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Sample records for athletic association injury

  1. MUSCLE INJURIES IN ATHLETES.

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    Barroso, Guilherme Campos; Thiele, Edilson Schwansee

    2011-01-01

    This article had the aim of demonstrating the physiology, diagnosis and treatment of muscle injuries, focusing on athletes and their demands and expectations. Muscle injuries are among the most common complaints in orthopedic practice, occurring both among athletes and among non-athletes. These injuries present a challenge for specialists, due to the slow recovery, during which time athletes are unable to take part in training and competitions, and due to frequent sequelae and recurrences of the injuries. Most muscle injuries (between 10% and 55% of all injuries) occur during sports activities. The muscles most commonly affected are the ischiotibial, quadriceps and gastrocnemius. These muscles go across two joints and are more subject to acceleration and deceleration forces. The treatment for muscle injuries varies from conservative treatment to surgery. New procedures are being used, like the hyperbaric chamber and the use of growth factors. However, there is still a high rate of injury recurrence. Muscle injury continues to be a topic of much controversy. New treatments are being researched and developed, but prevention through muscle strengthening, stretching exercises and muscle balance continues to be the best "treatment".

  2. National Athletic Trainers' Association Position Statement: Fluid Replacement for Athletes.

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    Case, Douglas J.; Armstrong, Lawrence E.; Hillman, Susan K.; Montain, Scott J.; Reiff, Ralph V.; Rich, Brent S. E.; Roberts, William O.; Stone, Jennifer A.

    2000-01-01

    Presents recommendations from the National Athletic Trainers Association for optimizing the fluid replacement practices of athletes, explaining that dehydration can compromise athletic performance and increase the risk of exertional heat injury. Athletes must be educated about the risks of dehydration and overhydration. They must learn fluid…

  3. Illness perceptions and mood states are associated with injury-related outcomes in athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wilgen, C. Paul; Kaptein, Ad A.; Brink, Michel S.

    2010-01-01

    Background. Athletes have to cope adequately with the consequences of their injury in order to return into sports as soon as possible. Besides the physical characteristics of the injury, illness perceptions and emotional responses impact the behavioural responses to the injury. Purpose. To apply Lev

  4. Quality of life perception of basketball master athletes: association with physical activity level and sports injuries.

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    Moreira, Natália Boneti; Mazzardo, Oldemar; Vagetti, Gislaine Cristina; De Oliveira, Valdomiro; De Campos, Wagner

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to verify the prevalence and characteristics of sports injuries (SI) and determine the association between the physical activity level (PA) and SI with perception of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in Brazilian basketball master athletes. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 410 male master athletes, between 35 and 85 years of age (mean 52.26, SD ±11.83). The HRQoL was assessed using the Medical Outcomes Study - Short Form-36. The PA was evaluated using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Information regarding SI was collected using the Reported Morbidity Survey. Poisson regression, as estimated by the prevalence ratio (PR), was used as a measure of the association of PA and SI with HRQoL. The majority of athletes showed a high SI prevalence (58.3%) and reported one injury (67.8%) that occurred during training (61.1%) and primarily affected a lower limb (74.6%). The adjusted regression models showed a positive association of PA with the Functional Capacity (PR = 1.46, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.12-1.90) and Physical Component (PR = 1.32, 95% CI = 1.03-1.70) of HRQoL. Furthermore, the SI were negatively associated with HRQoL in Functional Capacity (PR = 1.85, 95% CI = 1.51-2.27), Physical Aspects (PR = 3.99, 95% CI = 3.08-5.18), Pain (PR = 1.65, 95% CI = 1.26-2.16), Social Functioning (PR = 1.79, 95% CI = 1.41-2.27), Emotional Aspects (PR = 4.40, 95% CI = 3.35-5.78), Mental Health domains (PR = 1.37, 95% CI = 1.06-1.68), Physical Component (PR = 2.35, 95% CI = 1.90-2.90) and Mental Component (PR = 2.65, 95% CI = 2.14-3.29). These results highlighted that master athletes showed a high SI prevalence, primarily in the lower limbs. PA positively correlates with the physical HRQoL domain, whereas SI may decrease the HRQoL levels of both physical and mental domains.

  5. Injuries to the Young Athlete.

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    Sandusky, Jane C.

    A review of literature on the incidence and nature of injuries to young athletes is presented on the topics of: (1) physiological characteristics of preadolescents, adolescents, and young adults; (2) musculo-skeletal changes in the growing athlete; (3) epiphyseal injuries and their potential for resulting in temporary or permanent impairment; (4)…

  6. Menstrual Irregularity and Musculoskeletal Injury in Female High School Athletes

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    Thein-Nissenbaum, Jill M.; Rauh, Mitchell J.; Carr, Kathleen E.; Loud, Keith J.; McGuine, Timothy A.

    2012-01-01

    Context: The female athlete triad describes the interrelatedness of energy availability, menstrual function, and bone density. Although associations between triad components and musculoskeletal injury (INJ) have been reported in collegiate athletes, limited information exists about menstrual irregularity (MI) and INJ in the high school population. Objective: To determine the prevalence of and relationship between MI and INJ in high school athletes. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: High schools. Patients or Other Participants: The sample consisted of 249 female athletes from 3 high schools who competed in 33 interscholastic, school-sponsored sport teams, dance teams, and cheerleading or pom-pon squad during the 2006–2007 school year. Each athlete remained on the roster throughout the season. Main Outcome Measure(s): Participants completed a survey regarding injury type, number of days of sport participation missed, and menstrual history in the past year. Results: The prevalences of MI and INJ were 19.7% and 63.1%, respectively. Athletes who reported MI sustained a higher percentage of severe injuries (missing ≥22 days of practice or competition) than did athletes who reported normal menses. Although the trend was not significant, athletes with MI were almost 3 times more likely to sustain an injury resulting in 7 or more days of time lost from sport (odds ratio = 2.7, 95% confidence interval = 0.8, 8.8) than those who sustained an injury resulting in 7 or fewer days of time lost. Conclusions: The incidences of MI and INJ in this high school population during the study period were high. Athletes who reported MI sustained a higher percentage of severe injuries than did athletes who reported normal menses. Education programs to increase knowledge and improve management of MI and its potential effects on injury in female high school athletes are warranted. PMID:22488233

  7. Relationships between injury and success in elite Taekwondo athletes.

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    Kazemi, Mohsen

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the rate and type of injury in elite Canadian Taekwondo athletes, before and during competition and to investigate the relationship between past injuries, injuries during competition and success. This retrospective case-series study incorporated Taekwondo injuries sustained by 75 male and female elite Canadian Taekwondo athletes over 10 years and its relationship to athletes' success by means of gaining medals during competition. A logistic regression model (using the Generalised Estimating Equations (GEE) method) was used to investigate the relationship between injuries and success. Injury rate was associated with performance after holding variables constant (Odds Ratio (OR) = 0.124, P = 0.039). Moreover, with each additional injury per match, competitors were 88% (1-0.124) less likely to win a medal. Although not statistically significant, additional injuries prior to competition were associated with a 30% increase in medal prevalence (OR = 1.299, P = 0.203). When comparing athletes (gender, tournament difficulty, injury variables), a competitor who is one year older is 10% less likely to medal (OR = 0.897, P = 0.068). When an additional injury occurred during competition, the athlete was 88% less likely to win a medal. Prevention, correct diagnosis, and immediate therapeutic intervention by qualified health care providers are important.

  8. Common overuse injuries in the young athlete.

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    Pengel, K Brooke

    2014-12-01

    Pediatric overuse injury is a common complaint presenting to pediatricians. Overuse injury can affect the soft tissues or bone, and results from an imbalance between training and load to the tissues and recovery time. In the skeletally immature athlete, physeal and apophyseal tissue is particularly vulnerable to overuse resulting in different patterns of injury compared to adults. Awareness of age-dependent patterns of overuse is necessary for proper recognition, treatment, and prevention of injury. This article reviews the most common pediatric overuse injuries with emphasis on risk factors, diagnosis, and treatment. Guidelines for prevention are included, as this is the key component for successful management of overuse injury in pediatric athletes.

  9. The rodeo athlete: injuries - Part II.

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    Meyers, Michael C; Laurent, C Matthew

    2010-10-01

    A previous instalment to this review focused on the sport science for rodeo, the history behind the sport and what is currently known about the physical and physiological status, coronary risk profile, strength and power levels, event-specific kinesiological and biomechanical aspects, nutritional habits and psychological indices associated with the rodeo athlete. In regards to injury, rodeo is well known for its high-velocity, high-impact atmosphere where athletes compete against the clock and uncooperative livestock. Considered by many to be a dangerous sport with high vulnerability towards trauma and frequent injuries, animal/human contact events comprise ∼80% of reported injuries. Severe trauma includes fractures, dislocations, subluxations, concussions, ligament ruptures, pneumothorax and various neurapraxias. Head and neck trauma account for 10-29% of total trauma and up to 63% of upper body injuries, with concussion incidence rates of 3.4 per 1000 competitive exposures. The incidence of thoracic, back and abdominal injuries comprise 11-84% of trauma, while shoulder injuries, involving anterior/posterior arthralgia, inflammation, instability and increasing weakness, account for 8-15% of upper extremity cases. Lower extremity trauma accounts for 26-34% of cases, with the majority involving the knee. Many believe that the incidence of trauma is underestimated, with studies hampered by numerous limitations such as a lack of injury awareness, missing data, poor injury recall, an array of reporting sources, delays in subject response and treatment, no uniform definition of injury or reporting system and predisposing factors prior to injury. Primary mechanisms of injuries are attributed to physical immaturity, fatigue, age and experience, behaviour, the violent nature of the sport and lack of adequate medical intervention. Although there is limited adherence to organized conditioning programmes, when properly planned, sport-specific conditioning may enhance

  10. Injury Rate and Patterns Among CrossFit Athletes

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    Weisenthal, Benjamin M.; Beck, Christopher A.; Maloney, Michael D.; DeHaven, Kenneth E.; Giordano, Brian D.

    2014-01-01

    Background: CrossFit is a type of competitive exercise program that has gained widespread recognition. To date, there have been no studies that have formally examined injury rates among CrossFit participants or factors that may contribute to injury rates. Purpose: To establish an injury rate among CrossFit participants and to identify trends and associations between injury rates and demographic categories, gym characteristics, and athletic abilities among CrossFit participants. Study Design: ...

  11. Injury risk management plan for volleyball athletes.

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    James, Lachlan P; Kelly, Vincent G; Beckman, Emma M

    2014-09-01

    Volleyball is an increasingly popular team sport. As with any competitive sport, there is an inherent risk of injury that must be recognized and collaboratively managed. This article provides a practical approach to the management of volleyball injuries within a team or organization. A brief review of the epidemiological data is presented which establishes (i) ankle sprain, (ii) shoulder overuse injury, (iii) patella tendinopathy, and (iv) anterior cruciate ligament injury as the primary injuries to address amongst these athletes. The interaction of modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors for these injuries are used to classify athletes into high-, medium- and low-risk groups. Targeted training interventions are suggested, based upon the risk level of the athlete, to minimize the occurrence of these injuries. Practical methods for integrating these activities into a training plan are also discussed.

  12. Injuries in elite Taekwondo Poomsae athletes

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    Kazemi, Mohsen; Ingar, Anas; Jaffery, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Poomsae is the only non-contact and no opponent form of Taekwondo. The purpose of this descriptive study was to determine the type and rate of injuries in elite Canadian Poomsae athletes. Strain and joint dysfunction were the most common types of injuries in Poomsae. Lower limb and back were the most common area of injury in females and males respectively. Females with a lower rank in experience level (DAN≤ 3) were more likely to suffer from chronic overuse injuries compared to their male counterparts, who reported more acute injuries. Athletes ≤40 years of age were more prone to acute injuries compared to athletes over 40. As result of reflection on this study a Poomsae Injury Report Form was developed. PMID:28065994

  13. Common Shoulder Injuries in American Football Athletes.

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    Gibbs, Daniel B; Lynch, T Sean; Nuber, Erika D; Nuber, Gordon W

    2015-01-01

    American football is a collision sport played by athletes at high speeds. Despite the padding and conditioning in these athletes, the shoulder is a vulnerable joint, and injuries to the shoulder girdle are common at all levels of competitive football. Some of the most common injuries in these athletes include anterior and posterior glenohumeral instability, acromioclavicular pathology (including separation, osteolysis, and osteoarthritis), rotator cuff pathology (including contusions, partial thickness, and full thickness tears), and pectoralis major and minor tears. In this article, we will review the epidemiology and clinical and radiographic workup of these injuries. We also will evaluate the effectiveness of surgical and nonsurgical management specifically related to high school, collegiate, and professional football athletes.

  14. Analysis of injury types for mixed martial arts athletes.

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    Ji, MinJoon

    2016-05-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to examine the types of injuries associated with mixed martial arts and their location in order to provide substantial information to help reduce the risk of these injuries during mixed martial arts. [Subjects and Methods] Data were collected from 455 mixed martial arts athletes who practiced mixed martial arts or who participated in mixed martial arts competitions in the Seoul Metropolitan City and Gyeongnam Province of Korea between June 3, 2015, and November 6, 2015. Questionnaires were used to collect the data. The convenience sampling method was used, based on the non-probability sampling extraction method. [Results] The arm, neck, and head were the most frequent locations of the injuries; and lacerations, concussions, and contusions were the most frequently diagnosed types of injuries in the mixed martial arts athletes in this study. [Conclusion] Reducing the risk of injury by establishing an alert system and preventing critical injuries by incorporating safety measures are important.

  15. [Epidemiology of maxillofacial injuries in athletes].

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    Mazur, Marcin; Mazur-Psonka, Lidia; Drugacz, Jan; Krajewski-Siuda, Krzysztof

    2006-01-01

    The general enthusiasm connected with sports activities causes that we often forget about threat connected with careless sports activities. The aim of this paper was the evaluation of causes and frequencies of maxillofacial injuries in hospitalized athletes in the Department of Maxillofacial Surgery in Katowice. Period between 1992-2002 was analyzed. Material consisted of 59 patients in whom injury required hospitalization. In studied material the frequency and causes of maxillofacial injuries in athletes in eleven-year period was examined. Male and female patients were divided in two groups: I--team sports and II--individual sports. In analyzed material injuries of upper part of facial skull were not affirmed. Injuries of upper facial massif overweighed its bottom massif injuries.

  16. Historical Patterns and Variation in Treatment of Injuries in NFL (National Football League) Players and NCAA (National Collegiate Athletic Association) Division I Football Players.

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    McCarty, Eric C; Kraeutler, Matthew J; Langner, Paula; Cook, Shane; Ellis, Byron; Godfrey, Jenna M

    We conducted a study to identify and contrast patterns in the treatment of common injuries that occur in National Football League (NFL) players and National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I football players. Orthopedic team physicians for all 32 NFL and 119 NCAA Division I football teams were asked to complete a survey regarding demographics and preferred treatment of a variety of injuries encountered in football players. Responses were received from 31 (97%) of the 32 NFL and 111 (93%) of the 119 NCAA team physicians. Although patellar tendon autograft was the preferred graft choice for both groups of team physicians, the percentage of NCAA physicians who allowed return to football 6 months or less after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction was significantly (P = .03) higher than that of NFL physicians. Prophylactic knee bracing, which may prevent medial collateral ligament injuries, was used at a significantly (P football players.

  17. Imaging of muscle injury in the elite athlete.

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    Lee, J C; Mitchell, A W M; Healy, J C

    2012-08-01

    Injuries to muscle in the elite athlete are common and may be responsible for prolonged periods of loss of competitive activity. The implications for the athlete and his/her coach and team may be catastrophic if the injury occurs at a critical time in the athlete's diary. Imaging now plays a crucial role in diagnosis, prognostication and management of athletes with muscle injuries. This article discusses the methods available to clinicians and radiologists that are used to assess skeletal muscle injury. The spectrum of muscle injuries sustained in the elite athlete population is both discussed and illustrated.

  18. Analysis of injuries in taekwondo athletes.

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    Ji, MinJoon

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The present study aims to provide fundamental information on injuries in taekwondo by investigating the categories of injuries that occur in taekwondo and determining the locations of these injuries. [Subjects and Methods] The data of 512 taekwondo athletes were collected. The sampling method was convenience sampling along with non-probability sampling extraction methods. Questionnaire forms were used to obtain the data. [Results] The foot, knee, ankle, thigh, and head were most frequently injured while practicing taekwondo, and contusions, strains, and sprains were the main injuries diagnosed. [Conclusion] It is desirable to decrease the possibility of injuries to the lower extremities for extending participation in taekwondo. Other than the lower extremities, injuries of other specific body parts including the head or neck could be important factors limiting the duration of participation. Therefore, it is necessary to cope with these problems before practicing taekwondo.

  19. Injury Rates in Iranian Taekwondo Athletes; a Prospective Study

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    Ziaee

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose Taekwondo, as the most popular martial art among Iranian sportsmen, might lead to injury for the athletes of this sport during competitions. We decided to report the incidence rate of injuries sustained by the athletes of this sport during national competitions. Methods All competitions of Iran national championship taekwondo league in 2006-2007 with 204 athletes were observed prospectively to detect the occurrence of injuries. The severity of injuries was classified into four groups (mild, moderate, severe, and critical according to the involvement of medical care team in the contest, ability of the athletes to resume and duration of probable absence of injured athletes from future competitions and training sessions. Athlete-Exposure (A-E was defined as the number of competitions multiplied by two. On this base, the rate of injury incidence per 1000 A-Es, the rate of injuries per time unit and the rate of injury occurred for each 100 athletes were considered as the major outcomes of this study. Results Of totally 1,338 A-Es, 93 injuries were recorded during the competitions. The rate of injury incidence was found to be 69.5 injuries per 1000 A-Es and the rate of injuries per minute of competitions was 0.023 which corresponded to 23.3 injuries per 1000 minutes of competitions. 45.6 injuries were occurred for each 100 athletes during the course of competitions. The most frequent injuries were mild (68.8% and critical injuries (24.7%, followed by moderate and severe injuries; 4.3% and 2.1%, respectively. Conclusion The rate of injury we found was lower than that of western countries. In spite of finding the lower limbs as the most frequent place of injuries in other studies, we found the upper limbs as the most predisposed place of injuries which might be due to difference in the method of combat of Iranian athletes with other athletes.

  20. Posterior labral injury in contact athletes.

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    Mair, S D; Zarzour, R H; Speer, K P

    1998-01-01

    Nine athletes (seven football offensive linemen, one defensive lineman, and one lacrosse player) were found at arthroscopy to have posterior labral detachment from the glenoid. In our series, this lesion is specific to contact athletes who engage their opponents with arms in front of the body. All patients had pain with bench pressing and while participating in their sport, diminishing their ability to play effectively. Conservative measures were ineffective in relieving their symptoms. Examination under anesthesia revealed symmetric glenohumeral translation bilaterally, without evidence of posterior instability. Treatment consisted of glenoid rim abradement and posterior labral repair with a bioabsorbable tack. All patients returned to complete at least one full season of contact sports and weightlifting without pain (minimum follow-up, > or = 2 years). Although many injuries leading to subluxation of the glenohumeral joint occur when an unanticipated force is applied, contact athletes ready their shoulder muscles in anticipation of impact with opponents. This leads to a compressive force at the glenohumeral joint. We hypothesize that, in combination with a posteriorly directed force at impact, the resultant vector is a shearing force to the posterior labrum and articular surface. Repeated exposure leads to posterior labral detachment without capsular injury. Posterior labral reattachment provides consistently good results, allowing the athlete to return to competition.

  1. Concussion associated with head trauma in athletes

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    Gabriela Murguía Cánovas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there has been increased attention to concussions that occur during sports activities, both at school level or amateur and professional level. Concussion is defined as a sudden and transient alteration of consciousness induced by traumatic biomechanical forces transmitted directly or indirectly to the brain. Such injuries most commonly occur in contact sports such as boxing, football, soccer, wrestling, hockey, among others. Concussion should be suspected in any athlete who suffers a head injury, whether or not it is associated to loss of consciousness. These athletes should not return to their sports activities immediately, and a few days of mental and physical leave are recommended in order to ensure full recovery. Repeat head injuries should be avoided, since there is evidence that in some athletes they can lead to chronic traumatic encephalopathy. The present review focuses on the different definitions of concussion, management and long-term consequences. It also contains the Spanish version of the Sport Concussion Assessment Tool 2 (SCAT2.

  2. Common Dental Injury Management in Athletes

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    Young, Eliot J.; Macias, C. Roger; Stephens, Lindsay

    2015-01-01

    Context: Orofacial and dental trauma continues to be a commonly encountered issue for the sports medicine team. All sports have some risk for dental injury, but “contact sports” presumably incur more risk. Immediate evaluation and proper management of the most common injuries to dentition can result in saving or restoration of tooth structure. Despite the growing body of evidence, mouth guard use and dental protection have not paralleled the increase in sports participation. Evidence Acquisition: A PubMed search from 1960 through April 2012 was conducted, as well as a review of peer-reviewed online publications. Results: Common dental injuries in sports include tooth (crown) fractures; tooth intrusion, extrusion, and avulsion; and temporomandibular joint dislocation. Mouth guards help prevent most injuries and do not significantly affect ventilation or speech if fitted properly. Conclusion: A working knowledge of the presentation as well as management of commonly encountered dental trauma in sports is essential to the immediate care of an athlete and returning to play. Mouth guard use should be encouraged for athletes of all ages in those sports that incur significant risk. PMID:26131303

  3. Paralympic athletes' perceptions of their experiences of sports-related injuries, risk factors and preventive possibilities.

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    Fagher, Kristina; Forsberg, Anna; Jacobsson, Jenny; Timpka, Toomas; Dahlström, Örjan; Lexell, Jan

    2016-11-01

    Our knowledge of sports-related injuries in para-sport is limited and there are no data on how Paralympic athletes themselves perceive an injury. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore Paralympic athletes' perceptions of their experiences of sports-related injuries, risk factors and preventive possibilities. Eighteen Swedish Paralympic athletes with vision impairment, intellectual impairment, spinal cord injury, cerebral palsy, myelomeningocele, dysplasia and neuromuscular disorder, representing 10 different para-sports, were interviewed. The qualitative phenomenographic method was used to interpret the data. The analysis revealed nine categories of perceptions of experiences. The athletes perceived that their impairments were involved in the cause and consequential chains associated with a sports-related injury. Other categories that denoted and described these injuries were: sport overuse, risk behaviour, functional limitations, psychological stressors, the normalised pain, health hazards, individual possibilities to prevent sports-related injuries and unequal prerequisites. This qualitative study revealed that Paralympic athletes' perceptions of their experiences of sports-related injuries are complex and multifactorial, and in several ways differ from able-bodied athletes. This needs to be considered in the sports health and safety work within the Paralympic Movement as well as in the design of future injury surveillance systems and preventive programmes.

  4. Sports-related injuries in athletes with disabilities.

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    Fagher, K; Lexell, J

    2014-10-01

    The number of athletes with disabilities participating in organized sports and the popularity of the Paralympic Games is steadily increasing around the world. Despite this growing interest and the fact that participation in sports places the athlete at risk for injury, there are few studies concerning injury patterns, risk factors, and prevention strategies of injuries in disabled athletes. In this systematic literature search and critical review, we summarize current knowledge of the epidemiology of sports-related injuries in disabled athletes and describe their characteristics, incidence, prevalence, and prevention strategies. The outcomes of interest were any injury, either an acute trauma or an overuse event. PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Google Scholar were systematically searched and 25 of 605 identified studies met the inclusion criteria. Lower extremity injuries were more common in walking athletes, whereas upper extremity injuries were more prevalent in wheelchair athletes. The methodologies and populations varied widely between the studies. Few studies were sports or disability specific, which makes it difficult to determine specific risk factors, and few studies reported injury severity and prevention of injuries. Further longitudinal, systematic sports and disability specific studies are needed in order to identify and prevent injuries in athletes with disabilities.

  5. Wheelchair Athletes Need Special Treatment--But Only for Injuries.

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    Monahan, Terry

    1986-01-01

    Disabled athletes now compete in many sports, but many physicians don't know what opportunities for sports participation are available for disabled people. Research into injuries is needed because wheelchair athletes have different needs in terms of injury management and rehabilitation. Resources for physicians are listed. (Author/MT)

  6. Pre-competition habits and injuries in Taekwondo athletes

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    Su Choung Young

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the past decade, there has been heightened interest in injury rates sustained by martial arts athletes, and more specifically, Taekwondo athletes. Despite this interest, there is a paucity of research on pre-competition habits and training of these athletes. The purpose of this pilot study was to assess training characteristics, competition preparation habits, and injury profiles of Taekwondo athletes. Methods A retrospective survey of Canadian male and female Taekwondo athletes competing in a national tournament was conducted. Competitors at a Canadian national level tournament were given a comprehensive survey prior to competition. Items on training characteristics, diet, and injuries sustained during training and competition were included. Questionnaires were distributed to 60 athletes. Results A response rate of 46.7% was achieved. Of those that responded, 54% dieted prior to competition, and 36% dieted and exercised pre-competition. Sixty-four percent of the athletes practised between 4–6 times per week, with 54% practicing 2 hours per session. Lower limb injuries were the most common (46.5%, followed by upper extremity (18%, back (10%, and head (3.6%. The majority of injuries consisted of sprains/strains (45%, followed by contusions, fractures, and concussions. More injuries occurred during training, including 59% of first injuries. Conclusion More research needs to be conducted to further illustrate the need for appropriate regulations on weight cycling and injury prevention.

  7. Management of syndesmosis injuries in the elite athlete.

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    Mak, May Fong; Gartner, Louise; Pearce, Christopher J

    2013-06-01

    This article reviews the basics and evidence base thus far on syndesmosis injuries, focusing on its management in the elite sporting population. A syndesmosis injury or "high ankle sprain" is a significant injury, especially in the elite athlete. Among all ankle sprains, the syndesmotic injury is most predictive of persistent symptoms in the athletic population. Late diagnosis of unstable syndesmosis injuries leads to a poor outcome and delayed return to sports. A high index of suspicion and an understanding of the mechanism of injury is required to ensure an early diagnosis. Incomplete/inaccurate reduction leads to a poor outcome.

  8. Triangular fibrocartilage complex injuries in the elite athlete.

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    Ko, Jason H; Wiedrich, Thomas A

    2012-08-01

    Injuries to the triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) in athletes can be caused by acute trauma, chronic repetitive loading, or a combination of both. Regardless of cause, the management of TFCC injuries in the high-performance athlete is often different from the basic tenets applied to the general population. The diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation regimen should be individualized and sport-specific in athletes, taking into consideration the priorities and needs of the athlete while striking a balance between healing, return to play, and long-term well-being.

  9. Musculoskeletal Injuries and Training Patterns in Junior Elite Orienteering Athletes.

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    Roos, Lilian; Taube, Wolfgang; Zuest, Peter; Clénin, German; Wyss, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Findings about the relation between musculoskeletal injuries and training patterns in orienteering athletes are sparse. Therefore, the musculoskeletal injuries and training patterns of 31 Swiss elite orienteering athletes aged 18-19 years were analyzed in a retrospective study. Individual training diaries and medical records were used to assess training data and injury history, respectively. Group comparisons and a multiple linear regression (MLR) were performed for statistical analysis. The junior elite orienteering athletes performed 7.38 ± 2.00 training sessions weekly, with a total duration of 455.75 ± 98.22 minutes. An injury incidence rate (IIR) of 2.18 ± 2.13 injuries per 1000 hours of training was observed. The lower extremity was affected in 93% of all injuries, and the knee (33%) was the most commonly injured location. The MLR revealed that gender and six training variables explained 60% of the variance in the injury severity index in this study. Supported by the low IIR in the observed age group, the training protocol of the junior elite orienteering athletes was generally adequate. In comparison to elite track, marathon, and orienteering athletes, the junior elite athletes performed less high-intensity interval training (HIIT). However, more frequent HIIT seems to be a protective factor against injuries.

  10. Musculoskeletal Injuries and Training Patterns in Junior Elite Orienteering Athletes

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    Lilian Roos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Findings about the relation between musculoskeletal injuries and training patterns in orienteering athletes are sparse. Therefore, the musculoskeletal injuries and training patterns of 31 Swiss elite orienteering athletes aged 18-19 years were analyzed in a retrospective study. Individual training diaries and medical records were used to assess training data and injury history, respectively. Group comparisons and a multiple linear regression (MLR were performed for statistical analysis. The junior elite orienteering athletes performed 7.38 ± 2.00 training sessions weekly, with a total duration of 455.75 ± 98.22 minutes. An injury incidence rate (IIR of 2.18 ± 2.13 injuries per 1000 hours of training was observed. The lower extremity was affected in 93% of all injuries, and the knee (33% was the most commonly injured location. The MLR revealed that gender and six training variables explained 60% of the variance in the injury severity index in this study. Supported by the low IIR in the observed age group, the training protocol of the junior elite orienteering athletes was generally adequate. In comparison to elite track, marathon, and orienteering athletes, the junior elite athletes performed less high-intensity interval training (HIIT. However, more frequent HIIT seems to be a protective factor against injuries.

  11. Radiographic evaluation of foot and ankle injuries in the athlete.

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    Rettig, A C; Shelbourne, K D; Beltz, H F; Robertson, D W; Arfken, P

    1987-10-01

    Injuries of the ankle and foot in athletes are quite common. They range from the extremely simple sprain to the difficult stress fracture, and may result in long-term disability. In all cases, the athlete is best treated after an accurate diagnosis is achieved.

  12. Injuries and training variables in Filipino judo athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciejewski Reylin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Study aim: The aim of this study was twofold: first, to compare the incidence of injuries between male and female athletes in the junior and youth divisions during competition, as well as to identify body parts commonly injured and the types of injury frequently incurred; second, to assess overall incidence of injuries in relation to the frequency and duration of training as well as supplemental training.

  13. Coping with the Stress of Athletic Injury: How Coaches Can Help

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Jenelle N.; Lyon, Hayden; Wahl, Mary-tyler

    2015-01-01

    Sport participation can be a stressful experience for some high school athletes. Sustaining a sport injury can further increase athletes' stress levels. Coaches may feel uncomfortable interacting with injured athletes and can unconsciously or purposefully marginalize them. However, coaches have a responsibility toward all of their athletes,…

  14. Analysis of sex-specific injury patterns and risk factors in young high-level athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, A; Seil, R; Urhausen, A; Croisier, J L; Lair, M L; Theisen, D

    2009-12-01

    This study analyzed sex-specific injury patterns and risk factors in young athletes (n=256) from 12 sport disciplines practicing at the national or the international level in the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg. Injury occurrence as a result of sport practice was analyzed retrospectively over the year 2006 using a standardized self-administered questionnaire. Overall incidence was not different between girls and boys (1.20 and 1.21 injuries/1000 athlete-hours, respectively), but in the context of team sport competition girls tended to be at a greater risk (rate ratio 2.05, P=0.053). Girls had a higher proportion of injuries in the ankle/foot region compared with boys (34.8% vs 16.8%). No sex-related differences were found regarding injury severity. Multivariate logistic regression (controlling for age and practice volume) revealed that girls' team sports were associated with a greater injury risk compared with individual sports [odds ratio (OR) of 4.76], while in boys this was observed for racket sports (OR=3.31). Furthermore, physical or emotional stress tended to be a specific risk factor in girls. There was a tendency for injury outside sports to be coupled to a higher injury risk in girls and boys. Consideration of sex-specific injury patterns and risk factors could be of importance for effective injury prevention.

  15. Imaging of hip and groin injuries in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overdeck, Kimberlee Horton; Palmer, William Ewing

    2004-03-01

    Proper function of the hip joint is imperative for athletes who participate in sporting activities that rely on utilization of the lower extremity; these primarily include kicking, running, and jumping activities. Sports-related injuries of the hip and groin are not frequent sources of disability in athletes; however, they may present a significant diagnostic dilemma, both from a clinical and radiological standpoint. Delay in diagnosis and treatment may result in undesired complications, such as premature degenerative disease, as well as time lost from athletic activities. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the hip, particularly following the intra-articular administration of gadolinium, has proven to be extremely valuable in the diagnosis of radiographically occult osseous abnormalities as well as soft-tissue injuries, such as pubalgia, musculotendinous abnormalities, and bursitis. This article will review several pathological conditions of the hip and groin in both recreational and professional athletes, with an emphasis on MR imaging as the modality of choice in the diagnosis of these injuries.

  16. [OVERUSE INJURIES IN THE YOUNG ATHLETE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journeau, Pierre; Polirzstok, E; Launay, F; Barbier, D

    2015-10-01

    Sport injuries are common in children and teenaggers, especially overuse injuries. Typical musculoskelotal disorders include apophyseal pains or avulsion, stess fractures, and also epiphyseal ostoochondritis. Some lesions are specific according the practice, such spine or wrist lesions. Prevention of sport injury should be the main priority as well for the parents than the coaches and children themselves. Proper education and preparation, specific training and streching are essential for all sports activities.

  17. Epidemiology of training injuries in amateur taekwondo athletes: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lystad, R P; Graham, P L; Poulos, R G

    2015-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate the incidence and describe the pattern and severity of training injuries in taekwondo, and to compare pattern and severity of training injuries with competition injuries. One hundred and fifty-two active Australian amateur taekwondo athletes, aged 12 years or over, completed an online survey comprising questions on training exposure and injury history over the preceding 12 months. The main outcome measures were: overall injury incidence rate per athlete-year; training injury incidence rate per athlete-year, per 1000 athlete-training-sessions, and per 1000 athlete-hours of training; injury severity; and injury proportions by anatomical region and by type of injury. Injury incidence rates were calculated with 95% confidence intervals using standard methods, while injury proportions were compared using Fisher's exact test. The vast majority (81.5%) of taekwondo injuries in an average athlete-year occurred during training. The training injury incidence rate was estimated to be 1.6 (95% CI: 1.4, 1.9) per athlete-year, 11.8 (95% CI: 10.4, 13.4) per 1000 athlete-training-sessions, and 7.0 (95% CI: 6.1, 7.9) per 1000 athlete-hours of training. Among athletes with five or fewer injuries, the severity and injury pattern of training injuries were, by and large, the same as for competition injuries. Approximately sixty percent (60.3%) of training injuries required treatment by a health professional. Considering the burden of training injuries exceeds that of competition injuries, taekwondo governing bodies and stakeholders are encouraged to devote more efforts towards the identification of risk factors for, and prevention of, training injuries in the sport of taekwondo.

  18. The biomechanics of running in athletes with previous hamstring injury: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, C; Persson, U McCarthy; Twycross-Lewis, R; Woledge, R C; Morrissey, D

    2016-04-01

    Hamstring injury is prevalent with persistently high reinjury rates. We aim to inform hamstring rehabilitation by exploring the electromyographic and kinematic characteristics of running in athletes with previous hamstring injury. Nine elite male Gaelic games athletes who had returned to sport after hamstring injury and eight closely matched controls sprinted while lower limb kinematics and muscle activity of the previously injured biceps femoris, bilateral gluteus maximus, lumbar erector spinae, rectus femoris, and external oblique were recorded. Intergroup comparisons of muscle activation ratios and kinematics were performed. Previously injured athletes demonstrated significantly reduced biceps femoris muscle activation ratios with respect to ipsilateral gluteus maximus (maximum difference -12.5%, P = 0.03), ipsilateral erector spinae (maximum difference -12.5%, P = 0.01), ipsilateral external oblique (maximum difference -23%, P = 0.01), and contralateral rectus femoris (maximum difference -22%, P = 0.02) in the late swing phase. We also detected sagittal asymmetry in hip flexion (maximum 8°, P = 0.01), pelvic tilt (maximum 4°, P = 0.02), and medial rotation of the knee (maximum 6°, P = 0.03) effectively putting the hamstrings in a lengthened position just before heel strike. Previous hamstring injury is associated with altered biceps femoris associated muscle activity and potentially injurious kinematics. These deficits should be considered and addressed during rehabilitation.

  19. Psychology of Sport Injury: A Holistic Approach to Rehabilitating the Injured Athlete%Psychology of Sport Injury:A Holistic Approach to Rehabilitating the Injured Athlete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J. Jordan Hamson-Utley

    2010-01-01

    @@ Sports medicine practitioners must consider both physical and mental aspects of injury to fully rehabilitate the injured athlete. The psychological distress that follows injury has been well documented and calls for a change in the rehabilitation of injured athletes~ ([1-3]).

  20. Non-contact ACL injuries in female athletes: an International Olympic Committee current concepts statement

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The incidence of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury remains high in young athletes. Because female athletes have a much higher incidence of ACL injuries in sports such as basketball and team handball than male athletes, the IOC Medical Commission invited a multidisciplinary group of ACL expert clinicians and scientists to (1) review current evidence including data from the new Scandinavian ACL registries; (2) critically evaluate high-quality studies of injury mechanics; (3) consider the ...

  1. Common injuries and ailments of the female athlete; pathophysiology, treatment and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilibrand, Miryl J; Hammoud, Sommer; Bishop, Meghan; Woods, Daniel; Fredrick, Robert W; Dodson, Christopher C

    2015-11-01

    With increasing numbers of women competing in high school and collegiate athletics, it is important that physicians become familiar with injury patterns and medical conditions unique to the female athlete. Observations and clinical data have elucidated unique biomechanical, anatomic and hormonal factors that predispose skeletally mature female athletes to anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries, patellofemoral disorders and lower extremity stress fractures. Additionally, younger female athletes are particularly at risk of developing components of the "Female Athlete Triad" (more recently included under the syndrome of "Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport" [RED-S]): disordered eating, amenorrhea and osteoporosis. An understanding of the pathophysiology of these conditions has led to the development of programs that can treat their underlying causes, decrease susceptibility to injury, and improve the long-term health of the female athlete. This paper is intended to provide physicians with a review of the sex-specific etiology, prevention and treatment of injuries common to the female athlete.

  2. The impact of witnessing athletic injury: a qualitative examination of vicarious trauma in artistic gymnastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Melissa C; Schubert, Nina

    2012-01-01

    We explored how athletes respond and cope after witnessing athletic injury in others participating in the same sport. Participants were eight competitive female artistic gymnasts aged 21-25 years. In the previous 3 years, participants had witnessed a serious athletic injury of another gymnast that had required hospital treatment. Participants took part in semi-structured interviews in which they were asked to discuss their experiences of witnessing injury, including descriptions of the injury's occurrence. Data were analysed using hierarchical content analysis. Following acute reactions to witnessing injury, participants reported experiencing intrusive cognitions and engaged in avoidance coping strategies. Participants reported gradually engaging in more approach coping strategies which served to lower their perceptions of vulnerability to injury. Despite the complex nature of trauma, suggestions may be made to assist applied sport psychologists working with athletes who have witnessed athletic injury.

  3. Psychology and socioculture affect injury risk, response, and recovery in high-intensity athletes: a consensus statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiese-Bjornstal, D M

    2010-10-01

    This consensus statement summarizes key contemporary research themes relevant to understanding the psychology and socioculture of sport injury. Special consideration is given toward high-intensity sport in which elite athlete training and performance efforts are characterized by explosive physical speed and strength, mental fortitude to push physical limits, and maximum effort and commitment to highly challenging goals associated with achieving exceptional performance. Sport injury occurrence in high-intensity sport is an adverse and stressful health event associated with a complex multitude of risks, consequences and outcomes. A biopsychosocial (Engel, 1980) view is advocated which contextualizes an understanding of the psychological aspects of sport injury in light of influential sociocultural, ethical, and biomedical issues. Outcomes related to athlete health and performance excellence are of equal importance in considering how psychological scholarship, expertise and services can be used to improve efforts focused on the prevention and management of sport injury among high-intensity athletes. The consensus view is that psychology and socioculture do affect sport injury risk, response and recovery in high-intensity athletes, and that continued efforts in psychological research and professional practice are needed to protect athlete physical and mental health and contribute toward performance excellence and career longevity.

  4. The role of femoroacetabular impingement in core muscle injury/athletic pubalgia: diagnosis and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eEllis

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Chronic groin pain in athletes represents a major diagnostic and therapeutic challenge in sports medicine. Two recognized causes of inguinal pain in the young adult athlete are core muscle injury/athletic pubalgia (CMI/AP and femoroacetabular impingement (FAI. CMI/AP and FAI were previously considered to be two distinct entities, however recent studies have suggested both entities to frequently coincide in the athlete with groin pain. This article briefly discusses the role of femoroacetabular impingement in core muscle injury/athletic pubalgia, and the diagnosis and management of this complex disease.

  5. The Role of Femoroacetabular Impingement in Core Muscle Injury/Athletic Pubalgia: Diagnosis and Management

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas eEllis; David eRenton; David eStrosberg

    2016-01-01

    Chronic groin pain in athletes represents a major diagnostic and therapeutic challenge in sports medicine. Two recognized causes of inguinal pain in the young adult athlete are core muscle injury/athletic pubalgia (CMI/AP) and femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). CMI/AP and FAI were previously considered to be two distinct entities, however recent studies have suggested both entities to frequently coincide in the athlete with groin pain. This article briefly discusses the role of femoroaceta...

  6. Current concepts in MRI of rectus femoris musculotendinous (myotendinous) and myofascial injuries in elite athletes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassarjian, A., E-mail: Kassarjian@mac.com [Consultant Radiologist, Corades, S. L., Calle Galeon 2, 28220 Majadahonda, Madrid (Spain); Rodrigo, R.M., E-mail: rmrodrigo@resonanciamagneticabilbao.com [Resonancia Magnetica Bilbao, Hospital San Francisco Javier, Gordoniz 12, 40010 Bilbao, Vizcaya, Basque Country (Spain); Santisteban, J.M., E-mail: j.santisteban@athletic-club.net [Medical Services, Athletic Club Bilbao, Basurto Medical Institute, Faculty of Medicine and Odontology, University of the Basque Country, Barrio de Garaioltza 147, 48197 Lezama, Vizcaya, Basque Country (Spain)

    2012-12-15

    Rectus femoris injuries are extremely common in athletes, particularly in soccer players, rugby player, and sprinters. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays a key role in diagnosis, prognosis, and rehabilitation of these injuries. The current article discusses current concepts in the diagnosis and treatment of rectus femoris injuries in elite athletes, including a discussion of the less well known myofascial injuries and key prognostic factors as seen at MR imaging.

  7. Critical review of the impact of core stability on upper extremity athletic injury and performance

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Programs designed to prevent or rehabilitate athletic injuries or improve athletic performance frequently focus on core stability. This approach is based upon the theory that poor core stability increases the risk of poor performance and/or injury. Despite the widespread use of core stability training amongst athletes, the question of whether or not sufficient evidence exists to support this practice remains to be answered. OBJECTIVES: 1) Open a dialogue on the definition and comp...

  8. A qualitative study on overuse injuries : The beliefs of athletes and coaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wilgen, C. P.; Verhagen, E. A. L. M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Preventive approaches for overuse injuries in sports will be more successful when synchronised with athletes' and coaches' beliefs. We interviewed athletes and coaches in order to better characterize their beliefs about the definition of an overuse injury, as well as the intrinsic and ex

  9. Sonographic evaluation of athletic pubalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, Nicholas; Grant, Thomas; Blount, Kevin; Omar, Imran

    2016-05-01

    Athletic pubalgia, or "sports hernia", represents a constellation of pathologic conditions occurring at and around the pubic symphysis. These injuries are primarily seen in athletes or those involved in athletic activity. In this article, we review the sonographic appearance of the relevant complex anatomy, scanning technique for ultrasound evaluation of athletic pubalgia, and the sonographic appearances of associated pathologic conditions.

  10. Anterior cruciate ligament injuries in female athletes: Part 2, a meta-analysis of neuromuscular interventions aimed at injury prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewett, Timothy E; Ford, Kevin R; Myer, Gregory D

    2006-03-01

    Female athletes have a 4 to 6 times higher incidence of anterior cruciate ligament injury than do male athletes participating in the same landing and pivoting sports. This greater risk of anterior cruciate ligament injury, coupled with a geometric increase in participation (doubling each decade), has led to a significant rise in anterior cruciate ligament injuries in female athletes. The gender gap in anterior cruciate ligament injury, combined with evidence that the underpinnings of this serious health problem are neuromuscular in nature, leads to the development of neuromuscular interventions designed to prevent injury. A systematic review of the published literature yielded 6 published interventions targeted toward anterior cruciate ligament injury prevention in female athletes. Four of 6 significantly reduced knee injury incidence, and 3 of 6 significantly reduced anterior cruciate ligament injury incidence in female athletes. A meta-analysis of these 6 studies demonstrates a significant effect of neuromuscular training programs on anterior cruciate ligament injury incidence in female athletes (test for overall effect, Z = 4.31, P performance benefits are discussed. This review summarizes conclusions based on evidence from the common components of the various interventions to discuss their potential to reduce anterior cruciate ligament injury risk and assess their potential for combined use in more effective and efficient intervention protocols.

  11. Core Muscle Injury/Sports Hernia/Athletic Pubalgia, and Femoroacetabular Impingement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, James R; Stone, Rebecca M; Larson, Christopher M

    2015-12-01

    Core muscle injury/sports hernia/athletic pubalgia is an increasingly recognized source of pain, disability, and time lost from athletics. Groin pain among athletes, however, may be secondary to various etiologies. A thorough history and comprehensive physical examination, coupled with appropriate diagnostic imaging, may improve the diagnostic accuracy for patients who present with core muscular injuries. Outcomes of nonoperative management have not been well delineated, and multiple operative procedures have been discussed with varying return-to-athletic activity rates. In this review, we outline the clinical entity and treatment of core muscle injury and athletic pubalgia. In addition, we describe the relationship between athletic pubalgia and femoroacetabular impingement along with recent studies that have investigated the treatment of these related disorders.

  12. Acute Gastrocnemius-Soleus Complex Injuries in National Football League Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Brian C.; Belkin, Nicole S.; Kennelly, Steve; Weiss, Leigh; Barnes, Ronnie P.; Potter, Hollis G.; Warren, Russell F.; Rodeo, Scott A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Lower extremity muscle injuries are common in professional football. Although less common than hamstring or quadriceps injuries in National Football League (NFL) athletes, calf injuries occur with relative frequency and have not previously been studied. Purpose: To evaluate gastrocnemius-soleus complex muscle injuries over the past 13 years from a single NFL team to determine the incidence of such injuries, their imaging characteristics, and return to play after such injuries and any correlation between imaging findings and prolonged return to play. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: A retrospective review of all acute calf muscle injuries on a single NFL team from 2003 to 2015 was performed. Player demographics and return-to-play data were obtained from the medical records. All available magnetic resonance images (MRIs) were reviewed by a musculoskeletal radiologist for specific imaging findings that correlated with return to play. Results: A total of 27 calf injuries in 24 NFL players were reviewed, yielding an incidence of 2.3 acute calf injuries per year on a single NFL team. Of these 27 injuries, 20 (74%) were isolated injuries to the gastrocnemius muscle, 4 (15%) were isolated injuries to the soleus muscle, and the remaining 3 injuries (11%) involved both. Defensive players were more likely to sustain injuries (P = .043). The mean time to return to play for all 27 players was 17.4 ± 14.6 days (range, 3-62 days). MRIs were available in 14 of the 27 injuries. The average size of the fascial defect (P = .032) and the presence of a fluid collection (P = .031) both correlated with return to play of longer than 2 weeks. Conclusion: Although less common than hamstring or quadriceps muscle injuries, calf muscle injuries occur with relative frequency in the NFL, and more so in defensive players. The majority of these injuries occur in the gastrocnemius and result in significant disability, with at least 2 weeks of missed playing

  13. Imaging of athletic pubalgia and core muscle injuries: clinical and therapeutic correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palisch, Andrew; Zoga, Adam C; Meyers, William C

    2013-07-01

    Athletes frequently injure their hips and core muscles. Accurate diagnosis and proper treatment of groin pain in the athlete can be tricky, frequently posing vexing problem for trainers and physicians. Clinical presentations of the various hip problems overlap with respect to history and physical examination. This article reviews clinical presentations and magnetic resonance imaging findings specific to the various causes of groin pain in the athlete. The focus is on the core muscle injuries (athletic pubalgia or "sports hernia"). The goal is to raise awareness about the variety of injuries that occur and therapeutic options.

  14. The Development of Expert Male National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Certified Athletic Trainers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malasarn, Ruemruk; Bloom, Gordon A; Crumpton, Rebecca

    2002-03-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify the major influences in the development of expert male National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I certified athletic trainers. DESIGN AND SETTING: The participants were individually interviewed, and the data were transcribed and coded. SUBJECTS: Seven male NCAA Division I certified athletic trainers, who averaged 29 years of experience in the profession and 20 years at the Division I level. RESULTS: We found 3 higher-order categories that explained the development of the certified athletic trainers and labeled these meaningful experiences, personal attributes, and mentoring. The growth and development of the athletic trainers were influenced by a variety of meaningful experiences that began during their time as students and continued throughout their careers. These experiences involved dealing with challenging job conditions, educational conditions, and attempts to promote and improve the profession. The personal attributes category encompassed the importance of a caring and service-oriented attitude, building relationships with athletes, and maintaining strong bonds within their own families. Mentoring of these individuals occurred both inside and outside the athletic training profession. CONCLUSION: We provide a unique view of the development of athletic trainers that should be of interest to those in the field, regardless of years of experience.

