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Sample records for atlantic rainforest area

  1. Ecology of Mabuya agilis (Squamata: Scincidae from a montane atlantic rainforest area in Southeastern Brazil

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    Teixeira, Rogério L.

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Alguns aspectos da ecologia (principalmente reprodução e dieta do lagarto scincídeo Mabuya agilis foram estudados com base em amostras mensais realizadas de dezembro de 1997 a abril de 1999 em uma área de floresta tropical serrana no estado do Espírito Santo, sudeste do Brasil. Dos 197 espécimes coletados, 82 eram machos, 110 eram fêmeas, e o resto não pôde ser corretamente sexado. Lagartos variaram em comprimento rostro-coacal de 30 a 96 mm e foram sexualmente dimórficos em tamanho, com fêmeas atingindo maiores tamanhos que machos. A menor fêmea grávida mediu 54.0 mm. O tamanho da ninhada para 49 fêmeas grávidas variou de 2 a 9 (média = 5.7 e esteve positiva e significativamente relacionado ao tamanho dos lagartos. As presas dominantes na dieta de M. agilis foram baratas, ortópteros e aranhas. A população de M. agilis aqui estudada diferiu de outras populações conspecíficas previamente estudadas em hábitats de «restinga» nos estados do Rio de Janeiro e Espírito Santo, sendo que os indivíduos crescem a tamanhos maiores e a fecundidade é mais alta, possivelmente devido a uma maior disponibilidade de alimento no hábitat de floresta tropical serrana Some aspects of the ecology (mainly reproduction and diet of the skink Mabuya agilis were studied based on monthly samples taken from December 1997 to April 1999 at a montane rainforest area in Espírito Santo state, southeastern Brazil. Of 197 collected specimens, 82 were males, 110 were females, and the rest could not be properly sexed. Lizards varied in snout-vent length (SVL from 30 to 96 mm and were sexually dimorphic in size, with females growing larger than males. The smallest gravid female measured 54.0 mm in SVL. Litter size of 49 gravid females varied from 2 to 9 (mean= 5.7 and was positively and significantly related to lizard SVL. The dominant prey items in the diet of M. agilis were cockroaches, orthopterans and spiders. The population of M. agilis here studied

  2. Density and richness of leaf litter frogs (Amphibia: Anura of an Atlantic Rainforest area in the Serra dos Órgãos, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

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    Carla C. Siqueira

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Data on species composition, richness, and density are presented for the leaf litter frog assemblage of an area of Atlantic Rainforest at the Serra dos Órgãos mountain range, in the state of Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil. Three sampling methods were used: plot sampling, visual encounter surveys, and pitfall traps. The local assemblage of leaf litter frogs was composed of 16 species, with the direct-developing species, Euparkerella brasiliensis (Parker, 1926, being the most abundant. The estimated density of the local leaf litter frog assemblage based on plot sampling was 17.1 ind/100 m² and the estimated overall leaf litter frog mass was 684.2 g/ha. The estimated density of leaf litter frogs at the present study is the highest currently reported for Atlantic Rainforest areas, which reinforces the idea of higher densities of leaf litter frogs in the Neotropical Region compared to the Old World tropics.

  3. Density and richness of leaf litter frogs (Amphibia: Anura) of an Atlantic Rainforest area in the Serra dos Órgãos, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

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    Carla C. Siqueira; Davor Vrcibradic; Mauricio Almeida-Gomes; Vitor N.T. Borges-Junior; Patrícia Almeida-Santos; Marlon Almeida-Santos; Ariani, Cristina V.; Diego M. Guedes; Pablo Goyannes-Araújo; Thiago A. Dorigo; Monique Van Sluys; Carlos F.D. Rocha

    2009-01-01

    Data on species composition, richness, and density are presented for the leaf litter frog assemblage of an area of Atlantic Rainforest at the Serra dos Órgãos mountain range, in the state of Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil. Three sampling methods were used: plot sampling, visual encounter surveys, and pitfall traps. The local assemblage of leaf litter frogs was composed of 16 species, with the direct-developing species, Euparkerella brasiliensis (Parker, 1926), being the most abundant. Th...

  4. Environmental parameters affecting the structure of leaf-litter frog (Amphibia: Anura communities in tropical forests: a case study from an Atlantic Rainforest area in southeastern Brazil

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    Carla C. Siqueira

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite a recent increase of information on leaf litter frog communities from Atlantic rainforests, few studies have analyzed the relationship between environmental parameters and community structure of these animals. We analyzed the effects of some environmental factors on a leaf litter frog community at an Atlantic Rainforest area in southeastern Brazil. Data collection lasted ten consecutive days in January 2010, at elevations ranging between 300 and 520 m above sea level. We established 50 quadrats of 5 x 5 m on the forest floor, totaling 1,250 m² of sampled area, and recorded the mean leaf-litter depth and the number of trees within the plot, as well as altitude. We found 307 individuals belonging to ten frog species within the plots. The overall density of leaf-litter frogs estimated from the plots was 24.6 ind/100m², with Euparkerella brasiliensis (Parker, 1926, Ischnocnema guentheri (Steindachner, 1864, Ischnocnema parva (Girard, 1853 and Haddadus binotatus (Spix, 1824 presenting the highest estimated densities. Among the environmental variables analyzed, only altitude influenced the parameters of anuran community. Our results indicate that the study area has a very high density of forest floor leaf litter frogs at altitudes of 300-500 m. Future estimates of litter frog density might benefit from taking the local altitudinal variation into consideration. Neglecting such variation might result in underestimated/overestimated values if they are extrapolated to the whole area.

  5. Rainfall distribution in the Atlantic Rainforest

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    João Paulo Oliveira de Freitas

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Forest cover is of great importance in the context of water balance and may alter the mechanism of water absorption into the soil surface. The aim of this study was to evaluate the throughfall, stemflow, and surface runoff compared to rainfall in a fragment of the Atlantic Rainforest. Rainfall was measured through a rain gauge and a pluviograph installed on a tower above the forest canopy. To quantify the throughfall, six plots of 20 x20 m were laid, with 25 pluviometers five meters spaced from each other, for each plot. To measure the stemflow, collectors were adapted on the tree trunks having ≥ 15 cm circumference. For the runoff estimate, three plots were established with areas of 13.71 m², 14.79 m² and 14.86 m². The plots were demarcated with galvanized iron sheets. Based on the results, it can be concluded that forests play an important role in the hydrological cycle: from the total precipitation (1182.6 mm, one portion is intercepted by the tree canopy and evaporated back into the atmosphere; another portion (958.1 mm corresponding to 81% of the total precipitation, passes through the canopy and hits the ground. The stemflow was 10.8 mm, corresponding to 0.9 % of the total rainfall. The runoff was 15.5 mm, which corresponds to 1.3% of the rainfall. The vegetation has an important role in reducing the runoff volume on the soil surface.

  6. Comparison of automatic traps to capture mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae in rural areas in the tropical Atlantic rainforest

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    Ivy Luizi Rodrigues de Sa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In several countries, surveillance of insect vectors is accomplished with automatic traps. This study addressed the performance of Mosquito Magnet® Independence (MMI in comparison with those of CDC with CO2 and lactic acid (CDC-A and CDC light trap (CDC-LT. The collection sites were in a rural region located in a fragment of secondary tropical Atlantic rainforest, southeastern Brazil. Limatus durhami and Limatus flavisetosus were the dominant species in the MMI, whereas Ochlerotatus scapularis was most abundant in CDC-A. Culex ribeirensis and Culex sacchettae were dominant species in the CDC-LT. Comparisons among traps were based on diversity indices. Results from the diversity analyses showed that the MMI captured a higher abundance of mosquitoes and that the species richness estimated with it was higher than with CDC-LT. Contrasting, difference between MMI and CDC-A was not statistically significant. Consequently, the latter trap seems to be both an alternative for the MMI and complementary to it for ecological studies and entomological surveillance.

  7. Object-Based Method Outperforms Per-Pixel Method for Land Cover Classification in a Protected Area of the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest Region

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    T.RITTL; M.COOPER; R.J.HECK; M.V.R.BALLESTER

    2013-01-01

    Conventional image classification based on pixels hinders the possibilities to obtain information contained in images,while modern object-based classification methods increase the acquisition of information about the object and the context in which it is inserted in the image.The objective of this study was to investigate the performance of different classification methods for land cover mapping in the vicinity of the Alto Ribeira Tourist State Park,a Brazilian Atlantic rainforest area.Two classification methods were tested,including i) a hybrid per-pixel classification using the image processing software ERDAS Imagine version 9.1 and ii) an object-based classification using the software eCognition version 5.In the first method,six different classes were established,while in the second method,another two classes were established in addition to the six classes in the first method.Accuracy assessment of the classification results presented showed that the object-based classification with a Kappa index value of 0.8687 outperformed the per-pixel classification with a Kappa index value of 0.2224.Application of the user's knowledge during the object-based classification process achieved the desired quality;therefore,the use of inter-relationships between objects,superclasses,subclasses,and neighboring classes were critical to improving the efficiency of land cover classification.

  8. Ecology of Ischnocnema parva (Anura: Brachycephalidae) at the Atlantic Rainforest of Serra da Concórdia, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Ana Cristina J. S. Martins; Mara C. Kiefer; Carla C. Siqueira; Monique Van Sluys; Vanderlaine A Menezes; Carlos Frederico D. Rocha

    2010-01-01

    Ischnocnema (Brachycephalidae) includes many species that are important members of the leaf litter frog communities in the Atlantic Rainforest of Brazil. Ischnocnema parva (Girard, 1853) is endemic to the Atlantic Rainforest biome and is restricted to the forests of southeastern Brazil. Currently, the available information about the ecology of I. parva is scarce. We studied the diet, the habitat use, reproduction and density of I. parva in an area of Atlantic Rainforest at the Concórdia mount...

  9. First record of predation on the bat Carollia perspicillata by the false coral snake Oxyrhopus petolarius in the Atlantic Rainforest

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    Frederico Gustavo Rodrigues França

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Records of bats as prey of snakes are very few in the literature, but recent studies have shown that this predation doesn’t seem to be an unusual phenomenon. We present here the first record of predation on the bat Carollia perspicillata by the false coral snake Oxyrhopus petolarius in an Atlantic Rainforest area in the Northeastern Brazil.

  10. Two common species dominate the species-rich Euglossine bee fauna of an Atlantic Rainforest remnant in Pernambuco, Brazil.

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    Oliveira, R; Pinto, C E; Schlindwein, C

    2015-11-01

    Nowadays, the northern part of the Atlantic Rainforest of Brazil is largely destroyed and forest remnants rarely exceed 100 ha. In a 118 ha forest fragment within a state nature reserve of Pernambuco (Reserva Ecológica Gurjaú), we surveyed the orchid bee fauna (Apidae, Euglossini) using eight different scent baits to attract males. Once a month during one year, the bees were actively collected with entomological nets, from November 2002 to October 2003 by two collectors. We collected 2,908 orchid bee males belonging to 23 species, one of the highest richness values of the Northern Atlantic Rainforest. Bees of only two species, Euglossa carolina (50%) and Eulaema nigrita (25%), which occurred throughout the year, accounted for three quarter of the collected individuals. Both species are typical for open or disturbed areas. Rainforest remnants like those of Gurjaú within the predominant sugar cane monocultures in the coastal plains of the northern Atlantic Rainforest play an important role in orchid bee conservation and maintenance of biodiversity. PMID:26602351

  11. Seasonality of Pelecinus polyturator (Drury (Hymenoptera, Pelecinidae in the Atlantic Rainforest of São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Rogéria I. R. Lara

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Seasonality of Pelecinus polyturator (Drury (Hymenoptera, Pelecinidae in the Atlantic Rainforest of São Paulo State, Brazil. A survey of the parasitoid wasp Pelecinus polyturator (Drury, 1773 (Hymenoptera, Pelecinidae was carried out with five Malaise traps/area in five areas in the Atlantic Rainforest of São Paulo State, Brazil, between November 2009 and October 2010. The sampling effort in each locality amounted to 1,825 trap-days. Data were obtained from a total of 317 exemplars of P. polyturator, corresponding to 108 females and 209 males. The average sex ratio of the studied population was 0.52. The highest occurrence of P. polyturator was observed between November and March with frequency peak in January; about 95% of the specimens studied were captured at altitudes close to 1,000 m above sea level.

  12. Knowing the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest in childhood: a contribution of the theory of multiple intelligence for environmental education

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    Valerie Nicollier; Fermin Garcia C. Velasco

    2009-01-01

    This study is grounded in the cognitive sciences and represents a comprehensive inquiry into children's environmental knowledge. It started with an investigation of a specific situation: studying an urban population – stigmatized by a history of local environmental destruction, unconsciously wrought upon an area that is nowadays acknowledged as a natural biodiversity hotspot, the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest. Based on the Multiple Intelligence Theory (MIT), that describes the presence of s...

  13. Patterns of gall-forming in Ossaea confertiflora (Melastomataceae by Lopesia brasiliensis (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae in an area of Atlantic Rainforest in Southeastern Brazil

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    VRCIBRADIC D.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Patterns of galling by the gall midge Lopesia brasiliensis (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae were studied in Ossaea confertiflora (Melastomataceae in an Atlantic forest site at Ilha Grande, RJ. Out of the 81 plants surveyed, 55 (67.9% bore galls. The number of galls per galled individual ranged from 1 to 261 and 94.4% of the galls were in leaves. The number of galls per galled leaf varied from 1 to 25. Total gall number was positively correlated with plant height. Larger and more ramified plants tended to have a smaller percentage of their leaves with galls and a lower density of galls per leaf than smaller plants. Plants that were close to other individuals of the same species tended to have more galls per leaf than relatively isolated plants. The observed patterns may be linked to strategies of optimization in the use of resources (i.e. oviposition sites and predation avoidance by the gall midges.

  14. Effects of body size on the diet of Rivulus haraldsiolii (Aplocheiloidei: Rivulidae) in a coastal Atlantic Rainforest island stream, southern Brazil

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    Vinícius Abilhoa; Jean Ricardo Simões Vitule; Hugo Bornatowski; Fagner Breda de Lara; Glauco Ubiratan Kohler; Luciana Festti; Wanessa Priscila David do Carmo; Igor Kintopp Ribeiro

    2010-01-01

    The effect of body size on the feeding habits of the little-known killifi sh Rivulus haraldsiolii, collected in a coastal Atlantic Rainforest island stream, was investigated. Samples were collected during a study trip on 13 July 2009 in a brackish stream located in the northern part of Ilha do Mel Island, one of the most important southern Atlantic Forest areas in southern Brazil. The diet included aquatic immature insects (Diptera pupae and Chironomidae), aquatic insects (Hemiptera – Vellida...

  15. Use of Metagenomics and Isolation of Actinobacteria in Brazil's Atlantic Rainforest Soil for Antimicrobial Prospecting.

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    Assis, Danyelle Alves Martins; Rezende, Rachel Passos; Dias, João Carlos Teixeira

    2014-01-01

    Modern techniques involving molecular biology, such as metagenomics, have the advantage of exploiting a higher number of microorganisms; however, classic isolation and culture methods used to obtain antimicrobials continue to be promising, especially in the isolation of Actinobacteria, which are responsible for the production of many of these compounds. In this work, two methodologies were used to search for antimicrobial substances-isolation of Actinobacteria and metagenomics of the Atlantic Rainforest soil and of the cultivation of cocoa intercropped with acai berry in the Atlantic Rainforest. The metagenomic libraries were constructed with the CopyControl Fosmid Library kit EPICENTRE, resulting in a total of 2688 clones, 1344 of each soil sample. None of the clones presented antimicrobial activity against the microorganisms tested: S. aureus, Bacillus subtilis, and Salmonella choleraesuis. A total of 46 isolates were obtained from the isolation of soil Actinobacteria: 24 isolates from Atlantic Rainforest soil and 22 isolates from the intercrop cultivation soil. Of these, two Atlantic Rainforest soil isolates inhibited the growth of S. aureus including a clinical isolate of S. aureus MRSA-a promising result, since it is an important multidrug-resistant human pathogen. PMID:25937991

  16. The risks of introduction of the Amazonian palm Euterpe oleracea in the Atlantic rainforest.

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    Tiberio, F C S; Sampaio-E-Silva, T A; Matos, D M S; Antunes, A Z

    2016-02-01

    The introduction of a species may alter ecological processes of native populations, such as pollination and dispersal patterns, leading to changes in population structure. When the introduced and the native species are congeners, interference in pollination can also lead to hybridization. We aimed to understand the ecological aspects of Euterpe oleracea introduction in the Atlantic forest and the possible consequences for the conservation of the native congener Euterpe edulis. We analysed the population structure of palm populations, including hybrids, and observed the interaction with frugivorous birds of both palm species after E. oleracea introduction. We observed that E. edulis had significantly lower density and a smaller number of seedlings when occurring with E. oleracea. Native and introduced Euterpe species shared nine frugivorous bird species. E. oleracea and hybrids had dispersed outside the original planting area. Consequently, the risks of introduction of E. oleracea may mostly be related to the disruption of interactions between E. edulis and frugivorous birds and the spontaneous production of hybrids. Finally, the cultivation of E. oleracea and hybrids in Atlantic rainforest could affect the conservation of the already endangered E. edulis. PMID:26909625

  17. Avifauna in forest fragments of the Atlantic Rainforest in the south of Espírito Santo state, Brazil

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    Fabio Rossano Dario

    2010-01-01

    This study was carried out in forest fragments located in the Atlantic Rainforest, in the town of Anchieta, south of Espírito Santo State, Brazil (located at latitude 20o40’S to 20o48’S, longitude 40o34’W to 40o42’W), along the seasons of 2008. The main objective of the study was to analyze the groups of birds that were affected by the forest fragmentation and the degree of isolation of these areas. The method used to register the avifauna specimens was the technique of observation per fixed ...

  18. Pollination and breeding system of Canna paniculata(Cannaceae in a montane Atlantic Rainforest: asymmetric dependence on a hermit hummingbird

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    Pietro Kiyoshi Maruyama

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We studied the pollination biology of Canna paniculata (Cannaceae, a plant species common in the Atlantic Rainforest of southeastern Brazil. The species presents specialized ornithophilous flowers, which in our study area are solely pollinated by the hermit hummingbird Phaethornis eurynome. Although C. paniculata is capable of bearing fruit after self-pollination, it requires pollinators for reproduction. We discuss the importance of hermit hummingbirds for the reproduction of specialized ornithophilous plants such as C. paniculata, including their asymmetric dependence on hermit hummingbirds - core pollinators in Neotropical forest ecosystems.

  19. Seasonal diet shifts of seven fish species in an Atlantic rainforest stream in Southeastern Brazil

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    Deus C. P.; Petrere-Junior M.

    2003-01-01

    We analyzed the stomach contents of 116 individuals belonging to seven fishes species in order to investigate seasonal changes in feeding strategy and how trophic interactions between species affect community structure in an Atlantic rainforest stream in Southeastern Brazil. Oligosarcus hepsetus and Pimelodus sp. consumed fewer items during the winter. Phalloceros caudimaculatus switched feeding habits from detritus during summer to algae during winter. These examples are related to variation...

  20. Feeding ecology of Rivulus luelingi (Aplocheiloidei: Rivulidae) in a Coastal Atlantic Rainforest stream, southern Brazil

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    Vinícius Abilhoa; Jean Ricardo Simões Vitule; Hugo Bornatowski

    2010-01-01

    Feeding habits of the killifish Rivulus luelingi collected in a black water stream of the Coastal Atlantic Rainforest in southern Brazil were investigated. Eight samplings were made between April 2003 and January 2004. The diet, assessed through a similarity matrix with the estimated contribution values of food items, included microcrustaceans, aquatic immature insects (larvae and pupae), aquatic adult insects, terrestrial insects, insect fragments, spiders, and plant fragments. Differences i...

  1. Young restored forests increase seedling recruitment in abandoned pastures in the Southern Atlantic rainforest.

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    Leitão, Flora H M; Marques, Marcia C M; Ceccon, Eliane

    2010-12-01

    Planting seedlings is a common technique for abandoned pastures restoration in the tropics, supposedly by increasing the seedling recruitment and accelerating succession. In this study we evaluated the role of a young restored forest (one year old) in enhancing seedling establishment from two sources (seed rain and seed bank), in the Atlantic Rainforest region in Southern Brazil. We compared abandoned pasture, young restored forest and old-growth forest with respect to the seedlings recruited from different sources, by monitoring 40 permanent plots (0.5 m x 0.5 m) over 20 months. From the three studied areas a total of 392 seedlings of 53 species were recruited. Species were mainly herbaceous (85%), pioneers (88%), zoochorous (51%) and small-seeded species (60%). Seedling recruitment from the seed bank (density and species richness) was higher and dominated by herbaceous species in the abandoned pasture and in the young restored forest; on the other hand, the recruitment of woody species from seed rain was more pronounced in the old-growth forest. The young restored forest increased the species richness of woody seedlings recruitment from the seed bank (two-fold) and from seed rain (three-fold) compared to the abandoned pasture. Also, the seedling density in young restored forest was still higher than abandoned pastures (seed bank: four times; seed rain: ten times). Our results show that even young restored areas enhance the establishment of woody species and should be considered an important step for pasture restoration. PMID:21246991

  2. Ultrastructure and pollen morphology of Bromeliaceae species from the Atlantic Rainforest in Southeastern Brazil.

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    Silva, Vanessa J D; Ribeiro, Ester M; Luizi-Ponzo, Andrea P; Faria, Ana Paula G

    2016-01-01

    Pollen grain morphology of Bromeliaceae species collected in areas of the Atlantic Rainforest of southeastern Brazil was studied. The following species were analyzed: Aechmea bambusoides L.B.Sm. & Reitz, A. nudicaulis (L.) Griseb., A. ramosa Mart. ex Schult.f., Ananas bracteatus (Lindl.) Schult.f., Billbergia distachia (Vell.) Mez, B. euphemiae E. Morren, B. horrida Regel, B. zebrina (Herb.) Lindl., Portea petropolitana (Wawra) Mez, Pitcairnia flammea Lindl., Quesnelia indecora Mez, Tillandsia polystachia (L.) L., T. stricta Sol., T. gardneri Lindl., T. geminiflora Brongn. and Vriesea grandiflora Leme. Light and scanning electron microscopy were used and the species were grouped into three pollen types, organized according to aperture characteristics: Type I - pantoporate pollen grains observed in P. petropolitana, Type II - 2-porate pollen grains, observed in the genera Ananas, Aechmea and Quesnelia, and Type III - 1-colpate pollen grains, observed in the genera Billbergia, Pitcairnia, Tillandsia and Vriesea. Pollen data led to the construction of an identification key. The results showed that the species analyzed can be distinguished using mainly aperture features and exine ornamentation, and that these characteristics may assist in taxonomic studies of the family. PMID:27168370

  3. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci in Epidendrum puniceoluteum, an endemic orchid from the Atlantic Rainforest.

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    Pinheiro, F; Santos, M O; Palma-Silva, C; Barros, F; Meyer, D; Salatino, A; Souza, A P; Cozzolino, S

    2008-09-01

    Epidendrum puniceoluteum is an endemic orchid of Atlantic Rainforest, restricted to few populations only due to the destruction and fragmentation of its native habitat. Here, we report on the development of 10 microsatellite markers isolated from this orchid species. Genetic variability was characterized in two distant populations from Brazil coast. The number of alleles observed for each locus ranged from two to 12 and with an average of 6.4 alleles per locus. These microsatellites should be valuable tools for studying both fine-scale genetic structure of scattered E. puniceoluteum population and patterns will be useful genetic markers for other closely related taxa. PMID:21585988

  4. Seasonal diet shifts of seven fish species in an Atlantic rainforest stream in Southeastern Brazil.

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    Deus, C P; Petrere-Junior, M

    2003-11-01

    We analyzed the stomach contents of 116 individuals belonging to seven fishes species in order to investigate seasonal changes in feeding strategy and how trophic interactions between species affect community structure in an Atlantic rainforest stream in Southeastern Brazil. Oligosarcus hepsetus and Pimelodus sp. consumed fewer items during the winter. Phalloceros caudimaculatus switched feeding habits from detritus during summer to algae during winter. These examples are related to variations in food availability and species feeding selectivity. The highest diet overlap values, for most species, as measured using Schoener's index, were observed in summer, along with a species tendency to be more generalist. Feeding pattern variation may influence the fish community structure. PMID:15029369

  5. Diversification of Bromelioideae (Bromeliaceae) in the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest: A case study in Aechmea subgenus Ortgiesia.

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    Goetze, Márcia; Schulte, Katharina; Palma-Silva, Clarisse; Zanella, Camila M; Büttow, Miriam V; Capra, Fernanda; Bered, Fernanda

    2016-05-01

    Aechmea subgenus Ortgiesia comprises ca. 20 species distributed in Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay, and Uruguay, with a center of diversity in the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest. We examined interspecific relationships of Ortgiesia based on Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms (AFLP). Ninety-six accessions belonging to 14 species of Ortgiesia were sampled, and genotyped with 11 AFLP primer combinations. The neighbor joining (NJ) tree depicted two main genetic groups within Aechmea subgenus Ortgiesia, and four subgroups. The NJ tree showed short internal branches, indicating an overall shallow genetic divergence among Ortgiesia species as expected for the recently radiated subfamily Bromelioideae. Our results suggest that hybridization and/or incomplete lineage sorting may have hampered the reconstruction of interspecific relationships in Aechmea subgenus Ortgiesia. The mapping of petal color (yellow, blue, pink, or white), inflorescence type (simple or compound), and inflorescence shape (ellipsoid, subcylindric, cylindric, or pyramidal) against the NJ tree indicated that these characters are of limited taxonomic use in Aechmea subgenus Ortgiesia due to homoplasy. An analysis of the current distribution of Ortgiesia identified the southern region of the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest, between latitudes of 26° and 27°S, as the center of diversity for the subgenus. PMID:26957015

  6. Bark harvesting systems of Drimys brasiliensis Miers in the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest.

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    Mariot, Alexandre; Mantovani, Adelar; Reis, Maurício S dos

    2014-09-01

    Drimys brasiliensis Miers, locally known as cataia or casca-de-anta, is a native tree species of the Atlantic Rainforest. Its bark is harvested from natural populations. This study examined the recovery capacity of the bark of D. brasiliensis under different bark harvesting methods, as well as the influence of these approaches on its population dynamics and reproductive biology. While none of these treatments resulted in changes in phenological behavior or the rate of increase of diameter at breast height and tree height, the removal of wider bark strips resulted in lower rates of bark recovery and higher rates of insect attack and diseases. Accordingly, the results recommend using strips of bark 2 cm wide and 2 m long, with 4 cm between strips, for effective rates of bark regrowth and for lower susceptibility to insect attack and diseases. From these studies, we concluded that D. brasiliensis has a high potential for sustainable management of its natural populations, demonstrating the possibility of generating an important supplementary income for farmers and contributing to the use and conservation of the Atlantic Rainforest. PMID:25119732

  7. Diet and nematode infection in Proceratoprhys boiei (Anura: Cycloramphidae from two Atlantic rainforest remnants in Southeastern Brazil

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    Thaís Klaion

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Proceratophrys boiei is an endemic cycloramphid anuran inhabiting the leaf litter of Atlantic rainforests in Southeastern Brazil. We analyzed the whole digestive tract of 38 individuals of Proceratophrys boiei collected in two Atlantic Rainforest areas in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, to study the diet composition and the helminth fauna associated with this species. The main food items in P. boiei's diet were Coleoptera, Orthoptera and Blattaria. Five nematode species were found: Aplectana delirae, Cosmocerca parva, Oxyascaris oxyascaris, Physaloptera sp. (larval stage only and an unidentified nematode. Overall prevalence was 71% and mean infection intensity was 7.3 ± 5.8 neatodes per individual.Proceratophrys boiei é um anuro da familia Cycloramphidae que vive no folhico e é endêmico de areas de floresta na Mata Atlantica do Sudeste do Brasil. Nós analisamos o trato digestivo de 38 indivíduos de Proceratophrys boiei provenientes de duas áreas de Mata Atlântica no Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, para estudar a composição da dieta e a fauna helmíntica associada a esta espécie. s principais itens alientares na dieta de P. boiei fora Coleoptera, rthoptera e Blattaria. Cinco espécies de nematóides foram encontradas: Aplectana delirae, Cosmocerca parva, Oxyascaris oxyascaris, Physaloptera sp. (apenas larvas e uma espécie de nematóide não identificada. A prevalência total foi de 71% e a intensidade media de infecção foi de 7,3 ± 5,8 nematóides por indivíduo.

  8. Genetic structure analysis of Eufriesea violacea (Hymenoptera, Apidae populations from southern Brazilian Atlantic rainforest remnants

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    Silvia H. Sofia

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD markers were used to analyze the genetic structure of Eufriesea violacea populations in three fragments (85.47, 832.58 and 2800 ha of Atlantic rainforest located in the north of the Brazilian state of Paraná. A total of twelve primers produced 206 loci, of which 129 were polymorphic (95% criterion. The proportions of polymorphic loci in each population ranged from 57.28% to 59.2%, revealing very similar levels of genetic variability in the groups of bees from each fragment. Unbiased genetic distances between groups ranged from 0.0171 to 0.0284, the smallest genetic distance occurring between bees from the two larger fragments. These results suggest that the E. violacea populations from the three fragments have maintained themselves genetically similar to native populations of this species originally present in northern Paraná.

  9. Floral visitors of Aechmea constantinii (Mez) L. B. Sm. (Bromeliaceae) in a remnant of the Brazilian Northeast Atlantic Rainforest

    OpenAIRE

    Petrúcio Alexandre Fonseca Rios J; uliana Braga da Silva; Flávia de Barros Prado Moura

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to determine the floral visitors and potential pollinators of Aechmea constantinii (Mez) L. B. Sm. (Bromeliaceae), a bromeliad endemic to the Brazilian Northeast Atlantic Rainforest. Reproductively-active individuals were observed systematically and their visitors were recorded and determined. The main recorded fl oral visitors were Glaucis hirsutus, Phaethornis ruber and Phaethornis pretrei (hummingbirds) which executed frontal functional floral visits in which they touched t...

  10. Atlantic NAD 83 OCS Planning Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains BOEM Planning Area outlines in ESRI shapefile format for the BOEM Atlantic Region. The old Atlantic Planning Area outlines were changed as of...

  11. Effects of body size on the diet of Rivulus haraldsiolii (Aplocheiloidei: Rivulidae in a coastal Atlantic Rainforest island stream, southern Brazil

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    Vinícius Abilhoa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of body size on the feeding habits of the little-known killifi sh Rivulus haraldsiolii, collected in a coastal Atlantic Rainforest island stream, was investigated. Samples were collected during a study trip on 13 July 2009 in a brackish stream located in the northern part of Ilha do Mel Island, one of the most important southern Atlantic Forest areas in southern Brazil. The diet included aquatic immature insects (Diptera pupae and Chironomidae, aquatic insects (Hemiptera – Vellidae, microcrustaceans (Cladocera, aquatic ticks (Acarina, gastropods (Pomacea sp., terrestrial insects (Coleoptera, Formicidae and Isoptera, insect fragments, and plant fragments. The species presented an omnivorous feeding habit, and differences in diet could be related to variations in body sizes. Adults (large individuals feed mainly on Formicidae, plant fragments and aquatic ticks, whereas juveniles (small individuals feed basically on aquatic immature insects (Chironomidae and aquatic ticks.

  12. Estratificação vertical de abelhas Euglossina (Hymenoptera, Apidae em uma área de Mata Atlântica, Paraíba, Brasil Vertical stratification of Euglossina Bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae in an area of the Atlantic Rainforest, Paraíba State, Brazil

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    Celso F. Martins

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Existem poucos estudos sobre distribuição vertical de insetos, principalmente de Hymenoptera Apiformes. O objetivo do presente estudo foi verificar se existe estratificação vertical entre as espécies de Euglossina em áreas de Mata Atlântica, através da comparação da riqueza, abundância e diversidade em dois estratos, sub-bosque (1,5 m e copa (10-12 m. Para isso, foram realizadas coletas mensais na Reserva Biológica Guaribas, de maio a dezembro de 2002, utilizando seis armadilhas contendo fragrâncias artificiais: eugenol, eucaliptol, escatol, beta ionona, acetato de benzila e vanilina, distribuídas nos dois estratos. Foram coletados 1.151 indivíduos pertencentes a 11 espécies e três gêneros de Euglossina. No estrato de sub-bosque a abundância e a diversidade foram maiores, em números absolutos, e a riqueza foi significativamente maior que no estrato de copa.There are few studies regarding vertical distribution of insects, mainly of Hymenoptera Apiformes. The goal of this study was to verify if vertical stratification exists among the species of Euglossina in Atlantic Rainforest areas, trough the comparison of the richness, abundance and diversity in two strata, sub-forest (1.5 m and canopy (10-12 m. For that, monthly collections where carried out in the Guaribas Biological Reserve from May to December of 2002. Six traps containing artificial fragrances: eugenol, eucalyptol, skatol, beta ionone, benzyl acetate and vanillin, distributed in two strata were used. A total of 1,151 individuals belonging to 11 species and three genera of Euglossina was collected. The abundance and diversity were higher in the sub-forest stratum in absolute number and richness was significantly higher compared with the canopy.

  13. Diet and microhabitat use by two Hylodinae species (Anura, Cycloramphidae living in sympatry and syntopy in a Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest area Dieta e uso do microhabitat em duas espécies de Hylodinae (Anura, Cycloramphidae vivendo em simpatria e sintopia em uma área de Mata Atlântica

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    Mauricio Almeida-Gomes

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the diet and microhabitat use for two Hylodinae anurans (Cycloramphidae, Hylodes phyllodes Heyer & Cocroft, 1986 and Crossodactylus gaudichaudii Duméril & Bibron, 1841, living in sympatry at an Atlantic Rainforest area of Ilha Grande, in southeastern Brazil. The two species live syntopically at some rocky streams. The two species differed strongly in microhabitat use. Hylodes phyllodes occurred mainly on rocks, whereas C. gaudichaudii was observed mostly on the water. Regarding diet, coleopterans, hymenopterans (ants, and larvae were the most important prey item consumed by both species. Data suggest that microhabitat use appears to be an important parameter differentiating these frogs with respect to general resource utilization.Nós analisamos a dieta e o uso do microhabitat em duas espécies de anuros da subfamília Hylodinae (Cycloramphidae, Hylodes phyllodes Heyer & Cocroft, 1986 e Crossodactylus gaudichaudii Duméril & Bibron, 1841, que vivem em simpatria em uma área de Mata Atlântica na Ilha Grande, na região sudeste do Brasil. As duas espécies vivem sintopicamente em alguns riachos pedregosos. As duas espécies diferiram fortemente no uso do microhabitat. Hylodes phyllodes ocorreu principalmente sobre pedras, enquanto C. gaudichaudii foi observado na maioria das vezes dentro d'água. Com relação à dieta, coleópteros, himenópteros (formigas, e larvas foram as presas mais consumidas por ambas as espécies. Os dados sugerem que o uso do microhabitat parece ser um importante parâmetro diferenciando esses anuros com respeito a utilização de recursos.

  14. Comparative evaluation of Amblyomma ovale ticks infected and noninfected by Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest, the agent of an emerging rickettsiosis in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczak, Felipe S; Agostinho, Washington C; Polo, Gina; Moraes-Filho, Jonas; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2016-04-01

    In 2010, a novel spotted fever group rickettsiosis was reported in the Atlantic rainforest coast of Brazil. The etiological agent was identified as Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest, and the tick Amblyomma ovale was incriminated as the presumed vector. The present study evaluated under laboratory conditions four colonies of A. ovale: two started from engorged females that were naturally infected by Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest (designated as infected groups); the two others started from noninfected females (designated as control groups). All colonies were reared in parallel from F0 engorged female to F2 unfed nymphs. Tick-naïve vesper mice (Calomys callosus) or domestic rabbits were used for feeding of each tick stage. Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest was preserved by transstadial maintenance and transovarial transmission in A. ovale ticks for at least 2 generations (from F0 females to F2 nymphs), because nearly 100% of the tested larvae, nymphs, and adults from the infected groups were shown by PCR to contain rickettsial DNA. All vesper mice and rabbits infested by larvae and nymphs, and 50% of the rabbits infested by adults from the infected groups seroconverted, indicating that these tick stages were vector competent for Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest. Expressive differences in mortality rates and reproductive performance were observed between engorged females from the infected and control groups, as indicated by 75.0% and 97.1% oviposition success, respectively, and significantly lower egg mass weight, conversion efficiency index, and percentage of egg hatching for the infected groups. Our results indicate that A. ovale can act as a natural reservoir for Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest. However, due to deleterious effect caused by this rickettsial agent on engorged females, amplifier vertebrate hosts might be necessary for persistent perpetuation of Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest in A. ovale under

  15. Knowing the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest in childhood: a contribution of the theory of multiple intelligence for environmental education

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    Valerie Nicollier

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is grounded in the cognitive sciences and represents a comprehensive inquiry into children's environmental knowledge. It started with an investigation of a specific situation: studying an urban population – stigmatized by a history of local environmental destruction, unconsciously wrought upon an area that is nowadays acknowledged as a natural biodiversity hotspot, the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest. Based on the Multiple Intelligence Theory (MIT, that describes the presence of several intelligences in human beings, including a naturalist intelligence, this study aimed at improving the understanding of abilities related to environmental knowledge and the differentiation of such abilities from other ways of knowing usually valued in mainstream education. Forty-five (45 students of a primary school located in south Bahia, Brazil, their teachers, and their parents participated in this investigation between 2002 to 2004. Results suggest that the cognitive domains which are subjacent to environmental knowledge are place specific and need to be stimulated in primary schools by formulating more attractive, efficient, and innovative environmental educational methodologies.

  16. Feeding ecology of Rivulus luelingi (Aplocheiloidei: Rivulidae in a Coastal Atlantic Rainforest stream, southern Brazil

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    Vinícius Abilhoa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Feeding habits of the killifish Rivulus luelingi collected in a black water stream of the Coastal Atlantic Rainforest in southern Brazil were investigated. Eight samplings were made between April 2003 and January 2004. The diet, assessed through a similarity matrix with the estimated contribution values of food items, included microcrustaceans, aquatic immature insects (larvae and pupae, aquatic adult insects, terrestrial insects, insect fragments, spiders, and plant fragments. Differences in the diet according to temporal variations (months were registered, but changes related with size classes evaluated and high/low precipitation period were not observed. The species presented an insectivorous feeding habit, and its diet in the studied stream was composed of autochthonous (mainly aquatic immature insects and allochthonous (mainly insect fragments material.Neste estudo foram investigados os hábitos alimentares do peixe anual Rivulus luelingi em um riacho de água escura da Floresta Atlântica Costeira do Sul do Brasil. Oito amostragens foram realizadas entre abril de 2003 e janeiro de 2004. A dieta, avaliada através de uma matriz de similaridade com os valores de contribuição estimados para os itens alimentares, inclui microcrustáceos, insetos imaturos aquáticos, insetos aquáticos e terrestres, fragmentos de insetos, aranhas e fragmentos de plantas. Diferenças relacionadas ao período amostral (meses foram registradas, mas mudanças na dieta em função das classes de tamanho avaliadas e o período de alta/baixa precipitação não foram observadas. A espécie apresentou hábito alimentar insetívoro, e sua dieta no riacho estudado foi composta por itens autóctones (principalmente insetos imaturos aquáticos e alóctones (principalmente fragmentos de insetos.

  17. Ecology of Ischnocnema parva (Anura: Brachycephalidae at the Atlantic Rainforest of Serra da Concórdia, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Ana Cristina J. S. Martins

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Ischnocnema (Brachycephalidae includes many species that are important members of the leaf litter frog communities in the Atlantic Rainforest of Brazil. Ischnocnema parva (Girard, 1853 is endemic to the Atlantic Rainforest biome and is restricted to the forests of southeastern Brazil. Currently, the available information about the ecology of I. parva is scarce. We studied the diet, the habitat use, reproduction and density of I. parva in an area of Atlantic Rainforest at the Concórdia mountain range, Rio de Janeiro. Individuals of I. parva were captured in April 2005 using different sampling methods: time constrained search (transects, plots of 5 x 5 m (25 m² on the litter, and pitfall traps with drift fences. We found 240 frogs; 35 females and 205 males. Females (mean SVL = 19.1 mm were significantly larger (F1,238 = 143.016, R² = 0.375, p < 0.001 than males (13.2 mm. The species preyed mainly on arthropods, with ants and isopods being the most important items, both showing high values of importance index (Ix = 50.0 and 26.7, respectively. Ischnocnema parva is a terrestrial species whose preferential microhabitat at the Serra da Concórdia was the litter of the forest floor (78.7%. The activity was predominantly crepuscular-nocturnal and the estimated density of I. parva was 24.9 ind/100 m². For the eight ovigerous females captured, the mean number of mature oocytes per female was 25 (range: 22-30 and the oocyte mean diameter was 1.11 mm (N = 40 oocytes. Oocyte number increased with female body size (R² = 0.504, F1,6 = 6.107, p < 0.05, N = 8, indicating that as females increase in size they produce larger clutches. Some ecological aspects such as diet and microhabitat use were similar to that observed for an insular population of I. parva, whereas reproductive traits differed. Thus, long term studies are necessary to understand the extent to which these differences are explained by environmental factors.

  18. Terrestrial water flux responses to global warming in tropical rainforest areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Chia-Wei; Lo, Min-Hui; Chou, Chia; Kumar, Sanjiv

    2016-05-01

    Precipitation extremes are expected to become more frequent in the changing global climate, which may considerably affect the terrestrial hydrological cycle. In this study, Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 archives have been examined to explore the changes in normalized terrestrial water fluxes (precipitation minus evapotranspiration minus total runoff, divided by the precipitation climatology) in three tropical rainforest areas: Maritime Continent, Congo, and Amazon. Results show that a higher frequency of intense precipitation events is predicted for the Maritime Continent in the future climate than in the present climate, but not for the Amazon or Congo rainforests. Nonlinear responses to extreme precipitation lead to a reduced groundwater recharge and a proportionately greater amount of direct runoff, particularly for the Maritime Continent, where both the amount and intensity of precipitation increase under global warming. We suggest that the nonlinear response is related to the existence of a higher near-surface soil moisture over the Maritime Continent than that over the Amazon and Congo rainforests. The wetter soil over the Maritime Continent also leads to an increased subsurface runoff. Thus, increased precipitation extremes and concomitantly reduced terrestrial water fluxes lead to an intensified hydrological cycle for the Maritime Continent. This has the potential to result in a strong temporal heterogeneity in soil water distribution affecting the ecosystem of the rainforest region and increasing the risk of flooding and/or landslides.

  19. Protective shade, tree diversity and soil properties in coffee agroforestry systems in the Atlantic Rainforest biome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Souza, de H.N.; Goede, de R.G.M.; Brussaard, L.; Cardoso, I.M.; Duarte, E.M.G.; Fernandes, R.B.A.; Gomes, L.C.; Pulleman, M.M.

    2012-01-01

    Sustainable production and biodiversity conservation can be mutually supportive in providing multiple ecosystem services to farmers and society. This study aimed to determine the contribution of agroforestry systems, as tested by family farmers in the Brazilian Rainforest region since 1993, to tree

  20. Water quality in Atlantic rainforest mountain rivers (South America): quality indices assessment, nutrients distribution, and consumption effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avigliano, Esteban; Schenone, Nahuel

    2016-08-01

    The South American Atlantic rainforest is a one-of-a-kind ecosystem considered as a biodiversity hotspot; however, in the last decades, it was intensively reduced to 7 % of its original surface. Water resources and water quality are one of the main goods and services this system provides to people. For monitoring and management recommendations, the present study is focused on (1) determining the nutrient content (nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, and phosphate) and physiochemical parameters (temperature, pH, electrical conductivity, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, and total dissolved solids) in surface water from 24 rainforest mountain rivers in Argentina, (2) analyzing the human health risk, (3) assessing the environmental distribution of the determined pollutants, and (4) analyzing water quality indices (WQIobj and WQImin). In addition, for total coliform bacteria, a dataset was used from literature. Turbidity, total dissolved solids, and nitrite (NO2 (-)) exceeded the guideline value recommended by national or international guidelines in several sampling stations. The spatial distribution pattern was analyzed by Principal Component Analysis and Factor Analysis (PCA/FA) showing well-defined groups of rivers. Both WQI showed good adjustment (R (2) = 0.89) and rated water quality as good or excellent in all sampling sites (WQI > 71). Therefore, this study suggests the use of the WQImin for monitoring water quality in the region and also the water treatment of coliform, total dissolved solids, and turbidity. PMID:27083909

  1. Feeding habits, microhabitat use, and daily activity of Cycloramphus brasiliensis (Anura: Cycloramphidae from the Atlantic Rainforest, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Maia-Carneiro

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the feeding habits, microhabitat use, and daily activity period of the anuran species Cycloramphus brasiliensis (Steindachner, 1864, endemic to the Atlantic Rainforest biome. The only previous studies on this species focused on the systematics and new altitudinal records. This study was conducted in a large forest remnant located in the municipalities of Guapimirim and Cachoeiras de Macacu. We captured frogs through visual encounter surveys and recorded the frequency of microhabitat types used by them, and the time of capture. Diet was analyzed in terms of number, volume and frequency of occurrence of items. Individuals of C. brasiliensis occurred in association with fast-moving rocky portions of clear freshwater rivers, indicating a rheophilic habit, and were active mainly at night. Such as most anuran species, the diet of Cycloramphus brasiliensis was mainly based on arthropods, and included Blattodea, Formicidae, and Coleoptera as most important prey items.

  2. Tropical Rainforests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigh, Ronald B.; Nations, James D.

    1980-01-01

    Presented is a summary of scientific knowledge about the rainforest environment, a tropical ecosystem in danger of extermination. Topics include the current state of tropical rainforests, the causes of rainforest destruction, and alternatives of rainforest destruction. (BT)

  3. Characterization of Ant Communities (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Twigs in the Leaf Litter of the Atlantic Rainforest and Eucalyptus Trees in the Southeast Region of Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    José R. de Oliveira Nascimento; Tae T. Fernandes; de Souza, Debora R.; Suguituru, Silvia S.; M. Santina de C. Morini

    2012-01-01

    Fragments of Atlantic Rainforest and extensive eucalyptus plantations are part of the landscape in the southeast region of Brazil. Many studies have been conducted on litter ant diversity in these forests, but there are few reports on the nesting sites. In the present study, we characterized the ant communities that nest in twigs in the leaf litter of dense ombrophilous forests and eucalyptus trees. The colony demographics associated with the physical structure of the nest were recorded. In t...

  4. The ancient tropical rainforest tree Symphonia globulifera L. f. (Clusiaceae) was not restricted to postulated Pleistocene refugia in Atlantic Equatorial Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Budde, K B; González-Martínez, S. C.; Hardy, O J; Heuertz, M

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the history of forests and their species' demographic responses to past disturbances is important for predicting impacts of future environmental changes. Tropical rainforests of the Guineo-Congolian region in Central Africa are believed to have survived the Pleistocene glacial periods in a few major refugia, essentially centred on mountainous regions close to the Atlantic Ocean. We tested this hypothesis by investigating the phylogeographic structure of a widespread, ancient rai...

  5. Diet of the lizard Ecpleopus gaudichaudii (Gymnophthalmidae in Atlantic Rainforest, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Thiago Maia

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study we analyzed the diet of the gymnophthalmid lizard Ecpleopus gaudichaudii Duméril & Bibron, 1839, a typical inhabitant of the forest-floor leaf litter, in an Atlantic Forest area in the state of Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil. The 26 individuals sampled during the study had a mean snout-vent length (SVL of 36.2 ± 4.2 mm and a mean jaw width (JW of 4.1 ± 0.5 mm. We did not find differences in SVL between males and females, though the sexes differed in JW when the effect of body size was factored out, with females presenting higher values. The diet of the lizards was composed exclusively of arthropods, especially isopods and orthopterans. The similarity in trophic niches among seasons (volumetric and numerical proportions of prey categories consumed were 0.096 and to 0.43, respectively. There were also no detectable seasonal differences in mean number and mean volume of prey ingested, as well as no significant influence of lizard SVL on prey number and of lizard JW on mean prey volume, which may reflect the tendency of E. gaudichaudii to feed on few, relatively large prey.

  6. Anurofauna of an Atlantic Rainforest fragment and its surroundings in Northern Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida-Gomes, M; Almeida-Santos, M; Goyannes-Araújo, P; Borges-Júnior, V N T; Vrcibradic, D; Siqueira, C C; Ariani, C V; Dias, A S; Souza, V V; Pinto, R R; Van Sluys, M; Rocha, C F D

    2010-10-01

    We carried out a study on the anurofaunal community from an Atlantic Forest fragment (Monte Verde mountains) and the surrounding area in Cambuci municipality, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, which constitutes one of the largest fragments remaining in the largely deforested landscape of the northern portion of the State. We combined three sampling methods: plot sampling, transects and pit-fall traps. We recorded twenty species of amphibians, of which only eleven were found within the forest fragment (and five of these also occurred in the surrounding matrix). Two of the species recorded in the present study (Crossodactylus sp. and Ischnocnema cf. parva) may represent undescribed taxa. Our records expand the distribution range of one species (Scinax trapicheiroi) to the north, and fill a geographic distribution gap for another one (Ischnocnema oea). The estimated overall density of frogs living in the leaf litter of the fragment (based on results of plot sampling) was 3.1 individuals/100 m², with Haddadus binotatus being the most abundant species (2.4 individuals/100 m²). Comparisons of our data with those of other studies suggest that anuran communities in forest fragments ca. 1,000 ha or smaller may be severely limited in their richness, and often include a large proportion of species tolerant to open areas, such as many hylids. Our results show the importance of increasing knowledge about the anurofaunal community of the northern portion of the State of Rio de Janeiro and preserve the forest remnants that still exist in the region. PMID:21085792

  7. Genetic Differentiation in the Stingless Bee, Scaptotrigona xanthotricha Moure, 1950 (Apidae, Meliponini): a Species with Wide Geographic Distribution in the Atlantic Rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Olívia M P; Gaiotto, Fernanda A; Costa, Marco A

    2014-05-14

    Stingless bees are important pollinators that are severely threatened by anthropic interference, resulting in a strong population decline. Scaptotrigona xanthotricha has a wide distribution in the Atlantic Rainforest, ranging from the northeastern state of Bahia to Santa Catarina in southern Brazil. To understand the genetic structure of S. xanthotricha, 12 species-specific microsatellite loci were analyzed in 42 colonies sampled throughout the species range. The results indicated 5 distinct clusters throughout the sampled area with high rates of genetic diversity, and the greatest diversity was found in southern Bahia. Greater differentiation was observed between samples from the extremes of the distribution, with an F ST value of 0.189 between cluster 1 and 5. The genetic differentiation analysis for all loci had an F ST value of 0.113, a result that is consistent with the analysis of molecular variance, which revealed 7.72% of the variation occurring between groups. The Mantel correlation between a genetic differentiation matrix and a geographic distance matrix (r = 0.184, P = 0.043) indicated a tendency toward increased differentiation with increased distance. This study revealed the profile of differentiation and distribution of genetic diversity in this species and indicates parameters that should be considered in future taxonomic revisions and activities for its management and conservation. PMID:24829365

  8. Comparative wood anatomy of species of Psychotria L. (Rubiaceae in Atlantic Rainforest remnants of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

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    Jonas B. C. Marques

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPsychotria is the largest Rubiaceae genus and one of the most abundant in the Atlantic Rainforest of Rio de Janeiro State. The present work aims to characterize and compare the wood of nine of these species. ThePsychotria wood were characterized by: slightly distinct growth rings; diffuse porosity; solitary vessels or on radial multiples of 2-6 or clusters of 3-5 vessel elements, with terminal and lateral simple perforation plates and vestured and alternate intervessel and vessel-ray pits; septate fiber-tracheids; and rare axial parenchyma. Although, the wood anatomy of thePsychotria may be considered homogeneous, the statistical analyses, based on qualitative and quantitative features, allowed the segregation of the species and indicated the importance of habit (arboreous or shrubby on the wood anatomy of the species. It is worth mentioning that the sampling was realized in only one studied site (Ilha Grande, which contributed to the conclusion that the wood characteristics are more related to the specificities of each studied taxon than to with environmental variations.

  9. Temporal and ontogenetic variations in feeding habits of Hollandichthys multifasciatus (Teleostei: Characidae in coastal Atlantic rainforest streams, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Abilhoa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Feeding habits of the characin Hollandichthys multifasciatus were investigated. Samplings were made between March 2004 and February 2005 in two black water streams of the coastal Atlantic rainforest in southern Brazil. The diet, evaluated by qualitative and quantitative methods, included aquatic and terrestrial insects, decapods, oligochaetes, plants and spiders. Large individuals feed mainly on plants, terrestrial insects, and spiders, whereas small fish feed basically on plants and oligochaetes. The species showed an omnivorous feeding habit, and its diet was composed of autochthonous (mainly oligochaetes and allochthonous (plants and terrestrial insects material.Neste estudo foram investigados os hábitos alimentares do caracídeo Hollandichthys multifasciatus. Amostras foram obtidas entre março de 2004 e fevereiro de 2005, em dois riachos de água escura da Floresta Atlântica Costeira do Sul do Brasil. A dieta, avaliada por métodos quantitativos e qualitativos, inclui insetos aquáticos e terrestres, decápodes, oligoquetos aquáticos, plantas e aranhas. Os maiores indivíduos alimentaram-se principalmente de plantas, insetos terrestres e aranhas, enquanto que os menores indivíduos alimentaram-se basicamente de plantas e oligoquetos aquáticos. A espécie apresentou hábito alimentar onívoro, e sua dieta no riacho estudado foi composta por material autóctone (principalmente oligoquetos aquáticos e alóctone (plantas e insetos terrestres.

  10. Floral visitors of Aechmea constantinii (Mez L. B. Sm. (Bromeliaceae in a remnant of the Brazilian Northeast Atlantic Rainforest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrúcio Alexandre Fonseca Rios J

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the floral visitors and potential pollinators of Aechmea constantinii (Mez L. B. Sm. (Bromeliaceae, a bromeliad endemic to the Brazilian Northeast Atlantic Rainforest. Reproductively-active individuals were observed systematically and their visitors were recorded and determined. The main recorded fl oral visitors were Glaucis hirsutus, Phaethornis ruber and Phaethornis pretrei (hummingbirds which executed frontal functional floral visits in which they touched the parts of the fl owers. Visits of Plebeia flavocincta, Plebeia sp., Trigona spinipes and Euglossa cordata (bees and Talides sergestu and Strymon ziba (butterflies were also recorded. In addition, two ants (Hymenoptera, Insecta, Formicidae were identifi ed in activity on the fl oral scapes and flowers of the studied bromeliad. The suggestion is made in the study that the A. constantinii is pollinated by hummingbirds since these birds executed direct frontal visits to the fl owers, touching reproductive structures. The identification of pollen on the bodies of bees and butterflies, as well as the contact executed by visitors, with the stigma of the visited flowers, offered an indication that these species may exert an influence as secondary pollinators of Aechmea constantinii.

  11. Spatio-temporal microhabitat use by two co-occurring species of scorpions in Atlantic rainforest in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lira, André F A; Souza, Adriano M; Silva Filho, Arthur A C; Albuquerque, Cleide M R

    2013-06-01

    With the increasing devastation of the tropical rain forest, there is a critical need to understand how animal forest communities are structured and how habitat degradation will affect these communities. We conducted a field survey to investigate the microhabitat preferences of two co-occurring species of scorpions (Tityus pusillus and Ananteris mauryi) in a fragment of Atlantic rainforest, as well as their abundance and their ecological niche, during both the dry and rainy seasons. Behavioural aspects related to the use of the environment and the proportions of juveniles and adults are also described. The occurrence of intra- and interspecific coexistence was assessed by active search. In addition, pitfall catches were used to assess the structure of the population in the dry and rainy seasons. The differential patterns of spatial distribution in the litter layers provided evidence of partial niche partitioning between the two coexisting scorpion species depending on age and climatic conditions. Abundance, foraging behaviour and age structure (juveniles and adults) were seasonally influenced. We conclude that the diverse and subtle behaviours involved in interaction and habitat use may facilitate species coexistence. Resource partitioning and refuge sharing on a temporal and/or spatial scale, as well as predation pressure, may drive the dynamics and spatial distribution of scorpion species in the rain forest environment. PMID:23664851

  12. Helminth fauna of two species of Physalaemus (Anura: Leiuperidae) from an undisturbed fragment of the Atlantic rainforest, southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, Gislayne M; Aguiar, Aline; Silva, Reinaldo J; Anjos, Luciano A

    2013-10-01

    Two amphibian species, Physalaemus cuvieri and Physalaemus olfersii, from Serra do Mar State Park, which is an old-growth environment of the Atlantic Rainforest in southeastern Brazil, were surveyed for endoparasites. Hosts were sampled in 2 ponds; each was colonized by only 1 Physalaemus species. The overall prevalence of helminths was high and similar in both amphibian species. The mean intensity of infection in P. olfersii did not differ statistically from that in P. cuvieri . Nine helminth species were found: 2 acanthocephalans, 1 cestode, and 6 nematodes. Parasite richness in the 2 host species was similar. The composition of helminth fauna differed but the 2 hosts shared the most prevalent taxon of nematode (an unidentified species of Cosmocercidae). All helminth species exhibited an aggregated distribution pattern in the host species. The present results demonstrate relatively low species richness and the dominance of generalist parasite species. This study contributes to knowledge regarding the structure and composition of the helminth community in anurans. PMID:23409941

  13. Review of the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest harvestman Longiperna (Opiliones: Gonyleptidae: Mitobatinae)

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Pinto-da-Rocha; Cibele Bragagnolo

    2010-01-01

    Longiperna Roewer, 1929 is revised and new records of distribution are presented for the Brazilian Costal Atlantic Rain Forest (from Rio de Janeiro to Santa Catarina states). The following new synonymies are established: Longiperna concolor (Mello-Leitão, 1923) = L. zonata Mello-Leitão, 1935 and L. heliaca B. Soares, 1942; Longiperna coxalis (Roewer, 1943) = L. areolata B. Soares, 1944; Longiperna insperata (Soares & Soares, 1947) = L. paranensis Soares & Soares, 1947 and L. curitibana Kury, ...

  14. Review of the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest harvestman Longiperna (Opiliones: Gonyleptidae: Mitobatinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Pinto-da-Rocha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Longiperna Roewer, 1929 is revised and new records of distribution are presented for the Brazilian Costal Atlantic Rain Forest (from Rio de Janeiro to Santa Catarina states. The following new synonymies are established: Longiperna concolor (Mello-Leitão, 1923 = L. zonata Mello-Leitão, 1935 and L. heliaca B. Soares, 1942; Longiperna coxalis (Roewer, 1943 = L. areolata B. Soares, 1944; Longiperna insperata (Soares & Soares, 1947 = L. paranensis Soares & Soares, 1947 and L. curitibana Kury, 2003. Two new species are described: Longiperna kuryi sp. nov. (type-locality: Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, Parati; Longiperna trembao sp. nov. (type-locality: Brazil, Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte.

  15. Atmospheric salt deposition in a tropical mountain rainforest at the eastern Andean slopes of south Ecuador - Pacific or Atlantic origin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makowski Giannoni, Sandro; Trachte, Katja; Rollenbeck, Ruetger; Lehnert, Lukas; Fuchs, Julia; Bendix, Joerg

    2016-08-01

    Sea salt (NaCl) has recently been proven to be of the utmost importance for ecosystem functioning in Amazon lowland forests because of its impact on herbivory, litter decomposition and, thus, carbon cycling. Sea salt deposition should generally decline as distance from its marine source increases. For the Amazon, a negative east-west gradient of sea salt availability is assumed as a consequence of the barrier effect of the Andes Mountains for Pacific air masses. However, this generalized pattern may not hold for the tropical mountain rainforest in the Andes of southern Ecuador. To analyse sea salt availability, we investigated the deposition of sodium (Na+) and chloride (Cl-), which are good proxies of sea spray aerosol. Because of the complexity of the terrain and related cloud and rain formation processes, sea salt deposition was analysed from both, rain and occult precipitation (OP) along an altitudinal gradient over a period between 2004 and 2009. To assess the influence of easterly and westerly air masses on the deposition of sodium and chloride over southern Ecuador, sea salt aerosol concentration data from the Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate (MACC) reanalysis data set and back-trajectory statistical methods were combined. Our results, based on deposition time series, show a clear difference in the temporal variation of sodium and chloride concentration and Na+ / Cl- ratio in relation to height and exposure to winds. At higher elevations, sodium and chloride present a higher seasonality and the Na+ / Cl- ratio is closer to that of sea salt. Medium- to long-range sea salt transport exhibited a similar seasonality, which shows the link between our measurements at high elevations and the sea salt synoptic transport. Although the influence of the easterlies was predominant regarding the atmospheric circulation, the statistical analysis of trajectories and hybrid receptor models revealed a stronger impact of the north equatorial Atlantic, Caribbean

  16. Individual species-area relationship of woody plant communities in a heterogeneous subtropical monsoon rainforest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Han Tsai

    Full Text Available The spatial structure of species richness is often characterized by the species-area relationship (SAR. However, the SAR approach rarely considers the spatial variability of individual plants that arises from species interactions and species' habitat associations. Here, we explored how the interactions of individual plants of target species influence SAR patterns at a range of neighborhood distances. We analyzed the data of 113,988 woody plants of 110 species from the Fushan Forest Dynamics Plot (25 ha, northern Taiwan, which is a subtropical rainforest heavily influenced by typhoons. We classified 34 dominant species into 3 species types (i.e., accumulator, repeller, or no effect by testing how the individual species-area relationship (i.e., statistics describing how neighborhood species richness changes around individuals of target species departs (i.e., positively, negatively, or with no obvious trend from a null model that accounts for habitat association. Deviation from the null model suggests that the net effect of species' interactions increases (accumulate or decreases (repel neighborhood species richness. We found that (i accumulators were dominant at small interaction distances (30 m; (iii repellers were rarely detected; and (iv large-sized and abundant species tended to be accumulators. The findings suggest that positive species interactions have the potential to accumulate neighborhood species richness, particularly through size- and density-dependent mechanisms. We hypothesized that the frequently disturbed environment of this subtropical rainforest (e.g., typhoon-driven natural disturbances such as landslides, soil erosion, flooding, and windthrow might create the spatial heterogeneity of species richness and promote positive species interactions.

  17. Land-use change in the Atlantic rainforest region: Consequences for the hydrology of small catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salemi, Luiz Felippe; Groppo, Juliano Daniel; Trevisan, Rodrigo; de Moraes, Jorge Marcos; de Barros Ferraz, Silvio Frosini; Villani, João Paulo; Duarte-Neto, Paulo José; Martinelli, Luiz Antonio

    2013-08-01

    The Atlantic forest of Brazil is one of the most endangered ecosystems in the world. Despite approximately 500 years of intense land-use change in this biome, the influence of land-use changes on hydrological processes have yet to be investigated in-depth. To bridge this gap, we studied various features of three small catchments covered by pristine original montane cloud forest, pasture, and eucalyptus for 2 years (January 2008-December 2009), including the hydraulic properties of soils, throughfall, overland flow and streamflow processes. The forest saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat) was higher near the soil surface (0.15 m depth) compared to eucalyptus and pasture. As a consequence, higher overland flow generation in terms of volume was observed in pasture and eucalyptus. Despite this increase in overland flow generation, overland flow coefficients (overland flow: precipitation ratio) were substantially low throughout the study period with slightly higher values in 2009. These low overland flow coefficients were attributed to the large predominance of low rainfall intensities (forest to eucalyptus and pasture, the prevailing rainfall intensities do not cause runoff generation processes to be substantially different among land-uses. Forest and eucalyptus convert a similar proportion of annual precipitation to annual streamflow, with the more likely factors for these results being the high interception under forest and high transpiration under eucalyptus. Finally, cloud forest conversion to pasture does not promote significant monthly streamflow change.

  18. Myxomycetes occurring on Cecropia adenopus (Cecropiaceae in fragments of Atlantic Rainforest Myxomycetes ocorrentes em Cecropia adenopus (Cecropiaceae em fragmentos de Floresta Atlântica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Carla Caldas Bezerra

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Cecropia adenopus (Ambay pumpwood is a frequent native species on the edges of woods and clearings and is considered a pioneer species in re-colonized areas. Despite its distribution from Mexico to Argentina, this substrate has never been examined in detail regarding the presence of Myxomycetes. In the present study, the myxobiota associated with leaf debris of C. adenopus was investigated in two Atlantic Rainforest conservation units located in the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Norte. Five specimens and one plasmodium were obtained directly from the field and 87 were developed in 43.7% of 200 moist-chamber cultures set up separately with blades and petioles. Fifteen species were identified and illustrated. The two predominant groups were representatives of Trichiales and Physarales. Didymium columella-cavum was recorded for the second time in Brazil and in the world.Cecropia adenopus (embaúba é uma espécie nativa, frequente em bordas de matas e clareiras e tida como espécie pioneira em áreas recolonizadas. Apesar de ocorrer desde o México até a Argentina este substrato nunca tinha sido examinado com detalhe quanto à presença de Myxomycetes. No presente estudo, a mixobiota associada a folhas mortas de C. adenopus foi investigada em duas Unidades de Conservação da Floresta Atlântica, situadas no estado do Rio Grande do Norte. Cinco espécimes e um plasmódio foram obtidos diretamente no campo e 87 desenvolveram-se em 43,7% de 200 câmaras-úmidas, montadas com lâminas foliares e pecíolos separadamente. Quinze espécies de Myxomycetes foram identificadas e ilustradas. Os dois grupos predominantes pertencem às ordens Trichiales e Physarales. Didymium columella-cavum foi encontrado pela segunda vez no Brasil e no mundo.

  19. Fate of native and introduced seeds consumed by captive white-lipped and collared peccaries (Tayassu pecari, Link 1795 and Pecari tajacu, Linnaeus 1758) in the Atlantic rainforest, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazure, L; Bachand, M; Ansseau, C; Almeida-Cortez, J S

    2010-02-01

    We studied the role of white-lipped and collared peccaries (Tayassu pecari and Pecari tajacu) as seed predators and dispersers in the Atlantic rainforest of Brazil. The Atlantic rainforest ecosystem is highly threatened and has experienced dramatic declines in its populations of large mammals. Local extinctions can disrupt essential plant-animal interactions such as seed dispersion and seed predation. We tracked seeds from time of consumption to germination to assess the direct impact peccaries have on seed survival. We offered fruits of 20 species found in the Atlantic rainforest to the peccaries. Seeds were categorised as intact, scarified, ingested or defecated, and germination tests were performed. The overall impact by both peccary species was similar. Seeds were sometime scarified by mastication, always with fatal consequences. Most seeds that were consumed were destroyed during ingestion and digestion. Only small seeds (germination tests suggest a positive effect from the passage through the guts. Peccaries clearly have a double role as both seed predators and as small seeds dispersers, which is a specialised role within the granivore/frugivore community of the Atlantic rainforest. PMID:20231959

  20. Diversity of bryophytes in priority areas for conservation in the Atlantic forest of northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mércia Patrícia Pereira Silva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The northeastern Brazilian Atlantic forest is the region with the greatest diversity of bryophytes in the country. However, knowledge about bryophytes is irregularly distributed among Brazilian regions. Therefore, we aimed to contribute to knowledge about bryophytes on a regional scale in the northeastern Atlantic forest, to identify the centers of bryophyte diversity in that region, and to reiterate the importance and identify locations for which new protected areas should be created. We built a database of bryophytes in 23 locations of the region, based on a literature review and new floristic inventories. To identify the locations of greatest relevance to bryophyte conservation, we considered 1 total and endemic species richness, 2 phylogenetic diversity (PD, and 3 functional diversity (proportion of shade specialists. The northeastern Atlantic rainforest contains 396 spp., representing 26% of the taxa occurring in the country, 13 of which are endemic. Generalist species predominated (164 spp., followed by shade (133 spp. and sun (92 spp. specialists. The Murici Ecological Station had the highest richness, number of endemic species, and phylogenetic diversity.

