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Sample records for atic balloon experiment

  1. Beam tests of the balloon-borne ATIC experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Ganel, O; Ahn, H S; Ampe, J; Bashindzhagian, G L; Case, G; Chang, H; Ellison, S; Fazely, A; Gould, R; Granger, D; Gunasingha, R M; Guzik, T G; Han, Y J; Isbert, J; Kim, H J; Kim, K C; Kim, S K; Kwon, Y; Panasyuk, M Y; Panov, A; Price, B; Samsonov, G; Schmidt, W K H; Sen, M; Seo, E S; Sina, R; Sokolskaya, N; Stewart, M; Voronin, A; Wagner, D; Wang, J Z; Wefel, J P; Wu, J; Zatsepin, V

    2005-01-01

    The Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC) balloon-borne experiment is designed to perform cosmic-ray elemental spectra measurements from 50 GeV to 100 TeV for nuclei from hydrogen to iron. These measurements are expected to provide information about some of the most fundamental questions in astroparticle physics today. ATIC's design centers on an 18 radiation length (X0) deep bismuth germanate (BGO) calorimeter, preceded by a 0.75λint graphite target. In September 1999, the ATIC detector was exposed to high-energy beams at CERN's SPS accelerator within the framework of the development program for the Advanced Cosmic-ray Composition Experiment for the Space Station (ACCESS). In December 2000–January 2001 and again in December 2002–January 2003, ATIC flew on the first two of a series of long-duration balloon (LDB) flights from McMurdo Station, Antarctica. We present here results from the 1999 beam tests, including energy resolutions for electrons and protons at several beam energies from 100 to 375 G...

  2. Status of the ATIC experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Zatsepin, V I; Ahn, S H; Ampe, J; Bashindzhagian, G L; Wagner, D; Wang, J Z; Wefel, J P; Voronin, A G; Wu, J; Ganel, O; Gould, R; Granger, D; Gunasingha, R M; Guzik, T G; Zigura, A; Isbert, J; Case, G; Kara, T; Kim, H J; Kim, K C; Kim, S K; Kuznetsov, E N; Kwon, Y; Lemczyk, T; Panasyuk, M I; Panov, A D; Price, B; Samsonov, G A; Sokolskaya, N V; Sen, M; Seo, E S; Sina, R; Stewart, M; Toptygin, A; Oubre, C D; Fazely, A; Han, Y J; Chang, J; Schmidt, W K H; Ellison, S

    2001-01-01

    The ATIC collaboration has constructed a spectrometer for measuring the energy spectra of Galactic cosmic rays with an individual charge resolution from protons to nickel in the energy range from about 5*10 /sup 10/ eV to about 10/sup 14/ eV. In September 1999, the ATIC was calibrated at CERN, and is currently ready for operation. The first long-term flight around the South Pole is scheduled for December 2000. (10 refs).

  3. High Energy Electrons and Gamma Rays from the ATIC-2 Balloon Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isbert, J. B.; ATIC Collaboration

    2004-08-01

    The Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC) Balloon Experiment is primarily designed to measure the spectra of nuclear cosmic rays (protons to nickel). It is composed of a segmented BGO calorimeter (18 radiation lengths deep) following a carbon target (0.75 nuclear interaction lengths) interleaved with scintillator tracking layers. A Silicon matrix detector at the entrance identifies the incident particle charge. Utilizing simulations such as Fluka and Geant we have investigated the ability of this design to differentiate electron (gamma) initiated showers from hadronic showers. The differences in shower development between the two populations are sufficient to differentiate them for measurements of electron spectra into the TeV region, as confirmed by accelerator tests at CERN and by the ATIC-1 test flight in 2000-01. ATIC had a successful science flight in 2002-03 from McMurdo, Antarctica returning about 19 days of flight data. This exposure is sufficient to record electrons into the TeV region and measure gamma rays at 100's of GeV. The majority of gamma rays are of atmospheric origin and provide a test for this technique. The preliminary electron spectrum from the ATIC-2 flight is presented and compared to previous high energy measurements, principally from emulsion chambers. Possible astrophysical interpretations of the results are discussed. The ATIC Collaboration: J.H. Adams,2 H.S. Ahn,3 G.L. Bashindzhagyan,4 K.E. Batkov,4 J. Chang,6,7 M. Christl,2 A.R. Fazely,5, O. Ganel,3 R.M. Gunasingha,5 T.G. Guzik,1 J. Isbert,1 K.C. Kim,3 E.N. Kouznetsov,4 M.I. Panasyuk,4 A.D. Panov,4 W.K.H. Schmidt,6 E.S. Seo,3 N.V. Sokolskaya,4 J.Z. Wang,3 J.P. Wefel,1 J. Wu,3 V.I. Zatsepin,4 (1) Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, USA (2) Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL, USA (3) University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA (4) Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia (5) Southern University, Baton Rouge, LA, USA (6

  4. Energy Spectra of Abundant Nuclei of Primary Cosmic Rays from the Data of ATIC-2 Experiment: Final Results

    CERN Document Server

    Panov, A D; Ahn, H S; Bashinzhagyan, G L; Watts, J W; Wefel, J P; Wu, J; Ganel, O; Guzik, T G; Zatsepin, V I; Isbert, I; Kim, K C; Christl, M; Kouznetsov, E N; Panasyuk, M I; Seo, E S; Sokolskaya, N V; Chang, J; Schmidt, W K H; Fazely, A R

    2011-01-01

    The final results of processing the data from the balloon-born experiment ATIC-2 (Antarctica, 2002-2003) for the energy spectra of protons and He, C, O, Ne, Mg, Si, and Fe nuclei, the spectrum of all particles, and the mean logarithm of atomic weight of primary cosmic rays as a function of energy are presented. The final results are based on improvement of the methods used earlier, in particular, considerably increased resolution of the charge spectrum. The preliminary conclusions on the significant difference in the spectra of protons and helium nuclei (the proton spectrum is steeper) and the non-power character of the spectra of protons and heavier nuclei (flattening of carbon spectrum at energies above 10 TeV) are confirmed. A complex structure of the energy dependence of the mean logarithm of atomic weight is found.

  5. Attitude determination for balloon-borne experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Gandilo, N N; Amiri, M; Angile, F E; Benton, S J; Bock, J J; Bond, J R; Bryan, S A; Chiang, H C; Contaldi, C R; Crill, B P; Devlin, M J; Dober, B; Dore, O P; Farhang, M; Filippini, J P; Fissel, L M; Fraisse, A A; Fukui, Y; Galitzki, N; Gambrel, A E; Golwala, S; Gudmundsson, J E; Halpern, M; Hasselfield, M; Hilton, G C; Holmes, W A; Hristov, V V; Irwin, K D; Jones, W C; Kermish, Z D; Klein, J; Korotkov, A L; Kuo, C L; MacTavish, C J; Mason, P V; Matthews, T G; Megerian, K G; Moncelsi, L; Morford, T A; Mroczkowski, T K; Nagy, J M; Netterfield, C B; Novak, G; Nutter, D; O'Brient, R; Pascale, E; Poidevin, F; Rahlin, A S; Reintsema, C D; Ruhl, J E; Runyan, M C; Savini, G; Scott, D; Shariff, J A; Soler, J D; Thomas, N E; Trangsrud, A; Truch, M D; Tucker, C E; Tucker, G S; Tucker, R S; Turner, A D; Ward-Thompson, D; Weber, A C; Wiebe, D V; Young, E Y

    2014-01-01

    An attitude determination system for balloon-borne experiments is presented. The system provides pointing information in azimuth and elevation for instruments flying on stratospheric balloons over Antarctica. In-flight attitude is given by the real-time combination of readings from star cameras, a magnetometer, sun sensors, GPS, gyroscopes, tilt sensors and an elevation encoder. Post-flight attitude reconstruction is determined from star camera solutions, interpolated by the gyroscopes using an extended Kalman Filter. The multi-sensor system was employed by the Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope for Polarimetry (BLASTPol), an experiment that measures polarized thermal emission from interstellar dust clouds. A similar system was designed for the upcoming flight of SPIDER, a Cosmic Microwave Background polarization experiment. The pointing requirements for these experiments are discussed, as well as the challenges in designing attitude reconstruction systems for high altitude balloon flights. ...

  6. High altitude balloon experiments at IIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Akshata; Sreejith, A. G.; Safonova, Margarita; Murthy, Jayant

    Recent advances in balloon experiments as well as in electronics have made it possible to fly scientific payloads at costs accessible to university departments. We have begun a program of high altitude ballooning at the Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Bengaluru. The primary purpose of this activity is to test low-cost ultraviolet (UV) payloads for eventual space flight, but we will also try scientific exploration of the phenomena occurring in the upper atmosphere, including sprites and meteorite impacts. We present the results of the initial experiments carried out at the CREST campus of IIA, Hosakote, and describe our plans for the future.

  7. Experiments with Helium-Filled Balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zable, Anthony C.

    2010-12-01

    The concepts of Newtonian mechanics, fluids, and ideal gas law physics are often treated as separate and isolated topics in the typical introductory college-level physics course, especially in the laboratory setting. To bridge these subjects, a simple experiment was developed that utilizes computer-based data acquisition sensors and a digital gram scale to estimate the molar mass of the gas in an inflated balloon. In this experiment, the comparable density of an inflated balloon to that of atmospheric air introduces a significant role for buoyancy that must be accounted for. The ideal gas law approximation is assumed for both the isolated gas mixture within the balloon and the surrounding air, which defines the relationship between the gas pressure, volume, temperature, and molar quantity. Analysis of the forces associated with the inflated balloon with the incorporation of Archimedes' principle and the ideal gas law into Newton's second law results in an experimental method for the measurement of the molar mass and mole fraction of a gas that is easy to implement yet academically challenging for students. The following narrative describes the basic setup of this experiment, along with a sample set of data as acquired and analyzed by a typical physics student from one of my classes.

  8. A New Paradigm in Space Based Experiments Using Rubber Balloons

    CERN Document Server

    Chakrabarti, Sandip K; Palit, Sourav; Chakraborty, Subhankar; Mondal, Sushanta; Bhattacharyya, Arnab; Middya, Susanta; Chakrabarti, Sonali

    2013-01-01

    Indian Centre for Space Physics is engaged in long duration balloon borne experiments with typical payloads less than ~ 3kg. Low cost rubber balloons are used. In a double balloon system, the booster balloon lifts the orbiter balloon to its cruising altitude where data is taken for a long time. Here we present results of muon detections and recent solar activities, including the light curves and flare spectra in the 20-100keV range. We not only show that we have successfully obtained several flares and there spectra at different altitudes, we also found that the high energy X-ray flux of strong flares at altitudes of 10-13 km (the flight altitude of commercial planes) could be more than the contribution due to cosmic rays.

  9. Cosmic ray abundance measurements with the CAKE balloon experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Cecchini, S; Giacomelli, G; Manzoor, S; Medinaceli, E; Patrizii, L; Togo, V

    2005-01-01

    We present the results from the CAKE (Cosmic Abundance below Knee Energy) balloon experiment which uses nuclear track detectors. The final experiment goal is the determination of the charge spectrum of CR nuclei with Z $>$ 30 in the primary cosmic radiation. The detector, which has a geometric acceptance of $\\sim$ 1.7 m$^2$sr, was exposed in a trans-mediterranean stratospheric balloon flight. Calibrations of the detectors used (CR39 and Lexan), scanning strategies and algorithms for tracking particles in an automatic mode are presented. The present status of the results is discussed

  10. NASA balloon: Aircraft ranging, data and voice experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wishna, S.; Hamby, C.; Reed, D.

    1972-01-01

    A series of tests to evaluate, at L-band, the ranging, voice, and data communications concepts proposed for the air traffic control experiment of the Applications Technology Satellite-F are described. The ground station facilities, balloon platforms and the aircraft were supplied by the European Space Research Organization. One ground simulation and two aircraft flights at low elevation angles were conducted. Even under high interference conditions good performance was obtained for both voice communications and side tone ranging. High bit errors occurred in the data channels resulting in false commands. As a result of the experience gained in operating the equipment in an aircraft environment several recommendations were made for improving the equipment performance.

  11. ATIC/PAMELA anomaly from fermionic decaying Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Chuan-Hung; Zhuridov, Dmitry V

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate that an economical two Higgs doublet model can explain the electron and positron excesses in the recent ATIC and PAMELA experiments by the three body decays of the dark matter (DM) fermions without requiring the fine turning of the couplings and degeneracy of masses. We also show that the mass and lifetime of the decaying DM particle may not be fixed to be around 1 TeV and 10^{26} sec, respectively. Moreover, we note that this model includes a stable dark matter candidate as well.

  12. Understanding cosmic rays with Balloon and Space Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picozza, P., E-mail: piergiorgio.picozza@roma2.infn.it [University of Rome Tor Vergata, Department of Physics, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Rome (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Rome (Italy); Di Felice, V. [INFN, Sezione di Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Rome (Italy)

    2013-10-15

    Measurements of cosmic rays provide important information on their sources and on the mechanisms of acceleration and propagation of cosmic particles through the Galaxy. Positrons and antiprotons in cosmic rays are also the major candidates for searching signals from annihilation of dark matter and contributions from other exotic sources as nearby pulsars. Many balloon-borne experiments have been performed since the sixties, obtaining important results that strongly suggested the realization of the PAMELA and Fermi satellite missions, the latter mainly for gamma rays, and AMS-02 on the ISS. The precision of the measurements and the high statistics highlighted unexpected features in the cosmic particle energy spectra that are setting strong constraints to the nature of Dark Matter and are contributing to change our basic vision of their origin and propagation. The continuous particle detection in space experiments is allowing a constant monitoring of the solar activity and detailed study of the solar modulation for a long period, giving important improvements to the comprehension of the heliosphere mechanisms.

  13. EBEX: A balloon-borne CMB polarization experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Reichborn-Kjennerud, Britt; Ade, Peter; Aubin, Françcois; Baccigalupi, Carlo; Bao, Chaoyun; Borrill, Julian; Cantalupo, Christopher; Chapman, Daniel; Didier, Joy; Dobbs, Matt; Grain, Julien; Grainger, William; Hanany, Shaul; Hillbrand, Seth; Hubmayr, Johannes; Jaffe, Andrew; Johnson, Bradley; Jones, Terry; Kisner, Theodore; Klein, Jeff; Korotkov, Andrei; Leach, Sam; Lee, Adrian; Levinson, Lorne; Limon, Michele; MacDermid, Kevin; Matsumura, Tomotake; Meng, Xiaofan; Miller, Amber; Milligan, Michael; Pascale, Enzo; Polsgrove, Daniel; Ponthieu, Nicolas; Raach, Kate; Sagiv, Ilan; Smecher, Graeme; Stivoli, Federico; Stompor, Radek; Tran, Huan; Tristram, Matthieu; Tucker, Gregory S; Vinokurov, Yury; Yadav, Amit; Zaldarriaga, Matias; Zilic, Kyle

    2010-01-01

    EBEX is a NASA-funded balloon-borne experiment designed to measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Observations will be made using 1432 transition edge sensor (TES) bolometric detectors read out with frequency multiplexed SQuIDs. EBEX will observe in three frequency bands centered at 150, 250, and 410 GHz, with 768, 384, and 280 detectors in each band, respectively. This broad frequency coverage is designed to provide valuable information about polarized foreground signals from dust. The polarized sky signals will be modulated with an achromatic half wave plate (AHWP) rotating on a superconducting magnetic bearing (SMB) and analyzed with a fixed wire grid polarizer. EBEX will observe a patch covering ~1% of the sky with 8' resolution, allowing for observation of the angular power spectrum from \\ell = 20 to 1000. This will allow EBEX to search for both the primordial B-mode signal predicted by inflation and the anticipated lensing B-mode signal. Calculations to predict EBEX constrain...

  14. Proliferation kinetics of paramecium tetraurelia in balloon-borne experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croute, F.; Soleilhavoup, J.P.; Vidal, S.; Rousseille, R.; Planel, H.

    1982-06-01

    Experiments were carried out to demonstrate the effect of cosmic radiation, at a balloon-flight ceiling of about 36,500 m (120,000 ft) on single-cell organism proliferation. Paramecium tetraurelia were placed in air-tight containers and maintained at 25 degrees +/- 0.1 degrees C. Cellular growth was determined by cell count, either after recovery or during the flight, by means of an automatic fixation device. Dosimetry was performed by a tissue equivalent proportional counter and was of about 0.5 mrad/h. Flight ceiling duration ranged from 48 min - 22 h. A secondary stimulating effect of growth rate, preceded by a temporary decrease, was observed after recovery. Because of the high bacterial concentration in the trans-Mediterranean flight culture medium, the temporary drop of the growth rate, due to the radiolysis products, disappears. Researchers consider that the stimulating effect can be the result of enzymatic intracellular scavenging of radiolysis products generated in the cell.

  15. Design and Implementation of an experiment-specific Payload Orientation Platform for balloon-borne Experiment .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devarajan, Anand; Rodi, Ashish; Ojha, Devendra

    2012-07-01

    To investigate the mesospheric dynamics and its coupling to the upper atmospheric regions above, a Balloon-borne optical Investigation of Regional-atmospheric Dynamics (BIRD) experiment was jointly conducted by Physical Research Laboratory Ahmedabad and Boston University, on 08 March 2010 from TIFR Balloon Facility, Hyderabad. Along with the BIRD payload, a nano payload of University of York, Canada was also flown for aerosol studies during sunset. The balloon carrying a 335kg BIRD payload was launched at 1052 hrs, reached a float altitude of 34.8km amsl at 1245 hrs and was allowed to float till 1825 hrs before it was parachuted down. To achieve the experimental objectives, it was essential that the payload Gandola, comprising of two optical spectrographs, is programmed to rotate azimuthally in 3 steps of 30 degrees each from East-West (E-W) to North-South (N-S) direction, stop at each step for 5 minutes for data acquisition, return to the original E-W position and keep repeating the sequence continuously with a provision to start or stop the orientation from Ground station through telecommand. To meet these unique requirements, we designed developed and implemented a Payload Orientation Platform (POP), using flux-gate magnetometer for direction-finding, which worked satisfactorily in the BIRD flight. This paper presents an overview of the POP implemented, focuses on the design considerations of the associated electronics and finally presents the results of the performance during the entire balloon flight.

  16. Suppression of the coal importation monopoly: ATIC Services succeeds to ATIC; Suppression du monopole d`importation charbonniere: ATIC Services succede a l`ATIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1995-09-01

    1994 has been a turning point in the history of ATIC organism in charge for 50 years of the coal importation monopoly for the French government. Anticipating the suppression of this monopoly, an anonymous society, ATIC Services, has been created with the principal coal consumers as shareholders. Nevertheless, ATIC maintains its missions of general interest such as: identification forms control, verification of solid mineral fuel technical characteristics, statistics and general information. The decay of coal importations has increased to reach 6.2% in 1994 (against 6.5% in 1993 and 9.3% in 1992). Importations from Australia have replace those from the United States and show a 6.3% increase due to the needs of metallurgy industry. 1994 importations represent 13121 kt with 1119 kt from CEE countries (Germany, Benelux, United Kingdom). Colombia remains the main productive for Electricite de France (500 Kt), followed by South Africa which remains the first productive for industry. Maritime transportation is the quasi-unique way of solid mineral fuels importation to France. (J.S.). 1 fig.

  17. Results from PAMELA, ATIC and FERMI : Pulsars or Dark Matter ?

    CERN Document Server

    Chowdhury, Debtosh; Vempati, Sudhir K

    2009-01-01

    It is well known that the dark matter dominates the dynamics of galaxies and clusters of galaxies. Its constituents remain a mystery despite an assiduous search for them over the past three decades. Recent results from the satellite-based PAMELA experiment detect an excess in the positron fraction at energies between 10-100 GeV in the secondary cosmic ray spectrum. Other experiments namely ATIC, HESS and FERMI show an excess in the total electron (\\ps + \\el) spectrum for energies greater 100 GeV. These excesses in the positron fraction as well as the electron spectrum could arise in local astrophysical processes like pulsars, or can be attributed to the annihilation of the dark matter particles. The second possibility gives clues to the possible candidates for the dark matter in galaxies and other astrophysical systems. In this article, we give a report of these exciting developments.

  18. Results from PAMELA, ATIC and FERMI: Pulsars or dark matter?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Debtosh Chowdhury; Sudhir K Vempati; Chanda J Jog

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that dark matter dominates the dynamics of galaxies and clusters of galaxies. Its constituents remain a mystery despite an assiduous search for them over the past three decades. Recent results from the satellite-based PAMELA experiment show an excess in the positron fraction at energies between 10 and 100 GeV in the secondary cosmic ray spectrum. Other experiments, namely ATIC, HESS and FERMI, show an excess in the total electron (+ + −) spectrum for energies greater than 100 GeV. These excesses in the positron fraction as well as the electron spectrum can arise in local astrophysical processes like pulsars, or can be attributed to the annihilation of the dark matter particles. The latter possibility gives clues to the possible candidates for the dark matter in galaxies and other astrophysical systems. In this article, we give a report of these exciting developments.

  19. [A new balloon-expandable plastic endoprosthesis. Initial report of experience with the malleable thermostent].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, A

    1990-07-01

    A new system of balloon-expandable stents for different purposes is presented. A special plastic material that can be shaped by a hot balloon technique or other internal or external heating modalities has been developed. The plastic material - a distant derivative of polyurethane - is caprolactone, which is soft from 52 degrees C to 70 degrees C. Using balloon techniques, the "thermo-stent" can be modeled to suit the form of the vessels, the bile ducts or the bronchial tree, as required. The balloon can be heated simply by means of a warm NaCl solution, electric matter in the balloon itself or microwaves. The plastic material can even be heated directly, which is especially beneficial if the stent needs to be thicker, e.g. in the bronchial tree, by an electric network within the plastic material, which heats the material to the necessary temperature by electric current. When the balloon is cooled after the dilatation the new form, the plastic has been modeled to is maintained exactly. The advantages of this thermo-stent will be the perfect adaptation to every individual situation in the intraluminal vessels, the bile ducts, and even the bronchi. The problems encountered hitherto with conventional metallic stents, e.g. high thrombogenicity, risk of metal intoxication or metallic rupture of filaments, have not be seen so far in animal experiments.

  20. Percutaneous trigeminal ganglion balloon compression : experience in 40 patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natarajan M

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Forty patients of trigeminal neuralgia were treated with percutaneous trigeminal ganglion balloon compression. Symptoms had been present since six months to twenty years. The age ranged between 23 years and 73 years. All the patients had immediate relief from pain. Two had already undergone trigeminal cistern rhizolysis. One patient had foramen ovale stenosis. After the procedure, all the patients had mild to moderate degree of ipsilateral facial sensory loss which included buccal mucosa and anterior 2/3rd of the tongue. Facial dysaesthesia (anaesthesia dolorosa was seen in only one case, who had mild involvement lasting one week. Thirty patients had altered taste sensation, probably due to general somatic sensory loss. Five patients had herpes perioralis. In this study group, two patients had already undergone microvascular decompression. All the patients were followed for a period ranging from one to eighteen months. Balloon compression technique seems to be better than injection of alcohol, glycerol or radio frequency lesion. Recurrence of pain was noted in 3 patients after one year.

  1. Balloon UV Experiments for Astronomical and Atmospheric Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Sreejith, A G; Sarpotdar, Mayuresh; Nirmal, K; Ambily, S; Prakash, Ajin; Safonova, Margarita; Murthy, Jayant

    2016-01-01

    The ultraviolet (UV) window has been largely unexplored through balloons for astronomy. We discuss here the development of a compact near-UV spectrograph with ?ber optics input for balloon ights. It is a modi?ed Czerny-Turner system built using o?-the-shelf components. The system is portable and scalable to di?erent telescopes. The use of re ecting optics reduces the transmission loss in the UV. It employs an image-intensi?ed CMOS sensor, operating in photon counting mode, as the detector of choice. A lightweight pointing system developed for stable pointing to observe astronomical sources is also discussed, together with the methods to improve its accuracy, e.g. using the in-house build star sensor and others. Our primary scienti?c objectives include the observation of bright Solar System objects such as visible to eye comets, Moon and planets. Studies of planets can give us valuable information about the planetary aurorae, helping to model and compare atmospheres of other planets and the Earth. The other ma...

  2. The TopHat experiment: A balloon-borne instrument for mapping millimeter and submillimeter emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silverberg, R.F.; Cheng, E.S.; Aguirre, J.E.

    2005-01-01

    The TopHat experiment was designed to measure the anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background radiation on angular scales from 0.degrees 3 to 30 degrees and the thermal emission from both Galactic and extragalactic dust. The balloon-borne instrument had five spectral bands spanning frequencies...

  3. Double balloon enteroscopy in the old: Experience from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiong He; Bing Xiao; Ya-Li Zhang; Bo Jiang; Yang Bai; Fa-Chao Zhi; Qiang Zhang; Jian-Dong Li; Ya-Dong Wang; Tian-Mo Wan; Zhen-Yu Chen; De-Shou Pan; Jian-Qun Cai; Si-De Liu

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate the safety,efficacy and management of double balloon enteroscopy (DBE) carried out in those aged individuals with suspicious small intestine diseases.METHODS:DBE is a wonderful invention of the past decade and is widely used as an examination tool for the gastrointestinal tract.From January 2003 to July 2011,data from patients who were ≥ 65 years old and underwent DBE examination in the Nanfang Hospital were included in a retrospective analysis.RESULTS:Fifty-nine individuals were found and subsequently analyzed.The mean age was 69.63 ± 3.89 years (range 65-84),34 were males.Indications for DBE were melena/hematochezia (36 cases),abdominal pain (15 cases),diarrhea (3 cases),stool change (1 case),weight loss (1 case),vomiting (2 cases),and de bilitation (1 case).The average duration of symptoms was 33.34 ± 64.24 mo.Twenty-seven patients suffered from age-related diseases.Severe complications were not found during and after DBE.Comparison between systolic and diastolic blood pressure before and after DBE was statistically significant (mean ± SD,P < 0.01,P < 0.05,respectively).Small bowel pathologies were found by DBE in 35 patients,definite diagnoses were made in 31 cases,and detection rate and diagnostic yield for DBE were 68.6% and 60.8%,respectively.CONCLUSION:DBE is a safe and effective method for gastrointestinal examination in the aged population.Aging alone is not a risk factor for elderly patients with suspicious gastrointestinal diseases and thorough preparation prior to the DBE procedure should be made for individuals with multiple diseases especially cardiopulmonary disorders.

  4. An Overview of High-Altitude Balloon Experiments at the Indian Institute of Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Safonova, Margarita; Sreejith, A G; Mathew, Joice; Sarpotdar, Mayuresh; Ambily, S; Nirmal, K; Talnikar, Sameer; Hadigal, Shripathy; Prakash, Ajin; Murthy, Jayant

    2016-01-01

    The High-Altitude Ballooning programme began at Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Bangalore, in the year 2011 with the primary purpose of developing and flying low-cost scientific payloads on a balloon-borne platform. Some of the science goals are studies of the phenomena occurring in the upper atmosphere, of airglow and zodiacal light, and observations of extended astronomical objects such as, for example, comets, from near space (20 to 30 km). A brief summary and results of the tethered flights carried out at CREST campus are given in Ref.~1. Here we present a complete overview of the 9 free-flying balloon experiments conducted from March 2013 to November 2014. We describe the launch procedures, payloads, methods of tracking and recovery of the payloads. Since we fall in the light/medium balloon category, the weight of the payload is limited to less than 5 kg --- we use a 3-D printer to fabricate lightweight boxes and structures for our experiments. We are also developing in-house lightweight sensors and co...

  5. BioEnterics Intragastric Balloon (BIB) versus Spatz Adjustable Balloon System (ABS): Our experience in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Teresa; Aprea, Giovanni; Formisano, Cesare; Ruggiero, Simona; Quarto, Gennaro; Serra, Raffaele; Massa, Guido; Sivero, Luigi

    2017-02-01

    The BioEnterics Intragastric Balloon (BIB) and the Spatz Adjustable Balloon System (ABS) are in fact recommended for weight reduction as a bridge to bariatric surgery. We retrospected studied patients with body mass index (BMI) and age ranges of 37-46 and 70-80 years, respectively, who had undergone BIB from January 2010 to July 2012 and prospected studied patients who had undergone Spatz balloon from July 2012 to August 2014. The aim of this study is to compare BIB and Spatz in terms of weight loss, complications, and maintenance of weight after removal. For both procedures, the median weight loss was 20 ± 3 kg, median BMI at the end of the therapy was 32 ± 2, and no severe complication occurred.

  6. Reflood experiments in rod bundles with flow blockages due to clad ballooning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, S.K.; Kim, J.; Kim, K.; Kim, B.J.; Park, J.K.; Youn, Y.J.; Choi, H.S.; Song, C.H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    Clad ballooning and the resulting partial flow blockage are one of the major thermal-hydraulic concerns associated with the coolability of partially blocked cores during a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). Several in-pile tests have shown that fuel relocation causes a local power accumulation and a high thermal coupling between the clad and fuel debris in the ballooned regions. However, previous experiments in the 1980s did not take into account the fuel relocation phenomena and resulting local power increase in the ballooned regions. The present paper presents the results of systematic investigations on the coolability of rod bundles with flow blockages. The experiments were mainly performed in 5 x 5 rod bundles, 2 x 2 rod bundles and other test facilities. The experiments include a reflood heat transfer, single-phase convective heat transfer, flow redistributions phenomena, and droplet break-up behavior. The effects of the fuel relocation and resulting local power increase were investigated using a 5 x 5 rod bundle. The fuel relocation phenomena increase the peak cladding temperature.

  7. The protoMIRAX Hard X-ray Imaging Balloon Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Braga, João; Avila, Manuel A C; Penacchioni, Ana V; Sacahui, J Rodrigo; Santiago, Valdivino A de; Mattiello-Francisco, Fátima; Strauss, Cesar; Fialho, Márcio A A

    2015-01-01

    The protoMIRAX hard X-ray imaging telescope is a balloon-borne experiment developed as a pathfinder for the MIRAX satellite mission. The experiment consists essentially in a coded-aperture hard X-ray (30-200 keV) imager with a square array (13$\\times$13) of 2mm-thick planar CZT detectors with a total area of 169 cm$^2$. The total, fully-coded field-of-view is $21^{\\circ}\\times 21^{\\circ}$ and the angular resolution is 1$^{\\circ}$43'. In this paper we describe the protoMIRAX instrument and all the subsystems of its balloon gondola, and we show simulated results of the instrument performance. The main objective of protoMIRAX is to carry out imaging spectroscopy of selected bright sources to demonstrate the performance of a prototype of the MIRAX hard X-ray imager. Detailed background and imaging simulations have been performed for protoMIRAX balloon flights. The 3$\\sigma$ sensitivity for the 30-200 keV range is ~1.9 $\\times$ 10$^{-5}$ photons cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$ for an integration time of 8 hs at an atmospheric ...

  8. GRAPE - A Balloon-Borne Gamma-Ray Polarimeter Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Bloser, P F; Macri, J R; McConnell, M L; Narita, T; Ryan, J M

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews the development status of GRAPE (the Gamma-Ray Polarimeter Experiment), a hard X-ray Compton Polarimeter. The purpose of GRAPE is to measure the polarization of hard X-rays in the 50-300 keV energy range. We are particularly interested in X-rays that are emitted from solar flares and gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), although GRAPE could also be employed in the study of other astrophysical sources. Accurately measuring the polarization of the emitted radiation will lead to a better understating of both emission mechanisms and source geometries. The GRAPE design consists of an array of plastic scintillators surrounding a central high-Z crystal scintillator. The azimuthal distribution of photon scatters from the plastic array into the central calorimeter provides a measure of the polarization fraction and polarization angle of the incident radiation. The design of the detector provides sensitivity over a large field-of-view (>pi steradian). The design facilitates the fabrication of large area arrays w...

  9. A high-altitude balloon experiment to probe stratospheric electric fields from low latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurubaran, Subramanian; Shanmugam, Manu; Jawahar, Kaliappan; Emperumal, Kaliappan; Mahavarkar, Prasanna; Buduru, Suneel Kumar

    2017-02-01

    The Earth's electrical environment hosts a giant electrical circuit, often referred to as the global electric circuit (GEC), linking the various sources of electrical generators located in the lower atmosphere, the ionosphere and the magnetosphere. The middle atmosphere (stratosphere and mesosphere) has been traditionally believed to be passively transmitting electric fields generated elsewhere. Some observations have reported anomalously large electric fields at these altitudes, and the scientific community has had to revisit the earlier hypothesis time and again. At stratospheric altitudes and especially at low latitudes, horizontal electric fields are believed to be of ionospheric origin. Though measurements of these fields from a balloon platform are challenging because of their small magnitudes (around a few mV m-1), a suitably designed long-duration balloon experiment capable of detecting such small fields can provide useful information on the time evolution of ionospheric electric fields, which is otherwise possible only using radar or satellite in situ measurements. We present herein details of one such experiment, BEENS (Balloon Experiment on the Electrodynamics of Near Space), carried out from a low-latitude site in India. The instrument package for this experiment is comprised of four deployable booms for measurements of horizontal electric fields and one inclined boom for vertical electric field measurements, all equipped with conducting spheres at the tip. The experiment was conducted from Hyderabad (17.5° N, 78.6° E) during the post-midnight hours on 14 December 2013. In spite of a few shortcomings we report herein, a noticeable feature of the observations has been the detection of horizontal electric fields of ˜ 5 mV m-1 at the stratospheric altitudes of ˜ 35 km.

  10. Initial Results from the Radiation Dosimetry Experiment (RaD-X) Balloon Flight Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Radiation Dosimetry Experiment (RaD-X) high-altitude balloon mission was successfully launched from Fort Sumner, New Mexico USA on 25 September, 2015. Over 15 hours of science data were obtained from four dosimeters at altitudes above about 25 km. The four dosimeters flown on the RaD-X science payload are a Hawk version 3.0 Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter (TEPC) manufactured by Far West Technologies, a Liulin dosimeter-spectrometer produced by the Solar Research and Technology Institute, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, a total ionizing dose detector manufactured by Teledyne Microelectronic Technologies, and the RaySure detector provided by the University of Surrey.

  11. Meaurement of Cosmic Ray elemental composition from the CAKE balloon experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Cecchini, S; Giacomelli, G; Medinaceli, E; Patrizii, L; Sirri, G; Togo, V

    2009-01-01

    CAKE (Cosmic Abundances below Knee Energies) was a prototype balloon experiment for the determination of the charge spectra and of abundances of the primary cosmic-rays (CR) with Z$>$10. It was a passive instrument made of layers of CR39 and Lexan nuclear track detectors; it had a geometric acceptance of $\\sim$0.7 m$^2$sr for Fe nuclei. Here, the scanning and analysis strategies, the algorithms used for the off-line filtering and for the tracking in automated mode of the primary cosmic rays are presented, together with the resulting CR charge distribution and their abundances.

  12. Study of the properties of Cosmic rays and solar X-Ray Flares by balloon borne experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Chakrabarti, S K; Chakraborty, S; Palit, S; Mondal, S K; Bhattacharya, A; Midya, S; Chakrabarti, S

    2013-01-01

    Indian Centre for Space Physics is engaged in pioneering balloon borne experiments with typical payloads less than ~ 3.5kg. Low cost rubber balloons are used to fly them to a height of about 40km. In a double balloon system, the booster balloon lifts the orbiter balloon to its cruising altitude where data is taken for a longer period of time. In this Paper, we present our first scientific report on the variation of Cosmic Rays and muons with altitude and detection of several solar flares in X-rays between 20keV and 100keV. We found the altitude of the Pfotzer maximum at Tropic of Cancer for cosmic rays and muons and catch several solar flares in hard X-rays. We find that the hard X-ray (> 40keV) sky becomes very transparent above Pfotzer maximum. We find the flare spectrum to have a power-law distribution. From these studies, we infer that valuable scientific research could be carried out in near space using low cost balloon borne experiments. Published in Online version of Indian Journal of Physics.

  13. Performance of Large Area X-ray Proportional Counters in a Balloon Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Roy, J; Dedhia, D K; Manchanda, R K; Shah, P B; Chitnis, V R; Gujar, V M; Parmar, J V; Pawar, D M; Kurhade, V B

    2016-01-01

    ASTROSAT is India's first satellite fully devoted to astronomical observations covering a wide spectral band from optical to hard X-rays by a complement of 4 co-aligned instruments and a Scanning Sky X-ray Monitor. One of the instruments is Large Area X-ray Proportional Counter with 3 identical detectors. In order to assess the performance of this instrument, a balloon experiment with two prototype Large Area X-ray Proportional Counters (LAXPC) was carried out on 2008 April 14. The design of these LAXPCs was similar to those on the ASTROSAT except that their field of view (FOV) was 3$^{\\circ}$ $\\times$ 3$^{\\circ}$ versus FOV of 1$^{\\circ}$ $\\times$ 1$^{\\circ}$ for the LAXPCs on the ASTROSAT. The LAXPCs are aimed at the timing and spectral studies of X-ray sources in 3-80 keV region. In the balloon experiment, the LAXPC, associated electronics and support systems were mounted on an oriented platform which could be pre-programmed to track any source in the sky. A brief description of the LAXPC design, laborator...

  14. The High Altitude Balloon Experiment demonstration of acquisition, tracking, and pointing technologies (HABE-ATP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimiduk, D.; Caylor, M.; Williamson, D.; Larson, L.

    1995-01-01

    The High Altitude Balloon Experiment demonstration of Acquisition, Tracking, and Pointing (HABE-ATP) is a system built around balloon-borne payload which is carried to a nominal 26-km altitude. The goal is laser tracking thrusting theater and strategic missiles, and then pointing a surrogate laser weapon beam, with performance levels end a timeline traceable to operational laser weapon system requirements. This goal leads to an experiment system design which combines hardware from many technology areas: an optical telescope and IR sensors; an advanced angular inertial reference; a flexible multi-level of actuation digital control system; digital tracking processors which incorporate real-time image analysis and a pulsed, diode-pumped solid state tracking laser. The system components have been selected to meet the overall experiment goals of tracking unmodified boosters at 50- 200 km range. The ATP system on HABE must stabilize and control a relative line of sight between the platform and the unmodified target booster to a 1 microrad accuracy. The angular pointing reference system supports both open loop and closed loop track modes; GPS provides absolute position reference. The control system which positions the line of sight for the ATP system must sequence through accepting a state vector handoff, closed-loop passive IR acquisition, passive IR intermediate fine track, active fine track, and then finally aimpoint determination and maintenance modes. Line of sight stabilization to fine accuracy levels is accomplished by actuating wide bandwidth fast steering mirrors (FSM's). These control loops off-load large-amplitude errors to the outer gimbal in order to remain within the limited angular throw of the FSM's. The SWIR acquisition and MWIR intermediate fine track sensors (both PtSi focal planes) image the signature of the rocket plume. After Hard Body Handover (HBHO), active fine tracking is conducted with a visible focal plane viewing the laser-illuminated target

  15. Development of a Simple Attitude Control System for Newly Constructed Balloon-Borne Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Yoshitaka; Iijima, Issei; Nonaka, Naoki; Yamada, Kazuhiko; Ishikawa, Yuji; Kan'no, Makoto; Kishimoto, Yuji; Gunji, Shuichi; Sato, Tetsuya; Mihara, Tatehiro; Anabuki, Naohisa; Ohta, Yukihiro; Yamauchi, Manabu; Hayashida, Kiyoshi

    A simple attitude control system for a balloon experiment has been developed. This system aims to achieve an accuracy of 0.1 deg in azimuth for a small payload with a diameter of 1.5 m and a moment of inertia of 100 kg·m2. It will be first flown with the Polarimetry for High ENErgy X-rays (PHENEX) experiment, which is to observe the polarization of astronomical objects in the hard X-ray energy region. The system is composed of the attitude sensors (sun sensors, geomagnetic aspect sensors, and an optical fiber gyro), read-out modules, CPU, output modules (PC104 based boards), and actuators (a torsion relief motor and a reaction wheel motor with their drivers). In this paper, after introducing these modules, the properties of the sensors and the control system based on the ground will be reviewed.

  16. Performance of large area x-ray proportional counters in a balloon experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, J.; Agrawal, P. C.; Dedhia, D. K.; Manchanda, R. K.; Shah, P. B.; Chitnis, V. R.; Gujar, V. M.; Parmar, J. V.; Pawar, D. M.; Kurhade, V. B.

    2016-10-01

    ASTROSAT is India's first satellite fully devoted to astronomical observations covering a wide spectral band from optical to hard X-rays by a complement of 4 co-aligned instruments and a Scanning Sky X-ray Monitor. One of the instruments is Large Area X-ray Proportional Counter with 3 identical detectors. In order to assess the performance of this instrument, a balloon experiment with two prototype Large Area X-ray Proportional Counters (LAXPC) was carried out on 2008 April 14. The design of these LAXPCs was similar to those on the ASTROSAT except that their field of view (FOV) was 3 ∘ × 3 ∘ versus FOV of 1 ∘ × 1 ∘ for the LAXPCs on the ASTROSAT. The LAXPCs are aimed at the timing and spectral studies of X-ray sources in 3-80 keV region. In the balloon experiment, the LAXPC, associated electronics and support systems were mounted on an oriented platform which could be pre-programmed to track any source in the sky. A brief description of the LAXPC design, laboratory tests, calibration and the detector characteristics is presented here. The details of the experiment and background counting rates of the 2 LAXPCs at the float altitude of about 41 km are presented in different energy bands. The bright black hole X-ray binary Cygnus X-1 (Cyg X-1) was observed in the experiment for ˜ 3 hours. Details of Cyg X-1 observations, count rates measured from it in different energy intervals and the intensity variations of Cyg X-1 detected during the observations are presented and briefly discussed.

  17. Pumpkin Balloon

    OpenAIRE

    Nishimura, Jun; 西村, 純

    1992-01-01

    The Pumpkin shaped balloons, which are the extreme case of the heart-type balloons had been studied as one of the promising candidate of the super pressure balloons. Here, detailed studies for the features of the pumpkin balloons are described, particularly by comparing with those of the spherical shaped super pressure balloons.

  18. Huygens Atmospheric Structure Instrument (HASI) test by a stratospheric balloon experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulchignoni, M.; Gaborit, V.; Aboudam, A.; Angrilli, F.; Antonello, M.; Bastianello, S.; Bettanini, C.; Bianchini, G.; Colombatti, G.; Ferri, F.; Lion Stoppato, P.

    2002-09-01

    We developped a series of balloon experiments parachuting a 1:1 scale mock up of the Huygens probe from an altitude larger than 30 km in order to simulate at planetary scale the final part of the descent of the probe in the Titan atmosphere. The Earth atmosphere represents a natural laboratory where most of the physical parameters meet quite well the bulk condition of Titan's environment, with the exception of temperature. A first balloon experiment has been carried out in June 2001 and the results have been reported at the last DPS (V. Gaborit et al., BAAS 33, 38.03) The mock up of the probe descending in the Titan atmosphere for the Huygens Cassini Mission has been successfully launched with stratospheric balloon from Italian Space Agency Base "Luigi Broglio" in Sicily and recovered on May 30th 2002. The probe has been lifted at 32 km altitude and then released to perform a 45 minutes descent decelerated by parachute, to simulate Huygens mission at Titan. Preliminary aerodynamics study of the probe has focused on the achievement of a descent velocity profile and a spin rate profile, satisfying the Huygens mission to Titan requirements. The descent velocity and spin rate have been calculated by solving a system of ODE describing the translational and rotational motion of the probe trough the earth atmosphere during parachute aided descent Results of these calculations have driven the choice of an appropriate angle of attack of the blades in the bottom of the probe and ballast weight during flight. The probe is hosting spares of HASI sensors, housekeeping sensors and other dedicated sensors, Beagle II UV Sensors and Huygens SSP Tilt Sensor, for a total of 77 acquired sensor channels, sampled during ascent, drift and descent phase. Main goals are i) to verify sensor performance and perform a realistic functional test in dynamical and environmental conditions similar to those during the descent in Titan atmosphere; ii) to investigate impact at ground to check the

  19. Probing the ATIC peak in the cosmic-ray electron spectrum with H.E.S.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aharonian, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Anton, G.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Bazer-Bachi, A. R.; Becherini, Y.; Behera, B.; Bernlöhr, K.; Bochow, A.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Borrel, V.; Brucker, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bühler, R.; Bulik, T.; Büsching, I.; Boutelier, T.; Chadwick, P. M.; Charbonnier, A.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Cheesebrough, A.; Chounet, L.-M.; Clapson, A. C.; Coignet, G.; Dalton, M.; Daniel, M. K.; Davids, I. D.; Degrange, B.; Deil, C.; Dickinson, H. J.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Domainko, W.; O'C. Drury, L.; Dubois, F.; Dubus, G.; Dyks, J.; Dyrda, M.; Egberts, K.; Emmanoulopoulos, D.; Espigat, P.; Farnier, C.; Feinstein, F.; Fiasson, A.; Förster, A.; Fontaine, G.; Füßling, M.; Gabici, S.; Gallant, Y. A.; Gérard, L.; Gerbig, D.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Glück, B.; Goret, P.; Göring, D.; Hauser, D.; Hauser, M.; Heinz, S.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hinton, J. A.; Hoffmann, A.; Hofmann, W.; Holleran, M.; Hoppe, S.; Horns, D.; Jacholkowska, A.; de Jager, O. C.; Jahn, C.; Jung, I.; Katarzyński, K.; Katz, U.; Kaufmann, S.; Kendziorra, E.; Kerschhaggl, M.; Khangulyan, D.; Khélifi, B.; Keogh, D.; Kluźniak, W.; Kneiske, T.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Kossakowski, R.; Lamanna, G.; Lenain, J.-P.; Lohse, T.; Marandon, V.; Martin, J. M.; Martineau-Huynh, O.; Marcowith, A.; Masbou, J.; Maurin, D.; McComb, T. J. L.; Medina, M. C.; Moderski, R.; Moulin, E.; Naumann-Godo, M.; de Naurois, M.; Nedbal, D.; Nekrassov, D.; Nicholas, B.; Niemiec, J.; Nolan, S. J.; Ohm, S.; Olive, J.-F.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; Orford, K. J.; Ostrowski, M.; Panter, M.; Paz Arribas, M.; Pedaletti, G.; Pelletier, G.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Pita, S.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raubenheimer, B. C.; Raue, M.; Rayner, S. M.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; Rieger, F.; Ripken, J.; Rob, L.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Ruppel, J.; Sahakian, V.; Santangelo, A.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schöck, F. M.; Schröder, R.; Schwanke, U.; Schwarzburg, S.; Schwemmer, S.; Shalchi, A.; Sikora, M.; Skilton, J. L.; Sol, H.; Spangler, D.; Stawarz, Ł.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Stinzing, F.; Superina, G.; Szostek, A.; Tam, P. H.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Terrier, R.; Tibolla, O.; Tluczykont, M.; van Eldik, C.; Vasileiadis, G.; Venter, C.; Venter, L.; Vialle, J. P.; Vincent, P.; Vivier, M.; Völk, H. J.; Volpe, F.; Wagner, S. J.; Ward, M.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.

    2009-12-01

    The measurement of an excess in the cosmic-ray electron spectrum between 300 and 800 GeV by the ATIC experiment has - together with the PAMELA detection of a rise in the positron fraction up to ≈100 GeV - motivated many interpretations in terms of dark matter scenarios; alternative explanations assume a nearby electron source like a pulsar or supernova remnant. Here we present a measurement of the cosmic-ray electron spectrum with H.E.S.S. starting at 340 GeV. While the overall electron flux measured by H.E.S.S. is consistent with the ATIC data within statistical and systematic errors, the H.E.S.S. data exclude a pronounced peak in the electron spectrum as suggested for interpretation by ATIC. The H.E.S.S. data follow a power-law spectrum with spectral index of 3.0±0.1(stat.)± 0.3(syst.), which steepens at about 1 TeV. Supported by CAPES Foundation, Ministry of Education of Brazil.

  20. Status of JEM-EUSO and its test experiments EUSO-Balloon and TA-EUSO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haungs Andreas

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The JEM-EUSO mission will explore the origin of the extreme energy cosmic rays (EECRs through the observation of their arrival directions and energies. The super-wide-field telescope looks down from the International Space Station onto the night sky to detect UV photons fluorescence and Cherenkov photons emitted from air showers generated by EECRs in the Atmosphere. Such a space detector offers the opportunity to observe a huge volume of atmosphere at once and will achieve unprecedented statistical accuracy within a few years of operation. The JEM-EUSO mission will be installed on the Japanese module of the International Space Station. Two test experiments are currently prepared; one to observe the fluorescence background from the edge of the Atmosphere (EUSO-Balloon, and the other to demonstrate, on ground, the capability of all sub-systems of the EUSO instrument (TA-EUSO. In this paper a short review on the scientific objectives and an update of the instrument definition, performances and status of the mission, as well as of the status of the two preceded test experiments will be given.

  1. The Cosmic-Ray Proton and Helium Spectra measured with the CAPRICE98 balloon experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Boezio, M; Schiavon, Paolo; Vacchi, A; Zampa, N; Bergström, D; Carlson, P J; Francke, T; Hansen, P; Mocchiutti, E; Suffert, Martin; Hof, M; Kremer, J; Menn, W; Simon, M; Ambriola, M; Bellotti, R; Cafagna, F; Ciacio, F; Circella, M; De Marzo, C N; Finetti, N; Papini, P; Piccardi, S; Spillantini, P; Vannuccini, E; Bartalucci, S; Ricci, M; Casolino, M; De Pascale, M P; Morselli, A; Picozza, P; Sparvoli, R; Mitchell, J W; Ormes, J F; Stephens, S A; Streitmatter, R E; Bravar, U; Stochaj, S J

    2003-01-01

    A new measurement of the primary cosmic-ray proton and helium fluxes from 3 to 350 GeV was carried out by the balloon-borne CAPRICE experiment in 1998. This experimental setup combines different detector techniques and has excellent particle discrimination capabilities allowing clear particle identification. Our experiment has the capability to determine accurately detector selection efficiencies and systematic errors associated with them. Furthermore, it can check for the first time the energy determined by the magnet spectrometer by using the Cherenkov angle measured by the RICH detector well above 20 GeV/n. The analysis of the primary proton and helium components is described here and the results are compared with other recent measurements using other magnet spectrometers. The observed energy spectra at the top of the atmosphere can be represented by (1.27+-0.09)x10^4 E^(-2.75+-0.02) particles (m^2 GeV sr s)^-1, where E is the kinetic energy, for protons between 20 and 350 GeV and (4.8+-0.8)x10^2 E^(-2.67+...

  2. Balloon-Borne, High-Energy Astrophysics: Experiences from the 1960s to the 1980s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Gerald J.

    2008-01-01

    Observational high-energy astrophysics in the hard-x-ray and gamma-ray regions owes its development and initial successes to the balloon-borne development of detector systems, as well as pioneering observations, primarily in the timeframe from the 1960s to the 1990s. I will describe some of the first observations made by the Rice University balloon group in the 1960s, including the impetus for these observations. The appearance of SN 1987a led to several balloon-flight campaigns, sponsored by NASA, from Alice Springs, Australia in 1987 and 1988. During the 1980s, prototypes of instruments for the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory were flown on many balloon flights, which greatly enhanced the success of that mission.

  3. Balloon-assisted guide catheter positioning to overcome extreme cervical carotid tortuosity: technique and case experience

    OpenAIRE

    Peeling, Lissa; Fiorella, David

    2013-01-01

    Background and significance We describe a method by which to efficiently and atraumatically achieve distal positioning of a flexible guiding catheter beyond extreme cervical tortuosity using a hypercompliant temporary occlusion balloon. Methods A retrospective review of a prospective neuroendovascular database was used to identify cases in which a hypercompliant balloon catheter (Hyperform or Hyperglide, ev3/Covidien, Irvine, California, USA; Scepter or Scepter XC, Alisa Viejo, California, US...

  4. Search for Cosmic-Ray Antiparticles with Balloon-borne and Space-borne Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    von Doetinchem, Ph

    2009-01-01

    This thesis discusses two different approaches for the measurement of cosmic-ray antiparticles in the GeV to TeV energy range. The first part of this thesis discusses the prospects of antiparticle flux measurements with the proposed PEBS detector. The project allots long duration balloon flights at one of Earth's poles at an altitude of 40 km. GEANT4 simulations were carried out which determine the atmospheric background and attenuation especially for antiparticles. The second part covers the AMS-02 experiment which will be installed in 2010 on the International Space Station at an altitude of about 400 km for about three years to measure cosmic rays without the influence of Earth's atmosphere. The present work focuses on the anticoincidence counter system (ACC). The ACC is needed to reduce the trigger rate during periods of high fluxes and to reject external particles crossing the tracker from the side or particles resulting from interactions within the detector which would otherwise disturb the clean charge...

  5. Preliminary experience with drug-coated balloon angioplasty in primary percutaneous coronary intervention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hee; Hwa; Ho; Julian; Tan; Yau; Wei; Ooi; Kwok; Kong; Loh; Than; Htike; Aung; Nwe; Tun; Yin; Dasdo; Antonius; Sinaga; Fahim; Haider; Jafary; Paul; Jau; Lueng; Ong

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the clinical feasibility of using drugcoated balloon(DCB) angioplasty in patients undergoingprimary percutaneous coronary intervention(PPCI). Between January 2010 to September 2014,89 STelevation myocardial infarction patients(83% male,mean age 59 ± 14 years) with a total of 89 coronary lesions were treated with DCB during PPCI. Clinical outcomes are reported at 30 d follow-up. Left anterior descending artery was the most common target vessel for PCI(37%). Twenty-eight percent of the patients had underlying diabetes mellitus. Mean left ventricular ejection fraction was 44% ± 11%. DCB-only PCI was the predominant approach(96%) with the remaining 4% of patients receiving bail-out stenting. Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction(TIMI) 3 flow was successfully restored in 98% of patients. An average of 1.2 ± 0.5 DCB were used per patient,with mean DCB diameter of 2.6 ± 0.5 mm and average length of 23.2 ± 10.2 mm. At 30-d follow-up,there were 4 deaths(4.5%). No patients experienced abrupt closure of the infarctrelated artery and there was no reported target-lesion failure. Our preliminary experience showed that DCB angioplasty in PPCI was feasible and associated with a high rate of TIMI 3 flow and low 30-d ischaemic event.

  6. The atmospheric nightglow in the 300-400 nm wavelength Results by the balloon-borne experiment 'BABY'

    CERN Document Server

    Catalano, O; Biondo, B; Celi, F; Di Raffaele, R; Giarrusso, S; Linsley, J; Lo Bue, A; Mangano, A; Russo, F

    2002-01-01

    The balloon-borne experiment, named BAckground BYpass (BABY) belongs to a wider program that has as its final goal the detection and study of high-energy cosmic rays from space (satellite, Space Station). An information of fundamental importance for this class of projects concerns the nighttime background light. The instrument designed to detect fluorescence photons is basically composed of two collimated photomultipliers: a single photon-counting PMT and a charge integration PMT. We briefly report the details of the design, operation and performance of the detector, which was designed and completely built at the IFCAI-CNR Institute in Palermo. Preliminary analysis and results of the nocturnal background in the range of 300-400 nm are presented for the whole duration of the flight during the 1998 Mediterranean balloon flight campaign. A substantial part of the flight was at night over the sea.

  7. The pGAPS experiment: an engineering balloon flight of prototype GAPS

    CERN Document Server

    Fuke, Hideyuki; Aramaki, Tsuguo; Bando, Nobutaka; Boggs, Steven E; Doetinchem, Philip v; Gahbauer, Florian H; Hailey, Charles J; Koglin, Jason E; Madden, Norm; Mognet, Samuel Adam I; Mori, Kaya; Okazaki, Shun; Perez, Kerstin M; Yoshida, Tetsuya; Zweerink, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    The General Anti-Particle Spectrometer (GAPS) project is being carried out to search for primary cosmic-ray antiparticles especially for antideuterons produced by cold dark matter. GAPS plans to realize the science observation by Antarctic long duration balloon flights in late 2010's. In preparation for the Antarctic science flights, an engineering balloon flight using a prototype of the GAPS instrument, "pGAPS", was successfully carried out in June 2012 in Japan to verify the basic performance of each GAPS subsystem. The outline of the pGAPS flight campaign is briefly reported.

  8. Morbid Obesity: treatment with Bioenterics Intragastric Balloon (BIB), psychological and nursing care: our experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivero, Luigi; Galloro, Giuseppe; Ruggiero, Simona; Alessandro Telesca, Donato; Russo, Teresa; Amato, Maurizio; Di Palma, Immacolata; Iovino, Speranza; Amato, Bruno; Sivero, Stefania; Forestieri, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is considered a chronic disease, difficult to treat, and is the first cause of death in the world that is predictable. The surgical approach is limited to patients with severe obesity but there is an intermediate group who are not candidates for immediate surgery. The BioEnterics Intragastric Balloon (BIB) is recommended for weight reduction as a bridge to bariatric surgery. All patients in the study underwent a psychological evaluation prior to placement of the BIB.

  9. Telescope performance and image simulations of the balloon-borne coded-mask protoMIRAX experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penacchioni, A. V., E-mail: ana.penacchioni@inpe.br; Braga, J., E-mail: joao.braga@inpe.br; Castro, M. A., E-mail: manuel.castro@inpe.br; Sacahui, J. R., E-mail: rodrigo.sacahui@inpe.br; D’Amico, F., E-mail: flavio.damico@inpe.br [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE) São José dos Campos (Brazil)

    2015-12-17

    In this work we present the results of imaging simulations performed with the help of the GEANT4 package for the protoMIRAX hard X-ray balloon experiment. The instrumental background was simulated taking into account the various radiation components and their angular dependence, as well as a detailed mass model of the experiment. We modelled the meridian transits of the Crab Nebula and the Galactic Centre (CG) region during balloon flights in Brazil (∼ −23° of latitude and an altitude of ∼40 km) and introduced the correspondent spectra as inputs to the imaging simulations. We present images of the Crab and of three sources in the GC: 1E 1740.7-2942, GRS 1758-258 and GX 1+4. The results show that the protoMIRAX experiment is capable of making spectral and timing observations of bright hard X-ray sources as well as important imaging demonstrations that will contribute to the design of the MIRAX satellite mission.

  10. Telescope performance and image simulations of the balloon-borne coded-mask protoMIRAX experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Penacchioni, A V; Castro, M A; D'Amico, F

    2015-01-01

    In this work we present the results of imaging simulations performed with the help of the GEANT4 package for the protoMIRAX hard X-ray balloon experiment. The instrumental background was simulated taking into account the various radiation components and their angular dependence, as well as a detailed mass model of the experiment. We modeled the meridian transits of the Crab Nebula and the Galatic Centre region during balloon flights in Brazil ($\\sim -23^{\\circ}$ of latitude and an altitude of $\\sim 40 \\thinspace$ km) and introduced the correspondent spectra as inputs to the imaging simulations. We present images of the Crab and of three sources in the Galactic Centre region: 1E 1740.7-2942, GRS 1758-258 and GX 1+4. The results show that the protoMIRAX experiment is capable of making spectral and timing observations of bright hard X-ray sources as well as important imaging demonstrations that will contribute to the design of the MIRAX satellite mission.

  11. Challenges of the opto-mechanical conceptual design of a small far-IR balloon experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dournaux, Jean-Laurent; Berthod, Christophe; Horville, David; Huet, Jean-Michel; Laporte, Philippe; Wiedner, Martina; Romanow, Alexia; Krieg, Jean-Michel; Pagani, Laurent; Evrard, Jean; Gomes, Albert; Jouret, Martine

    2014-07-01

    Astronomers require more and more precise instruments for their observations. Here we describe the challenges encountered in the optical and mechanical designs of the CIDRE (Campagne d'Identification du Deutérium par Réception hEtérodyne) project, which was to be flown on a high altitude balloon at 40 km. The project aimed to measure the transitions of the HD molecule at 2.675 THz band and some other THz lines in our galaxy. The astronomers asked to fly the biggest possible telescope in a standard balloon gondola, and required high pointing accuracy (7 arcsec). In January 2014, the technical project, including the optical and mechanical designs, was evaluated to be of excellent standard, but, for all that, the project was cancelled because of financial constraints. Nevertheless the phase A study allowed us to identify the optical and mechanical challenges of balloon projects and we were able to come up with a simple design, that fulfilled all the requirements. The 900 mm primary mirror and the rest of the optics were designed to be supported by a sandwich-panel composite structure with carbon epoxy skins and aluminum honeycomb core to improve the mechanical stiffness and the thermal behavior of the instrument without increasing its mass or its complexity. In this paper, we describe the optical design and the mechanical structure of the instrument. Finite element analysis is carried out to estimate the gravitational flexure and the thermal deformations, which can both harm the pointing accuracy and the performances of the instrument. These simulations show that the proposed design would fulfill the different requirements (pointing accuracy, landing survival as well as the dynamic behavior).

  12. EBEX-IDS: A Balloon-Borne Experiment to Observe and Separate Galactic Dust from Cosmic Inflation Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanany, Shaul

    Measurements of the imprint of inflationary gravity waves on the cosmic microwave background radiation are currently limited by uncertainty in the properties of polarized galactic dust. A balloon-borne platform probing frequency bands that are not accessible from the ground is uniquely suited to drastically reduce this uncertainty. We propose to advance the technology readiness level of EBEX-IDS, a long-duration balloon-borne experiment that will measure the polarization of galactic dust at 360 GHz with 36 times lower power spectrum noise, compared to the Planck satellite. EBEX-IDS will have 20,562 detectors, spread over 7 frequency bands between 150 and 360 GHz. Using its high sensitivity and broad-bandwidth EBEX-IDS will determine the spectral index of polarized dust emission and its B-mode power spectrum at 150 GHz with an unprecedented accuracy of 0.04% and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 42, respectively. EBEX-IDS proposes to use three types of sinuous antenna multichroic pixels (SAMPs) that are readout with a frequency domain multiplexed system. To advance the TRL if these technologies, we will fabricate and characterize SAMPs with the appropriate properties for use at the balloon environment. We will investigate low power readout systems that are suitable for use aboard EBEX-IDS. We will implement a prototype end-to-end system in the laboratory consisting of SAMP wafers and the intended readout system, and measure its noise, frequency response, and power consumption properties. The work will be carried out by a postdoctoral fellow and graduate student at the University of Minnesota, and a newly hired person at the University of California, Berkeley.

  13. Beam test calibration of the balloon-borne imaging calorimeter for the CREAM experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Marrocchesi, P S; Bagliesi, M G; Basti, A; Bigongiari, G; Castellina, A; Ciocci, M A; Di Virgilio, A; Lomtatze, T; Ganel, O; Kim, K C; Lee, M H; Ligabue, F; Lutz, L; Maestro, P; Malinine, A; Meucci, M; Millucci, V; Morsani, F; Seo, E S; Sina, R; Wu, J; Wu, J; Yoon, Y S; Zei, R; Zinn, S Y

    2010-01-01

    CREAM (Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass) is a multi-flight balloon mission designed to collect direct data on the elemental composition and individual energy spectra of cosmic rays. Two instrument suites have been built to be flown alternately on a yearly base. The tungsten/Sci-Fi imaging calorimeter for the second flight, scheduled for December 2005, was calibrated with electron and proton beams at CERN. A calibration procedure based on the study of the longitudinal shower profile is described and preliminary results of the beam test are presented.

  14. Measurement of polar stratospheric NO2 from the 23rd and 24th Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE) balloon experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibasaki, K.; Iwagami, N.; Ogawa, T.

    1985-01-01

    As a part of the Japanese activities of MAP in the Antarctica, balloon-borne measurements of the stratospheric NO2 profile were planned and carried out by the JARE 23rd and 24th wintering parties. Few results have been reported so far as the stratospheric NO2 profile at high latitude. There were no reported balloon measurements carried out in the Southern Hemisphere. Profiles are presented for the first balloon-borne measurement of the stratospheric NO2 in the Antarctica. Three balloons named JA21, JA25 and JA26 were launched from Syowa Station (69 deg S, 35.6 deg E) using 5000 cu. cm plastic balloons. JA21 balloon was launched on November 24, 1982, and JA25 and JA26 balloons on November 12 and 20, 1983, respectively.

  15. BLASTbus electronics: general-purpose readout and control for balloon-borne experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, S. J.; Ade, P. A.; Amiri, M.; Angilè, F. E.; Bock, J. J.; Bond, J. R.; Bryan, S. A.; Chiang, H. C.; Contaldi, C. R.; Crill, B. P.; Devlin, M. J.; Dober, B.; Doré, O. P.; Farhang, M.; Filippini, J. P.; Fissel, L. M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Fukui, Y.; Galitzki, N.; Gambrel, A. E.; Gandilo, N. N.; Golwala, S. R.; Gudmundsson, J. E.; Halpern, M.; Hasselfield, M.; Hilton, G. C.; Holmes, W. A.; Hristov, V. V.; Irwin, K. D.; Jones, W. C.; Kermish, Z. D.; Klein, J.; Korotkov, A. L.; Kuo, C. L.; MacTavish, C. J.; Mason, P. V.; Matthews, T. G.; Megerian, K. G.; Moncelsi, L.; Morford, T. A.; Mroczkowski, T. K.; Nagy, J. M.; Netterfield, C. B.; Novak, G.; Nutter, D.; O'Brient, R.; Ogburn, R. W.; Pascale, E.; Poidevin, F.; Rahlin, A. S.; Reintsema, C. D.; Ruhl, J. E.; Runyan, M. C.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Shariff, J. A.; Soler, J. D.; Thomas, N. E.; Trangsrud, A.; Truch, M. D.; Tucker, C. E.; Tucker, G. S.; Tucker, R. S.; Turner, A. D.; Ward-Thompson, D.; Weber, A. C.; Wiebe, D. V.; Young, E. Y.

    2014-07-01

    We present the second generation BLASTbus electronics. The primary purposes of this system are detector readout, attitude control, and cryogenic housekeeping, for balloon-borne telescopes. Readout of neutron transmutation doped germanium (NTD-Ge) bolometers requires low noise and parallel acquisition of hundreds of analog signals. Controlling a telescope's attitude requires the capability to interface to a wide variety of sensors and motors, and to use them together in a fast, closed loop. To achieve these different goals, the BLASTbus system employs a flexible motherboard-daughterboard architecture. The programmable motherboard features a digital signal processor (DSP) and field-programmable gate array (FPGA), as well as slots for three daughterboards. The daughterboards provide the interface to the outside world, with versions for analog to digital conversion, and optoisolated digital input/output. With the versatility afforded by this design, the BLASTbus also finds uses in cryogenic, thermometry, and power systems. For accurate timing control to tie everything together, the system operates in a fully synchronous manner. BLASTbus electronics have been successfully deployed to the South Pole, and own on stratospheric balloons.

  16. BLASTbus electronics: general-purpose readout and control for balloon-borne experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Benton, S J; Amiri, M; Angilè, F E; Bock, J J; Bond, J R; Bryan, S A; Chiang, H C; Contaldi, C R; Crill, B P; Devlin, M J; Dober, B; Doré, O P; Dowell, C D; Farhang, M; Filippini, J P; Fissel, L M; Fraisse, A A; Fukui, Y; Galitzki, N; Gambrel, A E; Gandilo, N N; Golwala, S R; Gudmundsson, J E; Halpern, M; Hasselfield, M; Hilton, G C; Holmes, W A; Hristov, V V; Irwin, K D; Jones, W C; Kermish, Z D; Klein, J; Korotkov, A L; Kuo, C L; MacTavish, C J; Mason, P V; Matthews, T G; Megerian, K G; Moncelsi, L; Morford, T A; Mroczkowski, T K; Nagy, J M; Netterfield, C B; Novak, G; Nutter, D; O'Brient, R; Ogburn, R W; Pascale, E; Poidevin, F; Rahlin, A S; Reintsema, C D; Ruhl, J E; Runyan, M C; Savini, G; Scott, D; Shariff, J A; Soler, J D; Thomas, N E; Trangsrud, A; Truch, M D; Tucker, C E; Tucker, G S; Tucker, R S; Turner, A D; Ward-Thompson, D; Weber, A C; Wiebe, D V; Young, E Y

    2014-01-01

    We present the second generation BLASTbus electronics. The primary purposes of this system are detector readout, attitude control, and cryogenic housekeeping, for balloon-borne telescopes. Readout of neutron transmutation doped germanium (NTD-Ge) bolometers requires low noise and parallel acquisition of hundreds of analog signals. Controlling a telescope's attitude requires the capability to interface to a wide variety of sensors and motors, and to use them together in a fast, closed loop. To achieve these different goals, the BLASTbus system employs a flexible motherboard-daughterboard architecture. The programmable motherboard features a digital signal processor (DSP) and field-programmable gate array (FPGA), as well as slots for three daughterboards. The daughterboards provide the interface to the outside world, with versions for analog to digital conversion, and optoisolated digital input/output. With the versatility afforded by this design, the BLASTbus also finds uses in cryogenic, thermometry, and powe...