  15. Effects of Stress Inoculation Training on Athletes' Postsurgical Pain and Rehabilitation after Orthopedic Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Michael J.; Berger, R. Scott

    1996-01-01

    Tested the efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral intervention (stress inoculation training; SIT) for postsurgical anxiety, pain and physical rehabilitation in injured athletes. Sixty male athletes who underwent arthroscopic surgery for miniscus injury in one knee were randomly assigned to either treatment (SIT and physical therapy) or control…

  16. Rationale and implementation of anterior cruciate ligament injury prevention warm-up programs in female athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bien, Daniel P

    2011-01-01

    The sex disparity in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury risk and the subsequent adverse effects on knee joint health, psychosocial well-being, and financial costs incurred have produced a surge in research on risk factors and interventions designed to decrease this disparity and overall incidence. Biomechanical and neuromuscular differences have been identified throughout the trunk and lower extremity that may increase noncontact ACL injury risk in female athletes. Evidence demonstrates that many risk factors are modifiable with intervention programs and that athletic performance measures can be enhanced. No universally accepted ACL injury prevention program currently exists, and injury prevention programs are diverse. Anterior cruciate ligament injury prevention programs introduced in a warm-up format offer multiple benefits, primarily, improved compliance based on improved practicality of implementation. However, drawbacks of warm-up style formats also exist, most notably that a lack of equipment and resources may preclude measurable improvements in athletic performance that foster improved compliance among participants. The purpose of this review is to analyze the current literature researching possible biomechanical and neuromuscular risk factors in noncontact ACL injury in female athletes and the most effective means of implementing critical elements of a program to decrease ACL injury risk in female athletes while improving athletic performance. Hip and hamstring training, core stabilization, plyometrics, balance, agility, neuromuscular training with video and verbal feedback to modify technique, and stretching appear to be essential components of these programs. Further research is critical to determine ideal training program volume, intensity, duration, and frequency.

  17. Gender Preference? National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Student-Athletes and Strength and Conditioning Coaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuman, Kristin M; Appleby, Karen M

    2016-10-01

    Shuman, KM and Appleby, KM. Gender Preference? National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Student-Athletes and Strength and Conditioning Coaches. J Strength Cond Res 30(10): 2924-2933, 2016-The purpose of this study was to examine the preferences and attitudes of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I (DI) junior and senior class student-athletes toward the gender of their strength and conditioning coach (SCC). This study contributes to the empirical body of literature regarding student-athlete and strength and conditioning coach interaction specific to gender-related information and extends the efforts to increase student-athlete success. A qualitative framework was used for this study. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 10 NCAA DI junior or senior class student-athletes who had been exposed to and coached by both a male and a female SCC. The results of this study concluded that, in general, participants did not have a specific gender preference for their SCC. However, participants indicated a preference for a coaching leadership style, which conveyed (a) leadership ability, (b) professionalism,

  18. A systematic literature review of the relationship between stretching and athletic injury prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Athletic-related injuries are a major cause for healthcare visits and financial burden for an otherwise healthy population of adults. The purpose of this article was to investigate the effects of stretching on injury prevention and to determine whether current stretching guidelines are beneficial for athletes. A systematic review of the literature was conducted through searching MEDLINE and CINAHL on topics related to stretching and injury prevention. Current belief is that stretching reduces injury incidence and that it should be performed prior to athletic activities. An examination of 11 articles provided inconclusive outcomes regarding the positive effect of stretching on injury prevention. A sport or activity-specific tailored stretch and warm-up program yielded the best outcomes in relation to preventing injuries. Direct negative effects of stretching were not identified; therefore, the application of stretching should be performed on an individual basis.

  19. The Role of Femoroacetabular Impingement in Core Muscle Injury/Athletic Pubalgia: Diagnosis and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strosberg, David S; Ellis, Thomas J; Renton, David B

    2016-01-01

    Chronic groin pain in athletes represents a major diagnostic and therapeutic challenge in sports medicine. Two recognized causes of inguinal pain in the young adult athlete are core muscle injury/athletic pubalgia (CMI/AP) and femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). CMI/AP and FAI were previously considered to be two distinct entities; however, recent studies have suggested both entities to frequently coincide in the athlete with groin pain. This article briefly discusses the role of FAI in CMI/AP and the diagnosis and management of this complex disease.

  20. The use of spinal manipulation to treat an acute on field athletic injury: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duquette, Sean A.; Kazemi, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    This case describes the utilization of spinal manipulative therapy for an acute athletic injury during a Taekwondo competition. During the tournament, an athlete had a sudden, non-traumatic, ballistic movement of the cervical spine. This resulted in the patient having a locked cervical spine with limited active motion in all directions. The attending chiropractor assessed the athlete, and deemed manipulation was appropriate. After the manipulation, the athlete’s range of motion was returned and was able to finish the match. Spinal manipulation has multiple positive outcomes for an athlete with an acute injury including the increase of range of motion, decrease in pain and the relaxation of hypertonic muscles. However, there should be some caution when utilizing manipulation during an event. In the article the authors propose four criteria that should be met before utilizing manipulation for an acute, in competition, athletic injury. These include the lack of red flags, limited time for the intervention, preexisting doctor-patient relationship and the athlete has experience receiving spinal manipulation. Clinicians should be aware that manipulation may be an effective tool to treat an acute in competition athletic injury. The criteria set out in the article may help a practitioner decide if manipulation is a good option for them. PMID:27385835

  1. The female athlete triad among elite Malaysian athletes: prevalence and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quah, Ye Vian; Poh, Bee Koon; Ng, Lai Oon; Noor, Mohd Ismail

    2009-01-01

    Women participating in a wide range of competitive sports are at higher risk of developing eating disorders, menstrual irregularities and osteoporosis, which are generally referred to as the 'female athlete triad'. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of female athlete triad and factors associated with this condition among athletes participating in different sports. A total of 67 elite female athletes aged between 13-30 years participated in the study and were subdivided into the 'leanness' and 'non-leanness' groups. Eating disorders were assessed using a body image figure rating and the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI) with body dissatisfaction (BD), drive for thinness (DT), bulimia (B) and perfectionism (P) subscales. Menstrual irregularity was assessed with a self-reported menstrual history questionnaire. Bone quality was measured using a quantitative ultrasound device at one-third distal radius. Prevalence of the female athlete triad was low (1.9%), but the prevalence for individual triad component was high, especially in the leanness group. The prevalence of subjects who were at risk of menstrual irregularity, poor bone quality and eating disorders were 47.6%, 13.3% and 89.2%, respectively, in the leanness group; and 14.3%, 8.3% and 89.2%, respectively, in the non-leanness group. Since the components of the triad are interrelated, identification of athletes at risk of having any one component of the triad, especially those participating in sports that emphasise a lean physique, is an important aid for further diagnosis.

  2. UTILIZATION OF ImPACT TESTING TO MEASURE INJURY RISK IN ALPINE SKI AND SNOWBOARD ATHLETES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntimer, Brittney; Kernozek, Thomas; Cole, John

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background While studies that have examined the prevalence of musculoskeletal injuries in alpine skiing and snowboarding exist, there has been no discussion of how neurocognitive deficits may influence such injuries. Recent authors have identified a possible link between Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) testing results and the prevalence of musculoskeletal injury in athletic populations. However, no study has specifically examined this in the alpine skiing and snowboard athletes who sustain injury and those that do not. Hypothesis/Purpose The purpose was to review injury data and ImPACT test results within the local ski/snowboard population to determine if there was a difference in components of ImPACT test scores between injured and non-injured athletes. It was hypothesized that differences would exist in component scores on ImPACT testing between injured and non-injured athletes. Study design Retrospective cohort study Methods Injury records and baseline ImPACT testing scores for 93 athletes aged 14-17 participating in a local ski and snowboard club during the 2009-2012 seasons were gathered retrospectively. Injuries documented for the lower and upper extremity included ligament sprains, muscle strains, contusions, dislocation/subluxation, fractures and concussions. Athletes who sustained any of these listed injuries were categorized within the injured athlete group. Each component of ImPACT test scores was compared between gender and for injury status within skiing and snowboarding disciplines using a series of two-way analysis of variance tests. Results There was no difference between non-injured and injured females as well as non-injured and injured males in reaction time and visual motor speed (VMS), however there was an interaction between gender and injury status on composite reaction time and visual motor speed, or VMS. The composite reaction time for females was 4.7% faster with injury while males without injury

  3. Tibialis posterior tendon and deltoid and spring ligament injuries in the elite athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribbans, William John; Garde, Ajit

    2013-06-01

    The tibialis posterior tendon and the spring and deltoid ligament complexes combine to provide dynamic and passive stabilization on the medial side of the ankle and hindfoot. Some of the injuries will involve acute injury to previous healthy structures, but many will develop insidiously. The clinician must be aware of new treatment strategies and the level of accompanying scientific evidence regarding injuries sustained by athletes in these areas, while acknowledging that more traditional management applied to nonathletic patients is still likely to be appropriate in the setting of treatment for elite athletes.

  4. Athletic Training Students' Perceptions of and Academic Preparation in the Use of Psychological Skills in Sport Injury Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamphoff, Cindra S.; Hamson-Utley, J. Jordan; Antoine, Beth; Knutson, Rebecca; Thomae, Jeffrey; Hoenig, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Context: Injured athletes rely on athletic trainers to assist them when recovering from injury. Over the last 20 years, the use of psychological skills to speed recovery has become increasingly popular. Objective: Explore athletic training students' perceptions of the importance and effectiveness of psychological skills in the rehabilitation of…

  5. Non-contact ACL injuries in female athletes: an International Olympic Committee current concepts statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renstrom, P; Ljungqvist, A; Arendt, E; Beynnon, B; Fukubayashi, T; Garrett, W; Georgoulis, T; Hewett, T E; Johnson, R; Krosshaug, T; Mandelbaum, B; Micheli, L; Myklebust, G; Roos, E; Roos, H; Schamasch, P; Shultz, S; Werner, S; Wojtys, E; Engebretsen, L

    2008-06-01

    The incidence of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury remains high in young athletes. Because female athletes have a much higher incidence of ACL injuries in sports such as basketball and team handball than male athletes, the IOC Medical Commission invited a multidisciplinary group of ACL expert clinicians and scientists to (1) review current evidence including data from the new Scandinavian ACL registries; (2) critically evaluate high-quality studies of injury mechanics; (3) consider the key elements of successful prevention programmes; (4) summarise clinical management including surgery and conservative management; and (5) identify areas for further research. Risk factors for female athletes suffering ACL injury include: (1) being in the preovulatory phase of the menstrual cycle compared with the postovulatory phase; (2) having decreased intercondylar notch width on plain radiography; and (3) developing increased knee abduction moment (a valgus intersegmental torque) during impact on landing. Well-designed injury prevention programmes reduce the risk of ACL for athletes, particularly women. These programmes attempt to alter dynamic loading of the tibiofemoral joint through neuromuscular and proprioceptive training. They emphasise proper landing and cutting techniques. This includes landing softly on the forefoot and rolling back to the rearfoot, engaging knee and hip flexion and, where possible, landing on two feet. Players are trained to avoid excessive dynamic valgus of the knee and to focus on the "knee over toe position" when cutting.

  6. Partial rotator cuff injury in athletes: bursal or articular?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassiano Diniz Carvalho

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTA painful shoulder is a very common complaint among athletes, especially in the case of those in sports involving throwing. Partial lesions of the rotator cuff may be very painful and cause significant functional limitation to athletes' sports practice. The incidence of partial lesions of the cuff is variable (13-37%. It is difficult to make the clinical and radiological diagnosis, and this condition should be borne in mind in the cases of all athletes who present symptoms of rotator cuff syndrome, including in patients who are diagnosed only with tendinopathy. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the epidemiological behavior of partial lesions of the rotator cuff in both amateur and professional athletes in different types of sports. METHODS: We evaluated 720 medical files on athletes attended at the shoulder service of the Discipline of Sports Medicine at the Sports Traumatology Center, Federal University of São Paulo. The majority of them were men (65%. Among all the patients, 83 of them were diagnosed with partial lesions of the rotator cuff, by means of ultrasonography or magnetic resonance, or in some cases using both. We applied the binomial test to compare the proportions found. RESULT: It was observed that intra-articular lesions predominated (67.6% and that these occurred more frequently in athletes in sports involving throwing (66%. Bursal lesions occurred in 32.4% of the athletes, predominantly in those who did muscle building (75%. CONCLUSION: Intra-articular lesions are more frequent than bursal lesions and they occur predominantly in athletes in sports involving throwing, while bursal lesions were more prevalent in athletes who did muscle building.

  7. Brain Injury Association of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Only) 1-800-444-6443 Welcome to the Brain Injury Association of America (BIAA) Brain injury is not an event or an outcome. ... misunderstood, under-funded neurological disease. People who sustain brain injuries must have timely access to expert trauma ...

  8. Effect of kinesio taping on the isokinetic muscle function in football athletes with a knee injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, SoonKwon; Shim, JeMyung; Kim, SungJoong; Namkoong, Seung; Roh, HyoLyun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the difference in isokinetic muscle function in football athletes with a knee injury with and without kinesio taping. [Subjects] The subjects for this study were 10 football athletes (males) with a knee injury. [Methods] Measurements were performed by using Cybex dynamometer under uniform motion before and after the application of kinesio tape to the quadriceps and hamstring muscle. Maximal concentric knee extension and flexion at three angular velocities (60°/s, 120°/s, and 180°/s) were measured. [Results] A significant difference was found in peak torque and total work of the flexion at 120°/s and 180°/s, as well as in the average power of extension at 180°/s. [Conclusion] Though it is not the main therapy for muscle function in football athletes with injury, kinesio taping was an effective adjunct therapy. PMID:26957761

  9. Effect of kinesio taping on the isokinetic muscle function in football athletes with a knee injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, SoonKwon; Shim, JeMyung; Kim, SungJoong; Namkoong, Seung; Roh, HyoLyun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the difference in isokinetic muscle function in football athletes with a knee injury with and without kinesio taping. [Subjects] The subjects for this study were 10 football athletes (males) with a knee injury. [Methods] Measurements were performed by using Cybex dynamometer under uniform motion before and after the application of kinesio tape to the quadriceps and hamstring muscle. Maximal concentric knee extension and flexion at three angular velocities (60°/s, 120°/s, and 180°/s) were measured. [Results] A significant difference was found in peak torque and total work of the flexion at 120°/s and 180°/s, as well as in the average power of extension at 180°/s. [Conclusion] Though it is not the main therapy for muscle function in football athletes with injury, kinesio taping was an effective adjunct therapy.

  10. Factors associated with dietary supplementation among Brazilian athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellen Clair Garcêz Nabuco

    Full Text Available Background: Many factors can influence an athlete to consume dietary supplements, such as age, sex and sports, among others. Few studies regarding the prevalence and associated factors are available for athletes, especially in developing countries. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the factors associated with the consumption of dietary supplements among Brazilian athletes. Material and methods: This is a cross-sectional study involving 182 athletes of both sexes. The athletes answered a questionnaire containing sociodemographic and sports information, current consumption of supplements, consumption of pharmacological substances and information on body image disorder (Body Shape Questionnaire and muscle dysmorphia (Muscle Appearance Satisfaction Scale. Analyses were performed using Pearson's Chi-squared test, the crude prevalence ratio (PR and Poisson regression with robust variance. Results: In the bivariate analysis, the male gender, age between 25-29 years, engaging in a remunerated activity, consumption of pharmacological substances, body image disorder, risk of muscle dysmorphia, power modality athletes and lack of medical care were factors associated with supplement intake. After the regression analysis, the consumption of supplements was associated with the male gender (PR: 1.68; 95% CI: 1.01; 2.78; p = 0.044, use of pharmacological substances (PR: 1.77; 95 %: 1.37; 2.27; p < 0.001 and the risk of muscle dysmorphia (PR: 1.75; 95% CI: 1.37; 2.23; p < 0.001. Conclusions: The results of this research clearly demonstrate the importance of professionals working closely with athletes to continuously monitor their use of supplements, since it was an alimentary behavior associated with other risk behavior (pharmacological use as well as image disorders (muscle dysmorphia.

  11. ACL Injury, Return To Play And Reinjury In The Elite, Collegiate Athlete: An Analysis Of A Single, Division I NCAA Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamath, Ganesh V.; Murphy, Timothy; Creighton, Robert A.; Taft, Timothy N.; Spang, Jeffrey T.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Graft survivorship, reinjury rates, and career length are poorly understood after ACL reconstruction in the elite, NCAA Division-I athlete. The purpose of this study was to examine the outcomes of ACL reconstruction in a Division-I athlete cohort. Methods: Retrospective chart review was performed of all Division-I athletes at a single, public university from 2000 to 2009 until completion of eligibility. Athletes with a Pre-collegiate (PC) and Intra-collegiate (IC) ACL reconstruction were separated into two cohorts. Graft survivorship, reoperation rates, and career length information was collected. Results: 35 athletes were identified with a pre-collegiate (PC) ACL reconstruction; 60 with an intra-collegiate (IC) reconstruction. The PC group had a 17.1% injury rate to the original graft, with a 20.0% rate of contralateral ACL injury. For the IC group, the reinjury rates were 1.9% to the ACL graft, with a 9.2% rate of contralateral ACL injury after an IntraCollegiate ACL reconstruction. The PC group used 78% of their total eligibility (avg 3.11 yrs). Athletes in the IC group used an average of 77% of their remaining NCAA eligibility. 88.3% of the IC group played an additional non-redshirt year after their injury. Reoperation rate for the PC group was 51.4% and 20.3% for the IC group. Conclusion: Reoperation and reinjury rates are high after ACL reconstruction in the Division-I athlete. Pre-collegiate ACL reconstruction is associated with a very high rate of repeat ACL reinjury to the graft or opposite knee (37.1%). The majority of athletes are able to return to play after successful reconstruction.

  12. An Examination of Concussion Injury Rates in Various Models of Football Helmets in NCAA Football Athletes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ryan Moran; Tracey Covassin

    2015-01-01

    While newer, advanced helmet models have been designed with the intentions of decreasing concussions, very little research exists on injury rates in various football helmets at the collegiate level. The aim of this study was to examine concussion injury rates in various models of football helmets in collegiate football athletes. In addition, to compare injury rates of newer, advanced football helmets to older, traditional helmets among collegiate football athletes, a total of 209 concussions and 563,701 AEs (athlete-exposures) among 2,107 collegiate football athletes in seven helmet models were included in the analyses. Concussion injury rates revealed that the Riddell Revolution~ had the highest rate of 0.41 concussions per 1,000 AEs. The Schutt ION 4DTM helmet had the lowest rate of 0.25 concussions per 1,000 AEs. These newer helmet models did not significantly differ from one another (P = 0.74), however, all models significantly differed from the older, traditional helmet model (P 〈 0.001). The findings of this study suggest that concussion rates do not differ between newer and more advanced helmet models. More importantly, there are currently no helmets available to prevent concussions from occurring in football athletes.

  13. Common injuries of the foot and ankle in the child and adolescent athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malanga, Gerard A; Ramirez-Del Toro, Jose A

    2008-05-01

    A myriad problems in the foot and ankle are specific to child and adolescent athletes. The anatomy of young athletes with respect to the presence of a growth plate makes their injury patterns different from those seen in adults. The main general injury patterns seen in the feet and ankles of children are related to growth and development or occur from overuse syndromes or acute trauma. In this article we outline in an anatomically oriented manner most of the common problems in this population.

  14. Gambling among European professional athletes. Prevalence and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grall-Bronnec, Marie; Caillon, Julie; Humeau, Elise; Perrot, Bastien; Remaud, Manon; Guilleux, Alice; Rocher, Bruno; Sauvaget, Anne; Bouju, Gaelle

    2016-01-01

    In Europe, the prevalence of gambling disorders in the general population ranges from 0.15 to 6.6%. Professional athletes are known for having risk factors for addictive behaviors, such as young age or sensation seeking, though no study has yet tried to evaluate the prevalence of gambling and gambling disorders among this specific population. The goals of this study were to estimate the prevalence of gambling, problematic or not, among European professional athletes and to explore the factors that are associated with gambling practice and gambling problems in professional athletes. A self-completion questionnaire was specifically designed for this study. The questionnaires were distributed by European Union athletes to professional ice hockey, rugby, handball, basketball, football, indoor football, volleyball, and cricket teams in Spain, France, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. Socio-demographic variables (age, sex, education, marital and parental status, sport, country of birth, and country of practice), variables linked to gambling (gambling habits, screening of gambling problems with the Lie/Bet questionnaire, and gambling related cognitions), and impulsive behavior data (urgency, premeditation, perseverance, and sensation seeking [UPPS]-Short Form questionnaire) were gathered. There were 1,236 questionnaires filled out. The percentage of professional athletes that had gambled at least once during the previous year was 56.6%. The prevalence of problem gambling, current or past, was 8.2%. A certain number of variables were associated with the gambling status. In particular, betting on one's own team (OR = 4.1, CI95% [1.5-11.5]), betting online (OR = 2.9, CI95% [1.6-5.4]), gambling regularly (OR = 4.0, CI95% [2.1-7.6]), and having a high positive urgency score (OR = 1.5, CI95% [1.3-1.7]) were associated with gambling problems, current or past, among professional athletes. Professional athletes are particularly exposed to both gambling and

  15. The role of autonomic function on sport performance in athletes with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krassioukov, Andrei; West, Christopher

    2014-08-01

    Devastating paralysis, autonomic dysfunction, and abnormal cardiovascular control present significant hemodynamic challenges to individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI), especially during exercise. In general, resting arterial pressure after SCI is lower than with able-bodied individuals and is commonly associated with persistent orthostatic intolerance along with transient episodes of life-threatening hypertension, known as "autonomic dysreflexia." During exercise, the loss of central and reflexive cardiovascular control attenuates maximal heart rate and impairs blood pressure regulation and blood redistribution, which ultimately reduces venous return, stroke volume, and cardiac output. Thermoregulation also is severely compromised in high-lesion SCI, a problem that is compounded when competing in hot and humid conditions. There is some evidence that enhancing venous return via lower body positive pressure or abdominal binding improves exercise performance, as do cooling strategies. Athletes with SCI also have been documented to self-induce autonomic dysreflexia before competition with a view of increasing blood pressure and improving their performance, a technique known as "boosting." For health safety reasons, boosting is officially banned by the International Paralympics Committee. This article addresses the complex issue of how the autonomic nervous system affects sports performance in athletes with SCI, with a specific focus on the potential debilitating effects of deranged cardiovascular control.

  16. Mild Traumatic Brain Injury and Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Young Student Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biederman, Joseph; Feinberg, Leah; Chan, James; Adeyemo, Bamidele O; Woodworth, K Yvonne; Panis, Walter; McGrath, Neal; Bhatnagar, Saurabha; Spencer, Thomas J; Uchida, Mai; Kenworthy, Tara; Grossman, Rebecca; Zafonte, Ross; Faraone, Stephen V

    2015-11-01

    A recent meta-analysis documented a significant statistical association between mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (Adeyemo et al., 2014), but the direction of this effect was unclear. In this study, we hypothesized that ADHD would be an antecedent risk factor for mTBI. Participants were student athletes ages 12 to 25 who had sustained a mTBI and Controls of similar age and sex selected from studies of youth with and without ADHD. Subjects were assessed for symptoms of ADHD, concussion severity, and cognitive function. mTBI subjects had a significantly higher rate of ADHD than Controls, and in all cases the age of onset of ADHD was before mTBI onset. mTBI+ADHD subjects also had more severe concussion symptoms (fatigue and poor concentration) than mTBI-ADHD subjects. These results support ADHD as an antecedent risk factor for mTBI in student athletes and that its presence complicates the course of mTBI.

  17. Can pre-season fitness measures predict time to injury in varsity athletes?: a retrospective case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kennedy Michael D

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability to determine athletic performance in varsity athletes using preseason measures has been established. The ability of pre-season performance measures and athlete’s exposure to predict the incidence of injuries is unclear. Thus our purpose was to determine the ability of pre-season measures of athletic performance to predict time to injury in varsity athletes. Methods Male and female varsity athletes competing in basketball, volleyball and ice hockey participated in this study. The main outcome measures were injury prevalence, time to injury (based on calculated exposure and pre-season fitness measures as predictors of time to injury. Fitness measures were Apley’s range of motion, push-up, curl-ups, vertical jump, modified Illinois agility, and sit-and-reach. Cox regression models were used to identify which baseline fitness measures were predictors of time to injury. Results Seventy-six percent of the athletes reported 1 or more injuries. Mean times to initial injury were significantly different for females and males (40.6% and 66.1% of the total season (p , respectively. A significant univariate correlation was observed between push-up performance and time to injury (Pearson’s r = 0.332, p . No preseason fitness measure impacted the hazard of injury. Regardless of sport, female athletes had significantly shorter time to injury than males (Hazard Ratio = 2.2, p . Athletes playing volleyball had significantly shorter time to injury (Hazard Ratio = 4.2, p  compared to those playing hockey or basketball. Conclusions When accounting for exposure, gender, sport and fitness measures, prediction of time to injury was influenced most heavily by gender and sport.

  18. The Role of Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Athletic Pubalgia and Core Muscle Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Dana J; Zoga, Adam C

    2015-08-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become the standard of care imaging modality for a difficult, often misunderstood spectrum of musculoskeletal injury termed athletic pubalgia or core muscle injury. Armed with a dedicated noncontrast athletic pubalgia protocol and a late model phased array receiver coil, the musculoskeletal imager can play a great role in effective diagnosis and treatment planning for lesions, including osteitis pubis, midline pubic plate lesions, and rectus abdominis/adductor aponeurosis injury. Beyond these established patterns of MRI findings, there are many confounders and contributing pathologies about the pelvis in patients with activity related groin pain, including internal and periarticular derangements of the hip. The MRI is ideally suited to delineate the extent of expected injury and to identify the unexpected visceral and musculoskeletal lesions.

  19. Association between eating disorders and body image in athletes and non-athlete students in Qazvin University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Miri

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Body image dissatisfaction and eating disorders are of common problems in adolescence and adulthood especially among athletes. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the association of eating disorders and body image in athletes and non-athlete students in Qazvin University of Medical Sciences. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 226 athlete students and 350 non-athlete students of Qazvin University of Medical Sciences during 2013-2014. Students who followed a specific sport field and had participated in at least one sport event were considered as athlete students. All athlete students were entered the study by census method. Non-athlete students were selected among students who had not any exercise activity and by random sampling method. Data were collected through demographic questionnaire, Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26, and Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire (MBSRQ. Data were analyzed using T-test and Chi-square test. Results: Mean age was 21.92±3.19 years and mean body mass index (BMI was 22.24±3.18 kg/m2. The frequency of eating disorders was 11.5% among the athlete students and 11.2% among the non-athlete students. Anorexia nervosa was found to be more prevalent than bulimia nervosa in both groups. The students with normal BMI had better body image perception and less eating disorders symptoms than other students. The association of age, educational level, and gender with eating disorders and body image was not statistically significant. The association of eating disorders and body image was not statistically significant. Eating disorders were more prevalent in males than females but the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion: With regards to the results, it seems that eating disorders and body image dissatisfaction are relatively prevalent among both athletes and non-athlete students and BMI is predictor of eating disorders.

  20. Outcome of Grade I and II Hamstring Injuries in Intercollegiate Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Kilcoyne, Kelly G.; Dickens, Jonathan F.; Keblish, David; Rue, John-Paul; Chronister, Ray

    2011-01-01

    Background: Hamstring muscle strains represent a common and disabling athletic injury with variable recurrence rates and prolonged recovery times. Objectives: To present the outcomes of a novel rehabilitation protocol for the treatment of proximal hamstring strains in an intercollegiate sporting population and to determine any significant differences in the rate of reinjury and time to return to sport based on patient and injury characteristics. Study Design: Retrospective case series. Method...

  1. Relationship between postural changes and injuries of the locomotor system in indoor soccer athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribeiro Cintia Zucareli Pinto

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the sport practice has been initiated precociously. These precocious beginning of competitive sports may result in changes on the young athletes' posture alignment, because the child's bone and muscle systems are still developing and these systems are more susceptible to stress and injuries. The purpose of this study was to verify the indoor soccer (Futsal injuries and the changes of posture alignment in players between 9 to 16 years old. We examined the posture of 50 volunteers young futsal male players, volunteers, from a first division club team. These athletes were divided in two different groups: the group one (G1 was formed by those players who have suffered injuries related to Futsal; and group two (G2 was composed by athletes who did not have injuries related to futsal. First, the athletes or their parents answered a questionnaire about anthropometric characteristics of the subjects, player position, how long they have been practicing Futsal, how often they practiced Futsal and previous injuries related to Futsal practice. Then, we evaluated the postural alignment using an specific protocol to check the postural alterations. Both groups showed changes on the body alignment. The most common changes seen were in ankle and knee in both groups. The changes of the alignment in lumbar spine was more common in group 1. Considering injuries in group 1, the most common injury was in ankle (45.2% of all injuries and the second most common injury was in knee (19% of all injuries. Considering the kind of injury, sprain and fracture/dislocate were the two most common (26.2% each one and muscle injury comes in second with 21.4% of all kinds of injuries. We could discuss the relationship between the changes of posture alignment and sports injuries, once the changes of posture alignment result in stress in muscle and ligaments and it may result in injuries. We couldn't find a relationship between the cause and the consequence of these factors.

  2. Psychosocial factors influencing the recovery of athletes with anterior cruciate ligament injury : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Wierike, S. C. M.; van der Sluis, A.; van den Akker-Scheek, I.; Elferink-Gemser, M. T.; Visscher, C.

    2013-01-01

    This review describes the psychosocial factors that affect recovery following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury and reconstructive surgery in athletes. A systematic search in literature with inclusion and exclusion criteria on PubMed, PsycINFO, and Embase was performed. Articles used in this r

  3. Transportation Practices in Community College Athletics

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaVetter, David; Kim, Hyun Duck

    2010-01-01

    Over 45,000 U.S. community college athletes were transported to events during 2005-2006. Transporting college athletes has been an overlooked risk management issue facing administrators. Team travel accidents have caused death, injury, liability claims, property loss, and grief. National Junior College Athletic Association (NJCAA) member…

  4. Genetic variation and exercise-induced muscle damage: implications for athletic performance, injury and ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumert, Philipp; Lake, Mark J; Stewart, Claire E; Drust, Barry; Erskine, Robert M

    2016-09-01

    Prolonged unaccustomed exercise involving muscle lengthening (eccentric) actions can result in ultrastructural muscle disruption, impaired excitation-contraction coupling, inflammation and muscle protein degradation. This process is associated with delayed onset muscle soreness and is referred to as exercise-induced muscle damage. Although a certain amount of muscle damage may be necessary for adaptation to occur, excessive damage or inadequate recovery from exercise-induced muscle damage can increase injury risk, particularly in older individuals, who experience more damage and require longer to recover from muscle damaging exercise than younger adults. Furthermore, it is apparent that inter-individual variation exists in the response to exercise-induced muscle damage, and there is evidence that genetic variability may play a key role. Although this area of research is in its infancy, certain gene variations, or polymorphisms have been associated with exercise-induced muscle damage (i.e. individuals with certain genotypes experience greater muscle damage, and require longer recovery, following strenuous exercise). These polymorphisms include ACTN3 (R577X, rs1815739), TNF (-308 G>A, rs1800629), IL6 (-174 G>C, rs1800795), and IGF2 (ApaI, 17200 G>A, rs680). Knowing how someone is likely to respond to a particular type of exercise could help coaches/practitioners individualise the exercise training of their athletes/patients, thus maximising recovery and adaptation, while reducing overload-associated injury risk. The purpose of this review is to provide a critical analysis of the literature concerning gene polymorphisms associated with exercise-induced muscle damage, both in young and older individuals, and to highlight the potential mechanisms underpinning these associations, thus providing a better understanding of exercise-induced muscle damage.

  5. [Cold therapy of athletic injuries. Current literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsson, O

    2001-03-28

    Cryotherapy is often used in soft tissue sports injuries. The application of a cold pack reduces local muscular blood-flow by approximately 50% after 10 minutes. The duration of bleeding in a muscular injury is not known, but immediate application of external pressure is probably far superior in emergency treatment of an injury. Some studies have shown significant effect of cryotherapy in emergency treatment of ankle sprains, but external pressure is often applied simultaneously and the additive effect of cryotherapy is therefore uncertain. Cryotherapy reduces the metabolic rate in injured muscle and is often used several days after a soft tissue injury to reduce secondary hypoxic injury. Experimental studies, however, show no effect of cryotherapy on muscle regeneration, and no controlled clinical study has shown a significant effect in emergency treatment of soft tissue sports injuries.

  6. Methods and Descriptive Epidemiology of Services Provided by Athletic Trainers in High Schools: The National Athletic Treatment, Injury and Outcomes Network Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Zachary Y.; Dompier, Thomas P.; Dalton, Sara L.; Miller, Sayers John; Hayden, Ross; Marshall, Stephen W.

    2015-01-01

    Context Research is limited on the extent and nature of the care provided by athletic trainers (ATs) to student-athletes in the high school setting. Objective To describe the methods of the National Athletic Treatment, Injury and Outcomes Network (NATION) project and provide the descriptive epidemiology of AT services for injury care in 27 high school sports. Design Descriptive epidemiology study. Setting Athletic training room (ATR) visits and AT services data collected in 147 high schools from 26 states. Patients or Other Participants High school student-athletes participating in 13 boys' sports and 14 girls' sports during the 2011−2012 through 2013−2014 academic years. Main Outcome Measure(s) The number of ATR visits and individual AT services, as well as the mean number of ATR visits (per injury) and AT services (per injury and ATR visit) were calculated by sport and for time-loss (TL) and non–time-loss (NTL) injuries. Results Over the 3-year period, 210 773 ATR visits and 557 381 AT services were reported for 50 604 injuries. Most ATR visits (70%) were for NTL injuries. Common AT services were therapeutic activities or exercise (45.4%), modalities (18.6%), and AT evaluation and reevaluation (15.9%), with an average of 4.17 ± 6.52 ATR visits and 11.01 ± 22.86 AT services per injury. Compared with NTL injuries, patients with TL injuries accrued more ATR visits (7.76 versus 3.47; P < .001) and AT services (18.60 versus 9.56; P < .001) per injury. An average of 2.24 ± 1.33 AT services were reported per ATR visit. Compared with TL injuries, NTL injuries had a larger average number of AT services per ATR visit (2.28 versus 2.05; P < .001). Conclusions These findings highlight the broad spectrum of care provided by ATs to high school student-athletes and demonstrate that patients with NTL injuries require substantial amounts of AT services. PMID:26678290

  7. Prevention of shoulder injuries in overhead athletes: a science-based approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann M. Cools

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The shoulder is at high risk for injury during overhead sports, in particular in throwing or hitting activities, such as baseball, tennis, handball, and volleyball. In order to create a scientific basis for the prevention of recurrent injuries in overhead athletes, four steps need to be undertaken: (1 risk factors for injury and re-injury need to be defined; (2 established risk factors may be used as return-to-play criteria, with cut-off values based on normative databases; (3 these variables need to be measured using reliable, valid assessment tools and procedures; and (4 preventative training programs need to be designed and implemented into the training program of the athlete in order to prevent re-injury. In general, three risk factors have been defined that may form the basis for recommendations for the prevention of recurrent injury and return to play after injury: glenohumeral internal-rotation deficit (GIRD; rotator cuff strength, in particular the strength of the external rotators; and scapular dyskinesis, in particular scapular position and strength.

  8. Injuries and Footwear (Part 1): Athletic Shoe History and Injuries in Relation to Foot Arch Height and Training in Boots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapik, Joseph J; Pope, Rodney; Orr, Robin; Grier, Tyson

    2015-01-01

    This article traces the history of the athletic shoe, examines whether selecting running shoes based on foot arch height influences injuries, and examines historical data on injury rates when physical training (PT) is performed in boots versus running shoes. In the 1980s and into the 2000s, running shoe companies were advertising specialized shoes with "motion control," "stability," and "cushioning," designed for individuals with low, normal, and high arches, respectively. Despite marketing claims that these shoes would reduce injury rates, coordinated studies in Army, Air Force, and Marine Corps basic training showed that assigning or selecting shoes on this basis had no effect on injury rates. Consistent with this finding, biomechanical studies have shown that the relationships between arch height, foot joint mobility, and rear-foot motion are complex, variable, and frequently not as strong as often assumed. In 1982, the US Army switched from PT in boots to PT in running shoes because of the belief that boots were causing injuries and that running shoes would reduce injury rates. However, a historical comparison of injury rates before and after the switch to running shoes showed virtually no difference in injury risk between the two periods. It is not clear at this point if the type of footwear effects injury incidence.

  9. Disordered Eating, Menstrual Irregularity, and Musculoskeletal Injury in High School Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thein-Nissenbaum, Jill M.; Carr, Kathleen E.; Hetzel, Scott; Dennison, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Background: The female athlete triad is the interrelatedness of energy availability, menstrual function, and bone density. Currently, limited information about triad components and their relationship to musculoskeletal injury in the high school population exists. In addition, no study has specifically examined triad components and injury rate in high school oral contraceptive pill (OCP) users. Hypothesis: To compare the prevalence of disordered eating (DE), menstrual irregularity (MI), and musculoskeletal injury (INJ) among high school female athletes in OCP users and non-OCP users. Study Design: Retrospective cohort study. Level of Evidence: Level 2. Methods: The subject sample completed the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q) and Healthy Wisconsin High School Female Athletes Survey (HWHSFAS). Athletes were classified by OCP use and sport type. Results: Of the participants, 14.8% reported OCP use. There was no difference in MI and INJ among groups. The prevalence of DE was significantly higher among OCP users as compared with non-OCP users; OCP users were twice as likely to meet the criteria for DE (odds ratio [OR], 2.47; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20-5.09). OCP users were over 5 times more likely to have a global score that met criteria for DE as compared with non-OCP users (OR, 5.36; 95% CI, 1.92-14.89). Conclusion: Although MI and INJ rates are similar among groups, there is a higher prevalence of DE among high school female athletes using OCPs as compared with non-OCP users. Clinical Relevance: Because OCP users may be menstruating, clinicians may fail to recognize the other triad components. However, DE exists in the menstruating OCP user. As such, clinicians should be vigilant when screening for triad components in high school OCP users, particularly DE. PMID:24982703

  10. Respiratory health of elite athletes - preventing airway injury: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kippelen, Pascale; Fitch, Kenneth D; Anderson, Sandra Doreen; Bougault, Valerie; Boulet, Louis-Philippe; Rundell, Kenneth William; Sue-Chu, Malcolm; McKenzie, Donald C

    2012-06-01

    Elite athletes, particularly those engaged in endurance sports and those exposed chronically to airborne pollutants/irritants or allergens, are at increased risk for upper and lower airway dysfunction. Airway epithelial injury may be caused by dehydration and physical stress applied to the airways during severe exercise hyperpnoea and/or by inhalation of noxious agents. This is thought to initiate an inflammatory cascade/repair process that, ultimately, could lead to airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and asthma in susceptible athletes. The authors review the evidence relating to prevention or reduction of the risk of AHR/asthma development. Appropriate measures should be implemented when athletes exercise strenuously in an attempt to attenuate the dehydration stress and reduce the exposure to noxious airborne agents. Environmental interventions are the most important. Non-pharmacological strategies can assist, but currently, pharmacological measures have not been demonstrated to be effective. Whether early prevention of airway injury in elite athletes can prevent or reduce progression to AHR/asthma remains to be established.

  11. Frequency of Maxillofacial Injuries Among Athletes-Members of Various Sports Federations in Iranform 1998-2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Mahmoud Hasehmi

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, sport injuries constitute a major part of social accidents. The aim of the presentstudy, was to investigate the frequency of maxillofacial injuries among athletes-members of differentsports federations in Iran from 1998-2001. For this reason files which was related to sport injuries of men and women athletes-members of sports federations were studied in Medical Federation of the Islamic Republic of Iran Sports Organization. The information were received through 26 medical organizations,located in different states of the country. The results showed that maxillofacial injuries constitute the major part of the sports injuries. In male athletes, football was the most important cause for maxillofacial injuries. However, mountain climbing and skiing play the least role in this field. Among female athletes,karate was the cause of the highest rate of maxillofacial sport injuries. Diving, mountain climbing and skiing cause the least number of maxillofacial accidents. Nasal fracture was the most common sport injury among Iraninan male and female athletes.

  12. Physical Exam Risk Factors for Lower Extremity Injury in High School Athletes: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onate, James A.; Everhart, Joshua S.; Clifton, Daniel R.; Best, Thomas M.; Borchers, James R.; Chaudhari, Ajit M.W.

    2016-01-01

    Objective A stated goal of the preparticipation physical evaluation (PPE) is to reduce musculoskeletal injury, yet the musculoskeletal portion of the PPE is reportedly of questionable use in assessing lower extremity injury risk in high school-aged athletes. The objectives of this study are: (1) identify clinical assessment tools demonstrated to effectively determine lower extremity injury risk in a prospective setting, and (2) critically assess the methodological quality of prospective lower extremity risk assessment studies that use these tools. Data Sources A systematic search was performed in PubMed, CINAHL, UptoDate, Google Scholar, Cochrane Reviews, and SportDiscus. Inclusion criteria were prospective injury risk assessment studies involving athletes primarily ages 13 to 19 that used screening methods that did not require highly specialized equipment. Methodological quality was evaluated with a modified physiotherapy evidence database (PEDro) scale. Main Results Nine studies were included. The mean modified PEDro score was 6.0/10 (SD, 1.5). Multidirectional balance (odds ratio [OR], 3.0; CI, 1.5–6.1; P patellofemoral pain syndrome (P = 0.02), and foot posture index of ankle sprain (r = −0.339, P = 0.008). Conclusions Minimal prospective evidence supports or refutes the use of the functional musculoskeletal exam portion of the current PPE to assess lower extremity injury risk in high school athletes. Limited evidence does support inclusion of multidirectional balance assessment and physical maturation status in a musculoskeletal exam as both are generalizable risk factors for lower extremity injury. PMID:26978166

  13. Non-contact ACL injuries in female athletes: an International Olympic Committee current concepts statement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Renstrom, P; Ljungqvist, A; Arendt, E

    2008-01-01

    clinicians and scientists to (1) review current evidence including data from the new Scandinavian ACL registries; (2) critically evaluate high-quality studies of injury mechanics; (3) consider the key elements of successful prevention programmes; (4) summarise clinical management including surgery...... and conservative management; and (5) identify areas for further research. Risk factors for female athletes suffering ACL injury include: (1) being in the preovulatory phase of the menstrual cycle compared with the postovulatory phase; (2) having decreased intercondylar notch width on plain radiography; and (3...

  14. Review on Knee Injury of Wushu Athletes%武术运动员膝关节损伤综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐诚堂

    2014-01-01

    The characteristic of Wushu movement is easy to cause the movement of sports injury;the survey found out that Wushu athlete's knee injury is more serious.In this paper,through the analysis of Wushu athlete injury of knee injuries,so as to provide preventive measures for the knee joint injury of Wushu athletes.%武术运动的特点决定了它是较容易造成运动损伤的体育项目,经调查发现,武术运动员的膝关节损伤较为严重。本文通过对武术运动员膝关节损伤伤种的分析,以期为武术运动员的膝关节损伤提供预防措施。

  15. Sonography and MRI of latissimus dorsi strain injury in four elite athletes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedret, Carles [Unitat Medicina Esportiva Consorci Sanitari del Garraf, Barcelona (Spain); Centre Diagnostic per Imatge de Tarragona, Tarragona (Spain); Balius, Ramon [Generalitat of Catalonia, Sports Catalan Council, Catalonia (Spain); Idoate, Fernando [Clinica San Miguel, Department of Radiology, Pamplona (Spain)

    2011-05-15

    The objective of this study was to describe the MR and sonographic findings in latissimus dorsi (LD) muscle strain in athletes, and to review the most common injuries described in the literature, most of which are humeral avulsions. Four injuries and two reinjuries of the myotendinous junction of the LD were followed from the day of injury until the return to play. Sonography (US) and MR imaging were performed in each case to confirm the diagnosis and to monitor the healing process. All cases had acute and isolated pain in the back of the shoulder while performing an eccentric maneuver of the arm and the shoulder. US and MR images demonstrated that injuries were located in the middle and cranial portion of the latissimus dorsi surrounding the myotendinous junction. After rehabilitation, all players played at high level again. Isolated lesions of LD are very rare. They can be demonstrated by US and MR images. (orig.)

  16. Reducing the Risk of ACL Injury in Female Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Larry W.; Rasche, Adrienna; Gaudet, Laura; Jackson, Allen

    2010-01-01

    The Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) is located behind the kneecap (patella) and connects the thigh bone (femur) to the shin bone (tibia). Stabilizing the knee joint is the primary responsibility of the ACL. Injuries that affect the ACL are three to five times more common in females than males. This is a result of anatomical, biomechanical,…

  17. Coming to terms with early sports specialization and athletic injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyland, John

    2014-06-01

    The body grows stronger and performs best when appropriate loads and activities are followed by appropriate physical and mental rest and recovery. With this understanding, one has to question the true value of developing a particular sport skill set during childhood and adolescence at the expense of early injury, burnout, and lack of coping-skill development.

  18. Implementing Athletic Trainers for the Management of Cheerleading Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Mikiko; Valdez, Josepha M.

    2013-01-01

    Cheerleading used to be about standing on the sidelines waving pom-poms. Now, cheerleaders are thrown 10 feet in the air and perform high-level gymnastics skills. For this reason, cheerleading has become the leading cause of catastrophic sport injuries in the United States. Football, which is one of the most dangerous sports, has abundant access…

  19. Risk factors and injury prevention in elite athletes: a descriptive study of the opinions of physical therapists, doctors and trainers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno T. Saragiotto

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Musculoskeletal injuries occur frequently in elite athletes. Understanding what professionals who work with patients with sports injuries think about prevention has been suggested as an important aspect to improve the effectiveness of programs to prevent sports injuries. Objectives: To describe and characterize the opinions of physical therapists, physicians and trainers on 'risk factors' and 'prevention of injury' in elite athletes. Method: This is a qualitative study with semi-structured interviews with members of the medical and technical department of the Brazilian delegation who participated in the Pan American Games of Guadalajara 2011. The interview was conducted using two questions: 1 "What do you think can cause injuries in athletes participating in your sport?" 2 "What do you do to prevent injuries in your sport?" The interviews were analyzed in two stages, the identification of thematic units, followed by the categorization and grouping of thematic units. Results: We interviewed a total of 30 professionals. Regarding question 1, the main factors attributed as responsible for injury were over-training and incorrect sports techniques. Regarding question 2, the main reported strategies used to prevent injuries were muscle strengthening, nutritional counseling and guidance. Conclusions: The main factors affecting the appearance of lesions were over-training, incorrect sports technique, inadequate nutrition and factors related to the athlete's behavior. The main injury prevention strategies were muscle strengthening, nutritional counseling and guidance.

  20. Hand injuries as an indicator of other associated severe injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vossoughi, Faranak; Krantz, Brent; Fann, Stephen

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence of disabling or life-threatening injuries in patients with hand injuries. Retrospective data were collected from a level 1 trauma center registry. A total of 472 patients with hand injuries were admitted to the trauma unit between January 2000 and March 2004. Forty-four per cent of patients with hand injuries had life-threatening injuries. Fifty-one per cent of them had motor vehicle crash-related injuries. Motorcycle crashes were the next most common cause followed by explosions, falls, gunshots, machinery, stabs, bites, crushes, and so on. Frequency of associated injuries was as follows: head injuries, 31 per cent, including skull fractures, 22 per cent; spine injuries, 18 per cent, including spine fractures 18 per cent; chest injuries, 36 per cent, including rib fractures, 15 per cent; and abdominal injuries, 13 per cent. The authors focused on the incidence of disabling or life-threatening injuries in patients with hand injuries. Motor vehicle crashes were most common cause of hand injuries. The most common organs to be injured were chest and head. The most common head injury was skull fracture. Other injuries in decreasing order were spine and rib fractures. These data may be helpful in assessing ambulatory patients in the emergency room, in those hand injuries maybe indicative of other simultaneous life-threatening or disabling injuries.

  1. Alteration of default mode network in high school football athletes due to repetitive subconcussive mild traumatic brain injury: a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Kausar; Shenk, Trey E; Poole, Victoria N; Breedlove, Evan L; Leverenz, Larry J; Nauman, Eric A; Talavage, Thomas M; Robinson, Meghan E

    2015-03-01

    Long-term neurological damage as a result of head trauma while playing sports is a major concern for football athletes today. Repetitive concussions have been linked to many neurological disorders. Recently, it has been reported that repetitive subconcussive events can be a significant source of accrued damage. Since football athletes can experience hundreds of subconcussive hits during a single season, it is of utmost importance to understand their effect on brain health in the short and long term. In this study, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) was used to study changes in the default mode network (DMN) after repetitive subconcussive mild traumatic brain injury. Twenty-two high school American football athletes, clinically asymptomatic, were scanned using the rs-fMRI for a single season. Baseline scans were acquired before the start of the season, and follow-up scans were obtained during and after the season to track the potential changes in the DMN as a result of experienced trauma. Ten noncollision-sport athletes were scanned over two sessions as controls. Overall, football athletes had significantly different functional connectivity measures than controls for most of the year. The presence of this deviation of football athletes from their healthy peers even before the start of the season suggests a neurological change that has accumulated over the years of playing the sport. Football athletes also demonstrate short-term changes relative to their own baseline at the start of the season. Football athletes exhibited hyperconnectivity in the DMN compared to controls for most of the sessions, which indicates that, despite the absence of symptoms typically associated with concussion, the repetitive trauma accrued produced long-term brain changes compared to their healthy peers.

  2. Irisin levels are lower in young amenorrheic athletes compared with eumenorrheic athletes and non-athletes and are associated with bone density and strength estimates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vibha Singhal

    Full Text Available Irisin and FGF21 are novel hormones implicated in the "browning" of white fat, thermogenesis, and energy homeostasis. However, there are no data regarding these hormones in amenorrheic athletes (AA (a chronic energy deficit state compared with eumenorrheic athletes (EA and non-athletes. We hypothesized that irisin and FGF21 would be low in AA, an adaptive response to low energy stores. Furthermore, because (i brown fat has positive effects on bone, and (ii irisin and FGF21 may directly impact bone, we hypothesized that bone density, structure and strength would be positively associated with these hormones in athletes and non-athletes. To test our hypotheses, we studied 85 females, 14-21 years [38 AA, 24 EA and 23 non-athletes (NA]. Fasting serum irisin and FGF21 were measured. Body composition and bone density were assessed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, bone microarchitecture using high resolution peripheral quantitative CT, strength estimates using finite element analysis, resting energy expenditure (REE using indirect calorimetry and time spent exercising/week by history. Subjects did not differ for pubertal stage. Fat mass was lowest in AA. AA had lower irisin and FGF21 than EA and NA, even after controlling for fat and lean mass. Across subjects, irisin was positively associated with REE and bone density Z-scores, volumetric bone mineral density (total and trabecular, stiffness and failure load. FGF21 was negatively associated with hours/week of exercise and cortical porosity, and positively with fat mass and cortical volumetric bone density. Associations of irisin (but not FGF21 with bone parameters persisted after controlling for potential confounders. In conclusion, irisin and FGF21 are low in AA, and irisin (but not FGF21 is independently associated with bone density and strength in athletes.

