WorldWideScience

Sample records for athletic association injury

  1. Maxillofacial injuries among National Collegiate Athletic Association athletes: 2004-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorney, Stephen R; Sobin, Lindsay; Goyal, Parul; Suryadevara, Amar C

    2017-06-01

    Participation in National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) sports increases annually, yet the risk of maxillofacial injuries among these athletes is unknown. We report the incidence and trends in maxillofacial injuries among NCAA athletes. Retrospective study of the NCAA Injury Surveillance System (ISS) representing athletes from seven men's and eight women's sports across Divisions 1, 2, and 3. Incidence of maxillofacial injuries by sport, gender, anatomic location, and injuries requiring surgery were measured. Athlete exposure data from 2004 to 2005 through 2013 to 2014 were analyzed, along with maxillofacial injuries recorded in the NCAA-ISS. There were 2,017 injuries recorded, which projects to 41,204 injuries from 202,087,229 athlete events, or 2.04 injuries per 10,000 athlete events (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.68 to 2.40). Women had higher injury rates, 2.06 versus 2.03 (P = 0.016 [95% CI 0.22 to 2.09]). Highest rates were noted in men's wrestling 7.02 (95% CI, 2.84 to 11.19) and men's basketball 4.80 (95% CI, 3.57 to 6.02), and were lowest in women's ice hockey 0.61 (95% CI, 0.17 to 1.06) and women's volleyball 0.43 (95% CI, 0.20 to 0.66). No gender differences in fractures or need for surgery, but men sustained more operative fractures, 27.85% versus 17.04% (P = 0.035 [95% CI, 0.79 to 20.82]). Men's football, women's ice hockey, women's volleyball, and women's gymnastics had consistently low fracture rates. Maxillofacial injuries represent approximately 3.4% of all injuries sustained by NCAA athletes. Women had a higher injury rate, whereas men had a higher rate of operative facial fractures. Awareness and improved facial protection, especially among noncontact sports, will be crucial in reducing the incidence of these injuries. 4. Laryngoscope, 127:1296-1301, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  2. The volleyball athlete's shoulder: biomechanical adaptations and injury associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challoumas, Dimitrios; Stavrou, Antonio; Dimitrakakis, Georgios

    2017-06-01

    In volleyball, the dominant shoulder of the athlete undergoes biomechanical and morphological adaptations; however, definitive conclusions about their exact nature, aetiology, purpose and associations with shoulder injury have not been reached. We present a systematic review of the existing literature describing biomechanical adaptations in the dominant shoulders of volleyball players and factors that may predispose to shoulder pain/injury. A thorough literature search via Medline, EMBASE and SCOPUS was conducted for original studies of volleyball players and 15 eligible articles were identified. Assessment of study quality was performed using the STROBE statement. The reviewed literature supports the existence of a glenohumeral internal rotation deficit (GIRD) and a possible (and less pronounced) external rotation gain in the dominant vs. the non-dominant shoulder of volleyball athletes. Unlike other overhead sports, the GIRD in volleyball athletes appears to be anatomical as a response to the repetitive overhead movements and not to be associated with shoulder pain/injury. Additionally, the dominant shoulder exhibits muscular imbalance, which appears to be a significant risk factor for shoulder pain. Strengthening of the external rotators should be used alongside shoulder stretching and joint mobilisations, core strengthening and optimisation of spike technique as part of injury management and prevention programmes.

  3. Chronic lack of sleep is associated with increased sports injuries in adolescent athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milewski, Matthew D; Skaggs, David L; Bishop, Gregory A; Pace, J Lee; Ibrahim, David A; Wren, Tishya A L; Barzdukas, Audrius

    2014-03-01

    Much attention has been given to the relationship between various training factors and athletic injuries, but no study has examined the impact of sleep deprivation on injury rates in young athletes. Information about sleep practices was gathered as part of a study designed to correlate various training practices with the risk of injury in adolescent athletes. Informed consent for participation in an online survey of training practices and a review of injury records was obtained from 160 student athletes at a combined middle/high school (grades 7 to 12) and from their parents. Online surveys were completed by 112 adolescent athletes (70% completion rate), including 54 male and 58 female athletes with a mean age of 15 years (SD=1.5; range, 12 to 18 y). The students' responses were then correlated with data obtained from a retrospective review of injury records maintained by the school's athletic department. Multivariate analysis showed that hours of sleep per night and the grade in school were the best independent predictors of injury. Athletes who slept on average athletes who slept for ≥8 hours. For each additional grade in school, the athletes were 1.4 times more likely to have had an injury (95% confidence interval, 1.2-1.6; PSleep deprivation and increasing grade in school appear to be associated with injuries in an adolescent athletic population. Encouraging young athletes to get optimal amounts of sleep may help protect them against athletic injuries. Level III.

  4. Star Excursion Balance Test Anterior Asymmetry Is Associated With Injury Status in Division I Collegiate Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiffler, Mikel R; Bell, David R; Sanfilippo, Jennifer L; Hetzel, Scott J; Pickett, Kristen A; Heiderscheit, Bryan C

    2017-05-01

    Study Design Retrospective cohort. Background Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) performance differs by sport in healthy collegiate athletes, and lower extremity injury rates also vary by sport, sex, and athletic exposure. The relationship between SEBT performance and injury risk has not been evaluated with consideration of these additional variables, which may be necessary to fully describe the relationship between SEBT performance and injury risk. Objectives To assess the association between preseason SEBT performance and noncontact injury occurrence to the knee or ankle in Division I collegiate athletes when controlling for sport, sex, and athletic exposure. Methods Star Excursion Balance Test performance, starting status, and injury status were reviewed retrospectively in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I collegiate athletes from a single institution. A total of 147 athletes were healthy at the time of preseason SEBT testing and either remained healthy (n = 118) or sustained a noncontact injury to the knee or ankle (n = 29) during their sport's subsequent competitive season. Side-to-side asymmetries were calculated in each direction as the absolute difference in reach distance between limbs. Star Excursion Balance Test reach distances and asymmetries were compared between groups using multivariable regression, controlling for sport, sex, and athletic exposure (starter, nonstarter). Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to determine optimal sensitivity and specificity for significant models. Results When controlling for sport, sex, and athletic exposure, SEBT side-to-side asymmetry in the anterior direction, expressed as an absolute or normalized to limb length, discriminated between injured and noninjured athletes (area under the curve greater than 0.82). Conclusion Assessing side-to-side reach asymmetry in the anterior direction of the SEBT may assist in identifying collegiate athletes who are at risk for sustaining noncontact

  5. Sports injuries among professional male athletes in Kuwait: prevalence and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwan, Yousef; Behbehani, Abdullah; Al-Mousawi, Abdullah; Mulla-Juma'a, Ali; Sadeq, Husain; Shah, Nasrah

    2012-01-01

    To assess a 12-month period and the lifetime prevalence of sports injuries among male athletes according to type of sport, type of injury and its seriousness, and to examine the association of injuries with sociodemographic, lifestyle and preventive factors. In this cross-sectional study, we approached 475 professional athletes participating in ball sports, aged 15 years and older, from 5 sports clubs in Kuwait. Of them, 452 responded. Four ball games--football (soccer), basketball, handball and volleyball--were included. Data were collected through a self-administered questionnaire. Bivariate and multivariate relationships between associated factors and experience of injury were tested by using χ(2) and logistic regression. The overall 12-month and lifetime prevalence of sports injuries were 73.8 and 89.8%, respectively. Prevalence was highest among volleyball athletes (79%) and lowest among football (soccer) athletes (69%). Lower limbs (73.1%) were the most common site of injuries and joint injuries (43.6%) were the most common type. For the most recent injury, 138 (42%) of athletes took more than 10 days off practice. Compared to volleyball, football (soccer) and handball athletes were 2.9 times (95% CI: 1.3-6.3) and 3.4 times (95% CI: 1.5-7.8) more likely to take more than 10 days off practice. Athletes who sometimes wore protective gears were 3.1 times (95% CI: 1.7-5.8) more likely to report an injury compared with those who never wore protective gears (p injuries are highly prevalent among professional athletes in Kuwait. Future studies are needed to provide guidelines for interventions that may reduce such injuries. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. National Athletic Trainers' Association Position Statement: Preventing and Managing Sport-Related Dental and Oral Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Trenton E.; Piland, Scott G.; Caswell, Shane V.; Ranalli, Dennis; Mills, Stephen; Ferrara, Michael S.; Courson, Ron

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To provide athletic trainers, health care professionals, and all those responsible for the care of athletes with clinical recommendations for preventing and managing sport-related dental and oral injuries. Background: Participation in competitive sports continues to grow at both the interscholastic and intercollegiate levels. Therefore, exposure to, and the incidence of athletic-related injury, including orofacial injury, will also likely increase. At the time of this writing, the leading governing agencies for interscholastic (National Federation of State High School Associations) and intercollegiate (National Collegiate Athletic Association) sports require only protective orofacial equipment (eg, mouthguards) for 5 and 4, respectively, of their sanctioned sports. Although orofacial injuries represent a small percentage of all sport-related injuries, the financial burden associated with these injuries (eg, tooth avulsion) can exceed $15 000 over an adult life. Therefore, effective management of sport-related dental injuries is critical to the long-term financial, physical, and emotional health of people who have experienced dental trauma. Recommendations: Based upon the current evidence regarding sport-related orofacial injury, we provide recommendations related to planning considerations, education, and mouthguard efficacy, material, fabrication, and care considerations. Additionally, suggested best practices for managing sport-related dental injury are also given for athletic trainers and other health care professionals. PMID:27875057

  7. National Athletic Trainers' Association Position Statement: Preventing and Managing Sport-Related Dental and Oral Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Trenton E; Piland, Scott G; Caswell, Shane V; Ranalli, Dennis; Mills, Stephen; Ferrara, Michael S; Courson, Ron

    2016-10-01

    To provide athletic trainers, health care professionals, and all those responsible for the care of athletes with clinical recommendations for preventing and managing sport-related dental and oral injuries. Participation in competitive sports continues to grow at both the interscholastic and intercollegiate levels. Therefore, exposure to, and the incidence of athletic-related injury, including orofacial injury, will also likely increase. At the time of this writing, the leading governing agencies for interscholastic (National Federation of State High School Associations) and intercollegiate (National Collegiate Athletic Association) sports require only protective orofacial equipment (eg, mouthguards) for 5 and 4, respectively, of their sanctioned sports. Although orofacial injuries represent a small percentage of all sport-related injuries, the financial burden associated with these injuries (eg, tooth avulsion) can exceed $15 000 over an adult life. Therefore, effective management of sport-related dental injuries is critical to the long-term financial, physical, and emotional health of people who have experienced dental trauma. Based upon the current evidence regarding sport-related orofacial injury, we provide recommendations related to planning considerations, education, and mouthguard efficacy, material, fabrication, and care considerations. Additionally, suggested best practices for managing sport-related dental injury are also given for athletic trainers and other health care professionals.

  8. Association between the functional movement screen and injury development in college athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Michael; Westrick, Richard; Johnson, Michael R; Benenson, Jonathan

    2015-02-01

    As the number of sports participants continues to rise, so does the number of sports injuries. Establishing a valid method of identifying athletes at elevated risk for injury could lead to intervention programs that lower injury rates and improve overall athlete performance. The Functional Movement Screen (FMS)™ is an efficient and reliable method to screen movement patterns during the performance of specific tasks. The purpose of this study is to explore the association between pre-season FMS TM scores and the development of injury in a population of collegiate athletes. Descriptive epidemiology study. FMS™ scores were obtained for 160 collegiate athletes and injury development was tracked throughout the season. These athletes were both male and female and participated in contact and non-contact sports. Redundancies were utilized with injury data collection, including medical record reviews and interviews with team athletic trainers, to ensure that all injuries requiring medical attention were captured. At the conclusion of the season, a logistic regression analysis was performed to determine which combination of factors best predicted injury. Athletes with an FMS™ composite score at 14 or below combined with a self-reported past history of injury were at 15 times increased risk of injury. A positive likelihood ratio of 5.8 was calculated which improved the probability of predicting injury from 33% pretest to 74% posttest. This study adds to the growing body of evidence demonstrating a predictive relationship between FMS™ composite scores and past history of injury with the development of future injury. 3, Non-random prospective cohort design.

  9. Pain and Injury Associated with Powerlifting Training in Visually Impaired Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haykowsky, Mark J.; Warburton, Darren E. R.

    1999-01-01

    This study assessed occurrence and level of pain and injury history associated with powerlifting training in 11 adults with visual impairments. Powerlifting training was associated with an elevated occurrence of pain in shoulders, elbows, lower back, and knee regions. Injury rate, however, was lower than for athletes without visual impairments.…

  10. Association of the Functional Movement Screen with injuries in division I athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Meghan; Smith, Craig A; Chimera, Nicole J

    2015-05-01

    The Functional Movement Screen (FMS) evaluates performance in 7 fundamental movement patterns using a 4-point scale. Previous studies have reported increased injury risk with a composite score (CS) of 14/21 or less; these studies were limited to specific sports and injury definition. To examine the association between FMS CS and movement pattern scores and acute noncontact and overuse musculoskeletal injuries in division I college athletes. An exploratory objective was to assess the association between injury and FMS movement pattern asymmetry. Prospective cohort. College athletic facilities. 167 injury-free, college basketball, football, volleyball, cross country, track and field, swimming/ diving, soccer, golf, and tennis athletes (males = 89). The FMS was administered during pre-participation examination. Noncontact or overuse injuries that required intervention from the athletic trainer during the sport season. FMS CS was not different between those injured (n = 74; 14.3 ± 2.5) and those not (14.1 ± 2.4; P = .57). No point on the ROC curve maximized sensitivity and specificity; therefore previously published cut-point was used for analysis with injury (≤ 14 [n = 92]). After adjustment, no statistically significant association between FMS CS and injury (odds ratio [OR] = 1.01, 95% CI 0.53-1.91) existed. Lunge was the only movement pattern that was associated with injury; those scoring 2 were less likely to have an injury vs those who scored 3 (OR = 0.21, 95% CI 0.08-0.59). There was also no association between FMS movement pattern asymmetry and injury. FMS CS, movement patterns, and asymmetry were poor predictors of noncontact and overuse injury in this cohort of division I athletes.

  11. Nerve Injuries in Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Kathryn; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Over a two-year period this study evaluated the condition of 65 athletes with nerve injuries. These injuries represent the spectrum of nerve injuries likely to be encountered in sports medicine clinics. (Author/MT)

  12. Acromioclavicular joint injuries in National Collegiate Athletic Association football: data from the 2004-2005 through 2008-2009 National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragoo, Jason L; Braun, Hillary J; Bartlinski, Stephen E; Harris, Alex H S

    2012-09-01

    Injuries to the shoulder are common in collegiate football, and injuries to the acromioclavicular (AC) joint have previously accounted for up to 41% of all shoulder injuries. To determine the incidence and epidemiology of injury to the AC joint in National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) football athletes. Descriptive epidemiology study. The NCAA Injury Surveillance System (ISS) men's football database was reviewed from the 2004-2009 playing seasons. The exposure data set from the same years was reviewed for the purposes of computing rates of injury per athlete exposure (AE). The injury rate (number of injuries divided by number of AEs) was computed per 10,000 AEs for competition and practice exposures. Ninety-five percent confidence intervals (95% CIs) for the incidence rates were calculated using assumptions of a Poisson distribution. According to the estimates made by the NCAA ISS, a total of 748 injuries to the AC joint occurred in NCAA football players during 2,222,155 AEs, accounting for 4.49% of all injuries sustained during this 5-year surveillance period. The overall rate of injury was 3.34 per 10,000 AEs (95% CI, 3.10-3.59). Players were 11.68 (95% CI, 10.11-13.49) times more likely to sustain an injury in games than practices. Partial sprains (types I or II) accounted for 96.4% of injuries, while complete sprains (≥type III) accounted for the remaining 3.6%. The average amount of time lost per injury was 11.61 days. Complete sprains resulted in a mean time loss of 31.9 days (95% CI, 24.4-39.6) while partial injuries resulted in 11.0 days lost (95% CI, 9.6-12.3). Overall, 2.41% of injuries underwent surgical intervention, with 22.2% of complete sprains and 1.7% of partial injuries resulting in surgery. Complete sprains of the AC joint were 13.5 (95% CI, 4.63-35.26) times more likely to result in surgical intervention than partial sprains. The majority of injuries (71.93%) resulted from contact with another player and 47.09% occurred while

  13. The Association of Sport Specialization and Training Volume With Injury History in Youth Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Eric G; Trigsted, Stephanie M; Riekena, Jeremy W; Hetzel, Scott; McGuine, Timothy A; Brooks, M Alison; Bell, David R

    2017-05-01

    Recommendations exist to encourage safe youth participation in sport. These recommendations include not specializing in 1 sport, limiting participation to less than 8 months per year, and limiting participation to fewer hours per week than a child's age. However, limited evidence exists to support or refute these recommendations. High levels of specialization will be associated with a history of injuries and especially overuse injuries, independent of age, sex, or weekly sport training hours. Athletes who exceed current sport volume recommendations will be more likely to have a history of injuries and overuse injuries. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Youth athletes (n = 2011; 989 female and 1022 male; 12-18 years of age) completed a questionnaire regarding their specialization status, yearly and weekly sport participation volume, and injury history. Specialization was classified as low, moderate, or high using a previously utilized 3-point scale. Athletes were classified into groups based on either meeting or exceeding current volume recommendations (months per year and hours per week). Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs were calculated to investigate associations of specialization and volume of participation with a history of sport-related injuries in the past year ( P ≤ .05). Highly specialized athletes were more likely to report a previous injury of any kind ( P sport more than 8 months of the year were more likely to report an upper extremity overuse injury ( P = .04; OR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.06-2.80) or a lower extremity overuse injury ( P = .001; OR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.22-2.30). Athletes who participated in their primary sport for more hours per week than their age (ie, a 16-year-old athlete who participated in his or her primary sport for more than 16 h/wk) were more likely to report an injury of any type ( P = .001; OR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.12-1.61) in the previous year. High levels of specialization were associated with a history of injuries, independent of age

  14. The Effects of Playing Multiple High School Sports on National Basketball Association Players' Propensity for Injury and Athletic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugg, Caitlin; Kadoor, Adarsh; Feeley, Brian T; Pandya, Nirav K

    2018-02-01

    Athletes who specialize in their sport at an early age may be at risk for burnout, overuse injury, and reduced attainment of elite status. Timing of sport specialization has not been studied in elite basketball athletes. National Basketball Association (NBA) players who played multiple sports during adolescence would be less likely to experience injury and would have higher participation rates in terms of games played and career length compared with single-sport athletes. Descriptive epidemiology study. First-round draft picks from 2008 to 2015 in the NBA were included in the study. From publically available records from the internet, the following data were collected for each athlete: participation in high school sports, major injuries sustained in the NBA, percentage of games played in the NBA, and whether the athlete was still active in the NBA. Athletes who participated in sports in addition to basketball during high school were defined as multisport athletes and were compared with athletes who participated only in basketball in high school. Two hundred thirty-seven athletes were included in the study, of which 36 (15%) were multisport athletes and 201 (85%) were single-sport athletes in high school. The multisport cohort played in a statistically significantly greater percentage of total games (78.4% vs 72.8%; P high school, those who were multisport athletes participated in more games, experienced fewer major injuries, and had longer careers than those who participated in a single sport. Further research is needed to determine the reasons behind these differences.

  15. National Athletic Trainers' Association position statement: prevention of pediatric overuse injuries

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Valovich McLeod, Tamara C; Decoster, Laura C; Loud, Keith J; Micheli, Lyle J; Parker, J Terry; Sandrey, Michelle A; White, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    To provide certified athletic trainers, physicians, and other health care professionals with recommendations on best practices for the prevention of overuse sports injuries in pediatric athletes (aged 6-18 years...

  16. MUSCLE INJURIES IN ATHLETES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso, Guilherme Campos; Thiele, Edilson Schwansee

    2011-01-01

    This article had the aim of demonstrating the physiology, diagnosis and treatment of muscle injuries, focusing on athletes and their demands and expectations. Muscle injuries are among the most common complaints in orthopedic practice, occurring both among athletes and among non-athletes. These injuries present a challenge for specialists, due to the slow recovery, during which time athletes are unable to take part in training and competitions, and due to frequent sequelae and recurrences of the injuries. Most muscle injuries (between 10% and 55% of all injuries) occur during sports activities. The muscles most commonly affected are the ischiotibial, quadriceps and gastrocnemius. These muscles go across two joints and are more subject to acceleration and deceleration forces. The treatment for muscle injuries varies from conservative treatment to surgery. New procedures are being used, like the hyperbaric chamber and the use of growth factors. However, there is still a high rate of injury recurrence. Muscle injury continues to be a topic of much controversy. New treatments are being researched and developed, but prevention through muscle strengthening, stretching exercises and muscle balance continues to be the best "treatment".

  17. Preparticipation predictors for championship injury and illness: cohort study at the Beijing 2015 International Association of Athletics Federations World Championships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timpka, Toomas; Jacobsson, Jenny; Bargoria, Victor; Périard, Julien D; Racinais, Sébastien; Ronsen, Ola; Halje, Karin; Andersson, Christer; Dahlström, Örjan; Spreco, Armin; Edouard, Pascal; Alonso, Juan-Manuel

    2017-02-01

    To determine preparticipation predictors of injury and illness at a major Athletics championship. A cohort study design was used. Before the 2015 International Association of Athletics Federations World Championships in Athletics, all 207 registered national teams were approached about partaking in a study of preparticipation health; 50 teams accepted. The athletes (n=957) in the participating teams were invited to complete a preparticipation health questionnaire (PHQ). New injuries and illnesses that occurred at the championships were prospectively recorded. Logistic regression analyses were performed with simple and multiple models using any in-championship injury and in-championship illness as outcomes. The PHQ was completed by 307 (32.1%) of the invited athletes; 116 athletes (38.3%) reported an injury symptom during the month before the championships, while 40 athletes (13%) reported an illness symptom. 20 (6.5%) of the participating athletes sustained a health problem during the championships. Endurance athletes were almost 10-fold more likely to sustain an in-championship illness than speed/power athletes (OR, 9.88; 95% CI 1.20 to 81.31; p=0.033). Participants reporting a preparticipation gradual-onset injury symptom were three times more likely (OR, 3.09; 95% CI 1.08 to 8.79; p=0.035) and those reporting an illness symptom causing anxiety were fivefold more likely (OR, 5.56; 95% CI 1.34 to 23.15; p=0.018) to sustain an in-championship injury. Analyses of preparticipation predictors of injury and illness at a major Athletics championship suggest that endurance athletes require particular clinical attention. Preparticipation symptoms causing anxiety are interesting predictors for in-championship health problems. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  18. Elbow Dislocation and Subluxation Injuries in the National Collegiate Athletic Association, 2009-2010 Through 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Avi D; Lemme, Nicholas; DeFroda, Steven F; Gil, Joseph A; Owens, Brett D

    2018-01-01

    Examination of the incidence of elbow dislocation and subluxation injuries in the collegiate athlete population is limited. To determine the incidence of elbow dislocation and subluxation injuries in the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) and investigate the risk factors involved. Descriptive epidemiology study. All elbow subluxation and dislocation injuries from the 2009-2010 through 2013-2014 academic years in the NCAA Injury Surveillance Program database were extracted. The incidence was calculated for different injuries, sports, activity, time in game, competition status, and injury characteristics. Such differences were compared by use of risk ratios to determine risk factors for injury. The overall incidence of elbow instability injuries was 0.04 per 10,000 athlete-exposures (AEs). Elbow dislocations were more common, with 553 injuries (82.2%, 0.03/10,000 AEs), while elbow subluxations were the minority, with 119 injuries (17.8%, 0.01/10,000 AEs). Men's wrestling had the highest incidence of elbow instability (1.08/10,000 AEs), more than women's gymnastics (0.74), men's football (0.11), and women's volleyball (0.06). All injuries occurred via a contact mechanism, and 99.2% were new injuries. Sixty-nine percent of injuries kept athletes sidelined for more than 2 weeks. Injuries were 3 times more likely to occur in competition (0.08/10,000 AEs) than practice (0.03/10,000 AEs). Injuries sustained during competition were 1.4 times more likely to occur early in the match than late. Elbow instability injuries are an infrequent but serious source of disability for select NCAA athletes, with a number of associated risk factors. Athletes sustaining these injuries, along with their coaches and medical providers, may benefit from these return-to-play data to best manage expectations and outcomes.

  19. Athletic Hip Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, T Sean; Bedi, Asheesh; Larson, Christopher M

    2017-04-01

    Historically, athletic hip injuries have garnered little attention; however, these injuries account for approximately 6% of all sports injuries and their prevalence is increasing. At times, the diagnosis and management of hip injuries can be challenging and elusive for the team physician. Hip injuries are seen in high-level athletes who participate in cutting and pivoting sports that require rapid acceleration and deceleration. Described previously as the "sports hip triad," these injuries consist of adductor strains, osteitis pubis, athletic pubalgia, or core muscle injury, often with underlying range-of-motion limitations secondary to femoroacetabular impingement. These disorders can happen in isolation but frequently occur in combination. To add to the diagnostic challenge, numerous intra-articular disorders and extra-articular soft-tissue restraints about the hip can serve as pain generators, in addition to referred pain from the lumbar spine, bowel, bladder, and reproductive organs. Athletic hip conditions can be debilitating and often require a timely diagnosis to provide appropriate intervention.

  20. Acute hand injuries in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Yoseph A; Awan, Hisham M

    2017-05-01

    Hand and wrist injuries in athletes are common, representing between 3 and 25% of all sports injuries. As many as a quarter of all sports injuries involve the hand or wrist. We review the recent literature regarding acute hand injuries in athletes based on the structures involved - bone, muscle/tendon, ligament, and neurovascular - including diagnosis and pathophysiology of these injuries, focusing on athlete-specific facets of treatment, and when available, opinions on return to play.

  1. National Athletic Trainers' Association Position Statement: Prevention of Pediatric Overuse Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valovich McLeod, Tamara C.; Decoster, Laura C.; Loud, Keith J.; Micheli, Lyle J.; Parker, J. Terry; Sandrey, Michelle A.; White, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To provide certified athletic trainers, physicians, and other health care professionals with recommendations on best practices for the prevention of overuse sports injuries in pediatric athletes (aged 6–18 years). Background: Participation in sports by the pediatric population has grown tremendously over the years. Although the health benefits of participation in competitive and recreational athletic events are numerous, one adverse consequence is sport-related injury. Overuse or repetitive trauma injuries represent approximately 50% of all pediatric sport-related injuries. It is speculated that more than half of these injuries may be preventable with simple approaches. Recommendations: Recommendations are provided based on current evidence regarding pediatric injury surveillance, identification of risk factors for injury, preparticipation physical examinations, proper supervision and education (coaching and medical), sport alterations, training and conditioning programs, and delayed specialization. PMID:21391806

  2. National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance System: Review of Methods for 2004–2005 Through 2013–2014 Data Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Zachary Y.; Dompier, Thomas P.; Snook, Erin M.; Marshall, Stephen W.; Klossner, David; Hainline, Brian; Corlette, Jill

    2014-01-01

    Background: Since 1982, the National Collegiate Athletic Association has used the Injury Surveillance System (ISS) to collect injury and athlete-exposure data from a representative sample of collegiate institutions and sports. At the start of the 2004–2005 academic year, a Web-based ISS replaced the paper-based platform previously used for reporting injuries and exposures. Objective: To describe the methods of the Web-based National Collegiate Athletic Association ISS for data collection as implemented from the 2004–2005 to 2013–2014 academic years. Description: The Web-based ISS monitored National Collegiate Athletic Association–sanctioned practices and competitions, the number of participating student–athletes, and time-loss injuries during the preseason, regular season, and postseason in 25 collegiate sports. Starting in the 2009–2010 academic year, non–time-loss injuries were also tracked. Efforts were made to better integrate ISS data collection into the workflow of collegiate athletic trainers. Data for the 2004–2005 to 2013–2014 academic years are available to researchers through a standardized application process available at the Datalys Center Web site. Conclusions: As of February 2014, more than 1 dozen data sets have been provided to researchers. The Datalys Center encourages applications for access to the data. PMID:24870292

  3. Illness perceptions and mood states are associated with injury-related outcomes in athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wilgen, C. Paul; Kaptein, Ad A.; Brink, Michel S.

    2010-01-01

    Background. Athletes have to cope adequately with the consequences of their injury in order to return into sports as soon as possible. Besides the physical characteristics of the injury, illness perceptions and emotional responses impact the behavioural responses to the injury. Purpose. To apply

  4. Lumbar spine injuries in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Ian F; Proctor, Mark R; Day, Arthur L

    2006-10-15

    Lumbar spine injuries in athletes are not uncommon and usually take the form of a mild muscle strain or sprain. More severe injuries sustained by athletes include disc herniations, spondylolistheses, and various types of fracture. The recognition and management of these injuries in athletes involve the additional consideration that to return to play, the lumbar spine must be able to withstand forces similar to those that were injurious. The authors consider common lumbar spine injuries in athletes and discuss management principles for neurosurgeons that are relevant to this population.

  5. Quality of life perception of basketball master athletes: association with physical activity level and sports injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Natália Boneti; Mazzardo, Oldemar; Vagetti, Gislaine Cristina; De Oliveira, Valdomiro; De Campos, Wagner

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to verify the prevalence and characteristics of sports injuries (SI) and determine the association between the physical activity level (PA) and SI with perception of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in Brazilian basketball master athletes. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 410 male master athletes, between 35 and 85 years of age (mean 52.26, SD ±11.83). The HRQoL was assessed using the Medical Outcomes Study - Short Form-36. The PA was evaluated using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Information regarding SI was collected using the Reported Morbidity Survey. Poisson regression, as estimated by the prevalence ratio (PR), was used as a measure of the association of PA and SI with HRQoL. The majority of athletes showed a high SI prevalence (58.3%) and reported one injury (67.8%) that occurred during training (61.1%) and primarily affected a lower limb (74.6%). The adjusted regression models showed a positive association of PA with the Functional Capacity (PR = 1.46, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.12-1.90) and Physical Component (PR = 1.32, 95% CI = 1.03-1.70) of HRQoL. Furthermore, the SI were negatively associated with HRQoL in Functional Capacity (PR = 1.85, 95% CI = 1.51-2.27), Physical Aspects (PR = 3.99, 95% CI = 3.08-5.18), Pain (PR = 1.65, 95% CI = 1.26-2.16), Social Functioning (PR = 1.79, 95% CI = 1.41-2.27), Emotional Aspects (PR = 4.40, 95% CI = 3.35-5.78), Mental Health domains (PR = 1.37, 95% CI = 1.06-1.68), Physical Component (PR = 2.35, 95% CI = 1.90-2.90) and Mental Component (PR = 2.65, 95% CI = 2.14-3.29). These results highlighted that master athletes showed a high SI prevalence, primarily in the lower limbs. PA positively correlates with the physical HRQoL domain, whereas SI may decrease the HRQoL levels of both physical and mental domains.

  6. Epidemiology of syndesmosis injuries in intercollegiate football: incidence and risk factors from National Collegiate Athletic Association injury surveillance system data from 2004-2005 to 2008-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Kenneth J; George, Elizabeth; Harris, Alex H S; Dragoo, Jason L

    2013-07-01

    To describe the incidence and risk factors for high ankle sprains (ie, syndesmosis injuries) among National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) football players. Descriptive epidemiologic study. Data were examined from the NCAA's Injury Surveillance System (ISS) for 5 football seasons (from 2004-2005 to 2008-2009). All NCAA men's football programs participating in the ISS. No additional risk factors were introduced as a result of this analysis. For partial and complete syndesmosis injuries, outcome measures included incidence, time lost from participation, and requirement for surgical repair. The overall incidence of high ankle sprains in NCAA football players was 0.24 per 1000 athlete exposures, accounting for 24.6% of all ankle sprains. Athletes were nearly 14 times more likely to sustain the injury during games compared with practice; complete syndesmosis injuries resulted in significantly greater time lost compared with partial injuries (31.3 vs 15.8 days). Less than 3% of syndesmosis injuries required surgical intervention. There was a significantly higher injury incidence on artificial surfaces compared with natural grass. The majority of injuries (75.2%) occurred during contact with another player. Our data suggest a significantly higher incidence of syndesmosis injuries during games, during running plays, and to running backs and interior defensive linemen. The wide range in time lost from participation for complete syndesmosis injuries underscores the need for improved understanding of injury mechanism and classification of injury severity such that prevention, safe return to play protocols, and outcomes can be further improved.

  7. Psychosocial factors associated with outcomes of sports injury rehabilitation in competitive athletes: a mixed studies systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsdyke, Dale; Smith, Andy; Jones, Michelle; Gledhill, Adam

    2016-05-01

    The prime focus of research on sports injury has been on physical factors. This is despite our understanding that when an athlete sustains an injury it has psychosocial as well as physical impacts. Psychosocial factors have been suggested as prognostic influences on the outcomes of rehabilitation. The aim of this work was to address the question: are psychosocial factors associated with sports injury rehabilitation outcomes in competitive athletes? Mixed studies systematic review (PROSPERO reg.CRD42014008667). Electronic database and bibliographic searching was undertaken from the earliest entry until 1 June 2015. Studies that included injured competitive athletes, psychosocial factors and a sports injury rehabilitation outcome were reviewed by the authors. A quality appraisal of the studies was undertaken to establish the risk of reporting bias. 25 studies were evaluated that included 942 injured competitive athletes were appraised and synthesised. Twenty studies had not been included in previous reviews. The mean methodological quality of the studies was 59% (moderate risk of reporting bias). Convergent thematic analysis uncovered three core themes across the studies: (1) emotion associated with rehabilitation outcomes; (2) cognitions associated with rehabilitation outcomes; and (3) behaviours associated with rehabilitation outcomes. Injury and performance-related fears, anxiety and confidence were associated with rehabilitation outcomes. There is gender-related, age-related and injury-related bias in the reviewed literature. Psychosocial factors were associated with a range of sports injury rehabilitation outcomes. Practitioners need to recognise that an injured athlete's thoughts, feelings and actions may influence the outcome of rehabilitation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  8. The effect of playing surface on the incidence of ACL injuries in National Collegiate Athletic Association American Football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragoo, Jason L; Braun, Hillary J; Harris, Alex H S

    2013-06-01

    Artificial playing surfaces are widely used for American football practice and competition and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are common. This study analyzed the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Injury Surveillance System (ISS) men's football ACL injury database from 2004-2005 through 2008-2009 to determine the effect of playing surface on ACL injury in NCAA football athletes. This database was reviewed from the 2004-2005 through 2008-2009 seasons using the specific injury code, "Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) complete tear." The injury rate was computed for competition and practice exposures. Ninety-five percent confidence intervals were calculated using assumptions of a Poisson distribution. Pair-wise, two-sample tests of equality of proportions with a continuity correction were used to estimate the associations of risk factors. There was an incidence rate of 1.73 ACL injuries per 10,000 athlete-exposures (A-Es) (95% CI 1.47-2.0) on artificial playing surfaces compared with a rate of 1.24 per 10,000 A-Es (1.05-1.45, pinjuries occurred more frequently on artificial turf surfaces (44.29%) than on natural grass (36.12%). NCAA football players experience a greater number of ACL injuries when playing on artificial surfaces. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Predicting Musculoskeletal Injury in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division II Athletes From Asymmetries and Individual-Test Versus Composite Functional Movement Screen Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokha, Monique; Sprague, Peter A; Gatens, Dustin R

    2016-04-01

    Functional Movement Screen (FMS) scores of ≤14 have been used to predict injury in athletic populations. Movement asymmetries and poor-quality movement patterns in other functional tests have been shown to predict musculoskeletal injury (MSI). Therefore, movement asymmetry or poor-quality movement patterns on the FMS may have more utility in predicting MSI than the composite score. To determine if an asymmetry or score of 1 on an individual FMS test would predict MSI in collegiate athletes. Cohort study. National Collegiate Athletic Association Division II university athletic program. A total of 84 Division II rowers, volleyball players, and soccer players (men: n = 20, age = 20.4 ± 1.3 years, height = 1.77 ± 0.04 m, mass = 73.5 ± 4.8 kg; women: n = 64, age = 19.1 ± 1.2 years, height = 1.69 ± 0.09 m, mass = 64.8 ± 9.4 kg). The FMS was administered during preseason preparticipation examinations. Injury-incidence data were tracked for an academic year by each team's certified athletic trainer via computer software. An MSI was defined as physical damage to the body secondary to athletic activity or an event for which the athlete sought medical care, and resulted in modified training or required protective splitting or taping. Composite FMS scores were categorized as low (≤14) or high (>14). Pearson χ(2) analyses were used to determine if MSI could be predicted by the composite FMS score or an asymmetry or score of 1 on an individual FMS test (P < .05). Athletes with FMS scores of ≤14 were not more likely to sustain an injury than those with higher scores (relative risk = 0.68, 95% confidence interval = 0.39, 1.19; P = .15). However, athletes with an asymmetry or individual score of 1 were 2.73 times more likely to sustain an injury than those without (relative risk = 2.73, 95% confidence interval = 1.36, 5.4; P = .001). Asymmetry or a low FMS individual test score was a better predictor of MSI than the composite FMS score.

  10. Injuries to the Young Athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandusky, Jane C.

    A review of literature on the incidence and nature of injuries to young athletes is presented on the topics of: (1) physiological characteristics of preadolescents, adolescents, and young adults; (2) musculo-skeletal changes in the growing athlete; (3) epiphyseal injuries and their potential for resulting in temporary or permanent impairment; (4)…

  11. Descriptive Epidemiology of Collegiate Women's Volleyball Injuries: National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance System, 1988–1989 Through 2003–2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agel, Julie; Palmieri-Smith, Riann M; Dick, Randall; Wojtys, Edward M; Marshall, Stephen W

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To review 16 years of NCAA injury surveillance data for women's volleyball and to identify potential areas for injury prevention initiatives. Background: Participation in NCAA women's volleyball has increased greatly over the past 16 years. As with all sports, women participating in volleyball assume an inherent risk of injury each time they practice or participate in a game. In order for clinicians to better understand the risks associated with volleyball, it is critical to gather data that illustrates injury rates and patterns among volleyball athletes. Furthermore, with knowledge of injury mechanisms and risk factors comes the ability to initiate prevention strategies to minimize future injury. Main Results: Over the past 16 years, the rate of injury in a game situation was slightly higher than in practice (4.58 versus 4.10 game injuries per 1000 athlete-exposures, rate ratio = 1.1, 95% confidence interval = −1.0, 1.2, P injuries from more than 50 000 games and 4725 injuries from more than 90 000 practices were reported. The lower extremity accounted for more than 55% of all game and practice injuries, with ankle ligament sprains representing 44.1% of game injuries and 29.4% of practice injuries. Approximately 20% of all game injuries involved the upper extremity. The majority of injuries during a game situation occurred while athletes were in one of the front 3 positions. A player landing on another player and contact with the floor each accounted for 21% of game injuries. Recommendations: Ankle injuries appear to be the most common injuries in women's volleyball. Future preventive efforts should focus on preventing first-time ankle sprains and acute traumatic knee injuries, as well as reducing the risk of ankle sprain recurrence. PMID:17710179

  12. Descriptive epidemiology of collegiate women's volleyball injuries: National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance System, 1988-1989 through 2003-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agel, Julie; Palmieri-Smith, Riann M; Dick, Randall; Wojtys, Edward M; Marshall, Stephen W

    2007-01-01

    To review 16 years of NCAA injury surveillance data for women's volleyball and to identify potential areas for injury prevention initiatives. Participation in NCAA women's volleyball has increased greatly over the past 16 years. As with all sports, women participating in volleyball assume an inherent risk of injury each time they practice or participate in a game. In order for clinicians to better understand the risks associated with volleyball, it is critical to gather data that illustrates injury rates and patterns among volleyball athletes. Furthermore, with knowledge of injury mechanisms and risk factors comes the ability to initiate prevention strategies to minimize future injury. Over the past 16 years, the rate of injury in a game situation was slightly higher than in practice (4.58 versus 4.10 game injuries per 1000 athlete-exposures, rate ratio = 1.1, 95% confidence interval = -1.0, 1.2, P injuries from more than 50 000 games and 4725 injuries from more than 90 000 practices were reported. The lower extremity accounted for more than 55% of all game and practice injuries, with ankle ligament sprains representing 44.1% of game injuries and 29.4% of practice injuries. Approximately 20% of all game injuries involved the upper extremity. The majority of injuries during a game situation occurred while athletes were in one of the front 3 positions. A player landing on another player and contact with the floor each accounted for 21% of game injuries. Ankle injuries appear to be the most common injuries in women's volleyball. Future preventive efforts should focus on preventing first-time ankle sprains and acute traumatic knee injuries, as well as reducing the risk of ankle sprain recurrence.

  13. Incidence and risk factors for injuries to the anterior cruciate ligament in National Collegiate Athletic Association football: data from the 2004-2005 through 2008-2009 National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragoo, Jason L; Braun, Hillary J; Durham, Jennah L; Chen, Michael R; Harris, Alex H S

    2012-05-01

    Injuries to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) are common in athletic populations, particularly in athletes participating in football, soccer, and skiing. The purpose of this study was to analyze the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Injury Surveillance System (ISS) men's football ACL injury database from the playing seasons of 2004-2005 through 2008-2009 to determine the incidence and epidemiology of complete injury to the ACL in NCAA football athletes. Descriptive epidemiology study. The NCAA ISS men's football database was reviewed from the 2004-2005 through 2008-2009 seasons using the specific injury code, "Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) complete tear." The injury rate was computed for competition and practice exposures. Ninety-five percent confidence intervals (CIs) for the incident rates were calculated using assumptions of a Poisson distribution. Pairwise, 2-sample tests of equality of proportions with a continuity correction were used to estimate the associations of risk factors such as event type, playing surface, season segment, and football subdivision. Descriptive data were also described. The ACL injury rate during games (8.06 per 10,000 athlete-exposures [AEs] 95% CI, 6.80-9.42) was significantly greater than the rate during practice (0.8 per 10,000 AEs 95% CI, 0.68-0.93). Players were 10.09 (95% CI, 8.08-12.59) times more likely to sustain an ACL injury in competition when compared with practices. When practice exposures were analyzed separately, the injury rate was significantly greater during scrimmages (3.99 per 10,000 AEs 95% CI, 2.29-5.94) compared with regular practices (0.83 per 10,000 AEs 95% CI, 0.69-0.97) and walk-throughs (0 per 10,000 AEs 95% CI, 0-0.14). There was an incidence rate of 1.73 ACL injuries per 10,000 AEs (95% CI, 1.47-2.0) on artificial playing surfaces compared with a rate of 1.24 per 10,000 AEs (95% CI, 1.05-1.45) on natural grass. The rate of ACL injury on artificial surfaces is 1.39 (95% CI, 1

  14. Intraarticular injuries associated with anterior cruciate ligament tear: findings at ligament reconstruction in high school and recreational athletes. An analysis of sex-based differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piasecki, Dana P; Spindler, Kurt P; Warren, Todd A; Andrish, Jack T; Parker, Richard D

    2003-01-01

    Despite research on the increased risk of anterior cruciate ligament tears in female athletes, few studies have addressed sex differences in the incidence of associated intraarticular injuries. When patients are stratified by sport and competition level, no sex differences exist in either the mechanism of injury or pattern of intraarticular injuries observed at anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Prospective cohort study. Two hundred twenty-one athletes undergoing anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction met our inclusion criteria of anterior cruciate ligament tear as a singular event without reinjury or history of prior injury or surgery in either knee. Data were collected on competition level (high school, amateur), sport (basketball, soccer, skiing), mechanism of injury, articular cartilage injuries, and meniscal tears. Data were statistically analyzed by sex with the chi-square test and Student's t-test. High school athletes had no significant sex differences in mechanism of injury. Female soccer athletes had fewer medial meniscal tears than did male athletes, and female basketball players had fewer medial femoral condyle injuries. At the amateur level, female basketball players had more contact injuries, an earlier onset of swelling, and fewer lateral meniscal tears than did male players. At the high school level, male and female athletes shared a common mechanism of injury, and yet the female athletes had fewer intraarticular injuries in basketball and soccer. If such intraarticular injuries prove to be a significant risk factor for poor long-term outcome, women may enjoy a better prognosis after reconstruction.

  15. Descriptive Epidemiology of Collegiate Men's Football Injuries: National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance System, 1988–1989 Through 2003–2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Randall; Ferrara, Michael S; Agel, Julie; Courson, Ron; Marshall, Stephen W; Hanley, Michael J; Reifsteck, Fred

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To review 16 years of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) injury surveillance data for men's football and identify potential areas for injury prevention initiatives. Background: Football is a high-velocity collision sport in which injuries are expected. Football tends to have one of the highest injury rates in sports. Epidemiologic data helps certified athletic trainers and other clinicians identify injury trends and patterns to appropriately design and institute injury prevention protocols and then measure their effects. Main Results: During the 16-year reporting period, about 19% of the Division I, II, and III NCAA institutions sponsoring football participated in the Injury Surveillance System. The results from the 16-year study period show little variation in the injury rates over time: games averaged 36 injuries per 1000 athlete-exposures (A-Es); fall practice, approximately 4 injuries per 1000 A-Es; and spring practice, about 10 injuries per 1000 A-Es. The game injury rate was more than 9 times higher than the in-season practice injury rate (35.90 versus 3.80 injuries per 1000 A-Es, rate ratio = 9.1, 95% confidence interval = 9.0, 9.2), and the spring practice injury rate was more than 2 times higher than the fall practice injury rate (9.62 versus 3.80 injuries per 1000 A-Es, rate ratio = 2.5, 95% confidence interval = 2.5, 2.6). The rate ratio for games versus fall practices was greatest for upper leg contusions (18.1 per 1000 A-Es), acromioclavicular joint sprains (14.0 per 1000 A-Es), knee internal derangements (13.4 per 1000 A-Es), ankle ligament sprains (12.0 per 1000 A-Es), and concussions (11.1 per 1000 A-Es). Recommendations: Football is a complex sport that requires a range of skills performed by athletes with a wide variety of body shapes and types. Injury risks are greatest during games. Thus, injury prevention measures should focus on position-specific activities to reduce the injury rate. As equipment technology improves for

  16. Injury prevalence in young athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariadne Maria dos Santos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The injuries in young athletes are becoming more frequent, due to the wade dissemination of sports and the excessive training aimed at high performance. The requirements in sports can lead to the development of pathologies and injuries that could be prevented if the young athlete's training was well oriented. We emphasize the importance of professional and competition calendar planning always seeking the recovery of the athlete. It’s also important to have knowledge of injuries, training load, the previous history of the athlete, and correction of improper movement technique.Objective: To identify the most common injuries in young athletes of different sports. Material and Methods: The study included 36 athletes, aged 12-17 years, of both sexes, the Athletics rules, futsal, swimming and volleyball. An interview that contained information about age, practice time and sport was initially applied. Then two questionnaires were applied, the first consisting of a pain distribution table by body region and the second by a pain scale and this interference in daily activities. Results:Obtained results as mean age 13.86 years. Among the participants, 66.7% reported practicing sports or other physical activities, 55.6% reported that they have suffered injury in some cases with recurrence and 50% who have had any treatment for pain.Conclusion: Based on the results we conclude the importance of knowledge about sports injury prevention strategies in young athletes as a way to ensure longevity in the sport.

  17. Epidemiology of National Collegiate Athletic Association Women's Gymnastics Injuries, 2009-2010 Through 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Zachary Y; Hayden, Ross; Barr, Megan; Klossner, David A; Dompier, Thomas P

    2015-08-01

    Recent injury-surveillance data for collegiate-level women's gymnastics are limited. In addition, researchers have not captured non-time-loss injuries (ie, injuries resulting in restriction of participation gymnastics injuries during the 2009-2010 through 2013-2014 academic years. Descriptive epidemiology study. Aggregate injury and exposure data collected from 11 women's gymnastics programs providing 28 seasons of data. Collegiate student-athletes participating in women's gymnastics during the 2009-2010 through 2013-2014 academic years. Women's gymnastics data from the NCAA Injury Surveillance Program (ISP) during the 2009-2010 through 2013-2014 academic years were analyzed. Injury rates; injury rate ratios; injury proportions by body site, diagnosis, and apparatus; and injury proportion ratios were reported with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The ISP captured 418 women's gymnastics injuries, a rate of 9.22/1000 athlete-exposures (AEs; 95% CI = 8.33, 10.10). The competition injury rate (14.49/1000 AEs) was 1.67 times the practice injury rate (8.69/1000 AEs; 95% CI = 1.27, 2.19). When considering time-loss injuries only, the injury rate during this study period (3.62/1000 AEs) was lower than rates reported in earlier NCAA ISP surveillance data. Commonly injured body sites were the ankle (17.9%, n = 75), lower leg/Achilles tendon (13.6%, n = 57), trunk (13.4%, n = 56), and foot (12.4%, n = 52). Common diagnoses were ligament sprain (20.3%, n = 85) and muscle/tendon strain (18.7%, n = 78). Overall, 12.4% (n = 52) of injuries resulted in time loss of more than 3 weeks. Of the 291 injuries reported while a student-athlete used an apparatus (69.6%), most occurred during the floor exercise (41.9%, n = 122) and on the uneven bars (28.2%, n = 82). We observed a lower time-loss injury rate for women's gymnastics than shown in earlier NCAA ISP surveillance data. Safety initiatives in women's gymnastics, such as "sting mats," padded equipment, and a redesigned vault table

  18. Epidemiology of National Collegiate Athletic Association Women's Gymnastics Injuries, 2009–2010 Through 2013–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Zachary Y.; Hayden, Ross; Barr, Megan; Klossner, David A.; Dompier, Thomas P.

    2015-01-01

    Context Recent injury-surveillance data for collegiate-level women's gymnastics are limited. In addition, researchers have not captured non–time-loss injuries (ie, injuries resulting in restriction of participation gymnastics injuries during the 2009–2010 through 2013–2014 academic years. Design Descriptive epidemiology study. Setting Aggregate injury and exposure data collected from 11 women's gymnastics programs providing 28 seasons of data. Patients or Other Participants Collegiate student-athletes participating in women's gymnastics during the 2009–2010 through 2013–2014 academic years. Intervention(s) Women's gymnastics data from the NCAA Injury Surveillance Program (ISP) during the 2009–2010 through 2013–2014 academic years were analyzed. Main Outcome Measure(s) Injury rates; injury rate ratios; injury proportions by body site, diagnosis, and apparatus; and injury proportion ratios were reported with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results The ISP captured 418 women's gymnastics injuries, a rate of 9.22/1000 athlete-exposures (AEs; 95% CI = 8.33, 10.10). The competition injury rate (14.49/1000 AEs) was 1.67 times the practice injury rate (8.69/1000 AEs; 95% CI = 1.27, 2.19). When considering time-loss injuries only, the injury rate during this study period (3.62/1000 AEs) was lower than rates reported in earlier NCAA ISP surveillance data. Commonly injured body sites were the ankle (17.9%, n = 75), lower leg/Achilles tendon (13.6%, n = 57), trunk (13.4%, n = 56), and foot (12.4%, n = 52). Common diagnoses were ligament sprain (20.3%, n = 85) and muscle/tendon strain (18.7%, n = 78). Overall, 12.4% (n = 52) of injuries resulted in time loss of more than 3 weeks. Of the 291 injuries reported while a student-athlete used an apparatus (69.6%), most occurred during the floor exercise (41.9%, n = 122) and on the uneven bars (28.2%, n = 82). Conclusions We observed a lower time-loss injury rate for women's gymnastics than shown in earlier NCAA ISP

  19. Lower Back Injuries Plague Many Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_167201.html Lower Back Injuries Plague Many Athletes Surgery should be a last resort for 3 ... News) -- Back injuries are common, especially among competitive athletes. Nearly 1 in 3 athletes playing professional or ...

  20. Collegiate ACL Injury Rates Across 15 Sports: National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance System Data Update (2004-2005 Through 2012-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agel, Julie; Rockwood, Todd; Klossner, David

    2016-11-01

    To present data on the rate of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in 15 collegiate sports from 2004 to 2005 through 2012 to 2013 updating the 1988-1989 to 2003-2004 data. Prospectively designed descriptive epidemiology study. National Collegiate Athletic Association Schools. National Collegiate Athletic Association School athletes. Injury rate by year and sport. Most ACL injuries to women occurred by a noncontact mechanism (60%) versus a contact mechanism for men (59%). The highest average annual rate of ACL injury for men was found in football (0.17 per 1000 athlete-exposure [A-E]). The highest average annual rate of ACL injury for women was found in lacrosse (0.23 per 1000 A-E). There were statistically significant increases in average annual injury rate for men's (P = 0.04) and women's soccer (P = 0.01) and a statistically significant decrease in women's gymnastics over the 9 years (=0.009). Controlling for exposures, there were statistically significant increases in the average annual number of injuries for men's and women's basketball, ice hockey, field hockey, football, and volleyball and a decrease in the average annual number of injuries for baseball and women's gymnastics. Women continue to sustain ACL injuries at higher rates than men in the comparable sports of soccer, basketball, and lacrosse. Anterior cruciate ligament injury rates continue to rise in men's and women's soccer. Some sports have shown absolute increases in ACL rates, which persist even after exposure rates are taken into account. Despite extensive research and development of prevention programs before and during the time of this study, very few sports showed a reduction in ACL injury rates in this data set.

  1. Descriptive Epidemiology of Collegiate Women's Ice Hockey Injuries: National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance System, 2000–2001 Through 2003–2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agel, Julie; Dick, Randall; Nelson, Bradley; Marshall, Stephen W; Dompier, Thomas P

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To review 4 years of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) injury surveillance data for women's ice hockey and to identify potential areas for injury prevention initiatives. Background: The NCAA ISS prospectively collects data on injuries sustained during collegiate participation. Women's NCAA ice hockey began participation in the ISS during the 2000–2001 season. On average, over the 4 years, 15.6% of the eligible schools elected to send their injury data. Main Results: Over the 4 years of study, the rate of injury in games was more than 5 times higher than the injury rate in practices (12.6 versus 2.5 injuries per 1000 athlete-exposures, rate ratio = 5.0, 95% confidence interval = 4.2, 6.1, P ice hockey is an evolving NCAA sport. Only 4 years of ISS data are available and, therefore, data should be interpreted with caution. Women's ice hockey does not allow for formal body checking; however, approximately 50% of all game injuries were reported to result from contact with another player. Future researchers need to evaluate the effectiveness of the no-checking rule. Additional years of data collection will be required to allow the data to become more stable, and to increase attention to mechanism-of-injury issues. We anticipate that the hypothesized inconsistencies in skill level across and within the various women's teams also will be reduced as more consistently skilled players develop, allowing for more stability in the injury scenario. PMID:17710173

  2. MRI of overuse injury in elite athletes

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    Koh, E.S.; Lee, J.C. [Department of Radiology, Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Healy, J.C. [Department of Radiology, Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, London (United Kingdom)], E-mail: j.healy@imperial.ac.uk

    2007-11-15

    Overuse injuries are a common finding in elite athletes. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the optimal method for the diagnosis of overuse injury in athletes of all levels. We present a review of common and important overuse injuries occurring in elite athletes. A systematic approach based on the functional anatomic units - tendons, bones and joints - may assist in diagnosis of these injuries.

  3. Descriptive Epidemiology of Collegiate Men's Ice Hockey Injuries: National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance System, 1988–1989 Through 2003–2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agel, Julie; Dompier, Thomas P; Dick, Randall; Marshall, Stephen W

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To review 16 years of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) injury surveillance data for men's ice hockey and to identify potential areas for injury prevention initiatives. Background: The NCAA began injury surveillance of men's ice hockey during the 1988–1989 academic year. These data represent all 3 NCAA divisions; the last Division II championship, however, was held during the 1998–1999 academic year. Main Results: The rate of injury was more than 8 times higher in games than in practices (16.27 versus 1.96 injuries per 1000 athlete-exposures [A-Es], rate ratio = 8.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 7.9, 8.8). A significant average annual increase of 1.3% in game injury rates occurred over the sample period ( P = .05), but practice rates stayed static ( P = .77). Preseason practice injury rates were more than twice as high as regular-season practice rates (5.05 versus 1.94 injuries per 1000 A-Es, rate ratio = 2.6, 95% CI = 2.4, 2.9, P < .01). The majority of game and practice injuries occurred to the lower extremity. Knee internal derangement (13.5%) was the most common lower extremity injury reported for games, whereas pelvis and hip muscle strains (13.1%) were the most common injury reported during practices. Player-to-player contact was the most frequent game mechanism of injury (50.0%). The majority of injuries occurred between the blue line and face-off circles (28.0%), in the corner (23.5%), and in the neutral zone (21.4%). Recommendations: Preventive efforts should focus on strategies that limit player-to-player contact in the neutral zone and at the top of the offensive and defensive zones. In addition, clinicians and researchers should identify risk factors and interventions for muscle strains at the pelvis and hip region. PMID:17710172

  4. Association of Competition Volume, Club Sports, and Sport Specialization With Sex and Lower Extremity Injury History in High School Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Eric G; Bell, David R; Trigsted, Stephanie M; Pfaller, Adam Y; Hetzel, Scott J; Brooks, M Alison; McGuine, Timothy A

    High school athletes are increasingly encouraged to participate in 1 sport year-round to increase their sport skills. However, no study has examined the association of competition volume, club sport participation, and sport specialization with sex and lower extremity injury (LEI) in a large sample of high school athletes. Increased competition volume, participating on a club team outside of school sports, and high levels of specialization will all be associated with a history of LEI. Girls will be more likely to engage in higher competition volume, participate on a club team, and be classified as highly specialized. Cross-sectional study. Level 3. High school athletes completed a questionnaire prior to the start of their competitive season regarding their sport participation and previous injury history. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to investigate associations of competition volume, club sport participation, and sport specialization with history of LEI, adjusting for sex. A cohort of 1544 high school athletes (780 girls; grades 9-12) from 29 high schools completed the questionnaire. Girls were more likely to participate at high competition volume (23.2% vs 11.0%, χ 2 = 84.7, P < 0.001), participate on a club team (61.2% vs 37.2%, χ 2 = 88.3, P < 0.001), and be highly specialized (16.4% vs 10.4%, χ 2 = 19.7, P < 0.001). Athletes with high competition volume, who participated in a club sport, or who were highly specialized had greater odds of reporting a previous LEI than those with low competition volume (odds ratio [OR], 2.08; 95% CI, 1.55-2.80; P < 0.001), no club sport participation (OR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.20-1.88; P < 0.001), or low specialization (OR, 2.58; 95% CI, 1.88-3.54; P < 0.001), even after adjusting for sex. Participating in high sport volume, on a club team, or being highly specialized was associated with history of LEI. Girls were more likely to participate at high volumes, be active on club teams, or be highly specialized

  5. Descriptive epidemiology of collegiate women's ice hockey injuries: National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance System, 2000-2001 through 2003-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agel, Julie; Dick, Randall; Nelson, Bradley; Marshall, Stephen W; Dompier, Thomas P

    2007-01-01

    To review 4 years of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) injury surveillance data for women's ice hockey and to identify potential areas for injury prevention initiatives. The NCAA ISS prospectively collects data on injuries sustained during collegiate participation. Women's NCAA ice hockey began participation in the ISS during the 2000-2001 season. On average, over the 4 years, 15.6% of the eligible schools elected to send their injury data. Over the 4 years of study, the rate of injury in games was more than 5 times higher than the injury rate in practices (12.6 versus 2.5 injuries per 1000 athlete-exposures, rate ratio = 5.0, 95% confidence interval = 4.2, 6.1, P study period. The greatest number of game injuries (approximately 50%) resulted from player contact, whereas practice injuries were from either contact with another object or noncontact mechanisms. Women's ice hockey is an evolving NCAA sport. Only 4 years of ISS data are available and, therefore, data should be interpreted with caution. Women's ice hockey does not allow for formal body checking; however, approximately 50% of all game injuries were reported to result from contact with another player. Future researchers need to evaluate the effectiveness of the no-checking rule. Additional years of data collection will be required to allow the data to become more stable, and to increase attention to mechanism-of-injury issues. We anticipate that the hypothesized inconsistencies in skill level across and within the various women's teams also will be reduced as more consistently skilled players develop, allowing for more stability in the injury scenario.

  6. COL5A1 gene variants previously associated with reduced soft tissue injury risk are associated with elite athlete status in rugby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffernan, Shane M; Kilduff, Liam P; Erskine, Robert M; Day, Stephen H; Stebbings, Georgina K; Cook, Christian J; Raleigh, Stuart M; Bennett, Mark A; Wang, Guan; Collins, Malcolm; Pitsiladis, Yannis P; Williams, Alun G

    2017-11-14

    Two common single nucleotide polymorphisms within the COL5A1 gene (SNPs; rs12722 C/T and rs3196378 C/A) have previously been associated with tendon and ligament pathologies. Given the high incidence of tendon and ligament injuries in elite rugby athletes, we hypothesised that both SNPs would be associated with career success. In 1105 participants (RugbyGene project), comprising 460 elite rugby union (RU), 88 elite rugby league athletes and 565 non-athlete controls, DNA was collected and genotyped for the COL5A1 rs12722 and rs3196378 variants using real-time PCR. For rs12722, the injury-protective CC genotype and C allele were more common in all athletes (21% and 47%, respectively) and RU athletes (22% and 48%) than in controls (16% and 41%, P ≤ 0.01). For rs3196378, the CC genotype and C allele were overrepresented in all athletes (23% and 48%) and RU athletes (24% and 49%) compared with controls (16% and 41%, P ≤ 0.02). The CC genotype in particular was overrepresented in the back and centres (24%) compared with controls, with more than twice the odds (OR = 2.25, P = 0.006) of possessing the injury-protective CC genotype. Furthermore, when considering both SNPs simultaneously, the CC-CC SNP-SNP combination and C-C inferred allele combination were higher in all the athlete groups (≥18% and ≥43%) compared with controls (13% and 40%; P = 0.01). However, no genotype differences were identified for either SNP when RU playing positions were compared directly with each other. It appears that the C alleles, CC genotypes and resulting combinations of both rs12722 and rs3196378 are beneficial for rugby athletes to achieve elite status and carriage of these variants may impart an inherited resistance against soft tissue injury, despite exposure to the high-risk environment of elite rugby. These data have implications for the management of inter-individual differences in injury risk amongst elite athletes.