  1. DNA barcoding reveals species level divergence between populations of the microhylid frog genus Arcovomer (Anura: Microhylidae) in the Atlantic Rainforest of southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, W Bryan; Wogel, Henrique; Bilate, Marcos; Salles, Rodrigo de O L; Buckup, Paulo A

    2016-09-01

    The microhylid frogs belonging to the genus Arcovomer have been reported from lowland Atlantic Rainforest in the Brazilian states of Espírito Santo, Rio de Janeiro, and São Paulo. Here, we use DNA barcoding to assess levels of genetic divergence between apparently isolated populations in Espírito Santo and Rio de Janeiro. Our mtDNA data consisting of cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) nucleotide sequences reveals 13.2% uncorrected and 30.4% TIM2 + I + Γ corrected genetic divergences between these two populations. This level of divergence exceeds the suggested 10% uncorrected divergence threshold for elevating amphibian populations to candidate species using this marker, which implies that the Espírito Santo population is a species distinct from Arcovomer passarellii. Calibration of our model-corrected sequence divergence estimates suggests that the time of population divergence falls between 12 and 29 million years ago. PMID:26016873

  2. The tadpole of Chiasmocleis carvalhoi and the advertisement calls of three species of Chiasmocleis (Anura, Microhylidae from the Atlantic rainforest of southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Wogel

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The tadpole of Chiasmocleis carvalhoi is figured and described for the first time from individuals collected in the State of Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil. The advertisement calls of C. atlantica, C. capixaba, and C. carvalhoi also are described and compared with the advertisement calls of others Chiasmocleis species restricted to Atlantic Rainforest. The advertisement calls of C. atlantica, C. capixaba, and C. carvalhoi are similar, consisting of one pulsed note of harmonic structure emitted repetitively. Our study corroborates the monophyly of the genus Chiasmocleis based on similarities in advertisement calls. Calls of syntopic species (C. atlantica with C. carvalhoi and C. capixaba with C. schubarti were less similar than those of closely related allopatric species.

  3. Representações da Mata Atlântica e de sua biodiversidade por meio dos desenhos infantis Representations of the Atlantic Rainforest and its biodiversity through children's drawings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza Schwarz

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Desenhos infantis são instrumentos úteis e significativos que podem ser empregados para avaliar conhecimentos, competências, observações e conceitos de Ciência, além de possibilitar analisar a capacidade de raciocínio. Este trabalho apresenta a análise de 395 desenhos de crianças com idade entre 6 e 14 anos, habitantes de área urbana de Joinville, SC, Brasil, com o objetivo de verificar quais são os conhecimentos desse grupo social sobre a Mata Atlântica e sua biodiversidade. Foram investigados quais os ecossistemas mais representados, assim como a diversidade da flora e da fauna enfatizada. Durante a análise dos desenhos, verificamos que foram abordados quatro temas distintos: "o bom estado de conservação da Mata Atlântica", "o péssimo estado de conservação da Mata Atlântica", "comparações entre o bom e o péssimo estado de conservação da Mata Atlântica", e "recomendações para a conservação da Mata Atlântica". Os resultados mostram que 60,2% representaram "o bom estado de conservação da Mata Atlântica".Children drawings are useful and significant tools that can be used to evaluate their knowledge and the concepts of Science, their abilities and their opinions beyond their reasoning capacity. With their written explanations, 395 drawings done by children between the 6 and 14 years old, inhabitants of the Joinville urban area (SC, Brazil, were analyzed to test the knowledge of this social group on the Atlantic Rainforest and its biodiversity. More precisely, we analyzed the material for the ecosystem represented, and the diversity of the fauna and flora illustrated. Four themes in relation to the Atlantic Rainforest have been identified: "Its good condition of conservation", "Its bad state of conservation", "A comparative point of view between its good and bad state of conservation" and "Recommendations for its conservation". The results show that 60.2% of the participants had represented "good condition of

  4. Chironomid larvae inhabiting bromeliad phytotelmata in a fragment of the Atlantic Rainforest in Rio de Janeiro State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodré, V M; Rocha, O; Messias, M C

    2010-08-01

    A study of chironomids (Diptera, Chironomidae) occurring in phytotelmata of Bromeliaceae was carried out in a fragment of the Atlantic Rain Forest in an area of the city of Magé, Pau Grande, one of the metropolitan areas of Rio de Janeiro City, during a period of 13 months between September 2006 and September 2007. Eight samplings were performed at intervals of 1 (1/2) months and the content of the phytotelmata of the bromeliad species Neoregelia concentrica (Vellozo) L.B. Smith, 1934 and Aechmea nudicaulis (Linnaeus) Grisebach, 1864, were examined. A taxonomical inventory and evaluation of the numerical abundance of Chironomidae larvae were performed in 50 specimens of the bromeliads, being 13 individuals of N. concentrica and 37 of A. nudicaulis. Three taxa of Chironomidae belonging to three distinct subfamilies were recorded: Polypedilum sp., Orthocladiinae genus A and Monopelopia sp. A total of 293 individuals of Chironomidae, were recorded, being 9 Polypedilum sp., 233 Orthocladiinae genus A, and 51 Monopelopia sp., the latter representing the first record of Monopelopia in phytotelmata in Rio de Janeiro State. Considering all samples, a mean density of 3.32 +/- 2.62 chironomid larvae per phytotelmata was recorded. There was a positive relationship between the chironomid abundance and both precipitation and the volume of water in the phytotelmata. Apparently there is no preference by the chironomids regarding the colonistion of the bromeliad species. PMID:20730345

  5. South Atlantic Seasonal and/or Area Closures GIS data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent the geographic area described in Title 50 CFR Part 622 Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic, Subpart A - General...

  6. The ancient tropical rainforest tree Symphonia globulifera L. f. (Clusiaceae) was not restricted to postulated Pleistocene refugia in Atlantic Equatorial Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budde, K B; González-Martínez, S C; Hardy, O J; Heuertz, M

    2013-07-01

    Understanding the history of forests and their species' demographic responses to past disturbances is important for predicting impacts of future environmental changes. Tropical rainforests of the Guineo-Congolian region in Central Africa are believed to have survived the Pleistocene glacial periods in a few major refugia, essentially centred on mountainous regions close to the Atlantic Ocean. We tested this hypothesis by investigating the phylogeographic structure of a widespread, ancient rainforest tree species, Symphonia globulifera L. f. (Clusiaceae), using plastid DNA sequences (chloroplast DNA [cpDNA], psbA-trnH intergenic spacer) and nuclear microsatellites (simple sequence repeats, SSRs). SSRs identified four gene pools located in Benin, West Cameroon, South Cameroon and Gabon, and São Tomé. This structure was also apparent at cpDNA. Approximate Bayesian Computation detected recent bottlenecks approximately dated to the last glacial maximum in Benin, West Cameroon and São Tomé, and an older bottleneck in South Cameroon and Gabon, suggesting a genetic effect of Pleistocene cycles of forest contraction. CpDNA haplotype distribution indicated wide-ranging long-term persistence of S. globulifera both inside and outside of postulated forest refugia. Pollen flow was four times greater than that of seed in South Cameroon and Gabon, which probably enabled rapid population recovery after bottlenecks. Furthermore, our study suggested ecotypic differentiation-coastal or swamp vs terra firme-in S. globulifera. Comparison with other tree phylogeographic studies in Central Africa highlighted the relevance of species-specific responses to environmental change in forest trees. PMID:23572126

  7. Discovering the Ancient Temperate Rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Anne

    1997-01-01

    Two activities for grades 3 through 8 explore species adaptation and forestry issues in the North American rainforests. In one activity, students create imaginary species of plants or animals that are adapted for life in an ancient temperate rainforest. In the second activity, students role play groups affected by plans to log an area of the…

  8. [Generalist bees (Meliponina) and the reproductive success of the mass flowering tree Stryphnodendron pulcherrimum (Fabales: Mimosaceae) in the Atlantic Rainforest, Bahia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Daniela; Ramalho, Mauro

    2010-01-01

    It is controversial the role played by Meliponina bees in the pollination of mass flowering trees with small generalized flowers (FMPG), very common group of trees in the tropical forest canopy. The species richness and relative abundance of flower visiting insects of the mass flowering tree Stryphnodendron pulcherrimum were measured to test the hypothesis of tight ecological association between these generalist bees and FMPG and to evaluate the effect of this relationship upon the reproductive success variation among tree crowns. The flower visiting insects were sampled on 10 flowering tree crowns at the Atlantic Rainforest in southern Bahia. Altogether, 553 visiting insects were collected during the flowering period of S. pulcherrimum: 293 (52%) Meliponina bees out of 438 bees (79.4%). All tree crowns were visited by Meliponina, with the proportion of these bees ranging from 27% to 87%. The tight ecological association between FMPG trees and Meliponina bees is supported by the observed pattern of spatial relationship. Both the relationship between variation of fruit set among tree crowns and species richness (r = 0.3579; P = 0.3098) or relative abundance (r = 0.3070; P = 0.3881) of Meliponina were not statistically significant. Likely a threshold of minimum relative abundance combined with the absolute abundance of these bees explain the fruit set variation among tree crowns of S. pulcherrimum, even by self-pollination. We tested this assumption with a preliminary analysis of Melipona bee genera distribution among the tree crowns. PMID:20877986

  9. Floristic and phytosociology in dense "terra firme" rainforest in the Belo Monte Hydroelectric Plant influence area, Pará, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, D A N; Ferreira, B G A; Siqueira, J D P; Oliveira, M M; Ferreira, A M

    2015-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to characterise the floristic and phytosociological composition on a stretch of dense "Terra Firme" rainforest located in the Belo Monte hydroelectric plant area of influence, located in the state of Pará, Brazil. All trees with DAP >10 cm situated in 75 permanent plots of 1 ha were inventoried. 27,126 individuals trees (361 ind.ha-1), distributed in 59 botanical families, comprising 481 species were observed. The families with the largest number of species were Fabaceae (94), Araceae (65) and Arecaceae (43), comprising 43.7% of total species. The species Alexa grandiflora (4.41), Cenostigma tocantinum (2.50) and Bertholletia excelsa (2.28) showed the highest importance values (IV). The ten species with greater IV are concentrated (22%). The forest community has high species richness and can be classified as diverse age trees, heterogeneous and of medium conservation condition. PMID:26691099

  10. Linking management effectiveness indicators to observed effects of protected areas on fire occurrence in the Amazon rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolte, Christoph; Agrawal, Arun

    2013-02-01

    Management-effectiveness scores are used widely by donors and implementers of conservation projects to prioritize, track, and evaluate investments in protected areas. However, there is little evidence that these scores actually reflect the capacity of protected areas to deliver conservation outcomes. We examined the relation between indicators of management effectiveness in protected areas and the effectiveness of protected areas in reducing fire occurrence in the Amazon rainforest. We used data collected with the Management Effectiveness Tracking Tool (METT) scorecard, adopted by some of the world's largest conservation organizations to track management characteristics believed to be crucial for protected-area effectiveness. We used the occurrence of forest fires from 2000 through 2010 as a measure of the effect of protected areas on undesired land-cover change in the Amazon basin. We used matching to compare the estimated effect of protected areas with low versus high METT scores on fire occurrence. We also estimated effects of individual protected areas on fire occurrence and explored the relation between these effects and METT scores. The relations between METT scores and effects of protected areas on fire occurrence were weak. Protected areas with higher METT scores in 2005 did not seem to have performed better than protected areas with lower METT scores at reducing fire occurrence over the last 10 years. Further research into the relations between management-effectiveness indicators and conservation outcomes in protected areas seems necessary, and our results show that the careful application of matching methods can be a suitable method for that purpose. PMID:23009052

  11. Isotope analysis reveals foraging area dichotomy for Atlantic leatherback turtles

    OpenAIRE

    Caut, S.; Fossette, S.; Guirlet, E.; Angulo, E; Das, K; Girondot, M.; Georges, J.-Y.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The leatherback turtle (Dermachelys corlacea) has undergone a dramatic decline over the last 25 years, and this is believed to be primarily the results of mortality associated with fisheries bycatch followed by egg and nesting female harvest, Atlantic leatherback turtles undertake long migrations across ocean basins from subtropical and tropical nesting beaches to productive frontal areas; Migration between two nesting seasons can last 2 or 3 years, a time period termed the remigr...

  12. Isotope Analysis Reveals Foraging Area Dichotomy for Atlantic Leatherback Turtles

    OpenAIRE

    Caut, Stéphane; Guirlet, Elodie; Angulo, Elena; Girondot, Marc; Das, Krishna

    2008-01-01

    Background: The leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea) has undergone a dramatic decline over the last 25 years, and this is believed to be primarily the result of mortality associated with fisheries bycatch followed by egg and nesting female harvest. Atlantic leatherback turtles undertake long migrations across ocean basins from subtropical and tropical nesting beaches to productive frontal areas. Migration between two nesting seasons can last 2 or 3 years, a time period termed the remig...

  13. Biodiversity as a resource: Plant use and land use among the Shuar, Saraguros, and Mestizos in tropical rainforest areas of southern Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Gerique Zipfel, Andres

    2011-01-01

    The montane and premontane rainforests of southern Ecuador constitute a hotspot of biodiversity (cf. Brehm et al. 2008; Barthlott et al. 2007, Neill 2007). The use of plant resources from these forest areas is a fundamental part of the portfolio of livelihood activities of the local population. Increasing human activity however results in biodiversity loss. The extension of pastures and fields, logging, mining and the construction of roads represent the main threats to biodiversity in souther...

  14. Combined venomics, venom gland transcriptomics, bioactivities, and antivenomics of two Bothrops jararaca populations from geographic isolated regions within the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves-Machado, Larissa; Pla, Davinia; Sanz, Libia; Jorge, Roberta Jeane B; Leitão-De-Araújo, Moema; Alves, Maria Lúcia M; Alvares, Diego Janisch; De Miranda, Joari; Nowatzki, Jenifer; de Morais-Zani, Karen; Fernandes, Wilson; Tanaka-Azevedo, Anita Mitico; Fernández, Julián; Zingali, Russolina B; Gutiérrez, José María; Corrêa-Netto, Carlos; Calvete, Juan J

    2016-03-01

    Bothrops jararaca is a slender and semi-arboreal medically relevant pit viper species endemic to tropical and subtropical forests in southern Brazil, Paraguay, and northern Argentina (Misiones). Within its geographic range, it is often abundant and is an important cause of snakebite. Although no subspecies are currently recognized, geographic analyses have revealed the existence of two well-supported B. jararaca clades that diverged during the Pliocene ~3.8Mya and currently display a southeastern (SE) and a southern (S) Atlantic rainforest (Mata Atlântica) distribution. The spectrum, geographic variability, and ontogenetic changes of the venom proteomes of snakes from these two B. jararaca phylogroups were investigated applying a combined venom gland transcriptomic and venomic analysis. Comparisons of the venom proteomes and transcriptomes of B. jararaca from the SE and S geographic regions revealed notable interpopulational variability that may be due to the different levels of population-specific transcriptional regulation, including, in the case of the southern population, a marked ontogenetic venom compositional change involving the upregulation of the myotoxic PLA2 homolog, bothropstoxin-I. This population-specific marker can be used to estimate the proportion of venom from the southern population present in the B. jararaca venom pool used for the Brazilian soro antibotrópico (SAB) antivenom production. On the other hand, the southeastern population-specific D49-PLA2 molecules, BinTX-I and BinTX-II, lend support to the notion that the mainland ancestor of Bothrops insularis was originated within the same population that gave rise to the current SE B. jararaca phylogroup, and that this insular species endemic to Queimada Grande Island (Brazil) expresses a pedomorphic venom phenotype. Mirroring their compositional divergence, the two geographic B. jararaca venom pools showed distinct bioactivity profiles. However, the SAB antivenom manufactured in Vital Brazil

  15. Three New Species of Phytotelm-Breeding Melanophryniscus from the Atlantic Rainforest of Southern Brazil (Anura: Bufonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornschein, Marcos R; Firkowski, Carina R; Baldo, Diego; Ribeiro, Luiz F; Belmonte-Lopes, Ricardo; Corrêa, Leandro; Morato, Sérgio A A; Pie, Marcio R

    2015-01-01

    Three new species of Melanophryniscus are described from the Serra do Mar mountain range of the state of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. All species are found at intermediate to high altitudes and share phytotelm-breeding as their reproductive strategy. The new species are distinguished from other phytotelm-breeding Melanophryniscus based on different combinations of the following traits: snout-vent length, presence of white and/or yellow spots on forearms, mouth, belly and cloaca, pattern and arrangement of warts, and presence and number of corneous spines. The discovery of these species in a rather restricted geographical area suggests that the diversity of phytotelm-breeding species of Melanophryniscus might be severely underestimated. The conservation status of these species is of particular concern, given that one of them is at risk of extinction not only due to its restricted habitat, but also because of anthropogenic disturbances. PMID:26630281

  16. Rainforest at risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The watershed of the Pacuare River in Costa Rica is relatively undisturbed, providing a rich and diverse rainforest habitat, and the water is clear and pesticide-free. However, more than 90% of Costa Rica's energy comes from hydroelectric power, and the increasing demand for power has meant a serious proposal for huge dam on the Pacuare River. The debate and proposals to protect the area are discussed

  17. Composição florística do componente arbóreo de um trecho de Floresta Atlântica na Área de Proteção Ambiental da Serra da Capoeira Grande, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil Floristic survey of the tree layer in an area of Atlantic Rainforest in Serra da Capoeira Grande Environmental Protection Area, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Luna Peixoto

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available A Área de Proteção Ambiental (APA da Serra da Capoeira Grande (22º59'03"S e 43º38'59"W tem área total de 80ha e é um dos últimos remanescentes florestais com pau-brasil (Caesalpinia echinata Lam. no município do Rio de Janeiro. Além disso, ocorrem na área outras três espécies ameaçadas de extinção: Cariniana ianeirensis R. Knuth, Acosmium lentiscifolium Spreng. e Machaerium incorruptible (Vell. Fr. All. ex Benth. O levantamento fitossociológico foi realizado por meio do método dos quadrantes, tendo sido alocados 200 pontos e tendo-se como critério de inclusão 15cm de circunferência do tronco a 1,30m de altura do solo. A composição florística é o resultado desta amostragem acrescida de coletas feitas durante caminhadas no fragmento, totalizando 29 famílias, 58 gêneros e 69 espécies. As famílias que apresentaram maior número de espécies foram: Leguminosae (13, Myrtaceae (6, Euphorbiaceae (5, Bignoniaceae, Bombacaceae, Celastraceae, Flacourtiaceae, Moraceae, Rubiaceae e Solanaceae (3. Analisando a similaridade florística entre a APA da Serra da Capoeira Grande e outras 18 áreas florestais do Rio de Janeiro, observou-se maior identidade florística entre a área estudada e florestas de baixada localizadas próximas ao mar. Todas as florestas reuniram-se com um baixo nível de similaridade, refletindo a diversidade florística das florestas do Rio de Janeiro.The 80-hectare site (22º59'03"S and 43º38'59"W, is one of the last forest remnants in Rio de Janeiro municipality, where brazilwood (Caesalpinia echinata Lam. occurs naturally. Furthermore, three other endangered species occur in this area: Cariniana ianeirensis R. Knuth, Acosmium lentiscifolium Spreng., and Machaerium incorruptible (Vell. Fr. All. ex Benth. Trees were sampled according to the point-centered-quarter method. The inclusion criteria was PBH >15cm; a total of 200 points were surveyed. The floristic composition was comprised of the sampled

  18. Inventário estruturado de formigas (Hymenoptera, Formicidae em floresta ombrófila de encosta na ilha da Marambaia, RJ Structured inventory of ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae in atlantic slope rain-forest of Marambaia Island, RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel de S. Schütte

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available As formigas são componentes funcionais importantes em florestas tropicais devido aos papéis ecológicos que exercem, à grande biomassa e à riqueza de espécies. Embora a Mata Atlântica seja um dos ecossistemas mais bem estudados no Brasil, ainda faltam informações sobre a diversidade de formigas nos fragmentos florestais do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. A riqueza e composição da assembléia de formigas em floresta ombrófila de encosta na ilha da Marambaia (RJ foi estudada através de um inventário estruturado em uma área de 0,6 ha. Armadilhas do tipo "pitfall" e coletas manuais foram empregadas na serapilheira e sobre a vegetação entre os meses de janeiro e julho de 2004. Um total de 29 gêneros e 82 espécies foi encontrado na amostragem. A abundância e a riqueza de espécies foram maiores nas amostras de março do que de julho. Já a eqüitatividade e diversidade de formigas nas amostras não foram influenciadas pela época da coleta. As amostras de formigas em galhos mortos adicionaram seis espécies à lista, acrescentando informações sobre a biologia das espécies. As amostras sobre plantas totalizaram 32 espécies de formigas, das quais 12 foram exclusivas, como as espécies de Pseudomyrmex e algumas de Crematogaster e Pachycondyla. Este estudo pretende contribuir para o desenvolvimento de prioridades conservacionistas em um dos ecossistemas mais ameaçados do mundo.Ants are an important functional component in tropical forest due to their ecological roles, biomass and species diversity. Although the Atlantic Forest is one of the best studied ecosystems in Brazil, there is a lack of information about ant diversity in forest fragments of the state of Rio de Janeiro. The composition and richness of the ant fauna from atlantic slope rain-forest in Marambaia island-RJ were assessed by the structured inventory in an area of 0.6 ha. Pitfalls traps and hand collecting were used for sampling ants in the litter and on vegetation from

  19. Ontogenetic, spatial and temporal variations in the feeding ecology of Deuterodon langei Travassos, 1957 (Teleostei: Characidae in a Neotropical stream from the Atlantic rainforest, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean R. S. Vitule

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Information related to the diet of one species always contributes to the knowledge of its bionomy and the functioning of the ecosystem in which the species lives. Therefore, understanding the feeding ecology of one fish population and its ontogenetic, spatial and temporal aspects help to understand the structure of fish assemblages and river communities. Knowledge of this structure is essential for habitat management and biodiversity conservation. The feeding ecology of Deuterodon langei Travassos, 1957 was studied through analyses of diet composition, sharing of resources, feeding strategy and contribution of food items to the width of its niche. The analysis included an assessment of ontogenetic, spatial and seasonal variations. The species was considered omnivorous with great plasticity caused by seasonal variation in food availability throughout the river basin, but mainly through ontogeny. The diet of smaller individuals revealed a predominance of insects and other arthropods, while the diet of larger specimens showed allochthonous plant items as the main components. The low intestinal quotient (IQ values for the smaller individuals were accounted for their mainly insectivorous diet. The greater relative length of the intestine can account for the greater plasticity of the adult diet, enabling them to use diet items of larger size and more difficult digestion, such as plant items. Therefore, shifts in feeding ecology during growth are confirmed in this omnivorous tropical river fish, strengthening the concept that, when comparing food habits among species, fish size must be taken into account. This study also provides needed information regarding the feeding ecology of fishes intrinsically associated with the Atlantic rainforest, one of the most threatened and biodiverse ecosystems of the planet.Informações relacionadas à alimentação de uma espécie contribuem para o conhecimento de sua bionomia e funcionamento do ecossistema no qual

  20. Soil functioning in a toposequence under rainforest in São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Cooper

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Studies of soil-water dynamics using toposequences are essential to improve the understanding of soil-water-vegetation relationships. This study assessed the hydro-physical and morphological characteristics of soils of Atlantic Rainforest in the Parque Estadual de Carlos Botelho, state of São Paulo, Brazil. The study area of 10.24 ha (320 x 320 m was covered by dense tropical rainforest (Atlantic Rainforest. Based on soil maps and topographic maps of the area, a representative transect of the soil in this plot was chosen and five soil trenches were opened to determine morphological properties. To evaluate the soil hydro-physical functioning, soil particle size distribution, bulk density (r, particle density (r s, soil water retention curves (SWRC, field saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks, macroporosity (macro, and microporosity (micro and total porosity (TP were determined. Undisturbed samples were collected for micromorphometric image analysis, to determine pore size, shape, and connectivity. The soils in the study area were predominantly Inceptisols, and secondly Entisols and Epiaquic Haplustult. In the soil hydro-physical characterization of the selected transect, a change was observed in Ks between the surface and subsurface layers, from high/intermediate to intermediate/low permeability. This variation in soil-water dynamics was also observed in the SWRC, with higher water retention in the subsurface horizons. The soil hydro-physical behavior was influenced by the morphogenetic characteristics of the soils.

  1. Seasonal diet shifts of seven fish species in an Atlantic rainforest stream in Southeastern Brazil Mudanças sazonais na dieta de sete espécies de peixes de um riacho de Mata Atlântica no Sudeste do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    C. P. Deus; M. Petrere-Junior

    2003-01-01

    We analyzed the stomach contents of 116 individuals belonging to seven fishes species in order to investigate seasonal changes in feeding strategy and how trophic interactions between species affect community structure in an Atlantic rainforest stream in Southeastern Brazil. Oligosarcus hepsetus and Pimelodus sp. consumed fewer items during the winter. Phalloceros caudimaculatus switched feeding habits from detritus during summer to algae during winter. These examples are related to variation...

  2. Implications of Habitat Loss on Seed Predation and Early Recruitment of a Keystone Palm in Anthropogenic Landscapes in the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Leiza Aparecida S S; Faria, Deborah; Vélez-Garcia, Felipe; Vieira, Emerson M; Talora, Daniela C; Cazetta, Eliana

    2015-01-01

    Habitat loss is the main driver of the loss of global biodiversity. Knowledge on this subject, however, is highly concentrated on species richness and composition patterns, with little discussion on the consequences of habitat loss for ecological interactions. Therefore, a systemic approach is necessary to maximize the success of conservation efforts by providing more realistic information about the effects of anthropogenic disturbances on natural environmental processes. We investigated the implications of habitat loss for the early recruitment of Euterpe edulis Martius, a keystone palm in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, in nine sampling sites located in landscapes with different percentages of forest cover (9%-83%). We conducted a paired experiment using E. Edulis seeds set up in experimental stations composed of a vertebrate exclosure versus an open treatment. We used ANCOVA models with treatments as factors to assess the influence of habitat loss on the number of germinated seeds, predation by vertebrates and invertebrates, infestation by fungi, and number of seedlings established. Habitat loss did not affect the probability of transition from a dispersed to a germinated seed. However, when seeds were protected from vertebrate removal, seedling recruitment showed a positive relationship with the amount of forest cover. Seed infestation by fungi was not significant, and seed predation was the main factor limiting seed recruitment. The loss of forest cover antagonistically affected the patterns of seed predation by vertebrates and invertebrates; predation by invertebrates was higher in less forested areas, and predation by vertebrates was higher in forested areas. When seeds were exposed to the action of all biotic mortality factors, the number of recruited seedlings was very low and unrelated to habitat loss. This result indicates that the opposite effects of seed predation by vertebrates and invertebrates mask a differential response of E. edulis recruitment to

  3. FEMA RiskMAP Atlantic, Ocean, and Monmouth, NJ Area of Interest (AOI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Lidar data was acquired over a 1613 square mile area of interest over Atlantic, Ocean, and Monmouth Counties, New Jersey. The lidar data had a nominal point spacing...

  4. Habitat classification from multibeam. SEFIS Survey Areas in the South Atlantic Bight, 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a vector shapefile describing the geomorphology of 21 areas along the shelf edge off the South Atlantic Bight where NOAA South East Fisheries...

  5. Assessing redox potential of a native tree from the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest: a successful evaluation of oxidative stress associated to a new power generation source of an oil refinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Marisia Pannia; Pedroso, Andrea Nunes Vaz; Domingos, Marisa

    2016-04-15

    The antioxidant responses in saplings of Tibouchina pulchra (a native tree from the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest) exposed around an oil refinery in the city of Cubatão (SE Brazil), varied during the exchange of its power generation source, from boilers fueled with oil to a thermoelectric fueled with natural gas. The redox potential changed in response to an interaction of air pollution and meteorological parameters, indicating that the pro-oxidant/antioxidant balance was not reached after the exchange of the power generation system. The gain in environmental quality in the region was not achieved as expected due the technological modernization, at least relative to oxidative stressors. These conclusions were based on results of analyses of enzymatic antioxidants: superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR); non-enzymatic antioxidants: reduced, oxidized and total ascorbic acid (AsA, DHA, totAA) and glutathione (GSH, GSSG, totG), their redox state (AsA/totAA and GSH/totG) and an indicator of lipid peroxidation (MDA). We also applied exploratory multivariate statistics in order to verify if the temporal sequence of changes in the plant redox capacity coincided with changes in the profile of air pollution, climatic conditions or with their interactions and if the environmental benefits that would supposedly be promoted by the mentioned exchange of power generation system were achieved in the region. PMID:26851758

  6. The past, present and future of Africa's rainforests

    OpenAIRE

    Malhi, Y.; Adu-Bredu, Stephen; ASARE Rebecca A.; Lewis, S; Mayaux, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The Africanwet tropics contain the second largest area of tropical rainforest in the world (second only toAmazonia), accounting for roughly 30% of global rainforest cover, the lush green heart of an otherwise generally dry continent. These rainforests have global significance and value as reservoirs of biodiversity, as stores and sinks of atmospheric carbon, as regulators of flow of mighty rivers, as sources of moisture to the atmosphere and engines of the global atmospheric circulation, as a...

  7. Helmdon's First Rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Sue

    2003-01-01

    This article describes how Helmdon Primary School is transformed in a memorable learning experience. It started out as a simple idea, a whole-school art exhibition centred on the theme of a tropical rainforest. The focal point was to be a life-sized rainforest created using a variety of media in the school hall. The school wanted the children to…

  8. A screening study of leaf terpene emissions of 43 rainforest species in Danum Valley Conservation Area (Borneo) and their relationships with chemical and morphological leaf traits

    OpenAIRE

    Llusia, Joan; Sardans, Jordi; Niinemets, Ülo; Owen, Susan M.; Peñuelas, Josep

    2014-01-01

    We have conducted a screening study of leaf terpene emissions for 43 rainforest woody species of Borneo. To the best of our knowledge, this study reports for first time the terpene emission capacity of 43 species belonging to 22 genera of rainforest woody plant species. We have used a general lineal model with phylogenetic control by the phylogenetic distance matrix when necessary. The proportion of the species that emitted terpenes in this set of Borneo woody species was 95% and the species ...

  9. Comparative abundance and population structure of sympatric Afrotropical tortoises in six rainforest areas: the differential effects of ``traditional veneration'' and of ``subsistence hunting'' by local people

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luiselli, Luca

    2003-07-01

    Hinge-back tortoises are actively hunted by human populations in sub-Saharan Africa, and are currently threatened in wide areas of their ranges. The wide wetlands and moist rainforests of the Niger Delta (southeastern Nigeria, west Africa) house three sympatric species of hinge-back tortoises: Kinixys erosa, K. homeana, and K. belliana nogueyi. These tortoises are subjected to strong hunting pressure for several reasons (mainly domestic consumption), but in a few places in Bayelsa and Rivers States (eastern axis of the Niger Delta), they are traditionally venerated as "holy animals" bringing happiness. These few places may represent ideal laboratories for monitoring the effects of hundreds of years of "traditional conservation" on the wild populations of a tropical reptile. Here, I compare the apparent abundance, sex ratio, body sizes, microhabitats, and seasonal occurrence of free-ranging Kinixys populations inhabiting three of these "traditional sanctuaries" with the same ecological aspects of conspecifics from three neighbouring areas where the tortoises are actively hunted. K. homeana was the most common species at all sites, followed by K. erosa, whereas K. belliana was extremely rare. Adult sex ratio did not depart significantly from equality both in K. erosa and in K. homeana, and was not influenced by locality or by type of "management" (veneration or harvesting). The frequency of juveniles of K. homeana was significantly higher in areas with traditional veneration than in areas of harvesting, but the same pattern was not observed in K. erosa. There was a significant decrease in terms of the number of observed specimens between areas of traditional protection and areas of usual harvesting in all species, and this trend was more obvious in K. homeana than in K. erosa. The ratio "number of observed erosa/number of observed homeana" was not dependent on the presence of traditional veneration. Mean body sizes were not different in harvest areas and in

  10. People, Parks and Rainforests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Judith Y.

    1992-01-01

    The MLE Learning Center, a publicly funded day care center and after-school program in Brooklyn, New York, helps children develop awareness of a global community by using local resources to teach the children about the rainforest. (LB)

  11. Euglossine bees (Apidae) in Atlantic forest areas of São Paulo State, southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Duran Cordeiro, Guaraci; Boff, Samuel; Almeida Caetano, Tiago; Fernandes, Paulo; Alves-Dos-Santos, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the diversity of euglossine bees in ten areas of Atlantic Forest Domain in São Paulo State, Brazil. Bees were collected with odor baits for 2 years, from March 2007 to March 2009. From a standardized effort during the first year of sampling, we compare the four areas using indexes of diversity, evenness, and similarity of euglossine communities. In the second year, we added six new places for presenting a general overview on the Atlantic forest in São Paulo. A total of 2,395 i...

  12. Seasonal Management Areas for North Atlantic Right Whales GIS data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent Seasonal Mangagement Area locations where regulations implement speed restrictions in shipping areas at certain times of the year along the...

  13. Using species-area relationships to inform baseline conservation targets for the deep North East Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Nicola L; Foggo, Andrew; Howell, Kerry L

    2013-01-01

    Demands on the resources of the deep-sea have increased in recent years. Consequently, the need to create and implement a comprehensive network of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) to help manage and protect these resources has become a global political priority. Efforts are currently underway to implement MPA networks in the deep North East Atlantic. To ensure these networks are effective, it is essential that baseline information be available to inform the conservation planning process. Using empirical data, we calculated conservation targets for sessile benthic invertebrates in the deep North East Atlantic for consideration during the planning process. We assessed Species-Area Relationships across two depth bands (200-1100 m and 1100-1800 m) and nine substrata. Conservation targets were predicted for each substratum within each depth band using z-values obtained from fitting a power model to the Species-Area Relationships of observed and estimated species richness (Chao1). Results suggest an MPA network incorporating 10% of the North East Atlantic's deep-sea area would protect approximately 58% and 49% of sessile benthic species for the depth bands 200-1100 m and 1100-1800 m, respectively. Species richness was shown to vary with substratum type indicating that, along with depth, substratum information needs to be incorporated into the conservation planning process to ensure the most effective MPA network is implemented in the deep North East Atlantic. PMID:23527053

  14. Demography of coastal Atlantic cod in relation to the establishment of a marine protected area

    OpenAIRE

    Nordahl, Jan-Harald

    2012-01-01

    Use a mark-recapture approach to study the demography of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in a small (1 km2) marine protected area (MPA) on the Norwegian Skagerrak coast. A total of 9713 Atlantic cod where tagged during 2005-2010. Inside the MPA, only hook and line fishing is allowed. Data are partly live capture-recaptures from the research fishing activity, and partly dead recoveries from commercial and recreational fishers. A high-reward system was applied to quantify the tag reporting rate fro...

  15. Riqueza, abundância e sazonalidade de Sphingidae (Lepidoptera num fragmento de Mata Atlântica de Pernambuco, Brasil Species richness, abundance and seasonality of Sphingidae (Lepidoptera in a fragment of Atlantic Rainforest of Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Duarte Júnior

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Na Mata Atlântica de Pernambuco, NE-Brasil (Reserva Biológica de Gurjaú, Cabo de Santo Agostinho foi realizado um levantamento de Sphingidae de dezembro de 2002 a novembro de 2003. Os esfingídeos foram coletados com luz de vapor de mercúrio durante duas noites consecutivas por mês, próximo ao novilúnio. Foram determinadas riqueza de espécies, abundância e sazonalidade. Oitenta e nove espécimes de 23 espécies em 13 gêneros foram registrados; 84% dos indivíduos foram machos. Muitas espécies foram raras e de 13 espécies foi coletado apenas um exemplar. Xylophanes loelia (Druce, 1878, X. libya (Druce, 1878, Hemeroplanes triptolemus (Cramer, 1779, Eumorpha anchemolus (Cramer, 1779, Manduca brasilensis (Jordan, 1911, M. hannibal (Cramer, 1779, Adhemarius gannascus (Stoll, 1790 e Protambulyx astygonus (Boisduval, [1875] foram registradas pela primeira vez no Nordeste do Brasil. A esfingofauna não mostrou nenhum padrão de sazonalidade, e riqueza e abundância de espécies de esfingídeos não se correlacionaram com precipitação mensal e temperatura.In the Atlantic Rainforest of Pernambuco, NE-Brazil (Reserva Biológica de Gurjaú, Cabo de Santo Agostinho a survey of Sphingidae was performed from December 2002 to November 2003. The hawkmoths were collected with vapor mercury light during two consecutive nights per months near new moon. Species richness, abundance and seasonality were determined. Eighty-nine specimens of 23 species in13 genera were recorded; 84% the individuals were males. Most species were rare and from 13 species only one exemplar was collected. Xylophanes loelia (Druce, 1878, X. libya (Druce, 1878, Hemeroplanes triptolemus (Cramer, 1779, Eumorpha anchemolus (Cramer, 1779, Manduca brasilensis (Jordan, 1911, M. hannibal (Cramer, 1779, Adhemarius gannascus (Stoll, 1790 e Protambulyx astygonus (Boisduval, [1875] were recorded for the first time in Northeastern Brazil. The sphingofauna showed no seasonal patterns and

  16. Anuran amphibians in an Atlantic Forest area at Serra do Tabuleiro, Santa Catarina, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Milena Wachlevski; Luciana Kreutz Erdtmann; Paulo Christiano de Anchietta Garcia

    2014-01-01

    The Atlantic Forest is a priority area for the conservation of amphibians, with some regions already showing knowledge gaps. We analyzed the composition and richness of anuran species in an area of dense ombrophilous forest at Serra do Tabuleiro, the seasonal richness variation, and the daily activity of males during vocalization shifts. We collected samples of anurans from two permanent ponds and from a track within the forest for 14 months. We recorded 32 anuran species,...

  17. An oilspill risk analysis for the Mid-Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf lease area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard Allmon; Slack, James Richard; Davis, Robert K.

    1976-01-01

    An oilspill risk analysis was conducted to determine relative environmental impacts of developing oil in different regions of the Mid-Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf lease area. The study analyzed probability of spills, likely path of pollutants from spills, and locations in space and time of recreational and biological resources likely to be vulnerable. These results are combined to yield estimates of the overall oilspill risk associated with development of the lease area. (Woodard-USGS)

  18. Making Rainforests Relevant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustbader, Sara

    1995-01-01

    Describes a program for teaching about tropical rainforests in a concrete way using what's outside the door. This activity uses an eastern deciduous hardwood forest as an example. Step-by-step instructions include introductory activities, plus descriptions of stations in the forest to be visited. Resources include books, audio-visual materials,…

  19. Rainforest: Reptiles and Amphibians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Susanna

    2006-01-01

    Rainforest reptiles and amphibians are a vibrantly colored, multimedia art experience. To complete the entire project one may need to dedicate many class periods to production, yet in each aspect of the project a new and important skill, concept, or element is being taught or reinforced. This project incorporates the study of warm and cool color…

  20. Evaluating Landscape Connectivity for Puma concolor and Panthera onca Among Atlantic Forest Protected Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilho, Camila S.; Hackbart, Vivian C. S.; Pivello, Vânia R.; dos Santos, Rozely F.

    2015-06-01

    Strictly Protected Areas and riparian forests in Brazil are rarely large enough or connected enough to maintain viable populations of carnivores and animal movement over time, but these characteristics are fundamental for species conservation as they prevent the extinction of isolated animal populations. Therefore, the need to maintain connectivity for these species in human-dominated Atlantic landscapes is critical. In this study, we evaluated the landscape connectivity for large carnivores (cougar and jaguar) among the Strictly Protected Areas in the Atlantic Forest, evaluated the efficiency of the Mosaics of Protected Areas linked to land uses in promoting landscape connectivity, identified the critical habitat connections, and predicted the landscape connectivity status under the implementation of legislation for protecting riparian forests. The method was based on expert opinion translated into land use and land cover maps. The results show that the Protected Areas are still connected by a narrow band of landscape that is permeable to both species and that the Mosaics of Protected Areas increase the amount of protected area but fail to increase the connectivity between the forested mountain ranges (Serra do Mar and Serra da Mantiqueira). Riparian forests greatly increase connectivity, more than tripling the cougars' priority areas. We note that the selection of Brazilian protected areas still fails to create connectivity among the legally protected forest remnants. We recommend the immediate protection of the priority areas identified that would increase the structural landscape connectivity for these large carnivores, especially paths in the SE/NW direction between the two mountain ranges.

  1. Phthalate pollution in an Amazonian rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenoir, Alain; Boulay, Raphaël; Dejean, Alain; Touchard, Axel; Cuvillier-Hot, Virginie

    2016-08-01

    Phthalates are ubiquitous contaminants and endocrine-disrupting chemicals that can become trapped in the cuticles of insects, including ants which were recognized as good bioindicators for such pollution. Because phthalates have been noted in developed countries and because they also have been found in the Arctic, a region isolated from direct anthropogenic influence, we hypothesized that they are widespread. So, we looked for their presence on the cuticle of ants gathered from isolated areas of the Amazonian rainforest and along an anthropogenic gradient of pollution (rainforest vs. road sides vs. cities in French Guiana). Phthalate pollution (mainly di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP)) was higher on ants gathered in cities and along road sides than on those collected in the pristine rainforest, indicating that it follows a human-mediated gradient of disturbance related to the use of plastics and many other products that contain phthalates in urban zones. Their presence varied with the ant species; the cuticle of Solenopsis saevissima traps higher amount of phthalates than that of compared species. However, the presence of phthalates in isolated areas of pristine rainforests suggests that they are associated both with atmospheric particles and in gaseous form and are transported over long distances by wind, resulting in a worldwide diffusion. These findings suggest that there is no such thing as a "pristine" zone. PMID:27372101

  2. Rainforests and Rousseau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrbach, Marla

    2012-01-01

    One of the fifth-grade art-curriculum objectives is to create a relief print. In this era of budget cuts, the author was looking for a way for her students to meet this objective by making colorful prints without using a lot of expensive printing ink. She knew she wanted to use a rainforest animal theme, as well as share the colorful art of Henri…

  3. Halogenated organic species over the tropical rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhardt, S.; Colomb, A.; Hofmann, R.; Williams, J.; Lelieveld, J.

    2008-01-01

    Airborne measurements of the halogenated trace gases methyl chloride, methyl bromide and chloroform were conducted over the Atlantic Ocean and 1000 km of pristine tropical rainforest in Suriname and French Guyana (3-6° N, 51-59° W) in October 2005. In the boundary layer (0-1.4 km), maritime air masses initially low in forest hydrocarbons, advected over the forest by southeasterly trade winds, were measured at various distances from the coast. Since the organohalogens presented here have relatively long atmospheric lifetimes (0.4-1.0 years) in comparison to the transport times (1-2 days), emissions will accumulate in air traversing the rainforest. The distributions of methyl chloride, methyl bromide and chloroform were analyzed as a function of forest contact time and the respective relationship used to determine fluxes from the rainforest during the long dry season. Emission fluxes have been calculated for methyl chloride and chloroform as 9.4 (±4.0 2σ) and 0.34 (0.14± 2σ) μg m-2 h-1, respectively. No significant flux from the rainforest was observed for methyl bromide within the limits of these measurements. The flux of methyl chloride was in general agreement with the flux measured over the same region in March 1998 during the LBA Claire project using a different analytical system. This confirms that the rainforest is a strong source for methyl chloride and suggests that this emission is relatively uniform throughout the year. In contrast the chloroform flux derived here is a factor of three less than previous measurements made in March 1998 suggesting a pronounced ecosystem variation. The differences in chloroform fluxes could not be attributed to either temperature or rainfall changes. The global extrapolation of the derived fluxes led to 1.5 (±0.6 2σ) Tg yr-1 for methyl chloride, which is in the range of the missing source postulated by previous model studies and 55 (±22 2σ) Gg yr-1 for chloroform.

  4. Angiosperm flora used by meliponine guilds (Apidae, Meliponina) occurring at rainforest edges in the state of Ceará, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima-Verde, Luiz W; Loiola, Maria I B; Freitas, Breno M

    2014-09-01

    Information about the use of floristic resources of the immediate edges of ombrophilous forest (Atlantic rainforest) fragments by stingless bees is not readily available in the scientific literature. Considering the importance of these plant species for local guilds of stingless bees, this study aimed to identify and characterize the flora of the immediate borders of four Atlantic rainforest fragments situated in Baturité massif, state of Ceará, used as food resource by stingless bees. We studied the growth-form of the plants, the floristic similarity between edges and the effect of rainfall on the flowering, and suggested simple techniques for handling these areas. We compiled a total of 82 plant species with a predominance of tree and shrub form. There were different floristic richness between areas and rainfall had differentiated influence on flowering, according to the edge. We concluded that the florist components of the studied edges are relevant to the stingless bee guilds, but alternative management practices are needed to conserve both plant and bee species. PMID:25004131

  5. Detailed geoid computations for GEOS-C altimeter experiment areas. [gravimetric geoid for Atlantic and northeast Pacific Ocean areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, J. G.; Vincent, S.

    1973-01-01

    The GEOS-C spacecraft is scheduled to carry onboard a radar altimeter for the purpose of measuring the geoid undulations in oceanic areas. An independently derived geoid map will provide a valuable complement to these experiments. A detailed gravimetric geoid is presented for the Atlantic and northeast Pacific Ocean areas based upon a combination of the Goddard Space Flight Center GEM-6 earth model and surface 1 deg x 1 deg gravity data. As part of this work a number of satellite derived gravity models were evaluated to establish the model which best represented the long wave length features of the geoid in the above mentioned area. Comparisons of the detailed geoid with the astrogeodetic data provided by the National Ocean Survey and dynamically derived tracking station heights indicate that the accuracy of this combined geoid is on the order of 2 meters or better where data was dense and 5 to 7 meters where data was less dense.

  6. Rainforest Depiction in Children's Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dove, Jane

    2011-01-01

    This article analyses how rainforests are portrayed in children's resources. Twenty books and 12 websites on rainforests, designed for pupils aged between 9 and 14 years, were examined to determine the types and range of animals depicted and how plant life in general is portrayed. The most commonly depicted animal was the orang-utan and other…

  7. The Living Rainforest Sustainable Greenhouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bot, G.P.A.; Zwart, de H.F.; Hansen, K.; Logan, A.; Witte Groenholland, H.

    2008-01-01

    The Living Rainforest (www.livingrainforest.org) is an educational charity that uses rainforest ecology as a metaphor for communicating general sustainability issues to the public. Its greenhouses and office buildings are to be renovated using the most sustainable methods currently available. This w

  8. Anuran amphibians in an Atlantic Forest area at Serra do Tabuleiro, Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Wachlevski

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Atlantic Forest is a priority area for the conservation of amphibians, with some regions already showing knowledge gaps. We analyzed the composition and richness of anuran species in an area of dense ombrophilous forest at Serra do Tabuleiro, the seasonal richness variation, and the daily activity of males during vocalization shifts. We collected samples of anurans from two permanent ponds and from a track within the forest for 14 months. We recorded 32 anuran species, among which Aplastodiscus cochranae, A. ehrhardti, and Hypsiboas poaju are included in the list of endangered species in the state. The highest number of species was associated to spring and summer. The most frequent anuran species were H. bischoffi, Adenomera araucaria, and Physalaemus nanus, registered throughout the study period. The daily activity of males was concentrated between 8 p.m. and 12 p.m., but some species keep vocalizing overnight, indicating that vocal activity can differ among species undergoing the same weather conditions. The diversity of anurans recorded in our study was high, including endangered species and species with poor biological knowledge, reinforcing the relevance of Serra do Tabuleiro as a priority area for preserving the Atlantic Forest.

  9. Modeling the Marginal Value of Rainforest Losses

    OpenAIRE

    Strand, Jon

    2015-01-01

    A rainforest can be modeled as a dynamic asset subject to various risks, including risk of fire. Any small part of the forest can be in one of two states: either untouched by forest fire, or already damaged by fire, in which case there is both a local forest loss and increased dryness over a broader area. In this paper, two Bellman equations are constructed, one for unharmed forest and a s...

  10. An oilspill risk analysis for the North Atlantic outer continental shelf lease area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard Allmon; Slack, James Richard; Davis, Robert K.

    1976-01-01

    The Federal Government has proposed to lease 1,172,795 acres of Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) lands on Georges Bank off the New England Coast for oil and gas development. Estimated recoverable petroleum resources for the proposed 206 tract sale area range from 180 to 650 million barrels. Contingent upon actual discovery of this quantity of oil, production is expected to span a period of about 20 years. An oilspill risk analysis was conducted to determine relative environmental hazards of developing oil in the North Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf lease area. The study analyzed probability of spill occurrence, likely path of pollutants from spills, and locations in space and time of recreational and biological resources likely to be vulnerable. These results are combined to yield estimates of the overall oilspill risk associated with development of the lease area. (Woodard-USGS)

  11. Ectoparasitic flies (Diptera, Streblidae) of bats (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae) in an Atlantic Forest area, southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    França, D S; Pereira, S N; Maas, A C S; Martins, M A; Bolzan, D P; Lima, I P; Dias, D; Peracchi, A L

    2013-11-01

    We studied infestation rates and parasite-host associations between streblid flies and phyllostomid bats in an Atlantic Forest area of Rio de Janeiro state, southeastern Brazil. We captured 301 individuals from seven Phyllostomidae bat species. Out of that total, 69 bats had been parasitised by nine Streblidae species; the most frequent species were Trichobius joblingi and Trichobius tiptoni. The species Paraeuctenodes longipes, associated with Anoura geoffroyi, was the most frequent species. The highest mean intensity was observed for Paraeuctenodes longipes, associated with A. geoffroyi, and Paratrichobius longicrus associated with Artibeus lituratus, both ectoparasite species with a mean intensity of five individuals per bat. Trichobius joblingi exhibited the highest mean abundance, which was over three on its host species. Streblid richness in the study area was similar to the richness found in other studies carried out in the Atlantic Forest. We observed that streblid richness in this biome depends more on inherent characteristics of each physiognomy and on the host-species than on the sampling effort. PMID:24789402

  12. Effectiveness of Mosquito Magnet® trap in rural areas in the southeastern tropical Atlantic Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Cristina Sant’Ana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Traps are widely employed for sampling and monitoring mosquito populations for surveillance, ecological and fauna studies. Considering the importance of assessing other technologies for sampling mosquitoes, we addressed the effectiveness of Mosquito Magnet® Independence (MMI in comparison with those of the CDC trap with CO2 and Lurex3® (CDC-A and the CDC light trap (CDC-LT. Field collections were performed in a rural area within the Atlantic Forest biome, southeastern state of São Paulo, Brazil. The MMI sampled 53.84% of the total number of mosquitoes, the CDC-A (26.43% and CDC-LT (19.73%. Results of the Pearson chi-squared test (χ2 showed a positive association between CDC-LT and species of Culicini and Uranotaeniini tribes. Additionally, our results suggested a positive association between CDC-A and representatives of the Culicini and Aedini tribes, whereas the MMI was positively associated with the Mansoniini and Sabethini as well as with Anophelinae species. The MMI sampled a greater proportion (78.27% of individuals of Anopheles than either the CDC-LT (0.82% or the CDC-A traps (20.91%. Results of the present study showed that MMI performed better than CDC-LT or CDC-A in sampling mosquitoes in large numbers, medically important species and assessing diversity parameters in rural southeastern Atlantic Forest.

  13. Assessment of organochlorine pesticide residues in Atlantic Rain Forest fragments, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A superficial water quality survey in a watershed of the Paraiba do Sul River, the main water supply for the most populated cities of southeastern Brazil, was held in order to assess the impact of the expansion of agricultural activity in the near border of the Atlantic Rain Forest. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of priority organochlorine pollutants in soils and superficial waters of Atlantic rainforest fragments in Teresopolis, Rio de Janeiro State. Soil sample preparations were compared by using ultrasound, microwave assisted extraction and Soxhlet extraction. Recoveries of matrix spiked samples ranged from 70 to 130%. Analysis of a certified soil material showed recoveries ranging from 71 to 234%. Although low concentrations of organochlorine residues were found in water and soil samples, this area is of environmental importance and concern, thus demanding a monitoring program of its compartments. - Highlights: → The organochlorine pollutants occurrence in the Atlantic Rain Forest was investigated. → PARNASO was considered a control area of environmental quality. → Extractions methods were compared for typical C-rich soils samples from Brazil. → Low concentrations of organochlorine residues were found in water and soil samples. → A monitoring program is demanded due to the environmental importance of the area. - The occurrence of organochlorine pollutants in soils of the Atlantic rainforest fragments in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil demands a monitoring program of its compartments.

  14. Assessment of organochlorine pesticide residues in Atlantic Rain Forest fragments, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares Quinete, Natalia, E-mail: nataliaquinete@yahoo.com.br [Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia, Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Laboratorio de Quimica Analitica e Metrologia em Quimica, Av. Venezuela, 82 - Rio de Janeiro, RJ 20081-312 (Brazil); Santos de Oliveira, Elba dos [Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia, Departamento de Energia, Av. Venezuela, 82 - Rio de Janeiro, RJ 20081-312 (Brazil); Fernandes, Daniella R. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Quimica, Departamento de Quimica Analitica, CT - Bloco A, Cidade Universitaria, 21941-909 - Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Souza Avelar, Andre de [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Departamento de Geografia, Instituto de Geociencias, CCMN, Bloco F, Cidade Universitaria, 21941-919 - Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Erthal Santelli, Ricardo [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Quimica, Departamento de Quimica Analitica, CT - Bloco A, Cidade Universitaria, 21941-909 - Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2011-12-15

    A superficial water quality survey in a watershed of the Paraiba do Sul River, the main water supply for the most populated cities of southeastern Brazil, was held in order to assess the impact of the expansion of agricultural activity in the near border of the Atlantic Rain Forest. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of priority organochlorine pollutants in soils and superficial waters of Atlantic rainforest fragments in Teresopolis, Rio de Janeiro State. Soil sample preparations were compared by using ultrasound, microwave assisted extraction and Soxhlet extraction. Recoveries of matrix spiked samples ranged from 70 to 130%. Analysis of a certified soil material showed recoveries ranging from 71 to 234%. Although low concentrations of organochlorine residues were found in water and soil samples, this area is of environmental importance and concern, thus demanding a monitoring program of its compartments. - Highlights: > The organochlorine pollutants occurrence in the Atlantic Rain Forest was investigated. > PARNASO was considered a control area of environmental quality. > Extractions methods were compared for typical C-rich soils samples from Brazil. > Low concentrations of organochlorine residues were found in water and soil samples. > A monitoring program is demanded due to the environmental importance of the area. - The occurrence of organochlorine pollutants in soils of the Atlantic rainforest fragments in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil demands a monitoring program of its compartments.

  15. Lightforest: the holographic rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, Betsy A.

    1997-04-01

    Lightforest is a large-scale holographic work permanently installed at the MIT Museum in Cambridge MA. Organic shapes in the rounded walls and floor of a small room (15 by 10 by 9 feet) frame the approximately 200 white-light transmission or rainbow holograms of fabricated rainforest plants combined with light and image projections. Sound and computer-controlled lighting and the use of motion and proximity sensors enhance viewer interaction. Primary funding of Lightforest came through an AT&T Foundation's New Experiments in Art and Technology initiative. An outgrowth of the project has been the creation of a Holography Teaching Program at the MIT Museum, The Lightforest installation makes important connections between art, technology, education, and the environment.

  16. Shifts in an epibenthic trophic web across a marine frontal area in the Southwestern Atlantic (Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauna, A. Cecilia; Botto, Florencia; Franco, Barbara; Schwartz, J. Matías; Acha, E. Marcelo; Lasta, Mario L.; Iribarne, Oscar O.

    2011-10-01

    Marine benthic trophic relationships and food web structures may be influenced by benthic-pelagic coupling processes, which could also be intensified by the physical dynamics of marine fronts. In this work, we employed stable isotope (δ 13C and δ 15N) analysis to investigate the influence of the Southwest (SW) Atlantic shelf-break front (SBF; 38-39°S, 55-56°W; Argentina) on an epibenthic trophic web. Epibenthic organisms were sampled, at depths of ~ 100 m, with a non-selective dredge from a sandy bottom community located in frontal (F) and marginal (M) areas. The SBF position and the chlorophyll-a (chl-a) concentrations were inferred using satellite data of the sea surface temperature (SST) and satellite chl-a concentration, respectively. The most noticeable shifts in stable isotopes between the sampled areas were those of the Patagonian scallop, Zygochlamys patagonica (δ 13C), and those of the sea urchin, Sterechinus agassizi (δ 15N). Diet analyses inferred from stable isotopes and mixing models demonstrated that the dominant component of this community, Z. patagonica, had variable contributions to higher trophic levels between areas. More importantly, the epibenthic assemblage in F areas showed δ 13C-enriched and δ 15N-depleted isotopic signatures with respect to the M areas. Collectively, this evidence suggests that frontal dynamics promotes the accumulation of δ 13C-enriched phytoplankton in the seabed in F areas, while in M areas the more degraded organic matter becomes more important in the trophic web, decreasing the δ 15N isotopic signature of the assemblage. Therefore, the trophic web was sustained by fresher food in F areas than in M areas, demonstrating the role of frontal dynamics in the shaping of these communities.

  17. Effects of human activities on rivers located in protected areas of the Atlantic Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Luisa Kuhlmann

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This study evaluated the impacts of anthropogenic activities upstream of conservation areas on the Paraibuna river and its implications for freshwater biodiversity. METHODS: The study was carried out in two units, Cunha and Santa Virginia, of the Serra do Mar State Park (SP, located in the Atlantic Rain Forest. Five sampling sites were defined, four along the Paraibuna river and one in the Ipiranga river, the latter fully inserted into the protected area. Physical, chemical, microbiological and ecotoxicological data were obtained from surface water as well as aquatic macroinvertebrates. RESULTS: The results showed that the waters of the Paraibuna river have low anthropogenic interference. However, conductivity, turbidity, coliforms, iron, total phosphorus and nitrate showed a gradient improving its water quality from upstream to downstream, indicating the existence of erosion and introduction of organic debris in the basin. The BMWP index, varying from 58 to 190, also showed the good condition of the river to aquatic biota, with predominant Excellent quality diagnosis. The values of this index and the richness index (S outlined a similar gradient but with the lowest values recorded in P3. CONCLUSIONS: The results showed that the upstream activities alter the natural condition of the Paraibuna river and its biota and that the protected areas provides environmental services reducing these impacts. The ideal situation in order to ensure the conservation of the freshwater biota of the Paraibuna river would be the incorporation of parts of the upstream area into the protected area and convert occupied areas into Sustainable Use Area, that guarantee the adoption of sustainable techniques to the existing land uses and the application of aquatic life protection indicators for monitoring the water quality of the river.

  18. An oilspill risk analysis for the South Atlantic (proposed sale 78) outer continental shelf lease area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, W.B.

    1982-01-01

    An oilspill risk analysis was conducted for the South Atlantic (proposed sale 78) Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) lease area. The analysis considered the probability of spill occurrences based on historical trends; likely movement of oil slicks based on a climatological model ; and locations of environmental resources which could be vulnerable to spilled oil. The times between spill occurrence and contact with resources were estimated to aid analysts in estimating slick characteristics. Critical assumptions made for this particular analysis were: (1) that oil exists in the lease area, (2) that either 0.228 billion (mean case) or 1.14 billion (high case) barrels of oil will be found and produced from tracts sold in sale 78, and (3) that all the oil will be found either in the northern or the southern portion of the lease area. On the basis of these resource estimates, it was estimated that 1 to 5 oilspills of 1,000 barrels or greater will occur over the 25 to 30-year production life of the proposed sale 78 tracts. The results also depend upon the routes and methods chosen to transport oil from OCS platforms to shore. Given the above assumptions, the estimated probability that one or more oilspills of 1,000 barrels or larger will occur and contact land after being at sea less than 30 days is less than 15 percent for all cases considered; for spills 10,000 barrels or larger, the probability is less than 10 percent. These probabilities also reflect the following assumptions: oilspills remain intact for up to 30 days, do not weather, and are not cleaned up. It is noteworthy that over 80 percent of the risk of oilspill occurrence from proposed sale 78 is due to transportation rather than production of oil. In addition, the risks of oilspill occurrence from proposed sale 78 (mean resource estimate) are less than one-tenth of the risks of existing tanker transportation of crude oil imports and refined products in the South Atlantic area.

  19. Historical distribution of Sundaland's Dipterocarp rainforests at Quaternary glacial maxima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raes, Niels; Cannon, Charles H; Hijmans, Robert J; Piessens, Thomas; Saw, Leng Guan; van Welzen, Peter C; Slik, J W Ferry

    2014-11-25

    The extent of Dipterocarp rainforests on the emergent Sundaland landmass in Southeast Asia during Quaternary glaciations remains a key question. A better understanding of the biogeographic history of Sundaland could help explain current patterns of biodiversity and support the development of effective forest conservation strategies. Dipterocarpaceae trees dominate the rainforests of Sundaland, and their distributions serve as a proxy for rainforest extent. We used species distribution models (SDMs) of 317 Dipterocarp species to estimate the geographic extent of appropriate climatic conditions for rainforest on Sundaland at the last glacial maximum (LGM). The SDMs suggest that the climate of central Sundaland at the LGM was suitable to sustain Dipterocarp rainforest, and that the presence of a previously suggested transequatorial savannah corridor at that time is unlikely. Our findings are supported by palynologic evidence, dynamic vegetation models, extant mammal and termite communities, vascular plant fatty acid stable isotopic compositions, and stable carbon isotopic compositions of cave guano profiles. Although Dipterocarp species richness was generally lower at the LGM, areas of high species richness were mostly found off the current islands and on the emergent Sunda Shelf, indicating substantial species migration and mixing during the transitions between the Quaternary glacial maxima and warm periods such as the present. PMID:25385612

  20. Rainforests for palm oil?; Regenwaldopfer fuer Palmoel?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dany, C.

    2007-07-02

    Environmentalists are all fired up as rainforests are cut down for palm oil production in south eastern Asia. An international certification system is to ensure sustainable production and save the rainforests. (orig.)

  1. Floristic diversity in fragmented Afromontane rainforests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmitt, Christine B.; Denich, Manfred; Demissew, Sebsebe;

    2010-01-01

    . Lower montane forest (o1830 m) exhibits a greater diversity of tree species and a higher abundance of the flagship species Coffea arabica. Conclusions: Our results provide crucial ecological background information concerning the montane rainforests of Ethiopia, which have been poorly studied until now....... We conclude that both forest types identified during this study need to be considered for conservation because of their particular species compositions. Owing to the high degree of forest fragmentation, conservation concepts should consider a multi-site approach with at least two protected areas at...

  2. Mapping biodiversity and setting conservation priorities for SE Queensland's rainforests using DNA barcoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapcott, Alison; Forster, Paul I; Guymer, Gordon P; McDonald, William J F; Faith, Daniel P; Erickson, David; Kress, W John

    2015-01-01

    Australian rainforests have been fragmented due to past climatic changes and more recently landscape change as a result of clearing for agriculture and urban spread. The subtropical rainforests of South Eastern Queensland are significantly more fragmented than the tropical World Heritage listed northern rainforests and are subject to much greater human population pressures. The Australian rainforest flora is relatively taxonomically rich at the family level, but less so at the species level. Current methods to assess biodiversity based on species numbers fail to adequately capture this richness at higher taxonomic levels. We developed a DNA barcode library for the SE Queensland rainforest flora to support a methodology for biodiversity assessment that incorporates both taxonomic diversity and phylogenetic relationships. We placed our SE Queensland phylogeny based on a three marker DNA barcode within a larger international rainforest barcode library and used this to calculate phylogenetic diversity (PD). We compared phylo- diversity measures, species composition and richness and ecosystem diversity of the SE Queensland rainforest estate to identify which bio subregions contain the greatest rainforest biodiversity, subregion relationships and their level of protection. We identified areas of highest conservation priority. Diversity was not correlated with rainforest area in SE Queensland subregions but PD was correlated with both the percent of the subregion occupied by rainforest and the diversity of regional ecosystems (RE) present. The patterns of species diversity and phylogenetic diversity suggest a strong influence of historical biogeography. Some subregions contain significantly more PD than expected by chance, consistent with the concept of refugia, while others were significantly phylogenetically clustered, consistent with recent range expansions. PMID:25803607

  3. Pressure Indicators of Wood Resource Use in an Atlantic Forest Area, Northeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Medeiros, Patrícia Muniz; de Almeida, Alyson Luiz Santos; da Silva, Taline Cristina; de Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino

    2011-03-01

    Wood resources are often used to support the needs of the local population. In order to protect biodiversity and resources, conservation strategies need to consider what types of wood use have the strongest impacts on forested areas. This study aimed to identify the use categories that put higher pressure on an Atlantic forest region located in the municipality of Igarassu in Pernambuco, northeastern Brazil. To conduct the study, we measured the volume of all wood products in 62 surveyed residences and registered the average replacement time for such products. The fuelwood category was most important locally and accounted for 92% of annual wood consumption. However, the construction category harvests more destructively and concentrates on the consumption of a few wood species. Therefore we recommend the fuelwood category to be the main focus of conservation effforts. In addition, the most important species for construction purposes (e.g., Eschweilera ovata (Cambess.) Miers, Apuleia leiocarpa (Vogel) J.F. Macbr. and Pogonophora schomburgkiana Miers ex Benth) should also be considered as a priority for conservation.

  4. TEM investigations of South Atlantic Ridge 13.2°S hydrothermal area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO Chunhui; XIONG Wei; XI Zhenzhu; DENG Xianming; XU Yixian

    2013-01-01

    According to the exploration contract about polymetallic sulfides in the SWIR (Southwest Indian Ridge) signed by China with the International Seabed Authority, to delineate sulfide minerals and estimate resource quantity are urgent tasks. We independently developed our first coincident loop Transient Electromagnetic Method (TEM) device in 2010, and gained the TEM data for seafloor sulfide at South Atlantic Ridge 13.2°S in June 2011. In contrast with the widely applied CSEM (Marine controlled-source electromagnetic) method, whose goal is to explore hydrocarbons (oil/gas) of higher resistivity than seawater from 102 to 103 m below the sea floor, the TEM is for low resistivity minerals, and the target depth is from 0 to 100 m below the sea floor. Based on the development of complex sulfide geoelectrial models, this paper analyzed the TEM data obtained, proposing a new method for seafloor sulfide detection. We present the preliminary trial results, in the form of apparent resistivity sections for both half-space and full-space conditions. The results cor-respond well with the observations of the actual hydrothermal vent area, and the detection depth reached 50-100m below the bed, which verified the capability of the equipment.