  3. The Financial and Professional Impact of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries in National Football League Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secrist, Eric S.; Bhat, Suneel B.; Dodson, Christopher C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries can have negative consequences on the careers of National Football League (NFL) players, however no study has ever analyzed the financial impact of these injuries in this population. Purpose: To quantify the impact of ACL injuries on salary and career length in NFL athletes. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Any player in the NFL suffering an ACL injury from 2010 to 2013 was identified using a comprehensive online search. A database of NFL player salaries was used to conduct a matched cohort analysis comparing ACL-injured players with the rest of the NFL. The main outcomes were the percentage of players remaining in the NFL and mean salary at 1, 2, 3, and 4 years after injury. Cohorts were subdivided based on initial salary: group A, $2,000,000. Mean cumulative earnings were calculated by multiplying the percentage of players remaining in the league by their mean salaries and compounding this each season. Results: NFL athletes suffered 219 ACL injuries from 2010 to 2013. The 7504 other player seasons in the NFL during this time were used as controls. Significantly fewer ACL-injured players than controls remained in the NFL at each time point (P < .05). In group A, significantly less ACL-injured players remained in the NFL at 1 to 3 seasons after injury (P < .05), and in group B, significantly less ACL-injured players remained in the NFL at 1 and 2 seasons after injury (P < .05). There was no significant decrease in group C. Players in groups A and B remaining in the NFL also had a lower mean salary than controls (P < .05 in season 1). The mean cumulative earnings over 4 years for ACL-injured players was $2,070,521 less per player than uninjured controls. Conclusion: On average, ACL-injured players earned $2,070,521 less than salary-matched controls over the 4 years after injury. Players initially earning less than $2 million per year have lower mean salaries and are less likely to remain

  4. Muscle activation imbalance and low-back injury in varsity athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, N Peter; Cholewicki, Jacek; Silfies, Sheri P

    2006-06-01

    There are conflicting findings in the literature regarding erector spinae activation imbalance in people with low-back pain (LBP). Some studies have found asymmetric recruitment between muscle pairs in people with LBP, whilst other studies have not; some reported people with LBP recruit more lumbar muscles whilst other have reported greater thoracic activity. Using 242 varsity athletes, EMG activity of thoracic and lumbar erector spinae pairs was recorded during an isometric trunk extension. Activation imbalance among muscle pairs and levels was compared between athletes with and without a history of low-back injury (HxLBI). There were no group differences in the imbalance between sides, but the HxLBI group had greater activation imbalance between lumbar and thoracic levels than the No HxLBI group. Activation imbalance between levels was similar for individuals with No HxLBI and those who sustained first time injury suggesting that imbalance does not cause LBI. There was no difference between the athletes with single and multiple episode LBI, nor between short and long symptom duration suggesting that the presence of imbalance is not an impairment. Interestingly, activation imbalance occurred in both directions, meaning more thoracic activity for some, and more lumbar activity for others, which might be a functional adaptation related to pathology.

  5. Parallels with the Female Athlete Triad in Male Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenforde, Adam S; Barrack, Michelle T; Nattiv, Aurelia; Fredericson, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Participation in sports offers many health benefits to athletes of both sexes. However, subsets of both female and male athletes are at increased risk of impaired bone health and bone stress injuries. The Female Athlete Triad (Triad) is defined as the interrelationship of low energy availability (with or without disordered eating), menstrual dysfunction, and low bone mineral density. The Triad may result in health consequences, including bone stress injuries. Our review presents evidence that an analogous process may occur in male athletes. Our review of the available literature indicates that a subset of male athletes may experience adverse health issues that parallel those associated with the Triad, including low energy availability (with or without disordered eating), hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, and low bone mineral density. Consequently, male athletes may be predisposed to developing bone stress injuries, and these injuries can be the first presenting feature of associated Triad conditions. We discuss the evidence for impaired nutrition, hormonal dysfunction, and low bone mineral density in a subset of male athletes, and how these health issues may parallel those of the Triad. With further research into the mechanisms and outcomes of these health concerns in active and athletic men, evidence-based guidelines can be developed that result in best practice.

  6. Modern Sexism and Preference for a Coach among Select National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Female Athletes: A Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenawalt, Nancy Jo

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this explanatory mixed methods research study was to examine the relationship of modern sexism to a female athlete's preference for a coach based on the sex of the coach. Female athletes (N = 155) from one National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I institution in the Northeastern United States participated in the…

  7. The Relationship between Concussion Knowledge and the High School Athlete's Intention to Report Traumatic Brain Injury Symptoms: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Mary Ellen; Sanner, Jennifer E.

    2017-01-01

    Sports-related concussion or traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a frequent occurrence among high school athletes. Long-term and short-term effects of TBI on the athlete's developing brain can be minimized if the athlete reports and is effectively treated for TBI symptoms. Knowledge of concussion symptoms and a school culture of support are critical…

  8. The role of flexibility in injury prevention and athletic performance: have we stretched the truth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingraham, Stacy J

    2003-05-01

    The use of stretching to prevent injury, off-set muscle soreness, and improve performance has been widely accepted and promoted in sports. However, little or no scientific evidence supports the practice, and recent research suggests that stretching, which increases flexibility beyond that needed for sport-specific movements, may cause injury. This article presents studies that have looked at the effects of stretching on injury and performance. Many earlier studies that showed benefits of stretching did not look at the effects of stretching alone; they also involved general cardiovascular workouts in the experimental but not control groups. More recent research shows that general fitness, rather than stretching, is a more important risk factor in injury prevention. This article also discusses studies of the relationship between joint laxity and injury and the role that stiffness may play in enhancing performance and preventing injury. Overall, the evidence suggests that increasing range of motion beyond function through stretching is not beneficial and can actually cause injury and decrease performance. These findings should be used to challenge common warm-up practices in athletics.

  9. The National Athletic Treatment, Injury and Outcomes Network (NATION): Methods of the Surveillance Program, 2011–2012 Through 2013–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dompier, Thomas P.; Marshall, Stephen W.; Kerr, Zachary Y.; Hayden, Ross

    2015-01-01

    Context Previous epidemiologic researchers have examined time-loss (TL) injuries in high school student-athletes, but little is known about the frequency of non–time-loss (NTL) injuries in these athletes. Objective To describe the methods of the National Athletic Treatment, Injury and Outcomes Network (NATION) Surveillance Program and provide descriptive epidemiology of TL and NTL injuries across athletes in 27 high school sports. Design Descriptive epidemiology study. Setting Aggregate injury and exposure data collected from 147 high schools in 26 states. Patients or Other Participants High school student-athletes participating in 13 boys' sports and 14 girls' sports during the 2011–2012 through 2013–2014 academic years. Main Outcome Measure(s) Athletic trainers documented injuries and exposures using commercially available injury-tracking software packages. Standard injury-tracking software was modified by the software vendors to conform to the surveillance needs of this project. The modified software exported a set of common data elements, stripped of personally identifiable information, to a centralized automated verification and validation system before they were included in the centralized research database. Dependent measures were injury and exposure frequencies and injury rates with 95% confidence intervals stratified by sport, sex, and injury type (TL or NTL). Results Over the 3-year period, a total of 2337 team seasons across 27 sports resulted in 47 014 injuries and 5 146 355 athlete-exposures. The NTL injuries accounted for 38 765 (82.45%) and TL injuries for 8249 (17.55%) of the total. Conclusions The NTL injuries accounted for a substantial amount of the total number of injuries sustained by high school student-athletes. This project demonstrates the feasibility of creating large-scale injury surveillance systems using commercially available injury-tracking software. PMID:26067620

  10. Athletic injuries of the lateral abdominal wall: review of anatomy and MR imaging appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stensby, J Derek; Baker, Jonathan C; Fox, Michael G

    2016-02-01

    The lateral abdominal wall is comprised of three muscles, each with a different function and orientation. The transversus abdominus, internal oblique, and external oblique muscles span the abdominal cavity between the iliocostalis lumborum and quadratus lumborum posteriorly and the rectus abdominis anteriorly. The lateral abdominal wall is bound superiorly by the lower ribs and costal cartilages and inferiorly by the iliac crest and inguinal ligament. The lateral abdominal wall may be acutely or chronically injured in a variety of athletic endeavors, with occasional acute injuries in the setting of high-energy trauma such as motor vehicle collisions. Injuries to the lateral abdominal wall may result in lumbar hernia formation, unique for its high incarceration rate, and also Spigelian hernias. This article will review the anatomy, the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging approach, and the features and complications of lateral abdominal wall injuries.

  11. Athletic injuries of the lateral abdominal wall: review of anatomy and MR imaging appearance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stensby, J.D. [University of Virginia, Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, 1218 Lee Street, Box 800170, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, 510 S. Kingshighway, Campus Box 8131, St. Louis, MO (United States); Baker, Jonathan C. [Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, 510 S. Kingshighway, Campus Box 8131, St. Louis, MO (United States); Fox, Michael G. [University of Virginia, Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, 1218 Lee Street, Box 800170, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The lateral abdominal wall is comprised of three muscles, each with a different function and orientation. The transversus abdominus, internal oblique, and external oblique muscles span the abdominal cavity between the iliocostalis lumborum and quadratus lumborum posteriorly and the rectus abdominis anteriorly. The lateral abdominal wall is bound superiorly by the lower ribs and costal cartilages and inferiorly by the iliac crest and inguinal ligament. The lateral abdominal wall may be acutely or chronically injured in a variety of athletic endeavors, with occasional acute injuries in the setting of high-energy trauma such as motor vehicle collisions. Injuries to the lateral abdominal wall may result in lumbar hernia formation, unique for its high incarceration rate, and also Spigelian hernias. This article will review the anatomy, the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging approach, and the features and complications of lateral abdominal wall injuries. (orig.)

  12. Biomechanical and neuromuscular characteristics of male athletes: implications for the development of anterior cruciate ligament injury prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Dai; Alentorn-Geli, Eduard; Mendiguchía, Jurdan; Samuelsson, Kristian; Karlsson, Jon; Myer, Gregory D

    2015-06-01

    Prevention of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is likely the most effective strategy to reduce undesired health consequences including reconstruction surgery, long-term rehabilitation, and pre-mature osteoarthritis occurrence. A thorough understanding of mechanisms and risk factors of ACL injury is crucial to develop effective prevention programs, especially for biomechanical and neuromuscular modifiable risk factors. Historically, the available evidence regarding ACL risk factors has mainly involved female athletes or has compared male and female athletes without an intra-group comparison for male athletes. Therefore, the principal purpose of this article was to review existing evidence regarding the investigation of biomechanical and neuromuscular characteristics that may imply aberrant knee kinematics and kinetics that would place the male athlete at risk of ACL injury. Biomechanical evidence related to knee kinematics and kinetics was reviewed by different planes (sagittal and frontal/coronal), tasks (single-leg landing and cutting), situation (anticipated and unanticipated), foot positioning, playing surface, and fatigued status. Neuromuscular evidence potentially related to ACL injury was reviewed. Recommendations for prevention programs for ACL injuries in male athletes were developed based on the synthesis of the biomechanical and neuromuscular characteristics. The recommendations suggest performing exercises with multi-plane biomechanical components including single-leg maneuvers in dynamic movements, reaction to and decision making in unexpected situations, appropriate foot positioning, and consideration of playing surface condition, as well as enhancing neuromuscular aspects such as fatigue, proprioception, muscle activation, and inter-joint coordination.

  13. Safe Care to Knee Injuries in Athletes Atención segura a lesiones de rodilla en atletas

    OpenAIRE

    Gerardo Águila Tejeda; Rolando Delgado Figueredo; Amado Bermúdez Suárez; Pedro Suárez Collado; Mabel Rosell Silva

    2013-01-01

    Background: the guarantee of sporting success lies in the appropriate functioning of the musculoskeletal system, given that its vulnerability hinders the performance of each athlete. Being timely is critical to provide safe care to the affections of knee; late diagnosis in this system may lead to the development of complications and hinder sport practice. Objective: to characterize knee injuries in athletes of the sport system in the province of Cienfuegos. Methods: an observational, quantita...

  14. Lesão muscular nos atletas Muscle injuries in athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Campos Barroso

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem por objetivo demonstrar a fisiologia, o diagnóstico e o tratamento das lesões musculares com foque nos atletas, suas demandas e expectativas. As lesões musculares estão entre as queixas mais comuns no atendimento ortopédico, ocorrendo tanto em atletas como em não atletas. Estas lesões caracterizam um desafio para os especialistas, haja vista a lenta recuperação que afasta o atleta dos treinamentos e competições, as frequentes sequelas e a recorrência das lesões. A maior parte das lesões musculares ocorre durante atividade desportiva, correspondendo de 10 a 55% de todas as lesões. Os músculos mais comumente afetados são os isquiotibiais, quadríceps e gastrocnêmios. Músculos estes biarticulares que estão mais sujeitos a forças de aceleração e desaceleração. O tratamento da lesão muscular varia desde o tratamento conservador até o tratamento cirúrgico. Novos procedimentos estão sendo utilizados, como a câmara hiperbárica e o uso de fatores de crescimento. No entanto, ainda é grande o número de recidivas de lesões. A lesão muscular continua sendo um tema com várias controvérsias. Novos tratamentos estão sendo pesquisados e desenvolvidos. A prevenção com fortalecimento muscular, o alongamento e o equilíbrio muscular continuam sendo o melhor "tratamento".This article had the aim of demonstrating the physiology, diagnosis and treatment of muscle injuries, focusing on athletes and their demands and expectations. Muscle injuries are among the most common complaints in orthopedic practice, occurring both among athletes and among non-athletes. These injuries present a challenge for specialists, due to the slow recovery, during which time athletes are unable to take part in training and competitions, and due to frequent sequelae and recurrences of the injuries. Most muscle injuries (between 10% and 55% of all injuries occur during sports activities. The muscles most commonly affected are the

  15. Treatments of Sports Injuries in the Young Athlete

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... frequently days or longer. There is often associated weakness of the muscles in the shoulder and arm that are supplied by the injured ... in the arm, regain the strength of weakened shoulder and arm muscles, and prevent further ... for acute pain usually includes activity restriction, ...

  16. The female athlete triad and endothelial dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanser, Erica M; Zach, Karie N; Hoch, Anne Z

    2011-05-01

    A tremendous increase in the number of female athletes of all ages and abilities has occurred in the past 35 years. In general, sports and athletic competition produce healthier and happier women. However, explosion in participation has revealed clear gender-specific injuries and medical conditions unique to the female athlete. This article focuses on the latest advances in our knowledge of the female athlete triad and the relationship between athletic-associated amenorrhea and endothelial dysfunction. Treatment of vascular dysfunction with folic acid is also discussed.

  17. Evaluation of static and dynamic balance in athletes with anterior cruciate ligament injury – A controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Lazzaretti Fernandes

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Anterior cruciate ligament injury leads to adaptive responses to maintain postural control. However, there is no consensus regarding whether leg dominance also affects postural control in athletes with anterior cruciate ligament injury. The purpose of this study was to evaluate dynamic and static postural control among athletes with and without anterior cruciate ligament injury to the dominant leg. METHODS: Twenty-eight athletes, twenty-one males and seven females aged 15-45 years, were allocated to one of two groups: the anterior cruciate ligament injury group (26±3 years or the control group without anterior cruciate ligament injury (25±6.5 years. All subjects performed one legged stance tests under eyes open and eyes closed conditions and squat and kick movement tests using a postural control protocol (AccuSwayPlus force platform, Massachusetts. The center of pressure displacement and speed were measured by the force platform. In addition, the distance traveled on the single-leg hop test was assessed as an objective measure of function. RESULTS: Significantly greater mediolateral sway was found under the eyes closed condition (p=0.04 and during squat movement (p=0.01 in the anterior cruciate ligament injury group than in the control group. Analysis of the single-leg hop test results showed no difference between the groups (p=0.73. CONCLUSION: Athletes with anterior cruciate ligament injury had greater mediolateral displacement of the center of pressure toward the dominant leg under the eyes closed condition and during squat movement compared to control athletes.

  18. Effects of evidence-based prevention training on neuromuscular and biomechanical risk factors for ACL injury in adolescent female athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zebis, Mette K; Andersen, Lars L; Brandt, Mikkel;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adolescent female football and handball players are among the athletes with the highest risk of sustaining anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries. AIM: This study evaluated the effects of evidence-based lower extremity injury prevention training on neuromuscular and biomechanical...... risk factors for non-contact ACL injury. METHODS: 40 adolescent female football and handball players (15-16 years) were randomly allocated to a control group (CON, n=20) or neuromuscular training group (NMT, n=20). The NMT group performed an injury prevention programme as a warm-up before their usual...

  19. Differences in Left Ventricular Global Function and Mechanics in Paralympic Athletes with Cervical and Thoracic Spinal Cord Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Katharine D.; West, Christopher R.; Krassioukov, Andrei V.

    2016-01-01

    Following a spinal cord injury, there are changes in resting stroke volume (SV) and its response to exercise. The purpose of the following study was to characterize resting left ventricular structure, function, and mechanics in Paralympic athletes with tetraplegia (TETRA) and paraplegia (PARA) in an attempt to understand whether the alterations in SV are attributable to inherent dysfunction in the left ventricle. This retrospective study compared Paralympic athletes with a traumatic, chronic (>1 year post-injury), motor-complete spinal cord injury (American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale A-B). Eight male TETRA wheelchair rugby players (34 ± 5 years, C5-C7) and eight male PARA alpine skiers (35 ± 5 years, T4-L3) were included in the study. Echocardiography was performed in the left lateral decubitus position and indices of left ventricular structure, global diastolic and systolic function, and mechanics were derived from the average across three cardiac cycles. Blood pressure was measured in the supine and seated positions. All results are presented as TETRA vs. PARA. There was no difference in left ventricular dimensions between TETRA and PARA. Additionally, indices of global diastolic function were similar between groups including isovolumetric relaxation time, early (E) and late (A) transmitral filling velocities and their ratio (E/A). While ejection fraction was similar between TETRA and PARA (59 ± 4 % vs. 61 ± 7 %, p = 0.394), there was evidence of reduced global systolic function in TETRA including lower SV (62 ± 9 ml vs. 71 ± 6 ml, p = 0.016) and cardiac output (3.5 ± 0.6 L/min vs. 5.0 ± 0.9 L/min, p = 0.002). Despite this observation, several indices of systolic and diastolic mechanics were maintained in TETRA but attenuted in PARA including circumferential strain at the level of the papillary muscle (−23 ± 4% vs. −15 ± 6%, p = 0.010) and apex (−36 ± 10% vs. −23 ± 5%, p = 0.010) and their corresponding diastolic strain rates

  20. Imaging "brain strain" in youth athletes with mild traumatic brain injury during dual-task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinopoli, Katia J; Chen, Jen-Kai; Wells, Greg; Fait, Philippe; Ptito, Alain; Taha, Tim; Keightley, Michelle

    2014-11-15

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is a common cause of injury in youth athletes. Much of what is known about the sequelae of mTBI is yielded from the adult literature, and it appears that it is mainly those with persistent post-injury symptoms who have ongoing cognitive and neural abnormalities. However, most studies have employed single-task paradigms, which may not be challenging enough to uncover subtle deficits. We sought to examine the neural correlates of dual-task performance in male athletes aged 9-15 years using a functional neuroimaging protocol. Participants included 13 youths with a history of mTBI three to six months prior to testing and 14 typically-developing controls. All participants completed a working memory task in isolation (single-task) and while completing a concurrent motor task (dual-task); neural activity during performance was then compared between groups. Although working memory performance was similar during the single-task condition, increased working memory load resulted in an altered pattern of neural activation in key working memory areas (i.e., dorsolateral prefrontal and parietal cortices) in youth with mTBI relative to controls. During the dual-task condition, accuracy was similar between groups but injured youth performed slower than typically-developing controls, suggesting a speed-accuracy tradeoff in the mTBI group only. The injured youths also exhibited abnormal recruitment of brain structures involved in both working memory and dual-tasking. These data show that the dual-task paradigm can uncover functional impairments in youth with mTBI who are not highly symptomatic and who do not exhibit neuropsychological dysfunction. Moreover, neural recruitment abnormalities were noted in both task conditions, which we argue suggests mTBI-related disruptions in achieving efficient cognitive control and allocation of processing resources.

  1. Most Essential Wheeled Mobility Skills for Daily Life : An International Survey Among Paralympic Wheelchair Athletes With Spinal Cord Injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fliess-Douer, Osnat; Vanlandewijck, Yves C.; Van der Woude, Lucas H. V.

    2012-01-01

    Fliess-Douer O, Vanlandewijck YC, Van Der Woude LHV. Most essential wheeled mobility skills for daily life: an international survey among paralympic wheelchair athletes with spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2012;93:629-35. Objectives: To create a hierarchical list of the most essential whee

  2. Canadian Athletic Therapists' Association Education Task Force Consensus Statements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafave, Mark R.; Bergeron, Glen; Klassen, Connie; Parr, Kelly; Valdez, Dennis; Elliott, Jacqueline; Peeler, Jason; Orecchio, Elsa; McKenzie, Kirsty; Streed, Kristin; DeMont, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Context: A published commentary from 2 of the current authors acted as a catalyst for raising some key issues that have arisen in athletic therapy education in Canada over the years. Objective: The purpose of this article is to report on the process followed to establish a number of consensus statements related to postsecondary athletic therapy…

  3. Factors associated with deep tissue injury in male wheelchair basketball players of a Japanese national team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirotaka Mutsuzaki

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance of the sporting activity of elite athletes in adapted sports can be difficult if a secondary disorder, such as a pressure ulcer, occurs. Pressure ulcers result from deep tissue injuries by external pressure. The purpose of this study was to use ultrasonography to investigate deep tissue injuries in male wheelchair basketball players of a Japanese national team, and to determine factors associated with the injuries (e.g., body mass index, class of wheelchair basketball, underlying disease, length of athletic career, and whether use of wheelchair is primarily for playing basketball. Twenty male Japanese wheelchair basketball players on the national team for the 2012 London Paralympic Games (12 representative players and eight candidate representative players participated in this study. The sacral region and bilateral ischial regions in each athlete were examined by ultrasonography to detect low-echoic lesions indicative of deep tissue injuries. Nine (45% players had low-echoic lesions, which were detected in 10 of 60 areas. Eight lesions were detected in the sacral region and two lesions were detected in the ischial region. More players with spinal cord injury had low-echoic lesions [9 (69.2% of 13 players], compared to players with skeletal system disease [0 (0% of 7 players, p = 0.002]. Players who used a wheelchair in daily life were more likely to have low-echoic lesions [8 (66.74% of 12 players], compared to players who primarily used a wheelchair for playing basketball [1 (12.5% of 8 players, p = 0.010]. Deep tissue injuries were detected in 45% of male Japanese wheelchair basketball players on the national team. Players with spinal cord injury and players who used a wheelchair in daily life were more likely to have deep tissue injuries, particularly in the sacral region. The lesions were small, but a periodic medical check should be performed to maintain athletes' sporting life.

  4. "Boosting" in Paralympic athletes with spinal cord injury: doping without drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzeo, Filomena; Santamaria, Stefania; Iavarone, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    The intentional activation of autonomic dysreflexia (AD, also called "boosting"), a practice sometimes used by athletes affected by spinal cord injury (SCI), is banned by the International Paralympic Committee (IPC). Although various studies have addressed doping and AD as separate issues, studies evaluating AD as a doping method are lacking. The aim of this brief review is to contribute to better understanding of the relationship between doping and AD. We conducted a literature search of the PubMed database (from 1994 onwards). The key search terms "autonomic dysreflexia" and "boosting" were crossreferenced with "sport performance". The official Paralympic website was also viewed. AD is a potent sympathetic reflex, due to a massive release of noradrenaline, that results in marked vasoconstriction distal to the level of the lesion. Athletes with SCI often self-inflict physical suffering in order to induce this phenomenon, which carries high health risks (i.e., hypertension, cerebral hemorrhage, stroke and sudden death). Boosting is a practice that can be compared to doping methods and the IPC expressly prohibits it. Any deliberate attempt to induce AD, if detected, will lead to disqualification from the sporting event and subsequent investigation by the IPC Legal and Ethics Committee.

  5. Injury Patterns in Youth Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Barry

    1989-01-01

    Presents statistics on injury patterns in youth sports, recommending that physicians who care for young athletes understand the kinds of injuries likely to be sustained. Awareness of injury patterns helps medical professionals identify variables associated with injury, anticipate or prevent injuries, plan medical coverage, and compare individual…

  6. A "Saga of Power, Money, and Sex" in Women's Athletics: A Presidents' History of the Association for Intercollegiate Athletics for Women (AIAW)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Amy Sue

    2013-01-01

    In 1971, female professional physical educators in higher education formed the Association for Intercollegiate Athletics for Women (AIAW) to govern women's college athletics. The AIAW presidents gathered at the University of Iowa in July 1980 for a five-day conference: "AIAW... A Decade of Progress: Presidential Review" to create a…

  7. Sport-specific biomechanics of spinal injuries in the athlete (throwing athletes, rotational sports, and contact-collision sports).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donatelli, Robert; Dimond, Donn; Holland, Matt

    2012-07-01

    Athletes consistently recruit or transfer high levels of repetitive force through the spine. Proper force transmission from the legs to the hips and pelvis and through the trunk is vital. Hip and pelvis joint restrictions and muscle strength deficits coupled with poor endurance of the trunk muscle will lead to spinal instability, which is habitually described in symptomatic athletes. A rehabilitation program that targets the unstable base first, and then progresses to strengthening of the pelvis and hips and targets control of movement in a sport-specific approach, should result in pain reduction, skill enhancement, and a safe return to play.

  8. A one year prospective study on ankle stability and landing technique : The occurrence of ankle and knee injuries in elite ball team athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Does, Henrike van der; Brink, M.S.; Lemmink, K.A.P.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: In team sports lower extremity injuries account for more than 50% of all injuries, indicating the importance of early detection of athletes at risk. Objective: To investigate the predictive value of ankle stability and landing technique at baseline for ankle and knee injury occurrence du

  9. Campus Recreation Program Involvement, Athletic Identity, Transitional Loss and Life Satisfaction in Former High School Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helms, Katie E.

    2010-01-01

    Sports participation can result in strong associations with the athlete role for participants. While strong athletic identity can have positive implications, it can also create vulnerability to emotional difficulty following exit from sport (Brewer, 1993). Exit from sport is inevitable, resulting from a wide range of sources such as injury, aging,…

  10. Injury caused by airbag VS. injuries associated with airbag deploys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. Popa

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of airbags systems in motor vehicles designed to transport of persons led in time to a significant decrease of the rate of death among passengers involved in car accidents. However airbag systems are not harmless, it produces lesions that vary in intensity depending on many factors. But decidedly, we can meet injuries associated with the triggering of the airbag system. Therefore, it must be made a clear difference between the two types of injuries, this being particularly important in terms of medico-legal especially regarding the mechanism of injury.

  11. Between-Seasons Test-Retest Reliability of Clinically Measured Reaction Time in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckner, James T.; Kutcher, Jeffrey S.; Richardson, James K.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Reaction time is typically impaired after concussion. A clinical test of reaction time (RTclin) that does not require a computer to administer may be a valuable tool to assist in concussion diagnosis and management. Objective: To determine the test-retest reliability of RTclin measured over successive seasons in competitive collegiate athletes and to compare these results with a computerized measure of reaction time (RTcomp). Design: Case series with repeated measures. Setting: Preparticipation physical examinations for the football, women's soccer, and wrestling teams at a single university. Patients or Other Participants: 102 National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I athletes. Interventions : The RTclin was measured using a measuring stick embedded in a weighted rubber disk that was released and caught as quickly as possible. The RTcomp was measured using the simple reaction time component of CogState Sport. Main Outcome Measure(s): Data were collected at 2 time points, 1 season apart, during preparticipation physical examinations. Outcomes were mean simple RTclin and RTcomp. Results: The intraclass correlation coefficient estimates from season 1 to season 2 were 0.645 for RTclin (n = 102, entire sample) and 0.512 for RTcomp (n = 62 athletes who had 2 consecutive valid baseline CogState Sport test sessions). Conclusions: The test-retest reliability of RTclin over consecutive seasons compared favorably with that of a concurrently tested computerized measure of reaction time and with literature-based estimates of computerized reaction time measures. This finding supports the potential use of RTclin as part of a multifaceted concussion assessment battery. Further prospective study is warranted. PMID:21944073

  12. Promoting Athletic Training through a General Education Course in Psychosocial Aspects of Sports Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner-Shires, Alison Marie; Heinerichs, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Context: A general education course taught by athletic training education faculty has the potential to expose the entire student body to the athletic training profession in a unique way while also meeting requirements of the Commission on Accreditation of Athletic Training Education. Objective: To introduce a detailed case study of a general…

  13. Assessment of psychological pain management techniques: a comparative study between athletes and non-athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azevedo Daniel Câmara

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Athletes usually deal with injuries and pain. They seem to have similar pain threshold when compared to non-athletes, although they have higher pain tolerance and the exact cause for that is unknown. High levels for pain tolerance and control can improve performance and time for injury recovery. The literature shows that use of coping strategies can increase pain control; possible differences on coping with pain between athletes and non-athletes are poorly described. The purpose of this study was to evaluate frequency of coping strategies used by athletes and non-athletes of both genders and look for possible association between preferred coping style and pain intensity. The sample included 160 subjects with actual pain experience, 80 athletes (52 male, 28 female and 80 non-athletes (50 male and 30 female. All subjects were evaluated for pain intensity, frequency and duration and for coping strategies using a questionnaire (SBS-V. The results show that athletes and non-athletes, despite of gender, use with the same frequency coping strategies. The less common coping strategies for all groups were those poor-adaptative (p < 0.001; the most commonly strategy used was self-statement and regulation of body tension (p < 0.001. Female athletes use more frequently poor-adaptative strategies when pain intensity increases (p < 0.05.

  14. Verbal Instructions Acutely Affect Drop Vertical Jump Biomechanics--Implications for Athletic Performance and Injury Risk Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuu, Steven; Musalem, Lindsay L; Beach, Tyson A C

    2015-10-01

    Biomechanical quantities acquired during the drop vertical jump (DVJ) are used in the assessment of athletic performance and injury risk. The objective was to examine the impact of different verbal instructions on spatiotemporal, kinematic, and kinetic variables commonly included in such assessments. Ten men and 10 women from local varsity and club volleyball, basketball, figure skating, and track and field teams volunteered to participate. The athletes performed DVJs after given instructions to minimize ground contact time (CT), maximize jump height (HT), and synchronously extend the lower extremity joints (EX). Between the CT, HT, and EX conditions, body segment and joint angles were compared together with characteristics of vertical ground reaction force (GRF), whole-body power output, stiffness, and center-of-mass displacement time histories. Verbal instructions were found to influence nearly all of the spatiotemporal, body segment and joint kinematic, and kinetic variables that were statistically analyzed. Particularly noteworthy was the finding that athletic performance indices (e.g., jump height, power output, vertical stiffness, and reactive strength index) and lower extremity injury risk markers (e.g., peak vertical GRF and frontal plane knee angle) were significantly different (p ≤ 0.05) between the CT, HT, and EX conditions. The findings of this study suggest that verbal instructions should be controlled and/or clearly documented when using the DVJ to assess athletic performance potential and injury risk. Moreover, practitioners who devise performance enhancement and injury prevention strategies based on DVJ assessments are advised to consider that "coaching" or "cueing" during the task execution could impact conclusions drawn.

  15. Hospital costs associated with pediatric burn injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Matthew B; Hollingworth, William; Rivara, Frederick P; Kramer, C Bradley; Askay, Shelley W; Heimbach, David M; Gibran, Nicole S

    2008-01-01

    Modern burn care is a resource intensive endeavor requiring specialized equipment, personnel, and facilities in order to provide optimum care. The costs associated with burn injury to both patients and society as a whole can be multifaceted and large. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between hospital costs, patient characteristics, and injury factors in a cohort of pediatric patients admitted to a regional burn center. We performed a review of the hospital charges accrued by pediatric patients (age dollar costs using an inflation index and a cost to charge ratio. Univariate and multivariate regressions were performed to identify the factors most significantly associated with cost. In addition, we performed a subset cost analysis for patients with burns more than 20% TBSA. A total of 1443 pediatric patients (age dollars was dollars 9026 (SD = dollars 25,483; median = dollars 2138). Area of full thickness burn was the only patient or injury factor significantly associated with greater hospital costs (P < .05) on multivariate analysis. No single anatomic area was associated with increased hospital costs when adjusted for total overall burn size. Injury severity was the most significant factor impacting index hospitalization costs following pediatric burn injury. Further studies defining the long-term societal costs impact of burn injury are needed as are studies that evaluate the impact of burn injury on quality of life.

  16. Neuromuscular hip biomechanics and pathology in the athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torry, Michael R; Schenker, Mara L; Martin, Hal D; Hogoboom, Doug; Philippon, Marc J

    2006-04-01

    Although hip arthroscopic techniques have been developed and evolved over the last 5 to 10 years to help active athletes, the mechanisms of athletic hip injuries across various sports are not well understood. The purpose of this article is to review the literature related to the osseous and ligamentous support as well as the neuromuscular control strategies associated with hip joint mechanics. The neuromuscular contributions to hip stability and mobility with respect to gait will be provided because this data represents the largest body of knowledge regarding hip function. Further, this article will present and describe probable mechanisms of injury in sporting activities most often associated with hip injury in the young athlete.

  17. Perceptions of Body Weight and Nutritional Practices among Male and Female National Collegiate Athletic Association Division II Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Valerie J.; Goldufsky, Tatum M.; Schlaff, Rebecca A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated body weight and nutritional behavior perceptions among Division II collegiate athletes. Participants: The sample was composed of 155 collegiate athletes who responded to a survey. Methods: Data were self-reported by athletes via questionnaire. Independent-sample t tests were used to identify significant gender…

  18. Neuromuscular factors associated with decline in long-distance running performance in master athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisswalter, Jeanick; Nosaka, Kazunori

    2013-01-01

    This review focuses on neuromuscular factors that may affect endurance performance in master athletes. During the last decade, due to the rapid increase in the number of master or veteran participants in endurance sporting competitions, many studies attempted to identify metabolic factors associated with the decrease in endurance, especially long-distance running performance with ageing, focusing on decreases in maximal oxygen consumption. However, neuromuscular factors have been less studied despite the well-known phenomena of strength loss with ageing. For master athletes to perform better in long-distance running events, it is important to reduce muscle fatigue and/or muscle damage, to improve locomotion efficiency and to facilitate recovery. To date, no consensus exists that regular endurance training is beneficial for improving locomotion efficiency, reducing muscle fatigue and muscle damage, and enhancing recovery capacity in master athletes. Some recent studies seem to indicate that master athletes have similar muscle damage to young athletes, but they require a longer recovery time after a long-distance running event. Further analyses of these parameters in master athletes require more experimental and practical interest from researchers and coaches. In particular, more attention should be directed towards the capacity to maintain muscle function with training and the role of neuromuscular factors in long-distance performance decline with ageing using a more cellular and molecular approach.

  19. Emotional intelligence and emotions associated with optimal and dysfunctional athletic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Andrew M; Devonport, Tracey J; Soos, Istvan; Karsai, Istvan; Leibinger, Eva; Hamar, Pal

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated relationships between self-report measures of emotional intelligence and memories of pre-competitive emotions before optimal and dysfunctional athletic performance. Participant-athletes (n = 284) completed a self-report measure of emotional intelligence and two measures of pre-competitive emotions; a) emotions experienced before an optimal performance, and b) emotions experienced before a dysfunctional performance. Consistent with theoretical predictions, repeated MANOVA results demonstrated pleasant emotions associated with optimal performance and unpleasant emotions associated with dysfunctional performance. Emotional intelligence correlated with pleasant emotions in both performances with individuals reporting low scores on the self-report emotional intelligence scale appearing to experience intense unpleasant emotions before dysfunctional performance. We suggest that future research should investigate relationships between emotional intelligence and emotion-regulation strategies used by athletes. Key pointsAthletes reporting high scores of self-report emotional intelligence tend to experience pleasant emotions.Optimal performance is associated with pleasant emotions and dysfunctional performance is associated with unpleasant emotions.Emotional intelligence might help athletes recognize which emotional states help performance.

  20. Relationship jump-landing technique and neuropsychological characteristics, implications for acl injury prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benjaminse, A.; Meijer, M.; Cortes, N.; Gokeler, A.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neuropsychological capabilities in athletes may be associated with a predisposition to anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries. OBJECTIVE: Assess differences between male and female athletes in jump-landing technique in relation to their neuropsychological capabilities. DESIGN: Experim

  1. Osteoid Osteoma of the Femoral Neck in Athletes: Two Case Reports Differentiating From Femoral Neck Stress Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordova, Christopher B; Dembowski, Scott C; Johnson, Michael R; Combs, John J; Svoboda, Steven J

    2016-01-01

    The diagnosis of an intra-articular osteoid osteoma can be a challenging and lengthy process, with reports of delayed diagnosis of greater than 2 years. In the young, athletic patient with an atraumatic onset of groin pain, an overuse injury or muscle strain is the most likely etiology. However, an overuse injury of femoral neck stress fracture must be identified because of the potentially disastrous outcome of fracture completion. The similar clinical presentation of a femoral neck stress fracture and intra-articular osteoid osteoma of the femoral neck can further delay the diagnosis of the osteoid osteoma. In a patient with these differential diagnoses that do not improve with a period of nonweightbearing activity, a more intensive workup must ensue. The purpose of this case report is to describe the initial presentations, subsequent follow-up, and imaging findings leading to the diagnosis of osteoid osteoma as well as to differentiate an osteoid osteoma from femoral neck stress injuries.

  2. Evaluation of factors associated with severe and frequent back pain in high school athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Matias; Silveira, Erika Aparecida; de Avelar, Ivan Silveira

    2017-01-01

    Several studies have shown that half of all young athletes experience back pain (BP). However, high intensity and frequency of BP may be harmful, and the factors associated with BP severity have not been investigated in detail. Here, we investigated the factors associated with a high intensity and high frequency of BP in high school athletes. We included 251 athletes (173 boys and 78 girls [14–20 years old]) in this cross-sectional study. The dependent variables were a high frequency and high intensity of BP, and the independent variables were demographic, socioeconomic, psychosocial, hereditary, anthropometric, behavioural, and postural factors and the level of exercise. The effect measure is presented as prevalence ratio (PR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). Of 251 athletes, 104 reported BP; thus, only these athletes were included in the present analysis. Results of multivariable analysis showed an association between high BP intensity and time spent using a computer (PR: 1.15, CI: 1.01–1.33), posture while writing (PR: 1.41, CI: 1.27–1.58), and posture while using a computer (PR: 1.39, CI: 1.26–1.54). Multivariable analysis also revealed an association of high BP frequency with studying in bed (PR: 1.19, CI: 1.01–1.40) and the method of carrying a backpack (PR: 1.19, CI: 1.01–1.40). In conclusion, we found that behavioural and postural factors are associated with a high intensity and frequency of BP. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to compare different intensities and frequencies of BP, and our results may help physicians and coaches to better understand BP in high school athletes. PMID:28222141

  3. NO ASSOCIATION BETWEEN tHbmass AND POLYMORPHISMS IN THE HBB GENE IN ENDURANCE ATHLETES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malczewska-Lenczowska, J; Orysiak, J; Majorczyk, E; Pokrywka, A; Kaczmarski, J; Szygula, Z; Sitkowski, D

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between tHbmass and HBB gene polymorphisms in athletes of endurance disciplines. Eighty-two well-trained athletes (female n=36, male n=46), aged 19.3 ± 2.7 years, representing cross country skiing (n=37) and middle- and long-distance running (n=45), participated in the study. Genotyping for 2 polymorphisms in the HBB gene (- 551C/T and intron 2, +16 C/G) was performed using restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Total haemoglobin mass (tHbmass) was determined by the optimized carbon monoxide rebreathing method. Blood morphology, indices of iron status (ferritin, transferrin receptor and total iron binding capacity) and C reactive protein were also determined. No differences were found in the HBB genotype and allele frequencies between male and female athletes. Regardless of the polymorphisms, no relationships were found between HBB genotypes as well as alleles and relative values of tHbmass, expressed per body mass (g · kg(-1) BM), both in female and male athletes. Our results demonstrated that -551 C/T and intron 2, +16 C/G polymorphisms of the HBB gene have no association with total haemoglobin mass in endurance athletes. It cannot be ruled out that several polymorphisms, each with a small but significant contribution, may be responsible for the amount of haemoglobin.

  4. "Law v. National Collegiate Athletic Association": A Guide To How Courts Will Treat Future Antitrust Challenges to NCAA Regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leduc, Marc R.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the application of antitrust law to National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) rules and regulations through an analysis of the Tenth Circuit's decision in "Law v. National Collegiate Athletic Association." Suggests that the "Law" decision provides a useful framework for the analysis of future antitrust challenges to NCAA rules and…

  5. Return to Play After Forearm and Hand Injuries in the National Basketball Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Kyle W.; Hearns, Krystle A.; Carlson, Michelle Gerwin

    2017-01-01

    Background: Hand injuries can result in significant time away from competition for professional basketball players. Time to return to play after hand injuries in elite athletes has not been well described. Purpose: To report the return to play from metacarpal fractures, phalangeal fractures, and thumb ligament tears in National Basketball Association (NBA) players over a 5-year period. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Methods: The NBA transaction report was analyzed from January 2009 to May 2014. Players were identified if they were added to the inactive list (IL), missed games due to their injury, or underwent surgery as a result of hand injury. Number of games missed due to injury, days spent on the IL, and age at injury were calculated by injury type and location. Results: One hundred thirty-seven injuries were identified: 39 injuries to the hand and 98 injuries to the finger. Three major injury patterns were identified and analyzed: metacarpal fractures (n = 26), phalangeal fractures (n = 33), and thumb ligament tears (n = 9). The type of injury sustained affected return to play (P < .05). All thumb ligament tears required surgery and had the longest return to play of 67.5 ± 17.7 days (P < .05). The return to play for surgically treated metacarpal fractures (56.7 ± 26.3 days) was significantly greater than nonsurgically treated metacarpal fractures (26.3 ± 12.1 days; P < .01). Return to play for surgically repaired phalangeal fractures (46.2 ± 10.8 days) trended greater but was not significantly different than phalangeal fractures treated nonsurgically (33.3 ± 28.5 days; P = .21). Conclusion: Hand injuries in professional basketball players can lead to prolonged periods of time away from competition, especially after surgery. This study provides guidelines on expected return to play in the NBA after these common hand injuries. PMID:28251168

  6. Pattern and management of sports injuries presented by Lagos state athletes at the 16th National Sports Festival (KADA games 2009 in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owoeye Oluwatoyosi BA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a dearth of information on the epidemiology of sports injuries in Nigeria. The study was aimed at documenting sports injuries sustained by Lagos state athletes during the 16th National Sports Festival (KADA Games 2009. It was also aimed at providing information on treatments offered to injured athletes. Methods The study was carried out at Amadu Bello Stadium Complex, sporting arena of the Murtala Square and the team Lagos mini clinic. Participants were accredited Lagos state athletes who at one point in time during the games required treatment from any of the members of the medical team. Demographic data of athletes, type of injuries, body parts injured and treatment modalities used were documented and analysed using descriptive statistics. Results Within the period of the games, a total of 140 sports injuries were documented from 132 athletes with an approximate male to female ratio of 2:1 and age ranging from 15-38 years. Most of the injuries reported by the athletes were "minor" injuries. Muscle strain was the most common type of injury (31.4% followed by ligament sprains (22.9%. The lower extremities were the most injured body region accounting for 50% of all injuries. Over 60% of injuries presented by the athletes were from basketball, cricket, hockey, rugby and baseball. Cryotherapy was the most frequently used treatment modality, followed by bandaging and massage with anti-inflammatory gels. Conclusion Establishing injury prevention programmes directed at the lower extremities may help reduce the risk of injuries to the lower extremities. Since cryotherapy was the most used treatment modality, it is suggested that it should be made abundantly available to the medical team preferably in forms of portable cold sprays for easy transportation and application during the games. It is also important that physiotherapists form the core of the medical team since they are trained to apply most of these treatment

  7. Open Calcaneus Fractures and Associated Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsham, Jacob R; Elliott, Mark R; Harris, Anthony M

    2016-01-01

    Open calcaneus fractures are usually the result of high-energy mechanisms and are associated with other orthopedic and whole body system injures. Understanding the difference between open versus closed fractures is essential for the provider, and they must be vigilant for the associated injuries that present with this condition. We performed a retrospective medical record review of 62 patients (64 calcaneus fractures) with open calcaneus fractures from January 2003 to January 2013 presenting at a level 1 trauma center. Sex, age, laterality, mechanism of injury, wound appearance, initial management, and associated injures were recorded. The most common mechanisms were motor vehicle accidents (35 [56.4%]) and falls from >6 ft (15 [24.1%]). Four (6.4%) patients had a posterior tibial artery transection. Eight (12.9%) patients had a femoral shaft fracture, 14 (22.5%) an ipsilateral ankle fracture, 16 (25.8%) a metatarsal fracture, and 11 (17.7%) had associated midfoot fractures. Of the midfoot fractures, 12 (19.3%) patients had a talus fracture and 5 (8.0%) a cuboid fracture. Spinal fractures were present in 9 (14.5%) of the patients, with lumbar fractures occurring in 6 (9.6%) patients. Fifteen (24.1%) patients had associated upper extremity fractures. Thirteen (20.9%) patients had an associated pulmonary injury, including 8 pneumothoraces. Ten (16.1%) patients had a closed head injury and 6 (9.6%) had an abdominal injury. Fifteen (23.4%) patients were treated with percutaneous wire fixation and 7 (10.9%) with open reduction internal fixation. A total of 44 (68.7%) fractures were treated without internal fixation. Overall, 5 (8.0%) patients with an open calcaneus fracture eventually underwent a below-the-knee amputation. Open calcaneus fractures are severe, high-energy injuries with the potential for considerable morbidity to the patient, given the high rate of concomitant orthopedic and whole body system injuries. Type III open injuries have an increased risk of

  8. Safe Care to Knee Injuries in Athletes Atención segura a lesiones de rodilla en atletas

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    Gerardo Águila Tejeda

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: the guarantee of sporting success lies in the appropriate functioning of the musculoskeletal system, given that its vulnerability hinders the performance of each athlete. Being timely is critical to provide safe care to the affections of knee; late diagnosis in this system may lead to the development of complications and hinder sport practice. Objective: to characterize knee injuries in athletes of the sport system in the province of Cienfuegos. Methods: an observational, quantitative and qualitative, longitudinal and retrospective study was conducted. It included 104 athletes who attended the Traumatology Consultation from 2009 to 2011, presenting different types of knee injuries in various stages of training. Variables such as age, sex, sport, site of injury, stage of training, kilocalories consumed, type of training, quality of equipment and diagnosis were analyzed. The procedure used consists of a comprehensive review of case notes and medical records of all patients that attended consultation during the period analyzed, from which the necessary data was collected. Interviews with coaches and technical staff were carried out as well. Results: knee injuries occur in all ages of athletes, with a slight predominance of males. Highest frequencies are those of the ligament and meniscus, with the highest incidence in athletics, volleyball and judo. Conservative treatment predominated. Conclusions: knee injuries require a timely treatment in order to achieve athlete's success and safety.Fundamento: la garantía del éxito deportivo descansa en el buen funcionamiento del sistema músculo-esquelético, debido a que su vulnerabilidad entorpece el rendimiento de cada atleta. El elemento temporal es vital para una atención segura a las afecciones de rodilla, un diagnóstico tardío en este sistema puede favorecer la aparición de complicaciones y obstaculizar la práctica deportiva. Objetivo: caracterizar las lesiones de rodilla en atletas

  9. Counseling for the Wilderness Athlete and Adventurer During a Preparticipation Evaluation for Preparation, Safety, and Injury Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Justin Mark J; Campbell, Aaron D; Raastad, Kate K

    2015-12-01

    Wilderness sports and adventures continue to increase in popularity. Counseling is an essential element of the preparticipation evaluation (PPE) for athletes in traditional sports. This approach can be applied to and augmented for the wilderness athlete and adventurer. The authors reviewed the literature on counseling during PPEs and gathered expert opinion from medical professionals who perform such PPEs for wilderness sports enthusiasts. The objective was to present findings of this review and make recommendations on the counseling component of a wilderness sports/adventure PPE. The counseling component of a PPE for wilderness sports/adventures should take place after a basic medical evaluation, and include a discussion on sport or activity-specific injury prevention, personal health, travel recommendations, and emergency event planning. Counseling should be individualized and thorough, and involve shared decision making. This should take place early enough to allow ample time for the athlete or adventurer to further prepare as needed based on the recommendations. Resources may be recommended for individuals desiring more information on selected topics.

  10. Retrospective Injury Epidemiology and Risk Factors for Injury in CrossFit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalvo, Alicia M.; Shaefer, Hilary; Rodriguez, Belinda; Li, Tan; Epnere, Katrina; Myer, Gregory D.