  7. Ball-Contact Injuries in 11 National Collegiate Athletic Association Sports: The Injury Surveillance Program, 2009-2010 Through 2014-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Melissa A; Grooms, Dustin R; Guskiewicz, Kevin M; Kerr, Zachary Y

    2017-07-01

      Surveillance data regarding injuries caused by ball contact in collegiate athletes have not been well examined and are mostly limited to discussions of concussions and catastrophic injuries.   To describe the epidemiology of ball-contact injuries in 11 National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) sports during the 2009-2010 through 2014-2015 academic years.   Descriptive epidemiology study.   Convenience sample of NCAA programs in 11 sports (men's football, women's field hockey, women's volleyball, men's baseball, women's softball, men's and women's basketball, men's and women's lacrosse, and men's and women's soccer) during the 2009-2010 through 2014-2015 academic years.   Collegiate student-athletes participating in 11 sports.   Ball-contact-injury rates, proportions, rate ratios, and proportion ratios with 95% confidence intervals were based on data from the NCAA Injury Surveillance Program during the 2009-2010 through 2014-2015 academic years.   During the 2009-2010 through 2014-2015 academic years, 1123 ball-contact injuries were reported, for an overall rate of 3.54/10 000 AEs. The sports with the highest rates were women's softball (8.82/10 000 AEs), women's field hockey (7.71/10 000 AEs), and men's baseball (7.20/10 000 AEs). Most ball-contact injuries were to the hand/wrist (32.7%) and head/face (27.0%) and were diagnosed as contusions (30.5%), sprains (23.1%), and concussions (16.1%). Among sex-comparable sports (ie, baseball/softball, basketball, and soccer), women had a larger proportion of ball-contact injuries diagnosed as concussions than men (injury proportion ratio = 2.33; 95% confidence interval = 1.63, 3.33). More than half (51.0%) of ball-contact injuries were non-time loss (ie, participation-restriction time <24 hours), and 6.6% were severe (ie, participation-restriction time ≥21 days). The most common severe ball-contact injuries were concussions (n = 18) and finger fractures (n = 10).   Ball-contact-injury rates

  8. Social Support Patterns of Collegiate Athletes Before and After Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jingzhen; Peek-Asa, Corinne; Lowe, John B.; Heiden, Erin; Foster, Danny T.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Context: Social support has been identified as an important factor in facilitating recovery from injury. However, no previous authors have prospectively assessed the change in social support patterns before and after injury. Objective: To examine the preinjury and postinjury social support patterns among male and female collegiate athletes. Design: Prospective observational study. Setting: A Big Ten Conference university. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 256 National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I male and female collegiate athletes aged 18 or older from 13 sports teams. Main Outcome Measure(s): Injury incidence was identified using the Sports Injury Monitoring System. Social support was measured using the 6-item Social Support Questionnaire. Data on preinjury and postinjury social support patterns were compared. Results: Male athletes reported more sources of social support than female athletes, whereas female athletes had greater satisfaction with the support they received. Athletes' social support patterns changed after they became injured. Injured athletes reported relying more on coaches (P  =  .003), athletic trainers (P < .0001), and physicians (P  =  .003) for social support after they became injured. Athletes also reported greater postinjury satisfaction with social support received from friends (P  =  .019), coaches (P  =  .001), athletic trainers (P < .0001), and physicians (P  =  .003). Conclusions: Our findings identify an urgent need to better define the psychosocial needs of injured athletes and also strongly suggest that athletic trainers have a critical role in meeting these needs. PMID:20617912

  9. Epidemiology of Overuse and Acute Injuries Among Competitive Collegiate Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jingzhen; Tibbetts, Abigail S.; Covassin, Tracey; Cheng, Gang; Nayar, Saloni; Heiden, Erin

    2012-01-01

    Context: Although overuse injuries are gaining attention, epidemiologic studies on overuse injuries in male and female collegiate athletes are lacking. (70.7%) acute injuries were reported. The overall injury rate was Objective: To report the epidemiology of overuse injuries sustained by collegiate athletes and to compare the rates of overuse and acute injuries. Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Setting: A National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I university. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 1317 reported injuries sustained by 573 male and female athletes in 16 collegiate sports teams during the 2005–2008 seasons. Main Outcome Measure(s): The injury and athlete-exposure (AE) data were obtained from the Sports Injury Monitoring System. An injury was coded as either overuse or acute based on the nature of injury. Injury rate was calculated as the total number of overuse (or acute) injuries during the study period divided by the total number of AEs during the same period. Results: A total of 386 (29.3%) overuse injuries and 931 63.1 per 10000 AEs. The rate ratio (RR) of acute versus overuse injuries was 2.34 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.05, 2.67). Football had the highest RR (RR = 8.35, 95% CI = 5.38, 12.97), and women's rowing had the lowest (RR = 0.75, 95% CI = 0.51, 1.10). Men had a higher acute injury rate than women (49.8 versus 38.6 per 10000 AEs). Female athletes had a higher rate of overuse injury than male athletes (24.6 versus 13.2 per 10000 AEs). More than half of the overuse injuries (50.8%) resulted in no time loss from sport. Conclusions: Additional studies are needed to examine why female athletes are at greater risk for overuse injuries and identify the best practices for prevention and rehabilitation of overuse injuries. PMID:22488286

  10. [Athletic injuries in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backx, F J; Erich, W B

    1990-08-01

    Sports participation can have both beneficial and negative effects. Specific effects are injuries. The change of incidence is dependent on a number of personal and environmental factors. Epidemiological research in the Netherlands in school aged children has shown that sports injuries occur primarily in club sport, even more during competition. The injuries are localised in the lower limbs: especially the knee and the ankle. The injuries are distortions and contusions and fewer fractures and muscle tears. The number of overuse injuries seems to be rising because children are doing increasingly more intensive sport at younger ages. A preventive sports medical examination has been discussed as well as the preventive effect of warming-up and cooling down, stretching exercises, rehabilitation, taping, rules of play and sports facilities. Finally, attention has been given to the general care of sports injuries in the way of active and functional guidance in the healing process.

  11. SPORTS INJURIES AMONG AMATEUR ATHLETES AT A BRAZILIAN UNIVERSITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asperti, André Marangoni; Fernandes, Tiago Lazzaretti; Pedrinelli, André; Hernandez, Arnaldo José

    2017-01-01

    To obtain information on the incidence and nature of sports injuries at a Brazilian university. Data from 396 student amateur athletes (61% male) playing 15 different sports during the 2013 season were retrospectively evaluated. Subjects completed the National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance System questionnaire at the conclusion of the 2013 sports season. Injuries that resulted in at least one day of time lost were included. Exposure was defined as one student amateur athlete participating in one practice or game and is expressed as an athlete-exposure (A-E). Injury rates were significantly greater in games (13.13 injuries per 1000 A-Es, 95% CI = 10.3-15) than in practices (4.47 injuries per 1000 A-Es, 95% CI = 3.9-5.1). The mechanisms that accounted for the most injuries in games and practices were player contact (52.9%) and non-contact (54.5%), respectively. Ankle ligament sprains were the most common injury (18.2% of all reported injuries). A relatively high incidence of anterior cruciate ligament injury was also observed (0.16 injuries per 1000 A-Es). Brazilian student amateur athletes are at great risk of sustaining non-contact injuries such as ankle sprains and anterior cruciate ligament injuries. Level III of Evidence, Study of non consecutive patients; without consistently applied reference ''gold'' standard.

  12. Overuse injuries of the upper extremity in the competitive athlete: magnetic resonance imaging findings associated with repetitive trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Kevin P; Ly, Justin Q; Beall, Douglas P; Grayson, David E; Bancroft, Laura W; Tall, Michael A

    2005-01-01

    Overuse injuries are a very common cause of pain in athletes, accounting for a significant loss of training time and missed competitions. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is playing an increasing role in facilitating the expeditious and safe return of these individuals to their preinjury level of physical performance by allowing accurate diagnosis. Sports physicians are increasingly relying on the exquisite anatomic detail afforded by this technique to formulate diagnoses that assist with the optimal management of these athletic injuries. Some upper extremity overuse entities are well recognized; two examples are medial epicondylitis, classically appearing in baseball pitchers, and lateral epicondylitis, in tennis players. Other less well-known injuries of the upper extremity, such as intersection syndrome in rowers and distal clavicular stress fractures in weightlifters, are frequent occurrences in certain circles of athletes. The following article is a pictorial review of the MRI findings of upper extremity overuse injuries encountered in the competitive athlete, with an emphasis on the sports scenarios in which they occur. We will depict mechanisms of injury and applicable anatomy and show characteristic imaging findings. A wide range of entities are addressed, including but not limited to overuse injuries occurring in baseball, swimming, gymnastics, weightlifting, bowling, and cycling.

  13. Descriptive Epidemiology of Injuries Sustained in National Collegiate Athletic Association Men's and Women's Volleyball, 2013-2014 to 2014-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baugh, Christine M; Weintraub, Gil S; Gregory, Andrew J; Djoko, Aristarque; Dompier, Thomas P; Kerr, Zachary Y

    2017-10-01

    There were 18,844 volleyball players in the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) in the 2014-2015 academic year. Little research has examined sex-based differences among these athletes. To examine injury epidemiology in NCAA men's and women's volleyball athletes. Descriptive epidemiology study. Level 3. Injury surveillance data from the 2013-2014 through 2014-2015 academic years were obtained from the NCAA Injury Surveillance Program for 6 men's and 33 women's collegiate volleyball teams. Injury rates per 1000 athlete-exposures (AEs) and injury rate ratios (IRRs) with 95% CIs were calculated. Time-loss (TL) injuries resulted in participation restriction for at least 24 hours, and non-time-loss (NTL) injuries resulted in participation restriction of less than 24 hours. Overall, 83 and 510 injuries were reported in men and women, respectively, leading to injury rates of 4.69 and 7.07 per 1000 AEs. The injury rate was greater in women than men (IRR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.19-1.90). TL injury rates were 1.75 and 2.62 per 1000 AEs for men and women, respectively. The ankle was the most commonly injured body part among TL injuries (men, 25.8%; women, 24.3%); the knee was the most commonly injured body part among NTL injuries (men, 25.5%; women, 16.3%). Among TL injuries, common diagnoses included sprains (men, 25.8%; women, 31.2%) and concussions (men, 19.4%; women, 14.8%). Most TL concussions were due to ball contact (men, 83.3%; women, 53.6%). Compared with men, women had a greater NTL overuse injury rate (IRR, 3.47; 95% CI, 1.61-7.46). Compared with women, men had a greater TL injury rate associated with ball contact (IRR, 2.24; 95% CI, 1.07-4.68). There are differences in injury patterns and rates between male and female intercollegiate volleyball players. Although a limited-contact sport, a notable number of concussions were sustained, mostly from ball contact. Understanding injury patterns may aid clinicians in injury diagnosis, management, and prevention.

  14. Experiences and attitudes of collegiate athletic trainers regarding alcohol-related unintentional injury in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, James W; Metz, Stacie M; Entriken, Jack; Brenner, Christina J

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol-related unintentional injury (ARUI) has been an unexamined consequence of alcohol consumption by collegiate athletes. It has a potentially devastating effect on their athletic performances and careers. Awareness of this problem in athletes could have a huge effect on what athletic trainers (ATs) do to recognize, treat, and prevent it in a collegiate athlete population. To examine the experiences and attitudes among collegiate and university ATs about ARUI in the athletes in their care. Cross-sectional study. Web-based survey. A total of 1767 e-mail addresses for collegiate and university ATs within National Athletic Trainers' Association Districts 1, 2, 3, and 9. We calculated frequencies, percentages, and attitudes of ATs regarding ARUI in collegiate athletes during the 2010-2011 academic year. The resulting sample size for the analysis was 459 (26.0%) participants of the initial total sample. More than 56% (n = 260) of the ATs reported that they had evaluated, treated, or referred if needed at least 1 ARUI in a collegiate athlete. On average, these ATs had evaluated, treated, or referred if needed 3 alcohol-related unintentional injuries within the 2010-2011 academic year. About 73% (n = 331) of ATs agreed that ARUI is a serious problem. Nearly 80% (n = 358) indicated they believe ATs should receive more training to identify student-athletes with alcohol-related problems. Alcohol-related unintentional injury is a common and serious consequence of alcohol use among collegiate athletes. Many ATs also view it as a serious problem yet would like more training in how to address it. Alcohol-related unintentional injury may have important negative effects on the careers and athletic performances of athletes. Researchers need to determine how prevalent ARUI is in the collegiate athlete population and what ATs can do to address it.

  15. Experiences and Attitudes of Collegiate Athletic Trainers Regarding Alcohol-Related Unintentional Injury in Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, James W.; Metz, Stacie M.; Entriken, Jack; Brenner, Christina J.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Alcohol-related unintentional injury (ARUI) has been an unexamined consequence of alcohol consumption by collegiate athletes. It has a potentially devastating effect on their athletic performances and careers. Awareness of this problem in athletes could have a huge effect on what athletic trainers (ATs) do to recognize, treat, and prevent it in a collegiate athlete population. Objective: To examine the experiences and attitudes among collegiate and university ATs about ARUI in the athletes in their care. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Web-based survey. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 1767 e-mail addresses for collegiate and university ATs within National Athletic Trainers' Association Districts 1, 2, 3, and 9. Main Outcome Measure(s): We calculated frequencies, percentages, and attitudes of ATs regarding ARUI in collegiate athletes during the 2010–2011 academic year. Results: The resulting sample size for the analysis was 459 (26.0%) participants of the initial total sample. More than 56% (n = 260) of the ATs reported that they had evaluated, treated, or referred if needed at least 1 ARUI in a collegiate athlete. On average, these ATs had evaluated, treated, or referred if needed 3 alcohol-related unintentional injuries within the 2010–2011academic year. About 73% (n = 331) of ATs agreed that ARUI is a serious problem. Nearly 80% (n = 358) indicated they believe ATs should receive more training to identify student–athletes with alcohol-related problems. Conclusions: Alcohol-related unintentional injury is a common and serious consequence of alcohol use among collegiate athletes. Many ATs also view it as a serious problem yet would like more training in how to address it. Alcohol-related unintentional injury may have important negative effects on the careers and athletic performances of athletes. Researchers need to determine how prevalent ARUI is in the collegiate athlete population and what ATs can do to address it. PMID:24377956

  16. Thumb Ligament Injuries in the Athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owings, F Patterson; Calandruccio, James H; Mauck, Benjamin M

    2016-10-01

    Hand injuries account for up to 15% of sports injuries and are common in contact sports and in sports with a high risk of falling. Appropriate management requires knowledge of the type of injury, demands of the sport and position, competitive level of the athlete, future athletic demands and expectations, and the role of rehabilitation and protective splints for return to play. Management of the athlete requires aggressive and expedient diagnostic intervention and treatment. This article describes ligamentous injuries to the thumb, including thumb carpometacarpal dislocations, thumb metacarpophalangeal dislocations, collateral ligament injuries and interphalangeal dislocations, their evaluation, treatment and outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Menstrual Irregularity and Musculoskeletal Injury in Female High School Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thein-Nissenbaum, Jill M.; Rauh, Mitchell J.; Carr, Kathleen E.; Loud, Keith J.; McGuine, Timothy A.

    2012-01-01

    Context: The female athlete triad describes the interrelatedness of energy availability, menstrual function, and bone density. Although associations between triad components and musculoskeletal injury (INJ) have been reported in collegiate athletes, limited information exists about menstrual irregularity (MI) and INJ in the high school population. Objective: To determine the prevalence of and relationship between MI and INJ in high school athletes. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: High schools. Patients or Other Participants: The sample consisted of 249 female athletes from 3 high schools who competed in 33 interscholastic, school-sponsored sport teams, dance teams, and cheerleading or pom-pon squad during the 2006–2007 school year. Each athlete remained on the roster throughout the season. Main Outcome Measure(s): Participants completed a survey regarding injury type, number of days of sport participation missed, and menstrual history in the past year. Results: The prevalences of MI and INJ were 19.7% and 63.1%, respectively. Athletes who reported MI sustained a higher percentage of severe injuries (missing ≥22 days of practice or competition) than did athletes who reported normal menses. Although the trend was not significant, athletes with MI were almost 3 times more likely to sustain an injury resulting in 7 or more days of time lost from sport (odds ratio = 2.7, 95% confidence interval = 0.8, 8.8) than those who sustained an injury resulting in 7 or fewer days of time lost. Conclusions: The incidences of MI and INJ in this high school population during the study period were high. Athletes who reported MI sustained a higher percentage of severe injuries than did athletes who reported normal menses. Education programs to increase knowledge and improve management of MI and its potential effects on injury in female high school athletes are warranted. PMID:22488233

  18. Menstrual irregularity and musculoskeletal injury in female high school athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thein-Nissenbaum, Jill M; Rauh, Mitchell J; Carr, Kathleen E; Loud, Keith J; McGuine, Timothy A

    2012-01-01

    The female athlete triad describes the interrelatedness of energy availability, menstrual function, and bone density. Although associations between triad components and musculoskeletal injury (INJ) have been reported in collegiate athletes, limited information exists about menstrual irregularity (MI) and INJ in the high school population. To determine the prevalence of and relationship between MI and INJ in high school athletes. Cross-sectional study. High schools. The sample consisted of 249 female athletes from 3 high schools who competed in 33 interscholastic, school-sponsored sport teams, dance teams, and cheerleading or pom-pon squad during the 2006-2007 school year. Each athlete remained on the roster throughout the season. Participants completed a survey regarding injury type, number of days of sport participation missed, and menstrual history in the past year. The prevalences of M I and INJ were 19.7% and 63.1 %, respectively. Athletes who reported MI sustained a higher percentage of severe injuries (missing ≥ 22 days of practice or competition) than did athletes who reported normal menses. Although the trend was not significant, athletes with MI were almost 3 times more likely to sustain an injury resulting in 7 or more days of time lost from sport (odds ratio = 2.7, 95% confidence interval = 0.8, 8.8) than those who sustained an injury resulting in 7 or fewer days of time lost. The incidences of MI and INJ in this high school population during the study period were high. Athletes who reported MI sustained a higher percentage of severe injuries than did athletes who reported normal menses. Education programs to increase knowledge and improve management of MI and its potential effects on injury in female high school athletes are warranted.

  19. Association of equipment worn and concussion injury rates in National Collegiate Athletic Association football practices: 2004-2005 to 2008-2009 academic years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Zachary Y; Hayden, Ross; Dompier, Thomas P; Cohen, Randy

    2015-05-01

    The epidemiology of football-related concussions has been extensively examined. However, although football players experience more at-risk exposure time during practices than competitions, there is a dearth of literature examining the nature of the activities or equipment worn during practice. In particular, varying levels of equipment worn during practices may place players at varying levels of risk for concussion. To describe the epidemiology of NCAA men's football concussions that occurred during practices from the 2004-2005 to 2008-2009 academic years by amount of equipment worn. Descriptive epidemiology study. Men's collegiate football data from the National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance System (NCAA ISS) during the 5-year study period were analyzed. Injury rates and injury rate ratios (RRs) were reported with 95% confidence intervals. During the study period, 795 concussions were reported during practices, resulting in an injury rate of 0.39 per 1000 athlete-exposures (AEs) (95% CI, 0.36-0.42). Among NCAA divisions, Division III had the highest concussion rate (0.54/1000 AEs), followed by Division I (0.34/1000 AEs) and Division II (0.24/1000 AEs) (all P values for RRs comparing divisionsaffect concussion risk. In addition, coaching staff should continue to closely monitor player safety during scrimmages. Meanwhile, future surveillance should examine whether removing scrimmages, particularly those that are not fully padded, will meaningfully reduce the incidence and rate of concussions. © 2015 The Author(s).

  20. Sex Differences in Reported Concussion Injury Rates and Time Loss From Participation: An Update of the National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance Program From 2004-2005 Through 2008-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covassin, Tracey; Moran, Ryan; Elbin, R J

    2016-03-01

    Epidemiologic studies have identified differences in concussion incidence between the sexes. However, few authors to date have updated injury rates (IRs) and time loss between male and female concussed athletes. To examine sex differences in IRs and time loss in concussed National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) athletes. Descriptive epidemiologic study. National Collegiate Athletic Association athletics. A total of 1702 concusssed NCAA athletes, consisting of 903 females and 779 males participating in soccer, basketball, ice hockey, lacrosse, softball, or baseball over a 5-year period from 2004-2005 through 2008-2009. Using the NCAA Injury Surveillance Program, athletic trainers reported concussions, athlete-exposures (AEs), and time loss across 10 NCAA sports. An IR is the number of injuries in a particular category divided by the number of AEs in that category. During the study period, 1702 concussions were reported during 4 170 427 AEs for an overall total of 5.47 per 10 000 AEs. In sex-comparable sports, females had a 1.4 times higher overall concussion IR than males (IRs = 4.84 and 3.46, respectively), with greater rates in women's baseball/softball, basketball, ice hockey, and soccer than men. Female soccer and basketball players also displayed more time loss after concussion compared with male basketball and soccer players. Female athletes sustained a higher rate of concussion and, in all sports except lacrosse, had greater time loss from concussion than male athletes. Additional research is needed on sex differences in time loss after concussions.

  1. Sex Differences in Reported Concussion Injury Rates and Time Loss From Participation: An Update of the National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance Program From 2004–2005 Through 2008–2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covassin, Tracey; Moran, Ryan; Elbin, R. J.

    2016-01-01

    Context:  Epidemiologic studies have identified differences in concussion incidence between the sexes. However, few authors to date have updated injury rates (IRs) and time loss between male and female concussed athletes. Objective:  To examine sex differences in IRs and time loss in concussed National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) athletes. Design:  Descriptive epidemiologic study. Setting:  National Collegiate Athletic Association athletics. Patients or Other Participants:  A total of 1702 concusssed NCAA athletes, consisting of 903 females and 779 males participating in soccer, basketball, ice hockey, lacrosse, softball, or baseball over a 5-year period from 2004–2005 through 2008–2009. Main Outcome Measure(s):  Using the NCAA Injury Surveillance Program, athletic trainers reported concussions, athlete-exposures (AEs), and time loss across 10 NCAA sports. An IR is the number of injuries in a particular category divided by the number of AEs in that category. Results:  During the study period, 1702 concussions were reported during 4 170 427 AEs for an overall total of 5.47 per 10 000 AEs. In sex-comparable sports, females had a 1.4 times higher overall concussion IR than males (IRs = 4.84 and 3.46, respectively), with greater rates in women's baseball/softball, basketball, ice hockey, and soccer than men. Female soccer and basketball players also displayed more time loss after concussion compared with male basketball and soccer players. Conclusions:  Female athletes sustained a higher rate of concussion and, in all sports except lacrosse, had greater time loss from concussion than male athletes. Additional research is needed on sex differences in time loss after concussions. PMID:26950073

  2. Catastrophic neck injuries in the collision sport athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Phillip R; Fadale, Paul D; Palumbo, Mark A

    2008-03-01

    Catastrophic neck injury is defined as a structural distortion of the cervical spinal column associated with actual (or potential) damage to the spinal cord. Although uncommon, this type of traumatic injury can lead to severe neurologic sequelae in the collision sport athlete. Emergency care is complicated by the helmet and shoulder pads worn by the athlete. A thorough understanding of the clinical anatomy, diagnostic considerations, and protocols for on-site evaluation and management is necessary to optimize outcome.

  3. Epidemiology of injuries in Hong Kong elite badminton athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, Patrick Shu-Hang; Chan, Romy Hing-Kwan; Wong, Fiona Chui-Yan; Cheuk, Phoebe Wai-Ling; Fong, Daniel Tik-Pui

    2007-01-01

    This study retrospectively reviewed the injury epidemiology on 44 Hong Kong elite badminton players in 2003. Team training records were reviewed to retrieve the training and competition hours, while the medical records from the physiotherapy department were reviewed to obtain information regarding injuries. A total of 253 injuries (128 recurrent and 125 new injuries) were recorded, which accounted for an overall incidence rate of 5.04 per 1,000 player hours. Elite senior athletes had a higher incidence rate of recurrent injuries, while elite junior and potential athletes had a higher incidence rate of new injuries. A total of 1,219 visits (4.82 per athlete) to the physiotherapy department were recorded, which cost HK$487,600 (HK$1,928 per injury). Most new injuries were strain (80 injuries), and the most frequently injured body sites were the back (17 injuries), the shoulder (15 injuries), the thigh (15 injuries), and the knee (15 injuries). One-sided exact test showed that a previous injury experience significantly associated with the occurrence of new injury.

  4. Injury risk management plan for volleyball athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Lachlan P; Kelly, Vincent G; Beckman, Emma M

    2014-09-01

    Volleyball is an increasingly popular team sport. As with any competitive sport, there is an inherent risk of injury that must be recognized and collaboratively managed. This article provides a practical approach to the management of volleyball injuries within a team or organization. A brief review of the epidemiological data is presented which establishes (i) ankle sprain, (ii) shoulder overuse injury, (iii) patella tendinopathy, and (iv) anterior cruciate ligament injury as the primary injuries to address amongst these athletes. The interaction of modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors for these injuries are used to classify athletes into high-, medium- and low-risk groups. Targeted training interventions are suggested, based upon the risk level of the athlete, to minimize the occurrence of these injuries. Practical methods for integrating these activities into a training plan are also discussed.

  5. Injury Rate and Patterns Among CrossFit Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Weisenthal, Benjamin M.; Beck, Christopher A.; Maloney, Michael D.; DeHaven, Kenneth E.; Giordano, Brian D.

    2014-01-01

    Background: CrossFit is a type of competitive exercise program that has gained widespread recognition. To date, there have been no studies that have formally examined injury rates among CrossFit participants or factors that may contribute to injury rates. Purpose: To establish an injury rate among CrossFit participants and to identify trends and associations between injury rates and demographic categories, gym characteristics, and athletic abilities among CrossFit participants. Study Design: ...

  6. Epidemiology of 3825 injuries sustained in six seasons of National Collegiate Athletic Association men's and women's soccer (2009/2010-2014/2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Karen G; Wasserman, Erin B; Dalton, Sara L; Gray, Aaron; Djoko, Aristarque; Dompier, Thomas P; Kerr, Zachary Y

    2017-07-01

    To describe the epidemiology of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) men's and women's soccer injuries during the 2009/2010-2014/2015 academic years. This descriptive epidemiology study used NCAA Injury Surveillance Program (NCAA-ISP) data during the 2009/2010-2014/2015 academic years, from 44 men's and 64 women's soccer programmes (104 and 167 team seasons of data, respectively). Non-time-loss injuries were defined as resulting in soccer and 2271 women's soccer injuries with injury rates of 8.07/1000 athlete exposures (AE) and 8.44/1000AE, respectively. Injury rates for men and women did not differ in competitions (17.53 vs 17.04/1000AE; RR=1.03; 95% CI 0.94 to 1.13) or practices (5.47 vs 5.69/1000AE; RR=0.96; 95% CI 0.88 to 1.05). In total, 47.2% (n=733) of men's soccer injuries and 47.5% (n=1079) of women's were non-time loss. Most injuries occurred to the lower extremity and were diagnosed as sprains. Women had higher concussion rates (0.59 vs 0.34/1000AE; RR=1.76; 95% CI 1.32 to 2.35) than men. Non-time-loss injuries accounted for nearly half of the injuries in men's and women's soccer. Sex differences were found in competition injuries, specifically for concussion. Further study into the incidence, treatment and outcome of non-time-loss injuries may identify a more accurate burden of these injuries. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  7. Psychosocial aspects of athletic injuries as perceived by athletic trainers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Damien; Granquist, Megan D; Arvinen-Barrow, Monna M

    2013-01-01

    Despite the Psychosocial Strategies and Referral content area, athletic trainers (ATs) generally lack confidence in their ability to use this information. The current study's primary purpose was to determine (a) perceived psychological responses and coping behaviors athletes may present to ATs, (b) psychosocial strategies ATs currently use with their athletes, (c) psychosocial strategies ATs deem important to learn more about, and (d) ATs' current practices in referring athletes to counseling or sport psychology services. Mixed-methods study. Online survey containing both quantitative and qualitative items. A total of 215 ATs (86 male, 129 female), representing a response rate of 22.50%. The Athletic Training and Sport Psychology Questionnaire. Stress/anxiety (4.24 ± 0.82), anger (3.70 ± 0.96), and treatment adherence problems (3.62 ± 0.94) were rated as the primary psychological responses athletes may present upon injury. Adherence and having a positive attitude were identified as key determinants in defining athletes' successful coping with their injuries. The top 3 selected psychosocial strategies were keeping the athlete involved with the team (4.57 ± 0.73), using short-term goals (4.45 ± 0.67), and creating variety in rehabilitation exercises (4.32 ± 0.75). The top 3 rated psychosocial strategies ATs deem important to learn more about were understanding motivation (4.29 ± 0.89), using effective communication (4.24 ± 0.91), and setting realistic goals (4.22 ± 0.97). Of the sample, only 59 (27.44%) ATs reported referring an athlete for counseling services, and 37 (84.09%) of those who had access to a sport psychologist (n = 44) reported referring for sport psychology services. These results not only highlight ATs' current use of psychosocial strategies but also their desires to increase their current knowledge and understanding of these strategies while caring for injured athletes.

  8. Athletes' perception of the causes of injury in gymnastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolar, Edvard; Pavletič, Mitija S; Smrdu, Maja; Atiković, Almir

    2017-05-01

    Gymnastics requires a high level of flexibility, conditioning and complete body recruitment that is infrequently matched by other sports. Artistic gymnastics has a relatively high incidence of injuries, which are generally of minor or medium severity. With all its complexity, it poses a unique diagnostic and treatment challenge to medical practitioners. The present study examined athletes' perception of the causes of injury and of the possible ways to reduce their incidence. The research involved 63 quality athletes, of whom 20 were in men's artistic gymnastics, 21 in women's artistic gymnastics, and 22 in rhythmic gymnastics. We used the self-assessment method. Factors inducing injury were grouped into three different categories: training, the athlete himself, and the environment. We used the χ2 test to test the association between a risk factor and injuries. The association between injuries and risk factors was also tested using a multivariate logistic regression analysis. Overall, an incidence of 184 injuries was found, of which 67 (36.4%) were acute and 117 (63.5%) were chronic injuries. According to binary logistic regression analyses, psychological factors significantly associated with the prevalence of acute and chronic injury in both sexes for all disciplines were: a poor technique, improper methods of teaching, and an inadequate load. In our study, higher rates of acute and chronic injury were observed among male gymnasts, who reported their occurrence during training by overload, and among female gymnasts, who reported a poor technique, improper methods of teaching, and an inadequate load as main causes of their occurrence. Improving the communication between athletes and coaches, taking the opinion of an athlete into account, and the athlete's active involvement in preparation of the program include the most crucial points for reducing the incidence of injuries.

  9. What is the prevalence of senior-athlete rotator cuff injuries and are they associated with pain and dysfunction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Patrick J; Prasad, Amitesh; Francis, Kimberly A

    2014-08-01

    Older individuals with rotator cuff injuries may have difficulties not only with activities of daily living, but also with sports activities. (1) How frequent and severe are rotator cuff abnormalities, as identified by ultrasound, in senior athletes? (2) To what degree does the severity of ultrasound-identified rotator cuff pathology correlate with pain and shoulder dysfunction? We assessed pain and shoulder function in 141 elite athletes older than 60 years of age (median age, 70 years; range 60-84) at the Senior Olympics who volunteered to participate. An ultrasound evaluation of the rotator cuff of the dominant shoulder was performed by an experienced musculoskeletal radiologist in all of these elite athletes. We then determined the relationship between ultrasound findings and shoulder pain and shoulder function as assessed with the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) and American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) scores. There were 20 shoulders with a normal cuff (14.2% [20 of 141], of which 5% [one of 20] were painful), 23 with tendinosis (16.3% [23 of 141], of which 30% [six of 20] were painful), 68 with a partial-thickness rotator cuff tear (48.2% [68 of 141], of which 32% [20 of 63] were painful), and 30 with a full-thickness rotator cuff tear (21.3% [30 of 141], of which 25% [seven of 28] were painful). Only 5% of athletes (one of 20) with a normal cuff on ultrasound evaluation reported shoulder pain, whereas 30% of athletes (33 of 111) with any degree of rotator cuff damage on ultrasound evaluation reported shoulder pain, This resulted in an odds ratio of 8.0 (95% confidence interval, 1.0-62.5). The proportion of patients who had pain was not different in those with different severities of rotator cuff pathology. Neither the ASES nor the DASH was different in those with different severities. The frequency of full-thickness rotator cuff tears in senior athletes was 21.3% (30 of 141). Pain was a predictor of rotator cuff injury but not of its

  10. Monitoring of sport participation and injury risk in young athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malisoux, Laurent; Frisch, Anne; Urhausen, Axel; Seil, Romain; Theisen, Daniel

    2013-11-01

    Careful modulation of training characteristics in high-level sports optimizes performance and avoids inappropriate workloads and associated sports injury risk. The aims of this study were to compare sport participation characteristics in different youth sport categories and to investigate their relationship with injury. Prospective cohort follow-up. Young (12-19 years) high-level athletes (n=154) from a regional sport school were followed during 41 weeks regarding sport participation characteristics and traumatic and overuse sports injuries (time-loss definition). All data were self-recorded by the athletes in an electronic system "TIPPS" (Training and Injury Prevention Platform for Sports) and subject to a systematic data quality control. Volume and intensity (self-rated perceived exertion) of each sport session were used to compute weekly load, monotony and strain. Sport categories were defined as team, racket, and individual sports. All sport participation characteristics were dependent on sport category (psports were associated with lower injury risk (HR=0.37 and 0.34, p=0.001 and psports. Average sport participation characteristics were not related to injury according to the survival analysis. However, intensity during the week prior to injury was significantly higher (psport participation pattern and injury risk in young athletes. The monitoring method was sensitive to variations according to pertinent variables and might help identify athletes with increased sports injury risk. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Epidemiology of Hip/Groin Injuries in National Collegiate Athletic Association Men’s and Women’s Ice Hockey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Sara L.; Zupon, Alyssa B.; Gardner, Elizabeth C.; Djoko, Aristarque; Dompier, Thomas P.; Kerr, Zachary Y.

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is limited research regarding the epidemiology of hip/groin injuries in ice hockey, the majority of which is restricted to time-loss injuries only. Purpose: To describe the epidemiology of hip/groin injuries in collegiate men’s and women’s ice hockey from 2009-2010 through 2014-2015. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Methods: Hip/groin injury data from the National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance Program (NCAA-ISP) during the 2009-2010 through 2014-2015 seasons were analyzed. Injury rates, rate ratios (RRs), and injury proportion ratios (IPRs) were reported with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: During the 2009-2010 through 2014-2015 seasons, 421 and 114 hip/groin injuries were reported in men’s and women’s ice hockey, respectively, leading to injury rates of 1.03 and 0.78 per 1000 athlete-exposures (AEs), respectively. The hip/groin injury rate was greater in men than in women (RR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.08-1.63). In addition, 55.6% and 71.1% of hip/groin injuries in men’s and women’s ice hockey, respectively, were non–time loss (NTL) injuries (ie, resulted in participation restriction time 3 weeks). The proportion of hip/groin injuries that were NTL injuries was greater in women than in men (IPR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.11-1.48). Conversely, the proportion of hip/groin injuries that were severe was greater in men than in women (IPR, 8.67; 95% CI, 1.20-62.73). The most common hip/groin injury diagnosis was strain (men, 67.2%; women, 76.3%). Also, 12 (2.9%) and 3 (2.6%) cases of hip impingement were noted in men’s and women’s ice hockey, respectively. Conclusion: Hip/groin injury rates were greater in men’s than in women’s ice hockey. Time loss varied between sexes, with men sustaining more injuries with time loss over 3 weeks. Despite increasing concerns of femoroacetabular impingement in ice hockey players, few cases of hip impingement were reported in this dataset. PMID:26998502

  12. Common Shoulder Injuries in American Football Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Daniel B; Lynch, T Sean; Nuber, Erika D; Nuber, Gordon W

    2015-01-01

    American football is a collision sport played by athletes at high speeds. Despite the padding and conditioning in these athletes, the shoulder is a vulnerable joint, and injuries to the shoulder girdle are common at all levels of competitive football. Some of the most common injuries in these athletes include anterior and posterior glenohumeral instability, acromioclavicular pathology (including separation, osteolysis, and osteoarthritis), rotator cuff pathology (including contusions, partial thickness, and full thickness tears), and pectoralis major and minor tears. In this article, we will review the epidemiology and clinical and radiographic workup of these injuries. We also will evaluate the effectiveness of surgical and nonsurgical management specifically related to high school, collegiate, and professional football athletes.

  13. Safe Care to Knee Injuries in Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Águila Tejeda

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: the guarantee of sporting success lies in the appropriate functioning of the musculoskeletal system, given that its vulnerability hinders the performance of each athlete. Being timely is critical to provide safe care to the affections of knee; late diagnosis in this system may lead to the development of complications and hinder sport practice. Objective: to characterize knee injuries in athletes of the sport system in the province of Cienfuegos.Methods: an observational, quantitative and qualitative, longitudinal and retrospective study was conducted. It included 104 athletes who attended the Traumatology Consultation from 2009 to 2011, presenting different types of knee injuries in various stages of training. Variables such as age, sex, sport, site of injury, stage of training, kilocalories consumed, type of training, quality of equipment and diagnosis were analyzed. The procedure used consists of a comprehensive review of case notes and medical records of all patients that attended consultation during the period analyzed, from which the necessary data was collected. Interviews with coaches and technical staff were carried out as well. Results: knee injuries occur in all ages of athletes, with a slight predominance of males. Highest frequencies are those of the ligament and meniscus, with the highest incidence in athletics, volleyball and judo. Conservative treatment predominated.Conclusions: knee injuries require a timely treatment in order to achieve athlete's success and safety.

  14. Substantial injuries influence ranking position in young elite athletes of athletics, cross-country skiing, orienteering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Rosen, Philip; Heijne, Annette

    2017-12-11

    The relationship between injury and performance in young athletes is scarcely studied. The aim of this study was therefore to explore the association between injury prevalence and ranking position among adolescent elite athletes. 162 male and female adolescent elite athletes (age range 15-19), competing in athletics (n=59), cross-country skiing (n=66) and orienteering (n=37), were monitored weekly over 22-47 weeks using a web-based injury questionnaire. Ranking lists were collected. A significant (p=.003) difference was found in the seasonal substantial injury prevalence across the ranked athletes over the season, where the top-ranked (median 3.6%, 25-75th percentiles 0-14.3%) and middle-ranked athletes (median 2.3%, 25-75th percentiles 0-10.0%) had a lower substantial injury prevalence compared to the low-ranked athletes (median 11.3%, 25-75th percentiles 2.5-27.1%), during both pre-season (p=.002) and competitive season (p=.031). Athletes that improved their ranking position (51%, n=51) reported a lower substantial injury prevalence (median 0%, 25-75th percentiles 0-10.0%) compared to those that decreased (49%, n=49) their ranking position (md 6.7%, 25-75th percentiles 0-22.5%). In the top-ranked group, no athlete reported substantial injury more than40% of all data collection time points compared to 9.6% (n=5) in the middle-ranked and 17.3% (n=9) in the low-ranked group. Our results provide supporting evidence that substantial injuries, such as acute and overuse injuries leading to moderate or severe reductions in training or sports performance, influence ranking position in adolescent elite athletes. The findings are crucial to stakeholders involved in adolescent elite sports and support the value of designing effective preventive interventions for substantial injuries. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. Transcendence of musculoskeletal injury in athletes with disability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hamstring injuries are common in jumping and sprinting athletes. This case series documents acute grade I - II hamstring injuries in two Paralympic athletes. These athletes were able to transcend their injuries to compete 4 and 6 days after injury to attain personal best achievements.

  16. National Athletic Trainers' Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more by reviewing the NATA Media Kit. NATA Marketing Opportunities Join or Renew Joining NATA offers athletic ... looking for more information about athletic training, youth sports safety or specific health issues, we encourage you ...

  17. Analysis of injury types for mixed martial arts athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, MinJoon

    2016-05-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to examine the types of injuries associated with mixed martial arts and their location in order to provide substantial information to help reduce the risk of these injuries during mixed martial arts. [Subjects and Methods] Data were collected from 455 mixed martial arts athletes who practiced mixed martial arts or who participated in mixed martial arts competitions in the Seoul Metropolitan City and Gyeongnam Province of Korea between June 3, 2015, and November 6, 2015. Questionnaires were used to collect the data. The convenience sampling method was used, based on the non-probability sampling extraction method. [Results] The arm, neck, and head were the most frequent locations of the injuries; and lacerations, concussions, and contusions were the most frequently diagnosed types of injuries in the mixed martial arts athletes in this study. [Conclusion] Reducing the risk of injury by establishing an alert system and preventing critical injuries by incorporating safety measures are important.

  18. Psychosocial Aspects of Athletic Injuries as Perceived by Athletic Trainers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Damien; Granquist, Megan D.; Arvinen-Barrow, Monna M.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Despite the Psychosocial Strategies and Referral content area, athletic trainers (ATs) generally lack confidence in their ability to use this information. Objective: The current study's primary purpose was to determine (a) perceived psychological responses and coping behaviors athletes may present to ATs, (b) psychosocial strategies ATs currently use with their athletes, (c) psychosocial strategies ATs deem important to learn more about, and (d) ATs' current practices in referring athletes to counseling or sport psychology services. Design:  Mixed-methods study. Setting: Online survey containing both quantitative and qualitative items. Patients or Other Participants:   A total of 215 ATs (86 male, 129 female), representing a response rate of 22.50%. Main Outcome Measure(s): The Athletic Training and Sport Psychology Questionnaire. Results: Stress/anxiety (4.24 ± 0.82), anger (3.70 ± 0.96), and treatment adherence problems (3.62 ± 0.94) were rated as the primary psychological responses athletes may present upon injury. Adherence and having a positive attitude were identified as key determinants in defining athletes' successful coping with their injuries. The top 3 selected psychosocial strategies were keeping the athlete involved with the team (4.57 ± 0.73), using short-term goals (4.45 ± 0.67), and creating variety in rehabilitation exercises (4.32 ± 0.75). The top 3 rated psychosocial strategies ATs deem important to learn more about were understanding motivation (4.29 ± 0.89), using effective communication (4.24 ± 0.91), and setting realistic goals (4.22 ± 0.97). Of the sample, only 59 (27.44%) ATs reported referring an athlete for counseling services, and 37 (84.09%) of those who had access to a sport psychologist (n = 44) reported referring for sport psychology services. Conclusions:  These results not only highlight ATs' current use of psychosocial strategies but also their desires to increase their current knowledge and understanding

  19. Incidence and risk factors for turf toe injuries in intercollegiate football: data from the national collegiate athletic association injury surveillance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Elizabeth; Harris, Alex H S; Dragoo, Jason L; Hunt, Kenneth J

    2014-02-01

    Turf toe is the general term for a sprain of the first metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint complex. Previously attributed to shoe design and artificial turf, the incidence of turf toe injury has been thought to decline with the advent of newer turf designs. However, the current incidence and epidemiology remain unknown as the majority of the literature consists of small series and addresses diagnosis and treatment rather than epidemiology and prevention. We examined data from the NCAA's Injury Surveillance System (ISS) for 5 football seasons (2004-2005 through 2008-2009), including all preseason, regular season, and postseason practice and competition data. The incidence, epidemiology, and risk factors for turf toe injury, defined as injury to the connective tissue of the first MTP joint, plantar plate complex, and/or sesamoid fracture, were determined. The overall incidence of turf toe injuries in NCAA football players was 0.062 per 1000 athlete-exposures (A-Es; 95% CI 0.052, 0.072). Athletes were nearly 14 times more likely to sustain the injury during games compared to practice, with a mean days lost due to injury of 10.1 (7.9, 12.4). Fewer than 2% of turf toe injuries required operative intervention. There was a significantly higher injury rate on third-generation artificial surfaces compared to natural grass (0.087 per 1000 A-E [0.067, 0.11] vs 0.047 per 1000 A-E [0.036, 0.059]). The majority of injuries occurred as a result of contact with the playing surface (35.4%) or contact with another player (32.7%), and running backs and quarterbacks were the most common positions to suffer turf toe injury. Our data suggest a significantly higher incidence of turf toe injuries during games, a greater susceptibility among running backs and quarterbacks, and a significant contribution of playing surface to risk of injury. Though turf toe injuries may be less common that previously reported in elite football players, these injuries warrant appropriate acute and long

  20. Descriptive Epidemiology of Non-Time-Loss Injuries in Collegiate and High School Student-Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Zachary Y; Lynall, Robert C; Roos, Karen G; Dalton, Sara L; Djoko, Aristarque; Dompier, Thomas P

    2017-05-01

      Research on non-time-loss (NTL) injuries, which result in less than 24 hours of restriction from participation, is limited.   To describe the epidemiology of NTL injuries among collegiate and high school student-athletes.   Descriptive epidemiology study.   Aggregate injury and exposure data collected from a convenience sample of National College Athletic Association varsity teams and 147 high schools in 26 states.   Collegiate and high school student-athletes participating in men's and boys' baseball, basketball, football, lacrosse, soccer, and wrestling and women's and girls' basketball, field hockey, lacrosse, soccer, softball, and volleyball during the 2009-2010 through 2013-2014 and the 2011-2012 through 2013-2014 academic years, respectively, participated. Collegiate student-athletes participating in men's and women's ice hockey were also included.   Injury data from the National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance Program and the National Athletic Treatment, Injury and Outcomes Network were analyzed. Injury counts, rates per 1000 athlete-exposures (AEs), and rate ratios were reported with 95% confidence intervals (CIs).   A total of 11 899 and 30 122 NTL injuries were reported in collegiate and high school student-athletes, respectively. The proportion of NTL injuries in high school student-athletes (80.3%) was 1.61 times greater than that of collegiate student-athletes (49.9%; 95% CI = 1.59, 1.63). The NTL injury rate in high school student-athletes (8.75/1000 athlete-exposures [AEs]) was 2.18 times greater than that of collegiate student-athletes (4.02/1000 AEs; 95% CI = 2.13, 2.22). Men's ice hockey (5.27/1000 AEs) and boys' football (11.94/1000 AEs) had the highest NTL injury rates among collegiate and high school athletes, respectively. Commonly injured body parts in collegiate and high school student-athletes were the hip/thigh/upper leg (17.5%) and hand/wrist (18.2%), respectively. At both levels, contusions

  1. Eye Injuries in High School and Collegiate Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Barry P; Pierpoint, Lauren A; Boden, Rebecca G; Comstock, R Dawn; Kerr, Zachary Y

    Although eye injuries constitute a small percentage of high school and college sports injuries, they have the potential to be permanently debilitating. Eye injury rates will vary by sport, sex, and between the high school and college age groups. Descriptive epidemiology study. Level 3. Data from eye injury reports in high school and college athletes were obtained from the National High School Sports-Related Injury Surveillance System, High School Reporting Information Online (HS RIO) database over a 10-year span (2005-2006 through 2014-2015 school years) and the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Injury Surveillance Program (ISP) over an 11-year span (2004-2005 through 2014-2015 school years). Injury rates per 100,000 athlete-exposures (AEs), injury rate ratios (RRs), and 95% CIs were calculated. Distributions of eye injuries by diagnosis, mechanism, time loss, and surgery needs were also examined. A total of 237 and 273 eye injuries were reported in the HS RIO and the NCAA ISP databases, respectively. The sports with the highest eye injury rates (per 100,000 AEs) for combined high school and college athletes were women's basketball (2.36), women's field hockey (2.35), men's basketball (2.31), and men's wrestling (2.07). Overall eye injury rates at the high school and college levels were 0.68 and 1.84 per 100,000 AEs, respectively. Eye injury rates were higher in competition than practice in high school (RR, 3.47; 95% CI, 2.69-4.48) and college (RR, 3.13; 95% CI, 2.45-3.99). Most injuries were contusions (high school, 35.9%; college, 33.3%) and due to contact (high school, 89.9%; college, 86.4%). Only a small percentage of injuries resulted in time loss over 21 days (high school, 4.2%; college, 3.0%). Eye injury rates and patterns vary by sport, sex, and between the high school and college age groups. Although severe injuries do occur, most eye injuries sustained by high school and college athletes are minor, with limited time loss and full recovery

  2. Historical Patterns and Variation in Treatment of Injuries in NFL (National Football League) Players and NCAA (National Collegiate Athletic Association) Division I Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Eric C; Kraeutler, Matthew J; Langner, Paula; Cook, Shane; Ellis, Byron; Godfrey, Jenna M

    We conducted a study to identify and contrast patterns in the treatment of common injuries that occur in National Football League (NFL) players and National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I football players. Orthopedic team physicians for all 32 NFL and 119 NCAA Division I football teams were asked to complete a survey regarding demographics and preferred treatment of a variety of injuries encountered in football players. Responses were received from 31 (97%) of the 32 NFL and 111 (93%) of the 119 NCAA team physicians. Although patellar tendon autograft was the preferred graft choice for both groups of team physicians, the percentage of NCAA physicians who allowed return to football 6 months or less after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction was significantly (P = .03) higher than that of NFL physicians. Prophylactic knee bracing, which may prevent medial collateral ligament injuries, was used at a significantly (P football players.

  3. The genetics of sports injuries and athletic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffulli, Nicola; Margiotti, Katia; Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Loppini, Mattia; Fazio, Vito Michele; Denaro, Vincenzo

    2013-08-11

    in the last two decades, several evidences have been provided to support the relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms and the susceptibility to develop injuries participating in sport and performance related to sports activity. We report up-to-date review of the genetics factors involved in tendon injuries and athletic performance. we searched PubMed using the terms "sports injuries", "athletic performance" and "genetics" over the period 1990 to the present day. We also included non-English journals. most of the currently established or putative tendinopathy susceptibility loci have been analyzed by candidate gene studies. The genes currently associated with tendon injuries include gene encoding for collagen, matrix metallopeptidase, tenascin and growth factors. Several genes have been related to the physical performance phenotypes affecting endurance capacity and muscle performance. The most studied include ACE and ACTN3 genes. genetics determines the response of an individual to the surrounding environment. Recently, some of the individual genetic variations contributing to the athletic performance and the onset of musculoskeletal injuries, particularly in tendon and ligament tissues, have been identified. However, the identification of the genetic background related to susceptibility to injuries and physical performance of the athletes is challenging yet and further studies must be performed to establish the specific role of each gene and the potential effect of the interaction of these.

  4. Neuromuscular Training Improves Lower Extremity Biomechanics Associated with Knee Injury during Landing in 11–13 Year Old Female Netball Athletes: A Randomized Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Amanda J.; Haff, Erin E.; Joyce, Christopher; Lloyd, Rhodri S.; Haff, G. Gregory

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a neuromuscular training (NMT) program on lower-extremity biomechanics in youth female netball athletes. The hypothesis was that significant improvements would be found in landing biomechanics of the lower-extremities, commonly associated with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, following NMT. Twenty-three athletes (age = 12.2 ± 0.9 years; height = 1.63 ± 0.08 m; mass = 51.8 ± 8.5 kg) completed two testing sessions separated by 7-weeks and were randomly assigned to either a experimental or control group. Thirteen athletes underwent 6-weeks of NMT, while the remaining 10 served as controls and continued their regular netball training. Three-dimensional lower-extremity kinematics and vertical ground reaction force (VGRF) were measured during two landing tasks, a drop vertical jump and a double leg broad jump with a single leg landing. The experimental group significantly increased bilateral knee marker distance during the bilateral landing task at maximum knee-flexion range of motion. Knee internal rotation angle during the unilateral landing task at maximum knee flexion-extension range of motion was significantly reduced (p ≤ 0.05, g > 1.00). The experimental group showed large, significant decreases in peak vertical ground reaction force in both landing tasks (p ≤ 0.05, g > −1.30). Control participants did not demonstrate any significant pre-to-post-test changes in response to the 6-week study period. Results of the study affirm the hypothesis that a 6-week NMT program can enhance landing biomechanics associated with ACL injury in 11–13 year old female netball athletes. PMID:29163219

  5. Neuromuscular Training Improves Lower Extremity Biomechanics Associated with Knee Injury during Landing in 11–13 Year Old Female Netball Athletes: A Randomized Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda J. Hopper

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a neuromuscular training (NMT program on lower-extremity biomechanics in youth female netball athletes. The hypothesis was that significant improvements would be found in landing biomechanics of the lower-extremities, commonly associated with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL injury, following NMT. Twenty-three athletes (age = 12.2 ± 0.9 years; height = 1.63 ± 0.08 m; mass = 51.8 ± 8.5 kg completed two testing sessions separated by 7-weeks and were randomly assigned to either a experimental or control group. Thirteen athletes underwent 6-weeks of NMT, while the remaining 10 served as controls and continued their regular netball training. Three-dimensional lower-extremity kinematics and vertical ground reaction force (VGRF were measured during two landing tasks, a drop vertical jump and a double leg broad jump with a single leg landing. The experimental group significantly increased bilateral knee marker distance during the bilateral landing task at maximum knee-flexion range of motion. Knee internal rotation angle during the unilateral landing task at maximum knee flexion-extension range of motion was significantly reduced (p ≤ 0.05, g > 1.00. The experimental group showed large, significant decreases in peak vertical ground reaction force in both landing tasks (p ≤ 0.05, g > −1.30. Control participants did not demonstrate any significant pre-to-post-test changes in response to the 6-week study period. Results of the study affirm the hypothesis that a 6-week NMT program can enhance landing biomechanics associated with ACL injury in 11–13 year old female netball athletes.

  6. Postinjury anxiety and social support among collegiate athletes: a comparison between orthopaedic injuries and concussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covassin, Tracey; Crutcher, Bryan; Bleecker, Alisha; Heiden, Erin O; Dailey, Alexander; Yang, Jingzhen

    2014-01-01

    When an athlete is injured, the primary focus of the sports medicine team is to treat the physical effects of the injury. However, many injured athletes experience negative psychological responses, including anxiety, regarding their injury. To compare the anxiety and social support of athletes with concussions and a matched group of athletes with orthopaedic injuries. Cross-sectional study. Athletic training room. A total of 525 injuries among athletes from 2 Big Ten universities were observed. Of these, 63 concussion injuries were matched with 63 orthopaedic injuries for the athlete's sex, sport, and time loss due to injury. Clinical measures included the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (which measures both state and trait anxiety) and the modified 6-item Social Support Questionnaire. The group with concussions relied on their family for social support 89% of the time, followed by friends (78%), teammates (65%), athletic trainers (48%), coaches (47%), and physicians (35%). The group with orthopaedic injuries relied on their family for social support 87% of the time, followed by friends (84%), teammates (65%), athletic trainers (57%), coaches (51%), and physicians (36%). We found no differences for the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (t = -1.38, P = .193) between the concussed and orthopaedic-injury groups. Social Support Questionnaire scores were significant predictors for postinjury state anxiety. Specifically, increased scores were associated with decreased postinjury state anxiety (β = -4.21, P = .0001). Both the concussed athletes and those with orthopaedic injuries experienced similar state and trait anxiety and relied on similar sources of social support postinjury. However, athletes with orthopaedic injuries reported greater satisfaction with support from all sources compared with concussed athletes. In contrast, concussed athletes showed more significant predictor models of social support on state anxiety at return to play.

  7. Postinjury Anxiety and Social Support Among Collegiate Athletes: A Comparison Between Orthopaedic Injuries and Concussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covassin, Tracey; Crutcher, Bryan; Bleecker, Alisha; Heiden, Erin O.; Dailey, Alexander; Yang, Jingzhen

    2014-01-01

    Context: When an athlete is injured, the primary focus of the sports medicine team is to treat the physical effects of the injury. However, many injured athletes experience negative psychological responses, including anxiety, regarding their injury. Objective: To compare the anxiety and social support of athletes with concussions and a matched group of athletes with orthopaedic injuries. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Athletic training room. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 525 injuries among athletes from 2 Big Ten universities were observed. Of these, 63 concussion injuries were matched with 63 orthopaedic injuries for the athlete's sex, sport, and time loss due to injury. Main Outcome Measure(s): Clinical measures included the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (which measures both state and trait anxiety) and the modified 6-item Social Support Questionnaire. Results: The group with concussions relied on their family for social support 89% of the time, followed by friends (78%), teammates (65%), athletic trainers (48%), coaches (47%), and physicians (35%). The group with orthopaedic injuries relied on their family for social support 87% of the time, followed by friends (84%), teammates (65%), athletic trainers (57%), coaches (51%), and physicians (36%). We found no differences for the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (t = −1.38, P = .193) between the concussed and orthopaedic-injury groups. Social Support Questionnaire scores were significant predictors for postinjury state anxiety. Specifically, increased scores were associated with decreased postinjury state anxiety (β = −4.21, P = .0001). Conclusions: Both the concussed athletes and those with orthopaedic injuries experienced similar state and trait anxiety and relied on similar sources of social support postinjury. However, athletes with orthopaedic injuries reported greater satisfaction with support from all sources compared with concussed athletes. In contrast, concussed athletes showed

  8. MAJOR INJURIES MUSCULOSKELETALS IN YOUNG ATHLETES BASKETBALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Simão Rodrigues Filho

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The growth of participation of youth in sports is accompanied by an increase in the number of musculoskeletal injuries, especially in contact sports. Basketball gained prominence among contact sports not only for its plastic and beauty of their games, but because it is a sport that demands much of its practitioners, and in the case of young athletes, this requirement can endanger children and adolescents are not properly monitored for health professionals sports. In this study we can see that the ankle is the most affected, followed by knee and fingers and wrists. The mechanisms of injury most frequently reported were sprains, after the bruises and fractures. Highlight for disturbances dorsolumbar, pointed out by many authors. The prevention programs and pre-competition oriented properly treated as paramount by all the authors investigated, in order to reduce the number of injuries in young athletes.

  9. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Prevention Training in Female Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Noyes, Frank R.; Barber Westin, Sue D.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Many anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury prevention training programs have been published, but few have assessed the effects of training on both ACL injury rates and athletic performance tests. Objective: To determine if ACL injury prevention programs have a positive influence on both injury rates and athletic performance tests in female athletes. Data sources: In August 2011, a search was conducted (1995?August 2011) of the PubMed, Science Direct, and CINAHL databases. Study sel...

  10. Athletic pubalgia and associated rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellsworth, Abigail A; Zoland, Mark P; Tyler, Timothy F

    2014-11-01

    Evaluation and treatment of groin pain in athletes is challenging. The anatomy is complex, and multiple pathologies often coexist. Different pathologies may cause similar symptoms, and many systems can refer pain to the groin. Many athletes with groin pain have tried prolonged rest and various treatment regimens, and received differing opinions as to the cause of their pain. The rehabilitation specialist is often given a non-specific referral of "groin pain" or "sports hernia." The cause of pain could be as simple as the effects of an adductor strain, or as complex as athletic pubalgia or inguinal disruption. The term "sports hernia" is starting to be replaced with more specific terms that better describe the injury. Inguinal disruption is used to describe the syndromes related to the injury of the inguinal canal soft tissue environs ultimately causing the pain syndrome. The term athletic pubalgia is used to describe the disruption and/or separation of the more medial common aponeurosis from the pubis, usually with some degree of adductor tendon pathology. Both non-operative and post-operative treatment options share the goal of returning the athlete back to pain free activity. There is little research available to reference for rehabilitation guidelines and creation of a plan of care. Although each surgeon has their own specific set of post-operative guidelines, some common concepts are consistent among most surgeons. Effective rehabilitation of the high level athlete to pain free return to play requires addressing the differences in the biomechanics of the dysfunction when comparing athletic pubalgia and inguinal disruption. Proper evaluation and diagnostic skills for identifying and specifying the difference between athletic pubalgia and inguinal disruption allows for an excellent and efficient rehabilitative plan of care. Progression through the rehabilitative stages whether non-operative or post-operative allows for a focused rehabilitative program. As more

  11. Injury Incidence and Patterns Among Dutch CrossFit Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrab, Mirwais; de Vos, Robert-Jan; Kraan, Gerald A; Mathijssen, Nina M C

    2017-12-01

    CrossFit is a strength and conditioning program that has gained widespread recognition, with 11,000 affiliated gyms worldwide. The incidence of injuries during CrossFit training is poorly analyzed. To investigate the incidence of injuries for persons participating in CrossFit. Risk factors for injury and injury mechanisms were also explored through athlete demographics and characteristics. Descriptive epidemiology study. A questionnaire that focused on injury incidence in CrossFit in the past year and included data on athlete demographics and characteristics was distributed to all 130 CrossFit gyms in the Netherlands and was also available online in active Facebook groups. Data were collected from July 2015 to January 2016. Inclusion criteria consisted of age ≥18 years and training at a registered CrossFit gym in the Netherlands. A total of 553 participants completed the survey. Univariable and multivariable generalized linear mixed models were used to identify potential risk factors for injury. A total of 449 participants met the inclusion criteria. Of all respondents, 252 athletes (56.1%) sustained an injury in the preceding 12 months. The most injured body parts were the shoulder (n = 87, 28.7%), lower back (n = 48, 15.8%), and knee (n = 25, 8.3%). The duration of participation in CrossFit significantly affected the injury incidence rates (CrossFit was 56.1%. The most frequent injury locations were the shoulder, lower back, and knee. A short duration of participation (<6 months) was significantly associated with an increased risk for injury.

  12. Sports injuries to high school athletes with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Marizen; Yang, Jingzhen; Bourque, Linda; Javien, John; Kashani, Saman; Limbos, Mary Ann; Peek-Asa, Corinne

    2009-02-01

    Physical activity in sports comes with an inherent risk for injury. For children with disabilities, their injury risk may be complicated by preexisting disability. However, very little research exists on sports injuries to young athletes with disabilities. To best manage potential injuries to children with disabilities, data on sports injury patterns are needed. The purpose of this study was to measure the frequency of and risk factors for injury to high school athletes with disabilities. A total of 210 athletes from 8 special education high schools that are part of an interscholastic sports league participated in the study. Seven of the 8 schools were followed for 1 season each of basketball, softball, soccer, and field hockey, and 1 school enrolled only during field hockey. Data were collected from coaches on daily exposure sessions (game, practice, and conditioning, as well as length of session), athlete characteristics (disability, gender, age, seizure history, and behavioral problems), and nature of injuries resulting in any type of medical treatment. Thirty-eight injuries were reported among 512 special athletes for a rate of 2.0 per 1000 athlete exposures. Soccer (3.7 per 1000) had the highest rate of injury. More than half of the injuries were abrasions and contusions. Those at highest risk for injury were athletes with autism, athletes with histories of seizures, and starters. Athletes with autism had approximately 5 times the injury rate of athletes with mental disabilities. Athletes with seizures had >2.5 times the rate of injury reported among those with no seizure history. This adapted sports program is a reasonably safe activity for children with disabilities. Nonetheless, findings have important implications for prevention. The preparticipation medical examination may be an excellent opportunity to create special guidelines, particularly for athletes with autism and seizure history.

  13. Applying personal genetic data to injury risk assessment in athletes.

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    Gabrielle T Goodlin

    Full Text Available Recent studies have identified genetic markers associated with risk for certain sports-related injuries and performance-related conditions, with the hope that these markers could be used by individual athletes to personalize their training and diet regimens. We found that we could greatly expand the knowledge base of sports genetic information by using published data originally found in health and disease studies. For example, the results from large genome-wide association studies for low bone mineral density in elderly women can be re-purposed for low bone mineral density in young endurance athletes. In total, we found 124 single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with: anterior cruciate ligament tear, Achilles tendon injury, low bone mineral density and stress fracture, osteoarthritis, vitamin/mineral deficiencies, and sickle cell trait. Of these single nucleotide polymorphisms, 91% have not previously been used in sports genetics. We conducted a pilot program on fourteen triathletes using this expanded knowledge base of genetic variants associated with sports injury. These athletes were genotyped and educated about how their individual genetic make-up affected their personal risk profile during an hour-long personal consultation. Overall, participants were favorable of the program, found it informative, and most acted upon their genetic results. This pilot program shows that recent genetic research provides valuable information to help reduce sports injuries and to optimize nutrition. There are many genetic studies for health and disease that can be mined to provide useful information to athletes about their individual risk for relevant injuries.

  14. On-the-field management of athletic head injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Pierre; Adamson, Gregory J

    2004-01-01

    Head injuries are prevalent in collision sports. Concussions represent the relatively benign end of the spectrum of injuries. Severe closed head injuries include epidural hematomas, acute subdural hematomas, intracerebral hematomas, intraventricular hematomas, subarachnoid hemorrhages, and diffuse axonal injuries. Second impact syndrome represents a severe cerebral autoregulatory dysfunction that can lead to death in an athlete who sustains a second (often minor) closed head trauma while still symptomatic from a previous head injury. Generally, athletes who have suffered a severe closed head injury should not return to play. Exceptions include athletes asymptomatic for 1 year who return to a noncontact sport and those who recover completely from an epidural hematoma without underlying brain injury. Several guidelines for returning athletes to play have been proposed and are commonly used. The team physician has the responsibility of on-the-field evaluation and management of athletes with head injuries, as well as of advising them when it is safe to return to play.

  15. Exercise and airway injury in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto, Mariana; Silva, Diana; Delgado, Luis; Moreira, André

    2013-01-01

    Olympic level athletes present an increased risk for asthma and allergy, especially those who take part in endurance sports, such as swimming or running, and in winter sports. Classical postulated mechanisms behind EIA include the osmotic, or airway-drying, hypothesis. Hyperventilation leads to evaporation of water and the airway surface liquid becomes hyperosmolar, providing a stimulus for water to move from any cell nearby, which results in the shrinkage of cells and the consequent release of inflammatory mediators that cause airway smooth muscle contraction. But the exercise-induced asthma/bronchoconstriction explanatory model in athletes probably comprises the interaction between environmental training factors, including allergens and ambient conditions such as temperature, humidity and air quality; and athlete's personal risk factors, such as genetic and neuroimmuneendocrine determinants. After the stress of training and competitions athletes experience higher rate of upper respiratory tract infections (URTI), compared with lesser active individuals. Increasing physical activity in non-athletes is associated with a decreased risk of URTI. Heavy exercise induces marked immunodepression which is multifactorial in origin. Prolonged, high intensity exercise temporarily impairs the immune competence while moderate activity may enhance immune function. The relationship between URTI and exercise is affected by poorly known individual determinants such genetic susceptibility, neurogenic mediated immune inflammation and epithelial barrier dysfunction. Further studies should better define the aetiologic factors and mechanisms involved in the development of asthma in athletes, and propose relevant preventive and therapeutic measures.