  5. Patterns of Phylogenetic Diversity of Subtropical Rainforest of the Great Sandy Region, Australia Indicate Long Term Climatic Refugia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion G Howard

    Full Text Available Australia's Great Sandy Region is of international significance containing two World Heritage areas and patches of rainforest growing on white sand. Previous broad-scale analysis found the Great Sandy biogeographic subregion contained a significantly more phylogenetically even subset of species than expected by chance contrasting with rainforest on white sand in Peru. This study aimed to test the patterns of rainforest diversity and relatedness at a finer scale and to investigate why we may find different patterns of phylogenetic evenness compared with rainforests on white sands in other parts of the world. This study focussed on rainforest sites within the Great Sandy and surrounding areas in South East Queensland (SEQ, Australia. We undertook field collections, expanded our three-marker DNA barcode library of SEQ rainforest plants and updated the phylogeny to 95% of the SEQ rainforest flora. We sampled species composition of rainforest in fixed area plots from 100 sites. We calculated phylogenetic diversity (PD measures as well as species richness (SR for each rainforest community. These combined with site variables such as geology, were used to evaluate patterns and relatedness. We found that many rainforest communities in the Great Sandy area were significantly phylogenetically even at the individual site level consistent with a broader subregion analysis. Sites from adjacent areas were either not significant or were significantly phylogenetically clustered. Some results in the neighbouring areas were consistent with historic range expansions. In contrast with expectations, sites located on the oldest substrates had significantly lower phylogenetic diversity (PD. Fraser Island was once connected to mainland Australia, our results are consistent with a region geologically old enough to have continuously supported rainforest in refugia. The interface of tropical and temperate floras in part also explains the significant phylogenetic evenness

  6. Patterns of Phylogenetic Diversity of Subtropical Rainforest of the Great Sandy Region, Australia Indicate Long Term Climatic Refugia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Marion G.; McDonald, William J. F.; Forster, Paul I.; Kress, W. John; Erickson, David; Faith, Daniel P.; Shapcott, Alison

    2016-01-01

    Australia’s Great Sandy Region is of international significance containing two World Heritage areas and patches of rainforest growing on white sand. Previous broad-scale analysis found the Great Sandy biogeographic subregion contained a significantly more phylogenetically even subset of species than expected by chance contrasting with rainforest on white sand in Peru. This study aimed to test the patterns of rainforest diversity and relatedness at a finer scale and to investigate why we may find different patterns of phylogenetic evenness compared with rainforests on white sands in other parts of the world. This study focussed on rainforest sites within the Great Sandy and surrounding areas in South East Queensland (SEQ), Australia. We undertook field collections, expanded our three-marker DNA barcode library of SEQ rainforest plants and updated the phylogeny to 95% of the SEQ rainforest flora. We sampled species composition of rainforest in fixed area plots from 100 sites. We calculated phylogenetic diversity (PD) measures as well as species richness (SR) for each rainforest community. These combined with site variables such as geology, were used to evaluate patterns and relatedness. We found that many rainforest communities in the Great Sandy area were significantly phylogenetically even at the individual site level consistent with a broader subregion analysis. Sites from adjacent areas were either not significant or were significantly phylogenetically clustered. Some results in the neighbouring areas were consistent with historic range expansions. In contrast with expectations, sites located on the oldest substrates had significantly lower phylogenetic diversity (PD). Fraser Island was once connected to mainland Australia, our results are consistent with a region geologically old enough to have continuously supported rainforest in refugia. The interface of tropical and temperate floras in part also explains the significant phylogenetic evenness and higher than

  7. Contrasted phylogeographic patterns on mitochondrial DNA of shallow and deep brittle stars across the Atlantic-Mediterranean area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taboada, Sergi; Pérez-Portela, Rocío

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies on Ophiothrix in European waters demonstrated the existence of two distinct species, Ophiothrix fragilis and Ophiothrix sp. II. Using phylogenetic and species delimitation techniques based on two mitochondrial genes (cytochrome c oxidase I and 16S rRNA) we prove the existence of a new congeneric species (Ophiothrix sp. III), occurring in the deep Atlantic coast of the Iberian Peninsula and the Alboran Sea. We compared phylogeographic patterns of these three Ophiothrix species to test whether closely related species are differentially affected by past demographic events and current oceanographic barriers. We used 432 sequences (137 of O. fragilis, 215 of Ophiothrix sp. II, and 80 of Ophiothrix sp. III) of the 16S rRNA from 23 Atlantic-Mediterranean locations for the analyses. We observed different geographic and bathymetric distributions, and contrasted phylogeography among species. Ophiothrix fragilis appeared genetically isolated between the Atlantic and Mediterranean basins, attributed to past vicariance during Pleistocene glaciations and a secondary contact associated to demographic expansion. This contrasts with the panmixia observed in Ophiothrix sp. II across the Atlantic-Mediterranean area. Results were not conclusive for Ophiothrix sp. III due to the lack of a more complete sampling within the Mediterranean Sea. PMID:27585743

  8. Population dynamics of Euryoryzomys russatus and Oligoryzomys nigripes (Rodentia, Cricetidae) in an Atlantic forest area, Santa Catarina Island, Southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Maurício Eduardo Graipel; Luiz Gustavo Rodrigues Oliveira-Santos; Marilena Altenfelder Arruda Campos; Pâmela Castro Antunes

    2009-01-01

    The population dynamics and reproductive issues of two species of rodents of the family Cricetidae, Rice Rats (Euryoryzomys russatus) and Pygmy Rice Rats (Oligoryzomys nigripes), were studied for 24 months in an Atlantic Forest area in southern Brazil. Euryoryzomys russatus presented density-dependent population fluctuation, and recruitment was positively associated with temperature. Oligoryzomys nigripes displayed the lowest abundance, greatest population fluctuation and shortest permanence ...

  9. Tropical Rainforest Education. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rillero, Peter

    This digest provides four guideposts for tropical rainforest education: (1) structure; (2) location and climate; (3) importance; and (4) conservation of resources. Research is cited and background information provided about the layers of life and the adaptations of life within the tropical rain forest. Aspects of life within and near rain forests…

  10. Domestic dogs in rural area of fragmented Atlantic Forest: potential threats to wild animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilberto Martinez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Domestic dogs' skills such as hunting and herding shifted as man migrated from rural areas to developing urban centers and led to a change in human-dog relationship and in the purpose of these animals in the properties. The countryside of Viçosa is characterized by small coffee farms surrounded by borders with fragments from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. The close proximity of these environments favors the encounter between domestic and wild animals which may lead to dog attacks to wild animals and, consequently, disease transmission. The aim of this study was to understand the role of dogs in the rural environment and assess the possible risks they offer to native fauna. The data were obtained from structured questionnaires answered by dogs' owners from rural Viçosa. Results regarding the socioeconomic status of the owners revealed that the majority belonged to either the middle class or low educational level categories. In addition, it was observed that there is a preference for male dogs due to its guard activity and that most dogs live unconstrained. Even though most dogs are provided with good food management, 58% of them prey on wildlife. However, more than half of the dogs do not consume their prey which can be explained by the inherited ability of artificial selection but 36.5% of them have scavenger diet. Most of the dogs were immunized against rabies, whereas, only 28.8% were immunized against infectious diseases such as leptospirosis, distemper and parvovirus. In conclusion, the management of dogs by rural owners, mainly unrestrained living, and allied to inadequate vaccination coverage suggest that dogs are predators of Viçosa's rural wildlife and potential disseminators of disease.

  11. NOAA TIFF Image - 10m Bathymetric Rugosity, South Atlantic Bight - Deep Coral Priority Areas - NOAA Ship Nancy Foster - (2007), UTM 17N NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a unified GeoTiff with 10x10 meter cell size representing the rugosity of several deep coral priority areas off the South Atlantic Bight,...

  12. NOAA TIFF Image - 30m Rugosity, South Atlantic Bight - Deep Coral Priority Areas - Navy Pathfinder - (2003), UTM 17N NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a unified GeoTiff with 30x30 meter cell size representing the bathymetry of several deep coral priority areas off the South Atlantic Bight,...

  13. NOAA TIFF Image - 10m Multibeam Bathymetry, South Atlantic Bight - Deep Coral Priority Areas - NOAA Ship Nancy Foster - (2009), UTM 17N NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a unified GeoTiff with 10x10 meter cell size representing the bathymetry of several deep coral priority areas off the South Atlantic Bight,...

  14. Current meter and temperature profile data from moored current meter casts in the TOGA area - Atlantic Ocean from 10 September 1970 - 27 October 1980 (NODC Accession 8600320)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter and temperature profile data were collected using moored current meter - PCM casts in the TOGA area - Atlantic Ocean from September 10, 1970 to...

  15. NOAA TIFF Image - 10m Multibeam Bathymetry, South Atlantic Bight - Deep Coral Priority Areas - NOAA Ship Nancy Foster - (2007), UTM 17N NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a unified GeoTiff with 10x10 meter cell size representing the bathymetry of several deep coral priority areas off the South Atlantic Bight,...

  16. NOAA TIFF Image - 30m Backscatter, South Atlantic Bight - Deep Coral Priority Areas - Navy Pathfinder - (2003), UTM 17N NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a unified GeoTiff with 30x30 meter cell size representing the bathymetry of several deep coral priority areas off the South Atlantic Bight,...

  17. NOAA TIFF Image - 10m Bathymetric Rugosity, South Atlantic Bight - Deep Coral Priority Areas - NOAA Ship Nancy Foster - (2009), UTM 17N NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a unified GeoTiff with 10x10 meter cell size representing the rugosity of several deep coral priority areas off the South Atlantic Bight,...

  18. NOAA TIFF Image - 10m Bathymetric Slope, South Atlantic Bight - Deep Coral Priority Areas - NOAA Ship Nancy Foster - (2007), UTM 17N NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a unified GeoTiff with 10x10 meter cell size representing the slope (in degrees) of several deep coral priority areas off the South Atlantic...

  19. Hypoxia effects on gill surface area and blood oxygen-carrying capacity of the Atlantic stingray, Dasyatis sabina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabruzzi, Theresa F; Bennett, Wayne A

    2014-08-01

    Atlantic stingrays, Dasyatis sabina, are common residents of shallow-water seagrass habitats that experience natural cycles of severe hypoxia during summer months. We hypothesized that stingrays exposed to hypoxic episodes would improve their hypoxia tolerance by increasing branchial surface area and altering blood oxygen-carrying capacity. To this end, we compared critical oxygen minimum, gill morphology, and hemoglobin/hematocrit levels in a control group of Atlantic stingrays held at continuous oxygen saturations of 80-90% (≥5.5 mg/l), to treatment groups exposed to a 7-h hypoxic interval at 55% (~4.0 mg/l), or 30% oxygen saturation (~2.0 mg/l). Stingrays in hypoxic treatment groups significantly improved their hypoxia tolerance. Critical oxygen minimum values fell from 0.7 ± 0.11 mg/l in control fish to 0.4 ± 0.05 and 0.4 ± 0.06 mg/l in the 55 and 30% saturation treatment groups, respectively. Mass-specific gill surface area between control fish and the 30% saturation treatment group increased by 1.7-fold, from 85 to 142 mm(2)/g. Although stingrays did not show an increase in hematocrit or hemoglobin levels, production of more efficient hemoglobin isoforms could not be ruled out. An increase in hypoxia tolerance allows Atlantic stingrays to forage for longer times and across a wide range of hypoxic habitats that are less accessible to predators and competitors. PMID:24352883

  20. Developing the Rainforest Tourism Products in Hainan Island : Case: Hainan Yanoda Rainforest Culture Tourism Zone

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Hui

    2010-01-01

    The aim of my thesis is to find out what need to be developed of rainforest tourism product in Hainan Island. The case company is Hainan Yanoda tropical tourism zone which is normally being called Yanoda. It is one of the best rainforest tourism places in China. The theory part contains the information about the tourism business in Hainan Island; analysis of rainforest tourism, eco-tourism and sustainable tourism; the recent situation of rainforest tourism business in Hainan Island. The resea...

  1. 50 CFR 622.35 - Atlantic EEZ seasonal and/or area closures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE CARIBBEAN, GULF, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC... longline may be left on the drum if all gangions and hooks are disconnected and stowed below deck. Hooks... secured. (iii) A gillnet, stab net, or trammel net must be left on the drum. Any additional such nets...

  2. Fairness, free-riding and rainforest protection

    OpenAIRE

    Armstrong, Chris

    2015-01-01

    If dangerous climate change is to be avoided, it is vital that carbon sinks such as tropical rainforests are protected. But protecting them has costs. These include opportunity costs: the potential economic benefits which those who currently control rainforests have to give up when they are protected. But who should bear those costs? Should countries which happen to have rainforests within their territories sacrifice their own economic development, because of our broader global interests in p...

  3. New Reasons to Preserve the Amazon Rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, M. H.

    2014-12-01

    Historically, preservation of the rainforest was justified in terms of conservation of biodiversity, protection of indigenous people habitats and maintenance of carbon stocks. Most of these arguments are based on the direct effect of rainforest removal, and ignore second order effects of the presence of the rainforest, such as modulation of regional climate patterns. The rainforest helps define the regional climate of the region, in particular the regional temperature and precipitation patterns. Of course, any activity that depends on the local climate may be affected by changes in the rainforest. Recent evidence in the literature presented enough arguments to believe that the widespread removal of the rainforest will have economic consequences at least in agriculture output and hydroelectric power generation. Economic impacts may affect not only the agriculture and energy sectors, but also several other economic activities that are related to climate. As a country, we are counting with the climate of Amazonia as fixed, but if the present climate needs the presence of the rainforest, we need to quantify the economic value of the climate regulation service provided by the rainforest. Important questions to be answered: How much of the rainforest is needed to conserve the present climate? Where it should stand for best climate regulation? Answer to these questions may affect Brazil´s large-scale policy on land use.

  4. The Impact of Protected Areas on Deforestation: An Exploration of the Economic and Political Channels for Madagascar’s Rainforests (2001-12)

    OpenAIRE

    DESBUREAUX, Sebastien; Desbureaux, Sébastien; Aubert, Sigrid; Brimont, Laura; Karsenty, Alain; Lohanivo, Alexio Clovis; Rakotondrabe, Manohisoa; Razafindraibe, Andrianjakarivo Henintsoa; Razafiarijaona, Jules

    2016-01-01

    Protected areas (PAs) remain the primary conservation instrument of Madagascar’s unique but threatened biodiversity. We combine matching and panel regressions in a quasi-natural experiment setting to analyze PAs’ environmental effectiveness annually between 2001 and 2012 and study two channels that moderate the impact: initial poverty rates and local variations in law enforcement. Our findings show that PAs have stabilized deforestation around a positive trend without having halted it. Their ...

  5. Building positive nature awareness in pupils using the "Rainforest of the Austrians" in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubrecht, Margit; Hölzl, Irmgard; Huber, Werner; Weissenhofer, Anton

    2013-04-01

    20 years ago, Michael Schnitzler founded the NGO "Rainforest of the Austrians" to help save one of the most diverse rainforests in Central America, the Esquinas rainforest on the Pacific coast of SW Costa Rica, from being destroyed through logging. In this abstract we present an interdisciplinary upper Austrian school project aiming at building positive awareness in pupils towards rainforest conservation by fund-raising to help purchase endangered forest areas. The acquired rainforest was donated to the Costa Rican government and became part of the National Park "Piedras Blancas". In the following, we present a chronology of events and actions of the school project. We started our rainforest project by face-to-face encounters, letting involved persons speak directly to the pupils. Dr. Huber, coordinator of the tropical rainforest station La Gamba in Costa Rica (www.lagamba.at), together with Dr. Weissenhofer, presented an introductory slide show about the "Rainforest of the Austrians". With rainforest images and sounds in their mind the pupils wrote "trips of a lifetime" stories, thus creating idyllic images of rainforest habitats. Following up on that, we visited the exhibition "Heliconia and Hummingbirds" at the Biology Center in Linz. Reports about the slide show and the exhibition followed. Tropical sites were compared by producing climate graphs of La Gamba, Costa Rica, and Manaus in Brazil. The global distribution and the decrease of rainforests were also analyzed. In biology lessons the symbiosis between plants and animals of the rainforest were worked out by searching the Internet. Flyers with profiles of rainforest animals were produced. We also discussed the ecotourism project "RICANCIE" in Ecuador using fact sheets. "RICANCIE" is a Spanish acronym standing for "Indigenous Community Network of the Upper Napo for Intercultural Exchange and Ecotourism". It was founded in 1993 aiming to improve the quality of life for some 200 indigenous Kichwa families

  6. Fine-scale movements of rural free-ranging dogs in conservation areas in the temperate rainforest of the coastal range of southern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda, Maximiliano; Pelican, Katherine; Cross, Paul C.; Eguren, Antonieta; Singer, Randall S.

    2015-01-01

    Domestic dogs can play a variety of important roles for farmers. However, when in proximity to conservation areas, the presence of rural free-ranging dogs can be problematic due to the potential for predation of, competition with, or transmission of infectious disease to local threatened fauna. We used a frequent location radio tracking technology to study rural free-ranging dog movements and habitat use into sensitive conservation habitats. To achieve a better understanding of foray behaviors in dogs we monitored dogs (n = 14) in rural households located in an isolated area between the Valdivian Coastal Reserve and the Alerce Costero National Park in southern Chile. Dogs were mostly located near households (ranging 0.5–1.9 km (maximum distance detected 4.3 km). Foraying behavior was positively associated with pasture habitat compared to forest habitat including protected lands. Foraying dogs rarely used forest habitat and, when entered, trails and/or roads were selected for movement. Our study provides important information about how dogs interact in a fine-scale with wildlife habitat, and, in particular, protected lands, providing insight into how dog behavior might drive wildlife interactions, and, in turn, how an understanding of dog behavior can be used to manage these interactions.

  7. Halogenated organic species over the tropical South American rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhardt, S.; Colomb, A.; Hofmann, R.; Williams, J.; Lelieveld, J.

    2008-06-01

    Airborne measurements of the halogenated trace gases methyl chloride, methyl bromide and chloroform were conducted over the Atlantic Ocean and about 1000 km of pristine tropical rainforest in Suriname and French Guyana (3 6° N, 51 59° W) in October 2005. In the boundary layer (0 1.4 km), maritime air masses, advected over the forest by southeasterly trade winds, were measured at various distances from the coast. Since the organohalogens presented here have relatively long atmospheric lifetimes (0.4 1.0 years) in comparison to the advection times from the coast (1 2 days), emissions will accumulate in air traversing the rainforest. The distributions of methyl chloride, methyl bromide and chloroform were analyzed as a function of time the air spent over land and the respective relationship used to determine net fluxes from the rainforest for one week within the long dry season. Net fluxes from the rainforest ecosystem have been calculated for methyl chloride and chloroform as 9.5 (±3.8 2σ) and 0.35 (±0.15 2σ)μg m-2 h-1, respectively. No significant flux was observed for methyl bromide within the limits of these measurements. The global budget of methyl chloride contains large uncertainties, in particular with regard to a possible source from tropical vegetation. Our measurements are used in a large-scale approach to determine the net flux from a tropical ecosystem to the planetary boundary layer. The obtained global net flux of 1.5 (±0.6 2σ) Tg yr-1 for methyl chloride is at the lower end of current estimates for tropical vegetation sources, which helps to constrain the range of tropical sources and sinks (0.82 to 8.2 Tg yr-1 from tropical plants, 0.03 to 2.5 Tg yr-1 from senescent/dead leaves and a sink of 0.1 to 1.6 Tg yr-1 by soil uptake). Nevertheless, these results show that the contribution of the rainforest ecosystem is the major source in the global budget of methyl chloride. For chloroform, the extrapolated global net flux from tropical ecosystems

  8. Halogenated organic species over the tropical South American rainforest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gebhardt

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Airborne measurements of the halogenated trace gases methyl chloride, methyl bromide and chloroform were conducted over the Atlantic Ocean and about 1000 km of pristine tropical rainforest in Suriname and French Guyana (3–6° N, 51–59° W in October 2005. In the boundary layer (0–1.4 km, maritime air masses, advected over the forest by southeasterly trade winds, were measured at various distances from the coast. Since the organohalogens presented here have relatively long atmospheric lifetimes (0.4–1.0 years in comparison to the advection times from the coast (1–2 days, emissions will accumulate in air traversing the rainforest. The distributions of methyl chloride, methyl bromide and chloroform were analyzed as a function of time the air spent over land and the respective relationship used to determine net fluxes from the rainforest for one week within the long dry season.

    Net fluxes from the rainforest ecosystem have been calculated for methyl chloride and chloroform as 9.5 (±3.8 2σ and 0.35 (±0.15 2σμg m-2 h−1, respectively. No significant flux was observed for methyl bromide within the limits of these measurements.

    The global budget of methyl chloride contains large uncertainties, in particular with regard to a possible source from tropical vegetation. Our measurements are used in a large-scale approach to determine the net flux from a tropical ecosystem to the planetary boundary layer. The obtained global net flux of 1.5 (±0.6 2σ Tg yr-1 for methyl chloride is at the lower end of current estimates for tropical vegetation sources, which helps to constrain the range of tropical sources and sinks (0.82 to 8.2 Tg yr-1 from tropical plants, 0.03 to 2.5 Tg yr-1 from senescent/dead leaves and a sink of 0.1 to 1.6 Tg yr-1 by soil uptake. Nevertheless, these results show that the contribution of the rainforest ecosystem is the major source in the

  9. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Busseola segeta Bowden (Lepidoptera; Noctuidae): A Case Study of Host Use Diversification in Guineo-Congolian Rainforest Relic Area, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong'amo, George O; Ru, Bruno P Le; Campagne, Pascal; Branca, Antoine; Calatayud, Paul-Andre; Capdevielle-Dulac, Claire; Silvain, Jean-Francois

    2012-01-01

    Habitat modification and fragmentation are considered as some of the factors that drive organism distribution and host use diversification. Indigenous African stem borer pests are thought to have diversified their host ranges to include maize [Zea mays L.] and sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] in response to their increased availability through extensive cultivation. However, management efforts have been geared towards reducing pest populations in the cultivated fields with few attempts to understand possible evolution of "new" pest species. Recovery and growing persistence of Busseola segeta Bowden on maize (Zea mays L.) in Kakamega called for studies on the role of wild host plants on the invasion of crops by wild borer species. A two-year survey was carried out in a small agricultural landscape along the edge of Kakamega forest (Kenya) to assess host range and population genetic structure of B. segeta. The larvae of B. segeta were found on nine different plant species with the majority occurring on maize and sorghum. Of forty cytochrome b haplotypes identified, twenty-three occurred in both wild and cultivated habitats. The moths appear to fly long distances across the habitats with genetic analyses revealing weak differentiation between hosts in different habitats (FST = 0.016; p = 0.015). However, there was strong evidence of variation in genetic composition between growing seasons in the wild habitat (FST = 0.060; p < 0.001) with emergence or disappearance of haplotypes between habitats. Busseola segeta is an example of a phytophagous insect that utilizes plants with a human induced distribution range, maize, but does not show evidence of host race formation or reduction of gene flow among populations using different hosts. However, B. segeta is capable of becoming an important pest in the area and the current low densities may be attributed to the general low infestation levels and presence of a wide range of alternative hosts in the area. PMID:26466732

  10. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Busseola segeta Bowden (Lepidoptera; Noctuidae: A Case Study of Host Use Diversification in Guineo-Congolian Rainforest Relic Area, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Francois Silvain

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Habitat modification and fragmentation are considered as some of the factors that drive organism distribution and host use diversification. Indigenous African stem borer pests are thought to have diversified their host ranges to include maize [Zea mays L.] and sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench] in response to their increased availability through extensive cultivation. However, management efforts have been geared towards reducing pest populations in the cultivated fields with few attempts to understand possible evolution of "new" pest species. Recovery and growing persistence of Busseola segeta Bowden on maize (Zea mays L. in Kakamega called for studies on the role of wild host plants on the invasion of crops by wild borer species. A two-year survey was carried out in a small agricultural landscape along the edge of Kakamega forest (Kenya to assess host range and population genetic structure of B. segeta. The larvae of B. segeta were found on nine different plant species with the majority occurring on maize and sorghum. Of forty cytochrome b haplotypes identified, twenty-three occurred in both wild and cultivated habitats. The moths appear to fly long distances across the habitats with genetic analyses revealing weak differentiation between hosts in different habitats (FST = 0.016; p = 0.015. However, there was strong evidence of variation in genetic composition between growing seasons in the wild habitat (FST = 0.060; p < 0.001 with emergence or disappearance of haplotypes between habitats. Busseola segeta is an example of a phytophagous insect that utilizes plants with a human induced distribution range, maize, but does not show evidence of host race formation or reduction of gene flow among populations using different hosts. However, B. segeta is capable of becoming an important pest in the area and the current low densities may be attributed to the general low infestation levels and presence of a wide range of alternative hosts in the area.

  11. What drives seasonal change in oligotrophic area in the subtropical North Atlantic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Apurva C.; Barton, Andrew D.; Lozier, M. Susan; McKinley, Galen A.

    2015-06-01

    The oligotrophic regions of the subtropical gyres cover a significant portion of the global ocean, and exhibit considerable but poorly understood intraseasonal, interannual, and longer-term variations in spatial extent. Here using historical observations of surface ocean nitrate, wind, and currents, we have investigated how horizontal and vertical supplies of nitrate control seasonal changes in the size and shape of oligotrophic regions of the subtropical North Atlantic. In general, the oligotrophic region of the subtropical North Atlantic is associated with the region of weak vertical supply of nitrate. Though the total vertical supply of nitrate here is generally greater than the total horizontal supply, we find that seasonal expansion and contraction of the oligotrophic region is consistent with changes in horizontal supply of nitrate. In this dynamic periphery of the subtropical gyre, the seasonal variations in chlorophyll are linked to variations in horizontal nitrate supply that facilitate changes in intracellular pigment concentrations, and to a lesser extent, phytoplankton biomass. Our results suggest that horizontal transports of nutrient are crucial in setting seasonal cycles of chlorophyll in large expanses of the subtropical North Atlantic, and may play a key and underappreciated role in regulating interannual variations in these globally important marine ecosystems.

  12. Environmental risk assessment of the Moroccan Atlantic continental shelf: the role of the industrial and urban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maanan, Mohamed; Zourarah, Bendahhou; Sahabi, Mohamed; Maanan, Mehdi; Le Roy, Pascal; Mehdi, Khalid; Salhi, Fouad

    2015-04-01

    The present research presents the first large-scale analysis of heavy metal assessment in the Moroccan Atlantic shelf. This work provides scientific basis for future studies on environmental research and fills the gap in knowledge on the worldwide continental platforms. Metal distributions identified three different zones, mainly influenced by industrial and urban sewer (northern areas), agriculture runoffs (central zone), and estuarine discharges (southern areas), respectively. In the north part of the shelf, metal enrichments are observed near industrial and urban sewer mouths (Casablanca and Mohammedia cities). In the south and central areas, the probable absence of human impact on sediments is attributed to effective trapping in the estuary (Oum Er Rbia) and coastal zones, as well as dilution with less contaminated sediments and shelf sediments and removal with fine fractions due to estuary discharges. PMID:25569576

  13. Genetic analyses of Rhizoctonia solani isolates from Phaseolus vulgaris grown in the Atlantic Rainforest Region of São Paulo, Brazil Análise genética de isolados de Rhizoctonia solani de Phaseolus vulgaris da região da Mata Atlântica de São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LYNDEL W. MEINHARDT

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Rhizoctonia solani isolates obtained from common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris grown in the mountainous Atlantic Rainforest (Mata Atlântica region of São Paulo, Brazil, were analyzed to determine their genetic diversity using internal transcribed spacer (ITS, microsatellite and telomere sequence-based PCR primers. Restriction digestion of the ITS1/5.8S/ITS2 ribosomal regions yielded unique banding patterns specific for AG4 and its subgroups. The ITS restriction digestion (ITS/RFLP, telomere and microsatellite primers identified five to 11 genotypes within the isolates of R. solani. While all isolates were pathogenic on beans, there was no correlation found between genotypic differences and pathogenicity. The different PCR primers revealed a number of isolates that were genetically similar. Some of these genetic groups were supported by more than one of the primers utilized in this study, thus confirming their relationship.A diversidade genética de 18 isolados de Rhizoctonia solani de feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris cultivado na Mata Atlântica de São Paulo, Brasil foi avaliada através da análise do espaçadores transcritos internos (ITS, microssatélites e iniciadores ("primers" específicos para sequências teloméricas. A análise de restrição da região ribossomal ITS1/5,8S/ITS2 produziu um padrão de bandas específico para o grupo de anastomose 4 (GA 4 e seus subgrupos. O padrão obtido com ITS/RFLP, microsatélites e os iniciadores teloméricos permitiram identificar cinco a 11 genótipos entre os isolados de R. solani. Enquanto todos os isolados foram patogênicos em feijoeiro, não houve correlação entre patogenicidade e diferenças genotípicas. Os diferentes iniciadores para PCR revelaram que muitos isolados são geneticamente similares, análise esta que pode ser confirmada por mais de um conjunto de iniciadores, fortalecendo a relação deste agrupamento.

  14. Comparação entre uso de água em plantações de Eucalyptus grandis e floresta ombrófila densa (Mata Atlântica na costa leste do Brasil Comparison of water use in Eucalyptus grandis plantations and Atlantic Rainforest in eastern coast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auro Campi de Almeida

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Existe uma controvérsia histórica sobre o uso de água em plantações de eucalipto em vários países onde estas plantações vêm se expandindo. Este trabalho apresenta os resultados de um monitoramento hidrológico intensivo que vem sendo realizado desde 1994 em uma microbacia no município de Aracruz-ES, Brasil. As medições realizadas nos plantios de eucalipto (Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden e em uma floresta nativa (Mata Atlântica e as estimativas a partir de modelos hidrológicos para o cálculo de balanço hídrico demonstram que as plantações de eucalipto se comparam à floresta nativa quanto à evapotranspiração anual e ao uso de água do solo. Considerando o ciclo de crescimento do eucalipto para produção de celulose, o uso de água pela plantação pode ser inferior ao da floresta nativa, principalmente no início do ciclo. A análise da relação entre evapotranspiração e precipitação mostrou que em anos em que a precipitação é próxima à média anual existe um equilíbrio entre a perda e a entrada de água através da precipitação pluviométrica.A historical controversy exists on the use of water by eucalypt plantations worldwide. This study presents the results of an intensive hydrologic monitoring carried out since 1994 in a watershed in Aracruz-ES, Brazil. After over eight years of measuring a eucalyptus forest and its neighboring native species stands (Atlantic Rainforest, the measurements and hydrological models have shown that the eucalypt trees may consume water more economically than the native trees, considering its whole growing cycle of seven years. The evapotranspiration and precipitation ratio showed a water balance when the precipitation is close to the annual average.

  15. Accumulation of heavy metals to assess the health status of swordfish in a comparative analysis of Mediterranean and Atlantic areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → The study analyzes the levels of Pb, Hg, and Cd in Xiphias gladius in the Atlantic and Mediterranean. → Muscle fragments were used to monitor the levels of accumulation of heavy metals in sword fish. → Larger individuals have shown higher levels of concentration of heavy metal. → The average concentration of Cd did not exceed the maximum level set by EC. → As for Pb and Hg, the analyzed individual showed concentrations that exceed the maximum level set. - Abstract: During the last few decades, the combined effects of natural and human activities acting on the Mediterranean Sea basin have caused a reduction in the swordfish (Xiphias gladius, L. 1758) population. In this project, we investigated the accumulation of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and mercury (Hg) levels in the Atlantic and Mediterranean populations of swordfish during a five-year survey. In the marine environment, top predators such as swordfish accumulate high concentrations of toxic metals, and thus, potentially incur a high toxicological risk. Furthermore, heavy metals, such as chemical pollutants, have strong long-term effects on fish, and thus, constitute a high risk for the resource and humans that consume it. The aim of this work is to contribute to the assessment of the state of European swordfish population health. We analyzed muscle tissue from 56 specimens captured in Mediterranean and Atlantic areas for trace elements. Mean concentrations of Hg, Cd, and Pb were in the following ranges: 0.66-2.41, 0.04-0.16, and 0.97-1.36 mg/kg ww, respectively. These data suggest a need for continuous monitoring to avoid reductions in the population of this fish species of high commercial and ecological interest.

  16. Responses of seed-dispersing birds to amount of rainforest in the landscape around fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Cath; Catterall, Carla P

    2014-04-01

    Habitat loss and fragmentation alter the composition of bird assemblages in rainforest. Because birds are major seed dispersers in rainforests, fragmentation-induced changes to frugivorous bird assemblages are also likely to alter the ecological processes of seed dispersal and forest regeneration, but the specific nature of these changes is poorly understood. We assessed the influence of fragment size and landscape forest cover on the abundance, species composition, and functional properties of the avian seed disperser community in an extensively cleared, former rainforest landscape of subtropical Australia. Bird surveys of fixed time and area in 25 rainforest fragments (1-139 ha in size across a 1800 km(2) region) provided bird assemblage data which were coupled with prior knowledge of bird species' particular roles in seed dispersal to give measurements of seven different attributes of the seed disperser assemblage. We used multimodel regression to assess how patch size and surrounding forest cover (within 200 m, 1000 m, and 5000 m radii) influenced variation in the abundance of individual bird species and of functional groups based on bird species' responses to fragmentation and their roles in seed dispersal. Surrounding forest cover, specifically rainforest cover, generally had a greater effect on frugivorous bird assemblages than fragment size. Amount of rainforest cover within 200 m of fragments was the main factor positively associated with abundances of frugivorous birds that are both fragmentation sensitive and important seed dispersers. Our results suggest a high proportion of local rainforest cover is required for the persistence of seed-dispersing birds and the maintenance of seed dispersal processes. Thus, even small rainforest fragments can function as important parts of habitat networks for seed-dispersing birds, whether or not they are physically connected by vegetation. PMID:24548306

  17. Assessment of organochlorine pesticide residues in Atlantic Rain Forest fragments, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinete, Natalia Soares; de Oliveira, Elba dos Santos; Fernandes, Daniella R; Avelar, Andre de Souza; Santelli, Ricardo Erthal

    2011-12-01

    A superficial water quality survey in a watershed of the Paraíba do Sul River, the main water supply for the most populated cities of southeastern Brazil, was held in order to assess the impact of the expansion of agricultural activity in the near border of the Atlantic Rain Forest. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of priority organochlorine pollutants in soils and superficial waters of Atlantic rainforest fragments in Teresópolis, Rio de Janeiro State. Soil sample preparations were compared by using ultrasound, microwave assisted extraction and Soxhlet extraction. Recoveries of matrix spiked samples ranged from 70 to 130%. Analysis of a certified soil material showed recoveries ranging from 71 to 234%. Although low concentrations of organochlorine residues were found in water and soil samples, this area is of environmental importance and concern, thus demanding a monitoring program of its compartments. PMID:21864959

  18. Cloudiness over the Amazon rainforest: Meteorology and thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collow, Allison B. Marquardt; Miller, Mark A.; Trabachino, Lynne C.

    2016-07-01

    Comprehensive meteorological observations collected during GOAmazon2014/15 using the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Mobile Facility no. 1 and assimilated observations from the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications, Version 2 are used to document the seasonal cycle of cloudiness, thermodynamics, and precipitation above the Amazon rainforest. The reversal of synoptic-scale vertical motions modulates the transition between the wet and dry seasons. Ascending moist air during the wet season originates near the surface of the Atlantic Ocean and is advected into the Amazon rainforest, where it experiences convergence and, ultimately, precipitates. The dry season is characterized by weaker winds and synoptic-scale subsidence with little or no moisture convergence accompanying moisture advection. This combination results in the drying of the midtroposphere during June through October as indicated by a decrease in liquid water path, integrated water, and the vertical profile of water vapor mixing ratio. The vertical profile of cloud fraction exhibits a relatively consistent decline in cloud fraction from the lifting condensation level (LCL) to the freezing level where a minimum is observed, unlike many other tropical regions. Coefficients of determination between the LCL and cloud fractional coverage suggest a relatively robust relationship between the LCL and cloudiness beneath 5 km during the dry season (R2 = 0.42) but a weak relationship during the wet season (0.12).

  19. Natural disturbance reduces disease risk in endangered rainforest frog populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roznik, Elizabeth A; Sapsford, Sarah J; Pike, David A; Schwarzkopf, Lin; Alford, Ross A

    2015-01-01

    Natural disturbances can drive disease dynamics in animal populations by altering the microclimates experienced by hosts and their pathogens. Many pathogens are highly sensitive to temperature and moisture, and therefore small changes in habitat structure can alter the microclimate in ways that increase or decrease infection prevalence and intensity in host populations. Here we show that a reduction of rainforest canopy cover caused by a severe tropical cyclone decreased the risk of endangered rainforest frogs (Litoria rheocola) becoming infected by a fungal pathogen (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis). Reductions in canopy cover increased the temperatures and rates of evaporative water loss in frog microhabitats, which reduced B. dendrobatidis infection risk in frogs by an average of 11-28% in cyclone-damaged areas, relative to unaffected areas. Natural disturbances to the rainforest canopy can therefore provide an immediate benefit to frogs by altering the microclimate in ways that reduce infection risk. This could increase host survival and reduce the probability of epidemic disease outbreaks. For amphibian populations under immediate threat from this pathogen, targeted manipulation of canopy cover could increase the availability of warmer, drier microclimates and therefore tip the balance from host extinction to coexistence. PMID:26294048

  20. Dispersal syndromes in the largest protection area of the Atlantic Forest in the state of Paraiba, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Ângelo Jerônimo Domingues

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The diaspore dispersal process is crucial for plant reproduction, since the diaspores must reach a suitable site to germinate. This paper aimed to study morphological aspects of diaspores and determine the dispersal syndromes of species occurring in the largest protection area of the Atlantic Forest in the state of Paraiba, Brazil, the Guaribas Biological Reserve. One conducted a monthly collection of fruits/seeds within the period from September 2007 to February 2009. All diaspores of the fruiting species were collected. After analyzing characteristics such as fruit and seed consistency, odor, color, size, and weight, one determined the dispersal syndrome of each species. One collected 3,080 diaspores belonging to 136 different species distributed into 27 families. Zoochory was the most abundant dispersal syndrome (58%, with 79 fruits adapted to it, followed by autochory (29%, and anemochory (13%. Throughout the study period, one found fruiting species, with a predominance of zoochoric fruits, a predictable fact in the Atlantic Forest, which provides fleshy fruits all the year round.

  1. Malaria in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, an Atlantic Forest area: an assessment using the health surveillance service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Bortolasse Miguel

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The lethality of malaria in the extra-Amazonian region is more than 70 times higher than in Amazonia itself. Recently, several studies have shown that autochthonous malaria is not a rare event in the Brazilian southeastern states in the Atlantic Forest biome. Information about autochthonous malaria in the state of Rio de Janeiro (RJ is scarce. This study aims to assess malaria cases reported to the Health Surveillance System of the State of Rio de Janeiro between 2000-2010. An average of 90 cases per year had parasitological malaria confirmation by thick smear. The number of malaria notifications due to Plasmodium falciparum increased over time. Imported cases reported during the period studied were spread among 51% of the municipalities (counties of the state. Only 35 cases (4.3% were autochthonous, which represents an average of 3.8 new cases per year. Eleven municipalities reported autochthonous cases; within these, six could be characterised as areas of residual or new foci of malaria from the Atlantic Forest system. The other 28 municipalities could become receptive for transmission reintroduction. Cases occurred during all periods of the year, but 62.9% of cases were in the first semester of each year. Assessing vulnerability and receptivity conditions and vector ecology is imperative to establish the real risk of malaria reintroduction in RJ.

  2. Dynamics of bacterial communities in soils of rainforest fragments under restoration processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcellos, Rafael; Zucchi, Tiago; Taketani, Rodrigo; Andreote, Fernando; Cardoso, Elke

    2014-05-01

    The Brazilian Atlantic Forest ("Mata Atlântica") has been largely studied due to its valuable and unique biodiversity. Unfortunately, this priceless ecosystem has been widely deforested and only 10% of its original area still remains. Many projects have been successfully implemented to restore its fauna and flora but there is a lack of information on how the soil bacterial communities respond to this process. Thus, our aim was to evaluate the influence of soil attributes and seasonality on soil bacterial communities of rainforest fragments under restoration processes. Soil samples from a native site and two ongoing restoration fragments with different ages of implementation (10 and 20 years) were collected and assayed by using culture-independent approaches. Our findings demonstrate that seasonality barely altered the bacterial distribution whereas soil chemical attributes and plant diversity highly influenced the bacterial community structure during the restoration process. Moreover, the strict relationship observed for two bacterial groups, Solibacteriaceae and Verrucomicrobia, one with the youngest (10 years) and the other with the oldest (native) site suggests their use as bioindicators of soil quality and soil recovery of forest fragments under restoration.

  3. Bacterial community characterization in the soils of native and restored rainforest fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcellos, Rafael L F; Zucchi, Tiago D; Taketani, Rodrigo G; Andreote, Fernando D; Cardoso, Elke J B N

    2014-11-01

    The Brazilian Atlantic Forest ("Mata Atlântica") has been largely studied due to its valuable and unique biodiversity. Unfortunately, this priceless ecosystem has been widely deforested and only 10 % of its original area is still untouched. Some projects have been successfully implemented to restore its fauna and flora but there is a lack of information on how the soil bacterial communities respond to this process. Thus, our aim was to evaluate the influence of soil attributes and seasonality on soil bacterial communities of rainforest fragments under restoration processes. Soil samples from a native site and two ongoing restoration fragments with different times of implementation (10 and 20 years) were collected and assayed by using culture-independent approaches. Our findings demonstrate that seasonality barely altered the bacterial distribution whereas soil chemical attributes and plant species were related to bacterial community structure during the restoration process. Moreover, the strict relationship observed for two bacterial groups, Solibacteriaceae and Verrucomicrobia, increasing from the more recently planted (10 years) to the native site, with the 20 year old restoration site in the middle, which may suggest their use as bioindicators of soil quality and recovery of forest fragments being restored. PMID:25155863

  4. An oilspill risk analysis for the Mid-Atlantic (proposed sale 76) outer continental shelf lease area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, W.B.; Hopkins, Dorothy

    1982-01-01

    An oilspill risk analysis was conducted for the mid-Atlantic (proposed sale 76) Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) lease area. The analysis considered: the probability of spill occurrences based on historical trends; likely movement of oil slicks based on a climatological model; and locations of environmental resources which could be vulnerable to spilled oil. The times between spill occurrence and contact with resources were estimated to aid analysts in estimating slick characteristics. Critical assumptions made for this particular analysis were (1) that oil exists in the lease area, and (2) that 0.879 billion barrels of oil will be found and produced from tracts sold in sale 76. On the basis of this resource estimate, it was calculated that 3 to 4 oilspills of 1,000 barrels or greater will occur over the 30-year production life of the proposed sale 76 lease tracts. The results also depend upon the routes and methods chosen to transport oil from 0CS platforms to shore. Given the above assumptions, the estimated probability that one or more oilspills of 1,000 barrels or larger will occur and contact land after being at sea less than 30 days is 0.36; for spills 10,000 barrels or larger, the probability is 0.22. These probabilities also reflect the following assumptions: oilspills remain intact for up to 30 days, do not weather, and are not cleaned up. It is noteworthy that over 90 percent of the risk from proposed sale 76 is due to transportation rather than production of oil. In addition, the risks from proposed sale 76 are about 1/10 to 1/15 those of existing tanker transportation of crude oil imports and refined products in the mid-Atlantic area.

  5. Landscape patterns in rainforest phylogenetic signal: isolated islands of refugia or structured continental distributions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert M Kooyman

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Identify patterns of change in species distributions, diversity, concentrations of evolutionary history, and assembly of Australian rainforests. METHODS: We used the distribution records of all known rainforest woody species in Australia across their full continental extent. These were analysed using measures of species richness, phylogenetic diversity (PD, phylogenetic endemism (PE and phylogenetic structure (net relatedness index; NRI. Phylogenetic structure was assessed using both continental and regional species pools. To test the influence of growth-form, freestanding and climbing plants were analysed independently, and in combination. RESULTS: Species richness decreased along two generally orthogonal continental axes, corresponding with wet to seasonally dry and tropical to temperate habitats. The PE analyses identified four main areas of substantially restricted phylogenetic diversity, including parts of Cape York, Wet Tropics, Border Ranges, and Tasmania. The continental pool NRI results showed evenness (species less related than expected by chance in groups of grid cells in coastally aligned areas of species rich tropical and sub-tropical rainforest, and in low diversity moist forest areas in the south-east of the Great Dividing Range and in Tasmania. Monsoon and drier vine forests, and moist forests inland from upland refugia showed phylogenetic clustering, reflecting lower diversity and more relatedness. Signals for evenness in Tasmania and clustering in northern monsoon forests weakened in analyses using regional species pools. For climbing plants, values for NRI by grid cell showed strong spatial structuring, with high diversity and PE concentrated in moist tropical and subtropical regions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Concentrations of rainforest evolutionary history (phylo-diversity were patchily distributed within a continuum of species distributions. Contrasting with previous concepts of rainforest community

  6. Australian Rainforest Timbers as a Valuable Resource: Community Perceptions and Purchase Habits of Rainforest Timber Products

    OpenAIRE

    Smorfitt, D. B.; Herbohn, J. L.; Harrison, S. R.

    2001-01-01

    Australia has some of the highest quality cabinet timber species in the world, sourced primarily from tropical rainforests, and this has been a long tradition of using these to produce furniture. Cessation of logging of crown rainforest land has reduced resource supply, but there is now considerable interest in growing rainforest timbers on private land. In order to formulate reforestation policy and industry development, it is desirable to know how the community views these timbers. This stu...

  7. Hillslope hydrology in tropical rainforest steeplands in Brunei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykes, A. P.; Thornes, J. B.

    2000-02-01

    Many remaining areas of tropical rainforest in south-east Asia are located on landscapes dominated by deep valleys and very steep slopes. Now that logging activities are extending into these steeplands, it is essential to understand how the natural rainforest system behaves if any kind of realistic assessment of the effects of such disturbance is to be made. This paper examines the hydrological behaviour of an undisturbed rainforest system on steep topography in the Temburong District of Brunei, north-west Borneo. The physical and hydrological properties of the regolith material are generally typical of tropical residual soils. The regolith has a clay texture and a low dry bulk density beneath a superficial litter/organic horizon. The infiltration capacity of the surface soil was several hundred mm h-1. That of the exposed mineral subsoil was an order of magnitude less, similar to the saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat) of around 180 mm h-1 at a depth of 150 cm. There was no indication that Ksat reduced with depth except very near the bedrock interface.Soil tensions were measured using a two-dimensional array of tensiometers on a 30° slope. During dry season conditions, infiltrating rain-water contributes to soil moisture, and drying of the soil is dominated by transpiration losses. During wet season conditions, perched water tables quickly develop during heavy rainfall, giving rise to the rapid production of return flow in ephemeral channels. No infiltration excess or saturation overland flow was observed on hillslopes away from channel margins. Subsurface storm flow combined with return flow produce stream flow hydrographs with high peak discharges and very short lag times. Storm event runoff coefficients are estimated to be as high as 40%. It is concluded that the most distinctive feature of the hydrology of this steepland rainforest is the extremely flashy nature of the catchment runoff regime produced by the combination of thin but very permeable regolith

  8. [The genera of Bethylidae (Hymenoptera: Chrysidoidea) in four areas of Atlantic Rain Forest from Espírito Santo, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugrabi, Daniele F; Alencar, Isabel D C C; Barreto, Francisco C C; Azevedo, Celso O

    2008-01-01

    The generic richness and abundance of Bethylidae collected in four different hillside areas of Atlantic rain forest from Espírito Santo, Brazil were studied. The sites are Santa Maria de Jetibá (SMJ), Domingos Martins (DM), Pancas (P) and Atílio Vivacqua (AV). A total of 2,840 specimens of 12 genera were collected. Lepidosternopsis Ogloblin and Bakeriella Kieffer are first recorded from the State. Richness of taxa was calculated using first-order Jackknife richness with EstimateS program. Genera accumulation curves were ran to evaluate the samples. Abundance data were adjusted to the geometric distribution. Parameter k was used to compare areas. The generic profile was not equal for the sites we studied. The areas were considered disturbed. SMJ and DM presented genera richness bigger than in P and AV. The differences in the sites reflect the different preservation of each environment. Pseudisobrachium Kieffer and Dissomphalus Ashmead are most dominant genera in SMJ, DM and P, and Anisepyris Kieffer in AV. This study emphasizes the fact of Dissomphalus as the most abundant genus in rain forests. The generic profile found in AV is similar to that of some areas of Brazilian savannah. PMID:18506293

  9. Measurements of reactive nitrogen above the canopy of a South East Asian tropical rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moller, Sarah; Lee, James; Pike, Rachel; Reeves, Claire; Stewart, David

    2010-05-01

    The potential for NOx species to influence local chemistry is significant in remote tropical areas due to the high concentrations of both OH and volatile organic compounds and the low background NOx concentrations. It has been suggested that emissions from soil could be a major biogenic source of nitrogen oxides but fluxes from tropical areas are poorly quantified. To understand the potential influence of soil emissions we must understand the sources and sinks of NOx in the boundary layer above a forest canopy. Measurements of NO, NO2 and total reactive nitrogen (NOy) were made in an opening above a rainforest canopy at the Bukit Atur Global Atmosphere Watch station in Sabah, Borneo as part of the Oxidant and particle photochemical processes above a South-East Asian tropical rainforest (OP3) project. Measurements of total reactive nitrogen using a gold catalytic converter followed by chemiluminesence detection of the resulting NO are compared to individual measurements of different NOy species (NO, NO2, PAN, Alkyl nitrates, HNO3) in an attempt to understand the nitrogen chemistry occurring and to assess any outstanding contributions to the nitrogen budget. The ground measurements above the rainforest canopy are compared to measurements taken from an aircraft platform within the boundary layer and free troposphere above the rainforest. The aircraft measurements from within the boundary layer agree well with the ground-based measurements suggesting that these are representative of the boundary layer above a rainforest canopy. A box model containing a simple chemical mechanism was used to explore the ability of a simplified global model chemical mechanism to capture the chemistry occurring at this rainforest site with a view towards improving the ability of global models to predict important trace gas levels over tropical rainforest.

  10. Plant traits demonstrate that temperate and tropical giant eucalypt forests are ecologically convergent with rainforest not savanna.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Y P Tng

    Full Text Available Ecological theory differentiates rainforest and open vegetation in many regions as functionally divergent alternative stable states with transitional (ecotonal vegetation between the two forming transient unstable states. This transitional vegetation is of considerable significance, not only as a test case for theories of vegetation dynamics, but also because this type of vegetation is of major economic importance, and is home to a suite of species of conservation significance, including the world's tallest flowering plants. We therefore created predictions of patterns in plant functional traits that would test the alternative stable states model of these systems. We measured functional traits of 128 trees and shrubs across tropical and temperate rainforest - open vegetation transitions in Australia, with giant eucalypt forests situated between these vegetation types. We analysed a set of functional traits: leaf carbon isotopes, leaf area, leaf mass per area, leaf slenderness, wood density, maximum height and bark thickness, using univariate and multivariate methods. For most traits, giant eucalypt forest was similar to rainforest, while rainforest, particularly tropical rainforest, was significantly different from the open vegetation. In multivariate analyses, tropical and temperate rainforest diverged functionally, and both segregated from open vegetation. Furthermore, the giant eucalypt forests overlapped in function with their respective rainforests. The two types of giant eucalypt forests also exhibited greater overall functional similarity to each other than to any of the open vegetation types. We conclude that tropical and temperate giant eucalypt forests are ecologically and functionally convergent. The lack of clear functional differentiation from rainforest suggests that giant eucalypt forests are unstable states within the basin of attraction of rainforest. Our results have important implications for giant eucalypt forest management.

  11. Differential success in sampling of Atlantic Forest amphibians among different periods of the day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, C F D; Siqueira, C C; Ariani, C V; Vrcibradic, D; Guedes, D M; Kiefer, M C; Almeida-Gomes, M; Goyannes-Araújo, P; Borges-Júnior, V N T; Van Sluys, M

    2015-05-01

    In general, anurans tend to be nocturnal, though diurnal activity is characteristic of some groups. Studies show that frog activity may be inferred based on the number of individuals collected at different periods of the day, during large-scale field surveys. We investigated the best period of the day to conduct amphibian sampling in nine Atlantic Rainforest areas in southeastern Brazil, based on intensive field surveys. At each locality we employed similar sampling effort during diurnal, crepuscular and nocturnal searches (totaling 704.5 sampling hours). We pooled data from all localities for each period and estimated the proportion of frogs of each species active at each period based on the total number of individuals and on the number of species found during all surveys for that period. We recorded a total of 817 individual frogs from 69 species. Species richness was highest at night (median = 12 species), intermediate at dusk (median = 8), and lowest during the day (median = 4). The percentage of the total number of individual frogs found (pooled species) was highest during the night (ca. 53%) and lowest during the day (ca. 14%). Analyzing each species separately, the number of individuals recorded was consistently higher at dusk and night for most species. Our study evidences a trend for nocturnal activity for most Atlantic Rainforest frogs, with few species having primarily diurnal habits. Those results may favor future studies and conservation efforts for amphibian species. PMID:26132005

  12. Rainforest Conversion to Rubber Plantation May Not Result in Lower Soil Diversity of Bacteria, Fungi, and Nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerfahi, Dorsaf; Tripathi, Binu M; Dong, Ke; Go, Rusea; Adams, Jonathan M

    2016-08-01

    Large areas of rainforest in Asia have been converted to plantations, with uncertain effects on soil biodiversity. Using standard metagenetic methods, we compared the soil biota of bacteria, fungi, and nematodes at three rainforest sites in Malaysia with two rubber plantation sites with similar soils and geology. We predicted the following: (1) that the rubber sites would have a lower α- and β-diversity than the rainforest sites, due to the monospecific canopy cover and intensive management with herbicides, pesticides, and fertilizers, and (2) that due to differences in the physical and biotic environment associated with cultivation, there would be distinct communities of bacteria, fungi, and nematodes. However, regarding (1), the results showed no consistent difference in α- and β-diversity of bacteria, fungi, or nematodes between rainforest and rubber plantation sites. It appears that conversion of rainforest to rubber plantations does not necessarily result in a decrease in diversity of soil biota. It may be that heterogeneity associated with the cultivation regimen compensates for loss of biotically imposed heterogeneity of the original rainforest. Regarding (2), as predicted there were statistically significant differences in community composition between rainforest and rubber plantation for bacteria, fungi, and nematodes. These differences could be related to a range of factors including light level, litter fall composition, pH, C and N, selecting a distinct set of soil taxa, and it is possible that this in itself would affect long-term soil function. PMID:27221090

  13. Diet of paca (Cuniculus paca using indirect methods in an agricultural area in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest

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    Rodrigo Zucaratto

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The paca (Cuniculus paca is a rodent that feeds on fruits according to their availability. This study describes the consumption of fruit by paca in an area of shaded cultivation of cocoa in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. The study was carried out by the search for tracks left by these animals, such as marks of incisors found in fruits, in order to recognize the fruits consumed. We recorded 12 species consumed by the pacas, belonging to 10 families and 10 genera. The list included six native species and six exotic species. Some fruits were eaten as a whole, while others had their exocarp or seeds discarded. The indirect methods showed suitability to characterize the diet of this species, and they could complement conventional research methods such as direct sighting and analyses of stomachal or fecal contents. The occurrence of pacas in the agricultural area shows the plasticity of their diet and the possibility of conserving populations of this species in disturbed areas outside nature reserves.

  14. An oilspill risk analysis of the Mid-Atlantic (Proposed Sale 49) outer continental shelf lease area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, James Richard; Wyant, Timothy

    1978-01-01

    An oilspill risk analysis was conducted to determine the relative environmental hazards of developing oil in different regions of the mid-Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf lease area. The study analyzed the probability of spill occurrence, likely paths of the spilled oil, and locations in space and time of recreational and biological resources that are likely to be vulnerable. These results are combined to yield estimates of the overall oilspill risk associated with development of the proposed lease area. The analysis implicitly includes estimates of weathering rates and slick dispersion and an indication of the possible mitigating effects of cleanups. Assuming that economically recoverable amounts of petroleum are found in the area, the leasing of the tracts proposed for sale 49 will increase the expected number of spills by about 20-25 percent over the number expected from the existing (sale 40) leases. The probability that an object such as land will be contacted by a spill is increased by at most five percentage points. (Woodard-USGS)

  15. The leaf litter ant fauna of an Atlantic Forest area in the Cantareira State Park – São Paulo, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Andre Soliva Ribeiro; Rodrigo dos Santos Machado Feitosa

    2005-01-01

    The present work surveys the leaf litter ant fauna of an Atlantic Forest area in Cantareira State Park – SP, Brazil as a complement to the project “Richness and diversity of Hymenoptera and Isoptera along a latitudinal gradient in the Atlantic Forest – the eastern Brazilian rain forest” that forms part of the BIOTA-FAPESP program. The general protocol of the project was to collect 50 leaf litter samples of 1 m2 which were then sifted and submitted to Winkler extractors for 48 hours. Sixty-two...

  16. LITTER PRODUCTION AND NUTRIENT ADDITION IN ATLANTIC FOREST AREAS IN SANTA MARIA DE JETIBÁ, ES

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    Geângelo Petene Calvi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was accomplished on Espíndula Farm, Santa Maria de Jetibá (ES, with the objective of evaluating the litter and nutrients deposition in areas with different succession stadiums. Two areas were selected with different vegetable coverings, defined as: (SF Secondary Forest, with about 25 ha of area, corresponding to an old area of cassava cultivation with about 50 years in process of ecological succession and where today there is a secondary forest and an Old Secondary Forest (OSF corresponding to a forest area that has just been submitted to a selective wood extraction for use of the farm itself. In each one of vegetal areas, approximately 0.1 ha was delimited and in these ten conical collectors were randomized distributed. The litter collections were accomplished monthly from November 2003 to October 2005. After drying, the material was stratified and the total contributed and the contribution of the different fractions, and the nutritious addition were evaluated. It was not verified significant differences among the total of litter deposited among the areas, being the highest production values observed in the summer, 5.70 Mg ha-1 (SF and 5.73 Mg ha-1(OSF, possibly due to the winds and rain mechanical action. The fraction of higher contribution was the foliar, corresponding to 74.62% for the SF area and 69.46% for the OSF area

  17. Caracterização anatômica, química e antibacteriana de folhas de Brunfelsia uniflora (manacá presentes na Mata Atlântica Anatomical, chemical and antibacterial characterization of leaves of Brunfelsia uniflora (manacá in the Atlantic Rainforest (Mata Atlântica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Bernadete Gonçalves Martins

    2009-03-01

    , rheumatism, syphilis, snake bites, yellow fever, and even as a diuretic and anti-thermal. The main objective of this work was the anatomical study through optical and electronic scanning microscopy, chemical analysis and microbiological tests using Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus and Brunfelsia uniflora leaves extracts. The plants were collected in the Atlantic Rainforest (Mata Atlântica, nearby the city of São Vicente, SP. Brunfelsia uniflora presented palisade parenchyma with two cellular layers and lacunary parenchyma with six cellular layers; large quantities of crystals in mesophyll and sclerenchyma were observed. The lower epidermis presented large quantities of stomata while they were almost absent in the adaxial epidermis. The electronic scanning microscopy showed the presence of paracitic stomata, a waxy layer ornamented in the adaxial epidermis as well as the presence of few trichomes in the central vein region in the abaxial surface. However, in the vein region the trichomes were absent. A chemical analysis showed evidence of some spectral peaks concerning the occurrence of caffeic acid derivatives. The microbiological tests presented negative results for the two species of bacteria.

  18. Phoretic association between larvae of Rheotanytarsus (Diptera: Chironomidae) and genera of Odonata in a first-order stream in an area of Atlantic Forest in southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Beatriz F. J. Vescovi Rosa; Renato T. Martins; Vívian C. de Oliveira; Roberto da G. Alves

    2009-01-01

    In this note, the occurrence of phoresy between larvae of Rheotanitarsus sp. (Diptera: Chironomidae) and larvae of Heteragrion sp. (Odonata: Megapodagrionidae) and of unidentified genera of Calopterygidae (Odonata) collected in a first-order stream in an area of Atlantic Forest in southeastern Brazil is reported. During the dry season of 2007 and the rainy season of 2008, with the aid of a Surber sampler, 15 samples of each of the following mesohabitats were collected: litter from riffle area...

  19. Historical distribution of Sundaland’s Dipterocarp rainforests at Quaternary glacial maxima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Charles H.; Hijmans, Robert J.; Piessens, Thomas; Saw, Leng Guan; van Welzen, Peter C.; Slik, J. W. Ferry

    2014-01-01

    The extent of Dipterocarp rainforests on the emergent Sundaland landmass in Southeast Asia during Quaternary glaciations remains a key question. A better understanding of the biogeographic history of Sundaland could help explain current patterns of biodiversity and support the development of effective forest conservation strategies. Dipterocarpaceae trees dominate the rainforests of Sundaland, and their distributions serve as a proxy for rainforest extent. We used species distribution models (SDMs) of 317 Dipterocarp species to estimate the geographic extent of appropriate climatic conditions for rainforest on Sundaland at the last glacial maximum (LGM). The SDMs suggest that the climate of central Sundaland at the LGM was suitable to sustain Dipterocarp rainforest, and that the presence of a previously suggested transequatorial savannah corridor at that time is unlikely. Our findings are supported by palynologic evidence, dynamic vegetation models, extant mammal and termite communities, vascular plant fatty acid stable isotopic compositions, and stable carbon isotopic compositions of cave guano profiles. Although Dipterocarp species richness was generally lower at the LGM, areas of high species richness were mostly found off the current islands and on the emergent Sunda Shelf, indicating substantial species migration and mixing during the transitions between the Quaternary glacial maxima and warm periods such as the present. PMID:25385612

  20. Polychaetes from a southwestern shallow shelf Atlantic area (Argentina, 38 S) affected by sewage discharge

    OpenAIRE

    RODOLFO ELÍAS; CLAUDIA S BREMEC; EDUARDO A. VALLARINO

    2001-01-01

    A benthos-sampling program was carried out in the coastal area of Mar del Plata city in order to know the composition and distribution of infaunal polychaetes living on a subtidal soft-bottom substrate affected by the sewage discharge. Sandy bottoms showed heterogeneous sediment composition and very low organic matter content. Thirty three polychaete species were identified in a range depth between 6.5 to 12.5 m. A comparison with data from 30 years ago from adjacent areas deeper than 12 m is...

  1. Nursery areas and recruitment variation of Northeast Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Teunis; Kristensen, Kasper; Van der Kooij, Jeroen;

    2015-01-01

    , and that the LCG model is successful in extracting a population abundance signal fromthe data. In this regard, the model performed appreciably better than a more commonly used raising algorithm based on survey swept-area estimates. Therefore, the LCG model was expanded to include data from the entire...... of spatial distributions, showing that the most important nursery areas are around Ireland, north and west of Scotland, in the northern North Sea north of 598Nand, to some extent, also in the Bay of Biscay....

  2. Diversity of myxomycetes in an environmentally protected area of Atlantic Forest in northeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Antônia Aurelice Aurélio Costa; Andrea Carla Caldas Bezerra; Vitor Xavier de Lima; Laise de Holanda Cavalcanti

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out on three trails, each presenting a different degree of disturbance, within the Pau-Ferro Forest Environmentally Protected Area, a 600 ha area of highland forest located in the municipality of Areia (06°58'12"S; 35°42'15"W; elevation, 400-600 m), in the state of Paraíba, Brazil. In 2005, we analyzed the species richness, abundance, constancy and phenology of myxomycetes over seven consecutive months (rainy and dry seasons) in five types of microhabitats: dead ...

  3. Rainfall and throughfall chemistry in the Atlantic Forest: a comparison between urban and natural areas (São Paulo State, Brazil)

    OpenAIRE

    Forti, M. C.; Bicudo, D. C.; Bourotte, C.; De Cicco, V.; Arcova, F. C. S.

    2005-01-01

    Two areas in the Atlantic Forest (São Paulo State, Brazil), with contrasting environments in respect of human occupation, were monitored from 1999 to 2001. One area named PEFI (23°38'08''-23°40'18'' S and 46°36'48''-46°38'00'' W) at an altitude of 798 m a.s.l., 526.4 ha in area and about 50 km from the sea, lies in a State Park within the largest metropolis of South America - São Paulo. The other area, named CUNHA (between 23°13'18'' and 23°16'10'' S and 45&d...

  4. Changes in Structure and Functioning of Protist (Testate Amoebae) Communities Due to Conversion of Lowland Rainforest into Rubber and Oil Palm Plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krashevska, Valentyna; Klarner, Bernhard; Widyastuti, Rahayu; Maraun, Mark; Scheu, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Large areas of tropical rainforest are being converted to agricultural and plantation land uses, but little is known of biodiversity and ecological functioning under these replacement land uses. We investigated the effects of conversion of rainforest into jungle rubber, intensive rubber and oil palm plantations on testate amoebae, diverse and functionally important protists in litter and soil. Living testate amoebae species richness, density and biomass were all lower in replacement land uses than in rainforest, with the impact being more pronounced in litter than in soil. Similar abundances of species of high and low trophic level in rainforest suggest that trophic interactions are more balanced, with a high number of functionally redundant species, than in rubber and oil palm. In contrast, plantations had a low density of high trophic level species indicating losses of functions. This was particularly so in oil palm plantations. In addition, the relative density of species with siliceous shells was >50% lower in the litter layer of oil palm and rubber compared to rainforest and jungle rubber. This difference suggests that rainforest conversion changes biogenic silicon pools and increases silicon losses. Overall, the lower species richness, density and biomass in plantations than in rainforest, and the changes in the functional composition of the testate amoebae community, indicate detrimental effects of rainforest conversion on the structure and functioning of microbial food webs. PMID:27463805

  5. [Response of the ant community to attributes of fragments and vegetation in a northeastern Atlantic Rain Forest area, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Juliana P; Iannuzzi, Luciana; Leal, Inara R

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of forest fragmentation on ant richness in a landscape of Atlantic Forest in Northeast Brazil. More specifically, the ant richness was related to the attributes of fragments (area and distance from the fragment central point to the edge), landscape (forest cover surrounding the fragments), and tree community (plant density, richness, and percentage of shade tolerant species). The surveys were carried out in 19 fragments located in Alagoas State from October 2007 to March 2008. Samples were collected through a 300 m transect established in the center of each fragment, where 30 1-m² leaf litter samples were collected at 10 m intervals. A total of 146 ant species was collected, which belonged to 42 genera, 24 tribes and nine subfamilies. The attributes of fragments and landscape did not influence ant richness. On the other hand, tree density explained ca. 23% of ant richness. In relation to functional groups, both density and richness of trees explained the richness of general myrmicines (the whole model explained ca. 42% of the variation in this group) and percentage of shade tolerant trees explained the richness of specialist predator ants (30% for the whole model). These results indicate that ant fauna is more influenced by vegetation integrity than by fragment size, distance to edge or forest cover surrounding fragments. PMID:21271055

  6. Marine fronts are important fishing areas for demersal species at the Argentine Sea (Southwest Atlantic Ocean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemany, Daniela; Acha, Eduardo M.; Iribarne, Oscar O.

    2014-03-01

    The high primary and secondary production associated with frontal systems attract a diversity of organisms due to high prey availability; this is why a strong relationship between fronts and pelagic fisheries has been shown worldwide. In the Argentine Sea, demersal resources are the most important, both in economical and in ecological sense; so we hypothesize that fronts are also preferred fishing areas for demersal resources. We evaluated the relationship between spatial distribution of fishing effort and oceanographic fronts, analyzing three of the most important frontal systems located in the Argentine Sea: the shelf-break front, the southern Patagonia front and the mid-shelf front. Individual vessel satellite monitoring system data (VMS; grouped by fleet type: ice-trawlers, freezer-trawlers and jigging fleet) were studied and fishing events were identified. Fishing events per area were used as a proxy of fishing effort and its spatial distribution by fleet type was visualized and analyzed with Geographic Information Systems. Oceanographic fronts were defined using polygons based on satellite chlorophyll amplitude values, and the percentage of fishing events within each polygon was calculated. Results showed a positive association between fronts and fishing activities of the different fleets, which suggests the aggregation of target species in these zones. The coupling of the freezer-trawler and jigging fleets (that operate on lower trophic level species; Macruronus magellanicus and Illex argentinus respectively) with fronts was higher than the ice-trawler fleet, targeting species of higher trophic level (Merluccius hubbsi). Marine fronts represent important fishing areas, even for demersal resources, as the distribution of fishing fleets and fishing effort are positively associated with frontal zones.

  7. Diversity of myxomycetes in an environmentally protected area of Atlantic Forest in northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônia Aurelice Aurélio Costa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out on three trails, each presenting a different degree of disturbance, within the Pau-Ferro Forest Environmentally Protected Area, a 600 ha area of highland forest located in the municipality of Areia (06°58'12"S; 35°42'15"W; elevation, 400-600 m, in the state of Paraíba, Brazil. In 2005, we analyzed the species richness, abundance, constancy and phenology of myxomycetes over seven consecutive months (rainy and dry seasons in five types of microhabitats: dead tree trunks, the bark of living trees, basidiomata, ground litter and aerial litter. A total of 753 specimens of 48 species were obtained from the trails known as Flores (4 km, Boa Vista (3 km and Cumbe (700 m. The Sørensen similarity coefficient revealed that the three trails are similar. The most constant and abundant species were Hemitrichia calyculata, H. serpula, Arcyria cinerea, A. denudata and Ceratiomyxa fruticulosa. Although myxomycetes sporulate throughout the year, some species have well-defined sporulation seasons. In terms of the constancy and abundance of species, Trichiaceae is the most important family in the rain forest studied, which is representative of the highland forests of northeastern Brazil.