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the study is to examine injury epidemiology and risk factors for injury in CrossFit athletes. A survey was administered to athletes at four owner-operated facilities in South Florida. Respondents reported number, location of injury, and training exposure from the preceding six months and answered questions regarding potential risk factors for injury. Fifty out of 191 athletes sustained 62 injuries during CrossFit participation in the preceding six months. The most frequently injured locations were the shoulder, knee, and lower back. Injury incidence was 2.3/1000 athlete training hours. Competitors were more likely to be injured (40% v 19%, p = 0.002) and had greater weekly athlete training hours (7.3 ± 7.0 v 4.9 ± 2.9, p gymnastics and powerlifting. While being a competitor was related to injury, increased exposure and length of participation in CrossFit likely underlied this association. Specifically, increased exposure to training in the form of greater weekly athlete training hours and weekly participations may contribute to injury. Increased height and body mass were also related to injury which is likely reflective of increased load utilized during training. Further research is warranted to determine if biomechanical factors associated with greater height and ability to lift greater loads are modifiable factors that can be adapted to reduce the increase risk of injury during CrossFit. Key points The overall rate of injury in CrossFit athletes was 2.3/1000 athlete training hours. The shoulder, knee, and lower back were the most frequently reported locations of injury. In adjusted models, length of participation in CrossFit, physical activity outside of CrossFit, weekly athlete-exposures to CrossFit, and height were associated with injury in CrossFit athletes. PMID:28344451

  11. Asthma in elite athletes: how do we manage asthma-like symptoms and asthma in elite athletes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Thomas Kromann

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Asthma is frequent in elite athletes and the high prevalence of asthma might be associated with specific types of sport. It has been suggested that chronic endurance training might increase the number of neutrophils in the airways, and this may reflect airway injury. The use of anti......-asthmatic medication in elite athletes is also currently under scrutiny in order to reduce the risk of under-treatment or over treatment. OBJECTIVES: Determine the use of anti-asthmatic medication and the prevalence of asthma-like symptoms and asthma in Danish elite athletes. Further, to determine whether elite...... survey of elite athletes (N = 418); and (iii) a clinical study of elite athletes. A total of 54 elite athletes (19 with physician-diagnosed asthma) participated together with two control groups: (i) 22 non-athletes with physician-diagnosed asthma (steroid naïve for 4 weeks before the examination) and (ii...

  12. Systematic review of clinical studies examining biomarkers of brain injury in athletes after sports-related concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Linda; Ramia, Michelle M; Edwards, Damyan; Johnson, Brian D; Slobounov, Semyon M

    2015-05-15

    The aim of this study was to systematically review clinical studies examining biofluid biomarkers of brain injury for concussion in athletes. Data sources included PubMed, MEDLINE, and the Cochrane Database from 1966 to October 2013. Studies were included if they recruited athletes participating in organized sports who experienced concussion or head injury during a sports-related activity and had brain injury biomarkers measured. Acceptable research designs included experimental, observational, and case-control studies. Review articles, opinion papers, and editorials were excluded. After title and abstract screening of potential articles, full texts were independently reviewed to identify articles that met inclusion criteria. A composite evidentiary table was then constructed and documented the study title, design, population, methods, sample size, outcome measures, and results. The search identified 52 publications, of which 13 were selected and critically reviewed. All of the included studies were prospective and were published either in or after the year 2000. Sports included boxing (six studies), soccer (five studies), running/jogging (two studies), hockey (one study), basketball (one study), cycling (one study), and swimming (one study). The majority of studies (92%) had fewer than 100 patients. Three studies (23%) evaluated biomarkers in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), one in both serum and CSF, and 10 (77%) in serum exclusively. There were 11 different biomarkers assessed, including S100β, glial fibrillary acidic protein, neuron-specific enolase, tau, neurofilament light protein, amyloid beta, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, creatine kinase and heart-type fatty acid binding protein, prolactin, cortisol, and albumin. A handful of biomarkers showed a correlation with number of hits to the head (soccer), acceleration/deceleration forces (jumps, collisions, and falls), postconcussive symptoms, trauma to the body versus the head, and dynamics of different sports

  13. Diagnostic terminology, athlete status, and history of concussion affect return to play expectations and anticipated symptoms following mild traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Kiersten; Erdal, Kristi

    2016-11-13

    "Mild traumatic brain injury" (mTBI) and "concussion" are terms often used interchangeably. However, "mTBI" is frequently seen as representing a broader injury that encompasses the construct of "concussion," which often conveys transience or decreased severity. The present study examined the influence of varying diagnostic terminology on acute injury expectations in an undergraduate population (N = 105). Participants were presented with an mTBI vignette and were randomly assigned to one of two conditions in which the term "mTBI" or "concussion" was used to describe the injury. There were no significant differences between the two conditions on anxiety, symptomatology, timeline, or consequence scales. However, participants in the "mTBI" group allocated more days to return to play than participants in the "concussion" group, suggesting that terminology has an effect on perceptions of the severity of the injury. Varsity athletes allocated fewer days to return to play than nonathletes. Individuals with a history of concussion, both athletes and nonathletes, indicated fewer days to return to play, but greater symptomatology than individuals with no history of concussion. Clinicians should consider the influence of diagnostic terminology, athletic background, and history of concussion on perceptions of the severity of an injury because expectations can influence injury outcomes and compliance in a recovery process.

  14. Right Ventricular Adaptation Is Associated with the Glu298Asp Variant of the NOS3 Gene in Elite Athletes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsolt Szelid

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO, an important endogenous pulmonary vasodilator is synthetized by the endothelial NO synthase (NOS3. Reduced NO bioavailability and thus the Glu298Asp polymorphism of NOS3 may enhance right ventricular (RV afterload and hypertrophic remodeling and influence athletic performance. To test this hypothesis world class level athletes (water polo players, kayakers, canoeists, rowers, swimmers, n = 126 with a VO2 maximum greater than 50ml/kg/min were compared with non-athletic volunteers (n = 155. Cardiopulmonary exercise tests and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (cMRI were performed to determine structural or functional changes. Genotype distribution of the NOS3 Glu298Asp polymorphism was not affected by gender or physical performance. Cardiac MRI showed increased stroke volume with eccentric hypertrophy in all athletes regardless of their genotype. However, the Asp allelic variant carriers had increased RV mass index (32±6g versus 27±6g, p<0.01 and larger RV stroke volume index (71±10ml versus 64±10ml, p<0.01 than athletes with a Glu/Glu genotype. Genotype was not significantly associated with athletic performance. In the non-athletic group no genotype related differences were detected. The association between the NOS3 Glu298Asp polymorphism and RV structure and dimension in elite athletes emphasizes the importance of NOS3 gene function and NO bioavailability in sport related cardiac adaptation.

  15. Contrast-associated Acute Kidney Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisbord, Steven D; Palevsky, Paul M

    2015-10-01

    Contrast-associated acute kidney injury (CAAKI) is a common iatrogenic condition. The principal risk factors for CAAKI are underlying renal impairment; diabetes in the setting of kidney disease; and intravascular volume depletion, effective or absolute. CAAKI is associated with serious adverse short-term and long-term outcomes, including mortality and more rapidly progressive chronic kidney disease, although the causal nature of these associations remains unproved. Patients with chronic kidney disease and other risk factors for CAAKI who present with acute coronary syndrome should undergo indicated angiographic procedures.

  16. Reliability and validity of perceived self-efficacy in wheeled mobility scale among elite wheelchair-dependent athletes with a spinal cord injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fliess-Douer, Osnat; Vanlandewijck, Yves C.; van der Woude, Lucas H. V.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To study the reliability and validity of the perceived self-efficacy in wheeled mobility scale among elite athletes with a spinal cord injury (SCI). Method: During the Beijing Paralympics, 79 participants with SCI completed the SCI Exercise Self-Efficacy Scale (ESES), the revised Self-Effic

  17. Intraocular cilia associated with perforating injury

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    Gopal Lingam

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report a case series of penetrating injury complicated by occurrence of intraocular cilia. Methods: Retrospective analysis of charts of 11 eyes of 11 patients with penetrating injury and intraocular cilia, presenting between September 1978 and November 1998. Ten eyes underwent surgery for trauma-related problems such as cataract, vitritis, retinal detachment etc., at which time intraocular cilia were removed. One eye did not have surgery and continues to harbour cilia at the posterior perforation site. Results: Metallic wire was responsible for injury in 6 of 11 eyes with intraocular cilia. Five eyes had significant intraocular inflammation. The cilia were located in the anterior segment in 4 eyes; in the posterior segment in 6 eyes and in both in one eye. At the last follow up, 72.7% had 6/18 or better vision. Poor vision in the rest was due to recurrent retinal detachment (2 eyes and macular scarring (1 eye. Conclusion: Intraocular cilia are more commonly associated with injury by a metallic wire. The presentation and management of an injured eye does not seem to be influenced by the presence of cilia in the eye.

  18. Exploração de fatores de risco para lesões no atletismo de alta performance Finding of risk factors for injuries in high performance athletics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Marcelo Pastre

    2007-06-01

    events of athletics, the documents that approach the theme are scarce. Thus, with the possibility to collect information about the described condition, this study aimed the exploration of risk factors for sport injuries in athletics, by inquiring world elite athletes of the modality. The population was composed by 60 men and 60 women allocated in groups according to the specific modality (speed, resistance, throws and jumps. The interviews were made using a morbidity referred inquiry, approaching subjects on anthropometrics and training variables, as well as injuries. The technique of the analysis of parametric variance was used for the anthropometrics variables (age, weight, stature and of the technique of the no parametric variance analysis in relation to the training variables (years of training and weekly hours. The Goodman's test was used in level of 5% of significance for the association between injury moment and specialties. The results showed an elevated frequency of injuries in the modality for both genders. The injury taxes for interviewed athlete were 0,92 (speed, 1,08 (resistance, 1,22 (jumps and 1,20 (throws. There was not significant statistical difference for the anthropometrics variables and of training in relation to the proofs, except to the jumpers, that presented differences for stature and time of training; in that case, injured are the taller or those that practice athletics for less time (P < 0.05. In conclusion, for studied population, the risk of injury is accentuated, but without relationship between variables and presence of injuries, except for specialists in jumps, that presented stature and time of training as risk factors to the injury.

  19. Student-Athletes Don't Have to Be Hit by Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Human Services. More Health News on: Sports Injuries Sports Safety Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Sports Injuries Sports Safety About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support ...

  20. Iron deficiency anemia in an athlete associated with Campylobacter pylori-negative chronic gastritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mack, D.; Sherman, P. (Univ. of Toronto (Canada))

    1989-08-01

    A 14-year-old athletic boy with a 1-year history of decreased exercise tolerance presented with unexplained iron deficiency anemia. Panendoscopy, colonoscopy, and barium contrast studies of the gastrointestinal tract were normal. However, persistent uptake of radionuclide using a {sup 99m}technetium-sucralfate scan suggested inflammation localized to the stomach. Mucosal biopsies demonstrated acute and chronic gastritis that was not associated with the presence of Campylobacter pylori.

  1. Iron deficiency anemia in an athlete associated with Campylobacter pylori-negative chronic gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, D; Sherman, P

    1989-08-01

    A 14-year-old athletic boy with a 1-year history of decreased exercise tolerance presented with unexplained iron deficiency anemia. Panendoscopy, colonoscopy, and barium contrast studies of the gastrointestinal tract were normal. However, persistent uptake of radionuclide using a 99mtechnetium-sucralfate scan suggested inflammation localized to the stomach. Mucosal biopsies demonstrated acute and chronic gastritis that was not associated with the presence of Campylobacter pylori.

  2. Sports Injury Analysis on Excellent Short Track Speed Skating Athletes%优秀短道速滑运动员运动损伤的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨大智; 杜江

    2011-01-01

    短道速滑属于技能型竞速项目,运动员在训练和比赛中,尤其是在陆地训练中运动损伤时有发生,运动损伤的高发率直接影响优秀运动员的运动寿命和创造优异成绩,目前短道速滑的运动伤病问题已成为困扰运动训练和影响运动成绩的重要原因之一。通过对优秀短道速滑运动员出现的常见的运动损伤进行探究与分析,希望能为短道速滑运动员有效地防治运动损伤,提供科学的依据。%Short-track racing program are skilled athletes in training and competition, especially in land training when sports injuries occur, the high incidence of sports injuries directly affect the movement of life and elite athletes to create outstanding results, the current short-track speed skating sports injuries has become a troubled sports training and athletic performance impact of the important reasons. Based on the best short track speed skating athletes appear to explore the common sports injuries and analysis, short track speed skating athletes want to be able to effectively control sports injuries, providing a scientific basis.

  3. Equine-associated maxillofacial injuries: retrospective 5-year analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Shofiq; Gupta, Benjamin; Taylor, Christopher J; Chow, Jeffrey; Hoffman, Gary R

    2014-02-01

    We explored the relation between the causes of facial injuries in equestrians and the presence or absence of associated injuries. Over a 5-year period we retrospectively reviewed all patients who presented to the John Hunter Hospital, New South Wales, with facial injuries that had resulted from activity with horses. We analysed the rates of hard and soft tissue injuries, and of associated injuries by sex and mechanism. A total of 85 patients were included (50 female and 35 male) with an age range of 2-88 years. There was a significant difference in the rate of maxillofacial and associated injuries when groups were analysed for sex and mechanism of injury. Facial injuries caused by falling from a horse were more often associated with other injuries in men than in women (p<0.05), and men were 4 times more likely to present with associated injuries than women (OR 3.9; 95% CI 1.1 to 14) We also found significant differences in the rates of facial fracture. Women who had been kicked by a horse were more likely to sustain bony injuries than men (p<0.05). Our data confirm the association between kicks and facial fracture, and this may provide an impetus for the development of appropriate protective equipment. Patients who sustain facial injuries when falling from a horse often present with associated injuries and this has practical implications for clinicians involved in their management.

  4. Integrative training for children and adolescents: techniques and practices for reducing sports-related injuries and enhancing athletic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myer, Gregory D; Faigenbaum, Avery D; Chu, Donald A; Falkel, Jeff; Ford, Kevin R; Best, Thomas M; Hewett, Timothy E

    2011-02-01

    As more children and adolescents participate in sports and conditioning activities (sometimes without consideration for cumulative workload), it is important to establish age-appropriate training guidelines that may reduce the risk of sports-related injury and enhance athletic performance. The purpose of this article is to review the scientific evidence on youth strength and conditioning and to provide age-appropriate recommendations for integrating different strength and conditioning activities into a well-designed program that is safe, effective, and enjoyable. Integrative training is defined as a program or plan that incorporates general and specific strength and conditioning activities that enhance both health- and skill-related components of physical fitness. The cornerstone of integrative training is age-appropriate education and instruction by qualified professionals who understand the physical and psychosocial uniqueness of children and adolescents.

  5. Pathophysiology of Acute Exercise-Induced Muscular Injury: Clinical Implications

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    Acute muscular injury is the most common injury affecting athletes and those participating in exercise. Nearly everyone has experienced soreness after unaccustomed or intense exercise. Clinically, acute strains and delayed-onset muscle soreness are very similar. The purpose of this paper is to review the predisposing factors, mechanisms of injury, structural changes, and biochemical changes associated with these injuries. Laboratory and clinical findings are discussed to help athletic trainer...

  6. National Athletic Trainers' Association Releases New Guidelines for Exertional Heat Illnesses: What School Nurses Need to Know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanScoy, Rachel M; DeMartini, Julie K; Casa, Douglas J

    2016-05-01

    Exertional heat illnesses (EHI) occur in various populations and settings. Within a school setting, there are student athletes who take part in physical activity where the risk of EHI is increased. The National Athletic Trainers' Association (NATA) released an updated position statement on EHI in September of 2015. This article is a summary of the position statement. The sports medicine team, including school nurses and athletic trainers, provides quality health care to these physically active individuals. Thus, it is important for school nurses to understand the prevention, recognition, and treatment of EHI.

  7. Sport-related achievement motivation and alcohol outcomes: an athlete-specific risk factor among intercollegiate athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Cameron C; Martens, Matthew P; Cadigan, Jennifer M; Takamatsu, Stephanie K; Treloar, Hayley R; Pedersen, Eric R

    2013-12-01

    Intercollegiate athletes report greater alcohol consumption and more alcohol-related problems than their non-athlete peers. Although college athletes share many of the same problems faced by non-athletes, there are some consequences that are unique to athletes. Studies have demonstrated that alcohol negatively affects athletic performance including increased dehydration, impeded muscle recovery, and increased risk for injury. Beyond risk factors for alcohol misuse that may affect college students in general, research has begun to examine risk factors that are unique to collegiate athletes. For example, research has found that off-season status, the leadership role, and athlete-specific drinking motives are associated with increased alcohol use. Given these findings, it is possible that other athlete-specific variables influence alcohol misuse. One such variable may be sport achievement orientation. The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between sport achievement orientation and alcohol outcomes. Given previous research regarding seasonal status and gender, these variables were examined as moderators. Varsity athletes (n=263) completed the Sport Orientation Questionnaire, which assesses sport-related achievement orientation on three scales (Competitiveness, Win Orientation, and Goal Orientation). In addition, participants completed measures of alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. Results indicated that Competitiveness, Win Orientation, and Goal Orientation were all significantly associated with alcohol use, but not alcohol-related problems. Moreover, these relationships were moderated by seasonal status and gender. These interactions, clinical implications, and limitations are discussed.

  8. Education and Training of Athletes' Self-Prevention Ability of Sports Injury%运动员自我运动损伤防范及教育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈香仙; 崇玉萍; 赵芳; 王运良; 何章明

    2012-01-01

    体育运动中运动员的自我损伤防范能力与损伤发生密切相关.对运动员开展自我损伤防范意识的教育与培养,可以有效降低运动损伤的发生风险,为损伤愈合创造了良好的条件.运动损伤防范能力的教育和培养内容包括运动人体科学基本知识、体育道德与行为、竞赛规则、训练原则、科学的训练方法与专项技术、运动损伤发生规律和营养对机体损伤与康复的影响.%Sport athletes' injury prevention capability is closely related to the injury occurred. To carry out the education and training of the athletes self-injury awareness can reduce the risk of sports injuries effectively, and it' s also creating good conditions for wound healing. The education and training of sports injury prevention ability including: Basic knowledge of human movement science, sports ethics and behavior, competition principles, training principles, scientific training method and special technology, sports injury occurrence and nutrition on body injury and influence for rehabilitation.

  9. Bone Parameters in Relation to Attitudes and Feelings Associated with Disordered Eating in Oligo-Amenorrheic Athletes, Eumenorrheic Athletes, and Nonathletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokoloff, Natalia Cano; Eguiguren, Maria L.; Wargo, Katherine; Ackerman, Kathryn E.; Baskaran, Charumathi; Singhal, Vibha; Clarke, Hannah; Slattery, Meghan; Lee, Hang; Eddy, Kamryn T.; Misra, Madhusmita

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Disordered eating may negatively impact bone in athletes. However, it is not known whether this effect is independent of the associated amenorrhea and relative hypercortisolemia. We aimed to compare attitudes, feelings, and cognitions associated with disordered eating using the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) and Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI-2) in normal-weight oligomenorrheic athletes (OA), eumenorrheic athletes (EA), and nonathletes, and determine the associations with bone independent of confounders. Method 109 OA, 39 EA, and 36 nonathletes (14–25 years) completed the TFEQ and EDI-2. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to assess spine bone mineral density (BMD), and high-resolution pQCT to assess radius microarchitecture. We measured integrated cortisol (q 20’, 11 PM–7 AM), bone formation (procollagen Type 1 N-terminal propeptide, P1NP), and resorption (C-telopeptide, CTX) markers in a subset. Results OA had lower spine BMD Z-scores than EA. Cognitive eating restraint (CER), drive for thinness (DT), ineffectiveness, and interoceptive awareness (IA) were higher in OA than EA (p < 0.05); CER was higher in OA versus nonathletes (p = 0.03). Pulsatile cortisol was positively associated with DT, ineffectiveness, and IA (p < 0.03). CER was inversely associated with BMD Z-scores and P1NP, and ineffectiveness with radius cross-sectional area even after controlling for age, BMI, amenorrhea duration, and cortisol (p < 0.03). Discussion Higher CER in athletes independently predicts lower BMD. PMID:25823597

  10. Incidência de lesões musculoesqueléticas em atletas de elite do basquetebol feminino Incidence of musculoskeletal injuries in elite female basketball athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Sabbag da Silva

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O basquetebol é esporte competitivo, com alta incidência de lesões de contato e movimentação. OBJETIVO: determinar a incidência de lesões musculoesqueléticas em atletas de elite do basquetebol feminino. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: foram analisadas prospectivamente 66 atletas adultas, 18 a 37 anos (média: 23, de 5 equipes durante o Campeonato Paulista da Divisão A1 (setembro de 99 a janeiro de 2000. Os dados referentes a atleta e as lesões que ocorreram no período, foram registradas por fisioterapeuta. RESULTADOS: foram computadas 78 lesões, em 47 das atletas (71,2%. A incidência de lesão foi de 2,6 lesões/ atleta/ 1000 jogos/treinos, com maior incidência nos jogos. A entorse, com 33%, foi o diagnóstico mais comum especialmente na região do tornozelo, seguida da contusão (24%. O joelho com 21% das lesões, mão/dedos, com 17%, perna/coxa e tornozelo com 14% cada, foram as regiões mais lesadas. O contato com outro atleta foi o principal mecanismo de lesão. Não encontramos relação entre diagnóstico, idade, posição e região anatômica lesada, mas atletas mais novas foram menos afetadas. A maioria das lesões foram leves (88,5% e a região do joelho foi a de maior morbidade. As sobrecargas deste esporte foram mais visíveis na região lombar e joelho, exigindo programas intensivos de prevenção e acompanhamento de atletas de elite no basquetebol feminino.Basketball is a competitive sport, presenting a high incidence of contact and movement injuries. OBJECTIVE: to determine the incidence of musculoskeletal injuries in elite female basketball athletes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 66 adult athletes, with ages ranging from 18 to 37 years (average: 23, from 5 teams playing A1-class São Paulo State Championship were prospectively assessed in the period of September 1999 - January 2000. Data concerning each individual athlete and the injuries occurred within that period were recorded by a physical therapist. RESULTS: 78 injuries were

  11. Higher ghrelin and lower leptin secretion are associated with lower LH secretion in young amenorrheic athletes compared with eumenorrheic athletes and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Kathryn E; Slusarz, Katherine; Guereca, Gabriela; Pierce, Lisa; Slattery, Meghan; Mendes, Nara; Herzog, David B; Misra, Madhusmita

    2012-04-01

    Amenorrhea is common in young athletes and is associated with low fat mass. However, hormonal factors that link decreased fat mass with altered gonadotropin pulsatility and amenorrhea are unclear. Low levels of leptin (an adipokine) and increased ghrelin (an orexigenic hormone that increases as fat mass decreases) impact gonadotropin pulsatility. Studies have not examined luteinizing hormone (LH) secretory dynamics in relation to leptin or ghrelin secretory dynamics in adolescent and young adult athletes. We hypothesized that 1) young amenorrheic athletes (AA) would have lower LH and leptin and higher ghrelin secretion than eumenorrheic athletes (EA) and nonathletes and 2) higher ghrelin and lower leptin would be associated with lower LH secretion. This was a cross-sectional study. We examined ghrelin and leptin secretory patterns (over 8 h, from 11 PM to 7 AM) in relation to LH secretory patterns in AA, EA, and nonathletes aged 14-21 yr. Ghrelin and leptin were assessed every 20 min and LH every 10 min. Groups did not differ for age, bone age, or BMI. However, fat mass was lower in AA than in EA and nonathletes. AA had lower LH and higher ghrelin pulsatile secretion and AUC than nonathletes and lower leptin pulsatile secretion and AUC than EA and nonathletes. Percent body fat was associated positively with LH and leptin secretion and inversely with ghrelin. In a regression model, ghrelin and leptin secretory parameters were associated independently with LH secretory parameters. We conclude that higher ghrelin and lower leptin secretion in AA related to lower fat mass may contribute to altered LH pulsatility and amenorrhea.

  12. An Addendum to Injury Rates in Iranian Taekwondo Athletes; a Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose The objective of this study was to compare the Iranian taekwondo-in statistically in terms of total injury rates to international counterparts as gleaned from the extant literature. Methods The Iranian sample consisted of 204 male taekwondo-in participating in the national championship. The international sample included the participants in national and international tournaments. Validated standard questionnaires were employed at all tournaments to collect injury data that were always diagnosed by the respective tournament physicians. An injury was defined as any circumstance for which assistance was sought from the medical personnel. In addition to injury rates, 95% confidence intervals (CIs around the rates were computed. To assess which group was at higher risk, odds ratios were calculated, including the 95%CIs. Results Compared to Greek counterparts, the injury rate for the Iranian taekwondo-in was statistically significantly higher. The Iranians were also at a higher risk to incur an injury: OR = 11.2 (95%CI: 6.60–18.88, P<0.001, CLR = 2.86. When comparing the Iranian taekwondo-in to their colleagues competing at the 1999 World Championships, the former recorded a statistically significantly lower injury rate but the latter were not at a higher risk (OR = 0.61, 95%CI: 0.41–0.91, P=0.014, CLR = 2.20. Conclusion A statistical comparison of total injury rates in Iranian and international taekwondo-in revealed no difference between the two groups. However, what is of concern is that the total injury rate across taekwondo studies is significantly higher than those reported for American football.

  13. Auscultation of the Chest and Abdomen by Athletic Trainers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McChesney, John A.; McChesney, John W.

    2001-06-01

    OBJECTIVE: To present a practical overview of the methods and techniques of auscultation of the chest and abdomen for use during the physical examination of athletes. Our intent is to provide information on this clinical technique to assist athletic trainers in recognizing and referring athletes presenting with potentially serious internal organ conditions. BACKGROUND: Use of the stethoscope is a clinical skill increasingly necessary for athletic trainers. Given the expanding breadth of both the assessment techniques used by athletic trainers and the populations they care for and the fact that clinical instruction guidelines have changed in the newly adopted National Athletic Trainers' Association Educational Competencies, our goal is to provide a framework upon which future instruction can be based. DESCRIPTION: This review covers the use of a stethoscope for auscultation of the chest and abdomen. Auscultation of the heart is covered first, followed by techniques for auscultating the breath sounds. Lastly, auscultation of the abdomen describes techniques for listening for bowel sounds and arterial bruits. CLINICAL ADVANTAGES: During the assessment of injuries to and illnesses of athletes, knowledge of auscultatory techniques is valuable and of increasing importance to athletic trainers. Athletic trainers who do not know how to perform auscultation may fail to recognize, and therefore fail to refer for further evaluation, athletes with potentially serious pathologic conditions.

  14. Quality of Life Following Brain Injury: Perspectives from Brain Injury Association of America State Affiliates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degeneffe, Charles Edmund; Tucker, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Objective: to examine the perspectives of brain injury professionals concerning family members' feelings about the quality of life experienced by individuals with brain injuries. Participants: participating in the study were 28 individuals in leadership positions with the state affiliates of the Brain Injury Association of America (BIAA). Methods:…

  15. Physiological changes associated with the pre-event taper in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujika, Iñigo; Padilla, Sabino; Pyne, David; Busso, Thierry

    2004-01-01

    Some of the physiological changes associated with the taper and their relationship with athletic performance are now known. Since the 1980s a number of studies have examined various physiological responses associated with the cardiorespiratory, metabolic, hormonal, neuromuscular and immunological systems during the pre-event taper across a number of sports. Changes in the cardiorespiratory system may include an increase in maximal oxygen uptake, but this is not a necessary prerequisite for taper-induced gains in performance. Oxygen uptake at a given submaximal exercise intensity can decrease during the taper, but this response is more likely to occur in less-skilled athletes. Resting, maximal and submaximal heart rates do not change, unless athletes show clear signs of overreaching before the taper. Blood pressure, cardiac dimensions and ventilatory function are generally stable, but submaximal ventilation may decrease. Possible haematological changes include increased blood and red cell volume, haemoglobin, haematocrit, reticulocytes and haptoglobin, and decreased red cell distribution width. These changes in the taper suggest a positive balance between haemolysis and erythropoiesis, likely to contribute to performance gains. Metabolic changes during the taper include: a reduced daily energy expenditure; slightly reduced or stable respiratory exchange ratio; increased peak blood lactate concentration; and decreased or unchanged blood lactate at submaximal intensities. Blood ammonia concentrations show inconsistent trends, muscle glycogen concentration increases progressively and calcium retention mechanisms seem to be triggered during the taper. Reduced blood creatine kinase concentrations suggest recovery from training stress and muscle damage, but other biochemical markers of training stress and performance capacity are largely unaffected by the taper. Hormonal markers such as testosterone, cortisol, testosterone : cortisol ratio, 24-hour urinary cortisol

  16. Air University Athletic Programs and Related Sport Injuries: What You Should Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-04-01

    from poor body alignment and poor body control produce muscle , joint and tendon injuries. (7:5) Running has become a popular participant sport . Its...23 Post-Injury Pain with muscle contraction should be gone before resuming sport activities. External thigh supports should be worn (Neoprene thigh...mid-front thigh area. Minimal pain at first, increasing in severity over next two or three hours. Muscle spasms (quivering, irregular muscle fiber

  17. Dietary intervention restored menses in female athletes with exercise-associated menstrual dysfunction with limited impact on bone and muscle health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cialdella-Kam, Lynn; Guebels, Charlotte P; Maddalozzo, Gianni F; Manore, Melinda M

    2014-07-31

    Exercise-related menstrual dysfunction (ExMD) is associated with low energy availability (EA), decreased bone mineral density (BMD), and increased risk of musculoskeletal injury. We investigated whether a 6-month carbohydrate-protein (CHO-PRO) supplement (360 kcal/day, 54 g CHO/day, 20 g PRO/day) intervention would improve energy status and musculoskeletal health and restore menses in female athletes (n = 8) with ExMD. At pre/post-intervention, reproductive and thyroid hormones, bone health (BMD, bone mineral content, bone markers), muscle strength/power and protein metabolism markers, profile of mood state (POMS), and energy intake (EI)/energy expenditure (7 day food/activity records) were measured. Eumenorrheic athlete controls with normal menses (Eumen); n = 10) were measured at baseline. Multiple linear regressions were used to evaluate differences between groups and pre/post-intervention blocking on participants. Improvements in EI (+382 kcal/day; p = 0.12), EA (+417 kcal/day; p = 0.17) and energy balance (EB; +466 kcal/day; p = 0.14) were observed with the intervention but were not statistically significant. ExMD resumed menses (2.6 ± 2.2-months to first menses; 3.5 ± 1.9 cycles); one remaining anovulatory with menses. Female athletes with ExMD for >8 months took longer to resume menses/ovulation and had lower BMD (low spine (ExMD = 3; Eumen = 1); low hip (ExMD = 2)) than those with ExMD for athletes are more sensitive to EA and EB fluctuations.

  18. Are asthma-like symptoms in elite athletes associated with classical features of asthma?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, T.K.; Pedersen, L.; Anderson, S.D.;

    2009-01-01

    Background: Asthma is frequent in elite athletes and clinical studies in athletes have found increased airway inflammation. Objective: To investigate asthma-like symptoms, airway inflammation, airway reactivity (AR) to mannitol and use of asthma medication in Danish elite athletes. Methods......: The study group consisted of 54 elite athletes (19 with doctor-diagnosed asthma), 22 non-athletes with doctor-diagnosed asthma (steroid naive for 4 weeks before the examination) and 35 non-athletes without asthma; all aged 18-35 years. Examinations (1 day): questionnaires, exhaled nitric oxide (e......NO) in parts per billion, spirometry, skin prick test, AR to mannitol and blood samples. Induced sputum was done in subjects with asthma. Results: No significant difference was found in values for eNO, AR and atopy between 42 elite athletes with and 12 without asthma-like symptoms. Elite athletes with doctor...

  19. Analysis on theory of treatment from abdomen for athletic injury%运动损伤病症从腹部论治的理论探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓亭; 董宝强; 张文静; 王树东

    2013-01-01

    从中医学和现代运动解剖学两方面对循行于腹部的经络及与腹部相关的功能解剖、生物力学进行研究,探讨运动损伤与腹部经络、脏腑、气血及现代解剖生理、病理之间的关系,为运动损伤病症从腹部论治提供理论依据,从而为运动损伤病症的治疗开辟新的思路.%The purpose of this thesis is to work over the abdominal meridian,functional anatomy and biological force line in term of traditional Chinese medicine theory and modern sport anatomy,to discuss the relations of athletic injury with abdominal meridian,Zang-Fu,Qi and blood,and with modern anatomical physiology and pathology.In this way,it provides basis for treating athletic injury from abdomen,thus develops new ways for athletic injury treatment.

  20. Assessment of nutritional knowledge in female athletes susceptible to the Female Athlete Triad syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petroczi Andrea

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study aimed to i assess nutritional knowledge in female athletes susceptible to the Female Athlete Triad (FAT syndrome and to compare with controls; and ii to compare nutritional knowledge of those who were classified as being 'at risk' for developing FAT syndrome and those who are 'not at risk'. Methods In this study, participants completed General Nutritional Knowledge Questionnaire (GNKQ, the Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26 and survey measures of training/physical activity, menstrual and skeletal injury history. The sample consisted of 48 regional endurance athletes, 11 trampoline gymnasts and 32 untrained controls. Based on proxy measures for the FAT components, participants were classified being 'at risk' or 'not at risk' and nutrition knowledge scores were compared for the two groups. Formal education related to nutrition was considered. Results A considerably higher percentage of athletes were classified 'at risk' of menstrual dysfunction than controls (28.8% and 9.4%, respectively and a higher percentage scored at or above the cutoff value of 20 on the EAT-26 test among athletes than controls (10.2% and 3.1%, respectively. 8.5% of athletes were classified 'at risk' for bone mineral density in contrast to none from the control group. Nutrition knowledge and eating attitude appeared to be independent for both athletes and controls. GNKQ scores of athletes were higher than controls but the differences between the knowledge of 'at risk' and 'not at risk' athletes and controls were inconsequential. Formal education in nutrition or closely related subjects does not have an influence on nutrition knowledge or on being classified as 'at risk' or 'not at risk'. Conclusion The lack of difference in nutrition knowledge between 'at risk' and 'not at risk' athletes suggests that lack of information is not accountable for restricted eating associated with the Female Athlete Triad.

  1. Creatine Usage and Education of Track and Field Throwers at National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Lawrence W; Petersen, Jeffrey C; Craig, Bruce W; Hoover, Donald L; Holtzclaw, Kara A; Leitzelar, Brianna N; Tyner, Rebecca M R; Blake, Amy S; Hindawi, Omar S; Bellar, David M

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the level of creatine use along with the perceived benefits and barriers of creatine use among collegiate athletes who participate in throwing events within the sport of track and field. A total of 258 throwers from National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I institutions completed an online survey regarding creatine. The results provided baseline levels of creatine use and allowed for the analysis of factors related to athletic conference affiliation. Results indicate that creatine use remains to be a common (32.7%) practice among throwers with significantly higher levels of use among Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS) conference athletes (44.6%) than Football Championship Subdivision (FCS) conference athletes (28.8%), χ² = 5.505, p = 0.019. The most common reasons for using creatine included a desire to improve/increase: strength (83.3%), recovery time (69.0%), and performance (60.7%). The most common perceived obstacles included contamination/quality control (39.5%), cost (33.3%), inconvenience (16.7%), and cramping (14.3%). A desire for additional education and training was noted through an expression of interest (55.6%) with significantly higher levels of interest from FBS athletes (65.6%) than FCS athletes (52.2%), χ² = 6.425, p = 0.039. However, the athletic departments provide nutritional supplement counseling at only 26.6% of the schools. Although the access to full-time nutritionist counsel was available at 57.3% of the schools, there was a significant difference (χ² = 9.096, p = 0.003) between FBS schools (73.7%) and FCS schools (51.7%).

  2. Differences in Attentional Focus Associated With Recovery From Sports Injury: Does Injury Induce an Internal Focus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Rob

    2015-12-01

    Although it is commonly believed that focusing too much attention on the injured body area impairs recovery in sports, this has not been directly assessed. The present study investigated attentional focus following sports injury. Experienced baseball position players recovering from knee surgery (Expt 1) and baseball pitchers recovering from elbow surgery (Expt 2) performed simulated batting and pitching respectively. They also performed three different secondary tasks: leg angle judgments, arm angle judgments, and judgments about the ball leaving their bat/hand. Injured athletes were compared with expert and novice control groups. Performance on the secondary tasks indicated that the injured batters had an internal focus of attention localized on the area of the injury resulting in significantly poorer batting performance as compared with the expert controls. Injured pitchers had a diffuse, internal attentional focus similar to that of novices resulting in poorer pitching performance as compared with the expert controls.

  3. Extensor Tendon Instability Due to Sagittal Band Injury in a Martial Arts Athlete: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochevar, Andrew; Rayan, Ghazi

    2017-03-01

    A Taekwondo participant sustained a hand injury from punching an opponent that resulted in painful instability of the ring finger extensor digitorum communis tendon due to sagittal band damage. His symptoms resolved after reconstructive surgery on the sagittal band (SB) with stabilization of the extensor tendon over the metacarpophalangeal joint.

  4. Cardiac arrhythmias associated with spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hector, Sven Magnus; Biering-Sørensen, Tor; Krassioukov, Andrei;

    2013-01-01

    CONTEXT/OBJECTIVES: To review the current literature to reveal the incidence of cardiac arrhythmias and its relation to spinal cord injury (SCI). METHODS: Data source: MEDLINE database, 304 hits, and 32 articles were found to be relevant. The relevant articles all met the inclusion criteria: (1......) contained original data (2) on cardiac arrhythmias (3) in humans with (4) traumatic SCI. RESULTS: In the acute phase of SCI (1-14 days after injury) more cranial as well as more severe injuries seemed to increase the incidence of bradycardia. Articles not covering the first 14 days after injury, thus...... as during procedures such as penile vibro-stimulation and tracheal suction. These episodes of bradycardia were seen more often in individuals with cervical injuries. Longitudinal studies with continuous electrocardiogram recordings are needed to uncover the true relation between cardiac arrhythmias and SCI....

  5. Perspective: Does Laboratory-Based Maximal Incremental Exercise Testing Elicit Maximum Physiological Responses in Highly-Trained Athletes with Cervical Spinal Cord Injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Christopher R; Leicht, Christof A; Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria L; Romer, Lee M

    2015-01-01

    The physiological assessment of highly-trained athletes is a cornerstone of many scientific support programs. In the present article, we provide original data followed by our perspective on the topic of laboratory-based incremental exercise testing in elite athletes with cervical spinal cord injury. We retrospectively reviewed our data on Great Britain Wheelchair Rugby athletes collected during the last two Paralympic cycles. We extracted and compared peak cardiometabolic (heart rate and blood lactate) responses between a standard laboratory-based incremental exercise test on a treadmill and two different maximal field tests (4 min and 40 min maximal push). In the nine athletes studied, both field tests elicited higher peak responses than the laboratory-based test. The present data imply that laboratory-based incremental protocols preclude the attainment of true peak cardiometabolic responses. This may be due to the different locomotor patterns required to sustain wheelchair propulsion during treadmill exercise or that maximal incremental treadmill protocols only require individuals to exercise at or near maximal exhaustion for a relatively short period of time. We acknowledge that both field- and laboratory-based testing have respective merits and pitfalls and suggest that the choice of test be dictated by the question at hand: if true peak responses are required then field-based testing is warranted, whereas laboratory-based testing may be more appropriate for obtaining cardiometabolic responses across a range of standardized exercise intensities.

  6. Perspective: Does laboratory-based maximal incremental exercise testing elicit maximum physiological responses in highly-trained athletes with cervical spinal cord injury?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R West

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The physiological assessment of highly-trained athletes is a cornerstone of many scientific support programs. In the present article, we provide original data followed by our perspective on the topic of laboratory-based incremental exercise testing in elite athletes with cervical spinal cord injury. We retrospectively reviewed our data on Great Britain Wheelchair Rugby athletes collected during the last two Paralympic cycles. We extracted and compared peak cardiometabolic (heart rate and blood lactate responses between a standard laboratory-based incremental exercise test on a treadmill and two different maximal field tests (4 min and 40 min maximal push. In the nine athletes studied, both field tests elicited higher peak responses than the laboratory-based test. The present data imply that laboratory-based incremental protocols preclude the attainment of true peak cardiometabolic responses. This may be due to the different locomotor patterns required to sustain wheelchair propulsion during treadmill exercise or that maximal incremental treadmill protocols only require individuals to exercise at or near maximal exhaustion for a relatively short period of time. We acknowledge that both field- and laboratory-based testing have respective merits and pitfalls and suggest that the choice of test be dictated by the question at hand: if true peak responses are required then field-based testing is warranted, whereas laboratory-based testing may be more appropriate for obtaining cardiometabolic responses across a range of standardised exercise intensities.

  7. Radiographic Evidence of Femoroacetabular Impingement in Athletes With Athletic Pubalgia

    OpenAIRE

    Economopoulos, Kostas J.; Milewski, Matthew D.; Hanks, John B.; Hart, Joseph M.; Diduch, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Two of the most common causes of groin pain in athletes are femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) and athletic pubalgia. An association between the 2 is apparent, but the prevalence of radiographic signs of FAI in patients undergoing athletic pubalgia surgery remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of radiologic signs of FAI in patients with athletic pubalgia. Hypothesis: We hypothesized that patients with athletic pubalgia would have a high prevale...

  8. Changes in creatine kinase and cortisol in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I American football players during a season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, William J; Looney, David P; Martin, Gerard J; Ratamess, Nicholas A; Vingren, Jakob L; French, Duncan N; Hatfield, Disa L; Fragala, Maren S; Spiering, Barry A; Howard, Robert L; Cortis, Cristina; Szivak, Tunde K; Comstock, Brett A; Dunn-Lewis, Courtenay; Hooper, David R; Flanagan, Shawn D; Volek, Jeff S; Anderson, Jeffrey M; Maresh, Carl M; Fleck, Steven J

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to track creatine kinase (CK) and serum cortisol over an American college football season starting with the preseason practice. A secondary purpose was to observe changes in basic clinical chemistries. Twenty-two National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I football players (age: 20.4 ± 1.1 years, height: 188.27 ± 8.3 cm, weight: 115.8 ± 29.7 kg) volunteered to participate in this study. Each of the players had participated in the summer strength and conditioning supervised program. Resting blood samples were obtained just before the start of preseason practice (T-1), 2 weeks later (T-2), and the day after game 2 (T-3), game 4 (T-4), game 6 (T-5), and game 9 (T-6) of a 12-game season. Creatine kinase, a panel of clinical chemistries, cortisol, and testosterone were assayed at each time point. No significant changes in CK concentrations were observed over the season with peak values of each range ≤1,070.0 IU·L(-1), but the largest range was observed at T-6 after game 9 (119-2,834 IU·L(-1). The analysis of covariance analysis demonstrated that the number of plays in the ninth game (T-6) explained the magnitude of the changes in CK. No changes in serum cortisol concentrations were observed yet, again large variations existed with peak values of each range ≤465.0 nmol·L(-1). Clinical chemistries showed various significant changes from T-1, but none were considered clinically relevant changes for any player over the time course of the study. In conclusion, the strength and conditioning program before preseason camp or the structure of summer camp practices and the in-season strength and conditioning appeared to mute muscle damage and the stress response of cortisol. Such data demonstrate that changes in muscle damage and adrenal cortical stress over the season are minimal, yet large individual variations can be observed. Management of these variables appears to be related to optimal strength and conditioning and sports

  9. The Development of Functional Overreaching Is Associated with a Faster Heart Rate Recovery in Endurance Athletes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anaël Aubry

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate whether heart rate recovery (HRR may represent an effective marker of functional overreaching (f-OR in endurance athletes.Thirty-one experienced male triathletes were tested (10 control and 21 overload subjects before (Pre, and immediately after an overload training period (Mid and after a 2-week taper (Post. Physiological responses were assessed during an incremental cycling protocol to exhaustion, including heart rate, catecholamine release and blood lactate concentration. Ten participants from the overload group developed signs of f-OR at Mid (i.e. -2.1 ± 0.8% change in performance associated with concomitant high perceived fatigue. Additionally, only the f-OR group demonstrated a 99% chance of increase in HRR during the overload period (+8 ± 5 bpm, large effect size. Concomitantly, this group also revealed a >80% chance of decreasing blood lactate (-11 ± 14%, large, plasma norepinephrine (-12 ± 37%, small and plasma epinephrine peak concentrations (-51 ± 22%, moderate. These blood measures returned to baseline levels at Post. HRR change was negatively correlated to changes in performance, peak HR and peak blood metabolites concentrations.These findings suggest that i a faster HRR is not systematically associated with improved physical performance, ii changes in HRR should be interpreted in the context of the specific training phase, the athletes perceived level of fatigue and the performance response; and, iii the faster HRR associated with f-OR may be induced by a decreased central command and by a lower chemoreflex activity.

  10. Injuries associated with the 580 km university student grand voluntary road march: focus on foot injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sang-cheon; Min, Young-gi; Lee, In-Soo; Yoon, Gi-Ho; Kang, Bo-Ra; Jung, Yoon-Seok; Cho, Joon-Pil; Kim, Gi-Woon

    2013-12-01

    College student volunteers (n = 142) completed a 580 km road march for 21 consecutive days. Each volunteer carried a backpack that weighed 14.1 ± 1.4 kg on the average. We investigated the incidence and location of blisters associated with the road march using a foot map along with other injuries. Overall, 95.1% of the subjects (135 of 142) sustained one or more injuries. All injured subjects had foot blisters, and 18% had other foot injuries. The most common locations of blister development were the right 5th toe (61%) and the left 5th toe (57%). The little toes seem to have been subjected to the greatest friction and shearing forces. March-related injuries, excluding foot injuries, were ankle pain (12.7%), knee pain (12.7%) and Achilles tendon pain (7.7%). Six subjects (4.2%) needed extra medical treatment for more than 2 weeks prior to returning to their daily lives after completion of the march due to associated injuries. The present study observed a very high incidence rate of injuries (95.1%) associated with the 580 km university students grand road march. These injuries posed an obstacle against completion of the road march and against returning to daily life. Active preventive interventions such as physical therapy and customized reinforced shoes and education program are recommended for reducing incidence rate and severity of injuries.

  11. Posterior cruciate ligament injury: characteristics and associations of most frequent injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Tulio Lopes Caldas

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence and combinations of PCL injuries and their correlations with the mechanism, the occurrence of evident dislocation and associated fracture. METHOD: A retrospective study of 85 lesions of PCL operated between 2003 and 2010. Diagnosis by physical examination and dynamic radiography, compared with surgical findings. RESULTS: Injuries involving the PCL were more prevalent in men (78.8% with a mean age of 33 years. The main cause was traffic accidents (73.80%, and (49.4% motorcycle. Isolated PCL injury occurred in (15.3% cases, and combined (84.7%. Among the isolated lesions, bone avulsions were nine (10.6%. The most associated PCL injuries were the ACL (48.2%, followed by LCL PCL/PLC (22.4%. Fractures were more associated with combining PCL + LCL/PLC injuries and did not appear in the PCL + MCL/PMC. Complications beyond fractures: peripheral nerve injury (4.8% and vascular (1.2%. Evident dislocation in primary care (16.7% was more prevalent in combined ACL + PCL + MCL/PMC (44.4%. Half the patients were operated during the acute phase. There was a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05 comparing each combination of ligament injuries with the presence of fracture, dislocation or clear mechanism of injury. CONCLUSION: Surgical treatment of PCL injuries in a center for orthopedic trauma care was mostly multiligament and mainly involving the ACL. A significant association was seen between the type of injury with mechanism of injury, presentation of the knee, if dislocated or reduced, and the presence of associated fracture.

  12. Position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and athletic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-12-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine that physical activity, athletic performance, and recovery from exercise are enhanced by optimal nutrition. These organizations recommend appropriate selection of food and fluids, timing of intake, and supplement choices for optimal health and exercise performance. This position paper reviews the current scientific data related to the energy needs of athletes, assessment of body composition, strategies for weight change, the nutrient and fluid needs of athletes, special nutrient needs during training, the use of supplements and nutritional ergogenic aids, and the nutrition recommendations for vegetarian athletes. During times of high physical activity, energy and macronutrient needs--especially carbohydrate and protein intake--must be met in order to maintain body weight, replenish glycogen stores, and provide adequate protein for building and repair of tissue. Fat intake should be adequate to provide the essential fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins, as well as to help provide adequate energy for weight maintenance. Overall, diets should provide moderate amounts of energy from fat (20% to 25% of energy); however, there appears to be no health or performance benefit to consuming a diet containing less than 15% of energy from fat. Body weight and composition can affect exercise performance, but should not be used as the sole criterion for sports performance; daily weigh-ins are discouraged. Consuming adequate food and fluid before, during, and after exercise can help maintain blood glucose during exercise, maximize exercise performance, and improve recovery time. Athletes should be well-hydrated before beginning to exercise; athletes should also drink enough fluid during and after exercise to balance fluid losses. Consumption of sport drinks containing carbohydrates and electrolytes during exercise will provide fuel for the muscles, help

  13. Joint Position Statement: nutrition and athletic performance. American College of Sports Medicine, American Dietetic Association, and Dietitians of Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-12-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine that physical activity, athletic performance, and recovery from exercise are enhanced by optimal nutrition. These organizations recommend appropriate selection of food and fluids, timing of intake, and supplement choices for optimal health and exercise performance. This position paper reviews the current scientific data related to the energy needs of athletes, assessment of body composition, strategies for weight change, the nutrient and fluid needs of athletes, special nutrient needs during training, the use of supplements and nutritional ergogenic aids, and the nutrition recommendations for vegetarian athletes. During times of high physical activity, energy and macronutrient needs-especially carbohydrate and protein intake-must be met in order to maintain body weight, replenish glycogen stores, and provide adequate protein for building and repair of tissue. Fat intake should be adequate to provide the essential fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins, as well as to help provide adequate energy for weight maintenance. Overall, diets should provide moderate amounts of energy from fat (20% to 25% of energy); however, there appears to be no health or performance benefit to consuming a diet containing less than 15% of energy from fat. Body weight and composition can affect exercise performance, but should not be used as the sole criterion for sports performance; daily weigh-ins are discouraged. Consuming adequate food and fluid before, during, and after exercise can help maintain blood glucose during exercise, maximize exercise performance, and improve recovery time. Athletes should be well-hydrated before beginning to exercise; athletes should also drink enough fluid during and after exercise to balance fluid losses. Consumption of sport drinks containing carbohydrates and electrolytes during exercise will provide fuel for the muscles, help maintain

  14. Dismounted complex blast injuries: patterns of injuries and resource utilization associated with the multiple extremity amputee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Mark; Waterman, Scott; Dunne, James; D'Alleyrand, Jean-Claude; Andersen, Romney C

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this report is to analyze the resource utilization and injury patterns of complex dismounted blast injuries. A retrospective review of U.S. service members injured in combat between 2007 and 2010 was conducted. Data analyzed included age, injury mechanism, amputated limbs, number and type of associated injuries, blood products utilized, intensive care unit length of stay (ILOS), hospital length of stay (HLOS) and the Injury Severity Score (ISS). Patients were stratified based on the number of amputations. Sixty-three patients comprised the multiple extremity amputation (MEA) group. Ninety-eight percent sustained injuries from an improvised explosive device (IED) and 96% were dismounted. The ISS, number of surgical encounters, blood products utilized and ILOS were all clinically significantly different than controls. Care of multiple extremity amputees involves the utilization of significant resources. This knowledge may better help surgeons and administrators allocate assets at hospitals, both military and civilian, who care for this complex and challenging patient population.