  16. Self-reported comfort of collegiate athletes with injury and condition care by same-sex and opposite-sex athletic trainers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Jan L; Hostetter, Karen; Laguna, Patricia L; Gillentine, Andy; Del Rossi, Gianluca

    2007-01-01

    Athletes may experience similar comfort concerns as patients in other allied health care fields. To address athlete comfort with injury and condition care provided by same-sex and opposite-sex athletic trainers. Cross-sectional survey design. Three National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I university athletic programs were invited and agreed to participate. Universities were selected by geographic location and affiliation with 3 National Athletic Trainers' Association districts. A total of 685 athletes (341 women, 344 men) completed questionnaires (277 in the Mid-America District, 282 in the Far West District, and 126 in the Southeast District). Questionnaires consisted of 17 injuries and conditions common to both female and male athletic trainer scenarios. Three sex-specific items were added to each scenario. Responses were scored on a 5-point scale anchored by 1 (very uncomfortable) and 5 (very comfortable). Participants were asked to indicate the reason for any degree of discomfort. Internal consistency, determined by Cronbach alpha, was .93 for the female athletic trainer scenario and .95 for the male athletic trainer scenario. We found significant injury and condition category-by-sex interactions for general medical conditions (F(1,683) = 578.9, P psychological conditions (F(1,683) = 136.2, P injuries to the upper body (F(1,683) = 175.7, P injuries to the mid-body (F(1,683) = 199.1, P injuries to the lower body (F(1,683) = 4.9, P injuries and conditions, we found a difference between the mean ratings in both female athlete comfort (t(340) = -26.350, P athlete comfort (t(340) = -26.350, P athletes were provided care by a female athletic trainer and a male athletic trainer. Overall, athletes appeared to be more comfortable when provided care by a same-sex athletic trainer. The most common reason reported for discomfort was gender related. Both athletes and athletic trainers should be aware that athletes do experience discomfort, especially if the

  17. Concussion associated with head trauma in athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Murguía Cánovas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there has been increased attention to concussions that occur during sports activities, both at school level or amateur and professional level. Concussion is defined as a sudden and transient alteration of consciousness induced by traumatic biomechanical forces transmitted directly or indirectly to the brain. Such injuries most commonly occur in contact sports such as boxing, football, soccer, wrestling, hockey, among others. Concussion should be suspected in any athlete who suffers a head injury, whether or not it is associated to loss of consciousness. These athletes should not return to their sports activities immediately, and a few days of mental and physical leave are recommended in order to ensure full recovery. Repeat head injuries should be avoided, since there is evidence that in some athletes they can lead to chronic traumatic encephalopathy. The present review focuses on the different definitions of concussion, management and long-term consequences. It also contains the Spanish version of the Sport Concussion Assessment Tool 2 (SCAT2.

  18. Overview of injuries in the young athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adirim, Terry A; Cheng, Tina L

    2003-01-01

    It is estimated that 30 million children in the US participate in organised sports programmes. As more and more children participate in sports and recreational activities, there has been an increase in acute and overuse injuries. Emergency department visits are highest among the school-age to young adult population. Over one-third of school-age children will sustain an injury severe enough to be treated by a doctor or nurse. The yearly costs have been estimated to be as high as 1.8 billion US dollars. There are physical and physiological differences between children and adults that may cause children to be more vulnerable to injury. Factors that contribute to this difference in vulnerability include: children have a larger surface area to mass ratio, children have larger heads proportionately, children may be too small for protective equipment, growing cartilage may be more vulnerable to stresses and children may not have the complex motor skills needed for certain sports until after puberty. The most commonly injured areas of the body include the ankle and knee followed by the hand, wrist, elbow, shin and calf, head, neck and clavicle. Contusions and strains are the most common injuries sustained by young athletes. In early adolescence, apophysitis or strains at the apophyses are common. The most common sites are at the knee (Osgood-Schlatter disease), at the heel (Sever's disease) and at the elbow (Little League Elbow). Non-traumatic knee pain is one of the most common complaints in the young athlete. Patellar Femoral Pain Syndrome (PFPS) has a constellation of causes that include overuse, poor tracking of the patellar, malalignment problems of the legs and foot problems, such as pes planus. In the child, hip pathology can present as knee pain so a careful hip exam is important in the child presenting with an insidious onset of knee pain. Other common injuries in young athletes discussed include anterior cruciate ligament injuries, ankle sprains and ankle

  19. Management of acute lateral ankle ligament injury in the athlete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bekerom, Michel P. J.; Kerkhoffs, Gino M. M. J.; McCollum, Graham A.; Calder, James D. F.; van Dijk, C. Niek

    2013-01-01

    Inversion injuries involve about 25 % of all injuries of the musculoskeletal system and about 50 % of these injuries are sport-related. This article reviews the acute lateral ankle injuries with special emphasis on a rationale for treatment of these injuries in athletes. A narrative review was

  20. Critical review of the impact of core stability on upper extremity athletic injury and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silfies, Sheri P; Ebaugh, David; Pontillo, Marisa; Butowicz, Courtney M

    2015-01-01

    Programs designed to prevent or rehabilitate athletic injuries or improve athletic performance frequently focus on core stability. This approach is based upon the theory that poor core stability increases the risk of poor performance and/or injury. Despite the widespread use of core stability training amongst athletes, the question of whether or not sufficient evidence exists to support this practice remains to be answered. 1) Open a dialogue on the definition and components of core stability. 2) Provide an overview of current science linking core stability to musculoskeletal injuries of the upper extremity. 3) Provide an overview of evidence for the association between core stability and athletic performance. Core stability is the ability to control the position and movement of the trunk for optimal production, transfer, and control of forces to and from the upper and lower extremities during functional activities. Muscle capacity and neuromuscular control are critical components of core stability. A limited body of evidence provides some support for a link between core stability and upper extremity injuries amongst athletes who participate in baseball, football, or swimming. Likewise, few studies exist to support a relationship between core stability and athletic performance. A limited body of evidence exists to support the use of core stability training in injury prevention or performance enhancement programs for athletes. Clearly more research is needed to inform decision making when it comes to inclusion or emphasis of core training when designing injury prevention and rehabilitation programs for athletes.

  1. Critical review of the impact of core stability on upper extremity athletic injury and performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheri P. Silfies

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Programs designed to prevent or rehabilitate athletic injuries or improve athletic performance frequently focus on core stability. This approach is based upon the theory that poor core stability increases the risk of poor performance and/or injury. Despite the widespread use of core stability training amongst athletes, the question of whether or not sufficient evidence exists to support this practice remains to be answered.OBJECTIVES: 1 Open a dialogue on the definition and components of core stability. 2 Provide an overview of current science linking core stability to musculoskeletal injuries of the upper extremity. 3 Provide an overview of evidence for the association between core stability and athletic performance.DISCUSSION: Core stability is the ability to control the position and movement of the trunk for optimal production, transfer, and control of forces to and from the upper and lower extremities during functional activities. Muscle capacity and neuromuscular control are critical components of core stability. A limited body of evidence provides some support for a link between core stability and upper extremity injuries amongst athletes who participate in baseball, football, or swimming. Likewise, few studies exist to support a relationship between core stability and athletic performance.CONCLUSIONS: A limited body of evidence exists to support the use of core stability training in injury prevention or performance enhancement programs for athletes. Clearly more research is needed to inform decision making when it comes to inclusion or emphasis of core training when designing injury prevention and rehabilitation programs for athletes.

  2. Injuries among World Cup ski and snowboard athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flørenes, T W; Nordsletten, L; Heir, S; Bahr, R

    2012-02-01

    There is little information available on injuries to World Cup skiers and snowboarders. The aim of this study was to describe and compare the injury risk to World Cup athletes in alpine skiing, freestyle skiing, snowboarding, ski jumping, Nordic combined and cross country skiing. We performed retrospective interviews with the International Ski Federation (FIS) World Cup athletes from selected nations during the 2006-2007 and 2007-2008 winter seasons and recorded all acute injuries occurring during the seasons. We interviewed 2121 athletes and recorded 705 injuries. There were 520 (72%) time-loss injuries and 196 (28%) severe injuries (absence >28 days). In freestyle skiing, alpine skiing and snowboarding, there were 27.6, 29.8 and 37.8 time-loss and 14.4, 11.3 and 13.8 severe injuries per 100 athletes per season, respectively. In Nordic combined, ski jumping and cross country skiing, there were 15.8, 13.6 and 6.3 time-loss and 3.3, 5.6 and 0.7 severe injuries per 100 athletes per season, respectively. In conclusion about 1/3 of the World Cup alpine, freestyle and snowboard athletes sustain a time-loss injury each season, while the risk is low in the Nordic disciplines. A particular concern was the high proportion of severe injuries observed among alpine, freestyle and snowboard athletes, which is in contrast to most other sports. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  3. Sports-related injuries in athletes with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagher, K; Lexell, J

    2014-10-01

    The number of athletes with disabilities participating in organized sports and the popularity of the Paralympic Games is steadily increasing around the world. Despite this growing interest and the fact that participation in sports places the athlete at risk for injury, there are few studies concerning injury patterns, risk factors, and prevention strategies of injuries in disabled athletes. In this systematic literature search and critical review, we summarize current knowledge of the epidemiology of sports-related injuries in disabled athletes and describe their characteristics, incidence, prevalence, and prevention strategies. The outcomes of interest were any injury, either an acute trauma or an overuse event. PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Google Scholar were systematically searched and 25 of 605 identified studies met the inclusion criteria. Lower extremity injuries were more common in walking athletes, whereas upper extremity injuries were more prevalent in wheelchair athletes. The methodologies and populations varied widely between the studies. Few studies were sports or disability specific, which makes it difficult to determine specific risk factors, and few studies reported injury severity and prevention of injuries. Further longitudinal, systematic sports and disability specific studies are needed in order to identify and prevent injuries in athletes with disabilities. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Paralympic athletes' perceptions of their experiences of sports-related injuries, risk factors and preventive possibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagher, Kristina; Forsberg, Anna; Jacobsson, Jenny; Timpka, Toomas; Dahlström, Örjan; Lexell, Jan

    2016-11-01

    Our knowledge of sports-related injuries in para-sport is limited and there are no data on how Paralympic athletes themselves perceive an injury. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore Paralympic athletes' perceptions of their experiences of sports-related injuries, risk factors and preventive possibilities. Eighteen Swedish Paralympic athletes with vision impairment, intellectual impairment, spinal cord injury, cerebral palsy, myelomeningocele, dysplasia and neuromuscular disorder, representing 10 different para-sports, were interviewed. The qualitative phenomenographic method was used to interpret the data. The analysis revealed nine categories of perceptions of experiences. The athletes perceived that their impairments were involved in the cause and consequential chains associated with a sports-related injury. Other categories that denoted and described these injuries were: sport overuse, risk behaviour, functional limitations, psychological stressors, the normalised pain, health hazards, individual possibilities to prevent sports-related injuries and unequal prerequisites. This qualitative study revealed that Paralympic athletes' perceptions of their experiences of sports-related injuries are complex and multifactorial, and in several ways differ from able-bodied athletes. This needs to be considered in the sports health and safety work within the Paralympic Movement as well as in the design of future injury surveillance systems and preventive programmes.

  5. in athletes with spinal cord injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RC Pritchett

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sweat production is crucial for thermoregulation. However, sweating can be problematic for individuals with spinal cord injuries (SCI, as they display a blunting of sudomotor and vasomotor responses below the level of the injury. Sweat gland density and eccrine gland metabolism in SCI are not well understood. Consequently, this study examined sweat lactate (S-LA (reflective of sweat gland metabolism, active sweat gland density (SGD, and sweat output per gland (S/G in 7 SCI athletes and 8 able-bodied (AB controls matched for arm ergometry VO2peak. A sweat collection device was positioned on the upper scapular and medial calf of each subject just prior to the beginning of the trial, with iodine sweat gland density patches positioned on the upper scapular and medial calf. Participants were tested on a ramp protocol (7 min per stage, 20 W increase per stage in a common exercise environment (21±1°C, 45-65% relative humidity. An independent t-test revealed lower (p<0.05 SGD (upper scapular for SCI (22.3 ±14.8 glands · cm-2 vs. AB. (41.0 ± 8.1 glands · cm-2. However, there was no significant difference for S/G between groups. S-LA was significantly greater (p<0.05 during the second exercise stage for SCI (11.5±10.9 mmol · l-1 vs. AB (26.8±11.07 mmol · l-1. These findings suggest that SCI athletes had less active sweat glands compared to the AB group, but the sweat response was similar (SLA, S/G between AB and SCI athletes. The results suggest similar interglandular metabolic activity irrespective of overall sweat rate.

  6. Athletes and eating disorders: the National Collegiate Athletic Association study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C; Powers, P S; Dick, R

    1999-09-01

    To present findings from a collaborative study with the National College Athletic Association regarding the prevalence of disordered eating among student athletes. 1,445 student athletes from 11 Division 1 schools were surveyed using a 133-item questionnaire. Results indicated that 1.1% of the females met DSM-IV criteria for bulimia nervosa versus 0% for males. None of the student athletes met DSM-IV criteria for anorexia nervosa. 9.2% of the females were identified as having clinically significant problems with bulimia versus .01% of the males. 2.85% of the females were identified as having a clinically significant problem with anorexia nervosa versus 0% for males. 10.85% of the females reported binge eating on a weekly or greater basis versus 13.02% of the males 5.52% of the females reported purging behavior (vomiting, laxatives, diuretics) on a weekly or greater basis versus 2.04% for the males. Results from the current investigation are more conservative than previous studies of student athletes, but comparable to another large study of elite Norwegian athletes. Reasons for these differences are discussed. Clearly female athletes report more difficulty with disordered eating than male athletes. Some specific risk factors for female athletes are discussed.

  7. Pre-competition habits and injuries in Taekwondo athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Mohsen; Shearer, Heather; Choung, Young Su

    2005-05-27

    Over the past decade, there has been heightened interest in injury rates sustained by martial arts athletes, and more specifically, Taekwondo athletes. Despite this interest, there is a paucity of research on pre-competition habits and training of these athletes. The purpose of this pilot study was to assess training characteristics, competition preparation habits, and injury profiles of Taekwondo athletes. A retrospective survey of Canadian male and female Taekwondo athletes competing in a national tournament was conducted. Competitors at a Canadian national level tournament were given a comprehensive survey prior to competition. Items on training characteristics, diet, and injuries sustained during training and competition were included. Questionnaires were distributed to 60 athletes. A response rate of 46.7% was achieved. Of those that responded, 54% dieted prior to competition, and 36% dieted and exercised pre-competition. Sixty-four percent of the athletes practised between 4-6 times per week, with 54% practicing 2 hours per session. Lower limb injuries were the most common (46.5%), followed by upper extremity (18%), back (10%), and head (3.6%). The majority of injuries consisted of sprains/strains (45%), followed by contusions, fractures, and concussions. More injuries occurred during training, including 59% of first injuries. More research needs to be conducted to further illustrate the need for appropriate regulations on weight cycling and injury prevention.

  8. Pre-competition habits and injuries in Taekwondo athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Choung Young

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the past decade, there has been heightened interest in injury rates sustained by martial arts athletes, and more specifically, Taekwondo athletes. Despite this interest, there is a paucity of research on pre-competition habits and training of these athletes. The purpose of this pilot study was to assess training characteristics, competition preparation habits, and injury profiles of Taekwondo athletes. Methods A retrospective survey of Canadian male and female Taekwondo athletes competing in a national tournament was conducted. Competitors at a Canadian national level tournament were given a comprehensive survey prior to competition. Items on training characteristics, diet, and injuries sustained during training and competition were included. Questionnaires were distributed to 60 athletes. Results A response rate of 46.7% was achieved. Of those that responded, 54% dieted prior to competition, and 36% dieted and exercised pre-competition. Sixty-four percent of the athletes practised between 4–6 times per week, with 54% practicing 2 hours per session. Lower limb injuries were the most common (46.5%, followed by upper extremity (18%, back (10%, and head (3.6%. The majority of injuries consisted of sprains/strains (45%, followed by contusions, fractures, and concussions. More injuries occurred during training, including 59% of first injuries. Conclusion More research needs to be conducted to further illustrate the need for appropriate regulations on weight cycling and injury prevention.

  9. Athletes' use of mental skills during sport injury rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvinen-Barrow, Monna; Clement, Damien; Hamson-Utley, Jennifer J; Zakrajsek, Rebecca A; Lee, Sae-Mi; Kamphoff, Cindra; Lintunen, Taru; Hemmings, Brian; Martin, Scott B

    2015-05-01

    Existing theoretical frameworks and empirical research support the applicability and usefulness of integrating mental skills throughout sport injury rehabilitation. To determine what, if any, mental skills athletes use during injury rehabilitation, and by who these skills were taught. Cross-cultural differences were also examined. Cross-sectional design. College athletes from 5 universities in the United States and a mixture of collegiate, professional, and recreational club athletes from the United Kingdom and Finland were recruited for this study. A total of 1283 athletes from the United States, United Kingdom, and Finland, who participated in diverse sports at varying competitive levels took part in this study. As part of a larger study on athletes' expectations of injury rehabilitation, participants were asked a series of open-ended and closed-ended questions concerning their use of mental skills during injury rehabilitation. Over half (64.0%) of the sample reported previous experience with athletic training, while 27.0% indicated that they used mental skills during injury rehabilitation. The top 3 mental skills reported were goal setting, positive self-talk/positive thoughts, and imagery. Of those athletes that used mental skills, 71.6% indicated that they felt mental skills helped them to rehabilitate faster. A greater proportion of athletes from the United States (33.4%) reported that they used mental skills during rehabilitation compared with athletes from the United Kingdom (23.4%) and Finland (20.3%). A small portion (27.6%) of the participants indicated that their sports medicine professional had taught them how to use mental skills; only 3% were taught mental skills by a sport psychologist. The low number of athletes who reported using mental skills during rehabilitation is discouraging, but not surprising given research findings that mental skills are underutilized by injured athletes in the 3 countries examined. More effort should be focused on

  10. Incidence of injury based on sports participation in high school athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlenberg, Cynthia A; Nair, Rueben; Monroe, Emily; Terry, Michael A; Edwards, Sara L

    2016-09-01

    Youth participation in competitive athletics has significantly increased in the past two decades. There has also been a recent rise in the number of sports injuries that physicians are seeing in young athletes. The objective of this study was to assess the likelihood of sports injuries based on several risk factors in a general sample of athletes at a suburban-area high school. This was a cross-sectional study. An online survey was distributed to 2,200 student-athletes at a local high school with a mean age of 15.9 years. Four hundred eighty four (22%) complete responses were received. Data collected in the survey included demographics, frequency of sports participation, level of participation, types of sports played, participation in cross-training, injuries incurred, use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and treatment for sports injuries. Athletes played an average of 1.6 different sports. The average number of hours of participation in sports annually was 504.3 ± 371.6 hours. The average total number of sports injuries experienced by athletes in our study was 1.7 per participant. 80.8% of respondents reported having sustained at least one sports injury. A higher total number of hours per year of sports participation and playing a contact sport were significantly associated with more reported lifetime sports injuries. Older age, playing a contact sport, and playing on a travel/club team were associated with students using NSAIDs for sports injuries. Older age, playing a contact sport, and doing cross training are also associated with having had surgery for a sports injury. Although more hours of participation and playing a contact sport may lead to an increased number of injuries, this risk must be weighed against the myriad of benefits that sports provide for young athletes.

  11. Injury Rate and Patterns Among CrossFit Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisenthal, Benjamin M; Beck, Christopher A; Maloney, Michael D; DeHaven, Kenneth E; Giordano, Brian D

    2014-04-01

    CrossFit is a type of competitive exercise program that has gained widespread recognition. To date, there have been no studies that have formally examined injury rates among CrossFit participants or factors that may contribute to injury rates. To establish an injury rate among CrossFit participants and to identify trends and associations between injury rates and demographic categories, gym characteristics, and athletic abilities among CrossFit participants. Descriptive epidemiology study. A survey was conducted, based on validated epidemiologic injury surveillance methods, to identify patterns of injury among CrossFit participants. It was sent to CrossFit gyms in Rochester, New York; New York City, New York; and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and made available via a posting on the main CrossFit website. Participants were encouraged to distribute it further, and as such, there were responses from a wide geographical location. Inclusion criteria included participating in CrossFit training at a CrossFit gym in the United States. Data were collected from October 2012 to February 2013. Data analysis was performed using Fisher exact tests and chi-square tests. A total of 486 CrossFit participants completed the survey, and 386 met the inclusion criteria. The overall injury rate was determined to be 19.4% (75/386). Males (53/231) were injured more frequently than females (21/150; P = .03). Across all exercises, injury rates were significantly different (P CrossFit was approximately 20%. Males were more likely to sustain an injury than females. The involvement of trainers in coaching participants on their form and guiding them through the workout correlates with a decreased injury rate. The shoulder and lower back were the most commonly injured in gymnastic and power lifting movements, respectively. Participants reported primarily acute and fairly mild injuries.

  12. Musculoskeletal Injuries and Training Patterns in Junior Elite Orienteering Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taube, Wolfgang; Zuest, Peter; Clénin, German; Wyss, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Findings about the relation between musculoskeletal injuries and training patterns in orienteering athletes are sparse. Therefore, the musculoskeletal injuries and training patterns of 31 Swiss elite orienteering athletes aged 18-19 years were analyzed in a retrospective study. Individual training diaries and medical records were used to assess training data and injury history, respectively. Group comparisons and a multiple linear regression (MLR) were performed for statistical analysis. The junior elite orienteering athletes performed 7.38 ± 2.00 training sessions weekly, with a total duration of 455.75 ± 98.22 minutes. An injury incidence rate (IIR) of 2.18 ± 2.13 injuries per 1000 hours of training was observed. The lower extremity was affected in 93% of all injuries, and the knee (33%) was the most commonly injured location. The MLR revealed that gender and six training variables explained 60% of the variance in the injury severity index in this study. Supported by the low IIR in the observed age group, the training protocol of the junior elite orienteering athletes was generally adequate. In comparison to elite track, marathon, and orienteering athletes, the junior elite athletes performed less high-intensity interval training (HIIT). However, more frequent HIIT seems to be a protective factor against injuries. PMID:26258134

  13. Musculoskeletal Injuries and Training Patterns in Junior Elite Orienteering Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Roos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Findings about the relation between musculoskeletal injuries and training patterns in orienteering athletes are sparse. Therefore, the musculoskeletal injuries and training patterns of 31 Swiss elite orienteering athletes aged 18-19 years were analyzed in a retrospective study. Individual training diaries and medical records were used to assess training data and injury history, respectively. Group comparisons and a multiple linear regression (MLR were performed for statistical analysis. The junior elite orienteering athletes performed 7.38 ± 2.00 training sessions weekly, with a total duration of 455.75 ± 98.22 minutes. An injury incidence rate (IIR of 2.18 ± 2.13 injuries per 1000 hours of training was observed. The lower extremity was affected in 93% of all injuries, and the knee (33% was the most commonly injured location. The MLR revealed that gender and six training variables explained 60% of the variance in the injury severity index in this study. Supported by the low IIR in the observed age group, the training protocol of the junior elite orienteering athletes was generally adequate. In comparison to elite track, marathon, and orienteering athletes, the junior elite athletes performed less high-intensity interval training (HIIT. However, more frequent HIIT seems to be a protective factor against injuries.

  14. Prevalence, incidence and risk factors for overuse injuries of the wrist in young athletes: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kox, Laura S.; Kuijer, P. Paul F. M.; Kerkhoffs, Gino M. M. J.; Maas, Mario; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.

    2015-01-01

    Overuse wrist injuries can cause long-term symptoms in young athletes performing wrist-loading sports. Information on the prevalence, incidence and associated risk factors is required. We aimed to review the prevalence and incidence of overuse wrist injuries in young athletes and to identify

  15. Injuries in national Olympic level judo athletes: an epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Keun-Suh; Park, Ki Jun; Lee, Jaekoo; Kang, Byung Yong

    2015-09-01

    To present an epidemiological study of injuries found among South Korea's National level Judo athletes as a foundation for future injury prevention and skill enhancement in this group. This study is a prospective study on a 4-year injury assessment held from January 2010 to December 2013 at the training centre in South Korea for National Level athletes. Athlete's weight class, gender, injury location and injury grade (grade I=1-3 treatment days, grade II=4-7 treatment days, and grade III ≥8 treatment days) were analysed. There were a total of 782 injuries recorded during this period, equalling to four injuries per athlete annually. Almost half of these injuries (47%) were grade I injuries. Injury occurrence was the highest in the Lower body (44.2%). This was then followed by injuries in the upper body (29.8%), trunk (20.3%) and head and neck (5.6%). Men and women showed similar, non-significantly different trends in the proportion of body parts injured. Women experienced more grade III injuries than males (p=0.0228). Comparison between women in different weight classes also showed that heavyweights incurred more grade III injuries than lightweights (p=0.0087). Lightweights had a higher rate of injury than heavyweights in males and females, although this was statistically significant only among males (pjudo population. Women, especially those in the heavyweight classification, were more prone to severe injuries. Lightweights experienced more injuries than heavyweights among male athletes. Specifically, further studies are needed to confirm these findings and to address the impact of rapid weight loss practices on injury risk to implement effective preventive measures. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. Social support patterns of collegiate athletes before and after injury

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yang, Jingzhen; Peek-Asa, Corinne; Lowe, John B; Heiden, Erin; Foster, Danny T

    2010-01-01

    .... Prospective observational study. A Big Ten Conference university. A total of 256 National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I male and female collegiate athletes aged 18 or older from 13 sports teams...

  17. Investigation of Management Models in Elite Athlete Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen-Kai Chen

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study investigated management models among elite athletes participating in sports including baseball, basketball, soccer, volleyball, tennis, softball, football, handball, track and field, swimming, judo, tae-kwon-do, gymnastics, archery, and weight lifting at the Tsoying National Sport Training Center. Data were collected by questionnaire. Of the 393 athletes investigated, 56% were male and 44% were female, with an average age of 20.9 years and average length of athletic experience of 9.8 years. At the time of the survey, 74.8% had sporting injuries and were being treated with Chinese and/or Western medicine. Among injured athletes, 14.5% chose Western treatment, 8.1% chose Chinese medicine, and 75.4% received combined treatment. There were various reasons for choosing the management model. Most athletes had ordinary self-recognition of sports injury prevention. Their qualified ability for sports injury prevention was 70%. This ability was significantly correlated with age, education, and sports experience. Within Taiwan's current medical and social environment, elite athletes prefer a combination of Eastern and Western treatments for sports injuries. Each of the medical approaches are widely accepted by elite athletes and their coaches. Doctors trained in Western medicine should learn these alternative treatment methods and apply them effectively in athletes, so that a better medical network can be established.

  18. Practical Advice for Teachers and Coaches: Handling Acute Athletic Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Kevin; Ormond, Tom; Griffin, Lisa; Maina, Michael; Jones, Christopher; Goldman, Alexander Steven; McMichael, Callaway

    2016-01-01

    Safety concerns are among the first considerations in the design and implementation of any curriculum. However, in the dynamic worlds of physical education and coaching, athletic injuries will inevitably arise, regardless of the proactive strategies in place. These situations will vary in nature, and the student's or athlete's risk of further…

  19. Role of sport medicine professionals in addressing psychosocial aspects of sport-injury rehabilitation: professional athletes' views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvinen-Barrow, Monna; Massey, William V; Hemmings, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Research from the sport medicine professional's (SMP's) perspective indicates that SMPs are often required to address psychosocial aspects of injuries during treatment. However, only a few authors have investigated injured athletes' experiences with these concerns. To explore injured professional athletes' views on the role of SMPs in the psychosocial aspects of sport-injury rehabilitation. Design : Qualitative study. Professional association football and rugby union clubs. Ten professional, male football (n = 4; 40%) and rugby union (n = 6; 60%) players (age = 22.4 ± 3.4 years). Data Collection and Analysis : We collected data using a semistructured interview guide, and the data were then transcribed and analyzed following the interpretative phenomenological analysis guidelines. We peer reviewed and triangulated the established emergent themes to establish trustworthiness. Athletes in our study viewed injuries as "part and parcel" of their sports. Despite normalizing sport injuries, athletes reported frequent feelings of frustration and self-doubt throughout the rehabilitation process. However, athletes' perceived the role of SMPs in injury rehabilitation as addressing physical concerns; any intervention aimed at psychosocial outcomes (eg, motivation, confidence) needed to be subtle and indirect. The SMPs working with injured athletes need to understand the psychosocial principles that underpin athletes' sport-injury processes and the effect psychosocial reactions can have on athletes. Moreover, SMPs must understand the self-regulatory processes that may take place throughout injury rehabilitation and be able to apply psychological principles in natural and subtle ways to aid athletes' self-regulatory abilities.

  20. Importance of Various Training-Load Measures in Injury Incidence of Professional Rugby League Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Heidi R; Delaney, Jace A; Duthie, Grant M; Dascombe, Ben J

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the ability of various internal and external training-load (TL) monitoring measures to predict injury incidence among positional groups in professional rugby league athletes. TL and injury data were collected across 3 seasons (2013-2015) from 25 players competing in National Rugby League competition. Daily TL data were included in the analysis, including session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE-TL), total distance (TD), high-speed-running distance (>5 m/s), and high-metabolic-power distance (HPD; >20 W/kg). Rolling sums were calculated, nontraining days were removed, and athletes' corresponding injury status was marked as "available" or "unavailable." Linear (generalized estimating equations) and nonlinear (random forest; RF) statistical methods were adopted. Injury risk factors varied according to positional group. For adjustables, the TL variables associated most highly with injury were 7-d TD and 7-d HPD, whereas for hit-up forwards they were sRPE-TL ratio and 14-d TD. For outside backs, 21- and 28-d sRPE-TL were identified, and for wide-running forwards, sRPE-TL ratio. The individual RF models showed that the importance of the TL variables in injury incidence varied between athletes. Differences in risk factors were recognized between positional groups and individual athletes, likely due to varied physiological capacities and physical demands. Furthermore, these results suggest that robust machine-learning techniques can appropriately monitor injury risk in professional team-sport athletes.

  1. Athletic trainers' attitudes toward lesbian, gay, and bisexual National Collegiate Athletic Association student-athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensign, Kristine A; Yiamouyiannis, Athena; White, Kristi M; Ridpath, B David

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have investigated heterosexuals' attitudes toward homosexuals, focusing on factors such as sex, race, religion, education, and contact experiences. However, in the context of sport, this research is deficient. We found no published literature investigating athletic trainers (ATs') attitudes toward lesbian, gay, and bisexual student-athletes (LGB). To determine heterosexual ATs' attitudes toward LGB student-athletes in the National Collegiate Athletic Association. Cross-sectional study. E-mailed survey. A total of 964 ATs employed at member institutions. We measured attitudes using the Attitudes Toward Lesbian, Gay Men, and Bisexuals (ATLGB) Scale. To determine the extent to which sex, religion, and whether having an LGB friend or family member had an effect on ATs' attitudes, we performed analysis of variance. To establish the effect of age on ATs' attitudes, we calculated a Pearson correlation. We used an independent t test to identify differences between ATs who reported working with LGB student-athletes and ATs who did not. With ATLGB score as the dependent factor, a main effect was noted for sex, religion, and having an LGB friend or family member (P student-athletes on their teams and ATs who were not (P student-athletes, especially females, those who have an LGB friend or family member, and those who are aware of LGB student-athletes. Still, it is important to provide an open environment in the athletic training room for all student-athletes.

  2. Anterior cruciate ligament injuries in the female athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, A P; Cordasco, F A

    2001-01-01

    With the participation of women in athletics growing rapidly over the last two decades, a disturbing gender-specific pre-disposition has emerged regarding anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries of the knee. Female athletes have a two- to eightfold higher incidence of ACL injury than their male counterparts. It is estimated that 38,000 women sustain ACL tears per year. The majority of ACL injuries in female athletes occur through noncontact mechanisms, most often during deceleration activities, such as landing from a jump or cutting. The risk factors for noncontact ACL injuries can be categorized as intrinsic (anatomic and hormonal) and extrinsic (environmental and biomechanical). This article will discuss these risk factors that are thought to contribute to the higher incidence of ACL injuries in women, the development of prevention strategies, and the outcomes of ACL reconstruction in women.

  3. Epidemiology of Meniscal Injuries in U.S. High School Athletes from 2007/08 – 2012/13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Joshua; Graham, William; Best, Thomas M.; Collins, Christy; Currie, Dustin W.; Comstock, R. Dawn; Flanigan, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Knowledge of epidemiologic trends of meniscal injuries in young active populations is limited. Better awareness of injury patterns is a first step to lowering injury rates. Our hypothesis was that meniscal injuries in high school athletes would vary by gender, sport, and type of exposure. Methods During 2007–2013, a large nationally disperse sample of US high schools reported athlete exposure and injury data for 22 sports by having certified athletic trainers complete an internet-based data collection tool. Results 1,082 meniscal injuries were reported during 21,088,365 athlete-exposures for an overall injury rate of 5.1 per 100,000 athlete exposures. The overall rate of injury was higher in competition (11.9) than practice (2.7) (RR = 4.4; 95% CI, 3.9–5.0), and 12/19 sports showed significantly higher injury rates in competition compared to practice. Of all injuries, 68.0% occurred in boys, yet among the gender-comparable sports of soccer, basketball, track and field, lacrosse, and baseball/softball injury rates were higher for girls than boys (5.5 and 2.5, respectively, RR = 2.2; 95% CI, 1.8–2.7). Contact injury represented the most common mechanism (55.9%). Surgery was performed for the majority of injuries (63.8%), and 54.0% of athletes had associated intra-articular knee pathology. Conclusions Meniscal injury patterns among high school athletes vary by gender, sport, and type of exposure. Overall rates are higher for boys, but this is driven by football; however in gender-comparable sports girls may be at higher risk for meniscal injury. Our study is clinically relevant because recognition of distinct differences in these injury patterns will help drive evidence-based, targeted injury prevention strategies and efforts. Level of Evidence Level III PMID:26506845

  4. Syndesmosis and deltoid ligament injuries in the athlete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCollum, Graham A.; van den Bekerom, Michel P. J.; Kerkhoffs, Gino M. M. J.; Calder, James D. F.; van Dijk, C. Niek

    2013-01-01

    Injury to the syndesmosis and deltoid ligament is less common than lateral ligament trauma but can lead to significant time away from sport and prolonged rehabilitation. This literature review will discuss both syndesmotic and deltoid ligament injuries without fracture in the professional athlete. A

  5. Return to play considerations for cervical spine injuries in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Stephen; Kennedy, David J

    2014-11-01

    Injuries to the cervical spine during sports are relatively common, depending on the specific sport. Given the adjacent neurovascular structures, any injury to the cervical spine must be evaluated with caution to assess its severity. With proper management, most injuries resolve quickly and allow for rapid return to play (RTP). The purpose of this article is to synthesize the current literature on the most common cervical spine injuries in athletes, including injury prevalence, mechanisms of injury, and RTP decision-making processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Athletic Trainers' Attitudes Toward Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual National Collegiate Athletic Association Student-Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensign, Kristine A.; Yiamouyiannis, Athena; White, Kristi M.; Ridpath, B. David

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Context: Researchers have investigated heterosexuals' attitudes toward homosexuals, focusing on factors such as sex, race, religion, education, and contact experiences. However, in the context of sport, this research is deficient. We found no published literature investigating athletic trainers (ATs') attitudes toward lesbian, gay, and bisexual student-athletes (LGB). Objective: To determine heterosexual ATs' attitudes toward LGB student-athletes in the National Collegiate Athletic Association. Design: Cross-sectional study Setting: E-mailed survey. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 964 ATs employed at member institutions. Main Outcome Measure(s): We measured attitudes using the Attitudes Toward Lesbian, Gay Men, and Bisexuals (ATLGB) Scale. To determine the extent to which sex, religion, and whether having an LGB friend or family member had an effect on ATs' attitudes, we performed analysis of variance. To establish the effect of age on ATs' attitudes, we calculated a Pearson correlation. We used an independent t test to identify differences between ATs who reported working with LGB student-athletes and ATs who did not. Results: With ATLGB score as the dependent factor, a main effect was noted for sex, religion, and having an LGB friend or family member (P attitudes toward LGB student-athletes, especially females, those who have an LGB friend or family member, and those who are aware of LGB student-athletes. Still, it is important to provide an open environment in the athletic training room for all student-athletes. PMID:21214353

  7. Collegiate athletes' experience of the meaning of sport injury: a phenomenological investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindstaff, Jason S; Wrisberg, Craig A; Ross, Jillian R

    2010-05-01

    In this study, a phenomenological approach was used to gain an in-depth understanding of the meaning collegiate athletes derive from their injury experience. The integrated model of sport injury developed by Wiese-Bjornstal and colleagues served as the conceptual framework for the study. Elite athletes (n = 5) at one National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I university in the USA participated in phenomenological interviews at three different points postinjury and prior to return to participation in their respective sports. The first interview was conducted within seven days post-injury, while the second and third interviews were conducted 15-20 days post-injury and at least 30 days post-injury, respectively. Inductive analysis of the interview data revealed that while participants' experiences varied somewhat and fluctuated over time, the meaning they derived from the experience was characterized by four major themes: perspective, emotion, coping and relationships. Subsequent deductive analysis indicated a modest fit of each athlete's experience within the integrated model of sport injury and rehabilitation developed by Wiese-Bjornstal et al. Participants' psychological responses to sport injury were generally consistent with the Wiese-Bjornstal et al. model but the meaning of the experience was highly individualized and seemed to evolve over the course of the injury and rehabilitation process.

  8. National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Certified Athletic Trainers' Perceptions of the Benefits of Sport Psychology Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrajsek, Rebecca A; Martin, Scott B; Wrisberg, Craig A

    2016-05-01

    Certified athletic trainers (ATs) are responsible for integrating relevant professionals into the rehabilitation team to assist with the holistic care of injured athletes. To explore National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I (DI) ATs' experience with sport psychology consultants (SPCs), willingness to encourage athletes to use SPCs for injury rehabilitation, and perceptions of the benefits of sport psychology services. Quantitative study. A Web-based survey was administered to a national sample of DI ATs. A total of 659 (341 men, 318 women) ATs completed the survey. Athletic trainers' experience with SPCs, willingness to encourage athletes to seek sport psychology services, and perceptions of the benefits of those services in injury-rehabilitation settings were self-reported using a rating scale that ranged from 1 (never or not at all) to 5 (definitely or extremely). Logistic regression revealed that the availability of SPCs, previous encouragement to athletes to seek sport psychology services, and previous positive interactions with SPCs predicted the ATs' willingness to encourage athletes to use these services (P psychology services might call on SPCs to complement their work with injured athletes.

  9. National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Certified Athletic Trainers' Perceptions of the Benefits of Sport Psychology Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrajsek, Rebecca A.; Martin, Scott B.; Wrisberg, Craig A.

    2016-01-01

    Context:  Certified athletic trainers (ATs) are responsible for integrating relevant professionals into the rehabilitation team to assist with the holistic care of injured athletes. Objective:  To explore National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I (DI) ATs' experience with sport psychology consultants (SPCs), willingness to encourage athletes to use SPCs for injury rehabilitation, and perceptions of the benefits of sport psychology services. Design:  Quantitative study. Setting:  A Web-based survey was administered to a national sample of DI ATs. Patients or Other Participants:  A total of 659 (341 men, 318 women) ATs completed the survey. Main Outcome Measure(s):  Athletic trainers' experience with SPCs, willingness to encourage athletes to seek sport psychology services, and perceptions of the benefits of those services in injury-rehabilitation settings were self-reported using a rating scale that ranged from 1 (never or not at all) to 5 (definitely or extremely). Results:  Logistic regression revealed that the availability of SPCs, previous encouragement to athletes to seek sport psychology services, and previous positive interactions with SPCs predicted the ATs' willingness to encourage athletes to use these services (P psychology services might call on SPCs to complement their work with injured athletes. PMID:27159188

  10. Injuries and training variables in Filipino judo athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciejewski Reylin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Study aim: The aim of this study was twofold: first, to compare the incidence of injuries between male and female athletes in the junior and youth divisions during competition, as well as to identify body parts commonly injured and the types of injury frequently incurred; second, to assess overall incidence of injuries in relation to the frequency and duration of training as well as supplemental training.

  11. Injury rehabilitation overadherence: preliminary scale validation and relationships with athletic identity and self-presentation concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podlog, Leslie; Gao, Zan; Kenow, Laura; Kleinert, Jens; Granquist, Megan; Newton, Maria; Hannon, James

    2013-01-01

    Evidence suggests that nonadherence to rehabilitation protocols may be associated with worse clinical and functional rehabilitation outcomes. Recently, it has been recognized that nonadherence may not only reflect a lack of rehabilitation engagement but that some athletes may "overadhere" to their injury-rehabilitation regimen or risk a premature return to sport. Presently, no measure of overadherence exists, and correlates of overadherence and risking a premature return to sport remain uncertain. To provide initial validation of a novel injury-rehabilitation overadherence measure (study 1) and to examine correlates of overadherence and risking a premature return to sport (study 2). Cross-sectional study. High school athletes (study 1) and collegiate athletes (study 2). In study 1, 118 currently injured US adolescent athletes competing in a range of high school sports participated. In study 2, 105 currently injured collegiate athletes (National Collegiate Athletic Association Divisions I-III) volunteered. The Rehabilitation Overadherence Questionnaire was a novel instrument developed to assess injured athletes' tendency toward overadherence behaviors and beliefs. We used an adapted version of the Injury Psychological Readiness to Return to Sport Scale to assess the tendency to risk a premature return to sport. In study 1, the construct validity of the overadherence measure was supported using principal axis factoring. Moreover, bivariate correlation and regression analyses indicated that self-presentation concerns and athletic identity were positive predictors of adolescent rehabilitation overadherence and a premature return to sport. Study 2 provided support for the 2-factor structure of the overadherence measure found in study 1 via confirmatory factor analysis. Further support for the relationship among self-presentation concerns, athletic identity, and rehabilitation overadherence was also noted. The Rehabilitation Overadherence Questionnaire is a valid and

  12. Epidemiological Patterns of Initial and Subsequent Injuries in Collegiate Football Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jacob Z; Singichetti, Bhavna; Li, Hongmei; Xiang, Henry; Klingele, Kevin E; Yang, Jingzhen

    2017-04-01

    A body of epidemiological studies has examined football injuries and associated risk factors among collegiate athletes. However, few existing studies specifically analyzed injury risk in terms of initial or subsequent injuries. To determine athlete-exposures (AEs) and rates of initial and subsequent injury among collegiate football athletes. Descriptive epidemiological study. Injury and exposure data collected from collegiate football players from two Division I universities (2007-2011) were analyzed. Rate of initial injury was calculated as the number of initial injuries divided by the total number of AEs for initial injuries, while the rate for subsequent injury was calculated as the number of subsequent injuries divided by the total number of AEs for subsequent injury. Poisson regression was used to determine injury rate ratio (subsequent vs initial injury), with adjustment for other covariates. The total AEs during the study period were 67,564, resulting in an overall injury rate of 35.2 per 10,000 AEs. Rates for initial and subsequent injuries were 31.7 and 45.3 per 10,000 AEs, respectively, with a rate ratio (RR) of 1.4 for rate of subsequent injury vs rate of initial injury (95% CI, 1.1-1.9). Rate of injury appeared to increase with each successive injury. RR during games was 1.8 (95% CI, 1.1-3.0). The rate of subsequent injuries to the head, neck, and face was 10.9 per 10,000 AEs, nearly double the rate of initial injuries to the same sites (RR = 2.0; 95% CI, 1.1-3.5). For wide receivers, the rate of subsequent injuries was 2.2 times the rate of initial injuries (95% CI, 1.3-3.8), and for defensive linemen, the rate of subsequent injuries was 2.1 times the rate of initial injuries (95% CI, 1.1-3.9). The method used in this study allows for a more accurate determination of injury risk among football players who have already been injured at least once. Further research is warranted to better identify which specific factors contribute to this increased risk

  13. Sports-related injuries in youth athletes: is overscheduling a risk factor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, Anthony; Lazaro, Rondy M; Bergeron, Michael F; Keyser, Laura; Benjamin, Holly; Brenner, Joel; d'Hemecourt, Pierre; Grady, Matthew; Philpott, John; Smith, Angela

    2011-07-01

    To examine the association between "overscheduling" and sports-related overuse and acute injuries in young athletes and to identify other potential contributing factors to create a working definition for "overscheduling injury." Survey. Six university-based sports medicine clinics in North America. Athletes aged 6 to 18 years (13.8 ± 2.6) and their parents and pediatric sports medicine-trained physicians. Questionnaires developed from literature review and expert consensus to investigate overscheduling and sports-related injuries were completed over a 3-month period. Physician's clinical diagnosis and injury categorization: acute not fatigue related (AI), overuse not fatigue related (OI), acute fatigue related (AFI), or overuse fatigue related (OFI). Overall, 360 questionnaires were completed (84% response rate). Overuse not fatigue-related injuries were encountered most often (44.7%), compared with AI (41.9%) and OFI (9.7%). Number of practices within 48 hours before injury was higher (1.7 ± 1.5) for athletes with OI versus those with AI (1.3 ± 1.4; P = 0.025). Athlete or parent perception of excessive play/training without adequate rest in the days before the injury was related to overuse (P = 0.016) and fatigue-related injuries (P = 0.010). Fatigue-related injuries were related to sleeping ≤6 hours the night before the injury (P = 0.028). When scheduling youth sporting events, potential activity volume and intensity over any 48-hour period, recovery time between all training and competition bouts, and potential between-day sleep time (≥ 7 hours) should be considered to optimize safety. An overscheduling injury can be defined as an injury related to excessive planned physical activity without adequate time for rest and recovery, including between training sessions/competitions and consecutive days.

  14. Increasing Lower Extremity Injury Rates Across the 2009-2010 to 2014-2015 Seasons of National Collegiate Athletic Association Football: An Unintended Consequence of the "Targeting" Rule Used to Prevent Concussions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westermann, Robert W; Kerr, Zachary Y; Wehr, Peter; Amendola, Annuziato

    2016-12-01

    Sports-related concussions (SRCs) have gained increased societal interest in the past decade. The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) has implemented legislation and rule changes to decrease the incidence and risk of head injury impacts. The "targeting" rule forbids initiating contact with the crown of a helmet and targeting defenseless players in the head and neck area; however, there are concerns that this rule change has unintentionally led to an increased incidence of lower extremity injuries. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the change in lower extremity injury rates in NCAA football during the 2009-2010 to 2014-2015 seasons. We hypothesized that the lower extremity injury rate has increased across the time period. Descriptive epidemiology study. Sixty-eight NCAA football programs provided 153 team-seasons of data to the NCAA Injury Surveillance Program. Lower extremity injuries (ie, hip/groin, upper leg/thigh, knee, lower leg/Achilles, foot/toes) and SRCs sustained during NCAA football games were examined. We calculated injury rates per 1000 athlete-exposures (AEs) for lower extremity injuries and SRCs. Rate ratios (RRs) compared injury rates between the 2009-2010 to 2011-2012 and 2012-2013 to 2014-2015 seasons. Overall, 2400 lower extremity injuries were reported during the 2009-2010 to 2014-2015 seasons; most were to the knee (33.6%) and ankle (28.5%) and caused by player contact (59.2%). The lower extremity injury rate increased in 2012-2013 to 2014-2015 compared with 2009-2010 to 2011-2012 (23.55 vs 20.45/1000 AEs, respectively; RR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.06-1.25). This finding was retained when restricted to injuries due to player contact (RR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.07-1.32) but not for injuries due to noncontact/overuse (RR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.80-1.14). When examining player contact injury rates by anatomic site, only ankle injuries had an increase (RR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.13-1.64). The SRC rate also increased in 2012-2013 to 2014-2015 compared with

  15. Biomechanical and performance differences between female soccer athletes in National Collegiate Athletic Association Divisions I and III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Rose; Ford, Kevin R; Myer, Gregory D; Holleran, Adam; Treadway, Erin; Hewett, Timothy E

    2007-01-01

    The recent increase in women's varsity soccer participation has been accompanied by a lower extremity injury rate that is 2 to 6 times that of their male counterparts. To define the differences between lower extremity biomechanics (knee abduction and knee flexion measures) and performance (maximal vertical jump height) between National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I and III female soccer athletes during a drop vertical jump. Mixed 2 x 2 design. Research laboratory. Thirty-four female collegiate soccer players (Division I: n = 19; Division III: n = 15) participated in the study. The groups were similar in height and mass. Each subject performed a maximal vertical jump, followed by 3 drop vertical jumps. Kinematics (knee abduction and flexion angles) and kinetics (knee abduction and flexion moments) were measured with a motion analysis system and 2 force platforms during the drop vertical jumps. Knee abduction angular range of motion and knee abduction external moments were not different between groups (P > .05). However, Division I athletes demonstrated decreased knee flexion range of motion (P = .038) and greater peak external knee flexion moment (P = .009) compared with Division III athletes. Division I athletes demonstrated increased vertical jump height compared with Division III (P = .008). Division I athletes demonstrated different sagittal-plane mechanics than Division III athletes, which may facilitate improved performance. The similarities in anterior cruciate ligament injury risk factors (knee abduction torques and angles) may correlate with the consistent incidence of anterior cruciate ligament injury across divisions.

  16. Injury and treatment characteristics of sport-specific injuries sustained in interscholastic athletics: a report from the athletic training practice-based research network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Kenneth C; Snyder Valier, Alison R; Valovich McLeod, Tamara C

    2015-01-01

    The inclusion of clinical practice factors, beyond epidemiologic data, may help guide medical coverage and care decisions. Trends in injury and treatment characteristics of sport-specific injuries sustained by secondary school athletes will differ based on sport. Retrospective analysis of electronic patient records. Level 4. Participants consisted of 3302 boys and 2293 girls who were diagnosed with a sport-related injury or condition during the study years. Injury (sport, body part, diagnosis via ICD-9 codes) and treatment (type, amount, and duration of care) characteristics were grouped by sport and reported using summary statistics. Most injuries and treatments occurred in football, girls' soccer, basketball, volleyball, and track and field. Sprain or strain of the ankle, knee, and thigh/hip/groin and concussion were the most commonly documented injuries across sports. The injury pattern for boys' wrestling differed from other sports and included sprain or strain of the elbow and neck and general medical skin conditions. The most frequently reported service was athletic training evaluation/reevaluation treatment, followed by hot/cold pack, therapeutic exercise, manual therapy techniques, electrical stimulation, and strapping of lower extremity joints. Most sports required 4 to 5 services per injury. With the exception of boys' soccer and girls' softball, duration of care ranged from 10 to 14 days. Girls' soccer and girls' and boys' track and field reported the longest durations of care. Injury and treatment characteristics are generally comparable across sports, suggesting that secondary school athletic trainers may diagnose and treat similar injuries regardless of sport. Subtle sport trends, including skin conditions associated with boys' wrestling and longer duration of care for girls' soccer, are important to note when discussing appropriate medical coverage and care.

  17. Training the child athlete: physical fitness, health and injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Cordelia W; Micheli, Lyle J

    2011-09-01

    The number of children and adolescents participating in organised athletic activities worldwide is increasing. However, physical fitness levels among youth are lower today than in previous decades. The combination of increased exposure and decreased preparedness for sports participation has led to an epidemic of both acute and chronic sports-related injuries in this population. Poor physical fitness, in addition to having negative health consequences, seems to be a risk factor for sports-related injury. Accurate injury surveillance data are required to better define the magnitude of the problem of injury in youth sports, as well as to identify specific risk factors for injury. From these data, targeted intervention strategies incorporating fitness training may be developed with the goal of preventing sports-related injury. Preliminary experience with several specific injury patterns--anterior cruciate ligament injuries and ankle sprains--has demonstrated the efficacy of such targeted prevention strategies.

  18. Injuries Sustained by the Mixed Martial Arts Athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Andrew R; Maciel, Robert C; Petrigliano, Frank A; Rodriguez, John P; Brooks, Adam G

    2016-08-16

    Mixed martial arts (MMA) is rapidly growing in popularity in the United States and abroad. This combat sport joins athletes from a wide variety of martial art disciplines, each with characteristic and distinguishing injury profiles, together in competition. Because of increasing participation by professionals and amateurs alike, injuries sustained by MMA athletes have been on the rise. A review of relevant publications using the search term mixed martial arts and each of its component combat sports (eg, Muay Thai, Brazilian jiu-jitsu) from 1980 through 2015 was completed using PubMed and Google Scholar. Clinical review. Level 5. The majority of studies on MMA injuries evaluate those sustained during competition, which range in incidence from 22.9 to 28.6 per 100 fight-participations. Striking-predominant disciplines such as boxing, karate, and Muay Thai have high rates of head and facial injuries, whereas submission-predominant disciplines such as Brazilian jiu-jitsu, judo, and wrestling have high rates of joint injuries. Numerous studies have evaluated injuries in athletes who participate in MMA and its component disciplines during competition but much remains to be discovered about injuries sustained during training and in specific patient populations such as adolescents and women. © 2016 The Author(s).

  19. Epidemiology of Overuse Injuries in Collegiate and High School Athletics in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Karen G; Marshall, Stephen W; Kerr, Zachary Y; Golightly, Yvonne M; Kucera, Kristen L; Myers, Joseph B; Rosamond, Wayne D; Comstock, R Dawn

    2015-07-01

    Overuse injuries result from microtrauma due to repetitive loading combined with insufficient tissue recovery time and can result in both immediate and long-term time loss from sports. Overuse injury rates and patterns differ across college and high school populations, sport, and sex. Descriptive epidemiology study. Surveillance data for 16 sports from the National Collegiate Athletic Association's Injury Surveillance System (NCAA ISS; 2004-2005 through 2008-2009) and 14 sports from High School Reporting Information Online (High School RIO; 2006-2007 through 2012-2013) were analyzed. All reported injuries had an injury mechanism of overuse/gradual onset (college) or overuse/chronic (high school). Overuse injury incidence rates were calculated, and rate ratios with 95% CIs were used to compare subgroups. The rate of overuse injury was 3.28 times higher in college than high school sports (95% CI, 3.12-3.44). The rate of overuse injury among sex-comparable sports was higher in female than male athletes in both populations (college rate ratio, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.16-1.35; high school rate ratio, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.43-1.68). The lower extremity was the most commonly injured body site (college, 69.4%; high school, 70.4%). A larger proportion of overuse injuries among college athletes resulted in time loss of more than 21 days (college, 20.4%; high school, 7.7%) and surgery (college, 5.2%, high school, 2.5%). Overuse injuries can impose a significant burden on college and high school athletes. Interventions addressing prevention of overuse injury are needed. © 2015 The Author(s).

  20. Groin Injuries (Athletic Pubalgia) and Return to Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elattar, Osama; Choi, Ho-Rim; Dills, Vickie D; Busconi, Brian

    2016-07-01

    Groin pain is a common entity in athletes involved in sports that require acute cutting, pivoting, or kicking such as soccer and ice hockey. Athletic pubalgia is increasingly recognized as a common cause of chronic groin and adductor pain in athletes. It is considered an overuse injury predisposing to disruption of the rectus tendon insertion to the pubis and weakness of the posterior inguinal wall without a clinically detectable hernia. These patients often require surgical therapy after failure of nonoperative measures. A variety of surgical options have been used, and most patients improve and return to high-level competition. PubMed databases were searched to identify relevant scientific and review articles from January 1920 to January 2015 using the search terms groin pain, sports hernia, athletic pubalgia, adductor strain, osteitis pubis, stress fractures, femoroacetabular impingement, and labral tears. Clinical review. Level 4. Athletic pubalgia is an overuse injury involving a weakness in the rectus abdominis insertion or posterior inguinal wall of the lower abdomen caused by acute or repetitive injury of the structure. A variety of surgical options have been reported with successful outcomes, with high rates of return to the sport in the majority of cases. © 2016 The Author(s).

  1. Soccer Injuries in Female Youth Players: Comparison of Injury Surveillance by Certified Athletic Trainers and Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiff, Melissa A.; Mack, Christopher D.; Polissar, Nayak L.; Levy, Marni R.; Dow, Sara P.; O'Kane, John W.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Context: Few authors have evaluated sports injury-surveillance systems that use parental, Internet-based surveys for data collection. Objective: To determine whether certified athletic trainers (ATs) and parental, Internet-based surveys provided comparable data for identifying soccer injuries. Design: Prospective feasibility cohort study. Setting: A soccer association in Seattle, Washington. Patients or Other Participants: Eighty female youth soccer players, ages 12 to 14 years. Main Outcome Measure(s): We compared the data provided by ATs attending 1 soccer practice per week with a weekly soccer-parent, Internet-based system. We measured athlete-exposure hours (AEHs) for each player. We compared injury rates reported by ATs only, Internet-based surveys only, and both systems combined. We evaluated the 2 surveillance systems for agreement on injured body region and laterality of injury using the κ statistic. Results: For ATs only, Internet-based surveys only, and both systems combined, we found acute injury rates of 3.0 per 1000 AEHs, 3.9 per 1000 AEHs, and 4.7 per 1000 AEHs and overuse injury rates of 1.0 per 1000 AEHs, 2.9 per 1000 AEHs, and 2.9 per 1000 AEHs, respectively. Players sustained 27 acute injuries (44% ankle, 11% knee, 11% hip) reported by at least 1 of the 2 systems, with 63% reported by ATs and 85% by Internet-based survey. Players sustained 17 overuse injuries (35% knee, 29% lower leg) reported by either system, with 35% reported by ATs and 100% by Internet-based survey. Among players for whom we had both ATs' and Internet-based survey injury data, body region injured and laterality had very good agreement (κ  =  0.73 to 1.0). Conclusions: The injury rate based on the weekly parental, Internet-based survey was similar to the rate based on the ATs' reporting and had comparable classifications of injured body region and laterality of injury. PMID:20446836

  2. Injuries and illnesses in the preparticipation evaluation data of 1693 college student-athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, Gordon O; Anderson, Scott; Robell, Kevin

    2015-06-01

    While the preparticipation evaluation (PPE) is widely used by medical practitioners, its overall effectiveness is unknown, in part because there are no standardized or centralized mechanisms to collect and analyze medical history information. To report on the injuries and illnesses identified with the use of an electronic PPE (ePPE) completed by first-time National Collegiate Athletic Association Division 1 varsity sport participants (N = 1693; 797 women, 896 men) upon entry to a single institution between 2010 and 2013. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. In total, 3126 discrete past injuries were reported (women, 1473 injuries; men, 1653 injuries). Time loss from sport participation averaged 31.4 days for each injury (women, 32.2 days; men, 30.7 days), and aggregate time loss from sport for all student-athletes before the ePPE was 256 years. Eleven percent of student-athletes had injuries that were unresolved and still symptomatic at the time of the ePPE. Thirty percent of injured student-athletes had a history of ≥1 surgeries for an injury (women, 176; men, 213), and these accounted for 57% of the time lost from sport before college participation. Head injuries accounted for 9% (110 women, 173 men), and loss of consciousness was reported in 19% of these. One in 3 student-athletes answered "yes" to ≥1 of the American Heart Association questions on cardiovascular health. While 15% of women reported a history of stress fracture, only 3% reported a diagnosed eating disorder. While some data in this population are self-evident, we were not aware of the high frequency of past injuries, the magnitude of time lost from sport, the high frequency of past surgery, and the number of participants still symptomatic from injuries. The ePPE is a valuable tool for collecting and analyzing aggregate injury and illness data in athletes, such as the finding that 11% of injuries that were reported were unresolved and still symptomatic. © 2015 The Author(s).

  3. Female adolescent athletes' attitudes and perspectives on injury prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Jessica C; Mazerolle, Stephanie M; Denegar, Craig R; Joseph, Michael F; Pagnotta, Kelly D; Trojian, Thomas H; DiStefano, Lindsay J

    2017-02-01

    To examine what factors influence a high school female athlete's stated willingness to perform a lower extremity injury prevention program (IPP). A secondary aim was to examine if a participant's stated willingness affected her compliance with an IPP. Repeated measures. We surveyed high school female field hockey, soccer and volleyball athletes before and after a season-long IPP warm-up intervention. Participants completed the Injury Prevention Program Attitude Survey (IPPAS), a paper and pencil survey utilizing Likert-style and open-ended questions. It was used to assess the athletes' willingness to perform an IPP if the data proved the player would experience improved performance, fewer injuries and risk factors, what outside factors influence their willingness to perform an IPP, who they would feel comfortable leading their team in an IPP, and what they believe an IPP can improve. Participants responded that they were willing to perform an IPP if data proved that they would have fewer injury risk factors (p≤0.001) and be less likely to suffer an ACL injury (pinjury risk factors and suffer fewer ACL and leg injuries. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Catastrophic cervical spine injuries in the collision sport athlete, part 1: epidemiology, functional anatomy, and diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Rahul; Palumbo, Mark A; Fadale, Paul D

    2004-06-01

    Catastrophic cervical spine injuries can lead to devastating consequences for the collision athlete. Improved understanding of these injuries can facilitate early diagnosis and effective on-field management. This article is the first of a 2-part series. The first part reviews the current concepts regarding the epidemiology, functional anatomy, and diagnostic considerations relevant to cervical spine trauma in collision sports. In the second part, to be published later, the principles of emergency care of the cervical spine-injured athlete are reviewed. This article provides a rational approach to the early recognition of the different clinical syndromes associated with catastrophic cervical spine injury. Rapid on-field diagnosis can help to optimize the outcomes of these catastrophic injuries.

  5. Concussion associated with head trauma in athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriela Murguía Cánovas; Ortiz, Mario I.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, there has been increased attention to concussions that occur during sports activities, both at school level or amateur and professional level. Concussion is defined as a sudden and transient alteration of consciousness induced by traumatic biomechanical forces transmitted directly or indirectly to the brain. Such injuries most commonly occur in contact sports such as boxing, football, soccer, wrestling, hockey, among others. Concussion should be suspected in any athlete who suffers ...

  6. The training-injury prevention paradox: should athletes be training smarter and harder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbett, Tim J

    2016-03-01

    There is dogma that higher training load causes higher injury rates. However, there is also evidence that training has a protective effect against injury. For example, team sport athletes who performed more than 18 weeks of training before sustaining their initial injuries were at reduced risk of sustaining a subsequent injury, while high chronic workloads have been shown to decrease the risk of injury. Second, across a wide range of sports, well-developed physical qualities are associated with a reduced risk of injury. Clearly, for athletes to develop the physical capacities required to provide a protective effect against injury, they must be prepared to train hard. Finally, there is also evidence that under-training may increase injury risk. Collectively, these results emphasise that reductions in workloads may not always be the best approach to protect against injury. This paper describes the 'Training-Injury Prevention Paradox' model; a phenomenon whereby athletes accustomed to high training loads have fewer injuries than athletes training at lower workloads. The Model is based on evidence that non-contact injuries are not caused by training per se, but more likely by an inappropriate training programme. Excessive and rapid increases in training loads are likely responsible for a large proportion of non-contact, soft-tissue injuries. If training load is an important determinant of injury, it must be accurately measured up to twice daily and over periods of weeks and months (a season). This paper outlines ways of monitoring training load ('internal' and 'external' loads) and suggests capturing both recent ('acute') training loads and more medium-term ('chronic') training loads to best capture the player's training burden. I describe the critical variable-acute:chronic workload ratio-as a best practice predictor of training-related injuries. This provides the foundation for interventions to reduce players risk, and thus, time-loss injuries. The appropriately

  7. The training—injury prevention paradox: should athletes be training smarter and harder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbett, Tim J

    2016-01-01

    Background There is dogma that higher training load causes higher injury rates. However, there is also evidence that training has a protective effect against injury. For example, team sport athletes who performed more than 18 weeks of training before sustaining their initial injuries were at reduced risk of sustaining a subsequent injury, while high chronic workloads have been shown to decrease the risk of injury. Second, across a wide range of sports, well-developed physical qualities are associated with a reduced risk of injury. Clearly, for athletes to develop the physical capacities required to provide a protective effect against injury, they must be prepared to train hard. Finally, there is also evidence that under-training may increase injury risk. Collectively, these results emphasise that reductions in workloads may not always be the best approach to protect against injury. Main thesis This paper describes the ‘Training-Injury Prevention Paradox’ model; a phenomenon whereby athletes accustomed to high training loads have fewer injuries than athletes training at lower workloads. The Model is based on evidence that non-contact injuries are not caused by training per se, but more likely by an inappropriate training programme. Excessive and rapid increases in training loads are likely responsible for a large proportion of non-contact, soft-tissue injuries. If training load is an important determinant of injury, it must be accurately measured up to twice daily and over periods of weeks and months (a season). This paper outlines ways of monitoring training load (‘internal’ and ‘external’ loads) and suggests capturing both recent (‘acute’) training loads and more medium-term (‘chronic’) training loads to best capture the player's training burden. I describe the critical variable—acute:chronic workload ratio—as a best practice predictor of training-related injuries. This provides the foundation for interventions to reduce players risk, and

  8. Coping with the Stress of Athletic Injury: How Coaches Can Help

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Jenelle N.; Lyon, Hayden; Wahl, Mary-tyler

    2015-01-01

    Sport participation can be a stressful experience for some high school athletes. Sustaining a sport injury can further increase athletes' stress levels. Coaches may feel uncomfortable interacting with injured athletes and can unconsciously or purposefully marginalize them. However, coaches have a responsibility toward all of their athletes,…

  9. Epidemiology of training injuries in amateur taekwondo athletes: a retrospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, PL; Poulos, RG

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate the incidence and describe the pattern and severity of training injuries in taekwondo, and to compare pattern and severity of training injuries with competition injuries. One hundred and fifty-two active Australian amateur taekwondo athletes, aged 12 years or over, completed an online survey comprising questions on training exposure and injury history over the preceding 12 months. The main outcome measures were: overall injury incidence rate per athlete-year; training injury incidence rate per athlete-year, per 1000 athlete-training-sessions, and per 1000 athlete-hours of training; injury severity; and injury proportions by anatomical region and by type of injury. Injury incidence rates were calculated with 95% confidence intervals using standard methods, while injury proportions were compared using Fisher's exact test. The vast majority (81.5%) of taekwondo injuries in an average athlete-year occurred during training. The training injury incidence rate was estimated to be 1.6 (95% CI: 1.4, 1.9) per athlete-year, 11.8 (95% CI: 10.4, 13.4) per 1000 athlete-training-sessions, and 7.0 (95% CI: 6.1, 7.9) per 1000 athlete-hours of training. Among athletes with five or fewer injuries, the severity and injury pattern of training injuries were, by and large, the same as for competition injuries. Approximately sixty percent (60.3%) of training injuries required treatment by a health professional. Considering the burden of training injuries exceeds that of competition injuries, taekwondo governing bodies and stakeholders are encouraged to devote more efforts towards the identification of risk factors for, and prevention of, training injuries in the sport of taekwondo. PMID:26424924

  10. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Prevention Training in Female Athletes: A Systematic Review of Injury Reduction and Results of Athletic Performance Tests

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Noyes, Frank R; Barber Westin, Sue D

    2012-01-01

    Context: Many anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury prevention training programs have been published, but few have assessed the effects of training on both ACL injury rates and athletic performance tests. Objective...