  17. [Recanalization of the peripheral arteries by laser thermal balloon angioplasty. 2 years of clinical experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riambau Alonso, V; Masotti Centol, M; Latorre Vilallonga, J; Viver Manresa, E; Crexells Figueres, C; Oriol Palou, A

    1991-01-01

    Laser angioplasty represents an attractive alternative to overcome the limitations of balloon angioplasty. We describe our results with laser thermal balloon angioplasty (LTBA) in the treatment of atherosclerosis obliterans in the lower limbs after two years clinical follow up. We also analyse the influence of lesion characteristics on immediate results. Thirty seven patients (34 men), whose mean age was 58 +/- 9 years, were included in this study. Occlusive arterial disease (Fontaine stage II-IV), with 39 significant haemodynamic arterial lesions were present in all of them. Ankle/brachial Doppler index was O,51 +/- 0,17. Eighteen lesions were located in the iliac area (13 stenoses 2,3 +/- 1 cm of length and 5 occlusions 4,2 +/- 3 cm) and 21 lesions in femoro-popliteal area (5 stenoses 2,6 +/- 2 cm and 16 occlusions 5,7 +/- 3 cm). A percutaneous procedure was used in 38 cases and only in one case a femoral dissection was necessary. The laser source was argon in 26 cases and Nd-YAG in 13. The overall immediate angiographic and clinical success was 85% (89% in iliac lesions and 81% in femoropopliteal lesions; 100% in stenoses and 70% in occlusions). The presence of occlusion (p less than 0,01) and/or calcium (p less than O,05) influenced negatively the immediate results. No major complications were observed. Seven (17%) minor complications occurred, but no emergency surgery was necessary. The ankle/brachial Doppler index after treatment was 0,82 +/- 0,21. Cumulative clinical patency was 91% for successfully treated patients after two years follow up. We conclude that LTBA represents an effective and less aggressive way to treat atherosclerosis obliterans.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Balloon kyphoplasty: an experience of 38 patients with painful osteoporotic vertebral compressive fractures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qiang; ZOU De-wei; HAI Yong; MA Hua-song; BAI Ke-wen

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of percutaneous balloon kyphoplasty as a new therapy for patients with painful osteoporotic vertebral compressive fractures of the lumbar and thoracic spine.Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted in 38 consecutive patients (28 females, 10 males), whose ages ranged from 56 to 82 years (mean age 72 years). The symptom- and sign-positive spinal segment was identified by MRI. The time between onset of symptoms and surgical intervention ranged from 2 days to 1 year. 62 segments (36 thoracic, 26 lumbar) were treated in this cohort. The pain score estimated by Visual Analog Scale and activity degree were assessed immediately after operation and at 1-, 6-,and 12-month postoperative follow-up. Preoperative and postoperative anterior, midline vertebral heights in fractured vertebrae were measured on lateral radiographs to evaluate the effect of the procedure.Results: The method achieved a swift pain relief associated with an evidently increased weight-bearing ability. The pain score was reduced from 8. 2 to 2.4 points.The anterior and midline vertebral heights in 62 fractured vertebral bodies increased up to 82.76% ±26.84%,88.82 % ± 21.75 % and the wedge decreased from 15 to 8 degrees. This effect persisted at least over a period of two years. The procedure did not induce narrowing of the spinal canal and no severe complications occurred.Conclusions: Balloon kyphoplasty can result in immediate clinical improvement of mobility and pain relief,increase vertebral body height, and quickly return patient's activity. The short-term results are approved excellent, and the long-term results need further judgment.

  19. Performance of the high-altitude balloon experiment Roto-lok drive gimbal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulthess, Marcus R.; Ardaman, Andrew A.; Baugh, Steven; Carson, Donald G.

    1994-07-01

    This paper presents and discusses laboratory performance measurements of a Roto-Lok drive system for the HABE azimuth and elevation gimbals. The HABE system is a 7,000 lb acquisition tracking and pointing (ATP) balloon-launched vehicle. The primary azimuth and elevation drive systems are zero-backlash torque multipliers referred to by the trade name Roto-Lok rotary drive and designed by Sagebrush Technology, Inc. The Roto-Lok used in the azimuth gimbal has a limited 320 deg of angular travel; therefore, it is supplemented with a secondary drive element to provide unlimited travel. This secondary drive is used to counteract the gross angles resulting from the freely rotating nature of the untethered balloon system. The Roto-Lok drive is used for the fine tracking and pointing of the gimbals. Both the azimuth and elevation Rota-Lok drives are tandem drives with an end-to-end ratio of 72:1. Performance specifications developed from the mission requirements are compared against the actual system performance measurements. The entire gimbaled azimuth and elevation systems are required to point in inertial space to less than 250 (mu) rad RMS over the band DC to 100 Hz for each axis. Performance measurements better than the specification were measured. The primary gimbal base-motion disturbances, however, are due to the motor cogging torque or torque ripple. A brief discussion of the measurement methods and the control system used to drive the gimbals is presented. Several system anomalies, such as the structural compliance between the drive element and the inertial rate sensors and the coarse gear backlash, are discussed in terms of their impact on the gimbal control system.

  20. PILOT: a balloon-borne experiment to measure the polarized FIR emission of dust grains in the interstellar medium

    CERN Document Server

    Misawa, R; Ade, P; Andre, Y; deBernardis, P; Bouzit, M; Charra, M; Crane, B; Dubois, J P; Engel, C; Griffin, M; Hargrave, P; Leriche, B; Longval, Y; Maes, S; Marty, C; Marty, W; Masi, S; Mot, B; Narbonne, J; Pajot, F; Pisano, G; Ponthieu, N; Ristorcelli, I; Rodriguez, L; Roudil, G; Salatino, M; Savini, G; Tucker, C

    2014-01-01

    Future cosmology space missions will concentrate on measuring the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background, which potentially carries invaluable information about the earliest phases of the evolution of our universe. Such ambitious projects will ultimately be limited by the sensitivity of the instrument and by the accuracy at which polarized foreground emission from our own Galaxy can be subtracted out. We present the PILOT balloon project which will aim at characterizing one of these foreground sources, the polarization of the dust continuum emission in the diffuse interstellar medium. The PILOT experiment will also constitute a test-bed for using multiplexed bolometer arrays for polarization measurements. We present the results of ground tests obtained just before the first flight of the instrument.

  1. PILOT: a balloon-borne experiment to measure the polarized FIR emission of dust grains in the interstellar medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, J.-Ph.; Ade, P.; André, Y.; Aumont, J.; Bautista, L.; Bray, N.; Bernardis, P. de; Boulade, O.; Bousquet, F.; Bouzit, M.; Buttice, V.; Caillat, A.; Charra, M.; Chaigneau, M.; Crane, B.; Crussaire, J.-P.; Douchin, F.; Doumayrou, E.; Dubois, J.-P.; Engel, C.; Etcheto, P.; Gélot, P.; Griffin, M.; Foenard, G.; Grabarnik, S.; Hargrave, P.; Hughes, A.; Laureijs, R.; Lepennec, Y.; Leriche, B.; Longval, Y.; Maestre, S.; Maffei, B.; Martignac, J.; Marty, C.; Marty, W.; Masi, S.; Mirc, F.; Misawa, R.; Montel, J.; Montier, L.; Mot, B.; Narbonne, J.; Nicot, J.-M.; Pajot, F.; Parot, G.; Pérot, E.; Pimentao, J.; Pisano, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rodriguez, L.; Roudil, G.; Salatino, M.; Savini, G.; Simonella, O.; Saccoccio, M.; Tapie, P.; Tauber, J.; Torre, J.-P.; Tucker, C.

    2016-08-01

    Future cosmology space missions will concentrate on measuring the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background, which potentially carries invaluable information about the earliest phases of the evolution of our universe. Such ambitious projects will ultimately be limited by the sensitivity of the instrument and by the accuracy at which polarized foreground emission from our own Galaxy can be subtracted out. We present the PILOT balloon project, which aims at characterizing one of these foreground sources, the polarized continuum emission by dust in the diffuse interstellar medium. The PILOT experiment also constitutes a test-bed for using multiplexed bolometer arrays for polarization measurements. This paper presents the instrument and its expected performances. Performance measured during ground calibrations of the instrument and in flight will be described in a forthcoming paper.

  2. Determining the Detection Efficiency and Background Level of ATIC Electron Observation from Flight Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, J.; Wu, J.; Guzik, T. G.; Wefel, J. P.; Isbert, J.; Adams, J. H., Jr.; Christl, M.; Watts, J.; Ahn, H. S.; Kim, K. C.; Seo, E. S.; Wu, J.; Bashindzhagyan, G. L.; Kouznetsov, E. N.; Panasyuk, M. I.; Sokolskaya, N. V.; Panov, A. D.; Zatsepin, V. I.

    2009-01-01

    Observations of Cosmic-ray electrons are difficult due to the large flux of cosmic ray hadrons. The event selection efficiency and background levels can be estimated from flight data for the ATIC instrument. This reduces the dependence upon Monte Carlo simulations, which show differences between different codes, thereby reducing the systematic errors resulting from analyses that only use simulations. This paper discusses some of the methods used in the ATIC analysis to determine the detection efficiency and background level for the flight data.

  3. 5,120 Superconducting Bolometers for the PIPER Balloon-Borne CMB Polarization Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benford, Dominic J.; Chuss, David T.; Hilton, Gene C.; Irwin, Kent D.; Jethava, Nikhil S.; Jhabvala, Christine A.; Kogut, Alan J.; Miller, Timothy M.; Mirel, Paul; Moseley, S. Harvey; Rostem, Karwan; Sharp, Elmer H.; Staguhn, Johannes G.; Stiehl, gregory M.; Voellmer, George M.; Wollack, Edward J.

    2010-01-01

    We are constructing the Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER) to measure the polarization o[ the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and search for the imprint of gravity waves produced during an inflationary epoch in the early universe. The signal is faint and lies behind confusing foregrounds, both astrophysical and cosmological, and so many detectors are required to complete the measurement in a limited time. We will use four of our matured 1,280 pixel, high-filling-factor backshort-under-grid bolometer arrays for efficient operation at the PIPER CMB wavelengths. All four arrays observe at a common wavelength set by passband filters in the optical path. PIPER will fly four times to observe at wavelengths of 1500, 1100, 850, and 500 microns in order to separate CMB from foreground emission. The arrays employ leg-isolated superconducting transition edge sensor bolometers operated at 128mK; tuned resonant backshorts for efficient optical coupling; and a second-generation superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) multiplexer readout. We describe the design, development, and performance of PIPER bo|ometer array technology to achieve background-limited sensitivity for a cryogenic balloon-borne telescope.

  4. PILOT: a balloon-borne experiment to measure the polarized FIR emission of dust grains in the interstellar medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misawa, Ruka; Bernard, Jean-Philippe

    Measuring precisely the faint polarization of the Far-Infrared and sub-millimetre sky is one of the next observational challenges of modern astronomy and cosmology. In particular, detection of the B-mode polarization from the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) may reveal the inflationary periods in the very early universe. Such measurements will require very high sensitivity and very low instrumental systematic effects. As for measurements of the CMB intensity, sensitive measurements of the CMB polarization will be made difficult by the presence of foreground emission from our own Milky Way, which is orders of magnitude stronger than the faint polarized cosmological signal. Such foreground emission will have to be understood very accurately and removed from cosmological measurements. This polarized emission is also interesting in itself, since it brings information relevant to the process of star formation, about the orientation of the magnetic field in our Galaxy through the alignment of dust grains. I will first summarize our current knowledge in this field, on the basis of extinction and emission measurements from the ground and airborne experiments and in the context of the recent measurements with the Planck satellite. I will then describe the concept and science goals of the PILOT balloon-borne experiment project (http://pilot.irap.omp.eu). This project is funded by the French space agency (CNES: “Centre National des Etudes Spatiales”) and currently under final assembly and tests. The experiment is dedicated to measuring precisely the linear polarization of the faint interstellar diffuse dust emission in the Far-Infrared in our Galaxy and nearby galaxies. It is composed of a 0.83 m diameter telescope and a Helium 4 deware accommodating the rest of the optics and 2 focal plane arrays with a total of 2048 individual bolometers cooled to 300 mK, developed for the PACS instruments on board the Hershel satellite. It will be operating in two broad photometric

  5. Performance characteristics of retrograde single-balloon endoscopy: A single center experience

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kaci E Christian; Karan Kapoor; Eric M Goldberg

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the technical success, diagnostic yield(DY) and therapeutic potential of retrograde single balloon enteroscopy(rS BE). METHODS: A retrospective review of 136 rS BE procedures performed at a tertiary academic referral center from January 2006 and September 2013 was completed. Patient characteristics including age, gender and inpatient status were collected. The indication for the procedure was categorized into one of three groups: Obscure gastrointestinal bleeding(GIB), evaluation for Crohn’s disease and abnormal imaging. Procedural characteristics including insertion depth(ID), procedure time, concordance with pre-procedural imaging and complications were also recorded. Lastly, DY, defined as the percentage of cases producing either a definitive diagnosis or findings that could explain clinical symptoms and therapeutic yield(TY), defined as the percentage of cases in which a definitive intervention was performed, were determined. Mucosal tattooing and biopsy alone were not included in the TY. RESULTS: A total of 136 rS BE procedures were identified. Mean patient age was 57.5(± 16.2) years, 67(49.2%) were male, and 110(80.9%) procedures were performed on an outpatient basis. Indications for rS BE included GIB in 55(40.4%), evaluation of inflammatory bowel disease(IBD) in 29(21.3%), and imaging suggestive of pathology other than GIB or IBD in 43(31.6%). Nine(6.6%) rS BEs were performed for other indications. Mean ID was 68.3(± 39.3) cm proximal to the ileocecal valve and mean time to completion was 41.7(± 15.5) min. Overall, 73(53.7%) cases were diagnostic and 25(18.4%) cases were therapeutic in which interventions(argon plasma coagulation, stricture dilatation, polypectomy, etc.) were performed. Pre-procedural imaging was performed in 88(64.7%) patients. Endoscopic concordance of positive imaging findings was seen in 31(35.2%) cases. Follow up data was available in 93(68.4%) patients; 2(2.2%) reported post-procedural abdominal pain within 30 d

  6. Inquiry-Based Learning in Remote Sensing: A Space Balloon Educational Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountrakis, Giorgos; Triantakonstantis, Dimitrios

    2012-01-01

    Teaching remote sensing in higher education has been traditionally restricted in lecture and computer-aided laboratory activities. This paper presents and evaluates an engaging inquiry-based educational experiment. The experiment was incorporated in an introductory remote sensing undergraduate course to bridge the gap between theory and…

  7. The Imaging Magnetograph eXperiment (IMaX) for the Sunrise balloon-borne solar observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Pillet, V Martinez; Alvarez-Herrero, A; Domingo, V; Bonet, J A; Fernandez, L Gonzalez; Jimenez, A Lopez; Pastor, C; Blesa, J L Gasent; Mellado, P; Piqueras, J; Aparicio, B; Balaguer, M; Ballesteros, E; Belenguer, T; Rubio, L R Bellot; Berkefeld, T; Collados, M; Deutsch, W; Feller, A; Girela, F; Grauf, B; Heredero, R L; Herranz, M; Jeronimo, J M; Laguna, H; Meller, R; Menendez, M; Morales, R; Suarez, D Orozco; Ramos, G; Reina, M; Ramos, J L; Rodriguez, P; Sanchez, A; Uribe-Patarroyo, N; Barthol, P; Gandorfer, A; Knoelker, M; Schmidt, W; Solanki, S K; Dominguez, S Vargas

    2010-01-01

    The Imaging Magnetograph eXperiment (IMaX) is a spectropolarimeter built by four institutions in Spain that flew on board the Sunrise balloon-borne telesocope in June 2009 for almost six days over the Arctic Circle. As a polarimeter IMaX uses fast polarization modulation (based on the use of two liquid crystal retarders), real-time image accumulation, and dual beam polarimetry to reach polarization sensitivities of 0.1%. As a spectrograph, the instrument uses a LiNbO3 etalon in double pass and a narrow band pre-filter to achieve a spectral resolution of 85 mAA. IMaX uses the high Zeeman sensitive line of Fe I at 5250.2 AA and observes all four Stokes parameters at various points inside the spectral line. This allows vector magnetograms, Dopplergrams, and intensity frames to be produced that, after reconstruction, reach spatial resolutions in the 0.15-0.18 arcsec range over a 50x50 arcsec FOV. Time cadences vary between ten and 33 seconds, although the shortest one only includes longitudinal polarimetry. The s...

  8. Initial Experience with Balloon-Occluded Trans-catheter Arterial Chemoembolization (B-TACE) for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruyama, Mitsunari, E-mail: mitunari@med-shimane.u.ac.jp; Yoshizako, Takeshi, E-mail: yosizako@med.shimane-u.ac.jp; Nakamura, Tomonori, E-mail: t-naka@med.shimane-u.ac.jp; Nakamura, Megumi, E-mail: megumi@med.shimane-u.ac.jp; Yoshida, Rika, E-mail: yoshidar@med.shimane-u.ac.jp; Kitagaki, Hajime, E-mail: kitagaki@med.shimane-u.ac.jp [Shimane University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Japan)

    2016-03-15

    PurposeThis study was performed to evaluate the accumulation of lipiodol emulsion (LE) and adverse events during our initial experience of balloon-occluded trans-catheter arterial chemoembolization (B-TACE) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) compared with conventional TACE (C-TACE).MethodsB-TACE group (50 cases) was compared with C-TACE group (50 cases). The ratio of the LE concentration in the tumor to that in the surrounding embolized liver parenchyma (LE ratio) was calculated after each treatment. Adverse events were evaluated according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Effects (CTCAE) version 4.0.ResultsThe LE ratio at the level of subsegmental showed a statistically significant difference between the groups (t test: P < 0.05). Only elevation of alanine aminotransferase was more frequent in the B-TACE group, showing a statistically significant difference (Mann–Whitney test: P < 0.05). While B-TACE caused severe adverse events (liver abscess and infarction) in patients with bile duct dilatation, there was no statistically significant difference in incidence between the groups. Multivariate logistic regression analysis suggested that the significant risk factor for liver abscess/infarction was bile duct dilatation (P < 0.05).ConclusionThe LE ratio at the level of subsegmental showed a statistically significant difference between the groups (t test: P < 0.05). B-TACE caused severe adverse events (liver abscess and infarction) in patients with bile duct dilatation.

  9. The Design, Development and Test of Balloonborne and Groundbased Lidar Systems. Volume 2. Flight Test of Atmospheric Balloon Lidar Experiment, ABLE 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-01

    Balloon Lidar E-xperiment) is part of Air Force Phillips Laboratory’s continuing interest in developing techniques for making remote measurements of...shaft is rotated until the two pointing mirrors are reflecting away from the payload. Using an autocollimator, the reticula pattern reflected from the...laser pointing mirror is made coincident with the reticula pattern reflected from the receiver pointing mirror by adjusting the mounting of the former

  10. Hyperspectral Polarimeter for Monitoring Balloon Strain Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's latest generation of superpressure, ultra long duration balloons (ULDB) extend the flight time for stratospheric experiments to levels previously unattainable...

  11. Resolving Fermi, PAMELA and ATIC anomalies in split supersymmetry without R-parity

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Chuan-Hung; Zhuridov, Dmitry V

    2009-01-01

    A long-lived decaying dark matter as a resolution to Fermi, PAMELA and ATIC anomalies is investigated in the framework of split supersymmetry (SUSY) without R-parity, where the neutralino is regarded as the dark matter and the extreme fine-tuned couplings for the long-lived neutralino are naturally evaded in the usual approach. The energy spectra of electron and positron are from not only the direct neutralino decays denoted by $\\chi\\to e^+ e^- \

  12. Resolving Fermi, PAMELA and ATIC anomalies in split supersymmetry without R-parity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chuan-Hung [National Cheng-Kung University, Department of Physics, Tainan (China); Geng, Chao-Qiang [National Center for Theoretical Sciences, Hsinchu (China); Zhuridov, Dmitry V. [National Tsing-Hua University, Department of Physics, Hsinchu (China)

    2010-06-15

    A long-lived decaying dark matter as a resolution to Fermi, PAMELA and ATIC anomalies is investigated in the framework of split supersymmetry (SUSY) without R-parity, where the neutralino is regarded as the dark matter and the extreme fine-tuned couplings for the long-lived neutralino are naturally evaded in the usual approach. The energy spectra of electron and positron are from not only the direct neutralino decays denoted by {chi}{yields}e{sup +}e{sup -}{nu}, but also the decaying chains such as {chi}{yields}e{sup +}{nu}{mu}({yields}{nu}{sub {mu}}e anti {nu}{sub e}). We find that with a proper lifetime of the neutralino, slepton-mediated effects could explain the ATIC and PAMELA data well, but an inconsistence occurs to the Fermi and PAMELA data without considering the ATIC one. However, by a suitable combination of {chi}{yields}e{sup +} e{sup -}{nu} and {chi}{yields}e{sup +}{nu}{mu}({yields}{nu}{sub {mu}}e anti {nu}{sub e}), the sneutrino-mediated effects could simultaneously account for the Fermi and PAMELA data. (orig.)

  13. An implementation of Software Defined Radios for federated aerospace networks: Informing satellite implementations using an inter-balloon communications experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtyamov, Rustam; Cruz, Ignasi Lluch i.; Matevosyan, Hripsime; Knoll, Dominik; Pica, Udrivolf; Lisi, Marco; Golkar, Alessandro

    2016-06-01

    Novel space mission concepts such as Federated Satellite Systems promise to enhance sustainability, robustness, and reliability of current missions by means of in-orbit sharing of space assets. This new paradigm requires the utilization of several technologies in order to confer flexibility and re-configurability to communications systems among heterogeneous spacecrafts. This paper illustrates the results of the experimental demonstration of the value proposition of federated satellites through two stratospheric balloons interoperating with a tracking ground station through Commercial Off-The-Shelf Software Defined Radios (SDRs). The paper reports telemetry analysis and characterizes the communications network that was realized in-flight. Furthermore, it provides details on an in-flight anomaly experienced by one of the balloons, which was recovered through the use of the federated technology that has been developed. The anomaly experienced led to the early loss of the directional link from the ground station to the affected stratospheric balloon node after 15 min in flight. Nevertheless, thanks to the federated approach among the systems, the ground station was still able to retrieve the balloon's data in real time through the network system, for which the other balloon operated as a federated relay for 45 min in flight, uninterrupted. In other words, the federated approach to the system allowed triplicating the useful lifetime of the defective system, which would have not been possible to realize otherwise. Such anomaly coincidentally demonstrated the value of the federated approach to space systems design. The paper paves the way for future tests on space assets.

  14. Scientific Ballooning Activities and Recent Developments in Technology and Instrumentation of the TIFR Balloon Facility, Hyderabad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buduru, Suneel Kumar

    2016-07-01

    The Balloon Facility of Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR-BF) is a unique center of expertise working throughout the year to design, fabricate and launch scientific balloons mainly for space astronomy, atmospheric science and engineering experiments. Recently TIFR-BF extended its support to new user scientists for conducting balloon launches for biological and middle atmospheric sciences. For the first time two balloon launches conducted for sending live lab rats to upper stratosphere and provided launch support for different balloon campaigns such as Tropical Tropopause Dynamics (TTD) to study water vapour content in upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric regions over Hyderabad and the other balloon campaign to study the Asian Tropopause Aerosol Layer (BATAL) during the Indian summer monsoon season. BATAL is the first campaign to conduct balloon launches during active (South-West) monsoon season using zero pressure balloons of different volumes. TIFR-BF also provided zero pressure and sounding balloon support to various research institutes and organizations in India and for several international space projects. In this paper, we present details on our increased capability of balloon fabrication for carrying heavier payloads, development of high strength balloon load tapes and recent developments of flight control and safety systems. A summary of the various flights conducted in two years will be presented along with the future ballooning plans.

  15. Scientific ballooning in India: recent developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, M. N.; Damle, S. V.

    The National Scientific Balloon Facility (NBF) of the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR) has been conducting regular balloon flights for various experiments in the areas of Space Astronomy and Atmospheric Sciences. A continuous improvement in all aspects of Scientific Ballooning through a sustained R and D programme ensures uptodate services and a better handle on the design specifications for the balloon. Recent developments in balloon grade films, continuous improvements in design specifications, balloon manufacturing methods, flight operational procedures and improved balloon flight capabilities have resulted in a greatly improved flight performance in the last five years. A launch capability upgradation programme in terms of new launch spool and new launch vehicle has been initiated to be able to safely launch balloons with gross lifts upto 3500 kg, balloon volumes upto 450,000 m^3 and payloads upto 1400 kg. A series of steps have been initiated to improve long duration flight capabilities. In this paper, we present details on some of these aspects of Scientific Ballooning in India.

  16. A 16 channel frequency-domain-modulation readout system with custom superconducting LC filters for the SWIPE instrument of the balloon-borne LSPE experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Signorelli, G., E-mail: giovanni.signorelli@pi.infn.it [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Baldini, A.M. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Bemporad, C. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Università di Pisa, Dipartimento di Fisica, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Biasotti, M. [INFN Sezione di Genova and Università degli studi di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy); Cei, F. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Università di Pisa, Dipartimento di Fisica, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Ceriale, V.; Corsini, D.; Fontanelli, F. [INFN Sezione di Genova and Università degli studi di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy); Galli, L.; Gallucci, G. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Gatti, F. [INFN Sezione di Genova and Università degli studi di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy); Incagli, M.; Grassi, M. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Nicolò, D. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Università di Pisa, Dipartimento di Fisica, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Spinella, F. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Vaccaro, D. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Università di Pisa, Dipartimento di Fisica, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Venturini, M. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, 56126 Pisa (Italy)

    2016-07-11

    We present the design, implementation and first tests of the superconducting LC filters for the frequency domain readout of spiderweb TES bolometers of the SWIPE experiment on the balloon-borne LSPE mission which aims at measuring the linear polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background at large angular scales to find the imprint of inflation on the B-mode CMB polarization. LC filters are designed, produced and tested at the INFN sections of Pisa and Genoa where thin film deposition and cryogenic test facilities are present, and where also the TES spiderweb bolometers are being produced.

  17. Obesity and gastric balloon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed I Yasawy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The obesity epidemic, which is among the most common nutritional disorders, is rising rapidly worldwide. It leads to several health problems such as metabolic disorders, stroke, and even cancer. Efforts to control obesity with exercise and diet have a limited value in obese patients and different approaches to do this have been tried. In this paper, we share our experience with bioenteric intragastric balloon (BIB in treating obesity: Its safety, tolerability, and its efficacy in weight reduction. Materials and Methods: From January 2009 to September 2012, a total of 190 gastric balloons was inserted on patients at the endoscopy unit in King Fahd Hospital of the University, Al-Khobar. This is an evaluation of the first 100 patients. All the patients had a body mass index of over 30 kg/m 2 and were within the age range of 17-55 with a mean age of 32 years. After consent, preballoon investigation tests and anesthesia evaluation, BIB was inserted under monitored anesthesia care sedation in the endoscopy suite. The balloon was filled with 500-700 mls of stained saline. All patients′ were given an analgesic and antiemetic for a week and antisecretory proton pump inhibitor′s for 6 months. Diet and the importance of the exercise were part of the preballoon insertion phase and protocol. The balloon was removed after 6-12 months. Results: The weight loss response to BIB in the 100 patients are classified into four groups: In the uncooperative, noncompliant patients - the maximum weight loss was 7 kg, while in the most compliant patients the weight loss reached up to 39 kg. In addition, there was significant improvement into diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and fatty liveras. Its safety and tolerability were extremely acceptable. Conclusion: Our data indicates that in well-selected patients, BIB is an effective device, which with minimum complications helps to achieve body weight loss and resolve many obesity related

  18. Balloon contribution to the HyMeX (Hydrological in the Mediterranean Experiment) project: results and lessons of the deployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthou, Ségolène; Verdier, Nicolas; Drobinski, Philippe; Basdevant, Claude; Doerenbecher, Alexis; Fesquet, Clement; Durand, Pierre; Cocquerez, Philippe

    HyMeX is an international project that aims at improving our understanding of the water cycle and its variability over the Mediterranean Basin, with emphases on extreme events by means of monitoring and modelling the Mediterranean coupled system. In this frame, Boundary Layer Pressurized Balloons (BLPB) were part of the numerous instruments deployed during two special observation periods (SOPs) in autumn 2012 and winter 2013. Scientific instrumentation on board includes pressure, humidity, temperature sensors and a 3D GPS from which the balloon velocity can be deduced. Whether assimilated in models or directly used as observed data, balloons measurements allow to better understand the moisture transport contribution to Mediterranean heavy precipitation and the effect of air/sea interactions at mesoscale during Mistral/Tramontana events on ocean convection. Different stages were necessary for the deployment of the BLPB. First, the determination of the BLPB flight specifications (launch sites, flight altitude,...) was done using trajectory analysis based on ECMWF (I)FS and Météo-France (ARPEGE, AROME) Numerical Weather Forecast models for meteorological situations corresponding to the HyMeX ``target event'' (heavy precipitation in fall; Mistral/Tramontana in winter). BLPBs were calibrated to fly near or below the top of the boundary layer. An assimilation system was also developed to assimilate in real time the BLPB’s data into the Météo-France Numerical Weather Forecast prediction system. The BLPB were successfully deployed during the two HyMeX special observation periods (SOP) in fall 2012 (5 September - 6 November) and winter 2013 (1 February - 15 March): begin{enumerate} The BAMED SOP1 balloon campaign, dedicated to the study of heavy precipitation events (HPE), took place in Minorca (Baleares). The CNES team with the help and support of the scientists launched 19 BLPBs from San Luis airport. Trajectories sampled a large sector of the Mediterranean Sea

  19. Short-term follow-up results of percutaneous mitral balloon valvuloplasty: A single-center experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulkadir Yıldız

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We sought to analyze short-term clinical, echocardiographic, and hemodynamic consequences of percutaneous mitral balloon valvuloplasty (PMBV in the treatment of rheumatic mitral stenosis (MS in our clinic. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 53 patients (49 females, 5 males; mean age 38±11 years who underwent PMBV for moderate or severe MS between January 2010 and October 2014. Procedural success was defined as the reaching a mitral valve area (MVA >1.5 cm2 and absence of grade 3 mitral regurgitation. Results: We were able to perform PMBV in 48 of 53 patients (91% and all the procedures that were completed were successful. PMBV couldn’t be performed in 3 patients due to inability to pass the mitral valve, 1 patient due to membranous obstructive vena cava and 1 patient due inability to perform septostomi. Two patients who underwent successful PMBV became symptomatic after an average of 14 months follow-up and mitral valve replacement was performed due to moderate-to-severe MS. Patients were followed for an average of 13 ± 8 months and atrial fibrillation development or embolic complications were not observed. Conclusion: Percutaneous mitral balloon valvuloplasty procedure is a safe and effective treatment approach with high success and low complication rates in experienced centers.

  20. The enzymatic activity of 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase/IMP cyclohydrolase (ATIC) is enhanced by NPM-ALK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boccalatte, Francesco E; Voena, Claudia; Riganti, Chiara;

    2009-01-01

    documented in cell lines and primary tumors carrying ALK proteins and other tyrosine kinases, including TPR-Met and wild type c-Met. Functional analyses revealed that ALK-mediated ATIC phosphorylation enhanced its enzymatic activity, dampering the methotrexate-mediated transformylase activity inhibition...

  1. Measurements of cosmic-ray secondary nuclei at high energies with the first flight of the CREAM balloon-borne experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Ahn, H S; Bagliesi, M G; Beatty, J J; Bigongiari, G; Boyle, P J; Brandt, T J; Childers, J T; Conklin, N B; Coutu, S; Duvernois, M A; Ganel, O; Han, J H; Hyun, H J; Jeon, J A; Kim, K C; Lee, J K; Lee, M H; Lutz, L; Maestro, P; Malinin, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Minnick, S A; Mognet, S I; Nam, S; Nutter, S L; Park, I H; Park, N H; Seo, E S; Sina, R; Swordy, S P; Wakely, S P; Wu, J; Yang, J; Yoon, Y S; Zei, R; Zinn, S Y

    2008-01-01

    We present new measurements of heavy cosmic-ray nuclei at high energies per- formed during the first flight of the balloon-borne cosmic-ray experiment CREAM (Cosmic-Ray Energetics And Mass). This instrument uses multiple charge detectors and a transition radiation detector to provide the first high accuracy measurements of the relative abundances of elements from boron to oxygen up to energies around 1 TeV/n. The data agree with previous measurements at lower energies and show a relatively steep decline (~E$^-0.6$ to E$^-0.5$) at high energies. They further show the source abundance of nitrogen relative to oxygen is ~10% in the TeV/n region.

  2. Nationwide Eclipse Ballooning Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman Des Jardins, Angela; Berk Knighton, W.; Larimer, Randal; Mayer-Gawlik, Shane; Fowler, Jennifer; Harmon, Christina; Koehler, Christopher; Guzik, Gregory; Flaten, James; Nolby, Caitlin; Granger, Douglas; Stewart, Michael

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of the Nationwide Eclipse Ballooning Project is to make the most of the 2017 rare eclipse event in four main areas: public engagement, workforce development, partnership development, and science. The Project is focused on two efforts, both student-led: online live video of the eclipse from the edge of space and the study of the atmospheric response to the eclipse. These efforts, however, involving more than 60 teams across the US, are challenging in many ways. Therefore, the Project is leveraging the NASA Space Grant and NOAA atmospheric science communities to make it a success. The first and primary topic of this poster is the NASA Space Grant supported online live video effort. College and high school students on 48 teams from 31 states will conduct high altitude balloon flights from 15-20 locations across the 8/21/2017 total eclipse path, sending live video and images from near space to a national website. Video and images of a total solar eclipse from near space are fascinating and rare. It’s never been done live and certainly not in a network of coverage across a continent. In addition to the live video to the web, these teams are engaged in several other science experiments as secondary payloads. We also briefly highlight the eclipse atmospheric science effort, where about a dozen teams will launch over one hundred radiosondes from across the 2017 path, recording an unprecedented atmospheric data sample. Collected data will include temperature, density, wind, humidity, and ozone measurements.

  3. Percutaneous closure of atrial septal defects without balloon sizing in adults: Experience of a tertiary referral center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Kaya

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We aimed to evaluate our clinical experienceand short-term results of percutaneous closure of secundumtype atrial septal defects (ASD in adults.Methods: We studied 71 patients (49 female, 22 male,mean age 35±14 years undergoing percutaneous closureof ASD between January 2010-October 2012 in ourclinic. All procedures were performed under sedoanalgesiawithout balloon sizing. Clinical characteristics of patients,properties of percutaneous closure intervention,complications and short-term results are evaluated.Results: Defect diameter measured by transesophagealechocardiographic examination was 19.8±6.4 mm. Devicesize used for percutaneous closure was 24.7±6.7mm. Procedure was successfully performed in 67 patients(94%. Four patients were referred for surgery because ofprocedural failure. During procedure, a patient developedtransient 2nd degree AV block, and another developeddevice thrombosis. Residual shunt was detected in threepatients at first day control echocardiographic examination.In the follow-up of 13±8 months, no residual shunt,embolic or arrhythmic complications were observed.Conclusion: Percutaneous closure of secundum ASD isa safe and effective method with high success and lowcomplication rates in experienced centers. J Clin Exp Invest2013; 4 (1: 67-72Key words: Secundum atrial septal defect, percutaneousclosure, sedoanalgesia, transesophageal echocardiography

  4. Ballooning behavior in the golden orbweb spider Nephilapilipes (Araneae: Nephilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa M.J. Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ballooning, a mode of aerial dispersal in spiders, is an innate behavior that requires appropriate physiological and meteorological conditions. Although only rarely reported in the golden orbweb spiders, family Nephilidae, the large geographic distributions of most nephilids—in particular of Nephila species—would imply that these spiders likely routinely disperse by ballooning in spite of giant female sizes. Here we study ballooning behavior in the golden orbweb spider Nephila pilipes (Fabricius, 1793. Specifically, we test for the propensity of spiderlings to deploy ballooning as a dispersal mechanism. We subjected a total of 59 first-instar spiderlings to a wind experiment at two wind speeds (2.17 ± 0.02 m s-1 and 3.17 ± 0.02 m s-1 under laboratory conditions. Under an average wind speed of 3.17 m s-1, none of the spiderlings exhibited pre-ballooning or ballooning behavior. However, at an average wind speed of 2.17 m s-1, 53 (89.8% spiderlings showed pre-ballooning behavior, and 17 (32.1% of the pre-ballooners ultimately ballooned. Our results concur with prior reports on spiderlings of other families that pre-ballooning behavior is a requirement for ballooning to occur. Furthermore, although we cannot rule out other dispersal mechanisms such as synanthropic spread, our findings suggest that the widespread N. pilipes uses ballooning to colonize remote oceanic islands.

  5. Measurements of gondola motion on a stratospheric balloon flight

    CERN Document Server

    Safonova, Margarita; Sreejith, A G; Sarpotdar, Mayuresh; Ambily, S; Prakash, Ajin; Mathew, Joice; Murthy, Jayant; Anand, Devarajan; Kapardhi, B V N; Kumar, B Suneel; Kulkarni, P M

    2016-01-01

    Balloon experiments are an economically feasible method of conducting observations in astronomy that are not possible from the ground. The astronomical payload may include a telescope, a detector, and a pointing/stabilization system. Determining the attitude of the payload is of primary importance in such applications, to accurately point the detector/telescope to the desired direction. This is especially important in generally unstable lightweight balloon flights. However, the conditions at float altitudes, which can be reached by zero pressure balloons, could be more stable, enabling accurate pointings. We have used the Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU), placed on a stratospheric zero pressure balloon, to observe 3-axis motion of a balloon payload over a fight time of 4.5 hours, from launch to the float altitude of 31.2 km. The balloon was launched under nominal atmospheric conditions on May 8th 2016, from a Tata Institute of Fundamental Research Balloon Facility, Hyderabad.

  6. GHOST balloons around Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stearns, Charles R.

    1988-01-01

    The GHOST balloon position as a function of time data shows that the atmospheric circulation around the Antarctic Continent at the 100 mb and 200 mb levels is complex. The GHOST balloons supposedly follow the horizontal trajectory of the air at the balloon level. The position of GHOST balloon 98Q for a three month period in 1968 is shown. The balloon moved to within 2 deg of the South Pole on 1 October 1968 and then by 9 December 1968 was 35 deg from the South Pole and close to its position on 1 September 1968. The balloon generally moved from west to east but on two occasions moved in the opposite direction for a few days. The latitude of GHOST balloons 98Q and 149Z which was at 200 mb is given. Both balloons tended to get closer to the South Pole in September and October. Other GHOST balloons at the same pressure and time period may not indicate similar behavior.

  7. Power Systems Design for Long Duration Ballooning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stilwell, Bryan; Chuzel, Alain

    2016-01-01

    The Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility has been designing and building high-altitude balloon power systems for over 26 years. With that experience, we have found certain types of PV panels, batteries, and charge controllers that are reliable in stratospheric environments. The ultimate goal is to ensure that power systems will provide power reliably throughout the duration of an LDB flight. The purpose of this presentation is to provide some general guidelines and best practices for power system design.

  8. Clefting in pumpkin balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baginski, F.; Schur, W.

    NASA's effort to develop a large payload, high altitude, long duration balloon, the Ultra Long Duration Balloon, focuses on a pumpkin shape super-pressure design. It has been observed that a pumpkin balloon may be unable to pressurize into the desired cyclically symmetric equilibrium configuration, settling into a distorted, undesired stable state instead. Hoop stress considerations in the pumpkin design leads to choosing the lowest possible bulge radius, while robust deployment is favored by a large bulge radius. Some qualitative understanding of design aspects on undesired equilibria in pumpkin balloons has been obtained via small-scale balloon testing. Poorly deploying balloons have clefts, but most gores away from the cleft deploy uniformly. In this paper, we present models for pumpkin balloons with clefts. Long term success of the pumpkin balloon for NASA requires a thorough understanding of the phenomenon of multiple stable equilibria and means for quantitative assessment of measures that prevent their occurrence. This paper attempts to determine numerical thresholds of design parameters that distinguish between properly deploying designs and improperly deploying designs by analytically investigating designs in the vicinity of criticality. Design elements which may trigger the onset undesired equilibria and remedial measures that ensure deployment are discussed.

  9. Deployment Instabilities of Lobed-Pumpkin Balloon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashino, Kyoichi

    A lobed-pumpkin balloon, currently being developed in ISAS/JAXA as well as in NASA, is a promising vehicle for long duration scientific observations in the stratosphere. Recent ground and flight experiments, however, have revealed that the balloon has deployment instabilities under certain conditions. In order to overcome the instability problems, a next generation SPB called 'tawara' type balloon has been proposed, in which an additional cylindrical part is appended to the standard lobed-pumpkin balloon. The present study investigates the deployment stability of tawara type SPB in comparison to that of standard lobed-pumpkin SPB through eigenvalue analysis on the basis of finite element methods. Our numerical results show that tawara type SPB enjoys excellent deployment performance over the standard lobed-pumpkin SPBs.

  10. Advanced-warning system risk-reduction experiments: the Multispectral Measurements Program (MSMP) and the Balloon Altitude Mosaic Measurements (BAMM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Ken R.

    2000-12-01

    MSMP and BAMM were commissioned by the Air Force Space Division (AFSD) in the late seventies to generate data in support of the Advanced Warning System (AWS), a development activity to replace the space-based surveillance satellites of the Defense Support Program (DSP). These programs were carried out by the Air Force Geophysics Laboratory with planning and mentoring by Irving Spiro of The Aerospace Corporation, acting on behalf of the program managers, 1st Lt. Todd Frantz, 1st Lt. Gordon Frantom, and 1st Lt. Ken Hasegawa of the technology program office at AFSD. The motivation of MSMP was the need for characterizing the exhaust plumes of the thrusters aboard post-boost vehicles, a primary target for the infrared sensors of the proposed AWS system. To that end, the experiments consisted of a series of Aries rocket launches from White Sands Missile Range in which dual payloads were carried aloft and separately deployed at altitudes above 100 km. One module contained an ensemble of sensors spanning the spectrum from the vacuum ultraviolet to the long wave infrared, all slaved to an rf tracker locked onto a beacon on the target module. The target was a small pressure-fed liquid-propellant rocket engine, a modified Atlas vernier, programmed for a series of maneuvers in the vicinity of the instrument module. As part of this program, diagnostic measurements of the target engine exhaust were made at Rocketdyne, and shock tube experiments on excitation processes were carried out by staff members of Calspan.

  11. Optical coherence tomography monitoring of angioplasty balloon inflation in a deployment tester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarnoush, Hamed; Vergnole, Sébastien; Bourezak, Rafik; Boulet, Benoit; Lamouche, Guy

    2010-08-01

    We present an innovative integration of an intravascular optical coherence tomography probe into a computerized balloon deployment system to monitor the balloon inflation process. The high-resolution intraluminal imaging of the balloon provides a detailed assessment of the balloon quality and, consequently, a technique to improve the balloon manufacturing process. A custom-built swept-source optical coherence tomography system is used for real-time imaging. A semicompliant balloon with a nominal diameter of 4 mm is fabricated for the experiments. Imaging results correspond to balloon deployment in air and inside an artery phantom. A characterization of the balloon diameter, wall thickness, compliance, and elastic modulus is provided, based on image segmentation. Using the images obtained from the probe pullback, a three-dimensional visualization of the inflated balloon is presented.

  12. Viscoelastic behaviour of pumpkin balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerngross, T.; Xu, Y.; Pellegrino, S.

    2008-11-01

    The lobes of the NASA ULDB pumpkin-shaped super-pressure balloons are made of a thin polymeric film that shows considerable time-dependent behaviour. A nonlinear viscoelastic model based on experimental measurements has been recently established for this film. This paper presents a simulation of the viscoelastic behaviour of ULDB balloons with the finite element software ABAQUS. First, the standard viscoelastic modelling capabilities available in ABAQUS are examined, but are found of limited accuracy even for the case of simple uniaxial creep tests on ULDB films. Then, a nonlinear viscoelastic constitutive model is implemented by means of a user-defined subroutine. This approach is verified by means of biaxial creep experiments on pressurized cylinders and is found to be accurate provided that the film anisotropy is also included in the model. A preliminary set of predictions for a single lobe of a ULDB is presented at the end of the paper. It indicates that time-dependent effects in a balloon structure can lead to significant stress redistribution and large increases in the transverse strains in the lobes.

  13. Development of a balloon volume sensor for pulsating balloon catheters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Timothy D C; Hattler, Brack G; Federspiel, William J

    2004-01-01

    Helium pulsed balloons are integral components of several cardiovascular devices, including intraaortic balloon pumps (IABP) and a novel intravenous respiratory support catheter. Effective use of these devices clinically requires full inflation and deflation of the balloon, and improper operating conditions that lead to balloon under-inflation can potentially reduce respiratory or cardiac support provided to the patient. The goal of the present study was to extend basic spirographic techniques to develop a system to dynamically measure balloon volumes suitable for use in rapidly pulsating balloon catheters. The dynamic balloon volume sensor system (DBVSS) developed here used hot wire anemometry to measure helium flow in the drive line from console to catheter and integrated the flow to determine the volume delivered in each balloon pulsation. An important component of the DBVSS was an algorithm to automatically detect and adjust flow signals and measured balloon volumes in the presence of gas composition changes that arise from helium leaks occurring in these systems. The DBVSS was capable of measuring balloon volumes within 5-10% of actual balloon volumes over a broad range of operating conditions relevant to IABP and the respiratory support catheter. This includes variations in helium concentration from 70-100%, pulsation frequencies from 120-480 beats per minute, and simulated clinical conditions of reduced balloon filling caused by constricted vessels, increased driveline, or catheter resistance.

  14. Mars Solar Balloon Lander Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Mars Solar Balloon Lander (MSBL) is a novel concept which utilizes the capability of solar-heated hot air balloons to perform soft landings of scientific...

  15. Venus Altitude Cycling Balloon Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The ISTAR Group ( IG) and team mate Thin Red Line Aerospace (TRLA) propose a Venus altitude cycling balloon (Venus ACB), an innovative superpressure balloon...

  16. [Balloon occlusion test of the internal carotid artery for evaluating resectability of blood vessel infiltrating cervical metastasis of advanced head and neck cancers--Heidelberg experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, A; von Kummer, R; Adams, H P; Kneip, M; Galito, P; Maier, H

    1993-11-01

    During the last two years 17 patients of the ENT-Department of the University of Heidelberg suffering from squamous-cell carcinomas of the head and neck underwent a balloon occlusion test of the internal carotid artery (ICA). The investigation was performed because of tumorous infiltration of the large cervical vessels. The balloon occlusion of the ICA was accomplished at the Department of Neuroradiology of the University of Heidelberg. While stopping bloodflow in the ICA of one side for 15-20 min, clinical, electrophysiological and Doppler sonographic monitoring was performed, to detect severe cerebral complications. The specific electrophysiological monitoring contained the detection of MSSEP's (median nerve stimulated somatosensorial evoked potentials) and TCMEP's (transcortical motor evoked potentials) during test occlusion. Balloon occlusion was not possible in three patients because of severe arteriosclerosis. Test occlusion had to be discontinued in three patients because of clinical complications (temporary amaurosis, orthostatic complications). Finally, seven patients showed contraindications during test occlusion for permanent occlusion of the ICA. Four patients had a permanent occlusion of the ICA after tumour resection. In two patients the ICA was removed without problems in test occlusion. The third patient underwent a permanent carotid occlusion because of bleeding complications (in spite of poor clinical tolerance of the test occlusion). In the fourth patient, only intraoperative neuromonitoring with MSSEP's was conducted before permanent carotid occlusion. All four patients did not show any neurological deficits after resection of the ICA. Neurophysiological monitoring played an important role in predicting cerebral complications after permanent occlusion of the ICA.

  17. Balloon observations of spatial coherence in the Global Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzworth, R. H.; Polar Patrol Balloon Team

    The first campaign of the Polar Patrol Balloon (PPB) experiment (1st-PPB) was carried out at Syowa Station in Antarctica during 1990-1991 and 1992-1993. Based on the results of the 1st-PPB experiment, the next campaign (2nd-PPB) was carried out in the austral summer of 2002-2003. This paper will present the global circuit results from the 2nd-PPB experiment. In that experiment, three balloons were launched for the purpose of upper atmosphere physics observation (3 balloons). Payloads of these 3 flights were identical with each other, and were launched as close together in time as allowed by weather conditions to constitute a cluster of balloons during their flights. Such a "Balloon Cluster" is suitable to observe temporal evolution and spatial distribution of phenomena in the ionospheric regions and boundaries that the balloons traversed during their circumpolar trajectory. More than 20 days of simultaneous fair weather 3-axis electric field and stratospheric conductivity data were obtained at geomagnetic latitudes ranging from sub-auroral to the polar cap. Balloon separation varied from ˜ 60 to ˜ 500 km. This paper will present the global circuit observations with emphasis on the times of apparent spatial variation in the vertical fair weather field.

  18. Space Weather Ballooning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Tony; Johnson, Sam; Koske-Phillips, Amelia; White, Michael; Yarborough, Amelia; Lamb, Aaron; Herbst, Anna; Molina, Ferris; Gilpin, Justin; Grah, Olivia; Perez, Ginger; Reid, Carson; Harvey, Joey; Schultz, Jamie

    2016-10-01

    We have developed a "Space Weather Buoy" for measuring upper atmospheric radiation from cosmic rays and solar storms. The Buoy, which is carried to the stratosphere by helium balloons, is relatively inexpensive and uses off-the-shelf technology accessible to small colleges and high schools. Using this device, we have measured two Forbush Decreases and a small surge in atmospheric radiation during the St. Patrick's Day geomagnetic storm of March 2015.

  19. An investigation of electrostatically deposited radionuclides on latex balloons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, T.; Caly, A., E-mail: Terry.Price@gmail.com [Univ. of Ontario Inst. of Technology, Oshawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2012-07-01

    Use of Canadian Nuclear Society (CNS) education material for a community science education event to promote science awareness, science culture and literacy (Science Rendezvous 2011) lead to investigation of observed phenomena. Experiments are done on balloons that are electrostatically charged then left to collect particulate. Alpha spectroscopy was performed to identify alpha emitting radioisotopes present on the balloons. The time dependent behaviour of the activity was investigated. Additionally, the Alpha activity of the balloon was compared to Beta activity. The grounds for further investigations are proposed. (author)

  20. Cleft formation in pumpkin balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baginski, Frank E.; Brakke, Kenneth A.; Schur, Willi W.

    NASA’s development of a large payload, high altitude, long duration balloon, the Ultra Long Duration Balloon, centers on a pumpkin shape super-pressure design. Under certain circumstances, it has been observed that a pumpkin balloon may be unable to pressurize into the desired cyclically symmetric equilibrium configuration, settling into a distorted, undesired state instead. Success of the pumpkin balloon for NASA requires a thorough understanding of the phenomenon of multiple stable equilibria and developing of means for the quantitative assessment of design measures that prevent the occurrence of undesired equilibrium. In this paper, we will use the concept of stability to classify cyclically symmetric equilibrium states at full inflation and pressurization. Our mathematical model for a strained equilibrium balloon, when applied to a shape that mimics the Phase IV-A balloon of Flight 517, predicts instability at float. Launched in Spring 2003, this pumpkin balloon failed to deploy properly. Observations on pumpkin shape type super-pressure balloons that date back to the 1980s suggest that within a narrowly defined design class of pumpkin shape super-pressure balloons where individual designs are fully described by the number of gores ng and by a single measure of the bulging gore shape, the designs tend to become more vulnerable with the growing number of gores and with the diminishing size of the bulge radius rB Weight efficiency considerations favor a small bulge radius, while robust deployment into the desired cyclically symmetrical configuration becomes more likely with an increased bulge radius. In an effort to quantify this dependency, we will explore the stability of a family of balloon shapes parametrized by (ng, rB) which includes a design that is very similar, but not identical, to the balloon of Flight 517. In addition, we carry out a number of simulations that demonstrate other aspects related to multiple equilibria of pumpkin balloons.

  1. Breakthrough in Mars balloon technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerzhanovich, V. V.; Cutts, J. A.; Cooper, H. W.; Hall, J. L.; McDonald, B. A.; Pauken, M. T.; White, C. V.; Yavrouian, A. H.; Castano, A.; Cathey, H. M.; Fairbrother, D. A.; Smith, I. S.; Shreves, C. M.; Lachenmeier, T.; Rainwater, E.; Smith, M.

    2004-01-01

    Two prototypes of Mars superpressure balloons were flight tested for aerial deployment and inflation in the Earth's stratosphere in June, 2002. One was an 11.3 m diameter by 6.8 m high pumpkin balloon constructed from polyethylene film and Zylon (PBO) tendons, the second was a 10 m diameter spherical balloon constructed from 12 μm thick Mylar film. Aerial deployment and inflation occurred under parachute descent at 34 km altitude, mimicing the dynamic pressure environment expected during an actual Mars balloon mission. Two on-board video cameras were used on each flight to provide real-time upward and downward views of the flight train. Atmospheric pressure and temperature were also recorded. Both prototypes successfully deployed from their storage container during parachute descent at approximately 40 m/s. The pumpkin balloon also successfully inflated with a 440 g charge of helium gas injected over a 1.5-min period. Since the helium inflation system was deliberately retained after inflation in this test, the pumpkin balloon continued to fall to the ocean where it was recovered for post-flight analysis. The less robust spherical balloon achieved only a partial (~70%) inflation before a structural failure occurred in the balloon film resulting in the loss of the vehicle. This structural failure was diagnosed to result from the vigorous oscillatory motion of the partially inflated balloon, possibly compounded by contact between the balloon film and an instrumentation box above it on the flight train. These two flights together represent significant progress in the development of Mars superpressure balloon technology and pave the way for future flight tests that will include post-deployment flight of the prototype balloons at a stable altitude.

  2. Titan Balloon Convection Model Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This innovative research effort is directed at determining, quantitatively, the convective heat transfer coefficients applicable to a Montgolfiere balloon operating...

  3. Stratospheric Balloon Platforms for Near Space Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewey, R. G.

    2012-12-01

    For over five decades, high altitude aerospace balloon platforms have provided a unique vantage point for space and geophysical research by exposing scientific instrument packages and experiments to space-like conditions above 99% of Earth's atmosphere. Reaching altitudes in excess of 30 km for durations ranging from hours to weeks, high altitude balloons offer longer flight durations than both traditional sounding rockets and emerging suborbital reusable launch vehicles. For instruments and experiments requiring access to high altitudes, engineered balloon systems provide a timely, responsive, flexible, and cost-effective vehicle for reaching near space conditions. Moreover, high altitude balloon platforms serve as an early means of testing and validating hardware bound for suborbital or orbital space without imposing space vehicle qualifications and certification requirements on hardware in development. From float altitudes above 30 km visible obscuration of the sky is greatly reduced and telescopes and other sensors function in an orbit-like environment, but in 1g. Down-facing sensors can take long-exposure atmospheric measurements and images of Earth's surface from oblique and nadir perspectives. Payload support subsystems such as telemetry equipment and command, control, and communication (C3) interfaces can also be tested and operationally verified in this space-analog environment. For scientific payloads requiring over-flight of specific areas of interests, such as an active volcano or forest region, advanced mission planning software allows flight trajectories to be accurately modeled. Using both line-of-sight and satellite-based communication systems, payloads can be tracked and controlled throughout the entire mission duration. Under NASA's Flight Opportunities Program, NSC can provide a range of high altitude flight options to support space and geophysical research: High Altitude Shuttle System (HASS) - A balloon-borne semi-autonomous glider carries

  4. The Hubble party balloon and the expanding universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zendri, G.; Rosi, T.; Oss, S.

    2016-09-01

    We show that the metaphor of the inflated balloon used to describe expanding space-time according to the Hubble law can be transformed into a simple laboratory experiment. We obtain, in terms of measured recession speeds and distances of ink dots drawn on a party balloon, easy renditions of various cosmological models, such as the static one and the Einstein-De Sitter universe.

  5. Intrauterine tamponade balloon use in the treatment of uterine inversion

    OpenAIRE

    Haeri, Sina; Rais, Sheliza; Monks, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Uterine inversion is a rare but life-threatening obstetrical emergency that occurs when the fundus of the uterus prolapses through the cervix, hence turning the uterus inside out. In this case report, we present our experience using an intrauterine tamponade balloon for management of uterine inversion, and a review of the literature. The utility of an intrauterine tamponade balloon in cases of uterine inversion, especially when maternal medical conditions preclude the use of uterotonics, or r...

  6. Buddy balloon for TAVI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkin, Jonathan; Silberman, Shuli; Almagor, Yaron

    2013-11-15

    Percutaneous transfemoral aortic valve replacement is a new rapidly evolving technique that has made significant progress in recent years. The technology is however limitted and in some cases has resulted in failure to deliver the prosthetic valve. We describe a new technique using a buddy balloon, from the contralateral femoral artery, to assist in crossing the native aortic valve in those cases where extreme calcification and or tortuosity have caused the delivery system to hang up on the aortic wall. The technique is easily applied and facilitates the success of the procedure in cases which may otherwise have to be converted to open surgical aortic valve replacement.

  7. Small Research Balloons in a Physics Course for Education Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruhweiler, F. C.; Verner, E.; Long, T.; Montanaro, E.

    2013-12-01

    At The Catholic Univ. of America, we teach an experimental physics course entitled Physics 240: The Sun-Earth Connection, which is designed for the undergraduate education major. The emphasis is on providing hands-on experience and giving the students an exciting experience in physics. As part of this course, in the Spring 2013 semester, we instituted a project to plan, build, launch, and retrieve a small (~1.3 kg) research balloon payload. The payload flown was a small GPS unit that sent its position to an Internet site, a small wide-angle high-resolution video camera, and an analog refrigerator thermometer placed in the field of view of the camera. All data were stored on the camera sim-card. Students faced the problems of flying a small research balloon in the congested, densely populated Northeast Corridor of the US. They used computer simulators available on the Web to predict the balloon path and flight duration given velocities for the Jet Stream and ground winds, as well as payload mass and amount of helium in the balloon. The first flight was extremely successful. The balloon was launched 140 km NW of Washington DC near Hagerstown, MD and touched down 10 miles (16 km) NW of York, PA, within 1.6 km of what was predicted. The balloon reached 73,000 ft (22,000 m) and the thermometer indicated temperatures as low as -70 degrees Fahrenheit (-57 C) during the flight. Further balloon flights are planned in conjunction with this course. Additional exercises and experiments will be developed centered around these flights. Besides learning that science can be exciting, students also learn that science is not always easily predictable, and that these balloon flights give an understanding of many of problems that go into real scientific space missions. This project is supported in part by an educational supplement to NASA grant NNX10AC56G

  8. A Methane Balloon Inflation Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerwinski, Curtis J.; Cordes, Tanya J.; Franek, Joe

    2005-01-01

    The various equipments, procedure and hazards in constructing the device for inflating a methane balloon using a standard methane outlet in a laboratory are described. This device is fast, safe, inexpensive, and easy to use as compared to a hydrogen gas cylinder for inflating balloons.

  9. Spatial distribution of meteorological parameters around 900 hPa level over the Arabian Sea and Indian Ocean regions during the IFP-99 of the INDOEX programme as revealed from the constant altitude balloon experiments conducted from Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Appu, K.S.; Nair, S.M.; Kunhikrishnan, P.K.; Moorthy, K.K.; Sarode, P.R.; Rao, L.V.G.; Bajpai, S.R.; Prakash, L.H.; Viswanathan, G.; Mitra, A.P.; Sadourny, R.; Basdevant, C.; Ethe, C.; Ovarlez, H.; Chapuis, R.; Dartiguelongue, B.; Vianeys, P.

    with thermodynamic sensors and equipments are assembled inside the balloon at the bottom pole to protect them from the adverse environmental conditions when the balloons descent in the lower regions. A sche- matic diagram of the payload system is shown in Figure 1.... Figure 2 depicts a fully assembled balloon ready for flight. The sensors and equipment are kept in a hard paper box of 10 x 10 x 100 cm. Other descriptions of the balloon systems are given below. The internal sensors assembled inside the payload bay...

  10. High-Altitude Ballooning Program at the Indian Institute of Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Nayak, A; Safonova, M; Murthy, Jayant

    2013-01-01

    We have begun a program of high altitude ballooning at the Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Bangalore. Recent advances in balloons as well as in electronics have made possible scientific payloads at costs accessible to university departments. The primary purpose of this activity is to test low-cost ultraviolet (UV) payloads for eventual space flight, but to also explore phenomena occurring in the upper atmosphere, including sprites and meteorite impacts, using balloon-borne payloads. This paper discusses the results of three tethered balloon experiments carried out at the CREST campus of IIA, Hosakote and our plans for the future. We also describe the stages of payload development for these experiments.

  11. Effect of oxygen deficiency on response of CR-39 on board scientific balloons

    CERN Document Server

    Fujii, M; Osawa, A; Saitô, T; Yamamoto, K; Hasebe, T; Nakamura, T; Sasaki, H; Yanagita, T; Aglietta, M; Vernetto, S; Castellina, A; Fulgione, W; Saavedra, O; Trinchero, G C

    1999-01-01

    We should be careful about the effect of oxygen deficiency on polymeric track detectors even at balloon altitude. Results of balloon experiments and calibration experiments in a vacuum chamber at different pressures show that the effect of oxygen deficiency becomes serious at a pressure below 10 hPa.

  12. Report on the Brazilian Scientific Balloon Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Joao

    2016-07-01

    We report on the recent scientific ballooning activities in Brazil, and present the plans for the next few years. Recent technological developments, especially on telecommunications and gondola attitude control systems will be reported. We also present the recent progress achieved in the development of the protoMIRAX balloon experiment. protoMIRAX is a balloon-borne hard X-ray imaging telescope under development at INPE as a pathfinder for the MIRAX (Monitor e Imageador de Raios X) satellite mission. The experiment consists essentially in a hard X-ray coded-aperture imager to operate in the 20-200 keV energy range. The detector plane is a square array of 196 10mm x 10mm x 2mm CdZnTe (CZT) planar detectors. A collimator defines a fully-coded field-of-view of 20 x 20 degrees, with 7 x 7 degrees of full sensitivity and an angular resolution of 1.7 degrees. We describe the final stages of development and testing of the front-end electronics, with charge preamplifiers, LNAs, shapers and Wilkinson-type ADCs customized for these detectors. We also show detailed Monte Carlo simulations of the flight background and the expected flight images of bright sources performed with the use of GEANT4.

  13. Preliminary experience with balloon kyphoplasty for the treatment of painful osteoporotic compression fractures; Ballon-Kyphoplastie zur Behandlung schmerzhafter osteoporotischer Wirbelkoerperfrakturen - Technik und erste Ergebnisse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhelm, K.; Urbach. H. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Radiologische Klinik; Stoffel, M; Ringel, F.; Rao, G.; Roesseler, L.; Meyer, B. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Neurochirurgische Klinik

    2003-12-01

    Purpose: To describe the technique and to evaluate the safety and efficacy of percutaneous kyphoplasty as a new treatment in patients with painful osteoporotic vertebral body compression fractures of the lumbar and thoracic spine. Materials and Methods: In this prospective study balloon kyphoplasty was performed in 34 consecutive patients (25 females, 9 males; mean age 75 years) with 56 painful osteoporotic vertebral fractures (from T6-L5), of which 22 showed a posterior wall involvement and -retropulsion on preoperative CT. The median duration of symptoms was 9.7 weeks. Symtomatic levels were identified by correlating the clinical presentation with MRI, conventional radiographs and CT including bone-densitometry. Pre- and postoperative examinations (radiographs, CT) as well as Karnofsky and visual analogy pain scores (Visual Analog Scale=VAS) were documented and compared to evaluate the success of the procedure. Results: The median Karnofsky score improved from 40% (pre-) to 70% (post-treatment). Simultaneously, median pain scores (VAS) decreased from 64 (pre-) to 21 (post-treatment) (p<0.001). Perioperative morbidity included one transient L2 nerve root bruise. The procedure led to a partial restoration of the height of the vertebral body by reducing the median sagittal index from 11.5 to 5 . In none of our patients, the procedure led to worsening of the fracture-induced narrowing of the spinal canal. Clinically asymptomatic cement leakage occurred in 10 cases, with leakage 4 times into the paraspinal space, 3 times into the spinal canal and 3 times into the disc space. Conclusion: Balloon kyphoplasty is a safe and effective procedure. It is applicable even in fractures with posterior wall involvement since it is a low-pressure technique in contrast to vertebroplasty and restores vertebral body height partially. It results in immediate clinical improvement of mobility and pain relief. While short-term results are excellent, follow-up data have to be awaited for

  14. Catching Comet's Particles in the Earth's Atmosphere by Using Balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potashko, Oleksandr; Viso, Michel

    The project is intended to catch cometary particles in the atmosphere by using balloons. The investigation is based upon knowledge that the Earth crosses the comet’s tails during the year. One can catch these particles at different altitudes in the atmosphere. So, we will be able to gradually advance in the ability to launch balloons from low to high altitudes and try to catch particles from different comet tails. The maximum altitude that we have to reach is 40 km. Both methods - distance observation and cometary samples from mission Stardust testify to the presence of organic components in comet’s particles. It would be useful to know more details about this organic matter for astrobiology; besides, the factor poses danger to the Earth. Moreover, it is important to prove that it is possible to get fundamental scientific results at low cost. In the last 5 years launching balloons has become popular and this movement looks like hackers’ one - as most of them occur without launch permission to airspace. The popularity of ballooning is connected with low cost of balloon, GPS unit, video recording unit. If you use iPhone, you have a light solution with GPS, video, picture and control function in one unit. The price of balloon itself begins from $50; it depends on maximum altitude, payload weight and material. Many university teams realized balloon launching and reached even stratosphere at an altitude of 33 km. But most of them take only video and picture. Meanwhile, it is possible to carry out scientific experiments by ballooning, for example to collect comet particles. There is rich experience at the moment of the use of mineral, chemical and isotopic analysis techniques and data of the comet’s dust after successful landing of StarDust capsule with samples in 2006. Besides, we may use absolutely perfect material to catch particles in the atmosphere, which was used by cosmic missions such as Stardust and Japanese Hayabusa. As to balloon launches, we could use

  15. Vessel wall temperature estimation for novel short term thermal balloon angioplasty: study of thermal environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Kenji; Nakatani, Eriko; Futami, Hikaru; Ogawa, Yoshifumi; Arai, Tsunenori; Fukui, Masaru; Shimamura, Satoshi; Kawabata, Takashi

    2005-01-01

    We have been proposing novel thermal balloon angioplasty, photo-thermo dynamic balloon angioplasty (PT-DBA). PTDBA realized thermal injury and low pressure dilatation that can prevent restenosis in chronic phase. We aim to determine the most efficient heating condition suit to individual symptom with pre-operation thermal simulation. We analyzed the flow dynamics and heat convection inside the balloon, and investigated heat conduction of balloon film to establish the temperature estimation method among vessel wall. Compared with ex vivo temperature measurement experiment, we concluded that the factors need to be considered for the establishment would be the heat conduction of the flow inside PTDB, heat conduction at the balloon film, and contact thermal resistance between the balloon film and vessel wall.

  16. US Air Force Balloon Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Worksheets containing pilot balloon data computed from releases at Air Force stations in the western United States. Elevation and azimuth angles are used to compute...

  17. US Monthly Pilot Balloon Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monthly winds aloft summary forms summarizing Pilot Balloon observational data for the United States. Generally labeled as Form 1114, and then transitioning to Form...

  18. Superpressure Tow Balloon for Extending Durations and Modifying Trajectories of High Altitude Balloon Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation involves the concept of using a Superpressure Tow Balloon (STB) with existing NASA high altitude balloon designs to form a tandem balloon...

  19. The University of Alberta High Altitude Balloon Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, W.; Buttenschoen, A.; Farr, Q.; Hodgson, C.; Mann, I. R.; Mazzino, L.; Rae, J.; University of Alberta High Altitude Balloon Team

    2011-12-01

    The University of Alberta High Altitude Balloon (UA-HAB) program is a one and half year program sponsored by the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) that offers hands on experience for undergraduate and graduate students in the design, build, test and flight of an experimental payload on a high altitude balloon platform. Utilising low cost weather balloon platforms, and through utilisation of the CSA David Florida Laboratory for thermal-vacuum tests , in advance of the final flight of the payload on a NASA high altitude balloon platform. Collectively the program provided unique opportunities for students to experience mission phases which parallel those of a space satellite mission. The program has facilitated several weather balloon missions, which additionally provide educational opportunities for university students and staff, as well as outreach opportunities among junior and senior high school students. Weather balloon missions provide a cheap and quick alternative to suborbital missions; they can be used to test components for more expensive missions, as well as to host student based projects from different disciplines such as Earth and Atmospheric Sciences (EAS), Physics, and Engineering. In addition to extensive skills development, the program aims to promote recruitment of graduate and undergraduate students into careers in space science and engineering. Results from the UA-HAB program and the flight of the UA-HAB shielded Gieger counter payload for cosmic ray and space radiation studies will be presented. Lessons learned from developing and maintaining a weather balloon program will also be discussed. This project is undertaken in partnership with the High Altitude Student Platform, organized by Louisiana State University and the Louisiana Space Consortium (LaSpace), and sponsored by NASA, with the financial support of the Canadian Space Agency.

  20. Composition and energy spectra of cosmic-ray primaries in the energy range 10 13-10 15 eV/particle observed by Japanese-Russian joint balloon experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apanasenko, A. V.; Sukhadolskaya, V. A.; Derbina, V. A.; Fujii, M.; Galkine, V. I.; Getsov, G. G.; Hareyama, M.; Ichimura, M.; Ito, S.; Kamioka, E.; Kitami, T.; Kobayashi, T.; Kolesnikov, V. D.; Kopenkin, V.; Kotunova, N. M.; Kuramata, S.; Kuriyama, Y.; Lapshin, V. I.; Managadze, A. K.; Matsutani, H.; Mikami, H.; Misnikova, N. P.; Mukhamedshin, R. A.; Namiki, M.; Nanjo, H.; Nazarov, S. N.; Nikolsky, S. I.; Ohe, T.; Ohta, S.; Osedlo, V. I.; Oshuev, D. S.; Podorozhny, D. M.; Publichenko, P. A.; Rakobolskaya, I. V.; Roganova, T. M.; Saito, M.; Sazhina, G. P.; Semba, H.; Shabanova, Yu. N.; Shibata, T.; Sugimoto, H.; Sveshnikova, L. G.; Takahashi, K.; Tsuchiya, T.; Taran, V. M.; Yajima, N.; Yamagami, T.; Yamamoto, K.; Yashin, I. V.; Zamchalova, E. A.; Zatsepin, G. T.; Zayarnaya, I. S.; Runjob Collaboration

    2001-10-01

    We report experimental results obtained by the emulsion chambers on board of the long duration balloon. We have been carrying out the trans-Siberian-continental balloon flight since 1995, and the results from 1995 to 1996 experiments are presented here. Total exposure of these two years amounts to 231.5 m 2 h at the average altitude of ˜32 km. The energy range covers 10-500 TeV for proton-primary, 3-70 TeV/n for helium-primary, and 1-5 TeV/n for Fe-group ( Z=26-28), though statistics of heavy components is not yet enough. Our preliminary data show that the spectra of the proton and the helium have nearly the same power indices ˜2.80, while those of heavier ones become gradually harder as the mass gets heavier, for instance the index is ˜2.70 for CNO-group and ˜2.55 for Fe-group. It is remarkable that a very high energy proton with multi-PeV is detected in 1995 experiment, and the estimated flux of this event coincides with a simple extrapolation from the energy spectrum with the power index 2.8 observed in the range 10-500 TeV. It indicates that there is no spectral break at around 100 TeV, in contrast to the maximum energy predicted by the current shock-wave acceleration model. This evidence requires some modification on the acceleration and/or propagation mechanism. Also we present all-particle spectrum and the average primary mass in the energy range 20-1000 TeV/particle. Our preliminary data show no drastic change in mass composition over the wide energy range, at least up to 1 PeV/particle, though the statistics is not yet enough to confirm it concretely. The flight performance and the procedure of the analysis, particularly the energy determination methods and the detection efficiency calculation are also given.