  15. Thoracic spinal trauma associated with closed thoraco-abdominal injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路磊; 吴立文; 范广宇

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To explore the management of thoracic spinal trauma (TST) associated with closed thoraco-abdominal injuries (CTAI). Methods: A retrospective study was made on 259 patients with TST admitted to our department as an emergency treatment from January 1996 to June 2001. We summarized the clinical features of TST associated with CTAI. Results: Among 259 patients with thoracic spinal trauma, 112 were associated with CTAI. Traffic accident was the most common cause. The force causing upper TST was more violent than that causing the lower. Pulmonary complications were the leading cause of death in this group. Surgery could not improve neurological function for completely paraplegic patients.Conclusions: The reason that upper TST has the tendency to be associated with CTAI is its special anatomical feature. Routine ultrasonic examination can avoid misdiagnosis of latent closed abdominal injuries associated with spinal injury. The presence of potential injuries, especially CTAI, should be considered when deciding whether or not to perform surgery early.

  16. Genetic association studies in drug-induced liver injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Ann K; Day, Chris P

    2009-11-01

    Genetic studies on drug-induced liver injury (DILI) have proved challenging, both because of their rarity and their difficulty in replicating observed effects. However, significant progress has now been achieved by both candidate-gene and genome-wide association studies. These two approaches are considered in detail, together with examples of DILI due to specific drugs where consistent associations have been reported. Particular consideration is given to associations between antituberculosis drug-related liver injury and the "slow acetylator" genotype for N-acetyltransferase 2, amoxicillin/clavulanate-related liver injury, and the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DRB1*1501 allele and flucloxacillin-related injury and the HLA class I B*5701 allele. Although these associations are drug-specific, the possibility that additional, more general susceptibility genes for DILI exist requires further investigation, ideally by genome-wide association studies involving international collaboration. The possibility of interethnic variation in susceptibility to DILI also requires further study.

  17. Maxillofacial injuries associated with intimate partner violence in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daud Razak

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The facial region has been the most common site of injury following violent episodes. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and pattern of maxillofacial injuries associated with intimate partner violence (IPV in women treated at a single facility in Malaysia. Methods A retrospective review of 242 hospital records of female IPV victims who were seen at the One-Stop Crisis Centre (OSCC in Hospital Raja Perempuan Zainab II, Kelantan over a two-year period (January 1, 2005 to December 31, 2006 was performed. A structured form was used for data collection. Information regarding the anatomical sites of injuries, types of injuries, and mechanisms of assault were obtained. Results Most victims were married (85.1%, were injured by the husband (83.5%, and had at least one previous IPV episode (85.5%. Injury to the maxillofacial region was the most common (50.4%, followed by injury to the limbs (47.9%. In 122 cases of maxillofacial injuries, the middle of the face was most frequently affected (60.6%, either alone or in combination with the upper or lower third of the face. Injury to soft tissues (contusions, abrasions and lacerations was the most common (87.7%. Conclusions This study indicates there is a high prevalence of maxillofacial injuries associated with IPV among women treated at the OSCC in Kelantan, Malaysia.

  18. An Interpersonal Psychotherapy Approach to Counseling Student Athletes: Clinical Implications of Athletic Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heird, Emily Benton; Steinfeldt, Jesse A.

    2013-01-01

    Research has shown that disruptive circumstances in an athlete's career (temporary injury, permanent injury, retirement) can pose significant difficulties, especially if the athlete has developed a salient athletic identity at the expense of a multidimensional self-concept. The authors present an interpersonal psychotherapy approach to case…

  19. Inferior alveolar nerve injuries associated with mandibular fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bede, Salwan Yousif Hanna; Ismael, Waleed Khaleel; Al-Assaf, Dhuha A; Omer, Saad Salem

    2012-11-01

    The study evaluates the incidence of inferior alveolar nerve injuries in mandibular fractures, the duration of their recovery, and the factors associated with them. Fifty-two patients with mandibular fractures involving the ramus, angle, and body regions were included in this study; the inferior alveolar nerve was examined for neurological deficit posttraumatically using sharp/blunt differentiation method, and during the follow-up period the progression of neural recovery was assessed. The incidence of neural injury of the inferior alveolar nerve was 42.3%, comminuted and displaced linear fractures were associated with higher incidence of inferior alveolar nerve injury and prolonged recovery time, and recovery of inferior alveolar nerve function occurred in 91%.Fractures of the mandible involving the ramus, angle, and body regions, and comminuted and displaced linear fractures are factors that increase the incidence of inferior alveolar nerve injuries. Missile injuries can be considered as another risk factor.

  20. Effects of a shoulder injury prevention strength training program on eccentric external rotator muscle strength and glenohumeral joint imbalance in female overhead activity athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederbracht, Yvonne; Shim, Andrew L; Sloniger, Mark A; Paternostro-Bayles, Madeline; Short, Thomas H

    2008-01-01

    Imbalance of the eccentrically-activated external rotator cuff muscles versus the concentrically-activated internal rotator cuff muscles is a primary risk factor for glenohumeral joint injuries in overhead activity athletes. Nonisokinetic dynamometer based strength training studies, however, have focused exclusively on resulting concentric instead of applicable eccentric strength gains of the external rotator cuff muscles. Furthermore, previous strength training studies did not result in a reduction in glenoumeral joint muscle imbalance, thereby suggesting that currently used shoulder strength training programs do not effectively reduce the risk of shoulder injury to the overhead activity athlete. Two collegiate women tennis teams, consisting of 12 women, participated in this study throughout their preseason training. One team (n = 6) participated in a 5-week, 4 times a week, external shoulder rotator muscle strength training program next to their preseason tennis training. The other team (n = 6) participated in a comparable preseason tennis training program, but did not conduct any upper body strength training. Effects of this strength training program were evaluated by comparing pre- and posttraining data of 5 maximal eccentric external immediately followed by concentric internal contractions on a Kin-Com isokinetic dynamometer (Chattecx Corp., Hixson, Tennessee). Overall, the shoulder strength training program significantly increased eccentric external total work without significant effects on concentric internal total work, concentric internal mean peak force, or eccentric external mean peak force. In conclusion, by increasing the eccentric external total exercise capacity without a subsequent increase in the concentric internal total exercise capacity, this strength training program potentially decreases shoulder rotator muscle imbalances and the risk for shoulder injuries to overhead activity athletes.

  1. Injury Patterns in Selected High School Sports: A Review of the 1995-1997 Seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, John W.; Barber-Foss, Kim D.

    1999-01-01

    Described injury patterns in 10 high school sports, identifying risk as measured by observed injury patterns. Certified athletic trainers recorded data daily on observed injuries over two academic years. Results indicated an inherent risk of injury associated with participation in certain sports and activities of the players. Therefore,…

  2. The relation between athletic sports and prevalence of amenorrhea and oligomenorrhea in Iranian female athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dadgostar Haleh

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 1992, the concept of female athlete triad was introduced to describe the interrelated problems of amenorrhea, eating disorders and osteoporosis seen in female athletes. To gain a clearer picture of amenorrhea/oligomenorrhea in Iran, one of the main components of the female athlete triad, we therefore established this study on the prevalence of amenorrhea/oligomenorrhea in elite Iranian female athletes, also evaluating the risk factors of these disorders in the same population. Methods This study performed as a cross-sectional study. All elite Iranian female athletes of 34 sports federation, including female athletes in national teams and medalists of Tehran were invited to participate. A total of 788 (95% response rate returned the questionnaires and were examined. Younger athletes under the age of menarche were excluded. Each athlete completed a self-administered questionnaire, which covered the following questions about participant's demographic information, athletic history, history of injuries and menstrual pattern. In order to diagnose the causes of amenorrhea/Oligomenorrhea including polycystic ovary syndrome(PCOS, participants with amenorrhea/Oligomenorrhea underwent further investigation. They were evaluated by following Para clinic investigation, and an ultrasonographic study of ovary. Results The age ranged from 13–37 (mean = 21.1, SD = 4.5. Seventy one (9.0% individuals had amenorrhea/oligomenorrhea, among those, 11 (15.5% had PCOS. There was also a positive association between amenorrhea/oligomenorrhea and the following: age under 20 OR; 2.67, 95%CI(1.47 – 4.85, weight class sports OR; 2.09, 95%CI(1.15 – 3.82, endurance sports OR; 2.89, 95%CI(1.22 – 6.84, late onset of menarche OR; 3.32 95%CI(1.04–10.51, and use of oral contraceptive pills OR; 6.17, 95%CI(3.00 – 12.69. Intensity of training sport or BMI were not risk factors. Conclusion These findings support the previous findings in the literature

  3. Effect of 12-Week Vitamin D Supplementation on 25[OH]D Status and Performance in Athletes with a Spinal Cord Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelle Leonie Flueck

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: studies with able-bodied athletes showed that performance might possibly be influenced by vitamin D status. Vitamin D seems to have a direct impact on neuromuscular function by docking on vitamin D receptors in the muscle tissue. Additionally, a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was shown not only in infants and in the elderly but also in healthy adults and spinal cord injured individuals. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate whether a vitamin D dose of 6000 IU daily over 12 weeks would be sufficient to increase vitamin D status in indoor wheelchair athletes to a normal or optimal vitamin D level and whether vitamin D deficiency is associated with an impairment in muscle performance in these individuals; (2 Methods: vitamin D status was assessed in indoor elite wheelchair athletes in order to have a baseline measurement. If vitamin D status was below 75 nmol/L, athletes were supplemented with 6000 IU of vitamin D daily over 12 weeks. A vitamin D status over 75 nmol/L was supplemented with a placebo supplement. Vitamin D status, as well as a Wingate test and an isokinetic dynamometer test, were performed at baseline and after six and 12 weeks; (3 Results: 20 indoor elite wheelchair athletes participated in this double-blind study. All of these athletes showed an insufficient vitamin D status at baseline and were, therefore, supplemented with vitamin D. All athletes increased vitamin D status significantly over 12 weeks and reached an optimal level. Wingate performance was not significantly increased. Isokinetic dynamometer strength was significantly increased but only in the non-dominant arm in isometric and concentric elbow flexion; (4 Conclusion: a dose of 6000 IU of vitamin D daily over a duration of 12 weeks seems to be sufficient to increase vitamin D status to an optimal level in indoor wheelchair athletes. It remains unclear, whether upper body performance or muscle strength and vitamin D status are

  4. Landmine associated injuries in children in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Muhammet; Yildirimcan, Humeyra; Ozkalipci, Onder; Melek, Mehmet; Edirne, Yesim; Bicer, Umit; Uner, Huseyin Bulent

    2009-11-01

    This study aims to examine trends of injuries due to landmines and unexploded ordnance (UXO) and to determine problems during and after the treatment of children and adolescent victims in Turkey. Data from the records of 23 children injured from landmines and UXO were analyzed from April 2001 to October 2008. Cases consist of 21 (91.3%) males and two (8.7%) females with a mean age of 12.8 years. Cause of injury was landmine explosion in 20 (87.0%) and UXO in three (13.0%) cases. Injuries in upper and lower extremities were determined in eight (34.8%) children. Hand amputation was the result in 10 (43.5%) children where in two cases a leg, in one case an eye, in one case a hand and arm, in two cases a hand and leg, in one case an eye and a leg and in three cases a hand and eye were lost. One case of death was recorded from UXO with an autopsy performed. Contaminated areas in our region should be cleared according to international contracts to prevent injuries in children, centers providing rehabilitation services should be established and policies regarding social support for child victims should be ascertained.

  5. A comparison of Gaelic football injuries in males and females in primary care.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Crowley, J

    2011-10-01

    The Ladies Gaelic Football Association has a playing population of 150,000 of which 33% are adults. A number of studies have been published on rates of injury among male athletes but none on female athletes in Gaelic football. A retrospective review of insurance claims, submitted under the Gaelic Athletic Association Player Insurance Injury Scheme. 405 injuries were recorded, 248 [107 (70%) male, 141 (58%) female] to the lower limb, 91 [33 (21%) male, 58 (23%) female] to the upper limb. The majority of lower limb injuries [56 (52%) male, 56 (40%) female] were to muscle. Almost a third of upper limb injuries were fractures [10 (30.3%) male, 33 (57%) female]. injuries\\/1000 hours playing was 8.25 for men and 2.4 for women. The injury rate in ladies Gaelic football was found to be significantly lower than in men\\'s Gaelic football. Lower limb injuries accounted for the majority of injuries in both sports.

  6.  Hepatotoxicity associated with dietary energy supplements: use and abuse by young athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avelar-Escobar, Giovanni; Méndez-Navarro, Jorge; Ortiz-Olvera, Nayeli X; Castellanos, Guillermo; Ramos, Roberto; Gallardo-Cabrera, Víctor E; Vargas-Alemán, José de Jesús; Díaz de León, Oscar; Rodríguez, Elda V; Dehesa-Violante, Margarita

    2012-01-01

     In recent years there has been a significant increase in the consumption of dietary energy supplements (DES) associated with the parallel advertising against obesity and favoring high physical performance. We present the case and outcome of a young patient who developed acute mixed liver injury (hepatocellular and cholestatic) after ingestion of various "over the counter" products to increase muscle mass and physical performance (NO Xplode®, creatine, L-carnitine, and Growth Factor ATN®). The diagnosis was based on the exclusion of other diseases and liver biopsy findings. The dietary supplement and herbal multivitamins industry is one with the highest growth rates in the market, with annual revenues amounting to billions and constantly lacking scientific or reproducible evidence about the efficacy and/or safety of the offered products. Furthermore, and contrary to popular belief, different forms of injury associated with these natural substances have been documented particularly in the liver, supporting the need of a more strict regulation.

  7. Position of Dietitians of Canada, the American Dietetic Association, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and Athletic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    It is the position of Dietitians of Canada, the American Dietetic Association, and the American College of Sports Medicine that physical activity, athletic performance, and recovery from exercise are enhanced by optimal nutrition. These organizations recommend appropriate selection of food and fluids, timing of intake, and supplement choices for optimal health and exercise performance. This position paper reviews the current scientific data related to athletes' energy needs, assessment of body composition, strategies for weight change, athletes' nutrient and fluid needs, special nutrient needs during training, the use of supplements and nutritional ergogenic aids, and nutrition recommendations for vegetarian athletes. During times of high physical activity, energy and macronutrient needs - especially carbohydrate and protein intake - must be met in order to maintain body weight, replenish glycogen stores, and provide adequate protein for building and repairing tissue. Fat intake should be adequate to provide essential fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins, as well as to help provide adequate energy for weight maintenance. Overall, diets should provide moderate amounts of energy from fat (20-25% of energy); there appears to be no health or performance benefit to consuming a diet containing less than 15% of energy from fat. Body weight and composition can affect exercise performance, but should not be used as the sole criterion for sports performance; daily weigh-ins are discouraged. Consuming adequate food and fluid before, during, and after exercise can help maintain blood glucose levels during exercise, maximize exercise performance, and improve recovery time. Athletes should be well hydrated before beginning exercise; they should also drink enough fluid during and after exercise to balance fluid losses. Consumption of sport drinks containing carbohydrates and electrolytes during exercise will provide fuel for the muscles, help maintain blood glucose levels and the

  8. Complement activation and kidney injury molecule-1-associated proximal tubule injury in severe preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burwick, Richard M; Easter, Sarah Rae; Dawood, Hassan Y; Yamamoto, Hidemi S; Fichorova, Raina N; Feinberg, Bruce B

    2014-10-01

    Kidney injury with proteinuria is a characteristic feature of preeclampsia, yet the nature of injury in specific regions of the nephron is incompletely understood. Our study aimed to use existing urinary biomarkers to describe the pattern of kidney injury and proteinuria in pregnancies affected by severe preeclampsia. We performed a case-control study of pregnant women from Brigham and Women's Hospital from 2012 to 2013. We matched cases of severe preeclampsia (n=25) 1:1 by parity and gestational age to 2 control groups with and without chronic hypertension. Urinary levels of kidney injury molecule-1 and complement components (C3a, C5a, and C5b-9) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and other markers (albumin, β2 microglobulin, cystatin C, epithelial growth factor, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, osteopontin, and uromodulin) were measured simultaneously with a multiplex electrochemiluminescence assay. Median values between groups were compared with the Wilcoxon signed-rank test and correlations with Spearman correlation coefficient. Analysis of urinary markers revealed higher excretion of albumin and kidney injury molecule-1 and lower excretion of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and epithelial growth factor in severe preeclampsia compared with chronic hypertension and healthy controls. Among subjects with severe preeclampsia, urinary excretion of complement activation products correlated most closely with kidney injury molecule-1, a specific marker of proximal tubule injury (C5a: r=0.60; P=0.001; and C5b-9: r=0.75; Pkidney injury in severe preeclampsia that is characterized by glomerular impairment and complement-mediated inflammation and injury, possibly localized to the proximal tubule in association with kidney injury molecule-1.

  9. Osseous Injury Associated With Ligamentous Tear of the Knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chee Hwee; Tan, Chih Feng; Kim, Okwha; Suh, Kyung Jin; Yao, Min-Szu; Chan, Wing P; Wu, Jim S

    2016-11-01

    One of the most common knee injuries is ligament tear, which may initially manifest as an osseous injury in radiographs. Radiologists should therefore be able to recognize ligament tears of the knee as osseous abnormalities in images. This review focuses on the imaging features of knee ligament injuries and their related osseous injuries: anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear with Segond fracture; associated marrow contusion; ACL avulsion fracture; posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) tear with osseous avulsion of the ligament including arcuate sign; reverse Segond fracture; PCL avulsion fracture; medial collateral ligament tear with Pellegrini-Stieda disease; lateral collateral ligament tear with avulsion fracture of the fibular head; and patellar ligament injuries with Osgood-Schlatter and Sinding-Larsen-Johansson.

  10. Dietary Intervention Restored Menses in Female Athletes with Exercise-Associated Menstrual Dysfunction with Limited Impact on Bone and Muscle Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn Cialdella-Kam

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Exercise-related menstrual dysfunction (ExMD is associated with low energy availability (EA, decreased bone mineral density (BMD, and increased risk of musculoskeletal injury. We investigated whether a 6-month carbohydrate-protein (CHO-PRO supplement (360 kcal/day, 54 g CHO/day, 20 g PRO/day intervention would improve energy status and musculoskeletal health and restore menses in female athletes (n = 8 with ExMD. At pre/post-intervention, reproductive and thyroid hormones, bone health (BMD, bone mineral content, bone markers, muscle strength/power and protein metabolism markers, profile of mood state (POMS, and energy intake (EI/energy expenditure (7 day food/activity records were measured. Eumenorrheic athlete controls with normal menses (Eumen; n = 10 were measured at baseline. Multiple linear regressions were used to evaluate differences between groups and pre/post-intervention blocking on participants. Improvements in EI (+382 kcal/day; p = 0.12, EA (+417 kcal/day; p = 0.17 and energy balance (EB; +466 kcal/day; p = 0.14 were observed with the intervention but were not statistically significant. ExMD resumed menses (2.6 ± 2.2-months to first menses; 3.5 ± 1.9 cycles; one remaining anovulatory with menses. Female athletes with ExMD for >8 months took longer to resume menses/ovulation and had lower BMD (low spine (ExMD = 3; Eumen = 1; low hip (ExMD = 2 than those with ExMD for <8 months; for 2 ExMD the intervention improved spinal BMD. POMS fatigue scores were 15% lower in ExMD vs. Eumen (p = 0.17; POMS depression scores improved by 8% in ExMD (p = 0.12. EI, EA, and EB were similar between groups, but the intervention (+360 kcal/day improved energy status enough to reverse ExMD despite no statistically significant changes in EI. Similar baseline EA and EB between groups suggests that some ExMD athletes are more sensitive to EA and EB fluctuations.

  11. A Systematic Review of the Association Between Physical Fitness and Musculoskeletal Injury Risk: Part 1 - Cardiorespiratory Endurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisman, Peter; de la Motte, Sarah J; Gribbin, Timothy C; Jaffin, Dianna Purvis; Murphy, Kaitlin; Deuster, Patricia A

    2017-02-13

    Musculoskeletal injuries (MSK-I) are a significant health problem for both military and athletic populations. Research indicates MSK-I is associated with physical fitness; however, the association between specific components of physical fitness and MSK-I in military and athletic populations has not been systematically examined. Our goal was to systematically review the literature to provide a best evidence synthesis on the relationship between components of physical fitness and MSK-I risk in military and civilian athletic populations. This first of three manuscripts focuses on cardiorespiratory endurance (CRE). MEDLINE, EBSCO, EMBASE, and the Defense Technical Information Center were searched for original studies published from 1970 through 2015 that examined associations between physical fitness and MSK-I. Forty-nine of 4,229 citations met our inclusion criteria. Primary findings indicate there is 1) strong evidence that poor performance on a set distance run for time is a predictor for MSK-I risk in both genders; 2) strong evidence that poor performance on timed shuttle runs is a predictor for MSK-I risk in males; 3) moderate evidence in males and limited evidence in females that poor performance on a timed step test is a predictor of MSK-I risk; and 4) limited or insufficient evidence that poor performance on the Cooper run test, maximal and submaximal aerobic graded exercise tests, and the Conconi test are predictors of MSK-I risk in males and/or females. Several measures of CRE are risk factors for training-related MSK-I in military and civilian athletic populations, indicating CRE may be an important measure for MSK-I risk stratification.

  12. The effects of performing the YMCA Bike protocol on general brain function in athletes with and without mild traumatic brain injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Michael

    Research into concussion or mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) has increased significantly within the past decade. In the literature some researchers are reporting 1.6 to 3.8 million concussions occurring in sports (Langlois, 2006), mTBI accounts for 80% of all reported traumatic brain injuries (Ruff, 2011). With these alarming statistics and an increasing number of athletes suffering a concussion there has been an increased emphasis for sports medicine practitioners to properly diagnose and treat those recovering from brain injury so that they may return safely to school, sports or work. Current clinical tools available to practitioners give them the ability to assess functional recovery in clinical measures of personality change; patient self reported symptom scales; functional cognitive domains (computer based neuropsychological batteries) and clinical balance measures. These current methods of clinical measurement, diagnosis and return to play protocols have remained largely unchanged for the past 20 years. In addition, there is some controversy into the application of these clinical measures within repeated measure testing as improvement does not necessarily reflect post-traumatic recovery but may instead reflect practice or "ceiling effects" of measurement. Therefore, diagnostic platforms that measure structural physiologic recovery must be implemented to assist the clinician in the 'Return to Play' process for athletic participation. In this study quantitative EEG (qEEG) analysis using a 128-lead dense array system during the first aerobic challenge in a 'Return to Play' protocol was performed. Subjects recovering from concussion and normal volunteers with no history of concussion were included and their neuroelectric activity recorded before, during, after and 24 hours post light aerobic exercise on a stationary bike. Subjects recovering from concussion demonstrated altered spectral absolute power across relevant regions of interest in the frontal, central

  13. Injuries Associated with Femoral Shaft Fractures with Special Emphasis on Occult Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Carlos Rodriguez-Merchan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fractures of the femoral shaft are mostly the result of high-energy accidents that also cause multiple trauma injuries, in particular ipsilateral knee and hip injuries. The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence of injuries associated with femoral shaft fractures and how many of them were undetected. Methods: We studied 148 patients (150 femoral shaft fractures with an average age of 52 (range: 18-97. Femoral shaft fractures were treated with antegrade intramedullary nailing in 118 cases (78.7%, and with open reduction and internal fixation in 32 cases (21.3%. Unlocked reamed intramedullary nailing was performed in Winquist type I and type II fractures, while statically locked unreamed intramedullary nailing was carried out in Winquist type III and type IV fractures. Results: There were 70 patients with associated injuries (46.4%. The associated injuries went undetected in 18 out of 70 patients (25.5%. Six femoral nonunions (4% occurred in patients under 70 years of age (high-energy accidents treated by open reduction and internal fixation. Conclusion: Injuries associated with femoral shaft fractures were very frequent (46.4% in our series, with 25.5% undetected. Open reduction and internal fixation was a poor prognostic factor of nonunion in these fractures.

  14. Injuries Associated with the 580 km University Student Grand Voluntary Road March: Focus on Foot Injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Sang-Cheon; Min, Young-Gi; Lee, In-Soo; Yoon, Gi-Ho; Kang, Bo-Ra; Jung, Yoon-Seok; Cho, Joon-Pil; Kim, Gi-Woon

    2013-01-01

    College student volunteers (n = 142) completed a 580 km road march for 21 consecutive days. Each volunteer carried a backpack that weighed 14.1 ± 1.4 kg on the average. We investigated the incidence and location of blisters associated with the road march using a foot map along with other injuries. Overall, 95.1% of the subjects (135 of 142) sustained one or more injuries. All injured subjects had foot blisters, and 18% had other foot injuries. The most common locations of blister development ...

  15. Acute lung injury probably associated with infusion of propofol emulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chondrogiannis, K D; Siontis, G C M; Koulouras, V P; Lekka, M E; Nakos, G

    2007-08-01

    We present a case of acute lung injury associated with propofol infusion in a mechanically ventilated patient with intracerebral haemorrhage. Diagnosis was based on the exclusion of other risk factors inducing acute lung injury and on the clinical improvement after discontinuation of the propofol emulsion. Laboratory data such as the increase in total phospholipids, neutral lipids and free fatty acids in the broncho-alveolar lavage fluid, the remarkably high percentage of alveolar macrophages including fat droplets and the similar lipid composition of propofol and broncho-alveolar lavage fluid support the relationship between propofol and acute lung injury.

  16. 青少年篮球运动员踝关节防治措施%The Biological Characteristics Analysis of Young Basketball Athletes Ankle Injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许永娟

    2012-01-01

      本文将青少年篮球运动员在运动训练的过程中,容易发生的扭伤情况,尤其是踝关节损伤情况进行分析,并针对篮球技术的动作特点以及踝关节自身的结构特点,提出了一些预防性的措施,希望青少年篮球运动员树立起一种科学的篮球训练和预防方法,以健康的体魄来提高篮球运动的成绩。%  As a set of athletic and entertainment in one of the sports, basketball has the history of a century, and with the continuous improvement of its charm, it gradually becomes a worldwide sport, and has more and more participants. This article presents a youth basketbal athletes in the sports training process, prone to sprain, especial y the ankle injury characteristics of biology, and summed up the mechanism and causes of ankle injury for basketbal skil s action, based on the characteristics and ankle structural characteristics, present some preventive measures to ensure that young basketbal players to establish a scientific basketball training and methods, so as to improve the results of the basketball with a good health.

  17. Prevention of Infections Associated with Combat-Related Extremity Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    segmental/ severely comminuted fractures, or heavily contaminated wounds Type IIIB As a Gustilo Type IIIA injury, but with periosteal stripping and bone...exposure 10–50% Type IIIC Any open fracture with vascular injury requiring repair 25–50% * Tibial fractures are associated with twice the infection...in 20 calcaneous fractures, 4 pilon fractures, and 20 tibial plateau fractures found no infec- tious differences between NPWT and standard wound care

  18. Epidemic Characteristics and Causation for Sport Injury of Chinese Youthful Athletes of Ice and Snow Sports%我国冰雪项目青年运动员运动损伤流行病特点及致因

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏亚茹; 徐金庆; 刘志良; 高洪杰; 杨淑媛

    2015-01-01

    In order to prevent, reduce or avoid sports injury of Chinese youthful athletes of ice and snow sports, using the method of epidemiological research in the field of sports medicine, study on the characteristics and causation for sport injury of Chinese youthful athletes of ice and snow sports. The results showed that the incidence rate of sport injury of Chinese youthful athletes of ice and snow sports is higher, the rate of male athlets is higher than female, sports injury has the characteristics of repeatability and multiple. The rate of teenage ice hockey players and freestyle skiers is relatively higher. The knees, waists and ankles are greatest occurrence of sports injury. Diversified types of sports injuries, sprain, abrasions, contusions and fallings are common. The injuries of youthful athletes of ice and snow sports are based on acute injury and medium injury, minor injury. The mistakes of movements technique is the main causation for sport injury of Chinese youthful athletes of ice and snow sports.%为预防、减少或避免我国冰雪项目青年运动员的运动损伤,运用运动医学领域中研究流行病的方法,对我国冰雪项目青年运动员的运动损伤特点及致因进行研究.研究结果表明,我国冰雪项目青年运动员运动损伤发生率较高,男性运动员运动损伤的发病率高于女性,运动损伤具有重复性和多发性的特点;青年冰球运动员和自由式滑雪运动员运动损伤发生率相对较高;膝关节、腰背部和踝关节是运动损伤的高发部位;运动损伤的类型呈现多样化,扭伤、擦伤、挫伤及摔伤较为常见;冰雪项目青年运动员的伤病以急性损伤和中、轻度损伤为主;动作技术失误是导致我国冰雪项目青年运动员运动损伤的主要致因.

  19. Retrospective Injury Epidemiology and Risk Factors for Injury in CrossFit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalvo, Alicia M; Shaefer, Hilary; Rodriguez, Belinda; Li, Tan; Epnere, Katrina; Myer, Gregory D

    2017-03-01

    The objective of the study is to examine injury epidemiology and risk factors for injury in CrossFit athletes. A survey was administered to athletes at four owner-operated facilities in South Florida. Respondents reported number, location of injury, and training exposure from the preceding six months and answered questions regarding potential risk factors for injury. Fifty out of 191 athletes sustained 62 injuries during CrossFit participation in the preceding six months. The most frequently injured locations were the shoulder, knee, and lower back. Injury incidence was 2.3/1000 athlete training hours. Competitors were more likely to be injured (40% v 19%, p = 0.002) and had greater weekly athlete training hours (7.3 ± 7.0 v 4.9 ± 2.9, p CrossFit and location of injuries were similar to those previously reported. Injury incidence was similar to related sports, including gymnastics and powerlifting. While being a competitor was related to injury, increased exposure and length of participation in CrossFit likely underlied this association. Specifically, increased exposure to training in the form of greater weekly athlete training hours and weekly participations may contribute to injury. Increased height and body mass were also related to injury which is likely reflective of increased load utilized during training. Further research is warranted to determine if biomechanical factors associated with greater height and ability to lift greater loads are modifiable factors that can be adapted to reduce the increase risk of injury during CrossFit.

  20. Pilot Evaluation of a Novel Clinical Test of Reaction Time in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Football Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckner, James T.; Kutcher, Jeffrey S.; Richardson, James K.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Context: Evidence suggests that concussion prolongs reaction time (RT). We have developed a simple, reliable clinical tool for measuring reaction time that may be of value in the assessment of concussion in athletes. Objective: To compare baseline values of clinical RT (RTclin) obtained using the new clinical reaction time apparatus with computerized RT (RTcomp) obtained using a validated computerized neuropsychological test battery. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Data were collected during a National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I collegiate football team's preparticipation physical examination session. Patients or Other Participants: Ninety-four Division I collegiate football players. Main Outcome Measure(s): The RTclin was measured using a 1.3-m measuring stick embedded in a weighted rubber disk that was released and caught as quickly as possible. The RTcomp was measured using the simple RT component of CogState Sport. Results: For the 68 athletes whose CogState Sport tests passed the program's integrity check, RTclin and RTcomp were correlated (r  =  0.445, P < .001). Overall, mean RTclin was shorter and less variable than mean RTcomp (203 ± 20 milliseconds versus 268 ± 44 milliseconds; P < .001). When RTclin and RTcomp were compared between those athletes with (n  =  68) and those without (n  =  26) valid CogState Sport test sessions, mean RTclin was similar (202 ± 19 milliseconds versus 207 ± 23 milliseconds; P  =  .390), but mean RTcomp was different (258 ± 35 milliseconds versus 290 ± 55 milliseconds; P  =  .009). Conclusions: The RTclin was positively correlated with RTcomp and yielded more consistent reaction time values during baseline testing. Given that RTclin is easy to measure using simple, inexpensive equipment, further prospective study is warranted to determine its clinical utility in the assessment of concussion in athletes. PMID:20617905

  1. Eye injury risk associated with remote control toy helicopter blades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alphonse, Vanessa D; Kemper, Andrew R; Rowson, Steven; Duma, Stefan M

    2012-01-01

    Eye injuries can be caused by a variety of consumer products and toys. Recently, indoor remote controlled (RC) toy helicopters have become very popular. The purpose of this study is to quantify eye injury risk associated with five commercially available RC toy helicopter blades. An experimental matrix of 25 tests was developed to test five different RC toy helicopter blades at full battery power on six postmortem human eyes. A pressure sensor inserted through the optic nerve measured intraocular pressure. Corneal abrasion was assessed post-impact using fluorescein dye. Intraocular pressure was correlated to injury risk for hyphema, lens damage, retinal damage, and globe rupture using published risk functions. All tests resulted in corneal abrasions; however, no other injuries were observed. The 25 tests produced an increase intraocular pressure between 15.2 kPa and 99.3 kPa (114.3 mmHg and 744.7 mmHg). Calculated blade velocities ranged between 16.0 m/s and 25.4 m/s. Injury risk for hyphema was a maximum of 0.2%. Injury risk for lens damage, retinal damage, and globe rupture was 0.0% for all tests. Blade design parameters such as length and mass did not affect the risk of eye injury. This is the first study to quantify the risk of eye injury from RC toy helicopter blades. While corneal abrasions were observed, more serious eye injuries were neither observed nor predicted to have occurred. Results from this study are critical for establishing safe design thresholds for RC toy helicopter blades so that more serious injuries can be prevented.

  2. Spinal cord injury and its association with blunt head trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paiva WS

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Wellingson S Paiva, Arthur MP Oliveira, Almir F Andrade, Robson LO Amorim, Leonardo JO Lourenço, Manoel J TeixeiraDivision of Neurosurgery, University of São Paulo, BrazilBackground: Severe and moderate head injury can cause misdiagnosis of a spinal cord injury, leading to devastating long-term consequences. The objective of this study is to identify risk factors involving spine trauma and moderate-to-severe brain injury.Methods: A prospective study involving 1617 patients admitted in the emergency unit was carried out. Of these patients, 180 with moderate or severe head injury were enrolled. All patients were submitted to three-view spine series X-ray and thin cut axial CT scans for spine trauma investigations.Results: 112 male patients and 78 female patients, whose ages ranged from 11 to 76 years (mean age, 34 years. The most common causes of brain trauma were pedestrians struck by motor vehicles (31.1%, car crashes (27.7%, and falls (25%. Systemic lesions were present in 80 (44.4% patients and the most common were fractures, and lung and spleen injuries. 52.8% had severe and 47.2% moderate head trauma. Fourteen patients (7.8% suffered spinal cord injury (12 in cervical spine, one in lumbar, and one thoracic spine. In elderly patients, the presence of associated lesions and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS < 9 were statistically significant as risk factors (P < 0.05 for spine injury.Conclusion: Spinal cord injury related to moderate and severe brain trauma usually affects the cervical spine. The incidence of spinal lesions and GCS < 9 points were related to greater incidence of spinal cord injury.Keywords: head injury, spine trauma, risk factors

  3. Lower limb fractures associated with multiligament knee injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagnaro, Joaquin; Yacuzzi, Carlos; Barla, Jorge; Zicaro, Juan Pablo; Costa-Paz, Matias

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Knee ligament injuries related to lower limb fractures are common and frequently unnoticed. Management of acute polytrauma is usually focused in the bone lesion and a complete physical examination might be really difficult. The purpose of this study was to analyze a series of patients who suffered multiligament knee injuries associated to a lower limb fracture. Hypothesis: The use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) during the initial management can lead to an early diagnosis of ligament injuries. Methods: A retrospective search was conducted from our hospital´s electronic database. We evaluated the initial diagnosis and acute surgical treatment, and management and functional outcomes after the ligament lesion was diagnosed. Results: Seven patients who presented a knee multiligament injury associated with a lower limb fracture were evaluated. The average age was 29 years. Primary diagnoses were: four tibial plateau fractures; one open fracture-dislocation of the knee; one open leg fracture and ipsilateral hip dislocation; and one bifocal femur fracture. Only three patients had an MRI during the initial management of trauma. Six out of seven patients had to be operated on for the multiligament knee injury. The period between the resolution of the fracture and the ligamentous repair was from 3 to 24 months. Conclusion: Poor functional outcomes are reported in patients with multiligament knee injuries associated with high-energy lower limb fractures. We consider an MRI during the initial management can lead to better outcomes. A trauma surgeon working alongside an arthroscopic surgeon might optimize the results for these lesions.

  4. Swimming overuse injuries associated with triathlon training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bales, James; Bales, Karrn

    2012-12-01

    Most triathlon overuse injuries occur due to the running and cycling aspects of the sport. By nature of swimming being a non-weight-bearing sport, triathletes have a tendency to use swimming for rehabilitation and recovery. Swimming has a significantly lower injury rate than the other 2 disciplines in a triathlon. Most triathletes use the freestyle stroke, because it is typically the first stroke learned, it is for many the fastest stroke, and by lifting the head the freestyle stroke allows triathletes to sight their direction, which is important in open water swimming. During the freestyle stroke, the shoulder undergoes repetitive overhead motion, and shoulder pain is the most common and well-documented site of musculoskeletal pain in competitive swimmers. It is felt that the pathologic process is attributable to repetitive overhead motion causing microtrauma in the shoulder from either mechanical impingement or generalized laxity or both. Without sufficient rest and recovery, the development of inflammation and pain may result. Depending on the age of the triathlete and the exact etiology of the shoulder pain, treatment options range from nonsurgical to surgical in nature.

  5. Hamstring exercises for track and field athletes: injury and exercise biomechanics, and possible implications for exercise selection and primary prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malliaropoulos, Nikos; Mendiguchia, Jurdan; Pehlivanidis, Hercules; Papadopoulou, Sofia; Valle, Xavier; Malliaras, Peter; Maffulli, Nicola

    2012-09-01

    Hamstring strain injuries are the most prevalent muscle injuries in track and field (TF). These injuries often cause prolonged symptoms and a high risk of re-injury. Strengthening of the hamstring muscles has been recommended for injury prevention. The authors review the possible role of eccentric training in TF hamstring injury prevention and introduce exercise classification criteria to guide clinicians in designing strengthening programmes adapted to TF. The principles exposed may serve as a foundation for future development and application of new eccentric programmes to decrease the high incidence of this type of injury in other sports.

  6. Protocol design for large-scale cross-sectional studies of sexual abuse and associated factors in individual sports: feasibility study in Swedish athletics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timpka, Toomas; Janson, Staffan; Jacobsson, Jenny; Ekberg, Joakim; Dahlström, Örjan; Kowalski, Jan; Bargoria, Victor; Mountjoy, Margo; Svedin, Carl G

    2015-03-01

    To ensure health and well-being for their athletes, sports organizations must offer preventive measures against sexual abuse. The aim of this study was to design and evaluate feasibility of a research protocol for cross-sectional epidemiological studies of sexual abuse in athletics. Examination of the requirements on the study of sexual abuse in athletics was followed by iterated drafting of protocol specifications and formative evaluations. The feasibility of the resulting protocol was evaluated in a national-level study among elite athletics athletes (n = 507) in Sweden. The definition of sexual abuse, the ethical soundness of the protocol, reference populations and study of co-morbidity, and the means for athlete-level data collection were identified as particularly complex issues in the requirements analyses. The web-based survey defined by the protocol facilitates anonymous athlete self-reporting of data on exposure to sexual abuse. 198 athletes (39%) fully completed the feasibility survey. 89% (n = 177) reported that they agreed with that the questions in the survey were important, and 95% (n = 189) reported that they answered truthfully to all questions. Similarly, 91% (n = 180) reported that they did not agree with that the questions were unpleasant for them. However, 16% (n = 32) reported that they did not find the survey to be of personal value, and 12% (n = 23) reported that the survey had caused them to think about issues that they did not want to think about. Responding that participation was not personally gratifying was associated with training more hours (p = 0.01). There is a scarcity of research on the prevention of sexual abuse in individual sports. The present protocol should be regarded as a means to overcome this shortcoming in athletics. When implementing the protocol, it is necessary to encourage athlete compliance and to adapt the web-based survey to the particular infrastructural conditions in the sports setting at hand. Key points

  7. Sport-Related Achievement Motivation and Alcohol Outcomes: An Athlete-Specific Risk Factor among Intercollegiate Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Weaver, Cameron C.; Martens, Matthew P.; Cadigan, Jennifer M.; Takamatsu, Stephanie K.; Treloar, Hayley R.; Pedersen, Eric R.

    2013-01-01

    Intercollegiate athletes report greater alcohol consumption and more alcohol-related problems than their non-athlete peers. Although college athletes share many of the same problems faced by non-athletes, there are some consequences that are unique to athletes. Studies have demonstrated that alcohol negatively affects athletic performance including increased dehydration, impeded muscle recovery, and increased risk for injury. Beyond risk factors for alcohol misuse that may affect college stud...

  8. The elite young athlete: strategies to ensure physical and emotional health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabato TM

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Todd M Sabato, Tanis J Walch, Dennis J Caine Department of Kinesiology and Public Health Education, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND, USA Abstract: This article presents a current review of the risk of physical and psychological injury associated with participation in elite youth sport, and suggests strategies to ensure the physical and emotional health of these young athletes. Although there is lack of epidemiological data, especially with regard to psychological injury, preliminary data suggest that the risk of injury is high in this population. While there is lack of incident and follow-up data, there is also concern regarding burnout, disordered eating, and the long-term consequences of injury. Modifiable injury risk factors identified include postural control, competition anxiety, life events, previous injury, and volume of training. There are presently no studies designed to determine the effectiveness of injury prevention measures in elite youth sports. However, there is adequate evidence arising from injury prevention studies of youth sports participants – including neuromuscular training, protective equipment, mental training to enhance self-esteem, and sport rules modification – to prevent injuries in elite youth sports settings. Although not tested, psychosocial prevention strategies such as adoption of task-oriented coping mechanisms, autonomous support from parents, and a proactive organizational approach also show promise in injury prevention. Keywords: elite, young athlete, athletic injury, psychological, risk factors, injury prevention

  9. 辽宁省青少年田径运动员运动损伤调查研究%Liaoning Province young athletes in track and field sports injury investigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张屹

    2014-01-01

    Investigation the reasons on the part of young athletes athletic injury, summary of the common, and put forward the prevention measures. In order to provide reference for coaches and athletes about preventing and reducing the sports injury in the future training and competitions.%对部分青少年运动员运动损伤原因进行调查,总结其共性,提出预防措施,以期为教练员和运动员在今后的训练和比赛中预防和减少运动损伤的发生提供参考。

  10. [Diagnosis and treatment of associated injuries of the pelvis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, P A; Faĭn, A M; Smoliar, A N; Shchetkin, V A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of investigation is improvement of treatment results of unstable injuries in the pelvic ring in patients with severe associated injuries. An experience of treatment of 533 patients with unstable pelvic injuries is presented. Diagnostic measures take into account the severity of the condition of the victim. Stage treatment with consecutive performing of temporary external immobilization of the pelvis and following final osteosynthesis was optimal. Replacement of external fixation for submersible osteosynthesis held in stable or terminal condition of the victim. Developed treatment of patients with pelvic injuries decreased mortality to 8.4%, number of general complications to 11.6% and number of local complications to 8.7%. Also it decreased length of hospital stay to 35.5 days and provided excellent and good functional results of treatment in 78.9% of cases.

  11. Retrospective Injury Epidemiology and Risk Factors for Injury in CrossFit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia M. Montalvo, Hilary Shaefer, Belinda Rodriguez, Tan Li, Katrina Epnere, Gregory D. Myer

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to examine injury epidemiology and risk factors for injury in CrossFit athletes. A survey was administered to athletes at four owner-operated facilities in South Florida. Respondents reported number, location of injury, and training exposure from the preceding six months and answered questions regarding potential risk factors for injury. Fifty out of 191 athletes sustained 62 injuries during CrossFit participation in the preceding six months. The most frequently injured locations were the shoulder, knee, and lower back. Injury incidence was 2.3/1000 athlete training hours. Competitors were more likely to be injured (40% v 19%, p = 0.002 and had greater weekly athlete training hours (7.3 ± 7.0 v 4.9 ± 2.9, p < 0.001 than non-competitors. Athletes who reported injury also reported significantly higher values for the following risk factors: years of participation (2.7 ± 1.8 v 1.8 ± 1.5, p = 0.001, weekly athlete training hours (7.3 ± 3.8 v 4.9 ± 2.1, p = 0.020, weekly athlete-exposures (6.4 ± 3.8 v 4.7 ± 2.1, p = 0.003, height (1.72 ± 0.09 m v 1.68 ± 0.01 m, p = 0.011, and body mass (78.24 ± 16.86 kg v 72.91 ± 14.77 kg, p = 0.037. Injury rates during CrossFit and location of injuries were similar to those previously reported. Injury incidence was similar to related sports, including gymnastics and powerlifting. While being a competitor was related to injury, increased exposure and length of participation in CrossFit likely underlied this association. Specifically, increased exposure to training in the form of greater weekly athlete training hours and weekly participations may contribute to injury. Increased height and body mass were also related to injury which is likely reflective of increased load utilized during training. Further research is warranted to determine if biomechanical factors associated with greater height and ability to lift greater loads are modifiable factors that can be adapted to reduce

  12. Alcohol: impact on sports performance and recovery in male athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Matthew J

    2014-07-01

    Alcohol is the most commonly used recreational drug globally and its consumption, often in large volume, is deeply embedded in many aspects of Western society. Indeed, athletes are not exempt from the influence alcohol has on society; they often consume greater volumes of alcohol through bingeing behaviour compared with the general population, yet it is often expected and recommended that athletes abstain from alcohol to avoid the negative impact this drug may have on recovery and sporting performance. While this recommendation may seem sensible, the impact alcohol has on recovery and sports performance is complicated and depends on many factors, including the timing of alcohol consumption post-exercise, recovery time required before recommencing training/competition, injury status and dose of alcohol being consumed. In general, acute alcohol consumption, at the levels often consumed by athletes, may negatively alter normal immunoendocrine function, blood flow and protein synthesis so that recovery from skeletal muscle injury may be impaired. Other factors related to recovery, such as rehydration and glycogen resynthesis, may be affected to a lesser extent. Those responsible for the wellbeing of athletes, including the athlete themselves, should carefully monitor habitual alcohol consumption so that the generic negative health and social outcomes associated with heavy alcohol use are avoided. Additionally, if athletes are to consume alcohol after sport/exercise, a dose of approximately 0.5 g/kg body weight is unlikely to impact most aspects of recovery and may therefore be recommended if alcohol is to be consumed during this period.

  13. Negative psychological responses of injury and rehabilitation adherence effects on return to play in competitive athletes: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivarsson A

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Andreas Ivarsson,1 Ulrika Tranaeus,2,3 Urban Johnson,1 Andreas Stenling 4 1Center of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport, School of Health and Welfare, Halmstad University, Halmstad, 2Performance and Training Unit, The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences (GIH, 3Musculoskeletal & Sports Injury Epidemiology Center, IMM, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, 4Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden Abstract: Previous research offers evidence that psychological factors influence an injured athlete during the rehabilitation process. Our first objective was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the results from all published studies that examined the relationships among negative affective responses after sport injuries, rehabilitation adherence, and return to play (RTP. The second objective was to use a meta-analytic path analysis to investigate whether an indirect effect existed between negative affective responses and RTP through rehabilitation adherence. This literature review resulted in seven studies providing 14 effect sizes. The results from the meta-analysis showed that negative affective responses had a negative effect on successful RTP, whereas rehabilitation adherence had a positive effect on RTP. The results from the meta-analytic path analysis showed a weak and nonsignificant indirect effect of negative affective responses on RTP via rehabilitation adherence. These results underline the importance of providing supportive environments for injured athletes to increase the chances of successful RTP via a decrease in negative affective responses and increase in rehabilitation adherence. Keywords: affective responses, rehabilitation behaviors, return to play, sport injuries

  14. Female athletes: a population at risk of vitamin and mineral deficiencies affecting health and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClung, James P; Gaffney-Stomberg, Erin; Lee, Jane J

    2014-10-01

    Adequate vitamin and mineral status is essential for optimal human health and performance. Female athletes could be at risk for vitamin and mineral insufficiency due to inadequate dietary intake, menstruation, and inflammatory responses to heavy physical activity. Recent studies have documented poor iron status and associated declines in both cognitive and physical performance in female athletes. Similarly, insufficient vitamin D and calcium status have been observed in female athletes, and may be associated with injuries, such as stress fracture, which may limit a female athlete's ability to participate in regular physical activity. This review will focus on recent studies detailing the prevalence of poor vitamin and mineral status in female athletes, using iron, vitamin D, and calcium as examples. Factors affecting the dietary requirement for these vitamins and minerals during physical training will be reviewed. Lastly, countermeasures for the prevention of inadequate vitamin and mineral status will be described.

