolaos; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tu, Yanjun; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tulbure, Traian Tiberiu; Tuna, Alexander Naip; Turchikhin, Semen; Turgeman, Daniel; Turk Cakir, Ilkay; Turra, Ruggero; Tuts, Michael; Tylmad, Maja; Tzovara, Eftychia; Ucchielli, Giulia; Ueda, Ikuo; Ughetto, Michael; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Ungaro, Francesca; Unno, Yoshinobu; Uno, Kenta; Urban, Jozef; Urquijo, Phillip; Urrejola, Pedro; Usai, Giulio; Usui, Junya; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Vadla, Knut Oddvar Hoie; Vaidya, Amal; Valderanis, Chrysostomos; Valdes Santurio, Eduardo; Valente, Marco; Valentinetti, Sara; Valero, Alberto; Valéry, Loïc; Vallance, Robert Adam; Vallier, Alexis; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; Van Daalen, Tal Roelof; Van Den Wollenberg, Wouter; van der Graaf, Harry; van Gemmeren, Peter; Van Nieuwkoop, Jacobus; van Vulpen, Ivo; van Woerden, Marius Cornelis; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varni, Carlo; Varol, Tulin; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vasquez, Jared Gregory; Vasquez, Gerardo; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Furelos, David; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Veatch, Jason; Vecchio, Valentina; Veloce, Laurelle Maria; Veloso, Filipe; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Vergel Infante, Carlos Miguel; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Ambrosius Thomas; Vermeulen, Jos; Vetterli, Michel; Viaux Maira, Nicolas; Viazlo, Oleksandr; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Vigani, Luigi; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Viret, Sébastien; Vishwakarma, Akanksha; Vittori, Camilla; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vogel, Marcelo; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; von Buddenbrock, Stefan; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorobev, Konstantin; Vos, Marcel; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Wagner, Peter; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Wahlberg, Hernan; Wahrmund, Sebastian; Wakamiya, Kotaro; Walbrecht, Verena Maria; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wallangen, Veronica; Wang, Ann Miao; Wang, Chao; Wang, Fuquan; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Peilong; Wang, Qing; Wang, Renjie; Wang, Rongkun; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Wang, Wei; Wang, Weitao; Wang, Wenxiao; Wang, Yufeng; Wang, Zirui; Wanotayaroj, Chaowaroj; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Wardrope, David Robert; Washbrook, Andrew; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Ben; Weatherly, Pierce; Webb, Aaron Foley; Webb, Samuel; Weber, Christian; Weber, Michele; Weber, Sebastian Mario; Weber, Stephen; Webster, Jordan S; Weidberg, Anthony; Weinert, Benjamin; Weingarten, Jens; Weirich, Marcel; Weiser, Christian; Wells, Phillippa; Wenaus, Torre; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Michael David; Werner, Per; Wessels, Martin; Weston, Thomas; Whalen, Kathleen; Whallon, Nikola Lazar; Wharton, Andrew Mark; White, Aaron; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Ryan; Whiteson, Daniel; Whitmore, Ben William; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; Wildauer, Andreas; Wilk, Fabian; Wilkens, Henric George; Wilkins, Lewis Joseph; Williams, Hugh; Williams, Sarah; Willis, Christopher; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, John; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winkels, Emma; Winklmeier, Frank; Winston, Oliver James; Winter, Benedict Tobias; Wittgen, Matthias; Wobisch, Markus; Wolf, Anton; Wolf, Tim Michael Heinz; Wolff, Robert; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wong, Vincent Wai Sum; Woods, Natasha Lee; Worm, Steven; Wosiek, Barbara; Woźniak, Krzysztof; Wraight, Kenneth; Wu, Miles; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wyatt, Terry Richard; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xi, Zhaoxu; Xia, Ligang; Xu, Da; Xu, Hanlin; Xu, Lailin; Xu, Tairan; Xu, Wenhao; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yajima, Kazuki; Yallup, David; Yamaguchi, Daiki; Yamaguchi, Yohei; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamane, Fumiya; Yamatani, Masahiro; Yamazaki, Tomohiro; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Hongtao; Yang, Siqi; Yang, Yi-lin; Yang, Zongchang; Yao, Weiming; Yap, Yee Chinn; Yasu, Yoshiji; Yatsenko, Elena; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yeletskikh, Ivan; Yigitbasi, Efe; Yildirim, Eda; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshihara, Keisuke; Young, Charles; Young, Christopher John; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jie; Yue, Xiaoguang; Yuen, Stephanie P; Yusuff, Imran; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zacharis, Georgios; Zaffaroni, Ettore; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zakharchuk, Nataliia; Zalieckas, Justas; Zambito, Stefano; Zanzi, Daniele; Zaripovas, Donatas Ramilas; Zeißner, Sonja Verena; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zemaityte, Gabija; Zeng, Jian Cong; Zeng, Qi; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zerwas, Dirk; Zgubič, Miha; Zhang, Dengfeng; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Fangzhou; Zhang, Guangyi; Zhang, Huijun; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Liqing; Zhang, Matt; Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Ruiqi; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Xiandong; Zhao, Yongke; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Chen; Zhou, Li; Zhou, Maosen; Zhou, Mingliang; Zhou, Ning; Zhou, You; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Heling; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhukov, Konstantin; Zhulanov, Vladimir; Zibell, Andre; Zieminska, Daria; Zimine, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Zinonos, Zinonas; Zinser, Markus; Ziolkowski, Michael; Živković, Lidija; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; Zoch, Knut; Zorbas, Theodore Georgio; Zou, Rui; zur Nedden, Martin; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2018-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter is the hadron calorimeter covering the central region of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider. Approximately 10000 photomultipliers collect light from scintillating tiles acting as the active material sandwiched between slabs of steel absorber. This paper gives an overview of the calorimeter's performance during the years 2008-2012 using cosmic-ray muon events and proton-proton collision data at centre-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV with a total integrated luminosity of nearly 30 fb$^{-1}$. The signal reconstruction methods, calibration systems as well as the detector operation status are presented. The combination of energy calibration methods and time calibration proved excellent performance, resulting in good stability of the calorimeter response under varying conditions during the LHC Run 1. Finally, the Tile Calorimeter response to isolated muons and hadrons as well as to jets from proton-proton collisions is presented. The results demonstrate excellent performance in a...

  5. Noise dependence with pile-up in the ATLAS Tile calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Araque Espinosa, Juan Pedro; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter, TileCal, is the central hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment and comprises alternating layers of steel (as absorber material) and plastic (as active material), known as tiles. Between 2009 and 2012, the LHC has performed better than expected producing proton-proton collisions at a very high rate. Under these challenging conditions not only the energy from an interesting event will be measured but also a component coming from other collisions. This component is referred to as pile-up noise. Studies carried out to better understand how pile-up affects calorimeter noise under different circumstances are described.

  6. Atlas barrel electromagnetic calorimeter performance study. Measurement of the Forward-Backward asymmetry in the qq-bar {yields} Z/{gamma}{sup *} {yields} e{sup +}e{sup -} events; Etude des performances du calorimetre electromagnetique tonneau d'ATLAS. Mesure de l'asymetrie Avant-Arriere dans les evenements qq-bar {yields} Z/{gamma}{sup *} {yields} e{sup +}e{sup -}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aharrouche, M

    2006-12-15

    The start up of the ATLAS experiment at the CERN LHC is planned for the year 2007. The physics program of the experiment covers a wide field, going from tests of Standard Model (Higgs boson discovery) to new theories beyond the Standard Model (Supersymmetry, extra dimensions... etc). The work presented in this thesis has been made within the framework of the preparation of this experiment. After having presented the 2004 combined run, its installation, pedestal data and calibration data analysis, we develop a method for calibrating the energy measurement based on Geant4 Monte-Carlo simulation of the combined run. These simulations are done in the general framework developed for the analysis of the ATLAS data. We present then the performance studies of the electromagnetic calorimeter as well as the results obtained: a sampling term of the energy resolution of 10.6% GeV and local constant term of 0.43%, a non-uniformity of response of 0.44% giving a total constant term of 0.6% and a linearity better than 0.2% for electrons energies between 20 and 250 GeV. Concerning the 'physics' side of this thesis, we show a first study on the determination of the effective weak mixing angle, sin{sup 2}({theta}(lept,eff) with one precision better than the current results, 10{sup -4}. To reach such a precision it has been necessary to identify the electrons in the forward regions of the detector. This point is the subject of the last part of this manuscript, it shows that one can reach an electron-jet rejection of 100 with an efficiency of the electrons reconstruction of 50%, by using a discriminating analysis based on the methods of Fisher, the likelihood and the neural networks. (author)

  7. Development studies for the OPAL end cap electromagnetic calorimeter using vacuum photo triode instrumented leadglass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffreys, P.W.; Arnison, G.T.J.; Akrawy, M.

    1989-07-01

    A description is given of the OPAL end cap electromagnetic calorimeters which consist of leadglass instrumented with vacuum photo triodes. Test results are presented showing linearity, energy and position resolution measured in an electron beam whilst the calorimeter is subject to magnetic fields up to 1.0T. The response to hadrons is also discussed. Finally, radiation damage and recovery of the leadglass is reported. (author)

  8. Design and Beam Test Results for the sPHENIX Electromagnetic and Hadronic Calorimeter Prototypes

    OpenAIRE

    Aidala, C. A.; Bailey, V.; Beckman, S.; Belmont, R.; Biggs, C.; Blackburn, J.; Boose, S.; Chiu, M.; Connors, M.; Franz, A.; Haggerty, J. S.; He, X.; Higdon, M. M.; Huang, J.; Kauder, K.

    2017-01-01

    The sPHENIX experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) will perform high precision measurements of jets and heavy flavor observables for a wide selection of nuclear collision systems, elucidating the microscopic nature of strongly interacting matter ranging from nucleons to the strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma. A prototype of the sPHENIX calorimeter system was tested at the Fermilab Test Beam Facility as experiment T-1044 in the spring of 2016. The electromagnetic calorimeter...

  9. STAR electromagnetic calorimeter R ampersand D progress report, 1 October 1992--31 August 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    A lead-scintillator sampling electromagnetic calorimeter (EMC) is planned as an upgrade to the STAR detector for the RHIC Accelerator at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). Considerable work on the conceptual design of the calorimeter, and related interfacing issues with the solenoids magnet and the time projection chamber (TPC) subsystems of STAR occurred in the period 1 October 1992 to 31 August 1993 (FY 1993). This report documents and summarizes the conclusions and progress from this work

  10. Status of the NA62 liquid krypton electromagnetic calorimeter Level 0 trigger processor

    CERN Document Server

    Bonaiuto, V; Fucci, A; Paoluzzi, G; Salamon, A; Salina, G; Santovetti, E; Sargeni, F; Venditti, S

    2013-01-01

    The NA62 experiment at the CERN SPS aims to measure the Branching Ratio of the very rare kaon decay K(+)→π(+)νbar nu collecting O(100) events with a 10% background in two years of data taking. To reject the K(+)→π(+)π(0) background the NA48 liquid krypton calorimeter will be used in the 1-10 mrad angular region. The status of the Liquid Krypton Electromagnetic Calorimeter Level 0 Trigger is presented.

  11. Control, Test and Monitoring Software Framework for the ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Achenbach, R; Aharrouche, M; Andrei, V; Åsman, B; Barnett, B M; Bauss, B; Bendel, M; Bohm, C; Booth, J R A; Bracinik, J; Brawn, I P; Charlton, D G; Childers, J T; Collins, N J; Curtis, C J; Davis, A O; Eckweiler, S; Eisenhandler, E F; Faulkner, P J W; Fleckner, J; Föhlisch, F; Gee, C N P; Gillman, A R; Goringer, C; Groll, M; Hadley, D R; Hanke, P; Hellman, S; Hidvegi, A; Hillier, S J; Johansen, M; Kluge, E E; Kühl, T; Landon, M; Lendermann, V; Lilley, J N; Mahboubi, K; Mahout, G; Meier, K; Middleton, R P; Moa, T; Morris, J D; Müller, F; Neusiedl, A; Ohm, C; Oltmann, B; Perera, V J O; Prieur, D P F; Qian, W; Rieke, S; Rühr, F; Sankey, D P C; Schäfer, U; Schmitt, K; Schultz-Coulon, H C; Silverstein, S; Sjölin, J; Staley, R J; Stamen, R; Stockton, M C; Tan, C L A; Tapprogge, S; Thomas, J P; Thompson, P D; Watkins, P M; Watson, A; Weber, P; Wessels, M; Wildt, M

    2008-01-01

    The ATLAS first-level calorimeter trigger is a hardware-based system designed to identify high-pT jets, electron/photon and tau candidates and to measure total and missing ET in the ATLAS calorimeters. The complete trigger system consists of over 300 customdesignedVME modules of varying complexity. These modules are based around FPGAs or ASICs with many configurable parameters, both to initialize the system with correct calibrations and timings and to allow flexibility in the trigger algorithms. The control, testing and monitoring of these modules requires a comprehensive, but well-designed and modular, software framework, which we will describe in this paper.

  12. Study of the optical monitoring system of the scintillating crystal involved in the electromagnetic calorimeter of CMS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geleoc, M.

    1998-01-01

    The prospect of the experimental discovery of the Higgs boson is one of the motivations to build the large hadron collider (LHC). Proton beams will collide and the emitted particles will be detected by ATLAS and CMS equipment. In each detector the electromagnetic calorimeter will allow the characterisation of the 2 photons coming from one of the disintegration channels of the Higgs boson. CMS collaboration has chosen an homogeneous calorimeter fitted with PbWO 4 crystals. Each crystal with its photodetector and its electronic device forms one detection channel. The resolution of the detection channels should not deteriorate all along the operating time. The optical monitoring system of the crystals logs then controls the response of each detection channel in order to allow an accurate calibration of the calorimeter. The optical properties, the resistance to irradiation of PbWO 4 crystals and the modelling of light collection are investigated in this work. The description of the different components of the optical monitoring system highlights the technical difficulties we had to challenge. An experimental testing bench has been set up to study the coupling between the scintillation signal and the signal that feeds the monitoring system, this coupling has been studied under irradiation in the conditions of CMS operating. (A.C.)

  13. The detector control web system of the ATLAS hadronic calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maidantchik, Carmen; Ferreira, Fernando G.; Marroquim, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    Full text: The hadronic calorimeter (TileCal) of the ATLAS experiment is a sampling device for measuring the energy of particles that cross the detector and is composed by thousands of electronics channels operating over a high rate of acquired events. A complex sourcing mechanism, responsible for powering each channel, comprises low voltages, from 3 V to 15 V, and high voltage, around 800 V, power supplies and a water-based cooling system. The Detector Control System (DCS) is responsible for monitoring and controlling the mechanisms. The good operation of power supplies is really important for the detector data acquisition. A misbehaved power supply can affect the electronic systems or, even in the worst scenario, turn a whole section of the detector off, which would lead to missing events. DCS Web System was developed to provide the required functions to monitor the stability of the power supplies operation by providing a daily or monthly summary of voltages, currents and temperatures. The synopsis is made up by the mean and standard variation of the monitored parameters as well as time plots. The obtained statistics are compared to preset thresholds and the system interface highlight the cases that the collaboration should pay attention. The web system also displays voltage trips, an undesired power-cut that can happen from time to time in some power supplies during their operation. As future steps, the group is developing prediction capabilities based on the analysis of the time series of the monitored parameters. Therefore, it will be possible to indicate which power sources should be replaced during the annual maintenance period, helping to keep a high number of live channels during the data acquisition. This paper describes the DCS Web System and its functionalities, presenting preliminary results from the time series analysis. (author)

  14. A design study of a cast lead electromagnetic calorimeter for the solenoidal detector collaboration at SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, N.F.; Guarino, V.; Nasiatka, J.; Burke, M.; Swensrud, R.

    1991-01-01

    In order to achieve the physics goals for the Solenoidal Detector Collaboration (SDC), it is necessary to design and construct a scintillating calorimeter which measures both position and energy of particles originating at the intersection of colliding beams from the SSC. As part of this design, the electromagnetic section of the calorimeter, which is the front end of the calorimeter, was the first priority. Our design goal was to build as an initial phase, two small prototype test sections of the electromagnetic calorimeter (EMC), within the constraint that the physics goal is to achieve 100% instrumentation of this section of the calorimeter. We based our design on minimization of ineffective structural mass to provide maximum calorimeter volume. We will present the design phases of this construction, including mechanical design, structural analysis, and fabrication of the structural frame ready for casting into test sections for test beam analysis. These test sections will be evaluated for mechanical feasibility and physics performance. The results of these evaluations will be incorporated into the detailed design of the calorimeter. 2 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab

  15. A 3000 element lead-glass electromagnetic calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crittenden, R.R.; Dzierba, A.R.; Gunter, J.; Lindenbusch, R.; Rust, D.R.; Scott, E.; Smith, P.T.; Sulanke, T.; Teige, S.; Brabson, B.B.; Adams, T.; Bishop, J.M.; Cason, N.M.; LoSecco, J.M.; Manak, J.J.; Sanjari, A.H.; Shephard, W.D.; Steinike, D.L.; Taegar, S.A.; Thompson, D.R.; Chung, S.U.; Hackenburg, R.W.; Olchanski, C.; Weygand, D.P.; Willutzki, H.J.; Denisov, S.; Dushkin, A.; Kochetkov, V.; Lipaev, V.; Popov, A.; Shein, I.; Soldatov, A.; Bar-Yam, Z.; Cummings, J.P.; Dowd, J.P.; Eugenio, P.; Hayek, M.; Kern, W.; King, E.; Anoshina, E.V.; Bodyagin, V.A.; Demianov, A.I.; Gribushin, A.M.; Kodolova, O.L.; Korotkikh, V.L.; Kostin, M.A.; Ostrovidov, A.I.; Sarycheva, L.I.; Sinev, N.B.; Vardanyan, I.N.; Yershov, A.A.; Brown, D.S.; Pedlar, T.K.; Seth, K.K.; Wise, J.; Zhao, D.; Adams, G.S.; Napolitano, J.; Nozar, M.; Smith, J.A.; Witkowski, M.