  1. Near Space Lab-Rat Experimentation using Stratospheric Balloon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buduru, Suneel Kumar; Reddy Vizapur, Anmi; Rao Tanneeru, Venkateswara; Trivedi, Dharmesh; Devarajan, Anand; Pandit Manikrao Kulkarni, MR..; Ojha, Devendra; Korra, Sakram; Neerudu, Nagendra; Seng, Lim; Godi, Stalin Peter

    2016-07-01

    First ever balloon borne lab-rat experiment up to near space stratospheric altitude levels carried out at TIFR Balloon Facility, Hydeabad using zero pressure balloons for the purpose of validating the life support system. A series of two balloon experiments conducted under joint collaboration with IN.Genius, Singapore in the year 2015. In these experiments, three lab-rats sent to stratosphere in a pressurized capsule designed to reach an altitude of 30 km by keeping constant pressure, temperature and maintained at a precise rate of oxygen supply inside the capsule. The first experiment conducted on 1 ^{st} February, 2015 with a total suspended weight of 225 kg. During the balloon ascent stage at 18 km altitude, sensors inside the capsule reported drastic drop in internal pressure while oxygen and temperatures maintained at correct levels resulted in premature fligt termination at 20.1 km. All the three lab-rats recovered without life due to the collapse of their lungs caused by the depressurization inside the capsule. The second experiment conducted on 14th March, 2015 using a newly developed capsule with rectification of depressurization fault by using improved sealing gaskets and hermitically sealed connectors for sending lab-rats again to stratosphere comprising a total suspended load of 122.3 kg. The balloon flight was terminated after reaching 29.5 km in 110 minutes and succesfully recovered all the three lab-rats alive. This paper focuses on lessons learnt of the development of the life support system as an integral pressurized vessel, flight control instrumentation, flight simulation tests using thermo-vaccum chamber with pre-flight operations.

  2. Development of ultra-thin polyethylene balloons for high altitude research upto mesosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, B Suneel; Ojha, D K; Peter, G Stalin; Vasudevan, R; Anand, D; Kulkarni, P M; Reddy, V Anmi; Rao, T V; Sreenivasan, S

    2014-01-01

    Ever since its inception four decades back, Balloon Facility of Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR), Hyderabad has been functioning with the needs of its user scientists at its focus. During the early nineties, when the X-ray astronomy group at TIFR expressed the need for balloons capable of carrying the X-ray telescopes to altitudes up to 42 km, the balloon group initiated research and development work on indigenous balloon grade films in various thickness not only for the main experiment but also in parallel, took up the development of thin films in thickness range 5 to 6 microns for fabrication of sounding balloons required for probing the stratosphere up to 42 km as the regular 2000 grams rubber balloon ascents could not reach altitudes higher than 38 km. By the year 1999, total indigenisation of sounding balloon manufacture was accomplished. The work on balloon grade ultra-thin polyethylene film in thickness range 2.8 to 3.8 microns for fabrication of balloons capable of penetrating mesosphere ...

  3. Sensor System for Super-Pressure Balloon Performance Modeling Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Long-duration balloon flights are an exciting new area of scientific ballooning, enabled by the development of large super-pressure balloons. As these balloons...

  4. Design and Calibrations of the Protomirax Balloon Telescope and the Brazilian Scientific Balloon Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Joao; D'Amico, Flavio; Avila, Manuel

    2012-07-01

    In this presentation we report on the recent scientific ballooning activities in Brazil, including important international collaborations, and present our plan for the next few years. We also present the recent progress achieved in the design of the detector system of the protoMIRAX balloon experiment and report on the scientific balloon activities in Brazil. protoMIRAX is a balloon-borne X-ray imaging telescope under development at INPE as a pathfinder for the MIRAX (Monitor e Imageador de Raios X) satellite mission. The experiment consists essentially in an X-ray (30-200 keV) coded-aperture imager which employs a square array of 196 10mm x 10mm x 2mm CdZnTe (CZT) planar detectors made by eV Products in the USA. A collimator defines a fully-coded field-of-view of 20o x 20o, with 4o x 4o of full sensitivity. The final angular resolution will depend on the mask pattern used. In this paper we describe the design and development of the detector plane, including the front-end electronics. Preamplifiers and shaping amplifiers, customized for these detectors, were designed and built at INPE. Laboratory spectral measurements show an energy resolution of 12.0% at 60 keV, of which 10.6% is due to intrinsic electronics noise measured with a pulser at similar pulse height levels. We present spectral results obtained in the laboratory as well as initial calibration results of the acquisition system designed to get positions and energies in the detector plane. We show simulations of the coded-aperture images with different mask designs and iterative reconstruction methods.

  5. Structure variations of pumpkin balloon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yajima, N.; Izutsu, N.; Honda, H.

    2004-01-01

    A lobed pumpkin balloon by 3-D gore design concept is recognized as a basic form for a super-pressure balloon. This paper deals with extensions of this design concept for other large pressurized membrane structures, such as a stratospheric airship and a balloon of which volume is controllable. The structural modifications are performed by means of additional ropes, belts or a strut. When the original pumpkin shape is modified by these systems, the superior characteristics of the 3-D gore design, incorporating large bulges with a small local radius and unidirectional film tension, should be maintained. Improved design methods which are adequate for the above subjects will be discussed in detail. Application for ground structures are also mentioned.

  6. Balloon Exoplanet Nulling Interferometer (BENI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Richard G.; Clampin, Mark; Woodruff, Robert A.; Vasudevan, Gopal; Ford, Holland; Petro, Larry; Herman, Jay; Rinehart, Stephen; Carpenter, Kenneth; Marzouk, Joe

    2009-01-01

    We evaluate the feasibility of using a balloon-borne nulling interferometer to detect and characterize exosolar planets and debris disks. The existing instrument consists of a 3-telescope Fizeau imaging interferometer with 3 fast steering mirrors and 3 delay lines operating at 800 Hz for closed-loop control of wavefront errors and fine pointing. A compact visible nulling interferometer is under development which when coupled to the imaging interferometer would in-principle allow deep suppression of starlight. We have conducted atmospheric simulations of the environment above 100,000 feet and believe balloons are a feasible path forward towards detection and characterization of a limited set of exoplanets and their debris disks. Herein we will discuss the BENI instrument, the balloon environment and the feasibility of such as mission.

  7. Yellow Balloon in a Briar Patch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Frank; Fitzmaurice, Robert W.

    1978-01-01

    As part of a meteorology unit, sixth grade science students launched helium balloons with attached return postcards. This article describes Weather Service monitoring of the balloons and postcard return results. (MA)

  8. Intrauterine tamponade balloon use in the treatment of uterine inversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeri, Sina; Rais, Sheliza; Monks, Brian

    2015-01-06

    Uterine inversion is a rare but life-threatening obstetrical emergency that occurs when the fundus of the uterus prolapses through the cervix, hence turning the uterus inside out. In this case report, we present our experience using an intrauterine tamponade balloon for management of uterine inversion, and a review of the literature. The utility of an intrauterine tamponade balloon in cases of uterine inversion, especially when maternal medical conditions preclude the use of uterotonics, or reinversion is observed should be kept in mind.

  9. Complications of balloon packing in epistaxis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeeren, Lenka; Derks, Wynia; Fokkens, Wytske; Menger, Dirk Jan

    2015-01-01

    Although balloon packing appears to be efficient to control epistaxis, severe local complications can occur. We describe four patients with local lesions after balloon packing. Prolonged balloon packing can cause damage to nasal mucosa, septum and alar skin (nasal mucosa, the cartilaginous skeleton

  10. Ballonnen in zee = balloons as marine litter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franeker, van J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Releasing balloons seems harmless. However, remains of balloons, especially valves and ribbons are becoming a common and persistent type of marine litter found on beaches. Following Dutch Queens day 2007, large numbers of Dutch balloons were found in Normandy, France. Animals may become entangled in

  11. NuMED CHEATHAM-PLATINUM STENT AND BALLOON IN BALLOON DELIVERY CATHETER FOR TREATMENT OF NATIVE COARCTATION OF THE AORTA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ COARCTATION of the aorta (CoA) is a congenital heart defect involving a narrowing of the aorta. The narrowed segment called coarctation is most likely to happen in the segment just after the aortic arch. The narrowing can be removed by surgery or sometimes by a nonsurgical balloon dilation. However, aortic coarctation may recur even after successful surgery or balloon dilation. Fortunately, coarctation can now be treated with nonsurgical balloon dilation associated with implanting a stent using cardiac catheterization. Herein we reported our experience in a 19-year-old boy with CoA who underwent successful covered Cheatham-Platinum (CP) stent implantation for the coarctation.

  12. Balloon Study of the Global Circuit: Spatial Coherence and Correlation with Lightning Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzworth, R. H.; Bering, E. A.; Kokorowski, M.; Reddell, B.; Kadokura, A.; Yamagishi, H.; Sato, N.; Ejiri, M.; Hirosawa, H.; Yamagami, T.; Torii, S.; Tohyama, F.; Nakagawa, M.; Okada, T.

    2004-12-01

    The second campaign of the Polar Patrol Balloon (PPB) experiment (2nd-PPB) was carried out at Syowa Station in Antarctica during 2002-2003. This paper will present the global circuit results from the 2nd-PPB experiment. In that experiment, three balloons were launched for the purpose of upper atmosphere physics observation (3 balloons). Payloads of these 3 flights were identical with each other, and were launched as close together in time as allowed by weather conditions to constitute a cluster of balloons during their flights. Such a ``Balloon Cluster'' is suitable to observe temporal evolution and spatial distribution of phenomena in the ionospheric regions and boundaries that the balloons traversed during their circumpolar trajectory. More than 20 days of simultaneous fair weather 3-axis electric field and stratospheric conductivity data were obtained at geomagnetic latitudes ranging from sub-auroral to the polar cap. Balloon separation varied from ˜60 to ˜500 km. This paper will present the global circuit observations with emphasis on the times of apparent spatial variation in the vertical fair weather field. This paper will also present stratospheric conductivity observations with emphasis on the temporal and spatial variations that were observed. Finally, the inferred current density will be compared with data from the WWLL (TOGA) lightning monitor experiment.

  13. Pseudoperforation during kissing balloon angioplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panetta, Carmelo J; Fasseas, Panayotis; Raveendran, Ganesh; Garratt, Kirk N

    2004-11-01

    We describe a case of apparent perforation during kissing balloon angioplasty of a bifurcation lesion. There was no evidence of perforation on follow-up angiography or via intravascular ultrasound. Possible etiologies include minimal perforation that immediately sealed postdeflation or forced contrast into the microvascular bed via a proximal side branch.

  14. Simulating clefts in pumpkin balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baginski, Frank; Brakke, Kenneth

    2010-02-01

    The geometry of a large axisymmetric balloon with positive differential pressure, such as a sphere, leads to very high film stresses. These stresses can be significantly reduced by using a tendon re-enforced lobed pumpkin-like shape. A number of schemes have been proposed to achieve a cyclically symmetric pumpkin shape, including the constant bulge angle (CBA) design, the constant bulge radius (CBR) design, CBA/CBR hybrids, and NASA’s recent constant stress (CS) design. Utilizing a hybrid CBA/CBR pumpkin design, Flight 555-NT in June 2006 formed an S-cleft and was unable to fully deploy. In order to better understand the S-cleft phenomenon, a series of inflation tests involving four 27-m diameter 200-gore pumpkin balloons were conducted in 2007. One of the test vehicles was a 1/3-scale mockup of the Flight 555-NT balloon. Using an inflation procedure intended to mimic ascent, the 1/3-scale mockup developed an S-cleft feature strikingly similar to the one observed in Flight 555-NT. Our analysis of the 1/3-scale mockup found it to be unstable. We compute asymmetric equilibrium configurations of this balloon, including shapes with an S-cleft feature.

  15. Stability of the pumpkin balloon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baginski, Frank

    A large axisymmetric balloon with positive differential pressure, e.g., a sphere, leads to high film stresses. These can be significantly reduced by using a lobed pumpkin-like shape re-enforced with tendons. A number of schemes have been proposed to achieve a cyclically symmetric pumpkin-shape at full inflation, including the constant bulge angle (CBA) design and the constant bulge radius (CBR) design. The authors and others have carried out stability studies of CBA and CBR designs and found instabilities under various conditions. While stability seems to be a good indicator of deployment problems for large balloons under normal ascent conditions, one cannot conclude that a stable design will deploy reliably. Nevertheless, stability analysis allows one to quantify certain deployment characteristics. Ongoing research by NASA's Balloon Program Office utilizes a new design approach developed by Rodger Farley, NASA/GSFC, that takes into account film and tendon strain. We refer to such a balloon as a constant stress (CS) pumpkin design. In June 2006, the Flight 555-NT balloon (based on a hybrid CBR/CBA design) developed an S-cleft and did not deploy. In order to understand the S-cleft phenomena and study a number of aspects related to the CS-design, a series of inflation tests were conducted at TCOM, Elizabeth City, NC in 2007. The test vehicles were 27 meter diameter pumpkins distinguished by their respective equatorial bulge angles (BA). For example, BA98 indicates an equatorial bulge angle of 98° . BA90, BA55, and BA00 are similarly defined. BA98 was essentially a one-third scale version of of the Flight 555 balloon (i.e., 12 micron film instead of 38.1 micron, mini-tendons, etc.). BA90 and BA55 were Farley CS-designs. BA00 was derived from the BA55 design so that a flat chord spanned adjacent tendons. In this paper, we will carry out stability studies of BA98, BA90, BA55, and BA00. We discuss the deployment problem of pumpkin balloons in light of 2007 inflation

  16. Astronomy from the Upper Stratosphere: Key Discoveries and New Opportunities from High Altitude Scientific Balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fissel, Laura M.

    2017-01-01

    Stratospheric balloons offer a near-space astronomy platform for a small fraction of the cost of an equivalent satellite. These balloons can lift scientific payloads of up to 6,000 lbs as high as 40 km above the Earth’s surface (above >99.5% of the atmosphere). In this presentation I will discuss the contribution that scientific balloon experiments have made to astronomy, from the early days when astronomers had to accompany their telescopes to the stratosphere, to the present era where automated payloads are in some cases able to achieve a pointing precision of better than an arcsecond. In particular, I will discuss the important contributions that balloon telescopes have made to our current understanding of the Universe through detailed measurements of the Cosmic Microwave Background. I will also show how recent observations from sub-millimeter balloon telescopes such as BLAST and BLASTPol have been used to study both star formation and magnetic fields of nearby giant molecular clouds in unprecedented detail, and also to constrain models of interstellar dust composition. With improving ballooning technology, such as NASA’s new Super-Pressure Balloon program, we will soon have the capability for science flights of several months (rather than weeks) duration, thus beginning an exciting new era in balloon astronomy.

  17. Comparative study of proliferation kinetics of paramecium tetraurelia aboard a satellite and a balloon flight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tixador, R.; Richoilley, G.; Gasset, G.; Planel, H. (Faculte de Medecine, Toulouse-Purpan (France))

    1982-05-17

    A possible effect of cosmic rays on cell proliferation was investigated in cultures of Paramecium tetraurelia during a stratospheric balloon flight, with the techniques already used for the CYTOS experiments, performed aboard the orbital station Salyut 6. The results show that the stimulating effect of space on cell proliferation, reported in the CYTOS experiments, also occurs in the balloon flight. The respective roles of cosmic rays and weightlesness in the biological responses are discussed.

  18. Iridium: Global OTH data communications for high altitude scientific ballooning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denney, A.

    While the scientific community is no stranger to embracing commercially available technologies, the growth and availability of truly affordable cutting edge technologies is opening the door to an entirely new means of global communications. For many years high altitude ballooning has provided science an alternative to costly satellite based experimental platforms. As with any project, evolution becomes an integral part of development. Specifically in the NSBF ballooning program, where flight durations have evolved from the earlier days of hours to several weeks and plans are underway to provide missions up to 100 days. Addressing increased flight durations, the harsh operational environment, along with cumbersome and outdated systems used on existing systems, such as the balloon vehicles Support Instrumentation Package (SIP) and ground-based systems, a new Over-The-Horizon (OTH) communications medium is sought. Current OTH equipment planning to be phased-out include: HF commanding systems, ARGOS PTT telemetry downlinks and INMARSAT data terminals. Other aspects up for review in addition to the SIP to utilize this communications medium include pathfinder balloon platforms - thereby, adding commanding abilities and increased data rates, plus providing a package for ultra-small experiments to ride aloft. Existing communication systems employed by the National Scientific Balloon Facility ballooning program have been limited not only by increased cost, slow data rates and "special government use only" services such as TDRSS (Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System), but have had to make special provisions to geographical flight location. Development of the Support Instrumentation Packages whether LDB (Long Duration Balloon), ULDB (Ultra Long Duration Balloon) or conventional ballooning have been plagued by non-standard systems configurations requiring additional support equipment for different regions and missions along with a myriad of backup for redundancy. Several

  19. AIAA Educator Academy: The Space Weather Balloon Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longmier, B.; Henriquez, E.; Bering, E. A.; Slagle, E.

    2013-12-01

    Educator Academy is a K-12 STEM curriculum developed by the STEM K-12 Outreach Committee of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA). Consisting of three independent curriculum modules, K-12 students participate in inquiry-based science and engineering challenges to improve critical thinking skills and enhance problem solving skills. The Space Weather Balloon Curriculum Module is designed for students in grades 9-12. Throughout this module, students learn and refine physics concepts as well as experimental research skills. Students participate in project-based learning that is experimental in nature. Students are engaged with the world around them as they collaborate to launch a high altitude balloon equipped with HD cameras.The program leaders launch high altitude weather balloons in collaboration with schools and students to teach physics concepts, experimental research skills, and to make space exploration accessible to students. A weather balloon lifts a specially designed payload package that is composed of HD cameras, GPS tracking devices, and other science equipment. The payload is constructed and attached to the balloon by the students with low-cost materials. The balloon and payload are launched with FAA clearance from a site chosen based on wind patterns and predicted landing locations. The balloon ascends over 2 hours to a maximum altitude of 100,000 feet where it bursts and allows the payload to slowly descend using a built-in parachute. The payload is located using the GPS device. In April 2012, the Space Weather Balloon team conducted a prototype field campaign near Fairbanks Alaska, sending several student-built experiments to an altitude of 30km, underneath several strong auroral displays. To better assist teachers in implementing one or more of these Curriculum Modules, teacher workshops are held to give teachers a hands-on look at how this curriculum is used in the classroom. And, to provide further support, teachers are each

  20. Balloon occlusion of the internal iliac arteries in the multidisciplinary management of placenta percreta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Caroline; Stensballe, Jakob; Albrechtsen, Charlotte K;

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate our experience with prophylactic balloon occlusion of the internal iliac arteries as a part of a multidisciplinary algorithm for the management of placenta percreta. Design. Consecutive case series. Setting. Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, Denmark. Sample....... Prophylactic balloon occlusion of the internal iliac arteries as part of a multidisciplinary algorithm allowed for a safe management of all cases in our consecutive series of 17 women with placenta percreta. However, intraoperative blood loss and transfusion requirements were significant. We have therefore...... decided to modify our multidisciplinary algorithm to include balloon occlusion of the common iliac arteries rather than the internal iliac arteries....

  1. Utility of a scoring balloon for a severely calcified lesion: bench test and finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawase, Yoshiaki; Saito, Naritatsu; Watanabe, Shin; Bao, Bingyuan; Yamamoto, Erika; Watanabe, Hiroki; Higami, Hirooki; Matsuo, Hitoshi; Ueno, Katsumi; Kimura, Takeshi

    2014-04-01

    We aimed to investigate the effectiveness of a scoring balloon catheter in expanding a circumferentially calcified lesion compared to a conventional balloon catheter using an in vitro experiment setting and elucidate the underlying mechanisms of this ability using a finite element analysis. True efficacy of the scoring device and the underlying mechanisms for heavily calcified coronary lesions are unclear. We employed a Scoreflex scoring balloon catheter (OrbusNeich, Hong Kong, China). The ability of Scoreflex to dilate a calcified lesion was compared with a conventional balloon catheter using 3 different sized calcium tubes. The thickness of the calcium tubes were 2.0, 2.25, and 2.5 mm. The primary endpoints were the successful induction of cracks in the calcium tubes and the inflation pressures required for inducing cracks. The inflation pressure required for cracking the calcium tubes were consistently lower with Scoreflex (p finite element analysis revealed that the first principal stress applied to the calcified plaque was higher by at least threefold when applying the balloon catheter with scoring elements. A scoring balloon catheter can expand a calcified lesion with lower pressure than that of a conventional balloon. The finite element analysis revealed that the concentration of the stress observed in the outside of the calcified plaque just opposite to the scoring element is the underlying mechanism of the increased ability of Scoreflex to dilate the calcified lesion.

  2. Turbulence fluxes and variances measured with a sonic anemometer mounted on a tethered balloon

    OpenAIRE

    Canut, Guylaine; Couvreux, Fleur; Lothon, Marie; Legain, Dominique; Piguet, Bruno; Lampert, Astrid; Maurel, William; Moulin, Eric

    2016-01-01

    This study presents the first deployment in field campaigns of a balloon-borne turbulence probe, developed with a sonic anemometer and an inertial motion sensor suspended below a tethered balloon. This system measures temperature and horizontal and vertical wind at high frequency and allows the estimation of heat and momentum fluxes as well as turbulent kinetic energy in the lower part of the boundary layer. The system was validated during three field experiments with differ...

  3. Basic development of a small balloon-mounted telemetry and its operation system by university students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Masa-yuki; Kakinami, Yoshihiro; Kono, Hiroki

    In Japan, the high altitude balloon for scientific observation has been continuously launched by JAXA. The balloon has a possibility to reach 50 km altitude without tight environmental condition for onboard equipments, operating with a cost lower than sounding rockets, however, development of the large-scale scientific observation balloons by university laboratories is still difficult. Being coupled with recent improvement of semiconductor sensors, laboratory-basis balloon experiments using small weather balloons has been becoming easily in these years. Owing to an advantage of wide land fields in continental regions, the launch of such small balloons has become to be carried out many times especially in continental countries (e.g. Near Space Ventures, Inc., 2013). Although the balloon is very small as its diameter of 6 feet, excluding its extra buoyancy and the weight of the balloon itself, it is expected that about 2 kg loading capacity is remained for payloads to send it up to about 35 km altitude. However, operation of such balloons in Japan is not in general because precise prediction of a landing area of the payload is difficult, thus high-risk situation for balloon releases is remained. In this study, we aim to achieve practical engineering experiments of weather balloons in Japan to be used for scientific observation within university laboratory level as an educational context. Here we report an approach of developing many devices for a small tethered balloon currently in progress. We evaluated an accuracy of altitude measurement by using a laboratory developed altitude data logger system that consists of a GPS-module and a barometric altimeter. Diameter of the balloon was about 1.4 m. Being fulfilled with about 1440 L helium, it produced buoyancy of about 15.7 N. Taking into account of total weight including the mooring equipments, available payload mass becomes to be about 1100 g. Applying an advantage of a 3D printer of FDM (Fused Deposition Modeling

  4. High Altitude Infrasound Measurements using Balloon-Borne Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, D. C.; Johnson, C. S.; Gupta, R. A.; Anderson, J.; Lees, J. M.; Drob, D. P.; Phillips, D.

    2015-12-01

    For the last fifty years, almost all infrasound sensors have been located on the Earth's surface. A few experiments consisting of microphones on poles and tethered aerostats comprise the remainder. Such surface and near-surface arrays likely do not capture the full diversity of acoustic signals in the atmosphere. Here, we describe results from a balloon mounted infrasound array that reached altitudes of up to 38 km (the middle stratosphere). The balloon drifted at the ambient wind speed, resulting in a near total reduction in wind noise. Signals consistent with tropospheric turbulence were detected. A spectral peak in the ocean microbarom range (0.12 - 0.35 Hz) was present on balloon-mounted sensors but not on static infrasound stations near the flight path. A strong 18 Hz signal, possibly related to building ventilation systems, was observed in the stratosphere. A wide variety of other narrow band acoustic signals of uncertain provenance were present throughout the flight, but were absent in simultaneous recordings from nearby ground stations. Similar phenomena were present in spectrograms from the last balloon infrasound campaign in the 1960s. Our results suggest that the infrasonic wave field in the stratosphere is very different from that which is readily detectable on surface stations. This has implications for modeling acoustic energy transfer between the lower and upper atmosphere as well as the detection of novel acoustic signals that never reach the ground. Our work provides valuable constraints on a proposed mission to detect earthquakes on Venus using balloon-borne infrasound sensors.

  5. Intragastric balloon and multidisciplinary team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Mazure

    Full Text Available Background: The intragastric balloon is widely used for weight reduction in obese patients, but results are variable. We describe our results enhancing the importance of a Multidisciplinary Team (MT taking part in the treatment. Methods: A retrospective review was done concerning a total of 119 balloons , placed in 116 patients, under endoscopic control and conscious sedation, from May 2001 until August 2006. 49 patients were prepared and recommended to be followed by a MT in a physical unit, at least every 15 days during 6 months. 67 were indicated and followed by other colleagues, without MT. Removal was performed 6 months later. Results: Concerning our 49 patients, mean age was 38, 1 years, 31 female and 18 males, with BMI ranged between 32 and 63, average of 42. The average decrease of weight excess was 31, 85% (-4, 45-80, 4%, and the BMI diminished 5,3 points (from 13,6 to gain of 0,9. The treatment failed in 34,6 % of our patients -including 4 patients lost of follow-up (8, 16%-, compared with 53, 8% of patients without structured MT for selection and follow-up. Physical exercise enhanced markedly the results with 45, 8% of excess of weight loss in women and 39, 7% in males, compared with 14, 6 and 15, 6% in patients who didn't follow the program. The weight loss was mostly fat mass, 89,9% in men and 75,6% in women.- The results maintenance was obtained in 40% of patients one year later. There were no major complications; one balloon had to be removed at 3 weeks because of intolerance, another at 5 months because of gastroesophageal reflux. Conclusions: BIB is an effective help to achieve a short term weight loss in obese patients; nevertheless, good and long lasting results will depend on the modification of life style obtained by a multidisciplinary approach.

  6. Paraplegia following intraaortic balloon circulatory assistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benício Anderson

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Intraaortic balloon counterpulsation is frequently used in patients experiencing severe ventricular dysfunction following maximal drug therapy. However, even with the improvement of percutaneous insertion techniques, the procedure has always been followed by vascular, infectious, and neurological complications. This article describes a case of paraplegia due to intraaortic balloon counterpulsation in the postoperative period of cardiac surgery.

  7. Optical coherence tomography layer thickness characterization of a mock artery during angioplasty balloon deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarnoush, Hamed; Vergnole, Sébastien; Boulet, Benoît; Lamouche, Guy

    2011-03-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is used to study the deformation of a mock artery in an angioplasty simulation setup. An OCT probe integrated in a balloon catheter provides intraluminal real-time images during balloon inflation. Swept-source OCT is used for imaging. A 4 mm semi-compliant polyurethane balloon is used for experiments. The balloon is inflated inside a custom-built multi-layer artery phantom. The phantom has three layers to mock artery layers, namely, intima, media and adventitia. Semi-automatic segmentation of phantom layers is performed to provide a detailed assessment of the phantom deformation at various inflation pressures. Characterization of luminal diameter and thickness of different layers of the mock artery is provided for various inflation pressures.

  8. Integrating Balloon and Satellite Operation Data Centers for Technology Readiness Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattiello-Francisco, Fátima; Fernandes, Jose Oscar

    2016-07-01

    Stratospheric balloon-borne experiments have been one of the most effective ways to validate innovative space technology, taking the advantage of reduced development cycles and low cost in launching and operation. In Brazil, the National Institute for Space Research (INPE) has balloon and satellite ground infrastructures since the 1970´s and the 1990´s, respectively. In the recent past, a strategic approach was adopted on the modernization of balloon ground operation facilities for supporting the protoMIRAX experiment, an X-ray imaging telescope under development at INPE as a pathfinder for the MIRAX (Monitor e Imageador de Raios X) satellite mission. The strategic target was to reuse the SATellite Control System (SATCS), a software framework developed to control and monitor INPÉs satellites, for balloon operation. This paper presents the results of that effort and the new ongoing project, a computer-based framework named I2Bso, which strategic target is to Integrate INPÉs Balloon and Satellite Operation data centers. The I2Bso major purpose is to support the continuous assessment of an innovative technology after different qualification flights either on board balloons or satellites in order to acquire growing evidence for the technology maturity.

  9. 经股动脉球囊扩张式主动脉瓣置换术的初步经验%Aortic valve replacement via transfemoral balloon dilation: an initial experience

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆清声; 景在平; 洪毅; 吴宏; 王志农; 李卫萍; 张勇学; 李南; 马宇; 秦永文

    2011-01-01

    Objective To discuss the feasibility of treating patients with severe aortic valve stenosis by aortic valve replacement via transfemoral balloon dilation. Methods Three patients with severe aortic valve stenosis, who could not tolerate traditional open surgery, were chosen to receive aortic valve replacement via transfemoral balloon dilation. Results All the three operations were successfully done by transfemoral approach, including one assisted by transapical puncture. The aortic valve function of patients was improved, and there was no related complication or death. Conclusion Aortic valve replacement via transfemoral balloon dilation can be used for treatment of Chinese patients with severe aortic valve stenosis; but which demands more detailed preoperative preparation, evaluation, and surgical manipulation.%目的 探讨经股动脉球囊扩张式主动脉瓣置换术治疗严重主动脉瓣狭窄患者的可行性.方法 选取3例严重主动脉瓣钙化狭窄的患者,术前评估无法耐受传统开放手术,行经股动脉球扩式主动脉瓣置换术.结果 3例均经股动脉完成,其中1例经心尖穿刺辅助完成.3例手术全部成功,术后患者主动脉瓣功能显著改善,无并发症,无死亡.结论 经股动脉球扩式主动脉瓣置换术可用于国人严重主动脉瓣狭窄患者,但在术前准备与评估、术中操作等方面提出了更高的要求.

  10. Laringoplastia com balão em crianças com estenose subglótica em evolução: experiência de um hospital terciário Balloon laryngoplasty in children with acute subglottic stenosis: experience of a tertiary-care hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Schweiger

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O manejo da estenose subglótica (ESG em crianças continua sendo um desafio para os otorrinolaringologistas. A laringoplastia com balão (LPB consiste num procedimento endoscópico, descrito inicialmente em 1984, para tratamento de estenoses da via aérea alta, apresentando várias vantagens em relação a outras técnicas cirúrgicas e com resultados promissores. OBJETIVO: Apresentar a nossa experiência com a realização de LPB em pacientes pediátricos com ESG. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Estudo prospectivo de pacientes pediátricos com diagnóstico de ESG pós-extubação em evolução (ainda com tecido de granulação. Realizou-se laringoscopia direta sob anestesia geral e dilatação do segmento estenótico com cateter de angioplastia. Os pacientes foram acompanhados e nova laringoscopia foi realizada uma semana após o procedimento inicial. RESULTADOS: Foram incluídas no estudo oito crianças no período de junho de 2009 a outubro de 2010. Destas, quatro apresentavam ESG Grau 3, três apresentavam ESG Grau 2 e uma, ESG Grau 1. Na laringoscopia direta de revisão, apenas duas apresentavam ESG residual assintomática (Grau 1, sendo que as outras seis apresentavam via aérea normal e estavam assintomáticas. CONCLUSÃO: A LPB parece ser um tratamento efetivo para ESG em evolução. Necessitamos mais estudos para sabermos a eficácia, a segurança e as indicações deste procedimento.Management of subglottic stenosis (SGS in children is still a challenge to Otorhinolaryngologists. Balloon laryngoplasty (BLP is an endoscopic procedure, first described in 1984 for the treatment of airway stenosis. It shows promising results and seems to be more effective than other procedures. AIM: To present our experience with BLP in children with SGS. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Prospective study of children diagnosed with acute subglottic stenosis, i.e., stenosis with granulation tissue. They underwent direct laryngoscopy under general anesthesia and dilatation of the

  11. MIPAS Ozone Validation by Stratospheric Balloon and Aircraft Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortesi, U.; Blom, C. E.; Camy-Peyret, C.; Chance, K.; Davies, J.; Goutail, F.; Kuttippurath, J.; McElroy, C. T.; Mencaraglia, F.; Oelhaf, H.; Petritoli, A.; Pirre, M.; Pommereau, J. P.; Ravegnani, F.; Renard, J. B.; Strong, K.

    2004-08-01

    A number of in situ and remote sensing techniques for the measurement of upper tropospheric and stratospheric O3 content was employed during dedicated experiments of the ESABC programme, aiming at the validation of the ENVISAT chemistry payload. In this paper, we will be focusing on the validation of MIPAS off-line products, by presenting the results of the intercomparison between MIPAS O3 vertical profiles and aircraft and balloon correlative measurements. First priority is given to the validation of processor v4.61 data, but individual results of 2002 and 2003 balloon observations are also compared with MIPAS O3 non operational data. Some general remarks are finally expressed, along with specific recommendation to fully exploit the available ESABC validation dataset

  12. A Sensitivity Analysis of fMRI Balloon Model

    KAUST Repository

    Zayane, Chadia

    2015-04-22

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) allows the mapping of the brain activation through measurements of the Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD) contrast. The characterization of the pathway from the input stimulus to the output BOLD signal requires the selection of an adequate hemodynamic model and the satisfaction of some specific conditions while conducting the experiment and calibrating the model. This paper, focuses on the identifiability of the Balloon hemodynamic model. By identifiability, we mean the ability to estimate accurately the model parameters given the input and the output measurement. Previous studies of the Balloon model have somehow added knowledge either by choosing prior distributions for the parameters, freezing some of them, or looking for the solution as a projection on a natural basis of some vector space. In these studies, the identification was generally assessed using event-related paradigms. This paper justifies the reasons behind the need of adding knowledge, choosing certain paradigms, and completing the few existing identifiability studies through a global sensitivity analysis of the Balloon model in the case of blocked design experiment.

  13. Airborne Internet Providing Tethered Balloon System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvriti Dhawan1

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we shall introduce a new system for providing wireless network communication over a specified area using ’lighter than air’ balloons. This technology will replace the existing fiber optic network system. This will be done by using a tethered balloon along with the payload (containing a receiver, a transmitter and a radio communication device.This payload will be suspended from the ground at an altitude (depending on the area of coverage required. Users under this area will be able to access this system directly for internet connectivity. This system can be used over large areas like universities, companies and societies to provide internet facility to their users through Wi-Fi or over an area where the user is specified (commercial purposes. Currently Google is working on similar idea called the ’Google Loon’ in which they use high altitude balloons which float at an altitude twice as high as air planes and the weather. They recently tested this system over New-Zealand by providing internet to their pilot testers on ground. Their balloons not being stationary, move with directional winds and have to be replaced one after the other to maintain consistency. This can be a huge problem over the areas where upper atmospheric winds are not in favorable direction. We can resolve this problem by using our stationary tethered balloon system which can communicate with the loon balloons to provide internet facility over a desired area. Moreover when our balloon will communicate with the loon balloon it will increase the coverage area as the loon balloon has to communicate to a point which is above the ground. Our system will not only replace the existing fiber optic system but it will also be selfsustaining i.e. It will generate its own power using solar panels.

  14. Stratospheric electric field measurements with transmediterranean balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    de La Morena, B. A.; Alberca, L. F.; Curto, J. J.; Holzworth, R. H.

    1993-01-01

    The horizontal component of the stratospheric electric field was measured using a balloon in the ODISEA Campaign of Transmediterranean Balloon Program. The balloon flew between Trapani (Sicily) and El Arenosillo (Huelva, Spain) along the 39 deg N parallel at a height between 34 and 24 km. The high values found for the field on fair-weather and its quasi-turbulent variation, both in amplitude and direction, are difficult to explain with the classical electric field source. A new source, first described by Holzworth (1989), is considered as possibly causing them.

  15. A balloon-borne integrating nephelometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, G.S.; Apple, M.L. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Weiss, R.E. (Radiance Research, Seattle, WA (USA))

    1990-09-01

    A balloon-borne integrating nephelometer has been successfully developed and flown by Sandia National Laboratories and Radiance Research. This report details instrument design, calibration and data conversion procedure. Free and tethered balloon transport and telemetry systems are described. Data taken during March 1989 South-Central New Mexico free flight ascents are presented as vertical profiles of atmospheric particle scattering coefficient, temperature and balloon heading. Data taken during December 1989 Albuquerque, New Mexico tethered flights are also presented as vertical profiles. Data analysis shows superior instrument performance. 5 refs., 22 figs.

  16. Looners: Inside the world of balloon fetishism

    OpenAIRE

    McIntyre, Karen E

    2011-01-01

    In the spring of 1997, Shaun had just broken up with a boyfriend, and his roommate had moved out. Living alone for the first time and relieved of the fear that someone might walk in the door, he was finally able to indulge his fantasy. The young man sat on his couch and started blowing up balloons. Shaun had loved playing with balloons since he was a child. When he hit puberty, he felt his first orgasm rubbing against a balloon. It was then that his relationship with the object took ...

  17. Diagnostic and therapeutic direct peroral cholangioscopy using an intraductal anchoring balloon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mansour A Parsi; Tyler Stevens; John J Vargo

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To report our experience using a recently introduced anchoring balloon for diagnostic and therapeutic direct peroral cholangioscopy (DPOC).METHODS:Consecutive patients referred for diagnostic or therapeutic peroral cholangioscopy were evaluated in a prospective cohort study.The patients underwent DPOC using an intraductal anchoring balloon,which was recently introduced to allow consistent access to the biliary tree with an ultraslim upper endoscope.The device was later voluntarily withdrawn from the market by the manufacturer.RESULTS:Fourteen patients underwent DPOC using the anchoring balloon.Biliary access with an ultraslim upper endoscope was accomplished in all 14 patients.In 12 (86%) patients,ductal access required sphincteroplasty with a 10-mm dilating balloon.Intraductal placement of the ultraslim upper endoscope allowed satisfactory visualization of the biliary mucosa to the level of the confluence of the right and left hepatic ducts in 13 of 14 patients (93%).Therapeutic interventions by DPOC were successfully completed in all five attempted cases (intraductal biopsy in one and DPOC guided laser lithotripsy in four).Adverse events occurred in a patient on immunosuppressive therapy who developed an intrahepatic biloma at the site of the anchoring balloon.This required hospitalization and antibiotics.Repeat endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography 8 wk after the index procedure showed resolution of the biloma.CONCLUSION:Use of this anchoring balloon allowed consistent access to the biliary tree for performance of diagnostic and therapeutic DPOC distal to the biliary bifurcation.

  18. Non-linear analysis and the design of Pumpkin Balloons: stress, stability and viscoelasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, J. L.; Wakefield, D. S.

    Tensys have a long-established background in the shape generation and load analysis of architectural stressed membrane structures Founded upon their inTENS finite element analysis suite these activities have broadened to encompass lighter than air structures such as aerostats hybrid air-vehicles and stratospheric balloons Winzen Engineering couple many years of practical balloon design and fabrication experience with both academic and practical knowledge of the characterisation of the non-linear viscoelastic response of the polymeric films typically used for high-altitude scientific balloons Both companies have provided consulting services to the NASA Ultra Long Duration Balloon ULDB Program Early implementations of pumpkin balloons have shown problems of geometric instability characterised by improper deployment and these difficulties have been reproduced numerically using inTENS The solution lies in both the shapes of the membrane lobes and also the need to generate a biaxial stress field in order to mobilise in-plane shear stiffness Balloons undergo significant temperature and pressure variations in flight The different thermal characteristics between tendons and film can lead to significant meridional stress Fabrication tolerances can lead to significant local hoop stress concentrations particularly adjacent to the base and apex end fittings The non-linear viscoelastic response of the envelope film acts positively to help dissipate stress concentrations However creep over time may produce lobe geometry variations that may

  19. "ASSESSMENT OF BALLOON VALVULOPLASTY IN COMPARISON WITH SURGICAL VALVOTOMY FOR CONGENITAL AORTIC STENOSIS"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Akbari Asbagh A. Shahmohammadi

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Soon after successful results of balloon valvuloplasty in treatment of congenital pulmonary stenosis, use of this technique for relief of congenital aortic stenosis (AS was attempted in different parts of the world. With the purpose of assessment the value of valvuloplasty in comparison with surgical valvotomy in relief of congenital AS, we retrospectively studied 115 patients with valvar AS, 48 of whom underwent balloon valvuloplasty (mean age 9.63 years, and 67 subjected to surgical aortic valvotomy (mean age 10.32 years, in a six year period from 1991 to 1997 at Rajaie heart hospital. Comparison of balloon valvuloplasty with surgical valvotomy revealed that reduction in the mean pressure gradient in balloon valvuloplasty group was greater than those subjected to surgical valvotomy (73.54 vs. 45.03 mmHg, P < 0.0001. Decreased incidence of aortic insufficiency and mortality in balloon valvuloplasty in comparison with surgical valvotomy are other notable points in this study. Although it is difficult to compare the results of the two procedures and determine their different indications, our successful experience with balloon valvuloplasty for congenital AS and the safety of this procedure encourage us to use this technique for the patients with congenital AS more than ever. These results must be supported by future studies.

  20. Status of balloon production for KamLAND-Zen 800 kg phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obara, S.

    2017-02-01

    KamLAND-Zen is an experiment for neutrinoless double beta decay (0 ν 2 β) search with 136Xe, based on the large liquid scintillator detector KamLAND. KamLAND-Zen includes 16.5 m3 xenon loaded liquid scintillator in a 3.16 m diameter nylon balloon (inner-balloon) with 25 μm wall thickness. KamLAND-Zen 400 (383 kg 136Xe used) released a lower limit on the 0 ν 2 β half-life of 136Xe. However, the sensitivity is limited by the contamination of radioactive backgrounds from the inner-balloon. Then, we planned KamLAND-Zen 800, upgrading the detector with a new inner-balloon of 3.84 m diameter with 800 kg 136Xe and 31.4 m3 liquid scintillator. We present the current status of KamLAND-Zen, the new mini-balloon construction and methods to avoid background contaminations. In addition, the development of a scintillating balloon for future upgrades in order to remove the radioactive decay chain daughter nuclei bismuth is also introduced.

  1. Shielded Mars Balloon Launcher (SMBL) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aurora Flight Sciences, along with its partner Vertigo Industries, proposes a novel approach to deployment of balloon-based payloads into the Martian atmosphere....

  2. Retrieving Balloon Data in Flight Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration —   NASA has plans to fly stratospheric ULDBs for missions of 100 days or more in the next few years. As these balloons circumnavigate the globe multiple times,...

  3. Magnetometer for Balloons and UAVs Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase I SBIR project will investigate a new, low-cost approach to atomic magnetometry that is suited for operation from UAVs and research balloons. Atomic...

  4. Introduction to the AMS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Following the pioneering experiments (ATIC, BESS, CREAM, HEAT, PAMELA, …), using a magnetic spectrometer (AMS) on ISS is a unique way to provide precision long term measurements of primordial high energy charged cosmic rays. AMS was installed on the Station in May 2011. Up to now, 60 billion events have been collected. 40 billion events have been partially analysed. AMS is scheduled to be on the Station until at least 2024. By then AMS will have collected close to 200 billion events. The detector properties and the analysis methods will be introduced.

  5. Balloon Measurements of Electric Fields in Thunderstorms: A Modern Version of Benjamin Franklin's Kite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, T. C.; Stolzenburg, M.

    2006-12-01

    One of Benjamin Franklin's most famous experiments was the kite experiment, which showed that thunderstorms are electrically charged. It is not as commonly noted that the kite experiment was also one of the the first attempts to make an in situ measurement of any storm parameter. Franklin realized the importance of making measurements close to and within storms, and this realization has been shared by later atomspheric scientists. In this presentation we focus on a modern version of Franklin's kite--instrumented balloons--used for in situ measurements of electric field and other storm parameters. In particular, most of our knowledge of the charge structure inside thunderstorms is based on balloon soundings of electric field. Balloon measurements of storm electricity began with the work of Simpson and colleagues in the 1930's and 1940's. The next major instrumentation advances were made by Winn and colleagues in the 1970's and 1980's. Today's instruments are digital versions of the Winn design. We review the main instrument techniques that have allowed balloons to be the worthy successors to kites. We also discuss some of the key advances in our understanding of thunderstorm electrification made with in situ balloon-borne instruments.

  6. Approaching the knee -- balloon-borne observations of cosmic ray composition

    CERN Document Server

    Cherry, M L

    2005-01-01

    Below the knee in the cosmic ray spectrum, balloon and spacecraft experiments offer the capability of direct composition and energy measurements on the primary particles. A major difficulty is obtaining enough exposure to extend the range of direct measurements sufficiently high in energy to permit overlap with ground-based observations. Presently, balloon and space measurements extend only up to ~100 TeV, well below the range of ground-based experiments. The prospect of Ultra-Long Duration Balloon missions offers the promise of multiple long flights that can build up exposure. The status of balloon measurements to measure the high energy proton and nuclear composition and spectrum is reviewed, and the statistical considerations involved in searching for a steepening in the spectrum are discussed. Given the very steeply falling spectrum, it appears unlikely that balloon experiments will be able to extend the range of direct measurements beyond 1000 TeV any time in the near future. Especially given the recent ...

  7. Balloon borne arcsecond pointer feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Philip R.; Deweese, Keith D.

    2003-08-01

    A major hurdle in extending the range of experiments for which balloon vehicles are useful has been the imposition of the gondola dynamics on the accuracy with which an instrument can be kept pointed at a celestial target. In this paper, the foundation for a high fidelity controller simulation is presented and it is shown that sub-arcsecond pointing stability can be achieved for a large instrument pointing at an inertial target. The flexibility of the flight train is represented through generalized modal analysis. A multiple controller scheme is introduced with a coarse azimuth pointer and a pitch-yaw gimbal mount for fine pointing. An analysis and demonstration of the necessity in eliminating static friction are provided along with a solution to eliminate static friction from the system dynamics. A control scheme involving linear accelerometers for enhanced disturbance rejection is also presented. This paper establishes that the proposed control strategy can be made robustly stable with significant design margins. Also demonstrated is the efficacy of the proposed system in rejecting disturbances larger than those considered realistic.

  8. PoGOLino: a scintillator-based balloon-borne neutron detector

    CERN Document Server

    Kole, Merlin; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Fukuda, Kentaro; Ishizu, Sumito; Jackson, Miranda; Kamae, Tune; Kawaguchi, Noriaki; Kawano, Takafumi; Kiss, Mozsi; Moretti, Elena; Pearce, Mark; Rydström, Stefan; Takahashi, Hiromitsu; Yanagida, Takayuki

    2014-01-01

    PoGOLino is a balloon-borne scintillator-based experiment developed to study the largely unexplored high altitude neutron environment at high geomagnetic latitudes. The instrument comprises two detectors that make use of LiCAF, a novel neutron sensitive scintillator, sandwiched by BGO crystals for background reduction. The experiment was launched on March 20th 2013 from the Esrange Space Centre, Northern Sweden (geomagnetic latitude of $65^\\circ$), for a three hour flight during which the instrument took data up to an altitude of 30.9 km. The detector design and ground calibration results are presented together with the measurement results from the balloon flight.

  9. Imaging Sunlit Aurora from Balloon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lummerzheim, D.; Zhou, X.

    2012-12-01

    Since 1892 when aurora was first imaged by Martin Brendel, useful auroral images have been obtained only when the aurora is in darkness. While UV imagers onboard satellite provide global auroral dynamics, the sunlit aurora in the UV band is overwhelmed by the UV airglow that has the same wavelengths with the UV auroral emissions. The visible band imaging is feasible only when the aurora is in darkness to avoid the sunlight contamination. However, sunlit aurora (such as dayside aurora) is closely related to the solar wind - magnetosphere - ionosphere coupling. In addition, limited land area has badly restricted the capability of imaging dayside aurora from the northern hemisphere and nightside aurora from the southern hemisphere. We have confirmed that sunlit aurora can be imaged using a near-infrared (NIR) camera on board the balloon platform flying in Antarctica or Arctic. This method provides a unique capability for dayside and conjugate auroral investigations. Scientific questions that can be addressed by such observations include how does the dayside aurora respond to solar wind transient variations? Are auroras hemispherically symmetric? Are auroral forms and their variations under sunlight the same as those in darkness? etc. The new method is also cost effective comparing to space-borne imagers, and offers capabilities not obtainable from space and the ground. With the accomplishment of identifying auroral dynamics in sunlight and darkness, in the south and north simultaneously, our knowledge and understanding of auroral phenomenon and its causes will be expanded.

  10. "I see the light!" trans-carotid balloon valvuloplasty in neonates and small infants utilizing continuous trans-esophageal echo guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Victor

    2015-11-01

    Continuous echo guidance may add to the safety of neonatal aortic balloon valvuloplasty Trans-carotid access is an alternative route to aortic balloon valvuloplasty in neonates Proof of preferred procedure (surgical or catheter based), procedure setting, and access site remains elusive as the disease is infrequent and single center experience remains small.

  11. Measurements of cosmic-ray proton and helium spectra from the BESS-Polar long-duration balloon flights over Antarctica

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, K; Haino, S; Hams, T; Hasegawa, M; Horikoshi, A; Itazaki, A; Kim, K C; Kumazawa, T; Kusumoto, A; Lee, M H; Makida, Y; Matsuda, S; Matsukawa, Y; Matsumoto, K; Mitchell, J W; Myers, Z; Nishimura, J; Nozaki, M; Orito, R; Ormes, J F; Picot-Clemente, N; Sakai, K; Sasaki, M; Seo, E S; Shikaze, Y; Shinoda, R; Streitmatter, R E; Suzuki, J; Takasugi, Y; Takeuchi, K; Tanaka, K; Thakur, N; Yamagami, T; Yamamoto, A; Yoshida, T; Yoshimura, K

    2015-01-01

    The BESS-Polar Collaboration measured the energy spectra of cosmic-ray protons and helium during two long-duration balloon flights over Antarctica in December 2004 and December 2007, at substantially different levels of solar modulation. Proton and helium spectra probe the origin and propagation history of cosmic rays in the galaxy, and are essential to calculations of the expected spectra of cosmic-ray antiprotons, positrons, and electrons from interactions of primary cosmic-ray nuclei with the interstellar gas, and to calculations of atmospheric muons and neutrinos. We report absolute spectra at the top of the atmosphere for cosmic-ray protons in the kinetic energy range 0.2-160 GeV and helium nuclei 0.2-80 GeV/nucleon. The corresponding magnetic rigidity ranges are 0.6-160 GV for protons and 1.3-160 GV for helium. These spectra are compared to measurements from previous BESS flights and from AMS-01, ATIC-2, PAMELA, and AMS-02. We also report the ratio of the proton and helium fluxes from 1.3 GV to 160 GV a...

  12. Biogenic nonmethane hydrocarbon emissions estimated from tethered balloon observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, K. J.; Lenschow, D. H.; Zimmerman, P. R.

    1994-01-01

    A new technique for estimating surface fluxes of trace gases, the mixed-layer gradient technique, is used to calculate isoprene and terpene emissions from forests. The technique is applied to tethered balloon measurements made over the Amazon forest and a pine-oak forest in Alabama at altitudes up to 300 m. The observations were made during the dry season Amazon Boundary Layer Experiment (ABLE 2A) and the Rural Oxidants in the Southern Environment 1990 experiment (ROSE I). Results from large eddy simulations of scalar transport in the clear convective boundary layer are used to infer fluxes from the balloon profiles. Profiles from the Amazon give a mean daytime emission of 3630 +/- 1400 micrograms isoprene sq m/h, where the uncertainty represents the standard deviation of the mean of eight flux estimates. Twenty profiles from Alabama give emissions of 4470 +/- 3300 micrograms isoprene sq m/h, 1740 +/- 1060 micrograms alpha-pinene sq m/h, and 790 +/- 560 micrograms beta-pinene sq m/h, respectively. These results are in agreement with emissions derived from chemical budgets. The emissions may be overestimated because of uncertainty about how to incorporate the effects of the canopy on the mixed-layer gradients. The large variability in these emission estimates is probably due to the relatively short sampling times of the balloon profiles, though spatially heterogeneous emissions may also play a role. Fluxes derived using this technique are representative of an upwind footprint of several kilometers and are independent of hydrocarbon oxidation rate and mean advection.

  13. Japan-Indo collaboration on balloon observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, Fumiyoshi

    Japan-Indo collaboration on balloon observations of cosmic X-ray sources was started in 1969 by the late S. Hayakawa of Nagoya Univ. and B. V. Sreekantan of TIFR. Cosmic background X-ray and soft gamma-ray spectra, simultaneous X-ray and optical flux variation, and size of X-ray emitting region of Crab Nebula were observed successfully by balloon flights at Hyderabad in 1969-1975. H. Shibai of Nagoya Univ. and T. N. Rengarajan of TIFR have organized collaboration on far infrared sky survey at wavlength of 150 micron emitted from CII. By employing improved detectors, CII distribution of Orion Nebula has been obtained in good accuracy by more than ten balloon flights in 1999-2008.

  14. Near ultraviolet spectrograph for balloon platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreejith, A. G.; Safonova, Margarita; Murthy, Jayant

    2015-06-01

    Small and compact scientific payloads may be easily designed constructed and own on high altitude balloons. Despite the fact that large orbital observatories provide accurate observations and statistical studies of remote and/or faint space sources, small telescopes on board balloons or rockets are still attractive because of their low cost and rapid response time. We describe here a near ultraviolet (NUV) spectrograph designed to be own on a high{altitude balloon platform. Our basic optical design is a modified Czerny-Turner system using off the shelf optics. We compare different methods of aberration corrections in such a system. We intend the system to be portable and scalable to different telescopes. The use of reflecting optics reduces the transmission loss in UV. We plan on using an image intensified CMOS sensor operating in photon counting mode as the detector of choice.

  15. 75 FR 33838 - National Environmental Policy Act; Scientific Balloon Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION National Environmental Policy Act; Scientific Balloon Program AGENCY: National... Draft Programmatic Environmental Assessment (PEA) and Draft Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) for NASA's Scientific Balloon Program. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act of...

  16. Particle Astrophysics in NASA's Long Duration Balloon Program

    CERN Document Server

    Gorham, Peter W

    2013-01-01

    A century after Viktor Hess' discovery of cosmic rays, balloon flights still play a central role in the investigation of cosmic rays over nearly their entire spectrum. We report on the current status of NASA balloon program for particle astrophysics, with particular emphasis on the very successful Antarctic long-duration balloon program, and new developments in the progress toward ultra-long duration balloons.

  17. There is a Text in 'The Balloon'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elias, Camelia

    2009-01-01

    From the Introduction: Camelia Elias' "There is a Text in 'The Balloon': Donald Barthelme's Allegorical Flights" provides its reader with a much-need and useful distinction between fantasy and the fantastic: "whereas fantasy in critical discourse can be aligned with allegory, in which a supernatu......From the Introduction: Camelia Elias' "There is a Text in 'The Balloon': Donald Barthelme's Allegorical Flights" provides its reader with a much-need and useful distinction between fantasy and the fantastic: "whereas fantasy in critical discourse can be aligned with allegory, in which...

  18. Cutting balloon angioplasty for intrastent restenosis treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Orávio de Freitas Jr

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available We describe here two patients with angiographic diagnosis of intrastent restenosis and regional myocardial ischemia. One stent restenosis was located in a native coronary artery and the other in a vein graft. Both were treated with cutting balloon angioplasty (CBA, inflated at low pressures. Angiographic success was obtained and both patients were discharged in the day after the procedure. Cutting balloon angioplasty using low inflation pressures achieved important luminal gains, in these two cases of intrastent restenosis. Further studies are necessary before the effectiveness of this procedure can be precisely defined.

  19. On the inflation of a rubber balloon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandermarlière, Julien

    2016-12-01

    It is a well-known fact that it is difficult to start a balloon inflating. But after a pressure peak that occurs initially, it becomes far easier to do it! The purpose of this article is to establish the experimental pressure-radius chart for a rubber balloon and to compare it to the theoretical one. We will demonstrate that the barometer of a smartphone is a very suitable tool to reach this goal. We hope that this phenomenon will help students realize that sometimes very simple questions can lead to very interesting and counterintuitive science.

  20. Thermal design and performance of the balloon-borne large aperture submillimeter telescope for polarimetry BLASTPol

    CERN Document Server

    Soler, J D; Angilè, F E; Benton, S J; Devlin, M J; Dober, B; Fissel, L M; Fukui, Y; Galitzki, N; Gandilo, N N; Klein, J; Korotkov, A L; Matthews, T G; Moncelsi, L; Mroczkowski, A; Netterfield, C B; Novak, G; Nutter, D; Pascale, E; Poidevin, F; Savini, G; Scott, D; Shariff, J A; Thomas, N E; Truch, M D; Tucker, C E; Tucker, G S; Ward-Thompson, D

    2014-01-01

    We present the thermal model of the Balloon-borne Large-Aperture Submillimeter Telescope for Polarimetry (BLASTPol). This instrument was successfully flown in two circumpolar flights from McMurdo, Antarctica in 2010 and 2012. During these two flights, BLASTPol obtained unprecedented information about the magnetic field in molecular clouds through the measurement of the polarized thermal emission of interstellar dust grains. The thermal design of the experiment addresses the stability and control of the payload necessary for this kind of measurement. We describe the thermal modeling of the payload including the sun-shielding strategy. We present the in-flight thermal performance of the instrument and compare the predictions of the model with the temperatures registered during the flight. We describe the difficulties of modeling the thermal behavior of the balloon-borne platform and establish landmarks that can be used in the design of future balloon-borne instruments.

  1. Design and construction of a carbon fiber gondola for the SPIDER balloon-borne telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Soler, J D; Amiri, M; Benton, S J; Bock, J J; Bond, J R; Bryan, S A; Chiang, C; Contaldi, C C; Crill, B P; Doré, O P; Farhang, M; Filippini, J P; Fissel, L M; Fraisse, A A; Gambrel, A E; Gandilo, N N; Golwala, S; Gudmundsson, J E; Halpern, M; Hasselfield, M; Hilton, G C; Holmes, W A; Hristov, V V; Irwin, K D; Jones, W C; Kermish, Z D; Kuo, C L; MacTavish, C J; Mason, P V; Megerian, K G; Moncelsi, L; Nagy, J M; Netterfield, C B; O'Brient, R; Rahlin, A S; Reintsema, C D; Ruhl, J E; Runyan, M C; Shariff, J A; Trangsrud, A; Tucker, C; Tucker, R S; Turner, A D; Weber, A C; Wiebe, D V; Young, E Y

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the light-weight carbon fiber and aluminum gondola designed for the SPIDER balloon-borne telescope. SPIDER is designed to measure the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation with unprecedented sensitivity and control of systematics in search of the imprint of inflation: a period of exponential expansion in the early Universe. The requirements of this balloon-borne instrument put tight constrains on the mass budget of the payload. The SPIDER gondola is designed to house the experiment and guarantee its operational and structural integrity during its balloon-borne flight, while using less than 10% of the total mass of the payload. We present a construction method for the gondola based on carbon fiber reinforced polymer tubes with aluminum inserts and aluminum multi-tube joints. We describe the validation of the model through Finite Element Analysis and mechanical tests.

  2. Balloon observations of Galactic cosmic ray helium before and during a Forbush decrease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clem, J. M.; Guzik, T. G.; Lijowski, M.; Wefel, J. P.; Beatty, J. J.; Ficenec, D. J.; Tobias, S.; Mitchell, J. W.; Mckee, S.; Nutter, S.

    1993-01-01

    The energy spectrum of Galactic cosmic ray helium was measured in two different balloon experiments launched four days apart from Canada: SMILI-I on Sept 1, 1989 and MASS on Sept 5, 1989. A slow Forbush decrease began on Sept 4, 1989 and had not reached its maximum at the time of the MASS flight. Comparison of the balloon measurements shows a fractional decrease of 0.37 to 0.15 in the Helium flux between 200 and 450 MeV/nucleon (1.2-2.0 GV). The rigidity dependence is analyzed in two models and found to be steeper than previous observations. Interplanetary particle data and ground-based Neutron Monitor results are consistent with the balloon observations. Probable sources for this Forbush decrease are discussed.

  3. Auditory Risk of Exploding Hydrogen-Oxygen Balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Kent L.; Vernon, Julia A.; Macedone, Jeffrey H.

    2010-01-01

    Although hydrogen-oxygen balloon explosions are popular demonstrations, the acoustic impulse created poses a hearing damage risk if the peak level exceeds 140 dB at the listener's ear. The results of acoustical measurements of hydrogen-oxygen balloons of varying volume and oxygen content are described. It is shown that hydrogen balloons may be…

  4. 21 CFR 884.5050 - Metreurynter-balloon abortion system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Metreurynter-balloon abortion system. 884.5050... Devices § 884.5050 Metreurynter-balloon abortion system. (a) Identification. A metreurynter-balloon abortion system is a device used to induce abortion. The device is inserted into the uterine...

  5. Demonstration of a Balloon Borne Arc-second Pointer Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deweese, K.; Ward, P.

    Many designs for utilizing stratospheric balloons as low-cost platforms on which to conduct space science experiments have been proposed throughout the years A major hurdle in extending the range of experiments for which these vehicles are useful has been the imposition of the gondola dynamics on the accuracy with which an instrument can be kept pointed at a celestial target A significant number of scientists have sought the ability to point their instruments with jitter in the arc-second range This paper presents the design and analysis of a stratospheric balloon borne pointing system that is able to meet this requirement The test results of a demonstration prototype of the design with similar ability are also presented Discussion of a high fidelity controller simulation for design analysis is presented The flexibility of the flight train is represented through generalized modal analysis A multiple controller scheme is utilized for coarse and fine pointing Coarse azimuth pointing is accomplished by an established pointing system with extensive flight history residing above the gondola structure A pitch-yaw gimbal mount is used for fine pointing providing orthogonal axes when nominally on target Fine pointing actuation is from direct drive dc motors eliminating backlash problems An analysis of friction nonlinearities and a demonstration of the necessity in eliminating static friction are provided A unique bearing hub design is introduced that eliminates static friction from the system dynamics A control scheme involving linear

  6. Balloon-borne CALET prototype payload (bCALET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueyama, Yoshitaka; Torii, Shoji; Kasahara, Katsuaki; Murakami, Hiroyuki; Ozawa, Shunsuke; Akaike, Yosui; Nakai, Mikio; Aiba, Toshihide; Kai, Yuuichirou; Tamura, Tadahisa; Yoshida, Kenji; Katayose, Yusaku; Saito, Yoshitaka; Fuke, Hideyuki; Kawada, Jiro; Mizuta, Eiichi; Marrocchesi, Pier Simone; Kim, Meyoung; Bigongiari, Gabriele

    The CALorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET) payload will be installed in the Japanese Experiment Module Exposed Facility (JEM-EF) of the International Space Station (ISS). We have been developing a balloon borne payload to evaluate the performance of CALET by carring out precursor flights for the electron observation in 1-1000 GeV. The first flight of bCALET was done in 2006, and the enhanced version, bCALET-2, was successfully flown in 2009. In this paper, we describe the bCALET-3 payload which is composed of Imaging Calorimeter (IMC), Total Absorption Calorimeter (TASC) and Silicon pixel Array (SIA). IMC has an area of 320mm × 320mm, and is consisted 8 x-y layers of scintillating fiber belts inserted below tungsten plates for a fine imaging of shower particles. TASC is constructed by 6 layers of BGO scintillator blocks with an area of 300mm × 300mm, for measuring the total energy deposit of incoming shower particles. SIA owns to measure the charge number of incoming particle. Each component has very similar function with CALET with about half the area of CALET. We are planning to carry out the balloon experiment by bCALET-3 in November, 2010 for the test of the CALET capability of observing the electrons.

  7. Long distance cell communication using spherical tether balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchanda, R. K.; Rajagopalan, Vasudevan; Vasudevan, Rajagopalan; Mehrotra, R. K.; Sreenivasan, S.; Pawaskar, M.; Subba Rao Jonnalagadda, Venkata; Buduru, Suneelkumar; Kulkarni, P. M.

    A proof-of-concept experiment was conducted for long-range cell communication for rural tele-phony and internet. We designed and fabricated a spherical tether balloon to carry the con-ventional micro base transceiver station (BTS) along with three slotted antenna to cover 2-pi radius. AC power and optical fiber were anchored along with the tether line. A special fre-quency license was obtained from Wireless Planning Commission (WPC) wing of Department of Telecommunication (DoT), India for the period of experiment so as not to affect the opera-tional networks. The experiments were carried out for different BTS heights up to 500 meter. Signal measurement both in data mode and voice quality were done in different quadrant using mobile vans. This paper describes the methodology (under patenting) and utility of technique for operational application.

  8. Single-balloon versus double-balloon bipedicular kyphoplasty for osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Heng; Sun, Zhenzhong; Wang, Zhiwen; Jiang, Weimin

    2015-04-01

    Twenty-eight patients with osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (OVCF) were treated with single-balloon bipedicular kyphoplasty (Group A), and 40 patients were treated with double-balloon bipedicular kyphoplasty (Group B). Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) score, vertebral height, and kyphotic angle (KA) were evaluated pre-operatively, post-operatively (3 days after surgery) and at final follow-up. Operative time, X-ray exposure frequency and costs were recorded. The mean operative time and X-ray exposure frequency in Group A were greater than in Group B (pkyphoplasty is a safe and cost-effective surgical method for the treatment of OVCF. It can achieve pain relief comparable with double-balloon bipedicular kyphoplasty. However, double-balloon bipedicular kyphoplasty is more efficacious in terms of the restoration of vertebral height and reduction of KA, and the operative time and X-ray exposure frequency are lower.

  9. Pumpkins and onions and balloon design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winker, J. A.

    The reach for a capability to make long flights (months) with heavy payloads (tonnes) has long been pursued. The closest we have come is with polar flights devoid of a significant diurnal cycle. Superpressure technology, with its ability to survive diurnal cycles, is an obvious choice, but materials limitations have been an obstacle to realizing these ambitious goals. Now comes an assortment of new synthetic materials, coupled with a special variety of superpressure balloon which, in combination, is poised to yield a solution for our enhanced duration/payload quest. In this paper we are looking not at materials, but only at a balloon concept. This concept is a "natural shape" oblate spheroid balloon whose shape is chosen to exploit properties of component materials, particularly newly available ones. The current variation of this concept is called a "pumpkin" balloon. The most visible work on this shape is that done by France's CNES, Japan's ISAS, and in the USA by NASA's Wallops Flight Facility. But the basic design idea is not new; it extends back at least a half century. This paper traces the origins of the shape, its evolution through various iterations, and it speculates on some of the recent thinking regarding construction details.

  10. Preliminary Electric Field Results From A Multiple Balloon Campaign to Study Relativistic Electron Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bering, E. A.; Kokorowski, M.; Holzworth, R. H.; Sample, J. G.; McCarthy, M. P.; Smith, D. M.; Parks, G. K.; Millan, R. M.; Woodger, L.; Reddell, B. D.; Lay, E.; Bale, S. D.; Pulupa, M.; O'Brien, T. P.; Blake, J. B.; Lin, R. P.; Moraal, H.; Stoker, P.; Hughes, A. R.; Collier, A. B.

    2005-05-01

    The MINIS balloon campaign was successfully conducted in January 2005 to investigate relativistic electron loss mechanisms. Quantifying and understanding losses is an integral part of understanding the variability of relativistic electrons in the radiation belts. Balloon-based experiments directly measure precipitation and thus provide a method for quantifying losses, while the nearly stationary platform allows for the separation of temporal and spatial variations. A new class of precipitation event, characterized by extremely hard spectra, short durations, and complex temporal structure, occurring in the evening to midnight sector, was discovered by the INTERBOA balloon in 1996 and studied further by the MAXIS balloon in 2000. The MINIS campaign provided the first opportunities for multi-point measurements of electron precipitation up to MeV energies, including simultaneous measurements at different longitudes and at near-conjugate locations. Two balloons, each carrying an X-ray spectrometer for measuring the bremsstrahlung produced as electrons precipitate into the atmosphere, were launched from Churchill, Manitoba at 0850 UT on 21 January 2005 and 0140 UT on 25 January 2005. Four balloons, each carrying an X-ray spectrometer, a Z-axis search coil magnetometer, and a 3-axis electric field instrument providing DC electric field and VLF measurements in 3 frequency bands, were launched from the South African Antarctic Station (SANAE IV). The Southern launches took place at 1400 UT on 17 January, 1309 UT on 19 January, 2115 UT on 20 January, and 0950 UT on 24 January 2005. In this paper, we present the preliminary results from the MINIS South electric field instrumentation. We have good DC and VLF electric field data from all payloads, and the payload rotation mechanism worked in all four as well. The campaign began with two large solar flares. In the post-flare environment, some very magnetospherically active periods are included in our data, with strong and

  11. Preliminary X-ray Results From A Multiple Balloon Campaign to Study Relativistic Electron Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sample, J. G.; Kokorowski, M.; Millan, R. M.; McCarthy, M.; Holzworth, R. H.; Bering, E. A.; Parks, G. K.; Woodger, L.; Reddell, B. D.; Lay, E.; Pulupa, M.; Bale, S.; O'Brien, T. P.; Blake, J. B.; Lin, R. P.; Moraal, H.; Stoker, P.; Hughes, A. R.; Collier Cameron, A.; Smith, D. M.