  8. Polychaetes from a southwestern shallow shelf Atlantic area (Argentina, 38 S affected by sewage discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RODOLFO ELÍAS

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available A benthos-sampling program was carried out in the coastal area of Mar del Plata city in order to know the composition and distribution of infaunal polychaetes living on a subtidal soft-bottom substrate affected by the sewage discharge. Sandy bottoms showed heterogeneous sediment composition and very low organic matter content. Thirty three polychaete species were identified in a range depth between 6.5 to 12.5 m. A comparison with data from 30 years ago from adjacent areas deeper than 12 m is herein presented. Polychaete distribution was related both to the type of sediment and to the content of organic matter. Owenia fusiformis Delle Chiaje was dominant and peaked at stations near the sewage effluent. Small-sized polychaetes were abundant in the sampling area. A possible explanation to the faunal composition of sites near sewage effluents is that hydrodynamic forces frequently disturb the area, and benthic fauna is permanently in an early stage of development. The effect of sewage appeared to be restricted to the shallower subtidal area around the outfallUn programa de muestreo bentónico fue llevado a cabo en la ciudad de Mar del Plata con el fin de examinar la composición y distribución de los poliquetos infaunales de los sustratos submareales afectados por el vertido cloacal. Los fondos arenosos muestran heterogeneidad en su composición de sedimentos y un bajo contenido de materia orgánica. Se identificó un total de 33 especies de poliquetos en el rango de profundidades comprendido entre 6,5 y 12,5 m. En este trabajo se presenta una comparación de estos datos con datos de 30 años atrás provenientes de fondos de más de 12 m de profundidad. El patrón de distribución de los poliquetos se relaciona tanto con el tipo sedimentario como con el contenido de materia orgánica. Owenia fusiformis Delle Chiaje fue la especie dominante en las estaciones más cercanas al efluente. Dicha área estuvo caracterizada por la presencia de poliquetos

  9. North Atlantic Temperature Anomaly

    OpenAIRE

    Vukcevic, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    The author postulates the existence of a high correlation between North Atlantic Temperature Anomaly and the variations of magnetic field over the Hudson Bay region. Post-glacial uplift and convection in the underlying mantle uplift (as reflected in changes of the area's magnetic intensity) are making significant contribution to the Atlantic basin climate change.

  10. Diversity of Penicillium in soil of Caatinga and Atlantic Forest areas of Pernambuco, Brazil: an ecological approach

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz, Roberta; Santos, Cledir; de Lima, Juliana Silva; Moreira, Keila; Motta, Cristina Souza

    2013-01-01

    Caatinga is characterised as being a unique semi-arid biome only found in Brazil. It is characterised mainly for its soil poor in mineral and organic nutrients, and low water activity. On the other hand, Atlantic Forest is mainly characterised by its nutrient-rich soil, and its high water activity. Fungi are important constituents of both biomes. Among the fungi frequently isolated from soil of both Caatinga and Atlantic Forest, species of Penicillium are prominent. The richness, abundance, e...

  11. Home range and density of three sympatric felids in the Southern Atlantic Forest, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, C B; Schneider, A; Oliveira, T G

    2016-02-01

    Home range and minimal population densities of Southern tiger cat (Leopardus guttulus), margay (Lepardus wiedii) and jaguarundi (Puma yagouaroundi) were estimated between 2005 and 2006 in Taquari Valley, near the southern edge of the Atlantic Rainforest in Brazil. Home range data were collected by conventional radio telemetry (VHF) locations in a highly fragmented landscape. The average home range size, calculated using 95% kernel density estimates, was 16.01 km2 for Southern tiger cat, 21.85 km2 for margay and 51.45 km2 for jaguarundi. Telemetry data were used to obtain minimal density estimates of 0.08 Southern tiger cats / km2, and 0.04 jaguarundi / km2. The density estimates arise from areas where ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) and other larger-bodied carnivores were locally extinct, and they suggest a specific type of mesopredator release known as the ocelot effect, which is likely enabling the increase in smaller felid populations in this area. PMID:26871745

  12. Biomass burning and the disappearing tropical rainforest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author discusses the implications of reduced biological diversity as a result of slash and burn agriculture in the tropical rainforest. The importance of global management of forests to prevent a buildup of carbon dioxide and the resulting greenhouse effect is emphasized

  13. South-East Asia's Trembling Rainforests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, John

    1991-01-01

    This discussion focuses on potential solutions to the degradation of rainforests in Southeast Asia caused by indiscriminate logging, inappropriate road-construction techniques, forest fires, and the encroachment upon watersheds by both agricultural concerns and peasant farmers. Vignettes illustrate the impact of this degradation upon the animals,…

  14. Ecotourism: The Santa Elena Rainforest Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wearing, Stephen

    1993-01-01

    Describes an ecotourism project in which the community of Santa Elena, Costa Rica, are developing a rainforest reserve on government land leased permanently to the local high school. Discusses the impact of the project on the community's economy and environment. (Contains 30 references.) (MDH)

  15. Temperature profile and other data collected using CTD casts in the TOGA Area - Atlantic Ocean from the NOAA Ship RESEARCHER from 18 April 1985 to 20 November 1986 (NODC Accession 8700149)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and other data were collected using CTD casts from the NOAA Ship RESEARCHER in the TOGA Area - Atlantic Ocean from 18 April 1985 to 20 November...

  16. Zooplankton data collected from zooplankton net casts in TOGA Area - Atlantic and Indian Ocean by GAVESHANI and other platforms from 01 March 1963 to 31 March 1965 (NODC Accession 9400163)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Zooplankton data were collected from GAVESHANI and other platforms using zooplankton net casts in the TOGA Area - Atlantic and Indian Ocean. Data were collected...

  17. Temperature profile and water depth data collected from AUSTRALIA STAR and other platforms using XBT casts in the TOGA Area - Atlantic and Pacific Ocean from 05 October 1989 to 21 December 1992 (NODC Accession 9400035)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and water depth data were collected using XBT casts from the AUSTRALIA STAR and other platforms in the TOGA Area - Atlantic and Pacific Ocean,...

  18. Temperature profile data collected using CTD casts from the NOAA Ship RESEARCHER in the TOGA area - Atlantic Ocean from 21 February 1980 to 07 March 1980 (NODC Accession 8200239)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and other data were collected using CTD casts from the NOAA Ship RESEARCHER in the TOGA area - Atlantic Ocean from 21 February 1980 to 07 March...

  19. Ocean circulation and other data from SUBSURFACE FLOATS and other platforms from the TOGA Area - Atlantic as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) from 17 May 1991 to 09 June 1993 (NODC Accession 9600064)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ocean circulation and other data were collected from SUBSURFACE FLOATS and other platforms from the TOGA Area - Atlantic. Data were collected by Woods Hole...

  20. Arctic layer salinity controls heat loss from deep Atlantic layer in seasonally ice-covered areas of the Barents Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Sigrid; Ingvaldsen, Randi B.; Furevik, Tore

    2016-05-01

    In the seasonally ice-covered northern Barents Sea an intermediate layer of cold and relatively fresh Arctic Water at ~25-110 m depth isolates the sea surface and ice cover from a layer of warm and saline Atlantic Water below, a situation that resembles the cold halocline layer in the Eurasian Basin. The upward heat flux from the Atlantic layer is of major concern. What causes variations in the heat flux and how is the Arctic layer maintained? Using observations, we found that interannual variability in Arctic layer salinity determines the heat flux from the Atlantic layer through its control of stratification and vertical mixing. A relatively fresh Arctic layer effectively suppresses the upward heat flux, while a more saline Arctic layer enhances the heat flux. The corresponding upward salt flux causes a positive feedback. The Arctic layer salinity and the water column structures have been remarkably stable during 1970-2011.

  1. Changes in cloudiness over the Amazon rainforests during the last two decades: diagnostic and potential causes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arias, Paola A. [The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Geological Sciences, Austin, TX (United States); Universidad de Antioquia, Grupo de Ingenieria y Gestion Ambiental (GIGA), Medellin (Colombia); Jackson School of Geosciences, Geology Foundation, PO Box B, Austin, TX (United States); Fu, Rong [The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Geological Sciences, Austin, TX (United States); Hoyos, Carlos D. [Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Atlanta, GA (United States); Li, Wenhong [Duke University, Division of Earth and Oceanic Sciences, Nicholas School of the Environment, Durham, NC (United States); Zhou, Liming [Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Atlanta, GA (United States); National Science Foundation, Climate and Large Scale Dynamics Program, Arlington, VA (United States)

    2011-09-15

    This study shows a decrease of seasonal mean convection, cloudiness and an increase of surface shortwave down-welling radiation during 1984-2007 over the Amazon rainforests based on the analysis of satellite-retrieved clouds and surface radiative flux data. These changes are consistent with an increase in surface temperature, increased atmospheric stability, and reduction of moisture transport to the Amazon based on in situ surface and upper air meteorological data and reanalysis data. These changes appear to link to the expansion of the western Pacific warm pool during the December-February season, to the positive phase of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation and increase of SST over the eastern Pacific SST during the March-May season, and to an increase of the tropical Atlantic meridional SST gradient and an expansion of the western Pacific warm pool during September-November season. The resultant increase of surface solar radiation during all but the dry season in the Amazon could contribute to the observed increases in rainforest growth during recent decades. (orig.)

  2. Karyotype characterization and nucleolar organizer regions of marsupial species (Didelphidae from areas of Cerrado and Atlantic Forest in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núbia P. Pereira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The karyotypes of 23 specimens belonging to 16 species from nine genera of Brazilian marsupials (family Didelphidae were studied. The animals were collected in eight localities of Cerrado or Atlantic Forest biomes in the states of Goiás, Tocantins and São Paulo. The karyotypes were analyzed after conventional Giemsa staining and silver staining of the nucleolus organizer regions (Ag-NORs. New karyotypic data were obtained for Gracilinanus microtarsus (2n = 14, FN = 24, Marmosops paulensis (2n = 14, FN = 24 , Micoreus paraguayanus (2n = 14, FN = 20 and Monodelphis rubida (2n = 18, FN = 32 and are discussed in detail. The karyotypes of G. microtarsus , M. paulensis and M. paraguayanus include three large pairs of submetacentrics (pairs 1, 2 and 3 and a medium-sized metacentric or submetacentric pair 4. Pairs 5 and 6 are small submetacentrics in G. microtarsus and M. paulensis and acrocentrics in M. paraguayanus . M. paulensis presented a single Ag-NOR in pair 6 (6p6p, while M. paraguayanus exhibited multiple Ag-NORs in pairs 5 and 6 (5pq5pq6p6p. There was variation in size and morphology of the sex chromosomes among these species. Monodelphis rubida presented a karyotype with 2n = 18 and FN = 32 composed of a large submetacentric pair 1, a medium-sized metacentric pair 2 and six pairs of submetacentrics (pairs 3 through 8. The X was a small acrocentric and the Y was dot-like. A single Ag-NOR bearing pair (5p5p characterized M. rubida. Relevant karyotypic information was obtained for 19 specimens belonging to 12 species collected in areas sampled for the first time [ Caluromys lanatus and C. philander (2n = 14, FN = 20, Gracilinanus emiliae (2n = 14, FN = 24, Marmosa murina , Metachirus nudicaudatus and Micoureus demerarae (2n = 14, FN = 20, Monodelphis americana (2n = 18, FN = 32 and M. domestica (2n = 18, FN = 20, and Didelphis marsupialis, Philander frenata, P. opossum and P. sp (2n = 22, FN = 20]. Although the karyotypes were relatively

  3. Tree species composition in areas of Atlantic Forest in southeastern Brazil is consistent with a new system for classifying the vegetation of South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Vasconcellos Eisenlohr

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Rigorous and well-defined criteria for the classification of vegetation constitute a prerequisite for effective biodiversity conservation strategies. In 2009, a new classification system was proposed for vegetation types in extra-Andean tropical and subtropical South America. The new system expanded upon the criteria established in the existing Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics classification system. Here, we attempted to determine whether the tree species composition of the formations within the Atlantic Forest Biome of Brazil is consistent with this new classification system. We compiled floristic surveys of 394 sites in southeastern Brazil (between 15º and 25ºS; and between the Atlantic coast and 55ºW. To assess the floristic consistency of the vegetation types, we performed non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS ordination analysis, followed by multifactorial ANOVA. The vegetation types, especially in terms of their thermal regimes, elevational belts and top-tier vegetation categories, were consistently discriminated in the first NMDS axis, and all assessed attributes showed at least one significant difference in the second axis. As was expected on the basis of the theoretical background, we found that tree species composition, in the areas of Atlantic Forest studied, was highly consistent with the new system of classification. Our findings not only help solidify the position of this new classification system but also contribute to expanding the knowledge of the patterns and underlying driving forces of the distribution of vegetation in the region.

  4. Sunlight mediated seasonality in canopy structure and photosynthetic activity of Amazonian rainforests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resolving the debate surrounding the nature and controls of seasonal variation in the structure and metabolism of Amazonian rainforests is critical to understanding their response to climate change. In situ studies have observed higher photosynthetic and evapotranspiration rates, increased litterfall and leaf flushing during the Sunlight-rich dry season. Satellite data also indicated higher greenness level, a proven surrogate of photosynthetic carbon fixation, and leaf area during the dry season relative to the wet season. Some recent reports suggest that rainforests display no seasonal variations and the previous results were satellite measurement artefacts. Therefore, here we re-examine several years of data from three sensors on two satellites under a range of sun positions and satellite measurement geometries and document robust evidence for a seasonal cycle in structure and greenness of wet equatorial Amazonian rainforests. This seasonal cycle is concordant with independent observations of solar radiation. We attribute alternative conclusions to an incomplete study of the seasonal cycle, i.e. the dry season only, and to prognostications based on a biased radiative transfer model. Consequently, evidence of dry season greening in geometry corrected satellite data was ignored and the absence of evidence for seasonal variation in lidar data due to noisy and saturated signals was misinterpreted as evidence of the absence of changes during the dry season. Our results, grounded in the physics of radiative transfer, buttress previous reports of dry season increases in leaf flushing, litterfall, photosynthesis and evapotranspiration in well-hydrated Amazonian rainforests. (letter)

  5. Hunting in the rainforest and mayaro virus infection: An emerging alphavirus in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo O Izurieta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objectives of this report were to document the potential presence of Mayaro virus infection in Ecuador and to examine potential risk factors for Mayaro virus infection among the personnel of a military garrison in the Amazonian rainforest. Materials and Methods: The study population consisted of the personnel of a garrison located in the Ecuadorian Amazonian rainforest. The cross-sectional study employed interviews and seroepidemiological methods. Humoral immune response to Mayaro virus infection was assessed by evaluating IgM- and IgG-specific antibodies using ELISA. Results: Of 338 subjects studied, 174 were from the Coastal zone of Ecuador, 73 from Andean zone, and 91 were native to the Amazonian rainforest. Seroprevalence of Mayaro virus infection was more than 20 times higher among Amazonian natives (46% than among subjects born in other areas (2%. Conclusions: Age and hunting in the rainforest were significant predictors of Mayaro virus infection overall and among Amazonian natives. The results provide the first demonstration of the potential presence of Mayaro virus infection in Ecuador and a systematic evaluation of risk factors for the transmission of this alphavirus. The large difference in prevalence rates between Amazonian natives and other groups and between older and younger natives suggest that Mayaro virus is endemic and enzootic in the rainforest, with sporadic outbreaks that determine differences in risk between birth cohorts of natives. Deep forest hunting may selectively expose native men, descendants of the Shuar and Huaronai ethnic groups, to the arthropod vectors of Mayaro virus in areas close to primate reservoirs.

  6. Acid rain in an Amazon rainforest

    OpenAIRE

    Haines, Bruce; Jordan, Carl; Clark, Howard; Clark, Kathleen E.

    2011-01-01

    Acid rain is reported from the Amazon territory of Venezuela. The volume weighted average pHwas 4.7 for 70 storms sampled from January 1979 through February 1980. At this location,remote from point sources of industrial pollution, acid rain might result from naturalbiogeochemical processes in the rainforest, from global atmospheric pollution, or from somecombination of natural and polliition processes.DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0889.1983.tb00011.x

  7. Litter mercury deposition in the Amazonian rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fostier, Anne Hélène; Melendez-Perez, José Javier; Richter, Larissa

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this work was to assess the flux of atmospheric mercury transferred to the soil of the Amazonian rainforest by litterfall. Calculations were based on a large survey of published and unpublished data on litterfall and Hg concentrations in litterfall samples from the Amazonian region. Litterfall based on 65 sites located in the Amazon rainforest averaged 8.15 ± 2.25 Mg ha(-1) y(-1). Average Hg concentrations were calculated from nine datasets for fresh tree leaves and ten datasets for litter, and a median concentration of 60.5 ng Hg g(-1) was considered for Hg deposition in litterfall, which averaged 49 ± 14 μg m(-2) yr(-1). This value was used to estimate that in the Amazonian rainforest, litterfall would be responsible for the annual removing of 268 ± 77 Mg of Hg, approximately 8% of the total atmospheric Hg deposition to land. The impact of the Amazon deforestation on the Hg biogeochemical cycle is also discussed. PMID:26312742

  8. Water use by terrestrial ecosystems: temporal variability in rainforest and agricultural contributions to evapotranspiration in Mato Grosso, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The state of Mato Grosso, Brazil, has experienced rapid land use changes from the expansion of rain-fed agriculture (primarily soybean and pasture). This study presents changes to evapotranspiration contributions from terrestrial ecosystems in Mato Grosso over the 2000–9 period. Instead of focusing on land use change to infer hydrologic change, in this paper we assess hydrologic changes using remote sensing, meteorological and agricultural production data to determine the rainforest, crop and pasture components of total evapotranspiration. Humid tropical rainforest evapotranspiration represented half of the state’s total evapotranspiration in 2000 despite occupying only 40% of the total land area. Annual evapotranspiration fluxes from rainforest declined at a rate of 16.2 km3 y−1 (R2 = 0.82, p-value < 0.01) as a result of deforestation between 2000 and 2009, representing a 25% decline in rainforest evapotranspiration since 2000. By 2009, rainforest cover accounted for only 40% of total evapotranspiration. Over the same period, crop evapotranspiration doubled, but this increase was offset by a decline in pasture evapotranspiration. Pasture fluxes were at least five times larger than crop evapotranspiration fluxes in 2000–9, with increases spatially focused at the agricultural frontier. The results highlight the expanding appropriation of soil moisture stocks for use in Mato Grosso’s rain-fed agroecosystems. (letter)

  9. Ethnobotany and the identification of therapeutic agents from the rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balick, M J

    1990-01-01

    Many rainforest plant species, including trees and herbaceous plants, are employed as medicines by indigenous people. In much of the American tropics, locally harvested herbal medicines are used for a significant portion of the primary health care, in both rural and urban areas. An experienced curandero or herbal healer is familiar with those species with marked biological activity, which are often classified as 'powerful plants'. Examples are given from studies in progress since 1987 in Belize, Central America. The Institute of Economic Botany of The New York Botanical Garden is collaborating with the National Cancer Institute in Bethesda, Maryland (USA) in the search for higher plants with anti-AIDS and anticancer activity. Several strategies are cited for identification of promising leads from among the circa 110,000 species of higher plants that are present in the neotropics, the focus of this search. Recommendations are offered for the design of future efforts to identify plant leads for pharmaceutical testing. PMID:2086039

  10. AFLP marker analysis revealing genetic structure of the tree Parapiptadenia rigida (Benth. Brenan (Leguminosae-Mimosoideae in the southern Brazilian Tropical Rainforest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laís Bérgamo de Souza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Parapiptadenia rigida is a tropical early secondary succession tree characteristic of the Tropical Atlantic Rainforest. This species is of great ecological importance in the recovery of degraded areas. In this study we investigated the variability and population genetic structure of eight populations of P. rigida. Five AFLP primer combinations were used in a sample of 159 individuals representing these eight populations, rendering a total of 126 polymorphic fragments. The averages of percentage of polymorphic loci, gene diversity, and Shannon index were 60.45%, 0.217, and 0.322, respectively. A significant correlation between the population genetic variability and the population sizes was observed. The genetic variability within populations (72.20% was higher than between these (22.80%. No perfect correlation was observed between geographic and genetic distances, which might be explained by differences in deforestation intensities that occurred in these areas. A dendrogram constructed by the UPGMA method revealed the formation of two clusters, these also confirmed by Bayesian analysis for the number of K cluster. These results show that it is necessary to develop urgent management strategies for the conservation of certain populations of P. rigida, while other populations still preserve reasonably high levels of genetic variability.

  11. Malaria in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, an Atlantic Forest area: an assessment using the health surveillance service

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The lethality of malaria in the extra-Amazonian region is more than 70 times higher than in Amazonia itself. Recently, several studies have shown that autochthonous malaria is not a rare event in the Brazilian southeastern states in the Atlantic Forest biome. Information about autochthonous malaria in the state of Rio de Janeiro (RJ) is scarce. This study aims to assess malaria cases reported to the Health Surveillance System of the State of Rio de Janeiro between 2000-2010. An average of 90 ...

  12. CO2 fertilization stimulates vegetation productivity but has little impact on hydrology in tropical rainforests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuting; Donohue, Randall; McVicar, Tim; Roderick, Michael; Beck, Hylke

    2016-04-01

    Tropical rainforests contribute to ~52% of the terrestrial biomass carbon and more than one-third of global terrestrial net primary production. Thus, understanding how tropical rainforests respond to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration (eCO2) is essential for predicting Earth's carbon, water and energy budgets under future climate change. While the Free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) technique has greatly advanced our understanding of how boreal and temperate ecosystems respond to eCO2, there are currently no FACE sites available in tropical rainforest ecosystems. Here we firstly examine the trend in long-term (1982-2010) satellite-observed leaf area index and fraction of vegetation light absorption and find only minor changes in these variables in tropical rainforests over years, suggesting that eCO2 has not increased vegetation leaf area in tropical rainforests and therefore any plant response to eCO2 occurs at the leaf-level. Following that, we investigate the long-term physiological response (i.e., leaf-level) of tropical rainforests to eCO2 from three different perspectives by: (1) analyzing long-term runoff and precipitation records in 18 unimpaired tropical rainforest catchments to provide observational evidence on the eCO2 effect from an eco-hydrological perspective; (2) developing an analytical model using gas-exchange theory to predict the effect of eCO2 from a top-down perspective; and (3) interpreting outputs from 10 process-oriented ecosystem models to examine the effect of eCO2 from a bottom-up perspective. Our results show that the observed runoff coefficient (the ratio of runoff over precipitation) and ecosystem evapotranspiration (calculated from catchment water balance) remain relatively constant in 18 unimpaired tropical catchments over 1982-2010, implying an unchanged hydrological partitioning and thus conserved transpiration under eCO2. For the same period, using 'top-down' model based on gas-exchange theory, we predict an increase in plant

  13. Economic benefits of biodiversity exceed costs of conservation at an African rainforest reserve

    OpenAIRE

    Naidoo, Robin; Adamowicz, Wiktor L.

    2005-01-01

    Economic research on biodiversity conservation has focused on the costs of conservation reserves and the benefits of intact ecosystems; however, no study has simultaneously considered the costs and benefits of species diversity, a fundamental component of biodiversity. We quantified the costs and benefits of avian biodiversity at a rainforest reserve in Uganda through a combination of economic surveys of tourists, spatial land-use analyses, and species-area relationships. Our results show tha...

  14. An Atlantic influence on Amazon rainfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jin-Ho [University of Maryland, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science, College Park, MD (United States); Zeng, Ning [University of Maryland, Earth System Science Interdisciplinary Center, College Park, MD (United States); University of Maryland, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science, College Park, MD (United States)

    2010-02-15

    Rainfall variability over the Amazon basin has often been linked to variations in Pacific sea surface temperature (SST), and in particular, to the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO). However, only a fraction of Amazon rainfall variability can be explained by ENSO. Building upon the recent work of Zeng (Environ Res Lett 3:014002, 2008), here we provide further evidence for an influence on Amazon rainfall from the tropical Atlantic Ocean. The strength of the North Atlantic influence is found to be comparable to the better-known Pacific ENSO connection. The tropical South Atlantic Ocean also shows some influence during the wet-to-dry season transition period. The Atlantic influence is through changes in the north-south divergent circulation and the movement of the ITCZ following warm SST. Therefore, it is strongest in the southern part of the Amazon basin during the Amazon's dry season (July-October). In contrast, the ENSO related teleconnection is through anomalous east-west Walker circulation with largely concentrated in the eastern (lower) Amazon. This ENSO connection is seasonally locked to boreal winter. A complication due to the influence of ENSO on Atlantic SST causes an apparent North Atlantic SST lag of Amazon rainfall. Removing ENSO from North Atlantic SST via linear regression resolves this causality problem in that the residual Atlantic variability correlates well and is in phase with the Amazon rainfall. A strong Atlantic influence during boreal summer and autumn is particularly significant in terms of the impact on the hydro-ecosystem which is most vulnerable during the dry season, as highlighted by the severe 2005 Amazon drought. Such findings have implications for both seasonal-interannual climate prediction and understanding the longer-term changes of the Amazon rainforest. (orig.)

  15. Composition of mixed flocks of understory forest birds in areas of the Atlantic coast and lowlands of Santa Catarina state, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Antonio Guimarães Azevedo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available An accompaniment of forest mixed flocks was carried in two localities of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil, one on a forest hillside of the Atlantic on the Island of Santa Catarina (June to September, 2000 and another in a quaternary plain forest of the Volta Velha Reserve, Itapoá (June to November, 2000. Sixty-four species of birds were registered from the 79 identified flocks, 33 of which showed a frequency of occurrence above 10%. The flocks had an average number of six species. The nuclear species responsible for the aggregation and compacting of the flocks, for the two localities was Basileuterus culicivorus. The mixed flocks presented little difference in their composition in the two areas. This is probably due to the history of the colonization and the distinct forest formations of the two areas involved.

  16. A Mitochondrial DNA Phylogeny Indicates Close Relationships between Populations of Lutzomyia whitmani (Diptera: Psychodidae, Phlebotominae) from the Rain-forest Regions of Amazônia and Northeast Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    EAY Ishikawa; Ready PD; Souza AA de; Day JC; EF Rangel; CR Davies; JJ Shaw

    1999-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of all 31 described mitochondrial (cytochrome b) haplotypes of Lutzomyia whitmani demonstrated that new material from the State of Rondônia, in southwest Amazônia, forms a clade within a lineage found only in the rain-forest regions of Brazil. This rain-forest lineage also contains two other clades of haplotypes, one from eastern Amazônia and one from the Atlantic forest zone of northeast Brazil (including the type locality of the species in Ilhéus, State of Bahia). Thes...

  17. Comparative phylogeography in rainforest trees from Lower Guinea, Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuertz, Myriam; Duminil, Jérôme; Dauby, Gilles; Savolainen, Vincent; Hardy, Olivier J

    2014-01-01

    Comparative phylogeography is an effective approach to assess the evolutionary history of biological communities. We used comparative phylogeography in fourteen tree taxa from Lower Guinea (Atlantic Equatorial Africa) to test for congruence with two simple evolutionary scenarios based on physio-climatic features 1) the W-E environmental gradient and 2) the N-S seasonal inversion, which determine climatic and seasonality differences in the region. We sequenced the trnC-ycf6 plastid DNA region using a dual sampling strategy: fourteen taxa with small sample sizes (dataset 1, mean n = 16/taxon), to assess whether a strong general pattern of allele endemism and genetic differentiation emerged; and four taxonomically well-studied species with larger sample sizes (dataset 2, mean n = 109/species) to detect the presence of particular shared phylogeographic patterns. When grouping the samples into two alternative sets of two populations, W and E, vs. N and S, neither dataset exhibited a strong pattern of allelic endemism, suggesting that none of the considered regions consistently harboured older populations. Differentiation in dataset 1 was similarly strong between W and E as between N and S, with 3-5 significant F ST tests out of 14 tests in each scenario. Coalescent simulations indicated that, given the power of the data, this result probably reflects idiosyncratic histories of the taxa, or a weak common differentiation pattern (possibly with population substructure) undetectable across taxa in dataset 1. Dataset 2 identified a common genetic break separating the northern and southern populations of Greenwayodendron suaveolens subsp. suaveolens var. suaveolens, Milicia excelsa, Symphonia globulifera and Trichoscypha acuminata in Lower Guinea, in agreement with differentiation across the N-S seasonal inversion. Our work suggests that currently recognized tree taxa or suspected species complexes can contain strongly differentiated genetic lineages, which could lead

  18. Comparative phylogeography in rainforest trees from Lower Guinea, Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Heuertz

    Full Text Available Comparative phylogeography is an effective approach to assess the evolutionary history of biological communities. We used comparative phylogeography in fourteen tree taxa from Lower Guinea (Atlantic Equatorial Africa to test for congruence with two simple evolutionary scenarios based on physio-climatic features 1 the W-E environmental gradient and 2 the N-S seasonal inversion, which determine climatic and seasonality differences in the region. We sequenced the trnC-ycf6 plastid DNA region using a dual sampling strategy: fourteen taxa with small sample sizes (dataset 1, mean n = 16/taxon, to assess whether a strong general pattern of allele endemism and genetic differentiation emerged; and four taxonomically well-studied species with larger sample sizes (dataset 2, mean n = 109/species to detect the presence of particular shared phylogeographic patterns. When grouping the samples into two alternative sets of two populations, W and E, vs. N and S, neither dataset exhibited a strong pattern of allelic endemism, suggesting that none of the considered regions consistently harboured older populations. Differentiation in dataset 1 was similarly strong between W and E as between N and S, with 3-5 significant F ST tests out of 14 tests in each scenario. Coalescent simulations indicated that, given the power of the data, this result probably reflects idiosyncratic histories of the taxa, or a weak common differentiation pattern (possibly with population substructure undetectable across taxa in dataset 1. Dataset 2 identified a common genetic break separating the northern and southern populations of Greenwayodendron suaveolens subsp. suaveolens var. suaveolens, Milicia excelsa, Symphonia globulifera and Trichoscypha acuminata in Lower Guinea, in agreement with differentiation across the N-S seasonal inversion. Our work suggests that currently recognized tree taxa or suspected species complexes can contain strongly differentiated genetic lineages

  19. Edge-related loss of tree phylogenetic diversity in the severely fragmented Brazilian Atlantic forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bráulio A Santos

    Full Text Available Deforestation and forest fragmentation are known major causes of nonrandom extinction, but there is no information about their impact on the phylogenetic diversity of the remaining species assemblages. Using a large vegetation dataset from an old hyper-fragmented landscape in the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest we assess whether the local extirpation of tree species and functional impoverishment of tree assemblages reduce the phylogenetic diversity of the remaining tree assemblages. We detected a significant loss of tree phylogenetic diversity in forest edges, but not in core areas of small (<80 ha forest fragments. This was attributed to a reduction of 11% in the average phylogenetic distance between any two randomly chosen individuals from forest edges; an increase of 17% in the average phylogenetic distance to closest non-conspecific relative for each individual in forest edges; and to the potential manifestation of late edge effects in the core areas of small forest remnants. We found no evidence supporting fragmentation-induced phylogenetic clustering or evenness. This could be explained by the low phylogenetic conservatism of key life-history traits corresponding to vulnerable species. Edge effects must be reduced to effectively protect tree phylogenetic diversity in the severely fragmented Brazilian Atlantic forest.

  20. Habitat use, social structure and basic ethological aspects of a band of coatis (Nasua nasua Linnaeus, 1766 (Carnivora: Procyonidae in Atlantic Forest area, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah de Barros

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Coatis (Nasua nasua are terrestrials, despite their extreme ease of climbing trees, and have a complex social structure, where the males are solitary outside the reproductive season and the females live in groups with their pups and juveniles for most of the year. This study aimed to describe the use of habitat and social structure of a coati group in the Cantareira State Park, a fragment of the Atlantic Forest located in the metropolitan area of São Paulo. The behavior of these animals was observed in the fragment twice per week. The results showed that it was similar to that described in the literature, with a preference for the ground habitat rather than trees, the fact that the males are solitary (except at the time of reproduction, and the gregarious habit of females and their pups and juveniles.

  1. Soil ants and bromeliad-nesting ants in an Atlantic Forest area, Santa Catarina Island, southern Brazil: Species inventory and new records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefina Steiner

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The myrmecofauna in an Atlantic Forest area was studied using various methods for soil ants and bromeliad-nesting ants. Monthly collections were performed between March 2002 and August 2004, using a Winkler extractor, pitfall traps and bromeliad individuals. One hundred and twenty-four species from nine subfamilies and 33 genera were found. The richest genera were Pheidole, Solenopsis, Crematogaster, Acromyrmex and Camponotus. More species were found in soil than in bromeliads, with 8% occurring in both habitats. Twelve species are new records for Santa Catarina State and 19 are new for the greater Florianópolis region. These results correlate with the use of new methodologies for the region, showing that the ant fauna of Santa Catarina Island still needs to be better studied.

  2. Oceanic Distribution, Behaviour, and a Winter Aggregation Area of Adult Atlantic Sturgeon, Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus, in the Bay of Fundy, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Douglas Taylor

    Full Text Available Seasonal distribution of adult Atlantic sturgeon was examined using pop-up satellite archival tags (PSATs and ultrasonic transmitters deployed in the Saint John River, New Brunswick, Canada. Seven MK10 PSATs programmed for release in June 2012 and seven MiniPAT PSATs programmed for release in February and April 2013 were deployed in August 2011 and 2012, respectively. Eleven of 14 PSATs surfaced and transmitted depth and temperature data archived for the duration of their deployment (121-302 days. Among these eleven PSATs, five were recovered and 15-sec archival data was downloaded. Following exit from the Saint John River in the fall, tagged fish occupied a mean monthly depth of 76.3-81.6 m at temperatures as low as 4.9˚C throughout the winter before returning to shallower areas in the spring. The majority of ultrasonic detections occurred in the Bay of Fundy, but fish were detected as far as Riviere Saint-Jean, Quebec, approximately 1500 km from the Bay of Fundy (representing long-distance migratory rates of up to 44 km/day. All PSATs were first detected in the Bay of Fundy. Tags that released in February and April were found 5-21 km offshore of the Saint John Harbour, while tags that released in June were first detected in near shore areas throughout the Bay of Fundy. The substrate at winter tag release locations (estimated from backward numerical particle-tracking experiments consisted primarily of moraines and postglacial mud substrate with low backscatter strength, indicative of soft or smooth seabed. Based on the proximity of winter tag release locations, the consistent depths observed between fish, and previous research, it is suspected that a winter aggregation exists in the Bay of Fundy. This study expands the understanding of the marine distribution and range of Atlantic sturgeon on the east coast of Canada.

  3. Phoretic association between larvae of Rheotanytarsus (Diptera: Chironomidae and genera of Odonata in a first-order stream in an area of Atlantic Forest in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz F. J. Vescovi Rosa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In this note, the occurrence of phoresy between larvae of Rheotanitarsus sp. (Diptera: Chironomidae and larvae of Heteragrion sp. (Odonata: Megapodagrionidae and of unidentified genera of Calopterygidae (Odonata collected in a first-order stream in an area of Atlantic Forest in southeastern Brazil is reported. During the dry season of 2007 and the rainy season of 2008, with the aid of a Surber sampler, 15 samples of each of the following mesohabitats were collected: litter from riffle areas, litter from pool areas and sediment in pool areas. Eighty-five Odonata larvae were obtained, 10 (11.76% with cases of phoresy by Rheotanytarsus sp.. These chironomids were associated with only one specimen of Megapodagrionidae, whereas the other larvae were recorded in association with Calopterygidae. Most of the Odonata with cases of phoresy by Rheotanytarsus sp. were recorded in the dry season. In the present study, the absence of the phoretic association with other potential hosts for Rheotanytarsus sp. found in the samples indicates a possible preference of these larvae for Odonata, which accounted for only 2.42% of the collected macroinvertebrates in litter and sediment.

  4. Vegetation and floristics of a lowland tropical rainforest in northeast Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apgaua, Deborah M. G.; Campbell, Mason J; Cox, Casey J; Crayn, Darren M; Ishida, Françoise Y; Laidlaw, Melinda J; Liddell, Michael J; Seager, Michael; Laurance, Susan G. W.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Full floristic data, tree demography, and biomass estimates incorporating non-tree lifeforms are seldom collected and reported for forest plots in the tropics. Established research stations serve as important repositories of such biodiversity and ecological data. With a canopy crane setup within a tropical lowland rainforest estate, the 42-ha Daintree Rainforest Observatory (DRO) in Cape Tribulation, northern Australia is a research facility of international significance. We obtained an estimate of the vascular plant species richness for the site, by surveying all vascular plant species from various mature-phase, remnant and open vegetation patches within the site. We also integrate and report the demography and basal areas of trees ≥ 10 cm diameter at breast height (dbh) in a new 1-ha core plot, an extension to the pre-existing forest 1-ha plot under the canopy crane. In addition, we report for the canopy crane plot new demography and basal areas for smaller-size shrubs and treelets subsampled from nine 20 m2 quadrats, and liana basal area and abundance from the whole plot. The DRO site has an estimated total vascular plant species richness of 441 species, of which 172 species (39%) are endemic to Australia, and 4 species are endemics to the Daintree region. The 2 x 1-ha plots contains a total of 262 vascular plant species of which 116 (1531 individuals) are tree species ≥ 10 cm dbh. We estimate a stem basal area of 34.9 m2 ha-1, of which small stems (tree saplings and shrubs dbh) and lianas collectively contribute c.4.2%. Comparing the stem density-diversity patterns of the DRO forest with other tropical rainforests globally, our meta-analysis shows that DRO forests has a comparatively high stem density and moderate species diversity, due to the influence of cyclones. These data will provide an important foundation for ecological and conservation studies in lowland tropical forest. New information We present a floristic checklist, a

  5. Feeding habits of the leaf litter frog Haddadus binotatus (Anura, Craugastoridae from two Atlantic Forest areas in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LÍVIA COCO

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Haddadus binotatus is an endemic anuran of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest and currently, there is no information about the diet of this species. We analyzed the diet of two populations of this anuran in two states in southeast Brazil. Samplings were carried out in 2004 in the state of Rio de Janeiro and in 2009 and 2010 in the state of Espírito Santo. Haddadus binotatus presented a rich diet composition, preying 19 prey types. Orthoptera, Coleoptera, and Blattodea were the most important preys in the Rio de Janeiro population, and Orthoptera, Araneae and Hemiptera were the most important in the Espírito Santo population. The diet composition differed numerically between the two localities, but not in terms of volume, which can reflect local differences in the prey availability in the two habitats. The jaw width limited the size of prey, which is expected for predators who swallow the preys without chewing. The proportion of individuals with empty stomachs was higher in the Rio de Janeiro population (39.2% than in the Espírito Santo population (17.9%, suggesting that the former could be in a lower energy balance. The females of the species were larger than the males, which may result from the production of larger eggs.

  6. Conjoint Seasonal and Intraseasonal Dynamics of Precipitation and NDVI Over The Amazon And The Congo Rainforests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yepes, L. J.; Poveda, G.

    2014-12-01

    We study the conjoint seasonal and intraseasonal variability of precipitation and NDVI over the Amazon and the Congo rainforests, using pentad precipitation from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM; 0.25°x0.25°; from 1998 to 2010), as well as from the CPC Merged Analysis of Precipitation (CMAP; 2.5°x2.5°; from 1979 to 2011). NDVI is obtained from NASA (DAAC-EOSDIS) (0.25°x0.25°, from 2000 to 2010). Results for Amazonia show a uni-modal out-phased seasonal cycle of precipitation and NDVI, whereas bi-modal and in-phase over the Congo (Figure 1). Dry months over Amazonia (August-September) correspond with lagged maximum NDVI values in June-July-August (Western-Central-Eastern) and with the second wet season over the Congo, whereas wet-season months over Amazonia (March-April) coincide with the lowest NDVI values, as well as with the first wet season and maximum NDVI over the Congo. A (tropical) transatlantic Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF) analysis of pentad precipitation (20-100 day filtered) indicates that EOF No. 1 (52% of variance; Fig. 2a) exhibits a meridional dipole with higher positive loadings over the tropical North Atlantic (5°N-10°N), and higher negative loadings from 5°N to the equator over the Atlantic, and to 15°S over the continents. The Principal Component No. 1 exhibits a predominant 37-day frequency. EOF No. 2 (18% of variance; Fig.2b) exhibits a tripole pattern with positive loadings over southern Amazonia, the tropical North Atlantic, and (south) equatorial Africa, and a transatlantic pattern of negative loadings from 0 to 5°N including both continents, with a 38-day periodicity. EOF No. 3 (8% of variance; Fig. 2c) exhibits a tripole between the Amazon, the Atlantic Ocean and the Congo, with a 19-day frequency. EOF No. 4 (5%; Fig. 2d) shows a dipole between the Amazon and Congo rainforests, with a predominant period of 20 days. The apparent west-to-east patterns identified in the principal EOFs could be associated with

  7. OH radical "life expectancy" within and above the Amazon rainforest: vertical, diel and seasonal variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nölscher, A.; Yanez-Serrano, A. M.; Kesselmeier, J.; Artaxo, P. P.; Wolff, S.; Trebs, I.; Williams, J.

    2013-12-01

    The Amazon rainforest forest is the world's largest contiguous ecosystem. Being about 6 million km2 it is around two thirds the area of the United States. The Amazon forest plays an important part of the Earth's hydrological, energy and carbon cycles. Photosynthetic uptake of CO2 by the rainforest affects the global radiative budget and concomitant release of reactive biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) can directly impact the atmosphere's primary oxidant, the hydroxyl (OH) radical as well as aerosol production and growth. Direct measurement of the total atmospheric OH reactivity (or inverse OH lifetime), in parallel with the individual BVOC can reveal insights into the coupling between biogenic emissions, atmospheric oxidation processes, canopy transport, and the OH budget. In this study we present for the first time, vertical profiles of total OH reactivity and biogenic VOCs that were monitored simultaneously throughout dry season, wet season and transition periods, from a remote tropical rainforest site in the Amazon (Amazonian Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO), S 02°08'38.8'', W 58°59'59.5'', 120 m above sea level, 150 km NE of the city of Manaus, Brazil). The profiles consisted of sequential measurements at 0.05m, 0.5m, 4 m, 12m, 24m, 38m, 53m and 79m, a single profile taking 16 minutes to complete. The measurements were made using Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS), directly in the case of BVOC and using the Comparative Reactivity Method pre-reactor for total OH reactivity. The vertical, diel and seasonal variations in total OH reactivity will be discussed. Total OH reactivity and isoprene profiles were observed to vary strongly between the seasons. Biogenic emissions from the canopy impacted the measurements as well as photo-oxidation, turbulent mixing, and deposition. Tower in the Amazon rainforest for measurements of vertical profiles of BVOCs and total OH reactivity from the forest floor, through the canopy, up to 80m.

  8. China's largest tropical rainforest dynamics plot established in Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ A 20-ha Tropical Rainforest Dynamics Plot, located in Xishuangbanna in southwestern Yunnan Province, was recently established by the CAS Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden (XTBG) and the Xishuangbanna National Nature Reserve Administration recently.

  9. Rainforests at the beginning of the 21st century

    OpenAIRE

    Mics, F.; Rozak, A. H.; Kocsis, M.; Homoródi, Réka; Hufnagel, Levente

    2013-01-01

    Rainforests are situated at low latitude where forests enjoy steady and strong radiation. Biodiversity in rainforests has been very high, for historical and climatic reasons. The number of species is very high and tends to increase with precipitation and decrease with seasonality. Disturbance, soil fertility and forest stature also influence the species richness and high turnover of species contribute to diversity. Field observation and studies revealed that large scale deforestat...

  10. NOAA TIFF Image - 4m Multibeam Backscatter for Red Snapper Research Areas in the South Atlantic Bight, 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains unified Multibeam Backscatter GeoTiffs with 4x4 meter cell resolution describing the geomorphology of 15 areas along the shelf edge off the...

  11. NOAA TIFF Image - 4m Bathymetric Plan Curvature of Red Snapper Research Areas in the South Atlantic Bight, 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains unified Bathymetric Plan Curvature GeoTiffs with 4x4 meter cell resolution describing the topography of 15 areas along the shelf edge off the...

  12. NOAA TIFF Image - 4m Bathymetric Slope of Red Snapper Research Areas in the South Atlantic Bight, 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains unified Bathymetric Slope GeoTiffs with 4x4 meter cell resolution describing the topography of 15 areas along the shelf edge off the South...

  13. NOAA TIFF Image - 4m Bathymetric Depth Range of Red Snapper Research Areas in the South Atlantic Bight, 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains unified Bathymetric Depth Range GeoTiffs with 4x4 meter cell resolution describing the topography of 15 areas along the shelf edge off the...

  14. NOAA TIFF Image - 4m Bathymetric Depth of Red Snapper Research Areas in the South Atlantic Bight, 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains unified Bathymetric Depth GeoTiffs with 4x4 meter cell resolution describing the topography of 15 areas along the shelf edge off the South...

  15. NOAA TIFF Image - 4m Bathymetric Mean Depth of Red Snapper Research Areas in the South Atlantic Bight, 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains unified Bathymetric Mean Depth GeoTiffs with 4x4 meter cell resolution describing the topography of 15 areas along the shelf edge off the...

  16. NOAA TIFF Image - 4m Bathymetric Rugosity of Red Snapper Research Areas in the South Atlantic Bight, 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains unified Bathymetric Rugosity GeoTiffs with 4x4 meter cell resolution describing the topography of 15 areas along the shelf edge off the South...

  17. NOAA TIFF Image - 4m Bathymetric Curvature of Red Snapper Research Areas in the South Atlantic Bight, 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains unified Bathymetric Curvature GeoTiffs with 4x4 meter cell resolution describing the topography of 15 areas along the shelf edge off the South...

  18. NOAA TIFF Image - 4m Bathymetric Profile Curvature of Red Snapper Research Areas in the South Atlantic Bight, 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains unified Bathymetric Profile Curvature GeoTiffs with 4x4 meter cell resolution describing the topography of 15 areas along the shelf edge off...

  19. NOAA TIFF Image - 4m Bathymetric Slope of Slope for Red Snapper Research Areas in the South Atlantic Bight, 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains unified Bathymetric Slope of Slope GeoTiffs with 4x4 meter cell resolution describing the topography of 15 areas along the shelf edge off the...

  20. NOAA TIFF Image - 4m Sun Illuminated Bathymetry for Red Snapper Research Areas in the South Atlantic Bight, 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains unified Sun Illuminated Bathymetry GeoTiffs with 4x4 meter cell resolution describing the topography of 15 areas along the shelf edge off the...

  1. Soil dissolved organic matter export to coastal temperate rainforest streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, R. T.; D'Amore, D. V.; Hood, E.; Johnson, A.

    2006-12-01

    The north coastal temperate rainforest is a dynamic area of biogeochemical exchange between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Wetlands and poorly drained soils dominate the landscape, where wetlands alone comprise 30% of the watersheds. The region is experiencing warming with potentially profound impacts on soil processes, forest structure, stream productivity, and the large and valuable salmon fishery. There are few data on stream chemistry, biological productivity, or discharge among soils and streams in the region. To predict the impact of climate change, management practices or land use on streams we need better baseline data on soil-stream interactions in temperate rainforest watersheds. We measured weekly export of dissolved organic matter from 3 dominant soil vegetation communities (peat bogs, forested wetlands and mineral soil uplands) during spring through fall of 2006. Three replicate sites for each soil type were gauged with weirs and fluxes of major forms of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus measured. Discharge dominated the seasonal flux dynamics but major differences in export and area-specific export emphasized differences in soil-specific transformations on nutrient export potential. Export per unit soil area varied from 0.01 to 25 kg C/ha/day. Peat bogs exported 2-5 times as much per unit area as the other two soils. Forested wetlands were intermediate between bogs and uplands in export per unit area. Mean daily carbon fluxes from gauged subcatchments ranged from 0.01 to 75 kg C/day. Because they are larger than bogs, forested wetlands exported the greatest amount of DOC at our study locations, with uplands exporting intermediate amounts during spring floods. Uplands and bogs exported far less than forested wetlands during normal flow conditions. Total nitrogen fluxes were dominated by organic forms and seasonal trends closely followed the patterns observed for DOC. Although wetlands of either type export more organic matter per unit area, the

  2. Assessing the contribution of leaf respiration to the carbon economy of tropical rainforest tree species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weerasinghe, Lasantha; Creek, Danielle; Crous, Kristine; Xiang, Shuang; Atkin, Owen

    2013-04-01

    Tropical rainforests are among the most important biomes in terms of annual primary productivity; hence, assessing their sensitivity to potential shifts in global and regional temperatures patterns is a necessary step to model future local, regional, and global carbon cycling. However, how the changes in future climate including increased temperatures in short- and long-term basis might impact on the carbon cycling in these tropical rainforests is little studied and remain poorly understood. Given this, this study examined the impact of short and long term changes in temperature on leaf respiration in tropical lowland rainforest located in Far North Queensland, Australia. We quantified how leaf respiration responded to short-term changes in temperature and associated leaf chemical and structural traits in 16 tropical rainforest tree species at two canopy heights; upper and lower level of the tree canopy. Further we measured rates of photosynthesis (A) and leaf respiration (R) both in the dark and light, and relationships between those traits and associated leaf structural and chemical traits. Four of these species were subsequently exposed to three different growth temperatures of 25° C, 30° C and 35° C under controlled environment conditions and ability of leaf respiration to acclimate to new temperature regimes was examined. In the field, upper canopy leaves showed higher rates of leaf respiration in darkness and in light than lower canopy leaves at a given set temperature (28° C). Moreover, at any given leaf mass per unit area (LMA), leaf nitrogen [N] and leaf phosphorus [P] value, rates of respiration were higher in upper canopy leaves (compared to lower canopy leaves). The short-term temperature sensitivity of leaf respiration (Q10) was found to be constant around 1.89 at 25° C irrespective of species or canopy position. Three out of four species subjected to different long-term growth temperatures under control environment conditions exhibited some

  3. A short review of the distribution of short-beaked common dolphins (Delphinus delphis in the central and eastern North Atlantic with an abundance estimate for part of this area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cañadas

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses data from 3 programmes: (1 the North Atlantic Sightings Surveys (NASS surveys undertaken throughout much of the central and eastern North Atlantic north of about 40° N in 1987, 1989, 1995 and 2001; (2 the MICA-93 programme; and (3 the north eastern Atlantic segment of the Small Cetacean Abundance in the North Sea (SCANS survey in 1994. The data from all surveys were used to examine the distribution of common dolphins in the NE Atlantic. No sightings were made north of 57° N. An initial attempt to examine distribution against 4 potential non biological explanatory variables was made. A simple interpretation of the preliminary analyses presented here is that the primary areas for groups of common dolphins were in waters over 15° C and depths of 400-1,000 m (there does appear a link with shelf features, between around 49°-55° N especially between 20°-30°W. An illustrative example of spatial modelling is presented. Only for 1 year (and part of the total survey area were there sufficient data to attempt to estimate abundance: 1995. The estimated abundance in the W Block of the NASS-95 Faroese survey was 273,159 (cv=0.26; 95% CI=153,392-435,104 short-beaked common dolphins. This estimate is corrected for animals missed on the trackline (g(0 and for responsive movement.

  4. On the potential of an RST-based analysis of the MODIS-derived chl-a product over Condor seamount and surrounding areas (Azores, NE Atlantic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciancia, Emanuele; Magalhães Loureiro, Clara; Mendonça, Ana; Coviello, Irina; Di Polito, Carmine; Lacava, Teodosio; Pergola, Nicola; Satriano, Valeria; Tramutoli, Valerio; Martins, Ana

    2016-07-01

    Oceanographic cruises have been conducted on the Condor seamount (SW Faial Island, Azores archipelago, NE Atlantic) since 2009 to collect in situ data and understand potential seamount effects on local biodiversity. Satellite data have been concurrently collected to infer the space-time upper-ocean optical property variability and the associated physical processes. The main limitation of this analysis is the persistent and significant cloud coverage above the region that, especially in some seasons, can significantly hinder satellite data availability. This study was meant to test the robust satellite technique (RST) over the Condor seamount, assess its capability to estimate multiyear trends and identify space-time anomalies. To this aim, 11-year MODIS/AQUA level 2-derived chlorophyll-a (chl-a) data were used. Results achieved for October 2010 show, within a large-scale analysis, the presence of well-defined areas of near-surface chl-a anomalies, highlighting the occurrence of a trapping effect due to flow-topography interaction processes. Regarding the Condor area, the chl-a anomalies detected along the eastern side of the seamount were linked to a strong vertical mixing that provided sufficient inorganic nutrients requested for productivity. The achieved results, whose accuracy was also tested through a comparison with in situ data, are consistent with those independently obtained by other authors who described the phytoplankton variability around the Condor seamount. This study shows the high potential of the RST approach to assess the chl-a variability in the space-time domain in oligotrophic regions such as the Azores, allowing the identification of the most important areas to be preserved and/or managed.

  5. Mites (Acari: Trombidiformes) parasitizing mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in an Atlantic Forest area in southern Brazil with a new mite genus country record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Emili Bortolon; Favretto, Mario Arthur; Dos Santos Costa, Samuel Geremias; Navarro-Silva, Mario Antonio

    2016-07-01

    In this study, a total of 4146 culicids collected in an Atlantic Forest area in Paraná state, southern Brazil were examined for the presence of mites. Forty larval Parasitengone mites (Arrenurus spp., Arrenuridae; Durenia spp., Trombellidae; Microtrombidium spp., Microtrombidiidae) parasitized 25 specimens of mosquitoes, with the intensity varying from one to nine mites attached. Most mites were found on Aedes serratus/nubilus, Culex vomerifer, Cx. pedroi and Cx. sacchettae. The overall percentage of parasitized mosquitoes was 0.6 %. The highest intensity of mites encountered was in an individual of Cx. pedroi with nine attached mites. Regarding the attachment site, most mite specimens were attached to the abdomen (n = 25), whereas 15 were located on the thorax. Specimens of Arrenurus spp. were only found on the abdomen of mosquitoes, and the same was observed for Microtrombidium spp., while Durenia spp. attached to both the thorax (n = 15) and abdomen (n = 4). This is the first record for the genus Durenia in Brazil. Additionally, some species of mosquitoes were, for the first time, reported as being parasitized by mites. PMID:27085719

  6. Differential acetyl cholinesterase inhibition by volatile oils from two specimens of Marlierea racemosa (Myrtaceae) collected from different areas of the Atlantic Rain Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Amanda; Silva, Michelle C; Cardoso-Lopes, Elaine M; Cordeiro, Inês; Sobral, Marcos E G; Young, Maria Cláudia M; Moreno, Paulo R H

    2009-08-01

    The volatile oil composition and anti-acetyl cholinesterase activity were analyzed in two specimens of Marlierea racemosa growing in different areas of the Atlantic Rain Forest (Cananéia and Caraguatatuba, SP, Brazil). Component identifications were performed by GC/MS and their acetyl cholinesterase inhibitory activity was measured through colorimetric analysis. The major constituent in both specimens was spathulenol (25.1% in Cananéia and 31.9% in Caraguatatuba). However, the first one also presented monoterpenes (41.2%), while in the Carguatatuba plants, this class was not detected. The oils from the plants collected in Cananéia were able to inhibit the acetyl cholinesterase activity by up to 75%, but for oils from the other locality the maximal inhibition achieved was 35%. These results suggested that the monoterpenes are more effective in the inhibition of acetyl cholinesterase activity than sesquiterpenes as these compounds are present in higher amounts in the M. racemosa plants collected in Cananéia. PMID:19769001

  7. Multi-Scalar Governance for Restoring the Brazilian Atlantic Forest: A Case Study on Small Landholdings in Protected Areas of Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaine A. Ball

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of forest restoration projects requires cross-scale and hybrid forms of governance involving the state, the market, civil society, individuals, communities, and other actors. Using a case study from the Atlantic Forest Hotspot, we examine the governance of a large-scale forest restoration project implemented by an international non-governmental organization (NGO on family farmer landholdings located within protected areas of sustainable development. In addition to forest restoration, the project aims to provide an economic benefit to participating farmers by including native species with market potential (fruits, timber in restoration models and by contracting farmers in the planting phase. We employed qualitative methods such as structured interviews and participant observation to assess the effect of environmental policy and multi-scalar governance on implementation and acceptability of the project by farmers. We demonstrate that NGO and farmer expectations for the project were initially misaligned, hampering farmer participation. Furthermore, current policy complicated implementation and still poses barriers to project success, and projects must remain adaptable to changing legal landscapes. We recommend increased incorporation of social science methods in earlier stages of projects, as well as throughout the course of implementation, in order to better assess the needs and perspectives of participants, as well as to minimize trade-offs.

  8. Gas exchange, growth, and chemical parameters in a native Atlantic forest tree species in polluted areas of Cubatão, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, R M; Delitti, W B C; Moraes, J A P V

    2003-03-01

    The Atlantic forest species near the industrial complex of Cubatão, Brazil have been subjected to heavy air pollution for decades. In this study, we used some physiological parameters (gas exchange, growth and chemical contents) to biomonitor the effects of air pollution on Tibouchina pulchra, one of the most common tree species in this forest. Under standardized conditions, saplings were exposed to the environment from April to July and from July to September of 1998, at three different sites in the vicinity of the industrial complex: the Valley of Pilões River (VP), the control area; the Valley of Mogi River (VM), near fertilizer, metallurgical, and cement industries sustaining high concentrations of fluorides, N and S oxides, and particulate materials; and Caminho do Mar (CM), near petrochemical industries under N and S oxides, photooxidants, and organic compounds. Plants exposed to CM and VM conditions presented visible injuries, reductions in net photosynthesis, growth parameters, and ascorbate concentrations, and increased F, N, and S foliar concentrations. These results indicate that the environmental conditions around these industries are still harmful to plants. PMID:12651190

  9. Isoprene photochemistry over the Amazon rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yingjun; Brito, Joel; Dorris, Matthew R.; Rivera-Rios, Jean C.; Seco, Roger; Bates, Kelvin H.; Artaxo, Paulo; Duvoisin, Sergio; Keutsch, Frank N.; Kim, Saewung; Goldstein, Allen H.; Guenther, Alex B.; Manzi, Antonio O.; Souza, Rodrigo A. F.; Springston, Stephen R.; Watson, Thomas B.; McKinney, Karena A.; Martin, Scot T.

    2016-05-01

    Isoprene photooxidation is a major driver of atmospheric chemistry over forested regions. Isoprene reacts with hydroxyl radicals (OH) and molecular oxygen to produce isoprene peroxy radicals (ISOPOO). These radicals can react with hydroperoxyl radicals (HO2) to dominantly produce hydroxyhydroperoxides (ISOPOOH). They can also react with nitric oxide (NO) to largely produce methyl vinyl ketone (MVK) and methacrolein (MACR). Unimolecular isomerization and bimolecular reactions with organic peroxy radicals are also possible. There is uncertainty about the relative importance of each of these pathways in the atmosphere and possible changes because of anthropogenic pollution. Herein, measurements of ISOPOOH and MVK + MACR concentrations are reported over the central region of the Amazon basin during the wet season. The research site, downwind of an urban region, intercepted both background and polluted air masses during the GoAmazon2014/5 Experiment. Under background conditions, the confidence interval for the ratio of the ISOPOOH concentration to that of MVK + MACR spanned 0.4–0.6. This result implies a ratio of the reaction rate of ISOPOO with HO2 to that with NO of approximately unity. A value of unity is significantly smaller than simulated at present by global chemical transport models for this important, nominally low-NO, forested region of Earth. Under polluted conditions, when the concentrations of reactive nitrogen compounds were high (>1 ppb), ISOPOOH concentrations dropped below the instrumental detection limit (Amazon rainforest.

  10. Patents on periphery of the Amazon rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moura, Emanoel G; Araújo, José R G; Monroe, Paulo H M; de O Nascimento, Ivaneide; Aguiar, Alana C F

    2009-06-01

    In the humid tropics, on the edges of the Amazon forest, the technological challenges to establishing and maintaining productive and sustainable agricultural systems have yet to be overcome. The groups involved in agriculture in the north of Brazil still engage in the practice of slash and burn in order to prepare and fertilize the soil. This produces negative effects for the local and global environment, without the counter-effect of providing social benefits to rural communities. Whether this process continues is of fundamental importance to many countries because it means that slash and burn agriculture is advancing on the Amazon rainforest, with a negative effect on every dimension of national policy. Beyond social political problems the biggest challenge for researchers in the field of tropical agriculture is to offer technological alternatives that can sustain agriculture in soils derived from sedimentary rocks that have been subjected to a high degree of weathering. In this article patented information is also discussed. Experiments undertaken in this region recommend taking advantage of the rapid growth of plants in the tropics. We aimed at proposing a suitable alternative system for a sustainable soil management in the particular conditions of humid tropics, named as "no-till in alley cropping using tree leguminous mulch." This system offers the advantages of: bringing together, in the same space and at the same time, the processes of cultivation and the regeneration of soil fertility. PMID:20653534

  11. Have we underestimated stemflow? Lessons from an open tropical rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germer, Sonja; Werther, Lisa; Elsenbeer, Helmut

    2010-12-01

    SummaryStemflow was monitored on event-basis in an undisturbed open tropical rainforest with a large number of palm trees located in the southwestern Amazon basin of Brazil. We estimated stemflow of 24 trees with a diameter at breast height (DBH) over 5 cm and of 16 juvenile and eight aborescent babassu palms ( Orbignya phalerata Mart.). To obtain within-event stemflow variability we monitored stemflow of one additional aborescent babassu palm with a tipping-bucket rain gauge at 5-min intervals. Total stemflow of the forest accounted for 8.0 ± 1.8% (S.E.) of incident rainfall and reached the forest floor over an area corresponding to the total basal area that sums up to only 0.3% of the plot area. The most influential predictive variables for stemflow generation were DBH and rainfall amount. The stemflow parameter 'funneling ratio', which is normalized for DBH and rainfall amount, was particularly useful to highlight the relevance of small trees (DBH ⩽ 10 cm) for stemflow generation. Small trees and babassu palms had significantly higher funneling ratios than larger trees (median funneling ratios: 15-27 and 1-2, respectively). The maximum 5-min stemflow intensity (1232 mm h -1) was 15-fold that of rainfall. High funneling ratios of small trees and babassu palms suggest that high stemflow intensities are the rule rather than the exception. Therefore, we expect small trees and babassu palms to influence hydrologic processes as subsurface flow, saturation overland flow or groundwater recharge. Consequently, stemflow studies should include all DBH classes and species with exceptionally high funneling ratios. For modeling purposes, stemflow should be estimated and not just assumed if study sites have a large number of palms or of small trees.

  12. NOAA TIFF Image - 3m Multibeam Bathymetry, Miami, South Atlantic Bight - Deep Coral Priority Areas - Lost Coast Explorer - (2010), UTM 17N NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a unified GeoTiff with 3x3 meter cell size representing the bathymetry of the continental shelf off of Jacksonville, FL in the South Atlantic...

  13. Impact Evaluation in a Landscape: Protected Natural Forests, Anthropized Forested Lands and Deforestation Leakages in Madagascar's Rainforests

    OpenAIRE

    DESBUREAUX, Sebastien; Eric Nazindigouba KERE; Combes Motel, Pascale

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes deforestation leakages from natural rainforests to anthropized habitats following the creation of Protected Areas in Madagascar. A simple theoretical framework highlights that a conservation constraint does not necessarily create deforestation leakages on secondary forests. An original dataset is built combining fine scale vegetation cover images and spatialized census data over the period 2000 to 2012. Cover images allow us to distinguish a mosaic of landscapes. Multileve...

  14. Nematode spatial and ecological patterns from tropical and temperate rainforests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota L Porazinska

    Full Text Available Large scale diversity patterns are well established for terrestrial macrobiota (e.g. plants and vertebrates, but not for microscopic organisms (e.g. nematodes. Due to small size, high abundance, and extensive dispersal, microbiota are assumed to exhibit cosmopolitan distributions with no biogeographical patterns. This assumption has been extrapolated from local spatial scale studies of a few taxonomic groups utilizing morphological approaches. Recent molecularly-based studies, however, suggest something quite opposite. Nematodes are the most abundant metazoans on earth, but their diversity patterns are largely unknown. We conducted a survey of nematode diversity within three vertical strata (soil, litter, and canopy of rainforests at two contrasting latitudes in the North American meridian (temperate: the Olympic National Forest, WA, U.S.A and tropical: La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica using standardized sampling designs and sample processing protocols. To describe nematode diversity, we applied an ecometagenetic approach using 454 pyrosequencing. We observed that: 1 nematode communities were unique without even a single common species between the two rainforests, 2 nematode communities were unique among habitats in both rainforests, 3 total species richness was 300% more in the tropical than in the temperate rainforest, 4 80% of the species in the temperate rainforest resided in the soil, whereas only 20% in the tropics, 5 more than 90% of identified species were novel. Overall, our data provided no support for cosmopolitanism at both local (habitats and large (rainforests spatial scales. In addition, our data indicated that biogeographical patterns typical of macrobiota also exist for microbiota.

  15. Soil functioning in a toposequence under rainforest in São Paulo, Brazil Funcionamento do solo em uma topossequência sob Mata Atlântica em São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Cooper

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Studies of soil-water dynamics using toposequences are essential to improve the understanding of soil-water-vegetation relationships. This study assessed the hydro-physical and morphological characteristics of soils of Atlantic Rainforest in the Parque Estadual de Carlos Botelho, state of São Paulo, Brazil. The study area of 10.24 ha (320 x 320 m was covered by dense tropical rainforest (Atlantic Rainforest. Based on soil maps and topographic maps of the area, a representative transect of the soil in this plot was chosen and five soil trenches were opened to determine morphological properties. To evaluate the soil hydro-physical functioning, soil particle size distribution, bulk density (r, particle density (r s, soil water retention curves (SWRC, field saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks, macroporosity (macro, and microporosity (micro and total porosity (TP were determined. Undisturbed samples were collected for micromorphometric image analysis, to determine pore size, shape, and connectivity. The soils in the study area were predominantly Inceptisols, and secondly Entisols and Epiaquic Haplustult. In the soil hydro-physical characterization of the selected transect, a change was observed in Ks between the surface and subsurface layers, from high/intermediate to intermediate/low permeability. This variation in soil-water dynamics was also observed in the SWRC, with higher water retention in the subsurface horizons. The soil hydro-physical behavior was influenced by the morphogenetic characteristics of the soils.O estudo da dinâmica da água no solo utilizando topossequências é de grande importância para melhor compreender as relações solo-água-vegetação. Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, caracterizar físico, hídrica e morfologicamente os solos da mata do Parque Estadual de Carlos Botelho. A parcela abrange uma área de 10,24 ha (320 x 320 m, localizada sob Floresta Ombrófila Densa (Mata Atlântica de Encosta. Com base nos mapas de

  16. DYNAMICS AND PREDICTION OF DIAMETRIC STRUCTURE IN TWO ATLANTIC FOREST FRAGMENTS IN NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson Pedro Bernardina Batista; Maria Jesus Nogueira Rodal; José Antonio Aleixo da Silva; Ana Carolina Borges Lins e Silva; Francisco Tarcisio Alves Junior; José Márcio de Mello

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Monitoring analyses aim to understand the processes that drive changes in forest structure and, along with prediction studies, may assist in the management planning and conservation of forest remnants. The objective of this study was to analyze the forest dynamics in two Atlantic rainforest fragments in Pernambuco, Brazil, and to predict their future forest diameter structure using the Markov chain model. We used continuous forest inventory data from three surveys in two forest fragm...

  17. Evidence for Novel Atmospheric Organic Aerosol Measured in a Bornean Rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, N. H.; Hamilton, J. F.; Allan, J. D.; Langford, B.; Oram, D. E.; Chen, Q.; Ward, M. W.; Hewitt, C. N.; Martin, S. T.; Coe, H.; McFiggans, G. B.