    1997-01-01

    A 3045 element lead glass calorimeter and an associated fast trigger processor have been constructed, tested and implemented in BNL experiment E852 in conjunction with the multi-particle spectrometer (MPS). Approximately, 10 9 all-neutral and neutral plus charged triggers were recorded with this apparatus during data runs in 1994 and 1995. This paper reports on the construction, testing and performance of this lead glass calorimeter and the associated trigger processor. (orig.)

  16. Search for pair-produced long-lived neutral particles decaying in the ATLAS hadronic calorimeter in $pp$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdel Khalek, Samah; Abdinov, Ovsat; Aben, Rosemarie; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abreu, Ricardo; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adye, Tim; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Agustoni, Marco; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Akerstedt, Henrik; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alio, Lion; Alison, John; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allison, Lee John; Allport, Phillip; Aloisio, Alberto; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Altheimer, Andrew David; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; Amidei, Dante; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amoroso, Simone; Amram, Nir; Amundsen, Glenn; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Anduaga, Xabier; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Angelozzi, Ivan; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Araque, Juan Pedro; Arce, Ayana; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnal, Vanessa; Arnold, Hannah; Arratia, Miguel; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ashkenazi, Adi; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Atkinson, Markus; Atlay, Naim Bora; Auerbach, Benjamin; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Baas, Alessandra; Bacci, Cesare; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Backus Mayes, John; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagiacchi, Paolo; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bai, Yu; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Balek, Petr; Balli, Fabrice; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Swagato; Bannoura, Arwa A E; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Barnovska, Zuzana; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartos, Pavol; Bartsch, Valeria; Bassalat, Ahmed; Basye, Austin; Bates, Richard; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Marco; Battistin, Michele; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beattie, Michael David; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Anne Kathrin; Becker, Sebastian; Beckingham, Matthew; Becot, Cyril; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bedikian, Sourpouhi; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Beermann, Thomas; Begel, Michael; Behr, Katharina; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Beringer, Jürg; Bernard, Clare; Bernat, Pauline; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertoli, Gabriele; Bertolucci, Federico; Bertsche, Carolyn; Bertsche, David; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia, Olga; Bessner, Martin Florian; Besson, Nathalie; Betancourt, Christopher; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianchini, Louis; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilbao De Mendizabal, Javier; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Black, Curtis; Black, James; Black, Kevin; Blackburn, Daniel; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blazek, Tomas; Bloch, Ingo; Blocker, Craig; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Bock, Christopher; Boddy, Christopher Richard; Boehler, Michael; Boek, Thorsten Tobias; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bogouch, Andrei; Bohm, Christian; Bohm, Jan; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Boldyrev, Alexey; Bomben, Marco; Bona, Marcella; Boonekamp, Maarten; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Borri, Marcello; Borroni, Sara; Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Bortolotto, Valerio; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Boterenbrood, Hendrik; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouffard, Julian; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; Bourdarios, Claire; Bousson, Nicolas; Boutouil, Sara; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bozic, Ivan; Bracinik, Juraj; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Brazzale, Simone Federico; Brelier, Bertrand; Brendlinger, Kurt; Brennan, Amelia Jean; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Bristow, Kieran; Bristow, Timothy Michael; Britton, Dave; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Bromberg, Carl; Bronner, Johanna; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, Timothy; Brooks, William; Brosamer, Jacquelyn; Brost, Elizabeth; Brown, Jonathan; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Brunet, Sylvie; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruschi, Marco; Bryngemark, Lene; Buanes, Trygve; Buat, Quentin; Bucci, Francesca; Buchholz, Peter; Buckingham, Ryan; Buckley, Andrew; Buda, Stelian Ioan; Budagov, Ioulian; Buehrer, Felix; Bugge, Lars; Bugge, Magnar Kopangen; Bulekov, Oleg; Bundock, Aaron Colin; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burghgrave, Blake; Burke, Stephen; Burmeister, Ingo; Busato, Emmanuel; Büscher, Daniel; Büscher, Volker; Bussey, Peter; Buszello, Claus-Peter; Butler, Bart; Butler, John; Butt, Aatif Imtiaz; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Butti, Pierfrancesco; Buttinger, William; Buzatu, Adrian; Byszewski, Marcin; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cakir, Orhan; Calafiura, Paolo; Calandri, Alessandro; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Calkins, Robert; Caloba, Luiz; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarda, Stefano; Cameron, David; Caminada, Lea Michaela; Caminal Armadans, Roger; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Campoverde, Angel; Canale, Vincenzo; Canepa, Anadi; Cano Bret, Marc; Cantero, Josu; Cantrill, Robert; Cao, Tingting; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Cardarelli, Roberto; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Sascha; Carquin, Edson; Carrillo-Montoya, German D; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Casolino, Mirkoantonio; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castelli, Angelantonio; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Catastini, Pierluigi; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Cattani, Giordano; Caudron, Julien; Cavaliere, Viviana; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Cerio, Benjamin; Cerny, Karel; Santiago Cerqueira, Augusto; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cerv, Matevz; Cervelli, Alberto; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chalupkova, Ina; Chang, Philip; Chapleau, Bertrand; Chapman, John Derek; Charfeddine, Driss; Charlton, Dave; Chau, Chav Chhiv; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Cheatham, Susan; Chegwidden, Andrew; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Karen; Chen, Liming; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Xin; Chen, Ye; Chen, Yujiao; Cheng, Hok Chuen; Cheng, Yangyang; Cheplakov, Alexander; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiarella, Vitaliano; Chiefari, Giovanni; Childers, John Taylor; Chilingarov, Alexandre; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chislett, Rebecca Thalatta; Chitan, Adrian; Chizhov, Mihail; Chouridou, Sofia; Chow, Bonnie Kar Bo; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chu, Ming-Lee; Chudoba, Jiri; Chwastowski, Janusz; Chytka, Ladislav; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Ciftci, Rena; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirkovic, Predrag; Citron, Zvi Hirsh; Citterio, Mauro; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Philip James; Clarke, Robert; Cleland, Bill; Clemens, Jean-Claude; Clement, Christophe; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Coffey, Laurel; Cogan, Joshua Godfrey; Coggeshall, James; Cole, Brian; Cole, Stephen; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collot, Johann; Colombo, Tommaso; Colon, German; Compostella, Gabriele; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Conidi, Maria Chiara; Connell, Simon Henry; Connelly, Ian; Consonni, Sofia Maria; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conti, Geraldine; Conventi, Francesco; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cooper-Smith, Neil; Copic, Katherine; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Corso-Radu, Alina; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Côté, David; Cottin, Giovanna; Cowan, Glen; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Cree, Graham; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Crescioli, Francesco; Cribbs, Wayne Allen; Crispin Ortuzar, Mireia; Cristinziani, Markus; Croft, Vince; Crosetti, Giovanni; Cuciuc, Constantin-Mihai; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Cummings, Jane; Curatolo, Maria; Cuthbert, Cameron; Czirr, Hendrik; Czodrowski, Patrick; Czyczula, Zofia; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, Mario Jose; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dafinca, Alexandru; Dai, Tiesheng; Dale, Orjan; Dallaire, Frederick; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Daniells, Andrew Christopher; Dano Hoffmann, Maria; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darmora, Smita; Dassoulas, James; Dattagupta, Aparajita; Davey, Will; David, Claire; Davidek, Tomas; Davies, Eleanor; Davies, Merlin; Davignon, Olivier; Davison, Adam; Davison, Peter; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Daya-Ishmukhametova, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De la Torre, Hector; De Lorenzi, Francesco; De Nooij, Lucie; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dechenaux, Benjamin; Dedovich, Dmitri; Deigaard, Ingrid; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Deliot, Frederic; Delitzsch, Chris Malena; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Dell'Orso, Mauro; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demilly, Aurelien; Denisov, Sergey; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Deterre, Cecile; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Domenico, Antonio; Di Donato, Camilla; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Di Valentino, David; Dias, Flavia; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Dietzsch, Thorsten; Diglio, Sara; Dimitrievska, Aleksandra; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dionisi, Carlo; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; Djuvsland, Julia Isabell; Barros do Vale, Maria Aline; Do Valle Wemans, André; Dobos, Daniel; Doglioni, Caterina; Doherty, Tom; Dohmae, Takeshi; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donati, Simone; Dondero, Paolo; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Doyle, Tony; Dris, Manolis; Dubbert, Jörg; Dube, Sourabh; Dubreuil, Emmanuelle; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Ducu, Otilia Anamaria; Duda, Dominik; Dudarev, Alexey; Dudziak, Fanny; Duflot, Laurent; Duguid, Liam; Dührssen, Michael; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Düren, Michael; Durglishvili, Archil; Dwuznik, Michal; Dyndal, Mateusz; Ebke, Johannes; Edson, William; Edwards, Nicholas Charles; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Enari, Yuji; Endner, Oliver Chris; Endo, Masaki; Engelmann, Roderich; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Eriksson, Daniel; Ernis, Gunar; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Ernwein, Jean; Errede, Deborah; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Esch, Hendrik; Escobar, Carlos; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evans, Hal; Ezhilov, Alexey; Fabbri, Laura; Facini, Gabriel; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Falla, Rebecca Jane; Faltova, Jana; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farooque, Trisha; Farrell, Steven; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassi, Farida; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Favareto, Andrea; Fayard, Louis; Federic, Pavol; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Wojciech; Fehling-Kaschek, Mirjam; Feigl, Simon; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Feng, Haolu; Fenyuk, Alexander; Fernandez Perez, Sonia; Ferrag, Samir; Ferrando, James; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filipuzzi, Marco; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Finelli, Kevin Daniel; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Adam; Fischer, Julia; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Fitzgerald, Eric Andrew; Flechl, Martin; Fleck, Ivor; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Fletcher, Gareth Thomas; Fletcher, Gregory; Flick, Tobias; Floderus, Anders; Flores Castillo, Luis; Florez Bustos, Andres Carlos; Flowerdew, Michael; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fortin, Dominique; Fournier, Daniel; Fox, Harald; Fracchia, Silvia; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchini, Matteo; Franchino, Silvia; Francis, David; Franconi, Laura; Franklin, Melissa; Franz, Sebastien; Fraternali, Marco; French, Sky; Friedrich, Conrad; Friedrich, Felix; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fulsom, Bryan Gregory; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gabrielli, Alessandro; Gabrielli, Andrea; Gadatsch, Stefan; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Galhardo, Bruno; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallo, Valentina Santina; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galster, Gorm Aske Gram Krohn; Gan, KK; Gao, Jun; Gao, Yongsheng; Garay Walls, Francisca; Garberson, Ford; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garonne, Vincent; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gauzzi, Paolo; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gecse, Zoltan; Gee, Norman; Geerts, Daniël Alphonsus Adrianus; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Gemmell, Alistair; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Matthias; George, Simon; Gerbaudo, Davide; Gershon, Avi; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghodbane, Nabil; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Giannetti, Paola; Gianotti, Fabiola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Stephen; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gillam, Thomas; Gillberg, Dag; Gilles, Geoffrey; Gingrich, Douglas; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giordano, Raffaele; Giorgi, Filippo Maria; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giugni, Danilo; Giuliani, Claudia; Giulini, Maddalena; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gkaitatzis, Stamatios; Gkialas, Ioannis; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glaysher, Paul; Glazov, Alexandre; Glonti, George; Goblirsch-Kolb, Maximilian; Goddard, Jack Robert; Godlewski, Jan; Goeringer, Christian; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golubkov, Dmitry; Gomes, Agostinho; Gomez Fajardo, Luz Stella; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Goshaw, Alfred; Gössling, Claus; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gouighri, Mohamed; Goujdami, Driss; Goulette, Marc Phillippe; Goussiou, Anna; Goy, Corinne; Gozpinar, Serdar; Grabas, Herve Marie Xavier; Graber, Lars; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Grafström, Per; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Gramling, Johanna; Gramstad, Eirik; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Gray, Heather; Graziani, Enrico; Grebenyuk, Oleg; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grishkevich, Yaroslav; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Grohs, Johannes Philipp; Grohsjean, Alexander; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Grossi, Giulio Cornelio; Groth-Jensen, Jacob; Grout, Zara Jane; Guan, Liang; Guenther, Jaroslav; Guescini, Francesco; Guest, Daniel; Gueta, Orel; Guicheney, Christophe; Guido, Elisa; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Gumpert, Christian; Guo, Jun; Gupta, Shaun; Gutierrez, Phillip; Gutierrez Ortiz, Nicolas Gilberto; Gutschow, Christian; Guttman, Nir; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Haddad, Nacim; Haefner, Petra; Hageböck, Stephan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haleem, Mahsana; Hall, David; Halladjian, Garabed; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamer, Matthias; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamilton, Samuel; Hamity, Guillermo Nicolas; Hamnett, Phillip George; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Hanke, Paul; Hanna, Remie; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hard, Andrew; Harenberg, Torsten; Hariri, Faten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harper, Devin; Harrington, Robert; Harris, Orin; Harrison, Paul Fraser; Hartjes, Fred; Hasegawa, Makoto; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hasib, A; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauschild, Michael; Hauser, Reiner; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Anthony David; Hayashi, Takayasu; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Heck, Tobias; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heim, Timon; Heinemann, Beate; Heinrich, Lukas; Hejbal, Jiri; Helary, Louis; Heller, Claudio; Heller, Matthieu; Hellman, Sten; Hellmich, Dennis; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, James; Henderson, Robert; Heng, Yang; Hengler, Christopher; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Herbert, Geoffrey Henry; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herrberg-Schubert, Ruth; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hickling, Robert; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Ewan; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillert, Sonja; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hirose, Minoru; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoenig, Friedrich; Hoffman, Julia; Hoffmann, Dirk; Hohlfeld, Marc; Holmes, Tova Ray; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Hopkins, Walter; Horii, Yasuyuki; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howard, Jacob; Howarth, James; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hsu, Catherine; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Diedi; Hu, Xueye; Huang, Yanping; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Hülsing, Tobias Alexander; Hurwitz, Martina; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Ideal, Emma; Idrissi, Zineb; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Iizawa, Tomoya; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikematsu, Katsumasa; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Iurii; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Inamaru, Yuki; Ince, Tayfun; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Iturbe Ponce, Julia Mariana; Iuppa, Roberto; Ivarsson, Jenny; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, Matthew; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jakubek, Jan; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansen, Eric; Jansen, Hendrik; Janssen, Jens; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Javadov, Namig; Javůrek, Tomáš; Jeanty, Laura; Jejelava, Juansher; Jeng, Geng-yuan; Jennens, David; Jenni, Peter; Jentzsch, Jennifer; Jeske, Carl; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Ji, Haoshuang; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jimenez Belenguer, Marcos; Jin, Shan; Jinaru, Adam; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Johansson, Erik; Johansson, Per; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tim; Jongmanns, Jan; Jorge, Pedro; Joshi, Kiran Daniel; Jovicevic, Jelena; Ju, Xiangyang; Jung, Christian; Jungst, Ralph Markus; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalderon, Charles William; Kama, Sami; Kamenshchikov, Andrey; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kaneti, Steven; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kar, Deepak; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karastathis, Nikolaos; Kareem, Mohammad Jawad; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karpov, Sergey; Karpova, Zoya; Karthik, Krishnaiyengar; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kasieczka, Gregor; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katre, Akshay; Katzy, Judith; Kaushik, Venkatesh; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kazama, Shingo; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keil, Markus; Keller, John; Kempster, Jacob Julian; Keoshkerian, Houry; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Kessoku, Kohei; Keung, Justin; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Khodinov, Alexander; Khomich, Andrei; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khoriauli, Gia; Khoroshilov, Andrey; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kim, Hee Yeun; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Shinhong; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Robert Steven Beaufoy; King, Samuel Burton; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kiss, Florian; Kittelmann, Thomas; Kiuchi, Kenji; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klok, Peter; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Kobayashi, Dai; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koevesarki, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Kohlmann, Simon; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolanoski, Hermann; Koletsou, Iro; Koll, James; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kondrashova, Nataliia; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; König, Sebastian; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Köpke, Lutz; Kopp, Anna Katharina; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Korotkov, Vladislav; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kral, Vlastimil; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasnopevtsev, Dimitriy; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, Jana; Kravchenko, Anton; Kreiss, Sven; Kretz, Moritz; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Peter; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Kruker, Tobias; Krumnack, Nils; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kruse, Amanda; Kruse, Mark; Kruskal, Michael; Kubota, Takashi; Kucuk, Hilal; Kuday, Sinan; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuhl, Andrew; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuna, Marine; Kunkle, Joshua; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kurumida, Rie; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rotonda, Laura; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Laier, Heiko; Lambourne, Luke; Lammers, Sabine; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lançon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Lasagni Manghi, Federico; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Law, Alexander; Laycock, Paul; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Menedeu, Eve; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Claire Alexandra; Lee, Hurng-Chun; Lee, Jason; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Guillaume; Lefebvre, Michel; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehan, Allan; Lehmacher, Marc; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leight, William Axel; Leisos, Antonios; Leister, Andrew