    2005-05-01

    The MINIS balloon campaign was successfully conducted in January 2005 to investigate relativistic electron loss mechanisms. Quantifying and understanding losses is an integral part of understanding the variability of relativistic electrons in the radiation belts. Balloon-based experiments directly measure precipitation and thus provide a method for quantifying losses, while the nearly stationary platform allows for the separation of temporal and spatial variations. A new class of precipitation event, characterized by extremely hard spectra, short durations, and complex temporal structure, occurring in the evening to midnight sector, was discovered by the INTERBOA balloon in 1996 and studied further by the MAXIS balloon in 2000. The MINIS campaign provided the first opportunities for multi-point measurements of electron precipitation up to MeV energies, including simultaneous measurements at different longitudes and at near-conjugate locations. Two balloons, each carrying an X-ray spectrometer for measuring the bremsstrahlung produced as electrons precipitate into the atmosphere, were launched from Churchill, Manitoba at 0850 UT on 21 January 2005 and 0140 UT on 25 January 2005. Four balloons, each carrying an X-ray spectrometer, a Z-axis search coil magnetometer, and a 3-axis electric field instrument providing DC electric field and VLF measurements in 3 frequency bands, were launched from the South African Antarctic Station (SANAE IV). The Southern launches took place at 1400 UT on 17 January, 1309 UT on 19 January, 2115 UT on 20 January, and 0950 UT on 24 January 24 2005. In this paper, we present the preliminary results from the MINIS North and South X-ray data. The first and second Southern payloads observed a rarely-seen phenomenon: gamma-ray line emission from nuclear interactions of solar protons in the Earth's atmosphere. When the solar particles abated, there were numerous opportunities for simultaneous observations of MeV precipitation from multiple

  12. Lifting options for stratospheric aerosol geoengineering: advantages of tethered balloon systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Peter; Burgoyne, Chris; Hunt, Hugh; Causier, Matt

    2012-09-13

    The Royal Society report 'Geoengineering the Climate' identified solar radiation management using albedo-enhancing aerosols injected into the stratosphere as the most affordable and effective option for geoengineering, but did not consider in any detail the options for delivery. This paper provides outline engineering analyses of the options, both for batch-delivery processes, following up on previous work for artillery shells, missiles, aircraft and free-flying balloons, as well as a more lengthy analysis of continuous-delivery systems that require a pipe connected to the ground and supported at a height of 20 km, either by a tower or by a tethered balloon. Towers are shown not to be practical, but a tethered balloon delivery system, with high-pressure pumping, appears to have much lower operating and capital costs than all other delivery options. Instead of transporting sulphuric acid mist precursors, such a system could also be used to transport slurries of high refractive index particles such as coated titanium dioxide. The use of such particles would allow useful experiments on opacity, coagulation and atmospheric chemistry at modest rates so as not to perturb regional or global climatic conditions, thus reducing scale-up risks. Criteria for particle choice are discussed, including the need to minimize or prevent ozone destruction. The paper estimates the time scales and relatively modest costs required if a tethered balloon system were to be introduced in a measured way with testing and development work proceeding over three decades, rather than in an emergency. The manufacture of a tether capable of sustaining the high tensions and internal pressures needed, as well as strong winds, is a significant challenge, as is the development of the necessary pumping and dispersion technologies. The greatest challenge may be the manufacture and launch of very large balloons, but means have been identified to significantly reduce the size of such balloons or aerostats.

  13. Report on the Activities of National Balloon Facility, Hyderabad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudevan, Rajagopalan; Sreenivasan, S.; Suneel Kumar, B.; Kulkarni, P. M.

    2012-07-01

    More than five and half decades back, the Indian Balloon Group at Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai started development of stratospheric zero pressure balloon technology and today it is one among the leading balloon groups in the world. For the past 40 years, the Institute has been operating a Scientific Balloon Facility at Hyderabad and carried out 478 balloon flights for various disciplines of space sciences like primary cosmic ray studies, X ray, Gamma Ray, Infra Red Astronomies and Atmospheric science maintaining 100% success rate during the past nine years. The Balloon Facility has the capability to build balloons of volume up to 750,000 Cu.M. as well as carrying out R & D in all aspects of scientific ballooning like balloon engineering, balloon material development, general and flight support instrumentation. A continued effort in R & D for ultra thin balloon material for High Altitude Sounding Flights has resulted in lowering the thickness of the proven indigenous Antrix film initially from 6 to 3.8 microns in the first phase and further reduction to 2.7 microns in the second phase. A test balloon of volume 5000 Cu.M. using the 2.7 micron film attained a record altitude of 45.0 Km. amsl with 1 Kg. GPS sonde payload. A 60,000 Cu.M. balloon fabricated out of 3.8 micron film capable of reaching 47 Km. Altitude with 10 Kg. Payload is awaiting trial. This report briefly describes our balloon activities during the past two years. In atmospheric sciences, aerosol studies were made with OPC,QCM,Aethelometer, Nephelometer,MWR, CIMEL Sun Photometer and Raman LIDAR.Measuments of vertical profile of Meteorological parameters and ozone upto stratosphere using GPS Radiosonde and Ozone sonde is made respectively.Study of Ionospheric tomography is done with CADI and CRABEX.

  14. The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope: BLAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truch, Matthew D. P.; Ade, P. A. R.; Bock, J. J.; Chapin, E. L.; Chung, J.; Devlin, M. J.; Dicker, S.; Griffin, M.; Gundersen, J. O.; Halpern, M.; Hargrave, P. C.; Hughes, D. H.; Klein, J.; MacTavish, C. J.; Marsden, G.; Martin, P. G.; Martin, T. G.; Mauskopf, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Olmi, L.; Pascale, E.; Patanchon, G.; Rex, M.; Scott, D.; Semisch, C.; Thomas, N. E.; Tucker, C.; Tucker, G. S.; Viero, M. P.; Wiebe, D. V.

    2009-01-01

    The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) is a suborbital surveying experiment designed to study the evolutionary history and processes of star formation in local galaxies (including the Milky Way) and galaxies at cosmological distances. The BLAST continuum camera, which consists of 270 detectors distributed between three arrays, observes simultaneously in broadband (30%) spectral windows at 250, 350, and 500 microns. The optical design is based on a 2 m diameter telescope, providing a diffraction-limited resolution of 30" at 250 microns. The gondola pointing system enables raster mapping of arbitrary geometry, with a repeatable positional accuracy of 30"; postflight pointing reconstruction to manual override. On this poster, we describe the primary characteristics and measured in-flight performance of BLAST. BLAST performed a test flight in 2003 and has since made two scientifically productive long-duration balloon flights: a 100 hour flight from ESRANGE (Kiruna), Sweden to Victoria Island, northern Canada in 2005 June; and a 250 hour, circumpolar flight from McMurdo Station, Antarctica in 2006 December. The BLAST collaboration acknowledges the support of NASA through grants NAG5-12785, NAG5-13301, and NNGO-6GI11G, the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC), Canada's Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC), the Canada Foundation for Innovation, the Ontario Innovation Trust, the Puerto Rico Space Grant Consortium, the Fondo Institucional para la Investigacion of the University of Puerto Rico, and the National Science Foundation Office of Polar Programs.

  15. Combining Undergraduate Student Curriculum, Research, and Outreach: High-altitude Balloon and Rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, E. J.; Nielsen, K.

    2015-12-01

    The Society of Physics Students chapter at Utah Valley University (UVU) recently established a high altitude balloon project to provide students with research opportunities. This highly successful program involves students not only from physics but also from other STEM fields and non-STEM subjects, and as such acts as a unique outreach program for the department of physics. Examples of experiments performed with the balloon project are: 3D-acceleration measurements, altitude/pressure/temperature measurements, ozone monitoring, bio-aerosol collection, and solar panel performance output. All these experiment are designed and build by groups of students either as part of research projects or through class participation as the projects link with the curriculum in several courses. Most recently, a group of UVU students have initiated the implementation of small rockets capable of carrying payloads to this high-altitude program. Both balloon and rocket platforms are fundamental in-situ measuring techniques for numerous geoscience subjects, and are arguably best illustrated by the NASA balloon and sounding rocket programs. In this presentation, we give an overview of the program and how it is 1) being implemented into the curriculum, 2) provide unique research opportunities for students, and 3) specific outreach activities.

  16. Modeling the Water Balloon Slingshot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousquet, Benjamin D.; Figura, Charles C.

    2013-01-01

    In the introductory physics courses at Wartburg College, we have been working to create a lab experience focused on the scientific process itself rather than verification of physical laws presented in the classroom or textbook. To this end, we have developed a number of open-ended modeling exercises suitable for a variety of learning environments,…

  17. Balloon-borne gamma-ray polarimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Pearce, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The physical processes postulated to explain the high-energy emission mechanisms of compact astrophysical sources often yield polarised soft gamma rays (X-rays). PoGOLite is a balloon-borne polarimeter operating in the 25-80 keV energy band. The polarisation of incident photons is reconstructed using Compton scattering and photoelectric absorption in an array of phoswich detector cells comprising plastic and BGO scintillators, surrounded by a BGO side anticoincidence shield. The polarimeter is aligned to observation targets using a custom attitude control system. The maiden balloon flight is scheduled for summer 2011 from the Esrange Space Centre with the Crab and Cygnus X-1 as the primary observational targets.

  18. Burn Injury Arise From Flying Balloon Toys

    OpenAIRE

    Yalcin Kulahci; Fatih Zor; Mehmet Bozkurt; Serdar Ozturk; Mustafa Sengezer

    2007-01-01

    Many of peoples are faced minor or major burn injuries in their life. Even the most widespread burn cause is flame injuries, too different burn cause pointed out in literature like Acetylen burns. The cases which imply in literature, mostly causes from explosion of high pressure acetylene tube, metal oxygene patch flame or carbide lamp using from cave explorers. An interesting acetylene burn cause in Turkey was publised by the authors. This cases was to come into being from flying toy balloon...

  19. Double balloon enteroscopy examinations in general anesthesia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Laszlo; Zubek; Lena; Szabo; Peter; Laszlo; Lakatos; Janos; Papp; Janos; Gal; Gabor; Elo

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To demonstrate that the double balloon enteroscopy(DBE) can be safely performed in general anesthesia with intubation.METHODS:We performed a retrospective examination between August 2005 and November 2008 amongpatients receiving intubation narcosis due to DBE examination.The patients were grouped based on sex,age and physical status.Anesthesia records includedduration of anesthesia,quantity of medication usedand anesthesia-related complications.We determinedthe frequency of complications in the differen...

  20. MAXIS Balloon Observations of Electron Microburst Precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millan, R. M.; Hunter, A. E.; McCarthy, M. P.; Lin, R. P.; Smith, D. M.

    2003-12-01

    Quantifying and understanding losses is an integral part of understanding relativistic electron variability in the radiation belts. SAMPEX observations indicate that electron microburst precipitation is a major loss mechanism during active periods; the loss of relativistic electrons during a six hour period due to microburst precipitation was recently estimated to be comparable to the total number of trapped electrons in the outer zone (Lorentzen et al., 2001). Microburst precipitation was first observed from a balloon (Anderson and Milton, 1964), but these early measurements were only sensitive to MAXIS 2000 long duration balloon campaign. MAXIS was launched from McMurdo Station in Antarctica carrying a germanium spectrometer, a BGO scintillator and two X-ray imagers designed to measure the bremsstrahlung produced by precipitating electrons. The balloon circumnavigated the south pole in 18 days covering magnetic latitudes ranging from 58o-90o South. During the week following a moderate geomagnetic storm (with Dst reaching -91 nT), MAXIS detected a total of over 16 hours of microburst precipitation. We present high resolution spectra obtained with the MAXIS germanium spectrometer which allow us to determine the precipitating electron energy distribution. The precipitating distribution will then be compared to the trapped distribution measured by the GPS and LANL satellites. We also examine the spatial distribution of the precipitation.

  1. Long Duration Balloon Charge Controller Stack Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Kyle

    NASA and the Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility are interested in updating the design of the charge controller on their long duration balloon (LDB) in order to enable the charge controllers to be directly interfaced via RS232 serial communication by a ground testing computers and the balloon's flight computer without the need to have an external electronics stack. The design involves creating a board that will interface with the existing boards in the charge controller in order to receive telemetry from and send commands to those boards, and interface with a computer through serial communication. The inputs to the board are digital status inputs indicating things like whether the photovoltaic panels are connected or disconnected; and analog inputs with information such as the battery voltage and temperature. The outputs of the board are 100ms duration command pulses that will switch relays that do things like connect the photovoltaic panels. The main component of this design is a PIC microcontroller which translates the outputs of the existing charge controller into serial data when interrogated by a ground testing or flight computer. Other components involved in the design are an AD7888 12-bit analog to digital converter, a MAX3232 serial transceiver, various other ICs, capacitors, resistors, and connectors.

  2. Numerical Modelling Of Pumpkin Balloon Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, D.

    Tensys have been involved in the numerical formfinding and load analysis of architectural stressed membrane structures for 15 years. They have recently broadened this range of activities into the `lighter than air' field with significant involvement in aerostat and heavy-lift hybrid airship design. Since early 2004 they have been investigating pumpkin balloon instability on behalf of the NASA ULDB programme. These studies are undertaken using inTENS, an in-house finite element program suite based upon the Dynamic Relaxation solution method and developed especially for the non-linear analysis and patterning of membrane structures. The paper describes the current state of an investigation that started with a numerical simulation of the lobed cylinder problem first studied by Calladine. The influence of material properties and local geometric deformation on stability is demonstrated. A number of models of complete pumpkin balloons have then been established, including a 64-gore balloon with geometry based upon Julian Nott's Endeavour. This latter clefted dramatically upon initial inflation, a phenomenon that has been reproduced in the numerical model. Ongoing investigations include the introduction of membrane contact modelling into inTENS and correlation studies with the series of large-scale ULDB models currently in preparation.

  3. Angry Birds realized: water balloon launcher for teaching projectile motion with drag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Boyd F.; Sam, David D.; Christiansen, Michael A.; Booth, William A.; Jessup, Leslie O.

    2014-05-01

    A simple, collapsible design for a large water balloon slingshot launcher features a fully adjustable initial velocity vector and a balanced launch platform. The design facilitates quantitative explorations of the dependence of the balloon range and time of flight on the initial speed, launch angle, and projectile mass, in an environment where quadratic air drag is important. Presented are theory and experiments that characterize this drag, and theory and experiments that characterize the nonlinear elastic energy and hysteresis of the latex tubing used in the slingshot. The experiments can be carried out with inexpensive and readily available tools and materials. The launcher provides an engaging way to teach projectile motion and elastic energy to students of a wide variety of ages.

  4. Balloon laryngoplasty for acquired subglottic stenosis in children: predictive factors for success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Maunsell

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The treatment of subglottic stenosis in children remains a challenge for the otorhinolaryngologist, and may involve both endoscopic and open surgery. OBJECTIVE: To report the experience of two tertiary facilities in the treatment of acquired subglottic stenosis in children with balloon laryngoplasty, and to identify predictive factors for success of the technique and its complications. METHODS: Descriptive, prospective study of children diagnosed with acquired subglottic stenosis and submitted to balloon laryngoplasty as primary treatment. RESULTS: Balloon laryngoplasty was performed in 37 children with an average age of 22.5 months; 24 presented chronic subglottic stenosis and 13 acute subglottic stenosis. Success rates were 100% for acute subglottic stenosis and 32% for chronic subglottic stenosis. Success was significantly associated with acute stenosis, initial grade of stenosis, children of a smaller age, and the absence of tracheostomy. Transitory dysphagia was the only complication observed in three children. CONCLUSION: Balloon laryngoplasty may be considered the first line of treatment for acquired subglottic stenosis. In acute cases, the success rate is 100%, and although the results are less promising in chronic cases, complications are not significant and the possibility of open surgery remains without prejudice.

  5. Peripheral Applications of Drug-Coated Balloons: Past, Present and Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krokidis, Miltiadis, E-mail: mkrokidis@hotmail.com; Spiliopoulos, Stavros, E-mail: stavspiliop@upatras.gr; Katsanos, Konstantinos, E-mail: katsanos@med.upatras.gr; Sabharwal, Tarun, E-mail: tarun_sabharwal@yahoo.co.uk [Guy' s and St. Thomas' Hospitals, NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom)

    2013-04-15

    Drug-coated balloon (DCB) technologies represent the latest and hottest development in the field of endovascular treatment of peripheral arterial disease. Initial experience with paclitaxel-coated balloon use in the femoral artery has demonstrated lower mid-term restenosis and superior mid-term clinical outcomes in terms of improved wound healing and reduced repeat angioplasty rates compared with standard balloon angioplasty. Many companies are presently developing and/or improving DCB catheters and therefore ongoing, technical improvements of the already existing platforms, new drugs, and innovative carriers are expected. The ongoing basic research studies and various multicenter randomized, controlled trials that are currently in progress will offer valuable scientific insights regarding the long-term effectiveness and other crucial issues, such as efficacy in various vascular beds, optimal balloon dosage, and post angioplasty antiplatelet therapy. Future applications of these devices also could include in-stent restenosis, anastomotic stenosis of surgical bypass, and benign stenoses of the central venous system. The authors envision that DCB angioplasty will evolve to a major paradigm shift in the endovascular treatment of occlusive vascular diseases.

  6. SPIDER: A Balloon-borne Large-scale CMB Polarimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Crill, B P; Battistelli, E S; Benton, S; Bihary, R; Bock, J J; Bond, J R; Brevik, J; Bryan, S; Contaldi, C R; Dore, O; Farhang, M; Fissel, L; Golwala, S R; Halpern, M; Hilton, G; Holmes, W; Hristov, V V; Irwin, K; Jones, W C; Kuo, C L; Lange, A E; Lawrie, C; MacTavish, C J; Martin, T G; Mason, P; Montroy, T E; Netterfield, C B; Pascale, E; Riley, D; Ruhl, J E; Runyan, M C; Trangsrud, A; Tucker, C; Turner, A; Viero, M; Wiebe, D

    2008-01-01

    Spider is a balloon-borne experiment that will measure the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background over a large fraction of a sky at 1 degree resolution. Six monochromatic refracting millimeter-wave telescopes with large arrays of antenna-coupled transition-edge superconducting bolometers will provide system sensitivities of 4.2 and 3.1 micro K_cmb rt s at 100 and 150 GHz, respectively. A rotating half-wave plate will modulate the polarization sensitivity of each telescope, controlling systematics. Bolometer arrays operating at 225 GHz and 275 GHz will allow removal of polarized galactic foregrounds. In a 2-6 day first flight from Alice Springs, Australia in 2010, Spider will map 50% of the sky to a depth necessary to improve our knowledge of the reionization optical depth by a large factor.

  7. LOAC: a small aerosol optical counter/sizer for ground-based and balloon measurements of the size distribution and nature of atmospheric particles – Part 2: First results from balloon and unmanned aerial vehicle flights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-B. Renard

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the companion paper (Renard et al., 2015, we have described and evaluated a new versatile optical particle counter/sizer named LOAC (Light Optical Aerosol Counter based on scattering measurements at angles of 12 and 60° that allows some topology identification of particles (droplets, carbonaceous, salts, and mineral dust in addition to size segregated counting in a large diameter range from 0.2 up to possibly more than 100 μm depending on sampling conditions. Its capabilities overpass those of preceding optical particle counters (OPCs allowing the characterization of all kind of aerosols from submicronic-sized absorbing carbonaceous particles in polluted air to very coarse particles (> 10–20 μm in diameter in desert dust plumes or fog and clouds. LOAC's light and compact design allows measurements under all kinds of balloons, on-board unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV and at ground level. We illustrate here the first LOAC airborne results obtained from an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV and a variety of scientific balloons. The UAV was deployed in a peri-urban environment near Bordeaux in France. Balloon operations include (i tethered balloons deployed in urban environments in Vienna (Austria and Paris (France, (ii pressurized balloons drifting in the lower troposphere over the western Mediterranean (during the Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment – ChArMEx campaigns, (iii meteorological sounding balloons launched in the western Mediterranean region (ChArMEx and from Aire-sur-l'Adour in south-western France (VOLTAIRE-LOAC campaign. More focus is put on measurements performed in the Mediterranean during (ChArMEx and especially during African dust transport events to illustrate the original capability of balloon-borne LOAC to monitor in situ coarse mineral dust particles. In particular, LOAC has detected unexpected large particles in desert sand plumes.

  8. LOAC: a small aerosol optical counter/sizer for ground-based and balloon measurements of the size distribution and nature of atmospheric particles - Part 2: First results from balloon and unmanned aerial vehicle flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renard, Jean-Baptiste; Dulac, François; Berthet, Gwenaël; Lurton, Thibaut; Vignelles, Damien; Jégou, Fabrice; Tonnelier, Thierry; Jeannot, Matthieu; Couté, Benoit; Akiki, Rony; Verdier, Nicolas; Mallet, Marc; Gensdarmes, François; Charpentier, Patrick; Mesmin, Samuel; Duverger, Vincent; Dupont, Jean-Charles; Elias, Thierry; Crenn, Vincent; Sciare, Jean; Zieger, Paul; Salter, Matthew; Roberts, Tjarda; Giacomoni, Jérôme; Gobbi, Matthieu; Hamonou, Eric; Olafsson, Haraldur; Dagsson-Waldhauserova, Pavla; Camy-Peyret, Claude; Mazel, Christophe; Décamps, Thierry; Piringer, Martin; Surcin, Jérémy; Daugeron, Daniel

    2016-08-01

    In the companion (Part I) paper, we have described and evaluated a new versatile optical particle counter/sizer named LOAC (Light Optical Aerosol Counter), based on scattering measurements at angles of 12 and 60°. That allows for some typology identification of particles (droplets, carbonaceous, salts, and mineral dust) in addition to size-segregated counting in a large diameter range from 0.2 µm up to possibly more than 100 µm depending on sampling conditions (Renard et al., 2016). Its capabilities overpass those of preceding optical particle counters (OPCs) allowing the characterization of all kind of aerosols from submicronic-sized absorbing carbonaceous particles in polluted air to very coarse particles (> 10-20 µm in diameter) in desert dust plumes or fog and clouds. LOAC's light and compact design allows measurements under all kinds of balloons, on-board unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and at ground level. We illustrate here the first LOAC airborne results obtained from a UAV and a variety of scientific balloons. The UAV was deployed in a peri-urban environment near Bordeaux in France. Balloon operations include (i) tethered balloons deployed in urban environments in Vienna (Austria) and Paris (France), (ii) pressurized balloons drifting in the lower troposphere over the western Mediterranean (during the Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment - ChArMEx campaigns), (iii) meteorological sounding balloons launched in the western Mediterranean region (ChArMEx) and from Aire-sur-l'Adour in south-western France (VOLTAIRE-LOAC campaign). More focus is put on measurements performed in the Mediterranean during (ChArMEx) and especially during African dust transport events to illustrate the original capability of balloon-borne LOAC to monitor in situ coarse mineral dust particles. In particular, LOAC has detected unexpected large particles in desert sand plumes.

  9. AUTOPERFUSION BALLOON CATHETER FOR COMPLICATED CORONARY ANGIOPLASTY - A PROSPECTIVE-STUDY WITH RETROSPECTIVE CONTROLS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEMUINCK, ED; VANDIJK, RB; DENHEIJER, P; MEEDER, JG; LIE, KI

    1992-01-01

    Prolonged angioplasty balloon inflation with an autoperfusion balloon for failed conventional coronary angioplasty, was compared with emergency surgery for this condition. Restenosis was assessed 6 weeks after successful intervention with the autoperfusion balloon. Forty consecutive patients with pe

  10. [Treatment of carotid-cavernous fistula using a detachable balloon catheter--a case report and review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chono, Y; Abe, H; Sasaki, H; Abe, S; Takei, H; Koiwa, M; Saito, H

    1983-01-01

    A case of post-traumatic carotid cavernous fistula, successfully treated by a detachable balloon catheter, is reported. A 55-year-old housewife was admitted to the author's department on 25th August, 1980. Three months prior to admission, she complained of right tinnitus following a traffic accident and then developed right chemosis and exophthalmus. A selective right internal carotid angiography revealed rapid filling of the carotid cavernous fistula. Under general anesthesia, the patient was treated by the maneuver after Debrun. Since it appeared necessary to employ the second balloon, the first one was released gently being inflated only with the contrast medium. During the procedure, the neck of the balloon was incidentally snapped upward and, then, the fistula was eventually occluded preserving the carotid flow as was verified by a control angiography. The bruit was abolished immediately after the procedure and all ocular symptoms disappeared during the following a few weeks. A skull film showed a deflation of the balloon at 4 weeks postoperatively, but clinical and angiographic follow-up examinations at 9 months thereafter revealed no signs or symptoms of recurrence. This Debrun's procedure is being widely accepted for a carotid cavernous fistula as a relatively simpler, safer, and more effective one comparing with the conventional methods. Our experiment on dogs, however, indicated that rupture of the balloon is not always avoidable even with a smaller volume than its maximum capacity and some resistance was felt during introduction of the co-axial catheter. Thus, it appeared mandatory to improve and quality control the balloon and the catheter. In the case presented here, a follow-up angiography showed no recurrence of the fistula except for an asymptomatic pseud-aneurysmal pouch, even though the balloon was inflated only with the contrast medium and was deflated within 4 weeks. These findings suggest possibility of successful, and long-lasting outcome

  11. Balloon laryngoplasty for subglottic stenosis caused by orotracheal intubation at a tertiary care pediatric hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avelino, Melissa Gomes Ameloti; Fernandes, Edson Junior de Melo

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In recent years, there has been a reduction in mortality rates in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) due to the impact of modern technological advances in the perinatal field. As a consequence, prolonged orotracheal intubation is used more frequently, and there has been an increase in acquired subglottic stenosis (SGS) in children. Subglottic stenosis is a narrowing of the endolarynx and one of the most common causes of stridor and respiratory distress in children. The laryngoplasty balloon has proven effective in dealing with stenosis both as primary and secondary treatments, after open surgery, with the added advantage of being less invasive and not requiring external access. Materials and Methods This study involved children from pediatric intensive care units or NICUs suffering from respiratory distress and who presented an endoscopic diagnosis of Myer and Cotton grade I to III SGS. These patients underwent balloon laryngoplasty with different numbers of interventions depending on the response in each individual case. Results All the patients responded satisfactorily to the balloon laryngoplasty. None required tracheostomy after treatment and all remained asymptomatic even after 6-month follow-up. One patient required just 1 dilation, 4 required 2, 3 underwent the procedure 3 times, and another had 5 dilations. Conclusion The experience presented here is that of balloon laryngoplasty post-orotracheal intubation SGS with very satisfactory results at a tertiary care pediatric hospital. Although the number of patients is limited, our incidence corroborates other studies that demonstrate the efficacy and safety of balloon dilatation in the treatment of SGS.

  12. Balloon Laryngoplasty for Subglottic Stenosis Caused by Orotracheal Intubation at a Tertiary Care Pediatric Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avelino, Melissa Gomes Ameloti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In recent years, there has been a reduction in mortality rates in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs due to the impact of modern technological advances in the perinatal field. As a consequence, prolonged orotracheal intubation is used more frequently, and there has been an increase in acquired subglottic stenosis (SGS in children. Subglottic stenosis is a narrowing of the endolarynx and one of the most common causes of stridor and respiratory distress in children. The laryngoplasty balloon has proven effective in dealing with stenosis both as primary and secondary treatments, after open surgery, with the added advantage of being less invasive and not requiring external access. Materials and Methods This study involved children from pediatric intensive care units or NICUs suffering from respiratory distress and who presented an endoscopic diagnosis of Myer and Cotton grade I to III SGS. These patients underwent balloon laryngoplasty with different numbers of interventions depending on the response in each individual case. Results All the patients responded satisfactorily to the balloon laryngoplasty. None required tracheostomy after treatment and all remained asymptomatic even after 6-month follow-up. One patient required just 1 dilation, 4 required 2, 3 underwent the procedure 3 times, and another had 5 dilations. Conclusion The experience presented here is that of balloon laryngoplasty post–orotracheal intubation SGS with very satisfactory results at a tertiary care pediatric hospital. Although the number of patients is limited, our incidence corroborates other studies that demonstrate the efficacy and safety of balloon dilatation in the treatment of SGS.

  13. Stratospheric composition from balloon based measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mencaraglia, F.; Carli, B. [Ist. per le Ricerche sulle Onde Elettromagnetiche, Firenze (Italy); Bonetti, A.; Ciarpallini, P. [Univ. di Firenze (Italy); Carlotti, M.; Lepri, G. [Univ. di Bologna (Italy); Alboni, F.; Cortesi, U.; Ridolfi, M. [Fondazione per la Metereologia Applicata, Firenze (Italy)

    1995-12-31

    Measurements of the composition of the earth`s atmosphere is of fundamental importance for the study of atmospheric chemistry and for developing models that can predict the evolution of the atmosphere itself. Here, the chemical composition of the lower stratosphere has been measured using a polarizing interferometer operating in the far infrared and submillimetric spectral region. The instrument was flown three times (in 1992, 1993 and 1994) from the NSBF balloon base (Fort Sumner, New Mexico) in coincidence with overpasses of the UARS satellite, for a total of about 50 hours of measurements. In this paper the authors report some of the results obtained from the data analysis made up to now.

  14. Double-balloon endoscopy: Who needs it?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendel, J.W.; Vilmann, P.; Jensen, T.

    2008-01-01

    Objective. Double-balloon endoscopy (DBE) made the small bowel accessible to inspection and therapy in its entirety. However, DBE is a time-consuming procedure that requires a highly skilled endoscopist, several nurses and - more often than not - anesthesiological support. This makes the selectio...... within the next 12 months. Conclusions. CE can be applied as a screening procedure for DBE and allows for an approximately two-thirds reduction in the need for DBE as well as enabling a choice to be made between the oral and anal route Udgivelsesdato: 2008...

  15. Pneumothorax, music and balloons: A case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiferaw Dejene

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe two cases of spontaneous pneumothorax in young healthy adults with no underlying structural lung disease. The onset of pneumothorax was following physical activity including playing musical instruments and blowing of balloons. There is sparse data evaluating the pathophysiology of primary spontaneous pneumothorax in relation to increased mouth pressures. These cases highlight the possible physical effect of valsalva manoeuvre on transpulmonary pressures, and the potential risk of developing pneumothorax in otherwise healthy individuals. This aspect of pneumothorax development is worthy of further exploration, to better elucidate the mechanism and enhance our understanding of this common respiratory presentation.

  16. Ballooning Spiders: The Case for Electrostatic Flight

    CERN Document Server

    Gorham, Peter W

    2013-01-01

    We consider general aspects of the physics underlying the flight of Gossamer spiders, also known as ballooning spiders. We show that existing observations and the physics of spider silk in the presence of the Earth's static atmospheric electric field indicate a potentially important role for electrostatic forces in the flight of Gossamer spiders. A compelling example is analyzed in detail, motivated by the observed "unaccountable rapidity" in the launching of such spiders from H.M.S. Beagle, recorded by Charles Darwin during his famous voyage.

  17. Thrombus aspiration catheter is a Dottering balloon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheshagiri Rao, D; Barik, Ramachandra; Prasad, Akula Siva

    2016-01-01

    Coronary angiogram in a young man with history of STEMI with delayed presentation revealed subtotal occlusion of left anterior descending artery (LAD) with large thrombotic filling defect distal to the critical lesion. PCI was preferred without delay because of ongoing chest pain. Several runs of thrombus aspiration failed to detect any visible thrombus. However, the immediate angiogram after thrombus aspiration showed complete distal embolization of the thrombus which could have been achieved by Dottering or balloon dilatation. In contrary to the general perception, does thrombus aspiration push more thrombus than it can aspirate?

  18. Flight Qualification of the NASA's Super Pressure Balloon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathey, Henry; Said, Magdi; Fairbrother, Debora

    Designs of new balloons to support space science require a number of actual flights under various flight conditions to qualify them to as standard balloon flight offerings to the science community. Development of the new Super Pressure Balloon for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s Balloon Program Office has entailed employing new design, analysis, and production techniques to advance the state of the art. Some of these advances have been evolutionary steps and some have been revolutionary steps requiring a maturing understanding of the materials, designs, and manufacturing approaches. The NASA Super Pressure Balloon development end goal is to produce a flight vehicle that is qualified to carry a ton of science instrumentation, at an altitude greater than 33 km while maintaining a near constant pressure altitude for extended periods of up to 100 days, and at any latitude on the globe. The NASA’s Balloon Program Office has pursued this development in a carefully executed incremental approach by gradually increasing payload carrying capability and increasing balloon volume to reach these end goal. A very successful test flight of a ~200,700 m3 balloon was launch in late 2008 from Antarctica. This balloon flew for over 54 days at a constant altitude and circled the Antarctic continent almost three times. A larger balloon was flown from Antarctica in early 2011. This ~422,400 m3 flew at a constant altitude for 22 days making one circuit around Antarctica. Although the performance was nominal, the flight was terminated via command to recover high valued assets from the payload. The balloon designed to reach the program goals is a ~532,200 m3 pumpkin shaped Super Pressure Balloon. A test flight of this balloon was launched from the Swedish Space Corporation’s Esrange Balloon Launch Facilities near Kiruna, Sweden on 14 August, 2012. This flight was another success for this development program. Valuable information was gained from this short test

  19. CNES super pressure balloons upgrade for Strateole-2 campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venel, Stephanie; Cocquerez, Philippe; Hertzog, Albert

    2016-07-01

    The French Space Agency, CNES, has developed, since about twelve years ago, super pressure balloons (SPB) that float on constant density (isopycnic) surfaces in the lowermost stratosphere, carrying 40 to 50 kg payloads, during typically three months. These SPB have been successfully deployed in flotilla of about 20 balloons for different scientific campaigns all over the world in different configuration sizes from 8,5 to 12 m diameter, mainly to document the chemistry and dynamics of the atmosphere, to study gravity waves, and to provide in-situ atmospheric profiles thanks to the NCAR driftsonde payload. The SPB housekeeping gondola used from 2005 to 2011 now needs to be upgraded in order to increase the flights' safety and to improve its performance with up to date equipment's. The control center will also be redesigned. These modifications take into account the experience acquired during the last SPB campaigns, mainly during CONCORDIASI, with 19 flights over Antarctica from September 2010 to January 2011. After a successful preliminary design review, the project is now conducting the detailed conception phase. This new system is developed for STRATEOLE-2, a project dedicated to the coupling processes between the troposphere and the stratosphere in the deep tropics, using several types of instruments, both for in situ and remote measurements in the atmosphere. STRATEOLE -2 includes two measurement campaigns, three years spaced to study the quasi biennial oscillation. Since the scientific payloads are fully self-standing, some technical solutions will be common with the CNES housekeeping gondola, such as the renewable power system. This paper will describe the STRATEOLE-2 project and the developments in progress for the SPB system upgrade.

  20. 21 CFR 870.1350 - Catheter balloon repair kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Catheter balloon repair kit. 870.1350 Section 870... repair kit. (a) Identification. A catheter balloon repair kit is a device used to repair or replace the... effect the repair or replacement. (b) Classification. Class III (premarket approval). (c) Date PMA...

  1. Reversible transient apical ballooning syndrome with coronary lesions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yunshan Cao; Min Zhang; Xiang Li; Ping Xie; Lynn Cronin

    2009-01-01

    Transient apical ballooning syndrome(Tako-Tsubo syndrome or ampulla cardiomyopathy) occurs predominantly in women over 60 years of age with a history of recent physical or psychological stress. We present a case of a male patient with reversible transient apical ballooning syndrome with significant coronary lesions and other ECG changes that did not explain the clinical symptoms.

  2. Design and Status of the Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry (BETTII): An Interferometer at the Edge of Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinehart, Stephen A.; Barclay, Richard B.; Barry, R. K.; Benford, D. J.; Calhoun, P. C.; Fixsen, D. J.; Gorman, E. T.; Jackson, M. L.; Jhabvala, C. A.; Leisawitz, D. T.; Maher, S. F.; Mentzell, J. E.; Mundy, L. G.; Rizzo, M. J.; Silverberg, R. F.; Staguhn, J. G.

    2012-01-01

    The Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry (BETTII) is an 8-meter baseline far-infraredinterferometer designed to fly on a high altitude balloon. BETTII uses a double-Fourier Michelson interferometer tosimultaneously obtain spatial and spectral information on science targets; the long baseline permits subarcsecond angular resolution, a capability unmatched by other far-infrared facilities. Here, we present key aspects of the overall design of the mission and provide an overview of the current status of the project. We also discuss briefly the implications of this experiment for future space-based far-infrared interferometers.

  3. A Rare and Serious Unforeseen Complication of Cutting Balloon Angioplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Vemula

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutting balloon angioplasty (CBA is one of the adept ways of treating “in-stent restenosis.” Various complications related to cutting balloon angioplasty have been reported including arterial rupture, delayed perforation and fracture of microsurgical blades. Here we report a very unusual and inadvertent extraction of a stent previously deployed in the ramus intermedius coronary branch by a cutting balloon catheter. This required repeat stenting of the same site for an underlying dissection. Even though stent extraction is a rare complication it can be serious due to dissection, perforation, and closure of the artery. Physicians performing coronary artery interventions would need to be aware of this rare and serious complication especially if any difficulty is encountered while withdrawing the cutting balloon. Therefore, after removal, cutting balloon should be examined thoroughly for possible stent dislodgment or extraction when used for “in-stent restenosis.”

  4. An overview of instrumentation capabilities for Scientific ballooning in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devarajan, Anand; Reddy Vizapur, Anmi; Rao Tanneeru, Venkateswara; Bangaru, Kapardhi; Trivedi, Dharmesh; Rodi, Ashish; Ojha, Devendra; Koli, Santosh

    2016-07-01

    The Balloon Facility of Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR-BF) in India, launches scientific balloons for research in the field of astronomy, astrobiology and atmospheric sciences. TIFR-BF not only has the capability to design, fabricate and launch zero-pressure balloons, but also provide operational and engineering support for launching them. The Control Instrumentation Group (CIG) at the balloon facility handles all electronics related to telemetry, telecommand, tracking, real-time data display, data storage, air-safety and payload recovery. In the recent past, it has designed and developed customized electronics and payload orientation mechanism to meet specific experimental objectives. Small, inexpensive and rugged industrial grade radio data modems were successfully deployed in balloon flights for low bit rate data and image telemetry. This paper will provide an overview and in-flight performance of some of the recent developments in instrumentation and electronics systems. Our plans for future upgradations will also be discussed.

  5. Global kinetic ballooning mode simulations in BOUT++

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, C. H.; Xu, X. Q.

    2017-01-01

    We report on simulation results of a 3+1 gyro-Landau-fluid (GLF) model in BOUT++ framework, which contributes to increasing the physics understanding of the edge turbulence. We find that there is no second stability region of kinetic ballooning modes (KBM) in the concentric circular geometry. The first unstable β of KBM decreases below the ideal ballooning mode threshold with increasing {ηi} . In order to study the KBM in the real tokamak equilibrium, we find that the approximation of shifted circular geometry (β \\ll {{\\varepsilon}2} ) is not valid for a high β global equilibrium near the second stability region of KBM. Thus we generate a series of real equilibria from a global equilibrium solver CORSICA, including both Shafranov shift and elongation effects, but not including bootstrap current. In these real equilibria, the second stability region of KBM are observed in our global linear simulations. The most unstable mode for different β are the same while the mode number spectrum near the second stability region is wider than the case near the first stability region. The nonlinear simulations show that the energy loss of an ELM keeps increasing with β, because the linear drive of the turbulence remains strong for the case near the second stability region during profile evolution.

  6. A constitutive equation for stratospheric balloon materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, J.; Sterling, J.

    The selection of a suitable material for use as a reliable stratospheric balloon gas barrier and structural component is based on a variety of desired properties. In order to achieve the required combination of weight per unit area, helium permeation, strength, flexibility and toughness at low temperatures, low density polyethylene has been used for the last half century. During the last decade, linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) has been found to have even better properties for this application. Thin films extruded from this type resin have been found to have time dependent properties which should be understood in order to make an intelligent analysis of the balloon. This paper describes the current effort to characterize a 38 micron coextrusion of LLDPE as a nonlinearly viscoelastic material. The resulting constitutive equation may be used to accurately describe the time dependent creep and/or relaxation of this film when subjected to a biaxial state of stress. Recent laboratory data have been used to modify an existing model of LLDPE to account for differences caused by the coextrusion process. The new model will facilitate structure design optimization and reliability assessment, and may further be utilized as a predictive tool to benefit in-flight operations. Unfortunately, current structural analysis techniques based on linear elastic properties will predict stresses in excess of those which actually exist. An example will be presented which demonstrates the magnitude of this error when nonlinear behavior is ignored.

  7. EUSO-Balloon: The first flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotti, Valentina; Osteria, Giuseppe

    2016-07-01

    EUSO-Balloon is a pathfinder mission for JEM-EUSO, the near-UV telescope proposed to be installed on board the International Space Station (ISS). The main objective of this pathfinder mission is to perform a full scale end-to-end test of all the key technologies of JEM-EUSO detectors and to measure the UV background. The JEM-EUSO instrument consists of UV telescope designed to focus the signal of the UV tracks generated by Extreme Energy Cosmic Rays propagating in Earth's atmosphere, onto a finely pixelized UV camera. The EUSO-Balloon instrument, smaller than the one designed for the ISS, was launched on August 2014 from Timmins (Ontario, Canada). The flight lasted about five hours and the instrument reached a float altitude of about 40 km. From this altitude the telescope registered, at a rate of 400 000 frames/s, the nightglow background on forests, lakes and clouds, as well as city lights and artificial air showers tracks generated by means of a laser installed on an helicopter flying inside its field of view. In this contribution we will describe the instrument and its performance during the first flight.

  8. EUSO-Balloon: The first flight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scotti, Valentina, E-mail: scottiv@na.infn.it; Osteria, Giuseppe

    2016-07-11

    EUSO-Balloon is a pathfinder mission for JEM-EUSO, the near-UV telescope proposed to be installed on board the International Space Station (ISS). The main objective of this pathfinder mission is to perform a full scale end-to-end test of all the key technologies of JEM-EUSO detectors and to measure the UV background. The JEM-EUSO instrument consists of UV telescope designed to focus the signal of the UV tracks generated by Extreme Energy Cosmic Rays propagating in Earth's atmosphere, onto a finely pixelized UV camera. The EUSO-Balloon instrument, smaller than the one designed for the ISS, was launched on August 2014 from Timmins (Ontario, Canada). The flight lasted about five hours and the instrument reached a float altitude of about 40 km. From this altitude the telescope registered, at a rate of 400 000 frames/s, the nightglow background on forests, lakes and clouds, as well as city lights and artificial air showers tracks generated by means of a laser installed on an helicopter flying inside its field of view. In this contribution we will describe the instrument and its performance during the first flight.

  9. THE KISSING BALLOON TECHNIQUE WITH 2 OVER-THE-WIRE BALLOON CATHETERS THROUGH A SINGLE 8-FRENCH GUIDING CATHETER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DENHEIJER, P; BERNINK, PJLM; VANDIJK, RB; TWISK, SPM; LIE, KI

    1991-01-01

    Some of the newer over-the-wire coronary angioplasty catheters have shaft sizes of 3.0 French (F) or less. The inner diameter of modern 8-F guiding catheters is large enough to accommodate two of such balloon catheters. We report a kissing balloon procedure with two over-the-wire catheters through a

  10. Effect of intra-aortic balloon pump on coronary blood flow during different balloon cycles support: A computer study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aye, Thin Pa Pa; Htet, Zwe Lin; Singhavilai, Thamvarit; Naiyanetr, Phornphop

    2015-01-01

    Intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) has been used in clinical treatment as a mechanical circulatory support device for patients with heart failure. A computer model is used to study the effect on coronary blood flow (CBF) with different balloon cycles under both normal and pathological conditions. The model of cardiovascular and IABP is developed by using MATLAB SIMULINK. The effect on coronary blood flow has been studied under both normal and pathological conditions using different balloon cycles (balloon off; 1:4; 1:2; 1:1). A pathological heart is implemented by reducing the left ventricular contractility. The result of this study shows that the rate of balloon cycles is related to the level of coronary blood flow.

  11. Balloon Type Elasticity Sensing of Left Ventricular Tissue for Small Experimental Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashimori, Mitsuru; Ishii, Ryohei; Tadakuma, Kenjiro; Kaneko, Makoto; Tamaki, Syunsuke; Sakata, Yasushi; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro

    This paper describes an elasticity sensing system for a left ventricular tissue of small experimental animal. We first show the basic concept of the proposed method, where a ring shaped specimen is dilated by a balloon type probe with pressure based control and the elasticity is estimated by using the stress and strain information. We introduce the dual cylinder model for approximating the strengths of material of the specimen and the balloon. Based on this model, we can derive the Young's modulus of the specimen. After showing the developed experimental system, we show basic experiments using silicone specimens. We finally show a couple of experimental results using rat and mouse, where specimens with HFPEF (Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction) can be separated from normal specimens.

  12. The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimetre Telescope (BLAST) and BLASTPol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascale, Enzo; Pascale

    2013-01-01

    Balloon observations from Antarctica have proven an effective and efficient way to address open Cosmological questions as well as problems in Galactic astronomy. The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimetre Telescope (BLAST) is a sub-orbital mapping experiment which uses 270 bolometric detectors to image the sky in three wavebands centred at 250, 350 and 500 μm with a 1.8 m telescope. In the years before Herschel launched, BLAST provided data of unprecedented angular and spectral coverage in frequency bands close to the peak of dust emission in star forming regions in our Galaxy, and in galaxies at cosmological distances. More recently, BLASTPol was obtained by reconfiguring the BLAST focal plane as a submillimetric polarimeter to study the role that Galactic magnetic fields have in regulating the processes of star-formation. The first and successful BLASTPol flight from Antarctica in 2010 is followed by a second flight, currently scheduled for the end of 2012.

  13. Geodesic Acoustic Propagation and Ballooning Mode Formalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, M. B.; Diamond, P. H.; Young, G. G.; Arakawa, M.

    2005-10-01

    Relevance of ballooning formalism (BMF) in nonlinear interaction of toroidal electromagnetic drift waves in the presence of zonal flows and Geodesic Acoustic Oscillation (GAO) is critically examined from a physical argument of radial propagation of wave packets. To achieve the quasi-translational invariance of poloidal harmonics which is necessary for the BMF, the geodesic curvature induced transfer [1] of fluctuation energy in radial direction should occur faster than the time scale of physical interest. Of course, this does not happen necessarily in drift-Alfven (DALF) turbulence simulations [2]. This observation casts considerable doubts on the applicability of various codes based on the BMF concept to nonlinear electromagnetic problems. [1] B. Scott, Phys. Letters A 320 (2003) 53. [2] B. Scott, New J. Phys 7 (2005) 92.

  14. The Norwegian Sounding Rocket and Balloon Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skatteboe, Rolf

    2001-08-01

    The status and recent developments of the Norwegian Sounding Rocket and Balloon Program are presented with focus on national activities and recent achievements. The main part of the Norwegian program is sounding rocket launches conducted by Andøya Rocket Range from the launch facilities on Andøya and at Svalbard. For the majority of the programs, the scientific goal is investigation of processes in the middle and upper atmosphere. The in situ measurements are supplemented by a large number of ground-based support instruments located at the ALOMAR Observatory. The ongoing and planned projects are described and the highlights of the latest completed projects are given. The scientific program for the period 2001-2003 will be reviewed. Several new programs have been started to improve the services available to the international science comunity. The Hotel Payload project and MiniDusty are important examples that will be introduced in the paper. Available space related infrastructure is summarized.

  15. Intragastric balloon: ethics, medical need and cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotzampassi, Katerina; Shrewsbury, Anne D

    2008-01-01

    The development of the intragastic balloon as a safe, noninvasive, alternative method to weight reduction raises all the ethical questions routinely faced by practitioners of other forms of cosmetic surgery. In the case of the morbidly, severely or merely obese, the surgeon is faced with a medical decision in a situation defined by medical parameters. The case of the overweight or normal may, however, create an ethical dilemma in which the doctor is forced to make decisions of a nonmedical nature, for which his training has not prepared him, and relating essentially to his personal attitudes and moral beliefs, culture and the recognition that 'if I don't, somebody else--possibly less competent--will'.

  16. Results of the first EUSO-Balloon flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, H.; Bertaina, M.; JEM-EUSO Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    EUSO-Balloon, a balloon-borne diffractive fluorescence telescope, was launched by the French Space Agency ONES from the Timmins base in Ontario (Canada) on August 25th in 2014. After reaching the floating altitude of about 38 km, EUSO-Balloon imaged the UV background for more than 5 hours before descending to ground using the key technologies of JEM-EUSO. A detailed and precise measurement of the UV background in different atmospheric and ground conditions was achieved. The instrument proved the capability of detecting Extensive Air Showers (EAS) by observing laser tracks with similar characteristics. This contribution will summarise the first results obtained concerning all the topics described above.

  17. Balloon dilation of congenital supravalvular pulmonic stenosis in a dog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treseder, Julia R.

    2017-01-01

    Percutaneous balloon valvuloplasty is considered the standard of care for treatment of valvular pulmonic stenosis, a common congenital defect in dogs. Supravalvular pulmonic stenosis is a rare form of pulmonic stenosis in dogs and standard treatment has not been established. Although, there have been reports of successful treatment of supravalvular pulmonic stenosis with surgical and stenting techniques, there have been no reports of balloon dilation to treat dogs with this condition. Here, a case of supravalvular pulmonic stenosis diagnosed echocardiographically and angiographically in which a significant reduction in pressure gradient was achieved with balloon dilation alone is presented. PMID:27297421

  18. Intragastric balloon for morbid obesity causing chronic gastric dilatation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pretolesi, F.; Derchi, L.E. [Dept. of Radiology, University of Genoa (Italy); Redaelli, G.; Papagni, L. [IRCCS, Ist. Auxologico Italiano, Milan (Italy)

    2001-04-01

    We describe the radiographic findings observed in a morbidly obese and diabetic patient with an intragastric air-filled balloon introduced as a therapeutic measure to reduce food intake. The balloon was associated with chronic gastric dilatation and had to be removed 3 months after insertion. However, together with diet and behavioural therapy, it proved effective in reducing body weight and ameliorating glycaemic control. Although rarely used, intragastric balloons for the treatment of morbid obesity are still encountered in radiological practice. Radiologists must be able to recognize them and to understand their complications. (orig.)

  19. Pointing control for the SPIDER balloon-borne telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Shariff, Jamil A; Amiri, Mandana; Benton, Steven J; Bock, Jamie J; Bond, J Richard; Bryan, Sean A; Chiang, H Cynthia; Contaldi, Carlo R; Crill, Brendan P; Doré, Olivier P; Farhang, Marzieh; Filippini, Jeffrey P; Fissel, Laura M; Fraisse, Aurelien A; Gambrel, Anne E; Gandilo, Natalie N; Golwala, Sunil R; Gudmundsson, Jon E; Halpern, Mark; Hasselfield, Matthew; Hilton, Gene C; Holmes, Warren A; Hristov, Viktor V; Irwin, Kent D; Jones, William C; Kermish, Zigmund D; Kuo, Chao-Lin; MacTavish, Carolyn J; Mason, Peter V; Megerian, Krikor G; Moncelsi, Lorenzo; Morford, Tracy A; Nagy, Johanna M; Netterfield, C Barth; O'Brient, Roger; Rahlin, Alexandra S; Reintsema, Carl D; Ruhl, John E; Runyan, Marcus C; Soler, Juan D; Trangsrud, Amy; Tucker, Carole E; Tucker, Rebecca S; Turner, Anthony D; Weber, Alexis C; Wiebe, Donald V; Young, Edward Y

    2014-01-01

    We present the technology and control methods developed for the pointing system of the SPIDER experiment. SPIDER is a balloon-borne polarimeter designed to detect the imprint of primordial gravitational waves in the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation. We describe the two main components of the telescope's azimuth drive: the reaction wheel and the motorized pivot. A 13 kHz PI control loop runs on a digital signal processor, with feedback from fibre optic rate gyroscopes. This system can control azimuthal speed with < 0.02 deg/s RMS error. To control elevation, SPIDER uses stepper-motor-driven linear actuators to rotate the cryostat, which houses the optical instruments, relative to the outer frame. With the velocity in each axis controlled in this way, higher-level control loops on the onboard flight computers can implement the pointing and scanning observation modes required for the experiment. We have accomplished the non-trivial task of scanning a 5000 lb payload sinusoidally in az...

  20. Efficient coordination of swarms of sensor-laden balloons for persistent, in situ, real-time measurement of hurricane development*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bewley, Thomas; Meneghello, Gianluca

    2016-10-01

    Accurate long-term forecasts of the path and intensity of severe hurricanes are imperative to protect property and save lives. Extensive real-time measurements within hurricanes, especially near their core, are essential for supplementing the limited relevant information accessible by satellites in order to improve such forecasts. Current operational methods for obtaining in situ information, such as dropsondes and repeated manned and unmanned aircraft flights over and within hurricanes, are both expensive and limited in duration. In the present work it is demonstrated by numerical experiments how a swarm of robust, inexpensive, buoyancy-controlled, sensor-laden balloons might be deployed and controlled in an energetically efficient, coordinated fashion, for days at a time, to continuously monitor relevant properties (pressure, humidity, temperature, and wind speed) of a hurricane as it develops. Rather than fighting its gale-force winds, the strong and predictable stratification of these winds is leveraged to efficiently disperse the balloons into a favorable time-evolving distribution. An iterative bootstrap approach is envisioned in which (a) sensor balloons are used to help improve the available computational estimate of the uncertain and underresolved flow field of the hurricane and (b) this (imprecise) estimate of the hurricane flow field is leveraged to improve the distribution of the sensor balloons, which then better facilitates (a), etc. The control approach envisioned in this ambitious effort is a combination of (centrally computed) model predictive control for coordination at the largest scales, which is the focus of the present paper, coupled with a feedback control strategy (decentrally computed, on the balloons themselves), for smaller-scale corrections. Our work indicates that, following such an approach, certain target orbits of interest within the hurricane can be continuously sampled by some balloons, while others make repeated sweeps between the

  1. Immediate Outcome of Balloon Mitral Valvuloplasty with JOMIVA Balloon during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasamy, Ramona; Kaliappan, Tamilarasu; Gopalan, Rajendiran; Palanimuthu, Ramasmy; Anandhan, Premkrishna

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Rheumatic mitral stenosis is the most common Valvular Heart Disease encountered during pregnancy. Balloon Mitral Valvuloplasty (BMV) is one of the treatment option available if the symptoms are refractory to the medical management and the valve anatomy is suitable for balloon dilatation. BMV with Inoue balloon is the most common technique being followed worldwide. Over the wire BMV is a modified technique using Joseph Mitral Valvuloplasty (JOMIVA) balloon catheter which is being followed in certain centres. Aim To assess the immediate post procedure outcome of over the wire BMV with JOMIVA balloon. Materials and Methods Clinical and echocardiographic parameters of pregnant women with significant mitral stenosis who underwent elective BMV with JOMIVA balloon in our institute from 2005 to 2015 were analysed retrospectively. Severity of breathlessness (New York Heart Association Functional Class), and duration of pregnancy was included in the analysis. Pre procedural echocardiographic parameters which included severity of mitral stenosis and Wilkin’s scoring were analysed. Clinical, haemodynamic and echocardiographic outcomes immediately after the procedure were analysed. Results Among the patients who underwent BMV in our Institute 38 were pregnant women. Twenty four patients (63%) were in New York Heart Association (NYHA) Class III. All of them were in sinus rhythm except two (5%) who had atrial fibrillation. Thirty four patients (89.5%) were in second trimester of pregnancy at the time of presentation and four (10.5%) were in third trimester. Echocardiographic analysis of the mitral valve showed that the mean Wilkin’s score was 7.3. Mean mitral valve area pre procedure was 0.8 cm2. Mean gradient across the valve was 18 mmHg. Ten patients (26.5%) had mild mitral regurgitation and none had more than mild mitral regurgitation. Thirty six patients had pulmonary hypertension as assessed by tricuspid regurgitation jet velocity. All of them underwent BMV

  2. 10 meter Sub-Orbital Large Balloon Reflector (LBR) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Besides serving as a launch vehicle, the carrier balloon provides a stable mount for the enclosed telescope. Looking up, the LBR will serve as a telescope. Looking...

  3. Ohmic scaling based on current diffusive ballooning mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yagi, Masatoshi; Itoh, Sanae [Kyushu Univ., Kasuga, Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics; Fukuyama, Atsushi; Itoh, Kimitaka

    1996-01-01

    Based on the anomalous transport model due to current diffusive ballooning mode turbulence, the global energy confinement time in a tokamak with Ohmic heating is theoretically studied. Relations to empirical scaling laws are also discussed. (author)

  4. Design Evolution and Methodology for Pumpkin Super-Pressure Balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Rodger

    The NASA Ultra Long Duration Balloon (ULDB) program has had many technical development issues discovered and solved along its road to success as a new vehicle. It has the promise of being a sub-satellite, a means to launch up to 2700 kg to 33.5 km altitude for 100 days from a comfortable mid-latitude launch point. Current high-lift long duration ballooning is accomplished out of Antarctica with zero-pressure balloons, which cannot cope with the rigors of diurnal cycles. The ULDB design is still evolving, the product of intense analytical effort, scaled testing, improved manufacturing, and engineering intuition. The past technical problems, in particular the s-cleft deformation, their solutions, future challenges, and the methodology of pumpkin balloon design will generally be described.

  5. Low Cost Variable Conductance Heat Pipe for Balloon Payload Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — While continuously increasing in complexity, the payloads of terrestrial high altitude balloons need a thermal management system to reject their waste heat and to...

  6. Balloon Pump with Floating Valves for Portable Liquid Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuya Morimoto

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a balloon pump with floating valves to control the discharge flow rates of sample solutions. Because the floating valves were made from a photoreactive resin, the shapes of the floating valves could be controlled by employing different exposure patterns without any change in the pump configurations. Owing to the simple preparation process of the pump, we succeeded in changing the discharge flow rates in accordance with the number and length of the floating valves. Because our methods could be used to easily prepare balloon pumps with arbitrary discharge properties, we achieved several microfluidic operations by the integration of the balloon pumps with microfluidic devices. Therefore, we believe that the balloon pump with floating valves will be a useful driving component for portable microfluidic systems.

  7. Percutaneous anterolateral balloon kyphoplasty for metastatic lytic lesions of the cervical spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykomitros, Vasilis; Anagnostidis, Kleovoulos S; Alzeer, Ziad; Kapetanos, George A

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of our report is to describe a new application of kyphoplasty, the percutaneous anterolateral balloon kyphoplasty that we performed in two cases of metastatic osteolytic lesions in cervical spine. The first patient, aged 48 years, with primary malignancy in lungs had two metastatic lesions in C2 and C6 vertebrae. Patient's complaints were about pain and restriction of movements (due to the pain) in the cervical spine. The second patient, aged 70 years, with primary malignancy in stomach, had multiple metastatic lesions in thoracolumbar spine and C3, C4 and C5 vertebrae without neurological symptoms. The main symptoms were from cervical spine with severe pain even in bed rest and systematic use of opiate-base analgesic. The preoperative status was evaluated with X-rays, CT scan, MRI scan and with Karnofsky score and visual analogue pain (VAS) scale. Both patients underwent percutaneous anterolateral balloon kyphoplasty via the anterolateral approach in cervical spine under general anaesthesia. No clinical complications occurred during or after the procedure. Both patients experienced pain relief immediately after balloon kyphoplasty and during the following days. The stiffness also resolved rapidly and cervical collars were removed. VAS score significantly improved from 85 and 95 preoperatively to 30 in both patients. Karnofsky score showed also improvement from 40 and 30 preoperatively to 80 and 70, respectively, at the final follow-up (7 months after the procedure). Fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous anterolateral balloon kyphoplasty proved to be safe and effective minimally invasive procedure for metastatic osteolytic lesions of the cervical spine, reducing pain and avoiding vertebral collapse. Experience and attention are necessary in order to avoid complications.

  8. TU-AB-201-07: Image Guided Endorectal HDR Brachytherapy Using a Compliant Balloon Applicator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, G; Goodman, K [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: High dose rate endorectal brachytherapy is an option to deliver a focal, high-dose radiotherapy to rectal tumors for patients undergoing non-operative management. We investigate a new multichannel, MR compatible applicator with a novel balloon-based design to provide improved treatment geometry. We report on the initial clinical experience using this applicator. Methods: Patients were enrolled on an IRB-approved, dose-escalation protocol evaluating the use of the anorectal (AR-1) applicator (Ancer Medical, Hialeah, FL), a multichannel applicator with two concentric balloons. The inner balloon supports 8 source lumens; the compliant outer balloon expands to separate the normal rectal wall and the source lumens, yet deforms around a firm, exophytic rectal mass, leading to dose escalation to tumor while sparing normal rectum. Under general anesthesia, gold fiducial markers were inserted above and below the tumor, and the AR applicator was placed in the rectum. MRI-based treatment plans were prepared to deliver 15 Gy in 3 weekly fractions to the target volume while sparing healthy rectal tissue, bladder, bowel and anal muscles. Prior to each treatment, CBCT/Fluoroscopy were used to place the applicator in the treatment position and confirm the treatment geometry using rigid registration of the CBCT and planning MRI. After registration of the applicator images, positioning was evaluated based on the match of the gold markers. Results: Highly conformal treatment plans were achieved. MR compatibility of the applicator enabled good tumor visualization. In spite of the non-rigid nature of the applicators and the fact that a new applicator was used at each treatment session, treatment geometry was reproducible to within 2.5 mm. Conclusions: This is the first report on using the AR applicator in patients. Highly conformal plans, confidence in MRI target delineation, in combination with reproducible treatment geometry provide encouraging feedback for continuation with

  9. Cosmic-Ray Background Flux Model based on a Gamma-Ray Large-Area Space Telescope Balloon Flight Engineering Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizuno, T

    2004-09-03

    Cosmic-ray background fluxes were modeled based on existing measurements and theories and are presented here. The model, originally developed for the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) Balloon Experiment, covers the entire solid angle (4{pi} sr), the sensitive energy range of the instrument ({approx} 10 MeV to 100 GeV) and abundant components (proton, alpha, e{sup -}, e{sup +}, {mu}{sup -}, {mu}{sup +} and gamma). It is expressed in analytic functions in which modulations due to the solar activity and the Earth geomagnetism are parameterized. Although the model is intended to be used primarily for the GLAST Balloon Experiment, model functions in low-Earth orbit are also presented and can be used for other high energy astrophysical missions. The model has been validated via comparison with the data of the GLAST Balloon Experiment.

  10. Analysis of current diffusive ballooning mode in tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchida, Morihisa [Faculty of Engineering, Okayama University, Okayama (Japan); Fukuyama, Atsushi [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Itoh, Kimitaka [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Itoh, Sanae-I.; Yagi, Masatoshi [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics

    2000-07-01

    The effect of finite gyroradius on the current diffusive ballooning mode is examined. Starting from the reduced MHD equations including turbulent transports, coupling with drift motion and finite gyroradius effect of ions, we derive a ballooning mode equation with complex transport coefficients. The eigenfrequency, saturation level and thermal diffusivity are evaluated numerically from the marginal stability condition. Preliminary results of their parameter dependence are presented. (author)

  11. Introduction (Special Issue on Scientific Balloon Capabilities and Instrumentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskin, Jessica A.; Smith, I. S.; Jones, W. V.

    2014-01-01

    In 1783, the Montgolfier brothers ushered in a new era of transportation and exploration when they used hot air to drive an un-tethered balloon to an altitude of 2 km. Made of sackcloth and held together with cords, this balloon challenged the way we thought about human travel, and it has since evolved into a robust platform for performing novel science and testing new technologies. Today, high-altitude balloons regularly reach altitudes of 40 km, and they can support payloads that weigh more than 3,000 kg. Long-duration balloons can currently support mission durations lasting 55 days, and developing balloon technologies (i.e. Super-Pressure Balloons) are expected to extend that duration to 100 days or longer; competing with satellite payloads. This relatively inexpensive platform supports a broad range of science payloads, spanning multiple disciplines (astrophysics, heliophysics, planetary and earth science.) Applications extending beyond traditional science include testing new technologies for eventual space-based application and stratospheric airships for planetary applications.

  12. Development of a tiny tandem balloon system for atmospheric observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Yoshitaka; Yamada, Kazuhiko; Fujiwara, Masatomo

    2016-07-01

    A tandem balloon system with a combination of a zero-pressure balloon on top and a super-pressure balloon on the bottom has a unique trajectory characteristic, with different flight altitudes between day and night and thus with ascending and descending motions at dawn and dusk, respectively. This characteristic provides a unique opportunity to explore the atmosphere, e.g., the upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric region with cross-tropopause measurements twice a day. We started development of a tiny tandem balloon system using a 10 m^{3} super-pressure balloon and a 100 m^{3} zero-pressure balloon, with a capability of carrying 3 kg of payload. One of the scientific targets is to measure water vapor, cloud particles, and temperature around the tropical tropopause which is the entry point of the stratospheric and mesospheric meridional circulation. For the data transfer, the iridium satellite communication module, SBD9603 is used. In this paper, the current status of the development will be reported.

  13. CdZnTe Background Measurement at Balloon Altitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Bloser, P F; Narita, T; Harrison, F

    1998-01-01

    We report results of an experiment conducted in May 1997 to measure CdZnTe background and background reduction schemes in space flight conditions similar to those of proposed hard X-ray astrophysics missions. A 1 cm^2 CdZnTe detector was placed adjacent to a thick BGO anticoincidence shield and flown piggybacked onto the EXITE2 scientific balloon payload. The planar shield was designed to veto background countsproduced by local gamma-ray production in passive material and neutron interactions in the detector. The CdZnTe and BGO were partially surrounded by a Pb-Sn-Cu shield to approximate the grammage of an X-ray collimator, although the field of view was still ~2 pi sr. At an altitude of 127000 feet we find a reduction in background by a factor of 6 at 100 keV. The non-vetoed background is 9 X 10^{-4} cts /cm^2-sec-keV at 100 keV, about a factor of 2 higher than that of the collimated (4.5 deg FWHM) EXITE2 phoswich detector. We compare our recorded spectrum with that expected from simulations using GEANT and...

  14. The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope: BLAST

    CERN Document Server

    Pascale, E; Bock, J J; Chapin, E L; Chung, J; Devlin, M J; Dicker, S; Griffin, M; Gundersen, J O; Halpern, M; Hargrave, P C; Hughes, D H; Klein, J; MacTavish, C J; Marsden, G; Martin, P G; Martin, T G; Mauskopf, P; Netterfield, C B; Olmi, L; Patanchon, G; Rex, M; Scott, D; Semisch, C; Thomas, N; Truch, M D P; Tucker, C; Tucker, G S; Viero, M P; Wiebe, D V

    2007-01-01

    The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) is a sub-orbital survey-experiment designed to study the evolutionary history and processes of star formation in local galaxies (including the Milky Way) and galaxies at cosmological distances. The BLAST continuum camera, which consists of 270 detectors distributed between 3 arrays, observes simultaneously in broad-band (30%) spectral-windows at 250, 350, and 500 micron. The optical design is based on a 2m diameter Cassegrain telescope, providing a diffraction-limited resolution of 30" at 250 micron. The gondola pointing system enables raster-like maps of arbitrary geometry, with a repeatable positional accuracy of ~30" post-flight pointing reconstruction to ~<5" rms is also achieved. The on-board telescope control software permits autonomous execution of a pre-selected set of maps, with the option of manual intervention. In this paper we describe the primary characteristics and measured in-flight performance of BLAST. Since a test-flight in ...

  15. A comparison of balloon-expandable-stent implantation with balloon angioplasty in patients with coronary artery disease. Benestent Study Group.

    OpenAIRE

    Serruys, P.W.; de Jaegere, P; Kiemeneij, F.; Macaya, C; Rutsch, W; Heyndrickx, G.; Emanuelsson, H.; Marco, J.; Legrand, Victor; Materne, P.

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Balloon-expandable coronary-artery stents were developed to prevent coronary restenosis after coronary angioplasty. These devices hold coronary vessels open at sites that have been dilated. However, it is unknown whether stenting improves long-term angiographic and clinical outcomes as compared with standard balloon angioplasty. METHODS: A total of 520 patients with stable angina and a single coronary-artery lesion were randomly assigned to either stent implantation (262 patients)...

  16. Search for Signatures of Inflation with the EBEX Balloon-Borne Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanany, Shaul

    EBEX (E and B EXperiment) is a balloon-borne experiment designed to measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background radiation. It is a long-duration payload equipped with an array of 1564 bolometric transition edge sensors. The unique combination of sensitivity, resolution and sky coverage enables unprecedented power to constrain inflationary models and to determine the amplitude of the matter power spectrum through measurement of the gravitational lensing of CMB photons. The experiment is optimized to take full advantage of the balloon-borne environment in its frequency coverage, and to measure the yet unknown properties of Galactic dust polarization. EBEX completed a test flight in June of 2009 from Ft. Sumner, NM, and a second end- to-end integration campaign in the summer of 2011. Important milestones have been achieved including the first operation of any transition edge sensor (TES) bolometer in a balloon-borne environment, the first demonstration of any multiplexed readout of TES bolometers in space-like conditions, the first operation of a polarimeter based on continuous rotation of a half-wave plate by means of a superconducting magnetic bearing, and validation of the EBEX optical system and end-to-end polarimetry. The EBEX instrument is now being readied for its first long duration flight, which is scheduled to take place in December 2012, just before the start of this proposed grant period. In this proposal we are requesting funding to analyze and publish the science data generated during the first EBEX science flight. In addition to its science goals EBEX is a technology pathfinder for other experiments and for a future NASA satellite mission. It continues to provide excellent training grounds for student and post-docs. Already 6 Ph.D. theses have been produced based on the project and 7 more are anticipated.

  17. Burn Injury Arise From Flying Balloon Toys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalcin Kulahci

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Many of peoples are faced minor or major burn injuries in their life. Even the most widespread burn cause is flame injuries, too different burn cause pointed out in literature like Acetylen burns. The cases which imply in literature, mostly causes from explosion of high pressure acetylene tube, metal oxygene patch flame or carbide lamp using from cave explorers. An interesting acetylene burn cause in Turkey was publised by the authors. This cases was to come into being from flying toy balloons flame. 80 person was injured from flying toy ballons flame in a meeting in 2002. Although this potential risks of acetylene, helium have not any of some risk. But helium was provided from other countries and have more price. The injuries which caused from acetylene burns like 1st -2nd degree burns. Consequently that was known helium is more avaliable for using in toy sector, and never cause burn injuries like this. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(4.000: 291-296

  18. Ballooning mode spectrum in general toroidal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewar, R.L.; Glasser, A.H.

    1982-04-01

    A WKB formalism for constructing normal modes of short-wavelength ideal hydromagnetic, pressure-driven instabilities (ballooning modes) in general toroidal magnetic containment devices with sheared magnetic fields is developed. No incompressibility approximation is made. A dispersion relation is obtained from the eigenvalues of a fourth order system of ordinary differential equations to be solved by integrating along a line of force. Higher order calculations are performed to find the amplitude equation and the phase change at a caustic. These conform to typical WKB results. In axisymmetric systems, the ray equations are integrable, and semiclassical quantization leads to a growth rate spectrum consisting of an infinity of discrete eigenvalues, bounded above by an accumulation point. However, each eigenvalue is infinitely degenerate. In the nonaxisymmetric case, the rays are unbounded in a four dimensional phase space, and semiclassical quantization breaks down, leading to broadening of the discrete eigenvalues and accumulation point of the axisymmetric case into continuum bands. Analysis of a model problem indicates that the broadening of the discrete eigenvalues is numerically very small, the dominant effect being broadening of the accumulation point.