    2009-12-01

    The tropics emit a huge amount of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the Earth’s atmosphere. The processes by which these gases are oxidised to form secondary organic aerosol (SOA) are currently not well understood or quantified. Intensive field measurements were carried out as part of the Oxidant and Particle Photochemical Processes (OP3) and the Aerosol Coupling in the Earth System (ACES) projects around pristine rainforest in Malaysian Borneo. This is the first campaign of its type in a South East Asian rainforest. We present detailed organic aerosol composition measurements made using an Aerodyne High Resolution Time of Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) at Bukit Atur, a Global Atmosphere Watch site located in the Danum Valley Conservation Area. This is a state-of-the-art field deployable instrument that can provide real time composition, mass loading and aerodynamic particle sizing information. In addition, the mass spectral resolution is sufficient to perform an analysis of the elemental composition of the organic species present. Off line analysis of filter samples was performed using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time of flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC/ToFMS). This technique provide a more detailed chemical characterisation of the SOA, allowing direct links back to gas phase precursors. The ground site data are compared with Aerodyne Compact Time of Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (C-ToF-AMS) measurements made on the UK Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM) BAe-146 research aircraft. Airborne measurements were made above pristine rainforest surrounding the Danum Valley site, as well as nearby oil palm agricultural sites and palm oil rendering plants. Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTRMS) measurements of VOCs were made at the ground site and from the FAAM aircraft. Novel organic aerosol was measured by both AMSs, and identified by GCxGC/ToFMS analysis. The aerosol component was

  18. Anthropogenic disturbances jeopardize biodiversity conservation within tropical rainforest reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Ramos, Miguel; Ortiz-Rodríguez, Iván A; Piñero, Daniel; Dirzo, Rodolfo; Sarukhán, José

    2016-05-10

    Anthropogenic disturbances affecting tropical forest reserves have been documented, but their ecological long-term cumulative effects are poorly understood. Habitat fragmentation and defaunation are two major anthropogenic threats to the integrity of tropical reserves. Based on a long-term (four decades) study, we document how these disturbances synergistically disrupt ecological processes and imperil biodiversity conservation and ecosystem functioning at Los Tuxtlas, the northernmost tropical rainforest reserve in the Americas. Deforestation around this reserve has reduced the reserve to a medium-sized fragment (640 ha), leading to an increased frequency of canopy-gap formation. In addition, hunting and habitat loss have caused the decline or local extinction of medium and large herbivores. Combining empirical, experimental, and modeling approaches, we support the hypothesis that such disturbances produced a demographic explosion of the long-lived (≈120 y old, maximum height of 7 m) understory palm Astrocaryum mexicanum, whose population has increased from 1,243-4,058 adult individuals per hectare in only 39 y (annual growth rate of ca 3%). Faster gap formation increased understory light availability, enhancing seed production and the growth of immature palms, whereas release from mammalian herbivory and trampling increased survival of seedlings and juveniles. In turn, the palm's demographic explosion was followed by a reduction of tree species diversity, changing forest composition, altering the relative contribution of trees to forest biomass, and disrupting litterfall dynamics. We highlight how indirect anthropogenic disturbances (e.g., palm proliferation) on otherwise protected areas threaten tropical conservation, a phenomenon that is currently eroding the planet's richest repositories of biodiversity. PMID:27071122

  19. Ecophysiological Traits May Explain the Abundance of Climbing Plant Species across the Light Gradient in a Temperate Rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianoli, Ernesto; Saldaña, Alfredo; Jiménez-Castillo, Mylthon

    2012-01-01

    Climbing plants are a key component of rainforests, but mechanistic approaches to their distribution and abundance are scarce. In a southern temperate rainforest, we addressed whether the dominance of climbing plants across light environments is associated with the expression of ecophysiological traits. In mature forest and canopy gaps, we measured leaf size, specific leaf area, photosynthetic rate, and dark respiration in six of the most abundant woody vines. Mean values of traits and their phenotypic change (%) between mature forest and canopy gaps were predictor variables. Leaf size and specific leaf area were not significantly associated with climbing plant dominance. Variation in gas-exchange traits between mature forest and canopy gaps explained, at least partly, the dominance of climbers in this forest. A greater increase in photosynthetic rate and a lower increase in dark respiration rate when canopy openings occur were related to the success of climbing plant species. Dominant climbers showed a strategy of maximizing exploitation of resource availability but minimizing metabolic costs. Results may reflect phenotypic plasticity or genetic differentiation in ecophysiological traits between light environments. It is suggested that the dominant climbers in this temperate rainforest would be able to cope with forest clearings due to human activities. PMID:22685611

  20. Attractivity of omnivore, carnivore and herbivore mammalian dung to Scarabaeinae (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae in a tropical Atlantic rainforest remnant Atratividade de Scarabaeinae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae por fezes de mamíferos onívoros, carnívoros e herbívoros em um remanescente de Floresta Tropical Atlântica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno K. C. Filgueiras

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, performed in a remnant of Brazilian Atlantic Forest, three types of dung from animals with distinct alimentary habits were utilized, in order to verify possible differences of attractivity of these dungs to the Scarabaeinae and the influence of seasonality in the attractivity. Three habitats were sampled: edge, clearing and forest core, each with 40 pitfall traps. A total of 2,137 beetles were collected from August 2005 to July 2006. Canthidium sp. 1 (43% and Dichotomius sericeus (41% were the most abundant species. From the total number of beetles collected, 80.5% were attracted to human dung, 11% to jaguar dung, 7.8% to waterbuck dung and 0.7% to the control. The species Canthidium sp.1, Canthidium sp. 2, Ateuchus sp., Canthon nigripenne, Canthonella sp. and D. sericeus came to all three bait types. Eight species were found in the baits with human dung, where Canthidium sp.1 (49% and D. sericeus (39% were the most common. A significant difference in attractiveness of the different baits was observed; the highest abundance found in traps baited with human dung (F = 36.59; g.l. = 3; p Nesse estudo, realizado em um remanescente de Floresta Atlântica Brasileira, três tipos de fezes de animais com distintos hábitos alimentares foram utilizados para verificar possíveis diferenças de atratividade dessas fezes por Scarabaeinae e a influência da sazonalidade nessa atratividade. Três habitats foram amostrados: borda, clareira e núcleo da floresta, cada um com 40 armadilhas de queda ("pitfall". Um total de 2137 besouros foi coletado de agosto de 2005 a julho de 2006. Canthidium sp. 1 (43% e Dichotomius sericeus (41% foram as espécies mais abundantes. Do número total de besouros coletados, 80,5% foram atraídos para fezes humanas, 11% para fezes de jaguar, 7,8% para fezes de cobo e 0,7% para o controle. As espécies Canthidium sp.1, Canthidium sp. 2, Ateuchus sp., Canthon nigripenne, Canthonella sp. e D. sericeus foram aos tr

  1. Structural framework, stratigraphy, and petroleum geology of the area of oil and gas lease Sale No. 49 on the U.S. Atlantic continental shelf and slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattick, Robert E.; Hennessy, Jacqueline L.

    1980-01-01

    On September 23, 1977, the U.S. Department of the Interior announced the tentative selection of 136 tracts for Sale No. 49 of oil and gas leases in the Baltimore Canyon Trough on the U.S. Atlantic Continental Shelf and Slope. This report summarizes the geology and petroleum potential of the area. The Baltimore Canyon Trough is an elongate, seaward-opening sedimentary basin filled by as much as 14 km of Mesozoic and Cenozoic sedimentary rocks. The basin first formed under the New Jersey shelf and gradually spread west and south as the area subsided after the rifting that formed the Atlantic basin. Rocks of the Triassic and Jurassic Systems together are more than 8 km thick in a depocenter areally restricted to the northern part of the trough. Basal Jurassic rocks are apparently nonmarine sedimentary rocks bedded with evaporite deposits. Direct evidence that some salt is in the basal Jurassic section comes from the Houston Oil and Minerals 676-1 well, which penetrated salt at a depth of about 3.8 km. During the Middle and Late Jurassic, more open marine conditions prevailed than in the Early Jurassic, and carbonate banks and reefs formed discontinuously along the seaward side of the shelf. Sand flats likely occupied the central part of the shelf, and these probably graded shoreward into nonmarine red beds that accumulated in a bordering coastal plain. Thick nonmarine sands and silty shales of Late Jurassic age were deposited in what is now the nearshore and midshelf area. These sedimentary rocks probably grade into thick marine carbonate rocks near the present shelf edge. During the Cretaceous, less sediment accumulated (about 4 km) than during the Jurassic, and most was deposited during Early Cretaceous time. The Cretaceous units show two main trends through time-a diminishing rate of sediment accumulation and an increase in marine character of sediments. During the Middle and Late Cretaceous, calcareous sand and mud filled the basin, buried the shelf-edge reefs and

  2. Communities of Social Bees (Apidae: Meliponini) in Trap-Nests: the Spatial Dynamics of Reproduction in an Area of Atlantic Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, M D; Ramalho, M; Monteiro, D

    2014-08-01

    As most stingless bee species depend on preexisting cavities, principally tree hollows, nesting site availability may represent an important restriction in the structuring of their forest communities. The present study examined the spatial dynamics of stingless bee communities in an area of Atlantic Forest by evaluating their swarming to trap-nests. The field work was performed in the Michelin Ecological Reserve (MER) on the southeastern coast of the state of Bahia, Brazil. Seven hundred and twenty trap-nests were distributed within two forest habitats in advanced and initial stages of regeneration. The trap-nests were monitored between September 2009 and March 2011. Twenty-five trap-nests were occupied by five bee species, resulting in a capture ratio of 0.035 swarms/trap (approximately 0.14 swarms/ha), corresponding to 10 swarms/year (0.056 swarms/ha/year). According to previous study at MER, the most abundant species in natural nests were also the most common in trap-nests in the two forest habitats examined, with the exception of Melipona scutellaris Latreille. Swarms of higher numbers of species were captured in initial regeneration stage forests than in advanced regeneration stage areas, and differences in species compositions were significant between both habitats (p = 0.03); these apparent differences were not consistent, however, when considering richness (p = 0.14) and total abundance (p = 0.08). The present study suggests the existence of a minimum cavity size threshold of approximately 1 L for most local species of stingless bees and sustains the hypothesis of a mass effect of Tetragonisca angustula Latreille populations from surrounding disturbed habitats on the MER forest community in terms of propagule (swarm) pressure. Examining swarm densities with trap-nests can be a promising technique for comparative analyses of the carrying capacities of forest habitats for stingless bee colonies, as long as size thresholds of cavities for nesting

  3. Drosophilids (Diptera) from an Atlantic Forest Area in Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil Drosofilídeos (Diptera) de uma Área de Floresta Atlântica em Santa Catarina, Sul do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Jonas S. Döge; Valente, Vera L. S.; Paulo R. P Hofmann

    2008-01-01

    The present work aims at knowing the faunal composition of drosophilids in forest areas of southern Brazil. Besides, estimation of species richness for this fauna is briefly discussed. The sampling were carried out in three well-preserved areas of the Atlantic Rain Forest in the State of Santa Catarina. In this study, 136,931 specimens were captured and 96.6% of them were identified in the specific level. The observed species richness (153 species) is the largest that has been registered in f...

  4. Contrasting Strategies of Tree Function in a Seasonal Amazon Rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, V. Y.; Oliveira, R.; Agee, E.; Brum, M., Jr.; Saleska, S. R.; Fatichi, S.; Ewing, G.

    2015-12-01

    The increased frequency and severity of drought conditions in the Amazon Basin region have emphasized the question of rainforest vulnerability and resilience to heat and drought-induced stresses. However, what emerges from much research is that the impacts of droughts, essential controlling factors of the rainforest function, and variability of tree-scale strategies are yet to be fully understood. We present here a preliminary analysis of hydraulic relations of a seasonal Amazon rainforest using a set of ecohydrologic data collected through the GoAmazon project over dry and wet seasons. Expressions of different hydraulic strategies are identified that convey different implications for tree resilience during short- (diurnal) and longer-term (seasonal) stress periods. These hydraulic strategies appear to be inter-related with the tree growth and non-structural carbohydrate dynamics, contributing to the understanding of trait coordination at the whole-plant scale. Integration of individual responses is conducted over a range of wood density and exposure conditions. The results of this research thus shed light on the implication of variations in the rainforest function for future stresses, vital for predictive models of ecosystem dynamics of next generation.

  5. Nitrous oxide fluxes from three forest types of the tropical mountain rainforests on Hainan Island, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Zhenzhi; Yang, Gang; Chen, Huai; Zhu, Qiuan; Chen, Dexiang; Li, Yide; Wang, Xu; Wu, Zhongmin; Zhou, Guangyi; Peng, Changhui

    2014-08-01

    Tropical rainforest soil is an important source of atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O). However, there is still considerable uncertainty about the spatial and temporal variability of N2O fluxes. To understand these fluxes, we quantified the annual N2O emissions from three tropical mountain rainforests (primary mountain rainforest, PMR; secondary mountain rainforest, SMR; and Podocarpus imbricatus plantation, PIP) in the Jianfengling National Natural Reserve on Hainan Island, China. The average of N2O emissions in this area was 2.52 ± 0.33 kg N-N2O ha-1 yr-1 (3.52 kg N-N2O ha-1 yr-1 in the wet season and 1.62 kg N-N2O ha-1 yr-1 in the dry season) during our study period, with highly seasonal variations. The mean N2O emission rates were significantly higher during the wet season (68% of the total average) than the dry season (32% of the total average) (P < 0.05). PIP had the highest N2O emission rate at 3.49 ± 0.61 kg N-N2O ha-1 yr-1 (4.74 kg N-N2O ha-1 yr-1 in the wet season and 2.32 kg N-N2O ha-1 yr-1 in the dry season), followed by SMR at 3.03 ± 0.64 kg N-N2O ha-1 yr-1 (4.16 kg N-N2O ha-1 yr-1 in the wet season and 1.97 kg N-N2O ha-1 yr-1 in the dry season), and then PMR at 1.53 ± 0.49 kg N-N2O ha-1 yr-1 (2.21 kg N-N2O ha-1 yr-1 in the wet season and 0.94 kg N-N2O ha-1 yr-1 in the dry season). We observed a significant Gaussian relationship between the N2O fluxes and soil temperature for SMR and PIP but no significant relationship in PMR. There was a significant exponential relationship between the N2O fluxes and water filled pore space (WFPS) in SMR and PIP but not in PMR.

  6. Seed size-number trade-off in Euterpe edulis in plant communities of the Atlantic Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Henrique Santin Brancalion

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Investigations of seed size and number differences among plant populations growing in contrasting habitats can provide relevant information about ecological strategies that optimize reproductive effort. This may imply important consequences for biodiversity conservation and restoration. Therefore, we sought to investigate seed size-number trade-off in Euterpe edulis populations growing in plant communities in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Seed dry mass and seed number per bunch were evaluated in 2008 and 2009 in large remnants of the Seasonally Dry Forest, Restinga Forest and Atlantic Rainforest in southeastern Brazil, in 20 individuals per site and year. Seed size and seed number varied among forest types, but a seed size-number trade-off was neither observed within nor among populations. Positive association between seed size and number was found in the Atlantic Rainforest, and reduced seed crop was not accompanied by heavier seeds in the Restinga Forest. Seed dry mass declined in 2009 in all three forest types. Compared to seed number in 2008, palms of both the Restinga Forest and the Atlantic Rainforest produced in 2009 higher yields of smaller seeds - evidence of between years seed size-number trade-off -, while the Seasonally Dry Forest population produced a reduced number of smaller seeds. Such a flexible reproductive strategy, involving neutral, positive, and negative associations between seed size and number could enhance the ecological amplitude of this species and their potential to adapt to different environment conditions.

  7. Regional evaluation of particulate matter composition in an Atlantic coastal area (Cantabria region, northern Spain): Spatial variations in different urban and rural environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruti, A.; Fernández-Olmo, I.; Irabien, A.

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the major components (Na, Ca, K, Mg, Fe, Al, NH 4+, SO 42-, NO 3-, Cl - and TC) and trace-metal levels (As, Ni, Cd, Pb, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Cu, Mo, Rh and Hg) in PM 10 and PM 2.5 at an Atlantic coastal city (Santander, Cantabria region, Northern Spain). Additional samples were collected in other urban sites of the Cantabria region to assess the metal content found in different urban environments within the region. To control for the mass attributed to inland regional background particulate matter, samples were also collected in Los Tojos village. The spatial variability of the major PM components shows that PM origins are different at inland and coastal sites. In the coastal city of Santander, the most important contributors are (i) the marine aerosol and (ii) the secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA) and the total carbon (TC) in PM 10 and PM 2.5, respectively. Additionally, the influence of the coastal location on the ionic balance of PM is also studied. The trace metal spatial variability is studied using the coefficient of divergence (COD), which shows that the levels of trace metals at the three studied urban sites are mainly influenced by local emission sources. The main local tracers are identified as follows: Mn in the Santander area; Mo, Cr and Pb at Reinosa; and Ni and V at Castro Urdiales. A more detailed source apportionment study of the local trace metals at Santander is conducted by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Positive Matrix Factorisation (PMF); these two receptor models report complementary information. From these statistical analyses, the identified sources of trace metals in PM 10 are urban background sources, industrial sources and traffic. The industrial factor was dominated by Mn, Cu and Pb, which are trace metals used in steel production and manganese-ferroalloy production plant. With respect to PM 2.5, the identified emission sources of trace metals are combustion processes as well as traffic and

  8. Multiresolution analysis and classification of river discharges in France and their climate forcing over the Euro-Atlantic area using Wavelet transforms and Composite analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossa, Manuel; Nicolle, Marie; Massei, Nicolas; Fournier, Matthieu; Laignel, Benoit

    2016-04-01

    heights and meridional and zonal winds in the Euro-Atlantic area both for the winter and summer seasons for each station. The links are studied at different time scales of variability using multiresolution analysis. This allows assessing the large scale pattern that partly explains each scale of variability within the discharges. A cluster analysis is done on the obtained composite maps. A comparison is then realized between this classification and the one established in the first part of this study in order to test if stations that have similar time scales of variability also share the same climate forcings.

  9. Culture or climate? The relative influences of past processes on the composition of the lowland Congo rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brncic, Terry M; Willis, Katherine J; Harris, David J; Washington, Richard

    2007-02-28

    This paper presents the results from a palaeoecological study to establish the impact of prehistoric human activity and climate change on the vegetation and soils of the Goualougo area of the Nouabalé-Ndoki National Park, in the Republic of Congo (Congo-Brazzaville). This is a region that is known from previous work (through evidence of pottery, furnaces and charcoal layers beneath the present day rainforest vegetation) to have had prehistoric settlement dating back to at least 2000 calibrated years before present. In addition, there is climatic evidence to suggest that significant variations in precipitation have occurred in central Africa over the last few millennia. Presently, the region is covered in uninhabited moist semi-evergreen rainforest. Key research questions addressed in this paper include the extent to which the present-day composition of rainforest in this region is as a result of processes of the past (climate change and/or human activity), and the resilience of the rainforest to these perturbations. Statistical analyses of pollen, microscopic charcoal and geochemical data are used to determine the relationship over time between vegetation dynamics and climate change, anthropogenic burning and metal smelting. Significant changes in forest composition are linked to burning and climate change but not metallurgy. The strongest influence on the present day composition appears to be related to the increased anthropogenic burning that started approximately 1000 years ago. Results from this study are discussed in terms of their implications for the present and future management of this globally important forested region. PMID:17255032

  10. Predicting land cover changes in the Amazon rainforest: An ocean-atmosphere-biosphere problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Marcos Paulo Santos; Malhado, Ana Cláudia Mendes; Costa, Marcos Heil

    2012-05-01

    Accurate studies of the impacts of climate change on the distribution of major vegetation types are essential for developing effective conservation and land use policy. Such studies require the development of models that accurately represent the complex and interacting biophysical factors that influence regional patterns of vegetation. Here we investigate the impacts of Sea Surface Temperature (SST) on the vegetation of the Amazon, testing the hypothesis that changes in Amazonian vegetation structure are a consequence of an ocean-atmosphere-biosphere interaction. We design a numerical experiment in which we force a coupled climate-biosphere model by 10 SST patterns produced by different IPCC AR4 models, for the A2 scenario for the period 2000-2050. Simulations for 2011-2050 show that certain patterns of SST are likely to decrease the ensemble for tropical evergreen rainforest and savanna, and that these areas will be occupied mainly by tropical deciduous rainforest, emitting an average of 0.53 Pg-C.yr-1 during the transition.

  11. From ratites to rats: the size of fleshy fruits shapes species' distributions and continental rainforest assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetto, Maurizio; Kooyman, Robert; Yap, Jia-Yee S; Laffan, Shawn W

    2015-12-01

    Seed dispersal is a key process in plant spatial dynamics. However, consistently applicable generalizations about dispersal across scales are mostly absent because of the constraints on measuring propagule dispersal distances for many species. Here, we focus on fleshy-fruited taxa, specifically taxa with large fleshy fruits and their dispersers across an entire continental rainforest biome. We compare species-level results of whole-chloroplast DNA analyses in sister taxa with large and small fruits, to regional plot-based samples (310 plots), and whole-continent patterns for the distribution of woody species with either large (more than 30 mm) or smaller fleshy fruits (1093 taxa). The pairwise genomic comparison found higher genetic distances between populations and between regions in the large-fruited species (Endiandra globosa), but higher overall diversity within the small-fruited species (Endiandra discolor). Floristic comparisons among plots confirmed lower numbers of large-fruited species in areas where more extreme rainforest contraction occurred, and re-colonization by small-fruited species readily dispersed by the available fauna. Species' distribution patterns showed that larger-fruited species had smaller geographical ranges than smaller-fruited species and locations with stable refugia (and high endemism) aligned with concentrations of large fleshy-fruited taxa, making them a potentially valuable conservation-planning indicator. PMID:26645199

  12. Effects of growth form and functional traits on response of woody plants to clearing and fragmentation of subtropical rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooyman, R M; Zanne, A E; Gallagher, R V; Cornwell, W; Rossetto, M; O'Connor, P; Parkes, E A; Catterall, C F; Laffan, S W; Lusk, C H

    2013-12-01

    The conservation implications of large-scale rainforest clearing and fragmentation on the persistence of functional and taxonomic diversity remain poorly understood. If traits represent adaptive strategies of plant species to particular circumstances, the expectation is that the effect of forest clearing and fragmentation will be affected by species functional traits, particularly those related to dispersal. We used species occurrence data for woody plants in 46 rainforest patches across 75,000 ha largely cleared of forest by the early 1900s to determine the combined effects of area reduction, fragmentation, and patch size on the taxonomic structure and functional diversity of subtropical rainforest. We compiled species trait values for leaf area, seed dry mass, wood density, and maximum height and calculated species niche breadths. Taxonomic structure, trait values (means, ranges), and the functional diversity of assemblages of climbing and free-standing plants in remnant patches were quantified. Larger rainforest patches had higher species richness. Species in smaller patches were taxonomically less related than species in larger patches. Free-standing plants had a high percentage of frugivore dispersed seeds; climbers had a high proportion of small wind-dispersed seeds. Connections between the patchy spatial distribution of free-standing species, larger seed sizes, and dispersal syndrome were weak. Assemblages of free-standing plants in patches showed more taxonomic and spatial structuring than climbing plants. Smaller isolated patches retained relatively high functional diversity and similar taxonomic structure to larger tracts of forest despite lower species richness. The response of woody plants to clearing and fragmentation of subtropical rainforest differed between climbers and slow-growing mature-phase forest trees but not between climbers and pioneer trees. Quantifying taxonomic structure and functional diversity provides an improved basis for

  13. ASSESSING SOIL FERTILITY STATUS OF REHABILITATED DEGRADED TROPICAL RAINFOREST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiza Shaliha Jamaluddin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An assessment of forest rehabilitation program in relation to soil fertility status by using soil indices could provide fundamental information on soil suitability for species preferences and improve the effective technique for future rehabilitation program in tropical rainforests. This study was conducted in order to characterize the soil properties and identifying the soil fertility status of rehabilitated and secondary forests. Soil samples were collected in year 2009 at rehabilitation forests (20 years after planting and secondary forest of Nirwana Forest Reserve, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM Bintulu Campus, Sarawak, Malaysia. The rehabilitation plots were planted with mixed dipterocarp and non-dipterocarp species since 1991. Prior to conversion of the areas into various land use types, the rehabilitation and secondary forests areas were considered as natural forests and subsequently subjected to forest logging with Selective Management System (SMS in 1980s.The plot size for each site was 20×20 m for 18 experimental sites (at different ages after planting were established, followed by soil sampling at 0-15 cm and 15-30 cm depth randomly using soil auger. Standard soil analysis for physical and chemical properties was used to analyze the soil samples. The soil fertility status was evaluated using two indices, namely Soil Fertility Index (SFI and Soil Evaluation Factor (SEF for both rehabilitated and secondary forests. The results showed that there were significant differences (p<0.05 in pH (water and KCl, exchangeable Mg, Na, Al and ammonium and granule composition (clay, silt and sand between depths. The PCA result of 70% total variability (OM, TOC, TC and CEC score in PC1 shows positive relationship, explaining nutrients in the soil stored in the organic matter in the surface soils. The correlation analysis indicated that there were positive relationship (p<0.05 between OM and TC, CEC and exchangeable Al for surface soils. We found

  14. Lycophytes and ferns composition of Atlantic Forest conservation units in western Paraná with comparisons to other areas in southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Mayara Lautert; Lívia Godinho Temponi; Raquel S. Viveros; Alexandre Salino

    2015-01-01

    This study surveyed lycophyte and fern species in four forest fragments in western Paraná, Brazil, and compared them to 15 other fragments with different plant formations from the Atlantic Forest biome in southern Brazil. In total, five lycophyte species (in two families and two genera) and 98 species and two varieties of ferns (in 16 families and 38 genera) were registered in the four fragments. The most represented families were Pteridaceae (23 spp.), Polypodiaceae (18 spp.), Aspleniaceae (...

  15. Comparative phylogeography of eight herbs and lianas (Marantaceae in central African rainforests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra C. Ley

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation history in tropical Africa is still to date hardly known and the drivers of population differentiation and speciation processes are little documented. It has often been postulated that population fragmentations following climate changes have played a key role in shaping the geographic distribution patterns of genetic diversity and in driving speciation. Here we analyzed phylogeographic patterns (chloroplast-DNA sequences within and between eight (sister species of widespread rainforest herbs and lianas from four genera of Marantaceae (Halopegia, Haumania, Marantochloa, Megaphrynium, searching for concordant patterns across species and concordance with the Pleistocene refuge hypothesis. Using 1146 plastid DNA sequences sampled across African tropical lowland rainforest, particularly in the Lower Guinean (LG phytogeographic region, we analyzed intra- and interspecific patterns of genetic diversity, endemism and distinctiveness. Intraspecific patterns of haplotype diversity were concordant among most species as well as with the species-level diversity pattern of Marantaceae. Highest values were found in the hilly areas of Cameroon and Gabon. However, the spatial distribution of endemic haplotypes, an indicator for refuge areas in general, was not congruent across species. Each proposed refuge exhibited high values of endemism for one or a few species indicating their potential role as area of retraction for the respective species only. Thus evolutionary histories seem to be diverse across species. In fact, areas of high diversity might have been both refuge and/or crossing zone of recolonization routes i.e. secondary contact zone.We hypothesize that retraction of species into one or the other refuge happened by chance depending on the species´ distribution range at the time of climate deterioration. The idiosyncratic patterns found in Marantaceae species are similar to those found among tropical tree species, especially in southern LG.

  16. Ecological and socio-economic functions across tropical land use systems after rainforest conversion

    OpenAIRE

    Drescher, Jochen; Rembold, Katja; Allen, Kara; Beckschäfer, Philip; Buchori, Damayanti; Clough, Yann; Faust, Heiko; Anas M. Fauzi; Gunawan, Dodo; Hertel, Dietrich; Irawan, Bambang; Jaya, I. Nengah S.; Klarner, Bernhard; Kleinn, Christoph; Knohl, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Tropical lowland rainforests are increasingly threatened by the expansion of agriculture and the extraction of natural resources. In Jambi Province, Indonesia, the interdisciplinary EFForTS project focuses on the ecological and socio-economic dimensions of rainforest conversion to jungle rubber agroforests and monoculture plantations of rubber and oil palm. Our data confirm that rainforest transformation and land use intensification lead to substantial losses in biodiversity and related ecosy...

  17. Effect of food quality and availability on rainforest rodents of Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    P.B. Ratnaweera; M. R. Wijesinghe

    2009-01-01

    Tropical rodent communities are highly diverse species assemblages, yet remain poorly studied. This investigation was conducted with the objective of examining the responses of rainforest rodents to food quality and availability. These factors were assessed through laboratory and field trials conducted in the Sinharaja and Kanneliya rainforests in Sri Lanka. The effect of food quality on the foraging behavior of rodents was examined through feeding experiments using natural rainforest frui...

  18. Tropical rainforest response to marine sky brightening climate engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muri, Helene; Niemeier, Ulrike; Kristjánsson, Jón Egill

    2015-04-01

    Tropical forests represent a major atmospheric carbon dioxide sink. Here the gross primary productivity (GPP) response of tropical rainforests to climate engineering via marine sky brightening under a future scenario is investigated in three Earth system models. The model response is diverse, and in two of the three models, the tropical GPP shows a decrease from the marine sky brightening climate engineering. Partial correlation analysis indicates precipitation to be important in one of those models, while precipitation and temperature are limiting factors in the other. One model experiences a reversal of its Amazon dieback under marine sky brightening. There, the strongest partial correlation of GPP is to temperature and incoming solar radiation at the surface. Carbon fertilization provides a higher future tropical rainforest GPP overall, both with and without climate engineering. Salt damage to plants and soils could be an important aspect of marine sky brightening.

  19. Geomorphological landscape features explain floristic patterns in French Guiana rainforest

    OpenAIRE

    Guitet, S.; Pélissier, Raphaël; Brunaux, O.; Jaouen, G.; Sabatier, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Geomorphic landscape features have been suggested as indicators of forest diversity. However, their explanatory power has not yet been explicitly tested at a regional scale in tropical rainforest. We used forest inventories conducted according to a stratified sampling design (3,132 plots in 111 transects at 33 sites) and holistic multi-scale geomorphological mapping derived from a Shuttle Radar Topography Mission digital elevation model to describe and explain spatial patterns in floristic co...

  20. Simulations of tropical rainforest albedo: is canopy wetness important?

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia N.M. Yanagi; Costa, Marcos H.

    2011-01-01

    Accurate information on surface albedo is essential for climate modelling, especially for regions such as Amazonia, where the response of the regional atmospheric circulation to the changes on surface albedo is strong. Previous studies have indicated that models are still unable to correctly reproduce details of the seasonal variation of surface albedo. Therefore, it was investigated the role of canopy wetness on the simulated albedo of a tropical rainforest by modifying the IBIS canopy radia...

  1. Birds - Their importance to visitors to an Australian Rainforest

    OpenAIRE

    Tisdell, Clement A.; Wilson, Clevo

    2004-01-01

    Lamington National Park in Queensland, Australia is noted for its rainforest and is part of Australia’s fourteen World Heritage listed properties but no systematic study has been done of the importance of birds to its visitors. This study rectifies this situation. It is based on data from survey forms handed to visitors at an important site in this park and completed by visitors following their visit. This yielded 622 useable replies. These enabled us to establish the comparative importance o...

  2. Atlantic Surfclam and Ocean Quahog Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Atlantic Surfclam and Ocean Quahog Survey has covered an area from Cape Hatteras to Georges Bank. The survey was conducted every two or three...

  3. Contextualising impacts of logging on tropical rainforest catchment sediment dynamics using the stratigraphic record of in-channel bench deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Will; Walsh, Rory; Bidin, Kawi; Annammala, Kogila

    2015-04-01

    It is widely recognised that commercial logging and conversion of tropical rainforest to oil palm plantation leads to enhanced fluvial sediment flux to the coastal zone but the dynamics of delivery and mechanisms that act to retain sediment and nutrients within rainforest ecosystems, e.g. riparian zone and floodplain storage, are poorly understood and underexploited as a management tool. While accretion of lateral in-channel bench deposits in response to forest clearance has been demonstrated in temperate landscapes, their development and value as sedimentary archives of catchment response to human disturbance remains largely unexplored in tropical rainforest river systems. Working within the Segama River basin, Sabah, Malaysian Borneo, this study aimed to test the hypothesis that (1) lateral bench development in tropical rainforest rivers systems is enhanced by upstream catchment disturbance and that (2) the sedimentary record of these deposits can be used to infer changes in sediment provenance and intensification of sediment flux associated with logging activities. Sediment cores were taken from in-channel bench deposits with upstream catchment contributing areas of 721 km2 and 2800 km2 respectively. Accretion rates were determined using fallout 210Pb and 137Cs and the timing of peak accumulation was shown to correspond exactly with the known temporal pattern of logging and associated fluvial sediment response over the period 1980 to present following low pre-logging rates. Major and minor element geochemistry of deposits was used to assess the degree of weathering that deposited sediment had experienced. This was linked to surface (heavily weathered) and subsurface (less weathered) sediment sources relating to initial disturbance by logging and post-logging landsliding responses respectively. A shift in the dominant source of deposited material from surface (i.e. topsoil) to subsurface (i.e. relatively unweathered subsoil close to bedrock) origin was observed

  4. ASSESSING THE EFFECTS OF LOGGING ACTIVITIES ON AVIAN RICHNESS AND DIVERSITY IN DIFFERENT AGED POST-HARVESTED HILL DIPTEROCARP TROPICAL RAINFOREST OF MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Rajpar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Logging activities have encroached into the hill dipterocarp tropical rainforest area since the lowland dipterocarp forests have decreased in size. Hill dipterocarp tropical rainforest is rich in habitat diversity and provide a variety of resources for avian species such as food, habitat and shelter. Therefore it is important to examine the logging effects of hill dipterocarp rainforest on avian species. We compared the avian richness and diversity in different aged post-harvested hill dipterocarp tropical rainforest at the Berkelah Hill Dipterocarp Rainforest Reserve in Maran, Pahang, West Malaysia using mist-netting method. We captured a total of 1908 individuals representing 86 species and 29 families (i.e., 18.55% from two years post-harvested forest, 25.10% from ten years post-harvested, 23.90% from twenty years post-harvested and 32.44% from thirty five years post-harvested forests. Forty nine species were caught in two years and ten years, 55 species in twenty years and 59 species in thirty five years’ post-harvested forest. Seventeen species were common in all four types of forest. Pycnonotidae, Timaliidae and Nectariniidae were the most dominant families in all types of post-harvested hill dipterocarp tropical rainforest. Diversity analysis indicated that the bird species in twenty years post-harvested hill dipterocarp rainforest was most diverse (i.e., Fisher’s Alpha Diversity Index; 16.34 and evenly distributed (i.e., McIntosh Evenness index E; 0.933 as compared to two years, ten years and thirty five years post-harvested forest. However, thirty five years post-harvested forest was richest in avian species (i.e., Margalef’s Richness index R1; 9.02 as compared to other post-harvested forest. The findings of this study revealed that logging and recovery process may affects on avian distribution and diversity. However, these effects may vary from species to species.

  5. Scytonema santannae, a new morphospecies of Cyanobacteria from the Atlantic rainforest, southeastern Brazil

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hentschke, G. S.; Komárek, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 3 (2014), 293-298. ISSN 1806-9959 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/12/1818 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : aerophytic habitat * Scytonemataceae * subtropical ecosystems Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.648, year: 2014

  6. Phenotypic studies on terrestrial stigonematacean Cyanobacteria from the Atlantic Rainforest, São Paulo State, Brazil

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sant Anna, C. L.; Kaštovský, J.; Hentschke, G. S.; Komárek, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 1 (2013), s. 1-23. ISSN 1179-3155 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/12/1818 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : biodiversity * Stigonemataceae, Mata Atlântica * Mata Atlântica Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.376, year: 2013

  7. Diet of margay, Leopardus wiedii, and jaguarundi, Puma yagouaroundi, (Carnivora: Felidae in Atlantic Rainforest, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cassia Bianchi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This study identifies the food habits of the margay, Leopardus wiedii (Schinz, 1821, and the jaguarundi, Puma yagouaroundi (É. Geoffroy Saint-Hilare, 1803, in the Vale do Rio Doce Natural Reserve and in the Sooretama Biological Reserve, Espírito Santo, Brazil. We determined the diet of both species by the analysis of scats. Fecal samples were collected from April 1995 to September 2000 and identified based on the presence of hairs that were ingested during self-grooming. Scats were oven-dried and washed on a sieve, and the screened material was identified using a reference collection. Of the 59 fecal samples examined, 30 were confirmed to be from the margay and nine of them from the jaguarundi. Mammals were the most consumed items in the diet of the margay, occurring in 77% of the fecal samples, followed by birds (53% and reptiles (20%. Among the mammals consumed, marsupials (Didelphimorphia were the most common item (66%. In the diet of the jaguarundi, birds were the most consumed items and occurred in 55% of the fecal samples; mammals and reptiles occurred in 41% and in 17% of the fecal samples, respectively. From this work we conclude that the margay and jaguarundi fed mainly upon small vertebrates in the Vale do Rio Doce Natural Reserve and in the Sooretama Biological Reserve. Although sample sizes are therefore insufficient for quantitative comparisons, margays prey more frequently upon arboricolous mammals than jaguarundis, which in turn prey more frequently upon birds and reptiles than margays. This seems to reflect a larger pattern throughout their geographic range

  8. In vitro propagation of Vriesea reitzii, a native epiphyte bromeliad from the Atlantic rainforest

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    Lírio Luiz Dal Vesco

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The induction of nodular culture (NC and the subsequent development of microshoots of V. reitzii are considered an in vitro propagation model-system with high regenerative performance. Current research analyzed the determinant factors of the in vitro morphogenesis control of bromeliads. Seeds excised from mature capsules were grown on medium MS basic (MSB, liquid or gelled, supplemented or not with α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA, 6-benzilaminopurine (BAP or thidiazuron (TDZ. The regeneration and elongation of microshoots were evaluated from NC sub-cultivated on MSB medium on liquid culture medium supplemented with different concentrations of indolyl-3-acetic acid (IAA and gibberellic acid (GA3. Plant growth regulators (PGR supplemented into the medium MSB inhibited the germination of the seeds and induced NC in the second week of growth. The induced NC on MSB medium with NAA (4 µM and sub-cultivated on MSB medium with NAA (2 µM plus N6(2-isopentenyl adenine (2-iP (2 µM showed granular texture and high rate of proliferation. NC sub-culture in MSB medium with IAA (4 µM provided a higher average number of microshoots (1,478 shoots g-1 of NC. Shoots over 3.0 cm resulted in more than 95% ex vitro survival.

  9. The contribution of seed dispersers to tree species diversity in tropical rainforests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakishima, Satoshi; Morita, Satoru; Yoshida, Katsuhiko; Ishida, Atsushi; Hayashi, Saki; Asami, Takahiro; Ito, Hiromu; Miller, Donald G.; Uehara, Takashi; Mori, Shigeta; Hasegawa, Eisuke; Matsuura, Kenji; Kasuya, Eiiti; Yoshimura, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Tropical rainforests are known for their extreme biodiversity, posing a challenging problem in tropical ecology. Many hypotheses have been proposed to explain the diversity of tree species, yet our understanding of this phenomenon remains incomplete. Here, we consider the contribution of animal seed dispersers to the species diversity of trees. We built a multi-layer lattice model of trees whose animal seed dispersers are allowed to move only in restricted areas to disperse the tree seeds. We incorporated the effects of seed dispersers in the traditional theory of allopatric speciation on a geological time scale. We modified the lattice model to explicitly examine the coexistence of new tree species and the resulting high biodiversity. The results indicate that both the coexistence and diversified evolution of tree species can be explained by the introduction of animal seed dispersers. PMID:26587246

  10. Correlation and persistence of hunting and logging impacts on tropical rainforest mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, Jedediah F; Giordano, Anthony J; Zipkin, Elise F; Bernard, Henry; Mohd-Azlan, Jayasilan; Ambu, Laurentius

    2015-02-01

    Humans influence tropical rainforest animals directly via exploitation and indirectly via habitat disturbance. Bushmeat hunting and logging occur extensively in tropical forests and have large effects on particular species. But how they alter animal diversity across landscape scales and whether their impacts are correlated across species remain less known. We used spatially widespread measurements of mammal occurrence across Malaysian Borneo and recently developed multispecies hierarchical models to assess the species richness of medium- to large-bodied terrestrial mammals while accounting for imperfect detection of all species. Hunting was associated with 31% lower species richness. Moreover, hunting remained high even where richness was very low, highlighting that hunting pressure persisted even in chronically overhunted areas. Newly logged sites had 11% lower species richness than unlogged sites, but sites logged >10 years previously had richness levels similar to those in old-growth forest. Hunting was a more serious long-term threat than logging for 91% of primate and ungulate species. Hunting and logging impacts across species were not correlated across taxa. Negative impacts of hunting were the greatest for common mammalian species, but commonness versus rarity was not related to species-specific impacts of logging. Direct human impacts appeared highly persistent and lead to defaunation of certain areas. These impacts were particularly severe for species of ecological importance as seed dispersers and herbivores. Indirect impacts were also strong but appeared to attenuate more rapidly than previously thought. The lack of correlation between direct and indirect impacts across species highlights that multifaceted conservation strategies may be needed for mammal conservation in tropical rainforests, Earth's most biodiverse ecosystems. PMID:25196079

  11. Species-soil associations, disturbance, and nutrient cycling in an Australian tropical rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Sean Michael; Read, Jennifer; Ares, Adrian; Metcalfe, Daniel J

    2010-04-01

    Resource availability and disturbance are important factors that shape the composition, structure, and functioning of ecosystems. We investigated the effects of soil fertility and disturbance on plant-soil interactions and nutrient cycling in a diverse tropical rainforest. Our goal was to determine how common soil specialisation is among species and how plant-soil interactions affect ecosystem functioning in the presence of disturbance. Most species (59%) showed significant fidelity to either fertile (basalt) or infertile (schist) soils. Obligate schist specialists (six species) contributed 39 and 37% to total stand-level basal area and aboveground net primary productivity, respectively. High nutrient use efficiency of schist specialists reduced the rates of within-stand nutrient cycling through the production of nutrient-poor plant tissues and litter. Although forests on schist soils had higher basal area and similar rates of productivity to forests on basalt, uptake of Mg, K, P, and N were markedly less on schist than on basalt, particularly after a cyclone disturbance. Stands on schist soils were also less affected by the cyclone and, as a result, contributed less (ca. 50%) Mg, K, P, and N inputs to the forest floor (via litterfall) than stands on basalt soils. System "openness" (i.e. the risk of nutrient loss) from cyclone-affected basalt forests was minimised by high rates of uptake following disturbance and large effective cation exchange capacities of soils. Soil-plant-disturbance interactions are likely to engender different fitness-enhancing strategies on fertile and infertile soils, possibly leading to the development and/or maintenance of diversity in rainforests. PMID:20012098

  12. Chemical Composition of Atmospheric Aerosols Above a Pristine South East Asian Rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, N. H.; Allan, J. D.; Williams, P. I.; Coe, H.; Hamilton, J.; Chen, Q.; Martin, S.; Trembath, J.

    2009-04-01

    The tropics emit a huge amount of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the Earth's atmosphere. The processes by which these gases are oxidised to form secondary organic aerosol (SOA) are currently not well understood or quantified. Intensive field measurements were carried out as part of the Oxidant and Particle Photochemical Processes (OP3) and the Aerosol Coupling in the Earth System (ACES) projects around pristine rainforest in Malaysian Borneo. This is the first campaign of its type in a South East Asian rainforest. We present detailed organic aerosol composition measurements made using an Aerodyne High Resolution Time of Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) at Bukit Atur, a Global Atmosphere Watch site located in the Danum Valley Conservation Area. This is a state-of-the-art field deployable instrument that can provide real time composition, mass loading and aerodynamic particle sizing information. In addition, the mass spectral resolution is sufficient to perform an analysis of the elemental composition of the organic species present. Other tools such as positive matrix factorisation (PMF) have been used to help assess the relative source contributions to the organic aerosol. A suite of supporting aerosol and gas phase measurements were made, including size resolved number concentration measurements with Differential Mobility Particle Sizer (DMPS), as well as absorption measurements made with a Multi-Angle Absorption Photometer (MAAP). The ground site data are compared with Aerodyne Compact Time of Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (C-ToF-AMS) measurements made on the UK Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM) BAe-146 research aircraft. Airborne measurements were made above pristine rainforest surrounding the Danum Valley site, as well as nearby oil palm agricultural sites and palm oil rendering plants. Airborne hygroscopicity was measured using a Droplet Measurement Technology Cloud Condensation Nuclei counter (DMT CCN counter) in

  13. (En)Countering Social and Environmental Messages in the Rainforest Cafe [sic], Children's Picturebooks, and Other Visual Culture Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisberg, Mira; Han, Sandrine

    2009-01-01

    Our study critically examines social and environmental messages in a range of visual sites educating about rainforest environments. We focus primarily on the Rainforest Cafe, an international series of rainforest-themed edutainment restaurant/stores, whose inherent contradictions between consumption and conservation are quite disturbing when…

  14. Bacillus spp. from rainforest soil promote plant growth under limited nitrogen conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of PGPR (Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria) isolated from rainforest on different plants under limited nitrogen conditions. Methods and Results: Bacterial isolates from a Peruvian rainforest soil were screened for plant growth promoting effects...

  15. South Atlantic Shrimp System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The SEFSC, in cooperation with the South Atlantic states, collects South Atlantic shrimp data from dealers and fishermen. These data are collected to provide catch,...

  16. 2005 Atlantic Hurricanes Poster

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2005 Atlantic Hurricanes poster features high quality satellite images of 15 hurricanes which formed in the Atlantic Basin (includes Gulf of Mexico and...

  17. Implications of land-use change and pasture management on soil microbial function and structure in the mountain rainforest region of southern Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Potthast, Karin

    2013-01-01

    In the present thesis, implications of pasture establishment, fertilization and abandonment on soil C and nutrient dynamics were investigated for the mountain rainforest region of southern Ecuador. Over the past decades the natural forest of the study area has been threatened by conversion to cattle pastures. However, the soil fertility of these extensively grazed pastures (active pastures) declines continuously during pasture use. The invasion of bracken fern (Pteridium arachnoideum) leads t...

  18. Bird assemblage mist-netted in an Atlantic Forest area: a comparison between vertically-mobile and ground-level nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchi, M B; Alves, M A S

    2015-08-01

    Mist nets may be opened at different heights in the forest, but they are seldom used over 3 m above the ground. We used two different methods to compare species richness, composition, and relative abundance and trophic structure of the bird assemblage at Ilha Grande (with a 290 birds standardization): conventional ground-level nets (0-2.4 m height range) and elevated nets (0-17 m) with an adjustable-height system (modified from Humphrey et al., 1968) that we call vertically-mobile nets. There were significant differences in capture frequencies between methods for about 20% of the species (Chi-squared test, Pavifauna present, both qualitatively and quantitatively. We encourage studies involving mist net sampling to include the upper strata to more accurately represent the avifauna in Atlantic Forest. PMID:26292105

  19. Late Holocene and recent rainforest cultural landscapes of North Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberger, L. M.; Moss, P. T.; Haberle, S.; Cosgrove, R.; Ferrier

    2011-12-01

    The tropical rainforests of North Queensland, Australia, have been environments of significant human activity for several thousand years. Palaeoecological research has highlighted the long-term effects of Quaternary climate change on these environments at a broad spatial scale, including the expansion of tropical rainforest across the region following the termination of the Last Glacial Maximum. However, identifying the effects of a hunter-gatherer Aboriginal population has been more difficult. Palaeoecological suggestions of Pleistocene Aboriginal burning, based on pollen and charcoal records, have relied on coincident timing with a general narrative of colonisation rather than direct links with archaeological evidence. Current research is explicitly examining the environmental consequences of human activity in North Queensland rainforests by producing local palaeoecological data directly linked to sites and periods of human occupation. Pollen, macrocharcoal and phytolith records have been produced from sites of human activity within the rainforest. Late Holocene Aboriginal occupation of the rainforest is demonstrated to have had significant cultural links to patches of open vegetation that existed within the rainforest. While these patches are likely to have originated as edaphically controlled remnants of Pleistocene vegetation, their expansion and maintenance in the late Holocene is associated with increasing intensity of Aboriginal occupation of the rainforest. Late Holocene Aboriginal rainforest occupation is also contrasted with the historical European colonisation of the rainforest in the late 19th century, which resulted in the most significant environmental changes in the region since the early Holocene. Historical and ethnographic records provide important cultural context for understanding the transition between Aboriginal and European cultural landscapes of the rainforest.

  20. Logging cuts the functional importance of invertebrates in tropical rainforest

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ewers, R. M.; Boyle, M. J. W.; Gleave, R. A.; Plowman, Nichola S.; Benedick, S.; Bernard, H.; Bishop, T. R.; Bakhtiar, E. Y.; Chey, V. K.; Chung, A. Y. C.; Davies, R. G.; Edwards, D. P.; Eggleton, P.; Fayle, Tom; Hardwick, S. R.; Homathevi, R.; Kitching, R. L.; Khoo, M. S.; Luke, S. H.; March, J. J.; Nilus, R.; Pfeifer, M.; Rao, S. V.; Sharp, A. C.; Snaddon, J. L.; Stork, N. E.; Struebig, M. J.; Wearn, O. R.; Yusah, K. M.; Turner, E. C.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 6, APR 15 (2015), article number 6836. ISSN 2041-1723 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-32302S Grant ostatní: European Social Fund(CZ) CZ1.07/2.3.00/20.0064; Australian Research Council Discovery Grant(AU) DP140101541; Ministry of Higher Education(MY) FRG0302-STWN-1/2011; European Research Council Project(GB) 281986 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : tropical rainforest Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 11.470, year: 2014 http://www.nature.com/ncomms/2015/150413/ncomms7836/pdf/ncomms7836.pdf

  1. Analysis of Chemical Composition of Atmospheric Aerosols Above a South East Asian Rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, N. H.; Allan, J. D.; Williams, P. I.; Hamilton, J. F.; Chen, Q.; Martin, S. T.; Coe, H.; McFiggans, G. B.

    2008-12-01

    The tropics emit a huge amount of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the Earth's atmosphere. The processes by which these gases are oxidised to form secondary organic aerosol (SOA) are not well understood or quantified. Insight into the origins and properties of these particles can be gained by analysis of their composition. Intensive field measurements were carried out as part of the Oxidant and Particle Photochemical Processes (OP3) and the Aerosol Coupling in the Earth System (ACES) projects in the rainforest in Malaysian Borneo. This is the first campaign of its type in a South East Asian rainforest. We present detailed organic aerosol composition measurements made using an Aerodyne High Resolution Time of Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) at Bukit Atur, a Global Atmosphere Watch site located in the Danum Valley Conservation Area. This is a state-of-the-art field deployable instrument that can provide real time composition, mass loading and aerodynamic particle sizing information. In addition, the mass spectral resolution is sufficient to perform an analysis of the elemental composition of the organic species present. Other tools such as positive matrix factorisation (PMF) have been used to help assess the relative source contributions to the organic aerosol. The aerosol's chemical origins have been further investigated by comparing these spectra to chamber experiments, mass spectral libraries and data from comparable locations in other locations. These data are also being analysed in conjunction with high complexity offline techniques applied to samples collected using filters and a Particle-Into-Liquid Sampler (PILS). Methods used include liquid chromatography and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time of flight mass spectrometry. These techniques provide a more detailed chemical characterisation of the SOA and water soluble organic carbon, allowing direct links back to gas phase precursors.

  2. DYNAMICS AND PREDICTION OF DIAMETRIC STRUCTURE IN TWO ATLANTIC FOREST FRAGMENTS IN NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Pedro Bernardina Batista

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Monitoring analyses aim to understand the processes that drive changes in forest structure and, along with prediction studies, may assist in the management planning and conservation of forest remnants. The objective of this study was to analyze the forest dynamics in two Atlantic rainforest fragments in Pernambuco, Brazil, and to predict their future forest diameter structure using the Markov chain model. We used continuous forest inventory data from three surveys in two forest fragments of 87 ha (F1 and 388 ha (F2. We calculated the annual rates of mortality and recruitment, the mean annual increment, and the basal area for each of the 3-year periods. Data from the first and second surveys were used to project the third inventory measurements, which were compared to the observed values in the permanent plots using chi-squared tests (a = 0.05. In F1, a decrease in the number of individuals was observed due to mortality rates being higher than recruitment rates; however, there was an increase in the basal area. In this fragment, the fit to the Markov model was adequate. In F2, there was an increase in both the basal area and the number of individuals during the 6-year period due to the recruitment rate exceeding the mortality rate. For this fragment, the fit of the model was unacceptable. Hence, for the studied fragments, the demographic rates influenced the stem density more than the floristic composition. Yet, even with these intense dynamics, both fragments showed active growth.

  3. Predicting effects of rainforest fragmentation from live trapping studies of small mammals in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Wijesinghe

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the impact of forest fragmentation on small mammals inhabiting the rainforests of Sri Lanka. Fifteen forests ranging in size from 145 to 11000 ha were live-trapped for five to eight nights each in both interior and edge habitats, yielding a total of 18400 trap nights. A total of 444 individuals belonging to 10 species of small mammals were captured. Multiple-regression analysis incorporating three indicators of fragmentation: patch area, shape index (perimeter/area and degree of isolation, showed no significant effects on overall species richness of small mammals. This is likely because the decline of forest-adapted species from small forest fragments was accompanied by an increase in more tolerant and adaptive species. Patch size, however, had a significant positive effect on the abundance of small mammals. Of the two dominant species, the endemic Mus mayori was positively affected by patch area whilst Rattus rattus was not affected. Although no differences were evident between interior and edge habitats with respect to total species richness and abundance, endemics were more abundant in core areas while the reverse was true for the non-endemics. Core forest areas were significantly different from forest edges with respect to canopy cover, density of herbaceous vegetation, large trees and litter cover. These results suggest that forest fragmentation is detrimental to some forest specialists and beneficial to some generalists.

  4. Phylogeography of the Bothrops jararaca complex (Serpentes: Viperidae): past fragmentation and island colonization in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazziotin, Felipe G; Monzel, Markus; Echeverrigaray, Sergio; Bonatto, Sandro L

    2006-11-01

    The Brazilian Atlantic Forest is one of the world's major biodiversity hotspots and is threatened by a severe habitat loss. Yet little is known about the processes that originated its remarkable richness of endemic species. Here we present results of a large-scale survey of the genetic variation at the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene of the pitviper, jararaca lancehead (Bothrops jararaca), and two closely related insular species (Bothrops insularis and Bothrops alcatraz), endemic of this region. Phylogenetic and network analyses revealed the existence of two well-supported clades, exhibiting a southern and a northern distribution. The divergence time of these two phylogroups was estimated at 3.8 million years ago, in the Pliocene, a period of intense climatic changes and frequent fragmentation of the tropical rainforest. Our data also suggest that the two groups underwent a large size expansion between 50,000 and 100,000 years ago. However, the southern group showed a more marked signal of population size fluctuation than the northern group, corroborating evidences that southern forests may have suffered a more pronounced reduction in area in the late Pleistocene. The insular species B. alcatraz and B. insularis presented very low diversity, each one sharing haplotypes with mainland individuals placed in different subclades. Despite their marked morphological and behavioural uniqueness, these two insular species seem to have originated very recently and most likely from distinct costal B. jararaca populations, possibly associated with late Pleistocene or Holocene sea level fluctuations. PMID:17054497

  5. Fruit flies (Diptera, Tephritidae) and their associations with native host plants in a remnant area of the highly endangered Atlantic Rain Forest in the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uramoto, K; Martins, D S; Zucchi, R A

    2008-10-01

    The results presented in this paper refer to a host survey, lasting approximately three and a half years (February 2003-July 2006), undertaken in the Vale do Rio Doce Natural Reserve, a remnant area of the highly endangered Atlantic Rain Forest located in Linhares County, State of Espírito Santo, Brazil. A total of 330 fruit samples were collected from native plants, representing 248 species and 51 plant families. Myrtaceae was the most diverse family with 54 sampled species. Twenty-eight plant species, from ten families, are hosts of ten Anastrepha species and of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). Among 33 associations between host plants and fruit flies, 20 constitute new records, including the records of host plants for A. fumipennis Lima and A. nascimentoi Zucchi. The findings were discussed in the light of their implications for rain forest conservation efforts and the study of evolutionary relationships between fruit flies and their hosts. PMID:18439337

  6. A mitochondrial DNA phylogeny indicates close relationships between populations of Lutzomyia whitmani (Diptera: Psychodidae, Phlebotominae) from the rain-forest regions of Amazônia and northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, E A; Ready, P D; de Souza, A A; Day, J C; Rangel, E F; Davies, C R; Shaw, J J

    1999-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of all 31 described mitochondrial (cytochrome b) haplotypes of Lutzomyia whitmani demonstrated that new material from the State of Rondônia, in southwest Amazônia, forms a clade within a lineage found only in the rain-forest regions of Brazil. This rain-forest lineage also contains two other clades of haplotypes, one from eastern Amazônia and one from the Atlantic forest zone of northeast Brazil (including the type locality of the species in Ilhéus, State of Bahia). These findings do not favour recognizing two allopatric cryptic species of L. whitmani, one associated with the silvatic transmission of Leishmania shawi in southeast Amazônia and the other with the peridomestic transmission of Le. braziliensis in northeast Brazil. Instead, they suggest that there is (or has been in the recent past) a continuum of inter-breeding populations of L. whitmani in the rain-forest regions of Brazil. PMID:10419383

  7. A Mitochondrial DNA Phylogeny Indicates Close Relationships between Populations of Lutzomyia whitmani (Diptera: Psychodidae, Phlebotominae from the Rain-forest Regions of Amazônia and Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishikawa EAY

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Phylogenetic analysis of all 31 described mitochondrial (cytochrome b haplotypes of Lutzomyia whitmani demonstrated that new material from the State of Rondônia, in southwest Amazônia, forms a clade within a lineage found only in the rain-forest regions of Brazil. This rain-forest lineage also contains two other clades of haplotypes, one from eastern Amazônia and one from the Atlantic forest zone of northeast Brazil (including the type locality of the species in Ilhéus, State of Bahia. These findings do not favour recognizing two allopatric cryptic species of L. whitmani, one associated with the silvatic transmission of Leishmania shawi in southeast Amazônia and the other with the peridomestic transmission of Le. braziliensis in northeast Brazil. Instead, they suggest that there is (or has been in the recent past a continuum of inter-breeding populations of L. whitmani in the rain-forest regions of Brazil.

  8. The evolution of a tropical rainforest/grassland mosaic in southeastern Brazil since 28,000 14C yr BP based on carbon isotopes and pollen records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Pessenda, Luiz Carlos; De Oliveira, Paulo Eduardo; Mofatto, Milene; de Medeiros, Vanda Brito; Francischetti Garcia, Ricardo José; Aravena, Ramon; Bendassoli, José Albertino; Zuniga Leite, Acácio; Saad, Antonio Roberto; Lincoln Etchebehere, Mario

    2009-05-01

    The lack of paleoecological records from the montane Atlantic Rainforest of coastal Brazil, a hotspot of biological diversity, has been a major obstacle to our understanding of the vegetational changes since the last glacial cycle. We present carbon isotope and pollen records to assess the impact of the glaciation on the native vegetation of the Serra do Mar rainforest in São Paulo, Brazil. From ca. 28,000 to ˜ 22,000 14C yr BP, a subtropical forest with conifer trees is indicative of cool and humid conditions. In agreement carbon isotopic data on soil organic matter suggest the presence of C 3 plants and perhaps C 4 plants from ˜ 28,000 to ˜ 19,000 14C yr BP. The significant increase in the sedimentation rate and algal spores from ˜ 19,450 to ˜ 19,000 14C yr BP indicates increasing humidity, associated to an erosion process between ˜ 19,000 and ˜ 15,600 14C yr BP. From ˜ 15,600 14C yr BP to present there is a substantial increase in arboreal elements and herbs, indicating more humid and warmer climate. From ˜ 19,000 to ˜ 1000 14C yr BP, δ 13C values indicated the predominance of C 3 plants. These results are in agreement with studies in speleothems of caves, which suggest humid conditions during the last glacial maximum.

  9. Past Human Disturbance Effects upon Biodiversity are Greatest in the Canopy; A Case Study on Rainforest Butterflies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Whitworth

    Full Text Available A key part of tropical forest spatial complexity is the vertical stratification of biodiversity, with widely differing communities found in higher rainforest strata compared to terrestrial levels. Despite this, our understanding of how human disturbance may differentially affect biodiversity across vertical strata of tropical forests has been slow to develop. For the first time, how the patterns of current biodiversity vary between three vertical strata within a single forest, subject to three different types of historic anthropogenic disturbance, was directly assessed. In total, 229 species of butterfly were detected, with a total of 5219 individual records. Butterfly species richness, species diversity, abundance and community evenness differed markedly between vertical strata. We show for the first time, for any group of rainforest biodiversity, that different vertical strata within the same rainforest, responded differently in areas with different historic human disturbance. Differences were most notable within the canopy. Regenerating forest following complete clearance had 47% lower canopy species richness than regenerating forest that was once selectively logged, while the reduction in the mid-storey was 33% and at ground level, 30%. These results also show for the first time that even long term regeneration (over the course of 30 years may be insufficient to erase differences in biodiversity linked to different types of human disturbance. We argue, along with other studies, that ignoring the potential for more pronounced effects of disturbance on canopy fauna, could lead to the underestimation of the effects of habitat disturbance on biodiversity, and thus the overestimation of the conservation value of regenerating forests more generally.

  10. Next-Gen phylogeography of rainforest trees: exploring landscape-level cpDNA variation from whole-genome sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Merwe, M; McPherson, H; Siow, J; Rossetto, M

    2014-01-01

    Standardized phylogeographic studies across codistributed taxa can identify important refugia and biogeographic barriers, and potentially uncover how changes in adaptive constraints through space and time impact on the distribution of genetic diversity. The combination of next-generation sequencing and methodologies that enable uncomplicated analysis of the full chloroplast genome may provide an invaluable resource for such studies. Here, we assess the potential of a shotgun-based method across twelve nonmodel rainforest trees sampled from two evolutionary distinct regions. Whole genomic shotgun sequencing libraries consisting of pooled individuals were used to assemble species-specific chloroplast references (in silicio). For each species, the pooled libraries allowed for the detection of variation within and between data sets (each representing a geographic region). The potential use of nuclear rDNA as an additional marker from the NGS libraries was investigated by mapping reads against available references. We successfully obtained phylogeographically informative sequence data from a range of previously unstudied rainforest trees. Greater levels of diversity were found in northern refugial rainforests than in southern expansion areas. The genetic signatures of varying evolutionary histories were detected, and interesting associative patterns between functional characteristics and genetic diversity were identified. This approach can suit a wide range of landscape-level studies. As the key laboratory-based steps do not require prior species-specific knowledge and can be easily outsourced, the techniques described here are even suitable for researchers without access to wet-laboratory facilities, making evolutionary ecology questions increasingly accessible to the research community. PMID:24119022

  11. Black howler monkey (Alouatta pigra) activity, foraging and seed dispersal patterns in shaded cocoa plantations versus rainforest in southern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zárate, Diego A; Andresen, Ellen; Estrada, Alejandro; Serio-Silva, Juan Carlos

    2014-09-01

    Recent evidence has shown that primates worldwide use agroecosystems as temporary or permanent habitats. Detailed information on how these primates are using these systems is scant, and yet their role as seed dispersers is often implied. The main objective of this study was to compare the activity, foraging patterns and seed dispersal role of black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra) inhabiting shaded cocoa plantations and rainforest in southern Chiapas, Mexico. We gathered data on three monkey groups living in shaded cocoa plantations and three groups living in rainforest, using focal sampling, and collecting fecal samples. General activity and foraging patterns were similar in both habitats, with the exception that monkeys in the cocoa habitat spent more time feeding on petioles. Monkeys in shaded cocoa plantations dispersed 51,369 seeds (4% were seeds ≥3 mm width) of 16 plant species. Monkeys in the rainforest dispersed 6,536 seeds (78% were seeds ≥3 mm width) of 13 plant species. Our data suggest that the difference between habitats in the proportion of large versus small seeds dispersed reflects differences in fruit species abundance and availability in cocoa versus forest. Mean seed dispersal distances were statistically similar in both habitats (cocoa = 149 m, forest = 86 m). We conclude that the studied cocoa plantations provide all elements necessary to constitute a long-term permanent habitat for black howler monkeys. In turn, howler monkeys living in these plantations are able to maintain their functional role as seed dispersers for those native tree and liana species present within their areas of activities. PMID:24668557

  12. Past Human Disturbance Effects upon Biodiversity are Greatest in the Canopy; A Case Study on Rainforest Butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitworth, Andrew; Villacampa, Jaime; Brown, Alice; Huarcaya, Ruthmery Pillco; Downie, Roger; MacLeod, Ross

    2016-01-01

    A key part of tropical forest spatial complexity is the vertical stratification of biodiversity, with widely differing communities found in higher rainforest strata compared to terrestrial levels. Despite this, our understanding of how human disturbance may differentially affect biodiversity across vertical strata of tropical forests has been slow to develop. For the first time, how the patterns of current biodiversity vary between three vertical strata within a single forest, subject to three different types of historic anthropogenic disturbance, was directly assessed. In total, 229 species of butterfly were detected, with a total of 5219 individual records. Butterfly species richness, species diversity, abundance and community evenness differed markedly between vertical strata. We show for the first time, for any group of rainforest biodiversity, that different vertical strata within the same rainforest, responded differently in areas with different historic human disturbance. Differences were most notable within the canopy. Regenerating forest following complete clearance had 47% lower canopy species richness than regenerating forest that was once selectively logged, while the reduction in the mid-storey was 33% and at ground level, 30%. These results also show for the first time that even long term regeneration (over the course of 30 years) may be insufficient to erase differences in biodiversity linked to different types of human disturbance. We argue, along with other studies, that ignoring the potential for more pronounced effects of disturbance on canopy fauna, could lead to the underestimation of the effects of habitat disturbance on biodiversity, and thus the overestimation of the conservation value of regenerating forests more generally. PMID:26950438

  13. How a wet tropical rainforest copes with repeated volcanic destruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jago, Leigh C. F.; Boyd, William E.

    2005-11-01

    The Holocene Period for the province of West New Britain, Papua New Guinea, is characterised by periodic catastrophic volcanism. The region is mantled in dense wet tropical rainforest, and has been occupied by people since the Pleistocene. Analyses of peat from two nearby sites within a lowland rainforest environment provide us with a macro-level landscape account of the periodic destruction and recovery of the coastal forests during seven periods of volcanic activity in the latter part (˜2900 yr ago to present) of the Holocene. Radiocarbon dating shows the very close correlation of the peat and tephra layers at both sites, yet the pollen analysis reveals different vegetation communities. These initial results allow us to begin identifying the processes of recovery, and to recognise different ecological pressures placed on vegetation at these neighbouring sites. Evidence of hydrological changes are observed beginning with a marine incursion recorded at Garu Site 3 ˜1360 14C yr B.P. The distinct differences in the vegetation re-establishment and community regeneration rates suggest the greater level of disturbance at Garu Site 1 could be related to the depth of the ashfall, although the proximity of a known human settlement may also be a contributing factor. Of note, palynologically, we found that the fern spore flora is particularly rich and believe it will be useful for ecological interpretation.

  14. Compilation of a global N{sub 2}O emission inventory for tropical rainforest soils using a detailed biogeochemical model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, C.

    2007-09-15

    rainforests for the re-calibration of the ForestDNDC-tropica model using a multi-site, parallel Bayesian calibration approach. Extensive validation and sensitivity studies underlined the good agreement of the improved biogeochemical model with observed N{sub 2}O fluxes. Based on a newly developed detailed GIS database for tropical rainforests worldwide, the new model was then used for the calculation of a global N{sub 2}O emission inventory. Daily N{sub 2}O emissions for the years 1991 - 2000 were calculated. The results show striking spatial and temporal differences of N{sub 2}O source strength. Based on the calculations in this study the source estimate of global N2O emissions from tropical rainforest soils was revised from previously 1.2 - 3.6 Tg N yr{sup -1} (based on a wide range of source areas considered) to 1.3 Tg N yr{sup -1}. As the accuracy of the model output is dependant on the data quality driving the models, an uncertainty assessment was performed to quantify the data-induced uncertainty on the presented N{sub 2}O emission inventory.