Gerard; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatjana; Lenzen, Georg; Lenzi, Bruno; Leone, Robert; Leone, Sandra; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Leroy, Claude; Lester, Christopher; Lester, Christopher Michael; Levchenko, Mikhail; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levy, Mark; Lewis, Adrian; Lewis, George; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bing; Li, Bo; Li, Haifeng; Li, Ho Ling; Li, Lei; Li, Liang; Li, Shu; Li, Yichen; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Lichard, Peter; Lie, Ki; Liebal, Jessica; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Lin, Simon; Lin, Tai-Hua; Linde, Frank; Lindquist, Brian Edward; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Dong; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Livermore, Sarah; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loebinger, Fred; Loevschall-Jensen, Ask Emil; Loginov, Andrey; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Lombardo, Vincenzo Paolo; Long, Brian Alexander; Long, Jonathan; Long, Robin Eamonn; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lopez Paredes, Brais; Lopez Paz, Ivan; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lowe, Andrew; Lu, Feng; Lu, Nan; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Luehring, Frederick; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lundberg, Olof; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lungwitz, Matthias; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Machado Miguens, Joana; Macina, Daniela; Madaffari, Daniele; Madar, Romain; Maddocks, Harvey Jonathan; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Maeno, Mayuko; Maeno, Tadashi; Maevskiy, Artem; Magradze, Erekle; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahlstedt, Joern; Mahmoud, Sara; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maier, Andreas Alexander; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Mal, Prolay; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Mandelli, Beatrice; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Manfredini, Alessandro; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany Andreina; Mann, Alexander; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mantifel, Rodger; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchand, Jean-Francois; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marino, Christopher; Marjanovic, Marija; Marques, Carlos; Marroquim, Fernando; Marsden, Stephen Philip; Marshall, Zach; Marti, Lukas Fritz; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian; Martin, Brian Thomas; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Homero; Martinez, Mario; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massa, Lorenzo; Massol, Nicolas; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mättig, Peter; Mattmann, Johannes; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Mazzaferro, Luca; Mc Goldrick, Garrin; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Mechnich, Joerg; Medinnis, Michael; Meehan, Samuel; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meineck, Christian; Meirose, Bernhard; Melachrinos, Constantinos; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Meloni, Federico; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mergelmeyer, Sebastian; Meric, Nicolas; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Merritt, Hayes; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Middleton, Robin; Migas, Sylwia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Milic, Adriana; Miller, David; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Milstein, Dmitry; Minaenko, Andrey; Minami, Yuto; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirabelli, Giovanni; Mitani, Takashi; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Mitsui, Shingo; Miucci, Antonio; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mochizuki, Kazuya; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Molander, Simon; Moles-Valls, Regina; Mönig, Klaus; Monini, Caterina; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Morange, Nicolas; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morgenstern, Marcus; Morii, Masahiro; Moritz, Sebastian; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Motohashi, Kazuki; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Muanza, Steve; Mudd, Richard; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Mueller, Thibaut; Mueller, Timo; Muenstermann, Daniel; Munwes, Yonathan; Murillo Quijada, Javier Alberto; Murray, Bill; Musheghyan, Haykuhi; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagai, Yoshikazu; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagarkar, Advait; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagel, Martin; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Namasivayam, Harisankar; Nanava, Gizo; Narayan, Rohin; Nattermann, Till; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Nef, Pascal Daniel; Negri, Andrea; Negri, Guido; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nellist, Clara; Nelson, Andrew; Nelson, Timothy Knight; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen, Duong Hai; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolics, Katalin; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Norberg, Scarlet; Nordberg, Markus; Novgorodova, Olga; Nowak, Sebastian; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; Nuti, Francesco; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'grady, Fionnbarr; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Obermann, Theresa; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohman, Henrik; Okamura, Wataru; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Olchevski, Alexander; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ouellette, Eric; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Oussoren, Koen Pieter; Ouyang, Qun; Ovcharova, Ana; Owen, Mark; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pachal, Katherine; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagáčová, Martina; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Pahl, Christoph; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Palestini, Sandro; Palka, Marek; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Palmer, Jody; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Panikashvili, Natalia; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Paolozzi, Lorenzo; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Passeri, Antonio; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Patricelli, Sergio; Pauly, Thilo; Pearce, James; Pedersen, Lars Egholm; Pedersen, Maiken; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedro, Rute; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Pelikan, Daniel; Peng, Haiping; Penning, Bjoern; Penwell, John; Perepelitsa, Dennis; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perez Reale, Valeria; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrella, Sabrina; Perrino, Roberto; Peschke, Richard; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Peters, Yvonne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Pettersson, Nora Emilia; Pezoa, Raquel; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Pianori, Elisabetta; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pignotti, David; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinder, Alex; Pinfold, James; Pingel, Almut; Pinto, Belmiro; Pires, Sylvestre; Pitt, Michael; Pizio, Caterina; Plazak, Lukas; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskot, Vojtech; Plotnikova, Elena; Plucinski, Pawel; Poddar, Sahill; Podlyski, Fabrice; Poettgen, Ruth; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, David-leon; Pohl, Martin; Polesello, Giacomo; Policicchio, Antonio; Polifka, Richard; Polini, Alessandro; Pollard, Christopher Samuel; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Portell Bueso, Xavier; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potamianos, Karolos; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prasad, Srivas; Pravahan, Rishiraj; Prell, Soeren; Price, Darren; Price, Joe; Price, Lawrence; Prieur, Damien; Primavera, Margherita; Proissl, Manuel; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopapadaki, Eftychia-sofia; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Przybycien, Mariusz; Przysiezniak, Helenka; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Puddu, Daniele; Pueschel, Elisa; Puldon, David; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Qian, Jianming; Qin, Gang; Qin, Yang; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Queitsch-Maitland, Michaela; Quilty, Donnchadha; Qureshi, Anum; Radeka, Veljko; Radescu, Voica; Radhakrishnan, Sooraj Krishnan; Radloff, Peter; Rados, Pere; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Randle-Conde, Aidan Sean; Rangel-Smith, Camila; Rao, Kanury; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Tobias Christian; Ravenscroft, Thomas; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Readioff, Nathan Peter; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Rehnisch, Laura; Reisin, Hernan; Relich, Matthew; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Huan; Ren, Zhongliang; Renaud, Adrien; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Rezanova, Olga; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richter, Robert; Ridel, Melissa; Rieck, Patrick; Rieger, Julia; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Ritsch, Elmar; Riu, Imma; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Roda, Chiara; Rodrigues, Luis; Roe, Shaun; Røhne, Ole; Rolli, Simona; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romero Adam, Elena; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Ronzani, Manfredi; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Matthew; Rose, Peyton; Rosendahl, Peter Lundgaard; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rosten, Rachel; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rubinskiy, Igor; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Christian; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Ruschke, Alexander; Rutherfoord, John; Ruthmann, Nils; Ryabov, Yury; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryder, Nick; Saavedra, Aldo; Sabato, Gabriele; Sacerdoti, Sabrina; Saddique, Asif; Sadeh, Iftach; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Yuki; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Saleem, Muhammad; Salek, David; Sales De Bruin, Pedro Henrique; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Sanchez, Arturo; Sánchez, Javier; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sandaker, Heidi; Sandbach, Ruth Laura; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Tanya; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sankey, Dave; Sansoni, Andrea; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Santoyo Castillo, Itzebelt; Sapp, Kevin; Sapronov, Andrey; Saraiva, João; Sarrazin, Bjorn; Sartisohn, Georg; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasaki, Yuichi; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Savard, Pierre; Savu, Dan Octavian; Sawyer, Craig; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, David; Saxon, James; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scanlon, Tim; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Scarfone, Valerio; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schaefer, Douglas; Schaefer, Ralph; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schäfer, Uli; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R~Dean; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Scherzer, Max; Schiavi, Carlo; Schieck, Jochen; Schillo, Christian; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmidt, Evelyn; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Sebastian; Schneider, Basil; Schnellbach, Yan Jie; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schoeffel, Laurent; Schoening, Andre; Schoenrock, Bradley Daniel; Schorlemmer, Andre Lukas; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schramm, Steven; Schreyer, Manuel; Schroeder, Christian; Schuh, Natascha; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwanenberger, Christian; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwarz, Thomas Andrew; Schwegler, Philipp; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Schwoerer, Maud; Sciacca, Gianfranco; Scifo, Estelle; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scott, Bill; Scuri, Fabrizio; Scutti, Federico; Searcy, Jacob; Sedov, George; Sedykh, Evgeny; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sekula, Stephen; Selbach, Karoline Elfriede; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Sellers, Graham; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Serre, Thomas; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sfiligoj, Tina; Sforza, Federico; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shang, Ruo-yu; Shank, James; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Shehu, Ciwake Yusufu; Sherwood, Peter; Shi, Liaoshan; Shimizu, Shima; Shimmin, Chase Owen; Shimojima, Makoto; Shiyakova, Mariya; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shochet, Mel; Short, Daniel; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Shushkevich, Stanislav; Sicho, Petr; Sidiropoulou, Ourania; Sidorov, Dmitri; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silva, José; Silver, Yiftah; Silverstein, Daniel; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simioni, Eduard; Simmons, Brinick; Simoniello, Rosa; Simonyan, Margar; Sinervo, Pekka; 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Spiller, Laurence Anthony; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; Spurlock, Barry; St Denis, Richard Dante; Staerz, Steffen; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stamm, Soren; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanescu-Bellu, Madalina; Stanitzki, Marcel Michael; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staszewski, Rafal; Stavina, Pavel; Steinberg, Peter; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stern, Sebastian; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoebe, Michael; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stolte, Philipp; Stonjek, Stefan; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Stramaglia, Maria Elena; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strauss, Emanuel; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Strubig, Antonia; Stucci, Stefania Antonia; Stugu, Bjarne; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Su, Dong; Su, Jun; Subramaniam, Rajivalochan; Succurro, Antonella; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suhr, Chad; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Siyuan; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Yu; Svatos, Michal; Swedish, Stephen; Swiatlowski, Maximilian; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Ta, Duc; Taccini, Cecilia; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taenzer, Joe; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tam, Jason; Tan, Kong Guan; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Satoshi; Tanaka, Shuji; Tanasijczuk, Andres Jorge; Tannenwald, Benjamin Bordy; Tannoury, Nancy; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tashiro, Takuya; Tassi, Enrico; Tavares Delgado, Ademar; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Wendy; Teischinger, Florian Alfred; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, Matilde; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Teoh, Jia Jian; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terzo, Stefano; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Therhaag, Jan; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thomas, Juergen; Thomas-Wilsker, Joshuha; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Peter; Thompson, Ray; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thong, Wai Meng; Thun, Rudolf; Tian, Feng; Tibbetts, Mark James; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tiouchichine, Elodie; Tipton, Paul; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Toggerson, Brokk; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tolley, Emma; Tomlinson, Lee; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Topilin, Nikolai; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Tran, Huong Lan; Trefzger, Thomas; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alessandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Tripiana, Martin; Trischuk, William; Trocmé, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trovatelli, Monica; True, Patrick; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsirintanis, Nikolaos; Tsiskaridze, Shota; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tuna, Alexander Naip; Tupputi, Salvatore; Turchikhin, Semen; Turecek, Daniel; Turk Cakir, Ilkay; Turra, Ruggero; Tuts, Michael; Tykhonov, Andrii; Tylmad, Maja; Tyndel, Mike; Uchida, Kirika; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ughetto, Michael; Ugland, Maren; Uhlenbrock, Mathias; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Ungaro, Francesca; Unno, Yoshinobu; Unverdorben, Christopher; Urbaniec, Dustin; Urquijo, Phillip; Usai, Giulio; Usanova, Anna; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Valencic, Nika; Valentinetti, Sara; Valero, Alberto; Valery, Loic; Valkar, Stefan; Valladolid Gallego, Eva; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; Van Den Wollenberg, Wouter; Van Der Deijl, Pieter; van der Geer, Rogier; van der Graaf, Harry; Van Der Leeuw, Robin; van der Ster, Daniel; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; Van Nieuwkoop, Jacobus; van Vulpen, Ivo; van Woerden, Marius Cornelis; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vanguri, Rami; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vannucci, Francois; Vardanyan, Gagik; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varol, Tulin; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Veatch, Jason; Veloso, Filipe; Velz, Thomas; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Venturini, Alessio; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Viazlo, Oleksandr; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Vigne, Ralph; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Virzi, Joseph; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vives Vaque, Francesc; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vladoiu, Dan; Vlasak, Michal; Vogel, Adrian; Vogel, Marcelo; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Radziewski, Holger; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorobev, Konstantin; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vu Anh, Tuan; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Vykydal, Zdenek; Wagner, Peter; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wahlberg, Hernan; Wahrmund, Sebastian; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wall, Richard; Waller, Peter; Walsh, Brian; Wang, Chao; Wang, Chiho; Wang, Fuquan; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Kuhan; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Wang, Tan; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Wanotayaroj, Chaowaroj; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Wardrope, David Robert; Warsinsky, Markus; Washbrook, Andrew; Wasicki, Christoph; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Ian; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Ben; Webb, Samuel; Weber, Michele; Weber, Stefan Wolf; Webster, Jordan S; Weidberg, Anthony; Weigell, Philipp; Weinert, Benjamin; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Weits, Hartger; Wells, Phillippa; Wenaus, Torre; Wendland, Dennis; Weng, Zhili; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Wessels, Martin; Wetter, Jeffrey; Whalen, Kathleen; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Ryan; White, Sebastian; Whiteson, Daniel; Wicke, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; Wijeratne, Peter Alexander; Wildauer, Andreas; Wildt, Martin Andre; Wilkens, Henric George; Will, Jonas Zacharias; Williams, Hugh; Williams, Sarah; Willis, Christopher; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, Alan; Wilson, John; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winklmeier, Frank; Winter, Benedict Tobias; Wittgen, Matthias; Wittig, Tobias; Wittkowski, Josephine; Wollstadt, Simon Jakob; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wozniak, Krzysztof; Wright, Michael; Wu, Mengqing; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wulf, Evan; Wyatt, Terry Richard; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xiao, Meng; Xu, Da; Xu, Lailin; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yakabe, Ryota; Yamada, Miho; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Yohei; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Kyoko; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamamura, Taiki; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamauchi, Katsuya; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Hongtao; Yang, Un-Ki; Yang, Yi; Yanush, Serguei; Yao, Liwen; Yao, Weiming; Yasu, Yoshiji; Yatsenko, Elena; Yau Wong, Kaven Henry; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yeletskikh, Ivan; Yen, Andy L; Yildirim, Eda; Yilmaz, Metin; Yoosoofmiya, Reza; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Rikutaro; Yoshihara, Keisuke; Young, Charles; Young, Christopher John; Youssef, Saul; Yu, David Ren-Hwa; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jiaming; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yurkewicz, Adam; Yusuff, Imran; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zaman, Aungshuman; Zambito, Stefano; Zanello, Lucia; Zanzi, Daniele; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zengel, Keith; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zerwas, Dirk; Zevi della Porta, Giovanni; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Fangzhou; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Lei; Zhou, Ning; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhukov, Konstantin; Zibell, Andre; Zieminska, Daria; Zimine, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Christoph; Zimmermann, Robert; Zimmermann, Simone; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Zinonos, Zinonas; Ziolkowski, Michael; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; zur Nedden, Martin; Zurzolo, Giovanni; Zutshi, Vishnu; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2015-04-09

    The ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN is used to search for the decay of a scalar boson to a pair of long-lived particles, neutral under the Standard Model gauge group, in 20.3 fb$^{-1}$ of data collected in proton--proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV. This search is sensitive to long-lived particles that decay to Standard Model particles producing jets at the outer edge of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter or inside the hadronic calorimeter. No significant excess of events is observed. Limits are reported on the product of the scalar boson production cross section times branching ratio into long-lived neutral particles as a function of the proper lifetime of the particles. Limits are reported for boson masses from 100 GeV to 900 GeV, and a long-lived neutral particle mass from 10 GeV to 150 GeV.

  17. The Atlas Liquid Argon Calorimeter: Commissioning with Cosmic Muons and First LHC Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Trocmé, B

    2008-01-01

    In 2009, the Large Hadron Collider at CERN will collide protons with a center of mass energy of 14 TeV. ATLAS is a general purpose experiment that will allow to explore the wide potential of discovery and achieve high precision measurements. The ATLAS liquid argon calorimeters are presented, with an emphasis on their in situ commissioning using cosmic muons and their response during the first LHC single beam runs on September 2008.