  11. Neuromuscular Retraining in Female Adolescent Athletes: Effect on Athletic Performance Indices and Noncontact Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank R. Noyes

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available While many anterior cruciate ligament (ACL prevention programs have been published, few have achieved significant reductions in injury rates and improvements in athletic performance indices; both of which may increase compliance and motivation of athletes to participate. A supervised neuromuscular retraining program (18 sessions was developed, aimed at achieving both of these objectives. The changes in neuromuscular indices were measured after training in 1000 female athletes aged 13–18 years, and the noncontact ACL injury rate in 700 of these trained athletes was compared with that of 1120 control athletes. There were significant improvements in the drop-jump test, (p < 0.0001, effect size [ES] 0.97, the single-leg triple crossover hop (p < 0.0001, ES 0.47, the t-test (p < 0.0001, ES 0.64, the multi-stage fitness test (p < 0.0001, ES 0.57, hamstring strength (p < 0.0001, and quadriceps strength (p < 0.01. The trained athletes had a significant reduction in the noncontact ACL injury incidence rate compared with the controls (1 ACL injury in 36,724 athlete-exposures [0.03] and 13 ACL injuries in 61,244 exposures [0.21], respectively, p = 0.03. The neuromuscular retraining program was effective in reducing noncontact ACL injury rate and improving athletic performance indicators.

  12. Supplements of interest for sport-related injury and sources of supplement information among college athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinauskas, B M; Overton, R F; Carraway, V G; Cash, B C

    2007-01-01

    This study examined incidence of sport-related injury, interest in supplements to treat injury, and sources of supplement information among 145 college athletes (89 males, 56 females). A survey was used to assess sport-related injuries, interest in three categories of supplements to treat injury, and sources of supplement information among college athletes who used athletic training room and weight training facilities. Pearson chi2 was used to evaluate differences in frequency distribution of responses by sex. Sport-related injuries were experienced by 91% of athletes (93% males, 88% females). Overall, 17% of participants were interested in supplements to improve circulation, 34% for joint and soft tissue repair, and 22% to reduce inflammation. Significant sex differences were not found for any supplements in any categories evaluated. Males were more likely than females to rely on strength coaches (37%, 20%) for supplement information. Athletic trainers (71% of athletes), coaches (60%), and physicians (41%) were the primary professionals, and the internet (79%), magazines (68%), and television (52%) the most popular sources of media for supplement information. The majority of athletes experience injury during their college athletic career and 17% to 34% express an interest in supplements for injury treatment. Athletes would benefit from scientifically sound guidance to identify appropriate supplements for injury treatment and internet sites for supplement information. Future research should identify if athletes are more likely to increase supplement use when they are injured or if supplement use is more prevalent among athletes who are prone to injury.

  13. Anterior cruciate ligament injury prevention training in female athletes: a systematic review of injury reduction and results of athletic performance tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyes, Frank R; Barber Westin, Sue D

    2012-01-01

    Many anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury prevention training programs have been published, but few have assessed the effects of training on both ACL injury rates and athletic performance tests. To determine if ACL injury prevention programs have a positive influence on both injury rates and athletic performance tests in female athletes. In August 2011, a search was conducted (1995-August 2011) of the PubMed, Science Direct, and CINAHL databases. Selected studies determined the effect of ACL intervention training programs on ACL incidence rates (determined by athlete-exposures) and athletic performance tests, such as isokinetic strength, vertical jump height, speed, agility, and dynamic balance. Because no single article contained both criteria, investigations were cross-referenced to obtain data on both factors from the same training programs. The authors reviewed the selected studies for cohort population numbers, age, sports, duration of study, program components, duration of training, number of athlete-exposures, ACL injury incidence rates, and results of athletic performance tests. Initially, 57 studies were identified that described 42 ACL injury prevention training programs. Of these, 17 studies that investigated 5 programs met the inclusion criteria. Two programs significantly reduced ACL injury rates and improved athletic performance tests: Sportsmetrics and the Prevent Injury and Enhance Performance program (PEP). Sportsmetrics produced significant increases in lower extremity and abdominal strength, vertical jump height, estimated maximal aerobic power, speed, and agility. Prevent Injury and Enhance Performance significantly improved isokinetic knee flexion strength but did not improve vertical jump height, speed, or agility. The other 3 programs (Myklebust, the "11," and Knee Ligament Injury Prevention) did not improve both ACL injury rates and athletic performance tests. Only the Sportsmetrics and PEP ACL intervention training programs had a

  14. High School Rowing Injuries: National Athletic Treatment, Injury and Outcomes Network (NATION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baugh, Christine M.; Kerr, Zachary Y.

    2016-01-01

    Context:  Data on high school (HS) rowing injuries are lacking. Objective:  To describe the epidemiology of HS boys' and girls' rowing injuries during the 2011–2012 through 2013–2014 academic years. Design:  Descriptive epidemiology study. Setting:  Injury and exposure data from 8 and 11 boys' and girls' rowing programs providing 13 and 17 team-seasons of data, respectively. Patients or Other Participants:  High school boys' and girls' varsity rowing student-athletes. Intervention(s):  High school rowing data from the National Athletic Treatment, Injury and Outcomes Network. Main Outcome Measure(s):  Injury rates and rate ratios were reported with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results:  In HS boys' and girls' rowing, 59 and 190 injuries were reported, respectively, for rates of 2.39/1000 athlete-exposures (95% CI = 1.78, 3.00) and 8.60/1000 athlete-exposures (95% CI = 7.38, 9.82). The girls' rowing injury rate was 3.60 times that of boys' (95% CI = 2.69, 4.82). Conclusions:  These findings suggest a higher injury rate among HS female rowers than HS male rowers. Additional research exploring reasons for the sex difference is warranted. PMID:27049926

  15. High School Rowing Injuries: National Athletic Treatment, Injury and Outcomes Network (NATION).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baugh, Christine M; Kerr, Zachary Y

    2016-04-01

    Data on high school (HS) rowing injuries are lacking. To describe the epidemiology of HS boys' and girls' rowing injuries during the 2011-2012 through 2013-2014 academic years. Descriptive epidemiology study. Injury and exposure data from 8 and 11 boys' and girls' rowing programs providing 13 and 17 team-seasons of data, respectively. High school boys' and girls' varsity rowing student-athletes. High school rowing data from the National Athletic Treatment, Injury and Outcomes Network. Injury rates and rate ratios were reported with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). In HS boys' and girls' rowing, 59 and 190 injuries were reported, respectively, for rates of 2.39/1000 athlete-exposures (95% CI = 1.78, 3.00) and 8.60/1000 athlete-exposures (95% CI = 7.38, 9.82). The girls' rowing injury rate was 3.60 times that of boys' (95% CI = 2.69, 4.82). These findings suggest a higher injury rate among HS female rowers than HS male rowers. Additional research exploring reasons for the sex difference is warranted.

  16. Muscle injury is the principal injury type and hamstring muscle injury is the first injury diagnosis during top-level international athletics championships between 2007 and 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edouard, Pascal; Branco, Pedro; Alonso, Juan-Manuel

    2016-05-01

    During top-level international athletics championships, muscle injuries are frequent. To analyse the incidence and characteristics of muscle injuries and hamstring muscle injuries (hamstring injuries) occurring during top-level international athletics championships. During 16 international championships held between 2007 and 2015, national medical team and local organising committee physicians reported daily all injuries on a standardised injury report form. Only muscle injuries (muscle tears and muscle cramps) and hamstring injuries have been analysed. 40.9% of all recorded injuries (n=720) were muscle injuries, with 57.5% of them resulting in time loss. The overall incidence of muscle injuries was higher in male athletes than female athletes (51.9±6.0 vs 30.3±5.0 injuries per 1000 registered athletes, respectively; RR=1.71; 95% CI 1.45 to 2.01). Muscle injuries mainly affected the thigh (52.9%) and lower leg (20.1%), and were mostly caused by overuse with sudden onset (38.2%) and non-contact trauma (24.6%). Muscle injury risk varied according to the event groups. Hamstring injuries represented 17.1% of all injuries, with a higher risk in male compared to female athletes (22.4±3.4 vs 11.5±2.6 injuries per 1000 registered athletes, respectively; RR=1.94; 95% CI 1.42 to 2.66). During international athletics championships, muscle injury is the principal type of injury, and among those, the hamstring is the most commonly affected, with a two times higher risk in male than female athletes. Athletes in explosive power events, male athletes and older male athletes, in specific were more at risk of muscle injuries and hamstring injuries. Injury prevention strategies should be sex-specific. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  17. Ankle injuries among United States high school sports athletes, 2005-2006

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nelson, Alex J; Collins, Christy L; Yard, Ellen E; Fields, Sarah K; Comstock, R Dawn

    2007-01-01

    Ankle injuries are the most common sport-related injuries. To date, no studies have been published that use national data to present a cross-sport, cross-sex analysis of ankle injuries among US high school athletes...

  18. Relationships among injury and disordered eating, menstrual dysfunction, and low bone mineral density in high school athletes: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauh, Mitchell J; Nichols, Jeanne F; Barrack, Michelle T

    2010-01-01

    Prior authors have reported associations among increased risk of injury and factors of the female athlete triad, as defined before the 2007 American College of Sports Medicine position stand, in collegiate and adult club sport populations. Little is known about this relationship in an adolescent competitive sports population. To examine the relationship among disordered eating, menstrual dysfunction, and low bone mineral density (BMD) and musculoskeletal injury among girls in high school sports. Prospective cohort study. The sample consisted of 163 female athletes competing in 8 interscholastic sports in southern California during the 2003-2004 school year. Each participant was followed throughout her respective sport season for occurrence of musculoskeletal injuries. Data collected included daily injury reports, the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire that assessed disordered eating attitudes and behaviors, a dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scan that measured BMD and lean tissue mass, anthropometric measurements, and a questionnaire on menstrual history and demographic characteristics. Sixty-one athletes (37.4%) incurred 90 musculoskeletal injuries. In our BMD z score model of sport season. In our BMD z score model of disordered eating (Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire score >or=4.0), a history of oligomenorrhea/amenorrhea during the past year, and a low BMD (z score disordered eating, oligomenorrhea/amenorrhea, and low BMD were associated with musculoskeletal injuries in these female high school athletes. Programs designed to identify and prevent disordered eating and menstrual dysfunction and to increase bone mass in athletes may help to reduce musculoskeletal injuries.

  19. Risk of Secondary Injury in Younger Athletes After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, Amelia J.; Grandhi, Ravi K.; Schneider, Daniel K.; Stanfield, Denver; Webster, Kate E.; Myer, Gregory D.

    2017-01-01

    Background Injury to the ipsilateral graft used for reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) or a new injury to the contralateral ACL are disastrous outcomes after successful ACL reconstruction (ACLR), rehabilitation, and return to activity. Studies reporting ACL reinjury rates in younger active populations are emerging in the literature, but these data have not yet been comprehensively synthesized. Purpose To provide a current review of the literature to evaluate age and activity level as the primary risk factors in reinjury after ACLR. Study Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods A systematic review of the literature was conducted via searches in PubMed (1966 to July 2015) and EBSCO host (CINAHL, Medline, SPORTDiscus [1987 to July 2015]). After the search and consultation with experts and rating of study quality, 19 articles met inclusion for review and aggregation. Population demographic data and total reinjury (ipsilateral and contralateral) rate data were recorded from each individual study and combined using random-effects meta-analyses. Separate meta-analyses were conducted for the total population data as well as the following subsets: young age, return to sport, and young age + return to sport. Results Overall, the total second ACL reinjury rate was 15%, with an ipsilateral reinjury rate of 7% and contralateral injury rate of 8%. The secondary ACL injury rate (ipsilateral + contralateral) for patients younger than 25 years was 21%. The secondary ACL injury rate for athletes who return to a sport was also 20%. Combining these risk factors, athletes younger than 25 years who return to sport have a secondary ACL injury rate of 23%. Conclusion This systematic review and meta-analysis demonstrates that younger age and a return to high level of activity are salient factors associated with secondary ACL injury. These combined data indicate that nearly 1 in 4 young athletic patients who sustain an ACL injury and return to high-risk sport

  20. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries in Pediatric Athletes Presenting to Sports Medicine Clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stracciolini, Andrea; Stein, Cynthia J.; Zurakowski, David; Meehan, William P.; Myer, Gregory D.; Micheli, Lyle J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Limited data exist regarding the effect of the growth process on anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury risk in male versus female children. Hypothesis: The proportion of ACL injuries/sports injuries presenting to clinic will vary by age, sex, and body mass index (BMI). Study Design: Cross-sectional epidemiologic study. Level of Evidence: Level 3. Methods: The study group consisted of a randomly selected 5% probability sample of all children 5 to 17 years of age presenting to a sports medicine clinic from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2009; 2133 charts were reviewed. Data collected included demographics, height and weight, injury mechanism, diagnosis, treatment, previous injury, and organized sports. Results: A total of 206 ACL tears were analyzed (104 girls, 102 boys). Girls were slightly older than boys (15.1 ± 1.7 vs 14.3 ± 2.1 years; P < 0.01). Male-female comparison of ACL injury/total injury by age revealed that girls had a steeper increase by age than boys. Among 5- to 12-year-olds, boys had a higher ACL injury/total injury ratio than girls (all P < 0.01). Children 13 to 17 years of age showed no significant difference for sex in ACL injury/total injury ratio. As age advanced, the proportion of ACL injuries/total injuries increased for both girls (P < 0.01) and boys (P = 0.04). BMI was independently associated with an ACL injury (P < 0.01). Conclusion: The proportion of ACL injuries/total injuries was similar for boys and girls aged 13 to 17 years. Girls showed a significantly steeper increase in ACL injury proportion versus boys through puberty. Clinical Relevance: This study will increase clinician awareness of ACL injury occurrence in young male and female athletes 5 to 12 years of age. Injury prevention efforts should target young girls before the onset of puberty and before injury occurs. PMID:25984258

  1. The Adolescent Athlete: A Developmental Approach to Injury Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Damien; Broderick, Carolyn; Steinbeck, Katharine

    2016-11-01

    With the advent of long-term athlete development programs and early sport specialization, the training of elite athletes now spans the period of adolescence. Adolescence represents a period of physical, psychosocial and cognitive development, but also a time of physical and psychological vulnerability. Changes in skeletal and physiological attributes coincide with an increased risk of sport related injury. A window of vulnerability is shaped by the properties of the musculoskeletal system, the influence of pubertal hormones and the lag time between physical and cognitive development. This article aims to challenge the assumption of adolescence as a time of increased vigor alone, by highlighting the presence of specific vulnerabilities, and proposing that the hormonal, musculoskeletal, and neurocognitive changes of adolescence may represent intrinsic risk factors for sport related injury.

  2. Sport Injuries Sustained by Athletes with Disability: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, Richard; Van Mechelen, Willem; Fuller, Colin; Verhagen, Evert

    2016-08-01

    Fifteen percent of the world's population live with disability, and many of these individuals choose to play sport. There are barriers to sport participation for athletes with disability and sports injury can greatly impact on daily life, which makes sports injury prevention additionally important. The purpose of this review is to systematically review the definitions, methodologies and injury rates in disability sport, which should assist future identification of risk factors and development of injury prevention strategies. A secondary aim is to highlight the most pressing issues for improvement of the quality of injury epidemiology research for disability sport. A search of NICE, AMED, British Nursing Index, CINAHL, EMBASE and Medline was conducted to identify all publications up to 16 June 2015. Of 489 potentially relevant articles and reference searching, a total of 15 studies were included. Wide study sample heterogeneity prevented data pooling and meta-analysis. Results demonstrated an evolving field of epidemiology, but with wide differences in sports injury definition and with studies focused on short competitions. Background data were generally sparse; there was minimal exposure analysis, and no analysis of injury severity, all of which made comparison of injury risk and injury severity difficult. There is an urgent need for consensus on sports injury definition and methodology in disability sports. The quality of studies is variable, with inconsistent sports injury definitions, methodologies and injury rates, which prevents comparison, conclusions and development of injury prevention strategies. The authors highlight the most pressing issues for improvement of the quality in injury epidemiology research for disability sport.

  3. Preseason Functional Movement Screen Predicts Risk of Time-Loss Injury in Experienced Male Rugby Union Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Sean R; Martin, Steve E; Gaul, Catherine A

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between Functional Movement Screen (FMS) score and the risk of time-loss injury in experienced male rugby union athletes. A secondary purpose was to determine the relationship between FMS-determined asymmetries and the risk of time-loss injury in these athletes. Functional Movement Screen scores were collected from male rugby union athletes (n = 73) during preseason and half-way through one 8-month season. Time-loss injury data were collected throughout the full season. A receiver-operator characteristic curve was created for each half of the season to identify FMS composite and asymmetry cut-off scores associated with increased likelihood of injury and determined odds ratios, sensitivity, and specificity in evaluating FMS as a predictor of injury risk. Odds ratio analyses revealed that when compared with those scoring >14, athletes with an FMS ≤14 were 10.42 times more likely (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.28-84.75, p = 0.007) to have sustained injury in the first half of the season and 4.97 times (95% CI: 1.02-24.19, p = 0.029) more likely in the second half of the season. The presence of asymmetries was not associated with increased likelihood of injury. Experienced male rugby union athletes with FMS composite scores ≤14 are significantly more likely to sustain time-loss injury in a competitive season than those scoring >14. The quality of fundamental movement, as assessed by the FMS, is predictive of time-loss injury risk in experienced rugby union athletes and should be considered an important preseason assessment tool used by strength and conditioning and medical professionals in this sport with inherently high injury rates.

  4. Injury and Treatment Characteristics of Sport-Specific Injuries Sustained in Interscholastic Athletics

    OpenAIRE

    Lam, Kenneth C.; Snyder Valier, Alison R.; Valovich McLeod, Tamara C

    2015-01-01

    Background: The inclusion of clinical practice factors, beyond epidemiologic data, may help guide medical coverage and care decisions. Hypothesis: Trends in injury and treatment characteristics of sport-specific injuries sustained by secondary school athletes will differ based on sport. Study Design: Retrospective analysis of electronic patient records. Level of evidence: Level 4. Methods: Participants consisted of 3302 boys and 2293 girls who were diagnosed with a sport-related injury or con...

  5. Diagnosis and prognosis of acute hamstring injuries in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerkhoffs, Gino M M J; van Es, Nick; Wieldraaijer, Thijs; Sierevelt, Inger N; Ekstrand, Jan; van Dijk, C Niek

    2013-02-01

    Identification of the most relevant diagnostic and prognostic factors of physical examination and imaging of hamstring injuries in (elite) athletes. A literature search was conducted in MEDLINE and EMBASE for articles between 1950 and April 2011. A survey was distributed among the members of the European Society of Sports Traumatology, Knee Surgery and Arthroscopy, which focused on physical examination, prognosis, imaging and laboratory tests of hamstring injuries in (elite) athletes. Medical history, inspection and palpation of the muscle bellies and imaging are most valuable at the initial assessment according to the literature. Experts considered medical history, posture and gait inspection, inspection and palpation of muscle bellies, range of motion tests, manual muscle testing, referred pain tests and imaging to be most important in the initial assessment of hamstring injuries. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is preferred over ultrasonography and should take place within 3 days post-trauma. Important prognostic factors are injury grade, length of the muscle tear on MR images, MRI-negative injuries and trauma mechanism. Posture and gait inspection, inspection and palpation of muscle bellies, range of motion tests, manual muscle testing and referred pain tests within 2 days post-trauma were identified as the most relevant diagnostic factors. Literature review and expert opinion, Level V.

  6. Characteristics of acute groin injuries in the hip flexor muscles - a detailed MRI study in athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serner, A; Weir, A; Tol, J L

    2017-01-01

    acute hip flexor muscle injury were included. A total of 156 athletes presented with acute groin pain of which 33 athletes were included, median age 26 years (range 18-35). There were 16 rectus femoris, 12 iliacus, 7 psoas major, 4 sartorius, and 1 tensor fascia latae injury. Rectus femoris injuries...

  7. Lower extremity overuse bone injury risk factors in collegiate athletes: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinking, Mark F; Austin, Tricia M; Bennett, Jason; Hayes, Ann M; Mitchell, William A

    2015-04-01

    There is limited evidence regarding risk factors for lower extremity overuse bone injury (LEOBI) in collegiate athletes. The purposes of the study were to: 1) determine incidence of LEOBI in selected sports and its impact on athletic participation and ADL, 2) assess risk relationships between LEOBI and selected risk factors, and 3) establish the viability of using calcaneal densitometry as a screening tool to identify risk for LEOBI. Prospective analytical cohort design. Collegiate athletes in selected sports (swimming/diving, women's soccer, field hockey, cross-country/track) at one university were invited to participate. Consenting athletes completed an initial questionnaire including demographic information, history, and menstrual function. Measurements included height/weight, hip abductor strength, foot posture index, and calcaneal bone mineral density. Athletes were monitored for potential LEOBI for nine months and an algorithm was used to determine if physician referral was required. The primary outcome of interest was the occurrence of physician-diagnosed LEOBI. If LEOBI was diagnosed by the physician, the athlete completed a follow-up visit including a repeat bone mineral density scan. All athletes were invited for a repeat scan at the end of the year and completed a final questionnaire. Athlete demographics were summarized using descriptive statistics and differences in continuous risk factors were analyzed using t-tests and ANOVA. Finally, risk relationships for categorical variables were analyzed using chi-square and relative risk. 84 athletes (64 female, 20 male) consented to participate. Over the study period, eight athletes (one male, seven females) were diagnosed with LEOBI (LEOBI group), five with stress fractures and three with medial tibial stress syndrome. The other 76 athletes who did not have a diagnosis of LEOBI were placed in the non-LEOBI group. Five of the eight were cross-country/track athletes; no swimming/diving athletes had bone injury

  8. 〈Review〉Psychological Response to Sport Injury and Psychological Skills Interventions for Injured Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Naoi, Airi; Deaner, Heather. R.

    2006-01-01

    [Abstract] This article reviews previous research studies that have examined the psychological responses of injured athletes and the effectiveness of psychological skills interventions for injured athletes. In order to understand psychological response to injury, two models, a cognitive appraisal model of psychological adjustment to athletic injury and an integrated model of psychological response to the sport injury and rehabilitation process, are described. Additionally, the relationship am...

  9. Sports-specialized intensive training and the risk of injury in young athletes: a clinical case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayanthi, Neeru A; LaBella, Cynthia R; Fischer, Daniel; Pasulka, Jacqueline; Dugas, Lara R

    2015-04-01

    Data are lacking regarding the independent risk of injury related to intense single-sport training or growth rate in young athletes. To determine whether sports specialization, weekly training volumes, and growth rates are associated with increased risk for injury and serious overuse injury in young athletes. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Injured athletes aged 7 to 18 years were recruited from 2 hospital-based sports medicine clinics and compared with healthy controls from affiliated primary care clinics undergoing sports physicals (2010-2013). Participants completed surveys reporting hours per week spent in organized sports, physical education class, and free play, as well as degree of sports specialization and Tanner stage. Heights and weights were measured. Injury details were obtained from athlete surveys and electronic medical records. Of 1214 athletes enrolled, 1190 (50.7% male) had data satisfactory for analysis. There were 822 injured participants (49.5% male; unique injuries, n = 846) and 368 uninjured participants (55% male). Injured athletes were older than uninjured athletes (14.1 ± 2.1 vs. 12.9 ± 2.6 years; P sports activity (11.2 ± 2.6 vs. 9.1 ± 6.3 h/wk; P sports activity spent per week, sports-specialized training was an independent risk for injury (odds ratio [OR], 1.27; 95% CI, 1.07-1.52; P sports per week than number of age in years (OR, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.40-3.05; P sports to free play time was >2:1 hours/week had increased odds of having a serious overuse injury (OR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.26-2.76; P sports. There is an independent risk of injury and serious overuse injury in young athletes who specialize in a single sport. Growth rate was not related to injury risk. The study data provide guidance for clinicians counseling young athletes and their parents regarding injury risks associated with sports specialization. © 2015 The Author(s).

  10. National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I football players' perceptions of women in the athletic training room using a role congruity framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Caitlin; Grappendorf, Heidi; Burton, Laura; Harmon, Sandra M; Henderson, Angela C; Peel, Judy

    2010-01-01

    Previous researchers have demonstrated that male and female athletes feel more comfortable with treatment by a same-sex athletic trainer for sex-specific injuries and conditions. To address football players' comfort with care provided by same-sex and opposite-sex athletic trainers for sex-specific and non-sex-specific injuries and conditions through the lens of role congruity theory. Cross-sectional study for the quantitative data and qualitative study for the qualitative data. Two National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Football Bowl Series university football programs. Male football players within the 2 university programs. We replicated existing methods and an existing survey to address male football players' comfort levels. Additionally, an open-ended question was used to determine male football players' perceptions of female athletic trainers. Paired-samples t tests were conducted to identify differences between the responses for the care given by a male athletic trainer and for the care given by a female athletic trainer. Three categories were analyzed: general medical conditions, psychological conditions, and sex-specific injuries. The qualitative data were coded and analyzed using content analysis. Male football players were more comfortable with treatment by a male athletic trainer (mean = 3.61 +/- 1.16) for sex-specific injuries and conditions than they were with treatment by a female athletic trainer (mean = 2.82 +/- 1.27; P psychological conditions, although a female athletic trainer was preferred over a male athletic trainer for the treatment of depression (mean = 3.71 +/- 1.07 versus mean = 3.39 +/- 1.16, respectively; P < .001). Qualitative data provided support for role congruity theory. Both quantitative and qualitative evidence were provided for the support of role congruity theory.

  11. 199 Multiple Concussions in Young Athletes: Identifying Patients at Risk for Repeat Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Meghan; McCutcheon, Brandon A; Kerezoudis, Panagiotis; Rinaldo, Lorenzo; Shepherd, Daniel Levi; Maloney, Patrick R; Gates, Marcus J; Bydon, Mohamad

    2016-08-01

    Concussion diagnosis and management is a topic of interest for health care, education, and government professionals. Given the evidence concerning the association of long-term effects and cumulative insult of multiple concussions, we sought to identify risk factors in young athletes for repeat injury. This study is a retrospective cohort analysis of our institution's series of pediatric sports related concussions. Patient demographics, characteristics, and clinical features of concussion were analyzed in an unadjusted fashion. Bivariate analysis examined these variables in relation to occurrence of subsequent concussion. Multivariable analysis was then used to evaluate for predictors of repeat injury. One hundred ninety-one patients with a mean age of 13.5 years were included for analysis. Relative to patients whose injury was associated with football, patients playing soccer (odds ratio [OR], 5.36; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.18-24.5), ice hockey/skating (OR, 6.97; 95% CI, 1.60-30.37), and basketball (OR, 5.99; 95% CI, 1.23-29.07) were associated with a significant increased odds of having a subsequent concussion. History of prior concussion was also significantly associated with an increased odds of repeat injury following the index concussion, defined as the first concussion evaluated at our institution (OR, 12.54; 95% CI, 3.78-41.62). Relative to a concussion resulting from a mechanism involving blunt force to the head, patients with a concussion in the setting of a fall were significantly less likely to experience a subsequent concussion (OR, 0.19; 95% CI, 0.05-0.71). Efforts to protect young athletes are of immeasurable value given the potential life years at risk for productivity and quality of life. With the identification of specific sports, prior injury, and mechanism influencing risk of repeat injury, clinicians are more informed to assess and discuss both risk and potential consequences of concussions with young athletes and their families.

  12. Medical sports injuries in the youth athlete: emergency management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkel, Donna L; Molony, Joseph T

    2012-04-01

    As the number of youth sports participants continues to rise over the past decade, so too have sports related injuries and emergency department visits. With low levels of oversight and regulation observed in youth sports, the responsibility for safety education of coaches, parents, law makers, organizations and institutions falls largely on the sports medicine practitioner. The highly publicized catastrophic events of concussion, sudden cardiac death, and heat related illness have moved these topics to the forefront of sports medicine discussions. Updated guidelines for concussion in youth athletes call for a more conservative approach to management in both the acute and return to sport phases. Athletes younger than eighteen suspected of having a concussion are no longer allowed to return to play on the same day. Reducing the risk of sudden cardiac death in the young athlete is a multi-factorial process encompassing pre-participation screenings, proper use of safety equipment, proper rules and regulations, and immediate access to Automated External Defibrillators (AED) as corner stones. Susceptibility to heat related illness for youth athletes is no longer viewed as rooted in physiologic variations from adults, but instead, as the result of various situations and conditions in which participation takes place. Hydration before, during and after strenuous exercise in a high heat stress environment is of significant importance. Knowledge of identification, management and risk reduction in emergency medical conditions of the young athlete positions the sports physical therapist as an effective provider, advocate and resource for safety in youth sports participation. This manuscript provides the basis for management of 3 major youth emergency sports medicine conditions.

  13. Characteristics of acute groin injuries in the adductor muscles - a detailed MRI study in athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serner, Andreas; Weir, Adam; Tol, Johannes L.; Thorborg, Kristian; Roemer, Frank; Guermazi, Ali; Yamashiro, Eduardo; Hölmich, Per

    2017-01-01

    Acute adductor injuries account for the majority of acute groin injuries; however, little is known about specific injury characteristics, which could be important for the understanding of etiology and management of these injuries. The study aim was to describe acute adductor injuries in athletes

  14. Characteristics of acute groin injuries in the adductor muscles: Adetailed MRI study in athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serner, A.; Weir, A.; Tol, J. L.; Thorborg, K.; Roemer, F.; Guermazi, A.; Yamashiro, E.; Hölmich, P.

    2018-01-01

    Acute adductor injuries account for the majority of acute groin injuries; however, little is known about specific injury characteristics, which could be important for the understanding of etiology and management of these injuries. The study aim was to describe acute adductor injuries in athletes

  15. The role of femoroacetabular impingement in core muscle injury/athletic pubalgia: diagnosis and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eEllis

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Chronic groin pain in athletes represents a major diagnostic and therapeutic challenge in sports medicine. Two recognized causes of inguinal pain in the young adult athlete are core muscle injury/athletic pubalgia (CMI/AP and femoroacetabular impingement (FAI. CMI/AP and FAI were previously considered to be two distinct entities, however recent studies have suggested both entities to frequently coincide in the athlete with groin pain. This article briefly discusses the role of femoroacetabular impingement in core muscle injury/athletic pubalgia, and the diagnosis and management of this complex disease.

  16. Is core stability a risk factor for lower extremity injuries in an athletic population? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Blaiser, Cedric; Roosen, Philip; Willems, Tine; Danneels, Lieven; Bossche, Luc Vanden; De Ridder, Roel

    2018-03-01

    To research and summarize the literature regarding the role of core stability as a risk factor in the development of lower extremity injuries in an athletic population. Pubmed, Web of Science and Embase were searched in August 2016 to systematically review studies, which related core muscle functioning and core stability to lower extremity injuries. Nine articles were included in the systematic review. Various components of core stability were found to be related to lower extremity musculoskeletal injuries in healthy athletic populations. Core strength, core proprioception and neuromuscular control of the core were found to be a risk factor in the development of lower extremity injuries. However, conflicting evidence was found for core endurance as a risk factor for lower extremity injuries. This systematic review provides preliminary evidence for the association between impaired core stability and the development of lower extremity injuries in healthy athletes. Deficits in various aspects of core stability were identified as potential risk factors for lower extremity injuries. As such, core stability needs to be considered when screening athletes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Role of Femoroacetabular Impingement in Core Muscle Injury/Athletic Pubalgia: Diagnosis and Management

    OpenAIRE

    Strosberg, David S.; Ellis, Thomas J.; Renton, David B.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic groin pain in athletes represents a major diagnostic and therapeutic challenge in sports medicine. Two recognized causes of inguinal pain in the young adult athlete are core muscle injury/athletic pubalgia (CMI/AP) and femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). CMI/AP and FAI were previously considered to be two distinct entities, however recent studies have suggested both entities to frequently coincide in the athlete with groin pain. This article briefly discusses the role of femoroaceta...

  18. Current concepts in MRI of rectus femoris musculotendinous (myotendinous) and myofascial injuries in elite athletes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassarjian, A., E-mail: Kassarjian@mac.com [Consultant Radiologist, Corades, S. L., Calle Galeon 2, 28220 Majadahonda, Madrid (Spain); Rodrigo, R.M., E-mail: rmrodrigo@resonanciamagneticabilbao.com [Resonancia Magnetica Bilbao, Hospital San Francisco Javier, Gordoniz 12, 40010 Bilbao, Vizcaya, Basque Country (Spain); Santisteban, J.M., E-mail: j.santisteban@athletic-club.net [Medical Services, Athletic Club Bilbao, Basurto Medical Institute, Faculty of Medicine and Odontology, University of the Basque Country, Barrio de Garaioltza 147, 48197 Lezama, Vizcaya, Basque Country (Spain)

    2012-12-15

    Rectus femoris injuries are extremely common in athletes, particularly in soccer players, rugby player, and sprinters. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays a key role in diagnosis, prognosis, and rehabilitation of these injuries. The current article discusses current concepts in the diagnosis and treatment of rectus femoris injuries in elite athletes, including a discussion of the less well known myofascial injuries and key prognostic factors as seen at MR imaging.

  19. Sport-specific biomechanics of spinal injuries in aesthetic athletes (dancers, gymnasts, and figure skaters).

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Hemecourt, Pierre A; Luke, Anthony

    2012-07-01

    Young aesthetic athletes require special understanding of the athletic biomechanical demands peculiar to each sport. The performance of these activities may impart specific biomechanical stresses and subsequent injury patterns. The clinician must understand these aspects as well as the spinal changes that occur with growth when many of these injuries often occur. Further, athletes, parents, coaches, and healthcare providers must be sensitive to the overall aspects of the athlete, including nutrition, overtraining, adequate recovery, proper technique, and limiting repetition of difficult maneuvers to minimize injuries.

  20. Concussion Increases Odds of Sustaining a Lower Extremity Musculoskeletal Injury After Return to Play Among Collegiate Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, M Alison; Peterson, Kaitlin; Biese, Kevin; Sanfilippo, Jennifer; Heiderscheit, Bryan C; Bell, David R

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies have identified abnormalities in brain and motor functioning after concussion that persist well beyond observed clinical recovery. Recent work suggests subtle deficits in neurocognition may impair neuromuscular control and thus potentially increase risk of lower extremity musculoskeletal injury after concussion. To determine the odds of sustaining an acute lower extremity musculoskeletal injury during the 90-day period after return to play from concussion in a cohort of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I collegiate athletes. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Included in this study were 87 cases of concussion among 75 athletes (58 men; 17 women) participating in NCAA Division I football, soccer, hockey, softball, basketball, wrestling, or volleyball at a single institution from 2011 to 2014. The 90-day period after return to play for each case of concussion was reviewed for acute noncontact lower extremity musculoskeletal injury. Each 90-day period after return to play was matched to the same 90-day period in up to 3 controls. Control athletes without a history of concussion in the previous year were matched to concussed athletes by sport team/sex, games played, and position. A total of 182 control (136 men; 46 women) 90-day periods were reviewed for acute injury. Conditional logistic regression was used to assess the association between concussion and subsequent risk of acute lower extremity musculoskeletal injury. The incidence of acute lower extremity musculoskeletal injury was higher among recently concussed athletes (15/87; 17%) compared with matched controls (17/182; 9%). The odds of sustaining an acute lower extremity musculoskeletal injury during the 90-day period after return to play were 2.48 times higher in concussed athletes than controls during the same 90-day period (odds ratio, 2.48; 95% CI, 1.04-5.91; P = .04). Concussed athletes have increased odds of sustaining an acute lower extremity musculoskeletal

  1. Electronic data capture on athletes' pre-participation health and in-competition injury and illness at major sports championships: An extended usability study in Athletics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, David; Timpka, Toomas; Jacobsson, Jenny; Alonso, Juan-Manuel; Kowalski, Jan; Nilsson, Sverker; Depiesse, Frédéric; Branco, Pedro; Edouard, Pascal

    2016-08-08

    This study set out to identify factors critical for the usability of electronic data collection in association with championships in individual sports. A qualitative analysis of electronic data collection system usability for collection of data on pre-participation health from athletes and in-competition injury and illness from team physicians was performed during the 2013 European Athletics Indoor Championships. A total of 15 athletes and team physicians participated. Athletes were found to experience few problems interacting with the electronic data collection system, but reported concerns about having to reflect on injury and illness before competitions and the medical terminology used. Team physicians encountered problems when first navigating through the module for clinical reporting, but they were not subjected to motivational problems. We conclude that athletes' motivation to self-report health data and the design of the human-computer interface for team physicians are key issues for the usability of electronic data collection systems in association with championships in individual sports. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. A qualitative study on overuse injuries : The beliefs of athletes and coaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wilgen, C. P.; Verhagen, E. A. L. M.

    Objectives: Preventive approaches for overuse injuries in sports will be more successful when synchronised with athletes' and coaches' beliefs. We interviewed athletes and coaches in order to better characterize their beliefs about the definition of an overuse injury, as well as the intrinsic and

  3. A qualitative study on overuse injuries: The beliefs of athletes and coaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wilgen, C.P.; Verhagen, E.A.L.M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Preventive approaches for overuse injuries in sports will be more successful when synchronised with athletes' and coaches' beliefs. We interviewed athletes and coaches in order to better characterize their beliefs about the definition of an overuse injury, as well as the intrinsic and

  4. Critical review of the impact of core stability on upper extremity athletic injury and performance

    OpenAIRE

    Sheri P. Silfies; David Ebaugh; Marisa Pontillo; Butowicz, Courtney M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Programs designed to prevent or rehabilitate athletic injuries or improve athletic performance frequently focus on core stability. This approach is based upon the theory that poor core stability increases the risk of poor performance and/or injury. Despite the widespread use of core stability training amongst athletes, the question of whether or not sufficient evidence exists to support this practice remains to be answered. OBJECTIVES: 1) Open a dialogue on the definition and comp...

  5. Epidemiology of basketball, soccer, and volleyball injuries in middle-school female athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber Foss, Kim D; Myer, Greg D; Hewett, Timothy E

    2014-05-01

    An estimated 30 to 40 million school children participate in sports in the United States; 34% of middle-school participants become injured and seek medical treatment at an annual cost close to $2 billion. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the injury incidence and rates in female athletes in the middle-school setting during the course of 3 seasons. Female basketball, soccer, and volleyball players were recruited from a single county public school district in Kentucky consisting of 5 middle schools. A total of 268 female athletes (162 basketball, 26 soccer, and 80 volleyball) participated. Athletes were monitored for sports-related injury and number of athlete exposures (AEs) by an athletic trainer. Injury rates were calculated for specific types of injuries within each sport. Injury rates for games and practices were also calculated and compared for each sport. A total of 134 injuries were recorded during the 3 sport seasons. The knee was the most commonly injured body part (99 injuries [73.9%]), of which patellofemoral dysfunction (31.3%), Osgood-Schlatter disease (10.4%), and Sinding-Larsen-Johansson/patella tendinosis (9%) had the greatest incidence. The ankle was the second most commonly injured body part, accounting for 16.4% of all injuries. The overall rates of injury by sport were as follows: soccer, 6.66 per 1000 AEs; volleyball, 3.68 per 1000 AEs; and basketball, 2.86 per 1000 AEs. Female middle-school athletes displayed comparable injury patterns to those seen in their high-school counterparts. Future work is warranted to determine the potential for improved outcomes in female middle-school athletes with access to athletic training services. As the participation levels and number of injuries continue to rise, middle-school athletes demonstrate an increasing need for medical services provided by a certified athletic trainer.

  6. Epidemiology of Basketball, Soccer, and Volleyball Injuries in Middle-School Female Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber Foss, Kim D.; Myer, Greg D.; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2014-01-01

    Background An estimated 30 to 40 million school children participate in sports in the United States; 34% of middle-school participants become injured and seek medical treatment at an annual cost close to $2 billion. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the injury incidence and rates in female athletes in the middle-school setting during the course of 3 seasons. Methods Female basketball, soccer, and volleyball players were recruited from a single county public school district in Kentucky consisting of 5 middle schools. A total of 268 female athletes (162 basketball, 26 soccer, and 80 volleyball) participated. Athletes were monitored for sports-related injury and number of athlete exposures (AEs) by an athletic trainer. Injury rates were calculated for specific types of injuries within each sport. Injury rates for games and practices were also calculated and compared for each sport. Results A total of 134 injuries were recorded during the 3 sport seasons. The knee was the most commonly injured body part (99 injuries [73.9%]), of which patellofemoral dysfunction (31.3%), Osgood-Schlatter disease (10.4%), and Sinding-Larsen-Johansson/patella tendinosis (9%) had the greatest incidence. The ankle was the second most commonly injured body part, accounting for 16.4% of all injuries. The overall rates of injury by sport were as follows: soccer, 6.66 per 1000 AEs; volleyball, 3.68 per 1000 AEs; and basketball, 2.86 per 1000 AEs. Conclusions Female middle-school athletes displayed comparable injury patterns to those seen in their high-school counterparts. Future work is warranted to determine the potential for improved outcomes in female middle-school athletes with access to athletic training services. Clinical Relevance As the participation levels and number of injuries continue to rise, middle-school athletes demonstrate an increasing need for medical services provided by a certified athletic trainer. PMID:24875981

  7. Determining the Prevalence and Assessing the Severity of Injuries in Mixed Martial Arts Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background Mixed martial arts (MMA) is currently the fastest growing sport in the United States and has recently surpassed boxing as the most popular full contact sport. Due to the physical nature of the sport, MMA is associated with various types of injuries. Objective The purpose of this study was aimed at identifying prevalence and assessing the severity, location, and type of injuries in MMA athletes sustained during MMA related activities in the twelve month period prior to the survey. Methods A total of fifty-five subjects between the ages of 18 to 39 participated in the study. Participants were given a two-part questionnaire to collect demographic and injury data. Results Two hundred seven injuries were reported in the study. Low belt ranks had significantly more injuries more than any other belt rank, resulting in more than two times higher injury rate. Professional fighters had significantly more injuries than amateur fighters, resulting in three times higher injury rate. The most common body region injured was the head/neck/face (38.2%), followed by the lower extremities (30.4%), upper extremities (22.7%), torso (8.2%), and groin (0.5%). Injuries to the nose (6.3%), shoulder (6.3%), and toe (6.3%) were the most common. The most common type of injury was contusions (29.4%), followed by strains (16.2%), sprains (14.9%), and abrasions (10.1%). Conclusion Injury prevention efforts should consider the prevalence and distribution of injuries and focus on reducing or preventing injuries to the head/neck/face in MMA related activities. Preventative measures should focus on improving protective equipment during training, and possible competition rule modifications to further minimize participant injury. PMID:21509103

  8. Current Concepts for Injury Prevention in Athletes After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewett, Timothy E.; Di Stasi, Stephanie L.; Myer, Gregory D.

    2013-01-01

    Ligament reconstruction is the current standard of care for active patients with an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture. Although the majority of ACL reconstruction (ACLR) surgeries successfully restore the mechanical stability of the injured knee, postsurgical outcomes remain widely varied. Less than half of athletes who undergo ACLR return to sport within the first year after surgery, and it is estimated that approximately 1 in 4 to 1 in 5 young, active athletes who undergo ACLR will go on to a second knee injury. The outcomes after a second knee injury and surgery are significantly less favorable than outcomes after primary injuries. As advances in graft reconstruction and fixation techniques have improved to consistently restore passive joint stability to the preinjury level, successful return to sport after ACLR appears to be predicated on numerous postsurgical factors. Importantly, a secondary ACL injury is most strongly related to modifiable postsurgical risk factors. Biomechanical abnormalities and movement asymmetries, which are more prevalent in this cohort than previously hypothesized, can persist despite high levels of functional performance, and also represent biomechanical and neuromuscular control deficits and imbalances that are strongly associated with secondary injury incidence. Decreased neuromuscular control and high-risk movement biomechanics, which appear to be heavily influenced by abnormal trunk and lower extremity movement patterns, not only predict first knee injury risk but also reinjury risk. These seminal findings indicate that abnormal movement biomechanics and neuromuscular control profiles are likely both residual to, and exacerbated by, the initial injury. Evidence-based medicine (EBM) strategies should be used to develop effective, efficacious interventions targeted to these impairments to optimize the safe return to high-risk activity. In this Current Concepts article, the authors present the latest evidence related to risk

  9. Epidemiology of stress fracture injuries among US high school athletes, 2005-2006 through 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changstrom, Bradley G; Brou, Lina; Khodaee, Morteza; Braund, Cortney; Comstock, R Dawn

    2015-01-01

    High school athletes in the United States sustain millions of injuries annually, approximately 10% of which are fractures. However, there is no clear estimate of the number of stress fractures sustained by high school athletes annually despite reports that stress fractures account for 0.7% to 20% of injuries seen in sports medicine clinics. This suggests a high utilization of resources for a potentially preventable injury. In addition, stress fractures have been associated with low energy availability and disordered eating in young athletes, highlighting the importance of early recognition and intervention. To investigate stress fracture rates and patterns in a large national sample of US high school athletes. Descriptive epidemiologic study. Data from High School RIO (Reporting Information Online), a national sports injury surveillance study, were analyzed to describe rates and patterns of stress fracture injury sustained from 2005-2006 through 2012-2013, across sports and by sex. From 2005-2006 through 2012-2013, a total of 51,773 injuries were sustained during 25,268,873 athlete-exposures, of which 389 (0.8%) were stress fractures, resulting in an overall stress fracture rate of 1.54 per 100,000 athlete-exposures. Rates per 100,000 athlete-exposures were highest in girls' cross country (10.62), girls' gymnastics (7.43), and boys' cross country (5.42). In sex-comparable sports, girls sustained more stress fractures (63.3%) than did boys (36.7%) and had higher rates of stress fracture (2.22 vs 1.27; rate ratio, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.38-2.23). The most commonly injured sites were the lower leg (40.3% of all stress fractures), foot (34.9%), and lower back/lumbar spine/pelvis (15.2%). Management was nonsurgical in 98.7% of the cases, and 65.3% of injuries resulted in ≥3 weeks of time loss, medical disqualification, or an end to the season before athletes could return to play. Although a rare injury, stress fractures cause considerable morbidity for high school athletes

  10. Acute Gastrocnemius-Soleus Complex Injuries in National Football League Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Brian C.; Belkin, Nicole S.; Kennelly, Steve; Weiss, Leigh; Barnes, Ronnie P.; Potter, Hollis G.; Warren, Russell F.; Rodeo, Scott A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Lower extremity muscle injuries are common in professional football. Although less common than hamstring or quadriceps injuries in National Football League (NFL) athletes, calf injuries occur with relative frequency and have not previously been studied. Purpose: To evaluate gastrocnemius-soleus complex muscle injuries over the past 13 years from a single NFL team to determine the incidence of such injuries, their imaging characteristics, and return to play after such injuries and any correlation between imaging findings and prolonged return to play. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: A retrospective review of all acute calf muscle injuries on a single NFL team from 2003 to 2015 was performed. Player demographics and return-to-play data were obtained from the medical records. All available magnetic resonance images (MRIs) were reviewed by a musculoskeletal radiologist for specific imaging findings that correlated with return to play. Results: A total of 27 calf injuries in 24 NFL players were reviewed, yielding an incidence of 2.3 acute calf injuries per year on a single NFL team. Of these 27 injuries, 20 (74%) were isolated injuries to the gastrocnemius muscle, 4 (15%) were isolated injuries to the soleus muscle, and the remaining 3 injuries (11%) involved both. Defensive players were more likely to sustain injuries (P = .043). The mean time to return to play for all 27 players was 17.4 ± 14.6 days (range, 3-62 days). MRIs were available in 14 of the 27 injuries. The average size of the fascial defect (P = .032) and the presence of a fluid collection (P = .031) both correlated with return to play of longer than 2 weeks. Conclusion: Although less common than hamstring or quadriceps muscle injuries, calf muscle injuries occur with relative frequency in the NFL, and more so in defensive players. The majority of these injuries occur in the gastrocnemius and result in significant disability, with at least 2 weeks of missed playing

  11. Characteristics of acute groin injuries in the hip flexor muscles - a detailed MRI study in athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serner, Andreas; Weir, Adam; Tol, Johannes L.; Thorborg, Kristian; Roemer, Frank; Guermazi, Ali; Yamashiro, Eduardo; Hölmich, Per

    2017-01-01

    Hip flexor injuries account for one third of acute groin injuries; however, little is known about specific injury characteristics. The aims of this study was to describe acute hip flexor injuries using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in athletes with acute groin pain, and to compare specific muscle

  12. Core Muscle Injury/Sports Hernia/Athletic Pubalgia, and Femoroacetabular Impingement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, James R; Stone, Rebecca M; Larson, Christopher M

    2015-12-01

    Core muscle injury/sports hernia/athletic pubalgia is an increasingly recognized source of pain, disability, and time lost from athletics. Groin pain among athletes, however, may be secondary to various etiologies. A thorough history and comprehensive physical examination, coupled with appropriate diagnostic imaging, may improve the diagnostic accuracy for patients who present with core muscular injuries. Outcomes of nonoperative management have not been well delineated, and multiple operative procedures have been discussed with varying return-to-athletic activity rates. In this review, we outline the clinical entity and treatment of core muscle injury and athletic pubalgia. In addition, we describe the relationship between athletic pubalgia and femoroacetabular impingement along with recent studies that have investigated the treatment of these related disorders.

  13. Sonographic evaluation of athletic pubalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, Nicholas; Grant, Thomas; Blount, Kevin; Omar, Imran

    2016-05-01

    Athletic pubalgia, or "sports hernia", represents a constellation of pathologic conditions occurring at and around the pubic symphysis. These injuries are primarily seen in athletes or those involved in athletic activity. In this article, we review the sonographic appearance of the relevant complex anatomy, scanning technique for ultrasound evaluation of athletic pubalgia, and the sonographic appearances of associated pathologic conditions.

  14. Sports-related testicular injuries and the use of protective equipment among young male athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieniek, Jared M; Sumfest, Joel M

    2014-12-01

    To survey young male athletes to determine the self-reported prevalence of sports-related testicular injuries and use of protective equipment among adolescents and young adults. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to male students at local high schools and colleges. Respondents were asked about personal and team member usage of athletic cups and history of testicular injuries. Returned surveys were analyzed for descriptive statistics and compared between high school and college respondents. Approximately 1700 surveys were distributed and 731 returned. The mean age of all respondents was 17.7 years. Across all sports, 18% of athletes experienced a testicular injury during sports and 36.4% observed injuries in team members, whereas only 12.9% of respondents reported wearing athletic cups. The prevalence of testicular injuries for lacrosse, wrestling, baseball, and football was 48.5%, 32.8%, 21%, and 17.8%, respectively. Of athletes reporting a prior injury, 20.1% reported that they wear a cup now. Rates of athletic cup usage were significantly less for college baseball, football, and all respondents compared with their high school counterparts. Previously reported rates of testicular injury with sports participation may underestimate the prevalence of these injuries among adolescent and young adult athletes among whom testicular protective equipment is infrequently used. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Cost of injuries from a prospective cohort study of North Carolina high school athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, S B; Marshall, S W; Miller, T; Spicer, R; Bowling, J M; Loomis, D; Millikan, R W; Yang, J; Mueller, F O

    2007-12-01

    To estimate the economic cost of injuries in a population of US high school varsity athletes. The North Carolina High School Athletic Injury Study, conducted from 1996 to 1999, was a prospective cohort study of injury incidence and severity. A two-stage cluster sampling technique was used to select athletic teams from 100 high schools in North Carolina. An injury cost model was used to estimate the economic cost of injury. Varsity athletes from 12 sports: football, girls' and boy's soccer, girls' and boys' track, girls' and boy's basketball, baseball, softball, wrestling, volleyball, and cheerleading. Descriptive data were collected at the time of injury. Three types of costs were estimated: medical, human capital (medical costs plus loss of future earnings), and comprehensive (human capital costs plus lost quality of life). The annual statewide estimates were $9.9 million in medical costs, $44.7 million in human capital costs, and $144.6 million in comprehensive costs. The mean medical cost was $709 per injury (95% CI $542 to $927), $2223 per injury (95% CI $1709 to $2893) in human capital costs, and $10,432 per injury (95% CI $8062 to $13,449) in comprehensive costs. Sport and competition division were significant predictors of injury costs. Injuries among high school athletes represent a significant economic cost to society. Further research should estimate costs in additional populations to begin to develop cost-effective sports injury prevention programs.

  16. Imaging of athletic pubalgia and core muscle injuries: clinical and therapeutic correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palisch, Andrew; Zoga, Adam C; Meyers, William C

    2013-07-01

    Athletes frequently injure their hips and core muscles. Accurate diagnosis and proper treatment of groin pain in the athlete can be tricky, frequently posing vexing problem for trainers and physicians. Clinical presentations of the various hip problems overlap with respect to history and physical examination. This article reviews clinical presentations and magnetic resonance imaging findings specific to the various causes of groin pain in the athlete. The focus is on the core muscle injuries (athletic pubalgia or "sports hernia"). The goal is to raise awareness about the variety of injuries that occur and therapeutic options. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Exploring the Athletic Trainer's Role in Assisting Student-Athletes Presenting With Alcohol-Related Unintentional Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Steven M; Barry, Adam E; Pitney, William A

    2015-09-01

    Compared with their nonathlete peers, collegiate athletes consume higher quantities of alcohol, drink with greater frequency, and exhibit an increased propensity to engage in heavy episodic drinking (ie, binge drinking), which often may result in alcohol-related consequences. Moreover, collegiate athletes are also more likely to engage in other maladaptive lifestyle behaviors, such as participating in physical fights and riding with an intoxicated driver, and less likely to engage in protective behaviors, such as wearing a helmet while operating a motorcycle, moped, or bicycle. Taken together, these behaviors clearly pose a health risk for student-athletes and increase the likelihood that they will experience an alcohol-related unintentional injury (ARUI). An ARUI represents a risk not only to the health and well-being of collegiate athletes but also to their athletic performances, collegiate careers, and potential professional opportunities. Therefore, athletic trainers need to be equipped with the knowledge and skills to provide face-to-face brief interventions to student-athletes presenting with ARUIs and to evaluate the effect of their involvement. We address potential action items for implementation by athletic trainers.

  18. A Prospective Study on the Effect of Sport Specialization on Lower Extremity Injury Rates in High School Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuine, Timothy A; Post, Eric G; Hetzel, Scott J; Brooks, M Alison; Trigsted, Stephanie; Bell, David R

    2017-10-01

    Sport specialization is associated with an increased risk of musculoskeletal lower extremity injuries (LEIs) in adolescent athletes presenting in clinical settings. However, sport specialization and the incidence of LEIs have not been investigated prospectively in a large population of adolescent athletes. To determine if sport specialization was associated with an increased risk of LEIs in high school athletes. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Participants (interscholastic athletes in grades 9-12) were recruited from 29 Wisconsin high schools during the 2015-2016 school year. Participants completed a questionnaire identifying their sport participation and history of LEIs. Sport specialization of low, moderate, or high was determined using a previously published 3-point scale. Athletic trainers reported all LEIs that occurred during the school year. Analyses included group proportions, odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs, and days lost due to injury (median and interquartile range [IQR]). Multivariate Cox proportional hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% CIs were calculated to investigate the association between the incidence of LEIs and sport specialization level. A total of 1544 participants (50.5% female; mean age, 16.1 ± 1.1 years) enrolled in the study, competed in 2843 athletic seasons, and participated in 167,349 athlete-exposures. Sport specialization was classified as low (59.5%), moderate (27.1%), or high (13.4%). Two hundred thirty-five participants (15.2%) sustained a total of 276 LEIs that caused them to miss a median of 7.0 days (IQR, 2.0-22.8). Injuries occurred most often to the ankle (34.4%), knee (25.0%), and upper leg (12.7%) and included ligament sprains (40.9%), muscle/tendon strains (25.4%), and tendinitis/tenosynovitis (19.6%). The incidence of LEIs for moderate participants was higher than for low participants (HR, 1.51 [95% CI, 1.04-2.20]; P = .03). The incidence of LEIs for high participants was higher than for low participants (HR, 1.85 [95% CI, 1

  19. Associations between retirement reasons, chronic pain, athletic identity, and depressive symptoms among former professional footballers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, George; Stevinson, Clare

    2017-11-01

    Retirement from professional sport has been recognised as a major psychological stressor, and there is a need to identify factors that increase the risk of mental health problems after career termination. The current study examined associations between career-ending injury, chronic pain, athletic identity, and depressive symptomology in retired professional footballers. A cross-sectional study was performed with 307 retired male footballers who had played within a professional United Kingdom league. Participants completed measures of depressive symptoms (Short Depression-Happiness Scale), chronic pain (Pain Intensity Numerical Rating Scale), and athletic identity (Athletic Identity Measurement Scale), and reported their reasons for retirement. A total of 48 participants (16%) met the cut-off score for possible cases of clinically relevant depression. These participants were more recently retired, and had higher athletic identity than those without depressive symptoms. Former players with depressive symptoms were more likely to cite injury as a retirement reason, and report higher levels of ongoing injury-related pain. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that the presence of depressive symptoms was independently associated with retirement through injury (OR = 3.44; 95% CI = 1.39, 8.51), higher pain levels (OR = 1.38; 95% CI = 1.02, 1.86), and increased athletic identity (OR = 1.28; 95% CI = 1.14, 1.44). Career-ending injury is strongly associated with higher odds of depressive symptomology during retirement, while experiencing chronic pain, and maintaining a high sense of athletic identity, are additional potential contributors.

  20. Enforcement of Mouthguard Use and Athlete Compliance in National Collegiate Athletic Association Men's Collegiate Ice Hockey Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawn, Kristen L.; Visser, Mary Frances; Sexton, Patrick J.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated enforcement patterns and athlete compliance with the National Collegiate Athletic Association rule requiring the wearing of mouthguards in men's collegiate ice hockey games during one season. Surveys of athletic trainers indicated that the use of mouthguards in competition was not consistently enforced by athletic trainers, coaches,…

  1. A new consideration in athletic injuries. The classical ballet dancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, E H; Schneider, H J; Bronson, J L; McLain, D

    1975-09-01

    The professional ballet dancer presents all of the problems of any vigorous athlete. The problems include osteochondral fractures, fatigue fractures, sprains, chronic ligamentous instability of the knee, meniscal tears, impingement syndrome, degenerative arthritis of multiple joints and low back pain. Attention to minor problems with sound conservative therapy can avoid many major developments and lost hours. Observations included the extraordinary external rotation of at the hip without demonstrable alteration in the hip version angle and hypertrophy of the femur, tibia and particularly the second metatarsal (in female dancers). Careful evaluation of the range of motion of the extremities, serial roentgenographic examination, and systematic review of previous injuries, training programs and rehearsal techniques have been evaluated in a series of cases to provide the basis for advice to directors and teachers of the ballet.

  2. Rates and Determinants of Return to Play After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Soccer Athletes: A Study of the Southeastern Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Jennifer S; Lembach, Mark L; Metzler, Adam V; Johnson, Darren L

    2016-02-01

    Factors and details regarding return to play in elite, collegiate female soccer athletes after an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury and reconstruction have not been well studied. To evaluate return to play among collegiate female soccer players, specifically examining the effect of surgical and individual athlete characteristics on the return-to-play rate. Descriptive epidemiology study. Sports medicine and athletic training staff at institutions from the National Collegiate Athletic Association Southeastern Conference (SEC) were contacted to request participation in the study. All institutions were sent a standardized spreadsheet with response choices and instructions regarding athlete inclusion criteria. Athlete, injury, surgical technique, and return-to-play data were requested for ACL reconstructions performed on female soccer athletes at the participating institutions over the previous 8 years. χ(2) analyses were used to compare the return-to-play rate by year in school, scholarship status, position, depth chart status, procedure, graft type, graft fixation, concomitant procedures, and previous ACL injuries. All 14 of the SEC institutions chose to participate and provided data. A total of 80 ACL injuries were reported, with 79 surgical reconstructions and return-to-play data for 78 collegiate soccer athletes. The overall return-to-play rate was 85%. There was a statistical significance in return-to-play rates favoring athletes in earlier years of eligibility versus later years (P < .001). Athletes in eligibility years 4 and 5 combined had a return-to-play rate of only 40%. Scholarship status likewise showed significance (P < .001), demonstrating a higher return-to-play rate for scholarship athletes (91%) versus nonscholarship athletes (46%). No significant differences in return-to-play rates were observed based on surgical factors, including concomitant knee procedures, graft type, and graft fixation method. Collegiate female soccer athletes have a high

  3. Diagnosis and management of vascular injuries in the shoulder girdle of the overhead athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeser, Jonathan C

    2007-10-01

    Vascular injuries represent a rare cause of shoulder pain and functional limitation among overhead athletes. Complaints of heaviness, fatigue, paresthesias, and effort-related pain should prompt the sports medicine clinician to consider vascular pathology as a possible cause of such symptoms. Position-dependent compression of the subclavian and axillary vessels within the thoracic outlet may result in functional limitation and a decline in overhead athletic performance, particularly when symptoms occur in the dominant upper limb. Treatment options include physical therapy and (in the case of thrombus) thrombolysis, but surgical decompression of the neurovascular bundle is generally advocated. This article reviews the diagnosis and management of effort thrombosis (also known as Paget-Schroetter syndrome), arterial thoracic outlet syndrome, and entrapment of the posterior circumflex humeral artery within the quadrilateral space. Familiarity with these conditions may help to minimize the risk of delayed diagnosis and associated morbidity.

  4. High School Football Injury Rates and Services by Athletic Trainer Employment Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Zachary Y; Lynall, Robert C; Mauntel, Timothy C; Dompier, Thomas P

    2016-01-01

    Reported injury rates and services in sports injury surveillance may be influenced by the employment setting of the certified athletic trainers (ATs) reporting these data. To determine whether injury rates and the average number of AT services per injury in high school football varied by AT employment status. Cross-sectional study. We used data from the National Athletic Treatment, Injury and Outcomes Network and surveyed ATs about their employment setting. Forty-four responding ATs (37.9% of all National Athletic Treatment, Injury and Outcomes Network participants) worked at high schools with football programs and were included in this study. Fourteen ATs were full-time employees of the high school, and 30 ATs were employed as outreach ATs (i.e., full-time and part-time ATs from nearby clinics, hospitals, and graduate school programs). We calculated injury rates per 1000 athlete-exposures and average number of AT services per injury. Reported injury rates and services per injury were greater among full-time school employees compared with outreach ATs. However, injury rates did not differ when restricted to time-loss injuries only. Our findings suggest that ATs who are full-time school employees may be able to identify and care for more patients with injuries.

  5. Characterization of Prepractice Injury Prevention Exercises of High School Athletic Teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slauterbeck, James R; Reilly, Autumn; Vacek, Pamela M; Choquette, Rebecca; Tourville, Timothy W; Mandelbaum, Bert; Johnson, Robert J; Beynnon, Bruce D

    2017-10-01

    Static and dynamic exercises are performed before activity to decrease injury risk and increase performance. Although evidence supports using dynamic over static stretching and performing Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) 11+ as a dynamic prepractice routine, we do not know the frequency at which these exercises are utilized in high school populations. We hypothesize that there is a wide variety of preparticipation exercises performed by high school athletes, and that few high school teams perform FIFA 11+ as an injury prevention program in its entirety. Observational study. Level 4. High school prepractice routines were observed for 185 teams (football, soccer, basketball, and lacrosse) over 1 season. The percentages of team warm-up routines that included components of FIFA 11+ were calculated, and the chi-square test was used to compare sex, sport, and level of competition. Of a total 644 warm-up observations, 450 (69.9%) included only non-FIFA 11+ exercises, 56 (8.7%) included at least 1 FIFA 11+ exercise, and 38 (5.9%) included only jogging; 69 (10.6%) consisted only of sport-specific activities. The type of warm-up differed significantly between males and females ( P = 0.002), sports ( P < 0.001), and level of competition ( P < 0.001). Static stretching and athletes stretching on their own were observed in 14% and 15% of all observations. No team performed the FIFA 11+ injury prevention routine in its entirety. The type of warm-up differed by sex, sport, and level of competition. Static stretching was performed more frequently than anticipated, and an entire FIFA 11+ warm-up was never performed. We need to identify the exercises that decrease injury and increase performance and better inform the athletic population about the risks and benefits of static and dynamic warm-up programs.