  19. Percutaneous balloon valvuloplasty in mitral stenosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jae Hyung; Oh, Byung Hee; Park, Kyung Ju; Kim, Seung Hyup; Lee, Young Woo; Han, Man Chung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1989-02-15

    Percutaneous balloon valvuloplasty(PBV) was successfully performed in 8 mitral stenosis patients for recent 3 months. Five patients have aortic insufficiencies also and two patients have mitral regurgitations below grade II/IV. All patients showed sinus rhythm on EKG, and had no mitral valvular calcification on echocardiography and fluoroscopy. PBV resulted in an increase in mitral valve area from 1.22{+-}0.22 to 2.57{+-}0.86 cm{sup 2}, a decrease in mean left atrial pressure from 23.4{+-}9.6 to 7.5{+-}3.4 mmHg and a decrease in mean mitral pressure gradient from 21.3{+-}9.4 to 6.8{+-}3.1 mmHg. There were no significant complications except 2 cases of newly appeared and mildly aggravated mitral regurgitation. We believe that PBV will become a treatment modality of choice replacing surgical commissurotomy or valve replacement in a group of mitral stenosis patients, because of its effectiveness and safety.

  20. Burn Injury Arise From Flying Balloon Toys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalcin Kulahci

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Many of peoples are faced minor or major burn injuries in their life. Even the most widespread burn cause is flame injuries, too different burn cause pointed out in literature like Acetylen burns. The cases which imply in literature, mostly causes from explosion of high pressure acetylene tube, metal oxygene patch flame or carbide lamp using from cave explorers. An interesting acetylene burn cause in Turkey was publised by the authors. This cases was to come into being from flying toy balloons flame. 80 person was injured from flying toy ballons flame in a meeting in 2002. Although this potential risks of acetylene, helium have not any of some risk. But helium was provided from other countries and have more price. The injuries which caused from acetylene burns like 1st -2nd degree burns. Consequently that was known helium is more avaliable for using in toy sector, and never cause burn injuries like this. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(4: 291-296

  1. Intragastric balloon followed by diet vs intragastric balloon followed by another balloon: a prospective study on 100 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genco, Alfredo; Cipriano, Massimiliano; Bacci, Vincenzo; Maselli, Roberta; Paone, Emanuela; Lorenzo, Michele; Basso, Nicola

    2010-11-01

    Aim of this study is to compare the efficacy of BioEnterics Intragastric Balloon (BIB®) followed by diet with BIB followed by another BIB. A prospective study was designed: a homogeneous group of 100 obese patients (age range 25-35, BMI range 40.0-44.9, M/F ratio 1/4) was allocated into two groups according to procedure: BIB (6 months) followed by diet therapy (7 months; group A = 50 pts), BIB positioning followed by another BIB after 1 month (group B = 50 pts). Baseline demographics were similar in both groups (Group A 10M/40F; mean age 31.4 ± 2.6; range 25-35; mean weight 106.3 ± 12.5 Kg; range 88-150; mean BMI 42.6±2.7 Kg/m(2); range 40.2-43.8; Group B 10M/40F; mean age 32.1 ± 2.1; range 25-35; mean weight 107.1 ± 11.9 Kg; range 90-150; mean BMI 42.9 ± 2.3; range 40.2-43.9). In both groups, weight loss parameters (Kg, BMI, and % EBL) were considered. Statistics were by Fisher's exact test (p < 0.05 was considered significant). At the time of 1st BIB removal, weight loss parameters in both groups were not significantly different: Group A: mean weight was 83.7±19.1 (range 52-151); mean BMI 34.2 ± 3.9 (range 32.4-43.8); and mean %EBL 43.5 ± 21.1 (range 0-68). Group B: mean weight was 84.9 ± 18.3 (range 50-148); mean BMI 34.8 ± 3.3 (range 32.4-43.8); and mean % EBL 45.2 ± 22.5% (range 0-68). At the study end, weight loss parameters were significantly lower in patients who underwent consecutive BIB (p < 0.05): mean BMI was 30.9 ± 7.2 Kg/m(2) (range 24-40), and 35.9 ± 9.7 Kg/m(2) (range 34-42); mean % EBL was 51.9 ± 24.6% (range 0-100) and 25.1 ± 26.2% (range 0-100) in group B and A, respectively. As compared with diet, a second intragastric balloon can be positioned without difficulties, achieving good results with continuous weight loss.

  2. Extradural balloon obliteration of the empty sella report of three cases (intrasellar balloon obliteration).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazioğlu, N; Akar, Z; Ak, H; Işlak, C; Koçer, N; Seçkin, M S; Kuday, C

    1999-01-01

    Empty sella syndrome is an anatomical and clinical entity composed of intrasellar reposition of the CSF and compression of the pituitary tissue, resulting in a clinical picture of headache, visual field defect, CSF rhinorrhea and some mild endocrinological disturbances. While some cases are primary with no appreciable aetiology, secondary cases are associated with prior operation or radiotherapy of the region. In our series, 3 patients with primary empty sella syndrome were treated by the current approach of extradural filling of the sellar cavity. This technique was first described by Guiot and widely accepted thereafter. We used a detachable silicon balloon filled with HEMA or liquid silicone for obliteration of the sellar cavity and obtained clinically satisfactory results without complications. Visual symptoms regressed and headache disappeared. But at long term follow-up all the balloons were found to be deflated. Despite the facility and efficacy of the technique we do not recommend it in the treatment of the empty sella because the filling of the sella is only transient and relapses may occur.

  3. Balloon dacryocystoplasty: Incomplete versus complete obstruction of the nasolacrimal system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeong Min; Lee, Sang Hoon; Han, Young Min; Chung, Gyung Ho; Kim, Chong Soo; Choi, Ki Chul [Chung Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Song, Ho Young [Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-07-15

    Balloon dilatation of nasolacrimal drainage apparatus was attempted for the treatment of stenoses or obstructures of the nasolacrimal system in 49 eyes of 41 consecutive patients with complete obstructions and 16 eyes of 14 patients with incomplete obstructions. These two groups were compared with regards to the effectiveness of balloon dacryocystoplasty. All patients suffered from severe epiphora had already undergone multiple probings. A 0.018 inch hair or ball guide wire was introduced through the superior punctum into the inferior meatus of the nasal cavity and pulled out through the nasal aperture using a hemostat under nasal endoscopy. A deflated angiography balloon catheter was then introduced in a retrograde direction and dilated under fluoroscopic control. No major complications occurred in any of the patients. At 7 days after balloon dilatation, 25 of 49 eyes with complete obstruction demonstrated improvement in epiphora (initial success rate: 51.0%) and among them 17 eyes showed complete resolution of symptoms. Reocclusion occurred in 12 of the 25 eyes with initial improvement at the 2 months follow up. For the 16 eyes with incomplete obstruction, and improvement of epiphora was attained in 11 eyes (initial success rate 68.8%): 5 of these eyes showed complete resolution of epiphora, and 3 was failed to maintain initial improvement at the 2 month follow up. Although this study demonstrate that results of balloon dacryocystoplasty are not encouraging because of the high failure and recurrence rate, balloon dacryocystoplasty is a simple and safe nonsurgical technique that can be used to treat for obstructions of the nasolacrimal system. In addition, balloon dacryocystoplasty shows better results in incomplete obstruction than in complete obstruction than complete obstruction of the nasolacrimal system.

  4. Coolability of ballooned VVER bundles with pellet relocation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hozer, Z.; Nagy, I.; Windberg, P.; Vimi, A. [AEKI, P.O.box 49, Budapest, H-1525 (Hungary)

    2009-06-15

    During a LOCA incident the high pressure in the fuel rods can lead to clad ballooning and the debris of fuel pellets can fill the enlarged volume. The evaluation of the role of these two effects on the coolability of VVER type fuel bundles was the main objective of the experimental series. The tests were carried out in the modified configuration of the CODEX facility. 19-rod electrically heated VVER type bundle was used. The test section was heated up to 600 deg. C in steam atmosphere and the bundle was quenched from the bottom by cold water. Three series of tests were performed: 1. Reference bundle with fuel rods without ballooning, with uniform power profile. 2. Bundle with 86% blockage rate and with uniform power profile. The blockage rate was reached by superimposing hollow sleeves on all 19 fuel rods. 3. Bundle with 86% blockage rate and with local power peak in the ballooned area. The local power peak was produced by the local reduction the cross section of the internal heater bar inside of the fuel rods. In all three bundle configurations three different cooling water flow-rates were applied. The experimental results confirmed that a VVER bundle with even 86% blockage rate remains coolable after a LOCA event. The ballooned section creates some obstacles for the cooling water during reflood of the bundle, but this effect causes only a short delay in the cooling down of the hot fuel rods. Earlier tests on the coolability of ballooned bundles were performed only with Western type bundles with square fuel lattice. The present test series was the first confirmation of the coolability of VVER type bundles with triangular lattice. The accumulation of fuel pellet debris in the ballooned volume results in a local power peak, which leads to further slowing down of quench front. The first tests indicated that the effect of local power peak was less significant on the delay of cooling down than the effect of ballooning. (authors)

  5. Development of a super-pressure balloon with a diamond-shaped net --- result of a ground inflation test of a 2,000 cubic-meter balloon ---

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Yoshitaka; Nakashino, Kyoichi; Akita, Daisuke; Matsushima, Kiyoho; Shimadu, Shigeyuki; Goto, Ken; Hashimoto, Hiroyuki; Matsuo, Takuma

    2016-07-01

    A light super-pressure balloon has been developed using a method to cover a balloon with a diamond-shaped net of high-tensile fibers. The goal is to fly a payload of 900 kg to the altitude of 37 km with a 300,000 m^{3} balloon. Beginning from a demonstration test of the net-balloon with a 10 m^{3} balloon in 2010, we have been polished the net-balloon through ground inflation tests and flight tests, including a flight test of a 3,000 m ^{3} balloon in the tandem balloon configuration with a 15,000 m^{3} zero-pressure balloon in 2012, and a flight test of a 10 m^{3} balloon in the tandem balloon configuration with a 2 kg rubber balloon in 2013, as reported in the last COSPAR. In 2014, we developed a 5,000 m^{3} balloon and performed a ground inflation test to find that the balloon burst from a lip panel for termination with a differential pressure of 425 Pa. It was due to a stress concentration at the edge of a thick tape attached along the termination mechanism. In 2015, we modified the balloon by adding tapes on the lip panel to avoid the stress concentration, and also shorten the net length to leave some margin of the film and performed a ground inflation test again to find the balloon showed asymmetrical deployment and burst from the edge of the net with a differential pressure of 348 Pa. We consider it is due to the margin of the film along the circumferential direction, and proposed a gore shape which circumference length is kept as determined by the pumpkin shape of the balloon but setting meridian length longer than that. We developed a 10 m^{3} balloon with the gore design to find that the balloon deployed symmetrically and showed the burst pressure of 10,000 Pa. In 2016, we are going to develop a 2,000 m^{3} balloon with the gore design and perform its ground inflation test. In this paper, we are going to report its result with the sequence of the development.

  6. Balloon dilation versus Amplatz dilation during ultrasound-guided percutaneous nephrolithotomy for staghorn stones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren Minghua; Zhang Cheng; Fu Weijun; Fu Yiming; Ma Li; Zhao Weiming; Xu Wanhai

    2014-01-01

    Background Amplatz dilation and balloon dilation are different methods in creating the accesses during percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL).The aim of this study was to review the surgical experiences of managing staghorn calculi by Amplatz dilation and balloon dilation for 3 years.Methods We retrospectively analyzed clinical data from 125 patients (129 kidneys)with staghorn kidney stones who underwent PCNL from January 2010 to December 2012,of whom 60 patients underwent Amplatz dilation (AD group) and 65 underwent balloon dilation (BD group) during PCNL.Results The AD and BD groups were similar in age,male-female ratio,stone burden,stone type,hydronephrosis,and proportion of patients who had undergone extracorporeal lithotripsy.However,these two groups showed significant differences in terms of duration of percutaneous access (15.1±3.6) minutes vs.(10.0±3.3) minutes,one-attempt success rate of dilation via a single access 88.9% (72/81) vs.97.8% (91/93),hemoglobin drop after surgery (3.5±0.9) g/dl vs.(1.7±0.9) g/dl,number of cases requiring intraoperative and postoperative blood transfusion 27.9% (n=17) vs.13.2% (n=9),changes of central venous pressure before and after surgery (2.3±1.2) cmH2O vs.(1.2±0.7) cmH2O,number of patients who experienced postoperative fever >37.5℃ 21 (34.4%) vs.13 (19.1%) (all P <0.05).No injury of adjacent organs,including pleura,liver,spleen,or bowel,was noted in patients.Conclusions During ultrasound-guided PCNL for staghorn stones,balloon dilation and Amplatz dilation are all effective and safe.Compared with Amplatz dilation,balloon dilation is a better choice,as it has a higher access creation success rate,shorter access creation time less blood loss,and lower proportions of circulatory overload and postoperative fever.

  7. Material Properties Analysis of Structural Members in Pumpkin Balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, W. J.

    2003-01-01

    The efficient design, service-life qualification, and reliability predictions for lightweight aerospace structures require careful mechanical properties analysis of candidate structural materials. The demand for high-quality laboratory data is particularly acute when the candidate material or the structural design has little history. The pumpkin-shaped super-pressure balloon presents both challenges. Its design utilizes load members (tendons) extending from apex to base around the gas envelope to achieve a lightweight structure. The candidate tendon material is highly weight-efficient braided HM cord. Previous mechanical properties studies of Zylon have focused on fiber and yarn, and industrial use of the material in tensile applications is limited. For high-performance polymers, a carefully plamed and executed properties analysis scheme is required to ensure the data are relevant to the desired application. Because no directly-applicable testing standard was available, a protocol was developed based on guidelines fiom professional and industry organizations. Due to the liquid-crystalline nature of the polymer, the cord is very stiff, creeps very little, and does not yield. Therefore, the key material property for this application is the breaking strength. The pretension load and gauge length were found to have negligible effect on the measured breaking strength over the ranges investigated. Strain rate was found to have no effect on breaking strength, within the range of rates suggested by the standards organizations. However, at the lower rate more similar to ULDB operations, the strength was reduced. The breaking strength increased when the experiment temperature was decreased from ambient to 183K which is the lowest temperature ULDB is expected to experience. The measured strength under all test conditions was well below that resulting from direct scale-up of fiber strength based on the manufacturers data. This expected result is due to the effects of the

  8. Examining the whole bowel, double balloon enteroscopy:Indications, diagnostic yield and complications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fatih Saygili; Saba Mukaddes Saygili; Erkin Oztas

    2015-01-01

    Double balloon enteroscopy (DBE) is an advanced typeof endoscopic procedure which brings the advantage ofreaching the whole small bowel using anterograde orthe retrograde route. This procedure is both diagnosticand interventional for a variety of small intestinaldiseases, such as vascular lesions, tumors, polypsand involvement of inflammatory bowel diseases.Main indication is the diagnosis and treatment ofmid-gastrointestinal bleeding according to the recentpublished data all over the world. The complicationrates seem to be higher than conventional proceduresbut growing experience is lowering them and improvingthe procedure to be safe and well tolerated. Thisreview is about the technique, indications, diagnosticimportance and complications of DBE according to theliterature growing since 2001.

  9. Design and characterization of TES bolometers and SQUID readout electronics for a balloon-borne application

    CERN Document Server

    Hubmayr, Johannes; Bissonnette, Eric; Dobbs, Matt; Hanany, Shaul; Lee, Adrian T; MacDermid, Kevin; Meng, Xiaofan; Sagiv, Ilan; Smecher, Graeme

    2009-01-01

    We present measurements of the electrical and thermal properties of new arrays of bolometeric detectors that were fabricated as part of a program to develop bolometers optimized for the low photon background of the EBEX balloon-borne experiment. An array consists of 140 spider-web transition edge sensor bolometers microfabricated on a 4" diameter silicon wafer. The designed average thermal conductance of bolometers on a proto-type array is 32 pW/K, and measurements are in good agreement with this value. The measurements are taken with newly developed, digital frequency domain multiplexer SQUID readout electronics.

  10. Complexity Analysis of Balloon Drawing for Rooted Trees

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Chun-Cheng; Poon, Sheung-Hung; Fan, Jia-Hao

    2010-01-01

    In a balloon drawing of a tree, all the children under the same parent are placed on the circumference of the circle centered at their parent, and the radius of the circle centered at each node along any path from the root reflects the number of descendants associated with the node. Among various styles of tree drawings reported in the literature, the balloon drawing enjoys a desirable feature of displaying tree structures in a rather balanced fashion. For each internal node in a balloon drawing, the ray from the node to each of its children divides the wedge accommodating the subtree rooted at the child into two sub-wedges. Depending on whether the two sub-wedge angles are required to be identical or not, a balloon drawing can further be divided into two types: even sub-wedge and uneven sub-wedge types. In the most general case, for any internal node in the tree there are two dimensions of freedom that affect the quality of a balloon drawing: (1) altering the order in which the children of the node appear in...

  11. Time-dependent strains and stresses in a pumpkin balloon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerngross, T.; Xu, Y.; Pellegrino, S.

    This paper presents a study of pumpkin-shaped superpressure balloons consisting of gores made from a thin polymeric film attached to high stiffness meridional tendons This type of design is being used for the NASA ULDB balloons The gore film shows considerable time-dependent stress relaxation whereas the behaviour of the tendons is essentially time-independent Upon inflation and pressurization the instantaneous i e linear-elastic strain and stress distributions in the film show significantly higher values in the meridional direction However over time and due to the biaxial visco-elastic stress relaxation of the the gore material the em hoop strains increase and the em meridional stresses decrease whereas the em remaining strain and stress components remain substantially unchanged These results are important for a correct assessment of the structural integrity of a pumpkin balloon in a long-duration mission both in terms of the material performance and the overall stability of the shape of the balloon An experimental investigation of the time dependence of the biaxial strain distribution in the film of a 4 m diameter 48 gore pumpkin balloon is presented The inflated shape of selected gores has been measured using photogrammetry and the time variation in strain components at some particular points of these gores has been measured under constant pressure and temperature The results show good correlation with a numerical study using the ABAQUS finite-element package that includes a widely used model of

  12. Ballooning osteolysis in 71 failed total ankle arthroplasties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurpal; Reichard, Theresa; Hameister, Rita; Awiszus, Friedemann; Schenk, Katja; Feuerstein, Bernd; Roessner, Albert; Lohmann, Christoph

    2016-08-01

    Background and purpose - Aseptic loosening is a major cause of failure in total ankle arthroplasty (TAA). In contrast to other total joint replacements, large periarticular cysts (ballooning osteolysis) have frequently been observed in this context. We investigated periprosthetic tissue responses in failed TAA, and performed an element analysis of retrieved tissues in failed TAA. Patients and methods - The study cohort consisted of 71 patients undergoing revision surgery for failed TAA, all with hydroxyapatite-coated implants. In addition, 5 patients undergoing primary TAA served as a control group. Radiologically, patients were classified into those with ballooning osteolysis and those without, according to defined criteria. Histomorphometric, immunohistochemical, and elemental analysis of tissues was performed. Von Kossa staining and digital microscopy was performed on all tissue samples. Results - Patients without ballooning osteolysis showed a generally higher expression of lymphocytes, and CD3+, CD11c+, CD20+, and CD68+ cells in a perivascular distribution, compared to diffuse expression. The odds of having ballooning osteolysis was 300 times higher in patients with calcium content >0.5 mg/g in periprosthetic tissue than in patients with calcium content ≤0.5 mg/g (p < 0.001). Interpretation - There have been very few studies investigating the pathomechanisms of failed TAA and the cause-effect nature of ballooning osteolysis in this context. Our data suggest that the hydroxyapatite coating of the implant may be a contributory factor.

  13. Restenosis following balloon dilation of benign esophageal stenosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying-Sheng Cheng; Ming-Hua Li; Ren-Jie Yang; Hui-Zhen Zhang; Zai-Xian Ding; Qi-Xin Zhuang; Zhi-Ming Jiang; Ke-Zhong Shang

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To elucidate the mechanism of restenosis following balloon dilation of benign esophageal stenosis.METHODS: A total of 49 rats with esophageal stenosis were induced in 70 rats using 5 ml of 50 % sodium hydroxide solution and the double-balloon method, and an esophageal restenosis (RS) model was developed by esophageal stenosis using dilation of a percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) balloon catheter. These 49 rats were divided into two groups: rats with benign esophageal stricture caused by chemical burn only (control group, n=21) and rats with their esophageal stricture treated with balloon catheter dilation (experimental group, n=28). Imaging analysis and immunohistochemistry were used for both quantitative and qualitative analyses of esophageal stenosis and RS formation in the rats, respectively.RESULTS: Cross-sectional areas and perimeters of the esophageal mucosa layer, muscle layer, and the entire esophageal layers increased significantly in the experimental group compared with the control group. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was expressed on the 5th day after dilation, and was still present at 1 month. Fibronectin (FN)was expressed on the 1st day after dilation, and was still present at 1 month.CONCLUSION: Expression of PCNA and FN plays an important role in RS after balloon dilation of benign esophageal stenosis.

  14. Stratospheric balloons from Esrange - current and future capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norberg, O.

    Stratospheric balloon operations have been carried out at the Swedish Space Corporation's rocket, balloon and satellite operations base Esrange since 1974; approximately 550 stratospheric balloons have been launched during this period. The facility, located in northern Sweden at 68 degrees north, is fully equipped with a large launch pad, payload and flight train preparation hangars, telemetry stations, recovery helicopters, and supporting infrastructure. Many of the scientific balloons launched are CNES missions. This paper will present the possibilities for scientific and technical balloon missions at high latitudes and with a vast landing area in northern Sweden, Finland, and Russia. The proximity to the Arctic polar vortex makes Esrange an ideal base for studies of for example the ozone destruction process in the Arctic. A new option proposed by the Swedish Space Corporation and NASA is to perform week-long missions from the south of Sweden to western Canada. A newly developed line-of-sight telemetry system, E-LINK, for high bit-rates (> 2 Mbps both downlink and uplink) and based on the Ethernet communication standard is also described.

  15. Voice prosthesis insertion after endoscopic balloon-catheter dilatation in case of a stenotic hypopharyngo-oesophageal junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Móricz, Péter; Gerlinger, Imre; Solt, Jeno; Somogyvári, Krisztina; Pytel, József

    2007-12-01

    Stenosis of the hypopharyngo-oesophageal junction can be a rare complication of laryngectomy and/or partial pharyngectomy and makes the insertion of voice prosthesis extremely difficult. This study describes the authors' experiences gained by endoscopic balloon-catheter dilatation of hypopharyngo-oesophageal stenoses prior to implantation of voice prostheses in four cases. In two patients a single balloon-catheter dilatation resulted in wide enough pharyngo-oesophageal lumen on the long run. The average prosthesis wearing-times were 6.8 months in case 1 and 4.6 months in case 2, corresponding to the published literature data. In case 3, repeated dilatation of the pharyngo-oesophageal transition had proved to be unsuccessful despite taking every effort with the endoscopic balloon-catheter method. Having excised the stenotic segment, reconstruction with pectoralis major myocutaneous flap (PMMF) was indicated. Eighteen months later, a repeated restenosis was observed and a free jejunal flap needed to be performed as a final solution. In case 4, the insertion was carried out into a previously dilated jejunal free flap, which became gradually ischemic and stenotic since the major head-and neck procedure was carried out that resulted in prosthesis rejection after just 1 week. The authors emphasize that correct indication of pedicled and free flaps in head and neck reconstruction is a prerequisite from the aspect of prevention of pharyngo-oesophageal strictures. Endoscopic balloon-catheter dilatation is a safe and established method for dilatating hypopharyngo-oesophageal stenoses of different origin. The procedure provides maximum patient benefit with minimal trauma and morbidity; moreover, facilitates insertion of voice prostheses. However, a single balloon-catheter dilatation cannot always result in wide enough oesophageal lumen on the long run (case 3). Insertion of a voice prosthesis into a previously dilated ischemic jejunal segment is challenging and avoidable due

  16. A new project, SPIRALE. Balloon-borne in situ multi-component measurement using infrared diode lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreau, G.; Pirre, M.; Robert, C. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 45 - Orleans-la-Source (France); Rosier, B.; Louvet, Y.; Ramaroson, R. [Office National d`Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales, 91 - Palaiseau (France); Peyret, C.C. [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 75 - Paris (France); Macleod, Y. [Universite Pierreet Marie Curie, 75 - Paris (France); Courtois, D. [Reims Univ., 51 (France). Faculte des Sciences

    1997-12-31

    The scientific goals and the description of a new experiment for stratospheric studies SPIRALE are presented which is a balloon-borne instrument, able to measure in situ several air components (up to 10). Infrared diode laser spectroscopy is applied for monitoring simultaneously atmospheric trace gases at high rate. Its specificity, sensitivity, and wide range of compounds to which it can be applied is described. (R.P.) 5 refs.

  17. Ideal ballooning modes, shear flow and the stable continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J. B.

    2012-11-01

    There is a well-established theory of ballooning modes in a toroidal plasma. The cornerstone of this is a local eigenvalue λ on each magnetic surface—which also depends on the ballooning phase angle k. In stationary plasmas, λ(k) is required only near its maximum, but in rotating plasmas its average over k is required. Unfortunately in many cases λ(k) does not exist for some range of k, because the spectrum there contains only a stable continuum. This limits the application of the theory, and raises the important question of whether this ‘stable interval’ gives rise to significant damping. This question is re-examined using a new, simplified, model—which leads to the conclusion that there is no appreciable damping at small shear flow. In particular, therefore, a small shear flow should not affect ballooning mode stability boundaries.

  18. Ideal MHD Ballooning modes, shear flow and the stable continuum

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, J B

    2012-01-01

    There is a well established theory of Ballooning modes in a toroidal plasma. The cornerstone of this is a local eigenvalue lambda on each magnetic surface - which also depends on the ballooning phase angle k. In stationary plasmas lambda(k) is required only near its maximum, but in rotating plasmas its average over k is required. Unfortunately in many case lambda(k) does not exist for some range of k, because the spectrum there contains only a stable continuum. This limits the application of the theory, and raises the important question of whether this "stable interval" gives rise to significant damping. This question is re-examined using a new, simplified, model - which leads to the conclusion that there is no appreciable damping at small shear flow. In particular, therefore, a small shear flow should not affect Ballooning mode stability boundaries.

  19. Tokamak resistive magnetohydrodynamic ballooning instability in the negative shear regime

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Bing-Ren; Lin Jian-Long; Li Ji-Quan

    2007-01-01

    Improved confinement of tokamak plasma with central negative shear is checked against the resistive ballooning mode. In the negative shear regime, the plasma is always unstable for purely growing resistive ballooning mode. For a simplest tokamak equilibrium model, the s-α model, characteristics of this kind of instability are fully clarified by numerically solving the high n resistive magnetohydrodynamic ballooning eigen-equation. Dependences of the growth rate on the resistivity, the absolute shear value, the pressure gradient are scanned in detail. It is found that the growth rate is a monotonically increasing function of a while it is not sensitive to the changes of the shear s, the initial phase θ0 and the resistivity parameter εR.

  20. To sail the skies of Mars - Scientific ballooning on the red planet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaidos, Eric J.; Burke, James D.

    1988-01-01

    Balloons represent a novel approach to exploring the surface of Mars. One promising aerostat system incorporates a solar-powered balloon as a means of generating diurnally varying lift and so can 'hop' across the surface, obtaining detailed information at a large number of sites. Two important areas of research and testing are underway on solar balloon technology and balloon payload design. The solar balloon concept has been demonstrated on earth, but more work is needed on a 'flyable' version for Mars. Particular attention must be paid to radiation heat transfer and aerodynamic effects. A special 'snake' payload concept has been demonstrated that allows for balloon system traverses of the surface and provides a usable instrument platform. A balloon system of this type could obtain unique surface imaging and physical and chemical data. The flight of the balloon also provides in situ atmospheric boundary-layer and circulation measurements.

  1. Balloon vetebroplasty with calcium phosphate cement augmentation for direct restoration of traumatic thoracolumbar vertebral fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verlaan, JJ; van Helden, WH; Oner, FC; Verbout, AJ; Dhert, WJA

    2002-01-01

    Study Design. A human cadaveric model was used to evaluate balloon vertebroplasty in traumatic vertebral fractures. Objectives. To assess the feasibility and safety of balloon vertebroplasty followed by calcium phosphate cement augmentation to prevent recurrent kyphosis. Summary of Background Data.

  2. Matrix metalloproteinase inhibition reduces adventitial thickening and collagen accumulation following balloon dilation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sierevogel, MJ; Velema, E; van der Meer, FJ; Nijhuis, MO; de Kleijn, DPV; Borst, C; Pasterkamp, G

    2002-01-01

    Objective: Constrictive arterial remodeling following balloon angioplasty has been related to adventitial collagen accumulation and subsequent thickening and can be prevented by matrix ructalloprotemase (MMP) inhibition. Following balloon dilation, we examined the effect of MMP inhibition on colla-e

  3. Evolution of NASA Scientific Ballooning and Particle Astrophysics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, William Vernon

    2017-01-01

    Particle astrophysics research has a history in ballooning that spans over 100 years, ever since Victor Hess discovered cosmic rays on a manned balloon in 1912. The NASA Particle Astrophysics Program currently covers the origin, acceleration and transport of Galactic cosmic rays, plus the Nature of Dark Matter and Ultrahigh Energy Neutrinos. Progress in each of these topics has come from sophisticated instrumentation flown on Long Duration Balloon (LDB) flights around Antarctica for more than two decades. Super Pressure Balloons (SPB) and International Space Station (ISS) platforms are emerging opportunities that promise major steps forward for these and other objectives. NASA has continued development and qualification flights leading to SPB flights capable of supporting 1000 kg science instruments to 33 km for upwards of hundred day missions, with plans for increasing the altitude to 38 km. This goal is even more important now, in view of the Astro2010 Decadal Study recommendation that NASA should support Ultra-Long Duration Balloon (ULDB) flight development for studies of particle astrophysics, cosmology and indirect detection of dark matter. The mid-latitude test flight of an 18.8 MCF SPB launched from Wanaka, NZ in 2015 achieved 32 days of nearly constant altitude exposure, and an identical SPB launched from Wanaka in 2016 with a science payload flew for 46 days. Scientific ballooning as a vital infrastructure component for cosmic ray and general astrophysics investigations, including training for young scientists, graduate and undergraduate students, leading up to the 2020 Decadal Study and beyond, will be presented and discussed.

  4. Paclitaxel-coated balloons - Survey of preclinical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnorr, B; Kelsch, B; Cremers, B; Clever, Y P; Speck, U; Scheller, B

    2010-10-01

    Restenosis following interventions in the coronary or peripheral arteries develops over weeks to months. In coronary arteries the restenosis rate has been markedly reduced since the advent of drug-eluting stents. Non-stent-based methods for local drug delivery enable restenosis inhibition without the need for stent implantation, does not permanently change the structure of the vessel, are repeatable, and seems to be applicable where drug-eluting stents provide insufficient protection. Preclinical data indicate that short exposure of the vessel wall to a lipophilic inhibitor of cell proliferation is sufficient for preventing restenosis. Initial evidence to this effect emerged from an investigation of paclitaxel embedded in a matrix that enhances the solubility and release of the agent from the balloon coating as well as its transfer to the vessel wall. Further corroborating data from preclinical and clinical studies demonstrating a reduction in late lumen loss and lower restenosis rates led to the market introduction of a variety of paclitaxel-coated angioplasty balloons. The effectiveness of restenosis inhibition is not determined by the active agent alone. Other factors that are crucial for the effectiveness and safety of drug-coated angioplasty balloons are the formulation containing the agent and the coating technique. In this review we first outline the development of paclitaxel-coated balloons to then provide an overview of the preclinical results obtained with different paclitaxel-coated balloons and finally compare these with the outcome in patients. The article concludes with a short outlook on initial results with a zotarolimus-coated angioplasty balloon.

  5. Second-generation endometrial ablation technologies: the hot liquid balloons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilos, George A; Edris, Fawaz

    2007-12-01

    Hysteroscopic endometrial ablation (HEA) was introduced in the 1980s to treat menorrhagia. Its use required additional training, surgical expertise and specialized equipment to minimize emergent complications such as uterine perforations, thermal injuries and excessive fluid absorption. To overcome these difficulties and concerns, thermal balloon endometrial ablation (TBEA) was introduced in the 1990s. Four hot liquid balloons have been introduced into clinical practice. All systems consist of a catheter (4-10mm diameter), a silicone balloon and a control unit. Liquids used to inflate the balloons include internally heated dextrose in water (ThermaChoice, 87 degrees C), and externally heated glycine (Cavaterm, 78 degrees C), saline (Menotreat, 85 degrees ) and glycerine (Thermablate, 173 degrees C). All balloons require pressurization from 160 to 240 mmHg for treatment cycles of 2 to 10 minutes. Prior to TBEA, preoperative endometrial thinning, including suction curettage, is optional. Several RCTs and cohort studies indicate that the advantages of TBEA include portability, ease of use and short learning curve. In addition, small diameter catheters requiring minimal cervical dilatation (5-7 mm) and short duration of treatment cycles (2-8 min) allow treatment under minimal analgesia/anesthesia requirements in a clinic setting. Following TBEA serious adverse events, including thermal injuries to viscera have been experienced. To minimize such injuries some surgeons advocate the use of routine post-dilatation hysteroscopy and/or ultrasonography to confirm correct intrauterine placement of the balloon prior to initiating the treatment cycle. After 10 years of clinical practice, TBEA is thought to be the preferred first-line surgical treatment of menorrhagia in appropriately selected candidates. Economic modeling also suggested that TBEA may be more cost-effective than HEA.

  6. Balloon-Borne Infrasound Detection of Energetic Bolide Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Eliot F.; Ballard, Courtney; Klein, Viliam; Bowman, Daniel; Boslough, Mark

    2016-10-01

    Infrasound is usually defined as sound waves below 20 Hz, the nominal limit of human hearing. Infrasound waves propagate over vast distances through the Earth's atmosphere: the CTBTO (Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization) has 48 installed infrasound-sensing stations around the world to detect nuclear detonations and other disturbances. In February 2013, several CTBTO infrasound stations detected infrasound signals from a large bolide that exploded over Chelyabinsk, Russia. Some stations recorded signals that had circumnavigated the Earth, over a day after the original event. The goal of this project is to improve upon the sensitivity of the CTBTO network by putting microphones on small, long-duration super-pressure balloons, with the overarching goal of studying the small end of the NEO population by using the Earth's atmosphere as a witness plate.A balloon-borne infrasound sensor is expected to have two advantages over ground-based stations: a lack of wind noise and a concentration of infrasound energy in the "stratospheric duct" between roughly 5 - 50 km altitude. To test these advantages, we have built a small balloon payload with five calibrated microphones. We plan to fly this payload on a NASA high-altitude balloon from Ft Sumner, NM in August 2016. We have arranged for three large explosions to take place in Socorro, NM while the balloon is aloft to assess the sensitivity of balloon-borne vs. ground-based infrasound sensors. We will report on the results from this test flight and the prospects for detecting/characterizing small bolides in the stratosphere.

  7. Properties of nylon 12 balloons after thermal and liquid carbon dioxide treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ro, Andrew J; Davé, Vipul

    2013-03-01

    Critical design attributes of angioplasty balloons include the following: tear resistance, high burst pressures, controlled compliance, and high fatigue. Balloons must have tear resistance and high burst pressures because a calcified stenosis can be hard and nominal pressures of up to 16 atm can be used to expand the balloon. The inflated balloon diameter must be a function of the inflation pressure, thus compliance is predictable and controlled. Reliable compliance is necessary to prevent damage to vessel walls, which may be caused by over-inflation. Balloons are often inflated multiple times in a clinical setting and they must be highly resistant to fatigue. These design attributes are dependent on the mechanical properties and polymer morphology of the balloon. The effects of residual stresses on shrinkage, crystallite orientation, balloon compliance, and mechanical properties were studied for angioplasty nylon 12 balloons. Residual stresses of these balloons were relieved by oven heat treatment and liquid CO2 exposure. Residual stresses were measured by quantifying shrinkage at 80 °C of excised balloon samples using a dynamic mechanical analyzer. Shrinkage was lower after oven heat treatment and liquid CO2 exposure compared to the as-received balloons, in the axial and radial directions. As-received, oven heat treated, and liquid CO2-exposed balloon samples exhibited similar thermal properties (T(g), T(m), X(t)). Crystallite orientation was not observed in the balloon cylindrical body using X-ray scattering and polarized light microscopy, which may be due to balloon fabrication conditions. Significant differences were not observed between the stress-strain curves, balloon compliance, and average burst pressures of the as-received, oven heat treated, and liquid CO2-exposed balloons.

  8. Emerging Stent and Balloon Technologies in the Femoropopliteal Arteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Pastromas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Endovascular procedures for the management of the superficial femoral (SFA and popliteal artery disease are increasingly common. Over the past decade, several stent technologies have been established which may offer new options for improved clinical outcomes. This paper reviews the current evidence for SFA and popliteal artery angioplasty and stenting, with a focus on randomized trials and registries of nitinol self-expanding stents, drug-eluting stents, dug-coated balloons, and covered stent-grafts. We also highlight the limitations of the currently available data and the future routes in peripheral arterial disease (PAD stent and balloon technology.

  9. Balloon-Borne System Would Aim Instrument Toward Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polites, M. E.

    1992-01-01

    Proposed system including digital control computer, control sensors, and control actuators aims telescope or other balloon-borne instrument toward Sun. Pointing system and instrument flown on gondola, suspended from balloon. System includes reaction wheel, which applies azimuthal control torques to gondola, and torque motor to apply low-frequency azimuthal torques between gondola and cable. Three single-axis rate gyroscopes measure yaw, pitch, and roll. Inclinometer measures roll angle. Two-axis Sun sensor measures deviation, in yaw and pitch, of attitude of instrument from line to apparent center of Sun. System provides initial coarse pointing, then maintains fine pointing.

  10. Simultaneous electric-field measurements on nearby balloons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozer, F. S.

    1972-01-01

    Electric-field payloads were flown simultaneously on two balloons from Great Whale River, Canada, on September 21, 1971, to provide data at two points in the upper atmosphere that differed in altitude by more than one atmospheric density scale height and in horizontal position by 30-140 km. The altitude dependences in the two sets of data prove conclusively that the vertical electric field at balloon altitudes stems from fair-weather atmospheric electricity sources and that the horizontal fields are mapped down ionospheric fields, since the weather-associated horizontal fields were smaller than 2 mV/m.

  11. Large bowel impaction by the BioEnterics Intragastric Balloon (BIB) necessitating surgical intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W Y; Kirkpatrick, U J; Moody, A P; Wake, P N

    2000-05-01

    A case of large bowel impaction caused by migration of a BioEnterics Intragastric Balloon (BIB) is presented. The literature is reviewed regarding both the use and the complications inherent in such balloon devices. This is the first reported case of an intragastric balloon impacted in the colon 9 months after insertion.

  12. Hybrid Global Communication Architecture with Balloons and Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignolet, G.; Celeste, A.; Erb, B.

    2002-01-01

    Global space communication systems have been developed now for more than three decades, based mainly on geostationary satellites or almost equivalent systems such as the Molnya orbit concepts. The last decade of the twentieth century has seen the emergence of satellite constellations in low or medium Earth orbit, in order to improve accessibility in terms of visibility at higher latitudes and limited size or power requirement for ground equipment. However such systems are complex to operate, there are still many situations where connection may remain difficult to achieve, and commercial benefits are still to be proven. A new concept, using a network combination of geostationary relay satellites and high altitude stratospheric platforms may well overcome the inconveniences of both geostationary systems and satellite constellations to improve greatly global communication in the future. The emergence of enabling technologies developed in Japan and in several other countries will soon make it possible to fly helium balloons in the upper layers of the atmosphere, at altitudes of 20 km or more. At such an altitude, well above the meteorological disturbances and the jet-streams, the stratosphere enjoys a regular wind at moderate speeds ranging between 10 m/s and 30 m/s, depending on latitude and also on season. It is possible for balloons powered by electric engines to fly non- stop upstream of the wind in order to remain stationary above a particular location. Large balloons, with sizes up to 300 m in length, would be able to carry sub-satellite communication payloads, as well as observation apparatus and scientific equipment. The range of visibility for easy both-way communication between the balloon and operators or customers on the ground could be as large as 200 km in radius. Most current studies consider a combination of solar cells and storage batteries to power the balloons, but microwave beam wireless power transportation from the ground could be a very

  13. Preparation and characterisation of polyamide 11/montmorillonite (MMT) nanocomposites for use in angioplasty balloon applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halim, Khairul Anwar A. [Department of Polymer Engineering, Athlone Institute of Technology, Athlone (Ireland); School of Materials Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Perlis (Malaysia); Farrell, Joseph B. [Department of Polymer Engineering, Athlone Institute of Technology, Athlone (Ireland); Kennedy, James E., E-mail: jkennedy@ait.ie [Department of Polymer Engineering, Athlone Institute of Technology, Athlone (Ireland)

    2013-12-16

    With increased demands on catheter balloon functionality, there is an emphasis to blend new materials which can improve mechanical performance. Polymer nanocomposites were prepared by melt blending polyamide 11 (PA 11) with organically modified montmorillonite nanoclay. The effects of incorporating the nanoclay on the short-term mechanical properties of PA 11 were assessed using a design of experiments (DoEs) approach. X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis techniques (DMA) were used to characterise the morphology of the nanocomposites. Design of experiments studies revealed that the optimum nanocomposites properties can be achieved by carefully controlling the melt compounding parameters. XRD and TEM data proved that exfoliated clay morphologies existed within the matrix at low clay loading (2%). Whereas the interaction between the polymer matrix and nanoclay was quantified in the DMA spectra, showed a significant increase in storage modulus (up to 80%). The reinforcing effect of nanoclay within the PA 11 was further investigated using mechanical testing, where significant increases in the ultimate tensile strength and strain at break of reinforced tri-layer balloon tubing were observed. - Highlights: • TEM reveals the coexistence of exfoliated and intercalated nanostructures. • Isothermal crystallisation studies found that the nano-clays reduced the crystallisation time. • Significant increase in the storage modulus was due to the reinforcing effect of the nano-clay platelets. • It was observed that the activation energy values decreased due to the presence of nanoclay.

  14. Performance of the CAPRICE98 balloon-borne gas-RICH detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergstroem, D. E-mail: david@particle.kth.se; Boezio, M.; Carlson, P.; Francke, T.; Grinstein, S.; Weber, N.; Suffert, M.; Hof, M.; Kremer, J.; Menn, W.; Simon, M.; Stephens, S.A.; Ambriola, M.; Bellotti, R.; Cafagna, F.; Castellano, M.; Ciacio, F.; Circella, M.; Marzo, C.D.C. De; Finetti, N.; Papini, P.; Piccardi, S.; Spillantini, P.; Bartalucci, S.; Ricci, M.; Bidoli, V.; Casolino, M.; Pascale, M.P.D.M.P. De; Morselli, A.; Picozza, P.; Sparvoli, R.; Barbiellini, G.; Schiavon, P.; Vacchi, A.; Zampa, N.; Mitchell, J.W.; Ormes, J.F.; Streitmatter, R.E.; Bravar, U.; Stochaj, S.J

    2001-05-01

    A RICH counter using a gas radiator of C{sub 4}F{sub 10} and a photosensitive MWPC with pad readout has been developed, tested in particle beam at CERN and used in the CAPRICE98 balloon-borne experiment. The MWPC was operated with a TMAE and ethane mixture at atmospheric pressure and used a cathode pad plane to give an unambiguous image of the Cherenkov light. The induced signals in the pad plane were read out using the AMPLEX chip and CRAMS. The good efficiency of the Cherenkov light collection, the efficient detection of the weak signal from single UV photons together with a low noise level in the electronics of the RICH detector, resulted in a large number of detected photoelectrons per event. For {beta}{approx_equal}1 charge one particles, an average of 12 photoelectrons per event were detected. The reconstructed Cherenkov angle of 50 mrad for a {beta}{approx_equal}1 particle had a resolution of 1.2 mrad (rms). The RICH was flown with the CAPRICE98 magnetic spectrometer and was the first RICH counter ever used in a balloon-borne experiment capable of identifying charge one particles at energies above 5 GeV. The RICH provided an identification of cosmic ray antiprotons up to the highest energies ever studied (about 50 GeV of total energy). The spectrometer was flown on 28-29 May 1998 from Fort Sumner, New Mexico, USA.

  15. Concept report: Experimental vector magnetograph (EXVM) operational configuration balloon flight assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The observational limitations of earth bound solar studies has prompted a great deal of interest in recent months in being able to gain new scientific perspectives through, what should prove to be, relatively low cost flight of the magnetograph system. The ground work done by TBE for the solar balloon missions (originally planned for SOUP and GRID) as well as the rather advanced state of assembly of the EXVM has allowed the quick formulation of a mission concept for the 30 cm system currently being assembled. The flight system operational configuration will be discussed as it is proposed for short duration flight (on the order of one day) over the continental United States. Balloon hardware design requirements used in formulation of the concept are those set by the National Science Balloon Facility (NSBF), the support agency under NASA contract for flight services. The concept assumes that the flight hardware assembly would come together from three development sources: the scientific investigator package, the integration contractor package, and the NSBF support system. The majority of these three separate packages can be independently developed; however, the computer control interfaces and telemetry links would require extensive preplanning and coordination. A special section of this study deals with definition of a dedicated telemetry link to be provided by the integration contractor for video image data for pointing system performance verification. In this study the approach has been to capitalize to the maximum extent possible on existing hardware and system design. This is the most prudent step that can be taken to reduce eventual program cost for long duration flights. By fielding the existing EXVM as quickly as possible, experience could be gained from several short duration flight tests before it became necessary to commit to major upgrades for long duration flights of this system or of the larger 60 cm version being considered for eventual development.

  16. High Energy Replicated Optics to Explore the Sun Balloon-Borne Telescope: Astrophysical Pointing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskin, Jessica; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen; Ramsey, Brian; Apple, Jeff; Kurt, Dietz; Tennant, Allyn; Swartz, Douglas; Christe, Steven D.; Shih, Albert

    2014-01-01

    On September 21, 2013, the High Energy Replicated Optics to Explore the Sun, or HEROES, balloon-borne x-ray telescope launched from the Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility's site in Ft. Summer, NM. The flight lasted for approximately 27 hours and the observational targets included the Sun and astrophysical sources GRS 1915+105 and the Crab Nebula. Over the past year, the HEROES team upgraded the existing High Energy Replicated Optics (HERO) balloon-borne telescope to make unique scientific measurements of the Sun and astrophysical targets during the same flight. The HEROES Project is a multi-NASA Center effort with team members at both Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), and is led by Co-PIs (one at each Center). The HEROES payload consists of the hard X-ray telescope HERO, developed at MSFC, combined with several new systems. To allow the HEROES telescope to make observations of the Sun, a new solar aspect system was added to supplement the existing star camera for fine pointing during both the day and night. A mechanical shutter was added to the star camera to protect it during solar observations and two alignment monitoring systems were added for improved pointing and post-flight data reconstruction. This mission was funded by the NASA HOPE (Hands-On Project Experience) Training Opportunity awarded by the NASA Academy of Program/Project and Engineering Leadership, in partnership with NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Office of the Chief Engineer and Office of the Chief Technologist.

  17. Metallic stent placement in hemodialysis graft patients after insufficient balloon dilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Huei-Lung; Pan, Huay-Ben; Lin, Yih-Huie; Chen, Chiung-Yu; Lai, Pin-Hong; Yang, Chien-Fang [Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Kaohsiung (China); Chung, Hsiao-Min; Wu, Tung-Ho; Chou, Kang-Ju [National Yangming University, Taipei (China)

    2006-06-15

    We wanted to report our experience of metallic stent placement after insufficient balloon dilation in graft hemodialysis patients. Twenty-three patients (13 loop grafts in the forearm and 10 straight grafts in the upper arm) underwent metallic stent placement due to insufficient flow after urokinase thrombolysis and balloon dilation. The indications for metallic stent deployment included 1) recoil and/or kinked venous stenosis in 21 patents (venous anastomosis: 17 patients, peripheral outflow vein: four patients); and 2) major vascular rupture in two patients. Metallic stents 8-10mm in diameter and 40-80 mm in length were used. Of them, eight stents were deployed across the elbow crease. Access patency was determined by clinical follow-up and the overall rates were calculated by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. No procedure-related complications (stent fracture or central migration) were encountered except for a delayed Wallstent shortening/migration at the venous anastomosis, which resulted in early access failure. The overall primary and secondary patency rates ({+-}standard error) of all the vascular accesses in our 23 patients at 3, 6, 12 and 24 months were 69%{+-}9 and 88%{+-}6,41% {+-}10 and 88%{+-}6, 30%{+-}10 and 77%{+-}10, and 12%{+-}8 and 61%{+-}13, respectively. For the forearm and upper-arm grafts, the primary and secondary patency rates were 51%{+-}16 and 86%{+-}13 vs 45%{+-}15 and 73%{+-}13 at 6 months, and 25%{+-}15 and 71%{+-}17 vs 23%{+-}17 and 73%{+-}13 at 12 months ({rho} = .436 and .224), respectively. Metallic stent placement is a safe and effective means for treating peripheral venous lesions in dialysis graft patients after insufficient balloon dilation. No statistically difference in the patency rates between the forearm and upper-arm patient groups was seen.

  18. Scientific Ballooning Technologies Workshop STO-2 Thermal Design and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Doug

    2016-01-01

    The heritage thermal model for the full STO-2 (Stratospheric Terahertz Observatory II), vehicle has been updated to model the CSBF (Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility) SIP-14 (Scientific Instrument Package) in detail. Analysis of this model has been performed for the Antarctica FY2017 launch season. Model temperature predictions are compared to previous results from STO-2 review documents.

  19. Investigating obscure gastrointestinal bleeding : capsule endoscopy or double balloon enteroscopy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, J.; Weersma, R. K.; Koornstra, J. J.

    2009-01-01

    The possibility to visualise the small bowel has dramatically improved with the introduction of capsule endoscopy (CE) and double balloon enteroscopy (DBE). CE and DBE have become standard practice in investigating suspected diseases of the small bowel. An important reason to perform small bowel inv

  20. Balloon dacryocystoplasty study in the management of adult epiphora.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fenton, S

    2012-02-03

    PURPOSE: To determine the efficacy of dacryocystoplasty with balloon dilation in the treatment of acquired obstruction of the nasolacrimal system in adults. METHODS: Balloon dacryocystoplasty was performed in 52 eyes of 42 patients under general anaesthetic. A Teflon-coated guidewire was introduced through the canaliculus and manipulated through the nasolacrimal system and out of the nasal aperture. A 4 mm wide 3 cm coronary angioplasty balloon catheter was threaded over the guidewire in a retrograde fashion and dilated at the site of obstruction. RESULTS: There was complete obstruction in 30% of cases and partial obstruction in 70%. The most common site of obstruction was the nasolacrimal duct. The procedure was technically successful in 94% of cases. The overall re-obstruction rate was 29% within 1 year of the procedure. There was an anatomical failure rate of 17% for partial obstruction and 69% for complete obstruction within 1 year. CONCLUSIONS: Balloon dacryocystoplasty has a high recurrence rate. There may be a limited role for this procedure in partial obstructions. Further refinements of the procedure are necessary before it can be offered as a comparable alternative to a standard surgical dacryocystorhinostomy.

  1. 28. Critical pulmonary valve stenosis: Medical management beyond balloon dilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Arif Khan

    2015-10-01

    Conclusion: Phentolamine and/or Captopril have a therapeutic role in neonates with critical PVS who remain oxygen dependent after balloon dilation. Both medicationslead to vasodilatation of pulmonary and systemic vascularity. They facilitate inflowto the right ventricle. Right to left shunt across a PFO or/ ASD minimizesand saturation improves leading to a significantreduction in length of hospitalization.

  2. Latex micro-balloon pumping in centrifugal microfluidic platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeinehvand, Mohammad Mahdi; Ibrahim, Fatimah; Harun, Sulaiman Wadi; Al-Faqheri, Wisam; Thio, Tzer Hwai Gilbert; Kazemzadeh, Amin; Madou, Marc

    2014-03-01

    Centrifugal microfluidic platforms have emerged as point-of-care diagnostic tools. However, the unidirectional nature of the centrifugal force limits the available space for multi-step processes on a single microfluidic disc. To overcome this limitation, a passive pneumatic pumping method actuated at high rotational speeds has been previously proposed to pump liquid against the centrifugal force. In this paper, a novel micro-balloon pumping method that relies on elastic energy stored in a latex membrane is introduced. It operates at low rotational speeds and pumps a larger volume of liquid towards the centre of the disc. Two different micro-balloon pumping mechanisms have been designed to study the pump performance at a range of rotational frequencies from 0 to 1500 rpm. The behaviour of the micro-balloon pump on the centrifugal microfluidic platforms has been theoretically analysed and compared with the experimental data. The experimental data show that the developed pumping method dramatically decreases the required rotational speed to pump liquid compared to the previously developed pneumatic pumping methods. It also shows that within a range of rotational speed, a desirable volume of liquid can be stored and pumped by adjusting the size of the micro-balloon.

  3. Balloon atrial septostomy under echocardiographic guide: case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SM Meraji

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Balloon atrial septostomy is an emergent procedure in pediatric cardiology. Nowadays, most patients in need of the procedure have acceptable outcomes after surgical repair. Thus, it is important to perform this procedure as safe as possible. By performing early arterial switch operation and prostaglandin infusion, the rate of balloon atrial septostomy has markedly decreased. However, not all centers performing early arterial switch repairs have abandoned atrial septostomy, even in patients who respond favorably to prostaglandin infusion.Case presentation: In total, eight 1- to 15-day old term neonates admitted in Shahid Rajaee Heart Center in Tehran, Iran from October 2009 to February 2011, with congenital heart diseases were scheduled for balloon atrial septostomy. In six cases the procedure was done exclusively under echocardiographic guidance and in two cases with the help of fluoroscopy. Success was defined as the creation of an atrial septal defect with a diameter equal to or more than 5 mm and ample mobility of its margins.Results: Male sex was predominant (87% and the mean age of the neonates was six days. The diagnosis in all cases was simple transposition of great arteries. The procedure was successful in all patients with any cardiovascular complication.Conclusion: Balloon atrial septostomy is an emergent procedure that can be done safely and effectively under echocardiographic guidance. According to the feasibility of this technique it could be performed fast, safe and effective at bedside, avoiding patient transportation to hemodynamic laboratory or referral center.

  4. Using Hydrogen Balloons to Display Metal Ion Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, James H.

    2008-01-01

    We have optimized a procedure for igniting hydrogen-filled balloons containing metal salts to obtain the brightest possible flash while minimizing the quantity of airborne combustion products. We report air quality measurements in a lecture hall immediately after the demonstration. While we recommend that this demonstration be done outdoors or in…

  5. Meshed-Pumpkin Super-Pressure Balloon Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack; Yavrouian, Andre

    2003-01-01

    An improved, lightweight design has been proposed for super-pressure balloons used to carry scientific instruments at high altitudes in the atmosphere of Earth for times as long as 100 days. [A super-pressure balloon is one in which the pressure of the buoyant gas (typically, helium) is kept somewhat above ambient pressure in order to maintain approximately constant density and thereby regulate the altitude.] The proposed design, called "meshed pumpkin," incorporates the basic concept of the pumpkin design, which is so named because of its appearance. The pumpkin design entails less weight than does a spherical design, and the meshed-pumpkin design would reduce weight further. The basic idea of the meshed-pumpkin design is to reinforce the membrane of a pumpkin balloon by attaching a strong, lightweight fabric mesh to its outer surface. The reinforcement would make it possible to reduce the membrane mass to one-third or less of that of the basic pumpkin design while retaining sufficient strength to enable the balloon to remain at approximately constant altitude for months.

  6. 75 FR 77673 - National Environmental Policy Act: Scientific Balloon Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-13

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION National Environmental Policy Act: Scientific Balloon Program AGENCY: National... the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, as amended (42 U.S.C. 4321, et seq.); the Council on Environmental Quality Regulations for Implementing the Procedural Provisions of NEPA (40...

  7. Complications of flow-directed balloon-tipped catheters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, F W; Husserl, F E

    1990-01-01

    Acute or short-term complications following the use of flow-directed balloon-tipped catheters are well recognized. Long-term sequelae are rarely reported. We report herein an early complication of pulmonary arterial rupture with infarction followed by the delayed development of a pulmonary arterial aneurysm.

  8. An automatic parachute release for high altitude scientific balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Chris

    NASA's Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility launches high altitude scientific research balloons at many locations around the world. Locations like Antarctica are flat for hundreds of miles and have nothing to snag a parachute consequently causing it to be more important to separate the parachute from the payload than in an area with vegetation and fences. Scientists are now building one of a kind payloads costing millions of dollars, taking five years or more to build, and are requesting multiple flights. In addition to that, the data gathering rate of many science payloads far exceeds the data downlink rate on over-the-horizon flights therefore making a recovery of at least the data hard drives a "minimum success requirement". The older mentality in ballooning; separating the parachute and payload from the balloon and getting it on the ground is more important than separating the parachute after the payload is on the ground has changed. It is now equally as important to separate the parachute from the gondola to prevent damage from dragging. Until now, commands had to be sent to separate the parachute from the gondola at approximately 60K ft, 30K ft, and 10K ft to use the Semi Automatic Parachute Release (SAPR), which is after the sometimes violent parachute opening shock. By using the Gondola controlled Automatic Parachute Release (GAPR) all commanding is done prior to termination, making the parachute release fully autonomous.

  9. Effect of fuel pin ballooning on the sub-channel thermal hydraulics during small break loca for Indian PHWRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukhopadhyay, D.; Behera, G.H.; Bandopadhyay, S.K.; Gupta, S.K. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Div. Reactor Safety, Bombay (India)

    2001-07-01

    Effect of fuel pin ballooning on the subchannel thermal-hydraulics during a small break (0.25%) located at the Reactor Inlet Feeder (RIF) has been studied for Indian PHWRs. The break leads to a low flow situation in the affected reactor channel along with delayed reactor trip. Higher power to flow ratio in the inner subchannels in comparison to outer subchannel of a 19 pin fuel bundle causes early 2-phase condition causing the flow to by pass from the inner ones to outer ones. This causes the fuel pins to experience different temperatures. Fuel pin ballooning causes reduction in the subchannel areas and further flow redistribution takes place. The transient subchannel thermal-hydraulic conditions along the reactor channel are very much different due to the power distribution and pressure drop. (authors)

  10. The IMaX polarimeter for the solar telescope SUNRISE of the NASA long duration balloon program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Herrero, A.; Martínez-Pillet, V.; Del Toro Iniesta, J. C.; Domingo, V.

    2010-06-01

    On June 8th 2009 the SUNRISE mission was successfully launched. This mission consisted of a 1m aperture solar telescope on board of a stratospheric balloon within the Long Duration Balloon NASA program. The flight followed the foreseen circumpolar trajectory over the Artic and the duration was 5 days and 17 hours. One of the two postfocal instruments onboard was IMaX, the Imaging Magnetograph eXperiment. This instrument is a solar magnetograph which is a diffraction limited imager capable to resolve 100 km on the solar surface, and simultaneously a high sensitivity polarimeter (Aeroespacial field and it is an important precedent for future space missions such as Solar Orbiter from ESA. Among these novel technologies the utilization of Liquid Crystal Variable Retarders (LCVRs) as polarization modulators and a LiNbO3 etalon as tunable spectral filter are remarkable. Currently the data obtained is being analyzed and the preliminary results show unprecedented information about the solar dynamics.

  11. The Micro-Instrumentation Package: A Solution to Lightweight Ballooning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juneau, Jill

    This paper discusses the design and testing of an over the horizon (OTH) light weight telemetry and termination system that can be used for small ballooning payloads. Currently, the Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility (CSBF) provides telemetry for the science payload by integrating one of two types of support packages. The type of support package integrated depends on whether the flight will stay in range of line of sight (LOS) or will exceed LOS requiring the use of over the horizon (OTH) telemetry. The weights of these systems range from 100 pounds to 350 pounds depending upon the use of redundant systems, equipment for high data rates, and batteries and/or solar panels for power requirements. These weight values are not as significant for larger payloads but can be crippling for smaller payloads. In addition, these support package systems are fairly expensive, placing a high importance on recovery. A lightweight and inexpensive telemetry system could be beneficial for various reasons. First, it would allow scientists to fly lightweight payloads on large balloons reaching even higher altitudes. Second, scientists could fly lightweight payloads on less expensive balloons such as meteorological balloons. Depending on the payload, these flights could be fairly inexpensive and even disposable. Third, a compact telemetry system on any balloon will free up more room for the science portion of the payload. In response, a compact telemetry/termination system called the Micro-Instrumentation Package (MIP) was developed. The MIP provides uplink and downlink communications, an interface to the science, housekeeping information including global positioning system (GPS) position, and relays. Instead of a power-hungry microprocessor, the MIP's central consists of a microcontroller. Microcontrollers are lower power, easily programmed, and can be purchased for less than ten dollars. For uplink and downlink telemetry, the MIP uses an LOS serial transceiver and an Iridium unit

  12. 球扩式主动脉瓣腔内置换术治疗五例主动脉瓣狭窄经验%Balloon-dilated endovascular replacement of aortic valve for severe aortic stenosis: preliminary experience in five cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆清声; 洪毅; 吴宏; 王志农; 李卫萍; 张勇学; 李南; 马宇; 秦永文

    2013-01-01

    Objective To discuss the feasibility of balloon-dilated endovascular replacement of aortic valve for the treatment of severe aortic stenosis. Methods Five patients with severe aortic stenosis were selected for this study. Preoperative evaluation of these patients' clinical conditions indicated that these five patients were unable to tolerate a traditional open cardiovascular surgery. Via femoral artery access balloon-dilated endovascular replacement of aortic valve was carried out in all the five patients. The results were analyzed. Results The procedure was accomplished via femoral artery access in all the five patients. In one patient the operation was successfully finished with the auxiliary help of trans - cardiac apex puncturing. Technical success was achieved in all the five patients. After the operation the functioning of the aortic valve was greatly improved. Neither complications nor death occurred in all patients. Conclusion Balloon-dilated endovascular replacement of aortic valve can be safely used for the treatment of severe aortic stenosis in Chinese patients, although more strict preoperative preparation, precise evaluation and careful management during operation are demanded.%目的 探讨球扩式主动脉瓣腔内置换术治疗严重主动脉瓣狭窄患者的可行性.方法 选取5例术前评估无法耐受传统开放手术的严重主动脉钙化狭窄患者,行经股动脉球扩式主动脉瓣腔内置换术.结果 5例均经股动脉完成,其中1例经心尖穿刺辅助完成,5例手术全部成功,术后患者主动脉瓣功能显著改善,无并发症,无死亡.结论 球扩式主动脉瓣腔内置换术可用于严重主动脉瓣狭窄患者,但在术前准备、评估、术中操作等方面提出了更高的要求.

  13. Angioplasty with drug coated balloons for the treatment of infrainguinal peripheral artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Martin

    2016-09-01

    Restenosis or re-occlusion after femoropopliteal angioplasty or stent implantation is the main limitation of endovascular treatment strategies for peripheral artery disease. Within the last years, balloon catheters with anti-proliferative drug coating on the balloon surface have shown to be associated with higher patency rates compared to plain balloon angioplasty. Thus, drug-coated balloons were gradually adopted in many interventional centres for the treatment of femoropopliteal obstructions. The current review summarises the existing evidence for drug-coated balloons in the infrainguinal vessels and their indication in special lesion cohorts.

  14. Cutting balloon angioplasty vs. conventional balloon angioplasty in patients receiving intracoronary brachytherapy for the treatment of in-stent restenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasseas, Panayotis; Orford, James L; Lennon, Ryan; O'Neill, Jessica; Denktas, Ali E; Panetta, Carmelo J; Berger, Peter B; Holmes, David R

    2004-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of cutting balloon angioplasty (CBA) for the treatment of in-stent restenosis prior to intracoronary brachytherapy (ICB). Cutting balloon angioplasty may reduce the incidence of uncontrolled dissection requiring adjunctive stenting and may limit "melon seeding" and geographic miss in patients with in-stent restenosis who are subsequently treated with ICB. We performed a retrospective case-control analysis of 134 consecutive patients with in-stent restenosis who were treated with ICB preceded by either CBA or conventional balloon angioplasty. We identified 44 patients who underwent CBA and ICB, and 90 control patients who underwent conventional percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) and ICB for the treatment of in-stent restenosis. Adjunctive coronary stenting was performed in 13 patients (29.5%) in the CBA/ICB group and 41 patients (45.6%; P 0.05). Despite sound theoretical reasons why CBA may be better than conventional balloon angioplasty for treatment of in-stent restenosis with ICB, and despite a reduction in the need for adjunctive coronary stenting, we were unable to identify differences in clinical outcome.

  15. A comparison of balloon-expandable-stent implantation with balloon angioplasty in patients with coronary artery disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); P.P.T. de Jaegere (Peter); F. Kiemeneij (Ferdinand); C.M. Miguel (Carlos); W.R. Rutsch (Wolfgang); G.R. Heyndrickx (Guy); H.U. Emanuelsson (Hakan); J. Marco (Jean); V.M.G. Legrand (Victor); P.H. Materne (Phillipe); J.A. Belardi (Jorge); U. Sigwart (Ulrich); A. Colombo (Antonio); J-J. Goy (Jean-Jacques); P.A. van den Heuvel (Paul); J. Delcan; M-A.M. Morel (Marie-Angèle)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractBalloon-expandable coronary-artery stents were developed to prevent coronary restenosis after coronary angioplasty. These devices hold coronary vessels open at sites that have been dilated. However, it is unknown whether stenting improves long-term angiographic and clinical outcomes as c

  16. A comparison of balloon-expandable-stent implantation with balloon angioplasty in patients with coronary artery disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); P.P.T. de Jaegere (Peter); F. Kiemeneij (Ferdinand); C.M. Miguel (Carlos); W.R. Rutsch (Wolfgang); G.R. Heyndrickx (Guy); H.U. Emanuelsson (Hakan); J. Marco (Jean); V.M.G. Legrand (Victor); P.H. Materne (Phillipe); J.A. Belardi (Jorge); U. Sigwart (Ulrich); A. Colombo (Antonio); J-J. Goy (Jean-Jacques); P. van den Heuvel; J. Delcan; M-A.M. Morel (Marie-Angèle)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND. Balloon-expandable coronary-artery stents were developed to prevent coronary restenosis after coronary angioplasty. These devices hold coronary vessels open at sites that have been dilated. However, it is unknown whether stenting improves long-term angiographic and clinical o

  17. Impact of intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation with different balloon volumes on cardiac performance in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Marc; Fasseas, Panayotis; Singh, Varinder P; McBride, Ruth; Orford, James L; Kussmaul, William G

    2002-10-01

    Intra-aortic balloon (IAB) counterpulsation can augment the cardiac output. However, the effect of different IAB volumes on cardiac performance has not been adequately evaluated in humans. Eighty-two patients (52 males [63%]; mean age, 65 +/- 12 years; mean body surface area [BSA], 1.8 +/- 0.2 m(2)) had IAB counterpulsation for cardiogenic shock, refractory angina, and preoperatively for high-risk cardiac surgery. Cardiac hemodynamics were prospectively studied during IAB with inflation volumes of 32 vs. 40 cc. Hemodynamic data collected included aortic pressure, pulmonary artery pressure, systemic and mixed venous oxygen saturations, and cardiac output (by Fick). Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) was used to obtain both velocity time integrals (VTIs) and the area of the left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT). Left ventricular stroke volume was then calculated as LVOT area x VTI. Cardiac output (CO) determined by the Fick method and VTI did not differ significantly (P = NS) between the two inflation volumes (y = 0.002 + 0.97x). In a subgroup of 33 patients with BSA

  18. Using High Resolution Balloon Photography to Provide Topographic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, K.; Bauer, T.

    2009-12-01

    For site-scale projects, the Bureau of Reclamation has used low altitude balloon photogrammetry to obtain high-resolution photographs and detailed topographic information. These data are collected in a fraction of the time and effort it would take to obtain a similar level of detail using traditional methods. This is accomplished at a significantly reduced cost compared to flying LiDAR or aerial photography, which can be prohibitively expensive for small or medium scale projects. Low altitude balloon photogrammetry is a process where overlapping photographs and ground survey control points are input into a photogrammetry software program (AdamTechnology 3DM Analyst Mine Mapping Suite) to produce orthophotographs and digital terrain model (DTM) elevation points. To acquire the photos a digital camera is attached to an 8-foot diameter helium balloon. The balloon is tethered and flown above the location of interest. The camera is controlled remotely while a live image is transmitted to a receiver on the ground. Ground survey control is established by using GPS equipment to survey ground targets placed within the area to be photographed. There are limitations to the process. Data collection is very weather dependent; too much wind causes the balloon to be unstable. Site conditions also determine the feasibility: power lines, trees, and steep embankments can cause difficulties maneuvering the balloon. Although some of the photographs show the underwater portion of the channel; there is little agreement between GPS points and the processed DTM elevations in the channel. The balloon has been used to survey large woody debris (LWD) structures and channel morphology in the Middle Fork John Day River (central Oregon) and monitoring debris after the removal of Chiloquin Dam (Sprague River, southern Oregon). Seventeen LWD structures were installed on the Middle Fork John Day River near John Day, OR in 2007 and 2008 to provide aquatic habitat. Balloon photos were obtained in

  19. Fine-scale turbulence soundings in the stratosphere with the new balloon-borne instrument LITOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Theuerkauf

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a new compact balloon payload called LITOS (Leibniz-Institute Turbulence Observations in the Stratosphere for high resolution wind turbulence soundings up to 35 km altitude. The wind measurements are performed applying a constant temperature anemometer (CTA with a vertical resolution of ~2.5 mm, i.e. 2 kHz sampling rate at 5 m/s ascent speed. Thereby, for the first time, it is possible to study the entire turbulence spectrum down to the viscous subrange in the stratosphere. Including telemetry, housekeeping, batteries and recovery unit the payload weighs less than 5 kg and can be launched at any radiosonde station. Since autumn 2007 LITOS has been successfully launched several times from the Leibniz-Institute of Atmospheric Physics (IAP in Kühlungsborn, Germany (54° N, 12° E. Two additional soundings were carried out in 2008 and 2009 at Kiruna, Sweden (67° N, 21° E as part of the BEXUS program (Balloon-borne EXperiments for University Students. We describe here the basic principle of CTA measurements and prove the validity of this method in the stratosphere. First case studies allow a clear distinction between non-turbulent layers and turbulent layers with a thickness of some tens of meters. Since our measurements cover the transition between the inertial and viscous subrange, energy dissipation rates can be calculated with high reliability.