  18. The optical instrumentation of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Abdallah, J.; Adragna, P.; Alexa, C.; Lokajíček, Miloš; Němeček, Stanislav; Přibyl, Lukáš

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, Jan (2013), P01005 ISSN 1748-0221 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : calorimeters * calorimeter methods * scintillators * scintillation and light emission processes * solid, gas and liquid scintillators Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 1.526, year: 2013

  19. Performance of a dual readout calorimeter with a BGO electromagnetic section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaudio, Gabriella

    2011-01-01

    The dual readout technique has been tested on a hybrid calorimeter. The electromagnetic section of this instrument consists of 100 BGO crystals and the hadronic section is made out scintillating and Cherenkov fibers embedded in a copper matrix (DREAM). The electromagnetic fraction of hadronic showers is evaluated on an event-by-event basis from the relative amounts of Cherenkov and scintillation lights produced in the shower development. The performance of such a calorimeter in terms of energy resolution is presented. Effects of side leakage on detector performance are also studied.

  20. Operation and performance of the ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter and Level-1 Topological Triggers in Run 2 at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Whalen, Kate; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    In Run 2 at CERN's Large Hadron Collider, the ATLAS detector uses a two-level trigger system to reduce the event rate from the nominal collision rate of 40 MHz to the event storage rate of 1 kHz, while preserving interesting physics events. The first step of the trigger system, Level-1, reduces the event rate to 100 kHz with a latency of less than 2.5 μs. One component of this system is the Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger (L1Calo), which uses coarse-granularity information from the electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters to identify regions of interest corresponding to electrons, photons, taus, jets, and large amounts of transverse energy and missing transverse energy. In this talk, we will discuss the improved performance of the L1Calo system in the challenging, high-luminosity conditions provided by the LHC in Run 2. As the LHC exceeds its design luminosity, it is becoming even more critical to reduce event rates while preserving physics. A new feature of the ATLAS trigger system for Run 2 is the Level-1 Top...

  1. Optimisation of the level-1 calorimeter trigger at ATLAS for Run II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suchek, Stanislav [Kirchhoff-Institute for Physics, Im Neuenheimer Feld 227, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Collaboration: ATLAS-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger (L1Calo) is a central part of the ATLAS Level-1 Trigger system, designed to identify jet, electron, photon, and hadronic tau candidates, and to measure their transverse energies, as well total transverse energy and missing transverse energy. The optimisation of the jet energy resolution is an important part of the L1Calo upgrade for Run II. A Look-Up Table (LUT) is used to translate the electronic signal from each trigger tower to its transverse energy. By optimising the LUT calibration we can achieve better jet energy resolution and better performance of the jet transverse energy triggers, which are vital for many physics analyses. In addition, the improved energy calibration leads to significant improvements of the missing transverse energy resolution. A new Multi-Chip Module (MCM), as a part of the L1Calo upgrade, provides two separate LUTs for jets and electrons/photons/taus, allowing to optimise jet transverse energy and missing transverse energy separately from the electromagnetic objects. The optimisation is validated using jet transverse energy and missing transverse energy triggers turn-on curves and rates.

  2. Recent advances in precision laser cutting for the ATLAS hadron calorimeter absorbers production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alikov, B.; Budagov, Yu.

    1995-01-01

    The optimised precision laser cutting technology for high tolerances ATLAS hadron calorimeter absorber plates production is described. Some recent results of laser cut absorber plates dimension measurements are presented. The plates have been manufactured by 'Universalmash' (S.-Petersburg) and RCTL RAS (Shatura). It has been shown that the proved accuracy of the laser machines is not worse than 45 microns. 9 figs

  3. Phase-I trigger readout electronics upgrade of the ATLAS Liquid-Argon Calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, T.

    2016-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the Phase-I Upgrade of the ATLAS LAr Calorimeter Trigger Readout. The design of custom developed hardware for fast real-time data processing and transfer is presented. Performance results from the prototype boards operated in the demonstrator system, first measurements of noise behavior and responses on the test pulses to the demonstrator system are shown.

  4. 15 years of experience with quality control of WLS fibres for the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    David, M; Maio, A; Pina, J; Tomé, B

    2007-01-01

    We describe a test bench to measure the optical properties of scintillating and Wavelength-Shifting fibers, called the Fibrometer. The accuracy, stability and reproducibility were assessed, and the quality control of WLS fibers for the upgrade of the STIC luminosity monitor at DELPHI and for the Tile calorimeter of ATLAS is reported.

  5. Characterization of the 10-stages R5900 Hamamatsu photomultipliers for the hadronic ATLAS calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montarou, G.; Bouhemaid, N.; Grenier, Ph.; Crouau, M.; Muanza, G.S.; Poirot, S.; Vazeille, F.; Gil Botella, I.; Hoz, S.G. de la

    1997-01-01

    The measurements carried out, at Clermont on the R5900 Hamamatsu photomultipliers for the ATLAS hadronic calorimeter are summarised. The TILECAL specifications are given. Amplification measurements, dark current measurements, linearity, magnetic sensitivity and the voltage divider optimisation are presented. (K.A.)

  6. The ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter high-voltage system: commissioning, optimisation and LHC relative luminosity measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arfaoui, S.

    2011-10-01

    The main goals of the ATLAS scientific programme are the observation or exclusion of physics beyond the Standard Model (SM), as well as the measurement of production cross-sections of SM processes. In order to do so, it is important to measure the luminosity at the interaction point with great precision. The ATLAS luminosity is extracted using several detectors with varying efficiencies and acceptances. Different methods, such as inclusive - or coincidence - event counting and calorimeter integrated current measurements, are calibrated and cross-compared to provide the most accurate luminosity determination. In order to provide more cross-checks and a better control on the systematic uncertainties, an independent measurement using the liquid argon (LAr) forward calorimeter (FCal), based on the readout current of its high-voltage system, has been developed. This document describes how the LAr calorimeter high-voltage system has been installed and commissioned, as well as its application to a relative luminosity determination. (author)

  7. Improving jet substructure performance in ATLAS with unified tracking and calorimeter inputs

    CERN Document Server

    Jansky, Roland; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Jet substructure techniques play a critical role in ATLAS in searches for new physics, and are being utilized in the trigger. They become increasingly important in detailed studies of the Standard Model, among them the inclusive search for the Higgs boson produced with high transverse momentum decaying to a bottom-antibottom quark pair. To date, ATLAS has mostly focused on the use of calorimeter-based jet substructure, which works well for jets initiated by particles with low to moderate boost, but which lacks the angular resolution needed to resolve the desired substructure in the highly-boosted regime. We will present a novel approach designed to mitigate the calorimeter angular resolution limitations, thus providing superior performance to prior methods. Similar to previous methods, the superior angular resolution of the tracker is combined with information from the calorimeters. However, the new method is fundamentally different, as it correlates low-level objects as tracks and individual energy deposits ...

  8. The ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter high-voltage system: commissioning, optimisation, and LHC relative luminosity measurement.

    CERN Document Server

    Arfaoui, Samir; Monnier, E

    2011-01-01

    The main goals of the ATLAS scientific programme are the observation or exclusion of physics beyond the Standard Model (SM), as well as the measurement of production cross-sections of SM processes. In oder to do so,it is important to measure the luminosity at the interaction point with great precision. The ATLAS luminosity is extracted using several detectors with varying efficiencies and acceptances. Different methods, such as inclusive - or coincidence - event counting and calorimeter integrated current measurements, are calibrated and cross-compared to provide the most accurate luminosity determination. In order to provide more cross-checks and a better control on the systematic uncertainties, an independent measurement using the liquid argon (LAr) forward calorimeter (FCal), based on the readout current of its high-voltage system, has been developed. This document describes how the LAr calorimeter high-voltage system has been installed and commissioned, as well as its application to a relative luminosity ...