  15. Reconstructing Fire Disturbances in Coastal Temperate Rainforests on the Central Coast of British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Kira; Smith, Dan; Lertzman, Ken; Starzomski, Brian

    2015-04-01

    The coastal temperate rainforests of British Columbia's Central Coast are comprised of old growth, mixed-age stands and a mosaic of non-forested bogs. This region receives approximately 4000 mm of annual rainfall, and fire disturbances caused by lightning are thought to be very rare. Because of the late successional characteristics of these forests and the presumed lack of visible fire evidence, fires have been estimated to occur at up to 6000-year return intervals. We attempt to distinguish the roles of natural and cultural (First Nations) fires using multiple lines of evidence from tree ring records, fire-scarred trees, soil charcoal and archaeological evidence from First Nations settlement areas. To reconstruct the Holocene fire history of the study area located on Hecate Island (N 51 38 W -128 05), thirty 400m2 forest mensuration plots were systematically established in a 287-hectare area burned in 1893. Analyses focused on the relationship between fire events and climate recorded in tree rings and instrumental records, as well as nutrient concentrations and pH of soils and plant community characteristics. Four fire events (1893, 1776, 1525, 1372) were recorded in forty-five living, fire-scarred western redcedar (Thuja plicata), yellow cedar (Xanthocyparis nootkatensis) and shore pine (Pinus contorta var. contorta) trees. Five additional fire events (1785 Cal BP, 2760 Cal BP, 3355 Cal BP, 4735 Cal BP, 7740 Cal BP) were dated with accelerated mass spectrometry radiocarbon dating of in situ macro charcoal (> 5mm) buried in stratigraphy in both organic and mineral soils. The short intervals between fire events, coupled with the long history of First Nations settlement and land use in the study area, suggest purposeful and repeated low-intensity ground fires. Our research demonstrates that fires are more widespread and common than previously recorded on the very wet Central Coast of British Columbia. It is important to incorporate cultural fires into fire history

  16. Evidence of remote forcing in the Equatorial Atlantic ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Servain, J.; Picaut, Joël; Merle, Jacques

    1982-01-01

    An analysis of sea-surface temperature (STT) and surface winds in selected areas of the Tropical Atlantic indicates that the nonseasonal variability of SST in the Eastern Equatorial Atlantic (Gulf of Guinea) is highly correlated with the nonseasonal variability of the zonal wind stress in the Western Equatorial Atlantic. A negative (positive) anomaly of the zonal wind stress near the North Brazilian coast is followed by a positive (negative) SST anomaly in the Gulf of Guinea about one month l...

  17. Response of benthic opportunistic polychaetes and amphipods index to different perturbations in coastal oligotrophic areas (Canary archipelago, North East Atlantic Ocean)

    OpenAIRE

    Riera, Rodrigo; de-la-Ossa-Carretero, Jose Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Oligotrophic areas harbour low macrofaunal abundance and patchy distribution. In these areas it is necessary to test the reliability of biological indicators, especially those based on taxonomic sufficiency where the level of identification is balanced against the need for ecological information and could affect the efficiency of bioindicators. The BOPA (benthic opportunistic polychaetes and amphipods) index was applied in five coastal areas subjected to different perturbations (aquaculture, ...

  18. Putative fishery-induced changes in biomass and population size structures of demersal deep-sea fishes in ICES Sub-area VII, North East Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Godbold

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A time series from 1977–1989 and 2000–2002 of scientific trawl surveys in the Porcupine Seabight and adjacent Abyssal Plain of the NE Atlantic was analysed to assess changes in demersal fish biomass and length frequency. These two periods coincide with the on-set of the commercial deep-water fishery in the late 1970s and the on-set of the regulation of the fishery in the early 2000's and allowed us to investigate changes in the relationship between total demersal fish biomass and depth between the pre- and post commercial fishing periods, changes in the biomass (kg km2 depth distribution and length frequency distribution of the most dominant fish species. Our results show a decline in total demersal fish biomass of 36% within the depth range of the commercial fishery (< 1500 m. Whilst there were significant declines in target (e.g. Coryphaenoides rupestris decreased by 57% and non-target (e.g. Coryphaenoides guentheri and Antimora rostrata species, not all species declined significantly. Changes in the overall length-frequency distribution were detected for 2 species (Coryphaenoides armatus, Synaphobranchus kaupii, but only at depths greater than 1800 m (outside the maximum depth for commercial trawling. This suggests that whilst there is evidence for likely fisheries impacts on the biomass distribution of the demersal fish population as a whole, species-specific impacts are highly variable. It is clear that changes in population structure can extend beyond the depth at which fishing takes place, highlighting the importance for also considering the indirect effects on deep-sea fish populations.

  19. Putative fishery-induced changes in biomass and population size structures of demersal deep-sea fishes in ICES Sub-area VII, Northeast Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Godbold

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A time series from 1977–1989 and 2000–2002 of scientific trawl surveys in the Porcupine Seabight and adjacent abyssal plain of the NE Atlantic was analysed to assess changes in demersal fish biomass and length frequency. These two periods coincide with the onset of the commercial deep-water fishery in the late 1970s and the onset of the regulation of the fishery in the early 2000's, which allowed us to investigate changes in the relationship between total demersal fish biomass and depth between the pre- and post commercial fishing periods, as well as changes in the biomass (kg km−2 depth distribution and length frequency distribution of the most dominant fish species. Our results show a decline in total demersal fish biomass of 36% within the depth range of the commercial fishery (< 1500 m. Whilst there were significant declines in target (e.g. Coryphaenoides rupestris decreased by 57% and non-target (e.g. C. guentheri and Antimora rostrata species, not all species declined significantly. Changes in the overall length-frequency distribution were detected for 5 out of the 8 dominant species occupying depth ranges both within and outside the maximum depth for commercial trawling. This suggests that whilst there is evidence for likely fishery impacts on the biomass distribution of the demersal fish population as a whole, species-specific impacts are highly variable. It is clear that changes in population structure can extend beyond the depth at which fishing takes place, highlighting the importance for also considering the indirect effects on deep-sea fish populations.

  20. Stand structure of a primate rich rainforest region in the central Western Ghats of southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Roy

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The Western Ghats of southern India are one of the most important biodiversity regions in the world, not only due to their faunal diversity and abundance but also due to different habitat types, floral diversity and the presence of several endemic plant species. The rainforests in the central Western Ghats are inhabited by several primate species. We investigated the vegetation pattern and tree species occupancy of one of the prime primate habitats in the central Western Ghats. Lion-tailed Macaque (Macaca silenus, Bonnet Macaque (Macaca radiata, Hanuman Langur (Semnopithecus entellus achates and Malabar Slender Loris (Loris lydekkerianus malabaricus inhabit the study area. We studied the density, dominance, frequency and Importance Value Index (IVI of different tree species, using the belt transect method on randomly selected plots covering 4.1ha. We found that all the plant species that emerged to be the most dominant species with high IVI in the forest were also used by the diurnal primates for foraging. Knema attenuata and Syzygium gardneri were found to be the ‘keystone’ species. Since the forests of the study area do not come under the ‘protected area network’ for wildlife, the data obtained during this study will be helpful in the forestry management practices with a view for wildlife conservation of the region.

  1. Bankfull Curves for the Temperate Rainforests in the Southern Appalachian Mountains of Western North Carolina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MICKEY B. HENSON

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Bankfull hydraulic geometry relationships, also called regional curves, relate bankfull stream channel dimensions and discharge to watershed drainage area. This paper describes results of bankfull curve relationships developed for the temperate rainforests of the Southern Appalachian Mountains primarily on Western North Carolina Mountain streams in the Southeastern United States. Gauge stations for small and larger catchments were selected with a range of 10 to 50 years of continuous or peak discharge measurements, no major impoundments, no significant change in land use over the past 10 years, and impervious cover ranges of <20%. Cross-sectional and longitudinal surveys were measured at each study reach to determine channel dimension, pattern, and profile information. Log-Pearson Type III distributions were used to analyze annual peak discharge data for nine small watersheds sites gauged by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA, Forest Service, Southern Research Station, Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory and for eleven larger watersheds gauged by the United States Geological Survey (USGS. Power function relationships were developed using regression analyses for bankfull discharge, channel cross-sectional area, mean depth, and width as functions of watershed drainage area.

  2. BOEM Wind Planning Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the most recent changes for the Wind Development Planning Areas in the Atlantic. Wind Planning Areas in this dataset represent up to six...

  3. The global rainforest mapping project JERS-1: a paradigm of international collaboration for monitoring land cover change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The Global Rainforest Mapping (GRFM) project was initiated in 1995 and, through a dedicated data acquisition policy by the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), data acquisitions could be completed within a 1.5-year period, resulting in a spatially and temporally homogeneous coverage to contain the entire Amazon Basin from the Atlantic to the Pacific; Central America up to the Yucatan Peninsular in Mexico; equatorial Africa from Madagascar and Kenya in the east to Sierra Leone in the west; and Southeast Asia, including Papua New Guinea. To some extent, GRFM project is an international endeavor led by NASDA, with the goal of producing spatially and temporally contiguous Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data sets over the tropical belt on the Earth by use of the JERS-1 L-band SAR, through the generation of semi-continental, 100m resolution, image mosaics. The GRFM project relies on extensive collaboration with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Joint Research Center of the European Commission (JRC) and the Japanese Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) for data acquisition, processing, validation and product generation. A science program is underway in parallel with product generation. This involves the agencies mentioned above, as well as a large number of international organizations, universities and individuals to perform field activities and data analysis at different levels.

  4. NOAA TIFF Image - 10m Backscatter Mosaic, South Atlantic Bight - Deep Coral Priority Areas - NOAA Ship Nancy Foster - (2010), UTM 17N NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a unified GeoTiff with 10x10 meter cell size representing the backscatter (intensity) of several deep coral priority areas off the South...

  5. NOAA TIFF Image - 4m Bathymetric Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of Red Snapper Research Areas in the South Atlantic Bight, 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains unified Bathymetric PCA GeoTiffs with 4x4 meter cell resolution describing the topography of 15 areas along the shelf edge off the South...

  6. NOAA TIFF Image - 10m Backscatter Mosaic, South Atlantic Bight - Deep Coral Priority Areas - NOAA Ship Nancy Foster - (2009), UTM 17N NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a unified GeoTiff with 10x10 meter cell size representing the backscatter (intensity) of several deep coral priority areas off the South...

  7. NOAA TIFF Image - 5m Backscatter Mosaic, South Atlantic Bight - Deep Coral Priority Areas - NOAA Ship Nancy Foster - (2007), UTM 17N NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a unified GeoTiff with 5x5 meter cell size representing the backscatter (intensity) of several deep coral priority areas off the South...

  8. Conversion of the Amazon rainforest to agriculture results in biotic homogenization of soil bacterial communities

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Jorge L M; Pellizari, Vivian H.; Mueller, Rebecca; Baek, Kyunghwa; Jesus, Ederson da C.; Paula, Fabiana S; Mirza, Babur; Hamaoui, George S.; Tsai, Siu Mui; Feigl, Brigitte; Tiedje, James M; Bohannan, Brendan J.M.; Nüsslein, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    The Amazon rainforest is the Earth’s largest reservoir of plant and animal diversity, and it has been subjected to especially high rates of land use change, primarily to cattle pasture. This conversion has had a strongly negative effect on biological diversity, reducing the number of plant and animal species and homogenizing communities. We report here that microbial biodiversity also responds strongly to conversion of the Amazon rainforest, but in a manner different from plants and animals. ...

  9. Rainforest and savanna dynamics in response to fires in New Caledonia

    OpenAIRE

    Ibanez, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    New Caledonia, which presents both an exceptional and highly endangered biodiversity, is one of the worldwide biodiversity hotspots for conservation priority. Human-induced fires, which are one of the main threats to natural ecosystems in New Caledonia, lead to the expansion of savannas on volcano-sedimentary substrates at the expense of rainforests. In this thesis, the ecological processes, which are involved in the dynamics of rainforests and savannas and related to changes in fire regime, ...

  10. Hunting in the Rainforest and Mayaro Virus Infection: An emerging Alphavirus in Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo O Izurieta; Maurizio Macaluso; Watts, Douglas M.; Tesh, Robert B.; Bolivar Guerra; Ligia M Cruz; Sagar Galwankar; Vermund, Sten H.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The objectives of this report were to document the potential presence of Mayaro virus infection in Ecuador and to examine potential risk factors for Mayaro virus infection among the personnel of a military garrison in the Amazonian rainforest. Materials and Methods: The study population consisted of the personnel of a garrison located in the Ecuadorian Amazonian rainforest. The cross-sectional study employed interviews and seroepidemiological methods. Humoral immune response to Ma...

  11. Effectiveness of rope bridge arboreal overpasses and faunal underpasses in providing connectivity for rainforest fauna

    OpenAIRE

    Goosem, Miriam; Weston, Nigel; Bushnell, Sally

    2005-01-01

    Rope bridge overpasses and faunal underpasses were effective in restoring rainforest habitat connectivity for many tropical rainforest species that suffer high levels of road mortality or that avoid large clearings, such as those for roads, and, therefore, suffer barrier effects. Faunal underpasses furnished with logs and rocks to provide cover were constructed in 2001 at a hotspot for tree-kangaroo mortality. The narrow road and 120-m-wide strip of abandoned pasture divided two blocks of rai...

  12. Herbivory on temperate rainforest seedlings in sun and shade: resistance, tolerance and habitat distribution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Salgado-Luarte

    Full Text Available Differential herbivory and/or differential plant resistance or tolerance in sun and shade environments may influence plant distribution along the light gradient. Embothrium coccineum is one of the few light-demanding tree species in the temperate rainforest of southern South America, and seedlings are frequently attacked by insects and snails. Herbivory may contribute to the exclusion of E. coccineum from the shade if 1 herbivory pressure is greater in the shade, which in turn can result from shade plants being less resistant or from habitat preferences of herbivores, and/or 2 consequences of damage are more detrimental in the shade, i.e., shade plants are less tolerant. We tested this in a field study with naturally established seedlings in treefall gaps (sun and forest understory (shade in a temperate rainforest of southern Chile. Seedlings growing in the sun sustained nearly 40% more herbivore damage and displayed half of the specific leaf area than those growing in the shade. A palatability test showed that a generalist snail consumed ten times more leaf area when fed on shade leaves compared to sun leaves, i.e., plant resistance was greater in sun-grown seedlings. Herbivore abundance (total biomass was two-fold greater in treefall gaps compared to the forest understory. Undamaged seedlings survived better and showed a slightly higher growth rate in the sun. Whereas simulated herbivory in the shade decreased seedling survival and growth by 34% and 19%, respectively, damaged and undamaged seedlings showed similar survival and growth in the sun. Leaf tissue lost to herbivores in the shade appears to be too expensive to replace under the limiting light conditions of forest understory. Following evaluations of herbivore abundance and plant resistance and tolerance in contrasting light environments, we have shown how herbivory on a light-demanding tree species may contribute to its exclusion from shade sites. Thus, in the shaded forest understory

  13. In situ measurements of isoprene and monoterpenes within a south-east Asian tropical rainforest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E. Jones

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs emitted from tropical rainforests comprise a substantial fraction of global atmospheric VOC emissions, however there are only relatively limited measurements of these species in tropical rainforest regions. We present observations of isoprene, α-pinene, camphene, Δ-3-carene, γ-terpinene and limonene, as well as oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs of biogenic origin such as methacrolein, in ambient air above a tropical rainforest in Malaysian Borneo during the Oxidant and Particle Photochemical Processes above a south-east Asian tropical rainforest (OP3 project in 2008. Daytime composition was dominated by isoprene, with an average mixing ratio of the order of ~1 ppb. γ-terpinene, limonene and camphene were the most abundant monoterpenes, with average daytime mixing ratios of 102, 71 and 66 ppt respectively, and with an average monoterpene toisoprene ratio of 0.3 during sunlit hours, compared to 2.0 at night. Limonene and camphene abundances were seen to be related to both temperature and light conditions. In contrast, γ-terpinene emission continued into the late afternoon/evening, under relatively low temperature and light conditions. The contributions of isoprene, monoterpenes and other classes of VOC to the volatile carbon budget and OH reactivity have been summarised for this rainforest location. We observe good agreement between surface and aircraft measurements of boundary layer isoprene and methacrolein above the natural rainforest, suggesting that the ground-level observations are broadly representative of isoprene emissions from this region.

  14. In situ measurements of isoprene and monoterpenes within a south-east Asian tropical rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C. E.; Hopkins, J. R.; Lewis, A. C.

    2011-07-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emitted from tropical rainforests comprise a substantial fraction of global atmospheric VOC emissions, however there are only relatively limited measurements of these species in tropical rainforest regions. We present observations of isoprene, α-pinene, camphene, Δ-3-carene, γ-terpinene and limonene, as well as oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs) of biogenic origin such as methacrolein, in ambient air above a tropical rainforest in Malaysian Borneo during the Oxidant and Particle Photochemical Processes above a south-east Asian tropical rainforest (OP3) project in 2008. Daytime composition was dominated by isoprene, with an average mixing ratio of the order of ~1 ppb. γ-terpinene, limonene and camphene were the most abundant monoterpenes, with average daytime mixing ratios of 102, 71 and 66 ppt respectively, and with an average monoterpene toisoprene ratio of 0.3 during sunlit hours, compared to 2.0 at night. Limonene and camphene abundances were seen to be related to both temperature and light conditions. In contrast, γ-terpinene emission continued into the late afternoon/evening, under relatively low temperature and light conditions. The contributions of isoprene, monoterpenes and other classes of VOC to the volatile carbon budget and OH reactivity have been summarised for this rainforest location. We observe good agreement between surface and aircraft measurements of boundary layer isoprene and methacrolein above the natural rainforest, suggesting that the ground-level observations are broadly representative of isoprene emissions from this region.

  15. Atlantic update, July 1986--June 1990: Outer Continental Shelf oil and gas activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpas, R.M.; Gould, G.J.

    1990-10-01

    This report describes outer continental shelf oil and gas activities in the Atlantic Region. This edition of the Atlantic Update includes an overview of the Mid-Atlantic Planning Area and a summary of the Manteo Prospect off-shore North Carolina. 6 figs., 8 tabs.

  16. 78 FR 72070 - Notice of Availability of Record of Decision for Atlantic Fleet Training and Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... Department of the Navy Notice of Availability of Record of Decision for Atlantic Fleet Training and Testing... Atlantic Fleet study area as described in Alternative 2 for the proposed action. Under Alternative 2, the... for Atlantic Fleet Training and Testing, dated August 2013 and supporting documents. Single copies...

  17. Simulated impacts of artificial groundwater recharge and discharge of the source area and source volume of an Atlantic Coastal Plain Stream, Delaware, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Joshua W.; Denver, Judish M.; McKenna, Thomas E.; Ullman, William J.

    2010-01-01

    A numerical groundwater-flow model was used to characterize the source area and volume of Phillips Branch, a baseflow-dominated stream incising a highly permeable unconfined aquifer on the low relief Delmarva Peninsula, USA. Particle-tracking analyses indicate that the source area (5.51 km2) is ~20% smaller than the topographically defined watershed (6.85 km2), and recharge entering ~37% of the surface watershed does not discharge to Phillips Branch. Groundwater residence time within the source volume ranges from a few days to almost 100 years, with 95% of the volume "flushing" within 50 years. Artificial discharge from groundwater pumping alters the shape of the source area and reduces baseflow due to the interception of stream flow paths, but has limited impacts on the residence time of groundwater discharged as baseflow. In contrast, artificial recharge from land-based wastewater disposal substantially reduces the source area, lowers the range in residence time due to the elimination of older flow paths to the stream, and leads to increased discharge to adjacent surface-water bodies. This research suggests that, in this and similar hydrogeologic settings, the "watershed" approach to water-resource management may be limited, particularly where anthropogenic stresses alter the transport of soluble contaminants through highly permeable unconfined aquifers.

  18. Foraging range, habitat use and minimum flight distances of East Atlantic Light-bellied Brent Geese Branta bernicla hrota in their spring staging areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Kevin Kuhlmann; Clausen, Preben; Hounisen, Jens Peder; Vissing, Marie Silberling; Fox, Anthony David

    habitats. This might reflect changes in habitat availability, and is probably related to significant declines in Common Eelgrass Zostera marina in both these areas. From a historically rather sedentary lifestyle, which centred around foraging on Zostera beds in fjord habitats, this population now feeds on...

  19. Atlantic reef fish biogeography and evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floeter, S.R.; Rocha, L.A.; Robertson, D.R.; Joyeux, J.C.; Smith-Vaniz, W.F.; Wirtz, P.; Edwards, A.J.; Barreiros, J.P.; Ferreira, C.E.L.; Gasparini, J.L.; Brito, A.; Falcon, J.M.; Bowen, B.W.; Bernardi, G.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To understand why and when areas of endemism (provinces) of the tropical Atlantic Ocean were formed, how they relate to each other, and what processes have contributed to faunal enrichment. Location: Atlantic Ocean. Methods: The distributions of 2605 species of reef fishes were compiled for 25 areas of the Atlantic and southern Africa. Maximum-parsimony and distance analyses were employed to investigate biogeographical relationships among those areas. A collection of 26 phylogenies of various Atlantic reef fish taxa was used to assess patterns of origin and diversification relative to evolutionary scenarios based on spatio-temporal sequences of species splitting produced by geological and palaeoceanographic events. We present data on faunal (species and genera) richness, endemism patterns, diversity buildup (i.e. speciation processes), and evaluate the operation of the main biogeographical barriers and/or filters. Results: Phylogenetic (proportion of sister species) and distributional (number of shared species) patterns are generally concordant with recognized biogeographical provinces in the Atlantic. The highly uneven distribution of species in certain genera appears to be related to their origin, with highest species richness in areas with the greatest phylogenetic depth. Diversity buildup in Atlantic reef fishes involved (1) diversification within each province, (2) isolation as a result of biogeographical barriers, and (3) stochastic accretion by means of dispersal between provinces. The timing of divergence events is not concordant among taxonomic groups. The three soft (non-terrestrial) inter-regional barriers (mid-Atlantic, Amazon, and Benguela) clearly act as 'filters' by restricting dispersal but at the same time allowing occasional crossings that apparently lead to the establishment of new populations and species. Fluctuations in the effectiveness of the filters, combined with ecological differences among provinces, apparently provide a mechanism

  20. The oxygen isotopic composition of phytoliths from tropical rainforest soils (Queensland, Australia: application of a new paleoenvironmental tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Alexandre

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Variations in the oxygen isotopic composition of precipitation (δ18Oprecipitation in inter-tropical areas mainly record variations in water sources, amounts of precipitation, and atmospheric temperature and provide information regarding local climate and regional atmospheric circulation changes. On continents, fossil biogenic minerals and speleothems formed in isotopic equilibrium with water can produce continuous δ18O records and are becoming increasingly valuable for reconstructing past climate changes. Here, we explore the efficiency and limitations of using the oxygen isotopic composition of wood phytoliths (δ18Owood phytolith from tropical rainforest soils as a suitable proxy for atmospheric temperature and δ18Oprecipitation values, under conditions that are assumed to be non-evaporative. Soil phytolith assemblages, that should contain 100s of years of phytolith production, were collected along four altitude, temperature, and precipitation gradients in the Queensland rainforests (Australia. Oxygen isotopic analyses were performed on 1.6 mg phytolith samples, after controlled isotopic exchange (CIE, using the IR Laser-Heating Fluorination Technique. Long-term mean annual precipitation (MAP and mean annual temperature (MAT values at the sampled sites were obtained using a regional GIS database. The δ18Oprecipitation values were estimated. The δ18Owood phytolith values from the leeward slopes were scattered but recorded the modern combination of weighted mean annual δ18Oprecipitation values and MAT. The empirical relationship was &Delta18Owood phytolith-precipitation (‰ vs. VSMOW = −0.4 (±0.2 t (°C + 46 (±3 (R2 = 0.4, p<0.05; n=12. δ18Oprecipitation estimates were close to estimates for δ18

  1. Seasonality of isoprenoid emissions from a primary rainforest in central Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Eliane G.; Jardine, Kolby; Tota, Julio; Jardine, Angela; Yãnez-Serrano, Ana Maria; Karl, Thomas; Tavares, Julia; Nelson, Bruce; Gu, Dasa; Stavrakou, Trissevgeni; Martin, Scot; Artaxo, Paulo; Manzi, Antonio; Guenther, Alex

    2016-03-01

    variation of isoprenoid emissions. Although remote sensing observations of changes in leaf area index were used to estimate leaf phenology, MEGAN 2.1 did not fully capture the behavior of seasonal emissions observed in this study. This could be a result of very local effects on the observed emissions, but also suggest that other parameters need to be better determined in biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) models. Our results support established findings that seasonality of isoprenoids are driven by seasonal changes in light, temperature and leaf phenology. However, they suggest that leaf phenology and its role on isoprenoid production and emission from tropical plant species needs to be better understood in order to develop mechanistic explanations for seasonal variation in emissions. This also may reduce the uncertainties of model estimates associated with the responses to environmental factors. Therefore, this study strongly encourages long-term measurements of isoprenoid emissions, environmental factors and leaf phenology from leaf to ecosystem scale, with the purpose of improving BVOC model approaches that can characterize seasonality of isoprenoid emissions from tropical rainforests.

  2. Ecology of a snake assemblage in the Atlantic Forest of southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo A. Hartmann

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to examine the natural history and the ecology of the species that constitute a snake assemblage in the Atlantic Rainforest, at Núcleo Picinguaba, Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar, located on the northern coast of the state of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. The main aspects studied were: richness, relative abundance, daily and seasonal activity, and substrate use. We also provide additional information on natural history of the snakes. A total of 282 snakes, distributed over 24 species, belonging to 16 genera and four families, has been found within the area of the Núcleo Picinguaba. Species sampled more frequently were Bothrops jararaca and B. jararacussu. The methods that yielded the best results were time constrained search and opportunistic encounters. Among the abiotic factors analyzed, minimum temperature, followed by the mean temperature and the rainfall are apparently the most important in determining snake abundance. Most species presented a diet concentrated on one prey category or restricted to a few kinds of food items. The large number of species that feed on frogs points out the importance of this kind of prey as an important food resource for snakes in the Atlantic Rainforest. Our results indicate that the structure of the Picinguaba snake assemblage reflects mainly the phylogenetic constraints of each of its lineages.O principal objetivo deste estudo foi obter informações sobre a história natural e a ecologia das espécies que compõem uma taxocenoses de serpentes da Mata Atlântica, no Núcleo Picinguaba do Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar, localizado no litoral norte do estado no Estado de São Paulo, sudeste do Brasil. Os principais aspectos estudados foram: riqueza, abundância relativa de espécies, padrões de atividade diária e sazonal, utilização do ambiente e dieta. Um total de 282 serpentes, distribuídas em 24 espécies, pertencentes a 16 gêneros e quatro famílias, foi

  3. High rate of unrecognized dengue virus infection in parts of the rainforest region of Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onoja, A B; Adeniji, J A; Olaleye, O D

    2016-08-01

    Outbreaks and sporadic dengue virus infections continue to occur in Africa. Several reports of dengue among travellers returning from some African countries to Europe and North America have raised concerns about the epidemiological situation in Africa. We investigated recent dengue infections in febrile patients during the rainy season in various urban centres in the rainforest region of Nigeria, West Africa. This cross-sectional study was conducted for 8 months in 2014 with study participants from Adeoyo Hospital Yemetu - Ibadan, Nigeria. Plasma were collected from 274 febrile patients residing in 11 Local Government Areas of Oyo State. IgM antibodies were determined using semi-quantitative sandwich ELISA. Data was analyzed using Chi - Square and Fisher's exact test with SPSS 16.0. An overall prevalence of 23.4% dengue virus infection was found among study participants. Highest monthly prevalence of 40% was in April and August. The monthly distribution pattern of dengue virus infection indicates efficient virus transmission. Routine diagnosis will enhance dengue virus surveillance and improve patient care in West Africa. PMID:27140859

  4. Economic benefits of biodiversity exceed costs of conservation at an African rainforest reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Robin; Adamowicz, Wiktor L

    2005-11-15

    Economic research on biodiversity conservation has focused on the costs of conservation reserves and the benefits of intact ecosystems; however, no study has simultaneously considered the costs and benefits of species diversity, a fundamental component of biodiversity. We quantified the costs and benefits of avian biodiversity at a rainforest reserve in Uganda through a combination of economic surveys of tourists, spatial land-use analyses, and species-area relationships. Our results show that revising entrance fees and redistributing ecotourism revenues would protect 114 of 143 forest bird species (80%) under current market conditions. This total would increase to 131 species (approximately 90%) if entrance fees were optimized to capture the tourist's willingness to pay for forest visits and the chance of seeing increased numbers of bird species. In contrast, the cost of purchasing agricultural land for ecological rehabilitation of the avian habitat would be economically prohibitive. These results suggest that local biodiversity markets could play a positive role in tropical conservation strategies if the appropriate institutions for redistribution can be developed. PMID:16267131

  5. Miocene Fossils Reveal Ancient Roots for New Zealand's Endemic Mystacina (Chiroptera) and Its Rainforest Habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, Suzanne J; Lee, Daphne E; Worthy, Trevor H; Archer, Michael; Worthy, Jennifer P; Tennyson, Alan J D; Salisbury, Steven W; Scofield, R Paul; Mildenhall, Dallas C; Kennedy, Elizabeth M; Lindqvist, Jon K

    2015-01-01

    The New Zealand endemic bat family Mystacinidae comprises just two Recent species referred to a single genus, Mystacina. The family was once more diverse and widespread, with an additional six extinct taxa recorded from Australia and New Zealand. Here, a new mystacinid is described from the early Miocene (19-16 Ma) St Bathans Fauna of Central Otago, South Island, New Zealand. It is the first pre-Pleistocene record of the modern genus and it extends the evolutionary history of Mystacina back at least 16 million years. Extant Mystacina species occupy old-growth rainforest and are semi-terrestrial with an exceptionally broad omnivorous diet. The majority of the plants inhabited, pollinated, dispersed or eaten by modern Mystacina were well-established in southern New Zealand in the early Miocene, based on the fossil record from sites at or near where the bat fossils are found. Similarly, many of the arthropod prey of living Mystacina are recorded as fossils in the same area. Although none of the Miocene plant and arthropod species is extant, most are closely related to modern taxa, demonstrating potentially long-standing ecological associations with Mystacina. PMID:26083758

  6. Herbivores modify selection on plant functional traits in a temperate rainforest understory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado-Luarte, Cristian; Gianoli, Ernesto

    2012-08-01

    There is limited evidence regarding the adaptive value of plant functional traits in contrasting light environments. It has been suggested that changes in these traits in response to light availability can increase herbivore susceptibility. We tested the adaptive value of plant functional traits linked with carbon gain in contrasting light environments and also evaluated whether herbivores can modify selection on these traits in each light environment. In a temperate rainforest, we examined phenotypic selection on functional traits in seedlings of the pioneer tree Aristotelia chilensis growing in sun (canopy gap) and shade (forest understory) and subjected to either natural herbivory or herbivore exclusion. We found differential selection on functional traits depending on light environment. In sun, there was positive directional selection on photosynthetic rate and relative growth rate (RGR), indicating that selection favors competitive ability in a high-resource environment. Seedlings with high specific leaf area (SLA) and intermediate RGR were selected in shade, suggesting that light capture and conservative resource use are favored in the understory. Herbivores reduced the strength of positive directional selection acting on SLA in shade. We provide the first demonstration that natural herbivory rates can change the strength of selection on plant ecophysiological traits, that is, attributes whose main function is resource uptake. Research addressing the evolution of shade tolerance should incorporate the selective role of herbivores. PMID:22766937

  7. Holocene precipitation in the coastal temperate rainforest complex of southern British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, K. J.; Fitton, R. J.; Schoups, G.; Allen, G. B.; Wahl, K. A.; Hebda, R. J.

    2006-11-01

    Pollen data from 69 surface samples from Vancouver Island, Canada, were used to develop a ratio index of precipitation, Douglas fir-western hemlock index (DWHI). DWHI ratios were combined with interpolated estimates of mean annual precipitation to develop pollen-based precipitation transfer functions. The optimal regression model, with a predictive range of 960-2600 mm, was applied to 10 Holocene lake sediment records distributed across a ˜150 km long coastal-inland precipitation gradient. Predicted precipitation was spatially modelled in a geographic information system to examine the spatio-temporal history of precipitation from this representative portion of the coastal temperate rainforest (CTR) complex of western North America. The reconstructions show widespread early Holocene dry conditions coupled with a steep east-west precipitation gradient. Thereafter, the modern precipitation gradient established 7000 years ago, illustrating that the CTR complex has experienced marked short-distance east-west changes in precipitation in the past. Changes in the abundance of arboreal and non-arboreal vegetation, as well as fire disturbance, are often concomitant with changes in Holocene precipitation. Given the precipitation and vegetation history of the region, conservation initiatives should focus on the moist outer coastal zone since it appears to have the greatest amount of resilience to perturbations in precipitation, whereas monitoring programs for signs of climate change should be initiated in central and eastern areas as they appear sensitive to changes in the moisture regime.

  8. Holocene Precipitation in the Coastal Temperate Rainforest Complex of Western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, K. J.; Fitton, R. J.; Schoups, G.; Allen, G. B.; Wahl, K. A.; Hebda, R. J.

    2006-12-01

    Pollen data from 69 surface samples from Vancouver Island, Canada, were used to develop a ratio index of precipitation, DWHI (Douglas fir-western hemlock index). DWHI ratios were combined with interpolated estimates of mean annual precipitation to develop pollen-based precipitation transfer functions. The optimal regression model, with a predictive range of 960-2600 mm, was applied to 10 Holocene lake sediment records distributed across a ~150 km long coastal-inland precipitation gradient. Predicted precipitation was spatially modelled in a geographic information system to examine the spatio-temporal history of precipitation from this representative portion of the coastal temperate rainforest (CTR) complex of western North America. The reconstructions show widespread early Holocene dry conditions coupled with a steep east-west precipitation gradient. Thereafter, the modern precipitation gradient established 7000 years ago, illustrating that the CTR complex has experienced marked short-distance east-west changes in precipitation in the past. Changes in the abundance of arboreal and non-arboreal vegetation, as well as fire disturbance, are often concomitant with changes in Holocene precipitation. Given the precipitation and vegetation history of the region, conservation initiatives should focus on the moist outer coastal zone since it appears to have the greatest amount of resilience to perturbations in precipitation, whereas monitoring programs for signs of climate change should be initiated in central areas as they appear sensitive to changes in the moisture regime.

  9. Components of ecosystem evaporation in a temperate coniferous rainforest, with canopy transpiration scaled using sapwood density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, M M; Hunt, J E; Walcroft, A S; Rogers, G N D; McSeveny, T M; Whitehead, D

    2005-02-01

    Here we develop and test a method to scale sap velocity measurements from individual trees to canopy transpiration (E(c)) in a low-productivity, old-growth rainforest dominated by the conifer Dacrydium cupressinum. Further, E(c) as a component of the ecosystem water balance is quantified in relation to forest floor evaporation rates and measurements of ecosystem evaporation using eddy covariance (E(eco)) in conditions when the canopy was dry and partly wet. Thermal dissipation probes were used to measure sap velocity of individual trees, and scaled to transpiration at the canopy level by dividing trees into classes based on sapwood density and canopy position (sheltered or exposed). When compared with ecosystem eddy covariance measurements, E(c) accounted for 51% of E(eco) on dry days, and 22% of E(eco) on wet days. Low transpiration rates, and significant contributions to E(eco) from wet canopy evaporation and understorey transpiration (35%) and forest floor evaporation (25%), were attributable to the unique characteristics of the forest: in particular, high rainfall, low leaf area index, low stomatal conductance and low productivity associated with severe nutrient limitation. PMID:15720665

  10. Remote Sensing Based Spatial Statistics to Document Tropical Rainforest Transition Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abduwasit Ghulam

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, grid cell based spatial statistics were used to quantify the drivers of land-cover and land-use change (LCLUC and habitat degradation in a tropical rainforest in Madagascar. First, a spectral database of various land-cover and land-use information was compiled using multi-year field campaign data and photointerpretation of satellite images. Next, residential areas were extracted from IKONOS-2 and GeoEye-1 images using object oriented feature extraction (OBIA. Then, Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+ data were used to generate land-cover and land-use maps from 1990 to 2011, and LCLUC maps were developed with decadal intervals and converted to 100 m vector grid cells. Finally, the causal associations between LCLUC were quantified using ordinary least square regression analysis and Moran’s I, and a forest disturbance index derived from the time series Landsat data were used to further confirm LCLUC drivers. The results showed that (1 local spatial statistical approaches were most effective at quantifying the drivers of LCLUC, and (2 the combined threats of habitat degradation in and around the reserve and increasing encroachment of invasive plant species lead to the expansion of shrubland and mixed forest within the former primary forest, which was echoed by the forest disturbance index derived from the Landsat data.

  11. Anatomy of predator snail Huttonella bicolor, an invasive species in Amazon rainforest, Brazil (Pulmonata, Streptaxidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Ricardo L. Simone

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The morpho-anatomy of the micro-predator Huttonella bicolor (Hutton, 1838 is investigated in detail. The species is a micro-predator snail, which is splaying in tropical and subtropical areas all over the world, the first report being from the Amazon Rainforest region of northern Brazil. The shell is very long, with complex peristome teeth. The radula bears sharp pointed teeth. The head lacks tentacles, bearing only ommatophores. The pallial cavity lacks well-developed vessels (except for pulmonary vessel; the anus and urinary aperture are on pneumostome. The kidney is solid, with ureter totally closed (tubular; the primary ureter is straight, resembling orthurethran fashion. The buccal mass has an elongated and massive odontophore, of which muscles are described; the odontophore cartilages are totally fused with each other. The salivary ducts start as one single duct, bifurcating only prior to insertion. The mid and hindguts are relatively simple and with smooth inner surfaces; there is practically no intestinal loop. The genital system has a zigzag-fashioned fertilization complex, narrow prostate, no bursa copulatrix, short and broad vas deferens, and simple penis with gland at distal tip. The nerve ring bears three ganglionic masses, and an additional pair of ventral ganglia connected to pedal ganglia, interpreted as odontophore ganglia. These features are discussed in light of the knowledge of other streptaxids and adaptations to carnivory.

  12. [Biomass and net primary productivity of artificial tropical rainforest in Xishuangbanna].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jianwei; Zhang, Jianhou; Song, Qishi; Huang, Ziyun; Li, Zineng; Wang, Lifan; Zeng, Rong

    2003-01-01

    The stand biomass and primary net productivity of artificial tropical rainforest in Xishuangbanna were estimated, based on sample tree method and harvesting method. The results showed that the standing biomass was 390.4 t.hm-2, of which, 362.5 t.hm-2(92.8%) were contributed by tree layers. The biomass of shrub and inter-layer plants (including epiphytes) was 19.3 t.hm-2(4.9%) and 3.6 t.hm-2(0.9%), respectively, and that of herbaceous layers was 5.0 t.hm-2. The primary net productivity of the stand was 2227.3 g.m-2.yr-1, of which, 1553.5 g.m-2.yr-1(69.7%) were contributed by tree layers. In the allocation of primary net productivity in different parts of trees stems showed the highest net productivity, accounted for 42.0%. Leaves and branches were accounted for 30.2% and 13.5%, respectively. The leaf area index (LAI) was 7.061. The optimum regression models of different dominant plants and organs of the sample trees of tree layer in the artificial tropical forest were built. PMID:12722428

  13. Water availability reconstructions using tree-rings in the Valdivian rainforest ecoregion, Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water availability can be considered as one of the main restrictions for future development in South-Central Chile, due to the reported decreasing trends in precipitation in the last decades and the increasing demand for this resource. This issue makes the study of past water availability fundamental for the understanding of present and future variations. This paper presents a comparison of two water availability reconstructions within the Valdivian rainforest ecoregion (350-480S), one corresponding to a precipitation (370-39.50 S) and the other to a streamflow reconstruction (410 S). This study shows that there are fundamental differences between them especially in the long term variability. However, there are also coincidences, mainly at higher frequency variations, such as at a bidecadal, decadal and annual scale. Another important finding is that these reconstructions show significant correlations with different climatic forcings in this area. The northern reconstruction presents a significant relationship with ENSO (El Nino Southern Oscillation), while the southern does the same with the AAO (Antarctic Oscillation Index).

  14. Some new mammal records from the rainforests of south-eastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Angelici

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper we report new data on the occurrence and range of seven mammal species in the rainforest region of south-eastern Nigeria. The species in question are: Potamogale velox (Insectivora, Cercopithecus sclateri, Procolobus badius epieni (Primates, Manis tetradactyla (Pholidota, Funisciurus pyrropus talboti (Rodentia, Trichechus senegalensis (Sirenia and Tragelaphus spekii gratus (Artiodactyla. In terms of conservation (according to latest IUCN criteria and categories, we discovered some critical information concerning the mammal fauna in the area. In fact, out of these seven species, one is Critically Endangered (CR, four are Endangered (EN, one is Lower Risk, least concern (LR, lc, and one is Not Evaluated (NE. Deforestation and excessive hunting pressure are the biggest threats for mammals in the Niger Delta. In particular, endemic taxa and species whose range and status are unknown, could be particularly endangered.

  15. Water availability reconstructions using tree-rings in the Valdivian rainforest ecoregion, Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urrutia, Rocio; Pena, M P; Christie, Duncan A [Laboratorio de DendrocronologIa, Instituto de Silvicultura, Facultad de Ciencias Forestales, Universidad Austral de Chile, Casilla 567, Valdivia (Chile); Lara, Antonio, E-mail: rociourrutia@uach.c

    2010-03-15

    Water availability can be considered as one of the main restrictions for future development in South-Central Chile, due to the reported decreasing trends in precipitation in the last decades and the increasing demand for this resource. This issue makes the study of past water availability fundamental for the understanding of present and future variations. This paper presents a comparison of two water availability reconstructions within the Valdivian rainforest ecoregion (35{sup 0}-48{sup 0}S), one corresponding to a precipitation (37{sup 0}-39.5{sup 0} S) and the other to a streamflow reconstruction (41{sup 0} S). This study shows that there are fundamental differences between them especially in the long term variability. However, there are also coincidences, mainly at higher frequency variations, such as at a bidecadal, decadal and annual scale. Another important finding is that these reconstructions show significant correlations with different climatic forcings in this area. The northern reconstruction presents a significant relationship with ENSO (El Nino Southern Oscillation), while the southern does the same with the AAO (Antarctic Oscillation Index).

  16. Host associations and beta diversity of fungal endophyte communities in New Guinea rainforest trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, J B; Weiblen, G D; May, G

    2016-02-01

    Processes shaping the distribution of foliar fungal endophyte species remain poorly understood. Despite increasing evidence that these cryptic fungal symbionts of plants mediate interactions with pathogens and herbivores, there remain basic questions regarding the extent to which dispersal limitation and host specificity might shape fungal endophyte community composition in rainforests. To assess the relative importance of spatial pattern and host specificity, we isolated fungi from a sample of mapped trees in lowland Papua New Guinea. Sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region were obtained for 2079 fungal endophytes from three sites and clustered into molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTUs) at 95% similarity. Multivariate analyses suggest that host affinity plays a significant role in structuring endophyte community composition whereas there was no evidence of endophyte spatial pattern at the scale of tens to hundreds of metres. Differences in endophyte communities between sampled trees were weakly correlated with variation in foliar traits but not with tree species relatedness. The dominance of relatively few generalist endophytes and the presence of a large number of rare MOTUs was a consistent observation at three sites separated by hundreds of kilometres and regional turnover was low. Host specificity appears to play a relatively weak but more important role than dispersal limitation in shaping the distribution of fungal endophyte communities in New Guinea forests. Our results suggest that in the absence of strong ecological gradients and host turnover, beta diversity of endophyte communities could be low in large areas of contiguous forest. PMID:26661903

  17. Temperature profiles, current components, and other data from XBT casts and current meters from AIRCRAFT and other platforms from the TOGA Area - Atlantic as part of the Seasonal Response of the Equatorial Atlantic Experiment/Francais Ocean Et Climat Dans L'Atlantique Equatorial (SEQUAL/FOCAL) project from 16 January 1979 to 01 January 1985 (NODC Accession 8700213)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profiles and current meter data were collected from AIRCRAFT and other platforms in the NW Atlantic (limit-40 W) from 16 January 1979 to 01 January...

  18. Impact of lowland rainforest transformation on diversity and composition of soil prokaryotic communities in Sumatra (Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik eSchneider

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Prokaryotes are the most abundant and diverse group of microorganisms in soil and mediate virtually all biogeochemical cycles in terrestrial ecosystems. Thereby, they influence aboveground plant productivity and diversity. In this study, the impact of rainforest transformation to intensively managed cash crop systems on soil prokaryotic communities was investigated. The studied managed land use system comprised rubber agroforests (jungle rubber, rubber plantation and oil plantations within two Indonesian landscapes Bukit Duabelas and Harapan. Soil prokaryotic community composition and diversity were assessed by pyrotag sequencing of bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA genes. The curated dataset contained 20,494 bacterial and 1,762 archaeal Operational Taxonomic Units at species level (97% genetic identity. Analysis revealed changes in indigenous taxon-specific patterns of soil prokaryotic communities accompanying lowland rainforest transformation to jungle rubber, and intensively managed rubber and oil palm plantations. Distinct clustering of the rainforest soil communities indicated that these are different from the communities in the studied managed land use systems. The predominant bacterial taxa in all investigated soils were Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and Gammaproteobacteria. Overall, the bacterial community shifted from proteobacterial groups in rainforest soils to Acidobacteria in managed soils. The archaeal soil communities were mainly represented by Thaumarchaeota and Euryarchaeota. Members of the Terrestrial Group and South African Gold Mine Group 1 (Thaumarchaeota dominated in the rainforest and members of Thermoplasmata in the managed land use systems. The alpha and beta diversity of the soil prokaryotic communities was higher in managed land use systems than in rainforest. In the case of bacteria, this was related to soil characteristics such as pH value, exchangeable Ca and Fe content, C to

  19. Giant eucalypts - globally unique fire-adapted rain-forest trees?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tng, D Y P; Williamson, G J; Jordan, G J; Bowman, D M J S

    2012-11-01

    CONTENTS: Summary    1 I. Introduction    1 II. Giant eucalypts in a global context    2 III. Giant eucalypts - taxonomy and distribution    4 IV. Growth of giant eucalypts    6 V. Fire and regeneration of giant eucalypts    8 VI. Are giant eucalypts different from other rain-forest trees?    9 VII. Conclusions 10 Acknowledgements 11 References 11 SUMMARY: Tree species exceeding 70 m in height are rare globally. Giant gymnosperms are concentrated near the Pacific coast of the USA, while the tallest angiosperms are eucalypts (Eucalyptus spp.) in southern and eastern Australia. Giant eucalypts co-occur with rain-forest trees in eastern Australia, creating unique vegetation communities comprising fire-dependent trees above fire-intolerant rain-forest. However, giant eucalypts can also tower over shrubby understoreys (e.g. in Western Australia). The local abundance of giant eucalypts is controlled by interactions between fire activity and landscape setting. Giant eucalypts have features that increase flammability (e.g. oil-rich foliage and open crowns) relative to other rain-forest trees but it is debatable if these features are adaptations. Probable drivers of eucalypt gigantism are intense intra-specific competition following severe fires, and inter-specific competition among adult trees. However, we suggest that this was made possible by a general capacity of eucalypts for 'hyper-emergence'. We argue that, because giant eucalypts occur in rain-forest climates and share traits with rain-forest pioneers, they should be regarded as long-lived rain-forest pioneers, albeit with a particular dependence on fire for regeneration. These unique ecosystems are of high conservation value, following substantial clearing and logging over 150 yr. PMID:23121314

  20. Variation in leaf litter production and resorption of nutrients in abundant tree species in Nyungwe tropical montane rainforest in Rwanda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyirambangutse, Brigitte; Mirindi Dusenge, Eric; Nsabimana, Donat; Bizuru, Elias; Pleijel, Håkan; Uddling, Johan; Wallin, Göran

    2014-05-01

    African tropical rainforests play many roles from local to global scale as providers of resources and ecosystem services. Although covering 30% of the global rainforest, only few studies aiming to better understand the storage and fluxes of carbon and nutrients in these forests have been conducted. To answer questions related to these issues, we have established 15 permanent 0.5 ha plots where we compare carbon and nutrient fluxes of primary and secondary forest tree communities in a tropical montane forest in central Africa. The studies are conducted in Nyungwe montane tropical rain forest gazetted as a National Park to protect its extensive floral and faunal diversity covering an area of 970 km2. Nyungwe is located in Southwest Rwanda (2o17'-2o50'S, 29o07'-29o26A'E). The forest is ranging between 1600-2950 m.a.s.l. and is one of the most biologically important rainforest in Albertine Rift region in terms of Biodiversity. Nyungwe consists of a mixture of primary and secondary forest communities supporting a richness of plant and animal life. More than 260 species of trees and shrubs have been found in Nyungwe, including species endemic to the Albertine Rift. The forest has a climate with a mean annual temperature of 15.5oC and annual rainfall of ca 1850 mm yr-1, with July and August being the only months when rainfall drops. A part of this study is focusing on the dynamics of nutrients through leaf turnover. This turnover of leaves is regulated to maximize the carbon gain through canopy photosynthesis and resource-use efficiency of the plant. It is known that about half of leaf nitrogen is invested in photosynthetic apparatus and that there normally is a strong correlation between the photosynthetic capacity and leaf nitrogen per unit area. Hence leaf nitrogen is an important factor for canopy photosynthesis. However, leaves are produced, senesce and fall. Some nitrogen in the leaf is lost when leaves senesce but other is resorbed. The resorption of nitrogen

  1. Mercury and selenium in blue shark (Prionace glauca, L. 1758) and swordfish (Xiphias gladius, L. 1758) from two areas of the Atlantic Ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branco, Vasco [National Institute for Agronomy and Fisheries Research (INIAP/IPIMAR), Avenida de Brasilia, 1449-006 Lisbon (Portugal)], E-mail: vbranco@ipimar.pt; Vale, Carlos; Canario, Joao [National Institute for Agronomy and Fisheries Research (INIAP/IPIMAR), Avenida de Brasilia, 1449-006 Lisboa (Portugal); Santos, Miguel Neves dos [National Institute for Agronomy and Fisheries Research (INIAP/IPIMAR), South Regional Center for Fisheries Research (IPIMAR/CRIPSul), Avenida 5 de Outubro s/n, 8700-305 Olhao (Portugal)

    2007-12-15

    Muscle, liver and stomach contents of 64 blue sharks and 52 swordfishes, caught between September 2004 and February 2005 near the Azores (area A) and the Equator (area E), were analysed for mercury and selenium. Levels of mercury were relatively high (blue shark: 0.032-2.5 {mu}g g{sup -1}; swordfish: 0.031-9.8 {mu}g g{sup -1}) and comparable to values reported in the literature. However, mercury and organic mercury concentrations in muscle and liver of specimens from E were significantly higher than those from A. A similar trend was registered in stomach contents, suggesting higher uptake of Hg in specimens from E. This difference was also observed in the relationship between concentration in muscle and size, indicating a higher accumulation rate in specimens from E. The accumulation of Se in the liver of both species showed a positive correlation with inorganic mercury concentrations, pointing to a detoxifying mechanism of organic mercury in these species through Se-Hg liaisons. - Mercury levels differ in Azores and Equator, and detoxification by selenium occurs.

  2. How Well Can We Estimate Areal-Averaged Spectral Surface Albedo from Ground-Based Transmission in an Atlantic Coastal Area?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Barnard, James C.; Flynn, Connor J.; Riihimaki, Laura D.; Marinovici, Maria C.

    2015-10-15

    Areal-averaged albedos are particularly difficult to measure in coastal regions, because the surface is not homogenous, consisting of a sharp demarcation between land and water. With this difficulty in mind, we evaluate a simple retrieval of areal-averaged surface albedo using ground-based measurements of atmospheric transmission alone under fully overcast conditions. To illustrate the performance of our retrieval, we find the areal-averaged albedo using measurements from the Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) at five wavelengths (415, 500, 615, 673, and 870 nm). These MFRSR data are collected at a coastal site in Graciosa Island, Azores supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. The areal-averaged albedos obtained from the MFRSR are compared with collocated and coincident Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) white-sky albedo at four nominal wavelengths (470, 560, 670 and 860 nm). These comparisons are made during a 19-month period (June 2009 - December 2010). We also calculate composite-based spectral values of surface albedo by a weighted-average approach using estimated fractions of major surface types observed in an area surrounding this coastal site. Taken as a whole, these three methods of finding albedo show spectral and temporal similarities, and suggest that our simple, transmission-based technique holds promise, but with estimated errors of about ±0.03. Additional work is needed to reduce this uncertainty in areas with inhomogeneous surfaces.

  3. Temperature profile and water depth data collected from ANGO and other platforms using XBT casts in the TOGA Area - Atlantic from 14 February 1992 to 13 April 1993 (NODC Accession 9400047)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and water depth data were collected using XBT casts from the ANGO and other platforms in the TOGA - Atlantic Ocean. Data were collected from 14...

  4. Physical and chemical data collected using bottle and BTs casts in the TOGA Area of Atlantic Ocean from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER and other platforms from 25 June 1974 to 16 August 1974 (NODC Accession 7700649)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data was collected from June 25, 1974 to August 16, 1974 using METEOR and other platforms as part of GARP (Global Atmospheric Research Program) Atlantic...

  5. Diversity and composition of tiger moths (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) in an area of Atlantic Forest in southern Brazil: is the fauna more diverse in the grassland or in the forest?

    OpenAIRE

    Viviane Gianluppi Ferro; Helena Piccoli Romanowski

    2012-01-01

    The Atlantic Forest is considered a biodiversity hotspot for conservation, because its fauna and flora are highly endemic and suffer from loss of natural habitats. This study assessed the composition and diversity of tiger moths (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) in two floristic formations of the southern Atlantic Forest (grassland and Araucaria forest) and in a transition zone (forest edge). The moths were attracted to UV light reflected onto a white sheet. A total of 3,574 tiger moths were collected...

  6. COMPARISON OF THREE METHODS TO PROJECT FUTURE BASELINE CARBON EMISSIONS IN TEMPERATE RAINFOREST, CURINANCO, CHILE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick Gonzalez; Antonio Lara; Jorge Gayoso; Eduardo Neira; Patricio Romero; Leonardo Sotomayor

    2005-07-14

    Deforestation of temperate rainforests in Chile has decreased the provision of ecosystem services, including watershed protection, biodiversity conservation, and carbon sequestration. Forest conservation can restore those ecosystem services. Greenhouse gas policies that offer financing for the carbon emissions avoided by preventing deforestation require a projection of future baseline carbon emissions for an area if no forest conservation occurs. For a proposed 570 km{sup 2} conservation area in temperate rainforest around the rural community of Curinanco, Chile, we compared three methods to project future baseline carbon emissions: extrapolation from Landsat observations, Geomod, and Forest Restoration Carbon Analysis (FRCA). Analyses of forest inventory and Landsat remote sensing data show 1986-1999 net deforestation of 1900 ha in the analysis area, proceeding at a rate of 0.0003 y{sup -1}. The gross rate of loss of closed natural forest was 0.042 y{sup -1}. In the period 1986-1999, closed natural forest decreased from 20,000 ha to 11,000 ha, with timber companies clearing natural forest to establish plantations of non-native species. Analyses of previous field measurements of species-specific forest biomass, tree allometry, and the carbon content of vegetation show that the dominant native forest type, broadleaf evergreen (bosque siempreverde), contains 370 {+-} 170 t ha{sup -1} carbon, compared to the carbon density of non-native Pinus radiata plantations of 240 {+-} 60 t ha{sup -1}. The 1986-1999 conversion of closed broadleaf evergreen forest to open broadleaf evergreen forest, Pinus radiata plantations, shrublands, grasslands, urban areas, and bare ground decreased the carbon density from 370 {+-} 170 t ha{sup -1} carbon to an average of 100 t ha{sup -1} (maximum 160 t ha{sup -1}, minimum 50 t ha{sup -1}). Consequently, the conversion released 1.1 million t carbon. These analyses of forest inventory and Landsat remote sensing data provided the data to

  7. Temporal variation in bird counts within a Hawaiian rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, John C.; Pratt, T.K.; Berlin, Kim E.; Kowalsky, James R.; Fancy, S.G.; Hatfield, J.S.

    2002-01-01

    We studied monthly and annual variation in density estimates of nine forest bird species along an elevational gradient in an east Maui rainforest. We conducted monthly variable circular-plot counts for 36 consecutive months along transects running downhill from timberline. Density estimates were compared by month, year, and station for all resident bird species with sizeable populations, including four native nectarivores, two native insectivores, a non-native insectivore, and two non-native generalists. We compared densities among three elevational strata and between breeding and nonbreeding seasons. All species showed significant differences in density estimates among months and years. Three native nectarivores had higher density estimates within their breeding season (December-May) and showed decreases during periods of low nectar production following the breeding season. All insectivore and generalist species except one had higher density estimates within their March-August breeding season. Density estimates also varied with elevation for all species, and for four species a seasonal shift in population was indicated. Our data show that the best time to conduct counts for native forest birds on Maui is January-February, when birds are breeding or preparing to breed, counts are typically high, variability in density estimates is low, and the likelihood for fair weather is best. Temporal variations in density estimates documented in our study site emphasize the need for consistent, well-researched survey regimens and for caution when drawing conclusions from, or basing management decisions on, survey data.

  8. Biomass burning: A significant source of nutrients for Andean rainforests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, P. F.; Rollenbeck, R.; University Of Marburg, Germany

    2010-12-01

    Regular rain and fogwater sampling in the Podocarpus National Park,on the humid eastern slopes of the Ecuadorian Andes,has been carried out since 2002.The samples,accumulated over about 1-week intervals,were analysed for pH,conductivity,and major ions (K+, Na+, NH4+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl-, SO4 2-, NO3-, PO4 3- ).Annual deposition rates of these ions which, due to poor acidic soils with low mineralization rates,constitute the dominant nutrient supply to the mountaineous rainforests, and major ion sources could be determined using back trajectories,along with satellite data. While most of the Na, Cl, and K as well as Ca and Mg input was found to originate from natural oceanic and desert dust sources,respectively (P.Fabian et al.,Adv.Geosci.22,85-94, 2009), NO3, NH4, and about 90% of SO4 (about 10 % is from active volcanoes) are almost entirely due to anthropogenic sources,most likely biomass burning. Industrial and transportation emissions and other pollutants,however,act in a similar way as the precursors produced by biomass burning.For quantifying the impacts of biomass burning vs. those of anthropogenic sources other than biomass burning we used recently established emission inventories,along with simplified model calculations on back trajectories.First results yielding significant contributions of biomass burning will be discussed.

  9. Physiography for the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Physiography for the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain was constructed by standardizing and extrapolating previous physiographic interpretations for areas within and...

  10. Outer Continental Shelf Lease Blocks - Atlantic Region NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains OCS block outlines in ArcGIS shape file format for the BOEM Atlantic Region. OCS blocks are used to define small geographic areas within an...

  11. Sensitivity of North Patagonian temperate rainforests to changes in rainfall regimes: a process-based, dynamic forest model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Gutiérrez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Rainfall changes due to climate change and their potential impacts on forests demand the development of predictable tools coupling vegetation dynamics to hydrologic processes. Such tools need to be accurate at local scales (i.e. < 100 ha to develop efficient forest management strategies for climate change adaptation. In this study, we developed and tested a dynamic forest model to predict hydrological balance of North Patagonian temperate rainforests on Chiloé Island, Chile (42° S. The developed model includes detailed calculations of forest water fluxes and incorporates the dynamical linkage of rainfall regimes to soil moisture, and individual tree growth. We confronted model results with detailed field measurements of water fluxes in a young secondary stand (YS. We used the model to compare forest sensitivity in the YS and an old-growth stand (OG, > 500 yr-old, i.e. changes in forest evapotranspiration, soil moisture and forest structure (biomass and basal area. We evaluated sensitivity using changes in rainfall regimes comparable to future climatic scenarios for this century in the study region. The model depicted well the hydrological balance of temperate rainforests. We found a higher evapotranspiration in OG than YS under current climatic conditions. Dryer climatic conditions predicted for this century in the study area led to changes in the hydrological balance that impacted forest structure, with stronger impacts in OG. Changes in climatic parameters decreased evapotranspiration (up to 15 % in OG compared to current values and soil moisture to 32 % . These changes in water fluxes induced decreases in above-ground biomass in OG (up to 27 %. Our results support the use of the model for detailed analyses of climate change impacts on hydrological balance of forests. Also, it provides a tool suitable for analyses of the impacts of multiple drivers of global change on forest processes (e.g., climate change, fragmentation, forest management.

  12. Comparative Phylogeography in Rainforest Trees from Lower Guinea, Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Myriam Heuertz; Jérôme Duminil; Gilles Dauby; Vincent Savolainen; Olivier J Hardy

    2014-01-01

    Comparative phylogeography is an effective approach to assess the evolutionary history of biological communities. We used comparative phylogeography in fourteen tree taxa from Lower Guinea (Atlantic Equatorial Africa) to test for congruence with two simple evolutionary scenarios based on physio-climatic features 1) the W-E environmental gradient and 2) the N-S seasonal inversion, which determine climatic and seasonality differences in the region. We sequenced the trnC-ycf6 plastid DNA region ...

  13. Atlantic Salmon Telemetry Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Annual telemetry data are collected as part of specific projects (assessments within watersheds) or as opportunistic efforts to characterize Atlantic salmon smolt...

  14. Simulating atmospheric composition over a South-East Asian tropical rainforest: performance of a chemistry box model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, T. A. M.; MacKenzie, A. R.; Hewitt, C. N.; Langford, B.; Edwards, P. M.; Furneaux, K. L.; Heard, D. E.; Hopkins, J. R.; Jones, C. E.; Karunaharan, A.; Lee, J.; Mills, G.; Misztal, P.; Moller, S.; Monks, P. S.; Whalley, L. K.

    2010-01-01

    Atmospheric composition and chemistry above tropical rainforests is currently not well established, particularly for south-east Asia. In order to examine our understanding of chemical processes in this region, the performance of a box model of atmospheric boundary layer chemistry is tested against measurements made at the top of the rainforest canopy near Danum Valley, Malaysian Borneo. Multi-variate optimisation against ambient concentration measurements was used to estimate average canopy-scale emissions for isoprene, total monoterpenes and nitric oxide. The excellent agreement between estimated values and measured fluxes of isoprene and total monoterpenes provides confidence in the overall modelling strategy, and suggests that this method may be applied where measured fluxes are not available, assuming that the local chemistry and mixing are adequately understood. The largest contributors to the optimisation cost function at the point of best-fit are OH (29%), NO (22%) and total peroxy radicals (27%). Several factors affect the modelled VOC chemistry. In particular concentrations of methacrolein (MACR) and methyl-vinyl ketone (MVK) are substantially overestimated, and the hydroxyl radical (OH) concentration is substantially underestimated; as has been seen before in tropical rainforest studies. It is shown that inclusion of dry deposition of MACR and MVK and wet deposition of species with high Henry's Law values substantially improves the fit of these oxidised species, whilst also substantially decreasing the OH sink. Increasing OH production arbitrarily, through a simple OH recycling mechanism , adversely affects the model fit for volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Given the constraints on isoprene flux provided by measurements, a substantial decrease in the rate of reaction of VOCs with OH is the only remaining option to explain the measurement/model discrepancy for OH. A reduction in the isoprene+OH rate constant of 50%, in conjunction with increased

  15. Simulating atmospheric composition over a South-East Asian tropical rainforest: Performance of a chemistry box model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. M. Pugh

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric composition and chemistry above tropical rainforests is currently not well established, particularly for south-east Asia. In order to examine our understanding of chemical processes in this region, the performance of a box model of atmospheric boundary layer chemistry is tested against measurements made at the top of the rainforest canopy near Danum Valley, Malaysian Borneo. Multi-variate optimisation against ambient concentration measurements was used to estimate average canopy-scale emissions for isoprene, total monoterpenes and nitric oxide. The excellent agreement between estimated values and measured fluxes of isoprene and total monoterpenes provides confidence in the overall modelling strategy, and suggests that this method may be applied where measured fluxes are not available. The largest contributors to the optimisation cost function at the point of best-fit are OH (41%, NO (18% and total monoterpenes (16%. Several factors affect the modelled VOC chemistry. In particular concentrations of methacrolein (MACR and methyl-vinyl ketone (MVK are substantially overestimated, and the hydroxyl radical [OH] concentration is substantially underestimated; as has been seen before in tropical rainforest studies. It is shown that inclusion of dry deposition of MACR and MVK and wet deposition of species with high Henry's Law values substantially improves the fit of these oxidised species, whilst also substantially decreasing the OH sink. Increasing [OH] production arbitrarily, through a simple OH recycling mechanism, adversely affects the model fit for volatile organic compounds (VOCs. Given the constraints on isoprene flux provided by measurements, a substantial decrease in the rate of reaction of VOCs with OH is the only remaining option to explain the measurement/model discrepancy for OH. A reduction in the isoprene + OH rate constant of 50–70% is able to produce both isoprene and OH concentrations within error of those measured

  16. Simulating atmospheric composition over a South-East Asian tropical rainforest: performance of a chemistry box model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. M. Pugh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric composition and chemistry above tropical rainforests is currently not well established, particularly for south-east Asia. In order to examine our understanding of chemical processes in this region, the performance of a box model of atmospheric boundary layer chemistry is tested against measurements made at the top of the rainforest canopy near Danum Valley, Malaysian Borneo. Multi-variate optimisation against ambient concentration measurements was used to estimate average canopy-scale emissions for isoprene, total monoterpenes and nitric oxide. The excellent agreement between estimated values and measured fluxes of isoprene and total monoterpenes provides confidence in the overall modelling strategy, and suggests that this method may be applied where measured fluxes are not available, assuming that the local chemistry and mixing are adequately understood. The largest contributors to the optimisation cost function at the point of best-fit are OH (29%, NO (22% and total peroxy radicals (27%. Several factors affect the modelled VOC chemistry. In particular concentrations of methacrolein (MACR and methyl-vinyl ketone (MVK are substantially overestimated, and the hydroxyl radical (OH concentration is substantially underestimated; as has been seen before in tropical rainforest studies. It is shown that inclusion of dry deposition of MACR and MVK and wet deposition of species with high Henry's Law values substantially improves the fit of these oxidised species, whilst also substantially decreasing the OH sink. Increasing OH production arbitrarily, through a simple OH recycling mechanism , adversely affects the model fit for volatile organic compounds (VOCs. Given the constraints on isoprene flux provided by measurements, a substantial decrease in the rate of reaction of VOCs with OH is the only remaining option to explain the measurement/model discrepancy for OH. A reduction in the isoprene+OH rate constant of 50%, in conjunction with

  17. Benthic foraminiferal thanatocoenoses from the Cap-Ferret Canyon area (NE Atlantic): A complex interplay between hydro-sedimentary and biological processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duros, P.; Jorissen, F. J.; Cesbron, F.; Zaragosi, S.; Schmidt, S.; Metzger, E.; Fontanier, C.