  20. Self-expanding nitinol stents for treatment of infragenicular arteries following unsuccessful balloon angioplasty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tepe, Gunnar; Heller, Stephan; Wiskirchen, Jakub; Fischmann, Arne; Claussen, Claus D. [University of Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Zeller, Thomas [Heart Center, Bad Krotzingen (Germany); Coerper, Stephan; Beckert, Stefan [University of Tuebingen, Department of Surgery, Tuebingen (Germany); Balletshofer, Bernd [University of Tuebingen, Department of Angiology, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2007-08-15

    The feasibility of self-expanding nitinol stents for treatment of infragenicular arteries following unsuccessful balloon angioplasty was assessed. Options for lower limb percutaneous revascularization are limited, especially for complex vessel obstruction. Depending on the lesion and the experience of the interventionalist, the failure rate of balloon angioplasty (PTA) ranges between 10 and 40%. Until recently, no self-expanding stent for the use in the infragenicular arteries was available. This is the first report of the results for 18 consecutive patients who received 4F sheath compatible self-expanding nitinol stents following unsuccessful PTA or early restenosis. Twenty-four stents were implanted in 21 lesions for various indications residual stenosis >50% due to heavy calcification, flow-limiting dissection, occluding thrombus resistant to thrombolyis, thrombaspiration, and PTA, and early restenosis after previous PTA. Stent implantation was feasible in all cases. No complications occurred. After the stent implantation, all primarily unsuccessful interventions could be transformed into successful procedures with no residual stenosis >30% in any case. After 6 {+-} 2 months, two of the 18 patients died, and 14 of the 16 remaining patients improved clinically. At follow-up, the patency could be assessed in 14 stented arteries. Three stents were occluded, one stent showed some neointimal hyperplasia (50-70% restenosis), the remaining ten stents showed no restenosis (0-30%). The use of self-expanding nitinol stents in tibioperoneal and popliteal arteries is a safe and feasible option for the treatment of unsuccessful PTA. The 6-months patency is high. (orig.)

  1. Thermal, Structural, and Optical Analysis of a Balloon-Based Imaging System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borden, Michael; Lewis, Derek; Ochoa, Hared; Jones-Wilson, Laura; Susca, Sara; Porter, Michael; Massey, Richard; Clark, Paul; Netterfield, Barth

    2017-03-01

    The Subarcsecond Telescope And BaLloon Experiment, STABLE, is the fine stage of a guidance system for a high-altitude ballooning platform designed to demonstrate subarcsecond pointing stability over one minute using relatively dim guide stars in the visible spectrum. The STABLE system uses an attitude rate sensor and the motion of the guide star on a detector to control a Fast Steering Mirror to stabilize the image. The characteristics of the thermal-optical-mechanical elements in the system directly affect the quality of the point-spread function of the guide star on the detector, so a series of thermal, structural, and optical models were built to simulate system performance and ultimately inform the final pointing stability predictions. This paper describes the modeling techniques employed in each of these subsystems. The results from those models are discussed in detail, highlighting the development of the worst-case cold and hot cases, the optical metrics generated from the finite element model, and the expected STABLE residual wavefront error and decenter. Finally, the paper concludes with the predicted sensitivities in the STABLE system, which show that thermal deadbanding, structural pre-loading, and self-deflection under different loading conditions, and the speed of individual optical elements were particularly important to the resulting STABLE optical performance.

  2. Balloon Flight Background Measurement with Actively-Shielded Planar and Imaging CZT Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Bloser, P F; Jenkins, J A; Perrin, M; Murray, R; Grindlay, J E

    2001-01-01

    We present results from the flight of two prototype CZT detectors on a scientific balloon payload in September 2000. The first detector, referred to as ``CZT1,'' consisted of a 10 mm x 10 mm x 2 mm CZT crystal with a single gold planar electrode readout. This detector was shielded by a combination of a passive collimator surrounded by plastic scintillator and a thick BGO crystal in the rear. The second detector, ``CZT2,'' comprised two 10 mm x 10 mm x 5 mm CZT crystals, one made of eV Products high pressure Bridgman material and the other of IMARAD horizontal Bridgman material, each fashioned with a 4 x 4 array of gold pixels on a 2.5 mm pitch. The pixellated detectors were flip-chip-mounted side by side and read out by a 32-channel ASIC. This detector was also shielded by a passive/plastic collimator in the front, but used only additional passive/plastic shielding in the rear. Both experiments were flown from Ft. Sumner, NM on September 19, 2000 on a 24 hour balloon flight. CZT1 recorded a non-vetoed backgro...

  3. Special considerations for qualifying thin films for super pressure pumpkin ultra long duration balloon missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Magdi A.

    2004-01-01

    The assessment of creep and dynamic response behaviors on materials intended for ultra long duration balloon (ULDB) applications is essential. The first provides needed information for design and fabrication. The second ensures that the film is sufficiently tough to survive the dynamic events during launch and ascent. Characterization and assessment of these two important parameters are discussed in this paper. Visco-elastic behavior of materials in a loaded structure, such as the ULDB film change their geometry significantly over time under load causing possible changes in the load path and the stress distribution. These changes must be held in check to satisfy the functional requirements of the structure over its service life. Typically, the balloon experiences during its service life various environmental conditions each with a different creep response. These are characterized by a simplified load temperature history for the purpose of lifetime response assessment. At mid-latitudes a significant portion of the service life is spent at night, i.e., at low temperature and low load; for the ULDB film this night-time contribution to creep is negligible. By contrast, flight exposure in an Antarctic summer is at an almost constant high temperature and corresponding high pressure. This paper presents the creep behavior of the ULDB film as a function of load, temperature, and time along with an overview of its implementation in the design. In addition, it presents a quantitative assessment on the toughness of the material under dynamic "Snatch" loading.

  4. Precise Pointing and Stabilization Performance for the Balloon-borne Imaging Testbed (BIT): 2015 Test Flight

    CERN Document Server

    Romualdez, L J; Damaren, C J; Galloway, M N; Hartley, J W; Li, L; Massey, R J; Netterfield, C B

    2016-01-01

    Balloon-borne astronomy offers an attractive option for experiments that require precise pointing and attitude stabilization, due to a large reduction in the atmospheric interference observed by ground-based systems as well as the low-cost and short development time-scale compared to space-borne systems. The Balloon-borne Imaging Testbed (BIT) is an instrument designed to meet the technological requirements of high precision astronomical missions and is a precursor to the development of a facility class instrument with capabilities similar to the Hubble Space Telescope. The attitude determination and control systems (ADCS) for BIT, the design, implementation, and analysis of which are the focus of this paper, compensate for compound pendulation effects and other sub-orbital disturbances in the stratosphere to within 1-2$^{\\prime\\prime}$ (rms), while back-end optics provide further image stabilization down to 0.05$^{\\prime\\prime}$ (not discussed here). During the inaugural test flight from Timmins, Canada in S...

  5. GPS-aided gravimetry at 30 km altitude from a balloon-borne platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarewicz, Andrew R.; Evans, Alan G.

    1989-01-01

    A balloon-borne experiment, flown at 30 km altitude over New Mexico, was used to test dynamic differential Global Positioning System (GPS) tracking in support of gravimetry at high-altitudes. The experiment package contained a gravimeter (Vibrating String Accelerometer), a full complement of inertial instruments, a TI-4100 GPS receiver and a radar transponder. The flight was supported by two GPS receivers on the ground near the flight path. From the 8 hour flight, about a forty minute period was selected for analysis. Differential GPS phase measurements were used to estimate changes in position over the sample time interval, or average velocity. In addition to average velocity, differential positions and numerical averages of acceleration were obtained in three components. Gravitational acceleration was estimated by correcting for accelerations due to translational motion, ignoring all rotational effects.

  6. ATIC. Una terminologia de interfase (II)

    OpenAIRE

    Juvé Udina, Eulàlia

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCCION: este artículo es la segunda parte de una tríada en la que se expone la fundamentación filosófico-teórica que sustenta el desarrollo y la validación de una terminología enfermera de interfase como vocabulario normalizado, diseñado para facilitar la entrada de datos en los sistemas de información asistenciales, producir información, y generar conocimiento. OBJETIVO: presentar las bases filosóficas y teóricas en las que se sustenta el desarrollo de una nueva terminología enfermera ...

  7. The Advanced Scintillator Compton Telescope (ASCOT) balloon project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloser, Peter F.; Sharma, Tejaswita; Legere, Jason S.; Bancroft, Christopher M.; McConnell, Mark L.; Ryan, James M.; Wright, Alex M.

    2016-07-01

    We describe a project to develop new medium-energy gamma-ray instrumentation by constructing and flying a balloon-borne Compton telescope using advanced scintillator materials combined with silicon photomultiplier readouts. There is a need in high-energy astronomy for a medium-energy gamma-ray mission covering the energy range from approximately 0.4 - 20 MeV to follow the success of the COMPTEL instrument on CGRO. We believe that directly building on the legacy of COMPTEL, using relatively robust, low-cost, off-the-shelf technologies, is the most promising path for such a mission. Fortunately, high-performance scintillators, such as Lanthanum Bromide (LaBr3), Cerium Bromide (CeBr3), and p-terphenyl, and compact readout devices, such as silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs), are already commercially available and capable of meeting this need. We have conducted two balloon flights of prototype instruments to test these technologies. The first, in 2011, demonstrated that a Compton telescope consisting of an liquid organic scintillator scattering layer and a LaBr3 calorimeter effectively rejects background under balloon-flight conditions, using time-of-flight (ToF) discrimination. The second, in 2014, showed that a telescope using an organic stilbene crystal scattering element and a LaBr3 calorimeter with SiPM readouts can achieve similar ToF performance. We are now constructing a much larger balloon instrument, an Advanced Scintillator Compton Telescope (ASCOT) with SiPM readout, with the goal of imaging the Crab Nebula at MeV energies in a one-day flight. We expect a 4σ detection up to 1 MeV in a single transit. We present calibration results of the first detector modules, and updated simulations of the balloon instrument sensitivity. If successful, this project will demonstrate that the energy, timing, and position resolution of this technology are sufficient to achieve an order of magnitude improvement in sensitivity in the mediumenergy gamma-ray band, were it to be

  8. A Spreadsheet Simulation Tool for Terrestrial and Planetary Balloon Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raquea, Steven M.

    1999-01-01

    During the early stages of new balloon design and development, it is necessary to conduct many trade studies. These trade studies are required to determine the design space, and aid significantly in determining overall feasibility. Numerous point designs then need to be generated as details of payloads, materials, mission, and manufacturing are determined. To accomplish these numerous designs, transient models are both unnecessary and time intensive. A steady state model that uses appropriate design inputs to generate system-level descriptive parameters can be very flexible and fast. Just such a steady state model has been developed and has been used during both the MABS 2001 Mars balloon study and the Ultra Long Duration Balloon Project. Using Microsoft Excel's built-in iteration routine, a model was built. Separate sheets were used for performance, structural design, materials, and thermal analysis as well as input and output sheets. As can be seen from figure 1, the model takes basic performance requirements, weight estimates, design parameters, and environmental conditions and generates a system level balloon design. Figure 2 shows a sample output of the model. By changing the inputs and a few of the equations in the model, balloons on earth or other planets can be modeled. There are currently several variations of the model for terrestrial and Mars balloons, as well there are versions of the model that perform crude material design based on strength and weight requirements. To perform trade studies, the Visual Basic language built into Excel was used to create an automated matrix of designs. This trade study module allows a three dimensional trade surface to be generated by using a series of values for any two design variables. Once the fixed and variable inputs are defined, the model automatically steps through the input matrix and fills a spreadsheet with the resulting point designs. The proposed paper will describe the model in detail, including current

  9. Heavy ion beam test results of the silicon charge detector for the CREAM cosmic ray balloon mission

    CERN Document Server

    Park, I H; Bok, J B; Ganel, O; Hahn, J H; Han, W; Hyun, H J; Kim, H J; Kim, M Y; Kim, Y J; Lee, J K; Lutz, L; Malinine, A; Min, K W; Nam, S W; Nam, W; Park, H; Park, N H; Seo, E S; Seon, K I; Sone, J H; Yang, J; Zinn, S Y

    2004-01-01

    The Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass (CREAM) experiment is designed to measure cosmic ray elemental spectra to help understand the source and acceleration mechanisms of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays. The payload is planned to launch in December 2004 from McMurdo Station, Antarctica as a balloon mission. A Silicon Charge Detector (SCD) was designed and constructed for the CREAM experiment to provide precision charge measurements of incident cosmic rays with a resolution of 0.2 charge unit or better. The SCD was exposed to heavy ion beams at CERN's H2 beam line in November 2003. The results reported here show the SCD performs as designed.

  10. Feasibility of Endovascular Radiation Therapy Using Holmium-166 Filled Balloon Catheter in a Swine Hemodialysis Fistula Model: Preliminary Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Won, Jong Yun; Lee, Kwang Hun; Lee, Do Yun [Dept. of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Yensei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myoung Soo [Dept. of Radiology, Yensei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Byung Chul [Dept. of Radiology, Internal Medicine, EwhaWoman' s University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seung Jung [Dept. of Internal Medicine, EwhaWoman' s University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-15

    To describe how to make a swine hemodialysis fistula model and report our initial experience to test the feasibility of endovascular radiation therapy with Holmium-166 filled balloon catheters. The surgical formation of arterio-venous fistula (AVF) was performed by end-to-side anastomosis of the bilateral jugular vein and carotid artery of 6 pigs. After 4 weeks, angiograms were taken and endovascular radiation was delivered to the venous side of AVF with Holmium-166 filled balloon catheters. Pigs were sacrificed 4 weeks after the radiation and AVFs were harvested for histological examination. All animals survived without any morbidity during the experimental periods. The formation of fistula on the sides of necks was successful in 11 of the 12 pigs (92%). One AVF failed from the small jugular vein. On angiograms, 4 of the 11 AVFs showed total occlusion or significant stenosis and therefore, endovascular radiation could not be performed. Of 7 eligible AVFs, five underwent successful endovascular radiation and two AVFs did not undergo radiation for the control. Upon histologic analysis, one non-radiated AVF showed total occlusion and others showed intimal thickening from the neointimal hyperplasia. Formation of the swine carotid artery-jugular vein hemodialysis fistula model was successful. Endovascular radiation using a Holmium-166 filled balloon catheter was safe and feasible.

  11. Reducing Door to- Balloon- Time for Acute ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction In Primary Percutaneous Intervention: Transformation using Robust Performance Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellahham Md, Samer; Aljabbari, Samir; Harold Mananghaya, Tristan; J Raji, Salama; Al Zubaidi, Abdulmajeed

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading causes of death in the UAE. Prompt reperfusion access is essential for patients who have Myocardial Infarction (MI) with ST-segment elevation as they are at a relatively high risk of death.This risk may be reduced by primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), but only if it is performed in a timely manner. Guidelines recommend that the interval between arrival at the hospital and intracoronary balloon inflation (door-to-balloon (D2B) time) during primary PCI should be 90 minutes or less. The earlier therapy is initiated, the better the outcome. Our aim was to decrease the door-to-balloon time for patients with ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) who come through the emergency department (ED) in Sheikh Khalifa Medical City,a tertiary hospital in UAE, to meet the standard of less than 90 minutes. A multidisciplinary team was formed including interventional cardiologists, catheterization laboratory personnel, emergency department caregivers and quality staff. The project utilized the Lean Six Sigma Methodology which provided a powerful approach to quality improvement. The process minimized waste and variation, and a decreased median door-to-balloon time from 75.9 minutes to 60.1 minutes was noted. The percentage of patients who underwent PCI within 90 minutes increased from 73% to 96%. In conclusion, implementing the Lean Six Sigma methodology resulted in having processes that are leaner, more efficient and minimally variable. While recent publication failed to provide evidence of better outcome, the lessons learned were extrapolated to other primary percutaneous coronary intervention centers in our system.This would have marked impact on patient safety, quality of care and patient experience.

  12. Reducing Door to- Balloon- Time for Acute ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction In Primary Percutaneous Intervention: Transformation using Robust Performance Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellahham, MD, Samer; Aljabbari, Samir; Harold Mananghaya, Tristan; J. Raji, Salama; Al Zubaidi, Abdulmajeed

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading causes of death in the UAE. Prompt reperfusion access is essential for patients who have Myocardial Infarction (MI) with ST-segment elevation as they are at a relatively high risk of death.This risk may be reduced by primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), but only if it is performed in a timely manner. Guidelines recommend that the interval between arrival at the hospital and intracoronary balloon inflation (door-to-balloon (D2B) time) during primary PCI should be 90 minutes or less. The earlier therapy is initiated, the better the outcome. Our aim was to decrease the door-to-balloon time for patients with ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) who come through the emergency department (ED) in Sheikh Khalifa Medical City,a tertiary hospital in UAE, to meet the standard of less than 90 minutes. A multidisciplinary team was formed including interventional cardiologists, catheterization laboratory personnel, emergency department caregivers and quality staff. The project utilized the Lean Six Sigma Methodology which provided a powerful approach to quality improvement. The process minimized waste and variation, and a decreased median door-to-balloon time from 75.9 minutes to 60.1 minutes was noted. The percentage of patients who underwent PCI within 90 minutes increased from 73% to 96%. In conclusion, implementing the Lean Six Sigma methodology resulted in having processes that are leaner, more efficient and minimally variable. While recent publication failed to provide evidence of better outcome, the lessons learned were extrapolated to other primary percutaneous coronary intervention centers in our system.This would have marked impact on patient safety, quality of care and patient experience. PMID:26734321

  13. Endovascular treatment of wide-necked intracranial aneurysms using of "remodeling technique" with the HyperForm balloon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MU Shi-qing; YANG Xin-jian; LI You-xiang; ZHANG You-ping; L(U) Ming; WU Zhong-xue

    2008-01-01

    Background Aneurysms with wide-necked or a large neck/fundus ratio, especially located on an arterial bifurcation or a small artery, are challenges for interventional neuroradiologist because of the risk of coil migration or coil protrusion into the parent vessels. Our study was designed to improve the efficacy and safety of the "remodeling technique" with the HyperForm balloon for these difficult aneurysms and was confirmed by a follow-up result. Methods From June 2004 to September 2006, forty-two patients(20 men, 22 women)with wide-necked or large neck/fundus ratio aneurysms were treated by using the"remodeling technique"with the HyperForm balloon. Results Forty wide-necked aneurysms were successfully treated with the HyperForm balloon remodeling technique with only two failed cases. Final results consisted of total occlusion in 34 cases(80.9%), subtotal in 4 (9.5%) and incomplete in 2(4.8%). One aneurysmal rupture occurred, but no clinical consequence was shown. No thromboembolic events were observed during treatment. Final angiographic follow-up time ranged from 3 to 18 months. Conclusions The "remodeling technique" with the HyperForm balloon is a very useful tool in the treatment of wide-necked or unfavorable neck/fundus ratio intracranial aneurysms-located on an arterial bifurcation or a small artery and, especially, located on the bifurcation of a large artery and a small one. In our experience, this technique provided a safe and efficient treatment for difficult aneurysms when the standard remodeling technique might have failed.

  14. A Balloon-Borne Telescope System for Planetary Atmosphere and Plasma Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, M.; Yoshida, K.; Sakamoto, Y.; Kanazawa, T.; Shoji, Y.; Sawakami, T.; Takahashi, Y.; Hoshino, N.; Sato, T.; Sakanoi, T.

    2007-12-01

    three paths with different colors: the first one with wavelengths less than 450 nm, the second one with 550-630 nm, and the last one more than 750 nm. The first and last paths are utilized for imagery of UV and NIR with bandpass filters and analog and digital CCD video cameras, respectively. The second path is for tracking error detection. The first experiment was scheduled in June, 2007 at Sanriku Balloon Center (SBC), Japan, but it was postponed until late August because of delay in final testing of the system. As of submission of this abstract the gondola has been ready for launch but has not yet been launched. The result of experiment will be presented.

  15. An analysis of the deployment of a pumpkin balloon at Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, J. L.; Phillips, M. L.

    2004-01-01

    The design of large superpressure balloons has received significant attention in recent years due to the successful demonstration of various enabling technologies and materials. Of particular note is the "pumpkin" shaped balloon concept, which allows the stress in the envelope to be limited by the surface geometry. Unlike a sphere, where the radius used to determine the stress is determined by the volume of the balloon, the pumpkin utilizes a system of meridional tendons to react the loading in one direction, and form a number of lobes, which limit the stress in the circumferential direction. A suitable superpressure balloon has been designed using this technology which will carry 2 kg in the atmosphere of Mars. The deployment of this balloon is assumed to occur while falling on a decelerator suitably designed for the Mars atmosphere. The inflation is accomplished by a 10 kg system suspended at the nadir of the balloon. As the system falls toward the surface of the planet, helium gas is transferred into the balloon, forming a partially inflated system very similar to an ascending zero pressure balloon. This analysis incorporates the flow of the planetary gas around the inflating balloon which alters the pressure distribution and shape. As a result, stresses are seen to increase beyond the design values which will require the balloon to be redesigned to accommodate this type of dynamic deployment.

  16. Apical ballooning-like syndrome: Hypocalcemia? What else!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Accadia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Apical ballooning syndrome (ABS, also known as Takotsubo or stress cardiomyopathy, is characterised by acute, transient and severe LV dysfunction, mimicking myocardial infarction; it occurs, in most cases, in the absence of obstructive coronary disease and is precipitated by severe emotional or physical stress, but many other potential triggers has been identi ed in the last years. Although the pathogenesis of ABS remains unclear, the most common mechanisms suggested are coronary vasospam and an exaggerated sympathetic activation associated to high levels of plasma cathecolamine leading to cardiotoxicity.We describe two cases of Apical Ballooning like Syndrome that were triggered by severe, acute hypocalcemia, without evidence of coronary vasospasm and with normal hematic level of cathecolamines.

  17. Developing International Standards for Meteorological Balloon to Facilitate Industrial Progress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deng Yizhi

    2011-01-01

    Meteorological balloon is made of natural rubber latex with a special process.On natural conditions,it carries the air sounding instrument into the high air to detect the meteorological elements in the air.As a means of delivery used in the aerological sounding,it is widely used in the meteorological,sailing,aeronautical,aerospace and other fields,and plays an extremely important role in the weather report,disaster prevention,disaster relief,guaranteeing ships and aircrafts to leave ports safely,and scientific research in relevant spaces,etc.Especially,the role of meteorological balloons is not ignorable in the forecast of extremely adverse weather frequently occurring around the world in recent years.

  18. Apical ballooning-like syndrome: Hypocalcemia? What else!

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Accadia; Marianna Abitabile; Salvatore Rumolo; Scotto di Uccio Fortunato; Luigi Irace; Andrea Tuccillo; Giuseppe Mercogliano; Bernardino Tuccillo

    2016-01-01

    Apical ballooning syndrome (ABS), also known as Takotsubo or stress cardiomyopathy, is characterised by acute, transient and severe LV dysfunction, mimicking myocardial infarction; it occurs, in most cases, in the absence of obstructive coronary disease and is precipitated by severe emotional or physical stress, but many other potential triggers has been identi ed in the last years. Although the pathogenesis of ABS remains unclear, the most common mechanisms suggested are coronary vasospam an...

  19. The Extreme Universe Space Observatory Super Pressure Balloon Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiencke, Lawrence; Olinto, Angela; Adams, Jim; JEM-EUSO Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Extreme Universe Space Observatory on a super pressure balloon (EUSO-SPB) mission will make the first fluorescence observations of high energy cosmic ray extensive air showers by looking down on the atmosphere from near space. A long duration flight of at least 50 nights launched from Wanaka NZ is planned for 2017. We describe completed instrument, and the planned mission. We acknowledge the support of NASA through grants NNX13AH53G and NNX13AH55G.

  20. Astronomical observations with the University College London balloon borne telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, R. E.

    1974-01-01

    The characteristics of a telescope system which was developed for high altitude balloon astronomy are discussed. A drawing of the optical system of the telescope is provided. A sample of the signals recorded during one of the flights is included. The correlation between the infrared flux and the radio continuum flux is analyzed. A far infrared map of the radio and infrared peaks of selected stars is developed. The spectrum of the planet Saturn is plotted to show intensity as compared with wavenumber.

  1. Double-balloon enteroscopy in detecting small intestinal bleeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHI Fa-chao; PAN De-shou; ZHOU Dian-yuan; XIAO Bing; JIANG Bo; WAN Tian-mo; GUO Yu; ZHOU Dan; WANG Li-hui; CHEN Jin-feng; XIE Lu

    2005-01-01

    @@ Digestive tract hemorrhage is a common disease of the digestive system, but about 0.4%-5% intestinal bleeding can not be detected with gastroscope or colonscope.1 Since the intestine is long, tortuous, far away from both ends of the digestive tract and unfixed in position, clinical diagnosis of the bleeding is relatively difficult. Yamamoto and Sugano2 reported the clinical application of double-balloon enteroscope at American DDW in 2003.

  2. Balloon Kyphoplasty: An Effective Treatment for Kummell Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Pius

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of balloon kyphoplasty for treating Kummel disease accompanying severe osteoporosis. Methods Twelve patients with single-level Kummell disease accompanied by severe osteoporosis were enrolled in this investigation. After postural reduction for 1 or 2 days, balloon kyphoplasty was performed on the collapsed vertebrae. Clinical results, radiological parameters, and related complications were assessed at 7 days, 1 month and 6 months after the procedure. Results Prior to kyphoplasty, the mean pain score (according to the visual analogue scale) was 8.0. Seven days after the procedure, this score improved to 2.5. Despite the significant improvement compared to preoperative value, the score increased to 4.0 at 6 months after the procedure. The mean preoperative vertebral height loss was 55.4%. Kyphoplasty reduced this loss to 31.6%, but it increased to 38.7% at 6 months after the procedure. The kyphotic angle improved significantly from 22.4°±4.9° (before the procedure) to 10.1°±3.8° after surgery, However, the improved angle was not maintained 6 months after the procedure. The mean correction loss for the kyphotic deformity was 7.2° at 6 months after the procedure. Three out of 12 patients sustained adjacent fractures after balloon kyphoplasty within 6 months. Conclusion Although balloon kyphoplasty for treating Kummell disease is known to provide stabilization and pain relief, it may be associated with the development of adjacent fractures and aggravated kyphosis. PMID:27799987

  3. Prime time for drug eluting balloons in SFA interventions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodmann, M

    2014-08-01

    Peripheral arterial disease most commonly affects the femoropopliteal segment. Despite enormous improvements in device and treatment technology the long-term patency rate and clinical benefit of endovascular treatment in the respective vascular bed is not satisfying. Drug coated balloon technology as a treatment option in femoropopliteal disease has shown encouraging results in first-in-man trials, which have now been proven in large randomized controlled trials.

  4. NEW APPROACHES: A hot air balloon from dustbin liners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Nicholas

    1998-07-01

    This article describes how a simple hot air balloon, inflated by a hair dryer, can be made out of household bin liners and Sellotape. It can be used at sixth-form level as an application of the ideal gas equation, = constant, and is rather more exciting than heated pistons. It gives a taste of a simple engineering design process, although the students do have to be reasonably adept at geometry and algebra.

  5. The Rocket Balloon (Rocketball): Applications to Science, Technology, and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esper, Jaime

    2009-01-01

    Originally envisioned to study upper atmospheric phenomena, the Rocket Balloon system (or Rocketball for short) has utility in a range of applications, including sprite detection and in-situ measurements, near-space measurements and calibration correlation with orbital assets, hurricane observation and characterization, technology testing and validation, ground observation, and education. A salient feature includes the need to reach space and near-space within a critical time-frame and in adverse local meteorological conditions. It can also provide for the execution of technology validation and operational demonstrations at a fraction of the cost of a space flight. In particular, planetary entry probe proof-of-concepts can be examined. A typical Rocketball operational scenario consists of a sounding rocket launch and subsequent deployment of a balloon above a desired location. An obvious advantage of this combination is the additional mission 'hang-time' rendered by the balloon once the sounding rocket flight is completed. The system leverages current and emergent technologies at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and other organizations.

  6. Balloon Cell Urethral Melanoma: Differential Diagnosis and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. McComiskey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Primary malignant melanoma of the urethra is a rare tumour (0.2% of all melanomas that most commonly affects the meatus and distal urethra and is three times more common in women than men. Case. A 76-year-old lady presented with vaginal pain and discharge. On examination, a 4 cm mass was noted in the vagina and biopsy confirmed melanoma of a balloon type. Preoperative CT showed no distant metastases and an MRI scan of the pelvis demonstrated no associated lymphadenopathy. She underwent anterior exenterative surgery and vaginectomy also. Histology confirmed a urethral nodular malignant melanoma. Discussion. First-line treatment of melanoma is often surgical. Adjuvant treatment including chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or immunotherapy has also been reported. Even with aggressive management, malignant melanoma of the urogenital tract generally has a poor prognosis. Recurrence rates are high and the mean period between diagnosis and recurrence is 12.5 months. A 5-year survival rate of less than 20% has been reported in balloon cell melanomas along with nearly 20% developing local recurrence. Conclusion. To the best of our knowledge, this case is the first report of balloon cell melanoma arising in the urethra. The presentation and surgical management has been described and a literature review provided.

  7. The balloon-borne electron telescope with scintillating fibers (BETS)

    CERN Document Server

    Torii, S; Tateyama, N; Yoshida, K; Ouchi, Y; Yamagami, T; Saitô, Y; Murakami, H; Kobayashi, T; Komori, Y; Kasahara, K; Yuda, T; Nishimura, J

    2000-01-01

    we describe a new detector system developed for high-altitude balloon flights to observe the cosmic-ray electrons above 10 GeV. The balloon borne electron telescope with Scintillating (BETS) fibers instrument is an imaging calorimeter which is capable of selecting electrons against the large background of protons. The calorimeter is composed of a sandwich of scintillating optical-fiber belts and lead plates with a combination of three plastic scintillators for the shower trigger. The total thickness of lead is 40 mm (~7.1 r.l.) and the number of fiber belts is nine. In each belt, alternating layers are oriented in orthogonal (x and y) directions. Two sets of an intensified CCD camera are adopted for read-out of the scintillating fibers in the x and y direction, respectively. The accelerator beam tests were carried out to study the performance of detector for electrons in 1996 and for protons in 1997 at CERN-SPS. The instrument was successfully flown aboard high-altitude balloon in 1997 and 1998. It is demonst...

  8. Precision Attitude Control for the BETTII Balloon-Borne Interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benford, Dominic J.; Fixsen, Dale J.; Rinehart. Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry (BETTII) is an 8-meter baseline far-infrared interferometer to fly on a high altitude balloon. Operating at wavelengths of 30-90 microns, BETTII will obtain spatial and spectral information on science targets at angular resolutions down to less than half an arcsecond, a capability unmatched by other far-infrared facilities. This requires attitude control at a level ofless than a tenth of an arcsecond, a great challenge for a lightweight balloon-borne system. We have designed a precision attitude determination system to provide gondola attitude knowledge at a level of 2 milliarcseconds at rates up to 100Hz, with accurate absolute attitude determination at the half arcsecond level at rates of up to 10Hz. A mUlti-stage control system involving rigid body motion and tip-tilt-piston correction provides precision pointing stability to the level required for the far-infrared instrument to perform its spatial/spectral interferometry in an open-loop control. We present key aspects of the design of the attitude determination and control and its development status.

  9. Low Cost Balloon programme of Indian Centre for Space Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Sandip Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Indian Centre for Space Physics has launched 89 Missions to near space using single or multiple weather balloons or very light plastic balloons. Basic goal was to capitalize miniaturization of equipments in modern ages. Our typical payload of less than 4kg weight consists of GPS, video camera, cosmic ray detectors, Attitude measurement unit, sunsensor and most importantly a 50-100sqcm X-ray/Gamma-ray detector (usually a scintillator type). The main purpose of the latter is to study spectra of secondary cosmic ray spectra (till our ceiling altitude of 36-42km) over the years and their seasonal variation or variation with solar cycle. We also study solar X-ray spectra, especially of solar flares. We have detected a Gamma Ray Burst (GRB) and pulsars. Our observation of black hole candidates did not yield satisfactory result yet mainly because of poor collimation (~ 10 deg x 10 deg) by lead collimator which introduces strong background also. Our effort with multiple balloon flights enabled us to have long duration flights. We believe that our procedure is very futuristic and yet at an affordable cost.

  10. A Low Cost Weather Balloon Borne Solar Cell Calibration Payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, David B.; Wolford, David S.

    2012-01-01

    Calibration of standard sets of solar cell sub-cells is an important step to laboratory verification of on-orbit performance of new solar cell technologies. This paper, looks at the potential capabilities of a lightweight weather balloon payload for solar cell calibration. A 1500 gr latex weather balloon can lift a 2.7 kg payload to over 100,000 ft altitude, above 99% of the atmosphere. Data taken between atmospheric pressures of about 30 to 15 mbar may be extrapolated via the Langley Plot method to 0 mbar, i.e. AMO. This extrapolation, in principle, can have better than 0.1 % error. The launch costs of such a payload arc significantly less than the much larger, higher altitude balloons, or the manned flight facility. The low cost enables a risk tolerant approach to payload development. Demonstration of 1% standard deviation flight-to-flight variation is the goal of this project. This paper describes the initial concept of solar cell calibration payload, and reports initial test flight results. .

  11. The Liege-balloon program. [balloon-borne instruments for high-spectral resolution observations of the sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zander, R.

    1974-01-01

    The Liege-balloon program is intended to make high-spectral resolution observations of the sun in the near- and intermediate infrared regions not accessible from the ground. A description of the equipment, followed by a summary of the data obtained till now is presented. Except for ozone whose maximum of concentration lies near 25 Km altitude, the residual mass distribution of the other mentioned molecules decreases with altitude. This is a self-explanatory argument for carrying out spectroscopic observations from platforms transcending the densest layers of the earth's atmosphere. The Liege balloon equipment is primarily intended for very high-resolution solar observations from about 27-30 Km altitude, in all spectral regions between 1.5 and 15.0 microns, not accessible from the ground.

  12. Double Balloon Cervical Ripening Catheter for Control of Massive Hemorrhage in a Cervical Ectopic Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrano, Nabila; Reilly, James; Moretti, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Cervical pregnancy can be complicated by perfuse vaginal bleeding. Mechanical compression directed at tamponing the cervical vessels can control hemostasis. There are several types of balloon catheters that have been described for cervical compression. However use of a double balloon catheter is a novel approach for cervical tamponade, as one balloon is positioned below the external cervical os and the second balloon is situated above in the internal cervical os. This compresses the cervix from internal os to external os between the two balloons, forming a “cervical sandwich.” We describe this method of cervical tamponade using a silicone double balloon cervical ripening catheter that rapidly controlled hemorrhage in a patient that failed conservative management with methotrexate. PMID:28261511

  13. Experimental investigation of undesired stable equilibria in pumpkin shape super-pressure balloon designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schur, W. W.

    2004-01-01

    Excess in skin material of a pneumatic envelope beyond what is required for minimum enclosure of a gas bubble is a necessary but by no means sufficient condition for the existence of multiple equilibrium configurations for that pneumatic envelope. The very design of structurally efficient super-pressure balloons of the pumpkin shape type requires such excess. Undesired stable equilibria in pumpkin shape balloons have been observed on experimental pumpkin shape balloons. These configurations contain regions with stress levels far higher than those predicted for the cyclically symmetric design configuration under maximum pressurization. Successful designs of pumpkin shape super-pressure balloons do not allow such undesired stable equilibria under full pressurization. This work documents efforts made so far and describes efforts still underway by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Balloon Program Office to arrive on guidance on the design of pumpkin shape super-pressure balloons that guarantee full and proper deployment.

  14. Early clinical outcome and complications related to balloon kyphoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Bergmann

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of painful osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures using transpedicular cement augmentation has grown significantly over the last two decades. The benefits of balloon kyphoplasty compared to conservative treatment remain controversial and are discussed in the literature. The complication rates of vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty are considered to be low. The focus of this study was the analysis of acute and clinically relevant complications related to this procedure. In our department, all patients treated between February 2002 and February 2011 with percutaneous cement augmentation (372 patients, 522 augmented vertebral bodies were prospectively recorded. Demographic data, comorbidities, fracture types, intraoperative data and all complications were documented. The pre- and postoperative pain-level and neurological status (Frankel-Score were evaluated. All patients underwent a standardized surgical procedure. Two hundred and ninety-seven patients were treated solely by balloon kyphoplasty; 216 females (72.7% and 81 males (27.3%. Average patient age was 76.21 years (±10.71, range 35-98 years. Average American Society Anestesiologists score was 3.02. According to the Orthopedic Trauma Association classification, there were 69 A 1.1 fractures, 177 A 1.2 fractures, 178 A 3.1.1 fractures and 3 A 3.1.3 fractures. Complications were divided into preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative events. There were 4 pre-operative complications: 3 patients experienced persistent pain after the procedure. In one case, the pedicles could not be visualized during the procedure and the surgery was terminated. One hundred and twenty-nine (40.06% of the patients showed intraoperative cement leaking outside the vertebras, one severe hypotension and tachycardia as reaction to the inflation of the balloons, and there was one cardiac arrest during surgery. Postoperative subcutaneous hematomas were observed in 3 cases, 13 patients developed a

  15. An overview of the SCOUT-AMMA stratospheric aircraft, balloons and sondes campaign in West Africa, August 2006: rationale, roadmap and highlights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Cairo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A multi-platform field measurement campaign involving aircraft and balloons took place over West Africa between 26 July and 25 August 2006, in the frame of the concomitant AMMA Special Observing Period and SCOUT-O3 African tropical activities.

    Specifically aiming at sampling the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere, the high-altitude research aircraft M55 Geophysica was deployed in Ouagadougou (12.3° N, 1.7° W, Burkina Faso, in conjunction with the German D-20 Falcon, while a series of stratospheric balloon and sonde flights were conducted from Niamey (13.5° N, 2.0° E, Niger.

    The stratospheric aircraft and balloon flights intended to gather experimental evidence for a better understanding of large scale transport, assessing the effect of lightning on NOx production, and studying the impact of intense mesoscale convective systems on water, aerosol, dust and chemical species in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. The M55 Geophysica carried out five local and four transfer flights between southern Europe and the Sahel and back, while eight stratospheric balloons and twenty-nine sondes were flown from Niamey.

    These experiments allowed a characterization of the tropopause and lower stratosphere of the region. We provide here an overview of the campaign activities together with a description of the general meteorological situation during the flights and a summary of the observations accomplished.

  16. An overview of the SCOUT-AMMA stratospheric aircraft, balloons and sondes campaign in West Africa, August 2006: rationale, roadmap and highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairo, F.; Pommereau, J. P.; Law, K. S.; Schlager, H.; Garnier, A.; Fierli, F.; Ern, M.; Streibel, M.; Arabas, S.; Borrmann, S.; Berthelier, J. J.; Blom, C.; Christensen, T.; D'Amato, F.; di Donfrancesco, G.; Deshler, T.; Diedhiou, A.; Durry, G.; Engelsen, O.; Goutail, F.; Harris, N. R. P.; Kerstel, E. R. T.; Khaykin, S.; Konopka, P.; Kylling, A.; Larsen, N.; Lebel, T.; Liu, X.; MacKenzie, A. R.; Nielsen, J.; Oulanowski, A.; Parker, D. J.; Pelon, J.; Polcher, J.; Pyle, J. A.; Ravegnani, F.; Rivière, E. D.; Robinson, A. D.; Röckmann, T.; Schiller, C.; Simões, F.; Stefanutti, L.; Stroh, F.; Some, L.; Siegmund, P.; Sitnikov, N.; Vernier, J. P.; Volk, C. M.; Voigt, C.; von Hobe, M.; Viciani, S.; Yushkov, V.

    2009-09-01

    A multi-platform field measurement campaign involving aircraft and balloons took place over West Africa between 26 July and 25 August 2006, in the frame of the concomitant AMMA Special Observing Period and SCOUT-O3 African tropical activities. Specifically aiming at sampling the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere, the high-altitude research aircraft M55 Geophysica was deployed in Ouagadougou (12.3° N, 1.7° W), Burkina Faso, in conjunction with the German D-20 Falcon, while a series of stratospheric balloon and sonde flights were conducted from Niamey (13.5° N, 2.0° E), Niger. The stratospheric aircraft and balloon flights intended to gather experimental evidence for a better understanding of large scale transport, assessing the effect of lightning on NOx production, and studying the impact of intense mesoscale convective systems on water, aerosol, dust and chemical species in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. The M55 Geophysica carried out five local and four transfer flights between southern Europe and the Sahel and back, while eight stratospheric balloons and twenty-nine sondes were flown from Niamey. These experiments allowed a characterization of the tropopause and lower stratosphere of the region. We provide here an overview of the campaign activities together with a description of the general meteorological situation during the flights and a summary of the observations accomplished.

  17. Accuracy estimates for some global analytical models of the Earth's main magnetic field on the basis of data on gradient magnetic surveys at stratospheric balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsvetkov, Yu. P.; Brekhov, O. M.; Bondar, T. N.; Filippov, S. V.; Petrov, V. G.; Tsvetkova, N. M.; Frunze, A. Kh.

    2014-03-01

    Two global analytical models of the main magnetic field of the Earth (MFE) have been used to determine their potential in deriving an anomalous MFE from balloon magnetic surveys conducted at altitudes of ˜30 km. The daily mean spherical harmonic model (DMSHM) constructed from satellite data on the day of balloon magnetic surveys was analyzed. This model for the day of magnetic surveys was shown to be almost free of errors associated with secular variations and can be recommended for deriving an anomalous MFE. The error of the enhanced magnetic model (EMM) was estimated depending on the number of harmonics used in the model. The model limited by the first 13 harmonics was shown to be able to lead to errors in the main MFE of around 15 nT. The EMM developed to n = m = 720 and constructed on the basis of satellite and ground-based magnetic data fails to adequately simulate the anomalous MFE at altitudes of 30 km. To construct a representative model developed to m = n = 720, ground-based magnetic data should be replaced by data of balloon magnetic surveys for altitudes of ˜30 km. The results of investigations were confirmed by a balloon experiment conducted by Pushkov Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere, and Radio Wave Propagation of the Russian Academy of Sciences and the Moscow Aviation Institute.

  18. Five-millimeter balloon trocar site herniation: report of two cases and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanis, Margaux J; Momeni, Mazdak; Zakashansky, Konstantin; Chuang, Linus; Hayes, Monica Prasad

    2013-01-01

    Trocar site herniation is a well-known potential complication of minimally invasive surgery. We present the cases of two herniations after use of 5-mm non-bladed balloon trocars. In both patients, surgical management was required, with no subsequent sequelae to date. The hernias were attributed to excessive fascial stretching and compression by the balloon. We recommend full-thickness closure of 5-mm ports if a balloon is used or if there was extensive intraoperative manipulation.

  19. Sinus Balloon Dilation as Treatment for Acute Sphenoid Sinusitis with Impaired Vision for a Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is about sinus balloon dilatation in treatment of acute left sphenoid sinusitis with left impaired vision in a child. Balloon catheter dilatation (BCD of the sinus ostia is a new technique. It has been shown to be a minimally invasive technique to manage chronic sinusitis. However, this method is rarely used in the treatment of acute sinusitis. So far, we know of no reported cases of sinus balloon dilatation in treatment of this case, especially for children.

  20. Planetary Balloon-Based Science Platform Evaluation and Program Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dankanich, John W.; Kremic, Tibor; Hibbitts, Karl; Young, Eliot F.; Landis, Rob

    2016-01-01

    This report describes a study evaluating the potential for a balloon-based optical telescope as a planetary science asset to achieve decadal class science. The study considered potential science achievable and science traceability relative to the most recent planetary science decadal survey, potential platform features, and demonstration flights in the evaluation process. Science Potential and Benefits: This study confirms the cost the-benefit value for planetary science purposes. Forty-four (44) important questions of the decadal survey are at least partially addressable through balloon based capabilities. Planetary science through balloon observations can provide significant science through observations in the 300 nm to 5 m range and at longer wavelengths as well. Additionally, balloon missions have demonstrated the ability to progress from concept to observation to publication much faster than a space mission increasing the speed of science return. Planetary science from a balloon-borne platform is a relatively low-cost approach to new science measurements. This is particularly relevant within a cost-constrained planetary science budget. Repeated flights further reduce the cost of the per unit science data. Such flights offer observing time at a very competitive cost. Another advantage for planetary scientists is that a dedicated asset could provide significant new viewing opportunities not possible from the ground and allow unprecedented access to observations that cannot be realized with the time allocation pressures faced by current observing assets. In addition, flight systems that have a relatively short life cycle and where hardware is generally recovered, are excellent opportunities to train early career scientists, engineers, and project managers. The fact that balloon-borne payloads, unlike space missions, are generally recovered offers an excellent tool to test and mature instruments and other space craft systems. Desired Gondola Features: Potential

  1. Temporary balloon occlusion of internal carotid artery : a simple and reliable clinical test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhakar K

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Balloon test occlusion of internal carotid artery has been frequently used in preoperative evaluation of patients with carotid aneurysms, fistulas and skull based neoplasms in whom arterial sacrifice is planned or considered as a possible part of therapy. We present our experience of the test in 28 patients. The test was positive in four and negative in twenty four patients. The results are compared with cross-compression angiography and the outcome following internal carotid artery sacrifice. There were no complications related to the test and the results accurately predicted the tolerance to occlusion of artery. We found the test safe, simple to perform and reliable to preoperatively detect patients at risk of ischaemic stroke following surgical ligation or endovascular occlusion of internal carotid artery.

  2. Avionics and Power Management for Low-Cost High-Altitude Balloon Science Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Jeffrey; Roberts, Anthony; McNatt, Jeremiah

    2016-01-01

    High-altitude balloons (HABs) have become popular as educational and scientific platforms for planetary research. This document outlines key components for missions where low cost and rapid development are desired. As an alternative to ground-based vacuum and thermal testing, these systems can be flight tested at comparable costs. Communication, solar, space, and atmospheric sensing experiments often require environments where ground level testing can be challenging or impossible in certain cases. When performing HAB research the ability to monitor the status of the platform and gather data is key for both scientific and recoverability aspects of the mission. A few turnkey platform solutions are outlined that leverage rapidly evolving open-source engineering ecosystems. Rather than building custom components from scratch, these recommendations attempt to maximize simplicity and cost of HAB platforms to make launches more accessible to everyone.

  3. Reaching High Altitudes on Mars with an Inflatable Hypersonic Drag Balloon (Ballute)

    CERN Document Server

    Griebel, Hannes

    2010-01-01

    The concept of probing the atmosphere of planet Mars by means of a hypersonic drag balloon, a device known as a “ballute”, is a novel approach to planetary science. In this concept, the probe deploys an inflatable drag body out in space and may then enter the atmosphere either once or several times until it slowly descends towards the ground, taking continuous atmospheric and other readings across a large altitude and ground range. Hannes Griebel discusses the theory behind such a mission along with experience gained during its practical implementation, such as mission design, manufacturing, packing and deployment techniques as well as ground and flight tests. The author also studies other ballute applications, specifically emergency low Earth orbit recovery and delivering payloads to high altitude landing sites on Mars.

  4. Thromboembolic events associated with single balloon-, double balloon-, and stent-assisted coil embolization of asymptomatic unruptured cerebral aneurysms: evaluation with diffusion-weighted MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takigawa, Tomoji; Suzuki, Kensuke; Sugiura, Yoshiki; Suzuki, Ryotaro; Takano, Issei; Shimizu, Nobuyuki; Tanaka, Yoshihiro; Hyodo, Akio [Dokkyo Medical University Koshigaya Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery, Koshigaya, Saitama (Japan)

    2014-12-15

    The introduction of the balloon remodeling and stent-assisted technique has revolutionized the approach to coil embolization for wide-neck aneurysms. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of thromboembolic events associated with single balloon-assisted, double balloon-assisted, and stent-assisted coil embolization for asymptomatic unruptured aneurysms. A retrospective review was undertaken by 119 patients undergoing coiling with an adjunctive technique for unruptured saccular aneurysms (64 single balloon, 12 double balloon, 43 stent assisted). All underwent diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) within 24 h after the procedure. DWI showed hyperintense lesions in 48 (40 %) patients, and ten (21 %) of these patients incurred neurological deterioration (permanent, two; transient, eight). Hyperintense lesions were detected significantly more often in procedures with the double balloon-assisted technique (7/12, 58 %) than with the single balloon-assisted technique (16/64, 25 %, p = 0.05). Occurrence of new lesions was significantly higher with the use of stent-assisted technique (25/43, 58 %) than with the single balloon-assisted technique (p = 0.001). Symptomatic ischemic rates were similar between the three groups. The increased number of microcatheters was significantly related to the DWI abnormalities (two microcatheters, 15/63 (23.8 %); three microcatheters, 20/41 (48.8 %) (p = 0.008); four microcatheters, 12/15 (80 %) (p = 0.001)). Thromboembolic events detected on DWI related to coil embolization for unruptured aneurysms are relatively common, especially in association with the double balloon-assisted and stent-assisted techniques. Furthermore, the number of microcatheters is highly correlated with DWI abnormalities. The high rate of thromboembolic events suggests the need for evaluation of platelet reactivity and the addition or change of antiplatelet agents. (orig.)

  5. High-Altitude Balloon Launches and Hands-On Sensors for Effective Student Learning in Astronomy and STEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, H. D.; Dailey, J.; Snyder, S. J.

    2011-09-01

    Students creating and flying experiments into near-space using a low-cost balloon High-Altitude Research Platform (HARP) greatly advance understanding in introductory astronomy and advanced classes across several disciplines. Remote sensing above 98% of the atmosphere using cameras, image intensifiers, IR, and UV sensors provides access to the heavens and large regions of the earth below. In situ and limb atmospheric gas measurements, near-space stratosphere measurements, and cosmic rays engage students in areas from planetary atmospheres to supernova acceleration. This new capability is possible by exposing students to recent advances in MEMS technology, nanotechnology, wireless telecommunication systems, GPS, DSPs and other microchip miniaturizations to build less than 4 kg payloads. The HARP program provides an engaging laboratory, gives challenging science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) field experiences, reaches students from diverse backgrounds, encourages collaboration among science faculty, and provides quantitative assessment of the learning outcomes. Over a seven-year period, Taylor University, an undergraduate liberal arts school, has successfully launched over 230 HARP systems to altitudes over 30 km (100% retrieval success with rapid recovery) with flight times between two and six hours. The HARP payloads included two GPS tracking systems, cameras and monitors, a 110 kbit down link, an uplink command capability for educational experiments (K-12 and undergraduate). Launches were conducted during the day and night, with multiple balloons, with up to 10 payloads for experiments, and under varying weather and upper atmospheric conditions. The many launches in a short period of time allowed the payload bus design to evolve toward increased performance, reliability, standardization, simplicity, and modularity for low-cost launch services. Through NSF and NASA grants, the program has expanded, leading to representatives from more than 52

  6. Observations of cosmic ray positrons during the 1993 flight of the NMSU/WiZard-TS93 balloon borne apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basini, G. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Rome (Italy); Bellotti, R.; Cafagna, F.; Circella, M.; De Cataldo, G.; De Marzo, C.N. [Bari Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Bari (Italy); Brunetti, M.T.; Codini, A. [Perugia Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Perugia (Italy); De Pascale, M.P. [Rome Univ. `Tor Vergata` (Italy)]|[INFN, Rome (Italy); Aversa, F. [Trieste Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Trieste (Italy)

    1995-09-01

    As a part of a series of experiments to search for antimatter in the primary cosmic ray, the NMSU balloon borne apparatus was configured for a flight dedicated to the search of positrons. Two completely new instruments were added to the magnetic spectrometer: a transition radiation detector (TRD) and a silicon-tungsten tracking calorimeter. The function of these two instruments complemented one another and the combined action provided a proton rejection factor better than 5x10{sup 5}. The paper shows the results from the analysis on the complete set of data. All the presented spectra are at the level of the spectrometer.

  7. Performance of the transition radiation detector flown on the NMSU/WIZARD TS93 balloon-borne instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aversa, F.; Barbiellini, G.; Boezio, M. [Trieste Univ. (Italy). Dip. di Fisica]|[INFN, Trieste (Italy); Basini, G.; Brancaccio, F.M. [INFN, Laboratori nazionali di Frascati, Frascati, Rome (Italy); Bellotti, R. [Bari Univ. (Italy). Dip. di Fisica]|[INFN, Bari (Italy); Bidoli, V. [Rome Univ. `Tor Vergata` (Italy). Dip. di Fisica]|[INFN, Sezione Univ. `Tor Vergata` Rome (Italy); Bocciolini, M. [Florence Univ. (Italy). Dip. di Fisica]|[INFN, Florence (Italy); Bronzini, F. [Rome Univ. `La Sapienza` (Italy). Dip. di Fisica]|[INFN, Sezione Univ. `La Sapienza` Rome (Italy)

    1995-09-01

    It is built and tested a transition radiation detector (TRD) to discriminate positrons from protons in the balloon flight TS 93 experiment. It is presented the TRD performance using flight data obtaining a proton-positron rejection factor of the order of 10{sup -3}. During the 24 hour flight, the data in the momentum range 4-50 GeV/c are collected. Using the TRD together with the Silicon calorimeter, it is achieved an overall rejection factor of about 10{sup -5} of positron against the proton background over the entire momentum range.

  8. Influence of inflation pressure and balloon size on the development of intimal hyperplasia after balloon angioplasty. A study in the atherosclerotic rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarembock, I J; LaVeau, P J; Sigal, S L; Timms, I; Sussman, J; Haudenschild, C; Ezekowitz, M D

    1989-10-01

    To evaluate the effect of balloon size and inflation pressure on acute and subsequent outcome following balloon angioplasty (BA), 70 New Zealand White rabbits with bilateral femoral atherosclerosis were assigned to four groups: group 1, oversized balloon, low inflation pressure (n = 35 vessels; balloon size, 3.0 mm/inflation pressure, 5 atm); group 2, oversized balloon, high inflation pressure (n = 36; 3.0 mm/10 atm); group 3, appropriate size, low inflation pressure (n = 17; 2.5 mm/5 atm); and group 4, appropriate size balloon, high inflation pressure (n = 19; 2.5 mm/10 atm). Angiograms were obtained before, 10 minutes after, and 28 days after BA and read by two blinded observers using electronic calipers. The in vivo balloon-to-vessel ratio was measured for each group. There were eight non-BA controls. Rabbits were sacrificed either immediately (n = 34) or at 28 days after BA (n = 36), with the femoral vessels pressure perfused for histologic and morphometric analysis. The latter was performed at 28 days only. Absolute angiographic diameters increased in all groups immediately after BA (p less than 0.01). Acute angiographic success, defined as greater than 20% increase in luminal diameter, was higher using high inflation pressure (group 2, 32/36 [89%] and group 4, 16/19 [84%] vs. group 1, 23/35 [66%] and group 3, 9/17 [53%]; p less than 0.05). A 3.0-mm balloon resulted in significant oversizing irrespective of inflation pressure (balloon-to-vessel ratio, 1.5 +/- 0.1 vs. 1.1 +/- 0.1 to 1, for the 2.5-mm balloon). Vessels exposed to high inflation pressure had a significantly higher incidence of mural thrombus, dissection (p less than 0.01), and medial necrosis versus low pressure (p less than 0.05). At 28 days, the rates of restenosis (defined as greater than 50% loss of initial gain) were 14/20 (70%), 11/16 (69%), 5/10 (50%), and 5/10 (50%) for groups 1 through 4 (p = NS; a trend in favor of the groups using an oversized balloon). There was an increase in the

  9. Modeling plaque fissuring and dissection during balloon angioplasty intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, T Christian; Holzapfel, Gerhard A

    2007-05-01

    Balloon angioplasty intervention is traumatic to arterial tissue. Fracture mechanisms such as plaque fissuring and/or dissection occur and constitute major contributions to the lumen enlargement. However, these types of mechanically-based traumatization of arterial tissue are also contributing factors to both acute procedural complications and chronic restenosis of the treatment site. We propose physical and finite element models, which are generally useable to trace fissuring and/or dissection in atherosclerotic plaques during balloon angioplasty interventions. The arterial wall is described as an anisotropic, heterogeneous, highly deformable, nearly incompressible body, whereas tissue failure is captured by a strong discontinuity kinematics and a novel cohesive zone model. The numerical implementation is based on the partition of unity finite element method and the interface element method. The later is used to link together meshes of the different tissue components. The balloon angioplasty-based failure mechanisms are numerically studied in 3D by means of an atherosclerotic-prone human external iliac artery, with a type V lesion. Image-based 3D geometry is generated and tissue-specific material properties are considered. Numerical results show that in a primary phase the plaque fissures at both shoulders of the fibrous cap and stops at the lamina elastica interna. In a secondary phase, local dissections between the intima and the media develop at the fibrous cap location with the smallest thickness. The predicted results indicate that plaque fissuring and dissection cause localized mechanical trauma, but prevent the main portion of the stenosis from high stress, and hence from continuous tissue damage.

  10. BLAST: A balloon-borne, large-aperture, submillimetre telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebe, Donald Victor

    BLAST is a balloon-borne large-aperture, submillimetre telescope, which makes large area (1--200 square degree) surveys of Galactic and extragalactic targets. Since BLAST observes in the stratosphere, it is able to make broad-band observations between 200 mum and 550 mum which are difficult or impossible to perform from the ground. BLAST has been designed to probe star formation both in the local Galaxy and in the high redshift (z = 1--4) universe. Because BLAST is flown on an unmanned stratospheric balloon platform, it has been designed to be able to operate autonomously, without needing operator intervention to perform its scientific goals. This thesis includes an overview of the design of the BLAST platform, with emphasis on the command and control systems used to operate the telescope. BLAST has been flown on two long-duration balloon flights. The first of these, from Esrange, Sweden in June of 2005, acquired ˜70 hours of primarily Galactic data. During the second flight, from Willy Field, Antarctica in December of 2006, BLAST acquired ˜225 hours of both Galactic and extragalactic data. Operational performance of the platform during these two flights is reviewed, with the goal of providing insight on how future flights can be improved. Reduction of the data acquired by these large-format bolometer arrays is a challenging procedure, and techniques developed for BLAST data reduction are reviewed. The ultimate goal of this reduction is the generation of high quality astronomical maps which can be used for subsequent portions of data analysis. This thesis treats, in detail, the iterative, maximum likelihood map maker developed for BLAST. Results of simulations performed on the map maker to characterise its ability to reconstruct astronomical signals are presented. Finally, astronomical maps produced by this map maker using real data acquired by BLAST are presented, with a discussion on non-physical map pathologies resulting from the data reduction pipeline and

  11. Cineangiographic findings and balloon catheter angioplasty of pulmonic valvular stenosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeon, Kyung Mo; Yoon, Yong Soo; Kim, In One; Han, Man Chung [College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1987-08-15

    Transluminal balloon valvuloplasty was performed in the treatment of congenital pulmonic valvular stenosis in 55 children, aged 4 months to 15 years. The right ventricular outflow tract pressure gradient decreased significantly immediately after the procedure from 87.18 {+-} 56mmHg to 29.62 {+-} 26.48mmHg ({rho} < 0.001). Technical success rate was 98% (54/55 patients) and failed case (1 patient) was due to severe fibrous thickening of valve. Complication occurred in one case, that is tricuspid regurgitation (Grade II) due to suspected rupture of chordae tendinae. The degree of pulmonary conus dilatation was closely related with age than the pressure gradient.

  12. Pointing System for the Balloon-Borne Astronomical Payloads

    CERN Document Server

    Nirmal, K; Mathew, Joice; Sarpotdar, Mayuresh; Suresh, Ambily; Prakash, Ajin; Safonova, Margarita; Murthy, Jayant

    2016-01-01

    We describe the development and implementation of a light-weight, fully autonomous 2-axis pointing and stabilization system designed for balloon-borne astronomical payloads. The system is developed using off-the-shelf components such as Arduino Uno controller, HMC 5883L magnetometer, MPU-9150 Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) and iWave GPS receiver unit. It is a compact and rugged system which can also be used to take images/video in a moving vehicle, or in areal photography. The system performance is evaluated from the ground, as well as in conditions simulated to imitate the actual flight by using a tethered launch.

  13. Pointing system for the balloon-borne astronomical payloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirmal, Kaipacheri; Sreejith, Aickara Gopinathan; Mathew, Joice; Sarpotdar, Mayuresh; Ambily, Suresh; Prakash, Ajin; Safonova, Margarita; Murthy, Jayant

    2016-10-01

    We describe the development and implementation of a light-weight, fully autonomous 2-axis pointing and stabilization system designed for balloon-borne astronomical payloads. The system is developed using off-the-shelf components such as Arduino Uno controller, HMC 5883L magnetometer, MPU-9150 inertial measurement unit, and iWave GPS receiver unit. It is a compact and rugged system which can also be used to take images/video in a moving vehicle or in real photography. The system performance is evaluated from the ground, as well as in conditions simulated to imitate the actual flight by using a tethered launch.

  14. Computing Optimum Heights for Balloon-Borne Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-11-01

    ducting, a " radar hole" against other raytrace niodels (IREPS, could develop. Although the radar beam. EREPS) that are considered accurate. The may be...TD-1369, Naval Ocean Systems Center, San Diego, CA, October 1985. ,quires, M.F., Caribbean Basin Radar Network Raytrace Study, USAPETAC/PR-91/005...IlI-AFETAC/PR-93IoO5 * AD-A286 832 COMPUTING OPTIMUM HEIGHTS for BALLOON-BORNE RADAR by Michael F. Squires IjxEA NOVEMBER 1993 DTIC QUAI’ii E’T" 2T

  15. Balloon-borne observations of mid-latitude hydrofluoric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, B.; Toon, G. C.; Blavier, J.-F.; Szeto, J. T.; Fleming, E. L.; Jackman, C. H.

    1995-01-01

    Measurements of stratospheric hydrofluoric acid (HF) have been made by the JPL MkIV interferometer during high-altitude balloon flights. Infrared solar absorption spectra were acquired near 35 deg N at altitudes between local tropopause and 38 km. Volume mixing ratio profiles of HF derived from 4 flights (1990-93), in conjunction with simultaneously observed N2O profiles, indicate an average rate of HF increase of (5.5 +/- 0.3)% per year, in agreement with time-dependent, two-dimensional model simulations (6% per year) and ATMOS measurements.

  16. Background Measurements from Balloon-Borne CZT Detectors

    OpenAIRE

    Jenkins, Johnathan A; Narita, Tomohiko; Grindlay, Jonathan E.; Bloser, Peter F.; Stahle, Carl; Parker, Brad; Barthelmy, Scott

    2002-01-01

    We report detector characteristics and background measurements from two prototype imaging CZT detectors flown on a scientific balloon payload in May 2001. The detectors are both platinum-contact 10mm x 10mm x 5mm CZT crystals, each with a 4 $\\times$ 4 array of pixels tiling the anode. One is made from IMARAD horizontal Bridgman CZT, the other from eV Products high-pressure Bridgman material. Both detectors were mounted side-by-side in a flip-chip configuration and read out by a 32-channel IDE...

  17. Simulation of peeling-ballooning modes with pellet injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, S. Y. [College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, 610064 Chengdu (China); Key Laboratory of High Energy Density Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 610041 (China); Huang, J.; Sun, T. T.; Tang, C. J. [College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, 610064 Chengdu (China); Key Laboratory of High Energy Density Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Wang, Z. H. [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 610041 (China)

    2014-11-15

    The influence of pellet ablation on the evolution of peeling-ballooning (P-B) modes is studied with BOUT++ code. The atoms coming from pellet ablation can significantly reshape the plasma pressure profile, so the behaviors of P-B modes and edge localized mode (ELM) are modified dramatically. This paper shows that the energy loss associated with an ELM increases substantially over that without the pellet, if the pellet is deposited at the top of the pedestal. On the contrary, for pellet deposition in the middle of the pedestal region the ELM energy loss can be less.

  18. Bakri balloon placement in the successful management of postpartum hemorrhage in a bicornuate uterus: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Abraham

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: In the management of postpartum hemorrhage, Bakri balloon placement is associated with success in the presence of a bicornuate uterus. Care should be taken to direct insertion of the balloon in the appropriate location.

  19. Gamma Ray and Very Low Frequency Radio Observations from a Balloon-Borne Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, C.; Sheldon, A.; Cully, C. M.; Davalos, A.; Osakwe, C.; Galts, D.; Delfin, J.; Duffin, C.; Mansell, J.; Russel, M.; Bootsma, M.; Williams, R.; Patrick, M.; Mazzino, M. L.; Knudsen, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    The University of Calgary's Student Organization for Aerospace Research (SOAR) built an instrument to participate in the High Altitude Student Platform (HASP) initiative organized by Louisiana State University and supported by the NASA Balloon Program Office (BPO) and the Louisiana Space Consortium (LaSPACE). The HASP platform will be launched in early September 2015 from Fort Sumner, New Mexico and will reach heights of 36 kilometers with a flight duration of 15 to 20 hours. The instrument, Atmospheric Phenomenon Observer Gamma/VLF Emissions Experiment (APOGEE), measures Terrestrial Gamma-Ray Flashes (TGF) and sferics from lightning strikes with the use of Geiger tubes and a VLF detector. TGFs, which are quick bursts of high energy radiation that can occur alongside lightning, are believed to be the result of Relativistic Runaway Electron Avalanche (RREA). RREA occurs when a large number of relativistic electrons overcome atmospheric frictional forces and accelerate to relativistic velocities which excite secondary electrons that collide with the atmosphere causing bremsstrahlung radiation. Lightning strikes also produce sferics within the Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) and Very Low Frequency (VLF) bands which can be detected and used to locate the strikes. The goal of APOGEE is to further investigate the link between TGFs and RREA. These phenomena are very difficult to measure together as Bremsstrahlung radiation is easily detected from space but ionospheric reflection facilitates surface detection of sferics. A high altitude balloon provides a unique opportunity to study both phenomena using one instrument because both phenomena can easily be detected from its altitude. APOGEE has been designed and built by undergraduate students at the University of Calgary with faculty assistance and funding, and is equipped with three devices for data collection: a camera to have visual conformation of events, a series of Geiger Tubes to obtain directional gamma readings, and

  20. Measurements of atmospheric electrical parameters and ELF electromagnetic emissions during a meteorological balloon flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benda, Robert; Dujany, Matthieu; Berthomieu, Roland; Boissier, Mathilde; Bruneel, Pierre; Fischer, Lucie; Focillon, William; Gullo, Robin; Hubert, Valentin; Lafforgue, Gaétan; Loe-Mie, Marichka; Messager, Adrien; Roy, Felix; Auvray, Gérard; Bertrand, Fabrice; Coulomb, Romain; Deprez, Gregoire; Berthelier, Jean-Jacques

    2016-04-01

    Measurements of electric field and atmospheric conductivity were performed onboard a small payload flown under a meteorological balloon during a fair weather period. This experiment is part of a project to study thunderstorms and TLE organized in the frame of the engineering cursus at Ecole Polytechnique. The payload is equipped with 4 electrodes to measure the 3 components of the DC and AC electric fields up to 3.2 kHz. Dedicated sequences of operation, when one electrode is operated in the relaxation mode, have been used to determine the positive and negative electrical conductivities. Altitude profiles of the DC vertical electric field and conductivities in agreement with expected fair weather parameters were obtained from ~ 3.5 to ~ 13 km before the failure of a battery. At an altitude of ~ 9 km slight disturbances in the electric field suggest the traversal of thin clouds with disturbed electrical characteristics. Schumann resonances were observed up to the fifth harmonics at levels that are typical of a quiet period over Europe with most thunderstorms located over remote longitudinal sectors. EM waves due the power lines at 50Hz are detected during the whole measuring period and their altitude and horizontal variations will be presented as a function of the position of the balloon over the ground power network. A surprising and interesting observation was made of a Russian transmitter at 82 Hz located in Murmansk region and used for sub-marine communications. We shall present an initial analysis of the amplitude and polarization of the corresponding signal.

  1. Angiographic risk factors of luminal narrowing after coronary balloon angioplasty using balloon measurements to reflect stretch and elastic recoil at the dilation site. The CARPORT Study Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.J.W.M. Rensing (Benno); W.R.M. Hermans (Walter); J. Vos (Jeroen); K.J. Beatt (Kevin); P.M.M. Bossuyt (Patrick); W.R. Rutsch (Wolfgang); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractBecause many ongoing clinical restenosis prevention trials are using quantitative angiography to assess whether a drug is capable of reducing the amount of intimal hyperplasia, quantitative angiographic risk factors for angiographic luminal narrowing after balloon angioplasty were determ

  2. Angiographic risk factors of luminal narrowing after coronary balloon angioplasty using balloon measurements to reflect stretch and elastic recoil at the dilatation site

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.J.W.M. Rensing (Benno); W.R.M. Hermans (Walter); J. Vos (Jeroen); K.J. Beatt (Kevin); P.M.M. Bossuyt (Patrick); W.R. Rutsch (Wolfgang); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractAbstract Because many ongoing clinical restenosis prevention trials are using quantitative angiography to assess whether a drug is capable of reducing the amount of intimal hyperplasia, quantitative angiographic risk factors for angiographic luminal narrowing after balloon angioplasty

  3. The design and use of plastic balloons for stratospheric research in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. Balasubramanian

    1958-04-01

    Full Text Available "Plastic balloon flying has been developed at the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research as a research technique which has a number of important applications in India: (a cosmic ray studies; (b air sampling in the stratosphere for fall-out measurements; (c meteorological investigations; (d astronomical observations; (e defence research. Comparatively little work has been done till now in these fields at equatorial latitudes, particularly at stratospheric altitudes. Large plastic balloons with volumes of the order of half a million cubic feet, and more, have been constructed by heat welding polyethylene sheeting 0.0015"" thick. With these balloons, successful level flights at altitudes of 110,000 ft. have been achieved; in some cases, individual loads weighing a hundred pounds have been carried up. The most serious problem encountered is the extremely low temperature(about-85DegreeC, of the tropopause at the equatorial latitudes; all known plastics for balloon manufacture become brittle at these low temperatures. To overcome this, dark fabrics have been employed so that the material is heated by solar radiation. The plastic sheeting employed is extruded in India to balloon specifications from chosen polymers. The low temperatures and the turbulent conditions that prevail in the atmosphere at low latitudes present problems in balloon flying which are different from those encountered at high latitudes present in balloon flying which are different from those encountered at high latitudes. The techniques employed, the design of the balloons, and their performance under these conditions are discussed."