  9. Monitoring and data quality assessment of the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abbott, Brad; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdel Khalek, Samah; Abdinov, Ovsat; Aben, Rosemarie; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Addy, Tetteh; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adye, Tim; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Agustoni, Marco; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alio, Lion; Alison, John; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allison, Lee John; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alon, Raz; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Altheimer, Andrew David; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; Ammosov, Vladimir; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amoroso, Simone; Amram, Nir; Amundsen, Glenn; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Anduaga, Xabier; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Araque, Juan Pedro; Arce, Ayana; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnal, Vanessa; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ashkenazi, Adi; Ask, Stefan; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Atkinson, Markus; Atlay, Naim Bora; Auerbach, Benjamin; Auge, Etienne; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Bacci, Cesare; Bach, Andre; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Backus Mayes, John; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagiacchi, Paolo; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bai, Yu; Bailey, David; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Sarah; Balek, Petr; Balli, Fabrice; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Swagato; Bangert, Andrea Michelle; Bannoura, Arwa A E; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barber, Tom; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Barnovska, Zuzana; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartos, Pavol; Bartsch, Valeria; Bassalat, Ahmed; Basye, Austin; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battistin, Michele; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Anne Kathrin; Becker, Sebastian; Beckingham, Matthew; Becot, Cyril; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bedikian, Sourpouhi; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Beermann, Thomas; Begel, Michael; Behr, Katharina; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belloni, Alberto; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Berglund, Elina; Beringer, Jürg; Bernard, Clare; Bernat, Pauline; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertolucci, Federico; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia, Olga; Besson, Nathalie; Betancourt, Christopher; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianchini, Louis; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilbao De Mendizabal, Javier; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Black, Curtis; Black, James; Black, Kevin; Blackburn, Daniel; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blazek, Tomas; Bloch, Ingo; Blocker, Craig; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Boddy, Christopher Richard; Boehler, Michael; Boek, Jennifer; Boek, Thorsten Tobias; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bogouch, Andrei; Bohm, Christian; Bohm, Jan; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Boldyrev, Alexey; Bolnet, Nayanka Myriam; Bomben, Marco; Bona, Marcella; Boonekamp, Maarten; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Borri, Marcello; Borroni, Sara; Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Bortolotto, Valerio; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Boterenbrood, Hendrik; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouffard, Julian; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; Bourdarios, Claire; Bousson, Nicolas; Boutouil, Sara; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, Ivanka; Bracinik, Juraj; Branchini, Paolo; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Brazzale, Simone Federico; Brelier, Bertrand; Brendlinger, Kurt; Brennan, Amelia Jean; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Bristow, Kieran; Bristow, Timothy Michael; Britton, Dave; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Bromberg, Carl; Bronner, Johanna; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, Timothy; Brooks, William; Brosamer, Jacquelyn; Brost, Elizabeth; Brown, Gareth; Brown, Jonathan; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Brunet, Sylvie; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruschi, Marco; Bryngemark, Lene; Buanes, Trygve; Buat, Quentin; Bucci, Francesca; Buchholz, Peter; Buckingham, Ryan; Buckley, Andrew; Buda, Stelian Ioan; Budagov, Ioulian; Buehrer, Felix; Bugge, Lars; Bugge, Magnar Kopangen; Bulekov, Oleg; Bundock, Aaron Colin; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burghgrave, Blake; Burke, Stephen; Burmeister, Ingo; Busato, Emmanuel; Büscher, Volker; Bussey, Peter; Buszello, Claus-Peter; Butler, Bart; Butler, John; Butt, Aatif Imtiaz; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Butti, Pierfrancesco; Buttinger, William; Buzatu, Adrian; Byszewski, Marcin; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cakir, Orhan; Calafiura, Paolo; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Calkins, Robert; Caloba, Luiz; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Camacho Toro, Reina; Cameron, David; Caminada, Lea Michaela; Caminal Armadans, Roger; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Campoverde, Angel; Canale, Vincenzo; Canepa, Anadi; Cantero, Josu; Cantrill, Robert; Cao, Tingting; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Cardarelli, Roberto; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Sascha; Carquin, Edson; Carrillo-Montoya, German D; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castelli, Angelantonio; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Catastini, Pierluigi; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Cattani, Giordano; Caughron, Seth; Cavaliere, Viviana; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Cerio, Benjamin; Cerny, Karel; Santiago Cerqueira, Augusto; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cerv, Matevz; Cervelli, Alberto; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chalupkova, Ina; Chan, Kevin; Chang, Philip; Chapleau, Bertrand; Chapman, John Derek; Charfeddine, Driss; Charlton, Dave; Chau, Chav Chhiv; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Cheatham, Susan; Chegwidden, Andrew; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Karen; Chen, Liming; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Xin; Chen, Yujiao; Cheng, Hok Chuen; Cheng, Yangyang; Cheplakov, Alexander; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiarella, Vitaliano; Chiefari, Giovanni; Childers, John Taylor; Chilingarov, Alexandre; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chislett, Rebecca Thalatta; Chitan, Adrian; Chizhov, Mihail; Chouridou, Sofia; Chow, Bonnie Kar Bo; Christidi, Ilektra-Athanasia; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chu, Ming-Lee; Chudoba, Jiri; Chytka, Ladislav; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Ciftci, Rena; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirkovic, Predrag; Citron, Zvi Hirsh; Citterio, Mauro; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Philip James; Clarke, Robert; Cleland, Bill; Clemens, Jean-Claude; Clement, Benoit; Clement, Christophe; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Coffey, Laurel; Cogan, Joshua Godfrey; Coggeshall, James; Cole, Brian; Cole, Stephen; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collins-Tooth, Christopher; Collot, Johann; Colombo, Tommaso; Colon, German; Compostella, Gabriele; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Conidi, Maria Chiara; Connell, Simon Henry; Connelly, Ian; Consonni, Sofia Maria; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conti, Geraldine; Conventi, Francesco; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cooper-Smith, Neil; Copic, Katherine; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Corso-Radu, Alina; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Côté, David; Cottin, Giovanna; Cowan, Glen; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Cree, Graham; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Crescioli, Francesco; Crispin Ortuzar, Mireia; Cristinziani, Markus; Crosetti, Giovanni; Cuciuc, Constantin-Mihai; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Cummings, Jane; Curatolo, Maria; Cuthbert, Cameron; Czirr, Hendrik; Czodrowski, Patrick; Czyczula, Zofia; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, Mario Jose; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dafinca, Alexandru; Dai, Tiesheng; Dale, Orjan; Dallaire, Frederick; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Daniells, Andrew Christopher; Dano Hoffmann, Maria; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darlea, Georgiana Lavinia; Darmora, Smita; Dassoulas, James; Davey, Will; David, Claire; Davidek, Tomas; Davies, Eleanor; Davies, Merlin; Davignon, Olivier; Davison, Adam; Davison, Peter; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Daya-Ishmukhametova, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; de Graat, Julien; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De La Taille, Christophe; De la Torre, Hector; De Lorenzi, Francesco; De Nooij, Lucie; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; De Zorzi, Guido; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dechenaux, Benjamin; Dedovich, Dmitri; Degenhardt, James; Deigaard, Ingrid; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Deliot, Frederic; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Dell'Orso, Mauro; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demilly, Aurelien; Denisov, Sergey; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Deterre, Cecile; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Domenico, Antonio; Di Donato, Camilla; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Di Valentino, David; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Dietzsch, Thorsten; Diglio, Sara; Dimitrievska, Aleksandra; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dionisi, Carlo; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; Barros do Vale, Maria Aline; Do Valle Wemans, André; Doan, Thi Kieu Oanh; Dobos, Daniel; Dobson, Ellie; Doglioni, Caterina; Doherty, Tom; Dohmae, Takeshi; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donati, Simone; Dondero, Paolo; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Doyle, Tony; Dris, Manolis; Dubbert, Jörg; Dube, Sourabh; Dubreuil, Emmanuelle; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Ducu, Otilia Anamaria; Duda, Dominik; Dudarev, Alexey; Dudziak, Fanny; Duflot, Laurent; Duguid, Liam; Dührssen, Michael; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Düren, Michael; Durglishvili, Archil; Dwuznik, Michal; Dyndal, Mateusz; Ebke, Johannes; Edson, William; Edwards, Nicholas Charles; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Enari, Yuji; Endner, Oliver Chris; Endo, Masaki; Engelmann, Roderich; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Eriksson, Daniel; Ernis, Gunar; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Ernwein, Jean; Errede, Deborah; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Esch, Hendrik; Escobar, Carlos; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evans, Hal; Fabbri, Laura; Facini, Gabriel; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Faltova, Jana; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farooque, Trisha; Farrell, Steven; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassi, Farida; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Favareto, Andrea; Fayard, Louis; Federic, Pavol; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Wojciech; Fehling-Kaschek, Mirjam; Feigl, Simon; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Feng, Haolu; Fenyuk, Alexander; Fernandez Perez, Sonia; Fernando, Waruna; Ferrag, Samir; Ferrando, James; Ferrara, Valentina; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filipuzzi, Marco; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Finelli, Kevin Daniel; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Julia; Fisher, Matthew; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Fitzgerald, Eric Andrew; Flechl, Martin; Fleck, Ivor; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Fletcher, Gareth Thomas; Fletcher, Gregory; Flick, Tobias; Floderus, Anders; Flores Castillo, Luis; Florez Bustos, Andres Carlos; Flowerdew, Michael; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fortin, Dominique; Fournier, Daniel; Fox, Harald; Fracchia, Silvia; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchini, Matteo; Franchino, Silvia; Francis, David; Franklin, Melissa; Franz, Sebastien; Fraternali, Marco; French, Sky; Friedrich, Conrad; Friedrich, Felix; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fulsom, Bryan Gregory; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gabrielli, Alessandro; Gabrielli, Andrea; Gadatsch, Stefan; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Galhardo, Bruno; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallo, Valentina Santina; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galster, Gorm Aske Gram Krohn; Gan, KK; Gandrajula, Reddy Pratap; Gao, Jun; Gao, Yongsheng; Garay Walls, Francisca; Garberson, Ford; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garonne, Vincent; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gauzzi, Paolo; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gecse, Zoltan; Gee, Norman; Geerts, Daniël Alphonsus Adrianus; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Gemmell, Alistair; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Matthias; George, Simon; Gerbaudo, Davide; Gershon, Avi; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghodbane, Nabil; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Giannetti, Paola; Gianotti, Fabiola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Stephen; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gillam, Thomas; Gillberg, Dag; Gingrich, Douglas; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giordano, Raffaele; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giugni, Danilo; Giuliani, Claudia; Giulini, Maddalena; Giunta, Michele; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gkialas, Ioannis; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glaysher, Paul; Glazov, Alexandre; Glonti, George; Goblirsch-Kolb, Maximilian; Goddard, Jack Robert; Godfrey, Jennifer; Godlewski, Jan; Goeringer, Christian; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golubkov, Dmitry; Gomes, Agostinho; Gomez Fajardo, Luz Stella; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez Silva, Laura; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Goshaw, Alfred; Gössling, Claus; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gouighri, Mohamed; Goujdami, Driss; Goulette, Marc Phillippe; Goussiou, Anna; Goy, Corinne; Gozpinar, Serdar; Grabas, Herve Marie Xavier; Graber, Lars; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Grafström, Per; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Gramling, Johanna; Gramstad, Eirik; Grancagnolo, Francesco; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Gray, Heather; Graziani, Enrico; Grebenyuk, Oleg; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grishkevich, Yaroslav; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Grohs, Johannes Philipp; Grohsjean, Alexander; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Grossi, Giulio Cornelio; Groth-Jensen, Jacob; Grout, Zara Jane; Grybel, Kai; Guan, Liang; Guescini, Francesco; Guest, Daniel; Gueta, Orel; Guicheney, Christophe; Guido, Elisa; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Gumpert, Christian; Gunther, Jaroslav; Guo, Jun; Gupta, Shaun; Gutierrez, Phillip; Gutierrez Ortiz, Nicolas Gilberto; Gutschow, Christian; Guttman, Nir; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Haddad, Nacim; Haefner, Petra; Hageboeck, Stephan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haleem, Mahsana; Hall, David; Halladjian, Garabed; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamer, Matthias; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamilton, Samuel; Hamnett, Phillip George; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Hanke, Paul; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hard, Andrew; Harenberg, Torsten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harper, Devin; Harrington, Robert; Harris, Orin; Harrison, Paul Fraser; Hartjes, Fred; Harvey, Alex; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hasib, A; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauschild, Michael; Hauser, Reiner; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Anthony David; Hayashi, Takayasu; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Heck, Tobias; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heim, Timon; Heinemann, Beate; Heinrich, Lukas; Heisterkamp, Simon; Hejbal, Jiri; Helary, Louis; Heller, Claudio; Heller, Matthieu; Hellman, Sten; Hellmich, Dennis; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, James; Henderson, Robert; Hengler, Christopher; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Hensel, Carsten; Herbert, Geoffrey Henry; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herrberg-Schubert, Ruth; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hickling, Robert; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillert, Sonja; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hirose, Minoru; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoffman, Julia; Hoffmann, Dirk; Hofmann, Julia Isabell; Hohlfeld, Marc; Holmes, Tova Ray; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howard, Jacob; Howarth, James; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Diedi; Hu, Xueye; Huang, Yanping; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Hülsing, Tobias Alexander; Hurwitz, Martina; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Ideal, Emma; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Iizawa, Tomoya; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikematsu, Katsumasa; Ikeno, Masahiro; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Inamaru, Yuki; Ince, Tayfun; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Iturbe Ponce, Julia Mariana; Ivashin, Anton; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, John; Jackson, Matthew; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jakubek, Jan; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansen, Eric; Jansen, Hendrik; Janssen, Jens; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Javůrek, Tomáš; Jeanty, Laura; Jeng, Geng-yuan; Jen-La Plante, Imai; Jennens, David; Jenni, Peter; Jentzsch, Jennifer; Jeske, Carl; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Ji, Haoshuang; Ji, Weina; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jimenez Belenguer, Marcos; Jin, Shan; Jinaru, Adam; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Johansson, Erik; Johansson, Per; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tim; Jongmanns, Jan; Jorge, Pedro; Joshi, Kiran Daniel; Jovicevic, Jelena; Ju, Xiangyang; Jung, Christian; Jungst, Ralph Markus; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kama, Sami; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kaneti, Steven; Kanno, Takayuki; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kar, Deepak; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karastathis, Nikolaos; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karpov, Sergey; Karthik, Krishnaiyengar; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kasieczka, Gregor; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katre, Akshay; Katzy, Judith; Kaushik, Venkatesh; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kazama, Shingo; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keil, Markus; Keller, John; Keoshkerian, Houry; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Kessoku, Kohei; Keung, Justin; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Khodinov, Alexander; Khomich, Andrei; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khoriauli, Gia; Khoroshilov, Andrey; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kim, Hee Yeun; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Shinhong; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Robert Steven Beaufoy; King, Samuel Burton; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kiss, Florian; Kitamura, Takumi; Kittelmann, Thomas; Kiuchi, Kenji; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klinkby, Esben; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klok, Peter; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koevesarki, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Kohlmann, Simon; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolanoski, Hermann; Koletsou, Iro; Koll, James; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; König, Sebastian; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Köpke, Lutz; Kopp, Anna Katharina; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Korotkov, Vladislav; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kral, Vlastimil; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasnopevtsev, Dimitriy; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, Jana; Kravchenko, Anton; Kreiss, Sven; Kretz, Moritz; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Peter; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Kruker, Tobias; Krumnack, Nils; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kruse, Amanda; Kruse, Mark; Kruskal, Michael; Kubota, Takashi; Kuday, Sinan; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuhl, Andrew; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuna, Marine; Kunkle, Joshua; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kurumida, Rie; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rotonda, Laura; Labarga, Luis; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Laier, Heiko; Lambourne, Luke; Lammers, Sabine; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lançon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lange, Clemens; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavorini, Vincenzo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Law, Alexander; Laycock, Paul; Le, Bao Tran; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Menedeu, Eve; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Claire Alexandra; Lee, Hurng-Chun; Lee, Jason; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Guillaume; Lefebvre, Michel; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehan, Allan; Lehmacher, Marc; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leister, Andrew Gerard; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatjana; Lenzen, Georg; Lenzi, Bruno; Leone, Robert; Leonhardt, Kathrin; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Leroy, Claude; Lester, Christopher; Lester, Christopher Michael; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levy, Mark; Lewis, Adrian; Lewis, George; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bing; Li, Bo; Li, Haifeng; Li, Ho Ling; Li, Shu; Li, Xuefei; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Lichard, Peter; Lie, Ki; Liebal, Jessica; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Limper, Maaike; Lin, Simon; Linde, Frank; Lindquist, Brian Edward; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Dong; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Livermore, Sarah; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loddenkoetter, Thomas; Loebinger, Fred; Loevschall-Jensen, Ask Emil; Loginov, Andrey; Loh, Chang Wei; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Lombardo, Vincenzo Paolo; Long, Jonathan; Long, Robin Eamonn; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lopez Paredes, Brais; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Losty, Michael; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lowe, Andrew; Lu, Feng; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Luehring, Frederick; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lundberg, Olof; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lungwitz, Matthias; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Macina, Daniela; Madaffari, Daniele; Madar, Romain; Maddocks, Harvey Jonathan; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Maeno, Mayuko; Maeno, Tadashi; Magradze, Erekle; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahlstedt, Joern; Mahmoud, Sara; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Mal, Prolay; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Mandelli, Beatrice; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Manfredini, Alessandro; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany Andreina; Mann, Alexander; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mantifel, Rodger; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchand, Jean-Francois; Marchese, Fabrizio; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marino, Christopher; Marques, Carlos; Marroquim, Fernando; Marsden, Stephen Philip; Marshall, Zach; Marti, Lukas Fritz; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian; Martin, Brian Thomas; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Homero; Martinez, Mario; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massol, Nicolas; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Matsunaga, Hiroyuki; Matsushita, Takashi; Mättig, Peter; Mättig, Stefan; Mattmann, Johannes; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Mazzaferro, Luca; Mc Goldrick, Garrin; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; Mclaughlan, Tom; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Meade, Andrew; Mechnich, Joerg; Medinnis, Michael; Meehan, Samuel; Meera-Lebbai, Razzak; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meineck, Christian; Meirose, Bernhard; Melachrinos, Constantinos; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Meloni, Federico; Mendoza Navas, Luis; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mergelmeyer, Sebastian; Meric, Nicolas; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Merritt, Hayes; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Middleton, Robin; Migas, Sylwia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Miller, David; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Milstein, Dmitry; Minaenko, Andrey; Miñano Moya, Mercedes; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirabelli, Giovanni; Mitani, Takashi; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Mitsui, Shingo; Miucci, Antonio; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mochizuki, Kazuya; Moeller, Victoria; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Molander, Simon; Moles-Valls, Regina; Mönig, Klaus; Monini, Caterina; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Moraes, Arthur; Morange, Nicolas; Morel, Julien; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morgenstern, Marcus; Morii, Masahiro; Moritz, Sebastian; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Muanza, Steve; Mudd, Richard; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Mueller, Thibaut; Mueller, Timo; Muenstermann, Daniel; Munwes, Yonathan; Murillo Quijada, Javier Alberto; Murray, Bill; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagai, Yoshikazu; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagarkar, Advait; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagel, Martin; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Namasivayam, Harisankar; Nanava, Gizo; Narayan, Rohin; Nattermann, Till; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Negri, Andrea; Negri, Guido; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nelson, Andrew; Nelson, Timothy Knight; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Neusiedl, Andrea; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen, Duong Hai; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolics, Katalin; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Norberg, Scarlet; Nordberg, Markus; Nowak, Sebastian; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; Nuti, Francesco; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'grady, Fionnbarr; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Obermann, Theresa; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohman, Henrik; Ohshima, Takayoshi; Okamura, Wataru; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Olchevski, Alexander; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olivito, Dominick; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ouellette, Eric; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Oussoren, Koen Pieter; Ouyang, Qun; Ovcharova, Ana; Owen, Mark; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pachal, Katherine; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagáčová, Martina; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Pahl, Christoph; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Palestini, Sandro; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Palmer, Jody; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Panikashvili, Natalia; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Passeri, Antonio; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Patricelli, Sergio; Pauly, Thilo; Pearce, James; Pedersen, Maiken; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedro, Rute; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Pelikan, Daniel; Peng, Haiping; Penning, Bjoern; Penwell, John; Perepelitsa, Dennis; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perez Reale, Valeria; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrino, Roberto; Peschke, Richard; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Peters, Yvonne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Jorgen; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Petteni, Michele; Pettersson, Nora Emilia; Pezoa, Raquel; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Pianori, Elisabetta; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Piec, Sebastian Marcin; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pignotti, David; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinder, Alex; Pinfold, James; Pingel, Almut; Pinto, Belmiro; Pires, Sylvestre; Pizio, Caterina; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskot, Vojtech; Plotnikova, Elena; Plucinski, Pawel; Poddar, Sahill; Podlyski, Fabrice; Poettgen, Ruth; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, David-leon; Pohl, Martin; Polesello, Giacomo; Policicchio, Antonio; Polifka, Richard; Polini, Alessandro; Pollard, Christopher Samuel; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Portell Bueso, Xavier; Pospelov, Guennady; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potamianos, Karolos; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Prabhu, Robindra; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prasad, Srivas; Pravahan, Rishiraj; Prell, Soeren; Price, Darren; Price, Joe; Price, Lawrence; Prieur, Damien; Primavera, Margherita; Proissl, Manuel; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopapadaki, Eftychia-sofia; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Przybycien, Mariusz; Przysiezniak, Helenka; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Pueschel, Elisa; Puldon, David; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Pylypchenko, Yuriy; Qian, Jianming; Qin, Gang; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Quilty, Donnchadha; Qureshi, Anum; Radeka, Veljko; Radescu, Voica; Radhakrishnan, Sooraj Krishnan; Radloff, Peter; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Rammes, Marcus; Randle-Conde, Aidan Sean; Rangel-Smith, Camila; Rao, Kanury; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Tobias Christian; Ravenscroft, Thomas; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Rehnisch, Laura; Reinsch, Andreas; Reisin, Hernan; Relich, Matthew; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Zhongliang; Renaud, Adrien; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Rezanova, Olga; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richter, Robert; Ridel, Melissa; Rieck, Patrick; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Ritsch, Elmar; Riu, Imma; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Roda, Chiara; Rodrigues, Luis; Roe, Shaun; Røhne, Ole; Rolli, Simona; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romeo, Gaston; Romero Adam, Elena; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Anthony; Rose, Matthew; Rosendahl, Peter Lundgaard; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rosten, Rachel; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rubinskiy, Igor; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Christian; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Ruschke, Alexander; Rutherfoord, John; Ruthmann, Nils; Ruzicka, Pavel; Ryabov, Yury; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryder, Nick; Saavedra, Aldo; Sacerdoti, Sabrina; Saddique, Asif; Sadeh, Iftach; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Yuki; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Saleem, Muhammad; Salek, David; Sales De Bruin, Pedro Henrique; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvachua Ferrando, Belén; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Sanchez, Arturo; Sánchez, Javier; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sandaker, Heidi; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Tanya; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sankey, Dave; Sansoni, Andrea; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Santoyo Castillo, Itzebelt; Sapp, Kevin; Sapronov, Andrey; Saraiva, João; Sarrazin, Bjorn; Sartisohn, Georg; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasaki, Yuichi; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Savard, Pierre; Savu, Dan Octavian; Sawyer, Craig; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, David; Saxon, James; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scanlon, Tim; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schaefer, Douglas; Schaefer, Ralph; Schaelicke, Andreas; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schäfer, Uli; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R. Dean; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Scherzer, Max; Schiavi, Carlo; Schieck, Jochen; Schillo, Christian; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmidt, Evelyn; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Christopher; Schmitt, Sebastian; Schneider, Basil; Schnellbach, Yan Jie; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schoeffel, Laurent; Schoening, Andre; Schoenrock, Bradley Daniel; Schorlemmer, Andre Lukas; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schramm, Steven; Schreyer, Manuel; Schroeder, Christian; Schuh, Natascha; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwegler, Philipp; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Schwoerer, Maud; Sciacca, Gianfranco; Scifo, Estelle; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scott, Bill; Scuri, Fabrizio; Scutti, Federico; Searcy, Jacob; Sedov, George; Sedykh, Evgeny; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sekula, Stephen; Selbach, Karoline Elfriede; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Sellers, Graham; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Serre, Thomas; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sforza, Federico; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shank, James; Shao, Qi Tao; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Sherwood, Peter; Shimizu, Shima; Shimmin, Chase Owen; Shimojima, Makoto; Shiyakova, Mariya; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shochet, Mel; Short, Daniel; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Shushkevich, Stanislav; Sicho, Petr; Sidorov, Dmitri; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silbert, Ohad; Silva, José; Silver, Yiftah; Silverstein, Daniel; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simioni, Eduard; Simmons, Brinick; Simoniello, Rosa; Simonyan, Margar; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sipica, Valentin; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sircar, Anirvan; Sisakyan, Alexei; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skinnari, Louise Anastasia; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skovpen, Kirill; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smestad, Lillian; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Kenway; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snidero, Giacomo; Snyder, Scott; Sobie, Randall; Socher, Felix; Soffer, Abner; Soh, Dart-yin; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solfaroli Camillocci, Elena; Solodkov, Alexander; Solovyanov, Oleg; Solovyev, Victor; Sommer, Philip; Song, Hong Ye; Soni, Nitesh; Sood, Alexander; Sopko, Vit; Sopko, Bruno; Sosebee, Mark; Soualah, Rachik; Soueid, Paul; Soukharev, Andrey; South, David; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spanò, Francesco; Spearman, William Robert; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; Spurlock, Barry; St Denis, Richard Dante; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanescu-Bellu, Madalina; Stanitzki, Marcel Michael; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staszewski, Rafal; Stavina, Pavel; Steele, Genevieve; Steinberg, Peter; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stern, Sebastian; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoebe, Michael; Stoerig, Kathrin; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stolte, Philipp; Stonjek, Stefan; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strauss, Emanuel; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Stucci, Stefania Antonia; Stugu, Bjarne; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Su, Dong; Su, Jun; Subramania, Halasya Siva; Subramaniam, Rajivalochan; Succurro, Antonella; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suhr, Chad; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Yu; Svatos, Michal; Swedish, Stephen; Swiatlowski, Maximilian; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Ta, Duc; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taenzer, Joe; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takahashi, Yuta; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tam, Jason; Tamsett, Matthew; Tan, Kong Guan; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Satoshi; Tanaka, Shuji; Tanasijczuk, Andres Jorge; Tani, Kazutoshi; Tannoury, Nancy; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tashiro, Takuya; Tassi, Enrico; Tavares Delgado, Ademar; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Christopher; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Wendy; Teischinger, Florian Alfred; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, Matilde; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terzo, Stefano; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Therhaag, Jan; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thoma, Sascha; Thomas, Juergen; Thomas-Wilsker, Joshuha; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Peter; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thong, Wai Meng; Thun, Rudolf; Tian, Feng; Tibbetts, Mark James; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tiouchichine, Elodie; Tipton, Paul; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Toggerson, Brokk; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tomlinson, Lee; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Topilin, Nikolai; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Tran, Huong Lan; Trefzger, Thomas; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alessandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Tripiana, Martin; Triplett, Nathan; Trischuk, William; Trocmé, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trovatelli, Monica; True, Patrick; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsirintanis, Nikolaos; Tsiskaridze, Shota; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tua, Alan; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tuna, Alexander Naip; Tupputi, Salvatore; Turchikhin, Semen; Turecek, Daniel; Turk Cakir, Ilkay; Turra, Ruggero; Tuts, Michael; Tykhonov, Andrii; Tylmad, Maja; Tyndel, Mike; Uchida, Kirika; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ughetto, Michael; Ugland, Maren; Uhlenbrock, Mathias; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Ungaro, Francesca; Unno, Yoshinobu; Urbaniec, Dustin; Urquijo, Phillip; Usai, Giulio; Usanova, Anna; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Valencic, Nika; Valentinetti, Sara; Valero, Alberto; Valery, Loic; Valkar, Stefan; Valladolid Gallego, Eva; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; Van Der Deijl, Pieter; van der Geer, Rogier; van der Graaf, Harry; Van Der Leeuw, Robin; van der Ster, Daniel; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; Van Nieuwkoop, Jacobus; van Vulpen, Ivo; van Woerden, Marius Cornelis; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vannucci, Francois; Vardanyan, Gagik; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varol, Tulin; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Veatch, Jason; Veloso, Filipe; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Venturini, Alessio; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Viazlo, Oleksandr; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Vigne, Ralph; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Virzi, Joseph; Vitells, Ofer; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vives Vaque, Francesc; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vladoiu, Dan; Vlasak, Michal; Vogel, Adrian; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Radziewski, Holger; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vu Anh, Tuan; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Vykydal, Zdenek; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wagner, Peter; Wahrmund, Sebastian; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wall, Richard; Waller, Peter; Walsh, Brian; Wang, Chao; Wang, Chiho; Wang, Fuquan; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Kuhan; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Wang, Tan; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Wardrope, David Robert; Warsinsky, Markus; Washbrook, Andrew; Wasicki, Christoph; Watanabe, Ippei; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Ian; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Ben; Webb, Samuel; Weber, Michele; Weber, Stefan Wolf; Webster, Jordan S; Weidberg, Anthony; Weigell, Philipp; Weinert, Benjamin; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Weits, Hartger; Wells, Phillippa; Wenaus, Torre; Wendland, Dennis; Weng, Zhili; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Wessels, Martin; Wetter, Jeffrey; Whalen, Kathleen; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Ryan; White, Sebastian; Whiteson, Daniel; Wicke, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; Wijeratne, Peter Alexander; Wildauer, Andreas; Wildt, Martin Andre; Wilkens, Henric George; Will, Jonas Zacharias; Williams, Hugh; Williams, Sarah; Willis, Christopher; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, John; Wilson, Alan; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winkelmann, Stefan; Winklmeier, Frank; Wittgen, Matthias; Wittig, Tobias; Wittkowski, Josephine; Wollstadt, Simon Jakob; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wozniak, Krzysztof; Wright, Michael; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wulf, Evan; Wyatt, Terry Richard; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xiao, Meng; Xu, Da; Xu, Lailin; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yamada, Miho; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Yohei; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Kyoko; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamamura, Taiki; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamauchi, Katsuya; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Hongtao; Yang, Un-Ki; Yang, Yi; Yanush, Serguei; Yao, Liwen; Yao, Weiming; Yasu, Yoshiji; Yatsenko, Elena; Yau Wong, Kaven Henry; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yen, Andy L; Yildirim, Eda; Yilmaz, Metin; Yoosoofmiya, Reza; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Rikutaro; Yoshihara, Keisuke; Young, Charles; Young, Christopher John; Youssef, Saul; Yu, David Ren-Hwa; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jiaming; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yurkewicz, Adam; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zaman, Aungshuman; Zambito, Stefano; Zanello, Lucia; Zanzi, Daniele; Zaytsev, Alexander; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zengel, Keith; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zerwas, Dirk; Zevi della Porta, Giovanni; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Fangzhou; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Lei; Zhou, Ning; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zibell, Andre; Zieminska, Daria; Zimine, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Christoph; Zimmermann, Robert; Zimmermann, Simone; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Zinonos, Zinonas; Ziolkowski, Michael; Zitoun, Robert; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; zur Nedden, Martin; Zurzolo, Giovanni; Zutshi, Vishnu; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2014-01-01