  15. Polymorphisms in the control region of mitochondrial DNA associated with elite Japanese athlete status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikami, E; Fuku, N; Takahashi, H; Ohiwa, N; Pitsiladis, Y P; Higuchi, M; Kawahara, T; Tanaka, M

    2013-10-01

    The control region of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) contains the main regulatory elements for mtDNA replication and transcription. Certain polymorphisms in this region would, therefore, contribute to elite athletic performance, because mitochondrial function is one of determinants of physical performance. The present study was undertaken to examine the effect of polymorphisms in this region on elite athlete status by sequencing the mtDNA control region. Subjects comprised 185 elite Japanese athletes who had represented Japan at international competitions (i.e., 100 endurance/middle-power athletes: EMA; 85 sprint/power athletes: SPA), and 672 Japanese controls (CON). The mtDNA control region was analyzed by direct sequencing. Frequency differences of polymorphisms (minor allele frequency ≥ 0.05) in the mtDNA control region between EMA, SPA, and CON were examined. EMA displayed excess of three polymorphisms [m.152T>C, m.514(CA)n repeat (n ≥ 5), and poly-C stretch at m.568-573 (C ≥ 7)] compared with CON. On the other hand, SPA showed greater frequency of the m.204T>C polymorphism compared with CON. In addition, none of the SPA had m.16278C>T polymorphism, whereas the frequencies of this polymorphism in CON and EMA were 8.3% and 10.0%, respectively. These findings imply that several polymorphisms detected in the control region of mtDNA may influence physical performance probably in a functional manner.

  16. High Psychological Competitive Ability Is Related to Incidence of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury in High School Female Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: In a competitive sport situation, not only the exertions of performance but also the incidence of injury can be influenced by psychological factors. In recent years, the focus on anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury prevention has increased and many studies exploring risk factors for ACL injury have been published. However, the influence of psychological factors on ACL injuries is poorly documented. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between psycholog...

  17. Impact of associated injuries in the Floating knee: A retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yesupalan Rajam S

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Floating knee injuries are usually associated with other significant injuries. Do these injuries have implications on the management of the floating knee and the final outcome of patients? Our study aims to assess the implications of associated injuries in the management and final outcome of floating knee. Methods 29 patients with floating knees were assessed in our institution. A retrospective analysis of medical records and radiographs were done and all associated injuries were identified. The impact of associated injuries on delay in initial surgical management, delay in rehabilitation & final outcome of the floating knee were assessed. Results 38 associated injuries were noted. 7 were associated with ipsilateral knee injuries. Lower limb injuries were most commonly associated with the floating knee. Patients with some associated injuries had a delay in surgical management and others a delay in post-operative rehabilitation. Knee ligament and vascular injuries were associated with poor outcome. Conclusion The associated injuries were quite frequent with the floating knee. Some of the associated injuries caused a delay in surgical management and post-operative rehabilitation. In assessment of the final outcome, patients with associated knee and vascular injuries had a poor prognosis. Majority of the patients with associated injuries had a good or excellent outcome.

  18. Study on acute burn injury survivors and the associated issues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jonathan Bayuo; Pius Agbenorku; Richcane Amankwa

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To explore the phenomenon of surviving burn injury and its associated issues and concerns. Methods: A cross sectional survey approach was utilized to obtain data from one hundred burn survivors who were purposely selected. Descriptive statistics and content analysis were used to analyze data. Results: Findings from the study indicate that burns from flames stood out as a major cause of burns. Physical discomfort/pain, anxiety, needing assistance in meeting self-care needs, financial and social limitations were identified as the major impact of the injury. Furthermore, participants perceived the existence of societal stigma. In addition, hope in God or a spiritual being as well as family support were the two key resources participants relied on to cope effectively. Conclusions: Surviving burn injury is associated with varied physical, social and psy-chological factors and survivors may need professional assistance to fully adjust after discharge.

  19. Neuroendocrine mechanisms in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Madhusmita

    2014-01-01

    Athletic activity may be associated with alterations in various neuroendocrine axes depending on the state of energy availability. In addition, genetic factors and an underlying predilection for polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) may predispose some athletes to develop functional hypothalamic amenorrhea earlier than other athletes. In conditions of low energy availability associated with athletic activity, changes that occur in various neuroendocrine axes are primarily adaptive, and aim to either conserve energy for the most essential functions, or allow the body to draw on its reserves to meet energy needs. These hormonal changes, however, then lead to changes in body composition and bone metabolism. Impaired bone accrual in younger athletes and low bone density in older athletes constitutes the major pathologic consequence of neuroendocrine changes associated with low energy availability. The female athlete triad of low energy availability, menstrual dysfunction, and low bone density is prevalent in certain kinds of sports and activities, particularly endurance sports, gymnastics, and ballet. It is essential to screen for this condition in athletes at every preparticipation physical and during office visits, and to put in place an effective treatment team to manage the triad early, in order to optimize outcomes.

  20. Variable number of tandem repeat polymorphisms of the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist gene IL-1RN: a novel association with the athlete status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryckman Kelli K

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The interleukin-1 (IL-1 family of cytokines is involved in the inflammatory and repair reactions of skeletal muscle during and after exercise. Specifically, plasma levels of the IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra increase dramatically after intense exercise, and accumulating evidence points to an effect of genetic polymorphisms on athletic phenotypes. Therefore, the IL-1 family cytokine genes are plausible candidate genes for athleticism. We explored whether IL-1 polymorphisms are associated with athlete status in European subjects. Methods Genomic DNA was obtained from 205 (53 professional and 152 competitive non-professional Italian athletes and 458 non-athlete controls. Two diallelic polymorphisms in the IL-1β gene (IL-1B at -511 and +3954 positions, and a variable number tandem repeats (VNTR in intron 2 of the IL-1ra gene (IL-1RN were assessed. Results We found a 2-fold higher frequency of the IL-1RN 1/2 genotype in athletes compared to non-athlete controls (OR = 1.93, 95% CI = 1.37-2.74, 41.0% vs. 26.4%, and a lower frequency of the 1/1 genotype (OR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.40-0.77, 43.9% vs. 58.5%. Frequency of the IL-1RN 2/2 genotype did not differ between groups. No significant differences between athletes and controls were found for either -511 or +3954 IL-1B polymorphisms. However, the haplotype (-511C-(+3954T-(VNTR2 was 3-fold more frequent in athletes than in non-athletes (OR = 3.02, 95% CI = 1.16-7.87. Interestingly, the IL-1RN 1/2 genotype was more frequent in professional than in non-professional athletes (OR = 1.92, 95% CI = 1.02-3.61, 52.8% vs. 36.8%. Conclusions Our study found that variants at the IL-1ra gene associate with athletic status. This confirms the crucial role that cytokine IL-1ra plays in human physical exercise. The VNTR IL-1RN polymorphism may have implications for muscle health, performance, and/or recovery capacities. Further studies are needed to assess these specific issues. As VNTR IL-1RN

  1. Analysis of College Student's Athletic Injuries in Playing Basketball%大学生篮球运动损伤解。

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万国华; 杨小勇; 王碧怡; 宋军; 吴国平

    2012-01-01

    随机分层整群抽样了广东省9所高校105个班级,以各班中篮球人口为研究对象,对其篮球运动损伤发生场合、损伤种类及成因进行了调查与分析。结果显示:从损伤发生场合来看,课外锻炼损伤发生比例最高,达到68.6%,比赛与体育课则分别为19.3%与13.8%。从损伤种类来看,主要为擦伤、拉伤、扭伤与挫伤4类,它们的发生率分别为71.1%、33.3%、25.2%与13.8%。为预防大学生篮球损伤应对学生加强篮球规则宣传教育,增强其自我保护意识,丰富其自我保护技巧,突出护具保护教育,提高其篮球专项身体素质,加强其自我监督的知识与技能教育。%Based on the method of stratified cluster random sampling of 105 classes of 9 universities in Guangdong Province, this paper investigates and analyzes the occasions, the types and the causes of athletic injury, taking basketball population in each class as Research Object .The results show that from the injury occasions perspective, the physical injury m extra-curricular exercise reaches the highest proportion of 68.6%, competitions covering 19.3% and PE covering 13.8%. In the point of view of injury types, there are four: abrasion, pull, strain and contusion, and each respectively covers occurring rate: 71.1%, 33.3%, 25.2%, andl3.$%. To prevent college students' athletic injury in playing basketball is proposed in the following way: to strengthen the basketball rules publicity, to enhance self-protection awareness, to enrich self-protection techniques, to emphasize using protector, to improve physical quality of basketball event, and to reinforce serf-monitoring knowledge and skill education.

  2. 武术套路运动中运动损伤之研究述评%The Research and Summary of Athletic Injury in Wushu Routine Sport

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨慧君; 齐家玉; 左国雄

    2014-01-01

    武术套路运动是一项对速度、爆发力和协调性要求特别高的全身性运动,尤其是2003年武术套路新规则实施以后,竞技武术套路进一步向着“高、难、美、新”方向发展,运动员运动损伤现象更是屡见不鲜。研究从武术套路运动中运动损伤的种类、部位、原因和预防等方面对运动员运动损伤的研究现状进行分析和评述,提出武术套路运动损伤的研究不仅仅要注重对膝、踝、腰等常见损伤部位的研究,也要兼顾并深化对腕、肘、肩等低危损伤部位的研究,同时开展运动损伤的预防和治疗的干预效果的实验研究。%Wushu routine sport is a kind of generally movements with high quality of speed, explosive power and harmony .Wushu routine Sport developed towards“the higher, more difficult, more beautiful and newer” direction especially after new rules was launched and implemented in 2003,which leaded more athletic injuries. The article makes analysis and summary of research status of athletes’ injuries in Wushu routine sport particularly in the aspects of type, position, reason and prevention of injuries. Accordingly, put forward several suggestions: the study of athletic injury in Wushu routine sport should focus on the knee, ankle, waist and other commonly injury position as well as on the wrist, elbow, shoulder such lower risk position; the experimental research of intervention effects of sport prevention and cure should be carried out at the same time .

  3. Disorders of the female athlete triad among collegiate athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beals, Katherine A; Manore, Melinda M

    2002-09-01

    This study examined the prevalence of and relationship between the disorders of the female athlete triad in collegiate athletes participating in aesthetic, endurance, or team/anaerobic sports. Participants were 425 female collegiate athletes from 7 universities across the United States. Disordered eating, menstrual dysfunction, and musculoskeletal injuries were assessed by a health/medical, dieting and menstrual history questionnaire, the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26), and the Eating Disorder Inventory Body Dissatisfaction Subscale (EDI-BD). The percentage of athletes reporting a clinical diagnosis of anorexia and bulimia nervosa was 3.3% and 2.3%, respectively; mean ( SD) EAT and EDI-BD scores were 10.6 9.6 and 9.8 7.6, respectively. The percentage of athletes with scores indicating "at-risk" behavior for an eating disorder were 15.2% using the EAT-26 and 32.4% using the EDI-BD. A similar percentage of athletes in aesthetic, endurance, and team/anaerobic sports reported a clinical diagnosis of anorexia or bulimia. However, athletes in aesthetic sports scored higher on the EAT-26 (13.5 10.9) than athletes in endurance (10.0 9.3) or team/anaerobic sports (9.9 9.0, p athletes in aesthetic versus endurance or team/anaerobic sports scored above the EAT-26 cut-off score of 20 (p athletes not using oral contraceptives, and there were no group differences in the prevalence of self-reported menstrual irregularity. Muscle and bone injuries sustained during the collegiate career were reported by 65.9% and 34.3% of athletes, respectively, and more athletes in aesthetic versus endurance and team/anaerobic sports reported muscle (p =.005) and/or bone injuries (p Athletes "at risk" for eating disorders more frequently reported menstrual irregularity (p =.004) and sustained more bone injuries (p =.003) during their collegiate career. These data indicate that while the prevalence of clinical eating disorders is low in female collegiate athletes, many are "at risk" for an eating

  4. 高水平运动员运动损伤的心理康复研究%Research on Psychological Rehabilitation of Sport Injury for High-level Athletes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何颖; 徐明

    2012-01-01

    The sport injury psychological model of high-level athletes, the psychological diagnostic indicators and psychological intervention model were presented through literature review, logical and systematic analy- sis. The rehabihtation of sport injury for high-level athletes is a systematic process, which needs joint efforts and the coordination between the coach, medical staff, athletic psychologist and athletes for the fully reha- bilitation and return of athletes in the shortest time span.%运用文献资料、逻辑分析、系统分析等方法论述高水平运动员运动损伤的心理模型、心理诊断指标及心理干预模式等问题,分析认为高水平运动员运动损伤的康复是一个系统过程,教练员、医务人员、运动心理学工作者和运动员的共同努力与配合才能有助于运动员尽早康复、重返赛场.

  5. On Epidemiology and Etiology of Sports Injury in China's Ice Sports Athletes%中国冰上项目运动员运动损伤流行病学及病因学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏亚茹; 徐金庆; 吴菲; 刘志良; 高洪杰

    2015-01-01

    Taking 128 ice sports athletes as the objects , the features and causes of sports injury epidemiology are studied .The results show that China's ice sports athletes have a higher incidence of sports injury , which has the characteristics of repetition and multiple .The sports injury occurrence rates of the ice hockey ,speed skating and figure skating are relatively high ,the injury rate of curling is relatively low .The waist ,knee joint and ankle are the high incidence areas of sports injury .The main types of injury are muscle damage ,joint damage and ligament damage .Athletes'sports injuries are mainly manifested as moderate injury and mild injury ,severe injury is less .Acute injury is more than chronic injury .Technical factors are the main reasons causing the ice athletes sports injury .%以128名冰上项目运动员为对象,对其运动损伤流行病特点及病因进行研究。结果表明:中国冰上项目运动员运动损伤发生率较高,具有重复性和多发性的特点;冰球、速度滑冰和花样滑冰运动损伤发生率均较高,冰壶项目相对较低;腰背部、膝关节和踝关节是运动损伤的高发部位;运动损伤的类型主要是肌肉伤、关节伤和韧带伤;损伤程度以中、轻度较多,重度损伤较少;急性损伤较多,慢性损伤较少。技术因素是造成冰上项目运动员运动损伤的主要原因。

  6. Lesões traumato-ortopédicas nos atletas paraolímpicos Orthopaedic trauma injuries in paralympic athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Vital

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Nos últimos anos, o desenvolvimento do esporte paraolímpico nacional e internacional tem estimulado maior participação dos portadores de deficiência em atividades desportivas, exigindo dos atletas incremento na intensidade e freqüência nos treinamentos e competições, o que impulsiona, ainda mais, os índices de lesões traumato-ortopédicas. Objetivou-se neste estudo de caráter descritivo-analítico verificar a prevalência de lesões traumato-ortopédicas em 82 atletas paraolímpicos selecionados de forma não probabilística intencional pertencentes às modalidades: natação = 37; tênis de mesa = 19; atletismo = 19; halterofilismo = 7, sendo 60 do sexo masculino e 22 do feminino, na faixa etária de 15 a 51 anos, participantes dos campeonatos mundiais nas referidas modalidades esportivas no ano de 2002. Utilizando-se como instrumento o prontuário médico do Departamento Médico do Comitê Paraolímpico Brasileiro preenchidos nesses eventos (técnica da observação através da história clínica - esportiva do atleta/anamnese (entrevistas com os atletas e exame físico, os resultados revelaram prevalência de lesões nos atletas de atletismo (MMII = 64,9%, coluna = 19,3% e MMSS = 15,8%; halterofilismo (coluna = 54,5%, MMSS = 36,4% e MMII = 9,1%; natação (MMSS = 44,4%, coluna = 38,9 e MMII = 16,7% e tênis de mesa (MMSS = 56%, coluna = 36% e MMII = 8%. Tais resultados nos permitem concluir que a prática esportiva de atletas paraolímpicos, pela intensidade de esforços na tentativa de superação, provoca lesões dessa natureza, o que recomenda diagnóstico e tratamento precoces, além de fortalecer as medidas preventivas dos atletas.In the last few years, the development of national and international games for the physically challenged has encouraged greater participation of athletes with physical disabilities. This resulted in an increase in intensity and frequency of the training routines and competitions and higher levels of

  7. Is Nonsuicidal Self Injury Associated With Parenting and Family Factors?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baetens, Imke; Claes, Laurence; Martin, Graham; Onghena, Patrick; Grietens, Hans; Van Leeuwen, Karla; Pieters, Ciska; Wiersema, Jan R.; Griffith, James W.

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates the association of parenting and family factors with nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) in preadolescents. A sample of 1,439 preadolescents and their parents were assessed by means of (a) adolescent-reported parenting behaviors (support and behavioral/psychological control

  8. Negative psychological responses of injury and rehabilitation adherence effects on return to play in competitive athletes: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivarsson, Andreas; Tranaeus, Ulrika; Johnson, Urban; Stenling, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Previous research offers evidence that psychological factors influence an injured athlete during the rehabilitation process. Our first objective was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the results from all published studies that examined the relationships among negative affective responses after sport injuries, rehabilitation adherence, and return to play (RTP). The second objective was to use a meta-analytic path analysis to investigate whether an indirect effect existed between negative affective responses and RTP through rehabilitation adherence. This literature review resulted in seven studies providing 14 effect sizes. The results from the meta-analysis showed that negative affective responses had a negative effect on successful RTP, whereas rehabilitation adherence had a positive effect on RTP. The results from the meta-analytic path analysis showed a weak and nonsignificant indirect effect of negative affective responses on RTP via rehabilitation adherence. These results underline the importance of providing supportive environments for injured athletes to increase the chances of successful RTP via a decrease in negative affective responses and increase in rehabilitation adherence. PMID:28331375

  9. Altered Blood Biomarker Profiles in Athletes with a History of Repetitive Head Impacts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex P Di Battista

    Full Text Available The long-term health effects of concussion and sub-concussive impacts in sport are unknown. Growing evidence suggests both inflammation and neurodegeneration are pivotal to secondary injury processes and the etiology of neurodegenerative diseases. In the present study we characterized circulating brain injury and inflammatory mediators in healthy male and female athletes according to concussion history and collision sport participation. Eighty-seven university level athletes (male, n = 60; female, n = 27 were recruited before the start of the competitive season. Athletes were healthy at the time of the study (no medications, illness, concussion or musculoskeletal injuries. Dependent variables included 29 inflammatory and 10 neurological injury analytes assessed in the peripheral blood by immunoassay. Biomarkers were statistically evaluated using partial least squares multivariate analysis to identify possible relationships to self-reported previous concussion history, number of previous concussions and collision sport participation in male and female athletes. Multiple concussions were associated with increases in peripheral MCP-1 in females, and MCP-4 in males. Collision sport participation was associated with increases in tau levels in males. These results are consistent with previous experimental and clinical findings that suggest ongoing inflammatory and cerebral injury processes after repetitive mild head trauma. However, further validation is needed to correlate systemic biomarkers to repetitive brain impacts, as opposed to the extracranial effects common to an athletic population such as exercise and muscle damage.

  10. Decision Making in NCAA Athletics: Factors Associated with Adding Sports to Division I Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milstein, Sloane

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to gain insight into the decision-making factors, priorities and process used when adding sports to NCAA Division I institutions. The media often focuses on gender equity and financial parameters when discussing athletic decision-making, but this study seeks to go beyond speculation and add to intercollegiate…

  11. Clinical management of immuno-suppression in athletes associated with exercise training: sports medicine considerations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Carl Hackney

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Overtraining Syndrome (OTS is a physically debilitating medical condition that results in athletes being totally compromised in their capacity to perform and compete. Many physiological systems are affected by the process of overtraining and the development of the OTS which results from it; but one system in particular, the immune, is highly susceptible to degradation resulting in a reduction in overall health and physical performance. The aim of this paper is to review; 1 the evidence-based proactive steps and actions to take to greatly reduce the risk of development of an infection or a compromised immune system in athletes; and 2 the course of action for clinicians to take when they are dealing with an athlete displaying overt signs of an infection and, or inflammation. Evidenced reported here within support that it is essential for clinicians to take practical preventative and management steps - actions with athletes (involved in intensive exercise training in order to help preserve and maintain a healthy and robust immune system if they are going to perform optimally.

  12. 运动员肩胛下肌损伤的诊断和治疗方法%Diagnosis and Treatment of Professional Athlete Subscapularis Injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘雪峰; 李跃敏

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨专业运动员肩胛下肌损伤的诊断和治疗方法。方法:38例患者随机分为A、B两组,分别采用传统的推拿、理疗手段和封闭治疗,对比两组治疗效果。结果:封闭治疗组治愈率为78.95%,远大于推拿理疗组的21.05%;封闭治疗组无效率为5.26%,远小于推拿理疗组的57.90%。结论:封闭是目前治疗运动员肩胛下肌损伤的有效治疗方法。%Objective:explore diagnosis and treatment of professional athlete subscapularis injury.Methods: 38 cases were randomly divided into two groups A and B, respectively using the traditional massage physical therapy and local injective, comparing the two group of therapeutic effect.Results:the cure rate of group local injective is 78.95%,much larger than the group massage physical therapy 21.05%;the invalid rate of local injective is 5.26%, far less than the the group massage physical therapy 57.90%.Conclusion: local injective is the better treatment of athlete subscapularis injury now.

  13. Individual and social factors associated with workplace injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwin Kumar

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available 636,000 Australians injured themselves in a work-related injury in the period 2009-2010. Of these injured Australians, 88% continued to work in their same place, 5.2% had to change their jobs, and 6.9% were no longer employed. Men continue to be the most injured individuals in workplace injuries (56% with the highest rates of injury in the 45-49 years (72 per 1000 people and 20-24 years (63 per 1000 people age groups. Furthermore, 59% of these 636,000 Australians injured in workplace injuries received financial assistance from workers compensation claims, 36% did not apply for financial assistance and 5% applied but did not receive any financial assistance. The most common types of workplace injuries incurred were: sprains and strains (30%, chronic joint/muscle conditions (18% and cuts/open wounds (16% (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2010. The total economic cost from workplace injuries in Australia for the 2005-06 financial year was  estimated at $57.5 billion, representing 5.9% of GDP for the financial year (Australian Safety and Compensation Council, 2009. Workplace injuries also incur immeasurable personal costs to Australian workers and their families. Individual lives are altered, even lost; individual hopes and dreams of a better life are shattered. Family roles, responsibilities and relationships become strained due to changes in income earnings and the imposed challenging needs for increased social support and increased caring needs within the home due to workplace injury. Why do Australian workers get injured in their workplaces? Is it due to their individual worker factors, or is it due to social factors associated with their work and workplace? While individual worker factors, such as: gender, age, personality, ethnicity, and substance use, do contribute to workplace injuries and fatalities, broader social and organisational workplace factors, such as: workload, work hours, work environment, safety culture, provision of quality

  14. Individual and social factors associated with workplace injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwin Kumar

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available 636,000 Australians injured themselves in a work-related injury in the period 2009-2010. Of these injured Australians, 88% continued to work in their same place, 5.2% had to change their jobs, and 6.9% were no longer employed. Men continue to be the most injured individuals in workplace injuries (56% with the highest rates of injury in the 45-49 years (72 per 1000 people and 20-24 years (63 per 1000 people age groups. Furthermore, 59% of these 636,000 Australians injured in workplace injuries received financial assistance from workers compensation claims, 36% did not apply for financial assistance and 5% applied but did not receive any financial assistance. The most common types of workplace injuries incurred were: sprains and strains (30%, chronic joint/muscle conditions (18% and cuts/open wounds (16% (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2010. The total economic cost from workplace injuries in Australia for the 2005-06 financial year was estimated at $57.5 billion, representing 5.9% of GDP for the financial year (Australian Safety and Compensation Council, 2009. Workplace injuries also incur immeasurable personal costs to Australian workers and their families. Individual lives are altered, even lost; individual hopes and dreams of a better life are shattered. Family roles, responsibilities and relationships become strained due to changes in income earnings and the imposed challenging needs for increased social support and increased caring needs within the home due to workplace injury. Why do Australian workers get injured in their workplaces? Is it due to their individual worker factors, or is it due to social factors associated with their work and workplace? While individual worker factors, such as: gender, age, personality, ethnicity, and substance use, do contribute to workplace injuries and fatalities, broader social and organizational workplace factors, such as: workload, work hours, work environment, safety culture, provision of quality

  15. Radial head fracture associated with posterior interosseous nerve injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Barcellos Terra

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Fractures of the radial head and radial neck correspond to 1.7-5.4% of all fractures and approximately 30% may present associated injuries. In the literature, there are few reports of radial head fracture with posterior interosseous nerve injury. This study aimed to report a case of radial head fracture associated with posterior interosseous nerve injury. CASE REPORT: A male patient, aged 42 years, sought medical care after falling from a skateboard. The patient related pain and limitation of movement in the right elbow and difficulty to extend the fingers of the right hand. During physical examination, thumb and fingers extension deficit was observed. The wrist extension showed a slight radial deviation. After imaging, it became evident that the patient had a fracture of the radial head that was classified as grade III in the Mason classification. The patient underwent fracture fixation; at the first postoperative day, thumb and fingers extension was observed. Although rare, posterior interosseous nerve branch injury may be associated with radial head fractures. In the present case, the authors believe that neuropraxia occurred as a result of the fracture hematoma and edema.

  16. Preventing Knee Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Our Newsletter Donate Blog Skip breadcrumb navigation Preventing Knee Injuries Knee injuries in children and adolescent athletes ... this PDF Share this page: WHAT ARE COMMON KNEE INJURIES? Pain Syndromes One of the most common ...

  17. The Latarjet-Patte procedure for recurrent anterior shoulder instability in contact athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Mithun A; Young, Allan A; Balestro, Jean-Christian; Walch, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    Recurrent anterior shoulder instability is common in contact athletes and the high-energy injuries seen in this group make them more prone to bone loss. Athletes with recurrent instability and associated bone loss have high failure rates when treated with a soft tissue reconstruction procedure. Therefore it is preferred to manage recurrent instability in contact athletes with the Latarjet-Patte procedure. In this article, the authors describe their technique. They have found this procedure to be safe and effective, with very low recurrence and early return to sport. A meticulous surgical technique is important to avoid intraoperative and postoperative complications.

  18. Thermal injury patterns associated with electronic cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiwani, Alisha Z; Williams, James F; Rizzo, Julie A; Chung, Kevin K; King, Booker T; Cancio, Leopoldo C

    2017-01-01

    E-cigarettes are typically lithium-ion battery-operated devices that simulate smoking by heating a nicotine-solution into a vapor that the user inhales. E-cigarette use is becoming rapidly popular as an alternative to traditional cigarette smoking. This report describes an emerging problem associated with e-cigarettes, consisting of 10 thermally injured patients seen at a single burn center over a 2-year period from 2014 to 2016. Our cohort was comprised mainly of young adults who sustained mixed partial and full thickness burns as a result of e-cigarette-related explosions. In many documented scenarios, a malfunctioning or over-heated battery is the cause. Our data support the need for increased awareness among healthcare providers and the general public of the potential harms of e-cigarette use, modification, storage, and charging. PMID:28123861

  19. The female athlete triad: components, nutrition issues, and health consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manore, Melinda M; Kam, Lynn Ciadella; Loucks, Anne B

    2007-01-01

    This paper, which was part of the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) 2007 Nutritional Consensus Conference, briefly reviews the components of the female athlete triad (Triad): energy availability, menstrual status, and bone health. Each component of the Triad spans a continuum from health to disease, and female athletes can have symptoms related to each component of the Triad to different degrees. Low energy availability is the primary factor that impairs menstrual dysfunction and bone health in the Triad. We discuss nutritional issues associated with the Triad, focusing on intakes of macronutrients needed for good health, and stress fractures, the most common injury associated with the Triad. Finally, we briefly discuss screening and treatment for the Triad and the occurrence of the Triad in men.

  20. Differentiating Concussion From Intracranial Pathology in Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cripps, Andrea; Livingston, Scott C

    2017-01-01

    Clinical Scenario: A cerebral concussion is a traumatically induced transient disturbance of brain function characterized by a complex pathophysiologic process and is classified as a subset of mild traumatic brain injury. The occurrence of intracranial lesions after sport-related head injury is relatively uncommon, but the possibility of serious intracranial injury (ICI) should be included in the differential diagnosis. ICIs are potentially life threatening and necessitate urgent medical management; therefore, prompt recognition and evaluation are critical to proper medical management. One of the primary objectives of the initial evaluation is to determine if the concussed athlete has an acute traumatic ICI. Athletic trainers must be able promptly recognize clinical signs and symptoms that will enable them to accurately differentiate between a concussion (ie, a closed head injury not associated with significant ICI) and an ICI. The identification of predictors of intracranial lesions is, however, relatively broad. Focused Clinical Question: Which clinical examination findings (ie, clinical signs and symptoms) indicate possible intracranial pathology in individuals with acute closed head injuries?

  1. Back Pain Prevalence and Its Associated Factors in Brazilian Athletes from Public High Schools: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Matias; de Avelar, Ivan Silveira; Lehnen, Georgia Cristina; Vieira, Marcus Fraga

    2016-01-01

    Most studies on the prevalence of back pain have evaluated it in developed countries (Human Development Index--HDI > 0.808), and their conclusions may not hold for developing countries. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of back pain in representative Brazilian athletes from public high schools. This cross-sectional study was performed during the state phase of the 2015 Jogos dos Institutos Federais (JIF), or Federal Institutes Games, in Brazil (HDI = 0.744), and it enrolled 251 athletes, 173 males and 78 females (14-20 years old). The dependent variable was back pain, and the independent variables were demographic, socioeconomic, psychosocial, hereditary, exercise-level, anthropometric, strength, behavioral, and postural factors. The prevalence ratio (PR) was calculated using multivariable analysis according to the Poisson regression model (α = 0.05). The prevalence of back pain in the three months prior to the study was 43.7% (n = 104), and 26% of the athletes reported feeling back pain only once. Multivariable analysis showed that back pain was associated with demographic (sex), psychosocial (loneliness and loss of sleep in the previous year), hereditary (ethnicity, parental back pain), strength (lumbar and hand forces), anthropometric (body mass index), behavioral (sleeping time per night, reading and studying in bed, smoking habits in the previous month), and postural (sitting posture while writing, while on a bench, and while using a computer) variables. Participants who recorded higher levels of lumbar and manual forces reported a lower prevalence of back pain (PR 1.30). In conclusion, there is no association between exercise levels and back pain but there is an association between back pain and non-exercise related variables.

  2. Back Pain Prevalence and Its Associated Factors in Brazilian Athletes from Public High Schools: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matias Noll

    Full Text Available Most studies on the prevalence of back pain have evaluated it in developed countries (Human Development Index--HDI > 0.808, and their conclusions may not hold for developing countries. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of back pain in representative Brazilian athletes from public high schools. This cross-sectional study was performed during the state phase of the 2015 Jogos dos Institutos Federais (JIF, or Federal Institutes Games, in Brazil (HDI = 0.744, and it enrolled 251 athletes, 173 males and 78 females (14-20 years old. The dependent variable was back pain, and the independent variables were demographic, socioeconomic, psychosocial, hereditary, exercise-level, anthropometric, strength, behavioral, and postural factors. The prevalence ratio (PR was calculated using multivariable analysis according to the Poisson regression model (α = 0.05. The prevalence of back pain in the three months prior to the study was 43.7% (n = 104, and 26% of the athletes reported feeling back pain only once. Multivariable analysis showed that back pain was associated with demographic (sex, psychosocial (loneliness and loss of sleep in the previous year, hereditary (ethnicity, parental back pain, strength (lumbar and hand forces, anthropometric (body mass index, behavioral (sleeping time per night, reading and studying in bed, smoking habits in the previous month, and postural (sitting posture while writing, while on a bench, and while using a computer variables. Participants who recorded higher levels of lumbar and manual forces reported a lower prevalence of back pain (PR 1.30. In conclusion, there is no association between exercise levels and back pain but there is an association between back pain and non-exercise related variables.

  3. High- compared to low-arched athletes exhibit smaller knee abduction moments in walking and running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Douglas W; Andrews, Samantha; Stickley, Cris; Williams, D S Blaise

    2016-12-01

    High- (HA) and low-arched athletes (LA) experience distinct injury patterns. These injuries are the result of the interaction of structure and biomechanics. A suggested mechanism of patellofemoral pain pertains to frontal plane knee moments which may be exaggerated in LA athletes. We hypothesize that LA athletes will exhibit greater peak knee abduction moments than high-arched athletes.

  4. Delayed presentation of compartment syndrome of the thigh secondary to quadriceps trauma and vascular injury in a soccer athlete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moo Ing How

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: A high index of suspicion for compartment syndrome is needed in all severe quadriceps contusion. Vascular injury can cause thigh compartment syndrome in sports trauma. MRI findings of deep thigh muscle swelling and “blow-out” tear of the vastus lateralis are strongly suggestive of severe quadriceps injury, and may be a harbinger of delayed thigh compartment syndrome.

  5. Executive Function Is Associated With Antisocial Behavior and Aggression in Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micai, Martina; Kavussanu, Maria; Ring, Christopher

    2015-10-01

    Poor executive function has been linked to increased antisocial and aggressive behavior in clinical and nonclinical populations. The present study investigated the relationship between executive and nonexecutive cognitive function and antisocial behavior in sport as well as reactive and proactive aggression. Cognitive function was assessed in young adult male and female athletes using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB). Antisocial behavior in sport and aggression were assessed via self-report instruments and were found to be positively correlated. Executive function (but not nonexecutive function) scores were negatively correlated with both self-reported antisocial behavior and aggression in males but not females. Our findings suggest that prefrontal deficits among male athletes could contribute to poor impulse control and difficulty in anticipating the consequences of their antisocial and aggressive behavior.

  6. Endothelial glycocalyx damage is associated with leptospirosis acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libório, Alexandre Braga; Braz, Marcelo Boecker Munoz; Seguro, Antonio Carlos; Meneses, Gdayllon C; Neves, Fernanda Macedo de Oliveira; Pedrosa, Danielle Carvalho; Cavalcanti, Luciano Pamplona de Góes; Martins, Alice Maria Costa; Daher, Elizabeth de Francesco

    2015-03-01

    Leptospirosis is a common disease in tropical countries, and the kidney is one of the main target organs. Membrane proteins of Leptospira are capable of causing endothelial damage in vitro, but there have been no studies in humans evaluating endothelial glycocalyx damage and its correlation with acute kidney injury (AKI). We performed a cohort study in an outbreak of leptospirosis among military personnel. AKI was diagnosed in 14 of 46 (30.4%) patients. Leptospirosis was associated with higher levels of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1; 483.1 ± 31.7 versus 234.9 ± 24.4 mg/L, P leptospirosis-associated AKI had increased level of syndecan-1 (112.1 ± 45.4 versus 41.5 ± 11.7 ng/mL, P = 0.021) and ICAM-1 (576.9 ± 70.4 versus 434.9 ± 35.3, P = 0.034) compared with leptospirosis patients with no AKI. Association was verified between syndecan-1 and ICAM-1 with serum creatinine elevation and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) levels. This association remained even after multivariate analysis including other AKI-associated characteristics. Endothelial injury biomarkers are associated with leptospirosis-associated renal damage.

  7. Turco's injury: diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Ana Paula Simões; Shimba, Leandro Girardi; Ribas, Luiz Henrique Boraschi Vieira; de Almeida, Alexandre Simmonds; Naves, Vinicius; Duarte Júnior, Aires

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to alert doctors to the existence of Turco's injury and discus the existing treatments that have been described in the worldwide literature. A bibliographic survey of Lisfranc's injury and Turco's injury covering from 1985 to 2013 was conducted in the SciELO and PubMed databases. Among the 193 articles, those relating to bone-ligament injuries of the Lisfranc joint and high-energy trauma were excluded, as were the case reports. The patients selected were professional or amateur athletes who solely presented a ligament injury to the Lisfranc joint (Turco's injury), which was diagnosed from the history, physical examination, radiographs and magnetic resonance images. Non-athletic patients and those with associated bone injuries were excluded (10). According to the injury classification, the patients were treated by means of either an open or a closed procedure and then a standard rehabilitation protocol. Out of the 10 patients, five underwent conservative treatment and five underwent surgical treatment using different techniques and synthesis materials. We obtained two poor results, one satisfactory, five good and two excellent. We conclude that the correct diagnosis has a direct influence on the treatment and on the final result obtained, and that lack of knowledge of this injury is the main factor responsible for underdiagnosing Turco's injury. There is a need for randomized prospective studies comparing the types of synthesis and evolution of treated cases, in order to define the best treatment for this injury.

  8. Determination of future prevention strategies in elite track and field: analysis of Daegu 2011 IAAF Championships injuries and illnesses surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Juan-Manuel; Edouard, Pascal; Fischetto, Giuseppe; Adams, Bob; Depiesse, Frédéric; Mountjoy, Margo

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine the incidence and characteristics of newly incurred injuries and illnesses during international Athletics Championships, by improving the medical surveillance coverage, in order to determine future prevention strategies. Design Prospective recording of newly occurred injuries and illnesses. Setting 13th International Association of Athletics Federations World Championships in Athletics 2011 in Daegu, Korea. Participants National team and Local Organising Committee physicians; and 1851 registered athletes. Main outcome measures Incidence and characteristics of newly incurred injuries and illnesses. Results 82% of athletes were covered by medical teams participating with a response rate of 94%. A total of 249 injuries were reported, representing an incidence of 134.5 injuries per 1000 registered athletes, and 119 (48%) resulted in time loss from sport. A total of 185 injuries affected the lower limb (74%). Hamstring strain was the main diagnosis and 67% resulted in absence from sport. Overuse (n=148; 59%) was the predominant cause. A total of 126 illnesses were reported, signifying an incidence of 68.1 per 1000 registered athletes. Upper respiratory tract infection was the most common reported diagnosis (18%), followed by exercise-induced dehydration (12%), and gastroenteritis/diarrhoea (10%). The highest incidences of injuries were found in combined events and middle and long-distance events, and of illness in race walking events. Conclusion During elite Athletics World Championships, 135 injuries, 60 time-loss injuries and 68 illnesses per 1000 registered athletes were reported. Higher risks of injuries were found in combined events and long-distance runs. Preventive interventions should focus on overuse injuries and hamstring strains, decreasing the risk of transmission of infectious diseases, appropriate event scheduling and heat acclimatisation. PMID:22522588

  9. Incidência de lesão musculoesquelética sem trauma em atletas de handebol Incidence of nontraumatic musculoskeletal injuries in handball athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Cavalcante de Sá

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O atleta competitivo muitas vezes apresenta lesões musculoesqueléticas, algumas de natureza não traumática. Habitualmente, tais lesões são atribuídas a fatores mecânicos. O presente estudo teve como objetivo estudar um grupo de atletas de handebol e verificar uma possível ação de fatores imune-inflamatórios e hormonais na gênese destas lesões. Procedeu-se à avaliação dos parâmetros laboratoriais, dosando-se a concentração plasmática de hormônios e neurotransmissores e a produção in vitro de citocinas e prostaglandina E2. Os resultados permitem afirmar que em 29% dos atletas estudados foi possível constatar a ocorrência de lesões musculoesqueléticas não traumáticas, que puderam ser relacionadas com o aumento da produção de citocinas pró-inflamatórias, com elevação das concentrações de IL-1, IL-2, TNF-α e IFN-α. Nesta mesma cultura foi possível demonstrar aumento da concentração de prostaglandina E2.Competitive athletes often present musculoskeletal injuries, some of these nontraumatic. Usually these injuries are attributed to mechanical factors. The present study aimed to investigate a group of handball players and check a possible action of immune-inflammatory and hormonal factors in the genesis of these lesions. Laboratory parameters were studied measuring in the plasma the concentration of plasma hormones and neurotransmitters, and production "in vitro" of cytokines and prostaglandin E2. The results indicate that in 29% of the athletes included in the study the occurrence of nontraumatic musculoskeletal injuries was observed. In this group there was an increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines assayed in the supernatant of culture of peripheral blood cells with increased concentrations of IL-1, IL-2, TNF-α and IFN-α, as well of prostaglandin E2.

  10. Death Associated Protein Kinases: Molecular Structure and Brain Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Claire Thornton; Carina Mallard; Rajanikant Krishnamurthy; Syam Nair; Henrik Hagberg

    2013-01-01

    Perinatal brain damage underlies an important share of motor and neurodevelopmental disabilities, such as cerebral palsy, cognitive impairment, visual dysfunction and epilepsy. Clinical, epidemiological, and experimental studies have revealed that factors such as inflammation, excitotoxicity and oxidative stress contribute considerably to both white and grey matter injury in the immature brain. A member of the death associated protein kinase (DAPk) family, DAPk1, has been implicated in cerebr...

  11. Accuracy of Athletic Trainer and Physician Diagnoses in Sports Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Nicholas J; Tucker, Bradford; Freedman, Kevin B; Austin, Luke S; Eck, Brandon; Pepe, Matthew; Tjoumakaris, Fotios P

    2016-09-01

    It is standard practice in high school athletic programs for certified athletic trainers to evaluate and treat injured student athletes. In some cases, a trainer refers an athlete to a physician for definitive medical management. This study was conducted to determine the rate of agreement between athletic trainers and physicians regarding assessment of injuries in student athletes. All high school athletes who were injured between 2010 and 2012 at 5 regional high schools were included in a research database. All patients who were referred for physician evaluation and treatment were identified and included in this analysis. A total of 286 incidents met the inclusion criteria. A total of 263 (92%) of the athletic trainer assessments and physician diagnoses were in agreement. In the 23 cases of disagreement, fractures and sprains were the most common injuries. Kappa analysis showed the highest interrater agreement in injuries classified as dislocations and concussions and the lowest interrater agreement in meniscal/labral injuries and fractures. In the absence of a confirmed diagnosis, agreement among health care providers can be used to infer accuracy. According to this principle, as agreement between athletic trainers and physicians improves, there is a greater likelihood of arriving at the correct assessment and treatment plan. Athletic trainers are highly skilled professionals who are well trained in the evaluation of athletic injuries. The current study showed that additional training in identifying fractures may be beneficial to athletic trainers and the athletes they treat. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(5):e944-e949.].

  12. SURVEY OF SHORT-TERM ORAL CORTICOSTEROID ADMINISTRATION BY ORTHOPAEDIC PHYSICIANS IN COLLEGE AND HIGH SCHOOL ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert W. Pearsall IV

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of oral corticosteroid (OCS drugs is advocated because of their potent anti-inflammatory effects. They also possess many potential adverse effects. No study has assessed physician prescribing practices of OCS therapy in high school (HS or college (COL athletes. This paper reports the prescribing patterns of sports medicine physicians who used short-term OCS therapy and to describe associated complications in HS and COL athletes within a 24- month period. An internet link to a descriptive epidemiology survey was included in an e-mail to all members of the Arthroscopy Association of North America and the American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine. Descriptive statistics and correlation analysis were used to examine responses. Total response rate was 32% (615/1,928. Sixty-six percent of the physicians indicated prescribing OCS to both groups of athletes, while 29% reported prescribing OCS to COL athletes and 5% to HS athletes for musculoskeletal injuries. Physicians who prescribed multiple OCS regimens to the same athlete within the same season (P = 0.01 and physicians who prescribed OCS to the skeletally immature athlete (P = 0.009 reported more complications than other physicians. Among the 412 physicians who did not prescribe OCS in the treatment of athletic induced musculoskeletal injury, 251 (61% cited a risk of developing medical complications as the primary reason for avoiding use. The reported number of medical complications was low with no cases of avascular necrosis reported for the 2-year recall period. Orthopaedic surgeons who treated athletic induced musculoskeletal injuries with a short-term course of oral corticosteroids reported that high school and college athletes benefited with few medical complications

  13. Death Associated Protein Kinases: Molecular Structure and Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Thornton

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Perinatal brain damage underlies an important share of motor and neurodevelopmental disabilities, such as cerebral palsy, cognitive impairment, visual dysfunction and epilepsy. Clinical, epidemiological, and experimental studies have revealed that factors such as inflammation, excitotoxicity and oxidative stress contribute considerably to both white and grey matter injury in the immature brain. A member of the death associated protein kinase (DAPk family, DAPk1, has been implicated in cerebral ischemic damage, whereby DAPk1 potentiates NMDA receptor-mediated excitotoxicity through interaction with the NR2BR subunit. DAPk1 also mediate a range of activities from autophagy, membrane blebbing and DNA fragmentation ultimately leading to cell death. DAPk mRNA levels are particularly highly expressed in the developing brain and thus, we hypothesize that DAPk1 may play a role in perinatal brain injury. In addition to reviewing current knowledge, we present new aspects of the molecular structure of DAPk domains, and relate these findings to interacting partners of DAPk1, DAPk-regulation in NMDA-induced cerebral injury and novel approaches to blocking the injurious effects of DAPk1.

  14. Death associated protein kinases: molecular structure and brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Syam; Hagberg, Henrik; Krishnamurthy, Rajanikant; Thornton, Claire; Mallard, Carina

    2013-07-04

    Perinatal brain damage underlies an important share of motor and neurodevelopmental disabilities, such as cerebral palsy, cognitive impairment, visual dysfunction and epilepsy. Clinical, epidemiological, and experimental studies have revealed that factors such as inflammation, excitotoxicity and oxidative stress contribute considerably to both white and grey matter injury in the immature brain. A member of the death associated protein kinase (DAPk) family, DAPk1, has been implicated in cerebral ischemic damage, whereby DAPk1 potentiates NMDA receptor-mediated excitotoxicity through interaction with the NR2BR subunit. DAPk1 also mediate a range of activities from autophagy, membrane blebbing and DNA fragmentation ultimately leading to cell death. DAPk mRNA levels are particularly highly expressed in the developing brain and thus, we hypothesize that DAPk1 may play a role in perinatal brain injury. In addition to reviewing current knowledge, we present new aspects of the molecular structure of DAPk domains, and relate these findings to interacting partners of DAPk1, DAPk-regulation in NMDA-induced cerebral injury and novel approaches to blocking the injurious effects of DAPk1.

  15. Archetypal Athletes

    CERN Document Server

    Eugster, Manuel J A

    2011-01-01

    Discussions on outstanding---positively and/or negatively---athletes are common practice. The rapidly grown amount of collected sports data now allow to support such discussions with state of the art statistical methodology. Given a (multivariate) data set with collected data of athletes within a specific sport, outstanding athletes are values on the data set boundary. In the present paper we propose archetypal analysis to compute these extreme values. The so-called archetypes, i.e., archetypal athletes, approximate the observations as convex combinations. We interpret the archetypal athletes and their characteristics, and, furthermore, the composition of all athletes based on the archetypal athletes. The application of archetypal analysis is demonstrated on basketball statistics and soccer skill ratings.

  16. Analysis of College Badminton Athlete Rotator Cuff Injury from the Anatomical Point%从解剖学角度分析高校羽毛球运动员肩袖损伤

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Analysis college badminton athletes rotator cuff injury reasons from the point of anatomy view. Methods:Literature, questionnaire, expert interviews. Results: The reasons of the college badminton athletes rotator cuff injury is too much training, the local overburdened lack of knowledge of sports injuries physiological, psychological unsatisfactory level of training. Conclusion: To improve awareness of sports injuries, to promote science and practice, to avoid the dangers caused by injury, to strengthen strength training and medical supervision can effectively avoid rotator cuff injury occurred.%  目的:从解剖学的角度分析高校羽毛球运动员肩袖损伤的原因。方法:采用文献资料法、问卷调查法、专家访谈法。结果:高校羽毛球运动员肩袖损伤的原因是运动量过大、局部负担过重、缺乏运动损伤知识、生理及心理水平欠佳、训练水平不足。结论:提高运动损伤意识、提倡科学练习,避免损伤带来的危害性,加强力量训练和医务监督能有效避免肩袖损伤的发生。

  17. ACTN3 R577X and other polymorphisms are not associated with elite endurance athlete status in the Genathlete study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döring, Frank E; Onur, Simone; Geisen, Ulf; Boulay, Marcel R; Pérusse, Louis; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rauramaa, Rainer; Wolfahrt, Bernd; Bouchard, C

    2010-10-01

    Homozygosity for a premature stop codon at amino acid position 577 in the alpha-actinin-3 (ACTN3) gene leads to α-actinin-3 deficiency. This genotype is observed in approximately 18% of Caucasians. The ACTN3 R577X polymorphism has been previously associated with indicators of physical performance in several, but not all, studies. We examined the prevalence of R577X (rs1815739) and two additional haplotype tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (htSNPs) of the ACTN3 gene (rs1791690 and rs2275998) in the Genathlete study comprising 316 male elite endurance athletes (VO2max 79.0+3.5 ml · kg(-1) · min(-1); mean +/- s) from North America, Finland, and Germany and 304 sedentary controls (VO2max 40.1+7.0 ml · kg(-1) · min(-1) matched by country of origin. The distribution of genotype and allele frequencies between the two groups was tested by Pearson chi-square and/or Fischer exact test. The prevalence of the 577X homozygote genotype was similar in endurance athletes and controls (20% and 17.5%, respectively). The resulting odds ratio for endurance performance in 577X homozygotes compared with 577R-allele carriers was 1.24 (95%CI 0.82-1.87, P = 0.3). The genotype distribution of the two htSNPs and haplotype frequencies did not differ significantly between athletes and controls. In conclusion, our findings indicate that ACTN3 R577X and other SNPs in ACTN3 are not genetic determinants of endurance performance in Caucasian males.