  4. Clinical study of percutaneous transhepatic balloon dilation: a novel procedure for common bileduct stone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉亮

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the safety and efficacy of percutaneous transhepatic balloon dilation for the removal of common bile duct stone.Methods Sixty-eight cases with common bile duct stone treated with percutaneous transhepatic balloon dilation in our department from July2008 to April 20l1 were analyzed retrospectively.Record CA19-9,total bilirubin,

  5. Malignant lymphoma in the ileum diagnosed by double-balloon enteroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kazuko Beppu; Nobuhiro Sato; Toshiki Kamano; Yasuo Hayashida; Sumio Watanabe; Taro Osada; Akihito Nagahara; Naoto Sakamoto; Tomoyoshi Shibuya; Masato Kawabe; Takeshi Terai; Toshifumi Ohkusa; Tatsuo Ogihara

    2007-01-01

    A 73-year old man presented with abdominal pain. A tumor with central ulceration was observed in the ileum using double-balloon enteroscopy. Histological findings of the biopsy specimens were consistent with malignant lymphoma. Double-balloon enteroscopy confirmed the diagnosis of a malignant lymphoma tumor which was surgically resected. The patient is still in complete remission now.

  6. Cephalic arch stenosis in autogenous brachiocephalic hemodialysis fistulas: results of cutting balloon angioplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heerwagen, Søren Thorup; Lönn, Lars; Schroeder, Torben V;

    2010-01-01

    Cephalic arch stenosis is a known cause of hemodialysis access failure in patients with brachiocephalic fistulas (BCFs). Outcomes of endovascular treatment are affected by resistance of the stenosis to balloon dilation, a high vein rupture rate and the development of early restenosis. The purpose...... of this retrospective study was to report outcomes after cutting balloon angioplasty (CBA) of cephalic arch stenosis....

  7. Ureteropelvic junction obstruction and ureteral strictures treated by simple high-pressure balloon dilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Geertsen, U; Nielsen, H V

    1998-01-01

    years, success was achieved in only 25% of cases. There were no major complications. It was concluded that simple high-pressure balloon dilation is a safe and reasonably effective technique for the management of most ureteral strictures and congenital UPJO with symptom debut in adult life. Balloon...... dilation seems to have no place in the treatment of primary congenital UPJO in children....

  8. National Report Switzerland: Sounding Rocket and Balloon Activities and Related Research in Switzerland 2013-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egli, M.

    2015-09-01

    During the period from 2013 to 2015, many Swiss researchers conducted studies on research platforms such as balloons or sounding rockets, or at the high altitude research stations of Jungfraujoch and Gornergrat. Researchers ‘ increased interest in sounding rockets during the two-year period is especially noteworthy. The use of the high altitude research stations, in contrast, has a long tradition in Switzerland and is, thus, frequently occupied by scientists. An advantage of these stations is the ideal set-up for researchers interested in the long-term measurement of the upper atmosphere, for example. Therefore, numcrous experiments in this particular research field were conducted and published in scientific journals. After a pause, several Swiss scientists became engaged in sounding rocket experiments. RUAG Space in Nyon, for instance, in collaboration with the Swedish Space Corporation (SSC) and University of Freiburg, is focusing on the effect of gravity on plant roots. In order to investigate a gravity-dependent influence, two experiments on Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings are being planned for execution during the upcoming MASTER 1 3 campaign. A team of students from HES-SO Geneva were chosen to participate in the REXUS program with their experiment called CAESAR. A new concept of a propellant management device for space vehicles was introduced and tested on the REXUS 14 rocket by the team from Geneva in the spring of 20 1 3 . Last year, another student team, now from the Lucerne University of Applied Sciences and Arts, was selected to fly their experiment on another REXUS rocket. Their proposed biological study is called CEMIOS and pertains to biochemical properties of the cell membrane. Once more the high altitude research stations of Jungfraujoch and Gornergrat welcomed many national—as well as international—scientists in the past two years. The hours that the researchers spent in either station reached a record high despite the poor weather conditions

  9. Local drug-delivery balloon for proliferative occlusive in-stent restenosis after drug-eluting stent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gianluca Rigatelli; Paolo Cardaioli; Fabio Dell'Avvocata; Massimo Giordan

    2011-01-01

    Drug-coated balloon has been developed as an alternative to drug-eluting stents for in-stent restenosis but the performance of drug infusion balloon in such setting has not been previously described. We present a case of particularly aggressive in-stent restenosis after drug eluting stent implantation treated with a new kind of drug infusion balloon developed in order to overcome the impossibility to inflate regular drug-coated balloon for several dilatation.

  10. An analysis of the deployment of a pumpkin balloon on mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, J.; Phillips, M.

    The design of large superpressure balloons has received significant attention in recent years due to the successful demonstration of various enabling technologies and materials. Of particular note is the "pumpkin" shaped balloon concept, which allows the stress in the envelope to be limited by the surface geometry. Unlike a sphere, which produces stress resultants determined by the volume of the system, the pumpkin utilizes a system of meridional tendons to react the loading in one direction, and form a number of lobes, which limit the stress in the circumferential direction. The application of this technology to very large systems is currently being demonstrated by NASA's Ultra Long Duration Balloon (ULDB) Program. However, this type of balloon has certain features that may be exploited to produce a system far more robust than a comparable sphere during deployment, inflation, and operation for long periods of time. When this concept is applied to a system designed to carry two kilograms in the atmosphere of Mars, the resulting balloon is small enough to alter the construction techniques and produce an envelope which is free of tucks and folds which may cause uncontrolled stress concentrations. A technique has been demonstrated where high strength tendons may be pretensioned prior to installation along the centerline of each gore. Since this position is the shortest distance between the apex and nadir of the balloon, the tendons will automatically resist the forces caused by deployment and inflation and thereby protect the thin film gas barrier from damage. A suitable balloon has been designed for this type of mission using five-micron Mylar Type C film for the gas barrier and P O braided cables for the meridionalB load carrying members. The deployment of this balloon is assumed to occur while falling on a decelerator suitably designed for the Mars atmosphere. The inflation is accomplished by a ten-kilogram system suspended at the nadir of the balloon. As the

  11. A case of asymptomatic fungal and bacterial colonization of an intragastric balloon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Halil Coskun; Suleyman Bozkurt

    2009-01-01

    Intragastric balloon therapy, as a part of a multidisciplinary weight management program, is an effective short-term intervention for weight loss. Although the insertion procedure is easy and generally well tolerated by patients, a few complications can occur. We report here a heavy smoker with intragastric balloon insertion complicated by colonization with opportunistic organisms. The 27-year-old female, body mass index 35.5 kg/m2, had a BioEnterics. Intragastric Balloon inserted under conscious sedation without any perioperative complications. Six months later, when the standard removal time arrived, the balloon was seen to be covered with a necrotic white-gray material. Microbiological examination revealed Enterobacter cloacae and Candida species yeast colonies. We recommend that asymptomatic fungal and/or bacterial colonization should be considered among the complications of the intragastric balloon procedure, despite its rarity.

  12. Astrobiology Exploration Strategies for the Mars Polar Regions Using Balloon Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaffy, P. R.; Atreya, S. A.; Fairbrother, D. A.; Farrell, W. M.; Gorevan, S.; Jones, J.; Mitrofanov, I.; Scott, J.

    2003-01-01

    Montgolfiere balloons can provide a unique near-surface platform for an extended traverse over the polar regions of Mars. During the polar summer, such solar powered balloons would remain in the constant sun of the polar summer and could remain airborne for many weeks or even months as the atmospheric circulation would drive the balloons around the polar region many times before the balloon would cross the terminator. Such a platform for scientific measurements could provide in situ sampling of the atmosphere for trace disequilibrium species that might be indicators of present geological or biological activity in this regon. It could furthermore provide high resolution imaging, deep electromagnetic (EM) sounding for subsurface stratigraphy and liquid water, and high spatial resolution neutron measurements of subsurface ice. Technologies for robust balloon deployment on entry and controlled encounters with the surface and near subsurface for sample acquisition in otherwise inaccessible regions are presently being studied and developed with support from NASA.

  13. Treatment of benign ureteral stricture by double J stents using high-pressure balloon angioplasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Hua-liang; YE Lin-yang; LIN Mao-hu; YANG Yu; MIAO Rui; HU Xiao-juan

    2011-01-01

    Background Balloon dilatation angioplasty is a minimally invasive surgery for treating benign ureteral stricture. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of placing double J (D-J) stents using high-pressure balloon angioplasty in treating benign ureteral stricture.Methods A total of 42 patients (48 cases) with benign ureteral stricture (42 had benign ureteral stricture) were investigated by inserting dual D-J stents using high-pressure balloon angioplasty. The control group contained 50 patients (57 cases) employing the conventional balloon angioplasty with a single D-J stent inserted for comparison.Results The overall effective rate of the treated and control groups was 87.8% (36/41) and 62.7% (32/51), respectively (P <0.05).Conclusion This new approach produces a better curative effect than the conventional balloon angioplasty with a single D-J stent insertion in treating benign ureteral stricture.

  14. Vascular Rupture Caused by a Molding Balloon during Endovascular Aneurysm Repair: Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hee Young; Do, Young Soo; Park, Hong Suk; Park, Kwang Bo [Dept. of Radiology, Samsugn Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Wook; Kim, Dong Ik [Dept. of Surgery, Samsugn Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-15

    Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) has been accepted as an alternative to traditional open surgery in selected patients. Despite the minimally invasiveness of this treatment, several complications may occur during or after EVAR. Complications include endoleak, aortic dissection, distal embolism, or iatrogenic injury to the access artery. However, there are few reports on the vascular rupture caused by a molding balloon during EVAR. We report two cases of infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysms complicated by procedure-related aortic or iliac artery rupture by the molding balloon during EVAR. In our cases, we observed suddenly abrupt increase of the diameter of the endograft during balloon inflation, because we inflated the balloon rapidly. In conclusion, careful attention must be paid during inflation of the molding balloon to prevent vascular rupture.

  15. Exhaled nitric oxide in mylar balloons: influence of storage time, humidity and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodini, Alessandro; Pijnenburg, Mariëlle W H; Boner, Atillio L; de Jongste, Johan C

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mylar balloons are used to collect exhaled air for analysis of fractional nitric oxide concentration (FENO). AIM: We studied the effect of storage conditions on the stability of nitric oxide (NO) in mylar balloons. METHODS: Exhaled air samples and calibration gases were stored in mylar balloons at 4, 21 and 37 degrees C, with or without silica gel. NO was measured after 0, 6, 9, 24 and 48 h. Scheffe F-tests were used to compare NO values. RESULTS: NO remained stable in balloons for 9 h at all temperatures, without silica gel. NO increased between 9 and 48 h, but only with low initial FENO. Silica gel increased variability. CONCLUSIONS: FENO in mylar balloons is stable for at least 9 h. The storage temperature is not critical, but silica gel increases variability. PMID:12745548

  16. Treatment of urethral strictures with balloon dilation: A forgotten tale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Stamatiou

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Urethral stricture is a common condition that can lead to serious complications such as urinary infections and renal insufficiency secondary to urinary retention. Treatment options include catheterization and dilation, urethroplasty and endoscopic internal urethrotomy as well. Although treatment option depends on the type, length and aetiology of stricture, the choice can be influenced to varying degrees by the simplicity of the method, the preferences of the patient the available accoutrements and the patient health condition. Both urethroplasty and endoscopic internal urethrotomy require anaesthesia and thus are not suitable for many elder and unfit for surgical treatment patients. On the other hand, dilations are easy to perform in every day clinical practice however they have been associated with iatrogenic urethral trauma. In contrast, balloon dilation under vision dilates by radial application of forces against the stricture, avoiding the potentially shearing forces associated with sequential rigid dilation. Since it reduces the possibility of an iatrogenic urethral trauma and the subsequent spongiofibrosis may lead into improved therapeutic outcomes. In this report we describe a technique for the treatment of urethral strictures with balloon dilation in elder and unfit for surgical treatment patients.

  17. Background Measurements from Balloon-Borne CZT Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Jenkins, J A; Grindlay, J E; Bloser, P F; Stahle, C K; Parker, B; Barthelmy, S D; Jenkins, Johnathan A; Narita, Tomohiko; Grindlay, Jonathan E.; Bloser, Peter F.; Stahle, Carl; Parker, Brad; Barthelmy, Scott

    2002-01-01

    We report detector characteristics and background measurements from two prototype imaging CZT detectors flown on a scientific balloon payload in May 2001. The detectors are both platinum-contact 10mm x 10mm x 5mm CZT crystals, each with a 4 $\\times$ 4 array of pixels tiling the anode. One is made from IMARAD horizontal Bridgman CZT, the other from eV Products high-pressure Bridgman material. Both detectors were mounted side-by-side in a flip-chip configuration and read out by a 32-channel IDE VA/TA ASIC preamp/shaper. We enclosed the detectors in the same 40deg field-of-view collimator (comprisinga graded passive shield and plastic scintillator) used in our previously-reported September 2000 flight. I-V curves for the detectors are diode-like, and we find that the platinum contacts adhere significantly better to the CZT surfaces than gold to previous detectors. The detectors and instrumentation performed well in a 20-hour balloon flight on 23/24 May 2001. Although we discovered a significant instrumental back...

  18. Global stability of the ballooning mode in a cylindrical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, N. G.; Fedorov, E. N.; Pilipenko, V. A.

    2013-07-01

    Ballooning disturbances in a finite-pressure plasma in a curvilinear magnetic field are described by the system of coupled equations for the Alfvén and slow magnetosonic modes. In contrast to most previous works that locally analyzed the stability of small-scale disturbances using the dispersion relationship, a global analysis outside a WKB approximation but within a simple cylindrical geometry, when magnetic field lines are circles with constant curvature, is performed in the present work. This model is relatively simple; nevertheless, it has the singularities necessary for the formation of the ballooning mode: field curvature and non-uniform thermal plasma pressure. If the disturbance finite radial extent is taken into account, the instability threshold increases as compared to a WKB approximation. The simplified model used in this work made it possible to consider the pattern of unstable disturbances at arbitrary values of the azimuthal wavenumber ( k y ). Azimuthally large-scale disturbances can also be unstable, although the increment increases with decreasing azimuthal scale and reaches saturation when the scales are of the order of the pressure nonuniformity dimension.

  19. Balloon sinuplasty: a new concept in the endoscopic nasal surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nogueira Júnior, João Flávio

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sinus diseases affect millions of people annually. Clinical treatment is effective in most patients, but in case of failure of this therapy the functional endoscopic surgery is currently the treatment choice for surgical treatment. The objective of the functional endoscopic surgery is to increase the aeration and drainage of the involved paranasal sinuses, which allows for the adequate functioning of the nasal mucosa mucociliary clearance. However, this method still has some limitations, mainly because it removes the nasal mucosa and bone tissue, and it may lead to physiologic alterations of the nasosinusal mucosa and cicatricial fibrosis. Many of these patients could be benefited from less invasive methods, with larger nasal mucosa preservation. Since 2006, an even less invasive procedure was remarked in our specialty: the balloon dilatation of the paranasal sinus ostia. Objective: The objective of this article is to define the concept of sinuplasty, its action mechanism, and present the necessary material for the procedures performance; to describe the techniques with the equipment in a nasosinusal endoscopic surgery simulator model and review the current literature about the indications, complications, results, and follow-up of patients submitted to this procedure. Balloon sinuplasty is safe and appears to be effective in the improvement of the quality of life of patients not responsive to conventional clinical therapy. New applications and indications for this equipment should be described and researched.

  20. The response of superpressure balloons to gravity wave motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, R. A.; Hertzog, A.

    2014-04-01

    Superpressure balloons (SPB), which float on constant density (isopycnic) surfaces, provide a unique way of measuring the properties of atmospheric gravity waves (GW) as a function of wave intrinsic frequency. Here we devise a quasi-analytic method of investigating the SPB response to GW motions. It is shown that the results agree well with more rigorous numerical simulations of balloon motions and provide a better understanding of the response of SPB to GW, especially at high frequencies. The methodology is applied to ascertain the accuracy of GW studies using 12 m diameter SPB deployed in the 2010 Concordiasi campaign in the Antarctic. In comparison with the situation in earlier campaigns, the vertical displacements of the SPB were measured directly using GPS. It is shown using a large number of Monte Carlo-type simulations with realistic instrumental noise that important wave parameters, such as momentum flux, phase speed and wavelengths, can be retrieved with good accuracy from SPB observations for intrinsic wave periods greater than ca. 10 min. The noise floor for momentum flux is estimated to be ca. 10-4 mPa.

  1. Linear Analysis of Drift Ballooning Modes in Tokamak Edge Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangri, Varun; Kritz, Arnold; Rafiq, Tariq; Pankin, Alexei

    2012-10-01

    The H-mode pedestal structure depends on the linear stability of drift ballooning modes (DBMs) in many H-mode pedestal models. Integrated modeling that uses these pedestal models requires fast evaluation of linear stability of DBMs. Linear analysis of DBMs is also needed in the computations of effective diffusivities associated with anomalous transport that is driven by the DBMs in tokamak edge plasmas. In this study several numerical techniques of linear analysis of the DBMs are investigated. Differentiation matrix based spectral methods are used to compute the physical eigenvalues of the DBMs. The model for DBMs used here consists of six differential equations [T. Rafiq et al. Phys. Plasmas, 17, 082511, (2010)]. It is important to differentiate among non-physical (numerical) modes and physical modes. The determination of the number of eigenvalues is solved by a computation of the `nearest' and `ordinal' distances. The Finite Difference, Hermite and Sinc based differentiation matrices are used. It is shown that spectral collocation methods are more accurate than finite difference methods. The technique that has been developed for calculating eigenvalues is quite general and is relevant in the computation of other modes that utilize the ballooning mode formalism.

  2. Two cases of apical ballooning syndrome masking apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Ranjini Raina; Hakim, Fayaz A; Hurst, R Todd; Simper, David; Appleton, Christopher P

    2014-04-01

    Apical akinesis and dilation in the absence of obstructive coronary artery disease is a typical feature of stress-induced (takotsubo) cardiomyopathy, whereas apical hypertrophy is seen in apical-variant hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. We report the cases of 2 patients who presented with takotsubo cardiomyopathy and were subsequently found to have apical-variant hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, after the apical ballooning from the takotsubo cardiomyopathy had resolved. The first patient, a 43-year-old woman with a history of alcohol abuse, presented with shortness of breath, electrocardiographic and echocardiographic features consistent with takotsubo cardiomyopathy, and no significant coronary artery disease. An echocardiogram 2 weeks later revealed a normal left ventricular ejection fraction and newly apparent apical hypertrophy. The 2nd patient, a 70-year-old woman with pancreatitis, presented with chest pain, apical akinesis, and a left ventricular ejection fraction of 0.39, consistent with takotsubo cardiomyopathy. One month later, her left ventricular ejection fraction was normal; however, hypertrophy of the left ventricular apex was newly noted. To our knowledge, these are the first reported cases in which apical-variant hypertrophic cardiomyopathy was masked by apical ballooning from stress-induced cardiomyopathy.

  3. The Use of Zylon Fibers in ULDB Balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, M.; Seely, L.; McLaughlin, J.

    Early in the development of the ULDB balloon, Zylon (PBO) was selected as the tendon material due to its favorable stress-strain properties. It is a next generation super fiber whose strength and modulus are almost double those of the p-Aramid fibers. In addition there are two versions of the Zylon, As Spun (AS) and High Modulus (HM). Data will be presented on why the HM was chosen. Early in the development process, it was learned that this material exhibited an unusual sensitivity to degradation by ambient light. This is in addition to the expected sensitivity to UV radiation (Ultraviolet). The fiber manufacturer reported all of these properties in their literature. Due to the operating environment of the ULDB (Ultra Long Duration Balloon) it is necessary to protect the tendons from both visible and UV radiation. Methods to protect the tendons will be discussed. In addition, information on the long term exposure of the braided tendon over a thirty-six month period in a controlled manufacturing plant will be provided.

  4. Balloon pulmonary angioplasty in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Lang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH is thought to result from incomplete resolution of pulmonary thromboemboli that undergo organisation into fibrous tissue within pulmonary arterial branches, filling pulmonary arterial lumina with collagenous obstructions. The treatment of choice is pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA in CTEPH centres, which has low post-operative mortality and good long-term survival. For patients ineligible for PEA or who have recurrent or persistent pulmonary hypertension after surgery, medical treatment with riociguat is beneficial. In addition, percutaneous balloon pulmonary angioplasty (BPA is an emerging option, and promises haemodynamic and functional benefits for inoperable patients. In contrast to conventional angioplasty, BPA with undersized balloons over guide wires exclusively breaks intraluminal webs and bands, without dissecting medial vessel layers, and repeat sessions are generally required. Observational studies report that BPA improves haemodynamics, symptoms and functional capacity in patients with CTEPH, but controlled trials with long-term follow-up are needed. Complications include haemoptysis, wire injury, vessel dissection, vessel rupture, reperfusion pulmonary oedema, pulmonary parenchymal bleeding and haemorrhagic pleural effusions. This review summarises the available evidence for BPA, patient selection, recent technical refinements and periprocedural imaging, and discusses the potential future role of BPA in the management of CTEPH.

  5. Computed Tomography During Experimental Balloon Dilatation For Calcific Aortic Stenosis. A Look into the Mechanism of Valvuloplasty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. di Mario (Carlo); L.C.P. van Veen; DE BAAT, L. (LEEN); C.E. Essed; K.J. Beatt (Kevin); O. Leborgne; SERRUYS, P.W. (PATRICK W.)

    1988-01-01

    textabstractThin‐slice contiguous computed tomographic scanning was performed in four postmortem hearts with calcific aortic valve stenosis (mean weight: 583 ± 78 g; mean age: 65 ± 10 years) before, during, and after balloon valvuloplasty. Balloons of increasing diameter (15–19 mm single balloons, a

  6. First results of the SPHERE experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaulov Sergey

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available First results of the balloon-borne experiment SPHERE are presented. The primary spectrum in the energy range 1016 – 5 · 1017 eV is compared with data of other experiments. The primary energies were reconstructed using characteristics of the Vavilov-Cherenkov radiation from extensive air showers, reflected from a snow surface.

  7. Efficacy of Intrauterine Bakri Balloon Tamponade in Cesarean Section for Placenta Previa Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee Young Cho

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to analyze the predictive factors for the use of intrauterine balloon insertion and to evaluate the efficacy and factors affecting failure of uterine tamponade with a Bakri balloon during cesarean section for abnormal placentation.We reviewed the medical records of 137 patients who underwent elective cesarean section for placenta previa between July 2009 and March 2014. Cesarean section and Bakri balloon insertion were performed by a single qualified surgeon. The Bakri balloon was applied when blood loss during cesarean delivery exceeded 1,000 mL.Sixty-four patients (46.7% required uterine balloon tamponade during cesarean section due to postpartum bleeding from the lower uterine segment, of whom 50 (78.1% had placenta previa totalis. The overall success rate was 75% (48/64 for placenta previa patients. Previous cesarean section history, anterior placenta, peripartum platelet count, and disseminated intravascular coagulopathy all significantly differed according to balloon success or failure (all p<0.05. The drainage amount over 1 hour was 500 mL (20-1200 mL in the balloon failure group and 60 mL (5-500 mL in the balloon success group (p<0.01.Intrauterine tamponade with a Bakri balloon is an adequate adjunct management for postpartum hemorrhage following cesarean section for placenta previa to preserve the uterus. This method is simple to apply, non-invasive, and inexpensive. However, possible factors related to failure of Bakri balloon tamponade for placenta previa patients such as prior cesarean section history, anterior placentation, thrombocytopenia, presence of DIC at the time of catheter insertion, and catheter drainage volume more than 500 mL within 1 hour of catheter placement should be recognized, and the next-line management should be prepared in advance.

  8. Finite Larmor radius magnetohydrodynamic analysis of the ballooning modes in tokamaks*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Hai-Bin; Wang Ai-Ke; Peng Xiao-Dong

    2010-01-01

    In this paper,the effect of finite Larmor radius(FLR)on high n ballooning modes is studied on the basis of FLR magnetohydrodynamic(FLR-MHD)theory.A linear FLR ballooning mode equation is derived in an '(s)-α' type equilibrium of circular-flux-surfaces,which is reduced to the ideal ballooning mode equation when the FLR effect is neglected.The present model reproduces some basic features of FLR effects on ballooning mode obtained previously by kinetic ballooning mode theories.That is,the FLR introduces a real frequency into ballooning mode and has a stabilising effect on ballooning modes(e.g.,in the case of high magnetic shear(s)≥ 0.8).In particular,some new properties of FLR effects on ballooning mode are discovered in the present research.Here it is found that in a high magnetic shear region((s)≥0.8)the critical pressure gradient(αc1,FLR)of ballooning mode is larger than the ideal one(αc,IMHD)and becomes larger and larger with the increase of FLR parameter b0.However,in a low magnetic shear region,the FLR ballooning mode is more unstable than the ideal one,and the αc,FLR is much lower than the αc,IMHD.Moreover,the present results indicate that there exist some new weaker instabilities near the second stability boundary(obtained from ideal MHD theory),which means that the second stable region becomes narrow.

  9. Safety and effectiveness of gastric balloons associated with hypocaloric diet for the treatment of obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.ª Luisa de Castro

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: intragastric balloons provide early satiety and thereby induce short-term weight loss. The aim of this study was to evaluate safety and short and medium-term effectiveness of gastric balloons associated to hypocaloric diet in obesity. Material and methods: from May 2004 to June 2011 91 obese patients, body mass index [BMI] 45.2 ± 7.2 kg/m² were prospectively followed after endoscopic implantation of a gastric balloon associated to restricted diet. Successful therapy was defined as percent loss of total weight (%LTW ≥ 5% at six months after balloon placement and 6 and 12 months after their withdrawal. All analyses followed intention-to treat principles considering significant p-values < 0.05. Results: we placed 73 fluid-filled balloons (80.2% and 18 air-filled ones (19.8%. Compared to baseline values, at 6-month 73.7% subjects succeeded, showing significant reductions in weight (13.3 ± 8.8 kg, BMI (5 ± 3.4 kg/m² (p < 0.0001, with% LTW 11 ± 7%. Six and twelve months after retrieval 45.1% and 28.6% patients reached% LTW ≥ 5%. Short-term and medium-term effectiveness was negatively associated to obesity in first-grade relatives (p = 0.003 and p = 0.04. Higher weight loss 6 months after balloon placement independently predicted medium-term effectiveness (p = 0.0001. Mortality was absent but there were two spontaneous deflations of air-filled balloons and severe withdrawal difficulties in 8 patients, leading to surgery in one case. Retrieval complications associated to air-filled balloons (p = 0.0005. Conclusions: in obesity, effectiveness of gastric balloons associated to hypocaloric diet decreases over time. Complications occurred mainly in the retrieval endoscopic procedure and related to air-filled balloons.

  10. Dose rate in intravascular radionuclide therapy using Re-188 coated balloon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, M. Y.; Kim, J. K. [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-05-01

    Restenosis is the major drawback problem after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA). In order to reduce the restenosis, radionuclide therapy has been used, and these day balloon coating method with radionuclide is investigating to effective therapy. We intend to calculate the activity by Monte Carlo method, which is needed in the investigation of coated balloon using Re-188. We used EGSnrc code system to calculate this activity. Balloons were assumed be a length of 20 mm or 30 mm and to have a central catheter of diameter 0.5 mm. The surface of balloon is coated with 0.01 mm depth Re-188 using poly urethan. We calculated dose distribution as radial distance from the surface of balloon. And we calculate how much activities are needed to irradiate 18Gy at the 0.5 mm, 1.0 mm distance from balloon surface during 3 minutes. As results it is needed 19.3 mCi and 33.6 mCi relatively for each 0.5 mm and 1.0 mm in the 20 mm balloon. It is need 27.8 mCi and 48.3 mCi in the 30 mm balloon. Recent report for Ho-166 using EGS4 suggests 13.04 mCi at 0.5 mm distance in the 20 mm balloon. This value is lower than our result for Re-188 for the same size balloon. It is considered to be a systemic difference between two simulation codes ({approx}10%)

  11. Overview of balloon-borne aerosol measurements with the aerosol counter LOAC, with focus on the ChArMEx 2013 campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulac, François; Renard, Jean-Baptiste

    LOAC (Light Optical Aerosol Counter) is a new small optical particle counter/sizer of 250 grams designed to fly under all kinds of balloons. The measurements are conducted at two scattering angles: the first one, at 12°, is used to determine the aerosol particle concentrations in 19 size classes within a diameter range of 0.2-100 mm; the second angle, at 60°, is used to discriminate between different types of particles dominating different size classes. The sensor particularly discriminates wet or liquid particles, mineral dust, soot carbon particles and salts. Comparisons with measurements from other sensors at the surface are shown. We shall give a quick review of balloon-borne experiences since 2011 with LOAC under all kinds of balloons including tethered, sounding, open stratospheric, and new boundary-layer pressurized drifting balloons (BLBP) from CNES. Observation domains include the atmospheric surface layer, the boundary layer, the free troposphere and the lower stratosphere up to more than 35 km in altitude. Operations encompass a variety of environments including the Arctic (Reykjavik, Island, and Kiruna, Sweden), Brazil (Sao Paolo), the western Mediterranean Basin, southwestern France, peri-urban (Ile de France) and urban areas (Paris and Vienna). Results from the various campaigns will be illustrated including the study of fog events, urban aerosols, Saharan dust transport over France, stratospheric soot... Emphasis will be put on the ChArMEx campaign (the Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment) performed in summer 2013 in the Mediterranean basin: 19 LOAC flights have been performed under meteorological balloons and 12 under low altitude drifting balloons, most of them from Minorca Island (Spain) in June and early July and others from Levant Island (south of France) in late July and early August. Most of the flights were coupled with ozone concentration measurements (see presentation by F. Gheusi et al.). LOAC balloons were especially, but not

  12. "SP.ACE" 2013-2015: ASGARD Balloon and BIFROST Parabolic Flights: Latest Developments in Hands-On Space Education Projects for Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Schrijver, E.; Chameleva, H.; Degroote, C.; D'Haese, Z.; Paice, C.; Plas, H.; Van den Bossche, A.; Vander Donckt, L.; Vander Vost, J.

    2015-09-01

    Flight opportunities on high-altitude ASGARD balloons offered to secondary schools worldwide since 20 1 1 have led to an ever more rapidly increasing number of project proposals. The introduction of beginners' and ‘advanced classes of experiments is hoped to draw in even larger numbers of interested school teams. Furthermore, and in cooperation with ESERO (European Space Education Resources Office), workshops and documentation are being prepared to introduce teachers and students alike to the world of microcontrollers and sensors. A student parabolic flight programme called BIFROST (Brussels' Initiative to provide Flight Research Opportunities to STudents) was initiated to meet the rising demand for hands-on space education projects and the desire to cover the widest possible range of scientific and/or technical domains, which essentially calls for a variety of flight platforms: cansats, balloons and parabolic flight.

  13. Collection of Stratospheric Samples using Balloon-Borne Payload System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Ajin; Safonova, Margarita; Murthy, Jayant; Sreejith, A. G.; Kumble, Sheshashayi; Mathew, Joice; Sarpotdar, Mayuresh; Kj, Nirmal; Suresh, Ambily; Chakravortty, Dipshikha; Rangarajan, Annapoorni

    2016-07-01

    Earth's atmosphere at stratospheric altitudes contains dust particles from soil lifted by weather, volcanic dust, man-made aerosols, IDP (Interplanetary Dust Particles) - remnants of comets and asteroids, and even interstellar dust. Satellite observations suggest that approximately 100--300 tons of cosmic dust enter Earth's atmosphere every day. However, very little is known about the microbial life in the upper atmosphere, where conditions are very much similar to that on Mars and possibly on some exoplanets. Stratosphere provides a good opportunity to study the existence or survival of biological life in these conditions. Despite the importance of this topic to astrobiology, stratospheric microbial diversity/survival remains largely unexplored, probably due to significant difficulties in the access and ensuring the absence of contamination of the samples. To conduct a detailed study into this, we are developing the balloon-borne payload system SAMPLE (Stratospheric Altitude Microbiology Probe for Life Existence) to collect dust samples from stratosphere and bring them in an hygienic and uncontaminated manner to a suitable laboratory environment, where further study will be conducted to establish the possibility of microbial life in the upper atmosphere. This balloon-borne payload system will rise through the atmosphere till it reaches an altitude of about 25-30 km above sea level. The payload consists of detachable pre-sterilized sampling chambers designed to collect and contain the dust samples and get them back to the surface without contamination during the flight, a microprocessor and a controller which will determine the altitude of the payload system to actively monitor the opening and closing of the sample collection chambers. For contamination control, we will have two extra chambers, one of which will fly but not open, and one will remain closed on the ground. Other onboard devices include environmental sensors, GPS tracking devices, cameras to monitor

  14. Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging in the Diagnosis of Anterolateral Left Ventricular Ballooning, a Variant of Classic Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Zbinden

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Transient left ventricular apical ballooning syndrome is characterized by transient akinesis of the left ventricular apex with basal wall hyperkinesis; this is also known as Takotsubo cardiomyopathy. There are three distinct contractile LV patterns described in the literature: apical, midventricular, and basal ballooning. The apical ballooning pattern is the most frequent pattern. We describe the case of a transient anterolateral left ventricular ballooning fulfilling the definition of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy except for the contractile LV pattern. The diagnosis was supported by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and by the fact that the anterolateral ballooning resolved completely after 6 weeks.

  15. The use of a cutting balloon in contemporary reverse controlled antegrade and retrograde subintimal tracking (reverse CART) technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakabayashi, Keisuke; Okada, Hisayuki; Oka, Toshiaki

    2016-07-11

    The key concept of reverse controlled antegrade and retrograde tracking (CART) technique is retrograde puncture with a tapered wire to an antegrade balloon (contemporary reverse CART) or new connections between the antegrade and retrograde subintimal space (classical reverse CART). In our case, a 75-year-old man with severe chronic total occlusion of the right coronary artery, reverse CART with conventional balloons could not be accomplished. Externalization wiring was completed by contemporary reverse CART using a cutting balloon as an antegrade balloon to improve the fenestration force of the retrograde guidewire. Thus, the use of a cutting balloon for contemporary reverse CART might be promising.

  16. LISA: a java API for performing simulations of trajectories for all types of balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conessa, Huguette

    2016-07-01

    LISA (LIbrarie de Simulation pour les Aerostats) is a java API for performing simulations of trajectories for all types of balloons (Zero Pressure Balloons, Pressurized Balloons, Infrared Montgolfier), and for all phases of flight (ascent, ceiling, descent). This library has for goals to establish a reliable repository of Balloons flight physics models, to capitalize developments and control models used in different tools. It is already used for flight physics study software in CNES, to understand and reproduce the behavior of balloons, observed during real flights. It will be used operationally for the ground segment of the STRATEOLE2 mission. It was developed with quality rules of "critical software." It is based on fundamental generic concepts, linking the simulation state variables to interchangeable calculation models. Each LISA model defines how to calculate a consistent set of state variables combining validity checks. To perform a simulation for a type of balloon and a phase of flight, it is necessary to select or create a macro-model that is to say, a consistent set of models to choose from among those offered by LISA, defining the behavior of the environment and the balloon. The purpose of this presentation is to introduce the main concepts of LISA, and the new perspectives offered by this library.

  17. Absence of Bacteria on Coronary Angioplasty Balloons from Unselected Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Gorm Mørk; Nilsson, Martin; Nielsen, Claus Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Periodontitis is a chronic, bacterially-induced inflammatory disease of the tooth-supporting tissues, which may result in transient bacteremia and a systemic inflammatory response. Periodontitis is associated with coronary artery disease independently of established cardiovascular risk factors......, and translocation of bacteria from the oral cavity to the coronary arteries may play a role in the development of coronary artery disease. Very few studies have used angioplasty balloons for in vivo sampling from diseased coronary arteries, and with varying results. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess...... patients with stable angina, unstable angina/non-ST elevation myocardial infarction, and ST-elevation myocardial infarction (n = 15 in each group) were collected and analyzed using a PCR assay with high sensitivity and specificity for 16S rRNA genes of the oral microbiome. Despite elimination of extraction...

  18. Probabilistic Motion Planning of Balloons in Strong, Uncertain Wind Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Michael T.; Blackmore, Lars; Kuwata, Yoshiaki; Fathpour, Nanaz; Elfes, Alberto; Newman, Claire

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a new algorithm for probabilistic motion planning in arbitrary, uncertain vector fields, with emphasis on high-level planning for Montgolfiere balloons in the atmosphere of Titan. The goal of the algorithm is to determine what altitude--and what horizontal actuation, if any is available on the vehicle--to use to reach a goal location in the fastest expected time. The winds can vary greatly at different altitudes and are strong relative to any feasible horizontal actuation, so the incorporation of the winds is critical for guidance plans. This paper focuses on how to integrate the uncertainty of the wind field into the wind model and how to reach a goal location through the uncertain wind field, using a Markov decision process (MDP). The resulting probabilistic solutions enable more robust guidance plans and more thorough analysis of potential paths than existing methods.

  19. Audit of radiation dose during balloon mitral valvuloplasty procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livingstone, Roshan S [Department of Radiology, Christian Medical College, Vellore-632004, TN (India); Chandy, Sunil [Department of Cardiology, Christian Medical College, Vellore-632004, TN (India); Peace, B S Timothy [Department of Radiology, Christian Medical College, Vellore-632004, TN (India); George, Paul [Department of Cardiology, Christian Medical College, Vellore-632004, TN (India); John, Bobby [Department of Cardiology, Christian Medical College, Vellore-632004, TN (India); Pati, Purendra [Department of Cardiology, Christian Medical College, Vellore-632004, TN (India)

    2006-12-15

    Radiation doses to patients during cardiological procedures are of concern in the present day scenario. This study was intended to audit the radiation dose imparted to patients during the balloon mitral valvuloplasty (BMV) procedure. Thirty seven patients who underwent the BMV procedure performed using two dedicated cardiovascular machines were included in the study. The radiation doses imparted to patients were measured using a dose area product (DAP) meter. The mean DAP value for patients who underwent the BMV procedure from one machine was 19.16 Gy cm{sup 2} and from the other was 21.19 Gy cm{sup 2}. Optimisation of exposure parameters and radiation doses was possible for one machine with the use of appropriate copper filters and optimised exposure parameters, and the mean DAP value after optimisation was 9.36 Gy cm{sup 2}.

  20. Initial Results from the ANITA 2006-2007 Balloon Flight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorham, P.W.; /Hawaii U.; Allison, P.; /Hawaii U.; Barwick, S.W.; /UC, Irvine; Beatty, J.J.; /Ohio State U.; Besson, D.Z.; /Kansas U.; Binns, W.R.; /Washington U., St. Louis; Chen, C.; /SLAC; Chen, P.; /SLAC; Clem, J.M.; /Delaware U.; Connolly, A.; /University Coll. London; Dowkontt, P.F.; /Washington U., St. Louis; DuVernois, M.A.; /Minnesota U.; Field, R.C.; /SLAC; Goldstein, D.; /UC, Irvine; Goodhue, A.; /UCLA; Hast, C.; /SLAC; Hebert, C.L.; /Hawaii U.; Hoover, S.; /UCLA; Israel, M.H.; /Washington U., St. Louis; Kowalski, J.; /Hawaii U.; Learned, J.G.; /Hawaii U. /Caltech, JPL /Hawaii U. /Minnesota U. /Hawaii U. /Ohio State U. /Hawaii U. /Hawaii U. /UC, Irvine /Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U. /Caltech, JPL /SLAC /University Coll. London /Ohio State U. /SLAC /Hawaii U. /Hawaii U. /Hawaii U. /UCLA /Delaware U. /Hawaii U. /SLAC /Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U. /UC, Irvine

    2011-11-16

    We report initial results of the Antarctic Impulsive Transient Antenna (ANITA) 2006-2007 Long Duration Balloon flight, which searched for evidence of the flux of cosmogenic neutrinos. ANITA flew for 35 days looking for radio impulses that might be due to the Askaryan effect in neutrino-induced electromagnetic showers within the Antarctic ice sheets. In our initial high-threshold robust analysis, no neutrino candidates are seen, with no physics background. In a non-signal horizontal-polarization channel, we do detect 6 events consistent with radio impulses from extensive air showers, which helps to validate the effectiveness of our method. Upper limits derived from our analysis now begin to eliminate the highest cosmogenic neutrino models.

  1. Investigation of source position uncertainties & balloon deformation in MammoSite brachytherapy on treatment effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensaleh, S; Bezak, E

    2010-03-01

    The MammoSite breast high dose rate brachytherapy is used in treatment of early-stage breast cancer. The tumour bed volume is irradiated with high dose per fraction in a relatively small number of fractions. Uncertainties in the source positioning and MammoSite balloon deformation will alter the prescribed dose within the treated volume. They may also expose the normal tissues in balloon proximity to excessive dose. The purpose of this work is to explore the impact of these two uncertainties on the MammoSite dose distribution in the breast using dose volume histograms and Monte Carlo simulations. The Lyman-Kutcher and relative seriality models were employed to estimate the normal tissues complications associated with the MammoSite dose distributions. The tumour control probability was calculated using the Poisson model. This study gives low probabilities for developing heart and lung complications. The probability of complications of the skin and normal breast tissues depends on the location of the source inside the balloon and the volume receiving high dose. Incorrect source position and balloon deformation had significant effect on the prescribed dose within the treated volume. A 4 mm balloon deformation resulted in reduction of the tumour control probability by 24%. Monte Carlo calculations using EGSnrc showed that a deviation of the source by 1 mm caused approximately 7% dose reduction in the treated target volume at 1 cm from the balloon surface. In conclusion, accurate positioning of the (192)Ir source at the balloon centre and minimal balloon deformation are critical for proper dose delivery with the MammoSite brachytherapy applicator. On the basis of this study, we suggest that the MammoSite treatment protocols should allow for a balloon deformation of < or = 2 mm and a maximum source deviation of < or = 1 mm.

  2. Clinical Usefulness of Bakri Balloon Tamponade in the Treatment of Massive Postpartum Uterine Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Sayori; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Nagata, Tomomi; Hiwatashi, Sayuri; Kawamura, Toshihiko; Yokomine, Daisaku; Orita, Yuji; Oki, Toshimichi; Yoshinaga, Mitsuhiro; Douchi, Tsutomu

    2016-01-01

    Intrauterine globe-shaped metreurynter tamponade has been used for some time to treat massive postpartum hemorrhage (PPH). More recently, the Bakri balloon has come into use to treat PPH. It is made of silicon, possesses a drainage lumen, and has a sausage-like spindle shape. The aim of the present study was to investigate the clinical usefulness of Bakri balloon tamponade for massive PPH. Subjects in the present study comprised 5 patients with uterine atony, 3 with placenta previa, and 2 with low-lying placenta. All patients exhibited massive PPH and resistance to conventional hemostatic managements. Bakri balloon tamponade was appliedto these 10 patients. The mean amounts of uterine bleeding (average ± SD) before and after Bakri insertion were2,732 ± 1,397 mL and 380 ± 376 mL, respectively. The median (third-first quartile ranges) volume of salineinflating the balloon was 200 mL (300-150 mL). The median (third-first quartile ranges) indwelling duration of Bakri balloon was 24 hours (24-11 hrs). The overall success rate of Bakri balloon tamponade was 90% (9/10).There were no cases of slipping out or complications regarding balloon placement. Our findings suggest that Bakri balloon tamponade may be applied to the treatment of massive PPH in uterine atony and placenta previa.The Bakri balloon appears to have the following merits: (1) easy insertion into the uterine cavity and low rate of slipping out, (2) proper conformability to the hemorrhagic area due to its spindle shape, (3) ability to monitor blood loss through the drainage lumen even after insertion.

  3. Static and quasi-static analysis of lobed-pumpkin balloon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashino, Kyoichi; Sasaki, Makoto; Hashimoto, Satoshi; Saito, Yoshitaka; Izutsu, Naoki

    The present study is motivated by the need to improve design methodology for super pressure balloon with 3D gore design concept, currently being developed at the Scientific Balloon Center of ISAS/JAXA. The distinctive feature of the 3-D gore design is that the balloon film has excess materials not only in the circumferential direction but also in the meridional direction; the meridional excess is gained by attaching the film boundaries to the corresponding tendons of a shorter length with a controlled shortening rate. The resulting balloon shape is a pumpkin-like shape with large bulges formed between adjacent tendons. The balloon film, when fully inflated, develops wrinkles in the circumferential direction over its entire region, so that the stresses in the film are limited to a small amount of uniaxial tension in the circumferential direction while the high meridional loads are carried by re-enforced tendons. Naturally, the amount of wrinkling in the film is dominated by the shortening rate between the film boundaries and the tendon curve. In the 3-D gore design, as a consequence, the shortening rate becomes a fundamental design parameter along with the geometric parameters of the gore. In view of this, we have carried out a series of numerical study of the lobed-pumpkin balloon with varying gore geometry as well as with varying shortening rate. The numerical simula-tions were carried out with a nonlinear finite element code incorporating the wrinkling effect. Numerical results show that there is a threshold value for the shortening rate beyond which the stresses in the balloon film increases disproportionately. We have also carried out quasi-static simulations of the inflation process of the lobed-pumpkin balloon, and have obtained asymmetric deformations when the balloon films are in uniaxial tension state.

  4. Analysis of actinic flux profiles measured from an ozonesonde balloon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, P.; Allaart, M.; Knap, W. H.; Stammes, P.

    2015-04-01

    A green light sensor has been developed at KNMI to measure actinic flux profiles using an ozonesonde balloon. In total, 63 launches with ascending and descending profiles were performed between 2006 and 2010. The measured uncalibrated actinic flux profiles are analysed using the Doubling-Adding KNMI (DAK) radiative transfer model. Values of the cloud optical thickness (COT) along the flight track were taken from the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) Cloud Physical Properties (CPP) product. The impact of clouds on the actinic flux profile is evaluated on the basis of the cloud modification factor (CMF) at the cloud top and cloud base, which is the ratio between the actinic fluxes for cloudy and clear-sky scenes. The impact of clouds on the actinic flux is clearly detected: the largest enhancement occurs at the cloud top due to multiple scattering. The actinic flux decreases almost linearly from cloud top to cloud base. Above the cloud top the actinic flux also increases compared to clear-sky scenes. We find that clouds can increase the actinic flux to 2.3 times the clear-sky value at cloud top and decrease it to about 0.05 at cloud base. The relationship between CMF and COT agrees well with DAK simulations, except for a few outliers. Good agreement is found between the DAK-simulated actinic flux profiles and the observations for single-layer clouds in fully overcast scenes. The instrument is suitable for operational balloon measurements because of its simplicity and low cost. It is worth further developing the instrument and launching it together with atmospheric chemistry composition sensors.

  5. Coordinated weather balloon solar radiation measurements during a solar eclipse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, R G; Marlton, G J; Williams, P D; Nicoll, K A

    2016-09-28

    Solar eclipses provide a rapidly changing solar radiation environment. These changes can be studied using simple photodiode sensors, if the radiation reaching the sensors is unaffected by cloud. Transporting the sensors aloft using standard meteorological instrument packages modified to carry extra sensors, provides one promising but hitherto unexploited possibility for making solar eclipse radiation measurements. For the 20 March 2015 solar eclipse, a coordinated campaign of balloon-carried solar radiation measurements was undertaken from Reading (51.44°N, 0.94°W), Lerwick (60.15°N, 1.13°W) and Reykjavik (64.13°N, 21.90°W), straddling the path of the eclipse. The balloons reached sufficient altitude at the eclipse time for eclipse-induced variations in solar radiation and solar limb darkening to be measured above cloud. Because the sensor platforms were free to swing, techniques have been evaluated to correct the measurements for their changing orientation. In the swing-averaged technique, the mean value across a set of swings was used to approximate the radiation falling on a horizontal surface; in the swing-maximum technique, the direct beam was estimated by assuming that the maximum solar radiation during a swing occurs when the photodiode sensing surface becomes normal to the direction of the solar beam. Both approaches, essentially independent, give values that agree with theoretical expectations for the eclipse-induced radiation changes.This article is part of the themed issue 'Atmospheric effects of solar eclipses stimulated by the 2015 UK eclipse'.

  6. Coordinated weather balloon solar radiation measurements during a solar eclipse

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Solar eclipses provide a rapidly changing solar radiation environment. These changes can be studied using simple photodiode sensors, if the radiation reaching the sensors is unaffected by cloud. Transporting the sensors aloft using standard meteorological instrument packages modified to carry extra sensors, provides one promising but hitherto unexploited possibility for making solar eclipse radiation measurements. For the 20 March 2015 solar eclipse, a coordinated campaign of balloon-carried solar radiation measurements was undertaken from Reading (51.44°N, 0.94°W), Lerwick (60.15°N, 1.13°W) and Reykjavik (64.13°N, 21.90°W), straddling the path of the eclipse. The balloons reached sufficient altitude at the eclipse time for eclipse-induced variations in solar radiation and solar limb darkening to be measured above cloud. Because the sensor platforms were free to swing, techniques have been evaluated to correct the measurements for their changing orientation. In the swing-averaged technique, the mean value across a set of swings was used to approximate the radiation falling on a horizontal surface; in the swing-maximum technique, the direct beam was estimated by assuming that the maximum solar radiation during a swing occurs when the photodiode sensing surface becomes normal to the direction of the solar beam. Both approaches, essentially independent, give values that agree with theoretical expectations for the eclipse-induced radiation changes. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Atmospheric effects of solar eclipses stimulated by the 2015 UK eclipse’. PMID:27550757

  7. Background measurements from balloon-born imaging CZT detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Jonathan A.; Narita, Tomohiko; Grindlay, Jonathan E.; Bloser, Peter F.; Stahle, Carl M.; Parker, Bradford H.; Barthelmy, Scott D.

    2003-03-01

    We report detector characteristics and background measurements from two prototype imaging CdZnTe (CZT) detectors flown on a scientific balloon payload in May 2001. The detectors are both platinum-contact 10 mm × 10 mm × 5 mm CZT crystals, each with a 4 × 4 array of pixels tiling the anode. One is made from IMARAD horizontal Bridgman CZT, the other from eV Products high-pressure Bridgman CZT. Both detectors were mounted side-by-side in a flip-chip configuration and read out by a 32-channel IDE VA/TA ASIC preamp/shaper. We enclosed the detectors in the same 40o field-of-view collimator used in our previously-reported September 2000 flight. I-V curves for the detectors are diode-like, and we find that the platinum contacts adhere significantly better to the CZT surfaces than gold to previosu detectors. The detectors and instrumentation performed well in a 20-hour balloon flight on 23/24 May 2001. Although we discovered a significant instrumental background component in flight, it was possible to measure and subtract this component from the spectra. The resulting IMARAD detector background spectrum reaches ~5×10-3 counts cm-2s-1keV-1 at 100 keV and has a power-law index of ~2 at hgih energies. The eV Products detector has a similar spectrum, although there is more uncertainty in the enregy scale because of calibration complications.

  8. Radiofrequency balloon angioplasty. Rationale and proof of principle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, G.J.; Lee, B.I.; Waller, B.F.; Barry, K.J.; Kaplan, J.; Connolly, R.; Dreesen, R.G.; Nardella, P.

    1988-11-01

    Post-angioplasty restenosis (PARS) in atherosclerotic lesions of medium and small arteries occurs in about one-third of cases in the first year following percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) (early PARS). PARS includes acute spasm, dissection with reclosure, elastic recoil, fibrocellular proliferative response, and progressive atheromatous disease. Fibrocellular proliferation (possibly initiated by platelet derived growth factor) is felt to be culpable in many cases of early PARS (months). Pharmacologic regimens, stents, and thermal welding of the intimal-medial cracks of PTA are among the interventions being developed to deal with PARS. Radiofrequency (RF) current as a source of thermal energy may be useful in combination with balloon angioplasty to reduce PARS. Ideally, this combination would (1) weld intimal-medial cracks of PTA; (2) mold plaque and normal vessel to increase lumen diameters without creating intimal-medial cracks; and (3) destroy medial smooth muscle cells and multipotential cells (cellular substrate of PARS). Canine in vivo studies have established the feasibility of RF-mediated vascular tissue welding. Human aortic specimens (N = 28) were manually dissected into intima-media and media-adventitia layers. Bipolar RF energy (650 KHz, total 300 J) and mechanical pressure (1 atm) (experimental group, N = 24) or mechanical pressure alone (control group, N = 4) were applied to the reapposed specimen layers in a special chamber. The chamber was modified with a bipolar electrode designed to reproduce that planned for an RF balloon angioplasty catheter. Welding was demonstrated in normal and atherosclerotic treated specimens (23/24 or 96%) but not controls (0/4).

  9. Current diffusive ballooning mode in a Tokamak with a noncircular cross section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yagi, Masatoshi; Itoh, Sanae [Kyushu Univ., Kasuga, Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics; Fukuyama, Atsushi; Itoh, Kimitaka

    1997-02-01

    The eigenvalue equation for the current diffusive ballooning mode in tokamaks is derived taking the geometrical effects, i.e., triangularity and ellipticity into account. The stability boundary is obtained in the strong ballooning limit. It is found that the ellipticity plays an important role on the stability of the current diffusive ballooning mode. On the other hand, the effect of the stabilization by the triangularity appears indirectly through the magnetic well term. The geometrical effect on the transport coefficient is also discussed. (author)

  10. Monitoring of gadolinium-BOPTA uptake into the vessel wall during magnetic resonance (MR)-guided angioplasty of the peripheral arteries with a paclitaxel/gadolinium-BOPTA-coated balloon. An experimental study at 3 Tesla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neizel, M.; Kelm, M. [University Hospital Duesseldorf (Germany). Dept. of Cardiology, Pneumology and Angiology; Ruebben, A.; Weiss, N. [Aachen Resonance, Aachen (Germany); Guenther, R.W. [University Hospital Aachen (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Krombach, G.A. [University Hospital Giessen (Germany). Dept. of Radiology

    2014-04-15

    Purpose: The success of paclitaxel distribution within the vessel wall during paclitaxel-coated balloon angioplasty to prevent restenosis cannot be monitored under X-ray guidance. The aim of this pilot study was to demonstrate the feasibility of monitoring Gadolinium-BOPTA delivery within the vessel wall during magnetic resonance (MR)-guided paclitaxel/Gadolinium-BOPTA-coated balloon angioplasty of the peripheral arteries. Materials and methods: 6 pigs (47 ± 2 kg) were investigated. All experiments were performed using a 3 Tesla MR scanner. MR-guided bilaterial angioplasty of the iliac arteries was performed using a paclitaxel/MR contrast agent-coated balloon catheter. The feasibility of monitoring the delivery of Gadolinium-BOPTA to the vessel was assessed in 4 animals. In two additional animals, bilateral stenosis was surgically induced in the iliac arteries. Delivery of paclitaxel to the vessel wall was monitored using a 3 D T1-weighted gradient echo (GE) sequence for delineation of the vessel wall. Normalized signal intensity (SI) of the vessel wall was measured before and repeatedly after the intervention for 45 min. in all animals. Results: Paclitaxel/gadolinium-BOPTA-coated balloon angioplasty was successfully accomplished in all iliac arteries (n = 12). In animals with stenosis MR-angiography demonstrated successful dilatation (n = 4). The normalized SI of the vessel wall on T1-weighted GE images significantly increased after the intervention in all animals with and without stenosis for more than 45 min. (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Monitoring of Gadolinium-BOPTA into the vessel wall during MR-guided coated balloon angioplasty is feasible. This is a first step towards providing a tool for the online control of homogenous drug delivery after paclitaxel-coated balloon angioplasty. (orig.)

  11. LITOS – a new balloon-borne instrument for fine-scale turbulence soundings in the stratosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Theuerkauf

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a new compact balloon payload called LITOS (Leibniz-Institute Turbulence Observations in the Stratosphere for high resolution wind turbulence soundings in the stratosphere up to 35 km altitude. The wind measurements are performed using a constant temperature anemometer (CTA with a vertical resolution of ~2.5 mm, i.e. 2 kHz sampling rate at 5 m/s ascent speed. Thereby, for the first time, it is possible to study the entire turbulence spectrum down to the viscous subrange in the stratosphere. Including telemetry, housekeeping, batteries and recovery unit, the payload weighs less than 5 kg and can be launched from any radiosonde station. Since autumn 2007, LITOS has been successfully launched several times from the Leibniz-Institute of Atmospheric Physics (IAP in Kühlungsborn, Germany (54° N, 12° E. Two additional soundings were carried out in 2008 and 2009 in Kiruna, Sweden (67° N, 21° E as part of the BEXUS program (Balloon-borne EXperiments for University Students. We describe here the basic principle of CTA measurements and prove the validity of this method in the stratosphere. A first case study allows a clear distinction between non-turbulent regions and a turbulent layer with a thickness of some tens of meters. Since our measurements cover the transition between the inertial and viscous subrange, energy dissipation rates can be calculated with high reliability.

  12. The IMaX polarimeter for the solar telescope SUNRISE of the NASA long duration balloon program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingo V.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available On June 8th 2009 the SUNRISE mission was successfully launched. This mission consisted of a 1m aperture solar telescope on board of a stratospheric balloon within the Long Duration Balloon NASA program. The flight followed the foreseen circumpolar trajectory over the Artic and the duration was 5 days and 17 hours. One of the two postfocal instruments onboard was IMaX, the Imaging Magnetograph eXperiment. This instrument is a solar magnetograph which is a diffraction limited imager capable to resolve 100 km on the solar surface, and simultaneously a high sensitivity polarimeter (<10-3 and a high resolution spectrograph (bandwidth <70mÅ. The magnetic vectorial map can be extracted thanks to the well-know Zeeman effect, which takes place in the solar atoms, allowing to relate polarization and spectral measurements to magnetic fields. The technological challenge of the IMaX development has a special relevance due to the utilization of innovative technologies in the Aeroespacial field and it is an important precedent for future space missions such as Solar Orbiter from ESA. Among these novel technologies the utilization of Liquid Crystal Variable Retarders (LCVRs as polarization modulators and a LiNbO3 etalon as tunable spectral filter are remarkable. Currently the data obtained is being analyzed and the preliminary results show unprecedented information about the solar dynamics.

  13. Assessment of the influence of the RaD-X balloon payload on the onboard radiation detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronoff, Guillaume; Mertens, Christopher J.; Norman, Ryan B.; Straume, Tore; Lusby, Terry C.

    2016-10-01

    The NASA Radiation Dosimetry Experiment (RaD-X) stratospheric balloon flight mission, launched on 25 September 2015, provided dosimetric measurements above the Pfotzer maximum. The goal of taking these measurements is to improve aviation radiation models by providing a characterization of cosmic ray primaries, which are the source of radiation exposure at aviation altitudes. The RaD-X science payload consists of four instruments. The main science instrument is a tissue-equivalent proportional counter (TEPC). The other instruments consisted of three solid state silicon dosimeters: Liulin, Teledyne total ionizing dose (TID) and RaySure detectors. The instruments were housed in an aluminum structure protected by a foam cover. The structure partially shielded the detectors from cosmic rays but also created secondary particles, modifying the ambient radiation environment observed by the instruments. Therefore, it is necessary to account for the influence of the payload structure on the measured doses. In this paper, we present the results of modeling the effect of the balloon payload on the radiation detector measurements using a Geant-4 (GEometry ANd Tracking) application. Payload structure correction factors derived for the TEPC, Liulin, and TID instruments are provided as a function of altitude. Overall, the payload corrections are no more than a 7% effect on the radiation environment measurements.

  14. Utility of birefringence changes due to collagen thermal denaturation rate process analysis: vessel wall temperature estimation for new short term heating balloon angioplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Kenji; Shimazaki, Natsumi; Gotoh, Maya; Nakatani, Eriko; Arai, Tsunenori

    2007-02-01

    Our photo thermal reaction heating architecture balloon realizes less than 10 s short term heating that can soften vessel wall collagen without damaging surrounding tissue thermally. New thermal balloon angioplasty, photo-thermo dynamic balloon angioplasty (PTDBA) has experimentally shown sufficient opening with 2 atm low pressure dilation and prevention of chronic phase restenosis and acute phase thrombus in vivo. Even though PTDBA has high therapeutic potential, the most efficient heating condition is still under study, because relationship of treatment and thermal dose to vessel wall is not clarified yet. To study and set the most efficient heating condition, we have been working on establishment of temperature history estimation method from our previous experimental results. Heating target of PTDBA, collagen, thermally denatures following rate process. Denaturation is able to be quantified with measured collagen birefringence value. To express the denaturation with equation of rate process, the following ex vivo experiments were performed. Porcine extracted carotid artery was soaked in two different temperature saline baths to enforce constant temperature heating. Higher temperature bath was set to 40 to 80 degree Celsius and soaking duration was 5 to 40 s. Samples were observed by a polarizing microscope and a scanning electron microscope. The birefringence was measured by polarizing microscopic system using Brace-Koehler compensator 1/30 wavelength. The measured birefringence showed temperature dependency and quite fit with the rate process equation. We think vessel wall temperature is able to be estimated using the birefringence changes due to thermal denaturation.

  15. An introduction to the SCOUT-AMMA stratospheric aircraft, balloons and sondes campaign in West Africa, August 2006: rationale and roadmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairo, F.; Pommereau, J. P.; Law, K. S.; Schlager, H.; Garnier, A.; Fierli, F.; Ern, M.; Streibel, M.; Arabas, S.; Borrmann, S.; Berthelier, J. J.; Blom, C.; Christensen, T.; D'Amato, F.; di Donfrancesco, G.; Deshler, T.; Diedhiou, A.; Durry, G.; Engelsen, O.; Goutail, F.; Harris, N. R. P.; Kerstel, E. R. T.; Khaykin, S.; Konopka, P.; Kylling, A.; Larsen, N.; Lebel, T.; Liu, X.; MacKenzie, A. R.; Nielsen, J.; Oulanowski, A.; Parker, D. J.; Pelon, J.; Polcher, J.; Pyle, J. A.; Ravegnani, F.; Rivière, E. D.; Robinson, A. D.; Röckmann, T.; Schiller, C.; Simões, F.; Stefanutti, L.; Stroh, F.; Some, L.; Siegmund, P.; Sitnikov, N.; Vernier, J. P.; Volk, C. M.; Voigt, C.; von Hobe, M.; Viciani, S.; Yushkov, V.

    2010-03-01

    A multi-platform field measurement campaign involving aircraft and balloons took place over West Africa between 26 July and 25 August 2006, in the frame of the concomitant AMMA Special Observing Period and SCOUT-O3 African tropical activities. Specifically aiming at sampling the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere, the high-altitude research aircraft M55 Geophysica was deployed in Ouagadougou (12.3° N, 1.7° W), Burkina Faso, in conjunction with the German D-20 Falcon, while a series of stratospheric balloons and sonde flights were conducted from Niamey (13.5° N, 2.0° E), Niger. Altogether, these measurements were intended to provide experimental evidence for a better understanding of large scale transport, assessing the effect of lightning on NOx production, and studying the impact of intense mesoscale convective systems on water, aerosol, dust and chemical species in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. The M55 Geophysica carried out five local and four transfer flights between southern Europe and the Sahel and back, while eight stratospheric balloons and twenty-nine sondes were flown from Niamey. These experiments allowed a characterization of the tropopause and lower stratosphere of the region. The paper provides an overview of SCOUT-AMMA campaign activities together with a description of the meteorology of the African monsoon and the situation prevailing during the flights and a brief summary of the observations accomplished.

  16. Application of balloon tamponade hemostasis in abdominal surgery%气囊压迫止血法在腹部外科中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周杰; 罗丁

    2013-01-01

    临床应用气囊压迫止血法已有50余年历史,运用得当时可取得确切的疗效,不良反应少.近年来,随着外科治疗水平的不断提高,气囊压迫技术用于各类出血的治疗已积累了许多成功的经验.本文拟对气囊压迫止血技术近年来的一些进展作一回顾.%Balloon tamponade hemostasis has been applicated for 50 years,and its appropriate usage can obtain exact curative effect with less adverse reactions.In recent years,with the continuous improvement in surgical therapy,balloon tamponade technique in treating various types of bleeding has accumulated many successful experiences.This paper intends to review the advances in balloon compression technology for recent years.

  17. Demonstrating Classical Conditioning in Introductory Psychology: Needles Do Not Always Make Balloons Pop!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernoy, Mark W.

    1987-01-01

    Describes a method of teaching classical conditioning to an introductory psychology class which involves demonstrating the conditioned response that occurs when a needle pierces, but does not pop, a balloon. (GEA)

  18. EUSO-BALLOON a pathfinder for detecting UHECR's from the edge of space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scotti V.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available EUSO-Balloon has been conceived as a pathfinder mission for JEM-EUSO, to perform an end-to-end test of the subsystems and components, and to prove the global detection chain while improving our knowledge of the atmospheric and terrestrial UV background. Through a series of stratospheric balloon flights performed by the French Space Agency CNES, EUSO-BALLOON will serve as an evolutive test-bench for all the key technologies of JEM-EUSO. EUSO-Balloon also has the potential to detect Extensive Air Showers from above, marking a key milestone in the development of UHECR science, and paving the way for any future large scale, space-based UHECR observatory.

  19. Novel Ultralow-Weight Metal Rubber Sensor System for Ultra Long-Duration Scientific Balloons Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NanoSonic proposes to develop an innovative, ultralow mass density, and non-intrusive sensor system for ultra long duration balloons that will operate in the most...

  20. Sub-Scale Re-entry Capsule Drop via High Altitude Balloons Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High-altitude balloon flights are an inexpensive method used to lift payloads to high altitudes. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) regulations permit payloads...

  1. Integrating BalloonSAT and Atmospheric Dynamic Concepts into the Secondary Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, B. N.; Kennon, J. T.; Roberts, E.

    2016-05-01

    Arkansas BalloonSAT is an educational outreach and scientific research program that is part of Arkansas State University in Jonesboro, AR. The following is a unit of instruction to incorporate BalloonSAT measurements into secondary science classes. Students interpret graphs and identify several atmospheric trends and properties of a typical balloon flight. Students engage critical thinking skills in developing and answering their own questions relevant to the BalloonSAT program. Prerequisite concepts students should know are how to interpret graphs and unit conversions. Students should have a basic understanding of gravity, units of temperature and distance, and error in measurements. The unit is designed for one week after end-of-course exams and before the end of school. The unit may take two to five 50-minute periods, depending on how many activities are completed.

  2. Ruptured high flow gastric varices with an intratumoral arterioportal shunt treated with balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration during temporary balloon occlusion of a hepatic artery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Motoki Nakai; Morio Sato; Hirohiko Tanihata; Tetsuo Sonomura; Shinya Sahara; Nobuyuki Kawai; Masashi Kimura; Masaki Terada

    2006-01-01

    A patient presented with hematemesis due to gastric variceal bleeding with an intratumoral arterioportal shunt. Contrast-enhanced CT revealed gastric varices and hepatocellular carcinoma with tumor thrombi in the right portal vein. Angiography and angio-CT revealed a marked intratumoral arterioportal shunt accompanied with reflux into the main portal vein and gastric varices. Balloon-occluded retrograde venography from the gastro-renal shunt showed no visualization of gastric varices due to rapid blood flow through the intratumoral arterioportal shunt. The hepatic artery was temporarily occluded with a balloon catheter to reduce the blood flow through the arterioportal shunt, and then concurrent balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO) was achieved. Vital signs stabilized immediately thereafter, and contrast-enhanced CT revealed thrombosed gastric varices. Worsening of hepatic function was not recognized. BRTO combined with temporary occlusion of the hepatic artery is a feasible interventional procedure for ruptured high flow gastric varices with an intratumoral arterioportal shunt.

  3. High-energy cosmic ray fluxes in the Earth atmosphere: calculations vs experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Kochanov, A A; Sinegovsky, S I

    2008-01-01

    A new calculation of the atmospheric fluxes of cosmic-ray hadrons and muons in the energy range 10-10^5 GeV has been performed for the set of hadron production models, EPOS 1.6, QGSJET II-03, SIBYLL 2.1, and others that are of interest to cosmic ray physicists. The fluxes of secondary cosmic rays at several levels in the atmosphere are computed using directly data of the ATIC-2, GAMMA experiments, and the model proposed recently by Zatsepin and Sokolskaya as well as the parameterization of the primary cosmic ray spectrum by Gaisser and Honda. The calculated energy spectra of the hadrons and muon flux as a function of zenith angle are compared with measurements as well as other calculations. The effect of uncertainties both in the primary cosmic ray flux and hadronic model predictions on the spectra of atmospheric hadrons and muons is considered.

  4. Expression of glutamine synthetase in balloon cells: a basis of their antiepileptic role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccoliero, Anna Maria; Barba, Carmen; Giordano, Flavio; Baroni, Gianna; Genitori, Lorenzo; Guerrini, Renzo; Taddei, Gian Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Glutamine synthetase is an enzyme involved in the clearance of glutamate, the most potent excitatory neurotransmitter. We studied the immunohistochemical expression of glutamine synthetase in neocortical samples from 5 children who underwent surgery for pharmacoresistant epilepsy and a histological diagnosis of focal cortical dysplasia IIb. In all cases, balloon cells, but not dysmorphic neurons, were immunopositive for glutamine synthetase. This finding suggests that balloon cells can be involved in the neutralization of glutamate and play a protective anti-seizure role.

  5. Variceal bleeding from ileum identified and treated by single balloon enteroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mario Traina; Ilaria Tarantino; Luca Barresi; Filippo Mocciaro

    2009-01-01

    We report a case of acute uncontrolled gastrointestinal bleeding in a patient with liver cirrhosis. The upper and lower endoscopy were negative for bleeding lesions. We decided to perform the examination of the small bowel using single-balloon enteroscopy. The lower enteroscopy revealed signs of bleeding from varices of the ileum. In this report, we showed that the injection of a sclerosant solution can be accomplished using a freehand technique via the single balloon enteroscopy.