    2014-06-01

    Benthic foraminiferal thanatocoenoses from the Cap-Ferret Canyon area were studied in the >150-μm fraction of 4-5 cm deep sediment levels, at 13 stations. The shallowest station (151 m depth) is located at the shelf break, close to the canyon head. All other stations are located along two bathymetric transects: seven stations along the canyon axis between 300 and 3000 m depth, and five stations from 300 m to 2000 m depth along the southern flank of the canyon. The comparison between the live (Rose-Bengal-stained) and dead assemblages shows that biological (i.e. population dynamic) and taphonomic processes (i.e. test destruction, transport) generate important discrepancies between live and dead assemblages. An important question is, to what degree post-mortem transport and redeposition of foraminiferal tests contribute to the difference between living and dead assemblages? The composition of the thanatocoenoses (shells >150 μm from the inner continental shelf to the Cap-Ferret Canyon axis. However, transport of tests from outer shelf or upper canyon axis towards deeper sites occurs, as indicated by an increase of diversity indices of the dead fauna along the canyon axis. Moreover, some species (e.g., Cassidulina carinata) are observed in the living fauna restricted to the shallow sites, but occur in important amounts in the dead fauna at deeper stations, suggesting that these taxa have been transported from upper canyon stations toward deeper sites. Since Cap-Ferret Canyon is inactive in terms of massive sediment transport (i.e. gravity events), downslope transport of foraminiferal tests probably takes place in nepheloid layers. Downslope transports of foraminiferal tests may create important biases for the utilisation of paleoceanographic proxies using the assemblage characteristics and/or the geochemical composition of selected species. However, the study of dead assemblages along a canyon axis can give important clues about the sedimentary dynamics, especially

  18. 76 FR 1153 - Atlantic Grid Operations A LLC, Atlantic Grid Operations B LLC, Atlantic Grid Operations C LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-07

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Atlantic Grid Operations A LLC, Atlantic Grid Operations B LLC, Atlantic Grid Operations C LLC, Atlantic Grid Operations D LLC and Atlantic Grid Operations E LLC; Notice of... (Commission) Rules of Practice and Procedure, 18 CFR 385.207, and Order No. 679,\\1\\ Atlantic Grid Operations...

  19. Melt-rock interactions and fabric development of peridotites from North Pond in the Kane area, Mid-Atlantic Ridge: Implications of microstructural and petrological analyses of peridotite samples from IODP Hole U1382A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harigane, Yumiko; Abe, Natsue; Michibayashi, Katsuyoshi; Kimura, Jun-Ichi; Chang, Qing

    2016-06-01

    North Pond is an isolated sedimentary pond on the western flank of the Kane area along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Drill-hole U1382A of IODP Expedition 336 recovered peridotite and gabbro samples from a sedimentary breccia layer in the pond, from which we collected six fresh peridotite samples. The peridotite samples came from the southern slope of the North Pond where an oceanic core complex is currently exposed. The samples were classified as spinel harzburgite, plagioclase-bearing harzburgite, and a vein-bearing peridotite that contains tiny gabbroic veins. No obvious macroscopic shear deformation related to the formation of a detachment fault was observed. The spinel harzburgite with a protogranular texture was classified as refractory peridotite. The degree of partial melting of the spinel harzburgite is estimated to be ˜17%, and melt depletion would have occurred at high temperatures in the uppermost mantle beneath the spreading axis. The progressive melt-rock interactions between the depleted spinel harzburgite and the percolating melts of Normal-Mid Ocean Ridge Basalt (N-MORB) produced the plagioclase-bearing harzburgite and the vein-bearing peridotite at relatively low temperatures. This implies that the subsequent refertilization occurred in an extinct spreading segment of the North Pond after spreading at the axis. Olivine fabrics in the spinel and plagioclase-bearing harzburgites are of types AG, A, and D, suggesting the remnants of a mantle flow regime beneath the spreading axis. The initial olivine fabrics appear to have been preserved despite the later melt-rock interactions. The peridotite samples noted above preserve evidence of mantle flow and melt-rock interactions beneath a spreading ridge that formed at ˜8 Ma.

  20. Late Paleocene fossils from the Cerrejon Formation, Colombia, are the earliest record of Neotropical rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, Scott L; Herrera, Fabiany; Jaramillo, Carlos A; Gómez-Navarro, Carolina; Wilf, Peter; Labandeira, Conrad C

    2009-11-01

    Neotropical rainforests have a very poor fossil record, making hypotheses concerning their origins difficult to evaluate. Nevertheless, some of their most important characteristics can be preserved in the fossil record: high plant diversity, dominance by a distinctive combination of angiosperm families, a preponderance of plant species with large, smooth-margined leaves, and evidence for a high diversity of herbivorous insects. Here, we report on an approximately 58-my-old flora from the Cerrejón Formation of Colombia (paleolatitude approximately 5 degrees N) that is the earliest megafossil record of Neotropical rainforest. The flora has abundant, diverse palms and legumes and similar family composition to extant Neotropical rainforest. Three-quarters of the leaf types are large and entire-margined, indicating rainfall >2,500 mm/year and mean annual temperature >25 degrees C. Despite modern family composition and tropical paleoclimate, the diversity of fossil pollen and leaf samples is 60-80% that of comparable samples from extant and Quaternary Neotropical rainforest from similar climates. Insect feeding damage on Cerrejón fossil leaves, representing primary consumers, is abundant, but also of low diversity, and overwhelmingly made by generalist feeders rather than specialized herbivores. Cerrejón megafossils provide strong evidence that the same Neotropical rainforest families have characterized the biome since the Paleocene, maintaining their importance through climatic phases warmer and cooler than present. The low diversity of both plants and herbivorous insects in this Paleocene Neotropical rainforest may reflect an early stage in the diversification of the lineages that inhabit this biome, and/or a long recovery period from the terminal Cretaceous extinction. PMID:19833876

  1. Birds of two protected areas in the southern range of the Brazilian Araucaria forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Franz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Over 70% of threatened birds in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, south Brazil, inhabit forest environments. The creation and maintenance of protected areas is one of the most important measures aiming to mitigate these problems. However, the knowledge of the local biodiversity is essential so that these areas can effectively preserve the natural resources. Between 2004 and 2009 we sampled the avifauna in two conservation units in Rio Grande do Sul: Floresta Nacional de Canela (FNC and Parque Natural Municipal da Ronda (PMR, both representative of the Mixed Humid Forest (Araucaria Forest. A total of 224 species was recorded, 116 at FNC and 201 at PMR, ten of which threatened regionally: Pseudastur polionotus, Odontophorus capueira, Patagioenas cayennensis, Amazona pretrei, A. vinacea, Triclaria malachitacea, Campephilus robustus, Grallaria varia, Procnias nudicollis and Sporophila melanogaster. Richness and species composition seem to be related to different stages of forest conservation, to size and connectivity, as well as to the diversity of environments. The better conservation of PMR compared to FNC, allied to its geographic position, results in a richer avifauna, with a larger amount of rare and endangered species, as well as species sensitive to disturbance and endemic to the Atlantic Rainforest. We suggest management actions aiming the conservation and the long-term recovery of natural environments at these sites.

  2. Bromeliad catchments as habitats for methanogenesis in tropical rainforest canopies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shana K. Goffredi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Tropical epiphytic plants within the family Bromeliaceae are unusual in that they possess foliage capable of retaining water and impounded material. This creates an acidic (pH 3.5-6.5 and anaerobic (< 1 ppm O2 environment suspended in the canopy. Results from a Costa Rican rainforest show that most bromeliads (n = 75/86 greater than ~20 cm in plant height or ~4-5 cm tank depth, showed presence of methanogens within the lower anoxic horizon of the tank. Archaea were dominated by methanogens (77-90% of recovered ribotypes and community structure, although variable, was generally comprised of a single type, closely related to either hydrogenotrophic Methanoregula or Methanocella, a specific clade of aceticlastic Methanosaeta, or Methanosarcina. Juvenile bromeliads, or those species, such as Guzmania, with shallow tanks, generally did not possess methanogens, as assayed by PCR specific for methanogen 16S rRNA genes, nor did artificial catchments (~ 100 ml volume, in place 6-12 months prior to sample collection. Methanogens were not detected in soil (n = 20, except in one case, in which the dominant ribotype was different from nearby bromeliads. Recovery of methyl coenzyme M reductase genes supported the occurrence of hydrogenotrophic and aceticlastic methanogens within bromeliad tanks, as well as the trend, via QPCR analysis of mcrA, of increased methanogenic capacity with increased plant height. Methane production rates of up to 300 nmol CH4 ml tank water -1 day-1 were measured in microcosm experiments. These results suggest that bromeliad-associated archaeal communities may play an important role in the cycling of carbon in neotropical forests.

  3. Reactive nitrogen deposition to South East Asian rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Marco, Chiara F.; Phillips, Gavin J.; Thomas, Rick; Tang, Sim; Nemitz, Eiko; Sutton, Mark A.; Fowler, David; Lim, Sei F.

    2010-05-01

    The supply of reactive nitrogen (N) to global terrestrial ecosystems has doubled since the 1960s as a consequence of human activities, such as fertilizer application and production of nitrogen oxides by fossil-fuel burning. The deposition of atmospheric N species constitutes a major nutrient input to the biosphere. Tropical forests have been undergoing a radical land use change by increasing cultivation of sugar cane and oil palms and the remaining forests are increasingly affected by anthropogenic activities. Yet, quantifications of atmospheric nitrogen deposition to tropical forests, and nitrogen cycling under near-pristine and polluted conditions are rare. The OP3 project ("Oxidant and Particle Photochemical Processes above a Southeast Asian Tropical Rainforest") was conceived to study how emissions of reactive trace gases from a tropical rain forest mediate the regional scale production and processing of oxidants and particles, and to better understand the impact of these processes on local, regional and global scale atmospheric composition, chemistry and climate. As part of this study we have measured reactive, nitrogen containing trace gas (ammonia, nitric acid) and the associated aerosol components (ammonium, nitrate) at monthly time resolution using a simple filter / denuder for 16 months. These measurements were made at the Bukit Atur Global Atmospheric Watch tower near Danum Valley in the Malaysian state of Sabah, Borneo. In addition, the same compounds were measured at hourly time-resolution during an intensive measurement period, with a combination of a wet-chemistry system based on denuders and steam jet aerosol collectors and an aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS), providing additional information on the temporal controls. During this period, concentrations and fluxes of NO, NO2 and N2O were also measured. The measurements are used for inferential dry deposition modelling and combined with wet deposition data from the South East Asian Acid

  4. Widespread decline of Congo rainforest greenness in the past decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Liming; Tian, Yuhong; Myneni, Ranga B.; Ciais, Philippe; Saatchi, Sassan; Liu, Yi Y.; Piao, Shilong; Chen, Haishan; Vermote, Eric F.; Song, Conghe; Hwang, Taehee

    2014-05-01

    Tropical forests are global epicentres of biodiversity and important modulators of climate change, and are mainly constrained by rainfall patterns. The severe short-term droughts that occurred recently in Amazonia have drawn attention to the vulnerability of tropical forests to climatic disturbances. The central African rainforests, the second-largest on Earth, have experienced a long-term drying trend whose impacts on vegetation dynamics remain mostly unknown because in situ observations are very limited. The Congolese forest, with its drier conditions and higher percentage of semi-evergreen trees, may be more tolerant to short-term rainfall reduction than are wetter tropical forests, but for a long-term drought there may be critical thresholds of water availability below which higher-biomass, closed-canopy forests transition to more open, lower-biomass forests. Here we present observational evidence for a widespread decline in forest greenness over the past decade based on analyses of satellite data (optical, thermal, microwave and gravity) from several independent sensors over the Congo basin. This decline in vegetation greenness, particularly in the northern Congolese forest, is generally consistent with decreases in rainfall, terrestrial water storage, water content in aboveground woody and leaf biomass, and the canopy backscatter anomaly caused by changes in structure and moisture in upper forest layers. It is also consistent with increases in photosynthetically active radiation and land surface temperature. These multiple lines of evidence indicate that this large-scale vegetation browning, or loss of photosynthetic capacity, may be partially attributable to the long-term drying trend. Our results suggest that a continued gradual decline of photosynthetic capacity and moisture content driven by the persistent drying trend could alter the composition and structure of the Congolese forest to favour the spread of drought-tolerant species.

  5. Widespread decline of Congo rainforest greenness in the past decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Liming; Tian, Yuhong; Myneni, Ranga B; Ciais, Philippe; Saatchi, Sassan; Liu, Yi Y; Piao, Shilong; Chen, Haishan; Vermote, Eric F; Song, Conghe; Hwang, Taehee

    2014-05-01

    Tropical forests are global epicentres of biodiversity and important modulators of climate change, and are mainly constrained by rainfall patterns. The severe short-term droughts that occurred recently in Amazonia have drawn attention to the vulnerability of tropical forests to climatic disturbances. The central African rainforests, the second-largest on Earth, have experienced a long-term drying trend whose impacts on vegetation dynamics remain mostly unknown because in situ observations are very limited. The Congolese forest, with its drier conditions and higher percentage of semi-evergreen trees, may be more tolerant to short-term rainfall reduction than are wetter tropical forests, but for a long-term drought there may be critical thresholds of water availability below which higher-biomass, closed-canopy forests transition to more open, lower-biomass forests. Here we present observational evidence for a widespread decline in forest greenness over the past decade based on analyses of satellite data (optical, thermal, microwave and gravity) from several independent sensors over the Congo basin. This decline in vegetation greenness, particularly in the northern Congolese forest, is generally consistent with decreases in rainfall, terrestrial water storage, water content in aboveground woody and leaf biomass, and the canopy backscatter anomaly caused by changes in structure and moisture in upper forest layers. It is also consistent with increases in photosynthetically active radiation and land surface temperature. These multiple lines of evidence indicate that this large-scale vegetation browning, or loss of photosynthetic capacity, may be partially attributable to the long-term drying trend. Our results suggest that a continued gradual decline of photosynthetic capacity and moisture content driven by the persistent drying trend could alter the composition and structure of the Congolese forest to favour the spread of drought-tolerant species. PMID:24759324

  6. Sleeping sites and latrines of spider monkeys in continuous and fragmented rainforests: implications for seed dispersal and forest regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo González-Zamora

    Full Text Available Spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi use sites composed of one or more trees for sleeping (sleeping sites and sleeping trees, respectively. Beneath these sites/trees they deposit copious amounts of dung in latrines. This behavior results in a clumped deposition pattern of seeds and nutrients that directly impacts the regeneration of tropical forests. Therefore, information on the density and spatial distribution of sleeping sites and latrines, and the characteristics (i.e., composition and structure of sleeping trees are needed to improve our understanding of the ecological significance of spider monkeys in influencing forest composition. Moreover, since primate populations are increasingly forced to inhabit fragmented landscapes, it is important to assess if these characteristics differ between continuous and fragmented forests. We assessed this novel information from eight independent spider monkey communities in the Lacandona rainforest, Mexico: four continuous forest sites and four forest fragments. Both the density of sleeping sites and latrines did not differ between forest conditions. Latrines were uniformly distributed across sleeping sites, but the spatial distribution of sleeping sites within the areas was highly variable, being particularly clumped in forest fragments. In fact, the average inter-latrine distances were almost double in continuous forest than in fragments. Latrines were located beneath only a few tree species, and these trees were larger in diameter in continuous than fragmented forests. Because latrines may represent hotspots of seedling recruitment, our results have important ecological and conservation implications. The variation in the spatial distribution of sleeping sites across the forest indicates that spider monkeys likely create a complex seed deposition pattern in space and time. However, the use of a very few tree species for sleeping could contribute to the establishment of specific vegetation associations

  7. Effects of invasive alien kahili ginger (Hedychium gardnerianum) on native plant species regeneration in a Hawaiian rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minden, V.; Jacobi, J.D.; Porembski, S.; Boehmer, H.J.

    2010-01-01

    Questions: Does the invasive alien Hedychium gardnerianum (1) replace native understory species, (2) suppress natural regeneration of native plant species, (3) increase the invasiveness of other non-native plants and (4) are native forests are able to recover after removal of H. gardnerianum. Location: A mature rainforest in Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park on the island of Hawai'i (about 1200 m. a.s.l.; precipitation approximately 2770mm yr-1). Study sites included natural plots without effects of alien plants, ginger plots with a H. gardnerianum-domimted herb layer and cleared plots treated with herbicide to remove alien plants. Methods: Counting mature trees, saplings and seedlings of native and alien plant species. Using nonparametric H-tests to compare impact of H. gardnerianum on the structure of different sites. Results: Results confirmed the hypothesis that H. gardnerianum has negative effects on natural forest dynamics. Lower numbers of native tree seedlings and saplings were found on ginger-dominated plots. Furthermore, H. gardnerianum did not show negative effects on the invasive alien tree species Psidium cattleianum. Conclusions: This study reveals that where dominance of H. gardnerianum persists, regeneration of the forest by native species will be inhibited. Furthermore, these areas might experience invasion by P. cattleianum, resulting in displacement of native canopy species in the future, leading to a change in forest structure and loss of other species dependent on natural rainforest, such as endemic birds. However, if H. gardnerianum is removed the native Hawaiian forest is likely to regenerate and regain its natural structure. ?? 2009 International Association for Vegetation Science.

  8. Trends in formaldehyde columns over the Amazon rainforest, as observed from space with SCIAMACHY, OMI and GOME-2 spectrometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Smedt, Isabelle; Stavrakou, Trissevgeni; Lerot, Christophe; Yu, Huan; François, Hendrick; Gielen, Clio; Pinardi, Gaia; Muller, Jean-François; Van Roozendael, Michel

    2015-04-01

    Atmospheric formaldehyde (H2CO) is a central carbonyl compound of tropospheric chemistry. It is produced by the oxidation of a large variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), from biogenic, pyrogenic or anthropogenic emission sources. Tropical vegetation, in particular the Amazon forest that represents over half of the planet's remaining rainforests, emit a wide range of highly reactive biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs). Those play a critical role in atmospheric chemistry and climate, by changing the oxidation capacity of the atmosphere and thus the lifetimes of other key trace gases such as CO and CH4, and by producing organic aerosols. Satellite observations of H2CO, bringing information at the global scale and over decades, are essential to trace and understand the nature and the spatio-temporal evolution of VOC emissions. We have been developing algorithms to retrieve formaldehyde columns from satellite nadir UV spectral measurements, and we have processed the full level-1 datasets of GOME/ERS-2, SCIAMACHY/ENVISAT, GOME-2/METOPA&B and OMI/AURA (De Smedt et al., 2008; 2012; 2015). Resulting H2CO products are openly distributed via the TEMIS website (http://h2co.aeronomie.be). In this work, we use the morning and afternoon H2CO columns between 2004 and 2014, respectively composed by the SCIAMACHY and GOME2 A&B datasets, and from the OMI observations, to study the diurnal, seasonal and long-term variations of H2CO over the Amazon rainforest. The highest H2CO columns worldwide are observed, with morning columns markedly higher than early afternoon. Very large variations between the dry and the wet seasons occur each year. Importantly, in some areas of the forest, mainly in the Rondonia Brazilian State, we observe a net decrease of the H2CO columns. We find very high correlation coefficients between the satellite H2CO columns and the reported deforestation fires that have significantly decreased in Rondonia since 2004 [INPE].

  9. Cloud condensation nuclei in pristine tropical rainforest air of Amazonia:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunthe, S. S.

    2009-04-01

    Atmospheric aerosol particles serving as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) are key elements of the hydrological cycle and climate. We have measured and characterized CCN at water vapor supersaturations in the range of S = 0.10-0.82% in pristine tropical rainforest air during the AMAZE-08 campaign in central Amazonia. The effective hygroscopicity parameters describing the influence of chemical composition on the CCN activity of aerosol particles varied in the range of ΰ = 0.05-0.45. The overall median value of ΰ ? 0.15 was only half of the value typically observed for continental aerosols in other regions of the world. Aitken mode particles were less hygroscopic than accumulation mode particles (ΰ ? 0.1 at D ? 50 nm; ΰ ? 0.2 at D ? 200 nm). The CCN measurement results were fully consistent with aerosol mass spectrometry (AMS) data, which showed that the organic mass fraction (Xm,org) was on average as high as ~90% in the Aitken mode (D ? 100 nm) and decreased with increasing particle diameter in the accumulation mode (~80% at D ? 200 nm). The ΰ values exhibited a close linear correlation with Xm,org and extrapolation yielded the following effective hygroscopicity parameters for organic and inorganic particle components: ΰorg ? 0.1 which is consistent with laboratory measurements of secondary organic aerosols and ΰinorg ? 0.6 which is characteristic for ammonium sulfate and related salts. Both the size-dependence and the temporal variability of effective particle hygroscopicity could be parameterized as a function of AMS-based organic and inorganic mass fractions (ΰp = 0.1 Xm,org + 0.6Xm,inorg), and the CCN number concentrations predicted with ΰp were in fair agreement with the measurement results. The median CCN number concentrations at S = 0.1-0.82% ranged from NCCN,0.10 ? 30 cm-3to NCCN,0.82 ? 150 cm-3, the median concentration of aerosol particles larger than 30 nm was NCN,30 ? 180 cm-3, and the corresponding integral CCN efficiencies

  10. Spatial patterns and recent trends in the climate of tropical rainforest regions.

    OpenAIRE

    Malhi, Yadvinder; Wright, James

    2004-01-01

    We present an analysis of the mean climate and climatic trends of tropical rainforest regions over the period 1960-1998, with the aid of explicit maps of forest cover and climatological databases. Until the mid-1970s most regions showed little trend in temperature, and the western Amazon experienced a net cooling probably associated with an interdecadal oscillation. Since the mid-1970s, all tropical rainforest regions have experienced a strong warming at a mean rate of 0.26 +/- 0.05 degrees C...

  11. Atlantic menhaden adult tagging study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Atlantic menhaden are a schooling forage fish species, which are subject to a large commercial purse seine fishery. Atlantic menhaden are harvested for reduction...

  12. The dynamic variability of dissolved and particulate organic matter and nutrients in a changing tropical rainforest: First results from a new geochemical program in northern Amazonia, Guyana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, R.; Bovolo, I.; Parkin, G.; Wagner, T.

    2010-12-01

    Current knowledge suggests that the two largest threats to ecosystems are changes in land use and climate variability. Focussing on the tropics, these changes put an immediate threat on the health and fate of rainforest ecosystems. It has been shown for Amazonia that natural seasonal variability when linked to transitional periods of extreme weather events, can trigger an almost instantaneous and large increase in the release of nutrients and carbon from soils into rivers driven by variation in precipitation (Raymond, 2005; Mayorga et al., 2005). A new hydrology and climate monitoring program at the Iwokrama International Centre for Rainforest Conservation and Development in Guyana will investigate the ability of the rainforest and its soils to generate, store and recycle carbon, nutrients and water over a multi-year period; and to address the issue of the forests response to combined natural and anthropogenic induced change. It is important to establish the range of variability between wet and dry seasons, thereby characterising the current state of the forest and how it responds to external forcing. A detailed understanding of the quality and cycling of key soil properties, including carbon and nutrients, is critical to assess the status and potential change of forest vegetation and ecosystems. Comparisons of the processes and impacts of natural climate variability and forestry activity in pristine and sustainably used forest areas will be made. We introduce the conceptual strategy and experimental design of the new research program and present first geochemical results based on field work in March and July 2010 comparing dry and wet seasons. The preliminary analyses of elemental and spectrophotometric (UV-absorbance) data generated from top soil, river water and river bed sediments from the Burro Burro River transect through pristine and managed forest will be presented. The data will be used to assess the nature and variability of low and high molecular

  13. Impact of rainforest conversion on water yield, seasonal flow and floods in a tropical catchment in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinhans, A.; Gerold, G.

    2003-04-01

    Smallholder agriculture is playing an important role in rainforest conversion in the humid tropics. After conversion by smallholders the created landscape is characterized by a patchwork of different land use types in ever smaller patches undergoing a gradual change from forest dominated patches via annual crops to perennial plantation interspersed by secondary forest, pasture and annual crops. Our mountainous research area along the rainforest margin area of the Lore Lindu National Park in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia shows in an exemplary manner this sequence of conversion with natural forest at the mountainous upland and perennial plantation at the lowland connected by a moving transition zone of annual crops and young plantation. There, we are investigating the hydrological responses to the gradual conversions on the hydrological behaviour of low flows and high flows in a small catchment area and the factors causing these changes. To fulfil the goal we use a modified catchment approach with three weirs including water level recorders along the river with each weir representative for one predominant land use type. This design allows to measure the influence of land use changes on the water fluxes with the undisturbed headwater catchment serving as a reference. Additionally the meteorological inputs are measured with two automatic weather stations and four automatic rain gauges. On plot scale 30 soil water content measurement plots have been installed and soil physical properties in the different land use types have been measured to validate the results on catchment scale. Since the measurements started in 2001 our first results show an increase in the yearly water yield in the recently logged transition zone in comparison to the natural forest. Especially during low flow conditions water yield from converted areas is higher in comparison to natural forest. Reasons can be found in the reduced evapotranspiration after removal of the natural forest canopy. Floods

  14. Controls of hydrochemical fluxes via stemflow in tropical lowland rainforests: Effects of meteorology and vegetation characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofhansl, F.; Wanek, W.; Drage, S.; Huber, W.; Weissenhofer, A.; Richter, A.

    2012-07-01

    SummarySo far stemflow has been underrepresented in studies of ecosystem ecology as it usually contributes less than 10% to hydrological input to the forest floor. However, in terms of nutrient cycling, stemflow may constitute an important pathway for the localized input of highly enriched solutes to the forest floor. We measured stemflow hydrology and biogeochemistry in three different ecosystem types (primary forests on ridge and ravine, as well as secondary forest) in South-West Costa Rica. Stemflow hydrochemistry was mainly controlled by meteorology (precipitation magnitude and duration), ecosystem characteristics (topography and plant area index) and species-specific traits (stem diameter and tree height). Stemflow was enriched 7.5-fold in nutrients compared to bulk precipitation and 2.9-fold compared to throughfall. In net stemflow most solutes (especially DOC and K) were leached, while inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus (i.e. NO3 and PO4) were retained along the stemflow pathway. Computation of multiple regression models allowed dissecting the contributions of canopy exchange and dry deposition processes to net stemflow fluxes. Net stemflow was dominated by canopy exchange processes and to a lesser extent by dry deposition fluxes. Including throughfall and litterfall nutrient flux data we calculated that stemflow comprised 1-10% of dissolved internal recycling of nutrients and up to 1.5% of total aboveground nutrient returns. However, dissolved returns by canopy exchange via throughfall plus stemflow contributed up to 50% of total aboveground nutrient return. This demonstrates that stemflow per se represents a small but localized proportion of total above nutrient recycling but that total dissolved returns of (highly available) nutrients and DOC can be important as a part of the internal nutrient cycle of tropical rainforests.

  15. Elevational Distribution of Flightless Ground Beetles in the Tropical Rainforests of North-Eastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staunton, Kyran M.; Nakamura, Akihiro; Burwell, Chris J.; Robson, Simon K. A.; Williams, Stephen E.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how the environment influences patterns of diversity is vital for effective conservation management, especially in a changing global climate. While assemblage structure and species richness patterns are often correlated with current environmental factors, historical influences may also be considerable, especially for taxa with poor dispersal abilities. Mountain-top regions throughout tropical rainforests can act as important refugia for taxa characterised by low dispersal capacities such as flightless ground beetles (Carabidae), an ecologically significant predatory group. We surveyed flightless ground beetles along elevational gradients in five different subregions within the Australian Wet Tropics World Heritage Area to investigate (1) whether the diversity and composition of flightless ground beetles are elevationally stratified, and, if so, (2) what environmental factors (other than elevation per se) are associated with these patterns. Generalised linear models and model averaging techniques were used to relate patterns of diversity to environmental factors. Unlike most taxonomic groups, flightless ground beetles increased in species richness and abundance with elevation. Additionally, each subregion consisted of relatively distinct assemblages containing a high level of regional endemic species. Species richness was most strongly and positively associated with historical and current climatic stabilities and negatively associated with severity of recent disturbance (treefalls). Assemblage composition was associated with latitude and historical and current climatic conditions. Although the results need to be interpreted carefully due to inter-correlation between historical and current climatic variables, our study is in agreement with the hypothesis that upland refugia provided stable climatic conditions since the last glacial maximum, and supported a diverse fauna of flightless beetle species. These findings are important for conservation

  16. Quantifying Ancient Maya Land Use Legacy Effects on Contemporary Rainforest Canopy Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica N. Hightower

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Human land use legacies have significant and long-lasting ecological impacts across landscapes. Investigating ancient (>400 years legacy effects can be problematic due to the difficulty in detecting specific, historic land uses, especially those hidden beneath dense canopies. Caracol, the largest (~200 km2 Maya archaeological site in Belize, was abandoned ca. A.D. 900, leaving behind myriad structures, causeways, and an extensive network of agricultural terraces that persist beneath the architecturally complex tropical forest canopy. Airborne LiDAR enables the detection of these below-canopy archaeological features while simultaneously providing a detailed record of the aboveground 3-dimensional canopy organization, which is indicative of a forest’s ecological function. Here, this remote sensing technology is used to determine the effects of ancient land use legacies on contemporary forest structure. Canopy morphology was assessed by extracting LiDAR point clouds (0.25 ha plots from LiDAR-identified terraced (n = 150 and non-terraced (n = 150 areas on low (0°–10°, medium (10°–20°, and high (>20° slopes. We calculated the average canopy height, canopy openness, and vertical diversity from the LiDAR returns, with topographic features (i.e., slope, elevation, and aspect as covariates. Using a PerMANOVA procedure, we determined that forests growing on agricultural terraces exhibited significantly different canopy structure from those growing on non-terraced land. Terraces appear to mediate the effect of slope, resulting in less structural variation between slope and non-sloped land and yielding taller, more closed, more vertically diverse forests. These human land uses abandoned >1000 years ago continue to impact contemporary tropical rainforests having implications related to arboreal habitat and carbon storage.

  17. Detailed regional predictions of N2O and NO emissions from a tropical highland rainforest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Butterbach-Bahl

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tropical forest soils are a significant source for the greenhouse gas N2O as well as for NO, a precursor of tropospheric ozone. However, current estimates are uncertain due to the limited number of field measurements. Furthermore, there is considerable spatial and temporal variability of N2O and NO emissions due to the variation of environmental conditions such as soil properties, vegetation characteristics and meteorology. In this study we used a process-based model (ForestDNDC-tropica to estimate N2O and NO emissions from tropical highland forest (Nyungwe soils in southwestern Rwanda. To extend the model inputs to regional scale, ForestDNDC-tropica was linked to an exceptionally large legacy soil dataset. There was agreement between N2O and NO measurements and the model predictions though the ForestDNDC-tropica resulted in considerable lower emissions for few sites. Low similarity was specifically found for acidic soil with high clay content and reduced metals, indicating that chemo-denitrification processes on acidic soils might be under-represented in the current ForestDNDC-tropica model. The results showed that soil bulk density and pH are the most influential factors driving spatial variations in soil N2O and NO emissions for tropical forest soils. The area investigated (1113 km2 was estimated to emit ca. 439 ± 50 t N2O-N yr−1 (2.8–5.5 kg N2O-N ha−1 yr−1 and 244 ± 16 t NO-N yr−1 (0.8–5.1 kg N ha−1 yr−1. Consistent with less detailed studies, we confirm that tropical highland rainforest soils are a major source of atmospheric N2O and NO.

  18. Interactions between terrestrial mammals and the fruits of two neotropical rainforest tree species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo-Sanabria, Angela A.; Mendoza, Eduardo

    2016-05-01

    Mammalian frugivory is a distinctive biotic interaction of tropical forests; however, most efforts in the Neotropics have focused on cases of animals foraging in the forest canopy, in particular primates and bats. In contrast much less is known about this interaction when it involves fruits deposited on the forest floor and terrestrial mammals. We conducted a camera-trapping survey to analyze the characteristics of the mammalian ensembles visiting fruits of Licania platypus and Pouteria sapota deposited on the forest floor in a well preserved tropical rainforest of Mexico. Both tree species produce large fruits but contrast in their population densities and fruit chemical composition. In particular, we expected that more species of terrestrial mammals would consume P. sapota fruits due to its higher pulp:seed ratio, lower availability and greater carbohydrate content. We monitored fruits at the base of 13 trees (P. sapota, n = 4 and L. platypus, n = 9) using camera-traps. We recorded 13 mammal species from which we had evidence of 8 consuming or removing fruits. These eight species accounted for 70% of the species of mammalian frugivores active in the forest floor of our study area. The ensemble of frugivores associated with L. platypus (6 spp.) was a subset of that associated with P. sapota (8 spp). Large body-sized species such as Tapirus bairdii, Pecari tajacu and Cuniculus paca were the mammals more frequently interacting with fruits of the focal species. Our results further our understanding of the characteristics of the interaction between terrestrial mammalian frugivores and large-sized fruits, helping to gain a more balanced view of its importance across different tropical forests and providing a baseline to compare against defaunated forests.

  19. The importance of an alternative for sustainability of agriculture around the periphery of the Amazon rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Emanoel G; Sena, Virley G L; Corrêa, Mariana S; Aguiar, Alana das C F

    2013-04-01

    The unsustainable use of the soil of the deforested area at the Amazonian border is one of the greatest threats to the rainforest, because it is the predominant cause of shifting cultivation in the region. The sustainable management of soils with low natural fertility is a major challenge for smallholder agriculture in the humid tropics. In the periphery of Brazilian Amazonia, agricultural practices that are recommended for the Brazilian savannah, such as saturating soils with soluble nutrients do not ensure the sustainability of agroecosystems. Improvements in the tilled topsoil cannot be maintained if deterioration of the porous soil structure is not prevented and nutrient losses in the root zone are not curtailed. The information gleaned from experiments affirms that in the management of humid tropical agrosystems, the processes resulting from the interaction between climatic factors and indicators of soil quality must be taken into consideration. It must be remembered that these interactions manifest themselves in ways that cannot be predicted from the paradigm established in the other region like the southeast of Brazil, which is based only on improving the chemical indicators of soil quality. The physical indicators play important role in the sustainable management of the agrosystems of the region and for these reasons must be considered. Therefore, alley cropping is a potential substitute for slash and burn agriculture in the humid tropics with both environmental and agronomic advantages, due to its ability to produce a large amount of residues on the soil surface and its effect on the increase of economic crop productivity in the long term. The article presents some promising patents on the importance of an alternative for sustainability of agriculture. PMID:23305424

  20. Rainforest pharmacopeia in Madagascar provides high value for current local and prospective global uses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher D Golden

    Full Text Available Botanical diversity provides value to humans through carbon sequestration, air and water purification, and the provisioning of wild foods and ethnomedicines. Here we calculate the value of botanical ethnomedicines in a rainforest region of Madagascar, the Makira Protected Area, using a substitution method that combines replacement costs and choice modeling. The Makira watershed may comprise approximately 0.8% of global botanical diversity and possesses enormous value both in its ability to provision botanical ethnomedicines to local people and as a source of potentially novel pharmaceutical drugs for society as a whole. Approximately 241 locally-recognized species are used as ethnomedicines, including 113 agricultural or weed species. We equated each ethnomedicinal treatment to the monetary value of a comparable pharmaceutical treatment adjusted by personal preferences in perceived efficacy (rather than from known or assumed medicinal equivalency. The benefit value of these botanical ethnomedicines per individual is $5.40-7.90 per year when using the value of highly subsidized Malagasy pharmaceuticals and $100.60-287.40 when using the value of American pharmaceuticals. Using local pharmaceuticals as substitutes, the value per household is $30.24-44.30 per year, equivalent to 43-63% of median annual household income, demonstrating their local importance. Using the value of American pharmaceuticals, the amount is equivalent to 22-63% of the median annual health care expenditures for American adults under 45 in 2006. The potential for developing novel biomedicines from the Makira watershed's unique flora ranges in untapped benefit value from $0.3-5.7 billion for American pharmaceutical companies, non-inclusive of the importance of providing novel medicines and improved healthcare to society. This study provides evidence of the tremendous current local and prospective global value of botanical ethnomedicines and furthers arguments for the

  1. Soil nutrient-landscape relationships in a lowland tropical rainforest in Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthold, F.K.; Stallard, R.F.; Elsenbeer, H.

    2008-01-01

    Soils play a crucial role in biogeochemical cycles as spatially distributed sources and sinks of nutrients. Any spatial patterns depend on soil forming processes, our understanding of which is still limited, especially in regards to tropical rainforests. The objective of our study was to investigate the effects of landscape properties, with an emphasis on the geometry of the land surface, on the spatial heterogeneity of soil chemical properties, and to test the suitability of soil-landscape modeling as an appropriate technique to predict the spatial variability of exchangeable K and Mg in a humid tropical forest in Panama. We used a design-based, stratified sampling scheme to collect soil samples at 108 sites on Barro Colorado Island, Panama. Stratifying variables are lithology, vegetation and topography. Topographic variables were generated from high-resolution digital elevation models with a grid size of 5 m. We took samples from five depths down to 1 m, and analyzed for total and exchangeable K and Mg. We used simple explorative data analysis techniques to elucidate the importance of lithology for soil total and exchangeable K and Mg. Classification and Regression Trees (CART) were adopted to investigate importance of topography, lithology and vegetation for the spatial distribution of exchangeable K and Mg and with the intention to develop models that regionalize the point observations using digital terrain data as explanatory variables. Our results suggest that topography and vegetation do not control the spatial distribution of the selected soil chemical properties at a landscape scale and lithology is important to some degree. Exchangeable K is distributed equally across the study area indicating that other than landscape processes, e.g. biogeochemical processes, are responsible for its spatial distribution. Lithology contributes to the spatial variation of exchangeable Mg but controlling variables could not be detected. The spatial variation of soil total K

  2. The Lion-tailed Macaque Macaca silenus (Primates: Cercopithecidae: conservation history and status of a flagship species of the tropical rainforests of the Western Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Singh

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The Lion-tailed Macaque (Macaca silenus is a threatened species inhabiting the rainforests of the Western Ghats mountain range in southern India. Once assessed to be less than a thousand individuals remaining in the wild habitats, the population is now estimated to be between 3000 and 3500 individuals. However, the rainforest habitats of the species are highly fragmented. During the past three decades or less, the population of this species has severely declined due to habitat degradation and illegal hunting in several areas of its occurrence. In situ conservation programs included notification of certain areas as Lion-tailed Macaque conservation regions. Several captive breeding programs have been initiated in order to have a viable captive population of the species. However, the analysis reveals that both in situ and ex situ conservation programs have not achieved the desired success and the species is even more endangered than it was a few decades ago. In this article, we discuss these conservation programs and suggest further measures for effective conservation of Lion-tailed Macaques.

  3. Atlantic Equatorial Deep Jets

    OpenAIRE

    Didwischus, Sven-Helge; Brandt, Peter; Greatbatch, Richard John

    2012-01-01

    The Equatorial Deep Jets (EDJ) are a dominant signal in the deep Atlantic at the equator. EDJs are vertical alternating zonal currents with a vertical wavelength of only a few hundred meters. They are found from below the Equatorial Undercurrent down to about 2500m. They were also observed in the Pacific and Indian Ocean. The EDJs are focused on the equator and have a meridional extent of about 1.5°S to 1.5°N. In the Atlantic, EDJs oscillate at a period of about 4.5 years as could be shown by...

  4. Effects of soil, altitude, rainfall, and distance on the floristic similarity of Atlantic Forest fragments in the east-Northeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia de Barros Prado Moura

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a floristic survey conducted on an Atlantic Forest fragment in the state of Alagoas, Brazil. Besides, the results of a similarity analysis between ten rainforest fragments from the Brazilian east-Northeast are presented. The floristic comparison was based on binary data with regard to the presence/ absence criterion for tree species identified in the ten fragments by means of Sørensen’s similarity index. A dendrogram was prepared using cluster analysis (Jaccard’s index and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA to test the abiotic factors, which can differently influence the similarity of fragments. The fragments showed low similarity indices. The variations were due to the fact that each fragment is a patch of what once was a continuous and heterogeneous region. However, the diversity loss, including the disappearance of more demanding species, can lead, in large-scale, to homogeneity and simplification of the northeastern Atlantic Forest.

  5. Tradeoffs between income, biodiversity, and ecosystem functioning during tropical rainforest conversion and agroforestry intensification

    OpenAIRE

    Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Kessler, Michael; Barkmann, Jan; Bos, Merijn M.; Buchori, Damayanti; Erasmi, Stefan; Faust, Heiko; Gerold, Gerhard; Glenk, Klaus; Gradstein, S. Robbert; Guhardja, Edi; Harteveld, Marieke; Hertel, Dietrich; Höhn, Patrick; Kappas, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Losses of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning due to rainforest destruction and agricultural intensification are prime concerns for science and society alike. Potentially, ecosystems show nonlinear responses to land-use intensification that would open management options with limited ecological losses but satisfying economic gains. However, multidisciplinary studies to quantify ecological losses and socioeconomic tradeoffs under different management options are rare. Here, we evaluate oppos...

  6. Synergistic effects of drought and deforestation on the resilience of the south-eastern Amazon rainforest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staal, Arie; Dekker, Stefan C.; Hirota, Marina; van Nes, Egbert H.

    2015-01-01

    The south-eastern Amazon rainforest is subject to ongoing deforestation and is expected to become drier due to climate change. Recent analyses of the distribution of tree cover in the tropics show three modes that have been interpreted as representing alternative stable states: forest, savanna and t

  7. In situ measurements of isoprene and monoterpenes within a South-East Asian tropical rainforest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E. Jones

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs emitted from tropical rainforests comprise a substantial fraction of global atmospheric VOC emissions, however there are only relatively limited measurements of these species in tropical rainforest regions. We present observations of isoprene, α-pinene, camphene, Δ-3-carene, γ-terpinene and limonene, and oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs of biogenic origin such as methacrolein, in ambient air above a~tropical rainforest in Malaysian Borneo. Daytime composition was dominated by isoprene, with an average mixing ratio of the order of ~1 ppb. γ-terpinene, limonene and camphene were the most abundant monoterpenes, with average daytime mixing ratios of 102, 71 and 66 ppt, respectively, and with an average monoterpene to isoprene ratio of 0.3 during sunlight hours, compared to 2.0 at night. Limonene and camphene abundances were seen to be related to both temperature and light conditions. In contrast, γ-terpinene emission occurred into the late afternoon/evening, under relatively low temperature and light conditions. We observe good agreement between surface and aircraft measurements of boundary layer isoprene and methacrolein above the natural rainforest, suggesting that the ground-level observations are broadly representative of isoprene emissions from this region.

  8. The Tropical Rainforest: A Valuable Natural History Resource for Students in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Christine; bin Rajib, Tayeb

    2010-01-01

    Students living in cities seldom experience the rural outdoors when learning science. This lack of first-hand experience with nature is of concern, especially when they are learning about animals, plants and ecosystems. This study investigated how a teacher in Singapore organised a field trip to the rainforest to help his students bridge the gap…

  9. Leaf and whole-tree water use relations of Australian rainforest species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Yoko; Laurance, Susan; Liddell, Michael; Lloyd, Jonathan

    2015-04-01

    Climate change induces drought events and may therefore cause significant impact on tropical rainforests, where most plants are reliant on high water availability - potentially affecting the distribution, composition and abundance of plant species. Using an experimental approach, we are studying the effects of a simulated drought on lowland rainforest plants at the Daintree Rainforest Observatory (DRO), in tropical northern Australia. Before to build up the rainout infrastructure, we installed sap flow meters (HRM) on 62 rainforest trees. Eight tree species were selected with diverse ecological strategies including wood density values ranging from 0.34 to 0.88 g/cm3 and could be replicated within a 1ha plot: Alstonia scholaris (Apocynaceae), Argyrondendron peralatum (Malvaceae), Elaeocarpus angustifolius (Elaeocarpaceae), Endiandra microneura (Lauraceae), Myristica globosa (Myristicaceae), Syzygium graveolens (Myrtaceae), Normanbya normanbyi (Arecaceae), and Castanospermum australe (Fabaceae). Our preliminary results from sap flow data obtained from October 2013 to December of 2014 showed differences in the amount of water used by our trees varied in response to species, size and climate. For example Syzygium graveolens has used a maximum of 60 litres/day while Argyrondendrum peralatum used 13 litres/day. Other potential causes for differential water-use between species and the implications of our research will be discussed. We will continue to monitor sap flow during the rainfall exclusion (2014 to 2016) to determine the effects of plant physiological traits on water use strategies.

  10. Adult Learning in New Social Movements: Environmental Protest and the Struggle for the Clayoquot Sound Rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    During the summer of 1993, some 10,000 people, young and old, joined logging road blockades to protest the clear-cutting of old-growth temperate rainforest in Clayoquot Sound, British Columbia, Canada. By the end of the summer, more than 900 protestors had been arrested for acts of civil disobedience in refusing to leave the road. In subsequent…

  11. Effect of food quality and availability on rainforest rodents of Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.B. Ratnaweera

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Tropical rodent communities are highly diverse species assemblages, yet remain poorly studied. This investigation was conducted with the objective of examining the responses of rainforest rodents to food quality and availability. These factors were assessed through laboratory and field trials conducted in the Sinharaja and Kanneliya rainforests in Sri Lanka. The effect of food quality on the foraging behavior of rodents was examined through feeding experiments using natural rainforest fruits/seeds. In addition, the effect of food augmentation on the rodent population was also investigated. Diet choice experiments showed that rodents exhibited clear food preferences, with certain fruit types being preferentially consumed and others rejected. Tolerance tests where animals were provided with a single fruit type showed that some items that were avoided when offered with a range of food items were consumed when no alternatives were available. In the field a positive relationship was found between fruit/seed and rodent densities; seed addition resulted in marked increases in rodent numbers. These results suggest that tropical rodent populations are food limited, at least during seasons when fruits/seeds are in short supply. Food selectivity also means that populations of rainforest rodents might be adversely affected by changes in tree species composition resulting from habitat disturbance and fragmentation

  12. Butterfly, seedling, sapling and tree diversity and composition in a fire-affected Bornean rainforest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cleary, D.F.R.; Priadjati, A.; Suryokusumo, B.K.; Menken, S.B.J.

    2006-01-01

    Fire-affected forests are becoming an increasingly important component of tropical landscapes. The impact of wildfires on rainforest communities is, however, poorly understood. In this study the density, species richness and community composition of seedlings, saplings, trees and butterflies were as

  13. Butterfly, seedling, sapling and tree diversity and composition is a fire-affected Bornean rainforest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.F.R. Cleary; A. Priadjati; B.K. Suryokusumo; S.B.J. Menken

    2006-01-01

    Fire-affected forests are becoming an increasingly important component of tropical landscapes. The impact of wildfires on rainforest communities is, however, poorly understood. In this study the density, species richness and community composition of seedlings, saplings, trees and butterflies were as

  14. Reading, Learning and Enacting: Interpretation at Visitor Sites in the Wet Tropics Rainforest of Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Karen Elizabeth; Prideaux, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    The northern Wet Tropics rainforest of Australia was declared a world heritage site in 1988 and now supports an extensive tourism industry that attracts an estimated 2.5 million local and international visits annually. As part of the visitor experience, many sites include both environmental and cultural interpretation experiences, which range from…

  15. Ecological and socio-economic functions across tropical land use systems after rainforest conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drescher, Jochen; Rembold, Katja; Allen, Kara; Beckschäfer, Philip; Buchori, Damayanti; Clough, Yann; Faust, Heiko; Fauzi, Anas M; Gunawan, Dodo; Hertel, Dietrich; Irawan, Bambang; Jaya, I Nengah S; Klarner, Bernhard; Kleinn, Christoph; Knohl, Alexander; Kotowska, Martyna M; Krashevska, Valentyna; Krishna, Vijesh; Leuschner, Christoph; Lorenz, Wolfram; Meijide, Ana; Melati, Dian; Nomura, Miki; Pérez-Cruzado, César; Qaim, Matin; Siregar, Iskandar Z; Steinebach, Stefanie; Tjoa, Aiyen; Tscharntke, Teja; Wick, Barbara; Wiegand, Kerstin; Kreft, Holger; Scheu, Stefan

    2016-05-19

    Tropical lowland rainforests are increasingly threatened by the expansion of agriculture and the extraction of natural resources. In Jambi Province, Indonesia, the interdisciplinary EFForTS project focuses on the ecological and socio-economic dimensions of rainforest conversion to jungle rubber agroforests and monoculture plantations of rubber and oil palm. Our data confirm that rainforest transformation and land use intensification lead to substantial losses in biodiversity and related ecosystem functions, such as decreased above- and below-ground carbon stocks. Owing to rapid step-wise transformation from forests to agroforests to monoculture plantations and renewal of each plantation type every few decades, the converted land use systems are continuously dynamic, thus hampering the adaptation of animal and plant communities. On the other hand, agricultural rainforest transformation systems provide increased income and access to education, especially for migrant smallholders. Jungle rubber and rubber monocultures are associated with higher financial land productivity but lower financial labour productivity compared to oil palm, which influences crop choice: smallholders that are labour-scarce would prefer oil palm while land-scarce smallholders would prefer rubber. Collecting long-term data in an interdisciplinary context enables us to provide decision-makers and stakeholders with scientific insights to facilitate the reconciliation between economic interests and ecological sustainability in tropical agricultural landscapes. PMID:27114577

  16. Ecological and socio-economic functions across tropical land use systems after rainforest conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rembold, Katja; Allen, Kara; Beckschäfer, Philip; Buchori, Damayanti; Clough, Yann; Faust, Heiko; Fauzi, Anas M.; Gunawan, Dodo; Hertel, Dietrich; Irawan, Bambang; Jaya, I. Nengah S.; Klarner, Bernhard; Kleinn, Christoph; Knohl, Alexander; Kotowska, Martyna M.; Krashevska, Valentyna; Krishna, Vijesh; Leuschner, Christoph; Lorenz, Wolfram; Meijide, Ana; Melati, Dian; Nomura, Miki; Pérez-Cruzado, César; Qaim, Matin; Siregar, Iskandar Z.; Steinebach, Stefanie; Tjoa, Aiyen; Tscharntke, Teja; Wick, Barbara; Wiegand, Kerstin; Kreft, Holger; Scheu, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Tropical lowland rainforests are increasingly threatened by the expansion of agriculture and the extraction of natural resources. In Jambi Province, Indonesia, the interdisciplinary EFForTS project focuses on the ecological and socio-economic dimensions of rainforest conversion to jungle rubber agroforests and monoculture plantations of rubber and oil palm. Our data confirm that rainforest transformation and land use intensification lead to substantial losses in biodiversity and related ecosystem functions, such as decreased above- and below-ground carbon stocks. Owing to rapid step-wise transformation from forests to agroforests to monoculture plantations and renewal of each plantation type every few decades, the converted land use systems are continuously dynamic, thus hampering the adaptation of animal and plant communities. On the other hand, agricultural rainforest transformation systems provide increased income and access to education, especially for migrant smallholders. Jungle rubber and rubber monocultures are associated with higher financial land productivity but lower financial labour productivity compared to oil palm, which influences crop choice: smallholders that are labour-scarce would prefer oil palm while land-scarce smallholders would prefer rubber. Collecting long-term data in an interdisciplinary context enables us to provide decision-makers and stakeholders with scientific insights to facilitate the reconciliation between economic interests and ecological sustainability in tropical agricultural landscapes. PMID:27114577

  17. The biodiversity of Aspergillus section Flavi in brazil nuts: From rainforest to consumer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calderari, Thaiane O.; Iamanaka, Beatriz T.; Frisvad, Jens Christian;

    2013-01-01

    A total of 288 brazil nut samples (173 kernel and 115 shell) from the Amazon rainforest region and São Paulo State, Brazil were collected at different stages of brazil nut production. Samples were analysed for: percentages of aflatoxigenic fungal species and potential for aflatoxin production and...

  18. Innovation and Learning by Public Discourse: Citigroup and the Rainforest Action Network

    OpenAIRE

    Spitzeck, Heiko

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the project finance controversy between Citigroup and the Rainforest Action Network (RAN) from a moral learning and innovation perspective. Using Kohlberg's framework for moral development and learning it shows, that Citigroup improved its moral organizational cognition and implemented innovative processes and standards. This case demonstrates that public criticism can trigger social innovations.

  19. 76 FR 77806 - International Affairs; U.S. Fish Quotas in the Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Organization...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA868 International Affairs; U.S. Fish Quotas in the Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Organization Regulatory Area AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... Northwest Atlantic Fisheries ] Organization (NAFO) Regulatory Area. This action is necessary to make...

  20. 76 FR 72907 - International Affairs; U.S. Fishing Opportunity in the Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Organization...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-28

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA845 International Affairs; U.S. Fishing Opportunity in the Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Organization Regulatory Area AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... flounder in Division 3LNO of the Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Organization (NAFO) Regulatory Area...

  1. Linking carbon storage with functional diversity in tropical rainforest in the central Congo Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeeck, Hans; Kearsley, Elizabeth; Bauters, Marijn; Beeckman, Hans; Huygens, Dries; Steppe, Kathy; Boeckx, Pascal

    2015-04-01

    This presentation will show an overview of results of the COBIMFO project (Congo basin integrated monitoring for forest carbon mitigation and biodiversity). In the framework of this project we have established 21 permanent 1 ha sampling plots in different forest types in the Yangambi reserve. This UNESCO Man and Biosphere reserve has an area of more than 6000 km² and is located in the heart of the Congo Basin near the Yangambi research station (DR Congo). Analysis of the inventory data of these plots revealed that carbon stocks in mature forests in this area of the Congo Basin are significantly lower (24%) than stocks recorded in the outer regions of the basin. These lower stocks are attributed to a lower maximal tree height (Kearsley et al. 2013). In addition to the carbon inventories we collected leaf and wood samples on all species within 95% basal area of each of the Yangambi plots. A total of 995 individuals were sampled, covering 123 tree species. On the samples we measured 15 traits related to leaf and wood morphology and functioning. In the presented study, relationships between the observed functional diversity and biomass are analysed. One of the remarkable results of our analysis is that species with a high functional distinctiveness have a low contribution to the basal area and the carbon stocks. In contrast, species with a high contribution to the carbon stock have a low contribution to the functional diversity. Similar patterns have been observed elsewhere (e.g. Amazon basin), but are now for the first time confirmed for central African rainforest. Finally, we also present the first results of an analysis of carbons stocks and functional diversity in tropical plantations from a unique 70-years old tree diversity experiment that was established during the colonial period at the Yangambi research station. Kearsley, E., de Haulleville, T., Hufkens, K., Kidimbu, A., Toirambe, B., Baert, G., Huygens, D., Kebede, Y., Defourny, P., Bogaert, J., Beeckman, H

  2. Canopy position affects the relationships between leaf respiration and associated traits in a tropical rainforest in Far North Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weerasinghe, Lasantha K; Creek, Danielle; Crous, Kristine Y; Xiang, Shuang; Liddell, Michael J; Turnbull, Matthew H; Atkin, Owen K

    2014-06-01

    We explored the impact of canopy position on leaf respiration (R) and associated traits in tree and shrub species growing in a lowland tropical rainforest in Far North Queensland, Australia. The range of traits quantified included: leaf R in darkness (RD) and in the light (RL; estimated using the Kok method); the temperature (T)-sensitivity of RD; light-saturated photosynthesis (Asat); leaf dry mass per unit area (LMA); and concentrations of leaf nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), soluble sugars and starch. We found that LMA, and area-based N, P, sugars and starch concentrations were all higher in sun-exposed/upper canopy leaves, compared with their shaded/lower canopy and deep-shade/understory counterparts; similarly, area-based rates of RD, RL and Asat (at 28 °C) were all higher in the upper canopy leaves, indicating higher metabolic capacity in the upper canopy. The extent to which light inhibited R did not differ significantly between upper and lower canopy leaves, with the overall average inhibition being 32% across both canopy levels. Log-log RD-Asat relationships differed between upper and lower canopy leaves, with upper canopy leaves exhibiting higher rates of RD for a given Asat (both on an area and mass basis), as well as higher mass-based rates of RD for a given [N] and [P]. Over the 25-45 °C range, the T-sensitivity of RD was similar in upper and lower canopy leaves, with both canopy positions exhibiting Q10 values near 2.0 (i.e., doubling for every 10 °C rise in T) and Tmax values near 60 °C (i.e., T where RD reached maximal values). Thus, while rates of RD at 28 °C decreased with increasing depth in the canopy, the T-dependence of RD remained constant; these findings have important implications for vegetation-climate models that seek to predict carbon fluxes between tropical lowland rainforests and the atmosphere. PMID:24722001

  3. Atlantic City memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Franklin H

    2008-04-01

    Fifty years ago, the Atlantic City meetings, held the first week in May of every year, were attended by all the elite of American academic medicine and all who wanted to join that group. Part of the magic of those meetings was that professors and neophytes took each other seriously and talked to each other. PMID:18382726

  4. The Effect of Drought on Stomatal Conductance in the Biosphere 2 Rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, J. D.; Van Haren, J. L. M.

    2015-12-01

    Drought is a major climate change concern for the Earth's rainforests; however little is currently known about how these forests and individual plants will respond to water stress. At the individual level, the ability of plants to regulate their stomatal conductance is an important preservation mechanism that helps to cool leaves, regulate water loss, and uptake carbon dioxide. At the ecosystem level, transpiration in rainforests is a major contributor to the positive feedback loop that returns moisture to the atmosphere for continued precipitation cycles. Nearly 60% of atmospheric moisture in the Amazon rain forests has been traced back to origins of transpiration from its plants. In relation to current climatic conditions, stomatal conductance rates are highly variable across rainforest species and environmental conditions. It is still unknown to what extent these rates will decrease at leaf and forest level in response to periods of drought. The University of Arizona's Biosphere 2 (B2) served as the study site for a simulated 4-week long drought because of its ability to mimic the micrometeorology of an Amazonian rainforest. Three species of plants were chosen at various levels in the canopy: Clitoria racemosa, Cissus sicyoides, and Hibiscus elatus. These plants were selected based on their relative abundance and distribution in the B2 forest. It was revealed that two out of the three species exhibited decreases in H20 efflux at each elevation, while one species (C. racemosa) proved much more resistant, at each elevation, to H20 loss. These results may be useful for future integrative modeling of how individual leaf level responses extend to entire ecosystem scales. It will be important to better understand how rainforests conserve, recycle, and lose water to gauge their response to warming climate, and increased periods of drought in the tropics.

  5. Stock, turnover and functions of carbon in heavily weathered soils under lowland rainforest transformation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaume, Thomas; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2013-04-01

    Tropical rainforest are experiencing worldwide a strong lost through deforestation and transformation into agricultural systems. Land use changes in such ecosystems leads to major modifications of soils properties and processes. One indication of it are the losses of organic carbon content (Corg); an important soil fertility parameter in heavily weathered soil. Between 1985 and 2007, Sumatra (Indonesia) has lost half of his remaining natural rainforest, which currently covers only 30% the island. The deforestation is still ongoing and the main drivers of deforestation are oil palm, rubber and timber industries. Our study aims to identify and quantify the impacts of lowland rainforest transformation systems (TS): oil palm, rubber and jungle rubber plantations on soil organic carbon (SOC) and nitrogen (SON) quality, turnover and stocks and so, on soil fertility and functions. We hypothesize that transformation of natural lowland rainforest changes not only C stock and budget throughout quantity and quality of C input, but also DOM production and water consumption by vegetation, leading to a relocation of C in the subsoil. This should be reflected in C and N content in soil profile horizons as well as their δ13C and δ15N isotopic signatures. We will evaluate also C stability through biological, thermal and chemical stability in bulk soil and aggregate fractions. The TS investigated, including lowland rainforest as reference sites, are located in Jambi Province (Sumatra). Soil has been described and sampled per horizon on 4 replicates of each TS in 2 different regions (32 sites) in Autumn 2012. As hypothesized, first results show strong effects of forest transformation on C and N content, as well as on isotopic signatures of soil. Those results will also be used further to select DOM sampling depths and adequate horizons to perform sorption and incubation experiments.

  6. Atlantic tropical cyclones revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Michael E.; Emanuel, Kerry A.; Holland, Greg J.; Webster, Peter J.

    Vigorous discussions have taken place recently in Eos [e.g., Mann and Emanuel, 2006; Landsea, 2007] and elsewhere [Emanuel, 2005; Webster et al., 2005; Hoyos et al., 2006; Trenberth and Shea, 2006; Kossin et al., 2007] regarding trends in North Atlantic tropical cyclone (TC) activity and their potential connection with anthropogenic climate change. In one study, for example [Landsea, 2007], it is argued that a substantial underestimate of Atlantic tropical cyclone counts in earlier decades arising from insufficient observing systems invalidates the conclusion that trends in TC behavior may be connected to climate change. Here we argue that such connections are in fact robust with respect to uncertainties in earlier observations.Several recent studies have investigated trends in various measures of TC activity. Emanuel [2005] showed that a measure of total power dissipation by TCs (the power dissipation index, or PDI) is highly correlated with August-October sea surface temperatures (SST) over the main development region (MDR) for Atlantic TCs over at least the past half century. Some support for this conclusion was provided by Sriver and Ruber [2006]. Webster et al. [2005] demonstrated a statistically significant increase in recent decades in both the total number of the strongest category cyclones (categories 4 and 5) and the proportion of storms reaching hurricane intensity. Hoyos et al. [2006] showed that these increases were closely tied to warming trends in tropical Atlantic SST, while, for example, the modest decrease in vertical wind shear played a more secondary role. Kossin et al. [2007] called into question some trends in other basins, based on a reanalysis of past TC data, but they found the North Atlantic trends to be robust.

  7. Ranging pattern and use of space in a group of red howler monkeys (Alouatta seniculus) in a southeastern Colombian rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, E; Rodriguez, A

    2001-12-01

    We studied a group of red howler monkeys (Alouatta seniculus) bordering a lake in an eastern Colombian Amazon rainforest for 10 months. The group used an area of 182 ha located mainly on Pleistocene terrace forest and had no overlap with other howler home ranges. Home range use varied through the year as a consequence of fruit and leaf abundance. For example, during the fruit scarcity season the group used an area of flooded forest nearly exclusively, indicating that at least for a portion of the year they are habitat specialists. Two areas intensively used by the group were identified, representing 17.6 % of the home range, and within which 56.9 % of the feeding trees were located. Overall density of feeding trees within the group's home range was very low (1.12 trees/ha). Home range size, as well as mean length of daily ranges (1,150 m), is the largest reported for this species to date, and it is likely a consequence of the diminished productivity of the plant communities on poor soil. Our results give an interesting example of the ranging behavior of this primate, which clearly differs from previous descriptions of red howlers. PMID:11748695

  8. Detecting subcanopy invasive plant species in tropical rainforest by integrating optical and microwave (InSAR/PolInSAR) remote sensing data, and a decision tree algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghulam, Abduwasit; Porton, Ingrid; Freeman, Karen

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, we propose a decision tree algorithm to characterize spatial extent and spectral features of invasive plant species (i.e., guava, Madagascar cardamom, and Molucca raspberry) in tropical rainforests by integrating datasets from passive and active remote sensing sensors. The decision tree algorithm is based on a number of input variables including matching score and infeasibility images from Mixture Tuned Matched Filtering (MTMF), land-cover maps, tree height information derived from high resolution stereo imagery, polarimetric feature images, Radar Forest Degradation Index (RFDI), polarimetric and InSAR coherence and phase difference images. Spatial distributions of the study organisms are mapped using pixel-based Winner-Takes-All (WTA) algorithm, object oriented feature extraction, spectral unmixing, and compared with the newly developed decision tree approach. Our results show that the InSAR phase difference and PolInSAR HH-VV coherence images of L-band PALSAR data are the most important variables following the MTMF outputs in mapping subcanopy invasive plant species in tropical rainforest. We also show that the three types of invasive plants alone occupy about 17.6% of the Betampona Nature Reserve (BNR) while mixed forest, shrubland and grassland areas are summed to 11.9% of the reserve. This work presents the first systematic attempt to evaluate forest degradation, habitat quality and invasive plant statistics in the BNR, and provides significant insights as to management strategies for the control of invasive plants and conversation in the reserve.

  9. Investigation of carbon dioxide in the South Atlantic and northern Weddell Sea areas (WOCE Sections A-12 and A-21) during the METEOR expedition 11/5, January--March 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chipman, D.W.; Takahashi, Taro; Breger, D.; Sutherland, S.C.

    1991-12-01

    This report summarizes the results of investigation the oceanographic expedition aboard the F/S METEOR in South Atlantic Ocean including the Drake Passage, the northern Weddell Sea and the eastern South Atlantic during the austral summer of January through March 1990. The total CO{sub 2} concentration in about 1300 seawater samples and CO{sub 2} partial pressure (pCO{sub 2}) in about 870 seawater samples collected at 77 stations were determined aboard the ship using a coulometer and equilibrator/gas chromatograph system. The temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and nutrient salt data presented in this report were determined by other participants of the expedition including the members of the Oceanographic Data Facility of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Argentine Hydrographic Office and German institutions.

  10. Investigation of carbon dioxide in the South Atlantic and northern Weddell Sea areas (WOCE Sections A-12 and A-21) during the METEOR expedition 11/5, January--March 1990. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chipman, D.W.; Takahashi, Taro; Breger, D.; Sutherland, S.C.

    1991-12-01

    This report summarizes the results of investigation the oceanographic expedition aboard the F/S METEOR in South Atlantic Ocean including the Drake Passage, the northern Weddell Sea and the eastern South Atlantic during the austral summer of January through March 1990. The total CO{sub 2} concentration in about 1300 seawater samples and CO{sub 2} partial pressure (pCO{sub 2}) in about 870 seawater samples collected at 77 stations were determined aboard the ship using a coulometer and equilibrator/gas chromatograph system. The temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and nutrient salt data presented in this report were determined by other participants of the expedition including the members of the Oceanographic Data Facility of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Argentine Hydrographic Office and German institutions.

  11. 76 FR 19748 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; General Provisions for Domestic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-08

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA312 Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; General Provisions for Domestic Fisheries; Application for Exempted Fishing...-50 mm carapace length), throughout lobster management area 3 (Area 3), in an attempt to...

  12. 77 FR 66585 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; General Provisions for Domestic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-06

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC304 Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; General Provisions for Domestic Fisheries; Application for Exempted Fishing... dispersal and settlement in the offshore Lobster Management Area 3 (Area 3), 11 federally permitted...

  13. Multibeam Mapping of the South Atlantic Bight: Georgia 2005, a Proposed MPA on the Continental Shelf

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Fisheries laboratory in Panama City, Florida coordinated an acoustic survey at the new proposed Marine Protected Areas in the South Atlantic Bight area...

  14. Contrasting Diversity and Host Association of Ectomycorrhizal Basidiomycetes versus Root-Associated Ascomycetes in a Dipterocarp Rainforest

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, Hirotoshi; Tanabe, Akifumi S; Toju, Hirokazu

    2015-01-01

    Root-associated fungi, including ectomycorrhizal and root-endophytic fungi, are among the most diverse and important belowground plant symbionts in dipterocarp rainforests. Our study aimed to reveal the biodiversity, host association, and community structure of ectomycorrhizal Basidiomycota and root-associated Ascomycota (including root-endophytic Ascomycota) in a lowland dipterocarp rainforest in Southeast Asia. The host plant chloroplast ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase large...

  15. First report of Oxysternon silenus Castelnau (Scarabaeidae, Scarabaeinae, Phanaeini in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno K. C. Filgueiras

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available First report of Oxysternon silenus Castelnau (Scarabaeidae, Scarabaeinae, Phanaeini in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. This is the first record of Oxysternon silenus in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Specimens were collected in the Serra Grande landscape, municipality of Ibateguara, in Alagoas State. The samples were done from August 17 to 19, 2007 with pitfall traps. Before the present study, Oxysternon silenus had been reported predominantly in Amazonian region. The finding of this species corroborates the hypothesis of the biogeographical relationships between the Amazon Rainforest and the Atlantic Forest.Primeiro relato de Oxysternon silenus Castelnau (Scarabaeidae, Scarabaeinae, Phanaeini na Mata Atlântica brasileira. Esse é o primeiro registro de Oxysternon silenus na Mata Atlântica brasileira. Os espécimes foram coletados em Serra Grande, município de Ibateguara, Alagoas. As coletas foram realizadas de 17 a 19 de agosto de 2007 com a utilização de armadilhas do tipo pitfall. Antes do presente estudo, Oxysternon silenus tinha sido reportada apenas na região Amazônica. O encontro dessa espécie reforça a hipótese das relações biogeográficas entre a Amazônia e a Mata Atlântica.