  18. College Sports-Related Injuries - United States, 2009-10 Through 2013-14 Academic Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Zachary Y; Marshall, Stephen W; Dompier, Thomas P; Corlette, Jill; Klossner, David A; Gilchrist, Julie

    2015-12-11

    Sports-related injuries can have a substantial impact on the long-term health of student-athletes. The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) monitors injuries among college student-athletes at member schools. In academic year 2013-14, a total of 1,113 member schools fielded 19,334 teams with 478,869 participating student-athletes in NCAA championship sports (i.e., sports with NCAA championship competition) (1). External researchers and CDC used information reported to the NCAA Injury Surveillance Program (NCAA-ISP) by a sample of championship sports programs to summarize the estimated national cumulative and annual average numbers of injuries during the 5 academic years from 2009-10 through 2013-14. Analyses were restricted to injuries reported among student-athletes in 25 NCAA championship sports. During this period, 1,053,370 injuries were estimated to have occurred during an estimated 176.7 million athlete-exposures to potential injury (i.e., one athlete's participation in one competition or one practice). Injury incidence varied widely by sport. Among all sports, men's football accounted for the largest average annual estimated number of injuries (47,199) and the highest competition injury rate (39.9 per 1,000 athlete-exposures). Men's wrestling experienced the highest overall injury rate (13.1 per 1,000) and practice injury rate (10.2 per 1,000). Among women's sports, gymnastics had the highest overall injury rate (10.4 per 1,000) and practice injury rate (10.0 per 1,000), although soccer had the highest competition injury rate (17.2 per 1,000). More injuries were estimated to have occurred from practice than from competition for all sports, with the exception of men's ice hockey and baseball. However, injuries incurred during competition were somewhat more severe (e.g., requiring ≥7 days to return to full participation) than those acquired during practice. Multiple strategies are employed by NCAA and others to reduce the number of injuries in

  19. Position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and athletic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Nancy R; DiMarco, Nancy M; Langley, Susie

    2009-03-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine that physical activity, athletic performance, and recovery from exercise are enhanced by optimal nutrition. These organizations recommend appropriate selection of foods and fluids, timing of intake, and supplement choices for optimal health and exercise performance. This updated position paper couples a rigorous, systematic, evidence-based analysis of nutrition and performance-specific literature with current scientific data related to energy needs, assessment of body composition, strategies for weight change, nutrient and fluid needs, special nutrient needs during training and competition, the use of supplements and ergogenic aids, nutrition recommendations for vegetarian athletes, and the roles and responsibilities of sports dietitians. Energy and macronutrient needs, especially carbohydrate and protein, must be met during times of high physical activity to maintain body weight, replenish glycogen stores, and provide adequate protein to build and repair tissue. Fat intake should be sufficient to provide the essential fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins, as well as contribute energy for weight maintenance. Although exercise performance can be affected by body weight and composition, these physical measures should not be a criterion for sports performance and daily weigh-ins are discouraged. Adequate food and fluid should be consumed before, during, and after exercise to help maintain blood glucose concentration during exercise, maximize exercise performance, and improve recovery time. Athletes should be well hydrated before exercise and drink enough fluid during and after exercise to balance fluid losses. Sports beverages containing carbohydrates and electrolytes may be consumed before, during, and after exercise to help maintain blood glucose concentration, provide fuel for muscles, and decrease risk of dehydration and hyponatremia. Vitamin

  20. Association between the number of injuries sustained and 12-month disability outcomes: evidence from the injury-VIBES study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda J Gabbe

    Full Text Available To determine associations between the number of injuries sustained and three measures of disability 12-months post-injury for hospitalised patients.Data from 27,840 adult (18+ years participants, hospitalised for injury, were extracted for analysis from the Validating and Improving injury Burden Estimates (Injury-VIBES Study. Modified Poisson and linear regression analyses were used to estimate relative risks and mean differences, respectively, for a range of outcomes (Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended, GOS-E; EQ-5D and 12-item Short Form health survey physical and mental component summary scores, PCS-12 and MCS-12 according to the number of injuries sustained, adjusted for age, sex and contributing study.More than half (54% of patients had an injury to more than one ICD-10 body region and 62% had sustained more than one Global Burden of Disease injury type. The adjusted relative risk of a poor functional recovery (GOS-E<7 and of reporting problems on each of the items of the EQ-5D increased by 5-10% for each additional injury type, or body region, injured. Adjusted mean PCS-12 and MCS-12 scores worsened with each additional injury type, or body region, injured by 1.3-1.5 points and 0.5 points, respectively.Consistent and strong relationships exist between the number of injury types and body regions injured and 12-month functional and health status outcomes. Existing composite measures of anatomical injury severity such as the NISS or ISS, which use up to three diagnoses only, may be insufficient for characterising or accounting for multiple injuries in disability studies. Future studies should consider the impact of multiple injuries to avoid under-estimation of injury burden.

  1. 青少年田径运动损伤的调查研究%Investigation on Sports Injury of Junior Athletes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁晓青; 颜彬

    2012-01-01

    体育教学与运动训练的主要任务是增强学生的体质,促进学生身心协调发展,培养学生的体育运动能力和良好的思想品质,使学生能够德、智、体全面发展。但是在运动训练过程中,常会有不同程度的运动损伤,机体一旦受到运动损伤,常要休息很长时间,并重新参加训练,才能达到以前的运动水平,所以可以根据损伤部位的规律和特点,及时地采取各种预防措施,合理安排损伤后的恢复性训练的强度和负荷,以及运用一些辅助的恢复性练习方法加速机体功能的恢复。怎样使得运动损伤在青少年田径运动中最大限度地避免,使得青少年一生健康幸福,便是本论文所要研究的内容。%The main task of physical education and sports training is to strengthen the students' physique,promote students' physical and mental coordinated development,cultivate the students' sports ability and the good thought quality,and enable the student to develop morally,intellectually and physically.However,in sports training,some different degrees of sports injury often occurs.Once injury,body often need to rest for a long time,and participate in training can reach the previous movement level,so according to injury parts rules and characteristics,timely adopted various prevention measures,reasonable arrangement after injury resumed training intensity and load,and using a few auxiliary of restorative practice method quicken airframe function recovery.How to make sports injury in youth athletics,of utmost avoid,making life is health and happiness of teenagers is the content of this article to study.

  2. Aggravating andmitigating factors associated with cyclist injury severity in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplan, Sigal; Vavatsoulas,, Konstantinos; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    Denmark is one of the leading cycling nations, where cycling trips constitute a large share of the total trips, and cycling safety assumes a top priority position in the agenda of policy makers. The current study sheds light on the aggravating and mitigating factors associated with cyclist injury...... severity on Danish roads by examining a comprehensive set of accidents involving a cyclist and a collision partner between 2007 and 2011. Method: This study estimates a generalized ordered logit model of the severity of cyclist injuries because of its ability to accommodate the ordered-response nature...... of severity while relaxing the proportional odds assumption. Results: Model estimates show that cyclist fragility (children under 10 years old and elderly cyclists over 60 years of age) and cyclist intoxication are aggravating individual factors,while helmet use is a mitigating factor. Speed limits above 70...

  3. Dynamic Loading Assessment at the Fifth Metatarsal in Elite Athletes with a history of Jones Fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Kenneth; Goeb, Yannick

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Fractures of the proximal metaphysis of the fifth metatarsal (i.e., Jones fractures) are common in the athletic population and frequently require surgical fixation to optimize healing rates and return to sport. Subtle hindfoot varus alignment, which likely results in greater forces at the fifth metatarsal, has been associated with increased risk of Jones fractures due to presumed increase in forces on the lateral foot. The goal of the present study was to dynamically assess plantar pressure loads at the fifth metatarsal in elite athletes with a history of Jones fracture. We hypothesize that athletes who have suffered Jones fractures will apply significantly higher loads at the fifth metatarsal base during athletic activities compared to matched uninjured athletes. Methods: Sixteen elite, competitive athletes were recruited to participate. Eight athletes had a history of Jones fracture and eight age, gender and position-matched athletes without a history of foot injury were recruited as controls. While wearing calibrated, wireless pressure mapping insoles, all athletes performed a standardized series of athletic movements including walking, running and cutting. Tests were repeated with the patient’s standard corrective insole. Peak pressure, mean pressure, maximum force, and force-time integral (i.e., impulse) were recorded for each activity. Comparison between groups was performed using a paired Wilcoxon Sign Rank test. Results: Athletes with a history of Jones fracture showed a significantly increased peak pressure (183 ±23 kPA vs. 138±7 kPA), mean pressure (124±14 kPA vs. 95±4 kPA), and maximum force (15±1.2%BW vs. 12±1.2%BW) at the fifth metatarsal base during walking and running compared to uninjured matched controls (all Pinsole did not significantly reduce peak or mean pressure, maximum force, or impulse at the fifth metatarsal base during running or cutting. Conclusion: Athletes with a history of Jones fracture exert significantly

  4. Drug abuse in athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reardon CL

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Claudia L Reardon, Shane Creado Department of Psychiatry, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI, USA Abstract: Drug abuse occurs in all sports and at most levels of competition. Athletic life may lead to drug abuse for a number of reasons, including for performance enhancement, to self-treat otherwise untreated mental illness, and to deal with stressors, such as pressure to perform, injuries, physical pain, and retirement from sport. This review examines the history of doping in athletes, the effects of different classes of substances used for doping, side effects of doping, the role of anti-doping organizations, and treatment of affected athletes. Doping goes back to ancient times, prior to the development of organized sports. Performance-enhancing drugs have continued to evolve, with “advances” in doping strategies driven by improved drug testing detection methods and advances in scientific research that can lead to the discovery and use of substances that may later be banned. Many sports organizations have come to ban the use of performance-enhancing drugs and have very strict consequences for people caught using them. There is variable evidence for the performance-enhancing effects and side effects of the various substances that are used for doping. Drug abuse in athletes should be addressed with preventive measures, education, motivational interviewing, and, when indicated, pharmacologic interventions. Keywords: doping, athletes, steroids, drug abuse, mental illness

  5. Archetypal Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Eugster, Manuel J. A.

    2011-01-01

    Discussions on outstanding---positively and/or negatively---athletes are common practice. The rapidly grown amount of collected sports data now allow to support such discussions with state of the art statistical methodology. Given a (multivariate) data set with collected data of athletes within a specific sport, outstanding athletes are values on the data set boundary. In the present paper we propose archetypal analysis to compute these extreme values. The so-called arche...

  6. Nutritional parameters are associated with mortality in acute kidney injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Nogueira Berbel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE:The objective of this study was to perform a nutritional assessment of acute kidney injury patients and to identify the relationship between nutritional markers and outcomes.METHOD:This was a prospective and observational study. Patients who were hospitalized at the Hospital of Botucatu School of Medicine were evaluated between January 2009 and December 2011. We evaluated a total of 133 patients with a clinical diagnosis of acute kidney injury and a clinical presentation suggestive of acute tubular necrosis. We explored the associations between clinical, laboratory and nutritional markers and in-hospital mortality. Multivariable logistic regression was used to adjust for confounding and selection bias.RESULTS:Non-survivor patients were older (67±14 vs. 59±16 years and exhibited a higher prevalence of sepsis (57.1 vs. 21.4% and higher Acute Tubular Necrosis-Individual Severity Scores (0.60±0.22 vs. 0.41±0.21 than did survivor patients. Based on the multivariable analysis, laboratorial parameters such as blood urea nitrogen and C-reactive protein were associated with a higher risk of death (OR: 1.013, p= 0.0052; OR: 1.050, p= 0.01, respectively, and nutritional parameters such as low calorie intake, higher levels of edema, lower resistance based on bioelectrical impedance analysis and a more negative nitrogen balance were significantly associated with a higher risk of death (OR: 0.950, p= 0.01; OR: 1.138, p= 0.03; OR: 0.995, p= 0.03; OR: 0.934, p= 0.04, respectively.CONCLUSIONS:In acute kidney injury patients, a nutritional assessment seems to identify nutritional markers that are associated with outcome. In this study, a low caloric intake, higher C-reactive protein levels, the presence of edema, a lower resistance measured during a bioelectrical impedance analysis and a lower nitrogen balance were significantly associated with risk of death in acute kidney injury patients.

  7. Eye Injuries--The A-B-C's and a Few X-Y-Z's for the Athletic Trainer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minton, Lee

    Suggestions are given for diagnosing and treating sport-related injuries to the eye: (1) hyphema; (2) abrasion of the cornea; (3) subconjunctival hemorrhage; (4) traumatic iritis; (5) lacerations of the eyelids and brows; (6) eyelid margin lacerations; (7) traumatic retinal detachment; (8) superficial foreign body; (9) traumatic cataracts and…

  8. Association between traumatic bone marrow abnormalities of the knee, the trauma mechanism and associated soft-tissue knee injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, Nicole [University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); University of Zurich, Department of Forensic Medicine and Radiology, Institute of Forensic Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland); Andreisek, Gustav; Karer, Anissja T.; Manoliu, Andrei; Ulbrich, Erika J. [University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Bouaicha, Samy [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Trauma Surgery, Zurich (Switzerland); Naraghi, Ali [University of Toronto, Department of Medical Imaging, Mount Sinai Hospital and the University Health Network, Toronto, ON (Canada); Seifert, Burkhardt [University of Zurich, Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Prevention Institute, Department of Biostatistics, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2017-01-15

    To determine the association between traumatic bone marrow abnormalities, the knee injury mechanism, and associated soft tissue injuries in a larger cohort than those in the published literature. Retrospective study including 220 patients with traumatic knee injuries. Knee MRIs were evaluated for trauma mechanism, soft tissue injury, and the location of bone marrow abnormalities. The locations of the abnormalities were correlated with trauma mechanisms and soft tissue injuries using the chi-square test with Bonferroni correction. One hundred and forty-four valgus injuries, 39 pivot shift injuries, 25 lateral patellar dislocations, 8 hyperextensions, and 4 dashboard injuries were included. Valgus and pivot shift injuries showed traumatic bone marrow abnormalities in the posterolateral regions of the tibia. Abnormalities after patellar dislocation were found in the anterolateral and centrolateral femur and patella. Hyperextension injuries were associated with abnormalities in almost all regions, and dashboard injuries were associated with changes in the anterior regions of the tibia and femur. Our study provides evidence of associations between traumatic bone marrow abnormality patterns and different trauma mechanisms in acute knee injury, and reveals some overlap, especially of the two most common trauma mechanisms (valgus and pivot shift), in a large patient cohort. (orig.)

  9. Resilience Is Associated with Outcome from Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losoi, Heidi; Silverberg, Noah D; Wäljas, Minna; Turunen, Senni; Rosti-Otajärvi, Eija; Helminen, Mika; Luoto, Teemu Miikka Artturi; Julkunen, Juhani; Öhman, Juha; Iverson, Grant L

    2015-07-01

    Resilient individuals manifest adaptive behavior and are better able to recover from adversity. The association between resilience and outcome from mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is examined, and the reliability and validity of the Resilience Scale and its short form in mTBI research is evaluated. Patients with mTBI (n=74) and orthopedic controls (n=39) completed the Resilience Scale at one, six, and 12 months after injury. Additionally, self-reported post-concussion symptoms, fatigue, insomnia, pain, post-traumatic stress, and depression, as well as quality of life, were evaluated. The internal consistency of the Resilience Scale and the short form ranged from 0.91 to 0.93 for the mTBI group and from 0.86 to 0.95 for controls. The test-retest reliability ranged from 0.70 to 0.82. Patients with mTBI and moderate-to-high resilience reported significantly fewer post-concussion symptoms, less fatigue, insomnia, traumatic stress, and depressive symptoms, and better quality of life, than the patients with low resilience. No association between resilience and time to return to work was found. Resilience was associated with self-reported outcome from mTBI, and based on this preliminary study, can be reliably evaluated with Resilience Scale and its short form in those with mTBIs.

  10. [Athletic pubalgia and hip impingement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthaudin, A; Schindler, M; Ziltener, J-L; Menetrey, J

    2014-07-16

    Athletic pubalgia is a painful and complex syndrom encountered by athletes involved in pivoting and cutting sports such as hockey and soccer. To date, there is no real consensus on the criteria for a reliable diagnostic, the different investigations, and the appropriate therapy. Current literature underlines intrinsic and extrinsic factors contributing to athletic pubalgia. This review article reports upon two novelties related to the issue: the importance and efficience of prevention program and the association of femoro-acetabular impingement with the pubalgia.

  11. Metformin-Associated Acute Kidney Injury and Lactic Acidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Arroyo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Metformin is the preferred oral antidiabetic agent for type 2 diabetes. Lactic acidosis is described as a rare complication, usually during an acute kidney injury (AKI. Material and Methods. We conducted a prospective observational study of metformin-associated AKI cases during four years. 29 cases were identified. Previous renal function, clinical data, and outcomes were recorded. Results. An episode of acute gastroenteritis precipitated the event in 26 cases. Three developed a septic shock. Three patients died, the only related factor being liver dysfunction. More severe metabolic acidosis hyperkalemia and anemia were associated with higher probabilities of RRT requirement. We could not find any relationship between previous renal dysfunction and the outcome of the AKI. Conclusions. AKI associated to an episode of volume depletion due to gastrointestinal losses is a serious complication in type 2 diabetic patients on metformin. Previous renal dysfunction (mild-to-moderate CKD has no influence on the severity or outcome.

  12. Sport Injuries for Females: Incidence and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindig, Louise E.

    Comparisons between sport-related injuries for male and female athletes are discussed in relation to statistics gathered by the National Athletic Injury/Illness Reporting System (NAIRS) and other sources. Tables display data on: (1) athletic injuries and fatalities in colleges and universities by sport, l975-76; (2) average annual frequency of…

  13. Antibiotic Precautions in Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Fayock, Kristopher; Voltz, Matthew; Sandella, Bradley; Close, Jeremy; Lunser, Matthew; Okon, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    Context: Antibiotics are the mainstay of treatment for bacterial infections in patients of all ages. Athletes who maximally train are at risk for illness and various infections. Routinely used antibiotics have been linked to tendon injuries, cardiac arrhythmias, diarrhea, photosensitivity, cartilage issues, and decreased performance. Evidence Acquisition: Relevant articles published from 1989 to 2012 obtained through searching MEDLINE and OVID. Also, the Food and Drug Administration website w...

  14. Depression in athletes: prevalence and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolanin, Andrew; Gross, Michael; Hong, Eugene

    2015-01-01

    Depression affects an estimated 6.7% of today's adult population in a 12-month period. The prevalence rates for certain age groups, such as young adults and older adults, are higher. There are approximately 400,000 National Collegiate Athletic Association student athletes competing each year and 5 to 7 million high school student athletes involved in competitive interscholastic sports. Given such a high prevalence rate in certain age groups and a large denominator pool of athletes, past notions that athletes are devoid of mental health issues have come under scrutiny by sports medicine providers. Initial data suggest that athletes are far from immune to depression. The purpose of this article was to review the current research on athletes and depression; particularly this article will provide an overview of studies, which have investigated the rate of depression among athletes, and discuss relevant risk factors, which may contribute to depression among athletes.

  15. Knee Injuries in Wrestlers: A Prospective Study from the Indian Subcontinent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Shalini; Mann, Ekta

    2016-01-01

    Background Wrestling is a very popular sport the world over and its popularity is rapidly increasing in India. However, due to its arduous nature it is associated with a high incidence of injuries. Out of all the injuries, those to the knee are one of the commonest injuries reported. Objectives Our aim was to study the pattern of these injuries in the Indian wrestlers. Methods A prospective study was conducted involving 196 wrestlers who were followed up over a period of 2 years. Their knee injuries were studied by means of a structured questionnaire which they filled up with assistance from their athletic trainers. Results There were a total of 188 injuries in 121 wrestlers with overall injury rate of 5.13/1,000 athlete exposure. 35 wrestlers sustained 71 knee injuries (71/188; 37.77%). 71.83% injuries were new. More number of injuries occurred in competition (incidence density ratio = 20.7) and in attack position. There was a statistically significant association with age and duration of practice. No association was found between these injuries and style of wrestling, weight and height of wrestlers. Ligament sprains and muscular strains were the commonest injuries. Conclusions Goal of any such study is to minimize the risk of injury in the young athlete by understanding the factors responsible and development of preventive programs. We hope to do just that with this first study involving Indian wrestlers.

  16. Cervical Spine Immobilization in Sports Related Injuries: Review of Current Guidelines and a Case Study of an Injured Athlete

    OpenAIRE

    Bhamra, JS; Morar, Y; Khan, WS; Deep, K.; Hammer, A.

    2012-01-01

    Cervical spine immobilization is an essential component of the ATLS® system. Inadequate training in the management of trauma calls and failure of early recognition can have disastrous consequences. Pre-hospital personnel are routinely involved more in the assessment and stabilization of patients in comparison to other health care professionals. This case study and review highlights the importance of early recognition, assessment and correct stabilization of cervical spine injuries both in the...

  17. Using recovery modalities between training sessions in elite athletes: does it help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Anthony

    2006-01-01

    Achieving an appropriate balance between training and competition stresses and recovery is important in maximising the performance of athletes. A wide range of recovery modalities are now used as integral parts of the training programmes of elite athletes to help attain this balance. This review examined the evidence available as to the efficacy of these recovery modalities in enhancing between-training session recovery in elite athletes. Recovery modalities have largely been investigated with regard to their ability to enhance the rate of blood lactate removal following high-intensity exercise or to reduce the severity and duration of exercise-induced muscle injury and delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Neither of these reflects the circumstances of between-training session recovery in elite athletes. After high-intensity exercise, rest alone will return blood lactate to baseline levels well within the normal time period between the training sessions of athletes. The majority of studies examining exercise-induced muscle injury and DOMS have used untrained subjects undertaking large amounts of unfamiliar eccentric exercise. This model is unlikely to closely reflect the circumstances of elite athletes. Even without considering the above limitations, there is no substantial scientific evidence to support the use of the recovery modalities reviewed to enhance the between-training session recovery of elite athletes. Modalities reviewed were massage, active recovery, cryotherapy, contrast temperature water immersion therapy, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, compression garments, stretching, electromyostimulation and combination modalities. Experimental models designed to reflect the circumstances of elite athletes are needed to further investigate the efficacy of various recovery modalities for elite athletes. Other potentially important factors associated with recovery, such as the rate of post-exercise glycogen synthesis and the role

  18. Vegetarian, Gluten-Free, and Energy Restricted Diets in Female Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn Cialdella-Kam

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Female athletes who follow a diet that fails to meet energy and nutrient needs are at risk for musculoskeletal injuries, menstrual disturbances, and poor sports performance. Common nutritional concerns for the female athlete include low energy availability (EA (i.e., energy intake from food remaining for metabolic processes after accounting for energy expended during exercise and inadequate dietary intakes (i.e., not meeting sports nutrition guidelines of carbohydrates, protein, essential fatty acids (EFAs, B-vitamins, calcium, iron, and vitamin D. Low EA and the associated nutrient deficiencies are more common in athletes who compete in weight-sensitive sports (i.e., aesthetic, gravitational, and weight category sports because low body fat and mass confer a competitive advantage. Other athletes at risk for energy and nutrient deficits include athletes following a vegetarian or gluten-free diet (GFD. Careful dietary planning can help an athlete meet energy and nutrient needs. This review covers the nutrition issues associated with low EA and special diets (i.e., vegetarian and GFD and describes strategies to help female athletes meet their energy and nutrient needs.

  19. Oligodendrocyte Injury and Pathogenesis of HIV-1-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Liu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Oligodendrocytes wrap neuronal axons to form myelin, an insulating sheath which is essential for nervous impulse conduction along axons. Axonal myelination is highly regulated by neuronal and astrocytic signals and the maintenance of myelin sheaths is a very complex process. Oligodendrocyte damage can cause axonal demyelination and neuronal injury, leading to neurological disorders. Demyelination in the cerebrum may produce cognitive impairment in a variety of neurological disorders, including human immunodeficiency virus type one (HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND. Although the combined antiretroviral therapy has markedly reduced the incidence of HIV-1-associated dementia, a severe form of HAND, milder forms of HAND remain prevalent even when the peripheral viral load is well controlled. HAND manifests as a subcortical dementia with damage in the brain white matter (e.g., corpus callosum, which consists of myelinated axonal fibers. How HIV-1 brain infection causes myelin injury and resultant white matter damage is an interesting area of current HIV research. In this review, we tentatively address recent progress on oligodendrocyte dysregulation and HAND pathogenesis.

  20. Oligodendrocyte Injury and Pathogenesis of HIV-1-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Han; Xu, Enquan; Liu, Jianuo; Xiong, Huangui

    2016-01-01

    Oligodendrocytes wrap neuronal axons to form myelin, an insulating sheath which is essential for nervous impulse conduction along axons. Axonal myelination is highly regulated by neuronal and astrocytic signals and the maintenance of myelin sheaths is a very complex process. Oligodendrocyte damage can cause axonal demyelination and neuronal injury, leading to neurological disorders. Demyelination in the cerebrum may produce cognitive impairment in a variety of neurological disorders, including human immunodeficiency virus type one (HIV-1)-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Although the combined antiretroviral therapy has markedly reduced the incidence of HIV-1-associated dementia, a severe form of HAND, milder forms of HAND remain prevalent even when the peripheral viral load is well controlled. HAND manifests as a subcortical dementia with damage in the brain white matter (e.g., corpus callosum), which consists of myelinated axonal fibers. How HIV-1 brain infection causes myelin injury and resultant white matter damage is an interesting area of current HIV research. In this review, we tentatively address recent progress on oligodendrocyte dysregulation and HAND pathogenesis. PMID:27455335

  1. Pattern of midface trauma with associated concomitant injuries in a Nigerian Referral Centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Udeabor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the pattern of midface trauma with associated concomitant injuries seen in our environment. Methodology: This was a prospective analysis of trauma patients with midfacial injuries presenting at a referral center in South West Nigeria. In addition to socio-demographic data, the following information was also obtained: Mechanism of injuries, type of midfacial injuries, concomitant/associated injuries and treatment. Results: A total of 101 patients with midfacial injuries were involved. They were made up of 85 males and 16 females. The 20-29 year age group was mostly affected (44.6% and the most common cause of midface injuries was road traffic accident (91.1%. The zygoma was fractured more than any other midfacial bone (46.0%. A total of 144 associated injuries were recorded among these patients, head and ocular injuries accounted for 49 (34% and 35 (24.3% respectively. The patients were mostly treated conservatively or by closed reduction. Conclusion: The rate of head and ocular injuries among patients with midfacial injury was high. Knowledge of these associated injuries provides useful strategies for patient care and prevention of further complications. A multidisciplinary approach is important for optimum management of these patients.

  2. 体操训练中的运动损伤调查及预防研究%INVESTIGATION ON THE ACUTE SPORTS INJURIES AMONG ATHLETES AND ITS PREVENTION METHODS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周红梅

    2011-01-01

    [目的]研究运动员中急性运动损伤发生情况,并研究其影响因素.[方法]采用自制调查表调查200名运动员中急性运动损伤发生情况.并用SPSS13.0分析急性运动损伤的原因.[结果]共发生急性运动损伤166例,运动损伤发生中男性多于女性,并且多发生于年龄小,运动年限低的运动员.运动损伤时间发生时间主要集中在1~3月和10~12月,在损伤类型中,受伤最多的是拉伤和扭伤,受伤项目最多的是单杠.[结论]在体操运动训练过程中,应该加强易伤部位肌肉群力量和韧带柔韧性的训练,做好充分的热身运动,从而有效地预防急性运动损伤.%[Objective] To investigate the acute sports injuries among athletes, and its influencing factors. [Methods] By self-designed questionnaires, a total of 200 athletes with acute sports injuries were investigated, and SPSS 13.0 were performed to analysis. [Results] There were 166 athletes with acute sports injuries, and the males with acute sports injuries were significantly more than females, and often occurred in young age and few sports years. The acute sports injuries were mainly occurred in October and March, and most of the injuries were strain and cramp, and the easier injury item was horizontal bar. [Conclusion] We should strengthen the training during gymnastics disciplines, and strengthen the training for muscles and ligament, and prevent the occurrence of acute sports injuries.

  3. Seatbelt syndrome associated with an isolated rectal injury: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefny, Ashraf F; Al-Ashaal, Yousef I; Bani-Hashem, Ahmed M; Abu-Zidan, Fikri M

    2010-02-04

    Seatbelt syndrome is defined as a seatbelt sign associated with a lumbar spine fracture and a bowel perforation. An isolated rectal perforation due to seatbelt syndrome is extremely rare. There is only one case reported in the Danish literature and non in the English literature. A 48-year old front seat restrained passenger was involved in a head-on collision. He had lower abdominal pain and back pain. Seatbelt mark was seen across the lower abdomen. Initial trauma CT scan was normal except for a burst fracture of L5 vertebra which was operated on by internal fixation on the same day. The patient continued to have abdominal pain. A repeated abdominal CT scan on the third day has shown free intraperitoneal air. Laparotomy has revealed a perforation of the proximal part of the rectum below the recto sigmoid junction. Hartmann's procedure was performed. The abdomen was left open. Gradual closure of the abdominal fascia over a period of two weeks was performed. Postoperatively, the patient had temporary urinary retention due to quada equina injury which resolved 10 months after surgery. The presence of a seatbelt sign and a lumbar fracture should raise the possibility of a bowel injury.

  4. Seatbelt syndrome associated with an isolated rectal injury: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bani-Hashem Ahmed M

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Seatbelt syndrome is defined as a seatbelt sign associated with a lumbar spine fracture and a bowel perforation. An isolated rectal perforation due to seatbelt syndrome is extremely rare. There is only one case reported in the Danish literature and non in the English literature. A 48-year old front seat restrained passenger was involved in a head-on collision. He had lower abdominal pain and back pain. Seatbelt mark was seen across the lower abdomen. Initial trauma CT scan was normal except for a burst fracture of L5 vertebra which was operated on by internal fixation on the same day. The patient continued to have abdominal pain. A repeated abdominal CT scan on the third day has shown free intraperitoneal air. Laparotomy has revealed a perforation of the proximal part of the rectum below the recto sigmoid junction. Hartmann's procedure was performed. The abdomen was left open. Gradual closure of the abdominal fascia over a period of two weeks was performed. Postoperatively, the patient had temporary urinary retention due to quada equina injury which resolved 10 months after surgery. The presence of a seatbelt sign and a lumbar fracture should raise the possibility of a bowel injury.

  5. The Association between Blunt Cardiac Injury and Isolated Sternal Fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMaster, Jason; Desai, Pathik J.; Desai, Sapan S.; Kuy, SreyRam; Mata, Maggy; Cooper, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    The treatment of isolated sternal fractures (ISF) throughout the world is heterogeneous. This study aimed to identify the incidence, morbidity, and mortality associated with isolated fractures of the sternum and describe current practice for diagnosis and management of ISF and cardiac injury at a level I trauma center in the UK. A retrospective cohort study of adult patients (>16 years) with ISF presenting from 2006 to 2010 was conducted. Eighty-eight patients with ISF were identified. Most patients (88%, 77) were admitted to hospital with 66% (58) of them discharged within 48 hours. Two (2%) patients had an ER EKG with abnormality but both resolved to normal sinus rhythm within 6 hours of follow-up. Serum CEs were drawn from 55 (63%) patients with only 2 (2%) having a rise in serum troponin >0.04; however, in both of these patients troponin quickly normalized. Six (7%) patients underwent echocardiograms without significant findings. In all 88 patients with ISF, no cases of clinically significant cardiac injury were identified. Patients presenting with an isolated sternal fracture with no changes on EKG or chest X-ray do not warrant an admission to hospital and may be discharged from the ER. PMID:24653859

  6. The Association between Blunt Cardiac Injury and Isolated Sternal Fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahita Dua

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of isolated sternal fractures (ISF throughout the world is heterogeneous. This study aimed to identify the incidence, morbidity, and mortality associated with isolated fractures of the sternum and describe current practice for diagnosis and management of ISF and cardiac injury at a level I trauma center in the UK. A retrospective cohort study of adult patients (>16 years with ISF presenting from 2006 to 2010 was conducted. Eighty-eight patients with ISF were identified. Most patients (88%, 77 were admitted to hospital with 66% (58 of them discharged within 48 hours. Two (2% patients had an ER EKG with abnormality but both resolved to normal sinus rhythm within 6 hours of follow-up. Serum CEs were drawn from 55 (63% patients with only 2 (2% having a rise in serum troponin >0.04; however, in both of these patients troponin quickly normalized. Six (7% patients underwent echocardiograms without significant findings. In all 88 patients with ISF, no cases of clinically significant cardiac injury were identified. Patients presenting with an isolated sternal fracture with no changes on EKG or chest X-ray do not warrant an admission to hospital and may be discharged from the ER.

  7. Kidney injury associated with telavancin dosing regimen in an animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Vincent H; Ledesma, Kimberly R; Bowers, Dana R; Zhou, Jian; Truong, Luan D

    2015-05-01

    The elevation of serum creatinine levels is a concern with telavancin therapy. We examined the onset of kidney injury associated with telavancin in an animal model. Urine samples were collected at baseline and daily to determine the concentrations of kidney injury molecule 1 (KIM-1), a marker for early kidney injury. When a clinically relevant exposure of telavancin was given daily to rats, some differences in kidney injury were attributed to the dosing regimen. Further investigations of alternative telavancin dosing regimens are warranted.

  8. Associated injuries in traumatic sternal fractures: a review of the National Trauma Data Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyetunji, Tolulope A; Jackson, Hope T; Obirieze, Augustine C; Moore, Danier; Branche, Marc J; Greene, Wendy R; Cornwell, Edward E; Siram, Suryanarayana M

    2013-07-01

    Sternal fractures occur infrequently with blunt force trauma. The demographics and epidemiology of associated injuries have not been well characterized from a national trauma database. The National Trauma Data Bank was queried for patients with closed sternal fractures. The demographics were analyzed by age, gender, mechanism and indicators of anatomic and physiologic injuries. Types of commonly associated injuries were also determined. A total of 23,985 records were analyzed. Males accounted for 68.3 per cent and whites 70.9 per cent. Motor vehicle crash was the leading mechanism. More than 56 per cent had severe injuries based on Injury Severity Score (greater than 15) and 17 per cent with Glasgow Coma Score 8 or less. Crude mortality was 7.9 per cent. The majority (57.8%) and approximately one-third (33.7%) of the patients had rib fractures and lung contusions, respectively, 22.0 per cent with closed pneumothorax, 21.6 per cent had a closed thoracic vertebra fracture, 16.9 per cent with lumbar spine fracture, 3.9 per cent with concussion, and blunt cardiac injury in 3.6 per cent. Sternal fractures are usually associated with severe blunt trauma. Lung contusion remains the leading associated injury followed by vertebral spine fractures. Cardiac injuries are less frequent and vascular injuries less so. Mechanism of injury and presence of sternal fractures should alert providers to these potential associated injuries.

  9. Associated injuries in patients with facial fractures: a review of 604 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béogo, Rasmané; Dakouré, Patrick; Savadogo, Léon Blaise; Coulibaly, Antoine Toua; Ouoba, Kampadilemba

    2013-01-01

    Facial fractures may be associated with concomitant lesions of other parts of body with some of these injuries being life-threatening. This retrospective study reports the types of associated injury and the factors influencing their occurrence, in patients with facial fractures. In 18.2% of 604 patients, one associated injury at least was recorded. The most common associated injury was cranial trauma (9.9%), followed by limbs fractures (9.1%), chest trauma (2%), spine injury (0.5%) and eye ball rupture (0.5%). A poly trauma was recorded in 3.2% of the patients who had sustained a cerebral trauma, a spinal injury or a thoracic trauma. Death occurred in two patients (0.3%) who had respectively a spinal injury and a chest trauma. The occurrence of associated injuries correlated significantly with the fracture type with solitary mandibular fracture being a significant predictor of associated injuries. Although not statistically significant, multiple facial fractures and violence were more associated with concomitant injuries. The findings of this study recall the need for initial full examination of the trauma patients particularly victims of violence, patients presenting with multiple facial fractures or single facial bone fracture involving the mandible, the trauma patients? multidisciplinary management as well as trauma prevention.

  10. Revisiting acute liver injury associated with herbalife products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelhans, Kristy; Smith, Casey; Bejar, Ezra; Henig, Y Steve

    2011-10-27

    In the November 27, 2010 issue of the World Journal of Hepatology (WJH), three case reports were published which involved patients who had consumed various dietary supplements and conventional foods generally marketed as weight loss products. The reference to Herbalife products as contaminated and generally comparable to all dietary supplements or weight loss products is not scientifically supported. The authors provided an insufficient amount of information regarding patient histories, concomitant medications and other compounds, dechallenge results, and product specifications and usage. This information is necessary to fully assess the association of Herbalife products in the WJH case reports. Therefore, the article does not objectively support a causal relationship between the reported cases of liver injury and Herbalife products or ingredients.

  11. Location of Sternal Fractures as a Possible Marker for Associated Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max J. Scheyerer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Sternal fractures often occur together with serious and life-threatening additional injuries. This retrospective study was designed to assess concomitant injuries and develop a correlation between fracture location and the severity of injury. Methods. All patients ( diagnosed with a fracture of the sternum by means of a CT scan were analysed with respect to accident circumstances, fracture morphology and topography, associated injuries, and outcome. Results. Isolated sternal fractures occurred in 9%. In all other admissions, concomitant injuries were diagnosed: mainly rip fractures (64%, injury to the head (48%, the thoracic spine (38%, lumbar spine (27%, and cervical spine (22%. Predominant fracture location was the manubrium sterni. In these locations, the observed mean ISS was the highest. They were strongly associated with thoracic spine and other chest injuries. Furthermore, the incidence of head injuries was significantly higher. ICU admission was significantly higher in patients with manubrium sterni fractures. Conclusion. Sternal fractures are frequently associated with other injuries. It appears that the fracture location can provide important information regarding concomitant injuries. In particular, in fractures of manubrium sterni, the need for further detailed clinical and radiologic workup is necessary to detect the frequently associated injuries and reduce the increased mortality.

  12. Utility of the brain injury screening index in identifying female prisoners with a traumatic brain injury and associated cognitive impairment.

    OpenAIRE

    O'Sullivan, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    An estimated 60.25% of offenders have a history of traumatic brain injury (TBI). There is currently no established valid or reliable screening tool for identifying female prisoners with a TBI and associated cognitive impairment available in the UK. Using a cross-sectional design, this study aimed to investigate the retest reliability and construct validity of the Brain Injury Screening Index (BISI). Convergent validity was explored using self-report measures of mood and neurodisability, as we...

  13. An exploratory study of job satisfaction levels of athletic marketing directors at national collegiate athletic association (ncaa division i-a institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacey A. Hall

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this exploratory study was to investigate the job satisfaction of intercollegiate marketing directors at 329 NCAA Division I-A institutions using the Abridged Job Descriptive Index (aJDI and Abridged Job in General (aJIG scale. Determining job satisfaction (or dissatisfaction may provide insight for college athletic departments in developing systems that will enhance employee motivation and productivity in order to build a more stable and engaged marketing workforce. A total of 136 surveys were returned for a 41.3% response rate. Results indicated that marketing directors are satisfied with work on present job (96%, supervision (84%, coworkers (88%, and promotion (59%. Majority of respondents (93% indicated they are satisfied with their job in general. However, close to one-third of respondents indicated they were dissatisfied with their present pay (33%.

  14. Preparing for events for physically challenged athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Lauren M; Ward, David C

    2014-01-01

    The participation in sports for physically challenged athletes continues to expand in multiple domains from recreational, novice, and competitive to elite competitions such as the Paralympics. Physically challenged athletes have various disabilities such as visual impairments, spinal cord injuries, amputations, cerebral palsy, or other neuromuscular impairments and have different levels of functional ability within these broad categories. The spectrum of medical illnesses and musculoskeletal injuries seen with sports is similar to that of able-bodied athletes; however medical teams caring for athletes with disabilities need to be familiar with medical risks such as skin breakdown, thermoregulation problems, dehydration, autonomic dysreflexia, infections, orthotic and prosthetic issues, and psychiatric comorbidities that may be encountered. The medical team preparation for events involving physically challenged athletes should include obtaining appropriate medical supplies, ensuring disability-compatible access to medical areas, and preparing for emergency extraction from adaptive equipment.

  15. Acute effects of static stretching of hamstring on performance and ACL injury risk during stop-jump and cutting tasks in female athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Mianfang; Zhang, Qiang; Wu, Xie

    2017-01-11

    There is limited research investigating antagonist stretch. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of SSH on performance and ACL injury risk during stop-jump and 180° cutting tasks. Twelve female college athletes (age 20.8 ± 0.7 years; height 1.61 ± 0.05 m; mass 54.25 ± 4.22 kg) participated in this study. Subjects performed stop-jump and 180° cutting tasks under two conditions: after warm-up with 4×30 s SSH or after warm-up without SSH. Three-dimensional kinematic and kinetic data as well as EMG of biceps femoris (BF), rectus femoris (RF), vastus medialis (VM), and gastrocnemius medialis (GM) were collected during testing. SSH significantly enhanced jump height by 5.1% (P = 0.009), but did not change the takeoff speed of cutting. No significant changes in peak knee adduction moment or peak anterior tibia shear force were observed with SSH regardless of the task. The peak lateral tibia shear force during cutting was significantly (P = 0.036) reduced with SSH. The co-contraction of hamstring and quadriceps during the preactivation (stop-jump: P = 0.04; cutting: P = 0.05) and downward phases (stop-jump: P = 0.04; cutting: P = 0.05) was significantly reduced after SSH regardless of the task. The results suggest that SSH enhanced the performance of stop-jump due to decreased co-contraction of hamstring and quadriceps, but did not change the performance of cutting. In addition, SSH did not increase ACL injury risk during stop-jump and cutting tasks and even reduced medial-lateral knee loading during cutting.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND) , where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal.

  16. Concussion and the Student-Athlete: Considerations for the Secondary School Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodziej, Andrea; Ploeg, Adam

    2016-01-01

    The number of high school students who participate in athletics has increased over the past decade. There has also been an increased emphasis placed on athletic involvement and physical strength and ability. This has led to increased awareness of athletic injuries such as concussions. While concussions are not a new injury, the medical community…

  17. The research of sport injury for land training of Chinese U-shaped veneer skiing athlete%我国单板滑雪U型场地运动员陆训运动损伤调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢贵胜; 卢贵林

    2014-01-01

    Using interview method, literature method, questionnaire survey, field observation to investigate U-shaped veneer skiing athletes injuries during the land training period. Research reveals that the injured areas are more focus on waist, knees and ankles. Sports injury is closely related to daily special training. Inadequate prepara⁃tion, insufficient knowledge of sports injury and facilities condition are the main three reasons for sports injury. Sports injury is mainly because of sprain, contusion and accidental injury.%运用访谈法、文献资料法、问卷调查法、实地观察法,对国家单板U型场地滑雪运动员陆训期间的伤病情况进行调查,结果显示:运动损伤受伤部位主要集中在腰、膝、踝关节;准备活动不充分、缺乏运动损伤知识和场地设施原因是造成运动损伤的三大因素;损伤多以扭伤、挫伤和突发性损伤为主。

  18. Sport Injuries in Elite Paralympic Swimmers With Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Marilia Magno e; Bilzon, James; Duarte, Edison; Gorla, Jose; Vital, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Context: Visually impaired athletes sustain overuse injuries in the lower limbs, but the pattern of injuries may vary according to the sport. The characteristics of sports injuries in visually impaired swimmers are unknown. Objective: To determine the characteristics and epidemiologic measures (prevalence, clinical incidence, and incidence rate) of sports injuries in visually impaired elite national swimmers and to assess differences among visual classes and between sexes. Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Setting: International Paralympic competitions held between 2004 and 2008. Patients or Other Participants: Twenty-eight elite, visually impaired swimmers (19 males, 9 females) from the Brazilian Paralympic Team participated in this study. Twelve were visual class S11 (blind swimmers), 12 were S12 (low-vision swimmers), and 4 were S13 (low-vision swimmers). Intervention(s): A standardized report form was used to collect data during 5 competitions. This was endorsed by 2 Brazilian sports governing bodies. Main Outcome Measures: The characteristics, prevalence, clinical incidence, and incidence rate of injuries were calculated. Results: Eighteen athletes reported 41 sports injuries, with a prevalence of 64%, clinical incidence of 1.5 injuries per athlete, and an incidence rate of 0.3 injuries per athlete per competition. Overuse injuries (80%) were more frequent than traumatic injuries (20%). The clinical incidence and prevalence varied according to sex and visual class, but no statistical differences were observed (P > .05). The highest proportion of injuries was in the trunk (46.34%), followed by the upper limbs (34.15%). The shoulders (29.27%) were most affected, followed by the thoracic (21.95%) and lumbar spine (17.07%). Spasm (36.59%) was the most frequent diagnosis, followed by tendinopathy (26.83%). Conclusions: Visually impaired swimmers had a relatively high proportion of overuse injuries, predominantly associated with muscle spasm in the spine and

  19. 运动性心理疲劳的 IAT测量%An Implicit Association Test for Assessing Athlete Burnout

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛杨; 张力为

    2014-01-01

    编制了以训练和生活情境为目标刺激,运动性心理疲劳积极/消极词为属性刺激的内隐联想测验(IAT ),并通过4个研究探索其测量运动性心理疲劳的可行性。招募35名大学生运动员完成研究一“IAT 重测信度检验”和研究二“假装情境对内隐测验的影响”,结果表明,所编制的IAT 测验具有较好的跨时间、跨情境的稳定性。研究3对67名大学生运动员施测内隐外显心理疲劳问卷,考察 IAT 与外显运动性心理疲劳相关变量的关系,发现图片和文字版本 IAT 相关显著,IAT 得分与外显心理疲劳相关较弱,与运动动机相关显著,并对外显心理疲劳测验预测运动动机和训练比赛满意感有增值贡献。4对21名国家队运动员比赛前后的追踪研究发现,赛前 IAT 得分能够预测赛后1名教练员对运动员比赛表现的评价。总之,所编制的运动性心理疲劳IAT 具有较好的信度,并能够预测部分校标,一定程度上反映了运动员的消极心理状态,但不能替代现有的外显测验。%The Implicit Association Test (IAT ) was adapted to measure athlete burnout by as-sessing associations of training words/pictures (vs .daily-life words/pictures ) with negative (vs .positive) athlete burnout words .Study 1 showed that the IAT-Burnout exhibited good re-test consistency .Study 2 revealed that the IAT-Burnout was unaffected by a faking instruc-tion .Study 3 examined the validities of implicit and explicit measures and showed that the IAT-Burnout has a weak correlation with explicit burnout measures ,but was related to the sport motivation and competition satisfaction .Study 4 found that coach-rated indicators of com-petition performance were predicted by the IAT .Taken together ,these studies show that the IAT-Burnout is a reliable measure that is able to predict some of the criterion variables . Though it cannot replace existing explicit measurements ,it

  20. 高校羽毛球运动员膝关节损伤的调查分析%Investigation and Analysis of Knee Joint Injury of College Badminton Athletes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周芸佩

    2014-01-01

    通过文献资料法,问卷调查法,数理统计法等对江苏省18届运动会高校组羽毛球运动员膝关节损伤现状及原因进行深入调查分析,为同类研究提供理论依据。%Through using the method of literature review,questionnaire and mathematical statistics,this paper makes deeply analysis on badminton athlete's knee joint injury in 18th Games of Jiangsu province and provide a theoretical basis for the similar research.

  1. Risk Factors for the Female Athlete Triad among Female Collegiate and Noncollegiate Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Sharon H.; Gabriel, Melissa

    2004-01-01

    The female athlete triad, defined by eating disorders, menstrual dysfunction, and osteoporosis, has been increasing among female athletes. The purpose of this study was to examine eating disorders, performance-related injuries, menstrual dysfunction, exercise time, calcium intake, and orientation to exercise among undergraduate female collegiate…

  2. Effect of heavy training in contact sports on MRI findings in the pubic region of asymptomatic competitive athletes compared with non-athlete controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paajanen, Hannu [Kuopio University Hospital, Department of Surgery, Kuopio (Finland); Hermunen, Heikki; Karonen, Jari [Central Hospital of Mikkeli, Department of Radiology, Mikkeli (Finland)

    2011-01-15

    Bone marrow edema (BME) at the pubic symphysis on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is usually associated with groin pain and stress injury of the pubic bone. Little is known of the pubic MR imaging findings of asymptomatic heavy training athletes in contact sports. Pelvic MRI of male asymptomatic soccer (n = 10), ice hockey (n = 10), bandy (n = 10) and female floor-ball players (n = 10) were compared with non-athlete controls (10 males, 10 females) without groin pain to analyse the presence of BME (on a four-point scale). To study the possible changes of BME directly following heavy physical activity, 10 bandy players underwent MRI before and immediately after a 2-h training session. Magnetic resonance imaging showed minimal BME (grade 1) at the pubic symphysis in 19 of the 40 athletes (48%). Two soccer and 2 ice hockey players (20%) had moderate grade 2 pubic edema, but severe grade 3 BME findings were not found. Also 10 out of 20 (50%) of controls had grade 1 BME. The extent of increased signal was equally distributed in the asymptomatic athletes of different contact sports and controls. A heavy 2-h training session did not cause any enhanced signal at the pubic symphysis. This study indicates that the presence of grade 1 pubic BME was a frequent finding in contact sports and comparable to that in non-athletes. Grade 2 BME was found only in asymptomatic athletes undergoing heavy training. (orig.)

  3. AEROBIC FITNESS LEVEL TYPICAL OF ELITE ATHLETES IS NOT ASSOCIATED WITH EVEN FASTER VO2 KINETICS DURING CYCLING EXERCISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago R. Figueira

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to address the question if the VO2 kinetics is further improved as the aerobic training status increases from trained to elite level athletes. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max, work-rate associated to VO2max (IVO2max and VO2 kinetics of moderate (Mod and maximal exercise (Max were determined in fifty- five subjects. Then, they were assigned into three groups: low (LF, intermediate (IF and high (HF aerobic fitness level. In average, the VO2max of LF, IF and HF groups were, respectively, 36.0 ± 3.1, 51.1 ± 4.5 and 68.1 ± 3.9 ml·kg·min-1 (p < 0.05 among each other. VO2 kinetics mean response time of both exercise intensities were significantly faster (p < 0.05 in HF (Mod, 27.5 ± 5.5 s; Max, 32.6 ± 8.3 s and IF (Mod, 25.0 ± 3.1 s; Max, 42.6 ± 10.4 s when compared to LF (Mod, 35.7 ± 7.9 s; Max: 57.8 ± 17.8 s. We can conclude that VO2 kinetics is improved as the fitness level is increased from low to intermediate but not further improved as the aerobic fitness level increases from intermediate to high.