  6. A New Type of Captive Balloon for Vertical Meteorological Observation in Urban Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, M.; Sakai, S.; Ono, K.

    2010-12-01

    Many meteorological observations in urban area have been made in recent years in order to investigate the mechanism of heat island. However, there are few data of cooling process in urban area. For this purpose, high density observations in both space and time are required. Generally vertical meteorological observations can be made by towers, radars, balloons. These methods are limited by urban area conditions. Among these methods, a captive balloon is mainly used to about a hundred meter from ground in a vertical meteorological observation. Small airships called kytoons or advertising balloons, for example. Conventional balloons are, however, influenced by the wind and difficult to keep the specified position. Moreover, it can be dangerous to conduct such observations in the highly build-up area. To overcome these difficulties, we are developing a new type of captive balloon. It has a wing form to gain lift and keep its position. It is also designed small to be kept in a carport. It is made of aluminum film and polyester cloth in order to attain lightweight solution. We have tried floating a balloon like NACA4424 for several years. It was difficult to keep a wing form floating up over 100 meters from ground because internal pressure was decreased by different temperature. The design is changed in this year. The balloon that has wing form NACA4415 is similar in composition to an airplane. It has a big gasbag with airship form and two wing form. It is able to keep form of a wing by high internal pressure. We will report a plan for the balloon and instances of some observations.

  7. Identification of cerebral response to balloon distention of the bile duct

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masafumi; Suyama; Yoshihiro; Kubokawa; Yuuji; Matsumura; Koichi; Inami; Sumio; Watanabe; Eiji; Kirino

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To identify the brain loci that process human biliary sensation. METHODS: In 6 patients (age range: 42-74 years; 4 men), who underwent percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD), the distal biliary tract was stimulated by repeatedly inflating the balloon of the PTBD catheter so that it reached volumes that produced a definite painless sensation. The functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of the cortical response to biliary sensation was examined. RESULTS: Biliary balloon stimulation elicit...

  8. Balloon-guided navigation technique to perform stenting in an acutely angled anterior cerebral artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, José E; Gomori, John M; Moscovici, Samuel; Itshayek, Eyal

    2012-03-01

    The complex anatomic features of wide-necked anterior communicating artery aneurysms represent an endovascular challenge. Compliant balloons and microstents are frequently required to achieve aneurysm occlusion. When the angle between the A1 and A2 segments is acute, microcatheter navigation is hazardous, and may be difficult or sometimes impossible with standard techniques. We present our technique using a support balloon to facilitate guidewire engagement and navigation of A2, and to assist with microcatheterization in this unfavorable vascular anatomy.

  9. Current-diffusive ballooning mode in low shear and negative shear regions of tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yagi, Masatoshi; Azumi, Masafumi (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment); Itoh, Kimitaka; Itoh, Sanae; Fukuyama, Atsushi

    1994-01-01

    The stability of the current-diffusive ballooning mode in tokamaks with high toroidal mode number is analyzed in the region of second stability against the ideal magnetohydrodynamic mode. It is found that the growth rate of the current-diffusive ballooning mode is decreased upon the reduction of the geodesic curvature driving force. The reduction of thermal conductivity in the limit of very weak shear or negative shear in comparison with standard shear is also shown. (author).

  10. Drug-Coated Balloon Treatment of Very Late Stent Thrombosis Due to Complicated Neoatherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso, Fernando; Bastante, Teresa; Cuesta, Javier; Benedicto, Amparo; Rivero, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    We describe the treatment of a patient presenting with very-late stent thrombosis with the use of a drug-coated balloon. In this patient, optical coherence tomography disclosed that ruptured and complicated neoatherosclerosis was the underlying substrate responsible for the episode of very-late stent thrombosis. The potential use of drug-coated balloons in this unique scenario is discussed. PMID:27409130

  11. Drug-eluting balloon catheters for lower limb peripheral arterial disease: the evidence to date

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barkat M

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Mohamed Barkat,1 Francesco Torella,1 George A Antoniou2 1Liverpool Vascular and Endovascular Service, Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Liverpool, 2Department of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, The Royal Oldham Hospital, Pennine Acute Hospitals NHS Trust, Manchester, UK Abstract: A significant proportion of patients with severe lower limb peripheral arterial disease require revascularization. Over the past decade, an endovascular-first approach even for complex disease has gained widespread use among vascular specialists. An important limitation of percutaneous transluminal balloon angioplasty or stenting remains the occurrence of restenosis. Drug-coated balloons have emerged as an exciting technology developed to overcome the limitations of standard balloon angioplasty and stenting. Drug-eluting devices inhibit neointimal growth of vascular smooth muscle cells with the potential of preventing restenosis. This review provides a synopsis of the up-to-date evidence on the role of drug-coated balloons in the treatment of lower limb peripheral arterial disease. Bibliographic searches were conducted using MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library electronic database. Eleven randomized clinical trials, two systematic reviews, and a published registry providing the best available evidence were identified. Current evidence suggests that angioplasty with drug-coated balloon is reliable, safe, and efficient in increasing patency rates and reducing target lesion revascularization and restenosis. However, it remains unknown whether these improved results can translate into beneficial clinical outcomes, as current randomized clinical trials have failed to demonstrate a significant benefit in limb salvage and mortality. Further randomized trials focusing on clinical and functional outcomes of drug-eluting balloons and on cost versus clinical benefit are required. Keywords: drug-eluting balloon, drug-coated balloon, angioplasty, peripheral arterial

  12. Limited endoscopic sphincterotomy plus large balloon dilation for choledocholithiasis with periampullary diverticula

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hyung; Wook; Kim; Dae; Hwan; Kang; Cheol; Woong; Choi; Jong; Hwan; Park; Jin; Ho; Lee; Min; Dae; Kim; Il; Doo; Kim; Ki; Tae; Yoon; Mong; Cho; Ung; Bae; Jeon; Suk; Kim; Chang; Won; Kim; Jun; Woo; Lee

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effectiveness and safety of limited endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) plus large balloon dilation (LBD) for removing choledocholithiasis in patients with periampullary diverticula (PAD). METHODS: A total of 139 patients with common bile duct (CBD) stones were treated with LBD (10-20 mm balloon diameter) after limited EST. Of this total, 73 patients had PAD and 66 patients did not have PAD (controls). The results of stone removal and complications were retrospectively evaluated. RESULTS...

  13. FIREBALL: the Faint Intergalactic medium Redshifted Emission Balloon: overview and first science flight results

    OpenAIRE

    Milliard, Bruno; Martin, D. Christopher; Schiminovich, David; Evrard, Jean; Matuszewski, Matt; Rahman, Shahinur; Tuttle, Sarah; McLean, Ryan; Deharveng, Jean-Michel; Mirc, Frederi; Grange, Robert; Chave, Robert

    2010-01-01

    FIREBALL (the Faint Intergalactic Redshifted Emission Balloon) is a balloon-borne 1m telescope coupled to an ultraviolet fiber-fed spectrograph. FIREBALL is designed to study the faint and diffuse emission of the intergalactic medium, until now detected primarily in absorption. FIREBALL is a path finding mission to test new technology and make new constraints on the temperature and density of this gas. We report on the first successful science flight of FIREBALL, in June 2009, which proved ev...

  14. Modeling the ascent of sounding balloons: derivation of the vertical air motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gallice

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A new model to describe the ascent of sounding balloons in the troposphere and lower stratosphere (up to ~30–35 km altitude is presented. Contrary to previous models, detailed account is taken of both the variation of the drag coefficient with altitude and the heat imbalance between the balloon and the atmosphere. To compensate for the lack of data on the drag coefficient of sounding balloons, a reference curve for the relationship between drag coefficient and Reynolds number is derived from a dataset of flights launched during the Lindenberg Upper Air Methods Intercomparisons (LUAMI campaign. The transfer of heat from the surrounding air into the balloon is accounted for by solving the radial heat diffusion equation inside the balloon. The potential applications of the model include the forecast of the trajectory of sounding balloons, which can be used to increase the accuracy of the match technique, and the derivation of the air vertical velocity. The latter is obtained by subtracting the ascent rate of the balloon in still air calculated by the model from the actual ascent rate. This technique is shown to provide an approximation for the vertical air motion with an uncertainty error of 0.5 m s−1 in the troposphere and 0.2 m s−1 in the stratosphere. An example of extraction of the air vertical velocity is provided in this paper. We show that the air vertical velocities derived from the balloon soundings in this paper are in general agreement with small-scale atmospheric velocity fluctuations related to gravity waves, mechanical turbulence, or other small-scale air motions measured during the SUCCESS campaign (Subsonic Aircraft: Contrail and Cloud Effects Special Study in the orographically unperturbed mid-latitude middle troposphere.

  15. Environmental effects of the US Antarctic Program`s use of balloons in Antarctica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCold, L.N.; Eddlemon, G.K.; Blasing, T.J.

    1995-06-01

    The USAP uses balloons in Antarctica to conduct scientific research, to facilitate safe air transport, and to provide data for global weather predictions. However, there is the possibility that balloons or their payloads may adversely affect Antarctic fauna or flora. The purpose of this study is to provide background information upon which the USAP may draw when complying with its responsibilities under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, the Antarctic Treaty, and the Madrid Protocol.

  16. Balloon-expandable covered stent therapy of complex endovascular pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Heath; Lesar, Christopher; Erdoes, Luke; Sprouse, Richard; Myers, Stuart

    2008-11-01

    The current study was designed to investigate our hypotheses that balloon-expandable covered stents display acceptable function over longitudinal follow-up in patients with complex vascular pathology and provide a suitable alternative for the treatment of recurrent in-stent restenosis. All stents were Atrium iCast, which is a balloon-mounted, polytetrafluoroethylene-covered stent with a 6F/7F delivery system. A retrospective review was performed of 49 patients with 66 stented lesions. Data were analyzed with life tables and t-tests. The most commonly treated vessels were the iliac (61%) and renal (24%) arteries. Indications for covered stent placement were unstable atheromatous lesions (50%), recurrent in-stent restenosis (24%), aneurysm (8%), aortic bifurcation reconstruction (7.5%), dissection (4.5%), endovascular aneurysm repair-related (4.5%), and stent fracture (1.5%). Patency was assessed by angiogram or duplex ultrasonography. The primary end point was patency and secondary end points were technical success and access-site complications. Mean follow-up was 13 months (range 1.5-25). The technical success rate was 97%. Unsuccessful outcomes were due to deployment error (n=1) and stent malpositioning (n=1). The cohort (n=64) 6- and 12-month primary patency rates were 96% and 84%, respectively. Twelve-month assisted primary patency was 98%. Iliac artery stents (n=38) had a primary patency of 97% at 6 months and 84% at 12 months with an assisted primary patency of 100% at 12 months. Renal artery stents (n=16) had a primary patency of 92% at 6 months and 72% at 12 months with an assisted primary patency of 92% at 6 and 12 months. Stents placed for recurrent in-stent restenosis (n=16) had a primary patency of 85%, assisted primary patency of 93%, and a 15% restenosis rate at 12 months. Specifically, stents placed for renal artery recurrent in-stent restenosis (n=10) had a primary patency of 73%, assisted primary patency of 82%, and a restenosis rate of 27%. The

  17. Long-Term Outcomes of Balloon Dilation for Acquired Subglottic Stenosis in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliye Filiz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Balloon dilation laryngoplasty has been suggested as an alternative treatment to open surgical treatment of acquired subglottic stenosis in children. We describe long-term outcomes of balloon dilation for acquired subglottic stenosis in children. Methods. The medical charts of children who had balloon dilation for subglottic stenosis secondary to intubation were reviewed. Data included demographics, relevant history and physical examination, diagnostic workup, and management. Outcomes of balloon dilation were assessed based on improvement in preoperative symptoms, grading of stenosis, complications, and need for additional procedures. Results. Three children (2 male, 1 female, age range: 14 weeks–1 year underwent balloon dilation for acquired subglottic stenosis. Patients presented with stridor and increased work of breathing. Duration of intubation ranged from 2 days to 3 weeks. Patients became symptomatic 5 days to 6 weeks after extubation. Grade of subglottic stenosis was II in 2 patients and III in one. Subglottic stenosis patients had 2-3 dilations within 2–10 weeks. All patients were asymptomatic during 14–21-month follow-up. Conclusions. Serial balloon dilation was safe and successful method to manage acquired subglottic stenosis in this group of children. No recurrence was noted in a follow-up more than a year after resolution of symptoms.

  18. Long-term outcomes of balloon dilation for acquired subglottic stenosis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filiz, Aliye; Ulualp, Seckin O

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Balloon dilation laryngoplasty has been suggested as an alternative treatment to open surgical treatment of acquired subglottic stenosis in children. We describe long-term outcomes of balloon dilation for acquired subglottic stenosis in children. Methods. The medical charts of children who had balloon dilation for subglottic stenosis secondary to intubation were reviewed. Data included demographics, relevant history and physical examination, diagnostic workup, and management. Outcomes of balloon dilation were assessed based on improvement in preoperative symptoms, grading of stenosis, complications, and need for additional procedures. Results. Three children (2 male, 1 female, age range: 14 weeks-1 year) underwent balloon dilation for acquired subglottic stenosis. Patients presented with stridor and increased work of breathing. Duration of intubation ranged from 2 days to 3 weeks. Patients became symptomatic 5 days to 6 weeks after extubation. Grade of subglottic stenosis was II in 2 patients and III in one. Subglottic stenosis patients had 2-3 dilations within 2-10 weeks. All patients were asymptomatic during 14-21-month follow-up. Conclusions. Serial balloon dilation was safe and successful method to manage acquired subglottic stenosis in this group of children. No recurrence was noted in a follow-up more than a year after resolution of symptoms.

  19. Drug-eluting balloon catheters for lower limb peripheral arterial disease: the evidence to date

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkat, Mohamed; Torella, Francesco; Antoniou, George A

    2016-01-01

    A significant proportion of patients with severe lower limb peripheral arterial disease require revascularization. Over the past decade, an endovascular-first approach even for complex disease has gained widespread use among vascular specialists. An important limitation of percutaneous transluminal balloon angioplasty or stenting remains the occurrence of restenosis. Drug-coated balloons have emerged as an exciting technology developed to overcome the limitations of standard balloon angioplasty and stenting. Drug-eluting devices inhibit neointimal growth of vascular smooth muscle cells with the potential of preventing restenosis. This review provides a synopsis of the up-to-date evidence on the role of drug-coated balloons in the treatment of lower limb peripheral arterial disease. Bibliographic searches were conducted using MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library electronic database. Eleven randomized clinical trials, two systematic reviews, and a published registry providing the best available evidence were identified. Current evidence suggests that angioplasty with drug-coated balloon is reliable, safe, and efficient in increasing patency rates and reducing target lesion revascularization and restenosis. However, it remains unknown whether these improved results can translate into beneficial clinical outcomes, as current randomized clinical trials have failed to demonstrate a significant benefit in limb salvage and mortality. Further randomized trials focusing on clinical and functional outcomes of drug-eluting balloons and on cost versus clinical benefit are required. PMID:27274265

  20. Significant skin burns may occur with the use of a water balloon in HIFU treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Robert; Collin, Jamie; Wu, Feng; Coussios, Constantin; Leslie, Tom; Cranston, David

    2012-10-01

    HIFU is a minimally-invasive therapy suitable for treating selected intra-abdominal tumors. Treatment is safe although skin burns may occur due to pre-focal heating. HIFU treatment of a renal transplant tumor located in the left lower abdomen was undertaken in our centre. Treatment was performed prone, requiring displacement of the abdominal wall away from the treatment field using a water balloon, constructed of natural rubber latex and filled with degassed water. Intra-operatively, ultrasound imaging and physical examination of the skin directly over the focal region was normal. Immediately post-operative, a full-thickness skin burn was evident at the periphery of the balloon location, outside the expected HIFU path. Three possibilities may account for this complication. Firstly, the water balloon may have acted as a lens, focusing the HIFU to a neo-focus off axis. Secondly, air bubbles may have been entrapped between the balloon and the skin, causing heating at the interface. Finally, heating of the isolated water within the balloon may have been sufficient to cause burning. In this case, the placement of a water balloon caused a significant skin burn. Care should be taken in their use as burns, situated off axis, may occur even if the overlying skin appears normal.

  1. Dosimetry of charged and neutral particles onboard a stratospheric balloon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dönsdorf, Esther Miriam; Burmeister, Soenke; Heber, Bernd; Benton, Eric; Berger, Thomas

    The interaction of the primary galactic cosmic rays with constituents of the atmosphere leads to a complex secondary radiation field at high altitudes. Of special interest for aviation and thereby also for radiation protection is the height up to 30 km where the radiation field consists of charged and neutral particles. For the determination of the dose rates up to this altitude in the Earth's atmosphere a stratopheric balloon flight will be performed in central Oklahoma which has a cutoff rigidity of about 4 GV. Onboard there will be two different active radiation detector systems to measure the dose of charged and neutral particles in the stratosphere. The first one is a silicon telescope which consists of two 2 cm2 silicon PIN-photodiodes used as semiconductor detectors. This instrument will mainly be used to measure the charged component of the radiation field due to the fact that the silicon detectors have a rather low efficiency for the detection of neutrons and gammas with energies higher than 60 keV. The second instrument is a so called phoswich detector. It is composed of two dissimilar scintillators optically coupled to each other and to a common photomultiplier tube. For this experimental setup a combination of a fast plastic scintillator BC412 and a slow inorganic scintillator CsI(Na) is used. The pulses from the two scintillators will be separated by applying pulse shape analysis. These two different scintillator materials have been chosen because BC412 is hydrogen rich and thus the cross section for fast neutrons is relatively high and CsI(Na) has a high cross section for gamma radiation. The objective of the phoswich detector is to distinguish between gammas and neutrons but it is also possible to measure charged particles with this setup. The aim of the balloon flight is to determine the dose measured with these two different instruments and in particular to differentiate between the dose induced by charged particles and by the different neutral

  2. Balloon flight background measurement with actively-shielded planar and imaging CZT detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloser, Peter F.; Narita, Tomohiko; Jenkins, Jonathan A.; Perrin, Marshall; Murray, Ruth; Grindlay, Jonathan E.

    2002-01-01

    We present results from the flight of two prototype CZT detectors on a scientific balloon payload in September 2000. The first detector, referred to as CZT1, consisted of a 10 mm x 10 mm x 2 mm CZT crystal with a single gold planar electrode readout. This detector was shielded by a combination of a passive collimator in the front, giving a 40 degree field of view and surrounded by plastic scintillator, and a thick BGO crystal in the rear. The second detector, CZT2, comprised two 10 mm x 10 mm x 5 mm CZT crystals, one made of eV Products high pressure Bridgman material and the other of IMARAD horizontal Bridgman material, each fashioned with a 4 x 4 array of gold pixels on a 2.5 mm pitch. The pixellated detectors were flip-chip-mounted side by side and read out by a 32-channel ASIC. This detector was also shielded by a passive/plastic collimator in the front, but used only additional passive/plastic shielding in the rear. Both experiments were flown from Ft. Sumner, NM on September 19, 2000 on a 24 hour balloon flight. Both instruments performed well. CZT1 recorded a non-vetoed background level at 100 keV of approximately 1 x 10-3 cm-2s-1keV-1. Raising the BGO threshold from 50 keV to approximately 1 MeV produced only an 18% increase in this level. CZT2 recorded a background at 100 keV of approximately 4 times 10-3 cts cm-2s-1keV-1 in the eV Products detector and approximately 6 x 10-3 cts cm-2s-1keV-1 in the IMARAD detector, a difference possibly due to our internal background subtracting procedure. Both CZT1 and CZT2 spectra were in basic agreement with Monte Carlo simulations, though both recorded systematically higher count rates at high energy than predicted. No lines were observed, indicating that neutron capture reactions, at least those producing decay lines at a few 100 keV, are not significant components of the CZT background. Comparison of the CZT1 and CZT2 spectra indicates that passive/plastic shielding may provide adequately low background levels for

  3. Performance of the CAPRICE98 balloon-borne gas-RICH detector

    CERN Document Server

    Bergström, D; Carlson, P J; Francke, T; Grinstein, S; Weber, N; Suffert, Martin; Hof, M; Kremer, J; Menn, W; Simon, M; Stephens, S A; Ambriola, M; Bellotti, R; Cafagna, F; Castellano, M G; Ciacio, F; Circella, M; De Marzo, C; Finetti, N; Papini, P; Piccardi, S; Spillantini, P; Bartalucci, S; Ricci, M; Bidoli, V; Casolino, M; De Pascale, M P; Morselli, A; Picozza, P; Sparvoli, R; Barbiellini, Guido; Schiavon, R P; Vacchi, A; Zampa, N; Mitchell, J W; Ormes, J F; Streitmatter, R E; Bravar, U; Stochaj, S J

    2001-01-01

    A RICH counter using a gas radiator of C/sub 4/F/sub 10/ and a photosensitive MWPC with pad readout has been developed, tested in particle beam at CERN and used in the CAPRICE98 balloon-borne experiment. The MWPC was operated with a TMAE and ethane mixture at atmospheric pressure and used a cathode pad plane to give an unambiguous image of the Cherenkov light. The induced signals in the pad plane were read our using the AMPLEX chip and CRAMS. The good efficiency of the Cherenkov light collection, the efficient detection of the weak signal from single UV photons together with a low noise level in the electronics of the RICH detector, resulted in a large number of detected photoelectrons per event. For beta approximately=1 charge one particles, an average of 12 photoelectrons per event were detected. The reconstructed Cherenkov angle of 50 mrad for a beta approximately=1 particle had a resolution of 1.2 mrad (rms). The RICH was flown with the CAPRICE98 magnetic spectrometer and was the first RICH counter ever u...

  4. Differential flux measurement of atmospheric pion, muon, electron and positron energy spectra at balloon altitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimani, C.; Brunetti, M.T.; Codino, A. [Perugia Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Perugia (Italy); Papini, P.; Massimo Brancaccio, F.; Finetti, N. [Florence Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Florence (Italy); Stephens, S.A. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Researc, Bombay (International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements); Basini, G.; Bongiorno, F. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Rome (Italy); Golden, R.L. [New Mexico State Univ. Las Cruces, NM (United States). Particle Astrophysics Lab.

    1995-09-01

    The fluxes of atmospheric electrons, positrons, positive and negative muons and negative pions have been determined using the NMSU Wizard-MASS2 balloons-borne instrument. The instrument was launched from Fort Sumner, New Mexico, (geomagnetic cut-off about 4.5 GV/c) on september 23, 1991. The flight lasted 9.8 hours and remained above 100.000 ft. Muons and negative pions were observed and their momenta were determined. Since these particles are not a part of the primary component, the measurement of their fluxes provides information regarding production and propagation of secondary particles in the atmosphere. Similarly, observations of electrons and positrons well below the geomagnetic cut-off provides insight into electromagnetic cascade processes in the upper atmosphere. In addition, the determination of the energy spectra of rare particles such as positrons can be used for background subtraction for cosmic ray experiments gathering data below a few g/cm{sup 2} of overlying atmosphere.

  5. The balloon-borne large-aperture submillimeter telescope for polarimetry: BLAST-Pol

    CERN Document Server

    Fissel, Laura M; Angile, Francesco E; Benton, Steven J; Chapin, Edward L; Devlin, Mark J; Gandilo, Natalie N; Gundersen, Joshua O; Hargrave, Peter C; Hughes, David H; Klein, Jeffrey; Korotkov, Andrei L; Marsden, Galen; Matthews, Tristan G; Moncelsi, Lorenzo; Mroczkowski, Tony K; Netterfield, C Barth; Novak, Giles; Olmi, Luca; Pascale, Enzo; Savini, Giorgio; Scott, Douglas; Shariff, Jamil A; Soler, Juan Diego; Thomas, Nicholas E; Truch, Matthew D P; Tucker, Carole E; Tucker, Gregory S; Ward-Thompson, Derek; Wiebe, Donald V

    2010-01-01

    The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope for Polarimetry (BLAST-Pol) is a suborbital mapping experiment designed to study the role played by magnetic fields in the star formation process. BLAST-Pol is the reconstructed BLAST telescope, with the addition of linear polarization capability. Using a 1.8 m Cassegrain telescope, BLAST-Pol images the sky onto a focal plane that consists of 280 bolometric detectors in three arrays, observing simultaneously at 250, 350, and 500 um. The diffraction-limited optical system provides a resolution of 30'' at 250 um. The polarimeter consists of photolithographic polarizing grids mounted in front of each bolometer/detector array. A rotating 4 K achromatic half-wave plate provides additional polarization modulation. With its unprecedented mapping speed and resolution, BLAST-Pol will produce three-color polarization maps for a large number of molecular clouds. The instrument provides a much needed bridge in spatial coverage between larger-scale, coarse resolutio...

  6. The Balloon-borne Large-Aperture Submillimeter Telescope for Polarization: BLAST-pol

    CERN Document Server

    Marsden, G; Bock, J J; Chapin, E L; Chung, J; Devlin, M J; Dicker, S; Griffin, M; Gundersen, J O; Halpern, M; Hargrave, P C; Hughes, D H; Klein, J; MacTavish, C J; Martin, P G; Martin, T G; Matthews, T G; Mauskopf, P; Moncelsi, L; Netterfield, C B; Novak, G; Pascale, E; Olmi, L; Patanchon, G; Rex, M; Savini, G; Scott, D; Semisch, C; Thomas, N; Truch, M D P; Tucker, C; Tucker, G S; Viero, M P; Ward-Thompson, D; Wiebe, D V

    2008-01-01

    The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) is a sub-orbital experiment designed to study the process of star formation in local galaxies (including the Milky Way) and in galaxies at cosmological distances. Using a 2-m Cassegrain telescope, BLAST images the sky onto a focal plane, which consists of 270 bolometric detectors split between three arrays, observing simultaneously in 30% wide bands, centered at 250, 350, and 500 microns. The diffraction-limited optical system provides a resolution of 30" at 250 microns. The pointing system enables raster-like scans with a positional accuracy of ~30", reconstructed to better than 5" rms in post-flight analysis. BLAST had two successful flights, from the Arctic in 2005, and from Antarctica in 2006, which provided the first high-resolution and large-area (~0.8-200 deg^2) submillimeter surveys at these wavelengths. As a pathfinder for the SPIRE instrument on Herschel, BLAST shares with the ESA satellite similar focal plane technology and scientific...

  7. Treatment of pathologic spinal fractures with combined radiofrequency ablation and balloon kyphoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzanakakis George

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In oncologic patients with metastatic spinal disease, the ideal treatment should be well tolerated, relieve the pain, and preserve or restore the neurological function. The combination of fluoroscopic guided radiofrequency ablation (RFA and kyphoplasty may fulfill these criteria. Methods We describe three pathological vertebral fractures treated with a combination of fluoroscopic guided RFA and kyphoplasty in one session: a 62-year-old man suffering from a painful L4 pathological fracture due to a plasmocytoma, a 68-year-old man with a T12 pathological fracture from metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma, and a 71-year-old man with a Th12 and L1 pathological fracture from multiple myeloma. Results The choice of patients was carried out according to the classification of Tomita. Visual analog score (VAS and Oswestry disability index (ODI were used for the evaluation of the functional outcomes. The treatment was successful in all patients and no complications were reported. The mean follow-up was 6 months. Marked pain relief and functional restoration was observed. Conclusion In our experience the treatment of pathologic spinal fractures with combined radiofrequency ablation and balloon kyphoplasty is safe and effective for immediate pain relief in painful spinal lesions in neurologically intact patients.

  8. Acute pancreatitis associated with peroral double-balloon enteroscopy: A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kuniomi Honda; Ken Kawabe; Yoshiyuki Arita; Tetsuhide Ito; Takahiro Mizutani; Kazuhiko Nakamura; Naomi Higuchi; Kenji Kanayama; Yorinobu Sumida; Shigetaka Yoshinaga; Soichi Itaba; Hirotada Akiho

    2006-01-01

    A 58-year-old Japanese man had tarry stool and severe anemia. Neither upper nor lower gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy showed any localized lesions. Thus, the source of his GI bleeding was suspected to be in the small intestine, and he underwent peroral double-balloon enteroscopy (DBE) using EN-450T5 (Fujinon-Toshiba ES System Co., Tokyo, Japan). There were no lesions considered to be the source of GI bleeding. After the procedure, the patient began to experience abdominal pain. Laboratory tests revealed hyperamylasemia and abdominal computed tomography revealed an inflammation of the pancreas and the peripancreas. He was thus diagnosed to have acute pancreatitis. Conservative treatments resulted in both clinical and laboratory amelioration. He had no history of alcohol ingestion, gallstone disease or pancreatitis. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography demonstrated no structural alterations and no stones in the pancreatobiliary ductal system. As his abdominal pain started after the procedure, his acute pancreatitis was thus thought to have been related to the peroral DBE. This is the first reported case of acute pancreatitis probably associated with peroral DBE.

  9. The First Science Flight of the Faint Intergalactic medium Redshifted Emission Balloon (FIREBALL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Christopher; Milliard, Bruno; Schiminovich, David; Tuttle, Sarah; Matuszewski, Matt; Rahman, Shahin; Evrard, Jean; Frank, Stephan; Deharveng, Jean-Michel; Peroux, Celine

    We have completed the second flight of the path-finding experiment, the Faint Intergalactic medium Redshifted Emission Balloon (FIREBALL), designed to discover and map faint emis-sion from the Intergalactic Medium (IGM). The second flight was fully successful, proving a fully functional fine pointing gondola with arcsec level capability, a 1 meter diameter (fixed) parabola primary telescope with planar sidereostat for pointing, a complete closed loop guide camera and control software, and a fiber fed UV integral field spectrograph feeding a spare GALEX Near UV detector. Three scientific targets were observed, and analysis of the data shows that the instrument performed as expected. The flux measurements obtained will be compared to models for IGM emission. We discuss future modifications to the payload that will achieve a 10-to 30-fold increase in sensitivity over science flight 1. We also discuss other instrument configurations that can utilize the 1-meter UV telescope and arcsecond pointing platform, and their corresponding science objectives. FIREBALL is a collaboration of NASA, Caltech, Columbia University, CNES, and Laboratorie Astrophysique Marseille, and is sup-ported by NASA, CNES, and CNRS.

  10. Particle and thermal transport due to drift resistive ballooning modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, T.; Rafiq, T.; Kritz, A. H.; Bateman, G.; Pankin, A. Y.

    2009-11-01

    The ion-temperature-gradient and trapped electron modes are primary candidates for producing the turbulence that drives anomalous transport in the core of magnetically confined plasmas. The situation at the edge is different. Since the edge plasma is influenced strongly by collisions, it is expected that resistive ballooning modes (RBMs) are an important driver of turbulence in the edge region. In this work, a new advanced RBM model [1] is tested as a function of plasma parameters. In this model, the eigenvalues and eigenvectors are used together with a quasi-linear mixing length estimate to determine fluxes and diffusivities. Particle and thermal transport coefficients are investigated in systematic scans over plasma density, density gradient, electron and ion temperature gradients, magnetic q, collisions, magnetic shear, finite Larmor radius effects, and pressure gradient. In the low temperature plasma region, it is found that RBM diffusivities increase with increasing density gradient, magnetic q, and collisionality.[4pt] [1] T. Rafiq, et al, poster at this APS meeting

  11. Right ventricular function before and after percutaneous balloon mitral valvuloplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, W; Brinkies, C; Illert, S; Teupe, C; Kneissl, G D; Schräder, R

    1997-01-01

    Aim of this study was to evaluate right ventricular performance in patients with mitral stenosis and its modification by balloon valvuloplasty. Right ventricular volumes of 24 patients with postrheumatic mitral stenosis were determined by thermodilution 1 or 2 days before and 1 or 2 days after valvuloplasty. Right ventricular ejection fraction at rest was 43 (36-47)% (median and interquartile range). Right ventricular end-diastolic volume was 100 (86-119) ml/m2. Supine bicycle exercise (50 Watt) reduced right ventricular ejection fraction to 30 (29-37)% (P volume to 124 (112-141) ml/m2 (P improvement of right ventricular ejection fraction correlated inversely with the value of this parameter before valvuloplasty (r = -0.88, P volume (r = 0.57, P < 0.01). The right ventricular function curve, disturbed before commissurotomy, was reestablished by the procedure. In conclusion, at the here investigated stage of mitral stenosis right ventricular function is reversibly impaired. This is predominantly caused by the hemodynamic consequences of the valvular defect and not by an impairment of right ventricular myocardial function.

  12. SU-C-18C-02: Specifcation of X-Ray Projection Angles Which Are Aligned with the Aortic Valve Plane From a Planar Image of a Valvuloplasty Balloon Inflated Across the Aortic Valve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fetterly, K; Mathew, V [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) procedures provide a method to implant a prosthetic aortic valve via a minimallyinvasive, catheter-based procedure. TAVR procedures require use of interventional fluoroscopy c-arm projection angles which are aligned with the aortic valve plane to minimize prosthetic valve positioning error due to x-ray imaging parallax. The purpose of this work is to calculate the continuous range of interventional fluoroscopy c-arm projection angles which are aligned with the aortic valve plane from a single planar image of a valvuloplasty balloon inflated across the aortic valve. Methods: Computational methods to measure the 3D angular orientation of the aortic valve were developed. Required inputs include a planar x-ray image of a known valvuloplasty balloon inflated across the aortic valve and specifications of x-ray imaging geometry from the DICOM header of the image. A-priori knowledge of the species-specific typical range of aortic orientation is required to specify the sign of the angle of the long axis of the balloon with respect to the x-ray beam. The methods were validated ex-vivo and in a live pig. Results: Ex-vivo experiments demonstrated that the angular orientation of a stationary inflated valvuloplasty balloon can be measured with precision less than 1 degree. In-vivo pig experiments demonstrated that cardiac motion contributed to measurement variability, with precision less than 3 degrees. Error in specification of x-ray geometry directly influences measurement accuracy. Conclusion: This work demonstrates that the 3D angular orientation of the aortic valve can be calculated precisely from a planar image of a valvuloplasty balloon inflated across the aortic valve and known x-ray geometry. This method could be used to determine appropriate c-arm angular projections during TAVR procedures to minimize x-ray imaging parallax and thereby minimize prosthetic valve positioning errors.

  13. The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope for Polarimetry-BLASTPol: Performance and results from the 2012 Antarctic flight

    CERN Document Server

    Galitzki, N; Angilé, F E; Benton, S J; Devlin, M J; Dober, B; Fissel, L M; Fukui, Y; Gandilo, N N; Klein, J; Korotkov, A L; Matthews, T G; Moncelsi, L; Netterfield, C B; Novak, G; Nutter, D; Pascale, E; Poidevin, F; Savini, G; Scott, D; Shariff, J A; Soler, J D; Tucker, C E; Tucker, G S; Ward-Thompson, D

    2014-01-01

    The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope for Polarimetry (BLASTPol) is a suborbital mapping experiment, designed to study the role played by magnetic fields in the star formation process. BLASTPol observes polarized light using a total power instrument, photolithographic polarizing grids, and an achromatic half-wave plate to modulate the polarization signal. During its second flight from Antarctica in December 2012, BLASTPol made degree scale maps of linearly polarized dust emission from molecular clouds in three wavebands, centered at 250, 350, and 500 microns. The instrumental performance was an improvement over the 2010 BLASTPol flight, with decreased systematics resulting in a higher number of confirmed polarization vectors. The resultant dataset allows BLASTPol to trace magnetic fields in star-forming regions at scales ranging from cores to entire molecular cloud complexes.

  14. Application of new balloon catheters in the treatment of congenital heart defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiszer, Roland; Szkutnik, Małgorzata; Smerdziński, Sebastian; Chodór, Beata; Białkowski, Jacek

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Balloon angioplasty (BAP) and aortic or pulmonary balloon valvuloplasty (BAV, BPV) are well-established treatment options in congenital heart defects. Recently, significant technological progress has been made and new catheters have been implemented in clinical practice. Aim To analyze the results of BAP, BAV and BPV with the new balloon catheter Valver and its second generation Valver II, which the company Balton (Poland) launched and developed. These catheters have not been clinically evaluated yet. Material and methods We performed 64 interventions with Valver I and Valver II. With Valver I the following procedures were performed: 17 BPV (including 9 in tetralogy of Fallot – TOF), 10 BAV and 27 BAP in coarctations of the aorta (CoA) – including 9 native and 18 after surgery. With Valver II ten interventions were done – 3 BPV, 2 pulmonary supravalvular BAP (after switch operations), 2 BAP of recoarctations and 3 other BAP. Age of the patients ranged from a few days to 40 years. Results All procedures were completed successfully, without rupture of any balloon catheters. The pressure gradient drop was statistically significant in all groups: BPV in isolated pulmonary valvular stenosis 28.1 mm Hg (mean), BPV in TOF 18.7 mm Hg, BAV 32.8 mm Hg, BAP in native CoA 15.4 mm Hg and in recoarctations 18.6 mm Hg. In 3 cases during rapid deflation of Valver I, wrinkles of the balloons made it impossible to insert the whole balloon into the vascular sheath (all were removed surgically from the groin). No such complication occured with Valver II. Conclusions Valver balloon catheters are an effective treatment modality in different valvular and vascular stenoses. PMID:27625686

  15. Changes in coronary bifurcations after stent placement in the main vessel and balloon opening of stent cells:theory and practical verification on a bench-test model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dobrin Vassilev; Robert Gil

    2008-01-01

    Objective To describe changes that occur in stent morphology and structure after its implantation in coronary bifurcation.Side branch (SB) compromise after stenting of main vessel in coronary bifurcation is a major intraprocedural problem and for the long term,as a place of restenosis.Methods We created an elastic wall model (parent vessel diameter 3.5mm,daughter branches 3.5mm and 2.75mm)with 30,45 and 60 degree distal angulation between branches.After stent implantation,struts to the side branch were opened with 2.0mm and consequently 3.0mm diameter balloons.Subsequent balloon redilatations and kissing balloon inflations (KBI) were performed.All stages of the procedure were photographed with magnification up to 100 times.Results We found that the leading mechanism for side branch compromise was carina displacement,and discovered theoretical description for expected ostial stenosis severity.Based on our model we found that displacement of bifurcation flow divider cause SB stenosis with almost perfect coincidence with our theoretical predictions.Opening of stent cells through the proximal and distal stent struts always increased interslrut distance,but never achieved good apposition to the wall.Balloon diameter increase didn't give proportional enlargement in stent cell diameters.KBI leads to some small better stent positioning,correcting main vessel strut dislodgment from wall,but never gave full strut-wall contact.Distance between struts and wall was minimal only when the stent cell perfectly faced ostium of SB.This was also our observation that the shape of ostium of SB becomed eUiptically-bean shaped after stent implantation and generally kept that shape during consequent stages of experiment.Measured diameter and area stenosis were perfectly fitted and theoretically predicted from our concept Conclusion We have described stent-wall deformations in stent-balloon technique for treatment of coronary bifurcation demonstrating carina displacement as possibly main

  16. The long duration flight of the TopHat experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silverberg, R. F.; Aguirre, J.; Bezaire, J.;

    2003-01-01

    The TopHat instrument was designed to operate on the top of a high altitude balloon. From this location, the experiment could efficiently observe using a clean beam with extremely low contamination from the far side lobes of the instrument beam. The experiment was designed to scan a large portion...

  17. Sodium ferulate inhibits neointimal hyperplasia in rat balloon injury model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/AIM: Neointimal formation after vessel injury is a complex process involving multiple cellular and molecular processes. Inhibition of intimal hyperplasia plays an important role in preventing proliferative vascular diseases, such as restenosis. In this study, we intended to identify whether sodium ferulate could inhibit neointimal formation and further explore potential mechanisms involved. METHODS: Cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs isolated from rat thoracic aorta were pre-treated with 200 µmol/L sodium ferulate for 1 hour and then stimulated with 1 µmol/L angiotensin II (Ang II for 1 hour or 10% serum for 48 hours. Male Sprague-Dawley rats subjected to balloon catheter insertion were administrated with 200 mg/kg sodium ferulate (or saline for 7 days before sacrificed. RESULTS: In presence of sodium ferulate, VSMCs exhibited decreased proliferation and migration, suppressed intracellular reactive oxidative species production and NADPH oxidase activity, increased SOD activation and down-regulated p38 phosphorylation compared to Ang II-stimulated alone. Meanwhile, VSMCs treated with sodium ferulate showed significantly increased protein expression of smooth muscle α-actin and smooth muscle myosin heavy chain protein. The components of Notch pathway, including nuclear Notch-1 protein, Jagged-1, Hey-1 and Hey-2 mRNA, as well as total β-catenin protein and Cyclin D1 mRNA of Wnt signaling, were all significantly decreased by sodium ferulate in cells under serum stimulation. The levels of serum 8-iso-PGF2α and arterial collagen formation in vessel wall were decreased, while the expression of contractile markers was increased in sodium ferulate treated rats. A decline of neointimal area, as well as lower ratio of intimal to medial area was observed in sodium ferulate group. CONCLUSION: Sodium ferulate attenuated neointimal hyperplasia through suppressing oxidative stress and phenotypic switching of VSMCs.

  18. Modeling the ascent of sounding balloons: derivation of the vertical air motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gallice

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A new model to describe the ascent of sounding balloons in the troposphere and lower stratosphere (up to ∼30–35 km altitude is presented. Contrary to previous models, detailed account is taken of both the variation of the drag coefficient with altitude and the heat imbalance between the balloon and the atmosphere. To compensate for the lack of data on the drag coefficient of sounding balloons, a reference curve for the relationship between drag coefficient and Reynolds number is derived from a dataset of flights launched during the Lindenberg Upper Air Methods Intercomparisons (LUAMI campaign. The transfer of heat from the surrounding air into the balloon is accounted for by solving the radial heat diffusion equation inside the balloon. In its present state, the model does not account for solar radiation, i.e. it is only able to describe the ascent of balloons during the night. It could however be adapted to also represent daytime soundings, with solar radiation modeled as a diffusive process. The potential applications of the model include the forecast of the trajectory of sounding balloons, which can be used to increase the accuracy of the match technique, and the derivation of the air vertical velocity. The latter is obtained by subtracting the ascent rate of the balloon in still air calculated by the model from the actual ascent rate. This technique is shown to provide an approximation for the vertical air motion with an uncertainty error of 0.5 m s−1 in the troposphere and 0.2 m s−1 in the stratosphere. An example of extraction of the air vertical velocity is provided in this paper. We show that the air vertical velocities derived from the balloon soundings in this paper are in general agreement with small-scale atmospheric velocity fluctuations related to gravity waves, mechanical turbulence, or other small-scale air motions measured during the SUCCESS campaign (Subsonic Aircraft: Contrail and Cloud Effects

  19. Formation and evolution of flapping and ballooning waves in magnetospheric plasma sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, J. Z. G.; Hirose, A.

    2016-05-01

    By adopting Lembége & Pellat's 2D plasma-sheet model, we investigate the flankward flapping motion and Sunward ballooning propagation driven by an external source (e.g., magnetic reconnection) produced initially at the sheet center. Within the ideal MHD framework, we adopt the WKB approximation to obtain the Taylor-Goldstein equation of magnetic perturbations. Fourier spectral method and Runge-Kutta method are employed in numerical simulations, respectively, under the flapping and ballooning conditions. Studies expose that the magnetic shears in the sheet are responsible for the flapping waves, while the magnetic curvature and the plasma gradient are responsible for the ballooning waves. In addition, the flapping motion has three phases in its temporal development: fast damping phase, slow recovery phase, and quasi-stabilized phase; it is also characterized by two patterns in space: propagating wave pattern and standing wave pattern. Moreover, the ballooning modes are gradually damped toward the Earth, with a wavelength in a scale size of magnetic curvature or plasma inhomogeneity, only 1-7% of the flapping one; the envelops of the ballooning waves are similar to that of the observed bursty bulk flows moving toward the Earth.

  20. Parallel wire balloon angioplasty for undilatable venous stenosis in hemodialysis fistula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Tae Beom; You, Jin Jong; Cho, Jae Min [Gyeongsang National University Hospital, Jinju (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2007-05-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess the value of the parallel wire balloon angioplasty technique for treating dysfunctional hemdialysis fistula with rigid stenosis, and this type of lesion was resistant to conventional angioplasty. Between March 2002 and August 2003, we included 6 patients (mean age: 59, males: 2, females: 4) who were treated via parallel the wire balloon angioplasty technique and their hemodialysis fistula has stenoses that were resistant to conventional angioplasty. We performed conventional angioplasty in all patients, but we failed to achieve sufficient dilatation. In the cases of highly resistant stenosis, an additional 0.016 inch wire was inserted into the 7 F vascular sheath. During angioplasty, a 0.016 inch guide wire was inserted between the balloon and the stenosis and then it was pushed to and fro until the balloon indentation disappeared. After the procedure, we performed angiography to identify the residual stenosis and the procedure-related complications. The undilatable stenoses in 5 patients were successfully resolved without complications via the parallel wire angioplasty technique. In one patient, indentation of balloon was not resolved, but the residual stenosis was both minimal and hemodynamically insignificant. The parallel wire angioplasty technique seems to be a feasible and cost-effective method for treating a dysfunctional hemodialysis fistula with undilatable and rigid stenosis.

  1. Assessment of risk of carotid occlusion with balloon Matas testing and dynamic computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terada, Tomoaki; Okuno, Takashi; Moriwaki, Hiroshi; Nakai, Ekini; Nishiguchi, Takashi; Hayashi, Seiji; Komai, Norihiko.

    1988-02-01

    Temporary occlusion of the internal carotid artery with a balloon catheter (balloon Matas test) and simultaneous dynamic computed tomographic scanning (DCT) were performed in four patients with intracranial aneurysms to determine their tolerance for permanent carotid occlusion. Five DCT parameters were evaluated: appearance time, peak time, peak height fitting, first effective moment, and transit time. The patients were characterized into three types: type I (2 patients) - lack of neurological deficit during the balloon Matas test and equally preserved cerebral blood flow (CBF) in the two hemispheres on DCT during carotid occlusion, type II (one patient) - a decreased CBF on the occluded side on DCT despite the lack of neurological deficit; type III (one patient) - neurological signs, such as disturbance of consciousness, aphasia, and right hemiparesis occuring immediately after the start of the balloon Matas test, and a decreased CBF in the region of the middle and anterior cerebral arteries on the occluded side. In the type III patient, occlusion of the internal carotid artery is contraindicated unless an EC-IC bypass procedure that can rapidly provide a large supply of blood is performed. It can be concluded that the balloon Matas/DCT method offers a reliable means of predicting the risk of carotid ligation. (Namekawa, K.).

  2. Status of the Balloon-Borne X-ray Polarimetry Mission X-Calibur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczynski, Henric; Kislat, Fabian; Stuchlik, David; Okajima, Takashi; de Geronimo, Gianluigi

    2016-04-01

    We report on the status of the balloon borne hard X-ray polairmetry mission X-Calibur. The missions combines a focussing hard X-ray mirror from the InFOCuS collaboration with a scattering polarimeter and the WASP (Wallops Arc Second Pointer) pointing system. The mission is scheduled for a conventonal ~1 day balloon flight in Fall 2016 and a long duration (~30 day) balloon flight from McMurdo (Ross Island) in 2018/2019. X-Calibur will allow us to measure ~5% polarization fractions for strong sources with a Crab-like enegry spectra and fluxes. The science targets of the first balloon flights will include the stellar mass black holes GRS 1915+105 and Cyg X-1, Her X-1, Sco X-1, and the Crab nebula and pulsar. The long duration balloon flight will target several X-ray binaries and the extragalactic mass accreting supermassive black hole Cen A. In this contribution we give an update on the status of the mission, and the expected science return.

  3. Combined CT and fluoroscopic guidance of balloon kyphoplasty versus fluoroscopy-only procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amoretti, Nicolas; Marcy, Pierre-Yves; Lesbats-Jacquot, Virginie; Fonquerne, Marie-Eve; Hericord, Olivier; Maratos, Yvonne [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Nice, Service de Radiologie, Nice (France); Hovorka, Istvan [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Nice, Spine Surgery Department, Nice (France); Roux, Christian; Euller-Ziegler, Liana [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Nice, Rheumatology Department, Nice (France)

    2009-07-15

    To evaluate the performance of combined (computed tomography (CT) and fluoroscopic) guidance of balloon kyphoplasty in comparison to fluoroscopic guidance alone. Forty-one kyphoplasties were performed between January 2005 and March 2006 according to two different protocols. Study group 1 consisted of 20 consecutive patients with 20 balloon kyphoplasty procedures under dual guidance (CT scan and fluoroscopy) for osteoporotic or traumatic vertebral fractures. Study group 2 consisted of 21 consecutive patients in whom kyphoplasty was performed with fluoroscopy alone. Visualization of the pedicles, the final of the balloon position, and cement distribution were evaluated(1 - poor, 2 - intermediate, 3 - good). Combined use of CT and fluoroscopy (group 1) was superior in identifying the pedicles (100% versus 66.7%, p = 0.009) and balloon placement (100% versus 71.4%, p = 0.02) but not in monitoring of cement distribution within the vertebral body (100% versus 90.5%, p = 0.49). The difference between the two groups was more pronounced in the thoracic spine than in the lumbar spine. CT/fluoroscopic guidance of kyphoplasty combines safe CT-guided insertion of the osteointroducers and balloons as well as fluoroscopic real-time monitoring of polymethylmethacrylate injection. (orig.)

  4. Balloon catheter dilation technology combined with a fibrolaryngoscope to treat a maxillary sinus cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jianxin; Chen, Junming; Wang, Yuejian

    2016-02-01

    A prospective randomized controlled study was conducted to investigate the effect of balloon catheter dilation technology combined with a fibrolaryngoscope in the treatment of a maxillary sinus cyst. The clinical data of 14 cases (19 maxillary sinuses) with balloon catheter dilation technology combined with a fibrolaryngoscope to remove sinus cysts (balloon group) and 16 cases (23 maxillary sinuses) with conventional nasal endoscopic sinus surgery to remove sinus cysts (conventional group) were analyzed. All cases have completed the preoperative and postoperative SNOT-20, nasal endoscopy and coronal sinus CT scan. Lund-Kennedy endoscopic and Lund-Mackay CT scan staging scores were recorded. All patients were followed up for 24 weeks after the operation. The SNOT-20 scores, Lund-Kennedy endoscopic and Lund-Mackay CT scan staging scores were lower in the balloon group than that in the control group. Balloon catheter dilation technology combined with a fibrolaryngoscope can effectively preserve the function and structures of the nasal cavity and sinus, making it a good choice in the treatment of a retention cyst of the maxillary sinus.

  5. Femorofemoral grafts for lower limb ischemia caused by intra-aortic balloon pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedell, M L; Alpert, J; Parsonnet, V; Brief, D K; Brener, B J; Goldenkranz, R J; Nozick, J

    1987-01-01

    From January 1975 to December 1985, 1454 patients had an intra-aortic balloon inserted for cardiac assistance. Eighty balloon-dependent patients had severe limb ischemia and required a femorofemoral graft (FFG) (5% of the total group of patients). Twenty-nine of the 80 patients with grafts (or 36%) left the hospital and 28 were followed up for an average of 40 months to determine late complications associated with the crossover grafts. All grafts remained patent. The 28 patients were classified into five groups according to the degree and type of lower limb ischemia. Group I consisted of 13 asymptomatic patients (46%); group II had four (14%) patients with mild claudication caused by preexisting peripheral arteriosclerosis; group III comprised four patients (14%) without preexisting disease but claudication subsequent to the FFG; group IV had five patients with irreversible ischemic sequelae before grafting ending in amputation, foot drop, or persistent paresthesia; and group V consisted of two patients with graft infection (7%). The perioperative mortality rate of the balloon-dependent patients with an FFG (64%) reflects the gravity of the cardiac condition. Placement of an FFG to relieve limb ischemia in these patients is followed by few immediate or late complications in the survivors and any persistent limb changes were related to the prolonged ischemia present before revascularization. Our data suggest that in balloon-dependent patients with limb-threatening ischemia, aggressive use of the FFG is limb-saving, durable, and allows continuation of balloon support.

  6. ProtoEXIST: balloon-borne technology development for wide-field hard X-ray imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindlay, Jonathan

    We report on the development of the ProtoEXIST balloon-borne experiment for development of wide-field coded aperture imaging with high spatial resolution imaging Cd-Zn-Te (CZT) arrays in close-tiled, large area configurations. ProtoEXIST1 will incorporate two coded aperture telescopes, each with 16 x 16cm close-tiled imaging CZT with 2.5mm pixels that maintain registration across the full detector. The detector plane incorporates new-technology low powered ASIC readout on each 20 x 20 x 5mm CZT crystal. A 2 x 4 array of such crystals are closetiled on a single board (DCA) with vertical integration to a controlling and readout-enabling FPGA. Detector readout modes can be commanded through the FPGA and selected in flight: from simple peak pixel, to peak plus neighbor pixels to larger pixel-selected modes, which will improve spatial/spectral resolution as well as allow for future tests of Compton imaging. The full readout consists of a 2 x 4 array of DCAs for each of the two telescopes. The detector plane is shielded from below by an active shield (2cm CsI) on one telescope vs. an equivalent graded-passive shield on the other to enable direct imaging comparisons of background rejection in a balloon environment. Both telescopes incorporate otherwise identical graded-passive side shields and laminated coded aperture masks (5mm pixels, laser-cut in W sheet). The telescopes each have 20o x 20o fields of view (FWHM), with 21arcmin resolution across the field. The ProtoEXIST gondola is derived from the old Harvard EXITE gondola but now with new pointing system and daytime star camera as developed at MSFC for the HERO balloon payload. A first flight is planned for September/October, 2008. Tests will include not only the first tests of this multipixel, controllable ASIC-readout system but also tests of the scanning coded aperture imaging as planned for the proposed EXIST mission. Followup flight(s) will test the higher-spatial resolution CZT imager (0.6mm pixels) now planned

  7. 探空气球漂移特征及对三角形法计算散度的影响%Features of Radiosonde Balloon Drifting with Impacts on Divergence Calculated by Triangle Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王学忠; 胡邦辉; 王举; 黄泓; 邹勋

    2015-01-01

    利用2006—2013年南京站、安庆站和杭州站探空资料,讨论华东地区探空气球的漂移特征。设计不考虑气球漂移、考虑全部气球漂移和考虑部分气球漂移3个试验,比较3种情况下三角形法计算的散度差异。结果表明:气球漂移主要受大气环流及其变化影响,纬向上7月和8月气球随高度增加,先向东漂移、后向西漂移,其他月份以向东漂移为主,冬季漂移距离大;经向上受季风影响明显。考虑全部和部分气球漂移与不考虑气球漂移的散度对比表明,平均绝对偏差各月在对流层顶附近均有极大值;相对偏差季节分布明显,前者在6—9月较大,极大值略大于7%,后者冬季大,1月在200 hPa 达到25%,在50 hPa 超过50%。因此,利用三角形法计算散度所在层次较高或所使用资料中传统探空和特种探空并存时,均需考虑气球漂移影响。%Traditional radiosonde balloon can float a long distance from its releasing place especially when reaching a high level above ground,while special radiosondes consisting of wind profiler and satellite remote sensing information are snapshots of atmospheric status and have no spatial drifts of particular location.The spatial derivatives (such as divergence)calculated through triangle method are closely related to the triangle’s three-culminations position. The balloon floating and inhomogeneity introduced by the mixed use of data from traditional and special radio-sondes can dramatically change the relative position of those culminations.The balloon floating feature and its im-pact on the divergence calculated through triangle method is a subject of potential application.Based on traditional radiosonde data of three stations in Eastern China,namely Nanjing,Anqing and Hangzhou with time coverage from 2006 to 2013,statistical features of balloon drift are investigated.And three experiments are designed to in-vestigate how the

  8. Loss of Guide Wire: A Rare Complication of Intra-Aortic Balloon Pump Insertion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manouchehr Hekmat

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available At the final stages of a coronary artery bypass graft operation on a 64-year-old man, an experienced physician attempted to insert an intra-aortic balloon pump into the femoral artery via the Seldinger technique. However, while the balloon pump was being passed over the guide wire, the latter was completely lost.The guide wire should be held at the tip at all times to prevent passage into the vessel. Strict adherence to this rule will prevent guide-wire loss, which is, albeit rare and completely avoidable, a potentially life-threatening complication of central vein or artery catheterization, with reported fatality rates of up to 20% when the whole wire is lost. The literature contains several reports on guide-wire loss during central venous, arterial, and hemodialysis catheterization, but we report for the first time the loss of a guide wire as a rare complication of intra-aortic balloon pump insertion.

  9. Multi-Modal Image Registration and Matching for Localization of a Balloon on Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansar, Adnan I.

    2011-01-01

    A solution was developed that matches visible/IR imagery aboard a balloon in Saturn's moon Titan's atmosphere to SAR (synthetic aperture radar) and visible/IR data acquired from orbit. A balloon in Titan's atmosphere must be able to localize itself autonomously both globally and with respect to local terrain. The orbital data is used to provide the balloon imagery with global context. The work is novel in applying mutual information (MI) to orbital vs. aerial data. There are unique challenges in this setting. Image offsets are much higher than in medical imaging, there is local distortion due to 3D terrain relief, and the fields of regard from orbit and from the air are quite different.

  10. A balloon-borne millimeter-wave telescope for cosmic microwave background anisotropy measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Fixsen, D J; Cottingham, D A; Folz, W C; Inman, C A; Kowitt, M S; Meyer, S; Page, L A; Puchalla, J L; Ruhl, J E; Silverberg, R F

    1995-01-01

    We report on the characteristics and design details of the Medium Scale Anisotropy Measurement (MSAM), a millimeter-wave, balloon-borne telescope that has been used to observe anisotropy in the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (CMBR) on 0\\fdg5 angular scales. The gondola is capable of determining and maintaining absolute orientation to a few arcminutes during a one-night flight. Emphasis is placed on the optical and pointing performance as well as the weight and power budgets. We also discuss the total balloon/gondola mechanical system. The pendulation from this system is a ubiquitous perturbation on the pointing system. A detailed understanding in these areas is needed for developing the next generation of balloon-borne instruments.

  11. Fibular free flap with arteria peronea magna: the role of preoperative balloon occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmel, Benjamin B; Snow, Thomas M; Batstone, Martin D

    2011-03-01

    The free fibular osteocutaneous flap is a commonly used donor for reconstruction of mandibular defects. Vascular abnormalities and leg trauma are relative contraindications to the use of a fibular free flap. Peroneal arteria magna (PAM) is one such vascular abnormality that may preclude the use of the graft due to the high risk of lower-limb ischemia. Lower-limb angiography is the standard for assessing the lower-limb vascular anatomy; however, the indications remain controversial. Although balloon occlusion has been used to assess the vascular supply in distal bypass surgery, there have no reported cases of balloon occlusion to assess the viability of the distal extremity with PAM. Intraoperative assessment of vascular anatomy with an aborted harvest can lead to significant morbidity and cost. Balloon occlusion provides a relatively safe and minimally invasive technique for assessment of potential lower-limb ischemia in patients with PAM.

  12. The 2009 Space Science Component of UNH Project SMART and High School Students Building a High-Altitude Balloon Payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C. W.; Broad, L.; Chen, L.; Farrugia, C. J.; Frederick-Frost, K.; Goelzer, S.; Kucharek, H.; Messeder, R.; Moebius, E.; Puhl-Quinn, P. A.; Torbert, R. B.

    2009-12-01

    For the past 19 years the University of New Hampshire has offered a unique research and education opportunity to motivated high-school students called Project SMART (Science and Mathematics Achievement through Research Training). The Space Science module is strongly research based. Students work in teams of two on real research projects carved from the research programs of the faculty. The projects are carefully chosen to match the abilities of the students. The students receive classes in basic physics as well as lectures in space science to help them with their work. This year the research included the analysis of magnetic reconnection observations and Crater FTE observation, both by the CLUSTER spacecraft, the building of Faraday cups for thermal ion measurements in our thermal vacuum facility, and analysis of the IBEX star sensor. In addition to this, the students work on one combined project and for the past several years this project has been the building of a payload for a high-altitude balloon. The students learn to integrate telemetry and GPS location hardware while they build several small experiments that they then fly to the upper reaches of the Earth's atmosphere. This year the payload included a small video camera and the payload flew to 96,000 feet, capturing images of weather patterns as well as the curvature of the Earth, thickness of the atmosphere, and black space. In addition to still photos, we will be showing 2- and 7-minute versions of the 90-minute flight video that include footage from peak altitude, the bursting of the balloon, and initial descent.

  13. Balloon Coating with Rapamycin Using an On-site Coating Device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmehl, Joerg, E-mail: joerg.schmehl@med.uni-tuebingen.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital of Tuebingen (Germany); Ruhr, Juergen von der [Institute of Anatomy, University of Tuebingen (Germany); Dobratz, Markus; Kehlbach, Rainer [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital of Tuebingen (Germany); Braun, Isabelle [Translumina GmbH (Germany); Greiner, Tim-Oliver [Clinic of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, University Hospital of Tuebingen (Germany); Claussen, Claus D. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital of Tuebingen (Germany); Behnisch, Boris [Translumina GmbH (Germany)

    2013-06-15

    Purpose. The efficacy of drug-eluting balloons has been demonstrated in clinical trials. The drug predominantly used is paclitaxel because of its lipophilic properties and the rapid onset of action. The aim of the investigation was to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of an alternative balloon coating with rapamycin that can be applied on site.MethodsThe balloon coating (3.0/18 and 3.0/12 mm, Cathy No. 4, Translumina GmbH) with rapamycin was conducted with a coating machine (Translumina GmbH). Concentrations were 2, 2 Multiplication-Sign 2, 3, and 4 %. Measurements regarding the amount of substance released to the vessel wall were carried out on explanted porcine coronaries by means of ultraviolet and visible-light spectroscopy. Inflation time varied between 30 and 120 s. The biological effect of the coating was evaluated in a porcine peripheral overstretch and stent implantation model. Results. The amount of rapamycin on the balloon surface ranged from 558 {+-} 108 {mu}g for the 2 % solution to 1,441 {+-} 228 {mu}g in the 4 % solution. An amount of 95 {+-} 63-193 {+-} 113 {mu}g was released into the vessel wall. The quantitative measurements of the angiographic examinations 4 weeks after treatment revealed a reduction of diameter stenosis from 20.6 {+-} 17.4 % in the control group to 11.6 {+-} 5.5 % in the drug-eluting balloon group. Conclusion. A balloon coating with rapamycin omitting an excipient is possible with a dose-adjustable coating machine. However, the biological effects are moderate, which make further optimization of the coating process and evaluation of appropriate excipients necessary.

  14. Healing after arterial dilatation with radiofrequency thermal and nonthermal balloon angioplasty systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, J; Barry, K J; Connolly, R J; Nardella, P C; Hayes, L L; Lee, B I; Waller, B F; Becker, G J; Callow, A D

    1993-01-01

    Thermal balloon angioplasty has been proposed as a means of reducing acute and delayed reclosure of arteries after percutaneous transluminal balloon angioplasty. A radiofrequency (rf) balloon catheter was used to perform thermal balloon angioplasty on canine arteries in vivo. The histologic appearance of rf-treated sites was compared with that of control sites treated by conventional percutaneous transluminal angioplasty. Acutely, rf-treated sites showed a reduced medial cellularity with preservation of internal elastic lamina except at the transitional zone between thermal injury and normal artery, where localized internal elastic lamina disruption was found. Nonthermal sites showed generalized disruption of internal elastic lamina and normal medial cellularity. Both thermal and nonthermal sites displayed a return of intimal cover commencing at 1 to 2 weeks and completed by 4 weeks. Diffuse myointimal hyperplasia appeared by 2 weeks after injury at breaks in the internal elastic lamina along the nonthermal vessels but was localized to the transitional zone in thermal injury sites. In rf-treated vessels, repopulation of the acellular thermally modified media had commenced by 4 weeks, and by 8 weeks the media was diffusely repopulated by spindle-shaped cells resembling smooth muscle cells lying between and aligned with preserved connective tissue laminae. Overall, the distribution and extent of the proliferative response after rf thermal balloon angioplasty were less than those seen after nonthermal balloon angioplasty. Thermal sites, which underwent reintimalization before medial cells returned, were considerably less prone to the development of myointimal hyperplasia. These results suggest that this modality may have beneficial effects on arterial healing after angioplasty.

  15. Effect of low-grade conductive heating on vascular compliance during in vitro balloon angioplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchel, J F; Fram, D B; Aretz, T A; Gillam, L D; Woronick, C; Waters, D D; McKay, R G

    1994-07-01

    Radiofrequency-powered, thermal balloon angioplasty is a new technique that enhances luminal dilatation with less dissection than conventional angioplasty. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of radiofrequency heating of balloon fluid on the pressure-volume mechanics of in vitro balloon angioplasty and to determine the histologic basis for thermal-induced compliance changes. In vitro, radiofrequency-powered, thermal balloon angioplasty was performed on 46 paired iliac segments freshly harvested from 23 nonatherosclerotic pigs. Balloon inflations at 60 degrees C were compared to room temperature inflations in paired arterial segments. Intraballoon pressure and volume were recorded during each inflation as volume infusion increased pressure over a 0 to 10 atm range. Pressure-volume compliance curves were plotted for all dilatations. Six segments were stained to assess the histologic abnormalities associated with thermal compliance changes. Radiofrequency heating acutely shifted the pressure-volume curves rightward in 20 of 23 iliac segments compared to nonheated controls. This increase in compliance persisted after heating and exceeded the maximum compliance shift caused by multiple nonheated inflations in a subset of arterial segments. Histologically, heated segments showed increased thinning and compression of the arterial wall, increased medial cell necrosis and altered elastic tissue fibers compared to nonheated specimens. In conclusion, radiofrequency heating of intraballoon fluid to 60 degrees C acutely increases vascular compliance during in vitro balloon angioplasty of nonatherosclerotic iliac arteries. The increased compliance persists after heating and can be greater than the compliance shifts induced by multiple conventional dilatations. Arterial wall thinning and irreversible alteration of elastic tissue fibers probably account for thermal compliance changes.

  16. Coriolis Mass-Flowmeter for aerostatic gas amount determination in zero pressure stratosperic balloons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar, Jean-Baptiste

    2016-07-01

    The CNES ballooning community regularly operates zero pressure balloons in many countries around the world (recently in France, Sweden, Canada and soon, Australia in 2017). An important operational flight parameter is the aerostatic gas mass injected into the balloon (currently helium and hydrogen in the study). Besides the lifting force, it determines mainly the ascent rate from which the adiabatic expansion depends directly. A too high ascent velocity in very cold air temperature profiles could result in a gas temperature drop which if too great, might induce brittleness of the envelope. A precise gas mass determination is therefore critical for performance as well as for mission safety. The various gas supply tanks in various countries all have different characteristics with possible uncertainties with regard to their volumes. This makes the currently used gas mass determination method based on supply tank pressure measurements unreliable. This method also relies on tank temperature, another source of inaccuracy in the gas amount determination. CNES has therefore prospected for alternative methods to reduce inaccuracies and perhaps also ease the operational procedures during balloon inflation. Coriolis mass-flowmeters which have reached industrial maturity, offer the great advantage over other flowmeters to be able to directly measure the mass of the transferred fluid, and not deducing it from other parameters as other types of flowmeters would do. An industrial contractor has been therefore assigned to integrate this solution into the CNES operational setup. This new system is to be tested in February 2016. The presentation will briefly explain the Coriolis flowmeter's principle and display the February 2016 performance tests' results. The expected incidence on zero pressure balloons' trajectories will also be discussed based on simulations ran on a balloon flight simulator software.

  17. CNES super pressure balloons assessment and new developments to prepare Strateole-2 campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venel, Stephanie; Spel, Martin; Cocquerez, Philippe; Meyer, Jean-Renaud; Nicot, Jean-Marc.; Parot, Gael; Perraud, Sophie

    The French Space Agency, CNES, has developed, since about twelve years ago, super pressure balloons (SPB) that float on constant density (isopycnic) surfaces in the lowermost stratosphere, carrying 40 to 50 kg payloads, during typically three months. These SPB have been successfully deployed in flotilla of about 20 balloons for different scientific campaigns all over the world in different configuration sizes from 8,5 to 12 m diameter, mainly to document the chemistry and dynamics of the atmosphere, to study gravity waves, and to provide in-situ atmospheric profiles thanks to the NCAR driftsonde payloada. This paper will describe the main results and lessons achieved during the last CONCORDIASI campaign in 2010 over the Antarctic region. Thus, anomalies on the on-board system were investigated and explained by the effect of atmospheric particles fluxes. Also related to these flights, an accurate thermal model was built to evaluate the temperature distribution in the balloon, and several ageing tests have been made to better understand the effect of solar exposure on the different balloon materials. This paper will also present the new developments in progress for the future STRATEOLE-2 campaign dedicated to advance the knowledge of coupling processes between the troposphere and the stratosphere in the deep tropics, and foreseen in 2018-2019. In particular, a new command-control system will be developed to be in conformity with the CNES safety rules, and in continuation with the new zero pressure balloons system named NOSYCA. New solar panels are under investigation. Finally, two new balloon sizes will grow the SPB family to respond to the scientist demand of two special altitude densities.

  18. The Effect of the BalloonSat Project on Middle and High School Students' Attitude toward Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhage, L. Paul

    2012-01-01

    This study measured the effect of completing a BalloonSat project on student attitude toward science. Seven categories of student attitudes toward science were measured using the Test of Science Relate Attitudes survey (TOSRA). The research anticipated that the BalloonSat project would have similar effects on student attitudes as found in robotics…

  19. The removal of intravascular bullets by interventional radiology: the prevention of central migration by balloon occlusion--case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sclafani, S J; Shatzkes, D; Scalea, T

    1991-10-01

    A migratory intravascular bullet fragment located within the hypogastric vein was removed successfully with the aid of interventional radiologic techniques. The authors describe the use of the technique of balloon trapping as part of this procedure. A balloon should be inflated between the foreign body and the heart before retrieval is attempted in order to prevent migration back to the heart during the manipulation.

  20. Treatment of hepatic venous stenosis by transfemoral venous balloon dilation following living donor liver transplantation: a case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weiwei Jiang; Yangsui Liu; Lianbao Kong

    2009-01-01

    Hepatic venous stenosis may be a cause of graft failure in living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). Balloon dilation and metallic frame approaches have been used successfully to treat hepatic venous stenosis. Here, we report the effect of transfemoral venous balloon dilation for treating a child with hepatic venous stenosis after LDLT.