  6. Is Pre-Injury Leg Length Discrepancy A Risk Factor for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury in the Skeletally Immature Athlete?

    OpenAIRE

    Lazaro, Lionel E; van der List, Jelle P.; Cordasco, Frank A.; Green, Daniel W.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Recognition of modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries in children and adolescent athletes is paramount to develop effective strategies for prevention and treatment. We hypothesize that the intrinsic risk factors leg length discrepancy (LLD) and lateral mechanical axis deviation (MAD) are not uncommon in skeletally immature athletes that suffered an acute ACL injury. Methods: We prospectively obtained full-length hip-to-ankle radiog...

  7. The Epidemiology of High Ankle Sprains in National Collegiate Athletic Association Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauntel, Timothy C; Wikstrom, Erik A; Roos, Karen G; Djoko, Aristarque; Dompier, Thomas P; Kerr, Zachary Y

    2017-07-01

    Ankle sprains are among the most common injuries experienced by collegiate athletes. The type of ankle sprain is rarely differentiated in epidemiological studies. This differentiation is necessary, as each ankle sprain type has a unique injury mechanism and recovery period. High ankle sprains commonly result in long recovery periods. Thus, a further examination of the epidemiology of high ankle sprains is warranted. To describe the epidemiology of high ankle sprains in National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) sports during the 2009/2010-2014/2015 academic years. Descriptive epidemiology study. NCAA Injury Surveillance Program high ankle sprain data and athlete-exposures (AEs) from 25 sports were evaluated. Certified athletic trainers recorded sport-related injury, event, and AE data during team-sanctioned events. High ankle sprain injury rates per 10,000 AEs were calculated. Percentage distributions were calculated for the amount of time lost from sport and percentage of recurrent injuries. Injury rate ratios (RRs) and 95% CIs compared injury rates by event type, participation restriction time, and sex. 95% CIs not containing 1.00 were considered statistically significant. The overall high ankle sprain injury rate was 1.00 per 10,000 AEs. Overall, 56.7% of high ankle sprain injuries occurred during competitions, and 9.8% of high ankle sprain injuries were recurrent. Men's football (2.42/10,000 AEs), wrestling (2.11/10,000 AEs), and ice hockey (1.19/10,000 AEs) had the highest high ankle sprain injury rates. In sex-comparable sports, men had higher injury rates (RR, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.28-2.44). Player contact was the most common injury mechanism (60.4%), and 69.0% of injuries resulted in ≥1 day of participation restriction, with 47.1% resulting in ≥7 days of participation restriction and 15.8% resulting in >21 days of participation restriction. High ankle sprains resulted in significant participation restriction time from sport participation. The majority of

  8. Epidemiology of athletic knee injuries: A 10-year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewski, M; Susanne, Habelt; Klaus, Steinbrück

    2006-06-01

    The knee is an anatomically and biomechanically complex joint. Few studies have been published reporting the type and frequency of knee injuries. However, this information that may help to prevent, diagnose, and treat knee joint injuries. We have documented 17,397 patients with 19,530 sport injuries over a 10-year period of time. 6434 patients (37%) had 7769 injuries (39.8%) related to the knee joint. 68.1% of those patients were men and 31.6% were women. Almost 50% of the patients were between the ages of 20-29 (43.1%) at the time of injury. The injuries documented were ACL lesion (20.3%), medial meniscus lesion (10.8%), lateral meniscus lesion (3.7%), MCL lesion (7.9%), LCL lesion (1.1%), and PCL lesion (0.65%). The activities leading to most injuries were soccer (35%) and skiing (26%). LCL injury was associated with tennis and gymnastics, MCL with judo and skiing, ACL with handball and volleyball, PCL with handball, lateral meniscus with gymnastics and dancing, and medial meniscus with tennis and jogging.

  9. Effects of Stress Inoculation Training on Athletes' Postsurgical Pain and Rehabilitation after Orthopedic Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Michael J.; Berger, R. Scott

    1996-01-01

    Tested the efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral intervention (stress inoculation training; SIT) for postsurgical anxiety, pain and physical rehabilitation in injured athletes. Sixty male athletes who underwent arthroscopic surgery for miniscus injury in one knee were randomly assigned to either treatment (SIT and physical therapy) or control…

  10. Epidemiology of sports injuries on collegiate athletes at a single center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Bruno Berbert; Asperti, André Marangoni; Helito, Camilo Partezani; Demange, Marco Kawamura; Fernandes, Tiago Lazzaretti; Hernandez, Arnaldo José

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the incidence of sports injuries in college athletes from the same institution from 1993 to 2013. Athletes from 13 modalities were interviewed about the presence and type of injury, type of treatment and time of withdrawal, based on the questionnaire "Injury Surveillance System" (ISS). Data were analyzed with graphs and tables of injury prevalence by gender, age, site of injury and modality. We also analyzed the average time of withdrawal of athletes, returning to sports practice and new lesions. It was observed that 49.91% of the athletes showed some type of injury, with similar incidence between genders; the most frequent injuries were the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and the ankle sprain; the average withdrawal time was 11 weeks. ACL was the injury with greater impact on college sports career, especially given the time of withdrawal. The most frequent injury, ACL, occurred most frequently in indoor sports such as handball and volleyball and had the highest number of cases treated with surgery and a longer average withdrawal time. More studies are needed to create a larger database in order to schedule preventive measures for amateur athletes. Level IV of Evidence, Epidemiological Study.

  11. Overuse wrist injuries in young athletes: What do sports physicians consider important signals and functional limitations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kox, Laura S; Kuijer, P Paul F M; Opperman, Jip; Kerkhoffs, Gino M M J; Maas, Mario; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W

    2018-01-01

    This study's objective was to collect items from experienced sports physicians, relating to the presence and severity of overuse wrist injuries in young athletes, for developing a measurement instrument for signals of overuse wrist injury. Seven Dutch elite sports physicians involved in guidance and treatment of young athletes in wrist-loading sports (gymnastics, tennis, judo, field hockey, volleyball and rowing) participated in a focus group. They discussed signals and limitations related to overuse wrist injuries in young athletes. Data were coded and categorised into signals and limitations with subcategories, using an inductive approach. Of the resulting 61 signals and limitations in nineteen (sub)categories, 20 were considered important, forming a comprehensive item set for identifying overuse wrist injury in young athletes. Signals such as pain, "click", crepitations, swelling and limited range of motion were marked useful for early identification of overuse wrist injury. Limitations in movement and performance were considered indicative of severe overuse injury but less relevant for initial injury identification. The focus group provided 17 important signals and 3 important limitations indicative of overuse wrist injury. These provide the basis for a valid measurement instrument for identifying overuse wrist injury in young athletes, with equal emphasis on pain and on other symptoms.

  12. Methodological quality of the injury surveillance system used in international athletics championships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edouard, Pascal; Branco, Pedro; Alonso, Juan Manuel; Junge, Astrid

    2016-12-01

    Incidence and prevalence data obtained from injury surveillance studies could be biased by the response rate as well as by the completeness and quality of the reports. It therefore appears crucial to analyse the quality of the injury surveillance system itself and thereby validate the quality of the data. This study aimed to analyse the quality of and compliance with the injury surveillance system implemented during international athletics championships. Prospective, epidemiological study. The national medical teams and the local organising committee physicians daily reported all injuries on a standardised injury report form during 14 international athletics championships from 2007 to 2015. The quality of the injury surveillance system was analysed following the guidelines laid down by the Centre for Disease Control and Prevention. On average 41.7±17.4% (mean±standard deviation) of all registered countries participated in the injury surveillance project, accounting for a coverage of athletes of 79.5±10.2% of all registered athletes. Their medical staff returned 89.2±8.4% of the expected injury report forms (information is missing for one championship). The completeness of injury data provided by medical teams and local organising committee physicians averaged 95.8±6.5%. National medical teams reported 60.6±16.6% of all injuries, and local organising committee physicians 28.7±15.0% whereas 10.6±6.5% of injuries were reported by both. The injury surveillance system used during international athletics championships provided good national medical team participation, coverage of athletes, response rate, and completeness of reports. These parameters should be systematically reported for injury surveillance studies to show the quality of the study. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Psychological impact of electrocardiogram screening in National Collegiate Athletic Association athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asif, Irfan M; Annett, Scott; Ewing, Joseph A; Abdelfattah, Ramy; Sutphin, Brittan; Conley, Kyle; Rothmier, Justin; Harmon, Kimberly G; Drezner, Jonathan A

    2017-10-01

    Determine the psychological impact of false-positive ECG screening in National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) athletes. Athletes representing seven NCAA institutions received a standardised history, physical examination and ECG interpreted using the 2013 Seattle Criteria. Assessments of health attitudes, anxiety and impact of screening on sport were conducted using validated prescreen and postscreen measurements. 1192 student-athletes participated (55.4% male, median age 19 years, 80.4% Caucasian). 96.8% of athletes had a normal cardiovascular screen, 2.9% had a false-positive ECG and 0.3% were diagnosed with a serious cardiac condition. Prior to screening, 4.5% worried about potentially harbouring cardiac disease and 70.1% preferred knowing about an underlying condition, rather than play sports without this knowledge. There was no difference in anxiety described by athletes with a normal versus false-positive screen (p=0.369). Reported anxiety levels during screening also did not differ when analysed by different gender, race, division of play or sport. Athletes with normal and false-positive screens had similar levels of satisfaction (p=0.714) and would recommend ECG screening to other athletes at similar rates (p=0.322). Compared with athletes with a normal screen, athletes with false-positive results also reported feeling safer during competition (p>0.01). In contrast, athletes with false-positive screens were more concerned about the possibility of sports disqualification (pAthletes with a false-positive ECG do not experience more anxiety than athletes with a normal screen but do express increased concern regarding sports disqualification and the development of a cardiac disorder. These findings do not justify avoiding advanced cardiovascular screening protocols. Further understanding of athlete experiences could better prepare the practising physician to counsel athletes with an abnormal ECG. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise

  14. The use of physical agents in rehabilitation of athletic injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, S K; Delforge, G

    1985-07-01

    The competitive athlete's motivation to return to activity following injury presents a challenge to the sports medicine specialist to utilize the most effective rehabilitation procedures available. Safe return to competition necessitates maximal restoration of those components of physical fitness affected by injury (such as muscular strength, power, endurance). Various forms of superficial heat and cold application, deep heat modalities, and electrical currents have been used to supplement therapeutic exercise in this process. In recent years, the therapeutic benefits of cold for the control of exercise-induced edema and as a prelude to performance of prescribed exercise have been widely recognized. Although short wave and microwave diathermy appear to have lost much of their appeal as deep tissue heating modalities, the thermal and mechanical effects of ultrasound continue to make it a widely used modality in sports medicine. Adaptation of alternating electrical currents for use in transcutaneous nerve stimulation has given the sports medicine clinician a useful modality for pain management. The more recently developed "Russian" electrical stimulator provides a promising modality for muscle re-education and restoration of muscular strength.

  15. Return to Play and Performance After Jones Fracture in National Basketball Association Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begly, John P; Guss, Michael; Ramme, Austin J; Karia, Raj; Meislin, Robert J

    2016-07-01

    Basketball players are at risk for foot injuries, including Jones fractures. It is unknown how this injury affects the future play and performance of athletes. National Basketball Association (NBA) players who sustain Jones fractures of the base of the fifth metatarsal have high rates of return to play and do not experience a decrease in performance on return to competition when compared with preinjury and with control-matched peers. Retrospective cohort study. Level 5. Data on 26 elite basketball players with Jones fractures over 19 NBA seasons (1994-1995 to 2012-2013) were obtained from injury reports, press releases, player profiles, and online public databases. Variables included age, body mass index (BMI), player position, experience, and surgical treatment. Individual season statistics pre- and postinjury were collected. Twenty-six controls were identified by matched player position, age, and performance statistics. The mean age at the time of injury was 24.8 years, mean BMI was 24.7 kg/m(2), and the mean experience prior to injury was 4.1 NBA seasons. Return to previous level of competition was achieved by 85% of athletes. There was no change in player efficiency rating (PER) when pre- and postinjury performance was compared. When compared with controls, no decline in PER measured performance was identified. The majority of NBA players sustaining a Jones fracture return to their preinjury level of competition. These elite athletes demonstrate no decrease in performance on their return to play. Jones fractures are well-studied injuries in terms of etiology, diagnosis, and management. However, the effect of these injuries on future performance of athletes is unknown. Using the findings of our study, orthopaedic surgeons may be better prepared to counsel and educate elite athletes who sustain a Jones fracture. © 2015 The Author(s).

  16. Neuromuscular function in athletes following recovery from a recent acute low back injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholewicki, Jacek; Greene, Hunter S; Polzhofer, Gert K; Galloway, Marc T; Shah, Riaz A; Radebold, Andrea

    2002-11-01

    Observational case control design. To examine muscle response to sudden trunk loading in athletes with and without a recent history of acute low back injury (LBI). Impaired neuromuscular function is associated with chronic low back pain. This study examined whether such impairment persists after recovery from an acute LBI. Seventeen athletes who had a recent history of acute LBI and 17 matched healthy controls were tested. At the time of testing (mean = 56 days postinjury, range = 7-120 days postinjury), all athletes were symptom free and had returned to regular competition. Subjects performed isometric exertions in trunk flexion, extension, and left and right lateral bending against a trunk restraining cable. Upon reaching the target isometric force, the cable was released to impose sudden loading on the lumbar spine. Surface EMG signals from 12 major trunk muscles were recorded. The shut-off and switch-on latencies and number of muscles responding to sudden loading were compared between the 2 groups. In all 4 testing directions, the athletes with a recent history of acute LBI shut off significantly fewer muscles and did so with delayed latency. On average, the injured subjects shut off 4.0 out of 6.0 (SD = 1.3) muscles compared to 4.6 out of 6.0 (SD = 1.3) muscles in the control group. The average muscle shut-off latency was 71 (SD = 31) milliseconds for the injured and 50 (SD = 21) milliseconds for the control subjects. No differences were found in number or latency of muscles switching on. These objective measures of neuromuscular function indicated an altered muscle response pattern to sudden trunk loading in athletes following their clinical recovery from a recent acute LBI.

  17. Non-contact ACL injuries in female athletes: an International Olympic Committee current concepts statement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Renstrom, P; Ljungqvist, A; Arendt, E

    2008-01-01

    The incidence of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury remains high in young athletes. Because female athletes have a much higher incidence of ACL injuries in sports such as basketball and team handball than male athletes, the IOC Medical Commission invited a multidisciplinary group of ACL expert...... clinicians and scientists to (1) review current evidence including data from the new Scandinavian ACL registries; (2) critically evaluate high-quality studies of injury mechanics; (3) consider the key elements of successful prevention programmes; (4) summarise clinical management including surgery...... and conservative management; and (5) identify areas for further research. Risk factors for female athletes suffering ACL injury include: (1) being in the preovulatory phase of the menstrual cycle compared with the postovulatory phase; (2) having decreased intercondylar notch width on plain radiography; and (3...

  18. Transcontextual development of motivation in sport injury prevention among elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Derwin King Chung; Hagger, Martin S

    2012-10-01

    The present study investigated the transcontextual process of motivation in sport injury prevention. We examined whether general causality orientation, perceived autonomy support from coaches (PAS), self-determined motivation (SD-Mtv), and basic need satisfaction in a sport context predicted SD-Mtv, beliefs, and adherence with respect to sport injury prevention. Elite athletes (N = 533) completed self-report measures of the predictors (Week 1) and the dependent variables (Week 2). Variance-based structural equation modeling supported hypotheses: SD-Mtv in a sport context was significantly predicted by PAS and basic need satisfaction and was positively associated with SD-Mtv for sport injury prevention when controlling for general causality orientation. SD-Mtv for sport injury prevention was a significant predictor of adherence to injury-preventive behaviors and beliefs regarding safety in sport. In conclusion, the transcontextual mechanism of motivation may explain the process by which distal motivational factors in sport direct the formation of proximal motivation, beliefs, and behaviors of sport injury prevention.

  19. Treatments of Sports Injuries in the Young Athlete

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... often not reported by the athlete to the coaches or the athletic trainers since the symptoms can ... LOC[OK]## ##LOC[Cancel]## Press Releases | Have a Success Story to Share? | Contact Us SPINE CARE PROVIDERS ...

  20. The Role of Femoroacetabular Impingement in Core Muscle Injury/Athletic Pubalgia: Diagnosis and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strosberg, David S; Ellis, Thomas J; Renton, David B

    2016-01-01

    Chronic groin pain in athletes represents a major diagnostic and therapeutic challenge in sports medicine. Two recognized causes of inguinal pain in the young adult athlete are core muscle injury/athletic pubalgia (CMI/AP) and femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). CMI/AP and FAI were previously considered to be two distinct entities; however, recent studies have suggested both entities to frequently coincide in the athlete with groin pain. This article briefly discusses the role of FAI in CMI/AP and the diagnosis and management of this complex disease.

  1. Lower extremity dexterity is associated with agility in adolescent soccer athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyle, M A; Valero-Cuevas, F J; Gregor, R J; Powers, C M

    2015-02-01

    Agility is important for sport performance and potentially injury risk; however, factors affecting this motor skill remain unclear. Here, we evaluated the extent to which lower extremity dexterity (LED) and muscle performance were associated with agility. Fourteen male and 14 female soccer athletes participated. Agility was evaluated using a hopping sequence separately with both limbs and with the dominant limb only. The LED test evaluated the athletes' ability to dynamically regulate foot-ground interactions by compressing a spring prone to buckling with the lower limb. Muscle performance included hip and knee isometric strength and vertical jump height. Correlation analyses were used to assess the associations between muscle performance, LED, and agility. Multiple regression models were used to determine whether linear associations differed between sexes. On average, the female athletes took longer to complete the agility tasks than the male athletes. This difference could not be explained by muscle performance. Conversely, LED was found to be the primary determinant of agility (double limb: R(2) = 0.61, P agility in soccer athletes. We propose that LED may have implications for sport performance, injury risk, and rehabilitation. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Dislocation/separation injuries among US high school athletes in 9 selected sports: 2005-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Zachary Y; Collins, Christy L; Pommering, Thomas L; Fields, Sarah K; Comstock, R Dawn

    2011-03-01

    To investigate the epidemiology of dislocations/separations in a nationally representative sample of high school student-athletes participating in 9 sports. Descriptive epidemiologic study. Sports injury data for the 2005-2009 academic years were collected using an Internet-based injury surveillance system, Reporting Information Online (RIO). A nationally representative sample of 100 US high schools. Injuries sustained as a function of sport and gender. Dislocation/separation rates, body site, outcome, surgery, and mechanism. Dislocations/separations represented 3.6% (n = 755) of all injuries. The most commonly injured body sites were the shoulder (54.9%), wrist/hand (16.5%), and knee (16.0%); 18.4% of dislocations/separations were recurrences of previous injuries at the same body site; 32.3% of injuries were severe (ie, student-athletes unable to return to play within 3 weeks of the injury date), and 11.8% required surgical repair. The most common mechanisms of injury were contact with another player (52.4%) and contact with the playing surface (26.4%). Injury rates varied by sport. In gender-comparable sports, few variations in patterns of injury existed. Rates were highest in football (2.10 per 10 000 athletic exposures) and wrestling (1.99) and lowest in baseball (0.24) and girls' soccer (0.27). Although dislocation/separation injuries represent a relatively small proportion of all injuries sustained by high school student-athletes, the severity of these injuries indicates a need for enhanced injury prevention efforts. Developing effective targeted preventive measures depends on increasing our knowledge of dislocation/separation rates, patterns, and risk factors among high school athletes.

  3. Gender Preference? National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Student-Athletes and Strength and Conditioning Coaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuman, Kristin M; Appleby, Karen M

    2016-10-01

    Shuman, KM and Appleby, KM. Gender Preference? National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Student-Athletes and Strength and Conditioning Coaches. J Strength Cond Res 30(10): 2924-2933, 2016-The purpose of this study was to examine the preferences and attitudes of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I (DI) junior and senior class student-athletes toward the gender of their strength and conditioning coach (SCC). This study contributes to the empirical body of literature regarding student-athlete and strength and conditioning coach interaction specific to gender-related information and extends the efforts to increase student-athlete success. A qualitative framework was used for this study. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 10 NCAA DI junior or senior class student-athletes who had been exposed to and coached by both a male and a female SCC. The results of this study concluded that, in general, participants did not have a specific gender preference for their SCC. However, participants indicated a preference for a coaching leadership style, which conveyed (a) leadership ability, (b) professionalism, (c) trust and respect, (d) support, (e) dependability, (f) positive relationship, and (g) personality.

  4. Epidemiology of Cervical Spine Injuries in High School Athletes Over a Ten-Year Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meron, Adele; McMullen, Christopher; Laker, Scott R; Currie, Dustin; Comstock, R Dawn

    2017-09-12

    More than 7 million athletes participate in high school (HS) sports annually, with both the benefits of physical activity and risks of injury. Although catastrophic cervical spine injuries have been studied, limited data are available that characterize less-severe cervical spine injuries in HS athletes. To describe and compare cervical spine injury rates and patterns among U.S. HS athletes across 24 sports over a 10-year period. Descriptive epidemiology study. National sample of high schools participating in the High School Reporting Information Online injury surveillance system. Athletes from participating schools injured in a school sanctioned practice, competition, or performance during the 2005-2006 through 2014-2015 academic years. Cervical spine injury data captured by the High School Reporting Information Online system during the 10-year study period were examined. Cervical spine injury was defined as any injury to the cervical spinal cord, bones, nerves, or supporting structures of the cervical spine including muscles, ligaments, and tendons. Cervical spine injury rates, diagnoses, mechanisms, and severities. During the study period, 1080 cervical spine injuries were reported during 35,581,036 athlete exposures for an injury rate of 3.04 per 100,000 athlete exposures. Injury rates were highest in football (10.10), wrestling (7.42), and girls' gymnastics (4.95). Muscle injuries were most common (63.1%), followed by nerve injuries (20.5%). A larger proportion of football injuries were nerve injuries compared with all other sports (injury proportion ratio 3.31; confidence interval 2.33-4.72), whereas in boys' ice hockey fractures represented a greater proportion of injuries compared with all other sports (injury proportion ratio 7.64; confidence interval 2.10-27.83). Overall, the most common mechanisms of injury were contact with another player (70.7%) and contact with playing surface (16.1%). Cervical spine injury rates and patterns vary by sport and gender

  5. Epidemiology of Hip Flexor and Hip Adductor Strains in National Collegiate Athletic Association Athletes, 2009/2010-2014/2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eckard, Timothy G; Padua, Darin A; Dompier, Thomas P

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little research has examined the rates and patterns of hip flexor or hip adductor strains in student-athletes in the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA). PURPOSE: To describe the epidemiology of hip flexor and adductor strains in NCAA athletes during the 2009/2010-2014/201......BACKGROUND: Little research has examined the rates and patterns of hip flexor or hip adductor strains in student-athletes in the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA). PURPOSE: To describe the epidemiology of hip flexor and adductor strains in NCAA athletes during the 2009/2010...

  6. FUNCTIONAL MOVEMENT SCREEN NORMATIVE VALUES AND VALIDITY IN HIGH SCHOOL ATHLETES: CAN THE FMS™ BE USED AS A PREDICTOR OF INJURY?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardenett, Sean M; Micca, Joseph J; DeNoyelles, John T; Miller, Susan D; Jenk, Drew T; Brooks, Gary S

    2015-06-01

    Limited information exists regarding injury risk factors for high school athletes. The Functional Movement Screen (FMS™) has been used to identify functional movement impairments and asymmetries, making it a potential predictor of injury. To determine if the FMS™ is a valid predictor of injury in high school athletes and to identify a potential new FMS™ cutoff score for this population. Prospective Cohort. 167 high school athletes among several sports were scored using the FMS™ and were monitored for injury during a single season. Likelihood ratios were calculated to determine how much a subject's total FMS™ score influenced the post-test probability of becoming injured. Of the 167 participants, 39 sustained a musculoskeletal injury. Of all component scores, the in-line lunge scores were significantly higher for injured players. For shoulder mobility, scores were significantly lower for injured players. No statistically significant associations were found between total FMS™ scores and injury status. The FMS™ may be useful for recognizing deficiency in certain movements, however this data suggests that the FMS™ should not be used for overall prediction of injury in high school athletes throughout the course of a season. Normative data from a large sample size is now available in the high school athlete demographic. 3.

  7. The Epidemiology of Lateral Ligament Complex Ankle Sprains in National Collegiate Athletic Association Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Karen G; Kerr, Zachary Y; Mauntel, Timothy C; Djoko, Aristarque; Dompier, Thomas P; Wikstrom, Erik A

    2017-01-01

    Ankle sprains are a common injury in collegiate sports. Few studies have examined the epidemiology of individual ligament injuries, specifically the lateral ligament complex (LLC) of the ankle. To describe the epidemiology, including the estimated yearly national incidence, of LLC sprains among National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) athletes. Descriptive epidemiology study. Injury surveillance data for 25 sports from the NCAA Injury Surveillance Program (NCAA-ISP) for the academic years 2009-2010 to 2014-2015 were used for analysis. All injuries included for analysis had a diagnosis of an LLC sprain. LLC sprain rates and rate ratios (RRs) with 95% CIs were calculated. From the sample, national estimates of the annual incidence of LLC sprains across the entire student-athlete body from these 25 sports were also calculated. During the 2009-2010 to 2014-2015 academic years, 2429 LLC sprains were reported, for a rate of 4.95 per 10,000 athlete-exposures (AEs). LLC sprains comprised 7.3% of all reported collegiate sports injuries in the NCAA-ISP. Also, an estimated 16,022 LLC sprains occurred annually among the 25 sports. The sports with the highest LLC sprain rates were men's basketball (11.96/10,000 AEs) and women's basketball (9.50/10,000 AEs). Most LLC sprains occurred during practices (57.3%); however, the LLC sprain rate was higher in competitions than in practices (RR, 3.29; 95% CI, 3.03-3.56). Also, 11.9% of LLC sprains were identified as recurrent injuries, with the largest proportions of recurrent LLC sprains being found within women's basketball (21.1%), women's outdoor track (21.1%), women's field hockey (20.0%), and men's basketball (19.1%). In 44.4% of LLC sprains, the athlete returned to play in less than 24 hours; in 3.6%, the athlete required more than 21 days before returning to play (including those who did not return to play at all). LLC sprains were the most commonly reported injury diagnosis among United States collegiate student-athletes

  8. Epidemiology of knee injuries among boys and girls in US high school athletics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Jay G; Fields, Sarah K; Yard, Ellen E; Comstock, R Dawn

    2008-06-01

    The knee joint is the second most commonly injured body site and the leading cause of high school sports-related surgeries. Knee injuries are among the most economically costly sports injuries and may require subsequent surgery or extensive and expensive rehabilitation. To report the incidence, risk, and severity of high school knee injuries across sports, genders, and type of exposure. Descriptive epidemiology study. During the 2005-2006 and 2006-2007 school years, 100 US high schools were randomly selected for a nationally representative sample. Certified athletic trainers tracked injuries using an online injury surveillance system, High School RIO, in 9 high school sports. There were 1383 knee injuries reported during 3,551131 athlete exposures for a rate of 3.89 knee injuries per 10,000 athlete exposures. Although boys had a higher overall rate of knee injury (rate ratio, 1.38; confidence interval, 1.22-1.55), girls were twice as likely to sustain knee injuries requiring surgery (major knee injuries) than were boys (injury proportion ratio, 1.98; confidence interval, 1.45-2.70) and twice as likely to incur noncontact major knee injuries (injury proportion ratio, 1.98; confidence interval, 1.23-3.19) as were boys. Although illegal play was identified as a contributing factor in only 5.7% of all knee injuries, 20% of knee injuries resulting from illegal play required surgery. Knee injury rates and patterns varied by sport, gender, and type of exposure. Identified gender differences included differences in injury rates, injury severity, and basic injury mechanism. Further surveillance is crucial for the development of targeted, evidence-based injury prevention strategies to reduce the morbidity and economic impact of knee surgeries.

  9. A multisport epidemiologic comparison of anterior cruciate ligament injuries in high school athletics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Allan M; Collins, Christy L; Henke, Natalie M; Yard, Ellen E; Fields, Sarah K; Comstock, R Dawn

    2013-01-01

    The knee joint is the second most commonly injured body site after the ankle and the leading cause of sport-related surgeries. Knee injuries, especially of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), are among the most economically costly sport injuries, frequently requiring expensive surgery and rehabilitation. To investigate the epidemiology of ACL injuries among high school athletes by sport and sex. Descriptive epidemiology study. Using an Internet-based data-collection tool, Reporting Information Online (RIO), certified athletic trainers from 100 nationally representative US high schools reported athlete-exposure and injury data for athletes from 9 sports during the 2007/08-2011/12 academic years. The outcome of interest in this study was ACL injuries. During the study period, 617 ACL injuries were reported during 9 452 180 athlete exposures (AEs), for an injury rate of 6.5 per 100 000 AEs. Nationally, in the 9 sports studied, an estimated 215 628 ACL injuries occurred during the study period. The injury rate was higher in competition (17.6) than practice (2.4; rate ratio [RR] = 7.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 6.08, 8.68). Girls' soccer had the highest injury rate (12.2) followed by boys' football (11.1), with boys' basketball (2.3) and boys' baseball (0.7) having the lowest rates. In sex-comparable sports, girls had a higher rate (8.9) than boys (2.6; RR = 3.4, 95% CI = 2.64, 4.47). Overall, 76.6% of ACL injuries resulted in surgery. The most common mechanisms of injury were player-to-player contact (42.8%) and no contact (37.9%). Anterior cruciate ligament injury rates vary by sport, sex, and type of exposure. Recognizing such differences is important when evaluating the effectiveness of evidence-based, targeted prevention efforts.

  10. Attributes and stressors influencing the occurrence of sports injuries in college athletes

    OpenAIRE

    伊藤, 詩織; 中島, 宣行; 佐々木, 万丈

    2015-01-01

    We investigated differences in the frequency of sports injuries between individual and team competition players and between males and females, and we also examined the influence of subjective evaluation of stressors on sports injury frequency. College athletes (N=133) were asked to complete a scale of daily and competitive stressors and to answer a questionnaire on the frequency of sports-related injuries. Chi-square analyses revealed that there were no differences in injury frequency between...

  11. Athletes' Expectations About Sport-Injury Rehabilitation: A Cross-Cultural Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvinen-Barrow, Monna; Clement, Damien; Hamson-Utley, Jennifer Jordan; Kamphoff, Cindra; Zakrajsek, Rebecca; Lee, Sae-Mi; Hemmings, Brian; Lintunen, Taru; Martin, Scott B

    2016-12-01

    Athletes enter injury rehabilitation with certain expectations about the recovery process, outcomes, and the professional providing treatment. Their expectations influence the effectiveness of the assistance received and affect the overall rehabilitation process. Expectations may vary depending on numerous factors such as sport experience, gender, sport type, and cultural background. Unfortunately, limited information is available on athletes' expectations about sport-injury rehabilitation. To examine possible differences in athletes' expectations about sport-injury rehabilitation based on their country of residence and type of sport (contact vs noncontact). Cross-sectional. Recreational, college, and professional athletes from the US, UK, and Finland were surveyed. Of the 1209 athletes ranging from 12 to 80 y of age (mean 23.46 ± 7.91), 529 US [80%], 253 UK [86%], and 199 Finnish [82%] athletes provided details of their geographical location and were included in the final analyses. The Expectations About Athletic Training (EAAT) questionnaire was used to determine athletes' expectations about personal commitment, facilitative conditions, and the expertise of the sports-medicine professional (SMP). A 3 × 2 MANCOVA revealed significant main effects for country (P = .0001, ηp2 = .055) and sport type (P = .0001, ηp2 = .023). Specifically, US athletes were found to have higher expectations of personal commitment and facilitative conditions than their UK and Finnish counterparts. Athletes participating in contact sports had higher expectations of facilitative conditions and the expertise of the SMP than did athletes participating in noncontact sports. SMPs, especially those in the US, should consider the sport and environment when providing services. In addition, SMPs need to highlight and demonstrate their expertise during the rehabilitation process, especially for those who compete in contact sports.

  12. Reliability of MRI assessment of acute musculotendinous groin injuries in athletes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serner, Andreas; Hoelmich, Per [Aspetar, Orthopaedic and Sports Medicine Hospital, Sports City Street, P.O. Box 29222, Doha (Qatar); Copenhagen University Hospital, Sports Orthopaedic Research Center-Copenhagen (SORC-C), Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Amager-Hvidovre (Denmark); Roemer, Frank W. [University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Radiology, Erlangen (Germany); Boston University School of Medicine, Quantitative Imaging Center (QIC), Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Thorborg, Kristian [Copenhagen University Hospital, Sports Orthopaedic Research Center-Copenhagen (SORC-C), Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Amager-Hvidovre (Denmark); Niu, Jingbo [Boston University School of Medicine, Clinical Epidemiology and Training Unit, Department of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); Weir, Adam [Aspetar, Orthopaedic and Sports Medicine Hospital, Sports City Street, P.O. Box 29222, Doha (Qatar); Tol, Johannes L. [Aspetar, Orthopaedic and Sports Medicine Hospital, Sports City Street, P.O. Box 29222, Doha (Qatar); OLVG West, The Sports Physician Group, Department of Sports Medicine, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam Center of Evidence Based Sports Medicine, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Guermazi, Ali [Boston University School of Medicine, Quantitative Imaging Center (QIC), Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2017-04-15

    To describe a multi-dimensional MRI assessment approach with a focus on acute musculotendinous groin lesions, and to evaluate scoring reproducibility. Male athletes who participated in competitive sports and presented within 7 days of an acute onset of sports-related groin pain were included. All athletes underwent MRI (1.5 T) according to a standardized groin-centred protocol. From several calibration sessions, a system was developed assessing grade, location and extent of muscle strains, peri-lesional haematoma, as well as other non-acute findings commonly associated with long-standing groin pain. Kappa (K) statistics and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were used to describe intra- and inter-rater reproducibility. Seventy-five athletes (mean age 26.6 ± 4.4 years) were included in the analyses, and 85 different acute lesions were observed. Adductor longus lesions were most common (42.7 %) followed by rectus femoris lesions (16.3 %). Kappa values ranged between 0.70 and 1.00 for almost all categorical features for acute lesions, with almost perfect intra- and inter-rater agreement (K = 0.89-1.00) for presence, number, location and grading of lesions. ICCs ranged between 0.77 and 1.00 for continuous measures of acute lesion extent. A standardized MRI assessment approach of acute groin injuries was described and showed good intra- and inter-rater reproducibility. (orig.)

  13. Athlete presentations and sports injury frequencies by sport branches at a university sports medicine clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahirbegolli, Bernard; Dinçer, Şensu; Gözübüyük, Ömer B; Değirmenci, Ufuk; Yildiz, Safinaz; Vehid, Suphi

    2017-02-22

    We aimed to investigate the profile of athletes by determining the branch of sports, type, and area of sustained sports injury, and the frequencies through athletes' presentations to the largest university clinic in one of the most crowded and athletepopulated cities of Turkey, Istanbul. THE study population comprised 1302 athletes who presented to the sports medicine clinic between the dates of July 1st, 2014, and June 30th, 2015. This record-based study examined all athlete presentations using the physical examination cards. Eight hundred sixty-five of the athletes were male. The median age of applicants was 21 years (interquartile range 16-30 years), the median body mass index was 22.23 kg/m2 (range, 20.01-24.67 kg/m2), and the median years of sports activity was 5 years (range, 0-10 years). Presentations to the clinic were significantly higher in April (p=0.003). The most commonly injured body part was the knee and soccer was the leading sport among the patients; anterior cruciate ligament injury was the most common pathology among soccer players. Athletes who presented to our clinic most commonly sustained a lower extremity injury. It was notable that ligament injuries were seen as commonly as muscle injuries.

  14. A review of synthetic playing surfaces, the shoe-surface interface, and lower extremity injuries in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Samuel A; Fabricant, Peter D; Khair, M Michael; Haleem, Amgad M; Drakos, Mark C

    2012-11-01

    The evolution of synthetic playing surfaces began in the 1960s and has had an impact on field use, shoe-surface dynamics, and the incidence of sports-related injuries. Modern third-generation turfs are being installed in recreational facilities and professional stadiums worldwide. Currently, > two-thirds of National Football League teams, > 100 National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I football teams, and > 1000 high schools in the United States have installed synthetic playing surfaces. Those in favor of such playing surfaces note their unique combination of versatility and durability; they can be used in both ideal and inclement weather conditions. However, the more widespread installation and use of these surfaces have raised questions and concerns regarding the impact of artificial turf on the type and severity of sports-related injuries. There appears to be no question that the shoe-surface interface has a significant impact on such injuries. Independent variables such as weather conditions, contact versus noncontact sport, shoe design, and field wear complicate many of the results reported in the literature, thereby preventing an accurate assessment of the true risk(s) associated with certain shoe-surface combinations. Historically, studies suggest that artificial turf is associated with a higher incidence of injury. Furthermore, reliable biomechanical data suggest that both the torque and strain experienced by lower extremity joints generated by artificial surfaces may be more than those generated by natural grass fields. Recent data from the National Football League support this theory and suggest that elite athletes may sustain more injuries, even when playing on the newer artificial surfaces. By contrast, some reports based on data collected from lower-level athletes suggest that artificial turf may protect against injury. This review discusses the history of artificial surfaces, the biomechanics of the shoe-surface interface, and some common

  15. UTILIZATION OF ImPACT TESTING TO MEASURE INJURY RISK IN ALPINE SKI AND SNOWBOARD ATHLETES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faltus, John; Huntimer, Brittney; Kernozek, Thomas; Cole, John

    2016-08-01

    While studies that have examined the prevalence of musculoskeletal injuries in alpine skiing and snowboarding exist, there has been no discussion of how neurocognitive deficits may influence such injuries. Recent authors have identified a possible link between Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) testing results and the prevalence of musculoskeletal injury in athletic populations. However, no study has specifically examined this in the alpine skiing and snowboard athletes who sustain injury and those that do not. The purpose was to review injury data and ImPACT test results within the local ski/snowboard population to determine if there was a difference in components of ImPACT test scores between injured and non-injured athletes. It was hypothesized that differences would exist in component scores on ImPACT testing between injured and non-injured athletes. Retrospective cohort study. Injury records and baseline ImPACT testing scores for 93 athletes aged 14-17 participating in a local ski and snowboard club during the 2009-2012 seasons were gathered retrospectively. Injuries documented for the lower and upper extremity included ligament sprains, muscle strains, contusions, dislocation/subluxation, fractures and concussions. Athletes who sustained any of these listed injuries were categorized within the injured athlete group. Each component of ImPACT test scores was compared between gender and for injury status within skiing and snowboarding disciplines using a series of two-way analysis of variance tests. There was no difference between non-injured and injured females as well as non-injured and injured males in reaction time and visual motor speed (VMS), however there was an interaction between gender and injury status on composite reaction time and visual motor speed, or VMS. The composite reaction time for females was 4.7% faster with injury while males without injury had a composite reaction time that was slower by 5.8%. Females had

  16. Epidemiology of severe injuries among United States high school athletes: 2005-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrow, Cory J; Collins, Christy L; Yard, Ellen E; Comstock, R Dawn

    2009-09-01

    Over 7 million students participate in high school athletics annually. Despite numerous health benefits, high school athletes are at risk for injury. Severe injury rates and patterns differ by gender and type of exposure. Study Design Descriptive epidemiology study. Sports-related injury data were collected during the 2005-2007 academic years from 100 nationally representative United States high schools via RIO (Reporting Information Online). Severe injury was defined as any injury that resulted in the loss of more than 21 days of sports participation. Participating certified athletic trainers (ATCs) reported 1378 severe injuries during 3 550 141 athlete-exposures (0.39 severe injuries per 1000 athletic exposures). Football had the highest severe injury rate (0.69), followed by wrestling (0.52), girls' basketball (0.34), and girls' soccer (0.33). The rate in all boys' sports (0.45) was higher than all girls' sports (0.26) (rate ratio [RR], 1.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.54-1.98; P sports (soccer, basketball, and baseball/softball), girls sustained a higher severe injury rate (0.29) than boys (0.23) (RR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.08-1.52; P = .006). More specifically, girls' basketball had a higher rate (0.34) than boys' basketball (0.24) (RR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.10-1.86; P = .009). Differences between boys' and girls' soccer and baseball/softball were not statistically significant. The severe injury rate was greater in competition (0.79) than practice (0.24) (RR, 3.30; 95% CI, 2.97-3.67; P sports injuries, 0.3% resulted in medical disqualification for the athletes' career, and an additional 56.8% resulted in medical disqualification for the entire season. One in 4 (28.3%) severe injuries required surgery, with over half (53.9%) being knee surgeries. Severe injury rates and patterns varied by sport, gender, and type of exposure. Because severe injuries negatively affect athletes' health and often place an increased burden on the health care system, future research should

  17. Traumatic injuries of thigh and calf muscles in athletes: role and clinical relevance of MR imaging and ultrasound

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hayashi, Daichi; Hamilton, Bruce; Guermazi, Ali; de Villiers, Richard; Crema, Michel D; Roemer, Frank W

    2012-01-01

    .... Common athletic injuries include strain, contusion and avulsion, which are characterised by muscle fibre disruption, intramuscular haemorrhagic dissection, haematoma at the musculotendinous junction...

  18. Partial rotator cuff injury in athletes: bursal or articular?

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Cassiano Diniz; Cohen, Carina; Belangero, Paulo Santoro [UNIFESP; de Figueiredo, Eduardo Antônio; Monteiro, Gustavo Cará; POCHINI, ALBERTO DE CASTRO; Andreoli, Carlos Vicente; Ejnisman, Benno

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTA painful shoulder is a very common complaint among athletes, especially in the case of those in sports involving throwing. Partial lesions of the rotator cuff may be very painful and cause significant functional limitation to athletes' sports practice. The incidence of partial lesions of the cuff is variable (13-37%). It is difficult to make the clinical and radiological diagnosis, and this condition should be borne in mind in the cases of all athletes who present symptoms of rotator...

  19. Epidemiologic Measures for Quantifying the Incidence of Concussion in National Collegiate Athletic Association Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Zachary Y; Roos, Karen G; Djoko, Aristarque; Dalton, Sara L; Broglio, Steven P; Marshall, Stephen W; Dompier, Thomas P

    2017-03-01

    Injury rates compare the relative frequency of sport-related concussions across groups. However, they may not be intuitive to policy makers, parents, or coaches in understanding the likelihood of concussion. To describe 4 measures of incidence (athlete-based rate, athlete-based risk, team-based rate, and team-based risk) during the 2011-2012 through 2014-2015 academic years.  Descriptive epidemiology study. Aggregate injury and exposure data collected from the National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance Program in 13 sports (men's baseball, basketball, football, ice hockey, lacrosse, soccer, and wrestling and women's basketball, ice hockey, lacrosse, soccer, softball, and volleyball). Collegiate student-athletes. Sport-related concussion data from the National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance Program during the 2011-2012 through 2014-2015 academic years were analyzed. We calculated concussion rates per 1000 athlete-exposures (AEs), concussion risk, average number of concussions per team, and percentage of teams with at least 1 concussion. During the 2011-2012 through 2014-2015 academic years, 1485 concussions were sustained by 1410 student-athletes across 13 sports. Concussion rates ranged from 0.09/1000 AEs in men's baseball to 0.89/1000 AEs in men's wrestling. Concussion risk ranged from 0.74% in men's baseball to 7.92% in men's wrestling. The average ± SD number of concussions per team ranged from 0.25 ± 0.43 in men's baseball to 5.63 ± 5.36 in men's football. The percentage of teams with a concussion ranged from 24.5% in men's baseball to 80.6% in men's football.   Although men's wrestling had a higher concussion rate and risk, men's football had the largest average number of concussions per team and the largest percentage of teams with at least 1 concussion. The risk of concussion, average number of concussions per team, and percentage of teams with concussions may be more intuitive measures of incidence for decision

  20. Overuse wrist injuries in young athletes: What do sports physicians consider important signals and functional limitations?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kox, Laura S.; Kuijer, P. Paul F. M.; Opperman, Jip; Kerkhoffs, Gino M. M. J.; Maas, Mario; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.

    2018-01-01

    This study's objective was to collect items from experienced sports physicians, relating to the presence and severity of overuse wrist injuries in young athletes, for developing a measurement instrument for signals of overuse wrist injury. Seven Dutch elite sports physicians involved in guidance and

  1. Catastrophic cervical spine injuries in the collision sport athlete, part 2: principles of emergency care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Rahul; Palumbo, Mark A; Fadale, Paul D

    2004-01-01

    Catastrophic cervical spine injuries can lead to devastating consequences for the collision athlete. Improved understanding of these injuries can lead to identification of risk factors, early diagnosis, and effective on-field management. This article is the second in a 2-part series. The first part, published in the June 2004 issue, reviewed the current concepts regarding the epidemiology, functional anatomy, and diagnostic considerations relevant to cervical spine trauma in collision sports. In this article, the principles of on-field emergency care of the spine-injured athlete are reviewed. The authors discuss the need for effective pre-event planning, on-field evaluation and management of cervical spine injuries, and the transition of care from the playing field to the emergency room. The protocol for equipment removal, when necessary, is also reviewed. An organized, rapid approach to the management of cervical spine-injured collision athletes can help to optimize the outcomes of these catastrophic injuries.

  2. Biomechanical Effects of an Injury Prevention Program in Preadolescent Female Soccer Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Julie A; Tran, Andrew A; Gatewood, Corey T; Shultz, Rebecca; Silder, Amy; Delp, Scott L; Dragoo, Jason L

    2017-02-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are common, and children as young as 10 years of age exhibit movement patterns associated with an ACL injury risk. Prevention programs have been shown to reduce injury rates, but the mechanisms behind these programs are largely unknown. Few studies have investigated biomechanical changes after injury prevention programs in children. Purpose/Hypothesis: To investigate the effects of the F-MARC 11+ injury prevention warm-up program on changes to biomechanical risk factors for an ACL injury in preadolescent female soccer players. We hypothesized that the primary ACL injury risk factor of peak knee valgus moment would improve after training. In addition, we explored other kinematic and kinetic variables associated with ACL injuries. Controlled laboratory study. A total of 51 female athletes aged 10 to 12 years were recruited from soccer clubs and were placed into an intervention group (n = 28; mean [±SD] age, 11.8 ± 0.8 years) and a control group (n = 23; mean age, 11.2 ± 0.6 years). The intervention group participated in 15 in-season sessions of the F-MARC 11+ program (2 times/wk). Pre- and postseason motion capture data were collected during preplanned cutting, unanticipated cutting, double-leg jump, and single-leg jump tasks. Lower extremity joint angles and moments were estimated using OpenSim, a biomechanical modeling system. Athletes in the intervention group reduced their peak knee valgus moment compared with the control group during the double-leg jump (mean [±standard error of the mean] pre- to posttest change, -0.57 ± 0.27 %BW×HT vs 0.25 ± 0.25 %BW×HT, respectively; P = .034). No significant differences in the change in peak knee valgus moment were found between the groups for any other activity; however, the intervention group displayed a significant pre- to posttest increase in peak knee valgus moment during unanticipated cutting ( P = .044). Additional analyses revealed an improvement in peak ankle eversion

  3. Isokinetic Peak Torque Ratios and Shoulder Injury History in Adolescent Female Volleyball Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickley, Christopher D; Hetzler, Ronald K; Freemyer, Bret G; Kimura, Iris F

    2008-01-01

    Context: Few researchers have examined shoulder strength in adolescent volleyball athletes despite increasing levels of participation in this age group. Objective: To compare medial and lateral isokinetic peak torque of the rotator cuff among skill levels and between athletes with and without a history of shoulder injury. Design: Cross-sectional design. Setting: The Human Performance Lab and Athletic Training Lab. Patients or Other Participants: Thirty-eight female adolescent club volleyball athletes from 10 to 15 years of age (mean  =  13.02 ± 1.60 years). Main Outcome Measure(s): We measured concentric and eccentric peak torque of the medial and lateral rotators of the shoulder and calculated resultant cocking and spiking ratios based on peak torque values. Results: Athletes at higher skill levels had higher peak torque measurements in concentric and eccentric medial and lateral rotation compared with the athletes at lower skill levels. No differences in peak torque existed between participants with or without an injury history 6 months before the study. Strength ratios did not differ across skill levels, but previously injured participants produced lower eccentric medial rotation to concentric lateral rotation ratios compared with participants without a history of injury (P  =  .02). At the highest skill level, previously injured participants produced lower eccentric lateral rotation to concentric medial rotation ratios compared with participants without an injury history (P  =  .04). Conclusions: Differences in medial and lateral shoulder rotator strength ratios appear to be related more to injury prevalence than to absolute strength. Shoulder dysfunction related to strength ratio deficits also may exist in adolescent female volleyball athletes. Preventive shoulder strengthening programs focused on improving eccentric strength and correcting imbalances between medial and lateral rotators may be warranted for all female adolescent volleyball

  4. A Commentary on Real-Time Biofeedback to Augment Neuromuscular Training for ACL Injury Prevention in Adolescent Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam W. Kiefer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Anterior cruciate ligament injury and the associated long-term sequelae, such as immediate reductions in physical inactivity, increased adiposity and increased risk of osteoarthritis throughout adulthood, are a major health concern for adolescent athletes. Current interventions for injury prevention may have limited effectiveness, are susceptible to issues of compliance and have not achieved the widespread acceptance necessary to promote full adoption. Neuromuscular training (NMT is a well-established training intervention introduced to affect change in modifiable biomechanical risk factors to reduce the risk of injury in these athletes. Despite moderate success, neuromuscular training is still limited by its reliance on subjective feedback and after the fact (i.e., offline objective feedback techniques. The purpose of this commentary is to discuss technological tools that could be used to enhance and objectify targeted biofeedback interventions to complement NMT. Electromyography, force plates, motion sensors, and camera-based motion capture systems are innovative tools that may have realistic feasibility for integration as biofeedback into NMT programs to improve training outcomes. Improved functional deficit identification and corrective analysis may further improve and optimize athletic performance, and decrease the risk of sports-related injury during sport performance.

  5. The epidemiology of injuries in powerlifting at the London 2012 Paralympic Games: An analysis of 1411 athlete-days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willick, S E; Cushman, D M; Blauwet, C A; Emery, C; Webborn, N; Derman, W; Schwellnus, M; Stomphorst, J; Van de Vliet, P

    2016-10-01

    Sport injury epidemiology has received increased recognition as a field of sport medicine research that can improve the health and safety of athletes. Injuries among Paralympic powerlifters have not previously been systematically studied. The purpose of this prospective cohort study was to characterize injuries among Paralympic powerlifters. Athletes competing in the sport of powerlifting were followed over the 7-day competition period of the 2012 London Paralympic Games. The main outcome measurements were injury incidence rate (IR; number of injuries per 1000 athlete-days) and injury incidence proportion (IP; injuries per 100 athletes). A total of 38 injuries among 163 powerlifters were documented. The overall IR was 33.3 injuries/1000 athlete-days (95% CI 24.0-42.6) and the overall IP was 23.3 injuries per 100 athletes (95% CI 16.8-29.8). The majority of injuries were chronic overuse injuries (61%). The most commonly injured anatomical region was the shoulder/clavicle (32% of all injuries), followed by the chest (13%) and elbow (13%). The information obtained in this study opens the door for future study into the mechanisms and details of injuries into powerlifters with physical impairments. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Imaging of Athletic Injuries of Knee Ligaments and Menisci: Sports Imaging Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naraghi, Ali M; White, Lawrence M

    2016-10-01

    Acute knee injuries are a common source of morbidity in athletes and if overlooked may result in chronic functional impairment. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the knee has become the most commonly performed musculoskeletal MR examination and is an indispensable tool in the appropriate management of the injured athlete. Meniscal and ligamentous tearing are the most frequent indications for surgical intervention in sports injuries and an understanding of the anatomy, biomechanics, mechanisms of injury, and patterns of injury are all critical to accurate diagnosis and appropriate management. These will be discussed in reference to meniscal tears and injuries of the cruciate ligaments as well as injuries of the posterolateral and posteromedial corners of the knee. (©) RSNA, 2016.

  7. Athletic Training Students' Perceptions of and Academic Preparation in the Use of Psychological Skills in Sport Injury Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamphoff, Cindra S.; Hamson-Utley, J. Jordan; Antoine, Beth; Knutson, Rebecca; Thomae, Jeffrey; Hoenig, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Context: Injured athletes rely on athletic trainers to assist them when recovering from injury. Over the last 20 years, the use of psychological skills to speed recovery has become increasingly popular. Objective: Explore athletic training students' perceptions of the importance and effectiveness of psychological skills in the rehabilitation of…

  8. Non-contact ACL injuries in female athletes: an International Olympic Committee current concepts statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renstrom, P; Ljungqvist, A; Arendt, E; Beynnon, B; Fukubayashi, T; Garrett, W; Georgoulis, T; Hewett, T E; Johnson, R; Krosshaug, T; Mandelbaum, B; Micheli, L; Myklebust, G; Roos, E; Roos, H; Schamasch, P; Shultz, S; Werner, S; Wojtys, E; Engebretsen, L

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury remains high in young athletes. Because female athletes have a much higher incidence of ACL injuries in sports such as basketball and team handball than male athletes, the IOC Medical Commission invited a multidisciplinary group of ACL expert clinicians and scientists to (1) review current evidence including data from the new Scandinavian ACL registries; (2) critically evaluate high-quality studies of injury mechanics; (3) consider the key elements of successful prevention programmes; (4) summarise clinical management including surgery and conservative management; and (5) identify areas for further research. Risk factors for female athletes suffering ACL injury include: (1) being in the preovulatory phase of the menstrual cycle compared with the postovulatory phase; (2) having decreased intercondylar notch width on plain radiography; and (3) developing increased knee abduction moment (a valgus intersegmental torque) during impact on landing. Well-designed injury prevention programmes reduce the risk of ACL for athletes, particularly women. These programmes attempt to alter dynamic loading of the tibiofemoral joint through neuromuscular and proprioceptive training. They emphasise proper landing and cutting techniques. This includes landing softly on the forefoot and rolling back to the rearfoot, engaging knee and hip flexion and, where possible, landing on two feet. Players are trained to avoid excessive dynamic valgus of the knee and to focus on the “knee over toe position” when cutting. PMID:18539658

  9. Non-contact ACL injuries in female athletes: an International Olympic Committee current concepts statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renstrom, P; Ljungqvist, A; Arendt, E; Beynnon, B; Fukubayashi, T; Garrett, W; Georgoulis, T; Hewett, T E; Johnson, R; Krosshaug, T; Mandelbaum, B; Micheli, L; Myklebust, G; Roos, E; Roos, H; Schamasch, P; Shultz, S; Werner, S; Wojtys, E; Engebretsen, L

    2008-06-01

    The incidence of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury remains high in young athletes. Because female athletes have a much higher incidence of ACL injuries in sports such as basketball and team handball than male athletes, the IOC Medical Commission invited a multidisciplinary group of ACL expert clinicians and scientists to (1) review current evidence including data from the new Scandinavian ACL registries; (2) critically evaluate high-quality studies of injury mechanics; (3) consider the key elements of successful prevention programmes; (4) summarise clinical management including surgery and conservative management; and (5) identify areas for further research. Risk factors for female athletes suffering ACL injury include: (1) being in the preovulatory phase of the menstrual cycle compared with the postovulatory phase; (2) having decreased intercondylar notch width on plain radiography; and (3) developing increased knee abduction moment (a valgus intersegmental torque) during impact on landing. Well-designed injury prevention programmes reduce the risk of ACL for athletes, particularly women. These programmes attempt to alter dynamic loading of the tibiofemoral joint through neuromuscular and proprioceptive training. They emphasise proper landing and cutting techniques. This includes landing softly on the forefoot and rolling back to the rearfoot, engaging knee and hip flexion and, where possible, landing on two feet. Players are trained to avoid excessive dynamic valgus of the knee and to focus on the "knee over toe position" when cutting.

  10. Death by homicide in National Collegiate Athletic Association athletes between 2003 and 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Ashwin L; Poon, Steven; Drezner, Jonathan A; Zigman, Monica; Asif, Irfan M; Harmon, Kimberly G

    2016-02-01

    The incidence of homicide-related death among individuals of college age in the United States population is estimated at 15.5/100,000. The incidence of homicide among National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) athletes is unknown. To investigate the rate of homicide-related death in NCAA athletes and to identify associated risk factors. The NCAA Resolutions list, NCAA catastrophic insurance claims, media reports, and published NCAA demographic data were used to identify student athlete deaths and total participant seasons from 2003-04 through 2012-13. Homicide-related deaths were analysed by sex, race, division, sport, method, location, and circumstance. Internet searches were used to gather case details. Forty-two cases of homicide-related death were identified from 4,242,519 individual participant seasons during the ten-year study period. The incidence of homicide-related death in NCAA athletes was 1.0/100,000. The incidence in males was 1.45/100,000 and in females was 0.4/100,000 (relative risk (RR) 2.9, p=0.01). The incidence in black athletes was 4.2/100,000 and in white athletes was 0.4/100,000 (RR 7.0, pfootball (3.7/100,000), with a RR of 4.4 (p=0.002) compared to all other sports. 88% of cases occurred off-campus. 38% of cases occurred at a social gathering, and 38% of cases occurred in a place of residence. 74% involved a fatal shooting. Homicide-related deaths in NCAA athletes occur most commonly in males, black athletes, and American football players. Understanding the incidence, risk factors, and circumstances of homicide-related deaths in college athletes may assist NCAA institutions in developing preventative measures. University of Washington Human Subjects Application, HSD No. 42077. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  11. Effects of peripheral injury in athletes with long-term-exercise participation in modern pentathlons

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Bo-Ae; Lee, Seung-Hyun; Oh, Deuk-Ja

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to verify the effect of the ankle injury of athletes who attended the modern pentathlon for a long-term basis on ankle muscle?s strength and proprioceptive sensory function. For this, 10 athletes of the modern pentathlon, with experience of having damaged one side of their ankles within 6 months, and 10 healthy male college students, who have similar personal characteristics, such as height, age, and weight and have no experience of participating in regular sports for...

  12. Estimation of prepractice hydration status of National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, Stella L; Poule, Kristen A; Bland, Erica G

    2009-01-01

    To our knowledge, no one has compared the prepractice hydration status of male and female National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I athletes or has studied the effects of the menstrual cycle phase on women's prepractice hydration status. To report prepractice hydration status of collegiate athletes and determine the factors that might influence that status. Cross-sectional, descriptive study. University sports team practices. Participants included 138 male and 125 female athletes (age = 19.9 + or - 1.3 years, height = 165.8 + or - 42.9 cm, mass = 77.4 + or - 17.5 kg) from an NCAA Division I New England university. One spontaneously voided (spot) urine sample was collected from each participant before his or her team practice and was measured 2 times. A refractometer was used to analyze the amount of light that passed through a small drop of urine and assess urine specific gravity. Fluid intake and menstrual history for women were also collected. Three hydration-status groups were defined based on the American College of Sports Medicine and National Athletic Trainers' Association criteria: (1) euhydrated, which was urine specific gravity less than 1.020; (2) hypohydrated, from 1.020 to 1.029; and (3) significantly hypohydrated, equal to or more than 1.030. Thirteen percent of student-athletes appeared significantly hypohydrated, with a mean urine specific gravity of 1.031 + or - 0.002 (chi(2) = 12.12, P .05). A greater percentage of men (47%) than women (28%) were hypohydrated (chi(2) = 8.33, P .05). Before activity, athletes were hypohydrated at different levels. A greater percentage of men than women were hypohydrated. Menstrual cycle phase did not appear to affect hydration in women.

  13. A Commentary on Real-Time Biofeedback to Augment Neuromuscular Training for ACL Injury Prevention in Adolescent Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, Adam W; Kushner, Adam M; Groene, John; Williams, Christopher; Riley, Michael A; Myer, Gregory D

    2015-03-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament injury and the associated long-term sequelae, such as immediate reductions in physical inactivity, increased adiposity and increased risk of osteoarthritis throughout adulthood, are a major health concern for adolescent athletes. Current interventions for injury prevention may have limited effectiveness, are susceptible to issues of compliance and have not achieved the widespread acceptance necessary to promote full adoption. Neuromuscular training (NMT) is a well-established training intervention introduced to affect change in modifiable biomechanical risk factors to reduce the risk of injury in these athletes. Despite moderate success, neuromuscular training is still limited by its reliance on subjective feedback and after the fact (i.e., offline) objective feedback techniques. The purpose of this commentary is to discuss technological tools that could be used to enhance and objectify targeted biofeedback interventions to complement NMT. Electromyography, force plates, motion sensors, and camera-based motion capture systems are innovative tools that may have realistic feasibility for integration as biofeedback into NMT programs to improve training outcomes. Improved functional deficit identification and corrective analysis may further improve and optimize athletic performance, and decrease the risk of sports-related injury during sport performance. Key pointsSpecific, targeted interventions that isolate injury risk factors and can help correct modifiable neuromuscular deficits are essential.Current training interventions for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury prevention have only demonstrated limited effectiveness and have not achieved the widespread acceptance necessary to promote full adoption to reduce ACL injury rates.The paper provides an overview of innovative strategies and technological tools that could be used to enhance and objectify targeted biofeedback interventions to complement neuromuscular training (NMT) including

  14. Sport Sampling Is Associated With Improved Landing Technique in Youth Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiStefano, Lindsay J; Beltz, Eleanor M; Root, Hayley J; Martinez, Jessica C; Houghton, Andrew; Taranto, Nicole; Pearce, Katherine; McConnell, Erin; Muscat, Courtney; Boyle, Steve; Trojian, Thomas H

    2017-11-01

    Sport sampling is recommended to promote fundamental movement skill acquisition and physical activity. In contrast, sport specialization is associated with musculoskeletal injury risk, burnout, and attrition from sport. There is limited evidence to support the influence of sport sampling on neuromuscular control, which is associated with injury risk, in youth athletes. Athletes who participated in only 1 sport during the previous year would demonstrate higher Landing Error Scoring System (LESS) scores than their counterparts. Cross-sectional study. Level 3. A total of 355 youth athletes (age range, 8-14 years) completed a test session with a jump-landing task, which was evaluated using the LESS. Participants were categorized as single sport (SS) or multisport (MS) based on their self-reported sport participation in the past year. Their duration of sport sampling (low, moderate, high) was determined based on their sport participation history. Participants were dichotomized into good (LESS sport-sampling duration (low, moderate, high). The MS group was 2.5 times (95% CI, 1.9-3.1) as likely to be categorized as having good control compared with the SS group (χ 2 (355) = 10.10, P sport-sampling duration group were 5.8 times (95% CI, 3.1-8.5) and 5.4 times (95% CI, 4.0-6.8) as likely to be categorized as having good control compared with the moderate and low groups (χ 2 (216) = 11.20, P Sport sampling at a young age is associated with improved neuromuscular control, which may reduce injury risk in youth athletes. Youth athletes should be encouraged to try participating in multiple sports to enhance their neuromuscular control and promote long-term physical activity.

  15. Partial rotator cuff injury in athletes: bursal or articular?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassiano Diniz Carvalho

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTA painful shoulder is a very common complaint among athletes, especially in the case of those in sports involving throwing. Partial lesions of the rotator cuff may be very painful and cause significant functional limitation to athletes' sports practice. The incidence of partial lesions of the cuff is variable (13-37%. It is difficult to make the clinical and radiological diagnosis, and this condition should be borne in mind in the cases of all athletes who present symptoms of rotator cuff syndrome, including in patients who are diagnosed only with tendinopathy. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the epidemiological behavior of partial lesions of the rotator cuff in both amateur and professional athletes in different types of sports. METHODS: We evaluated 720 medical files on athletes attended at the shoulder service of the Discipline of Sports Medicine at the Sports Traumatology Center, Federal University of São Paulo. The majority of them were men (65%. Among all the patients, 83 of them were diagnosed with partial lesions of the rotator cuff, by means of ultrasonography or magnetic resonance, or in some cases using both. We applied the binomial test to compare the proportions found. RESULT: It was observed that intra-articular lesions predominated (67.6% and that these occurred more frequently in athletes in sports involving throwing (66%. Bursal lesions occurred in 32.4% of the athletes, predominantly in those who did muscle building (75%. CONCLUSION: Intra-articular lesions are more frequent than bursal lesions and they occur predominantly in athletes in sports involving throwing, while bursal lesions were more prevalent in athletes who did muscle building.

  16. Brain Injury Association of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Only) 1-800-444-6443 Welcome to the Brain Injury Association of America (BIAA) Brain injury is not an event or an outcome. ... misunderstood, under-funded neurological disease. People who sustain brain injuries must have timely access to expert trauma ...