    The liquid argon calorimeter is a key component of the ATLAS detector installed at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The primary purpose of this calorimeter is the measurement of electrons and photons. It also provides a crucial input for measuring jets and missing transverse momentum. An advanced data monitoring procedure was designed to quickly identify issues that would affect detector performance and ensure that only the best quality data are used for physics analysis. This article presents the validation procedure developed during the 2011 and 2012 LHC data-taking periods, in which more than 98% of the proton–proton luminosity recorded by ATLAS at a centre-of-mass energy of 7–8 TeV had calorimeter data quality suitable for physics analysis.

  10. The performance of the ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger with LHC collision data

    CERN Document Server

    Bracinik, J

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS first-level calorimeter trigger is a hardware-based system designed to identify high-E$_T$ jets, electron/photon and $ au$ candidates and to measure total and missing E$_T$ in the ATLAS calorimeters. After more than two years of commissioning in situ with calibration data and cosmic rays, the system has now been used extensively to select the most interesting proton-proton collision events. Fine tuning of timing and energy calibration has been carried out in 2010 to improve the trigger response to physics objects. In these proceedings, an analysis of the performance of the level-1 calorimeter trigger is presented, along with the techniques used to achieve these results.

  11. Design and performance of an electromagnetic calorimeter for a FCC-hh experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaborowska, A.

    2018-03-01

    The physics reach and feasibility of the Future Circular Collider are currently under investigation. The goal is to collide protons with centre-of-mass energies up to 100 TeV, extending the research carried out at the current HEP facilities. The detectors designed for the FCC experiments need to tackle harsh conditions of the unprecedented collision energy and luminosity. The baseline technology for the calorimeter system of the FCC-hh detector is described. The electromagnetic calorimeter in the barrel, as well as the electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters in the endcaps and the forward regions, are based on the liquid argon as active material. The detector layout in the barrel region combines the concept of a high granularity calorimeter with precise energy measurements. The calorimeters have to meet the requirements of high radiation hardness and must be able to deal with a very high number of collisions per bunch crossings (pile-up). A very good energy and angular resolution for a wide range of electrons' and photons' momentum is needed in order to meet the demands based on the physics benchmarks. First results of the performance studies with the new liquid argon calorimeter are presented, meeting the energy resolution goal.

  12. The lead-glass electromagnetic calorimeters for the magnetic spectrometers in Hall C at Jefferson Lab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mkrtchyan, H. [A.I. Alikhanyan National Science Laboratory (Yerevan Physics Institute), Yerevan 0036 (Armenia); Carlini, R. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Tadevosyan, V., E-mail: tadevosn@jlab.org [A.I. Alikhanyan National Science Laboratory (Yerevan Physics Institute), Yerevan 0036 (Armenia); Arrington, J. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Asaturyan, A. [A.I. Alikhanyan National Science Laboratory (Yerevan Physics Institute), Yerevan 0036 (Armenia); Christy, M.E. [Hampton University, Hampton, VA 23668 (United States); Dutta, D. [Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory and Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Ent, R.; Fenker, H.C.; Gaskell, D. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Horn, T. [Catholic University of America, Washington, DC 20064 (United States); Jones, M.K. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Keppel, C.E. [Hampton University, Hampton, VA 23668 (United States); Mack, D.J. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Malace, S.P. [Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory and Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Mkrtchyan, A. [A.I. Alikhanyan National Science Laboratory (Yerevan Physics Institute), Yerevan 0036 (Armenia); Niculescu, M.I. [James Madison University, Harrisonburg, VA 22807 (United States); Seely, J. [Laboratory for Nuclear Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Tvaskis, V. [Hampton University, Hampton, VA 23668 (United States); Wood, S.A. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); and others

    2013-08-11

    The electromagnetic calorimeters of the various magnetic spectrometers in Hall C at Jefferson Lab are presented. For the existing High Momentum Spectrometer (HMS) and Short Orbit Spectrometer (SOS), design considerations, relevant construction information, and comparisons of simulated and experimental results are included. The energy resolution of the HMS and SOS calorimeters is better than σ/E∼6%/√(E) and pion/electron (π/e) separation of about 100:1 has been achieved in the energy range of 1–5 GeV. Good agreement has been observed between the experimental and simulated energy resolutions, but simulations systematically exceed experimentally determined π{sup −} suppression factors by close to a factor of two. For the Super High Momentum Spectrometer (SHMS), presently under construction, details on the design and accompanying GEANT4 simulation efforts are given. The anticipated performance of the new calorimeter is predicted over the full momentum range of the SHMS. Good electron/hadron separation is anticipated by combining the energy deposited in an initial (preshower) calorimeter layer with the total energy deposited in the calorimeter. -- Highlights: • Construction and performance of lead glass calorimeters in JLab/Hall C are presented. • ∼5%/√(E) resolution, ∼100:1π/e separation is achieved in HMS calorimeter in GeV range. • Simulated resolution of the HMS calorimeter is in good agreement with experiment. • Simulated pion suppression of the HMS calorimeter exceeds experiment, by less than 2. • Pion suppression of ∼400:1 is predicted in projected SHMS calorimeter by simulations.

  13. Characterization of an Electromagnetic Calorimeter for the Proposed International Linear Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frey, Merideth; Wellesley Coll.; SLAC

    2006-01-01

    The International Linear Collider (ILC) is part of a new generation of accelerators enabling physicists to gain a deeper understanding of the fundamental components of the universe. The proposed ILC will accelerate positrons and electrons towards each other with two facing linear colliders, each twenty kilometers long. Designing and planning for the future accelerator has been undertaken as a global collaboration, with groups working on several possible detectors to be used at the ILC. The following research at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) pertained to the design of an electromagnetic calorimeter. The energy and spatial resolution of the calorimeter was tested by using computer simulations for proposed detectors. In order to optimize this accuracy, different designs of the electromagnetic calorimeter were investigated along with various methods to analyze the data from the simulated detector. A low-cost calorimeter design was found to provide energy resolution comparable to more expensive designs, and new clustering algorithms offered better spatial resolution. Energy distribution and shape characteristics of electromagnetic showers were also identified to differentiate various showers in the calorimeter. With further research, a well-designed detector will enable the ILC to observe new realms of physics

  14. The Laser calibration of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter during the LHC run 1

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00305555

    2016-10-12

    This article describes the Laser calibration system of the Atlas hadronic Tile Calorimeter that has been used during the run 1 of the LHC. First, the stability of the system associated readout electronics is studied. It is found to be stable with variations smaller than 0.6 %. Then, the method developed to compute the calibration constants, to correct for the variations of the gain of the calorimeter photomultipliers, is described. These constants were determined with a statistical uncertainty of 0.3 % and a systematic uncertainty of 0.2 % for the central part of the calorimeter and 0.5 % for the end-caps. Finally, the detection and correction of timing mis-configuration of the Tile Calorimeter using the Laser system are also presented.

  15. The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter performance at LHC in pp collisions at 7 TeV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertolucci Federico

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal, the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment, is a key detector component to detect hadrons, jets and taus and to measure the missing transverse energy. Due to the very good muon signal to noise ratio it assists the muon spectrometer in the identification and reconstruction of muons. The performance of the calorimeter has been measured and monitored using calibration data, random triggered data, cosmic muons, splash events and more importantly LHC collision events. The results presented assess the absolute energy scale calibration precision, the energy and timing uniformity and the synchronization precision. The results demonstrate a very good understanding of the performance of the Tile Calorimeter that is well within the design expectations.

  16. Prototype study of a BGO electromagnetic calorimeter for the experiment L3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Mamouni, H.

    1986-01-01

    The L3 experiment detector at LEP is equipped with an original electromagnetic calorimeter. Such a calorimeter is made of a new calorimetric material, viz, Bismuth Germanate Oxyde (BGO). Furthermore, the scintillation light is read by means of large-area photodiodes. The latter choice for the photodiodes is dictated by the presence of a magnetic field. This thesis deals with the study in the 1-50 GeV energy range of the performances of a prototype for this new calorimeter. A great deal of efforts is devoted to ameliorate the energy resolution by improving the signal/noise ratio, the BGO crystals quality, the wrapping, the mechanical structure, etc... The goodness and the quality of the obtained results (concerning the linearity, the energy resolution and the position resolution) make it possible to reach in the near future the stage of the construction of a definitive calorimeter [fr

  17. The design and performance of the electromagnetic calorimeters in Hall C at Jefferson Lab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadevosyan, V; Mkrtchyan, H; Asaturyan, A; Mkrtchyan, A; Zhamkochyan, S

    2012-01-01

    The design and performance of the electromagnetic calorimeters in the magnetic spectrometers in Hall C at Jefferson Lab are presented. For the existing HMS and SOS spectrometers, construction information and comparisons of simulated and experimental results are presented. The design and simulated performance for a new calorimeter to be used in the new SHMS spectrometer is also presented. We have developed and constructed electromagnetic calorimeters from TF-1 type lead-glass blocks for the HMS and SOS magnetic spectrometers at JLab Hall C. The HMS/SOS calorimeters are of identical design and construction except for their total size. Blocks of dimension 10 cm × 10 cm × 70 cm are arranged in four planes and stacked 13 and 11 blocks high in the HMS and SOS respectively. The energy resolution of these calorimeters is better than 6%/√E, and pion/electron (π/e) separation of about 100:1 has been achieved in energy range 1–5 GeV. Good agreement has been observed between the experimental and GEANT4 simulated energy resolutions. The HMS/SOS calorimeters have been used nearly in all Hall C experiments, providing good energy resolution and a high pion suppression factor. No significant deterioration in their performance has been observed in the course of use since 1994. For the SHMS spectrometer, presently under construction, details on the calorimeter design and accompanying GEANT4 simulation efforts are given. A Preshower+Shower design was selected as the most cost-effective among several design choices. The preshower will consist of a layer of 28 modules with TF-1 type lead glass radiators, stacked in two columns. The shower part will consist of 224 modules with F-101 type lead glass radiators, stacked in a “fly's eye” configuration of 14 columns and 16 rows. The active area of 120 × 130 cm 2 will encompass the beam envelope at the calorimeter. The anticipated performance of the new calorimeter is simulated over the full momentum range of the SHMS, predicting

  18. Study of the granular electromagnetic calorimeter with PPDs and scintillator strips for ILC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotera, Katsushige, E-mail: coterra@azusa.shinshu-u.ac.j [Shinshu University, Asahi 3-1-1, Matsumoto 390-8621 (Japan)

    2011-02-01

    A prototype module of a fine-granular electromagnetic calorimeter has been constructed by the CALICE collaboration and tested in the period August-September 2008 at the FNAL meson beam test facility. The calorimeter is one of the proposed concepts for a highly granular electromagnetic calorimeter for the International Linear Collider (ILC) experiment, which is designed to have an effective 10 mmx10 mm lateral segmentation using 10 mmx45 mm scintillator strips. The strips in the 15 odd layers are orthogonal with respect to those in the 15 even layers. A total of 2160 strip scintillators are individually read out using a Pixelated Photon Detector (PPD) or MPPC. As a preliminary result of the first stage analysis, we obtain a relative energy resolution for single electrons of {sigma}{sub E}/E=(15.15{+-}0.03)%/{radical}(E{sub beam}(GeV))+(1.44{+-}0.02)%, the quoted uncertainties are purely statistical.

  19. Reconstruction of inclined shower coordinates in electromagnetic calorimeters based on lead glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasil'ev, A.N.; Mochalov, V.V.; Solov'ev, L.F.