  16. Atlantic Basin refining profitability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of the profitability margins of oil refining in the Atlantic Basin was presented. Petroleum refiners face the continuous challenge of balancing supply with demand. It would appear that the profitability margins in the Atlantic Basin will increase significantly in the near future because of shrinking supply surpluses. Refinery capacity utilization has reached higher levels than ever before. The American Petroleum Institute reported that in August 1997, U.S. refineries used 99 per cent of their capacity for several weeks in a row. U.S. gasoline inventories have also declined as the industry has focused on reducing capital costs. This is further evidence that supply and demand are tightly balanced. Some of the reasons for tightening supplies were reviewed. It was predicted that U.S. gasoline demand will continue to grow in the near future. Gasoline demand has not declined as expected because new vehicles are not any more fuel efficient today than they were a decade ago. Although federally-mandated fuel efficiency standards were designed to lower gasoline consumption, they may actually have prevented consumption from falling. Atlantic margins were predicted to continue moving up because of the supply and demand evidence: high capacity utilization rates, low operating inventories, limited capacity addition resulting from lower capital spending, continued U.S. gasoline demand growth, and steady total oil demand growth. 11 figs

  17. Remotely sensed biomass over steep slopes: An evaluation among successional stands of the Atlantic Forest, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Jomar Magalhães; Melendez-Pastor, Ignacio; Navarro-Pedreño, Jose; Bitencourt, Marisa Dantas

    2014-02-01

    Remotely sensed images have been widely used to model biomass and carbon content on large spatial scales. Nevertheless, modeling biomass using remotely sensed data from steep slopes is still poorly understood. We investigated how topographical features affect biomass estimation using remotely sensed data and how such estimates can be used in the characterization of successional stands in the Atlantic Rainforest in southeastern Brazil. We estimated forest biomass using a modeling approach that included the use of both satellite data (LANDSAT) and topographic features derived from a digital elevation model (TOPODATA). Biomass estimations exhibited low error predictions (Adj. R2 = 0.67 and RMSE = 35 Mg/ha) when combining satellite data with a secondary geomorphometric variable, the illumination factor, which is based on hill shading patterns. This improved biomass prediction helped us to determine carbon stock in different forest successional stands. Our results provide an important source of modeling information about large-scale biomass in remaining forests over steep slopes.

  18. Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory conducts research to understand the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics and processes of the...

  19. The ecoclimatology of Danum, Sabah, in the context of the world's rainforest regions, with particular reference to dry periods and their impact.

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, R. P.; Newbery, D. M.

    1999-01-01

    Climatic records for Danum for 1985-1998, elsewhere in Sabah since 1879, and long monthly rainfall series from other rainforest locations are used to place the climate, and particularly the dry period climatology, of Danum into a world rainforest context. The magnitude frequency and seasonality of dry periods are shown to vary greatly within the world's rainforest zone. The climate of Danum, which is aseasonal but subject, as in 1997-1998, to occasional drought, is intermediate between less d...

  20. Two Distinct Roles of Atlantic SSTs in ENSO Variability: North Tropical Atlantic SST and Atlantic Nino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Yoo-Geun; Kug, Jong-Seong; Park, Jong-Yeon

    2013-01-01

    Two distinct roles of the Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SSTs), namely, the North Tropical Atlantic (NTA) SST and the Atlantic Nino, on the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) variability are investigated using the observational data from 1980 to 2010 and coupled model experiments. It appears that the NTA SST and the Atlantic Nino can be used as two independent predictors for predicting the development of ENSO events in the following season. Furthermore, they are likely to be linked to different types of El Nino events. Specifically, the NTA SST cooling during February, March, and April contributes to the central Pacific warming at the subsequent winter season, while the negative Atlantic Nino event during June, July, and August contributes to enhancing the eastern Pacific warming. The coupled model experiments support these results. With the aid of a lagged inverse relationship, the statistical forecast using two Atlantic indices can successfully predict various ENSO indices.

  1. Green Leaf Volatile Emissions during High Temperature and Drought Stress in a Central Amazon Rainforest

    OpenAIRE

    Jardine, Kolby J.; Chambers, Jeffrey Q.; Jennifer Holm; Jardine, Angela B.; Clarissa G. Fontes; Zorzanelli, Raquel F.; Meyers, Kimberly T.; Vinicius Fernadez de Souza; Sabrina Garcia; Bruno O. Gimenez; Luani R. de O. Piva; Niro Higuchi; Paulo Artaxo; Scot Martin; Manzi, Antônio O.

    2015-01-01

    Prolonged drought stress combined with high leaf temperatures can induce programmed leaf senescence involving lipid peroxidation, and the loss of net carbon assimilation during early stages of tree mortality. Periodic droughts are known to induce widespread tree mortality in the Amazon rainforest, but little is known about the role of lipid peroxidation during drought-induced leaf senescence. In this study, we present observations of green leaf volatile (GLV) emissions during membrane peroxid...

  2. Postglacial evolution and spatial differentiation of seasonal temperate rainforest in western Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, K. J; Nielsen, Anne Birgitte; Fitton, R. J.; Hebda, R. J.

    2008-01-01

    Surface samples from Vancouver Island, Canada, were used to assess the relationship between discrete seasonal temperate rainforest (STR) plant communities and their corresponding pollen signatures. Pollen from ten sediment cores was further used to evaluate the postglacial development of these communities. Principal components analysis (PCA) of the surface data revealed the distinctiveness of the modern pollen rain, with samples from the Coastal Douglas Fir (CDF) zone, the dry Coastal Western...

  3. Arthropod distribution in a tropical rainforest: tackling a four dimensional puzzle

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Basset, Y.; Čížek, Lukáš; Cuénoud, P.; Didham, R. K.; Novotný, Vojtěch; Ødegaard, F.; Roslin, T.; Tishechkin, A. K.; Schmidl, J.; Winchester, N. N.; Roubik, D. W.; Aberlenc, H.-P.; Bail, J.; Barrios, H.; Bridle, J. R.; Castaňo-Meneses, G.; Corbara, B.; Curletti, G.; Duarte da Rocha, W.; De Bakker, D.; Delabie, J. H. C.; Dejean, A.; Fagan, L. L.; Floren, A.; Kitching, R. L.; Medianero, E.; Gama de Oliveira, E.; Orivel, J.; Pollet, M.; Rapp, F.; Ribeiro, S. P.; Roisin, Y.; Schmidt, J. B.; Sorensen, L.; Lewinsohn, T. M.; Leponce, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 12 (2015), e0144110. E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36098G Grant ostatní: European Social Fund(CZ) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0064 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Arthropod * rainforest * biodiversity Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.234, year: 2014 http:// journal s.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/ journal .pone.0144110

  4. Mapping Deforestation and Land Use in Amazon Rainforest Using SAR-C Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saatchi, Sasan S.; Soares, Joao Vianei; Alves, Diogenes Salas

    1996-01-01

    Land use changes and deforestation in tropical rainforests are among the major factors affecting the overall function of the global environment. To routinely assess the spatial extend and temporal dynamics of these changes has become an important challenge in several scientific disciplines such as climate and environmental studies. In this paper, the feasibility of using polarimetric spaceborne SAR data in mapping land cover types in the Amazon is studied.

  5. Nutrition or Detoxification: Why Bats Visit Mineral Licks of the Amazonian Rainforest

    OpenAIRE

    Voigt, Christian C.; Capps, Krista A.; Dechmann, Dina K. N.; Michener, Robert H.; Kunz, Thomas H

    2008-01-01

    Many animals in the tropics of Africa, Asia and South America regularly visit so-called salt or mineral licks to consume clay or drink clay-saturated water. Whether this behavior is used to supplement diets with locally limited nutrients or to buffer the effects of toxic secondary plant compounds remains unclear. In the Amazonian rainforest, pregnant and lactating bats are frequently observed and captured at mineral licks. We measured the nitrogen isotope ratio in wing tissue of omnivorous sh...

  6. DOAS measurements of formaldehyde and glyoxal above a south-east Asian tropical rainforest

    OpenAIRE

    S. M. MacDonald; Oetjen, H.; Mahajan, A. S.; Whalley, L K; Edwards, P.M.; Heard, D. E.; Jones, C. E.; Plane, J. M. C.

    2012-01-01

    Tropical rainforests act as a huge contributor to the global emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs). Measurements of their oxidation products, such as formaldehyde (HCHO) and glyoxal (CHOCHO), provide useful indicators of fast photochemistry occurring in the lower troposphere. However, measurements of these species in tropical forest locations are extremely limited. To redress this, HCHO and CHOCHO were measured using the long-path (LP) and multi-axis (MAX) differential opti...

  7. Early Response of Soil Properties and Function to Riparian Rainforest Restoration

    OpenAIRE

    Gageler, Rose; Bonner, Mark; Kirchhof, Gunnar; Amos, Mark; Robinson, Nicole; Schmidt, Susanne; Shoo, Luke P.

    2014-01-01

    Reforestation of riparian zones is increasingly practiced in many regions for purposes of biodiversity conservation, bank stabilisation, and improvement in water quality. This is in spite of the actual benefits of reforestation for recovering underlying soil properties and function remaining poorly understood. Here we compare remnant riparian rainforest, pasture and reforestation plantings aged 2–20 years in an Australian subtropical catchment on ferrosols to determine the extent to which ref...

  8. Recruitment dynamics in a rainforest seedling community: context-independent impact of a keystone consumer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Peter T; O'Dowd, Dennis J; Lake, P S

    2008-05-01

    The influence of keystone consumers on community structure is frequently context-dependent; the same species plays a central organising role in some situations, but not others. On Christmas Island, in the Indian Ocean, a single species of omnivorous land crab, Gecarcoidea natalis, dominates the forest floor across intact rainforest. We hypothesised that this consumer plays a key role in regulating seedling recruitment and in controlling litter dynamics on the island, independent of the type of vegetation in which it occurred. To test this hypothesis, we conducted crab exclusion experiments in two forest types on the island and followed the dynamics of seedling recruitment and litter processing for six years. To determine if these effects were likely to be general across the island, we compared land crab densities and seedling abundance and diversity at ten sites across island rainforest. Surveys across island rainforest showed that seedlings of species susceptible to predation by land crabs are consistently rare. Abundance and diversity of these species were negatively correlated to red crab abundance. Although red land crabs may be important determinants of seedling recruitment to the overstorey, differences in overstorey and seedling composition at the sites suggests that recruitment of vulnerable trees still occurs at a temporal scale exceeding that of this study. These "windows" of recruitment may be related to infrequent events that reduce the effects of land crabs. Our results suggest that unlike the context dependence of most keystone consumers in continental systems, a single consumer, the red land crab, consistently controls the dynamics of seedling recruitment across this island rainforest. PMID:18320231

  9. Characterization of active and total fungal communities in the atmosphere over the Amazon rainforest

    OpenAIRE

    Womack, A. M.; P. E. Artaxo; F. Y. Ishida; Mueller, R. C.; S. R. Saleska; Wiedemann, K.T.; Bohannan, B. J. M.; Green, J L

    2015-01-01

    Fungi are ubiquitous in the atmosphere and may play an important role in atmospheric processes. We investigated the composition and diversity of fungal communities over the Amazon rainforest canopy and compared these communities to fungal communities found in terrestrial environments. We characterized the total fungal community and the metabolically active portion of the community using high-throughput DNA and RNA sequencing and compared these data to predictions generated b...

  10. Characterization of active and total fungal communities in the atmosphere over the Amazon rainforest

    OpenAIRE

    Womack, A. M.; P. E. Artaxo; F. Y. Ishida; Mueller, R. C.; S. R. Saleska; Wiedemann, K.T.; Bohannan, B. J. M.; Green, J L

    2015-01-01

    Fungi are ubiquitous in the atmosphere and may play an important role in atmospheric processes. We investigated the composition and diversity of fungal communities over the Amazon rainforest canopy and compared these communities to fungal communities found in terrestrial environments. We characterized the total fungal community and the metabolically active portion of the community using high-throughout DNA and RNA sequencing and compared these data to predic...

  11. Populations, pools, and peccaries: simulating the impact of ecosystem engineers on rainforest frogs

    OpenAIRE

    Ringler, Max; Hödl, Walter; Ringler, Eva

    2015-01-01

    “Ecosystem engineering” describes habitat alteration by an organism that affects another organism; such nontrophic interactions between organisms are a current focus in ecological research. Our study quantifies the actual impact an ecosystem engineer can have on another species by using a previously identified model system—peccaries and rainforest frogs. In a 4-year experiment, we simulated the impact of peccaries on a population of Allobates femoralis (Dendrobatidae) by installing an array o...

  12. Exploring the likelihood and mechanism of a climate-change-induced dieback of the Amazon rainforest

    OpenAIRE

    Malhi, Yadvinder; Aragão, Luiz E. O. C.; Galbraith, David; Huntingford, Chris; Fisher, Rosie; Zelazowski, Przemyslaw; Sitch, Stephen; McSweeney, Carol; Meir, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    We examine the evidence for the possibility that 21st-century climate change may cause a large-scale “dieback” or degradation of Amazonian rainforest. We employ a new framework for evaluating the rainfall regime of tropical forests and from this deduce precipitation-based boundaries for current forest viability. We then examine climate simulations by 19 global climate models (GCMs) in this context and find that most tend to underestimate current rainfall. GCMs also vary greatly in their proje...

  13. Cultural significance of wild mammals in mayan and mestizo communities of the Lacandon Rainforest, Chiapas, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    García del Valle, Yasminda; Naranjo, Eduardo J.; Caballero, Javier; Martorell, Carlos; Ruan-Soto, Felipe; Enríquez, Paula L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Several ethnobiology studies evaluate the cultural significance (CS) of plants and mushrooms. However, this is not the case for mammals. It is important to make studies of CS allowing the comparison of cultural groups because the value given to groups of organisms may be based on different criteria. Such information would be valuable for wildlife preservation plans. In this study, the most culturally significant species of mammals from the Lacandon Rainforest (Chiapas, Mexico) for ...

  14. Change in Phylogenetic Community Structure during Succession of Traditionally Managed Tropical Rainforest in Southwest China

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao-Xue Mo; Ling-Ling Shi; Yong-Jiang Zhang; Hua Zhu; Ferry Slik, J. W.

    2013-01-01

    Tropical rainforests in Southeast Asia are facing increasing and ever more intense human disturbance that often negatively affects biodiversity. The aim of this study was to determine how tree species phylogenetic diversity is affected by traditional forest management types and to understand the change in community phylogenetic structure during succession. Four types of forests with different management histories were selected for this purpose: old growth forests, understorey planted old grow...

  15. Habitat fragmentation threatens wild populations of Carica papaya (Caricaceae) in a lowland rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez-Pesqueira, Mariana; Suárez-Montes, Pilar; Castillo, Guillermo; Núñez-Farfán, Juan

    2014-07-11

    • Premise of the study: Wild populations of domesticated species constitute a genetic reservoir and are fundamental to the evolutionary potential of species. Wild papaya (Carica papaya) is a rare, short-lived, gap-colonizing, dioecious tree that persists in the forest by continuous dispersal. Theoretically, these life-history characteristics render wild papaya highly susceptible to habitat fragmentation, with anticipated negative effects on its gene pool. Further, species dioecy may cause founder effects to generate local biases in sex ratio, decreasing effective population size.• Methods: We contrasted the genetic diversity and structure of C. papaya between wild populations from rainforest fragments and continuous forest at Los Tuxtlas, Mexico. We evaluated recent migration rates among populations as well as landscape resistance to gene flow. Finally, we calculated the sex ratio of the populations in both habitats.• Key results: Populations of wild papaya in rainforest fragments showed lower genetic diversity and higher population differentiation than populations in continuous rainforest. Estimates of recent migration rates showed a higher percentage of migrants moving from the continuous forest to the forest fragments than in the opposite direction. Agricultural land and cattle pasture were found to be the most resistant matrices to gene flow. Finally, biased sex ratios were seen to affect the effective population size in both habitats.• Conclusions: The mating system, rarity, and short life cycle of C. papaya are exacerbating the effects of rainforest fragmentation on its genetic diversity, threatening the persistence of its natural populations in the proposed place of origin as well as its genetic reservoir. PMID:25016010

  16. The role of immigrants in the assembly of the South American rainforest tree flora.

    OpenAIRE

    Pennington, R. Toby; Dick, Christopher W.

    2004-01-01

    The Amazon lowland rainforest flora is conventionally viewed as comprising lineages that evolved in biogeographic isolation after the split of west Gondwana (ca. 100 Myr ago). Recent molecular phylogenies, however, identify immigrant lineages that arrived in South America during its period of oceanic isolation (ca. 100-3 Myr ago). Long-distance sweepstakes dispersal across oceans played an important and possibly predominant role. Stepping-stone migration from Africa and North America through ...

  17. Trypanosomatidae from wild mammals in the neotropical rainforest of French Guiana

    OpenAIRE

    Dereure, J.; Barnabé, Christian; Vié, J.C.; Madélenat, F.; Raccurt, C.

    2001-01-01

    The initial filling of the reservoir behind the Petit Saut hydro-electric dam, on the Sinnamary River in French Guiana, threatened the terrestrial and arboreal animals living in the neotropical rainforest from being flooded. During a rescue programme between 24 October and 12 November in 1994, many of these animals were checked for infection with trypanosomatids. Overall, 45 blood samples and 54 skin biopsies were collected from 53 mammals (of 13 species representing five orders) and blood sa...

  18. Isolation and Structure Elucidation of Cytotoxic Natural Products from the Rainforests of Madagascar and Suriname

    OpenAIRE

    Yoder, Brent Jason

    2005-01-01

    As part of an ongoing investigation of new bioactive metabolites from rainforest flora, extracts from five different plants were determined to have interesting compounds that were new and/or cytotoxic. These phytochemicals were isolated by various separation techniques and then characterized by common spectroscopic methods. A bark extract of a Tambourissa species yielded a new hydroxybutanolide with moderate cytotoxicity. The long hydrocarbon chain in this molecule is unique, and its st...

  19. Spatial heterogeneity of soil respiration in a seasonal rainforest with complex terrain

    OpenAIRE

    Song Q-H; Tan Z-H; Zhang Y-P; Cao M; Sha L-Q; Tang Y.; Liang N-S; Schaefer D.; Zhao J-F; Zhao J-B; Zhang X; Yu L; Deng X-B

    2013-01-01

    Although numerous studies have been conducted to investigate ecosystem-scale soil respiration, our understanding of this process is still incomplete, especially with respect to the spatial variability and ecological factors that drive such variability in respiration. The present study was conducted to investigate the respiration, structural parameters and soil properties in a seasonal rainforest with complex topography. Specifically, we sampled a 20-ha plot in intervals of 20 m to measure the...

  20. Hillslope-swamp interactions and flow pathways in a hypermaritime rainforest, British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, D. F.; Price, J. S.; Gibson, J. J.

    2003-10-01

    The process of water delivery to a headwater stream in a hypermaritime rainforest was examined using a variety of physical techniques and tracing with dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and the stable isotopes of water. Headwater swamps, often the major discharge zones for water draining off steep forest slopes, strongly affect the physical and chemical character of streamflow in the region. The headwater swamp selected for detailed investigation was sustained by relatively constant groundwater input from the steep colluvial slopes that maintained the water table above the ground surface. During significant storm events the water table rose quickly and the swamp expanded to engulf marginal pools that developed rapidly on the adjacent ground surfaces. The corresponding release of surface water directly to the stream typically comprised up to 95% of total stream discharge. The proportion of groundwater seepage to the stream by matrix flow (fed springs (up to 73%) increased during the recession period, but could not be sustained over the longer term. In more protracted drying periods, deep groundwater contributions to the stream were routed first to the headwater swamp.Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the stream, measured daily or more frequently during storm events, was found to be directly proportional to discharge, owing to the domination of DOC-rich headwater-swamp water sources. Although 18O and 2H composition of rainwater, groundwater and stream flow were found to be similar, deuterium excess (d 2H - 8δ18O) of water components was often found to be distinct, and suggested short water residence times of roughly 12 days for one event. Overall, observations of a typical headwater swamp reveal that the groundwater regime is dominated by rapid infiltration and short, emergent flow paths. With a relatively short turnover time, potential disturbances to the system by harvesting of upslope areas can be expected to occur rapidly. Forest managers can mitigate some of the

  1. Ecological facilitation between two epiphytes through drought mitigation in a subtropical rainforest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Yu Jian

    Full Text Available Positive species interactions (facilitation play an important role in shaping the structures and species diversity of ecological communities, particularly under stressful environmental conditions. Epiphytes in rainforests often grow in multiple-species clumps, suggesting interspecies facilitation. However, little is known about the patterns and mechanisms of epiphyte co-occurrence. We assessed the interactions of two widespread epiphyte species, Asplenium antiquum and Haplopteris zosterifolia, by examining their co-occurrence and size-class association in the field. To elucidate factors controlling their interactions, we conducted reciprocal-removal and greenhouse-drought experiments, and nutrient and isotope analyses. Forty-five percent of H. zosterifolia co-occurred with A. antiquum, whereas only 17% of A. antiquum co-occurred with H. zosterifolia. Removing the fronds plus substrate of A. antiquum reduced the relative frond length and specific leaf area of H. zosterifolia, but removing fronds only had little effect. Removing H. zosterifolia had no significant effects on the growth of A. antiquum. H. zosterifolia co-occurring and not co-occurring with A. antiquum had similar foliar nutrient concentrations and δ(15N values, suggesting that A. antiquum does not affect the nutrient status of H. zosterifolia. Reduced growth of H. zosterifolia with the removal of A. antiquum substrate, together with higher foliar δ(13C for H. zosterifolia growing alone than those co-occurring with A. antiquum, suggest that A. antiquum enhances water availability to H. zosterifolia. This enhancement probably resulted from water storage in the substrate of A. antiquum, which could hold water up to 6.2 times its dry weight, and from reduced evapotranspiration due to shading of A. antiquum fronds. Greater water loss occurred in the frond-clipped group than the unclipped group between days 3-13 of the drought treatment. Our results imply that drought mitigation by

  2. Classification and Characterization of Neotropical Rainforest Vegetation from Hyperspectral and LiDAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, M. M.; Prasad, S.; Jung, J.; Yang, H.; Zhang, Y.

    2013-12-01

    high dimensionality of full waveform LiDAR and hyperspectral data is also problematic for predicting structural variables such as leaf area index (LAI) from full waveform LiDAR and hyperspectral data. A new approach based on nonlinear multi-sensor feature extraction is applied to HyMap and LVIS remotely sensed data acquired over old-growth neotropical rainforests in the La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica. Prediction models are developed based on a stepwise multiple linear regression analysis using the low dimensional features derived from the integrated data and field measured LAIs. Experimental results indicate that the best classification and prediction models are achieved when multi-sensor features are incorporated into the model. Experimental results also indicate that synergism between full waveform LiDAR and hyperspectral data is greater when vegetation structure is complex.

  3. Temporal and spatial variations of soil carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide fluxes in a Southeast Asian tropical rainforest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Itoh

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available To clarify the factors controlling temporal and spatial variations of soil carbon dioxide (CO2, methane (CH4, and nitrous oxide (N2O fluxes, we investigated these gas fluxes and environmental factors in a tropical rainforest in Peninsular Malaysia. Temporal variation of CO2 flux in a 2-ha plot was positively related to soil water condition and rainfall history. Spatially, CO2 flux was negatively related to soil water condition. When CO2 flux hotspots were included, no other environmental factors such as soil C or N concentrations showed any significant correlation. Although the larger area sampled in the present study complicates explanations of spatial variation of CO2 flux, our results support a previously reported bipolar relationship between the temporal and spatial patterns of CO2 flux and soil water condition observed at the study site in a smaller study plot. Flux of CH4 was usually negative with little variation, resulting in the soil at our study site functioning as a CH4 sink. Both temporal and spatial variations of CH4 flux were positively related to the soil water condition. Soil N concentration was also related to the spatial distribution of CH4 flux. Some hotspots were observed, probably due to CH4 production by termites, and these hotspots obscured the relationship between both temporal and spatial variations of CH4 flux and environmental factors. Temporal variation of N2O flux and soil N2O concentration was large and significantly related to the soil water condition, or in a strict sense, to rainfall history. Thus, the rainfall pattern controlled wet season N2O production in soil and its soil surface flux. Spatially, large N2O emissions were detected in wet periods at wetter and anaerobic locations, and were thus determined by soil

  4. Significant influence of fungi on coarse carbonaceous and potassium aerosols in a tropical rainforest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fungal spores are ubiquitous in the Earth’s atmosphere, especially in the environment of tropical rainforests with intense biological activities. To assess the impact of fungi on chemical components of atmospheric aerosols at a Chinese tropical rainforest site, size-segregated fungal spore tracers (i.e. arabitol and mannitol) were measured along with major aerosol components, including carbonaceous species and water-soluble inorganic ions. The fungal spore tracers were found to be predominately associated with coarse particles, in which organic carbon (OC) and potassium (K+) were also present at significant levels. Enhanced amounts of fungal spore tracers were closely linked to rainfall events. Moreover, fungal spore tracers exhibited positive correlations with relative humidity and negative correlations with wind speed, temperature or radiation. The relationships between fungal spore tracers and meteorological factors are consistent with the emission features of actively discharged fungal spores, which are generally associated with sugar alcohols and by-products such as the inorganic ion K+. The excellent correlations between fungal spore tracers and OC or K+ in the coarse particles further suggested their common emission sources. Absolute principal factor analysis further identified fungi as the largest contributor to coarse OC and K+ (both at ∼66%) in this rainforest. (letter)

  5. Downward transport of ozone rich air and implications for atmospheric chemistry in the Amazon rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerken, Tobias; Wei, Dandan; Chase, Randy J.; Fuentes, Jose D.; Schumacher, Courtney; Machado, Luiz A. T.; Andreoli, Rita V.; Chamecki, Marcelo; Ferreira de Souza, Rodrigo A.; Freire, Livia S.; Jardine, Angela B.; Manzi, Antonio O.; Nascimento dos Santos, Rosa M.; von Randow, Celso; dos Santos Costa, Patrícia; Stoy, Paul C.; Tóta, Julio; Trowbridge, Amy M.

    2016-01-01

    From April 2014 to January 2015, ozone (O3) dynamics were investigated as part of GoAmazon 2014/5 project in the central Amazon rainforest of Brazil. Just above the forest canopy, maximum hourly O3 mixing ratios averaged 20 ppbv (parts per billion on a volume basis) during the June-September dry months and 15 ppbv during the wet months. Ozone levels occasionally exceeded 75 ppbv in response to influences from biomass burning and regional air pollution. Individual convective storms transported O3-rich air parcels from the mid-troposphere to the surface and abruptly enhanced the regional atmospheric boundary layer by as much as 25 ppbv. In contrast to the individual storms, days with multiple convective systems produced successive, cumulative ground-level O3 increases. The magnitude of O3 enhancements depended on the vertical distribution of O3 within storm downdrafts and origin of downdrafts in the troposphere. Ozone mixing ratios remained enhanced for > 2 h following the passage of storms, which enhanced chemical processing of rainforest-emitted isoprene and monoterpenes. Reactions of isoprene and monoterpenes with O3 are modeled to generate maximum hydroxyl radical formation rates of 6 × 106 radicals cm-3s-1. Therefore, one key conclusion of the present study is that downdrafts of convective storms are estimated to transport enough O3 to the surface to initiate a series of reactions that reduce the lifetimes of rainforest-emitted hydrocarbons.

  6. Unexpected seasonality in quantity and composition of Amazon rainforest air reactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nölscher, A. C.; Yañez-Serrano, A. M.; Wolff, S.; de Araujo, A. Carioca; Lavrič, J. V.; Kesselmeier, J.; Williams, J.

    2016-01-01

    The hydroxyl radical (OH) removes most atmospheric pollutants from air. The loss frequency of OH radicals due to the combined effect of all gas-phase OH reactive species is a measureable quantity termed total OH reactivity. Here we present total OH reactivity observations in pristine Amazon rainforest air, as a function of season, time-of-day and height (0-80 m). Total OH reactivity is low during wet (10 s-1) and high during dry season (62 s-1). Comparison to individually measured trace gases reveals strong variation in unaccounted for OH reactivity, from 5 to 15% missing in wet-season afternoons to mostly unknown (average 79%) during dry season. During dry-season afternoons isoprene, considered the dominant reagent with OH in rainforests, only accounts for ~20% of the total OH reactivity. Vertical profiles of OH reactivity are shaped by biogenic emissions, photochemistry and turbulent mixing. The rainforest floor was identified as a significant but poorly characterized source of OH reactivity.

  7. Hydroxyl radicals in the tropical troposphere over the Suriname rainforest: airborne measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Martinez

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Direct measurements of OH and HO2 over a tropical rainforest were made for the first time during the GABRIEL campaign in October 2005, deploying the custom-built HORUS instrument (HydrOxyl Radical measurement Unit based on fluorescence Spectroscopy, adapted to fly in a Learjet wingpod. Biogenic hydrocarbon emissions were expected to strongly reduce the OH and HO2 mixing ratios as the air is transported from the ocean over the forest. However, surprisingly high mixing ratios of both OH and HO2 were encountered in the boundary layer over the rainforest.

    The HORUS instrumentation and calibration methods are described in detail and the measurement results obtained are discussed. The extensive dataset collected during GABRIEL, including measurements of many other trace gases and photolysis frequencies, has been used to quantify the main sources and sinks of OH. Comparison of these measurement-derived formation and loss rates of OH indicates strong previously overlooked recycling of OH in the boundary layer over the tropical rainforest, occurring in chorus with isoprene emission.

  8. Hydroxyl radicals in the tropical troposphere over the Suriname rainforest: airborne measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, M.; Harder, H.; Kubistin, D.; Rudolf, M.; Bozem, H.; Eerdekens, G.; Fischer, H.; Klüpfel, T.; Gurk, C.; Königstedt, R.; Parchatka, U.; Schiller, C. L.; Stickler, A.; Williams, J.; Lelieveld, J.

    2010-04-01

    Direct measurements of OH and HO2 over a tropical rainforest were made for the first time during the GABRIEL campaign in October 2005, deploying the custom-built HORUS instrument (HydrOxyl Radical measurement Unit based on fluorescence Spectroscopy), adapted to fly in a Learjet wingpod. Biogenic hydrocarbon emissions were expected to strongly reduce the OH and HO2 mixing ratios as the air is transported from the ocean over the forest. However, surprisingly high mixing ratios of both OH and HO2 were encountered in the boundary layer over the rainforest. The HORUS instrumentation and calibration methods are described in detail and the measurement results obtained are discussed. The extensive dataset collected during GABRIEL, including measurements of many other trace gases and photolysis frequencies, has been used to quantify the main sources and sinks of OH. Comparison of these measurement-derived formation and loss rates of OH indicates strong previously overlooked recycling of OH in the boundary layer over the tropical rainforest, occurring in chorus with isoprene emission.

  9. Depth of soil water uptake by tropical rainforest trees during dry periods: does tree dimension matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Clément; Hérault, Bruno; Rossi, Vivien; Burban, Benoit; Bréchet, Claude; Bonal, Damien

    2013-12-01

    Though the root biomass of tropical rainforest trees is concentrated in the upper soil layers, soil water uptake by deep roots has been shown to contribute to tree transpiration. A precise evaluation of the relationship between tree dimensions and depth of water uptake would be useful in tree-based modelling approaches designed to anticipate the response of tropical rainforest ecosystems to future changes in environmental conditions. We used an innovative dual-isotope labelling approach (deuterium in surface soil and oxygen at 120-cm depth) coupled with a modelling approach to investigate the role of tree dimensions in soil water uptake in a tropical rainforest exposed to seasonal drought. We studied 65 trees of varying diameter and height and with a wide range of predawn leaf water potential (Ψpd) values. We confirmed that about half of the studied trees relied on soil water below 100-cm depth during dry periods. Ψpd was negatively correlated with depth of water extraction and can be taken as a rough proxy of this depth. Some trees showed considerable plasticity in their depth of water uptake, exhibiting an efficient adaptive strategy for water and nutrient resource acquisition. We did not find a strong relationship between tree dimensions and depth of water uptake. While tall trees preferentially extract water from layers below 100-cm depth, shorter trees show broad variations in mean depth of water uptake. This precludes the use of tree dimensions to parameterize functional models. PMID:23852028

  10. The Miocene Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, R. D.; Herold, N.; Huber, M.

    2012-04-01

    We model paleoclimate and ocean circulation during the Miocene climatic optimum (~17 ¬ 14.5 Ma) using the Community Climate System Model 3 (CCSM3), focussing particularly on the effect of Miocene model boundary conditions including reconstructed topography, bathymetry, and vegetation. The modelled Miocene climate exhibits broad increases in mean annual precipitation over central and northern Africa, northern Eurasia, northern North America and Greenland compared to the present. In northern Africa, summer precipitation is significantly higher in the Miocene due to the replacement of desert with broadleaf vegetation, consistent with previously published sensitivity studies. Our results qualitatively support interpretations of carbon and neodymium isotope records indicating NCW formation in the North Atlantic as well as a dominant bottom water source in the Southern Ocean. Major tectonic changes in our Miocene Atlantic bathymetry compared to the present day are the severe constriction of the Fram Strait, closure of the Panama Strait and the less elevated Greenland-Scotland Ridge. We find that the structure of ocean circulation in the Miocene Atlantic is somewhat opposite to the present day, with the primary region of Miocene bottom water formation in the Weddell Sea. The strength of Weddell Sea bottom water and North Component Water (NCW) formation are moderated by atmospheric CO2 levels, which suggests that very weak NCW formation could have existed under significantly higher concentrations than the present-day CO2 concentration used in our model. Such a state would be consistent with the hypothesis of negligible NCW formation in the early Miocene, suggested previously. In our model, the NCW is relatively warm and saline compared to modern North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW). This is likely a robust result, caused by a northward deflection of North Atlantic subtropical water below the mixed-layer, a weakening of the subpolar gyre and weaker convection, as opposed to

  11. Patterns of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis transmission between tadpoles in a high-elevation rainforest stream in tropical Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagman, Mattias; Alford, Ross A

    2015-08-20

    The highly virulent fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) poses a global threat to amphibian biodiversity. Streams and other water bodies are central habitats in the ecology of the disease, particularly in rainforests where they may transport and transmit the pathogen and harbor infected tadpoles that serve as reservoir hosts. We conducted an experiment using larval green-eyed tree frogs Litoria serrata in semi-natural streamside channels to test the hypotheses that (1) the fungus can be transmitted downstream in stream habitats and (2) infection affects tadpole growth and mouthpart loss. Our results showed that transmission can occur downstream in flowing water with no contact between individuals, that newly infected tadpoles suffered increased mouthpart loss in comparison with controls that were never infected and that infected tadpoles grew at reduced rates. Although recently infected tadpoles showed substantial loss of mouthparts, individuals with longstanding infections did not, suggesting that mouthparts may re-grow following initial loss. Our study suggests that any management efforts that can reduce the prevalence of infections in tadpoles may be particularly effective if applied in headwater areas, as their effects are likely to be felt downstream. PMID:26290506

  12. Hawkmoth fauna (Sphingidae, Lepidoptera) in a semi-deciduous rainforest remnant: composition, temporal fluctuations, and new records for Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primo, Luis M; Duarte, José A; Machado, Isabel C

    2013-09-01

    We carried out a qualitative and quantitative inventory of the hawkmoth fauna (Sphingidae) of an area of semi-deciduous seasonal rainforest in the state of Pernambuco (Tapacurá Ecological Station), northeastern Brazil. Hawkmoths were sampled monthly from October 2004 to February 2007 (27 months). We recorded 31 species from 16 genera, three tribes, and three families. Macroglossinae was the most abundant subfamily and represented ca. 71% of all species. Out of the 277 individuals collected, 88.4% were males. Five new records were made for northeastern Brazil: Enyo gorgon (Cramer, 1777), Perigonia stulta (Herrich-Schäffer, [1854]), Eupyrrhoglossum sagra (Poey, 1832), Nyceryx coffaeae (Walker, 1856) and Xylophanes chiron (Drury, 1773). Eight further species were recorded for the first time for the Pernambuco Endemism Center, showing the important role played by Tapacurá Station in preserving the biodiversity of this insect group. Species richness and abundance were directly related to rainfall: about 70% of all individuals were captured during the rainy season. Changes in Sphingidae populations may, however, be caused by other factors that directly affect either larvae and adults of those insects, such as matrix effect and forest fragment size, which influence migration processes and the presence of predators. PMID:24068097

  13. Simulating growth dynamics in a South-East Asian rainforest threatened by recruitment shortage and tree harvesting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koehler, P. [Centre for Environmental Systems Research, University of Kassel, Kurt-Wolters-Str. 3, D-34109 Kassel (Germany); Huth, A. [Centre for Environmental Research Leipzig-Halle, Department of Ecological Modelling, P.O. Box 500 136, D-04301 Leipzig (Germany)

    2004-11-01

    There is increasing evidence that the future recruitment in South-East Asian dipterocarp trees species depending on mast-fruiting events might be endangered by climate change or enhanced seed predation in forest fragments. Especially in combination with the ongoing tree harvesting in this region the recruitment threat imposes a severe danger on the species richness and forest structure of the whole area. We here assess with the process-based forest growth model FORMIND2.0 the impacts of common tree-logging strategies in those recruitment endangered forests. FORMIND2.0 is based on the calculations of the carbon balance of individual trees belonging to 13 different plant functional types. Even single logging events in those rainforests threatened by a lack of recruitment led to shifts in the abundances of species, to species loss, and to forest decline and dieback. The results show that current logging practices in South-East Asia seriously overuse the forests especially in the light of changing climate conditions.

  14. Carbon dioxide, hydrographic, and chemical data obtained during the R/V Meteor Cruise 11/5 in the South Atlantic and Northern Weddell Sea areas (WOCE sections A-12 and A-21)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chipman, D.W.; Takahashi, T.; Breger, D.; Sutherland, S.C. [Columbia Univ., Palisades, NY (United States). Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory; Kozyr, A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center]|[Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Energy, Environment and Resources Center; Gaslightwala, A.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center]|[Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

    1994-07-01

    This document presents the procedures and methods used to obtain carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), hydrographic, and chemical data during R/V Meteor Expedition 11/5 in the South Atlantic Ocean, including the Drake Passage; the Northern Weddell Sea; and the Eastern South Atlantic Ocean. This cruise was conducted as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE). The cruise started from Ushuaia, Argentina, on January 23, 1990, and ended at Capetown, South Africa on March 8, 1990. Samples were collected at 78 stations that covered the Drake Passage; the Northern Weddell Sea; a section along the 58 W parallel; and two segmented S-N sections between the Northern Weddell Sea and Capetown, South Africa. Measurements taken at WOCE sections A-12 and A-21 included pressure, temperature, salinity measured by the Conductivity, Temperature and Depth sensor (CTD); bottle salinity; oxygen; phosphate; nitrate; nitrate; silicate; total carbon concentration (TCO{sub 2}); and partial pressure of CO{sub 2} (pCO{sub 2}) measured at 20 C. In addition, potential density at 0 decibar (dbar) and potential temperature were calculated from the measured variables. The TCO{sub 2} concentration in seawater samples was measured using a coulometer with an estimated precision of approximately {+-} {mu}mol/kg.

  15. Chemistry, transport and dry deposition of trace gases in the boundary layer over the tropical Atlantic Ocean and the Guyanas during the GABRIEL field campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickler, A.; Fischer, H.; Bozem, H.; Gurk, C.; Schiller, C.; Martinez-Harder, M.; Kubistin, D.; Harder, H.; Williams, J.; Eerdekens, G.; Yassaa, N.; Ganzeveld, L.; Sander, R.; Lelieveld, J.

    2007-07-01

    We present a comparison of different Lagrangian and chemical box model calculations with measurement data obtained during the GABRIEL campaign over the tropical Atlantic Ocean and the Amazon rainforest in the Guyanas, October 2005. Lagrangian modelling of boundary layer (BL) air constrained by measurements is used to derive a horizontal gradient (≍5.6 pmol/mol km-1) of CO from the ocean to the rainforest (east to west). This is significantly smaller than that derived from the measurements (16-48 pmol/mol km-1), indicating that photochemical production from organic precursors alone cannot explain the observed strong gradient. It appears that HCHO is overestimated by the Lagrangian and chemical box models, which include dry deposition but not exchange with the free troposphere (FT). The relatively short lifetime of HCHO implies substantial BL-FT exchange. The mixing-in of FT air affected by African and South American biomass burning at an estimated rate of 0.12 h-1 increases the CO and decreases the HCHO mixing ratios, improving agreement with measurements. A mean deposition velocity of 1.35 cm/s for H2O2 over the ocean as well as over the rainforest is deduced assuming BL-FT exchange adequate to the results for CO. The measured increase of the organic peroxides from the ocean to the rainforest (≍0.66 nmol/mol d-1) is significantly overestimated by the Lagrangian model, even when using high values for the deposition velocity and the entrainment rate. Our results point at either heterogeneous loss of organic peroxides and/or their radical precursors, underestimated photodissociation or missing reaction paths of peroxy radicals not forming peroxides in isoprene chemistry. We calculate a mean integrated daytime net ozone production (NOP) in the BL of (0.2±5.9) nmol/mol (ocean) and (2.4±2.1) nmol/mol (rainforest). The NOP strongly correlates with NO and has a positive tendency in the boundary layer over the rainforest.

  16. Chemistry, transport and dry deposition of trace gases in the boundary layer over the tropical Atlantic Ocean and the Guyanas during the GABRIEL field campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stickler

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a comparison of different Lagrangian and chemical box model calculations with measurement data obtained during the GABRIEL campaign over the tropical Atlantic Ocean and the Amazon rainforest in the Guyanas, October 2005. Lagrangian modelling of boundary layer (BL air constrained by measurements is used to derive a horizontal gradient (≈5.6 pmol/mol km−1 of CO from the ocean to the rainforest (east to west. This is significantly smaller than that derived from the measurements (16–48 pmol/mol km−1, indicating that photochemical production from organic precursors alone cannot explain the observed strong gradient. It appears that HCHO is overestimated by the Lagrangian and chemical box models, which include dry deposition but not exchange with the free troposphere (FT. The relatively short lifetime of HCHO implies substantial BL-FT exchange. The mixing-in of FT air affected by African and South American biomass burning at an estimated rate of 0.12 h−1 increases the CO and decreases the HCHO mixing ratios, improving agreement with measurements. A mean deposition velocity of 1.35 cm/s for H2O2 over the ocean as well as over the rainforest is deduced assuming BL-FT exchange adequate to the results for CO. The measured increase of the organic peroxides from the ocean to the rainforest (≈0.66 nmol/mol d−1 is significantly overestimated by the Lagrangian model, even when using high values for the deposition velocity and the entrainment rate. Our results point at either heterogeneous loss of organic peroxides and/or their radical precursors, underestimated photodissociation or missing reaction paths of peroxy radicals not forming peroxides in isoprene chemistry. We calculate a mean integrated daytime net ozone production (NOP in the BL of (0.2±5.9 nmol/mol (ocean and (2.4±2.1 nmol/mol (rainforest. The NOP strongly correlates with NO and has a positive tendency in

  17. Origin of the Hawaiian rainforest and its transition states in long-term primary succession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Mueller-Dombois

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the question of transition states in the Hawaiian rainforest ecosystem with emphasis on their initial developments. Born among volcanoes in the north central Pacific about 4 million years ago, the Hawaiian rainforest became assembled from spores of algae, fungi, lichens, bryophytes, ferns and from seeds of about 275 flowering plants that over the millennia evolved into ca. 1000 endemic species. Outstanding among the forest builders were the tree ferns (Cibotium spp. and the 'ōhi'a lehua trees (Metrosideros spp., which still dominate the Hawaiian rainforest ecosystem today. The structure of this forest is simple. The canopy in closed mature rainforests is dominated by cohorts of Metrosideros polymorpha and the undergrowth by tree fern species of Cibotium. When a new lava flow cuts through this forest, kipuka are formed, i.e., islands of remnant vegetation. On the new volcanic substrate, the assemblage of plant life forms is similar to the assemblage during the evolution of this system. In open juvenile forests, a mat-forming fern, the uluhe fern (Dicranopteris linearis, becomes established. It inhibits further regeneration of the dominant 'ōhi'a tree, thereby reinforcing the cohort structure of the canopy guild. In the later part of its life cycle, the canopy guild breaks down often in synchrony. The trigger is hypothesized to be a climatic perturbation. After the disturbance, the forest becomes reestablished in about 30–40 yr. As the volcanic surfaces age, they go from a mesotrophic to a eutrophic phase, reaching a biophilic nutrient climax by about 1–25 K yr. Thereafter, a regressive oligotrophic phase follows; the soils become exhausted of nutrients. The shield volcanoes break down. Marginally, forest habitats change into bogs and stream ecosystems. The broader 'ōhi'a rainforest redeveloping in the more dissected landscapes of the older islands loses stature, often forming large gaps that are invaded by the aluminum

  18. Occurrence of nodulation in unexplored leguminous trees native to the West African tropical rainforest and inoculation response of native species useful in reforestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabate, Moussa; Munive, Antonio; de Faria, Sérgio Miana; Ba, Amadou; Dreyfus, Bernard; Galiana, Antoine

    2005-04-01

    Despite the abundance and diversity of timber tree legumes in the West African rainforest, their ability to form nitrogen-fixing nodules in symbiosis with rhizobia, and their response to rhizobial inoculation, remain poorly documented. In the first part of this study the occurrence of nodulation was determined in 156 leguminous species growing in six natural forest areas in Guinea, mostly mature trees. In the second part, an in situ experiment of rhizobial inoculation was performed on eight selected tree species belonging to three genera: Albizia, Erythrophleum and Millettia. Of the 97 plant species and 14 genera that had never been examined before this study, 31 species and four genera were reported to be nodulated. After 4 months of growing in a nursery and a further 11 months after transplantation of plants to the field, we observed a highly significant (P reforestation programmes was demonstrated. PMID:15760366

  19. BOEM Marine Hydrokinetic (MHK) Planning Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the most recent changes for the Marine Hydrokinetic (MHK Development Planning Areas in the Atlantic. )MHK Planning Areas in this dataset...

  20. Amazon Rainforest Exchange of Carbon and Subcanopy Air Flow: Manaus LBA Site—A Complex Terrain Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Tóta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available On the moderately complex terrain covered by dense tropical Amazon Rainforest (Reserva Biologica do Cuieiras—ZF2—02°36′17.1′′ S, 60°12′24.4′′ W, subcanopy horizontal and vertical gradients of the air temperature, CO2 concentration and wind field were measured for the dry and wet periods in 2006. We tested the hypothesis that horizontal drainage flow over this study area is significant and can affect the interpretation of the high carbon uptake rates reported by previous works at this site. A similar experimental design as the one by Tóta et al. (2008 was used with a network of wind, air temperature, and CO2 sensors above and below the forest canopy. A persistent and systematic subcanopy nighttime upslope (positive buoyancy and daytime downslope (negative buoyancy flow pattern on a moderately inclined slope (12% was observed. The microcirculations observed above the canopy (38 m over the sloping area during nighttime presents a downward motion indicating vertical convergence and correspondent horizontal divergence toward the valley area. During the daytime an inverse pattern was observed. The micro-circulations above the canopy were driven mainly by buoyancy balancing the pressure gradient forces. In the subcanopy space the microcirculations were also driven by the same physical mechanisms but probably with the stress forcing contribution. The results also indicated that the horizontal and vertical scalar gradients (e.g., CO2 were modulated by these micro-circulations above and below the canopy, suggesting that estimates of advection using previous experimental approaches are not appropriate due to the tridimensional nature of the vertical and horizontal transport locally. This work also indicates that carbon budget from tower-based measurement is not enough to close the system, and one needs to include horizontal and vertical advection transport of CO2 into those estimates.

  1. Productivity patterns and abundance-area relationships in 3 marine fish species (cod,herring and haddock); meta-analyses on the effects of temperature, life-history andhabitat size across the N Atlantic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mantzouni, Irene; MacKenzie, Brian

    on the biological and ecological characteristics of thestocks. Our aim was to identify the patterns of the temperature, habitat size and life-historyeffects on the SR dynamics across the N Atlantic range of 3 species; cod (21 stocks), herring(16 stocks) and haddock (7 stocks). Using hierarchical, Bayesian SR models......, we combinedthe data across the distribution of the species in order (i) to determine the functional formsof the SR parameters dependence on these factors among and within stocks and (ii) toborrow strength and provide estimates of increased precision. Temperature during thespawning season was found...... to have significant effects on the productivities of all species,while carrying capacity was shown to depend also on the available habitat size. Using thederived relationships, it was possible to predict the expected changes in population-specificdynamics resulting from temperature increases. Synthesizing...

  2. Nematode Fauna of Tropical Rainforest in Brazil: A Descriptive and Seasonal Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Mercia S O; Pedrosa, Elvira M R; Ferris, Howard; Rolim, Mario M; Oliveira, Lamartine S C

    2016-06-01

    Studies of nematode assemblages in natural ecosystems can contribute to better understanding of the occurrence, relevance, and ecology of plant-parasitic and other soil nematodes. Nematode assemblages and environmental parameters (organic matter, water content (WC), bulk density (BD), total porosity (Po), soil respiration, and soil texture) were investigated in two seasons (rainy and dry) in two forest areas of the Zona da Mata, Pernambuco State. The aim of our research was to evaluate the heterogeneity between two locations and seasons in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Structure and composition of the nematode assemblages differed between areas and across time. Rhabditidae dominated the rainy season in both forest soils. Rarefaction curves (RC) suggest that sampling to detect more nematode taxa should be more intensive in the rainy season. The forest soils have complex, stable soil food webs with high connectance and decomposition channels dominated by bacteria. The predator-prey relationships were not affected by changes in soil properties that fluctuate with time. PMID:27418705

  3. Temperature profile and water depth data collected from USCGC HARRIOT LANE using BT and XBT casts in the NW Atlantic Ocean for 1987-05-31 (NODC Accession 8700225)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and water depth data were collected using BT and XBT casts from the USCGC Harriot Lane in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean and TOGA Area - Atlantic...

  4. Temperature profile and water depth data collected from USS MOBILE BAY using BT and XBT casts in the NW Atlantic Ocean from 01 April 1987 to 07 April 1987 (NODC Accession 8700192)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and water depth data were collected using BT and XBT casts from the USS MOBILE BAY in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean and TOGA Area - Atlantic...

  5. Temperature profile and water depth data collected from USS MOBILE BAY using BT and XBT casts in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean from 12 July 1987 to 17 July 1987 (NODC Accession 8700267)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and water depth data were collected using BT and XBT casts from the USS MOBILE BAY in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean and TOGA Area - Atlantic...

  6. Effects of the North Atlantic Oscillation on sea ice breeding habitats of harp seals ( Pagophilus groenlandicus) across the North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlaender, Ari S.; Johnston, David W.; Halpin, Patrick N.

    2010-07-01

    Harp seals ( Pagophilus groenlandicus) are an abundant and commercially exploited species of phocid seal in the North Atlantic. Harp seals are entirely dependent on annual sea ice for breeding purposes and the distribution, abundance, and constitution of sea ice in this region are subject to tremendous interannual variability. As such, harp seal population dynamics are likely intimately tied to climate variability and global change. We used satellite-derived images of sea ice cover to determine trends in available habitat at the four major harp seal breeding areas in the North Atlantic, and assessed linkages amongst sea ice conditions and variability in the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) during 1978-2006. The White Sea breeding area had the highest annual ice concentrations, while the Gulf of St. Lawrence and Front regions were the most variable over time. We confirmed a consistent positive correlation between the NAO index and the amount of sea ice cover in Western North Atlantic breeding areas off Canada. Furthermore, we found an opposite and consistent negative correlation between the NAO and sea ice cover in the eastern-most breeding areas, leading to an out-of-phase signal between the Western and Eastern (particularly the White Sea) North Atlantic. These results indicate that sea ice dynamics in the breeding regions of harp seals are controlled, to some extent, by the phase of the NAO and its effects on weather across the North Atlantic. Previous studies indicate that poor ice conditions can have negative effects on harp seal survival and the consistent relationships between breeding habitat and NAO conditions that are described here have implications for both the biology and management of harp seal populations.

  7. Forestry serving urban societies in the north atlantic region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    In the North Atlantic Region, the social services provided by forests play a major role. With the high level of urbanisation in many of these countries, forests and other green areas are of great importance as recreational settings for urban dwellers. In order to ensure that forests cater for the...

  8. Population status of a cryptic top predator: an island-wide assessment of tigers in Sumatran rainforests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibisono, Hariyo T; Linkie, Matthew; Guillera-Arroita, Gurutzeta; Smith, Joseph A; Sunarto; Pusparini, Wulan; Asriadi; Baroto, Pandu; Brickle, Nick; Dinata, Yoan; Gemita, Elva; Gunaryadi, Donny; Haidir, Iding A; Herwansyah; Karina, Indri; Kiswayadi, Dedy; Kristiantono, Decki; Kurniawan, Harry; Lahoz-Monfort, José J; Leader-Williams, Nigel; Maddox, Tom; Martyr, Deborah J; Maryati; Nugroho, Agung; Parakkasi, Karmila; Priatna, Dolly; Ramadiyanta, Eka; Ramono, Widodo S; Reddy, Goddilla V; Rood, Ente J J; Saputra, Doddy Y; Sarimudi, Ahmad; Salampessy, Adnun; Septayuda, Eka; Suhartono, Tonny; Sumantri, Ade; Susilo; Tanjung, Iswandri; Tarmizi; Yulianto, Koko; Yunus, Mohammad; Zulfahmi

    2011-01-01

    Large carnivores living in tropical rainforests are under immense pressure from the rapid conversion of their habitat. In response, millions of dollars are spent on conserving these species. However, the cost-effectiveness of such investments is poorly understood and this is largely because the requisite population estimates are difficult to achieve at appropriate spatial scales for these secretive species. Here, we apply a robust detection/non-detection sampling technique to produce the first reliable population metric (occupancy) for a critically endangered large carnivore; the Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae). From 2007-2009, seven landscapes were surveyed through 13,511 km of transects in 394 grid cells (17×17 km). Tiger sign was detected in 206 cells, producing a naive estimate of 0.52. However, after controlling for an unequal detection probability (where p = 0.13±0.017; ±S.E.), the estimated tiger occupancy was 0.72±0.048. Whilst the Sumatra-wide survey results gives cause for optimism, a significant negative correlation between occupancy and recent deforestation was found. For example, the Northern Riau landscape had an average deforestation rate of 9.8%/yr and by far the lowest occupancy (0.33±0.055). Our results highlight the key tiger areas in need of protection and have led to one area (Leuser-Ulu Masen) being upgraded as a 'global priority' for wild tiger conservation. However, Sumatra has one of the highest global deforestation rates and the two largest tiger landscapes identified in this study will become highly fragmented if their respective proposed roads networks are approved. Thus, it is vital that the Indonesian government tackles these threats, e.g. through improved land-use planning, if it is to succeed in meeting its ambitious National Tiger Recovery Plan targets of doubling the number of Sumatran tigers by 2022. PMID:22087218

  9. Population status of a cryptic top predator: an island-wide assessment of tigers in Sumatran rainforests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hariyo T Wibisono

    Full Text Available Large carnivores living in tropical rainforests are under immense pressure from the rapid conversion of their habitat. In response, millions of dollars are spent on conserving these species. However, the cost-effectiveness of such investments is poorly understood and this is largely because the requisite population estimates are difficult to achieve at appropriate spatial scales for these secretive species. Here, we apply a robust detection/non-detection sampling technique to produce the first reliable population metric (occupancy for a critically endangered large carnivore; the Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae. From 2007-2009, seven landscapes were surveyed through 13,511 km of transects in 394 grid cells (17×17 km. Tiger sign was detected in 206 cells, producing a naive estimate of 0.52. However, after controlling for an unequal detection probability (where p = 0.13±0.017; ±S.E., the estimated tiger occupancy was 0.72±0.048. Whilst the Sumatra-wide survey results gives cause for optimism, a significant negative correlation between occupancy and recent deforestation was found. For example, the Northern Riau landscape had an average deforestation rate of 9.8%/yr and by far the lowest occupancy (0.33±0.055. Our results highlight the key tiger areas in need of protection and have led to one area (Leuser-Ulu Masen being upgraded as a 'global priority' for wild tiger conservation. However, Sumatra has one of the highest global deforestation rates and the two largest tiger landscapes identified in this study will become highly fragmented if their respective proposed roads networks are approved. Thus, it is vital that the Indonesian government tackles these threats, e.g. through improved land-use planning, if it is to succeed in meeting its ambitious National Tiger Recovery Plan targets of doubling the number of Sumatran tigers by 2022.

  10. The enigmatic whale: the North Atlantic humpback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim D Smith

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We know more about the North Atlantic humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae than we do for virtually any other cetacean, yet attempts to use this information to describe the status of the populations in this ocean basin have not proven satisfactory. The North Atlantic humpback has been the subject of extensive research over the past few decades, resulting in a substantial amount of knowledge about what has proven to be a species with a very complex life history and population structure. While several population models have been developed to integrate the available information, the data overall are not well described by any of the models. This has left considerable uncertainty about population status, and has raised questions about the interpretation of some of the data. We describe 7 specific areas where puzzling or ambiguous observations have been made; these require closer attention if population status is to be determined. These areas raise several fundamental questions, including: How many breeding populations are there? How much do the populations mix on the feeding grounds? How has the distribution of animals on both feeding and breeding grounds changed? We identify additional research needed to address the 7 areas and these questions in particular, so that population status might be determined.

  11. People of the ancient rainforest: late Pleistocene foragers at the Batadomba-lena rockshelter, Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Nimal; Kourampas, Nikos; Simpson, Ian A; Deraniyagala, Siran U; Bulbeck, David; Kamminga, Johan; Perera, Jude; Fuller, Dorian Q; Szabó, Katherine; Oliveira, Nuno V

    2011-09-01

    Batadomba-lena, a rockshelter in the rainforest of southwestern Sri Lanka, has yielded some of the earliest evidence of Homo sapiens in South Asia. H. sapiens foragers were present at Batadomba-lena from ca. 36,000 cal BP to the terminal Pleistocene and Holocene. Human occupation was sporadic before the global Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Batadomba-lena's Late Pleistocene inhabitants foraged for a broad spectrum of plant and mainly arboreal animal resources (monkeys, squirrels and abundant rainforest snails), derived from a landscape that retained equatorial rainforest cover through periods of pronounced regional aridity during the LGM. Juxtaposed hearths, palaeofloors with habitation debris, postholes, excavated pits, and animal and plant remains, including abundant Canarium nutshells, reflect intensive habitation of the rockshelter in times of monsoon intensification and biome reorganisation after ca. 16,000 cal BP. This period corresponds with further broadening of the economic spectrum, evidenced though increased contribution of squirrels, freshwater snails and Canarium nuts in the diet of the rockshelter occupants. Microliths are more abundant and morphologically diverse in the earliest, pre-LGM layer and decline markedly during intensified rockshelter use on the wane of the LGM. We propose that changing toolkits and subsistence base reflect changing foraging practices, from shorter-lived visits of highly mobile foraging bands in the period before the LGM, to intensified use of Batadomba-lena and intense foraging for diverse resources around the site during and, especially, following the LGM. Traces of ochre, marine shell beads and other objects from an 80 km-distant shore, and, possibly burials reflect symbolic practices from the outset of human presence at the rockshelter. Evidence for differentiated use of space (individual hearths, possible habitation structures) is present in LGM and terminal Pleistocene layers. The record of Batadomba-lena demonstrates

  12. DOAS measurements of formaldehyde and glyoxal above a south-east Asian tropical rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, S. M.; Oetjen, H.; Mahajan, A. S.; Whalley, L. K.; Edwards, P. M.; Heard, D. E.; Jones, C. E.; Plane, J. M. C.

    2012-07-01

    Tropical rainforests act as a huge contributor to the global emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs). Measurements of their oxidation products, such as formaldehyde (HCHO) and glyoxal (CHOCHO), provide useful indicators of fast photochemistry occurring in the lower troposphere. However, measurements of these species in tropical forest locations are extremely limited. To redress this, HCHO and CHOCHO were measured using the long-path (LP) and multi-axis (MAX) differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) techniques above the rainforest canopy in Borneo during two campaigns in spring and summer 2008, as part of the Oxidant and Particle Photochemical Processes above a south-east Asian tropical rainforest (OP3) project. The results were compared with concurrent measurements of hydroxyl radical (OH), isoprene (C5H8) (which was the dominant organic species emitted in this forest environment), and various meteorological parameters. Formaldehyde was observed at a maximum concentration of 4.5 ppb and glyoxal at a maximum of 1.6 ppb, significantly higher than previous measurements in rural locations. A 1-D chemistry model was then used to assess the diurnal evolution of formaldehyde and glyoxal throughout the boundary layer. The results, which compare well with the LP-DOAS and MAX-DOAS observations, suggest that the majority of the glyoxal and formaldehyde is confined to the first 500 m of the boundary layer, and that the measured ratio of these species is reproduced using currently accepted product yields for the oxidation of isoprene by OH. An important conclusion is that the measured levels of glyoxal are consistent with the surprisingly high concentrations of OH measured in this environment.

  13. DOAS measurements of formaldehyde and glyoxal above a South-East Asian tropical rainforest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. MacDonald

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Tropical rainforests act as a huge contributor to the global emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs. Measurements of their oxidation products, such as formaldehyde (HCHO and glyoxal (CHOCHO, provide useful indicators of fast photochemistry occurring in the lower troposphere. However, measurements of these species in tropical forest locations are extremely limited. To redress this, HCHO and CHOCHO were measured using the long-path (LP and multi-axis (MAX differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS techniques above the rainforest canopy in Borneo during two campaigns in spring and summer 2008, as part of the Oxidant and Particle Photochemical Processes above a South-East Asian tropical rainforest (OP3 project. The results were compared with concurrent measurements of hydroxyl radical (OH, isoprene (C5H8 (which was the dominant organic species emitted in this forest environment, and various meteorological parameters. Formaldehyde was observed at a maximum concentration of 4.5 ppb and glyoxal at a maximum of 1.6 ppb, significantly higher than previous measurements in rural locations. A 1-D chemistry model was then used to assess the diurnal evolution of formaldehyde and glyoxal throughout the boundary layer. The results, which compare well with the LP-DOAS and MAX-DOAS observations, suggest that the majority of the glyoxal and formaldehyde is confined to the first 500 m of the boundary layer, and that the measured ratio of these species is reproduced using currently accepted product yields for the oxidation of isoprene by OH. An important conclusion is that the measured levels of glyoxal are consistent with the surprisingly high concentrations of OH measured in this environment.

  14. DOAS measurements of formaldehyde and glyoxal above a south-east Asian tropical rainforest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. MacDonald

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Tropical rainforests act as a huge contributor to the global emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs. Measurements of their oxidation products, such as formaldehyde (HCHO and glyoxal (CHOCHO, provide useful indicators of fast photochemistry occurring in the lower troposphere. However, measurements of these species in tropical forest locations are extremely limited. To redress this, HCHO and CHOCHO were measured using the long-path (LP and multi-axis (MAX differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS techniques above the rainforest canopy in Borneo during two campaigns in spring and summer 2008, as part of the Oxidant and Particle Photochemical Processes above a south-east Asian tropical rainforest (OP3 project. The results were compared with concurrent measurements of hydroxyl radical (OH, isoprene (C5H8 (which was the dominant organic species emitted in this forest environment, and various meteorological parameters. Formaldehyde was observed at a maximum concentration of 4.5 ppb and glyoxal at a maximum of 1.6 ppb, significantly higher than previous measurements in rural locations. A 1-D chemistry model was then used to assess the diurnal evolution of formaldehyde and glyoxal throughout the boundary layer. The results, which compare well with the LP-DOAS and MAX-DOAS observations, suggest that the majority of the glyoxal and formaldehyde is confined to the first 500 m of the boundary layer, and that the measured ratio of these species is reproduced using currently accepted product yields for the oxidation of isoprene by OH. An important conclusion is that the measured levels of glyoxal are consistent with the surprisingly high concentrations of OH measured in this environment.

  15. 76 FR 41764 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; General Provisions for Domestic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA563 Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; General Provisions for Domestic Fisheries; Application for Exempted Fishing... population in management Area 3. This EFP would excuse 11 commercial fishing vessels from the...

  16. VA Atlantic Coast Recreational Use

    Data.gov (United States)

    Virginia Department of Environmental Quality — As a member of the Mid-Atlantic Regional Council on the Ocean (MARCO), Virginia, through its Coastal Zone Management (CZM) Program, collected information on how the...

  17. Atlantic Offshore Seabird Dataset Catalog

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Several bureaus within the Department of Interior compiled available information from seabird observation datasets from the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf into a...

  18. Virginia Atlantic Coast Recreational Use

    Data.gov (United States)

    Virginia Department of Environmental Quality — As a member of the Mid-Atlantic Regional Council on the Ocean (MARCO), Virginia, through its Coastal Zone Management (CZM) Program, collected information on how the...

  19. Origin of the Hawaiian rainforest ecosystem and its evolution in long-term primary succession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Mueller-Dombois

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Born among volcanoes in the north central Pacific about 4 million years ago, the Hawaiian rainforest became assembled from spores of algae, fungi, lichens, bryophytes, ferns and from seeds of about 275 flowering plants that over the millenia evolved into ca. 1000 endemic species. Outstanding among the forest builders were the tree ferns (Cibotium spp. and the 'Ōhi'a lehua trees (Metrosideros spp., which still dominate the Hawaiian rainforest ecosystem today. The structure of this forest is simple. The canopy in closed mature rainforests is dominated by cohorts of Metrosideros polymorpha and the undergrowth by tree fern species of Cibotium. When a new lava flow cuts through this forest, kipuka are formed, i.e. islands of remnant vegetation. On the new volcanic substrate, the assemblage of plant life-forms is similar as during the evolution of this system. In open juvenile forests, a mat-forming fern, the uluhe fern (Dicranopteris lineraris becomes established. It inhibits further regeneration of the dominant 'Ōhi'a tree, thereby reinforcing the cohort structure of the canopy guild. In the later part of its life cycle, the canopy guild breaks down often in synchrony. The trigger is hypothesized to be a climatic perturbation. After that disturbance the forest becomes reestablished in about 30–40 yr. As the volcanic surfaces age, they go from a mesotrophic to a eutrophic phase, reaching a biophilic nutrient climax by about 1–25 K yr. Thereafter, a regressive oligotrophic phase follows; the soils become exhausted of nutrients. The shield volcanoes break down. Marginally, forest habitats change into bogs and stream ecosystems. The broader 'Ōhi'a rainforest redeveloping in the more dissected landscapes of the older islands looses stature, often forming large gaps that are invaded by the aluminum tolerant uluhe fern. The 'Ōhi'a trees still thrive on soils rejuvenated from landslides and from Asian dust on the

  20. Aerosol fluxes and dynamics within and above a tropical rainforest in South-East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, J. D.; Gallagher, M. W.; Dorsey, J. R.; Robinson, N.; Gabey, A. M.; Coe, H.; McFiggans, G.; Flynn, M. J.; Ryder, J.; Nemitz, E.; Davies, F.

    2010-10-01

    Atmospheric aerosol measurements were conducted near Danum Valley, in the Malaysian state of Sabah, North-East Borneo, as part of the OP3 and ACES projects, in April and June/July 2008. Here, aerosol fluxes and diurnal variability in and above the rainforest canopy were examined in order to gain an understanding of their behaviour in the surface layer of the South-East Asian rainforest. Aerosol fluxes were calculated by eddy covariance from measurements above the rainforest canopy on the Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) tower. Upward fluxes were seen on most mornings between 09:00 and 11:00 local time and this could be attributed to venting of the nocturnal boundary layer as it broke up in the morning. Measurements were also conducted within the canopy and trunk space at a nearby site. Profiles in aerosol number concentrations were investigated using GRIMM Optical Particle Counters (OPCs) at various levels within the rainforest canopy and trunk space, as well as a single OPC on a vertically moving platform. These showed an overnight increase in larger particles (1-20 μm) at all levels, but much more prominently near the top of the canopy, which could be attributed to fog formation. At ground level, number concentrations in this size range correlated with enhancements in biological aerosol concentrations, measured using a Wide Issue Bioaerosol Spectrometer (WIBS) located near the forest floor, suggesting that coarse particle number concentrations were dominated by biological aerosols. A comparison of particle number concentrations (in the size range 0.5-1.0 μm) between above canopy and the trunk space showed correlations, despite turbulence data suggesting persistent decoupling between the two measurement sites. These correlations often relied on a shift of the particle time-series against each other, implying a time delay in observations between the sites, which varied according to time of day. This lag time was shortest during the middle of the day by a significant