  17. Coronal plane hip muscle activation in football code athletes with chronic adductor groin strain injury during standing hip flexion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Dylan; Graham, Jennifer; Screen, Hazel; Sinha, Amit; Small, Claire; Twycross-Lewis, Richard; Woledge, Roger

    2012-04-01

    Groin pain arising from adductor muscle injury is common amongst football code athletes and can result in significant time lost from sporting participation. The associated motor control deficits are not well understood. The aim of this study was to better understand the coronal plane muscle activation patterns associated with chronic adductor injury. Measures of muscle activation at various stages of the standing hip flexion manoeuvre were made with surface electromyography and motion capture in 9 male football code subjects with chronic adductor injury, and 9 matched controls. The gluteus medius to adductor longus activation ratio was significantly reduced in subjects with groin pain when the injured leg was either moving (F = 64.3, p muscle activation. No significant differences between the uninjured and injured side of patients was found. Football code athletes with groin pain exhibit significantly altered coronal plane muscle activation with comparison to uninjured subjects. These findings need to be taken into account when planning rehabilitation for these athletes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Student-Athletes' Views on APOE Genotyping for Increased Risk of Poor Recovery after a Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hercher, Laura S; Caudle, Michelle; Griffin, Julie; Herzog, Matthew; Matviychuk, Diana; Tidwell, Jenna

    2016-12-01

    Use of apolipoprotein E genotyping to personalize the risk of a poor recovery after traumatic brain injury is complicated by the potential for genetic discrimination and the potential to reveal an increased risk for late onset Alzheimer's disease. We developed a survey to gauge interest in testing among athletes participating in National Collegiate Athletic Association programs. Eight hundred and forty seven student-athletes were surveyed to determine their interest in genetic testing, their willingness to share the results of testing with parents, coaches and physicians, their concerns about privacy and/or discrimination, and their interest in genetic counseling. Nearly three quarters of respondents expressed some level of interest in testing, with the largest number describing themselves as 'possibly interested' (54.9 %, n = 463) and a smaller number describing themselves as 'very interested' (18.9 %, n = 159). Most student-athletes said that receiving secondary information about their risk for late-onset Alzheimer's disease made them more likely to test (50.6 %, n = 426) rather than less likely to test (12.4 %, n = 104). Student-athletes were open to apolipoprotein E genotyping and willing to share test results with their parents, coaches and physicians. They did not anticipate that test results would impact their behavior or ability to play. Testing programs may be welcome but should provide clear information as to risks and benefits.

  19. RANK/RANKL/OPG pathway: genetic associations with stress fracture period prevalence in elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varley, Ian; Hughes, David C; Greeves, Julie P; Stellingwerff, Trent; Ranson, Craig; Fraser, William D; Sale, Craig

    2015-02-01

    The RANK/RANKL/OPG signalling pathway is important in the regulation of bone turnover, with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes within this pathway associated with bone phenotypic adaptations. To determine whether four SNPs associated with genes in the RANK/RANKL/OPG signalling pathway were associated with stress fracture injury in elite athletes. Radiologically confirmed stress fracture history was reported in 518 elite athletes, forming the Stress Fracture Elite Athlete (SFEA) cohort. Data were analysed for the whole group and were sub-stratified into male and cases of multiple stress fracture groups. Genotypes were determined using proprietary fluorescence-based competitive allele-specific PCR assays. SNPs rs3018362 (RANK) and rs1021188 (RANKL) were associated with stress fracture injury (Pstress fracture group and 2.8% of the non-stress fracture group were homozygote for the rare allele of rs1021188. Allele frequency, heterozygotes and homozygotes for the rare allele of rs3018362 were associated with stress fracture period prevalence (Pstress fracture whilst 2.5% of the non-stress fracture group were homozygous. In cases of multiple stress fractures, homozygotes for the rare allele of rs1021188 and individuals possessing at least one copy of the rare allele of rs4355801 (OPG) were shown to be associated with stress fracture injury (Pstress fracture injury. The association of rs3018362 (RANK) and rs1021188 (RANKL) with stress fracture injury susceptibility supports their role in the maintenance of bone health and offers potential targets for therapeutic interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of kinesio taping on the isokinetic muscle function in football athletes with a knee injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, SoonKwon; Shim, JeMyung; Kim, SungJoong; Namkoong, Seung; Roh, HyoLyun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the difference in isokinetic muscle function in football athletes with a knee injury with and without kinesio taping. [Subjects] The subjects for this study were 10 football athletes (males) with a knee injury. [Methods] Measurements were performed by using Cybex dynamometer under uniform motion before and after the application of kinesio tape to the quadriceps and hamstring muscle. Maximal concentric knee extension and flexion at three angular velocities (60°/s, 120°/s, and 180°/s) were measured. [Results] A significant difference was found in peak torque and total work of the flexion at 120°/s and 180°/s, as well as in the average power of extension at 180°/s. [Conclusion] Though it is not the main therapy for muscle function in football athletes with injury, kinesio taping was an effective adjunct therapy.

  1. Effect of kinesio taping on the isokinetic muscle function in football athletes with a knee injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, SoonKwon; Shim, JeMyung; Kim, SungJoong; Namkoong, Seung; Roh, HyoLyun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the difference in isokinetic muscle function in football athletes with a knee injury with and without kinesio taping. [Subjects] The subjects for this study were 10 football athletes (males) with a knee injury. [Methods] Measurements were performed by using Cybex dynamometer under uniform motion before and after the application of kinesio tape to the quadriceps and hamstring muscle. Maximal concentric knee extension and flexion at three angular velocities (60°/s, 120°/s, and 180°/s) were measured. [Results] A significant difference was found in peak torque and total work of the flexion at 120°/s and 180°/s, as well as in the average power of extension at 180°/s. [Conclusion] Though it is not the main therapy for muscle function in football athletes with injury, kinesio taping was an effective adjunct therapy. PMID:26957761

  2. Can pre-season fitness measures predict time to injury in varsity athletes?: a retrospective case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Michael D; Fischer, Robyn; Fairbanks, Kristine; Lefaivre, Lauren; Vickery, Lauren; Molzan, Janelle; Parent, Eric

    2012-07-23

    The ability to determine athletic performance in varsity athletes using preseason measures has been established. The ability of pre-season performance measures and athlete's exposure to predict the incidence of injuries is unclear. Thus our purpose was to determine the ability of pre-season measures of athletic performance to predict time to injury in varsity athletes. Male and female varsity athletes competing in basketball, volleyball and ice hockey participated in this study. The main outcome measures were injury prevalence, time to injury (based on calculated exposure) and pre-season fitness measures as predictors of time to injury. Fitness measures were Apley's range of motion, push-up, curl-ups, vertical jump, modified Illinois agility, and sit-and-reach. Cox regression models were used to identify which baseline fitness measures were predictors of time to injury. Seventy-six percent of the athletes reported 1 or more injuries. Mean times to initial injury were significantly different for females and males (40.6% and 66.1% of the total season (p volleyball had significantly shorter time to injury (Hazard Ratio = 4.2, p < 0.01) compared to those playing hockey or basketball. When accounting for exposure, gender, sport and fitness measures, prediction of time to injury was influenced most heavily by gender and sport.

  3. Suicide in National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Athletes: A 9-Year Analysis of the NCAA Resolutions Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Ashwin L; Asif, Irfan M; Drezner, Jonathan A; Toresdahl, Brett G; Harmon, Kimberly G

    2015-01-01

    The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) has recently highlighted mental health concerns in student athletes, though the incidence of suicide among NCAA athletes is unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine the rate of suicide among NCAA athletes. The incidence of suicide in NCAA athletes differs by sex, race, sport, and division. Retrospective cohort study. Level 3. NCAA Memorial Resolutions list and published NCAA demographic data were used to identify student-athlete deaths and total participant seasons from 2003-2004 through 2011-2012. Deaths were analyzed by age, sex, race, division, and sport. Over the 9-year study period, 35 cases of suicide were identified from a review of 477 student-athlete deaths during 3,773,309 individual participant seasons. The overall suicide rate was 0.93/100,000 per year. Suicide represented 7.3% (35/477) of all-cause mortality among NCAA student athletes. The annual incidence of suicide in male athletes was 1.35/100,000 and in female athletes was 0.37/100,000 (relative risk [RR], 3.7; P suicide occurred in men's football (2.25/100,000), and football athletes had a relative risk of 2.2 (P = 0.03) of committing suicide compared with other male, nonfootball athletes. The suicide rate in NCAA athletes appears to be lower than that of the general and collegiate population of similar age. NCAA male athletes have a significantly higher rate of suicide compared with female athletes, and football athletes appear to be at greatest risk. Suicide represents a preventable cause of death, and development of effective prevention programs is recommended. © 2015 The Author(s).

  4. Biomechanics Associated with Patellofemoral Pain and ACL Injuries in Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Kaitlyn; Whatman, Chris

    2015-09-01

    Knee injuries are prevalent among a variety of competitive sports and can impact an athlete's ability to continue to participate in their sport or, in the worst case, end an athlete's career. The aim was to evaluate biomechanics associated with both patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries (in sports involving landing, change in direction, or rapid deceleration) across the three time points frequently reported in the literature: pre-injury, at the time of injury, and following injury. A search of the literature was conducted for research evaluating biomechanics associated with ACL injury and PFPS. The Web of Science, SPORTDiscus, EBSCO, PubMed, and CINAHL databases, to March 2015, were searched, and journal articles focused on ACL injuries and PFPS in sports that met the inclusion criteria were reviewed. The search methodology was created with the intent of extracting case-control, case, and cohort studies of knee injury in athletic populations. The search strategy was restricted to only full-text articles published in English. These articles were included in the review if they met all of the required selection criteria. The following inclusion criteria were used: (1) The study must report lower extremity biomechanics in one of the following settings: (a) a comparison of currently injured and uninjured participants, (b) a prospective study evaluating risk factors for injury, or (c) a study reporting on the injury event itself. (2) The study must include only currently active participants who were similar at baseline (i.e. healthy, high school level basketball players currently in-season) and include biomechanical analysis of either landing, change in direction, or rapid deceleration. (3) The study must include currently injured participants. The studies were graded on the basis of quality, which served as an indication of risk of bias. An adapted version of the 'Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in

  5. Common injuries of the foot and ankle in the child and adolescent athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malanga, Gerard A; Ramirez-Del Toro, Jose A

    2008-05-01

    A myriad problems in the foot and ankle are specific to child and adolescent athletes. The anatomy of young athletes with respect to the presence of a growth plate makes their injury patterns different from those seen in adults. The main general injury patterns seen in the feet and ankles of children are related to growth and development or occur from overuse syndromes or acute trauma. In this article we outline in an anatomically oriented manner most of the common problems in this population.

  6. Methods and Descriptive Epidemiology of Services Provided by Athletic Trainers in High Schools: The National Athletic Treatment, Injury and Outcomes Network Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Zachary Y.; Dompier, Thomas P.; Dalton, Sara L.; Miller, Sayers John; Hayden, Ross; Marshall, Stephen W.

    2015-01-01

    Context Research is limited on the extent and nature of the care provided by athletic trainers (ATs) to student-athletes in the high school setting. Objective To describe the methods of the National Athletic Treatment, Injury and Outcomes Network (NATION) project and provide the descriptive epidemiology of AT services for injury care in 27 high school sports. Design Descriptive epidemiology study. Setting Athletic training room (ATR) visits and AT services data collected in 147 high schools from 26 states. Patients or Other Participants High school student-athletes participating in 13 boys' sports and 14 girls' sports during the 2011−2012 through 2013−2014 academic years. Main Outcome Measure(s) The number of ATR visits and individual AT services, as well as the mean number of ATR visits (per injury) and AT services (per injury and ATR visit) were calculated by sport and for time-loss (TL) and non–time-loss (NTL) injuries. Results Over the 3-year period, 210 773 ATR visits and 557 381 AT services were reported for 50 604 injuries. Most ATR visits (70%) were for NTL injuries. Common AT services were therapeutic activities or exercise (45.4%), modalities (18.6%), and AT evaluation and reevaluation (15.9%), with an average of 4.17 ± 6.52 ATR visits and 11.01 ± 22.86 AT services per injury. Compared with NTL injuries, patients with TL injuries accrued more ATR visits (7.76 versus 3.47; P school student-athletes and demonstrate that patients with NTL injuries require substantial amounts of AT services. PMID:26678290

  7. Evaluation of static and dynamic balance in athletes with anterior cruciate ligament injury - A controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Tiago Lazzaretti; Felix, Ellen Cristina Rodrigues; Bessa, Felipe; Luna, Natália Ms; Sugimoto, Dai; Greve, Júlia Maria D'Andrea; Hernandez, Arnaldo José

    2016-08-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament injury leads to adaptive responses to maintain postural control. However, there is no consensus regarding whether leg dominance also affects postural control in athletes with anterior cruciate ligament injury. The purpose of this study was to evaluate dynamic and static postural control among athletes with and without anterior cruciate ligament injury to the dominant leg. Twenty-eight athletes, twenty-one males and seven females aged 15-45 years, were allocated to one of two groups: the anterior cruciate ligament injury group (26±3 years) or the control group without anterior cruciate ligament injury (25±6.5 years). All subjects performed one legged stance tests under eyes open and eyes closed conditions and squat and kick movement tests using a postural control protocol (AccuSwayPlus force platform, Massachusetts). The center of pressure displacement and speed were measured by the force platform. In addition, the distance traveled on the single-leg hop test was assessed as an objective measure of function. Significantly greater mediolateral sway was found under the eyes closed condition (p=0.04) and during squat movement (p=0.01) in the anterior cruciate ligament injury group than in the control group. Analysis of the single-leg hop test results showed no difference between the groups (p=0.73). Athletes with anterior cruciate ligament injury had greater mediolateral displacement of the center of pressure toward the dominant leg under the eyes closed condition and during squat movement compared to control athletes.

  8. Athletic Performance at the National Basketball Association Combine After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehran, Nima; Williams, Phillip N; Keller, Robert A; Khalil, Lafi S; Lombardo, Stephen J; Kharrazi, F Daniel

    2016-05-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are significant injuries in elite-level basketball players. In-game statistical performance after ACL reconstruction has been demonstrated; however, few studies have reviewed functional performance in National Basketball Association (NBA)-caliber athletes after ACL reconstruction. To compare NBA Combine performance of athletes after ACL reconstruction with an age-, size-, and position-matched control group of players with no previous reported knee injury requiring surgery. We hypothesized that there is no difference between the 2 groups in functional performance. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. A total of 1092 NBA-caliber players who participated in the NBA Combine between 2000 and 2015 were reviewed. Twenty-one athletes were identified as having primary ACL reconstruction prior to participation in the combine. This study group was compared with an age-, size-, and position-matched control group in objective functional performance testing, including the shuttle run test, lane agility test, three-quarter court sprint, vertical jump (no step), and maximum vertical jump (running start). With regard to quickness and agility, both ACL-reconstructed athletes and controls scored an average of 11.5 seconds in the lane agility test and 3.1 seconds in the shuttle run test (P = .745 and .346, respectively). Speed and acceleration was measured by the three-quarter court sprint, in which both the study group and the control group averaged 3.3 seconds (P = .516). In the maximum vertical jump, which demonstrates an athlete's jumping ability with a running start, the ACL reconstruction group had an average height of 33.6 inches while the controls averaged 33.9 inches (P = .548). In the standing vertical jump, the ACL reconstruction group averaged 28.2 inches while the control group averaged 29.2 inches (P = .067). In athletes who are able to return to sport and compete at a high level such as the NBA Combine, there is no

  9. Mild Traumatic Brain Injury and Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Young Student Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biederman, Joseph; Feinberg, Leah; Chan, James; Adeyemo, Bamidele O; Woodworth, K Yvonne; Panis, Walter; McGrath, Neal; Bhatnagar, Saurabha; Spencer, Thomas J; Uchida, Mai; Kenworthy, Tara; Grossman, Rebecca; Zafonte, Ross; Faraone, Stephen V

    2015-11-01

    A recent meta-analysis documented a significant statistical association between mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (Adeyemo et al., 2014), but the direction of this effect was unclear. In this study, we hypothesized that ADHD would be an antecedent risk factor for mTBI. Participants were student athletes ages 12 to 25 who had sustained a mTBI and Controls of similar age and sex selected from studies of youth with and without ADHD. Subjects were assessed for symptoms of ADHD, concussion severity, and cognitive function. mTBI subjects had a significantly higher rate of ADHD than Controls, and in all cases the age of onset of ADHD was before mTBI onset. mTBI+ADHD subjects also had more severe concussion symptoms (fatigue and poor concentration) than mTBI-ADHD subjects. These results support ADHD as an antecedent risk factor for mTBI in student athletes and that its presence complicates the course of mTBI.

  10. Comparison of landing biomechanics between male and female dancers and athletes, part 1: Influence of sex on risk of anterior cruciate ligament injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orishimo, Karl F; Liederbach, Marijeanne; Kremenic, Ian J; Hagins, Marshall; Pappas, Evangelos

    2014-05-01

    The incidence of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries among dancers is much lower than among team sport athletes, and no clear disparity between sexes has been reported in the dance population. Although numerous studies have observed differences in landing biomechanics of the lower extremity between male and female team sport athletes, there is currently little research examining the landing biomechanics of male and female dancers and none comparing athletes to dancers. Comparing the landing biomechanics within these populations may help explain the lower overall ACL injury rates and lack of sex disparity. The purpose was to compare the effects of sex and group (dancer vs team sport athlete) on single-legged drop-landing biomechanics. The primary hypothesis was that female dancers would perform a drop-landing task without demonstrating typical sex-related risk factors associated with ACL injuries. A secondary hypothesis was that female team sport athletes would display typical ACL risk factors during the same task. Controlled laboratory study. Kinematics and kinetics were recorded as 40 elite modern and ballet dancers (20 men and 20 women) and 40 team sport athletes (20 men and 20 women) performed single-legged drop landings from a 30-cm platform. Joint kinematics and kinetics were compared between groups and sexes with a group-by-sex multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) followed by pairwise t tests. Dancers of both sexes and male team sport athletes landed similarly in terms of frontal-plane knee alignment, whereas female team sport athletes landed with a significantly greater peak knee valgus (P = .007). Female dancers were found to have a lower hip adduction torque than those of the other 3 groups (P = .003). Dancers (male and female) exhibited a lower trunk side flexion (P = .002) and lower trunk forward flexion (P = .032) compared with team sport athletes. In executing a 30-cm drop landing, female team sport athletes displayed a greater knee valgus

  11. Ice hockey injuries among United States high school athletes from 2008/2009-2012/2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matic, George T; Sommerfeldt, Mark F; Best, Thomas M; Collins, Christy L; Comstock, R Dawn; Flanigan, David C

    2015-05-01

    The popularity of ice hockey has grown in recent years and injuries are a concern given the physical nature of the sport. We sought to report the rates, mechanisms, and severity of boys' US high school ice hockey injuries. We hypothesized that body checking would be a major source of injury and that concussions would be common. We also expected to find that competition would have a higher rate of injury than practice. Descriptive epidemiology study. Boys' US high school ice hockey injury data from 2008/2009 through 2012/2013 academic years were obtained from the National High School Sports-Related Injury Surveillance System, High School Reporting Information Online database. The primary outcome was rate of injury per 10,000 athlete exposures (AEs). Overall, 724 boys ice hockey injuries occurred during 311,817 AEs for an injury rate of 23.2 per 10,000 AEs. Injury rates were significantly higher during competition compared to practice (rate ratio = 7.8, 95% confidence interval: 6.5-9.4). Concussion was the most frequent injury reported at a rate of 6.4 per 10,000 AEs. Body checking was the mechanism of injury in over 46% of injuries. The head/face/neck region (33.8%) and upper arm/shoulder region (20.6%) were the most commonly injured body sites. Just over 6% of injuries resulted in surgical intervention. Injuries among high school ice hockey athletes are common. Increases in the number of high school ice hockey injuries will likely parallel the increase in high school ice hockey participation in the United States.

  12. Athletic trainers' and physical therapists' perceptions of the effectiveness of psychological skills within sport injury rehabilitation programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamson-Utley, J Jordan; Martin, Scott; Walters, Jason

    2008-01-01

    Psychological skills are alleged to augment sport-injury rehabilitation; however, implementation of mental imagery within rehabilitation programs is limited. To examine attitudes of athletic trainers (ATs) and physical therapists (PTs) on the effectiveness of mental imagery, goal setting, and positive self-talk to improve rehabilitation adherence and recovery speed of injured athletes. The ATs and PTs were contacted via electronic or physical mailings to complete a single administration survey that measured their beliefs about the effectiveness of psychological skills for increasing adherence and recovery speed of injured athletes undergoing rehabilitation. Professional member databases of the National Athletic Trainers' Association and the American Physical Therapy Association. Of the 1000 ATs and 1000 PTs who were selected randomly, 309 ATs (age = 34.18 +/- 8.32 years, years in profession = 10.67 +/- 7.34) and 356 PTs (age = 38.58 +/- 7.51 years, years in profession = 13.18 +/- 6.17) responded. The Attitudes About Imagery (AAI) survey measures attitudes about psychological skills for enhancing adherence and recovery speed of injured athletes. The AAI includes demographic questions and 15 items on a 7-point Likert scale measuring attitudes about the effectiveness of mental imagery, self-talk, goal setting, and pain control on rehabilitation adherence and recovery speed of injured athletes. Test-retest reliability ranged from .60 to .84 and Cronbach alphas ranged from .65 to .90. We calculated 1-way analyses of variance to determine whether differences existed in attitudes as a result of the professionals' education, training experience, and interest. Mean differences were found on attitudes about effectiveness of psychological skills for those who reported formal training and those who reported interest in receiving formal training (P psychological skills to augment the rehabilitation process. Clinical implications regarding the use of mental skills are discussed.

  13. Risk Factors and Prevention Strategies of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries in Young Females Athletes

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    Cristina Forcada

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL injuries are more common in young female athletes than in males, and its frequency is increasing. The aim of the present study is to determine the risk factors that promote these injuries and study the available strategy to prevent ACL injuries in young female athletes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Different database were used to perform the research (PubMed, Cochrane Plus, Trip Database, using the following keywords: anterior cruciate ligament injury, risk factors, prevention, female and athlete. RESULTS: Risk factors for ACL injuries include: dry weather, high temperatures, playing indoors, artificial boil, sleepless, fatigue, stress, sport specialization, burnout, low self-esteem, incorrect pivoting and landing techniques. Avoiding or modifying these risk factors could prevent ACL injuries as well as performing a specific neuromuscular training. CONCLUSION: There are different ways to prevent ACL injuries that have been proven to be effective, a passive one avoiding the risk factors, and active one, by practicing a specific neuromuscular training.

  14. Socio-psychological aspects of athletes' recovery after injury reviews of modern research

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    Musulin Iva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Any serious injury is experienced as a traumatic life event with physical and psychological consequences. Research shows that psychological interventions are not only important, but essential during the rehabilitation of injured athletes. Anxiety and negative stressors are make psychological problems that accompany the injured athlete. Therefore, the development of individualized stress management techniques is necessary to help athletes to effectively cope and adapt to injury and rehabilitation process as well. It is crucial for effective social support that athletes have the right type of support at the right time, because the way individuals cope with stress may change with time. It was found that coaches, fitness trainers, and physicians are critical elements of social support, because these individuals can offer a unique experience and understanding of athletes (emotional and informational support. Prompt referral to a sports psychologist will allow the coping and release from any unjustified emotional pain. Research has identified an urgent need for a better definition of the psychosocial needs of injured athletes and strongly suggests that sport psychologists have an important role in meeting these needs.

  15. Psychosocial factors influencing the recovery of athletes with anterior cruciate ligament injury: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    te Wierike, S C M; van der Sluis, A; van den Akker-Scheek, I; Elferink-Gemser, M T; Visscher, C

    2013-10-01

    This review describes the psychosocial factors that affect recovery following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury and reconstructive surgery in athletes. A systematic search in literature with inclusion and exclusion criteria on PubMed, PsycINFO, and Embase was performed. Articles used in this review were divided in five different parts according to the biopsychosocial model of Wiese-Bjornstal, with the addition of intervention studies. The results showed that a high internal Health Locus of Control and a high self-efficacy were useful cognitive factors to facilitate the recovery. Athletes with a low level of fear of reinjury had the best knee outcome after the injury followed by a reconstruction. In addition, athletes who returned to sport had less fear of reinjury and were more experienced and established athletes compared with athletes who did not return to sport. Furthermore, researchers showed that there was a positive relation between goal setting and adherence, which in turn yielded a positive relation with the outcome of the rehabilitation of an ACL injury. There were several psychosocial interventions that appeared to be facilitating the rehabilitation process. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Can pre-season fitness measures predict time to injury in varsity athletes?: a retrospective case control study

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    Kennedy Michael D

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability to determine athletic performance in varsity athletes using preseason measures has been established. The ability of pre-season performance measures and athlete’s exposure to predict the incidence of injuries is unclear. Thus our purpose was to determine the ability of pre-season measures of athletic performance to predict time to injury in varsity athletes. Methods Male and female varsity athletes competing in basketball, volleyball and ice hockey participated in this study. The main outcome measures were injury prevalence, time to injury (based on calculated exposure and pre-season fitness measures as predictors of time to injury. Fitness measures were Apley’s range of motion, push-up, curl-ups, vertical jump, modified Illinois agility, and sit-and-reach. Cox regression models were used to identify which baseline fitness measures were predictors of time to injury. Results Seventy-six percent of the athletes reported 1 or more injuries. Mean times to initial injury were significantly different for females and males (40.6% and 66.1% of the total season (p , respectively. A significant univariate correlation was observed between push-up performance and time to injury (Pearson’s r = 0.332, p . No preseason fitness measure impacted the hazard of injury. Regardless of sport, female athletes had significantly shorter time to injury than males (Hazard Ratio = 2.2, p . Athletes playing volleyball had significantly shorter time to injury (Hazard Ratio = 4.2, p  compared to those playing hockey or basketball. Conclusions When accounting for exposure, gender, sport and fitness measures, prediction of time to injury was influenced most heavily by gender and sport.

  17. Evaluation and management of knee pain in young athletes: overuse injuries of the knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Dilip R; Villalobos, Ana

    2017-07-01

    Recurrent or chronic activity related knee pain is common in young athletes. Numerous intrinsic conditions affecting the knee can cause such pain. In addition, knee pain can be referred pain from low back, hip or pelvic pathology. The most common cause of knee pain in young athletes is patellofemoral pain syndrome, or more appropriately termed idiopathic anterior knee pain. Although, numerous anatomical and biomechanical factors have been postulated to contribute the knee pain in young athletes, the most common underlying reason is overuse injury. In this paper, we have reviewed selected conditions that case knee pain in athletes, including anterior knee pain syndrome, Osgood-Schlatter disease, Sinding-Larsen-Johanssen syndrome, juvenile osteochondritis dissecans (JOCD), bipartite patella, plica syndrome, and tendonitis around the knee.

  18. The Role of Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Athletic Pubalgia and Core Muscle Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Dana J; Zoga, Adam C

    2015-08-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become the standard of care imaging modality for a difficult, often misunderstood spectrum of musculoskeletal injury termed athletic pubalgia or core muscle injury. Armed with a dedicated noncontrast athletic pubalgia protocol and a late model phased array receiver coil, the musculoskeletal imager can play a great role in effective diagnosis and treatment planning for lesions, including osteitis pubis, midline pubic plate lesions, and rectus abdominis/adductor aponeurosis injury. Beyond these established patterns of MRI findings, there are many confounders and contributing pathologies about the pelvis in patients with activity related groin pain, including internal and periarticular derangements of the hip. The MRI is ideally suited to delineate the extent of expected injury and to identify the unexpected visceral and musculoskeletal lesions.

  19. Gambling among European professional athletes. Prevalence and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grall-Bronnec, Marie; Caillon, Julie; Humeau, Elise; Perrot, Bastien; Remaud, Manon; Guilleux, Alice; Rocher, Bruno; Sauvaget, Anne; Bouju, Gaelle

    2016-01-01

    In Europe, the prevalence of gambling disorders in the general population ranges from 0.15 to 6.6%. Professional athletes are known for having risk factors for addictive behaviors, such as young age or sensation seeking, though no study has yet tried to evaluate the prevalence of gambling and gambling disorders among this specific population. The goals of this study were to estimate the prevalence of gambling, problematic or not, among European professional athletes and to explore the factors that are associated with gambling practice and gambling problems in professional athletes. A self-completion questionnaire was specifically designed for this study. The questionnaires were distributed by European Union athletes to professional ice hockey, rugby, handball, basketball, football, indoor football, volleyball, and cricket teams in Spain, France, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. Socio-demographic variables (age, sex, education, marital and parental status, sport, country of birth, and country of practice), variables linked to gambling (gambling habits, screening of gambling problems with the Lie/Bet questionnaire, and gambling related cognitions), and impulsive behavior data (urgency, premeditation, perseverance, and sensation seeking [UPPS]-Short Form questionnaire) were gathered. There were 1,236 questionnaires filled out. The percentage of professional athletes that had gambled at least once during the previous year was 56.6%. The prevalence of problem gambling, current or past, was 8.2%. A certain number of variables were associated with the gambling status. In particular, betting on one's own team (OR = 4.1, CI 95% [1.5-11.5]), betting online (OR = 2.9, CI 95% [1.6-5.4]), gambling regularly (OR = 4.0, CI 95% [2.1-7.6]), and having a high positive urgency score (OR = 1.5, CI 95% [1.3-1.7]) were associated with gambling problems, current or past, among professional athletes. Professional athletes are particularly exposed to both gambling

  20. Cheerleaders are athletes too.

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    Gottlieb, A

    1994-01-01

    The athletic demands of cheerleading are often overlooked. In order to identify risks and develop injury prevention plans for this population, cheerleaders must first be recognized as the athletes they are. Recommendations for specifics of the preparticipation physicals for cheerleaders are provided. The need for evaluation of their development, nutrition, and associated risk cannot be overstressed.

  1. Relationship between postural changes and injuries of the locomotor system in indoor soccer athletes

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    Cintia Zucareli Pinto Ribeiro

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the sport practice has been initiated precociously. These precocious beginning of competitive sports may result in changes on the young athletes' posture alignment, because the child's bone and muscle systems are still developing and these systems are more susceptible to stress and injuries. The purpose of this study was to verify the indoor soccer (Futsal injuries and the changes of posture alignment in players between 9 to 16 years old. We examined the posture of 50 volunteers young futsal male players, volunteers, from a first division club team. These athletes were divided in two different groups: the group one (G1 was formed by those players who have suffered injuries related to Futsal; and group two (G2 was composed by athletes who did not have injuries related to futsal. First, the athletes or their parents answered a questionnaire about anthropometric characteristics of the subjects, player position, how long they have been practicing Futsal, how often they practiced Futsal and previous injuries related to Futsal practice. Then, we evaluated the postural alignment using an specific protocol to check the postural alterations. Both groups showed changes on the body alignment. The most common changes seen were in ankle and knee in both groups. The changes of the alignment in lumbar spine was more common in group 1. Considering injuries in group 1, the most common injury was in ankle (45.2% of all injuries and the second most common injury was in knee (19% of all injuries. Considering the kind of injury, sprain and fracture/dislocate were the two most common (26.2% each one and muscle injury comes in second with 21.4% of all kinds of injuries. We could discuss the relationship between the changes of posture alignment and sports injuries, once the changes of posture alignment result in stress in muscle and ligaments and it may result in injuries. We couldn't find a relationship between the cause and the consequence of these factors.

  2. Psychological traits regarding competitiveness are related to the incidence of anterior cruciate ligament injury in high school female athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosaka, Masahiro; Nakase, Junsuke; Numata, Hitoaki; Oshima, Takeshi; Takata, Yasushi; Moriyama, Shigenori; Oda, Takumi; Shima, Yosuke; Kitaoka, Katsuhiko; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between psychological competitive ability and the incidence of noncontact ACL injuries among high school female athletes. A three-year prospective cohort study was conducted using 300 15-year-old high school female athletes with no previous injuries or symptoms in their lower limbs (106 handball players and 194 basketball players). At baseline, their psychological competitive abilities were assessed using a self-administered questionnaire-the Diagnostic Inventory of Psychological Competitive Ability (DIPCA.3). After the baseline examination was performed at high school entry, all players were prospectively followed for 36months to document any subsequent incidence of ACL injury, according to their coaches. An unpaired t-test with Welch's correction was performed to compare the differences in the psychological competitive abilities between the injured and uninjured players. Of the 300 players, 25 (8.3%) experienced a noncontact ACL injury during the three-year observation period. The injured players had significantly higher total DIPCA.3 scores for psychological competitive ability than the uninjured players (169.9±18.8 vs. 159.2±21.6, P=.036). Additionally, the injured players had significantly higher scores than the uninjured players in the following categories: aggressiveness, volition for self-realization, volition for winning, judgment, and cooperation. However, no significant differences were observed in patience, self-control, ability to relax, concentration, confidence, decision, and predictive ability. High psychological competitive ability was associated with the incidence of noncontact ACL injuries in high school female athletes. Level II (prospective cohort study). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Hypermobility in Adolescent Athletes: Pain, Functional Ability, Quality of Life, and Musculoskeletal Injuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, Heidi; Pedersen, Trine Lykke; Junge, Tina; Engelbert, Raoul; Juul-Kristensen, Birgit

    2017-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional. BACKGROUND: Generalized joint hypermobility (GJH) may increase pain and likelihood of injuries and also decrease function and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in elite-level adolescent athletes. OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of GJH in elite-level adolescent

  4. Psychosocial factors influencing the recovery of athletes with anterior cruciate ligament injury : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Wierike, S. C. M.; van der Sluis, A.; van den Akker-Scheek, I.; Elferink-Gemser, M. T.; Visscher, C.

    2013-01-01

    This review describes the psychosocial factors that affect recovery following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury and reconstructive surgery in athletes. A systematic search in literature with inclusion and exclusion criteria on PubMed, PsycINFO, and Embase was performed. Articles used in this

  5. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF TRACK & FIELD INJURIES: A ONE YEAR EXPERIENCE IN ATHLETIC SCHOOLS

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    Apostolos TH Stergioulas

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to record injuries in track & field events that were sustained by students who attended the athletic schools during a one-year period. From September 2009 to May 2010, the researchers observed 2045 students (883 males and 1163 females, who were participating in track and field events at the mentioned schools. During the study period 150 injuries were recorded, which accounted for 13.3% of all injuries sustained by students. Most of the injuries (34% according to the diagnosis were sprains and strains and occurred during the months of February, December and January. A large percentage of the injuries (45.4% were sustained by students who attended the Athletic Schools, which operated in the urban region. Students who attended the second class sustained more injuries than the other classes (first and third. Students who were practising or competing on a tartan playing surface were more likely to sustain an injury. Knee and ankle were the most frequent anatomical sites in which injuries (43.9% occurred. Additionally, 80.0% of injuries occurred in students who were practising or competing in running events. No statistical differences were observed in all above mentioned parameters amongst male and female students. Physical education (P.E. teachers should place more emphasis on prevention measures. These measures should include proper supervision of students during training, warming up and cooling down sessions with stretching techniques. By following these suggestions students will compete in a safe and healthy environment.

  6. State-Level Implementation of Health and Safety Policies to Prevent Sudden Death and Catastrophic Injuries Within Secondary School Athletics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, William M; Scarneo, Samantha E; Casa, Douglas J

    2017-09-01

    Sudden death and catastrophic injuries during sport can be attenuated with the implementation of evidence-based health and safety policies. However, the extent of the implementation of these policies within secondary school athletics is unknown. To provide an assessment of the implementation of health and safety policies pertaining to the leading causes of sudden death and catastrophic injuries in sport within secondary school athletics in the United States. Descriptive epidemiology study. A rubric for evidence-based practices for preventing the leading causes of death and catastrophic injuries in sport was created. The rubric comprised 5 equally weighted sections for sudden cardiac arrest, head injuries, exertional heat stroke, appropriate medical coverage, and emergency preparedness. State high school athletic association (SHSAA) policies, enacted legislation, and Department of Education policies were extensively reviewed for all 50 states and the District of Columbia. States meeting the specific criteria in the rubric, which required policies to be mandated for all SHSAA member schools, were awarded credit; the weighted scores were tabulated to calculate an aggregate score. States were then ranked from 1 (best) to 51 (worst) based on the aggregate score achieved. The median score on the rubric was 47.1% (range, 23.00%-78.75%). States ranked 1 through 10 (from 78.75% to 56.98%) were North Carolina, Kentucky, Massachusetts, New Jersey, South Dakota, Missouri, Washington, Hawaii, Wisconsin, and Georgia, respectively. States ranked 11 through 20 (from 56.03% to 50.55%) were Arkansas, New York, Mississippi, West Virginia, Oregon, Illinois, Tennessee, Arizona, Texas, and District of Columbia, respectively. States ranked 21 through 30 (from 49.40% to 44.00%) were Virginia, Pennsylvania, Florida, New Mexico, Alabama, Maine, Rhode Island, Indiana, Nevada, and Utah, respectively. States ranked 31 through 40 (from 43.93% to 39.80%) were Ohio, Delaware, Alaska, Vermont

  7. State-Level Implementation of Health and Safety Policies to Prevent Sudden Death and Catastrophic Injuries Within Secondary School Athletics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, William M.; Scarneo, Samantha E.; Casa, Douglas J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Sudden death and catastrophic injuries during sport can be attenuated with the implementation of evidence-based health and safety policies. However, the extent of the implementation of these policies within secondary school athletics is unknown. Purpose: To provide an assessment of the implementation of health and safety policies pertaining to the leading causes of sudden death and catastrophic injuries in sport within secondary school athletics in the United States. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Methods: A rubric for evidence-based practices for preventing the leading causes of death and catastrophic injuries in sport was created. The rubric comprised 5 equally weighted sections for sudden cardiac arrest, head injuries, exertional heat stroke, appropriate medical coverage, and emergency preparedness. State high school athletic association (SHSAA) policies, enacted legislation, and Department of Education policies were extensively reviewed for all 50 states and the District of Columbia. States meeting the specific criteria in the rubric, which required policies to be mandated for all SHSAA member schools, were awarded credit; the weighted scores were tabulated to calculate an aggregate score. States were then ranked from 1 (best) to 51 (worst) based on the aggregate score achieved. Results: The median score on the rubric was 47.1% (range, 23.00%-78.75%). States ranked 1 through 10 (from 78.75% to 56.98%) were North Carolina, Kentucky, Massachusetts, New Jersey, South Dakota, Missouri, Washington, Hawaii, Wisconsin, and Georgia, respectively. States ranked 11 through 20 (from 56.03% to 50.55%) were Arkansas, New York, Mississippi, West Virginia, Oregon, Illinois, Tennessee, Arizona, Texas, and District of Columbia, respectively. States ranked 21 through 30 (from 49.40% to 44.00%) were Virginia, Pennsylvania, Florida, New Mexico, Alabama, Maine, Rhode Island, Indiana, Nevada, and Utah, respectively. States ranked 31 through 40 (from 43

  8. Editorial Commentary: Core Muscle Injuries or Athletic Pubalgia-Finally the Real Sausage, Not Just the Same Ole Baloney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, William C

    2017-05-01

    In their paper "Prevalence of Surgical Repair for Athletic Pubalgia and Impact on Performance in Football Athletes Participating in the National Football League Combine," Knapik et al. cut through the baloney in the literature on "sports hernia" and apply new eyes to the impact of the results of core muscle surgery on young elite athletes trying out for the National Football League (NFL). They found that the players who had surgery did just as well as all the others in and following NFL Combines. Even the players with presumptively residual, MRI findings did well. The paper is superb and identifies, in subtle ways, the importance of magnetic resonance imaging, as well as the role of experience in diagnosing and handling these injuries. The paper is a case control series that extracts tremendous beneficial information for sports physicians, athletic trainers, management, agents, players, and all of us Sunday afternoon, TV-watching football experts. Copyright © 2017 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Association between eating disorders and body image in athletes and non-athlete students in Qazvin University of Medical Sciences

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    M. Miri

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Body image dissatisfaction and eating disorders are of common problems in adolescence and adulthood especially among athletes. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the association of eating disorders and body image in athletes and non-athlete students in Qazvin University of Medical Sciences. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 226 athlete students and 350 non-athlete students of Qazvin University of Medical Sciences during 2013-2014. Students who followed a specific sport field and had participated in at least one sport event were considered as athlete students. All athlete students were entered the study by census method. Non-athlete students were selected among students who had not any exercise activity and by random sampling method. Data were collected through demographic questionnaire, Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26, and Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire (MBSRQ. Data were analyzed using T-test and Chi-square test. Results: Mean age was 21.92±3.19 years and mean body mass index (BMI was 22.24±3.18 kg/m2. The frequency of eating disorders was 11.5% among the athlete students and 11.2% among the non-athlete students. Anorexia nervosa was found to be more prevalent than bulimia nervosa in both groups. The students with normal BMI had better body image perception and less eating disorders symptoms than other students. The association of age, educational level, and gender with eating disorders and body image was not statistically significant. The association of eating disorders and body image was not statistically significant. Eating disorders were more prevalent in males than females but the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion: With regards to the results, it seems that eating disorders and body image dissatisfaction are relatively prevalent among both athletes and non-athlete students and BMI is predictor of eating disorders.

  10. Neurovascular injuries to the athlete's shoulder: part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aval, Soheil M; Durand, Pierre; Shankwiler, James A

    2007-05-01

    Athletes are at particular risk of compromise of the neurovascular structures of the shoulder-specifically, neurovascular conditions distal to the brachial plexus. These conditions include thoracic outlet syndrome, axillary artery occlusion, effort thrombosis, suprascapular nerve entrapment, quadrilateral space syndrome, and complex regional pain syndrome. When diagnosed properly and in a timely fashion, function of the limb can be preserved. To accomplish this, the physician must possess a detailed understanding of the various clinical presentations, diagnostic techniques, and treatment options.

  11. Ultrasound-guided Interventions for Core and Hip Injuries in Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Eoghan; Hegazi, Tarek M; Zoga, Adam C; Morrison, William B; Meyers, William C; Poor, Alex E; Nevalainen, Mika T; Roedl, Johannes B

    2016-09-01

    Trauma and the mechanical strain of high-energy activity predispose athletes to pelvic injuries. Magnetic resonance imaging remains the primary modality for diagnosing these conditions, but ultrasonography-guided interventions are important in the management of core muscle, hip, and other pelvic conditions. This article reviews ultrasonography-guided interventions for injuries at the core, including the pelvis and hips. It reviews common injuries, procedure optimization, medication preparation, clinical evidence behind injections, tenotomy, and platelet-rich plasma. These interventions are especially important in athletes, because ultrasonography-guided procedures are often undertaken early in the treatment process, paralleling conservative rehabilitation to facilitate a faster return to play. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The diagnosis and nonoperative treatment of shoulder injuries in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobe, F W; Bradley, J P

    1989-07-01

    The specific emphasis in this article has been directed toward the diagnosis of prevalent shoulder pathology in a young athletic population; however, as the interest in sports has blossomed in recent years now encompassing a larger age range, the physician must not neglect common pathologic conditions of the older athletes. Fastidious adherence to complete history, physical examination, and a high level of suspicion for uncommon disorders is paramount. Arthritides such as osteo, rheumatoid, septic, and lyme as well as the hematologic disorders of multiple myeloma, lymphomas, leukemia, hemophilia, and Gaucher's disease can all present with shoulder pain. Thoracic outlet syndrome, scalene syndrome, supra-scapular nerve syndrome, and quadrilateral space syndrome comprise a group of nerve compression syndromes that are becoming more apparent as our diagnostic skills improve. Yet, the most pervasive disorders in the young athlete are due to lack of shoulder stability. By understanding the delicate balance in normal shoulder between mobility and stability, the clinician is better able to conceptualize the etiology and progression of the problem, and design the optimal treatment program.

  13. National Athletic Trainers' Association Position Statement: Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersey, Robert D.; Elliot, Diane L.; Goldberg, Linn; Kanayama, Gen; Leone, James E.; Pavlovich, Mike; Pope, Harrison G.

    2012-01-01

    This NATA position statement was developed by the NATA Research & Education Foundation. Objective This manuscript summarizes the best available scholarly evidence related to anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) as a reference for health care professionals, including athletic trainers, educators, and interested others. Background Health care professionals associated with sports or exercise should understand and be prepared to educate others about AAS. These synthetic, testosterone-based derivatives are widely abused by athletes and nonathletes to gain athletic performance advantages, develop their physiques, and improve their body image. Although AAS can be ergogenic, their abuse may lead to numerous negative health effects. Recommendations Abusers of AAS often rely on questionable information sources. Sports medicine professionals can therefore serve an important role by providing accurate, reliable information. The recommendations provide health care professionals with a current and accurate synopsis of the AAS-related research. PMID:23068595

  14. National Athletic Trainers' Association position statement: anabolic-androgenic steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersey, Robert D; Elliot, Diane L; Goldberg, Linn; Kanayama, Gen; Leone, James E; Pavlovich, Mike; Pope, Harrison G

    2012-01-01

    This manuscript summarizes the best available scholarly evidence related to anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) as a reference for health care professionals, including athletic trainers, educators, and interested others. Health care professionals associated with sports or exercise should understand and be prepared to educate others about AAS. These synthetic, testosterone-based derivatives are widely abused by athletes and nonathletes to gain athletic performance advantages, develop their physiques, and improve their body image. Although AAS can be ergogenic, their abuse may lead to numerous negative health effects. Abusers of AAS often rely on questionable information sources. Sports medicine professionals can therefore serve an important role by providing accurate, reliable information. The recommendations provide health care professionals with a current and accurate synopsis of the AAS-related research.

  15. The psychological response to injury in student athletes: a narrative review with a focus on mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putukian, Margot

    2016-02-01

    Injury is a major stressor for athletes and one that can pose significant challenges. Student athletes must handle rigorous academic as well as athletic demands that require time as well as significant physical requirements. Trying to perform and succeed in the classroom and on the playing field has become more difficult as the demands and expectations have increased. If an athlete is injured, these stressors increase. Stress is an important antecedent to injuries and can play a role in the response to, rehabilitation and return to play after injury. The psychological response to injury can trigger and/or unmask mental health issues including depression and suicidal ideation, anxiety, disordered eating, and substance use/abuse. There are barriers to mental health treatment in athletes. They often consider seeking help as a sign of weakness, feeling that they should be able to 'push through' psychological obstacles as they do physical ones. Athletes may not have developed healthy coping behaviours making response to injury especially challenging. I discuss the current state of knowledge regarding the psychological response to injury and delineate resources necessary to direct the injured athlete to a mental health care provider if appropriate. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  16. Effects of knee injury primary prevention programs on anterior cruciate ligament injury rates in female athletes in different sports: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelidis, Michael; Koumantakis, George A

    2014-08-01

    Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) injury is frequently encountered in sports. To analyze the effects of ACL injury prevention programs on injury rates in female athletes between different sports. A comprehensive literature search was performed in September 2012 using Pubmed Central, Science Direct, CINAHL, PEDro, Cochrane Library, SCOPUS, SPORTDiscus. The key words used were: 'anterior cruciate ligament', 'ACL', 'knee joint', 'knee injuries', 'female', 'athletes', 'neuromuscular', 'training', 'prevention'. The inclusion criteria applied were: (1) ACL injury prevention training programs for female athletes; (2) Athlete-exposure data reporting; (3) Effect of training on ACL incidence rates for female athletes. 13 studies met the inclusion criteria. Three training programs in soccer and one in handball led to reduced ACL injury incidence. In basketball no effective training intervention was found. In season training was more effective than preseason in ACL injury prevention. A combination of strength training, plyometrics, balance training, technique monitoring with feedback, produced the most favorable results. Comparing the main components of ACL injury prevention programs for female athletes, some sports-dependent training specificity issues may need addressing in future studies, related primarily to the individual biomechanics of each sport but also their most effective method of delivery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Injury Incidence and Patterns Among Dutch CrossFit Athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehrab, M. (Mirwais); R.J. de Vos (Robert-Jan); G.A. Kraan (Gerald); N.M.C. Mathijssen (Nina M.C.)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBackground: CrossFit is a strength and conditioning program that has gained widespread recognition, with 11,000 affiliated gyms worldwide. The incidence of injuries during CrossFit training is poorly analyzed. Purpose: To investigate the incidence of injuries for persons participating in

  18. A longitudinal pilot study of depressive symptoms in concussed and injured/nonconcussed National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I student-athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roiger, Trevor; Weidauer, Lee; Kern, Bryce

    2015-03-01

    Depression, which affects millions of Americans each year, among them collegiate student-athletes, can be caused by a wide range of circumstances, including sport-related injuries. To longitudinally examine the extent to which National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I student-athletes demonstrated postinjury depressive symptoms. Descriptive epidemiologic study. National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I collegiate athletics. Concussed, injured/nonconcussed, and healthy Division I collegiate student-athletes (aged 18-22 years) competing in men's basketball, football, and wrestling and women's basketball, soccer, and volleyball. Participants completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale at baseline and at 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months postinjury. We measured differences in depressive scores among concussed, injured/nonconcussed, and healthy participants. Longitudinal changes in postconcussion depressive symptoms were also examined. No differences in baseline depressive symptoms among subgroups were noted. After an increase between baseline and 1 week (4.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.41, 8.16, P = .02), depressive symptoms in the concussion group decreased between 1 week and 1 month (-2.7, 95% CI = -4.96, -0.47, P = .01) and between 1 week and 3 months (-4.0, 95% CI = -6.50, -1.49, P = .004). The injured/nonconcussed group showed differences between baseline and 1 week (4.6, 95% CI = 1.08, 8.17, P = .009) and between baseline and 1 month (3.2, 95% CI = -0.05, 6.30, P = .03). No significant differences were present in depressive symptoms between concussed participants and injured/nonconcussed participants at any of the postinjury time points. Depression may present as a postinjury sequela in Division I collegiate athletes. Athletes who sustain a concussion or other injury resulting in time lost from practice or competition need to be observed carefully for signs and symptoms that may indicate depression. Tools such as the

  19. [Shoulder and arm injuries in alpine ski racing. A survey on the frequency of these injuries with athletes of the Swiss Ski cadres and the regional cadres].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, C; Schlegel, Ch; Bachmann, S

    2008-11-05

    The aim of this work was to examine the frequency and pattern of injuries of the upper extremity among Swiss Ski athletes and among regional team athletes. The injury pattern regarding shoulder and arm injuries in alpine skiers in Switzerland correlates with the previous literature. The shoulder joint is most frequently injured, followed by injuries of the fingers, particularly the thumb. Regarding injury frequency no difference between ladies and men was seen. On the other hand, an increased injury rate could be seen in regional team drivers. Most injuries happened for both genders and in all teams in the training. While in men all injury patterns (contusions, tendon injuries, luxations, fractures) occur, fractures are the dominating injury in ladies.

  20. Physical Exam Risk Factors for Lower Extremity Injury in High School Athletes: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onate, James A; Everhart, Joshua S; Clifton, Daniel R; Best, Thomas M; Borchers, James R; Chaudhari, Ajit M W

    2016-11-01

    A stated goal of the preparticipation physical evaluation (PPE) is to reduce musculoskeletal injury, yet the musculoskeletal portion of the PPE is reportedly of questionable use in assessing lower extremity injury risk in high school-aged athletes. The objectives of this study are: (1) identify clinical assessment tools demonstrated to effectively determine lower extremity injury risk in a prospective setting, and (2) critically assess the methodological quality of prospective lower extremity risk assessment studies that use these tools. A systematic search was performed in PubMed, CINAHL, UptoDate, Google Scholar, Cochrane Reviews, and SportDiscus. Inclusion criteria were prospective injury risk assessment studies involving athletes primarily ages 13 to 19 that used screening methods that did not require highly specialized equipment. Methodological quality was evaluated with a modified physiotherapy evidence database (PEDro) scale. Nine studies were included. The mean modified PEDro score was 6.0/10 (SD, 1.5). Multidirectional balance (odds ratio [OR], 3.0; CI, 1.5-6.1; P < 0.05) and physical maturation status (P < 0.05) were predictive of overall injury risk, knee hyperextension was predictive of anterior cruciate ligament injury (OR, 5.0; CI, 1.2-18.4; P < 0.05), hip external:internal rotator strength ratio of patellofemoral pain syndrome (P = 0.02), and foot posture index of ankle sprain (r = -0.339, P = 0.008). Minimal prospective evidence supports or refutes the use of the functional musculoskeletal exam portion of the current PPE to assess lower extremity injury risk in high school athletes. Limited evidence does support inclusion of multidirectional balance assessment and physical maturation status in a musculoskeletal exam as both are generalizable risk factors for lower extremity injury.

  1. Prevention of shoulder injuries in overhead athletes: a science-based approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann M. Cools

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The shoulder is at high risk for injury during overhead sports, in particular in throwing or hitting activities, such as baseball, tennis, handball, and volleyball. In order to create a scientific basis for the prevention of recurrent injuries in overhead athletes, four steps need to be undertaken: (1 risk factors for injury and re-injury need to be defined; (2 established risk factors may be used as return-to-play criteria, with cut-off values based on normative databases; (3 these variables need to be measured using reliable, valid assessment tools and procedures; and (4 preventative training programs need to be designed and implemented into the training program of the athlete in order to prevent re-injury. In general, three risk factors have been defined that may form the basis for recommendations for the prevention of recurrent injury and return to play after injury: glenohumeral internal-rotation deficit (GIRD; rotator cuff strength, in particular the strength of the external rotators; and scapular dyskinesis, in particular scapular position and strength.

  2. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF KNEE INJURIES AMONG US HIGH SCHOOL ATHLETES, 2005/06–2010/11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, David M.; Collins, Christy L.; Best, Thomas M.; Flanigan, David C.; Fields, Sarah K.; Comstock, R. Dawn

    2012-01-01

    Purpose US high school athletes sustain millions of injuries annually. Detailed patterns of knee injuries, among the most costly sports injuries, remain largely unknown. We hypothesize that patterns of knee injuries in US high school sports differ by sport and gender. Methods US High school sports-related injury data were collected for 20 sports using the National High School Sports-Related Injury Surveillance System, High School RIO™. Knee injury rates, rate ratios, and injury proportion ratios were calculated. Results From 2005/06–2010/11, 5,116 knee injuries occurred during 17,172,376 athlete exposures (AEs) for an overall rate of 2.98 knee injuries per 10,000 AEs. Knee injuries were more common in competition than practice (RR 3.53, 95% CI 3.34–3.73). Football had the highest knee injury rate (6.29 per 10,000 AEs) followed by girls’ soccer (4.53) and girls’ gymnastics (4.23). Girls had significantly higher knee injury rates than boys in gender-comparable sports (soccer, volleyball, basketball, baseball/softball, lacrosse, swimming and diving, and track and field) (RR 1.52, 95% CI 1.39–1.65). The most commonly involved structure was the MCL (reported in 36.1% of knee injuries), followed by the patella/patellar tendon (29.5%), ACL (25.4%), meniscus (23.0%), LCL (7.9%), and PCL (2.4%). Girls were significantly more likely to sustain ACL injuries in gender-comparable sports (RR 2.38, 95% CI 1.91–2.95). Overall, 21.2% of knee injuries were treated with surgery; girls were more often treated with surgery than boys in gender-comparable sports (IPR 1.30, 95% CI 1.11–1.53). Conclusions Knee injury patterns differ by sport and gender. Continuing efforts to develop preventive interventions could reduce the burden of these injuries. PMID:23059869

  3. Injuries and Footwear (Part 1): Athletic Shoe History and Injuries in Relation to Foot Arch Height and Training in Boots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapik, Joseph J; Pope, Rodney; Orr, Robin; Grier, Tyson

    2015-01-01

    This article traces the history of the athletic shoe, examines whether selecting running shoes based on foot arch height influences injuries, and examines historical data on injury rates when physical training (PT) is performed in boots versus running shoes. In the 1980s and into the 2000s, running shoe companies were advertising specialized shoes with "motion control," "stability," and "cushioning," designed for individuals with low, normal, and high arches, respectively. Despite marketing claims that these shoes would reduce injury rates, coordinated studies in Army, Air Force, and Marine Corps basic training showed that assigning or selecting shoes on this basis had no effect on injury rates. Consistent with this finding, biomechanical studies have shown that the relationships between arch height, foot joint mobility, and rear-foot motion are complex, variable, and frequently not as strong as often assumed. In 1982, the US Army switched from PT in boots to PT in running shoes because of the belief that boots were causing injuries and that running shoes would reduce injury rates. However, a historical comparison of injury rates before and after the switch to running shoes showed virtually no difference in injury risk between the two periods. It is not clear at this point if the type of footwear effects injury incidence. 2015.

  4. The Effectiveness of Injury Prevention Programs to Modify Risk Factors for Non-Contact Anterior Cruciate Ligament and Hamstring Injuries in Uninjured Team Sports Athletes: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monajati, Alireza; Larumbe-Zabala, Eneko; Goss-Sampson, Mark; Naclerio, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Hamstring strain and anterior cruciate ligament injuries are, respectively, the most prevalent and serious non-contact occurring injuries in team sports. Specific biomechanical and neuromuscular variables have been used to estimate the risk of incurring a non-contact injury in athletes. The aim of this study was to systematically review the evidences for the effectiveness of injury prevention protocols to modify biomechanical and neuromuscular anterior cruciate and/or hamstring injuries associated risk factors in uninjured team sport athletes. PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Science, Cochrane Libraries, U.S. National Institutes of Health clinicaltrials.gov, Sport Discuss and Google Scholar databases were searched for relevant journal articles published until March 2015. A manual review of relevant articles, authors, and journals, including bibliographies was performed from identified articles. Nineteen studies were included in this review. Four assessment categories: i) landing, ii) side cutting, iii) stop-jump, and iv) muscle strength outcomes, were used to analyze the effectiveness of the preventive protocols. Eight studies using multifaceted interventions supported by video and/or technical feedback showed improvement in landing and/or stop-jump biomechanics, while no effects were observed on side-cutting maneuver. Additionally, multifaceted programs including hamstring eccentric exercises increased hamstring strength, hamstring to quadriceps functional ratio and/or promoted a shift of optimal knee flexion peak torque toward a more open angle position. Multifaceted programs, supported by proper video and/or technical feedback, including eccentric hamstring exercises would positively modify the biomechanical and or neuromuscular anterior cruciate and/or hamstring injury risk factors.

  5. The Effectiveness of Injury Prevention Programs to Modify Risk Factors for Non-Contact Anterior Cruciate Ligament and Hamstring Injuries in Uninjured Team Sports Athletes: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Monajati

    Full Text Available Hamstring strain and anterior cruciate ligament injuries are, respectively, the most prevalent and serious non-contact occurring injuries in team sports. Specific biomechanical and neuromuscular variables have been used to estimate the risk of incurring a non-contact injury in athletes.The aim of this study was to systematically review the evidences for the effectiveness of injury prevention protocols to modify biomechanical and neuromuscular anterior cruciate and/or hamstring injuries associated risk factors in uninjured team sport athletes.PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Science, Cochrane Libraries, U.S. National Institutes of Health clinicaltrials.gov, Sport Discuss and Google Scholar databases were searched for relevant journal articles published until March 2015. A manual review of relevant articles, authors, and journals, including bibliographies was performed from identified articles.Nineteen studies were included in this review. Four assessment categories: i landing, ii side cutting, iii stop-jump, and iv muscle strength outcomes, were used to analyze the effectiveness of the preventive protocols. Eight studies using multifaceted interventions supported by video and/or technical feedback showed improvement in landing and/or stop-jump biomechanics, while no effects were observed on side-cutting maneuver. Additionally, multifaceted programs including hamstring eccentric exercises increased hamstring strength, hamstring to quadriceps functional ratio and/or promoted a shift of optimal knee flexion peak torque toward a more open angle position.Multifaceted programs, supported by proper video and/or technical feedback, including eccentric hamstring exercises would positively modify the biomechanical and or neuromuscular anterior cruciate and/or hamstring injury risk factors.

  6. Dosage Effects of Neuromuscular Training Intervention to Reduce Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries in Female Athletes: Meta-and Sub-group Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Dai; Myer, Gregory D.; Barber Foss, Kim D.; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although a series of meta-analysis demonstrated neuromuscular training (NMT) is an effective intervention to reduce anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in female athletes, the potential existence of a dosage effect remains unknown. Objective To systematically review previously published clinical trials and evaluate potential dosage effects of NMT for ACL injury reduction in female athletes. Design Meta- and Sub-group analyses Setting The key words “knee”, “anterior cruciate ligament”, “ACL”, “prospective”, “neuromuscular”, “training”, “female”, and “prevention” were utilized in PubMed and EBSCO host for studies published between 1995 and May 2012. Participants Inclusion criteria set for studies in the current analysis were: 1) recruited female athletes as subjects, 2) documented the number of ACL injuries, 3) employed a NMT intervention aimed to reduce ACL injuries, 4) had a control group, 5) used a prospective control trial design and 6) provided NMT session duration and frequency information. Main outcome measures The number of ACL injuries and female athletes in each group (control and intervention) were compared based on duration, frequency, and volume of NMT through odds ratio (OR). Results A total of 14 studies were reviewed. Analyses that compared the number of ACL injuries with short versus long NMT duration showed greater ACL injury reduction in female athletes who were in the long NMT duration (OR:0.35, 95%CI: 0.23, 0.53, p=0.001) than the short NMT duration (OR: 0.61, 95%CI: 0.41, 0.90, p=0.013) group. Analysis that compared single versus multi NMT frequency indicated greater ACL injury reduction in multi NMT frequency (OR: 0.35, 95%CI: 0.23, 0.53, p=0.001) compared to single NMT frequency (OR: 0.62, 95%CI:0.41, 0.94, p=0.024). Combining the duration and frequency of NMT programs, an inverse dose-response association emerged among low (OR: 0.66, 95%CI: 0.43, 0.99, p=0.045), moderate (OR: 0.46, 95%CI: 0.21, 1

  7. Relationships among injury and disordered eating, menstrual dysfunction, and low bone mineral density in high school athletes: a prospective study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rauh, Mitchell J; Nichols, Jeanne F; Barrack, Michelle T

    2010-01-01

    ...) and musculoskeletal injury among girls in high school sports. Prospective cohort study. The sample consisted of 163 female athletes competing in 8 interscholastic sports in southern California during the 2003-2004 school year...

  8. National Strength and Conditioning Association Position Statement on Long-Term Athletic Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Rhodri S; Cronin, John B; Faigenbaum, Avery D; Haff, G Gregory; Howard, Rick; Kraemer, William J; Micheli, Lyle J; Myer, Gregory D; Oliver, Jon L

    2016-06-01

    There has recently been a growing interest in long-term athletic development for youth. Because of their unique physical, psychological, and social differences, children and adolescents should engage in appropriately prescribed exercise programs that promote physical development to prevent injury and enhance fitness behaviors that can be retained later in life. Irrespective of whether a child is involved in organized sport or engages in recreational physical activity, there remains a need to adopt a structured, logical, and evidence-based approach to the long-term development of athleticism. This is of particular importance considering the alarmingly high number of youth who fail to meet global physical activity recommendations and consequently present with negative health profiles. However, appropriate exercise prescription is also crucial for those young athletes who are physically underprepared and at risk of overuse injury because of high volumes of competition and an absence of preparatory conditioning. Whether the child accumulates insufficient or excessive amounts of exercise, or falls somewhere between these opposing ends of the spectrum, it is generally accepted that the young bodies of modern day youth are often ill-prepared to tolerate the rigors of sports or physical activity. All youth should engage in regular physical activity and thus should be viewed as "athletes" and afforded the opportunity to enhance athleticism in an individualized, holistic, and child-centered manner. Because of emerging interest in long-term athletic development, an authorship team was tasked on behalf of the National Strength and Conditioning Association (NSCA) to critically synthesize existing literature and current practices within the field and to compose a relevant position statement. This document was subsequently reviewed and formally ratified by the NSCA Board of Directors. A list of 10 pillars of successful long-term athletic development are presented, which summarize

  9. Transportation Practices in Community College Athletics

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaVetter, David; Kim, Hyun Duck

    2010-01-01

    Over 45,000 U.S. community college athletes were transported to events during 2005-2006. Transporting college athletes has been an overlooked risk management issue facing administrators. Team travel accidents have caused death, injury, liability claims, property loss, and grief. National Junior College Athletic Association (NJCAA) member…

  10. Anterior cruciate ligament injuries in pediatric athletes presenting to sports medicine clinic: a comparison of males and females through growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stracciolini, Andrea; Stein, Cynthia J; Zurakowski, David; Meehan, William P; Myer, Gregory D; Micheli, Lyle J

    2015-03-01

    Limited data exist regarding the effect of the growth process on anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury risk in male versus female children. The proportion of ACL injuries/sports injuries presenting to clinic will vary by age, sex, and body mass index (BMI). Cross-sectional epidemiologic study. Level 3. The study group consisted of a randomly selected 5% probability sample of all children 5 to 17 years of age presenting to a sports medicine clinic from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2009; 2133 charts were reviewed. Data collected included demographics, height and weight, injury mechanism, diagnosis, treatment, previous injury, and organized sports. A total of 206 ACL tears were analyzed (104 girls, 102 boys). Girls were slightly older than boys (15.1 ± 1.7 vs 14.3 ± 2.1 years; P < 0.01). Male-female comparison of ACL injury/total injury by age revealed that girls had a steeper increase by age than boys. Among 5- to 12-year-olds, boys had a higher ACL injury/total injury ratio than girls (all P < 0.01). Children 13 to 17 years of age showed no significant difference for sex in ACL injury/total injury ratio. As age advanced, the proportion of ACL injuries/total injuries increased for both girls (P < 0.01) and boys (P = 0.04). BMI was independently associated with an ACL injury (P < 0.01). The proportion of ACL injuries/total injuries was similar for boys and girls aged 13 to 17 years. Girls showed a significantly steeper increase in ACL injury proportion versus boys through puberty. This study will increase clinician awareness of ACL injury occurrence in young male and female athletes 5 to 12 years of age. Injury prevention efforts should target young girls before the onset of puberty and before injury occurs.