    2007-01-01

    A method for reconstructing the coordinates of inclined showers in lead glass electromagnetic calorimeters is described. Such showers are generated by photons with energies of 0.5-4.0 GeV that are incident on the detector at angles of as great as 30 deg. An analytical expression for the description of the actual photon coordinate in the calorimeter versus the coordinates of the shower center of gravity is proposed. Using this expression, it is possible to reconstruct the coordinates of inclined electromagnetic showers over wide ranges of angles and energies. The dependences of the spatial resolution on the photon energy and angle are determined. The longitudinal fluctuations of the shower length and their effect on the spatial resolution of the calorimeter are discussed [ru

  20. Response of the CALICE Si-W electromagnetic calorimeter physics prototype to electrons

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adloff, C.; Karyotakis, Y.; Repond, J.; Cvach, Jaroslav; Havránek, Miroslav; Janata, Milan; Marčišovský, Michal; Polák, Ivo; Popule, Jiří; Tomášek, Lukáš; Tomášek, Michal; Růžička, Pavel; Šícho, Petr; Smolík, Jan; Vrba, Václav; Zálešák, Jaroslav

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 608, č. 3 (2009), s. 372-383 ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LA09042 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : CALICE * ILC * electromagnetic calorimeter * silicon detector * electron reconstruction Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 1.317, year: 2009

  1. An electromagnetic calorimeter for the solenoidal tracker at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westfall, G.D.; Llope, W.J.; Underwood, D.G.

    1993-10-01

    In this document, we outline a proposal to the National Science Foundation (NSF) for the construction of an electromagnetic calorimeter for STAR that fulfills these requirements. This proposal creates the opportunity for the NSF to make a major impact on the experimental program at RHIC by providing a crucial, but defensibly omitted, component of the STAR experiment as approved

  2. Estimation of radiation effects in the front-end electronics of an ILC electromagnetic calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartsch, V.; Postranecky, M.; Targett-Adams, C.; Warren, M.; Wing, M.

    2008-01-01

    The front-end electronics of the electromagnetic calorimeter of an International Linear Collider detector are situated in a radiation environment. This requires the effect of the radiation on the performance of the electronics, specifically FPGAs, to be examined. In this paper we study the flux, particle spectra and deposited doses at the front-end electronics of the electromagnetic calorimeter of a detector at the ILC. We also study the occupancy of the electromagnetic calorimeter. These estimates are compared with measurements, e.g. of the radiation damage of FPGAs, done elsewhere. The outcome of the study shows that the radiation doses and the annual flux is low enough to allow today's FPGAs to operate. The Single Event Upset rate, however, lies between 14 min and 12 h depending on the FPGA used and therefore needs to be considered in the design of the data acquisition system of the electromagnetic calorimeter. The occupancy is about 0.002 per bunch train not taking into account the effect of noise which depends on the choice of the detector

  3. Trigger-less readout system with pulse pile-up recovery for the PANDA electromagnetic calorimeter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kavatsyuk, M.; Tambave, G.; Hevinga, M.; Lemmens, P. J. J.; Schakel, P.; Schreuder, F.; Speelman, R.; Löhner, H.

    2013-01-01

    A simple, efficient, and robust on-line data-processing scheme was developed for the digital front-end electronics of the electromagnetic calorimeter of the PANDA spectrometer at FAIR, Darmstadt. The implementation of the processing algorithm in FPGA enables the construction of an almost dead-time

  4. The calibration of the central electromagnetic calorimeter of UA1 proton-antiproton experiment at CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malosse, J.J.

    1987-03-01

    The most important result of the UA1 experiment at CERN has been the discovery of the weak intermediate vector bosons W + , W - and Z 0 . We describe the calibration of the electromagnetic calorimeter, which gives the signature of the electronic mode of desintegration of the intermediate bosons and measures their masses. We shall discuss this process and give some experimental results [fr

  5. The CDF Central Electromagnetic Calorimeter for Proton - Anti-proton Collision Experiment at Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamon, Teruki [Univ. of Tsukuba (Japan)

    1986-06-01

    The CDF central electromagnetic calorimeter modules were calibrated with test beam and cosmic ray muons. It is found that (a) the modules are identical to each other by 1 % on the response map and (b) the uncertaity on the measurement of the energy of showering particle is better than 1.1 % in the 85 % of whole area.

  6. A high resolution electromagnetic calorimeter based on lead-tungstate crystals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aleksandrov, D. V.; Burachas, S.F.; Ippolitov, M.S.; Mareš, Jiří A.; Polák, Karel

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 550, - (2005), s. 169-184 ISSN 0168-9002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : PbWO 3 * high resolution electromagnetic calorimeter Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.224, year: 2005

  7. Study of position resolution and electron-hadron separation of electromagnetic calorimeter with a silicon structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorodnichev, V.B.; Kachanov, V.A.; Khodyrev, V.Yu.; Kurchaninov, L.L.; Rykali, V.V.; Solovianov, V.L.; Ukhalov, M.N.

    1993-01-01

    The maximum shower silicon strip detectors embedded in a module of sandwich-type electromagnetic calorimeter have been tested. The position resolution at different depths of the silicon structure has been measured. The results on electron-hadron separation obtained as a byproduct in this study are presented, and possibility of their improvement is discussed. 8 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab

  8. VHDL Implementation of Feature-Extraction Algorithm for the PANDA Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kavatsyuk, M.; Guliyev, E.; Lemmens, P. J. J.; Löhner, H.; Tambave, G.

    2010-01-01

    The feature-extraction algorithm, developed for the digital front-end electronics of the electromagnetic calorimeter of the PANDA detector at the future FAIR facility, is implemented in VHDL for a commercial 16 bit 100 MHz sampling ADC. The use of modified firmware with the running on-line

  9. VHDL implementation of feature-extraction algorithm for the PANDA electromagnetic calorimeter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guliyev, E.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Lemmens, P. J. J.; Tambave, G.; Löhner, H.

    2012-01-01

    A simple, efficient, and robust feature-extraction algorithm, developed for the digital front-end electronics of the electromagnetic calorimeter of the PANDA spectrometer at FAIR, Darmstadt, is implemented in VHDL for a commercial 16 bit 100 MHz sampling ADC. The source-code is available as an

  10. Experiment search of the electroweak symmetry breaking in the H {yields} {gamma}{gamma} channel and of a solution of the hierarchy problem in the Atlas experiment: participation to the tests of the electronics of the electromagnetic calorimeter; Recherche experimentale de la brisure spontanee de symetrie electrofaible dans le canal H {yields} {gamma}{gamma} et d'une solution au probleme de hierarchie dans ATLAS. Participation a la preparation de l'electronique du calorimetre electromagnetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escalier, M

    2005-04-15

    This thesis deals with the understanding of the spontaneous electroweak symmetry breaking mechanism in the ATLAS experiment at LHC collider, by studying two complementary topics: the search for the Higgs boson in the H {yields} {gamma}{gamma} channel, and a search for extra dimensions in the gluon sector. Tests of the electronic of the electromagnetic calorimeter allowed us to validate various cards that were under the responsibility of the LPNHE. Using full simulation data of the detector allowed us to precisely compute mass resolution of the di-photon system. Due to recent theoretical improvements, signal and background have been studied at the next order of the perturbative development, which increases cross-sections. With regards to the jet background, a study has been done using discriminating variables in order to obtain, for a 80 % photons efficiency, a rejection factor of 7000. The discovery potential benefits from this change of cross-sections and increases by 50 % in comparison with the same analysis done at the leading order. In addition to this, a new analysis using a maximum likelihood method allowed us to increase by 40 % the discovery potential in comparison with our classical analysis. In conclusion, the Higgs boson of 120 GeV/c{sup 2} can be now discovered in this channel with an integrated luminosity of 10 fb{sup -1}. Furthermore, the consistency of the problem of the Higgs boson mass can be solved by introducing extra dimensions in which gluons can propagate. We have shown that it was possible to discover extra-dimensions up to a compactification scale of 15 TeV. (author)

  11. Experiment search of the electroweak symmetry breaking in the H {yields} {gamma}{gamma} channel and of a solution of the hierarchy problem in the Atlas experiment: participation to the tests of the electronics of the electromagnetic calorimeter; Recherche experimentale de la brisure spontanee de symetrie electrofaible dans le canal H {yields} {gamma}{gamma} et d'une solution au probleme de hierarchie dans ATLAS. Participation a la preparation de l'electronique du calorimetre electromagnetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escalier, M

    2005-04-15

    This thesis deals with the understanding of the spontaneous electroweak symmetry breaking mechanism in the ATLAS experiment at LHC collider, by studying two complementary topics: the search for the Higgs boson in the H {yields} {gamma}{gamma} channel, and a search for extra dimensions in the gluon sector. Tests of the electronic of the electromagnetic calorimeter allowed us to validate various cards that were under the responsibility of the LPNHE. Using full simulation data of the detector allowed us to precisely compute mass resolution of the di-photon system. Due to recent theoretical improvements, signal and background have been studied at the next order of the perturbative development, which increases cross-sections. With regards to the jet background, a study has been done using discriminating variables in order to obtain, for a 80 % photons efficiency, a rejection factor of 7000. The discovery potential benefits from this change of cross-sections and increases by 50 % in comparison with the same analysis done at the leading order. In addition to this, a new analysis using a maximum likelihood method allowed us to increase by 40 % the discovery potential in comparison with our classical analysis. In conclusion, the Higgs boson of 120 GeV/c{sup 2} can be now discovered in this channel with an integrated luminosity of 10 fb{sup -1}. Furthermore, the consistency of the problem of the Higgs boson mass can be solved by introducing extra dimensions in which gluons can propagate. We have shown that it was possible to discover extra-dimensions up to a compactification scale of 15 TeV. (author)

  12. Readout Electronics for the ATLAS LAr Calorimeter at HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, H; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is one of the two general-purpose detectors designed to study proton-proton collisions (14 TeV in the center of mass) produced at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and to explore the full physics potential of the LHC machine at CERN. The ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) calorimeters are high precision, high sensitivity and high granularity detectors designed to provide precision measurements of electrons, photons, jets and missing transverse energy. ATLAS (and its LAr Calorimeters) has been operating and collecting p-p collisions at LHC since 2009. The on-detector electronics (front-end) part of the current readout electronics of the calorimeters measures the ionization current signals by means of preamplifiers, shapers and digitizers and then transfers the data to the off-detector electronics (back-end) for further elaboration, via optical links. Only the data selected by the level-1 calorimeter trigger system are transferred, achieving a bandwidth reduction to 1.6 Gbps. The analog trigger sum sig...

  13. Electromagnetic calorimeter for the HADES@FAIR experiment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svoboda, Ondřej; Blume, C.; Czyzycki, W.; Epple, E.; Fabbietti, L.; Galatyuk, T.; Golubeva, M.; Guber, F.; Hlaváč, S.; Ivashkin, A.; Kajetanowicz, M.; Kardan, B.; Koenig, W.; Kugler, Andrej; Lapidus, K.; Lisowski, E.; Pietraszko, J.; Reshetin, A.; Rost, A.; Salabura, P.; Sobolev, Yuri, G.; Tlustý, Pavel; Traxler, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 9, MAY (2014), C05002 ISSN 1748-0221. [13th Topical Seminar on Innovative Particle and Radiation Detectors (IPRD 2013). Siena, 7.10.2013-10.10.2013] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-06759S; GA MŠk LG12007 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : Cherenkov detectors * calorimeters * front-end electronics for detector readout Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.399, year: 2014

  14. Single hadron response measurement and calorimeter jet energy scale uncertainty with the ATLAS detector at the LHC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aad, G.; et al., [Unknown; Bentvelsen, S.; Berglund, E.; Bobbink, G.J.; Bos, K.; Boterenbrood, H.; Colijn, A.P.; de Jong, P.; de Nooij, L.; Deviveiros, P.O.; Doxiadis, A.D.; Ferrari, P.; Garitaonandia, H.; Geerts, D.A.A.; Gosselink, M.; Hartjes, F.; Hessey, N.P.; Igonkina, O.; Kayl, M.S.; Klous, S.; Kluit, P.; Koffeman, E.; Lee, H.; Lenz, T.; Linde, F.; Luijckx, G.; Massaro, G.; Mechnich, J.; Mussche, I.; Ottersbach, J.P.; Reichold, A.; Rijpstra, M.; Ruckstuhl, N.; Snuverink, J.; Ta, D.; Tsiakiris, M.; Turlay, E.; van der Graaf, H.; van der Kraaij, E.; van der Leeuw, R.; van der Poel, E.; van Kesteren, Z.; van Vulpen, I.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J.C.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M.; Vreeswijk, M.

    2013-01-01

    The uncertainty on the calorimeter energy response to jets of particles is derived for the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). First, the calorimeter response to single isolated charged hadrons is measured and compared to the Monte Carlo simulation using proton-proton collisions at

  15. Study of the hadron shower profiles with the ATLAS tile hadron calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budagov, Yu.A.; Rusakovich, N.A.; Vinogradov, V.B.; Kul'chitskij, Yu.A.; Rumyantsev, V.S.; Nessi, M.

    1997-01-01

    The lateral and longitudinal profiles of the hadronic showers detected by ATLAS iron-scintillator tile hadron calorimeter with longitudinal tile configuration have been investigated. The results are based on 100 GeV pion beam data. Due to the beam scan provided many different beam impact locations with cells it is succeeded to obtain detailed picture of transverse shower behavior. The underlying radial energy densities for four depths and for overall calorimeter have been reconstructed. The three-dimensional hadronic shower parametrization has been suggested

  16. Performance of the Tile PreProcessor Demonstrator for the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Phase II Upgrade

    OpenAIRE

    Carrio Argos, Fernando; Valero, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter PreProcessor (TilePPr) demonstrator is a high performance double AMC board based on FPGA resources and QSFP modules. This board has been designed in the framework of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) Demonstrator Project for the Phase II Upgrade as the first stage of the back-end electronics. The TilePPr demonstrator has been conceived for receiving and processing the data coming from the front-end electronics of the TileCal Demonstrator module, as well as for configur...

  17. Cold electronics for the liquid argon hadronic end-cap calorimeter of ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ban, J.; Brettel, H.; Cwienk, W.D.; Fent, J.; Kurchaninov, L.; Ladygin, E.; Oberlack, H.; Schacht, P.; Stenzel, H.; Strizenec, P.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the on-detector electronics of the ATLAS hadronic end-cap calorimeter (HEC). The electronics is operated in liquid argon; therefore attention is paid to its performance at low temperatures. The core of the electronics are Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) preamplifiers. We present design, layout and results of various tests of the preamplifier chips and summing boards. The calibration and signal cables have been studied under laboratory conditions and the signal distortion is modeled. All parts of the electronics have been produced, tested and assembled on the calorimeter modules. The summary of the commissioning tests is presented

  18. Development of ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter Front-end Electronics for the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00219286; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The high-luminosity phase of the Large Hadron Collider will provide 5-7 times greater luminosities than assumed in the original detector design. An improved trigger system requires an upgrade of the readout electronics of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter. Concepts for the future readout of the 182,500 calorimeter channels at 40-80 MHz and 16-bit dynamic range and the developments of radiation-tolerant, low-noise, low-power, and high-bandwidth front-end electronic components, including preamplifiers and shapers, 14-bit ADCs, and 10-Gb/s laser diode array drivers, are presented.

  19. Calibration techniques and strategies for the present and future LHC electromagnetic calorimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksa, M.

    2018-02-01

    This document describes the different calibration strategies and techniques applied by the two general purpose experiments at the LHC, ATLAS and CMS, and discusses them underlining their respective strengths and weaknesses from the view of the author. The resulting performances of both calorimeters are described and compared on the basis of selected physics results. Future upgrade plans for High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) are briefly introduced and planned calibration strategies for the upgraded detectors are shown.

  20. Transputer networks for the on-line analysis of fine-grained electromagnetic calorimeter data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girotto, G.L.; Lanceri, L.; Scuri, F.; Zoppolato, E.

    1994-01-01

    Transputer networks, designed to perform parallel computations, are well suited for data acquisition, on-line analysis and second level trigger tasks in high energy physics experiments. Some simple algorithms for the analysis of fine-grained electromagnetic calorimeter data were implemented on two types of transputer networks and tested on real and simulated data from a silicon-tungsten calorimeter. Results are presented on the processing speed, measured in a test setup, and extrapolations to a full size detector and data acquisition system are discussed. ((orig.))