  11. An evaluation of an educational intervention in psychology of injury for athletic training students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiller-Ostrowski, Jennifer L; Gould, Daniel R; Covassin, Tracey

    2009-01-01

    "Psychosocial Intervention and Referral" is 1 of the 12 content areas in athletic training education programs, but knowledge gained and skill usage after an educational intervention in this area have never been evaluated. To evaluate the effectiveness of an educational intervention in increasing psychology-of-injury knowledge and skill usage in athletic training students (ATSs). Observational study. An accredited athletic training education program at a large Midwestern university. Participants included 26 ATSs divided into 2 groups: intervention group (4 men, 7 women; age = 21.4 +/- 0.67 years, grade point average = 3.37) and control group (7 men, 8 women; age = 21.5 +/- 3.8 years, grade point average = 3.27). All participants completed the Applied Sport Psychology for Athletic Trainers educational intervention. Psychology-of-injury knowledge tests and skill usage surveys were administered to all participants at the following intervals: baseline, intervention week 3, and intervention week 6. Retention tests were administered to intervention-group participants at 7 and 14 weeks after intervention. Analysis techniques included mixed-model analysis of variance (ANOVA) and repeated-measures ANOVA. The Applied Sport Psychology for Athletic Trainers educational intervention effectively increased psychology-of-injury knowledge (29-point increase from baseline to intervention week 6; F(2,23) = 29.358, P educational intervention designed to improve ATSs' knowledge and skill usage revealed that the intervention was effective. Although both knowledge and skill usage scores decreased by the end of the retention period, the scores were still higher than baseline scores, indicating that the intervention was effective.

  12. Performance-Based Outcomes after Operative Management of Athletic Pubalgia / Core Muscle Injury in National Football League Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Thomas Sean; Kosanovic, Radomir; Gibbs, Daniel Bradley; Park, Caroline; Bedi, Asheesh; Larson, Christopher M.; Ahmad, Christopher S.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Athletic pubalgia is a condition in which there is an injury to the core musculature that precipitates groin and lower abdominal pain, particularly in cutting and pivoting sports. These are common injury patterns in the National Football League (NFL); however, the effect of surgery on performance for these players has not been described. Methods: Athletes in the NFL that underwent a surgical procedure for athletic pubalgia / core muscle injury (CMI) were identified through team injury reports and archives on public record since 2004. Outcome data was collected for athletes who met inclusion criteria which included total games played after season of injury / surgery, number of Pro Bowls voted to, yearly total years and touchdowns for offensive players and yearly total tackles sacks and interceptions for defensive players. Previously validated performance scores were calculated using this data for each player one season before and after their procedure for a CMI. Athletes were then matched to control professional football players without a diagnosis of athletic pubalgia by age, position, year and round drafted. Statistical analysis was used to compare pre-injury and post-injury performance measures for players treated with operative management to their case controls. Results: The study group was composed of 32 NFL athletes who underwent operative management for athletic pubalgia that met inclusion criteria during this study period, including 18 offensive players and 16 defensive players. The average age of athletes undergoing this surgery was 27 years old. Analysis of pre- and post-injury athletic performance revealed no statistically significant changes after return to sport after surgical intervention; however, there was a statistically significant difference in the number of Pro Bowls that affected athletes participated in before surgery (8) compared to the season after surgery (3). Analysis of durability, as measured by total number of games played

  13. Athletic injuries of the extensor carpi ulnaris subsheath: MRI findings and utility of gadolinium-enhanced fat-saturated T1-weighted sequences with wrist pronation and supination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeantroux, Jeremy; Guerini, Henri; Drape, Jean-Luc [Universite Paris Descartes, Department of Radiology B, Hopital Cochin, AP-HP, Paris (France); Becce, Fabio [Universite Paris Descartes, Department of Radiology B, Hopital Cochin, AP-HP, Paris (France); University of Lausanne, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne (Switzerland); Montalvan, Bernard [French Tennis Federation, Paris (France); Viet, Dominique Le [Hand Institute, Clinique Jouvenet, Paris (France)

    2011-01-15

    To report the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in athletic injuries of the extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU) subsheath, assessing the utility of gadolinium-enhanced (Gd) fat-saturated (FS) T1-weighted sequences with wrist pronation and supination. Sixteen patients (13 male, three female; mean age 30.3 years) with athletic injuries of the ECU subsheath sustained between January 2003 and June 2009 were included in this retrospective study. Initial and follow-up 1.5-T wrist MRIs were performed with transverse T1-weighted and STIR sequences in pronation, and Gd FS T1-weighted sequences with wrist pronation and supination. Two radiologists assessed the type of injury (A to C), ECU tendon stability, associated lesions and rated pulse sequences using a three-point scale: 1 = poor, 2 = good and 3 = excellent. Gd-enhanced FS T1-weighted transverse sequences in supination (2.63) and pronation (2.56) were most valuable, compared with STIR (2.19) and T1-weighted (1.94). Nine type A, one type B and six type C injuries were found. There were trends towards diminution in size, signal intensity and enhancement of associated pouches on follow-up MRI and tendon stabilisation within the ulnar groove. Gd-enhanced FS T1-weighted sequences with wrist pronation and supination are most valuable in assessing and follow-up athletic injuries of the ECU subsheath on 1.5-T MRI. (orig.)

  14. Implications of altered autonomic control on sports performance in athletes with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Sebastian; Blauwet, Cheri A

    2017-04-04

    It is well known that athletes with spinal cord injury (SCI) may experience altered autonomic physiology that impacts their exercise capacity and sports performance. This is particularly relevant given the ever-increasing number of individuals with SCI who are actively engaged in sports at all levels, from community-based adaptive sports to elite Paralympic competitions. As such, the purpose of this article is to review the present literature regarding the implications of altered autonomic control on the safety and performance of athletes with SCI. A particular emphasis will be placed on the autonomic aspects of cardiovascular and thermoregulatory control in the athlete population, as well as the implications of autonomic dysreflexia in enhancing sports performance. Further research is needed to understand the autonomic factors that influence athletes with SCI in order to ensure optimal and safe sports competition. Additionally, this information is crucially relevant to the coaches, sports administrators, and team medical staff who work closely with athletes with SCI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Prevalence of exercise-associated hyponatremia in male ultraendurance athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knechtle, Beat; Gnädinger, Markus; Knechtle, Patrizia; Imoberdorf, Reinhard; Kohler, Götz; Ballmer, Peter; Rosemann, Thomas; Senn, Oliver

    2011-05-01

    The prevalence of exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH) has mainly been investigated in marathoners and Ironman triathletes. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of EAH in male ultraendurance athletes in other disciplines, such as ultraswimming, ultracycling, and ultramarathon running. Observational field study. "Marathon Swim" in Lake Zurich, the "Swiss Cycling Marathon," the "Swiss Bike Masters," the "100-km Lauf Biel," and the "Swiss Jura Marathon." Fifteen ultraswimmers, 28 ultra-road cyclists, 37 ultra-mountain bikers, 95 ultramarathoners, and 25 mountain ultramarathoners. Changes in body mass, plasma sodium, urinary specific gravity, and hematocrit were measured. The athletes recorded their intake of fluids. Two swimmers (13%), 3 road cyclists (10.7%), no mountain bikers (0%), 5 ultramarathoners (5%), and 2 mountain ultramarathoners (8%) developed EAH. In the mountain bikers (r = -0.41) and the 100-km ultramarathoners (r = -0.52), fluid intake was significantly and negatively related to race time. In the mountain ultramarathoners, fluid consumption increased during the race. The prevalence of EAH was no higher in ultraendurance athletes compared with existing reports on marathoners and Ironman triathletes. Of the 200 investigated ultraendurance athletes, 12 finishers (6%) developed EAH. 2011 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

  16. National collegiate athletic association division and primary job title of athletic trainers and their job satisfaction or intention to leave athletic training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terranova, Aaron B; Henning, Jolene M

    2011-01-01

    Membership in the National Athletic Trainers' Association (NATA) has declined in recent years, generating much debate about professional commitment. To compare the contributing factors of job satisfaction and intention to leave athletic training of certified athletic trainers (ATs) employed in National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) institutions. Cross-sectional study. A link to a Web-based questionnaire containing the Spector Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS) and an original Intention to Leave Survey (ITLS) was distributed by e-mail to 1003 certified members of the National Athletic Trainers' Association. A total of 191 certified members of the NATA employed in a college or university setting in a primarily clinical capacity; representing all NCAA divisions; and having the job title of head athletic trainer, associate/assistant athletic trainer, or graduate assistant/intern athletic trainer. We used separate 3 x 3 factorial analyses of variance to compare the mean scores of each JSS subscale and of the ITLS with NCAA division and job title. A stepwise multiple regression was used to determine the strength of the relationships between the JSS subscales and the ITLS. We found differences for job title in the subscales of Fringe Benefits (F(2182) = 7.82, P = .001 ) and Operating Conditions (F(2,182) = 12.01, P job satisfaction and intention to leave athletic training. The NCAA division seemed to have no effect on an individual's job satisfaction or intention to leave the profession. In addition, only Fringe Benefits and Operating Conditions seemed to be affected by job title. The ATs had similar levels of job satisfaction regardless of NCAA division, and their job titles were not a major factor in job satisfaction.

  17. National Collegiate Athletic Association Division and Primary Job Title of Athletic Trainers and Their Job Satisfaction or Intention to Leave Athletic Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terranova, Aaron B.; Henning, Jolene M.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Membership in the National Athletic Trainers' Association (NATA) has declined in recent years, generating much debate about professional commitment. Objective: To compare the contributing factors of job satisfaction and intention to leave athletic training of certified athletic trainers (ATs) employed in National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) institutions. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: A link to a Web-based questionnaire containing the Spector Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS) and an original Intention to Leave Survey (ITLS) was distributed by e-mail to 1003 certified members of the National Athletic Trainers' Association. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 191 certified members of the NATA employed in a college or university setting in a primarily clinical capacity; representing all NCAA divisions; and having the job title of head athletic trainer, associate/assistant athletic trainer, or graduate assistant/intern athletic trainer. Main Outcome Measure(s): We used separate 3 × 3 factorial analyses of variance to compare the mean scores of each JSS subscale and of the ITLS with NCAA division and job title. A stepwise multiple regression was used to determine the strength of the relationships between the JSS subscales and the ITLS. Results: We found differences for job title in the subscales of Fringe Benefits (F2,182 = 7.82, P = .001) and Operating Conditions (F2,182 = 12.01, P job satisfaction and intention to leave athletic training. The NCAA division seemed to have no effect on an individual's job satisfaction or intention to leave the profession. In addition, only Fringe Benefits and Operating Conditions seemed to be affected by job title. The ATs had similar levels of job satisfaction regardless of NCAA division, and their job titles were not a major factor in job satisfaction. PMID:21669102

  18. Orthopaedic injuries associated with skimboarding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciarretta, Kathryn H; McKenna, Matthew J; Riccio, Anthony I

    2009-07-01

    Skimboarding is a beachside water sport that is enjoying increasing popularity among both dedicated enthusiasts and casual beachgoers. Although many consider this sport to be similar to its "sister" sport, surfing, the technique, the environment in which it is performed, and the skills required differ dramatically from that of surfing. Moreover, the pattern of injuries seen in skimboarders differs substantially from those sustained while surfing. A better understanding of the injuries encountered in this sport will allow improved participant education and facilitate the implementation of preventative measures. Descriptive epidemiology study. A case series was generated by performing a single retrospective chart review of skimboarding injuries referred for orthopaedic evaluation over a 2-year period at 2 medical treatment facilities, one on the East Coast and one on the West Coast of the United States; demographic data, injury type, and treatments rendered were documented. Sixty-one patients were identified and analyzed. Average patient age was 19.1 years. Fractures represented 93.4% of all acute injuries. The most common sites of injury were the ankle (41%) and wrist (36%). Rotation about a planted lower extremity was the most common mechanism of injury (30/61, 49%), followed by falls onto an outstretched hand (26/61, 43%). Fractures of the ankle and wrist comprise a high proportion of skimboarding injuries. Knowledge of potential hazards associated with this sport should be made available to participants. To decrease the risk of orthopaedic injury, the use of protective equipment or instruction in proper techniques of the activity may be warranted.

  19. Reducing the Risk of ACL Injury in Female Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Larry W.; Rasche, Adrienna; Gaudet, Laura; Jackson, Allen

    2010-01-01

    The Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) is located behind the kneecap (patella) and connects the thigh bone (femur) to the shin bone (tibia). Stabilizing the knee joint is the primary responsibility of the ACL. Injuries that affect the ACL are three to five times more common in females than males. This is a result of anatomical, biomechanical,…

  20. Implementing Athletic Trainers for the Management of Cheerleading Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Mikiko; Valdez, Josepha M.

    2013-01-01

    Cheerleading used to be about standing on the sidelines waving pom-poms. Now, cheerleaders are thrown 10 feet in the air and perform high-level gymnastics skills. For this reason, cheerleading has become the leading cause of catastrophic sport injuries in the United States. Football, which is one of the most dangerous sports, has abundant access…

  1. A systematic review of the psychological factors associated with returning to sport following injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardern, Clare L; Taylor, Nicholas F; Feller, Julian A; Webster, Kate E

    2013-11-01

    Psychological factors have been shown to be associated with the recovery and rehabilitation period following sports injury, but less is known about the psychological response associated with returning to sport after injury. The aim of this review was to identify psychological factors associated with returning to sport following sports injury evaluated with the self-determination theory framework. Systematic review. Electronic databases were searched from the earliest possible entry to March 2012. Quantitative studies were reviewed that included athletes who had sustained an athletic injury, reported the return to sport rate and measured at least one psychological variable. The risk of bias in each study was appraised with a quality checklist. Eleven studies that evaluated 983 athletes and 15 psychological factors were included for review. The three central elements of self-determination theory-autonomy, competence and relatedness were found to be related to returning to sport following injury. Positive psychological responses including motivation, confidence and low fear were associated with a greater likelihood of returning to the preinjury level of participation and returning to sport more quickly. Fear was a prominent emotional response at the time of returning to sport despite the fact that overall emotions became more positive as recovery and rehabilitation progressed. There is preliminary evidence that positive psychological responses are associated with a higher rate of returning to sport following athletic injury, and should be taken into account by clinicians during rehabilitation.

  2. The Relationship Between Concussion Knowledge and the High School Athlete's Intention to Report Traumatic Brain Injury Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Mary Ellen; Sanner, Jennifer E

    2017-02-01

    Sports-related concussion or traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a frequent occurrence among high school athletes. Long-term and short-term effects of TBI on the athlete's developing brain can be minimized if the athlete reports and is effectively treated for TBI symptoms. Knowledge of concussion symptoms and a school culture of support are critical in order to promote the student's intention to report TBI symptoms. The purpose of this systematic review is to examine the relationship between the high school athlete's concussion knowledge and an intention to report TBI symptoms. One hundred eleven articles were retrieved and four articles met established criteria and were included in this systematic review. A link appears to exist between high school athlete concussion knowledge and an intention to report TBI symptoms. School nurses can provide a supportive environment and concussion knowledge to the high school athlete in order to ultimately facilitate TBI symptom reporting.

  3. Sonography and MRI of latissimus dorsi strain injury in four elite athletes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedret, Carles [Unitat Medicina Esportiva Consorci Sanitari del Garraf, Barcelona (Spain); Centre Diagnostic per Imatge de Tarragona, Tarragona (Spain); Balius, Ramon [Generalitat of Catalonia, Sports Catalan Council, Catalonia (Spain); Idoate, Fernando [Clinica San Miguel, Department of Radiology, Pamplona (Spain)

    2011-05-15

    The objective of this study was to describe the MR and sonographic findings in latissimus dorsi (LD) muscle strain in athletes, and to review the most common injuries described in the literature, most of which are humeral avulsions. Four injuries and two reinjuries of the myotendinous junction of the LD were followed from the day of injury until the return to play. Sonography (US) and MR imaging were performed in each case to confirm the diagnosis and to monitor the healing process. All cases had acute and isolated pain in the back of the shoulder while performing an eccentric maneuver of the arm and the shoulder. US and MR images demonstrated that injuries were located in the middle and cranial portion of the latissimus dorsi surrounding the myotendinous junction. After rehabilitation, all players played at high level again. Isolated lesions of LD are very rare. They can be demonstrated by US and MR images. (orig.)

  4. Resistance training among young athletes: safety, efficacy and injury prevention effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faigenbaum, A D; Myer, G D

    2010-01-01

    A literature review was employed to evaluate the current epidemiology of injury related to the safety and efficacy of youth resistance training. Several case study reports and retrospective questionnaires regarding resistance exercise and the competitive sports of weightlifting and powerlifting reveal that injuries have occurred in young lifters, although a majority can be classified as accidental. Lack of qualified instruction that underlies poor exercise technique and inappropriate training loads could explain, at least partly, some of the reported injuries. Current research indicates that resistance training can be a safe, effective and worthwhile activity for children and adolescents provided that qualified professionals supervise all training sessions and provide age-appropriate instruction on proper lifting procedures and safe training guidelines. Regular participation in a multifaceted resistance training programme that begins during the preseason and includes instruction on movement biomechanics may reduce the risk of sports-related injuries in young athletes. Strategies for enhancing the safety of youth resistance training are discussed.

  5. Injuries to the shoulder in the throwing athlete. Part two: evaluation/treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meister, K

    2000-01-01

    In part one of this three-part series (March/April 2000), I concentrated on summarizing the biomechanics of the normal throwing shoulder and the pathophysiology of injury. A classification of injury was presented that was based on the principles contained in that article. Part two of this series will focus on the evaluation and treatment of injuries, expanded from an understanding of the principles learned in part one. The ability to perform a skillful examination, and thus develop an accurate diagnosis, is the foundation for treatment. Fortunately, many difficulties encountered in a thrower's shoulder can be treated with a nonoperative approach. However, in instances where conservative measures fail, an improved understanding of the pathophysiology of injury and the development of improved surgical techniques are leading to more accurate diagnoses and more successful rates of return of the athlete to a premorbid level of activity.

  6. High incidence of injury at the Sochi 2014 Winter Paralympic Games: a prospective cohort study of 6564 athlete days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derman, W; Schwellnus, M P; Jordaan, E; Runciman, P; Van de Vliet, P; Blauwet, C; Webborn, N; Willick, S; Stomphorst, J

    2016-09-01

    To describe the epidemiology of injuries at the Sochi 2014 Winter Paralympic Games. A total of 547 athletes from 45 countries were monitored daily for 12 days during the Sochi 2014 Winter Paralympic Games (6564 athlete days). Daily injury data were obtained from teams with their own medical support (32 teams, 510 athletes) and teams without their own medical support (13 teams, 37 athletes) through electronic data capturing systems. There were 174 total injuries reported, with an injury incidence rate (IR) of 26.5 per 1000 athlete days (95% CI 22.7% to 30.8%). There was a significantly higher IR recorded in alpine skiing/snowboarding (IR of 41.1 (95% CI 33.7% to 49.6%) p=0.0001) compared to cross-country skiing/biathlon, ice sledge hockey or wheelchair curling. Injuries in the shoulder region were the highest single-joint IR (IR of 6.4 (95% CI 4.6% to 8.6%)), although total upper and lower body IR were similar (IR 8.5 vs 8.4 (95% CI 6.4% to 11.1%)). Furthermore, the IR of acute injuries was significantly higher than other types of injury onset (IR of 17.8 (95% CI 14.7% to 21.4%)). In a Winter Paralympic Games setting, athletes report higher injury incidence than do Olympic athletes or athletes in a Summer Paralympic Games setting. The highest incidence of injury was reported in the alpine skiing/snowboarding sporting category. There was a similar incidence of injury in the upper and lower limbs. The joint with the greatest rate of injury reported was the shoulder joint. Our data can inform injury prevention programmes and policy considerations regarding athlete safety in future Winter Paralympic Games. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  7. Risk factors and injury prevention in elite athletes: a descriptive study of the opinions of physical therapists, doctors and trainers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno T. Saragiotto

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Musculoskeletal injuries occur frequently in elite athletes. Understanding what professionals who work with patients with sports injuries think about prevention has been suggested as an important aspect to improve the effectiveness of programs to prevent sports injuries. Objectives: To describe and characterize the opinions of physical therapists, physicians and trainers on 'risk factors' and 'prevention of injury' in elite athletes. Method: This is a qualitative study with semi-structured interviews with members of the medical and technical department of the Brazilian delegation who participated in the Pan American Games of Guadalajara 2011. The interview was conducted using two questions: 1 "What do you think can cause injuries in athletes participating in your sport?" 2 "What do you do to prevent injuries in your sport?" The interviews were analyzed in two stages, the identification of thematic units, followed by the categorization and grouping of thematic units. Results: We interviewed a total of 30 professionals. Regarding question 1, the main factors attributed as responsible for injury were over-training and incorrect sports techniques. Regarding question 2, the main reported strategies used to prevent injuries were muscle strengthening, nutritional counseling and guidance. Conclusions: The main factors affecting the appearance of lesions were over-training, incorrect sports technique, inadequate nutrition and factors related to the athlete's behavior. The main injury prevention strategies were muscle strengthening, nutritional counseling and guidance.

  8. Vascular injuries in the upper extremity in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mooij, Tristan; Duncan, Audra A; Kakar, Sanjeev

    2015-02-01

    Repetitive, high-stress, or high-impact arm motions can cause upper extremity arterial injuries. The increased functional range of the upper extremity causes increased stresses on the vascular structures. Muscle hypertrophy and fatigue-induced joint translation may incite impingement on critical neurovasculature and can cause vascular damage. A thorough evaluation is essential to establish the diagnosis in a timely fashion as presentation mimics more common musculoskeletal injuries. Conservative treatment includes equipment modification, motion analysis and adjustment, as well as equipment enhancement to limit exposure to blunt trauma or impingement. Surgical options include ligation, primary end-to-end anastomosis for small defects, and grafting. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Return to Play in Athletes Following Ankle Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clanton, Thomas O.; Matheny, Lauren M.; Jarvis, Hannah C.; Jeronimus, Anastasia B.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The decision to return to play following an ankle injury is a multifactorial process involving both physical and psychological parameters. The current body of literature lacks evidence-based guidelines to assist in the decision. Objective: This article reviews the evidence to support such testing: the dorsiflexion lunge test, star excursion balance test, agility T-test, and sargent/vertical jump test. The importance of psychological factors is also highlighted. Evidence Acquisition: The primary literature search was conducted using PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/) with the search terms “ankle AND injury” and the following limits activated: English language. A secondary search was then conducted with the search terms “return to play” and “sport injuries and return to play.” Results: Various functional tests have been used to determine whether a patient is able to return to play following an ankle injury. This study documented four tests that have been used to assess range of motion, balance and proprioception, agility and strength and the reasoning as to why these tests are used. Conclusions: Functional testing provides objective measures for gauging an athlete’s progression through the rehabilitation process. Testing balance and proprioception, strength, range of motion, and agility coupled with psychological assessment evaluates readiness for return to play. PMID:24179584

  10. Athletic Trainers' and Physical Therapists' Perceptions of the Effectiveness of Psychological Skills Within Sport Injury Rehabilitation Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamson-Utley, J Jordan; Martin, Scott; Walters, Jason

    2008-01-01

    Context: Psychological skills are alleged to augment sport-injury rehabilitation; however, implementation of mental imagery within rehabilitation programs is limited. Objective: To examine attitudes of athletic trainers (ATs) and physical therapists (PTs) on the effectiveness of mental imagery, goal setting, and positive self-talk to improve rehabilitation adherence and recovery speed of injured athletes. Design: The ATs and PTs were contacted via electronic or physical mailings to complete a single administration survey that measured their beliefs about the effectiveness of psychological skills for increasing adherence and recovery speed of injured athletes undergoing rehabilitation. Setting: Professional member databases of the National Athletic Trainers' Association and the American Physical Therapy Association. Patients or Other Participants: Of the 1000 ATs and 1000 PTs who were selected randomly, 309 ATs (age  =  34.18 ± 8.32 years, years in profession  =  10.67 ± 7.34) and 356 PTs (age  =  38.58 ± 7.51 years, years in profession  =  13.18 ± 6.17) responded. Main Outcome Measure(s): The Attitudes About Imagery (AAI) survey measures attitudes about psychological skills for enhancing adherence and recovery speed of injured athletes. The AAI includes demographic questions and 15 items on a 7-point Likert scale measuring attitudes about the effectiveness of mental imagery, self-talk, goal setting, and pain control on rehabilitation adherence and recovery speed of injured athletes. Test-retest reliability ranged from .60 to .84 and Cronbach αs ranged from .65 to .90. We calculated 1-way analyses of variance to determine whether differences existed in attitudes as a result of the professionals' education, training experience, and interest. Results: Mean differences were found on attitudes about effectiveness of psychological skills for those who reported formal training and those who reported interest in receiving formal training (P < .05). In

  11. A one year prospective study on ankle stability and landing technique: The occurrence of ankle and knee injuries in elite ball team athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Lemmink, Koen A.P.M.; Brink, M.S.; Does, van der, Henrike

    2014-01-01

    Background: In team sports lower extremity injuries account for more than 50% of all injuries, indicating the importance of early detection of athletes at risk. Objective: To investigate the predictive value of ankle stability and landing technique at baseline for ankle and knee injury occurrence during the consecutive season in indoor team sport athletes. Design: A prospective longitudinal cohort study. Setting: (Sub-)elite level basketball, korfball or volleyball athletes participated. Part...

  12. Competitive Wrestling-related Injuries in School Aged Athletes in U.S. Emergency Departments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myers, Richard J

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the characteristics of wrestling injuries occurring in male athletes aged 7-17 treated in United States (U.S. emergency departments (ED from 2000-2006, and to compare injury patterns between younger & older youth wrestlers.Methods: A stratified probability sample of U.S. hospitals providing emergency services in the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System was used for 2000-2006. ED visits for injuries sustained in organized wrestling were analyzed for male patients ages 7-17 years old (subdivided into 7-11 years old [youth group] and 12-17 years old [scholastic group].Results: During the study period, there were an estimated 167,606 ED visits for wrestling injuries in 7-17 years old U.S. males, with 152,710 (91.1% occurring in the older (12-17 years old group. The annual injury incidence was 6.49 injuries/1,000 wrestlers in the youth group and 29.57 injuries/1,000 wrestlers in the scholastic group. The distribution of diagnoses was similar in both age groups, with sprain/strain as the most common diagnosis, followed by fracture and contusion/abrasion. Distributions of injury by location were significantly different between groups (p=0.02, although both groups exhibited approximately 75% of all injuries from the waist up. Overexertion and struck by/against were the most common precipitating and direct mechanisms in both groups, respectively. Over 97% of all injured wrestlers were treated and released.Conclusion: The types of injury in youth (7-11 years old wrestlers are similar to those of scholastic (12-17 years old wrestlers, although the distribution of body parts injured differs between the age groups. The majority of injuries occurs above the waist and may be a target for prevention strategies. [West J Emerg Med. 2010; 11(5:442-449.

  13. Programmatic Factors Associated with Undergraduate Athletic Training Student Retention and Attrition Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Thomas G.; Hertel, Jay; Wathington, Heather D.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Athletic training programs (ATPs) are charged with meeting an increased demand for athletic trainers with adequate graduates. Currently, the retention rate of athletic training students in ATPs nationwide and the programmatic factors associated with these retention rates remain unknown. Objective: Determine the retention rate for athletic…

  14. High precompetition injury rate dominates the injury profile at the Rio 2016 Summer Paralympic Games: a prospective cohort study of 51 198 athlete days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derman, Wayne; Runciman, Phoebe; Schwellnus, Martin; Jordaan, Esme; Blauwet, Cheri; Webborn, Nick; Lexell, Jan; van de Vliet, Peter; Tuakli-Wosornu, Yetsa; Kissick, James; Stomphorst, Jaap

    2018-01-01

    To describe the incidence of injury in the precompetition and competition periods of the Rio 2016 Summer Paralympic Games. A total of 3657 athletes from 78 countries, representing 83.4% of all athletes at the Games, were monitored on the web-based injury and illness surveillance system over 51 198 athlete days during the Rio 2016 Summer Paralympic Games. Injury data were obtained daily from teams with their own medical support. A total of 510 injuries were reported during the 14-day Games period, with an injury incidence rate (IR) of 10.0 injuries per 1000 athlete days (12.1% of all athletes surveyed). The highest IRs were reported for football 5-a-side (22.5), judo (15.5) and football 7-a-side (15.3) compared with other sports (pGames (IR of 5.5). The shoulder was the most common anatomical area affected by injury (IR of 1.8). The data from this study indicate that (1) IRs were lower than those reported for the London 2012 Summer Paralympic Games, (2) the sports of football 5-a-side, judo and football 7-a-side were independent risk factors for injury, (3) precompetition injuries had a higher IR than competition period injuries, (4) injuries to the shoulder were the most common. These results would allow for comparative data to be collected at future editions of the Games and can be used to inform injury prevention programmes. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. Anatomical factors associated with overuse sports injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivickas, L S

    1997-08-01

    Overuse injuries develop when repetitive stress to bone and musculotendinous structures damages tissue at a greater rate than that at which the body can repair itself. A combination of extrinsic factors, such as training errors and environmental factors, and intrinsic or anatomical factors, such as bony alignment of the extremities, flexibility deficits and ligamentous laxity, predispose athletes to develop overuse injuries. Malalignant of the lower extremity, including excess femoral anteversion, increased Q angle, lateral tibial torsion, tibia vara, genu varum or valgum, subtalar varus and excessive pronation are frequently cited as predisposing to knee extensor mechanism overuse injuries. These and other forms of malalignment have also been implicated in iliotibial band syndrome, medial tibial stress syndrome, lower extremity stress fractures and plantar fasciitis. Muscle inflexibility aggravates and predisposes to the development of a variety of overuse injuries, especially those occurring in children and adolescents, including the traction apophysitises. Flexibility deficits may be improved by an appropriate stretching programme. Unfortunately, lower extremity malalignment is less amenable to intervention. Orthotics are often prescribed to improve lower extremity alignment. However, studies have not shown that orthotics have any effect on knee alignment and, while they can alter subtalar joint alignment, the clinical benefit of this remains unclear. Awareness of anatomical factors that may predispose to overuse injuries allows the clinician to develop individual prehabilitation programmes designed to decrease the risk of overuse injury. In addition, the clinician can advise the athlete on the importance of avoiding extrinsic factors that may also predispose to overuse injury.

  16. An evaluation of Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA) athletes' self-reported practice of playing while concussed, knowledge about and attitudes towards sports-related concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Lindsay; Thomas, Audrey Alforque; Molcho, Michal

    2016-01-20

    Sports-related concussions are now recognized as a major public health concern. However, despite the association of concussion with short- and long-term health consequences, many young athletes still lack basic knowledge about concussion and seem to believe that concussions may be "toughed out" and do not require medical attention. This study assessed self-reported practice of playing in training or a match while concussed among Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA) athletes in Ireland aged 13-25 years old (M=19.19, SD=3.54). This study also assessed knowledge about and attitudes towards sports-related concussion in GAA players in Ireland. Using a self-report questionnaire, data were captured electronically on GAA athletes aged 13-25 years old (n=80) regarding knowledge about the detection, assessment and management of sports-related concussion, as well as participant's attitudes towards concussion and self-reported practice of playing in training or a match while concussed. Data were collected from June to August 2013. This study revealed that approximately one in four athletes reported having played while concussed in practice or during a match. Males were significantly more likely to play while concussed than females (40.9% and 17.2%, respectively). Results from this study indicated participants lack a complete understanding of concussion, as common misconceptions about concussion prevailed. Analyses revealed that participants generally have safe attitudes towards concussion and concussion management. Generating awareness of the potential short- and long-term health consequences of concussion, coupled with the promotion of safer attitudes towards this injury, could minimize the number of players who return-to-play pre-maturely and promote a more safety-conscious sports culture in Ireland.

  17. Episodes of injuries and frequent usage of traditional Chinese medicine for Taiwanese elite wrestling athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zen-Pin; Chen, Yi-Hung; Chia, Fan; Wu, Huey-June; Lan, Lawrence W; Lin, Jaung-Geng

    2011-01-01

    Wrestling normally places extreme demands on the body and thus may cause various kinds of injuries. An in-depth understanding of the episodes of injured sites, types, timings, and treatment modalities would help participants be aware of wrestling-related injury occurrences so as to develop effective preventive measures. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the gender-specific injuries among elite wrestling athletes. Subjects were selected from the 2009 Taiwanese National Wrestling Sport Championship. Participants were adolescent wrestling athletes, ages 16-18, who must have received at least one bronze medal at national level tournaments in 2008. A total of 118 respondents, 96 males and 22 females, completed and returned the questionnaire in which demographic data and information about the types, sites, and timings of injuries suffered and treatment modalities adopted were elicited. The data were analyzed with independent t-tests. The questionnaire results revealed a significantly higher injury rate for males than for females. The top three injured sites for males were waist (11.1%), ankle joint (10.1%) and finger (9.6%); while for females were ankle joint (13.6%), knee (12.5%) and waist (11.3%). Contusions were the most frequent type of injury: for males (73.5%) and for females (70.6%); followed by tendon inflammation for males (10.7%) and accumulated injuries for females (15.2%). During training and matching periods, the frequency of injuries for males (69.0%) is lower than that for females (81.8%). Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) with acupuncture and moxibustion was the most common treatment modalities used for males (51.8%) and for females (68.0%); followed by orthopedics: for males (29.5%) and for females (18.0%). The present study contributed as the first effort to reveal the potency of using TCM with acupuncture and moxibustion in wrestling competitions. To prevent possible brain and body injuries in wrestling, safety education, skills and rules, and

  18. Alteration of default mode network in high school football athletes due to repetitive subconcussive mild traumatic brain injury: a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Kausar; Shenk, Trey E; Poole, Victoria N; Breedlove, Evan L; Leverenz, Larry J; Nauman, Eric A; Talavage, Thomas M; Robinson, Meghan E

    2015-03-01

    Long-term neurological damage as a result of head trauma while playing sports is a major concern for football athletes today. Repetitive concussions have been linked to many neurological disorders. Recently, it has been reported that repetitive subconcussive events can be a significant source of accrued damage. Since football athletes can experience hundreds of subconcussive hits during a single season, it is of utmost importance to understand their effect on brain health in the short and long term. In this study, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) was used to study changes in the default mode network (DMN) after repetitive subconcussive mild traumatic brain injury. Twenty-two high school American football athletes, clinically asymptomatic, were scanned using the rs-fMRI for a single season. Baseline scans were acquired before the start of the season, and follow-up scans were obtained during and after the season to track the potential changes in the DMN as a result of experienced trauma. Ten noncollision-sport athletes were scanned over two sessions as controls. Overall, football athletes had significantly different functional connectivity measures than controls for most of the year. The presence of this deviation of football athletes from their healthy peers even before the start of the season suggests a neurological change that has accumulated over the years of playing the sport. Football athletes also demonstrate short-term changes relative to their own baseline at the start of the season. Football athletes exhibited hyperconnectivity in the DMN compared to controls for most of the sessions, which indicates that, despite the absence of symptoms typically associated with concussion, the repetitive trauma accrued produced long-term brain changes compared to their healthy peers.

  19. Chest Injuries Associated with Head Injury

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    .[4,5] The presence of injuries that contribute to early secondary brain injury by the presence of hypoxemia. (<60 mmHg or 8 kPa) or hypotension (systolic blood pressure. <90 mmHg) on admission has been used to predict 6-month mortality ...

  20. National athletic trainers' association position statement: preventing, detecting, and managing disordered eating in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonci, Christine M; Bonci, Leslie J; Granger, Lorita R; Johnson, Craig L; Malina, Robert M; Milne, Leslie W; Ryan, Randa R; Vanderbunt, Erin M

    2008-01-01

    To present recommendations for the prevention, detection, and comprehensive management of disordered eating (DE) in athletes. Athletes with DE rarely self-report their symptoms. They tend to deny the condition and are often resistant to referral and treatment. Thus, screenings and interventions must be handled skillfully by knowledgeable professionals to obtain desired outcomes. Certified athletic trainers have the capacity and responsibility to play active roles as integral members of the health care team. Their frequent daily interactions with athletes help to facilitate the level of medical surveillance necessary for early detection, timely referrals, treatment follow-through, and compliance. These recommendations are intended to provide certified athletic trainers and others participating in the health maintenance and performance enhancement of athletes with specific knowledge and problem-solving skills to better prevent, detect, and manage DE. The individual biological, psychological, sociocultural, and familial factors for each athlete with DE result in widely different responses to intervention strategies, challenging the best that athletics programs have to offer in terms of resources and expertise. The complexity, time intensiveness, and expense of managing DE necessitate an interdisciplinary approach representing medicine, nutrition, mental health, athletic training, and athletics administration in order to facilitate early detection and treatment, make it easier for symptomatic athletes to ask for help, enhance the potential for full recovery, and satisfy medicolegal requirements. Of equal importance is establishing educational initiatives for preventing DE.

  1. Rectus abdominis overuse injury in a tennis athlete treated with traumeel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsis, Konstantinos; Lyrtzis, Christos; Papathanasiou, Efthymia; Anastasopoulos, Nikos

    2012-01-01

    Rectus abdominis injuries are common in tennis players at all levels of competition. Traumeel(®) injection can be used for treatment of muscle strains and hematomas. A 21-year-old female tennis athlete was injured on the non-dominant rectus abdominis during the cocking phase of the service motion. She suffered from pain and tenderness. One week later, during a serve, she experienced severe pain on the contralateral side of her abdomen. Conservative treatment was performed by the team physician with rest, ice therapy and analgesics for 20 days, but she had recurrent injuries. The ultrasonography and MRI showed hematoma of the rectus abdominis muscle. She was treated with 2 injections of Traumeel(®) on the 2(nd), 4(th), 6(th) post-traumatic day and received 1 injection on the 10(th) post-traumatic day. She also modified her serve technique. On the fourth post-treatment week the athlete had pain-free function and both the MRI appearance and the size of rectus abdominal muscle were normal. She returned to her sport activities. There is no recurrence of her injury 2 years later. Rectus abdominis hematoma must be diagnosed early. Traumeel(®) injections are effective, safe and well-tolerated for the treatment of overuse injury of the rectus abdominis following strain.

  2. Epidemiological survey of anterior cruciate ligament injury in Japanese junior high school and high school athletes: cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Saeko; Okuwaki, Toru

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the incidence of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries among athletes in junior high school and high school by retrospectively reviewing Japan Sports Council notification data registered over a period of 10 years. The total number of ACL injuries during the 10-year period was 30,458, with an incidence of 0.81 per 1000 athlete-years. Among those with ACL injuries, the ratio of girls to boys was 2.8, and incidence of injury was significantly greater among girls than boys (1.36 as against 0.48). Athletes in the 11th grade demonstrated the highest incidence of ACL injuries. We also found that the greatest incidence of ACL injuries was among female high school basketball players; the second highest being among female high school Judo athletes. For sports with a greater number of ACL injuries and a higher injury rate, it is necessary to obtain more detailed data and analysis to determine an effective prevention programme.

  3. Heart Rate Variability is a Moderating Factor in the Workload-Injury Relationship of Competitive CrossFit™ Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Sean; Booton, Thomas; Watson, Matthew; Rowland, Daniel; Altini, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) is a popular tool for monitoring training adaptation and readiness in athletes, but it also has the potential to indicate early signs of somatic tissue overload prior to the onset of pain or fully developed injury. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the interaction between HRV, workloads, and risk of overuse problems in competitive CrossFit™ athletes. Daily resting HRV and workloads (duration × session-RPE) were recorded in six competitive CrossFit™ athletes across a 16 week period. The Oslo Sports Trauma Research Center Overuse Injury Questionnaire was distributed weekly by e-mail. Acute-to-chronic workload ratios (ACWR) and the rolling 7-day average of the natural logarithm of the square root of the mean sum of the squared differences between R–R intervals (Ln rMSSDweek) were parsed into tertiles (low, moderate/normal, and high) based on within-individual z-scores. The interaction between Ln rMSSDweek and ACWR on overuse injury risk in the subsequent week was assessed using a generalized linear mixed-effects model and magnitude-based inferences. The risk of overuse problems was substantially increased when a ‘low’ Ln rMSSDweek was seen in combination with a ‘high’ ACWR (relative risk [RR]: 2.61, 90% CI: 1.38 – 4.93). In contrast, high ACWRs were well-tolerated when Ln rMSSDweek remained ‘normal’ or was ‘high’. Monitoring HRV trends alongside workloads may provide useful information on an athlete’s emerging global pattern to loading. HRV monitoring may therefore be used by practitioners to adjust and individualise training load prescriptions, in order to minimise overuse injury risk. Key points Reductions in HRV concurrent with workload spikes were associated with an increased risk of developing overuse problems. High workloads were well-tolerated when HRV trends remained ‘normal’ or ‘high’. HRV monitoring may therefore be used by practitioners to adjust and individualise training

  4. Too little sleep and an unhealthy diet could increase the risk of sustaining a new injury in adolescent elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Rosen, P; Frohm, A; Kottorp, A; Fridén, C; Heijne, A

    2017-11-01

    Little is known about health variables and if these variables could increase the risk of injuries among adolescent elite athletes. The primary aim was to present overall data on self-perceived stress, nutrition intake, self-esteem, and sleep, as well as gender and age differences, on two occasions among adolescent elite athletes. A secondary aim was to study these health variables as potential risk factors on injury incidence. A questionnaire was e-mailed to 340 adolescent elite athletes on two occasions during a single school year: autumn semester and spring semester. The results show that during autumn semester, the recommended intake of fruits, vegetables, and fish was not met for 20%, 39%, and 43% of the adolescent elite athletes, respectively. The recommended amount of sleep during weekdays was not obtained by 19%. Multiple logistic regression showed that athletes sleeping more than 8 h of sleep during weekdays reduced the odds of injury with 61% (OR, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.16-0.99) and athletes reaching the recommended nutrition intake reduced the odds with 64% (OR, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.14-0.91). Our findings suggest that nutrition intake and sleep volume are of importance in understanding injury incidence. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Athletic injuries of the lateral abdominal wall: review of anatomy and MR imaging appearance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stensby, J.D. [University of Virginia, Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, 1218 Lee Street, Box 800170, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, 510 S. Kingshighway, Campus Box 8131, St. Louis, MO (United States); Baker, Jonathan C. [Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, 510 S. Kingshighway, Campus Box 8131, St. Louis, MO (United States); Fox, Michael G. [University of Virginia, Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, 1218 Lee Street, Box 800170, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The lateral abdominal wall is comprised of three muscles, each with a different function and orientation. The transversus abdominus, internal oblique, and external oblique muscles span the abdominal cavity between the iliocostalis lumborum and quadratus lumborum posteriorly and the rectus abdominis anteriorly. The lateral abdominal wall is bound superiorly by the lower ribs and costal cartilages and inferiorly by the iliac crest and inguinal ligament. The lateral abdominal wall may be acutely or chronically injured in a variety of athletic endeavors, with occasional acute injuries in the setting of high-energy trauma such as motor vehicle collisions. Injuries to the lateral abdominal wall may result in lumbar hernia formation, unique for its high incarceration rate, and also Spigelian hernias. This article will review the anatomy, the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging approach, and the features and complications of lateral abdominal wall injuries. (orig.)

  6. Epidemiology of imaging-detected bone stress injuries in athletes participating in the Rio de Janeiro 2016 Summer Olympics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Daichi; Jarraya, Mohamed; Engebretsen, Lars; D Crema, Michel; W Roemer, Frank; Skaf, Abdalla; Guermazi, Ali

    2017-10-26

    Bone stress injuries are common in high-level athletics. To describe the demographics, frequency and anatomical location of stress injuries (ie, stress reaction and stress fractures) in athletes at the Rio de Janeiro 2016 Summer Olympic Games. We recorded all sports injuries at the Rio de Janeiro 2016 Summer Olympics reported by the National Olympic Committee (NOC) medical teams and in the polyclinic and medical venues. Imaging was performed through the official IOC clinic within the Olympic Village, using digital X-ray cameras and 3T and 1.5T magnetic resonance (MR) scanners. Images were read centrally and retrospectively by musculoskeletal radiologists with expertise in sports injuries. 11 274 athletes (5089 women (45%), 6185 men (55%)) from 207 NOCs participated in the study. 1101 injuries were reported. Imaging revealed 9 stress fractures (36%) and 16 stress reactions (64%) in 18 female and 7 male athletes (median age 25 years, age range 18-32). Stress injuries were mostly in the lower extremities (84%), particularly tibia (44%) and metatarsals (12%), with two in the lumbar spine (8%). Stress injuries were most common in track and field athletes (44%) followed by volleyball players (16%), gymnastics (artistic) (12%) and other type of sports. Twenty-five bone stress injuries were reported, more commonly in women, mostly in the lower extremities and most commonly in track and field athletes. Our study demonstrates the importance of early imaging with MRI to detect stress reactions before they can progress to stress fractures. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. Injury and illness among athletes during a multi-day elite cycling road race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanturali, Sedat; Canacik, Omer; Karsli, Emre; Suner, Selim

    2015-11-01

    Although road bicycle races have been held for more than a century, injury and illness patterns during multi-day bicycle events have not been widely studied. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of injury and illness among riders and describe the medical care interventions provided to participants of cycling road races. A prospective observational study was conducted on the Presidential Cycling Tour of Turkey, which was held between April 26 and May 3, 2015. The race lasted 8 days and covered 1258 km of road. There were 166 elite cycling athletes representing 21 teams from various countries. Data collected pertaining to incidents involving injury or illness included the following: type of injury; anatomical location of injury; details of the medical encounter; location of the intervention; treatment provided; medication administered and disposition of the rider. An injury was defined as a physical complaint or observable damage to the body produced by the transfer of energy of the rider. An illness was defined as a physical complaint or presentation not related to injury. The overall incidence (injury and illness) was 5.83 per 1000 cycling hours. (Injury incidence was 2.82 vs illness incidence of 3.01 per 1000 hours cycling). A total of 31 incidents occurred. Of these, 15 were injuries, while 16 were complaints of a non-traumatic nature. A total of 43 interventions were made in the 15 cases of injury. The most commonly injured body regions were limbs; the majority of injuries involved the skin and soft tissue. The most common medical intervention was wound care (64% of all interventions). Two riders had to withdraw from the race, and one was hospitalized due to a traumatic pneumothorax. None of the non-traumatic cases resulted in withdrawal from the race. A broad spectrum of illness and injury occurs during elite multi-day road races, ranging from simple skin injuries to serious injuries requiring hospital admission. Most injuries and illnesses are

  8. Irisin levels are lower in young amenorrheic athletes compared with eumenorrheic athletes and non-athletes and are associated with bone density and strength estimates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vibha Singhal

    Full Text Available Irisin and FGF21 are novel hormones implicated in the "browning" of white fat, thermogenesis, and energy homeostasis. However, there are no data regarding these hormones in amenorrheic athletes (AA (a chronic energy deficit state compared with eumenorrheic athletes (EA and non-athletes. We hypothesized that irisin and FGF21 would be low in AA, an adaptive response to low energy stores. Furthermore, because (i brown fat has positive effects on bone, and (ii irisin and FGF21 may directly impact bone, we hypothesized that bone density, structure and strength would be positively associated with these hormones in athletes and non-athletes. To test our hypotheses, we studied 85 females, 14-21 years [38 AA, 24 EA and 23 non-athletes (NA]. Fasting serum irisin and FGF21 were measured. Body composition and bone density were assessed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, bone microarchitecture using high resolution peripheral quantitative CT, strength estimates using finite element analysis, resting energy expenditure (REE using indirect calorimetry and time spent exercising/week by history. Subjects did not differ for pubertal stage. Fat mass was lowest in AA. AA had lower irisin and FGF21 than EA and NA, even after controlling for fat and lean mass. Across subjects, irisin was positively associated with REE and bone density Z-scores, volumetric bone mineral density (total and trabecular, stiffness and failure load. FGF21 was negatively associated with hours/week of exercise and cortical porosity, and positively with fat mass and cortical volumetric bone density. Associations of irisin (but not FGF21 with bone parameters persisted after controlling for potential confounders. In conclusion, irisin and FGF21 are low in AA, and irisin (but not FGF21 is independently associated with bone density and strength in athletes.

  9. Irisin levels are lower in young amenorrheic athletes compared with eumenorrheic athletes and non-athletes and are associated with bone density and strength estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Vibha; Lawson, Elizabeth A; Ackerman, Kathryn E; Fazeli, Pouneh K; Clarke, Hannah; Lee, Hang; Eddy, Kamryn; Marengi, Dean A; Derrico, Nicholas P; Bouxsein, Mary L; Misra, Madhusmita

    2014-01-01

    Irisin and FGF21 are novel hormones implicated in the "browning" of white fat, thermogenesis, and energy homeostasis. However, there are no data regarding these hormones in amenorrheic athletes (AA) (a chronic energy deficit state) compared with eumenorrheic athletes (EA) and non-athletes. We hypothesized that irisin and FGF21 would be low in AA, an adaptive response to low energy stores. Furthermore, because (i) brown fat has positive effects on bone, and (ii) irisin and FGF21 may directly impact bone, we hypothesized that bone density, structure and strength would be positively associated with these hormones in athletes and non-athletes. To test our hypotheses, we studied 85 females, 14-21 years [38 AA, 24 EA and 23 non-athletes (NA)]. Fasting serum irisin and FGF21 were measured. Body composition and bone density were assessed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, bone microarchitecture using high resolution peripheral quantitative CT, strength estimates using finite element analysis, resting energy expenditure (REE) using indirect calorimetry and time spent exercising/week by history. Subjects did not differ for pubertal stage. Fat mass was lowest in AA. AA had lower irisin and FGF21 than EA and NA, even after controlling for fat and lean mass. Across subjects, irisin was positively associated with REE and bone density Z-scores, volumetric bone mineral density (total and trabecular), stiffness and failure load. FGF21 was negatively associated with hours/week of exercise and cortical porosity, and positively with fat mass and cortical volumetric bone density. Associations of irisin (but not FGF21) with bone parameters persisted after controlling for potential confounders. In conclusion, irisin and FGF21 are low in AA, and irisin (but not FGF21) is independently associated with bone density and strength in athletes.

  10. Irisin Levels Are Lower in Young Amenorrheic Athletes Compared with Eumenorrheic Athletes and Non-Athletes and Are Associated with Bone Density and Strength Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Vibha; Lawson, Elizabeth A.; Ackerman, Kathryn E.; Fazeli, Pouneh K.; Clarke, Hannah; Lee, Hang; Eddy, Kamryn; Marengi, Dean A.; Derrico, Nicholas P.; Bouxsein, Mary L.; Misra, Madhusmita

    2014-01-01

    Irisin and FGF21 are novel hormones implicated in the “browning” of white fat, thermogenesis, and energy homeostasis. However, there are no data regarding these hormones in amenorrheic athletes (AA) (a chronic energy deficit state) compared with eumenorrheic athletes (EA) and non-athletes. We hypothesized that irisin and FGF21 would be low in AA, an adaptive response to low energy stores. Furthermore, because (i) brown fat has positive effects on bone, and (ii) irisin and FGF21 may directly impact bone, we hypothesized that bone density, structure and strength would be positively associated with these hormones in athletes and non-athletes. To test our hypotheses, we studied 85 females, 14–21 years [38 AA, 24 EA and 23 non-athletes (NA)]. Fasting serum irisin and FGF21 were measured. Body composition and bone density were assessed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, bone microarchitecture using high resolution peripheral quantitative CT, strength estimates using finite element analysis, resting energy expenditure (REE) using indirect calorimetry and time spent exercising/week by history. Subjects did not differ for pubertal stage. Fat mass was lowest in AA. AA had lower irisin and FGF21 than EA and NA, even after controlling for fat and lean mass. Across subjects, irisin was positively associated with REE and bone density Z-scores, volumetric bone mineral density (total and trabecular), stiffness and failure load. FGF21 was negatively associated with hours/week of exercise and cortical porosity, and positively with fat mass and cortical volumetric bone density. Associations of irisin (but not FGF21) with bone parameters persisted after controlling for potential confounders. In conclusion, irisin and FGF21 are low in AA, and irisin (but not FGF21) is independently associated with bone density and strength in athletes. PMID:24926783

  11. Epidemiology of Acromioclavicular Joint Sprains in 25 National Collegiate Athletic Association Sports: 2009-2010 to 2014-2015 Academic Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibberd, Elizabeth E; Kerr, Zachary Y; Roos, Karen G; Djoko, Aristarque; Dompier, Thomas P

    2016-10-01

    No previous studies have described the incidence of acromioclavicular (AC) joint injuries in a large sample of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) student-athletes. Such data are needed to understand the injury prevalence, mechanisms of injury, and recovery patterns in NCAA student-athletes. To describe the epidemiology of AC joint sprain injuries in 25 NCAA championship sports. Descriptive epidemiology study. AC joint sprains were analyzed from the NCAA Injury Surveillance Program during the 2009-2010 to 2014-2015 academic years. AC joint sprain injury rates, rate ratios, and injury proportion ratios (IPRs) were reported with 95% CIs. In the 25 NCAA sports examined during the 2009-2010 to 2014-2015 academic years, a total of 844 AC joint sprains were reported, for a rate of 1.72 per 10,000 athlete-exposures (AEs). The majority of AC joint sprains were reported in football (50.4%, n = 425). Most AC joint sprains occurred in competitions (66.0%, n = 557), and the competition rate was 8.58 times the practice rate (95% CI, 7.44-9.89). In sex-comparable sports (ie, soccer, basketball, ice hockey, lacrosse, baseball/softball, indoor track, outdoor track, cross-country, tennis, and swimming and diving), the AC joint sprain rate in men was 4.67 times that of women (95% CI, 3.56-6.14). Most AC joint sprains were caused by player contact (54.7%, n = 462), followed by surface contact (29.0%, n = 245). Of all AC joint sprains, 47.5% resulted in a time loss of sports, male athletes had a larger proportion of injuries due to player contact than did female athletes (IPR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.06-2.13); female athletes had a larger proportion of injuries due to surface contact than male athletes (IPR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.01-2.38). Also, compared with women, men had a larger proportion of AC joint sprains that were recurrent (IPR, 10.29; 95% CI, 1.45-72.90). The highest rates of AC joint sprains occurred in men's football, ice hockey, and wrestling as well as women's ice hockey

  12. Ulnar nerve injury associated with trampoline injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclin, Melvin M; Novak, Christine B; Mackinnon, Susan E

    2004-08-01

    This study reports three cases of ulnar neuropathy after trampoline injuries in children. A chart review was performed on children who sustained an ulnar nerve injury from a trampoline accident. In all cases, surgical intervention was required. Injuries included upper-extremity fractures in two cases and an upper-extremity laceration in one case. All cases required surgical exploration with internal neurolysis and ulnar nerve transposition. Nerve grafts were used in two cases and an additional nerve transfer was used in one case. All patients had return of intrinsic hand function and sensation after surgery. Children should be followed for evolution of ulnar nerve neuropathy after upper-extremity injury with consideration for electrical studies and surgical exploration if there is no improvement after 3 months.

  13. The National Athletic Treatment, Injury and Outcomes Network (NATION): Methods of the Surveillance Program, 2011–2012 Through 2013–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dompier, Thomas P.; Marshall, Stephen W.; Kerr, Zachary Y.; Hayden, Ross

    2015-01-01

    Context Previous epidemiologic researchers have examined time-loss (TL) injuries in high school student-athletes, but little is known about the frequency of non–time-loss (NTL) injuries in these athletes. Objective To describe the methods of the National Athletic Treatment, Injury and Outcomes Network (NATION) Surveillance Program and provide descriptive epidemiology of TL and NTL injuries across athletes in 27 high school sports. Design Descriptive epidemiology study. Setting Aggregate injury and exposure data collected from 147 high schools in 26 states. Patients or Other Participants High school student-athletes participating in 13 boys' sports and 14 girls' sports during the 2011–2012 through 2013–2014 academic years. Main Outcome Measure(s) Athletic trainers documented injuries and exposures using commercially available injury-tracking software packages. Standard injury-tracking software was modified by the software vendors to conform to the surveillance needs of this project. The modified software exported a set of common data elements, stripped of personally identifiable information, to a centralized automated verification and validation system before they were included in the centralized research database. Dependent measures were injury and exposure frequencies and injury rates with 95% confidence intervals stratified by sport, sex, and injury type (TL or NTL). Results Over the 3-year period, a total of 2337 team seasons across 27 sports resulted in 47 014 injuries and 5 146 355 athlete-exposures. The NTL injuries accounted for 38 765 (82.45%) and TL injuries for 8249 (17.55%) of the total. Conclusions The NTL injuries accounted for a substantial amount of the total number of injuries sustained by high school student-athletes. This project demonstrates the feasibility of creating large-scale injury surveillance systems using commercially available injury-tracking software. PMID:26067620

  14. The Relationship between Concussion Knowledge and the High School Athlete's Intention to Report Traumatic Brain Injury Symptoms: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Mary Ellen; Sanner, Jennifer E.

    2017-01-01

    Sports-related concussion or traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a frequent occurrence among high school athletes. Long-term and short-term effects of TBI on the athlete's developing brain can be minimized if the athlete reports and is effectively treated for TBI symptoms. Knowledge of concussion symptoms and a school culture of support are critical…

  15. Association between Lower Extremity Muscle Strength and Noncontact ACL Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, Kathrin; Nilstad, Agnethe; Kristianslund, Eirik Klami; Myklebust, Grethe; Bahr, Roald; Krosshaug, Tron

    2016-11-01

    This study aimed to prospectively investigate the association between isolated and functional lower extremity muscle strength and the risk for noncontact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in Norwegian female elite handball and football players. From 2007 through 2015, premier league players participated in strength testing and were prospectively followed for ACL injury risk. At baseline, we recorded player demographics, playing and ACL injury history, and measured peak concentric isokinetic quadriceps and hamstring torques (60°·s), hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio, isometric hip abduction strength, and one-repetition maximum in a seated leg press. We followed a predefined statistical protocol where we generated five separate logistic regression models, one for each of the proposed strength risk factors and adjusted for confounding factors. New ACL injury was the outcome, using the leg as the unit of analysis. A total of 57 (6.6%) of 867 players (age = 21 ± 4 yr, height = 170 ± 6 cm, body mass = 66 ± 8 kg) suffered from a noncontact ACL injury after baseline testing (1.8 ± 1.8 yr). The OR of sustaining a new injury among those with an ACL injury history was 3.1 (95% confidence interval = 1.6-6.1). None of the five strength variables selected were statistically associated with an increased risk of ACL rupture when adjusted for sport, dominant leg, ACL injury history, and height. Peak lower extremity strength was not associated with an increased ACL injury risk among female elite handball and football players. Hence, peak strength, as measured in the present study, cannot be used to screen elite female athletes to predict injury risk.

  16. Functional abnormalities in normally appearing athletes following mild traumatic brain injury: a functional MRI study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slobounov, Semyon M.; Zhang, K.; Pennell, D.; Ray, W.; Johnson, B.; Sebastianelli, W.

    2010-01-01

    Memory problems are one of the most common symptoms of sport-related mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI), known as concussion. Surprisingly, little research has examined spatial memory in concussed athletes given its importance in athletic environments. Here, we combine functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with a virtual reality (VR) paradigm designed to investigate the possibility of residual functional deficits in recently concussed but asymptomatic individuals. Specifically, we report performance of spatial memory navigation tasks in a VR environment and fMRI data in 15 athletes suffering from MTBI and 15 neurologically normal, athletically active age matched controls. No differences in performance were observed between these two groups of subjects in terms of success rate (94 and 92%) and time to complete the spatial memory navigation tasks (mean = 19.5 and 19.7 s). Whole brain analysis revealed that similar brain activation patterns were observed during both encoding and retrieval among the groups. However, concussed athletes showed larger cortical networks with additional increases in activity outside of the shared region of interest (ROI) during encoding. Quantitative analysis of blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal revealed that concussed individuals had a significantly larger cluster size during encoding at parietal cortex, right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and right hippocampus. In addition, there was a significantly larger BOLD signal percent change at the right hippocampus. Neither cluster size nor BOLD signal percent change at shared ROIs was different between groups during retrieval. These major findings are discussed with respect to current hypotheses regarding the neural mechanism responsible for alteration of brain functions in a clinical setting. PMID:20039023

  17. Functional polymorphisms in the P2X7 receptor gene are associated with stress fracture injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varley, Ian; Greeves, Julie P; Sale, Craig; Friedman, Eitan; Moran, Daniel S; Yanovich, Ran; Wilson, Peter J; Gartland, Alison; Hughes, David C; Stellingwerff, Trent; Ranson, Craig; Fraser, William D; Gallagher, James A

    2016-03-01

    Military recruits and elite athletes are susceptible to stress fracture injuries. Genetic predisposition has been postulated to have a role in their development. The P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) gene, a key regulator of bone remodelling, is a genetic candidate that may contribute to stress fracture predisposition. The aim of this study is to evaluate the putative contribution of P2X7R to stress fracture injury in two separate cohorts, military personnel and elite athletes. In 210 Israeli Defense Forces (IDF) military conscripts, stress fracture injury was diagnosed (n = 43) based on symptoms and a positive bone scan. In a separate cohort of 518 elite athletes, self-reported medical imaging scan-certified stress fracture injuries were recorded (n = 125). Non-stress fracture controls were identified from these cohorts who had a normal bone scan or no history or symptoms of stress fracture injury. Study participants were genotyped for functional SNPs within the P2X7R gene using proprietary fluorescence-based competitive allele-specific PCR assay. Pearson's chi-squared (χ (2)) tests, corrected for multiple comparisons, were used to assess associations in genotype frequencies. The variant allele of P2X7R SNP rs3751143 (Glu496Ala-loss of function) was associated with stress fracture injury, whilst the variant allele of rs1718119 (Ala348Thr-gain of function) was associated with a reduced occurrence of stress fracture injury in military conscripts (P stress fractures was replicated in elite athletes (P stress fracture cases in elite athletes (P stress fracture prevalence supports the role of a genetic predisposition in the development of stress fracture injury.

  18. Warrior Model for Human Performance and Injury Prevention: Eagle Tactical Athlete Program (ETAP) Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sell, Timothy C; Abt, John P; Crawford, Kim; Lovalekar, Mita; Nagai, Takashi; Deluzio, Jennifer B; Smalley, Brain W; McGrail, Mark A; Rowe, Russell S; Cardin, Sylvain; Lephart, Scott M

    2010-01-01

    Physical training for United States military personnel requires a combination of injury prevention and performance optimization to counter unintentional musculoskeletal injuries and maximize warrior capabilities. Determining the most effective activities and tasks to meet these goals requires a systematic, research-based approach that is population specific based on the tasks and demands of the warrior. We have modified the traditional approach to injury prevention to implement a comprehensive injury prevention and performance optimization research program with the 101st Airborne Division (Air Assault) at Ft. Campbell, KY. This is Part I of two papers that presents the research conducted during the first three steps of the program and includes Injury Surveillance, Task and Demand Analysis, and Predictors of Injury and Optimal Performance. Injury surveillance based on a self-report of injuries was collected on all Soldiers participating in the study. Field-based analyses of the tasks and demands of Soldiers performing typical tasks of 101st Soldiers were performed to develop 101st-specific laboratory testing and to assist with the design of the intervention (Eagle Tactical Athlete Program (ETAP)). Laboratory testing of musculoskeletal, biomechanical, physiological, and nutritional characteristics was performed on Soldiers and benchmarked to triathletes to determine predictors of injury and optimal performance and to assist with the design of ETAP. Injury surveillance demonstrated that Soldiers of the 101st are at risk for a wide range of preventable unintentional musculoskeletal injuries during physical training, tactical training, and recreational/sports activities. The field-based analyses provided quantitative data and qualitative information essential to guiding 101st specific laboratory testing and intervention design. Overall the laboratory testing revealed that Soldiers of the 101st would benefit from targeted physical training to meet the specific demands of

  19. NEURO-VASCULAR INJURIES ASSOCIATED WITH LIMB ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2000-12-01

    Dec 1, 2000 ... Results: Road traffic accidents were the main cause of fractures associated with neuro- vascular ... the patients with vascular or nerve injury associated with fractures .... of traumatic aorto-iliac dissection injury in a child with.