  1. Performance of the first prototype of the CALICE scintillator strip electromagnetic calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Francis, K.; Schlereth, J.; Smith, J.; Xia, L.; Baldolemar, E.; Li, J.; Park, S.T.; Sosebee, M.; White, A.P.; Yu, J.; Eigen, G.; Mikami, Y.; Watson, N.K.; Thomson, M.A.; Ward, D.R.; Benchekroun, D.; Hoummada, A.; Khoulaki, Y.; Apostolakis, J.; Dotti, A.; Folger, G.; Ivantchenko, V.; Ribon, A.; Uzhinskiy, V.; Carloganu, C.; Gay, P.; Manen, S.; Royer, L.; Tytgat, M.; Zaganidis, N.; Blazey, G.C.; Dyshkant, A.; Lima, J.G.R.; Zutshi, V.; Hostachy, J. -Y.; Morin, L.; Cornett, U.; David, D.; Ebrahimi, A.; Falley, G.; Gadow, K.; Goettlicher, P.; Guenter, C.; Hartbrich, O.; Hermberg, B.; Karstensen, S.; Krivan, F.; Krueger, K.; Lutz, B.; Morozov, S.; Morgunov, V.; Neubueser, C.; Reinecke, M.; Sefkow, F.; Smirnov, P.; Terwort, M.; Garutti, E.; Laurien, S.; Lu, S.; Marchesini, I.; Matysek, M.; Ramilli, M.; Briggl, K.; Eckert, P.; Harion, T.; Schultz-Coulon, H. -Ch.; Shen, W.; Stamen, R.; Bilki, B.; Norbeck, E.; Northacker, D.; Onel, Y.; Wilson, G.W.; Kawagoe, K.; Sudo, Y.; Yoshioka, T.; Dauncey, P.D.; Wing, M.; Salvatore, F.; Cortina Gil, E.; Mannai, S.; Baulieu, G.; Calabria, P.; Caponetto, L.; Combaret, C.; Della Negra, R.; Grenier, G.; Han, R.; Ianigro, J-C.; Kieffer, R.; Laktineh, I.; Lumb, N.; Mathez, H.; Mirabito, L.; Petrukhin, A.; Steen, A.; Tromeur, W.; Vander donckt, M.; Zoccarato, Y.; Calvo Alamillo, E.; Fouz, M.-C.; Puerta-Pelayo, J.; Corriveau, F.; Bobchenko, B.; Chadeeva, M.; Danilov, M.; Epifantsev, A.; Markin, O.; Mizuk, R.; Novikov, E.; Popov, V.; Rusinov, V.; Tarkovsky, E.; Besson, D.; Buzhan, P.; Ilyin, A.; Kantserov, V.; Kaplin, V.; Karakash, A.; Popova, E.; Tikhomirov, V.; Kiesling, C.; Seidel, K.; Simon, F.; Soldner, C.; Weuste, L.; Amjad, M.S.; Bonis, J.; Callier, S.; Conforti di Lorenzo, S.; Cornebise, P.; Doublet, Ph.; Dulucq, F.; Fleury, J.; Frisson, T.; van der Kolk, N.; Li, H.; Martin-Chassard, G.; Richard, F.; de la Taille, Ch.; Poeschl, R.; Raux, L.; Rouene, J.; Seguin-Moreau, N.; Anduze, M.; Balagura, V.; Boudry, V.; Brient, J-C.; Cornat, R.; Frotin, M.; Gastaldi, F.; Guliyev, E.; Haddad, Y.; Magniette, F.; Musat, G.; Ruan, M.; Tran, T.H.; Videau, H.; Bulanek, B.; Zacek, J.; Cvach, J.; Gallus, P.; Havranek, M.; Janata, M.; Kvasnicka, J.; Lednicky, D.; Marcisovsky, M.; Polak, I.; Popule, J.; Tomasek, L.; Tomasek, M.; Ruzicka, P.; Sicho, P.; Smolik, J.; Vrba, V.; Zalesak, J.; Belhorma, B.; Ghazlane, H.; Kotera, K.; Ono, H.; Takeshita, T.; Uozumi, S.; Jeans, D.; Chang, S.; Khan, A.; Kim, D.H.; Kong, D.J.; Oh, Y.D.; Goetze, M.; Sauer, J.; Weber, S.; Zeitnitz, C.

    2014-11-01

    A first prototype of a scintillator strip-based electromagnetic calorimeter was built, consisting of 26 layers of tungsten absorber plates interleaved with planes of 45x10x3 mm3 plastic scintillator strips. Data were collected using a positron test beam at DESY with momenta between 1 and 6 GeV/c. The prototype's performance is presented in terms of the linearity and resolution of the energy measurement. These results represent an important milestone in the development of highly granular calorimeters using scintillator strip technology. This technology is being developed for a future linear collider experiment, aiming at the precise measurement of jet energies using particle flow techniques.

  2. Test beam results from the D0 liquid argon end calorimeter electromagnetic module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spadafora, A.L.

    1991-08-01

    Results are presented from a test beam study of the D0 liquid argon end calorimeter electromagnetic module prior to its installation at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. Using electron beams with energies ranging from 10--150 GeV we have obtained an energy resolution of 15.7%/√E(GeV) with a small constant term of 0.3% and a linearity of better than ±0.5%. The position resolution of the calorimeter is found to approximately 1 mm for 100 GeV electrons. 7 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  3. High precision, low disturbance calibration of the High Voltage system of the CMS Barrel Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Fasanella, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    The CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter utilizes scintillating lead tungstate crystals, with avalanche photodiodes (APD) as photo-detectors in the barrel part. 1224 HV channels bias groups of 50 APD pairs, each at a voltage of about 380 V. The APD gain dependence on the voltage is 3pct/V. A stability of better than 60 mV is needed to have negligible impact on the calorimeter energy resolution. Until 2015 manual calibrations were performed yearly. A new calibration system was deployed recently, which satisfies the requirement of low disturbance and high precision. The system is discussed in detail and first operational experience is presented.

  4. High precision, low disturbance calibration of the High Voltage system of the CMS Barrel Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Marzocchi, Badder

    2017-01-01

    The CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter is made of scintillating lead tungstate crystals, using avalanche photodiodes (APD) as photo-detectors in the barrel part. The high voltage system, consisting of 1224 channels, biases groups of 50 APD pairs, each at a voltage of about 380 V. The APD gain dependence on the voltage is 3pct/V. A stability of better than 60 mV is needed to have negligible impact on the calorimeter energy resolution. Until 2015 manual calibrations were performed yearly. A new calibration system was deployed recently, which satisfies the requirement of low disturbance and high precision. The system is discussed in detail and first operational experience is presented.

  5. High precision, low disturbance calibration of the High Voltage system of the CMS Barrel Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Fasanella, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    The CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter utilizes scintillating lead tungstate crystals, with avalanche photodiodes (APD) as photo-detectors in the barrel part. 1224 HV channels bias groups of 50 APD pairs, each at a voltage of about 380 V. The APD gain dependence on the voltage is 3pct/V. A stability of better than 60 mV is needed to have negligible impact on the calorimeter energy resolution. Until 2015 manual calibrations were performed yearly. A new calibration system was deployed recently, which satisfies the requirement of low disturbance and high precision. The system is discussed in detail and first operational experience is presented.

  6. Fine-granularity electromagnetic calorimeter using plastic scintillator strip-array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagano, A.; Yamauchi, S.; Matsunaga, H.; Kim, S.; Matsumoto, T.; Sekiguchi, K.; Uchida, N.; Yamada, Y.; Yamamoto, S.; Evtoukhovitch, P.; Fujii, Y.; Garutti, E.; Iba, S.; Itoh, S.; Kajino, F.; Kalinnikov, V.; Kallies, W.; Kanzaki, J.; Kawagoe, K.; Kishimoto, S.; Miyata, H.; Mzavia, D.; Nakajima, N.; Nakamura, R.; Ono, H.; Samoilov, V.; Sanchez, A.L.C.; Takeshita, T.; Tamura, Y.; Tsamalaidze, Z.

    2006-01-01

    For the future linear collider calorimetry, fine-granularity is indispensable for energy measurements based on particle flow algorithm, which could achieve better energy resolution for jets than the conventional method. To explore the possibility for such a calorimeter using scintillator, an electromagnetic calorimeter test module, made of scintillator-strips and lead plates, was constructed and tested with test beams. Performance of the test module is presented in this article, in terms of the shower profile studies as well as energy and spatial measurements

  7. Simulation studies of crystal-photodetector assemblies for the Turkish accelerator center particle factory electromagnetic calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocak, F., E-mail: fkocak@uludag.edu.tr

    2015-07-01

    The Turkish Accelerator Center Particle Factory detector will be constructed for the detection of the produced particles from the collision of a 1 GeV electron beam against a 3.6 GeV positron beam. PbWO{sub 4} and CsI(Tl) crystals are considered for the construction of the electromagnetic calorimeter part of the detector. The generated optical photons in these crystals are detected by avalanche or PIN photodiodes. Geant4 simulation code has been used to estimate the energy resolution of the calorimeter for these crystal–photodiode assemblies.

  8. The Geant4-Based ATLAS Fast Electromagnetic Shower Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Barberio, E; Butler, B; Cheung, S L; Dell'Acqua, A; Di Simone, A; Ehrenfeld, W; Gallas, M V; Glasow, A; Hughes, E; Marshall, Z; Müller, J; Placakyte, R; Rimoldi, A; Savard, P; Tsulaia, V; Waugh, A; Young, C C; 10th ICATPP Conference on Astroparticle, Particle, Space Physics, Detectors and Medical Physics Applications

    2008-01-01

    We present a three-pronged approach to fast electromagnetic shower simulation in ATLAS. Parameterisation is used for high-energy, shower libraries for medium-energy, and an averaged energy deposition for very low-energy particles. We present a comparison between the fast simulation and full simulation in an ATLAS Monte Carlo production.

  9. Design and development of the SDC barrel electromagnetic calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambats, I.; Balka, L.; Blair, R.

    1994-01-01

    In fulfillment of contract SSC92-W-17743, Argonne National Laboratory is required to closeout and document all work performed in the design and development of the central calorimeter for the Solenoidal Detector Collaboration (SDC) Detector at the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory (SSCL). This report will summarize the work performed, and identify all documents (technical reports, memo's, drawings, etc.) that resulted from that effort. The work under this contract was shared in collaboration with the Westinghouse Science and Technology Center (WSTC) of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. It is the intent of this report to provide information that can be useful in the development of future detectors for high energy physics particle research

  10. Calibration and Performance of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter During the LHC Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Klimek, Pawel; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment and provides important information for reconstruction of hadrons, jets, hadronic decays of tau leptons and missing transverse energy. It also assists in muon identification. This sampling calorimeter uses steel plates as absorber and scintillating tiles as active medium. The light produced by the passage of charged particles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibres to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The readout is segmented into about 5000 cells (longitudinally and transversally), each of them being read out by two PMTs in parallel. TileCal exploits several calibration systems: a Cs radioactive source that illuminates the scintillating tiles directly, a laser light system to directly test the PMT response, and a charge injection system (CIS) for the front-end electronics. These systems together with data collected during proton-proton collisions provide extensive monitoring of the instrument and a means...

  11. Radiation hardness of plastic scintillators for the Tile Calorimeter of the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Jivan, Harshna; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter of the ATLAS detector, is a hadronic calorimeter responsible for detecting hadrons as well as accommodating for the missing transverse energy that result from the p-p collisions within the LHC. Plastic scintillators form an integral component of this calorimeter due to their ability to undergo prompt fluorescence when exposed to ionising particles. The scintillators employed are specifically chosen for their properties of high optical transmission and fast rise and decay time which enables efficient data capture since fast signal pulses can be generated. The main draw-back of plastic scintillators however is their susceptibility to radiation damage. The damage caused by radiation exposure reduces the scintillation light yield and introduces an error into the time-of flight data acquired. During Run 1 of the LHC data taking period, plastic scintillators employed within the GAP region between the Tile Calorimeter’s central and extended barrels sustained a significant amount of damage. Wit...

  12. The Phase-I Upgrade of the ATLAS First Level Calorimeter Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Andrei, George Victor; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS Level-1 calorimeter trigger is planning a series of upgrades in order to face the challenges posed by the upcoming increase of the LHC luminosity. The upgrade will benefit from new front-end electronics for parts of the calorimeter that provide the trigger system with digital data with a tenfold increase in granularity. This makes possible the implementation of more efficient algorithms than currently used to maintain the low trigger thresholds at much harsher LHC collision conditions. The Level-1 calorimeter system upgrade consists of an active and a passive system for digital data distribution, and three different Feature Extractor systems which run complex algorithms to identify various physics object candidates. The algorithms are implemented in firmware on custom electronics boards with up to four high speed processing FPGAs. The main characteristics of the electronic boards are a high input bandwidth, up to several TB/s per module, implemented through optical receivers, and a large number of o...

  13. Periodic position dependence of the energy measured in the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Descamps, Julien

    2006-01-01

    A uniform energy measurement response of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter ECAL is essential for precision physics at the LHC. The ECAL barrel calorimeter consists of 61200 lead tungstate crystals arranged in a quasi-projective geometry. The energy of photons reaching the ECAL will be reconstructed by summing the channels corresponding to matrices of 3x3 or 5x5 crystals centred on the crystal with the largest energy deposit. The energy measured using such matrices of fixed size has been studied using electron test beam data taken in 2004. The variation of the energy containment with the incident electron impact position on the central crystal leads to a degradation of the energy resolution. A method using only the calorimeter information is presented to correct for the position dependent response. After correction, the energy resolution performance for uniform impact distributions of the electrons on the front face of a crystal approaches that obtained for maximal containment with a central impact. The univ...

  14. Upgrade of the ATLAS Tile hadronic calorimeter for high-luminosity LHC run

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spoor, Matthew

    2017-02-11

    The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) will undergo a major replacement of its on- and off-detector electronics for the Long Shutdown 3 that is planned for 2024 and 2025. All signals will be digitised and transferred directly to the off-detector electronics, where the signals are reconstructed, stored, and sent to the first level of trigger at a rate of 40 MHz. This will provide better precision of the calorimeter signals used by the trigger system and will allow the development of more complex trigger algorithms. Changes to the electronics will also contribute to the reliability and redundancy of the system. Three different front-end options are presently being investigated for the upgrade and will be chosen after extensive test beam studies. A Hybrid Demonstrator module has been developed. The demonstrator is undergoing extensive testing and is planned for insertion in ATLAS.

  15. Digital signal integrity and stability in the ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Achenbach, R; Aharrouche, M; Andrei, V; Åsman, B; Barnett, B M; Bauss, B; Bendel, M; Bohm, C; Booth, J R A; Bracinik, J; Brawn, I P; Charlton, D G; Childers, J T; Collins, N J; Curtis, C J; Davis, A O; Eckweiler, S; Eisenhandler, E F; Faulkner, P J W; Fleckner, J; Föhlisch, F; Gee, C N P; Gillman, A R; Goringer, C; Groll, M; Hadley, D R; Hanke, P; Hellman, S; Hidvegi, A; Hillier, S J; Johansen, M; Kluge, E E; Kühl, T; Landon, M; Lendermann, V; Lilley, J N; Mahboubi, K; Mahout, G; Meier, K; Middleton, R P; Moa, T; Morris, J D; Müller, F; Neusiedl, A; Ohm, C; Oltmann, B; Perera, V J O; Prieur, D P F; Qian, W; Rieke, S; Rühr, F; Sankey, D P C; Schäfer, U; Schmitt, K; Schultz-Coulon, H C; Silverstein, S; Sjölin, J; Staley, R J; Stamen, R; Stockton, M C; Tan, C L A; Tapprogge, S; Thomas, J P; Thompson, P D; Watkins, P M; Watson, A; Weber, P; Wessels, M; Wildt, M

    2008-01-01

    The ATLAS Level-1 calorimeter trigger is a hardware-based system with the goal of identifying high-pT objects and to measure total and missing ET in the ATLAS calorimeters within an overall latency of 2.5 microseconds. This trigger system is composed of the Preprocessor which digitises about 7200 analogue input channels and two digital processors to identify high-pT signatures and to calculate the energy sums. The digital part consists of multi-stage, pipelined custom-built modules. The high demands on connectivity between the initial analogue stage and digital part and between the custom-built modules are presented. Furthermore the techniques to establish timing regimes and verify connectivity and stable operation of these digital links will be described.

  16. Test Beam Studies for the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Upgrade Readout Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Schaefer, Douglas; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider is expected to deliver 3-4/ab of p-p collisions with around 200 collisions per proton bunch crossing starting in 2026, and the readout electronics of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter need to be upgraded to deal with the high rate of data taking as well as the large pileup conditions. The proposed digitizer/shaper cards were tested in 2016-7 in the North Area at CERN using the beam from the SPS to produce high energy pions, electrons, muons, and kaons. This presentation summarizes the setup for particle identification and study of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter data taking in preparation for the production of main boards and digitizer/shaper boards for the photo-multiplier tubes. The fully assembled and tested mini-drawers will start to be installed after the LHC long shutdown in December 2023. The pulse shape, uniformity, and timing precision of the upgrade system are demonstrated.

  17. Upgrade of the PreProcessor System for the ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Khomich, A

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger is a hardware-based pipelined system designed to identify high-pT objects in the ATLAS calorimeters within a fixed latency of 2.5\\,us. It consists of three subsystems: the PreProcessor which conditions and digitizes analogue signals and two digital processors. The majority of the PreProcessor's tasks are performed on a dense Multi-Chip Module(MCM) consisting of FADCs, a time-adjustment and digital processing ASICs, and LVDS serialisers designed and implemented in ten years old technologies. An MCM substitute, based on today's components (dual channel FADCs and FPGA), is being developed to profit from state-of-the-art electronics and to enhance the flexibility of the digital processing. Development and first test results are presented.

  18. Upgrade of the PreProcessor System for the ATLAS LVL1 Calorimeter Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Khomich, A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger is a hardware-based pipelined system designed to identify high-pT objects in the ATLAS calorimeters within a fixed latency of 2.5us. It consists of three subsystems: the PreProcessor which conditions and digitizes analogue signals and two digital processors. The majority of the PreProcessor's tasks are performed on a dense Multi-Chip Module(MCM) consisting of FADCs, a time-adjustment and digital processing ASICs, and LVDS serializers designed and implemented in ten years old technologies. An MCM substitute, based on today's components (dual channel FADCs and FPGA), is being developed to profit from state-of-the-art electronics and to enhance the flexibility of the digital p