  20. Knee Osteoarthritis Is Associated With Previous Meniscus and Anterior Cruciate Ligament Surgery Among Elite College American Football Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew V; Nepple, Jeffrey J; Wright, Rick W; Matava, Matthew J; Brophy, Robert H

    Football puts athletes at risk for knee injuries such meniscus and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears, which are associated with the development of osteoarthritis (OA). Previous knee surgery, player position, and body mass index (BMI) may be associated with knee OA. In elite football players undergoing knee magnetic resonance imaging at the National Football League's Invitational Combine, the prevalence of knee OA is associated with previous knee surgery and BMI. Retrospective cohort. Level 4. A retrospective review was performed of all participants of the National Football League Combine from 2005 to 2009 who underwent magnetic resonance imaging of the knee because of prior knee injury, surgery, or knee-related symptoms or concerning examination findings. Imaging studies were reviewed for evidence of OA. History of previous knee surgery-including ACL reconstruction, meniscal procedures, and articular cartilage surgery-and position were recorded for each athlete. BMI was calculated based on height and weight. There was a higher prevalence of OA in knees with a history of previous knee surgery (23% vs 4.0%, P 30 kg/m 2 was also associated with a higher risk of OA ( P = 0.007) but player position was not associated with knee OA. Previous knee surgery, particularly ACL reconstruction and partial meniscectomy, and elevated BMI are associated with knee OA in elite football players. Future research should investigate ways to minimize the risk of OA after knee surgery in these athletes. Treatment of knee injuries in football athletes should consider chondroprotection, including meniscal preservation and cartilage repair, when possible.

  1. Reducing exercise-induced muscular injury in kendo athletes with supplementation of coenzyme Q10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kon, Michihiro; Tanabe, Kai; Akimoto, Takayuki; Kimura, Fuminori; Tanimura, Yuko; Shimizu, Kazuhiro; Okamoto, Tadashi; Kono, Ichiro

    2008-10-01

    Intensive physical exercise may cause muscular injury and increase oxidative stress. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of an antioxidant, coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), on muscular injury and oxidative stress during exercise training. Eighteen male students, all elite Japanese kendo athletes, were randomly assigned to either a CoQ10 group (n 10) or a placebo group (n 8) in a double-blind manner. Subjects in the CoQ10 group took 300 mg CoQ10 per d for 20 d, while subjects in the placebo group took the same dosage of a placebo. All subjects practised kendo 5.5 h per d for 6 d during the experimental period. Blood samples were taken 2 weeks before, during (1 d, 3 d, 5 d) and 1 week after the training. Serum creatine kinase (CK) activity and myoglobin (Mb) concentration significantly increased in both groups (at 3 d and 5 d). Serum CK (at 3 d), Mb (at 3 d) and lipid peroxide (at 3 d and 5 d) of the CoQ10 group were lower than those of the placebo group. The leucocyte counts in the placebo group significantly increased (at 3 d) and neutrophils significantly increased in both groups (at 3 d and 5 d). Serum scavenging activity against superoxide anion did not change in either group. These results indicate that CoQ10 supplementation reduced exercise-induced muscular injury in athletes.

  2. Association of subjective social status and sociodemographic indicators in athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamyla Thais Dias de Freitas

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2016v18n5p591   Subjective social status comprises the perception of individuals about their social status. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between subjective social status and sociodemographic indicators (age, educational level, marital status and economic level in athletes from Santa Catharina. A total of 593 athletes of both sexes and mean age of 21.18 (± 5.58 years, 371 men, randomly selected, practitioners of individual and collective sport modalities, federated in clubs in the western region of Santa Catarina participated in the study. Social status perception was assessed using the MacArthur scale version for young people adapted to the sports context. For the association between perceived status and sociodemographic indicators, the Chi-square and Multinomial Logistic Regression tests were used, stratified by gender and adjusted for age variables, educational level, marital status and socioeconomic status. Dissatisfaction with status was found in 85% of the sample. Moreover, 46.9% of participants perceived themselves with low family status and 46% perceived themselves with intermediate status in their clubs. The association between groups showed statistically significant differences according to sex, age, educational level and marital status. The association between sociodemographic variables and status according to sex indicated that younger men, with less education, and single were more likely to be dissatisfied with their status. There is need for greater attention by health professionals regarding younger male athletes, with lower education and single regarding their status perception.

  3. Association Between Previous Injury and Risk Factors for Future Injury in Preprofessional Ballet and Contemporary Dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Sarah J; Palacios-Derflingher, Luz; Shi, Qian; Whittaker, Jackie L; Emery, Carolyn A

    2017-10-20

    To determine the prevalence of self-reported 1-year injury history and examine its association with preparticipation evaluation components aimed at predicting future injury risk (PPE-IP) among preprofessional ballet and contemporary dancers. Cross-sectional study. Preprofessional ballet school, university contemporary dance program. Full-time preprofessional ballet and contemporary dancers. Preparticipation evaluation consisted of the Athletic Coping Skills Inventory-28, body mass index, total bone mineral density, ankle range of motion, active standing turnout, lumbopelvic control, unipedal dynamic balance, and Y-Balance test. Self-reported 1-year history of dance-related medical attention and/or time-loss injury. A total of 155 ballet [n = 90, 80 females, median age 15 years (range 11-19)] and contemporary [n = 65, 63 females, median age 20 years (range 17-30)] dancers participated. Forty-six percent (95% confidence interval (CI), 38.4-54.6) reported a 1-year injury history. Self-reported injury history was not associated with any PPE-IP, however, an influence of age and psychological coping skills on the relationship between 1-year injury history and PPE-IP was identified. Multivariable analyses revealed that prevalence of 1-year injury history did not differ by age [referent group 18 years: OR 0.69 (95% CI, 0.30-1.56)], or level of psychological coping skills [OR 1.35 (95% CI, 0.61-2.94)]. The prevalence of self-reported 1-year injury history among preprofessional ballet and contemporary dancers is high. Although measures of PPE-IP did not differ based on injury history, it is important that age and psychological coping skills are considered in future dance injury prevention and prediction research. Level 3 evidence.

  4. Balance index score as a predictive factor for lower sports results or anterior cruciate ligament knee injuries in Croatian female athletes--preliminary study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vrbanić, Tea Schnurrer-Luke; Ravlić-Gulan, Jagoda; Gulan, Gordan; Matovinović, Damir

    2007-01-01

    ...) knee injury at a 4- to 6-fold greater rate than do male athletes. ACL injuries result either from contact mechanisms or from certain unexplained non-contact mechanisms occurring during daily professional sports activities...

  5. Modern Sexism and Preference for a Coach among Select National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Female Athletes: A Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenawalt, Nancy Jo

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this explanatory mixed methods research study was to examine the relationship of modern sexism to a female athlete's preference for a coach based on the sex of the coach. Female athletes (N = 155) from one National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I institution in the Northeastern United States participated in the…

  6. Athletes' Perceptions of National Collegiate Athletic Association--Mandated Sickle Cell Trait Screening: Insight for Academic Institutions and College Health Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Raymona H.; Shah, Gulzar H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The study objective was to explore athletes' perspectives of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA)--mandated sickle cell trait (SCT)--screening policy by examining race- and gender-related differences in athletes' perceptions regarding risk of having SCT and concern about loss of playing time. Participants: Participants were…

  7. Effects of Static and Dynamic Stretching on Injury Prevention in High School Soccer Athletes: A Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Alan A; Kiningham, Robert B; Sen, Ananda

    2015-08-01

    To determine if there is any benefit to static stretching after performing a dynamic warm-up in the prevention of injury in high school soccer athletes. Prospective cluster randomized nonblinded study. 12 high schools with varsity and junior varsity boys' soccer teams (24 soccer teams) across the state of Michigan. Four hundred ninety-nine student-athletes were enrolled, and 465 completed the study. One high school dropped out of the study in the first week, leaving a total of 22 teams. Dynamic stretching protocol vs dynamic + static (D+S) stretching protocol. Lower-extremity, core, or lower-back injuries per team. Twelve teams performed the dynamic stretching protocol and 10 teams performed the D+S stretching protocol. There were 17 injuries (1.42 ± 1.49 injuries/ team) among the teams that performed the dynamic stretching protocol and 20 injuries (2.0 ± 1.24 injuries/ team) among the teams that performed the D+S protocol. There was no statistically significant difference in injuries between the 2 groups (P = .33). There is no difference between dynamic stretching and D+S stretching in the prevention of lower-extremity, core, and back injuries in high school male soccer athletes. Static stretching does not provide any added benefit to dynamic stretching in the prevention of injury in this population before exercise.

  8. Certified Athletic Trainers in Secondary Schools: Report of the Council on Scientific Affairs, American Medical Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyznicki, James M.; Riggs, Joseph A.; Champion, Hunter C.

    1999-01-01

    Identifies professional responsibilities, educational requirements, and current use of certified athletic trainers in prevention and care of high school sports injuries, using literature from the MEDLINE and Health STAR databases. Whereas most high school sports injuries are minor, adequately trained personnel should be present to ensure early…

  9. Low back pain in the athlete. From spondylogenic injury during recreation or competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keene, J S

    1983-12-01

    Low back pain is a common complaint of athletes, and accurate diagnosis is essential, since many causes of back problems can lead to disability. If the obvious mechanical causes, such as muscle strain, "kissing spines," and leg-length inequality, have been ruled out, the more serious sources of low back pain, such as disk herniation, Scheuermann's disease (swimmer's back), compression fractures of the vertebral body, and stress fractures of the posterior elements, should be considered. Treatment goals for all these disorders include pain relief and prevention of further injury.

  10. Clinical and Radiologic Outcomes After Scaphoid Fracture: Injury and Treatment Patterns in National Football League Combine Athletes Between 2009 and 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moatshe, Gilbert; Godin, Jonathan A; Chahla, Jorge; Cinque, Mark E; Kennedy, Nicholas I; Sanchez, George; Beaulieu-Jones, Brendin R; LaPrade, Robert F; Provencher, Matthew T

    2017-12-01

    To report on the clinical and radiologic outcomes and complications after surgical treatment in National Football League (NFL) Combine athletes with a history of a scaphoid fracture. The medical records of 2,285 athletes participating in the NFL Combine from 2009 to 2015 were evaluated for a history of scaphoid, hand, or wrist injury. Clinical outcomes, including grip strength, pinch test, range of motion, and presence of pain and stiffness, were recorded. Imaging studies were evaluated for the percentage of healing, fixation treatment type, hardware complications, radiographic deformity, and presence of osteoarthritis. Of the 2,285 athletes evaluated, 56 presented with a history of a scaphoid fracture. Most fractures were in the middle and proximal aspects of the scaphoid. Of the scaphoid fractures, 76% (43 players) were treated with screw fixation. Of the athletes, 36 (72%) had normal range of motion of the affected wrist, 52 (93%) reported no pain, and 44 (83%) reported no stiffness in the affected wrist. The grip strength and pinch strength were 91% and 96%, respectively, of the uninjured side. The fracture was healed in 75% of the cases; however, 34% had degenerative changes. Hardware complications were found in 15% of the athletes. Good clinical outcomes can be achieved after scaphoid fractures in prospective NFL athletes. However, the rates of nonunion (25%), degenerative changes (34%), and hardware complications (15%) in this study suggest the need for close postoperative radiographic follow-up in this population of patients because their athletic demands may lead to higher rates of the aforementioned complications. Level IV, retrospective study. Copyright © 2017 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Lesão muscular nos atletas Muscle injuries in athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Campos Barroso

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem por objetivo demonstrar a fisiologia, o diagnóstico e o tratamento das lesões musculares com foque nos atletas, suas demandas e expectativas. As lesões musculares estão entre as queixas mais comuns no atendimento ortopédico, ocorrendo tanto em atletas como em não atletas. Estas lesões caracterizam um desafio para os especialistas, haja vista a lenta recuperação que afasta o atleta dos treinamentos e competições, as frequentes sequelas e a recorrência das lesões. A maior parte das lesões musculares ocorre durante atividade desportiva, correspondendo de 10 a 55% de todas as lesões. Os músculos mais comumente afetados são os isquiotibiais, quadríceps e gastrocnêmios. Músculos estes biarticulares que estão mais sujeitos a forças de aceleração e desaceleração. O tratamento da lesão muscular varia desde o tratamento conservador até o tratamento cirúrgico. Novos procedimentos estão sendo utilizados, como a câmara hiperbárica e o uso de fatores de crescimento. No entanto, ainda é grande o número de recidivas de lesões. A lesão muscular continua sendo um tema com várias controvérsias. Novos tratamentos estão sendo pesquisados e desenvolvidos. A prevenção com fortalecimento muscular, o alongamento e o equilíbrio muscular continuam sendo o melhor "tratamento".This article had the aim of demonstrating the physiology, diagnosis and treatment of muscle injuries, focusing on athletes and their demands and expectations. Muscle injuries are among the most common complaints in orthopedic practice, occurring both among athletes and among non-athletes. These injuries present a challenge for specialists, due to the slow recovery, during which time athletes are unable to take part in training and competitions, and due to frequent sequelae and recurrences of the injuries. Most muscle injuries (between 10% and 55% of all injuries occur during sports activities. The muscles most commonly affected are the

  12. Sleep and Athletic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Andrew M

    Sleep is an essential component of health and well-being, with significant impacts on physical development, emotional regulation, cognitive performance, and quality of life. Along with being an integral part of the recovery and adaptive process between bouts of exercise, accumulating evidence suggests that increased sleep duration and improved sleep quality in athletes are associated with improved performance and competitive success. In addition, better sleep may reduce the risk of both injury and illness in athletes, not only optimizing health but also potentially enhancing performance through increased participation in training. Despite this, most studies have found that athletes fail to obtain the recommended amount of sleep, threatening both performance and health. Athletes face a number of obstacles that can reduce the likelihood of obtaining proper sleep, such as training and competition schedules, travel, stress, academic demands, and overtraining. In addition, athletes have been found to demonstrate poor self-assessment of their sleep duration and quality. In light of this, athletes may require more careful monitoring and intervention to identify individuals at risk and promote proper sleep to improve both performance and overall health. This review attempts to highlight the recent literature regarding sleep issues in athletes, the effects of sleep on athletic performance, and interventions to enhance proper sleep in athletes.

  13. Psychology in sports injury rehabilitation

    OpenAIRE

    Concannon, Michael; Pringle, Bob

    2012-01-01

    Using the case study of an 18-year-old track athlete with a chronic Achilles tendinopathy, this article identifies risk factors associated with training for major athletic events, such as the forthcoming Olympic Games, and presents evidence for adopting a multidisciplinary approach to the treatment and management of athletic injury, addressing the physical aspects of the injury, as well as the psychological needs of the athlete. The athlete’s GP and practice nurse, as well as a podiatrist and...

  14. The incidence of injury in Texas high school basketball. A prospective study among male and female athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, D F; Farney, W C; DeLee, J C

    1999-01-01

    Recent publications have reported differences in the incidence, rate, risk, and type of sports injury among men and women. We undertook a prospective study to determine the incidence of injury among high school basketball players and to examine the differences in injury type, incidence, rate, and risk between male and female athletes. During a single basketball season, an injury survey of girls' varsity teams at 100 class 4A and 5A high schools in Texas was conducted. These data were previously reported. We surveyed the same 100 high schools during a subsequent season to gather injury data from the boys' varsity teams. The athletic trainer collected data on each reportable injury and reported the data weekly to the University Interscholastic League. A reportable injury was defined as one that occurred during a practice or a game, resulted in missed practice or game time, required physician consultation, or involved the head or the face. The boys' and girls' data were compared and statistically analyzed. The rate of injury was 0.56 among the boys and 0.49 among the girls. The risk of injury per hour of exposure was not significantly different between the two groups. In both groups, the most common injuries were sprains, and the most commonly injured area was the ankle, followed by the knee. Female athletes had a significantly higher rate of knee injuries including a 3.79 times greater risk of anterior cruciate ligament injuries. For both sexes, the risk of injury during a game was significantly higher than during practice.

  15. Sports hernia or groin disruption injury? Chronic athletic groin pain: a retrospective study of 100 patients with long-term follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvey, J F W; Hazard, H

    2014-01-01

    Chronic groin pain (athletic pubalgia) is a common problem in sports such as football, hockey, cricket, baseball and athletics. Multiple co-existing pathologies are often present which commonly include posterior inguinal canal wall deficiency, conjoint tendinopathy, adductor tendinopathy, osteitis pubis and peripheral nerve entrapment. The mechanism of injury remains unclear but sports that involve either pivoting on a single leg (e.g. kicking) or a sudden change in direction at speed are most often associated with athletic pubalgia. These manoeuvres place large forces across the bony pelvis and its soft tissue supports, accounting for the usual clinical presentation of multiple symptomatic abnormalities forming one pattern of injury. The diagnoses encountered in this series of 100 patients included rectus abdominis muscle atrophy/asymmetry (22), conjoint tendinopathy (16), sports (occult, incipient) hernia (16), groin disruption injury (16), classical hernia (11) traumatic osteitis pubis (5), and avulsion fracture of the pubic bone (4). Surgical management was generally undertaken only after failed conservative therapy of 3-6 months, but some professionals who have physiotherapy during the football season went directly to surgery at the end of the football season. A variety of operations were performed including groin reconstruction (15), open hernia repair with or without mesh (11), sports hernia repair (Gilmore) (7) laparoscopic repair (3), conjoint tendon repair (3) and adductor tenotomy (3). Sixty-six patients were available for follow at an average of 13 years after initial consultation and the combined success rate for both conservative treatment and surgery was 94%. The authors believe that athletic pubalgia or sports hernia should be considered as a 'groin disruption injury', the result of functional instability of the pelvis. The surgical approach is aimed at strengthening the anterior pelvic soft tissues that support and stabilise the symphysis pubis.

  16. Cyclic movement frequency is associated with muscle typology in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bex, T; Baguet, A; Achten, E; Aerts, P; De Clercq, D; Derave, W

    2017-02-01

    There is a continuing research interest in the muscle fiber type composition (MFTC) of athletes. Recently, muscle carnosine quantification by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1) H-MRS) was developed as a new non-invasive method to estimate MFTC. This cross-sectional study aims to better understand estimated MFTC in relation to (a) different disciplines within one sport; (b) cyclic sport exercise characteristics; (c) within-athlete variability; and (d) athlete level. A total of 111 elite athletes (74 runners, 7 triathletes, 11 swimmers, 14 cyclists and 5 kayakers) and 188 controls were recruited to measure muscle carnosine in gastrocnemius and deltoid muscle by (1) H-MRS. Within sport disciplines, athletes were divided into subgroups (sprint-, intermediate-, and endurance-type). The controls were used as reference population to allow expression of the athletes' data as Z-scores. Within different sports, endurance-type athletes systematically showed the lowest Z-score compared to sprint-type athletes, with intermediate-type athletes always situated in between. Across the different sports disciplines, carnosine content showed the strongest significant correlation with cyclic movement frequency (R = 0.86, P = 0.001). Both within and between different cyclic sports, estimated MFTC was divergent between sprint- and endurance-type athletes. Cyclic movement frequency, rather than exercise duration came out as the most determining factor for the optimal estimated MFTC in elite athletes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Injuries Associated with Thoracolumbar Fractures | Montshiwa | East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: A total of 32 cases had been admitted with fractures of the thoracolumbar spine over the study period. Neurologic injury was associated with a thoracolumbar fracture in two-thirds of cases. An associated non-spinal injury was found in 37.5% of cases. Most of these injuries (77%) involved the extremities. The

  18. Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy in Athletes: Progressive Tauopathy following Repetitive Head Injury

    OpenAIRE

    McKee, Ann C.; Cantu, Robert C; Nowinski, Christopher J.; Hedley-Whyte, E. Tessa; Gavett, Brandon E.; Budson, Andrew E; Santini, Veronica E.; Lee, Hyo-Soon; Kubilus, Caroline A.; Stern, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Since the 1920s, it has been known that the repetitive brain trauma associated with boxing may produce a progressive neurological deterioration, originally termed “dementia pugilistica” and more recently, chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). We review the 47 cases of neuropathologically verified CTE recorded in the literature and document the detailed findings of CTE in 3 professional athletes: one football player and 2 boxers. Clinically, CTE is associated with memory disturbances, behavi...

  19. Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy in Athletes: Progressive Tauopathy After Repetitive Head Injury

    OpenAIRE

    McKee, Ann C.; Cantu, Robert C; Nowinski, Christopher J.; Hedley-Whyte, E. Tessa; Gavett, Brandon E.; Budson, Andrew E; Santini, Veronica E.; Lee, Hyo-Soon; Kubilus, Caroline A.; Stern, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Since the 1920s, it has been known that the repetitive brain trauma associated with boxing may produce a progressive neurological deterioration, originally termed “dementia pugilistica” and more recently, chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). We review the 47 cases of neuropathologically verified CTE recorded in the literature and document the detailed findings of CTE in 3 professional athletes: one football player and 2 boxers. Clinically, CTE is associated with memory disturbances, behavi...

  20. Effects of peripheral injury in athletes with long-term-exercise participation in modern pentathlons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bo-Ae; Lee, Seung-Hyun; Oh, Deuk-Ja

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to verify the effect of the ankle injury of athletes who attended the modern pentathlon for a long-term basis on ankle muscle's strength and proprioceptive sensory function. For this, 10 athletes of the modern pentathlon, with experience of having damaged one side of their ankles within 6 months, and 10 healthy male college students, who have similar personal characteristics, such as height, age, and weight and have no experience of participating in regular sports for 3 or more times a week. The experimental subject was divided into 3 groups in all. After the flexor power of the plantar and dorsal side and the muscle strength of the varus and valgus for an ankle were measured by the Biodex System III at an angular velocity of 60°/sec and 120°/sec, it was documented as the maximum couple of force per body weight. Also, specified receptive senses were measured by the Biodex System III using the stop button to find the position (angle) of the joint. As a result of the conclusive research, participation in modern pentathlons for a long-term basis has caused an increase in valgus muscle strength and flexor power of the plantar side of the ankle when compared to general college students. Sports-related injury of the ankle was also found to result into the weakening of the flexor power on the plantar side and valgus muscle strength and a decrease of the proprioceptive sensory function.

  1. Dynamic trunk stabilization: a conceptual back injury prevention program for volleyball athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Chad E; Nyland, John; Caudill, Paul; Brosky, Joseph; Caborn, David N M

    2008-11-01

    The sport of volleyball creates considerable dynamic trunk stability demands. Back injury occurs all too frequently in volleyball, particularly among female athletes. The purpose of this clinical commentary is to review functional anatomy, muscle coactivation strategies, assessment of trunk muscle performance, and the characteristics of effective exercises for the trunk or core. From this information, a conceptual progressive 3-phase volleyball-specific training program is presented to improve dynamic trunk stability and to potentially reduce the incidence of back injury among volleyball athletes. Phase 1 addresses low-velocity motor control, kinesthetic awareness, and endurance, with the clinician providing cues to teach achievement of biomechanically neutral spine alignment. Phase 2 focuses on progressively higher velocity dynamic multiplanar endurance, coordination, and strength-power challenges integrating upper and lower extremity movements, while maintaining neutral spine alignment. Phase 3 integrates volleyball-specific skill simulations by breaking down composite movement patterns into their component parts, with differing dynamic trunk stability requirements, while maintaining neutral spine alignment. Prospective research is needed to validate the efficacy of this program.

  2. Evaluation of static and dynamic balance in athletes with anterior cruciate ligament injury – A controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Lazzaretti Fernandes

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Anterior cruciate ligament injury leads to adaptive responses to maintain postural control. However, there is no consensus regarding whether leg dominance also affects postural control in athletes with anterior cruciate ligament injury. The purpose of this study was to evaluate dynamic and static postural control among athletes with and without anterior cruciate ligament injury to the dominant leg. METHODS: Twenty-eight athletes, twenty-one males and seven females aged 15-45 years, were allocated to one of two groups: the anterior cruciate ligament injury group (26±3 years or the control group without anterior cruciate ligament injury (25±6.5 years. All subjects performed one legged stance tests under eyes open and eyes closed conditions and squat and kick movement tests using a postural control protocol (AccuSwayPlus force platform, Massachusetts. The center of pressure displacement and speed were measured by the force platform. In addition, the distance traveled on the single-leg hop test was assessed as an objective measure of function. RESULTS: Significantly greater mediolateral sway was found under the eyes closed condition (p=0.04 and during squat movement (p=0.01 in the anterior cruciate ligament injury group than in the control group. Analysis of the single-leg hop test results showed no difference between the groups (p=0.73. CONCLUSION: Athletes with anterior cruciate ligament injury had greater mediolateral displacement of the center of pressure toward the dominant leg under the eyes closed condition and during squat movement compared to control athletes.

  3. Relationship jump-landing technique and neuropsychological characteristics, implications for ACL injury prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Gokeler; Anne Benjaminse; N. Cortes; M. Meier

    2014-01-01

    Abstract from the IOC World Conference on Prevention of Injury & Illness in Sport, Monaco 2014 Background: Neuropsychological capabilities in athletes may be associated with a predisposition to anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries. Objective: Assess differences between male and female athletes

  4. Surgical treatment of rectus femoris injury in soccer playing athletes: report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Girardi Shimba

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Muscle injury is the most common injury during sport practice. It represents 31% of all lesions in soccer, 16% in track and field, 10.4% in rugby, 17.7% in basketball, and between 22% and 46% in American football. The cicatrization with the formation of fibrotic tissue can compromise the muscle function, resulting in a challenging problem for orthopedics. Although conservative treatment presents adequate functional results in the majority of the athletes who have muscle injury, the consequences of treatment failure can be dramatic, possibly compromising the return to sport practice. The biarticular muscles with prevalence of type II muscle fibers, which are submitted to excentric contraction, present higher lesion risk. The quadriceps femoris is one example. The femoris rectus is the quadriceps femoris muscle most frequently involved in stretching injuries. The rupture occurs in the acceleration phase of running, jump, ball kicking, or in contraction against resistance. Although the conservative treatment shows good results, it is common that the patient has lower muscle strength, difficulty in return to sports, and a permanent and visible gap. Surgical treatment can be an option for a more efficient return to sports.

  5. Dental injuries sustained by high school athletes in the United States, from 2008/2009 through 2013/2014 academic years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Christy L; McKenzie, Lara B; Ferketich, Amy K; Andridge, Rebecca; Xiang, Huiyun; Comstock, R Dawn

    2016-04-01

    Risk of dental injuries is present in a variety of sports. Mouthguards are effective yet underutilized. This study aimed to estimate the rate of dental injuries among high school athletes and investigate the utilization of mouthguards across multiple high school sports. Athlete exposure and dental injury data were collected during the 2008/2009 through 2013/2014 academic years from a large sample of high schools in the United States as part of the National High School Sports-Related Injury Surveillance Study. There were 222 dental injuries sustained during 24,787,258 athlete exposures for a rate of 0.90 per 100,000 athlete exposures. The rate of dental injuries in competition (1.8) was three times higher than the rate in practice (0.6) (RR: 3.1, 95% CI: 2.3-4.0). Rates of dental injuries varied by sport with the highest rates in girls' field hockey (3.9) and boys' basketball (2.6). Dental injuries most commonly occurred as a result of contact with another player (61.3%) and contact with a playing apparatus (31.5%). For the majority of dental injuries, the athlete was not wearing a mouthguard (72.5%). Among injuries where athletes were wearing mouthguards, the majority were self-fitted (95.9%). Although dental injuries were relatively uncommon, the majority occurred while the athlete was not wearing a mouthguard. As previous studies have shown that mouthguards are effective in preventing injuries, all high school athletes participating in a sport that places them at risk of sustaining a dental injury should wear a mouthguard consistently in both competition and practice. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Injuries to the Collateral Ligaments of the Metacarpophalangeal Joint of the Thumb, Including Simultaneous Combined Thumb Ulnar and Radial Collateral Ligament Injuries, in National Football League Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Brian C; Belkin, Nicole S; Kennelly, Steve; Weiss, Leigh; Barnes, Ronnie P; Rodeo, Scott A; Warren, Russell F; Hotchkiss, Robert N

    2017-01-01

    Thumb collateral ligament injuries occur frequently in the National Football League (NFL). In the general population or in recreational athletes, pure metacarpophalangeal (MCP) abduction or adduction mechanisms yield isolated ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) and radial collateral ligament (RCL) tears, respectively, while NFL athletes may sustain combined mechanism injury patterns. To evaluate the incidence of simultaneous combined thumb UCL and RCL tears among all thumb MCP collateral ligament injuries in NFL athletes on a single team. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. A retrospective review of all thumb injuries on a single NFL team from 1991 to 2014 was performed. All players with a thumb MCP collateral ligament injury were included. Collateral ligament injuries were confirmed by review of both physical examination findings and magnetic resonance imaging. Player demographics, surgical details, and return-to-play data were obtained from the team electronic medical record and surgeons' records. A total of 36 thumbs in 32 NFL players were included in the study, yielding an incidence of 1.6 thumb MCP collateral ligament injuries per year on a single NFL team. Of these, 9 thumbs (25%) had a simultaneous combined UCL and RCL tear injury pattern confirmed on both physical examination and MRI. The remaining 27 thumbs (75%) were isolated UCL injuries. All combined UCL/RCL injuries required surgery due to dysfunction from instability; 63.0% of isolated UCL injuries required surgical repair ( P = .032) due to continued pain and dysfunction from instability. Repair, when required, was delayed until the end of the season. All players with combined UCL/RCL injuries and isolated UCL injuries returned to play professional football the following season. Simultaneous combined thumb UCL and RCL tear is a previously undescribed injury pattern that occurred in 25% of thumb MCP collateral ligament injuries on a single NFL team over a 23-year period. All players with combined thumb UCL

  7. National Athletic Trainers' Association Position Statement: Evaluation of Dietary Supplements for Performance Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buell, Jackie L; Franks, Rob; Ransone, Jack; Powers, Michael E; Laquale, Kathleen M; Carlson-Phillips, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To help athletic trainers promote a “food-first” philosophy to support health and performance, understand federal and sport governing body rules and regulations regarding dietary supplements and banned substances, and become familiar with reliable resources for evaluating the safety, purity, and efficacy of dietary supplements. Background The dietary supplement industry is poorly regulated and takes in billions of dollars per year. Uneducated athletes need to gain a better understanding of the safety, eligibility, and efficacy concerns associated with choosing to take dietary supplements. The athletic trainer is a valuable athletic team member who can help in the educational process. In many cases, athletic trainers are asked to help evaluate the legality, safety, and efficacy of dietary supplements. For this position statement, our mission is to provide the athletic trainer with the necessary resources for these tasks. Recommendations Proper nutrition and changes in the athlete's habitual diet should be considered first when improved performance is the goal. Athletes need to understand the level of regulation (or lack thereof) governing the dietary supplement industry at the international, federal, state, and individual sport-participation levels. Athletes should not assume a product is safe simply because it is marketed over the counter. All products athletes are considering using should be evaluated for purity (ie, truth in labeling), safety, and efficacy. PMID:23672334

  8. Longitudinal assessment of noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injury risk factors during maturation in a female athlete: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myer, Gregory D; Ford, Kevin R; Divine, Jon G; Wall, Eric J; Kahanov, Leamor; Hewett, Timothy E

    2009-01-01

    To present a unique case of a young pubertal female athlete who was prospectively monitored for previously identified anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury risk factors for 3 years before sustaining an ACL injury. In prospective studies, previous investigators have examined cross-sectional measures of anatomic, hormonal, and biomechanical risk factors for ACL injury in young female athletes. In this report, we offer a longitudinal example of measured risk factors as the participant matured. Partial or complete tear of the ACL. The participant was identified from a cohort monitored from 2002 until 2007. No injury prevention training or intervention was included during this time in the study cohort. The injury occurred in the year after the third assessment during the athlete's club basketball season. Knee examination, magnetic resonance imaging findings, and arthroscopic evaluation confirmed a complete ACL rupture. The athlete was early pubertal in year 1 of the study and pubertal during the next 2 years; menarche occurred at age 12 years. At the time of injury, she was 14.25 years old and postpubertal, with closing femoral and tibial physes. For each of the 3 years before injury, she demonstrated incremental increases in height, body mass index, and anterior knee laxity. She also displayed decreased hip abduction and knee flexor strength, concomitant with increased knee abduction loads, after each year of growth. During puberty, the participant increased body mass and height of the center of mass without matching increases in hip and knee strength. The lack of strength and neuromuscular adaptation to match the increased demands of her pubertal stature may underlie the increased knee abduction loads measured at each annual visit and may have predisposed her to increased risk of ACL injury.

  9. Traumatic injuries of thigh and calf muscles in athletes: role and clinical relevance of MR imaging and ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Daichi; Hamilton, Bruce; Guermazi, Ali; de Villiers, Richard; Crema, Michel D; Roemer, Frank W

    2012-12-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and ultrasound have become valuable tools for evaluation of traumatic muscle injuries in athletes. Common athletic injuries include strain, contusion and avulsion, which are characterised by muscle fibre disruption, intramuscular haemorrhagic dissection, haematoma at the musculotendinous junction, and perifascial blood or haematoma. MR imaging may allow clinicians to predict the time required before athletes can return to competition and the risk of injury recurrence. Fluid-sensitive MR sequences, e.g., fat-suppressed T2-weighted or proton density-weighted turbo spin echo (TSE), and short-tau inversion recovery (STIR) sequences are suitable for detecting oedematous changes in the musculotendinous unit, and for delineating intramuscular or perifascial fluid collections or haematoma. T1-weighted spin echo sequences are used to visualise atrophy and fatty infiltration and to differentiate between haemorrhage/haematoma and oedema. While ultrasound may play a role as an adjunctive imaging method, it is less accurate than MR images for assessing the extent of the injury and it cannot differentiate between new and old injuries. In this pictorial review, imaging features of lower extremity muscle injuries including strain, contusion and avulsion are reviewed, focusing on MR and ultrasound imaging findings after initial injury and during follow-up, and their relevance in clinical practice is discussed. • MR imaging may allow clinicians to predict time required before athletes can return to competition • Fluid-sensitive MR sequences are suitable for detecting oedematous changes in the muscles • T1-weighted sequences are used to differentiate between haemorrhage/haematoma and oedema. • Ultrasound can also be used but is less accurate than MR imaging for assessing the extent of the injury.

  10. Injury rates in martial art athletes: anthropometric parameters and training volume, but not foot morphology indexes, are predictive risk factors for lower limb injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, Jacopo A; Bassani, Tito; Galbusera, Fabio; Bianchi, Alberto; Martinelli, Nicolò

    2017-09-22

    Previous studies attempted to identify possible risk factors for acute and overuse injuries in several sports disciplines such as running, gymnastics or team sports. Given the lack of scientific works focused on risk factors for lower limb injuries in martial arts, the present study was aimed to investigate foot anatomy, anthropometric measures, and other background information as possible risk factors of injury in barefoot athletes practicing judo, karate, kung fu, thai boxe, or aikido. In addition, the injury rates were evaluated in relation with the different martial art styles. One group of 130 martial artists was retrospectively evaluated. Data of three foot morphological variables were collected: navicular height (NH), navicular drop (ND) and the rear foot (RF). In addition, each participant filled an interview questionnaire providing the following information: age, sex, body weight, height, BMI, hours of training per week, the kind of injury occurred to the lower limbs in the preceding year. Of 130 subjects, 70 (53.8%) did not sustain injuries, 35 (27.0%) suffered an acute injury and the remaining 25 (19.2%) reported an overuse injury. No significant differences were observed in the injury rates in relation to style and kind of martial art. Age, training volume and BMI were found as significant predictors of injury, while NH, ND and RF were not able to predict acute or overuse injury at lower limbs. The injury rates were similar in karate, judo, kung fu, aikido, and thai boxe. The foot morphology variables were not related with the presence or absence of acute and overuse injuries. Conversely, older and heavier martial artists, performing more hours of barefoot training, are at higher risk of acute and overuse injury. Athletic trainers should strongly take into account the present information in order to develop more accurate and specific injury prevention programs for martial artists.

  11. Liability, Athletic Equipment, and the Athletic Trainer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Richard

    Standards of conduct, roles, and responsibilities expected of athletic trainers should be developed and disseminated. These guidelines could be used in court to show that the athletic trainer was following basic standards if he should be charged with liability. A review of liability cases involving athletic injuries received while athletes were…

  12. Sickle cell trait associated with a RR of death of 37 times in National Collegiate Athletic Association football athletes: a database with 2 million athlete-years as the denominator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Kimberly G; Drezner, Jonathan A; Klossner, David; Asif, Irfan M

    2012-04-01

    This study examines sickle cell trait (SCT) as a cause of sudden death in National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) athletes and explores the cost-effectiveness of different screening models. The authors reviewed the cause of all cases of sudden death in NCAA student-athletes from January 2004 through December 2008. The authors also explored the cost-effectiveness of screening for this condition in selected populations assuming that identifying athletes with SCT would prevent death. There were 273 deaths and a total of 1 969 663 athlete-participant-years. Five (2%) deaths were associated with SCT. In football athletes, there were 72 (26%) deaths. Of these, 52 (72%) were due to trauma unrelated to sports activity and 20 (28%) were due to medical causes; nine deaths were cardiac (45%), five were associated with SCT (25%). Thirteen of the 20 deaths due to medical causes occurred during exertion; cardiac (6, 46%) SCT associated (5, 39%), and heat stroke unrelated to SCT (2, 15%). All deaths associated with SCT occurred in black Division I football athletes. The risk of exertional death in Division I football players with SCT was 1:827 which was 37 times higher than in athletes without SCT. The cost per case identified varied widely depending on the population screened and the price of the screening test. Exertional death in athletes with SCT occurs at a higher rate than previously appreciated. More research is needed to (1) understand the pathophysiology of death in SCT-positive athletes and (2) determine whether screening high-risk populations reduces mortality.

  13. The current state of college Taekwondo athletes' sport injury and the measures to improve their coping ability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min Kyeong Hoon; Lee, Jong Min; Jung, Han Kee [Dept. of Adaptation Physical Education, Hanshin University, Osan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    As for the current state of college Taekwondo athletes’ sport injury, times of occurrence and major causes showed differences in weight class and career, while situations of occurrence had differences in grade, weight class, and career. As for the measures to improve their coping ability, first aid showed differences in grade, while prevention of injury had differences in grade and career. Treatment methods turned out to have no differences. For college Taekwondo athletes, sport injury occurred during exercise, mostly when they fell. In addition, lack of skill was the greatest major cause of sport injury. As for the sport injury coping ability, ice massage was used as first aid and self-massage was performed. For prevention of injury, sufficient fatigue recovery was considered to be the priority of prevention of injury.

  14. Most Essential Wheeled Mobility Skills for Daily Life : An International Survey Among Paralympic Wheelchair Athletes With Spinal Cord Injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fliess-Douer, Osnat; Vanlandewijck, Yves C.; Van der Woude, Lucas H. V.

    Fliess-Douer O, Vanlandewijck YC, Van Der Woude LHV. Most essential wheeled mobility skills for daily life: an international survey among paralympic wheelchair athletes with spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2012;93:629-35. Objectives: To create a hierarchical list of the most essential

  15. Recovery from a national collegiate athletic association division I football game: muscle damage and hormonal status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, William J; Spiering, Barry A; Volek, Jeff S; Martin, Gerard J; Howard, Robert L; Ratamess, Nicholas A; Hatfield, Disa L; Vingren, Jakob L; Ho, Jen Yu; Fragala, Maren S; Thomas, Gwendolyn A; French, Duncan N; Anderson, Jeffrey M; Häkkinen, Keijo; Maresh, Carl M

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine markers of skeletal muscle tissue damage and circulating anabolic and catabolic hormones to gain insight into the recovery process from Friday until Monday, when a new practice week begins. Twenty-eight National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I football players gave consent to participate in the investigation in the ninth game of the season. Sixteen players started the game and played the entire game (PL), and 12 others did not play and were on the bench during the game (DNP). Each player had fasted blood samples obtained at the same time of day between 1000 and 1200 hours the day before the game (Friday; T1), 18-20 hours after the game (Sunday; T2), and then 42-44 hours after the game (Monday; T3). Blood samples were analyzed for concentrations of creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), myoglobin, testosterone, and cortisol. The PL players showed significantly (p T1 and T3), myoglobin (T2 > T1 and T3), and LDH (T2 > T1). In contrast, DNP players showed significant differences in cortisol (T3 T1). Few changes were observed in testosterone and cortisol changes, indicating stability of the anabolic/catabolic hormones. In conclusion, these data indicate that participation in a college football game late in the season results in some degree of tissue damage but with minimal hormonal responses, which seem to have stabilized at resting concentrations without predominance of cortisol's catabolic presence. As previously noted in the literature, some type of "contact adaptation" to the season may have occurred with regard to tissue damage responses. However, by the ninth game of a season, players do carry soft tissue damage levels above resting ranges into subsequent games, indicating that recovery should be monitored, with coaches being careful with scheduling scrimmage and full-contact drills. How such data implicate overuse injuries remains unclear, considering that hormonal status in this study was highly

  16. The psychological factor 'self-blame' predicts overuse injury among top-level Swedish track and field athletes: a 12-month cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timpka, Toomas; Jacobsson, Jenny; Dahlström, Örjan; Kowalski, Jan; Bargoria, Victor; Ekberg, Joakim; Nilsson, Sverker; Renström, Per

    2015-11-01

    Athletes' psychological characteristics are important for understanding sports injury mechanisms. We examined the relevance of psychological factors in an integrated model of overuse injury risk in athletics/track and field. Swedish track and field athletes (n=278) entering a 12-month injury surveillance in March 2009 were also invited to complete a psychological survey. Simple Cox proportional hazards models were compiled for single explanatory variables. We also tested multiple models for 3 explanatory variable groupings: an epidemiological model without psychological variables, a psychological model excluding epidemiological variables and an integrated (combined) model. The integrated multiple model included the maladaptive coping behaviour self-blame (p=0.007; HR 1.32; 95% CI 1.08 to 1.61), and an interaction between athlete category and injury history (pinjury the previous year were at half the risk of sustaining a new injury compared with the reference group. A training load index entered the epidemiological multiple model, but not the integrated model. The coping behaviour self-blame replaced training load in an integrated explanatory model of overuse injury risk in athletes. What seemed to be more strongly related to the likelihood of overuse injury was not the athletics load per se, but, rather, the load applied in situations when the athlete's body was in need of rest. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  17. Critical components of neuromuscular training to reduce ACL injury risk in female athletes: meta-regression analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Dai; Myer, Gregory D; Barber Foss, Kim D; Pepin, Michael J; Micheli, Lyle J; Hewett, Timothy E

    2017-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to determine key components in neuromuscular training that optimise ACL injury reduction in female athletes using meta-regression analyses. Design Systematic review and meta-regression. Data sources The literature search was performed in PubMed and EBSCO. Eligibility criteria Inclusion criteria for the current analysis were: (1) documented the number of ACL injuries, (2) employed a neuromuscular training intervention that aimed to reduce ACL injuries, (3) had a comparison group, (4) used a prospective control study design and (5) recruited female athletes as participants. Two independent reviewers extracted studies which met the inclusion criteria. Methodological quality of included study and strength of recommendation were evaluated. Number of ACL injuries and participants in control and intervention groups, age of participants, dosage of neuromuscular training, exercise variations within neuromuscular training and status of verbal feedback were extracted. Results The meta-regression analyses identified age of participants, dosage of neuromuscular training, exercise variations within neuromuscular training and utilisation of verbal feedback as significant predictors of ACL injury reduction (p=0.01 in fixed-effects model, p=0.03 in random-effects model). Inclusion of 1 of the 4 components in neuromuscular training could reduce ACL injury risk by 17.2–17.7% in female athletes. No significant heterogeneity and publication bias effects were detected. Strength of recommendation was rated as A (recommendation based on consistent and good-quality patient-oriented study evidence). Conclusions Age of participants, dosage of neuromuscular training, exercise variations within neuromuscular training and utilisation of verbal feedback are predictors that influence the optimisation of prophylactic effects of neuromuscular training and the resultant ACL injury reduction in female athletes. PMID:27251898

  18. Critical components of neuromuscular training to reduce ACL injury risk in female athletes: meta-regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Dai; Myer, Gregory D; Barber Foss, Kim D; Pepin, Michael J; Micheli, Lyle J; Hewett, Timothy E

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine key components in neuromuscular training that optimise ACL injury reduction in female athletes using meta-regression analyses. Systematic review and meta-regression. The literature search was performed in PubMed and EBSCO. Inclusion criteria for the current analysis were: (1) documented the number of ACL injuries, (2) employed a neuromuscular training intervention that aimed to reduce ACL injuries, (3) had a comparison group, (4) used a prospective control study design and (5) recruited female athletes as participants. Two independent reviewers extracted studies which met the inclusion criteria. Methodological quality of included study and strength of recommendation were evaluated. Number of ACL injuries and participants in control and intervention groups, age of participants, dosage of neuromuscular training, exercise variations within neuromuscular training and status of verbal feedback were extracted. The meta-regression analyses identified age of participants, dosage of neuromuscular training, exercise variations within neuromuscular training and utilisation of verbal feedback as significant predictors of ACL injury reduction (p=0.01 in fixed-effects model, p=0.03 in random-effects model). Inclusion of 1 of the 4 components in neuromuscular training could reduce ACL injury risk by 17.2-17.7% in female athletes. No significant heterogeneity and publication bias effects were detected. Strength of recommendation was rated as A (recommendation based on consistent and good-quality patient-oriented study evidence). Age of participants, dosage of neuromuscular training, exercise variations within neuromuscular training and utilisation of verbal feedback are predictors that influence the optimisation of prophylactic effects of neuromuscular training and the resultant ACL injury reduction in female athletes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  19. The Association of Athletic Expenditures with Student Academic Achievement in Arkansas Secondary Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelton, Mike

    2009-01-01

    Data on public secondary schools in Arkansas were gathered for two separate school years, 2005-2006 (N = 278) and 2006-2007 (N = 279), to determine if there was an association between athletic expenditures and student academic achievement. Prior to this research, there was little empirical evidence demonstrating any effect that athletic spending…

  20. Effect of abdominal binding on respiratory mechanics during exercise in athletes with cervical spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Christopher R; Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria L; Campbell, Ian G; Romer, Lee M

    2014-07-01

    We asked whether elastic binding of the abdomen influences respiratory mechanics during wheelchair propulsion in athletes with cervical spinal cord injury (SCI). Eight Paralympic wheelchair rugby players with motor-complete SCI (C5-C7) performed submaximal and maximal incremental exercise tests on a treadmill, both with and without abdominal binding. Measurements included pulmonary function, pressure-derived indices of respiratory mechanics, operating lung volumes, tidal flow-volume data, gas exchange, blood lactate, and symptoms. Residual volume and functional residual capacity were reduced with binding (77 ± 18 and 81 ± 11% of unbound, P respiratory mechanics with binding may benefit O2 transport capacity by an improvement in central circulatory function. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Factors associated with deep tissue injury in male wheelchair basketball players of a Japanese national team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirotaka Mutsuzaki

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance of the sporting activity of elite athletes in adapted sports can be difficult if a secondary disorder, such as a pressure ulcer, occurs. Pressure ulcers result from deep tissue injuries by external pressure. The purpose of this study was to use ultrasonography to investigate deep tissue injuries in male wheelchair basketball players of a Japanese national team, and to determine factors associated with the injuries (e.g., body mass index, class of wheelchair basketball, underlying disease, length of athletic career, and whether use of wheelchair is primarily for playing basketball. Twenty male Japanese wheelchair basketball players on the national team for the 2012 London Paralympic Games (12 representative players and eight candidate representative players participated in this study. The sacral region and bilateral ischial regions in each athlete were examined by ultrasonography to detect low-echoic lesions indicative of deep tissue injuries. Nine (45% players had low-echoic lesions, which were detected in 10 of 60 areas. Eight lesions were detected in the sacral region and two lesions were detected in the ischial region. More players with spinal cord injury had low-echoic lesions [9 (69.2% of 13 players], compared to players with skeletal system disease [0 (0% of 7 players, p = 0.002]. Players who used a wheelchair in daily life were more likely to have low-echoic lesions [8 (66.74% of 12 players], compared to players who primarily used a wheelchair for playing basketball [1 (12.5% of 8 players, p = 0.010]. Deep tissue injuries were detected in 45% of male Japanese wheelchair basketball players on the national team. Players with spinal cord injury and players who used a wheelchair in daily life were more likely to have deep tissue injuries, particularly in the sacral region. The lesions were small, but a periodic medical check should be performed to maintain athletes' sporting life.

  2. Comparison of Thigh Muscle Strain Occurrence and Injury Patterns between Male and Female High School Soccer-Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Kevin M; Gurka, Kelly K; Saliba, Susan; Conaway, Mark; Hertel, Jay

    2017-09-27

    Thigh muscles strains are among the most common injuries in high school soccer for both males and females. Similar results have been reported among collegiate soccer players, specifically for hamstring strains. In collegiate soccer, males have a higher injury rate than women although they share common injury characteristics. Currently, no studies exist comparing the injury rate or injury characteristics of thigh muscle strains between sexes playing high school soccer. To compare thigh muscle strain injury rates and injury event characteristics among sexes participating in high school soccer. Descriptive Epidemiology Study Setting: 100 nationally representative high schools that participated in the High School Sports-Related Injury Surveillance System, RIO. High school soccer athletes who had a thigh muscle strain. Injury rates of thigh muscle strains were calculated between sexes. The occurrence of the following variables during a thigh muscle injury were compared between sexes: grade level, age, level of play, event type, time of practice, time of competition, basic injury mechanism, soccer activity, player position, field location, practice type, time of season. Males had a lower injury rate of thigh muscle strains during competition than females. (RR=0.66; 95% CI, 0.47, 0.93) No differences between sexes existed in the distribution of first-time or recurrent event characteristics. When combining sexes, recurrent strains (93%) occurred more frequently on the offensive side of the field than first-time strains (59%), Phigh school soccer players.

  3. New and Recurrent Concussions in High-School Athletes Before and After Traumatic Brain Injury Laws, 2005-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jingzhen; Comstock, R Dawn; Yi, Honggang; Harvey, Hosea H; Xun, Pengcheng

    2017-12-01

    To examine the trends of new and recurrent sports-related concussions in high-school athletes before and after youth sports traumatic brain injury laws. We used an interrupted time-series design and analyzed the concussion data (2005-2016) from High School Reporting Injury Online. We examined the trends of new or recurrent concussion rates among US representative high-school athletes participating in 9 sports across prelaw, immediate-postlaw, and postlaw periods by using general linear models. We defined 1 athlete exposure as attending 1 competition or practice. We included a total of 8043 reported concussions (88.7% new, 11.3% recurrent). The average annual concussion rate was 39.8 per 100 000 athlete exposures. We observed significantly increased trends of reported new and recurrent concussions from the prelaw, through immediate-postlaw, into the postlaw period. However, the recurrent concussion rate showed a significant decline 2.6 years after the laws went into effect. Football exhibited different trends compared with other boys' sports and girls' sports. Observed trends of increased concussion rates are likely attributable to increased identification and reporting. Additional research is needed to evaluate intended long-term impact of traumatic brain injury laws.

  4. Concussion-Related Protocols and Preparticipation Assessments Used for Incoming Student-Athletes in National Collegiate Athletic Association Member Institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Zachary Y; Snook, Erin M; Lynall, Robert C; Dompier, Thomas P; Sales, Latrice; Parsons, John T; Hainline, Brian

    2015-11-01

    National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) legislation requires that member institutions have policies to guide the recognition and management of sport-related concussions. Identifying the nature of these policies and the mechanisms of their implementation can help identify areas of needed improvement. To estimate the characteristics and prevalence of concussion-related protocols and preparticipation assessments used for incoming NCAA student-athletes. Cross-sectional study. Web-based survey. Head athletic trainers from all 1113 NCAA member institutions were contacted; 327 (29.4%) completed the survey. Participants received an e-mail link to the Web-based survey. Weekly reminders were sent during the 4-week window. Respondents described concussion-related protocols and preparticipation assessments (eg, concussion history, neurocognitive testing, balance testing, symptom checklists). Descriptive statistics were compared by division and football program status. Most universities provided concussion education to student-athletes (95.4%), had return-to-play policies (96.6%), and obtained the number of previous concussions sustained by incoming student-athletes (97.9%). Fewer had return-to-learn policies (63.3%). Other concussion-history-related information (e.g., symptoms, hospitalization) was more often collected by Division I universities. Common preparticipation neurocognitive and balance tests were the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT; 77.1%) and Balance Error Scoring System (46.5%). In total, 43.7% complied with recommendations for preparticipation assessments that included concussion history, neurocognitive testing, balance testing, and symptom checklists. This was due to moderate use of balance testing (56.6%); larger proportions used concussion history (99.7%), neurocognitive testing (83.2%), and symptom checklists (91.7%). More Division I universities (55.2%) complied with baseline assessment recommendations than Division

  5. Concussion-Related Protocols and Preparticipation Assessments Used for Incoming Student-Athletes in National Collegiate Athletic Association Member Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Zachary Y.; Snook, Erin M.; Lynall, Robert C.; Dompier, Thomas P.; Sales, Latrice; Parsons, John T.; Hainline, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Context  National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) legislation requires that member institutions have policies to guide the recognition and management of sport-related concussions. Identifying the nature of these policies and the mechanisms of their implementation can help identify areas of needed improvement. Objective  To estimate the characteristics and prevalence of concussion-related protocols and preparticipation assessments used for incoming NCAA student-athletes. Design  Cross-sectional study. Setting  Web-based survey. Patients or Other Participants  Head athletic trainers from all 1113 NCAA member institutions were contacted; 327 (29.4%) completed the survey. Intervention(s)  Participants received an e-mail link to the Web-based survey. Weekly reminders were sent during the 4-week window. Main Outcome Measure(s)  Respondents described concussion-related protocols and preparticipation assessments (eg, concussion history, neurocognitive testing, balance testing, symptom checklists). Descriptive statistics were compared by division and football program status. Results  Most universities provided concussion education to student-athletes (95.4%), had return-to-play policies (96.6%), and obtained the number of previous concussions sustained by incoming student-athletes (97.9%). Fewer had return-to-learn policies (63.3%). Other concussion-history–related information (eg, symptoms, hospitalization) was more often collected by Division I universities. Common preparticipation neurocognitive and balance tests were the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT; 77.1%) and Balance Error Scoring System (46.5%). In total, 43.7% complied with recommendations for preparticipation assessments that included concussion history, neurocognitive testing, balance testing, and symptom checklists. This was due to moderate use of balance testing (56.6%); larger proportions used concussion history (99.7%), neurocognitive testing (83

  6. Estimation of prepractice hydration status of National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I athletes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Volpe, Stella L; Poule, Kristen A; Bland, Erica G

    2009-01-01

    .... Cross-sectional, descriptive study. University sports team practices. Participants included 138 male and 125 female athletes (age = 19.9 + or - 1.3 years, height = 165.8 + or - 42.9 cm, mass = 77.4 + or - 17.5 kg...

  7. Are Female Soccer Players at an Increased Risk of Second Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Compared With Their Athletic Peers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Melissa M; Pareek, Ayoosh; Krych, Aaron J; Hewett, Timothy E; Levy, Bruce A; Stuart, Michael J; Dahm, Diane L

    2016-10-01

    Female soccer players have a well-known risk for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, but few studies have reported on second ACL injuries in this population. To (1) report the rates of subsequent ACL injury (ipsilateral graft rupture or contralateral tear) in competitive female soccer players, (2) compare these rates with those of other female athletes of similar competitive level, (3) determine risk factors for second ACL injury, and (4) report clinical outcome scores in this population. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. The medical records at a single institution were reviewed for female patients who were injured during a competitive athletic event and treated with primary ACL reconstruction (ACLR) between 1998 and 2013. Patients were followed for a mean of 68.8 months postoperatively (range, 24-115.2 months). Clinical outcome was obtained via Lysholm and International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) scores. Soccer players were matched 1:1 to non-soccer athletes for age, activity level, and graft type. A total of 180 female ACLR patients with a mean ± SD age of 19.6 ± 6.9 years met the study inclusion and exclusion criteria (90 soccer players and 90 non-soccer players). Soccer players sustained more second ACL injuries, including both graft failures (11% vs 1%; P follow-up. Twenty-eight percent of all female soccer players and 34% of those players who returned to soccer had a second ACL tear. Soccer players had an increased rate of both graft tear and contralateral ACL injury compared with similar non-soccer athletes. Older age and return to soccer were significant risk factors for graft rupture. © 2016 The Author(s).

  8. Athletic amenorrhea: lack of association with body fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanborn, C F; Albrecht, B H; Wagner, W W

    1987-06-01

    The most commonly tested hypothetical cause of athletic amenorrhea has been low body fat. Test results have conflicted because of mixed groups of athletes and methodologic problems. In this study, we measured body fat only in distance runners (greater than 53 km X wk-1) of the same somatotype who clearly had regular menses or secondary amenorrhea; this permitted more valid group comparison of body fat using hydrostatic weighing. The regularly menstruating group (N = 7) had 12 periods X yr-1 at intervals of 26.5 +/- 1.0 (SE) days with a duration of 4.1 +/- 0.4 days. In the athletic amenorrhea group (N = 7), menstrual periods had been absent for 1 to 10 yr (average = 3.9 +/- 1.3 yr); they were gynecologically evaluated to restrict the group to those with athletic amenorrhea. The groups were similar in a number of categories: weight, height, age, menarcheal age, weekly training mileage, days/week training, years of training, and maximum oxygen uptake. Percent body fat for the two groups was the same: 17.7 +/- 2.1% for the amenorrheic athletes and 17.4 +/- 1.2% for the regularly menstruating athletes (P = 0.91). These data do not support the idea that low body fat per se causes athletic amenorrhea.

  9. Warrior Model for Human Performance and Injury Prevention: Eagle Tactical Athlete Program (ETAP) Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sell, Timothy C; Abt, John P; Crawford, Kim; Lovalekar, Mita; Nagai, Takashi; Deluzio, Jennifer B; Smalley, Brain W; McGrail, Mark A; Rowe, Russell S; Cardin, Sylvain; Lephart, Scott M

    2010-01-01

    Physical training for United States military personnel requires a combination of injury prevention and performance optimization to counter unintentional musculoskeletal injuries and maximize warrior capabilities. Determining the most effective activities and tasks to meet these goals requires a systematic, research-based approach that is population specific based on the tasks and demands of the Warrior. The authors have modified the traditional approach to injury prevention to implement a comprehensive injury prevention and performance optimization research program with the 101st Airborne Division (Air Assault) at Fort Campbell, KY. This is second of two companion papers and presents the last three steps of the research model and includes Design and Validation of the Interventions, Program Integration and Implementation, and Monitor and Determine the Effectiveness of the Program. An 8-week trial was performed to validate the Eagle Tactical Athlete Program (ETAP) to improve modifiable suboptimal characteristics identified in Part I. The experimental group participated in ETAP under the direction of a ETAP Strength and Conditioning Specialist while the control group performed the current physical training at Fort Campbell under the direction of a Physical Training Leader and as governed by FM 21-20 for the 8-week study period. Soldiers performing ETAP demonstrated improvements in several tests for strength, flexibility, performance, physiology, and the APFT compared to current physical training performed at Fort Campbell. ETAP was proven valid to improve certain suboptimal characteristics within the 8-week trial as compared to the current training performed at Fort Campbell. ETAP has long-term implications and with expected greater improvements when implemented into a Division pre-deployment cycle of 10-12 months which will result in further systemic adaptations for each variable.

  10. Sport-specific biomechanics of spinal injuries in the athlete (throwing athletes, rotational sports, and contact-collision sports).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donatelli, Robert; Dimond, Donn; Holland, Matt

    2012-07-01

    Athletes consistently recruit or transfer high levels of repetitive force through the spine. Proper force transmission from the legs to the hips and pelvis and through the trunk is vital. Hip and pelvis joint restrictions and muscle strength deficits coupled with poor endurance of the trunk muscle will lead to spinal instability, which is habitually described in symptomatic athletes. A rehabilitation program that targets the unstable base first, and then progresses to strengthening of the pelvis and hips and targets control of movement in a sport-specific approach, should result in pain reduction, skill enhancement, and a safe return to play.

  11. A one year prospective study on ankle stability and landing technique : The occurrence of ankle and knee injuries in elite ball team athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koen A.P.M. Lemmink; M.S. Brink; Msc Henrike van der Does

    2014-01-01

    Background: In team sports lower extremity injuries account for more than 50% of all injuries, indicating the importance of early detection of athletes at risk. Objective: To investigate the predictive value of ankle stability and landing technique at baseline for ankle and knee injury occurrence

  12. Injury caused by airbag VS. injuries associated with airbag deploys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. Popa

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of airbags systems in motor vehicles designed to transport of persons led in time to a significant decrease of the rate of death among passengers involved in car accidents. However airbag systems are not harmless, it produces lesions that vary in intensity depending on many factors. But decidedly, we can meet injuries associated with the triggering of the airbag system. Therefore, it must be made a clear difference between the two types of injuries, this being particularly important in terms of medico-legal especially regarding the mechanism of injury.

  13. IS GNB3 C825T POLYMORPHISM ASSOCIATED WITH ELITE STATUS OF POLISH ATHLETES?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sawczuk

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The GNB3 gene encodes the beta 3 subunit of heterotrimeric G-proteins that are key components of intracellular signal transduction between G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR and intracellular effectors and might be considered as a potential candidate gene for physical performance. Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare frequency distribution of the common C to T polymorphism at position 825 (C825T of the GNB3 gene between athletes and nonathletic controls of the Polish population as well as to compare the genotype distribution and allele frequency of C825T variants within a group of athletes, i.e. between athletes of sports of different metabolic demands and competitive levels. Methods: The study was performed in a group of 223 Polish athletes of the highest nationally competitive standard (123 endurance-oriented athletes and 100 strength/power athletes. Control samples were prepared from 354 unrelated, sedentary volunteers. Results: The χ2 test revealed no statistical differences between the endurance-oriented athletes and the control group or between sprint/strength athletes and the control group across the GNB3 825C/T genotypes. There were no male-female genotype or allele frequency differences in controls or in either strength/power or endurance-oriented athletes. No statistically significant differences in either allele frequencies or genotype distribution were noted between the top-elite, elite or sub-elite of endurance-oriented and strength/power athletes and the control group. Conclusions: No association between elite status of Polish athletes and the GNB3 C825T polymorphic site has been found.

  14. Landing Technique and Performance in Youth Athletes After a Single Injury-Prevention Program Session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root, Hayley; Trojian, Thomas; Martinez, Jessica; Kraemer, William; DiStefano, Lindsay J

    2015-11-01

    Injury-prevention programs (IPPs) performed as season-long warm-ups improve injury rates, performance outcomes, and jump-landing technique. However, concerns regarding program adoption exist. Identifying the acute benefits of using an IPP compared with other warm-ups may encourage IPP adoption. To examine the immediate effects of 3 warm-up protocols (IPP, static warm-up [SWU], or dynamic warm-up [DWU]) on jump-landing technique and performance measures in youth athletes. Randomized controlled clinical trial. Gymnasiums. Sixty male and 29 female athletes (age = 13 ± 2 years, height = 162.8 ± 12.6 cm, mass = 37.1 ± 13.5 kg) volunteered to participate in a single session. Participants were stratified by age, sex, and sport and then were randomized into 1 protocol: IPP, SWU, or DWU. The IPP consisted of dynamic flexibility, strengthening, plyometric, and balance exercises and emphasized proper technique. The SWU consisted of jogging and lower extremity static stretching. The DWU consisted of dynamic lower extremity flexibility exercises. Participants were assessed for landing technique and performance measures immediately before (PRE) and after (POST) completing their warm-ups. One rater graded each jump-landing trial using the Landing Error Scoring System. Participants performed a vertical jump, long jump, shuttle run, and jump-landing task in randomized order. The averages of all jump-landing trials and performance variables were used to calculate 1 composite score for each variable at PRE and POST. Change scores were calculated (POST - PRE) for all measures. Separate 1-way (group) analyses of variance were conducted for each dependent variable (α .05). The Landing Error Scoring System scores improved after the IPP (change = -0.40 ± 1.24 errors) compared with the DWU (0.27 ± 1.09 errors) and SWU (0.43 ± 1.35 errors; P = .04). An IPP did not impair sport performance and may have reduced injury risk, which supports the use of these programs before sport activity.

  15. Evaluation of dietary practices of National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Constance R; Salvaterra, George F; Davis, Joseph E; Borja, Marianne E; Powell, Loreen M; Dubbs, Elizabeth C; Bordi, Peter L

    2005-08-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the dietary practices of 28 football athletes on a National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I team using 3-day diet records. Student athletes completed 3-day diet records at 2 individual points of time, when no training table was available. Diet records were evaluated and were compared with the Third National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHANES III) data for the same ages and gender group. No differences in dietary practices of collegiate football athletes were observed when compared with data for the same ages and gender group culled from NHANES III. Inadequacies in energy intake for a