  4. Iron and the endurance athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Pamela S

    2014-09-01

    Iron is a trace mineral that is highly significant to endurance athletes. Iron is critical to optimal athletic performance because of its role in energy metabolism, oxygen transport, and acid-base balance. Endurance athletes are at increased risk for suboptimal iron status, with potential negative consequences on performance, because of the combination of increased iron needs and inadequate dietary intake. This review paper summarizes the role of iron in maximal and submaximal exercise and describes the effects of iron deficiency on exercise performance. Mechanisms that explain the increased risk of iron deficiency in endurance athletes, including exercise-associated inflammation and hepcidin release on iron sequestration, are described. Information on screening athletes for iron deficiency is presented, and suggestions to increase iron intake through diet modification or supplemental iron are provided.

  5. Physical therapists' role in prevention and management of patellar tendinopathy injuries in youth, collegiate, and middle-aged indoor volleyball athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kornelia Kulig

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPatellar tendinopathy is highly prevalent in all ages and skill levels of volleyball athletes. To illustrate this, we discuss the clinical, biomechanical, and ultrasound imaging presentation and the intervention strategies of three volleyball athletes at different stages of their athletic career: youth, middle-aged, and collegiate. We present our examination strategies and interpret the data collected, including visual movement analysis and dynamics, relating these findings to the probable causes of their pain and dysfunction. Using the framework of the EdUReP concept, incorporating Education, Unloading, Reloading, and Prevention, we propose intervention strategies that target each athlete's specific issues in terms of education, rehabilitation, training, and return to sport. This framework can be generalized to manage patellar tendinopathy in other sports requiring jumping, from youth to middle age, and from recreational to elite competitive levels.

  6. Lesões desportivas na elite do atletismo brasileiro: estudo a partir de morbidade referida Lesiones deportivas en la elite del atletismo brasileño: estudio a partir de morbilidad informada Sports injuries in Brazilian elite of the athletics: study based on referred morbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Marcelo Pastre

    2005-02-01

    brasileña del atletismo, associandolas a los mecanismos propios de instalación y características de la modalidad. Fueron entrevistados 86 atletas (47 hombres y 39 mujeres convocados para representar al Brasil durante el año de 2003. Se utilizó un interrogatorio de morbilidad referida, validado anteriormente, para obtención de los datos referentes a los atletas y sus lesiones. Para el análisis de los resultados se adaptó el test Goodman para contrastes entre y dentro de proporciones binomiales, siendo todas las conclusiones discutidas para 5% de significancia estadística. Los resultados mostraron que a mayor tasa de lesión por atleta (l/a, en las pruebas combinadas (3,5 l/a, seguidas por eventos de velocidad (2,6 l/a, resistencia (1,9 l/a y saltos (1,9 l/a respectivamente. El principal mecanismo causal es la alta intensidad interesando preferencialmente velocistas y fondistas. Otra fuerte asociación fué observada para la ocurrencia de lesiones musculares y la prueba de velocidad que tambien presenta preferencia para ocurrencia de lesión en la región de la cadera. Las actividades con elevada intensidad fué el principal responsáble por la ocurrencia de lesiones musculares en cuanto las osteoarticulares y tendinopatias ocurren con exceso de repeticiones. Se concluye así, a partir de los hallazgos, que existen asociaciones entre lesiones y factores causales, como entre pruebas y lesiones, mecanismos de lesión y zona anatómica.The sports injuries (SI quantification and association processes to their possible causal factors are important for a better understanding on the subject. The objective of the present study was the observation of SI in athletes of the Brazilian elite of the athletics, associating them to their installation mechanisms and characteristics of the modality. Eighty-six athletes were interviewed (47 men and 39 women summoned to represent Brazil during the season of 2003. A previously validated inquiry of referred morbidity was used for the

  7. Understanding Athletic Pubalgia: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Brian; Kleinhenz, Dominic; Schiller, Jonathan; Tabaddor, Ramin

    2016-10-04

    Athletic Pubalgia, more commonly known as sports hernia, is defined as chronic lower abdominal and groin pain without the presence of a true hernia. It is increasingly recognized in athletes as a source of groin pain and is often associated with other pathology. A comprehensive approach to the physical exam and a strong understanding of hip and pelvic anatomy are critical in making the appropriate diagnosis. Various management options are available. We review the basic anatomy, patholophysiology, diagnostic approach and treatment of athletic pubalgia as well as discuss associated conditions such as femoroacetabular impingement. [Full article available at http://rimed.org/rimedicaljournal-2016-10.asp].

  8. SUPPLEMENT USE BY YOUNG ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill Anne McDowall

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews studies of supplement use among child and adolescent athletes, focusing on prevalence and type of supplement use, as well as gender comparisons. Supplement use among adult athletes has been well documented however there are a limited number of studies investigating supplement use by child and adolescent athletes. A trend in the current literature revealed that the most frequently used supplements are in the form of vitamin and minerals. While health and illness prevention are the main reasons for taking supplements, enhanced athletic performance was also reported as a strong motivating factor. Generally, females are found to use supplements more frequently and are associated with reasons of health, recovery, and replacing an inadequate diet. Males are more likely to report taking supplements for enhanced performance. Both genders equally rated increased energy as another reason for engaging in supplement use. Many dietary supplements are highly accessible to young athletes and they are particularly vulnerable to pressures from the media and the prospect of playing sport at increasingly elite levels. Future research should provide more direct evidence regarding any physiological side effects of taking supplements, as well as the exact vitamin and mineral requirements for child and adolescent athletes. Increased education for young athletes regarding supplement use, parents and coaches should to be targeted to help the athletes make the appropriate choices

  9. [Metformin-associated lactic acidosis and acute kidney injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Paolo; Regolisti, Giuseppe; Antoniotti, Riccardo; Maccari, Caterina; Parenti, Elisabetta; Corrado, Silvia; Fiaccadori, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Metformin is recommended as the treatment of choice in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus because of its efficacy, general tolerability and low cost. Recent guidelines have extended the use of metformin to patients with Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) up to stage III. However, in the recent literature, cases of MALA (metformin-associated lactic acidosis) are increasingly reported. MALA is the most dangerous side effect of the drug, with an incidence rate of 2-9 cases per 100000 person-years of exposure. We report on two patients with accidental metformin overdose, severe lactic acidosis and acute kidney injury. In both cases, the usual dose of metformin was inappropriate with respect to the level of kidney dysfunction (CKD stage III). As both patients met the criteria for renal replacement therapy in metformin poisoning, they were treated effectively with sustained low-efficiency dialysis until normalization of serum lactate and bicarbonate values. Clinical status and kidney function improved and both patients could be discharged from the hospital.

  10. High Training Volumes are Associated with a Low Number of Self-Reported Sick Days in Elite Endurance Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mårtensson, Sandra; Nordebo, Kristina; Malm, Christer

    2014-12-01

    It has been proposed that high exercise loads increase the risk of infection, most frequently reported as upper respiratory tract infections, by suppressing the immune system. Most athletes will not train when experiencing sickness due to the fear of health complications. However, high training volumes are incompatible with high rates of non-training days, regardless of the cause. The purpose of this observational study was to examine the relationship between self-reported, exercise-constraining days of sickness (days when the athlete decided not to train due to symptoms of disease, either self-reported or by a physician) and the volumes of exercise training in elite endurance athletes by analyzing data from training logs kept for several years. The subjects included 11 elite endurance athletes (8 male, 3 female) competing at national and international levels in cross-country skiing, biathlon and long-distance running. Training logs available from these 11 subjects added to a total of 61 training years. The number of training hours per year (462, 79-856; median, range) was significantly and negatively correlated to the reported number of days not training due to sickness (15, 0-164) by a 3(rd) degree polynomial regression (R(2) = 0.48, F ratio = 18, p athletes can achieve high training volumes only if they also experience few sick-days. Key pointsTop level performance demands high training volumes and intensities, which may compromise immune function.Elite athletes must have an immune system capable of intact function also when under sever physiological and psychological stress.Elite performance, especially in endurance sports, is therefore incompatible with a high rate of infections.A negative correlation between infections and exercise training load among elite athletes is consequently observed - the less sick you are the more you can train.

  11. 国家冰壶队运动损伤调查及康复研究%Investigation of the Athletic Injury and Rehabilitate of Chinese National Curling Team

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段玉丞; 白震民

    2016-01-01

    To investigate and well prevent the athletic injury of Chinese curling players are the key for reducing the athletic injury and obtaining better performance, and meanwhile are important for improving the level of Chinese curling. The research objects include 13 male players and 12 female ones from Chinese national curling team. The results show that the type and causation of their athletic injuries are different; the main injuries are chronic from the muscle fatigue and joint pressure increase which mostly due to the long-term over-use; the rehabilitation training may improve the muscle tension and imbalance, reduce the joint pressure and pain; the old players' injuries mostly are chronic in long recovery time and being hard to recover completely, the new players' ones are in short time and fast recovery.%了解我国冰壶运动员运动损伤的发生情况,做好伤病的预防是减少伤病发生和取得优异成绩的关键,同时对提高我国冰壶运动水平具有重要作用。以国家冰壶队为研究对象,其中男子13人,女子12人,并针对较严重的伤病情况进行康复干预。结果发现国家男子、女子冰壶队损伤种类、损伤的原因不同;冰壶伤病中以慢性伤病为主,大多由于长期过度使用导致肌肉疲劳、关节压力增大所致;康复训练能够改善肌肉的紧张和不平衡,减少关节压力和降低疼痛;老队员大多为慢性损伤、康复时间长、很难完全恢复,新队员损伤时间短、恢复快。

  12. The relationship between Taekwondo training habits and injury: a survey of a collegiate Taekwondo population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Covarrubias N

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Natalia Covarrubias,1 Subir Bhatia,2 Luis F Campos,3 Dahn V Nguyen,2,3 Eric Y Chang1,4,51Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA, USA; 2School of Medicine, University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA, USA; 3Institute for Clinical and Translational Science, Irvine, CA, USA; 4Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Care, University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA, USA; 5Reeve-Irvine Research Center, Irvine, CA, USA Objective: To correlate training habits of Taekwondo (TKD athletes to risk for injury. Background: TKD is a Korean marital art that has been growing in popularity, with nearly 2 million individuals practicing the sport in the United States. Because of the combative nature of the sport, injuries are an inherent risk. However, data on proper training habits, types of injuries sustained during training, and recommendations for athletes to avoid injury are lacking. Frequently, studies of TKD evaluate athletes’ injuries during tournaments, but most do not evaluate athletes in training. Hypothesis: Increased training would potentially create more injuries secondary to increased exposure. Methods: This is a cross-sectional observational survey of 72 collegiate TKD athletes from the Pacific West Sanctioned Taekwondo Tournaments in the 2008–2009 season. Variables analyzed during training and competitions were training sessions per week, workout habits, belt level, years of experience, and characteristics of injury (location, type, mechanism, situation, treatment, and days missed. Results: TKD training habits of individuals who practiced four or more times per week (odds ratio [OR], 4.5; P=0.005 or sparred for more than 2 hours (OR, 8.7; P=0.003 were associated with significantly increased odds (risk of sustaining an injury. Those who had more than 3 years of tournament experience were more likely to sustain an injury (OR, 0.198; P=0.020. Conclusion: Increased risk for injury

  13. Molecular signatures of trauma-hemorrhagic shock-induced lung injury: hemorrhage- and injury-associated genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinman, Rena; Deitch, Edwin A; Aris, Virginie; Chu, Hung B; Abungu, Billy; Caputo, Francis J; Galante, Anthony; Xu, DaZhong; Lu, Qi; Colorado, Iriana; Streck, Deanna; Dermody, James; Soteropoulos, Patricia

    2007-09-01

    The etiology of trauma-hemorrhagic shock (T/HS)-induced acute lung injury has been difficult to elucidate because of, at least in part, the inability of in vivo studies to separate the noninjurious pulmonary effects of trauma-hemorrhage from the tissue-injurious ones. To circumvent this in vivo limitation, we used a model of T/HS in which T/HS lung injury was abrogated by dividing the mesenteric lymph duct. In this way, it was possible to separate the pulmonary injurious response from the noninjurious systemic response to T/HS by comparing the pulmonary molecular responses of rats subjected to T/HS, which did and did not develop lung injury, with those of nonshocked rats. Using high-density oligonucleotide arrays and treatment group comparisons of whole lung tissue collected at 3 h after the end of the shock or sham-shock period, 139 of 8,799 assessed genes were identified by significant analysis of microarrays. Hemorrhage without the secondary effects of lung injury modulated the expression of 21 genes such as interleukin 1beta, metallothionein-2, and myeloctomatosis oncogene (c-myc). In response to injury, 42 genes were identified to be differentially expressed. Upregulated genes included the L1 retroposon and guanine deaminase, whereas downregulated genes included catalase and superoxide dismutase 1. Real-time polymerase chain reaction confirmed the differential expression for selected genes. PathwayAssist analysis identified interleukin 1beta as a central regulator of two subpathways of stress response-related genes (c-myc and superoxide dismutase 1/catalase) as well as several unrelated genes such as lipoprotein lipase. Our model system provided a unique opportunity to distinguish the molecular changes associated with T/HS-induced acute lung injury from the systemic molecular response to T/HS.

  14. A Scoping Review of the Associations of Golf with Eye Injuries in Adults and Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan Jenkins

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Sport presents a risk of ocular trauma and accounts for a significant number of eye injuries that require hospital admission. The sport of golf presents a risk to eyesight from fast moving objects such as golf clubs and balls. This study aims to investigate the associations of golf with eye injuries and the reasons that these injuries occur. Material/Methods. A literature search was conducted using the databases MEDLINE, Web of Science, SPORTDiscus, and PsycINFO. Grey literature was searched using the WHO international clinical trials registry platform, Google Scholar, and ProQuest. Data was extracted using a standardised form and summarised into a report. Results and Discussion. Twenty-three studies were found relating to eye injuries in golf. Injuries appear to be rare, but more frequent in men and children. Injuries resulted in high rates of enucleation and visual impairment. Children sustained more injury from golf clubs whereas adults sustained more injuries from golf balls. Conclusion. Efforts are needed to encourage golf participants to understand the risks of ocular and indeed other head injuries. Initiatives to provide appropriate supervision and education on this topic are merited. Further research is needed to investigate the circumstances of eye injury in golf and assess the effects of interventions aimed at reducing risk of injury.

  15. Injuries to the Abdomen and Thorax: Diagnostic and Therapeutic Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maull, Kimball

    It is the responsibility of the athletic trainer to diagnose the nature and extent of an injury to an athlete, administer prompt first aid treatment, prevent any exacerbation of the injury, and hospitalize the patient quickly if it is necessary. The importance of these responsibilities is emphasized when an athlete suffers an injury to the abdomen…

  16. Sports-related brain injuries: connecting pathology to diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, James; Connolly, Ian D; Dangelmajer, Sean; Kintzing, James; Ho, Allen L; Grant, Gerald

    2016-04-01

    Brain injuries are becoming increasingly common in athletes and represent an important diagnostic challenge. Early detection and management of brain injuries in sports are of utmost importance in preventing chronic neurological and psychiatric decline. These types of injuries incurred during sports are referred to as mild traumatic brain injuries, which represent a heterogeneous spectrum of disease. The most dramatic manifestation of chronic mild traumatic brain injuries is termed chronic traumatic encephalopathy, which is associated with profound neuropsychiatric deficits. Because chronic traumatic encephalopathy can only be diagnosed by postmortem examination, new diagnostic methodologies are needed for early detection and amelioration of disease burden. This review examines the pathology driving changes in athletes participating in high-impact sports and how this understanding can lead to innovations in neuroimaging and biomarker discovery.

  17. Analysis of Investigation for Kayak Athletes' Waist Injury and Suggestions for Training%皮艇运动员腰部损伤调查分析及训练建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    轩芳英

    2012-01-01

    32 athletes of Hubei Province kayak team are investigated about their waist injury by literature, questionnaire and logical analy sis. The results show Prevalence is higher for kayak team waist injury. In kayak training, full preparations, the correctness of the aetion, pay attention to relaxation exercises after the training, and strengthen the protection and medical supervision in the movement are suggested in order to provide a valuable reference and theoretical basis for improving score of kayak athletes.%采用文献资料法、问卷调查法和逻辑分析法,对湖北省皮艇队32名运动员腰部运动损伤进行调查分析.结果发现:皮艇运动员腰部损伤的患病率较高.建议在皮艇运动训练中,要做好充分的准备活动,注意练习动作的正确性,重视训练后的放松练习,加强运动中的保护与医疗监督,为提高皮艇运动员运动成绩提供有价值的参考和理论依据.

  18. High Training Volumes are Associated with a Low Number of Self-Reported Sick Days in Elite Endurance Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Mårtensson, Kristina Nordebo, Christer Malm

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been proposed that high exercise loads increase the risk of infection, most frequently reported as upper respiratory tract infections, by suppressing the immune system. Most athletes will not train when experiencing sickness due to the fear of health complications. However, high training volumes are incompatible with high rates of non-training days, regardless of the cause. The purpose of this observational study was to examine the relationship between self-reported, exercise-constraining days of sickness (days when the athlete decided not to train due to symptoms of disease, either self-reported or by a physician and the volumes of exercise training in elite endurance athletes by analyzing data from training logs kept for several years. The subjects included 11 elite endurance athletes (8 male, 3 female competing at national and international levels in cross-country skiing, biathlon and long-distance running. Training logs available from these 11 subjects added to a total of 61 training years. The number of training hours per year (462, 79-856; median, range was significantly and negatively correlated to the reported number of days not training due to sickness (15, 0-164 by a 3rd degree polynomial regression (R2 = 0.48, F ratio = 18, p < 0.0001. We conclude that elite endurance athletes can achieve high training volumes only if they also experience few sick-days.

  19. Association between early airway damage-associated molecular patterns and subsequent bacterial infection in patients with inhalational and burn injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maile, Robert; Jones, Samuel; Pan, Yinghao; Zhou, Haibo; Jaspers, Ilona; Peden, David B; Cairns, Bruce A; Noah, Terry L

    2015-05-01

    Bacterial infection is a major cause of morbidity affecting outcome following burn and inhalation injury. While experimental burn and inhalation injury animal models have suggested that mediators of cell damage and inflammation increase the risk of infection, few studies have been done on humans. This is a prospective, observational study of patients admitted to the North Carolina Jaycee Burn Center at the University of North Carolina who were intubated and on mechanical ventilation for treatment of burn and inhalational injury. Subjects were enrolled over a 2-yr period and followed till discharge or death. Serial bronchial washings from clinically indicated bronchoscopies were collected and analyzed for markers of tissue injury and inflammation. These include damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) such as hyaluronic acid (HA), double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), heat-shock protein 70 (HSP-70), and high-mobility group protein B-1 (HMGB-1). The study population was comprised of 72 patients who had bacterial cultures obtained for clinical indications. Elevated HA, dsDNA, and IL-10 levels in bronchial washings obtained early (the first 72 h after injury) were significantly associated with positive bacterial respiratory cultures obtained during the first 14 days postinjury. Independent of initial inhalation injury severity and extent of surface burn, elevated levels of HA dsDNA and IL-10 in the central airways obtained early after injury are associated with subsequent positive bacterial respiratory cultures in patients intubated after acute burn/inhalation injury.

  20. Lesões musculoesqueléticas na temporada de 2006 em atletas da seleção brasileira feminina principal de canoagem velocidade Musculoskeletal injuries in athletes of the 2006 season's Brazilian women's speed canoeing team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Hensel

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Este estudo objetivou analisar a incidência, o tipo, a etiologia e a localização anatômica das lesões musculoesqueléticas na Seleção Brasileira de Canoagem Velocidade Feminina na Temporada de 2006. METODOLOGIA: Participaram do estudo as oito atletas da seleção, com média de idade de 19,50 anos (± 3,78; massa corporal média de 58,67 kg (± 5,44 e estatura média de 162,00 cm (± 4,00. RESULTADOS: Após a análise dos dados, obteve-se o índice de 5,06 lesões por atleta a cada 1000 horas de atividade esportiva. Observou-se também que 87,50% das atletas foram acometidas por lesões, com um total de 82,05% de casos reincidentes. As lesões mais freqüentes foram: contratura muscular (48,72% e tendinite (23,08%. O tronco (56,41%, principalmente na região torácica e tóraco-lombar, e os MMSS (41,03%, principalmente no ombro, foram as regiões mais acometidas. CONCLUSÃO: Por conseqüência do gesto esportivo, a etiologia das lesões foi de origem atraumática devido principalmente a sobrecarga das estruturas anatômicas. Acreditamos que com a caracterização das lesões nesta modalidade esportiva, a fisioterapia desportiva poderá realizar um trabalho preventivo focado nas lesões específicas encontradas, com o objetivo que diminuir sua incidência e reincidência.OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the incidence, kind, etiology and anatomical site of musculoskeletal injuries of athletes of the Brazilian Women's Speed Canoeing Team for the 2006 season. METHODOLOGY: All eight athletes of the main team participated on the study. Their mean age was 19.50 years (± 3.78; mean body mass of 58.67 kg (± 5.44 and mean height of 162.00 cm (± 4.00. RESULTS: After the analysis of data, a rate of 5.06 injuries/ athlete/ 1000 hours of sports practice was found. We also found that 87.50% of the athletes experienced injuries, totaling 82.05% of recurrences. -The most common injuries seen were: muscle contraction (48.72% and

  1. Bone contusion progression from traumatic knee injury: association of rate of contusion resolution with injury severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Douglas R; El-Khoury, Georges Y; Thedens, Dan R; Saad-Eldine, Mothana; Phisitkul, Phinit; Amendola, Annunziato

    2017-01-01

    Background Bone contusions are frequently encountered in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evaluation of knee anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries. Their role as indicators of injury severity remains unclear, primarily due to indeterminate levels of joint injury forces and to a lack of preinjury imaging. Purpose The purpose of this study was to 1) quantify bone contusion pathogenesis following traumatic joint injuries using fixed imaging follow-ups, and 2) assess the feasibility of using longitudinal bone contusion volumes as an indicator of knee injury severity. Study design Prospective sequential MRI follow-ups of a goat cohort exposed to controlled stifle trauma in vivo were compared to parallel clinical MRI follow-ups of a human ACL tear patient series. Methods Reproducible cartilage impact damage of various energy magnitudes was applied in a survival goat model, coupled with partial resection of anterior portions of medial menisci. Both emulate injury patterns to the knee osteochondral structures commonly encountered in human ACL injury imaging as well as instability from resultant ligament laxity. Longitudinal clinical MRI sequences portrayed stifle bone contusion evolution through 6 months after the inciting event. Results In the first 2 weeks, biological response variability dominated the whole-joint response with no apparent correlation to trauma severity. Control goats subjected to partial meniscectomy alone exhibited minimal bone response. Thereafter, 0.6 J impact bone contusions portrayed a faster rate of resolution than those induced by 1.2 J cartilage impacts. Conclusion Bone contusion sizes combined with time of persistence are likely better measures of joint injury severity than isolated bone contusion volume.

  2. Review of liver injury associated with dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, Felix; Kessebohm, Kerstin; Weimann, Rosemarie; Seitz, Helmut K

    2011-05-01

    Dietary supplements (DS) are easily available and increasingly used, and adverse hepatic reactions have been reported following their intake. To critically review the literature on liver injury because of DSs, delineating patterns and mechanisms of injury and to increase the awareness towards this cause of acute and chronic liver damage. Studies and case reports on liver injury specifically because of DSs published between 1990 and 2010 were searched in the PubMed and EMBASE data bases using the terms 'dietary/nutritional supplements', 'adverse hepatic reactions', 'liver injury'; 'hepatitis', 'liver failure', 'vitamin A' and 'retinoids', and reviewed for yet unidentified publications. Significant liver injury was reported after intake of Herbalife and Hydroxycut products, tea extracts from Camellia sinensis, products containing usnic acid and high contents of vitamin A, anabolic steroids and others. No uniform pattern of hepatotoxicity has been identified and severity may range from asymptomatic elevations of serum liver enzymes to hepatic failure and death. Exact estimates on how frequent adverse hepatic reactions occur as a result of DSs cannot be provided. Liver injury from DSs mimicking other liver diseases is increasingly recognized. Measures to reduce risk include tighter regulation of their production and distribution and increased awareness of users and professionals of the potential risks.

  3. Acute injuries in Taekwondo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlüter-Brust, K; Leistenschneider, P; Dargel, J; Springorum, H P; Eysel, P; Michael, J W-P

    2011-08-01

    Although Taekwondo is becoming an increasingly popular sport, there is a lack of reliable epidemiologic data on Taekwondo injuries. To perform an epidemiologic study on the variety of types of injury in professional and amateur Taekwondo athletes and to find a relation between Taekwondo style, skill level, weight-class and warm-up routine and the occurrence of injuries, we analysed the injury data using a 7-page questionnaire from a total of 356 Taekwondo athletes who were randomly selected. Overall, we registered a total of 2,164 injuries in 356 athletes. Most traumas were contusions and sprains in the lower extremities. Professional Taekwondo athletes have an increased risk of injury in comparison to recreational athletes. Taekwondo style, weight class and tournament frequency have an influence on the athlete's injury profile. Warm-up routines were found to have a positive effect on injury rates. Overall, Taekwondo may be considered a rather benign activity, if injuries during Taekwondo tournaments can be avoided. If not, Taekwondo can result in serious musculoskeletal problems.

  4. Breviscapine reduces neuronal injury caused by traumatic brain injury insult: partly associated with suppression of interleukin-6 expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Breviscapine, extracted from the herb Erigeron breviscapus, is widely used for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, cerebral infarct, and stroke, but its mechanism of action remains unclear. This study established a rat model of traumatic brain injury induced by controlled cortical impact, and injected 75 μg breviscapine via the right lateral ventricle. We found that breviscapine significantly improved neurobehavioral dysfunction at 6 and 9 days after injection. Meanwhile, interleukin-6 expression was markedly down-regulated following breviscapine treatment. Our results suggest that breviscapine is effective in promoting neurological behavior after traumatic brain injury and the underlying molecular mechanism may be associated with the suppression of interleukin-6.

  5. [Hypoxic brain injuries notified to the Danish Patient Insurance Association during 1992-2004. Secondary publication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bock, J.; Christoffersen, J.K.; Hedegaard, M.;

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the files of the Danish Patient Insurance Association for newborns suffering from hypoxic brain injuries. From 1992 to 2004, a total of 127 approved claims concerning peripartum hypoxic injury were registered. Thirty-eight newborns died and the majority of the 89 surviving childre...

  6. Risk Factors Associated with Self-Injurious Behaviors in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerden, Emma G.; Oatley, Hannah K.; Mak-Fan, Kathleen M.; McGrath, Patricia A.; Taylor, Margot J.; Szatmari, Peter; Roberts, S. Wendy

    2012-01-01

    While self-injurious behaviors (SIB) can cause significant morbidity for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), little is known about its associated risk factors. We assessed 7 factors that may influence self-injury in a large cohort of children with ASD: (a) atypical sensory processing; (b) impaired cognitive ability; (c) abnormal…

  7. Notes from the Field: Injuries Associated with Bison Encounters - Yellowstone National Park, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, Cara; Leong, Kirsten; Wallen, Rick; Buttke, Danielle

    2016-03-25

    Since 1980, bison have injured more pedestrian visitors to Yellowstone National Park (Yellowstone) than any other animal (1). After the occurrence of 33 bison-related injuries during 1983-1985 (range = 10-13/year), the park implemented successful outreach campaigns (1) to reduce the average number of injuries to 0.8/year (range = 0-2/year) during 2010-2014 (unpublished data, National Park Service, September 2015). During May-July 2015, five injuries associated with bison encounters occurred (Table). Case reports were reviewed to evaluate circumstances surrounding these injuries to inform prevention.

  8. Isokinetic dynamometry of knee flexors and extensors: comparative study among non-athletes, jumper athletes and runner athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siqueira Cássio Marinho

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Participation in intensive sports activities leads to muscular specializations that may generate alterations in involved articular forces and cause static (posture and dynamic changes (alterations of articular stability, coordination, etc.. Prevention of injury requires specific functional muscular evaluation in all athletes and for any kind of sport. OBJECTIVE: To dynamically evaluate, through isokinetic tests, the peak torque, total work, and average power of the knee flexor and extensor muscles of jumper and runner athletes and compare them to those of a non-athletic population, evaluating dominance and balance between agonistic and antagonistic muscle groups. RESULTS: In the non-athlete group, we noted a higher asymmetry between the dominant and nondominant members. The jumpers had the highest values of the evaluated parameters of all groups, whereas parameters for the runners were intermediate between non-athletes and jumpers.

  9. A qualitative analysis of factors related to eating disorder onset in female collegiate athletes and non-athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur-Cameselle, Jessyca; Sossin, Kayla; Quatromoni, Paula

    2016-11-29

    Female athletes are at risk for clinical eating disorders, yet their onset experiences have rarely been studied with qualitative methods. This study, which included interviews with 12 collegiate female athletes and 17 non-athletes, identified factors that contributed to eating disorder onset for both subgroups. Inductive content analysis revealed that low self-worth, peer issues, and comorbid psychological disorders were common in both groups. However, athletes reported sport-specific factors including performance pressure, team weigh-ins, and injuries, whereas family dysfunction, bullying, and puberty were more commonly reported triggers for non-athletes. Findings support prevention and treatment programs customized for unique vulnerabilities for each subgroup.

  10. Muscle function is associated with future patient-reported outcomes in young adults with ACL injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flosadottir, Vala; Roos, Ewa M; Ageberg, Eva

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIM: Consequences of an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury include worse patient-reported outcomes (PROs) and a decrease in activity level. Muscle function can be improved by targeted exercise. Our aims were to investigate cross-sectional and longitudinal associations among lower...... extremity muscle function and PROs after ACL injury. METHODS: Fifty-four participants (15 women, mean 30 years) with ACL injury or reconstruction, from the Knee Anterior Cruciate Ligament, Nonsurgical versus Surgical Treatment (KANON) trial (ISRCTN84752559), were assessed with hop performance, muscle power...... and postural orientation 3 years (SD 0.85) after ACL injury. PROs at 3 and 5 years after injury included Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) subscales Function in sport and recreation (KOOS Sport/rec) and Knee-related Quality of life (KOOS QoL), KOOS item Q3 (KOOS Q3), Tegner Activity Scale...

  11. Sports Injuries in Wheelchair Rugby – A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauerfeind Joanna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to analyze etiology and the incidence of sports injuries among wheelchair rugby players. Moreover, we verified if the levels of aggressiveness and anger presented by the athletes and their roles in the team influenced the incidence and severity of the injuries. The study involved 14 male players, members of the Polish National Wheelchair Rugby Team. During a 9-month period, the athletes participated in up to 9 training camps and 4 Wheelchair Rugby tournaments. The study was based on the Competitive Aggressiveness and Anger Scale, registry of sports injuries consulted and non-consulted with a physician and a demographic questionnaire. The following observations were made during the 9-month period corresponding to a mean of 25 training and tournament days: 1 wheelchair rugby players experienced primarily minor injuries (n=102 that did not require a medical intervention, 2 only four injuries needed to be consulted by a physician, 3 sports injuries occurred more frequently among offensive players than in defensive players, 4 offensive players showed a tendency to higher levels of anger and aggressiveness than defensive players. It can be concluded that wheelchair rugby is a discipline associated with a high incidence of minor injuries that do not require a medical intervention. The incidence rate of injuries during the analyzed period was 0.3 per athlete per training day.

  12. Expected Time to Return to Athletic Participation Following Stress Fracture in Division I Collegiate Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, Marissa; Everson, Sonsecharae; Siegel, Courtney; Miller, Timothy Lee

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate and determine the expected time to return to athletic participation in Division I collegiate Track and Field athletes. Methods: All stress fractures diagnosed in athletes on a single Division I collegiate men’s and women’s track and field/ cross-country team were recorded over a 4-year period. Site and severity of the injury were recorded and graded based on the Kaeding-Miller Classification System for stress fractures. Time to return to full unrestricted athletic participation was recorded for each athlete and correlated with the site and severity grade of the injury. Time to return to athletic participation was also analyzed for gender differences. Results: Fifty-seven stress fractures were diagnosed in 38 athletes over a 4-year period. Thirty-seven of these injuries occurred in women; twenty in men. Mean time to return to participation in women was 13.9 weeks and 11.2 weeks in men. There were 10 athletes who sustained recurrent or multiple stress fractures. Thirty-three stress fractures occurred in the tibia, and 10 occurred in the 2nd through 4th metatarsals. Three occurred in the 5th metatarsal, 6 in the tarsal bones (2 navicular), and 5 in the pelvis. Mean times to return to athletic activity based on site of injury and with extreme outliers removed were as follows: tibia- 13.3 weeks, 2nd through 4th metatarsals- 11.7 weeks, 5th metatarsal- 11.7 weeks, tarsals- 12.1 weeks, and pelvis- 13.0 weeks. There were 31 grade 2 stress fractures, 11 grade 3 stress fractures, and two grade 5 stress fractures that occurred bilaterally in the same patient. Mean times to return to athletic participation again with extreme outliers excluded were as follows: Grade 2- 12.3 weeks, Grade 3- 14.1 weeks, and Grade 5- 17 weeks. There were no Grade 4 (displaced) stress fractures diagnosed in this cohort of patients. Conclusion: Stress injuries to bone occur frequently in track and field athletes. Based on data collected

  13. 我国优秀青年雪上项目运动员运动损伤流行病学及病因研究%Investigation on epidemiology and etiology of sports injury in China's athletes of teenagers on the snow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏亚茹; 吴菲

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological and Etiology analysis of medical research was applied in studying sports injuries and causa morbi on the China's athletes of teenagers on the snow, in order to prevent, avoid or reduce the occurrence of snow sports athletes'Sports injury.The results of the study showed that the China's snow sports athletes had a higher incidence of sports injuries,sports in-jury has the characteristics of repetition and multiple.The ankle, knee joint and waist was a high incidence area of sports inju-ry.The main type of injury was ligament,muscle and joint.Athletes'sports injuries were mainly manifested as moderate injury and mild injury,severe injury was less.Acute injuries was more than chronic injuries.Technical factors was the main reasons causing the snow athletes sports injury.%运用运动医学领域中研究流行病学和病因学的方法,对我国优秀青年雪上项目运动员的运动损伤流行病特点及病因进行研究,为预防、避免或减少我国优秀青年雪上项目运动员运动损伤的发生提供参考。研究结果表明,我国优秀青年雪上项目运动员运动损伤发生率较高,具有重复性和多发性的特点;踝、膝关节和腰背部是运动损伤的高发部位;运动损伤的类型主要是韧带伤、肌肉伤和关节伤;运动损伤程度以中、轻度损伤较多,重度损伤相对较少;损伤性质以急性损伤较多,慢性损伤相对较少。技术因素是造成我国优秀青年雪上项目运动员运动损伤的主要原因。

  14. Right Ventricular Adaptation Is Associated with the Glu298Asp Variant of the NOS3 Gene in Elite Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szelid, Zsolt; Lux, Árpád; Kolossváry, Márton; Tóth, Attila; Vágó, Hajnalka; Lendvai, Zsuzsanna; Kiss, Loretta; Maurovich-Horvat, Pál; Bagyura, Zsolt; Merkely, Béla

    2015-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO), an important endogenous pulmonary vasodilator is synthetized by the endothelial NO synthase (NOS3). Reduced NO bioavailability and thus the Glu298Asp polymorphism of NOS3 may enhance right ventricular (RV) afterload and hypertrophic remodeling and influence athletic performance. To test this hypothesis world class level athletes (water polo players, kayakers, canoeists, rowers, swimmers, n = 126) with a VO2 maximum greater than 50ml/kg/min were compared with non-athletic volunteers (n = 155). Cardiopulmonary exercise tests and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (cMRI) were performed to determine structural or functional changes. Genotype distribution of the NOS3 Glu298Asp polymorphism was not affected by gender or physical performance. Cardiac MRI showed increased stroke volume with eccentric hypertrophy in all athletes regardless of their genotype. However, the Asp allelic variant carriers had increased RV mass index (32±6g versus 27±6g, pgene function and NO bioavailability in sport related cardiac adaptation.

  15. Incidence and risk factors of injuries in Brazilian elite handball players: A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giroto, N; Hespanhol Junior, L C; Gomes, M R C; Lopes, A D

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence and risk factors for handball injuries in Brazilian elite handball players. Overall, 339 athletes from 21 handball teams who participated in the two main Brazilian championships were followed up during a season. In total, 312 injuries were reported by 201 athletes. The injury incidence rate during training was 3.7/1000 h, and during matches was 20.3/1000 matches. Ankle (19.4%, n = 46) and knee (13.5%, n = 32) were the body regions most affected by traumatic injuries. Shoulders (44.0%, n = 33) and knee (26.7%, n = 20) were the body regions most affected by overuse injuries. Muscle injuries (27.1%, n = 68) was the traumatic injury type most reported. Tendinopathy (91.8%, n = 56) was the overuse injury type most observed. Previous injury (OR: 2.42, CI 95%: 1.51-3.89) and an additional match per week (OR: 1.31, CI 95%: 1.05-1.62) were associated with a higher risk of overuse injury. Female athletes (OR: 1.56, CI 95%: 1.08-2.25) and an additional hour of training per week (OR: 1.09, CI 95%: 1.02-1.15) were associated with a higher risk of traumatic injury. This study showed that athletes with previous injury have shown a high risk of developing an overuse injury.

  16. Scaphoid fracture in the elite athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belsky, Mark R; Leibman, Matthew I; Ruchelsman, David E

    2012-08-01

    Scaphoid fracture remains a common, potentially devastating, injury that can impair upper extremity function. Early recognition with proper imaging and treatment provides the best opportunity to heal and return to a normal activity level. Surgical treatment offers the patient a quicker return to the rehabilitation of the extremity and therefore an earlier return to elite play. There is evidence that healing occurs faster if the fractured scaphoid is fixed with internal fixation. Absolute compliance by the athlete and the training program that surrounds the athlete is critical to protect the wrist while maintaining the necessary conditioning of an elite athlete.

  17. The Anemias of Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichner, Edward R.

    1986-01-01

    Diagnosing anemia in athletes is complicated because athletes normally have a pseudoanemia that needs no treatment. Athletes, however, can develop anemia from iron deficiency or footstrike hemolysis, which require diagnosis and treatment. (Author/MT)

  18. Exploring associations between self-regulatory mechanisms and neuropsychological functioning and driver behaviour after brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rike, Per-Ola; Johansen, Hans J; Ulleberg, Pål; Lundqvist, Anna; Schanke, Anne-Kristine

    2016-04-11

    The objective of this prospective one-year follow-up study was to explore the associations between self-regulatory mechanisms and neuropsychological tests as well as baseline and follow-up ratings of driver behaviour. The participants were a cohort of subjects with stroke and traumatic brain injury (TBI) who were found fit to drive after a multi-disciplinary driver assessment (baseline). Baseline measures included neuropsychological tests and ratings of self-regulatory mechanisms, i.e., executive functions (Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version; BRIEF-A) and impulsive personality traits (UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale). The participants rated pre-injury driving behaviour on the Driver Behaviour Qestionnaire (DBQ) retrospectively at baseline and after one year of post-injury driving (follow-up). Better performance on neuropsychological tests was significantly associated with more post-injury DBQ Violations. The BRIEF-A main indexes were significantly associated with baseline and follow-up ratings of DBQ Mistakes and follow-up DBQ Inattention. UPPS (lack of) Perseverance was significantly associated with baseline DBQ Inattention, whereas UPPS Urgency was significantly associated with baseline DBQ Inexperience and post-injury DBQ Mistakes. There were no significant changes in DBQ ratings from baseline (pre-injury) to follow-up (post-injury). It was concluded that neuropsychological functioning and self-regulatory mechanisms are related to driver behaviour. Some aspects of driver behaviour do not necessarily change after brain injury, reflecting the influence of premorbid driving behaviour or impaired awareness of deficits on post-injury driving behaviour. Further evidence is required to predict the role of self-regulatory mechanisms on driver behaviour and crashes or near misses.

  19. The Impact of Financial Aid on the Enrollment and Retention of Student Athletes at National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division III Colleges and Universities: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandre, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to review current literature on the enrollment and retention of student athletes at NCAA Division III institutions. However, the review identifies very few studies that specifically focused on Division III programs and none that looks at the influence of financial aid on the enrollment and retention of student athletes at…

  20. Aerobic Fitness Level Typical of Elite Athletes is not Associated With Even Faster VO2 Kinetics During Cycling Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueira, Tiago R; Caputo, Fabrizio; Machado, Carlos E P; Denadai, Benedito S

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to address the question if the VO2 kinetics is further improved as the aerobic training status increases from trained to elite level athletes. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), work-rate associated to VO2max (IVO2max) and VO2 kinetics of moderate (Mod) and maximal exercise (Max) were determined in fifty- five subjects. Then, they were assigned into three groups: low (LF), intermediate (IF) and high (HF) aerobic fitness level. In average, the VO2max of LF, IF and HF groups were, respectively, 36.0 ± 3.1, 51.1 ± 4.5 and 68.1 ± 3.9 ml·kg·min(-1) (p ≤ 0.05 among each other). VO2 kinetics mean response time of both exercise intensities were significantly faster (p ≤ 0.05) in HF (Mod, 27.5 ± 5.5 s; Max, 32.6 ± 8.3 s) and IF (Mod, 25.0 ± 3.1 s; Max, 42.6 ± 10.4 s) when compared to LF (Mod, 35.7 ± 7.9 s; Max: 57.8 ± 17.8 s). We can conclude that VO2 kinetics is improved as the fitness level is increased from low to intermediate but not further improved as the aerobic fitness level increases from intermediate to high. Key pointsCurrently, it is reasonable to believe that the rate-limiting step of VO2 kinetics depends on exercise intensity.The well known physiological adaptations induced by endurance training are likely the most extreme means to overcome rate-limiting steps determining VO2 kinetics across exercise intensities.However, exercise adaptation leading individuals to the high-end of aerobic fitness level range (VO2max > 65 ml.kg.min-1) is not able to further improve VO2 kinetics during both, moderate and maximal intensity exercise.

  1. National Athletic Trainers' Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Convention Registration April NATA News International Speakers Program Advertisement Do Business with NATA NATA offers extensive advertising, ... 2206 Career Center: 1.860.427.5700 Twitter Facebook LinkedIn Vimeo SPONSORS Privacy Policy About Contact NATA ...

  2. Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome in Iranian Female Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Baradaran

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS is the most common overuse syndrome in athletes. It is one of the causes of anterior knee pain in athletic population who come to the sports medicine clinic. Patellofemoral pain is more common among female athletes especially adolescents and young adults. Symptoms include: persistent pain behind the patella or peripatella. Pain increases on ascending and descending stairs and squatting and prolonged sitting. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of PFPS in Iranian female athletes. 418 female athletes aged 15-35 years were examined in five sports: Soccer (190, volleyball (103, running (42, fencing (45 and rock climbing (38. The athletes who had non- traumatic onset anterior knee pain of at least 3 months that increased in descending and ascending stairs and squatting, had no other causes of anterior knee pain such as ligament instability, bursitis, meniscal injury, tendonitis and arthritis and no history of knee surgery during the one past year were diagnosed as PFPS. 26/190 (13.68 % soccer players, 21/103(20.38 % volleyball players, 7/42 (16.66 % runners, 6/45(13.33 % fencers and 10/38 (26.31% rock climbers had patellofemoral pain. Among the 418 female athletes who were evaluated 70 had PFPS. Rock climbers were the most common athletes with PFPS followed by volleyball players and runners.

  3. Sports Hernia/Athletic Pubalgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Christopher M.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Sports hernia/athletic pubalgia has received increasing attention as a source of disability and time lost from athletics. Studies are limited, however, lacking consistent objective criteria for making the diagnosis and assessing outcomes. Evidence Acquisition: PubMed database through January 2013 and hand searches of the reference lists of pertinent articles. Study Design: Review article. Level of Evidence: Level 5. Results: Nonsurgical outcomes have not been well reported. Various surgical approaches have return-to–athletic activity rates of >80% regardless of the approach. The variety of procedures and lack of outcomes measures in these studies make it difficult to compare one surgical approach to another. There is increasing evidence that there is an association between range of motion–limiting hip disorders (femoroacetabular impingement) and sports hernia/athletic pubalgia in a subset of athletes. This has added increased complexity to the decision-making process regarding treatment. Conclusion: An association between femoroacetabular impingement and athletic pubalgia has been recognized, with better outcomes reported when both are managed concurrently or in a staged manner. PMID:24587864

  4. Motor Vehicle Crash-Associated Eye Injuries Presenting to U. S. Emergency Departments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grayson W. Armstrong

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Motor vehicle crashes (MVCs are a leading cause of injury in the United States (U.S.. Detailed knowledge of MVC eye injuries presenting to U.S. emergency departments (ED will aid clinicians in diagnosis and management. The objective of the study was to describe the incidence, risk factors, and characteristics of non-fatal motor vehicle crash-associated eye injuries presenting to U.S. EDs from 2001 to 2008. Methods: Retrospective cross-sectional study using the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System All Injury Program (NEISS-AIP from 2001 to 2008 to assess the risk of presenting to an ED with a MVC-associated eye injury in relation to specific occupant characteristics, including age, gender, race/ethnicity, disposition, and occupant (driver/passenger status. Results: From 2001 to 2008, an estimated 75,028 MVC-associated eye injuries presented to U.S. EDs. The annual rate of ED-treated eye injuries resulting from MVCs declined during this study period. Males accounted for 59.6% of eye injuries (95% confidence interval [CI] 56.2%-63.0%. Rates of eye injury were highest among 15-19 year olds (5.8/10,000 people; CI 4.3-6.0/10,000 and among African Americans (4.5/10,000 people; CI 2.0-7.1/10,000. Drivers of motor vehicles accounted for 62.2% (CI 58.3%-66.1% of ED-treated MVC eye injuries when occupant status was known. Contusion/Abrasion was the most common diagnosis (61.5%; CI 56.5%-66.4%. Among licensed U.S. drivers, 16-24 year olds had the highest risk (3.7/10,000 licensed drivers; CI 2.6-4.8/10,000. Conclusion: This study reports a decline in the annual incidence of ED-treated MVC-associated eye injuries. The risk of MVC eye injury is greatest among males, 15 to 19 year olds and African Americans. [West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(6:693-700

  5. Musculoskeletal Injury in Professional Dancers: Prevalence and Associated Factors: An International Cross-Sectional Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobs, Craig L; Cassidy, J. David; Côté, Pierre;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with injury in professional ballet and modern dancers, and assess if dancers are reporting their injuries and explore reasons for not reporting injuries. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Participants...... specific characteristics included number of years in present dance company, number of years dancing professionally, number of years dancing total, and rank in the company. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Self-reported injury and Self-Estimated Functional Inability because of Pain. RESULTS: A total of 260 dancers...... participated in the study with an overall response rate of 81%. The point prevalence of self-reported injury in professional ballet and modern dancers was 54.8% (95% CI, 47.7-62.1) and 46.3% (95% CI, 35.5-57.1), respectively. Number of years dancing professionally (OR = 4.4, 95% CI, 1.6-12.3) and rank (OR = 2...

  6. INJURY PROFILE IN WOMEN SHOTOKAN KARATE CHAMPIONSHIPS IN IRAN(2004-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzin Halabchi

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this paper were to record injury rates among Iranian women competitive Shotokan karate athletes and propose possible predisposing factors. A prospective recording of the injuries resulting from all matches in 6 consecutive women national Shotokan Karate Championships in all age groups in Iran (season 2004-2005 was performed. Data recorded included demographic characteristics (Age and Weight, athletic background (rank, years of experience, time spent training and previous injuries, type, location and reason for the injury, and the result of the match. Results indicate 186 recorded injuries from a total of 1139 bouts involving 1019 athletes, therefore there were 0.163 injury per bout [C.I. 95%: 0.142-0.184] and 183 injuries per 1000 athletes [C.I. 95%: 159-205]. Injuries were most commonly located in the head and neck (55.4% followed by the lower limb (21%, upper limb (12.9% and trunk (10.8%. Punches (48. 4% were associated with more injuries than kicks (33.3%. The injuries consisted of muscle strain and contusion (81, 43.6%, hematoma and epistaxis (49, 26.3%, lacerations and abrasions (28, 15. 1%, concussion (13, 7%, tooth avulsion or subluxation (3, 1.6%, joint dislocation (3, 1.6% and fractures (3, 1.6%. In conclusion, as the majority of injuries are minor, and severe or longstanding injuries are uncommon, it can be argued that shotokan karate is a relatively safe for females, despite its image as a combat sport, where ostensibly the aim appears to injure your opponent. Further research is needed to evaluate the effective strategies to minimize the risk of injuries

  7. Resultant linear acceleration of an instrumented head form does not differ between junior and collegiate taekwondo athletes' kicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David O'Sullivan

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: It is of concern that RLA did not significantly differ between school levels, implying that young taekwondo athletes generate similar forces to their adult counterparts, possibly exposing young athletes to an increased risk for head injuries.

  8. Attention and Reaction Time in Shotokan Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António VencesBrito

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyze the attention capacity and the reaction time in Portuguese karate Shotokan athletes. Participated 96 Shotokan athletes from the Portuguese Karate Association. We physically characterized the sample (weight, height, body mass index, and body fat mass percentage and evaluated Simple Reaction Time (TRS, Choice Reaction Time (TRE, Decision Time (TD and the Distributed Attention (AD. Data was analyzed according to athletes’ group age (15 to 19 yr, 20 to 35 yr and more than 35 yr, level of graduation (9th to 4th kyu, 3rd to 1st kyu, DAN and by gender (male and female. Male athletes present significant differences from female athletes in height, weight, years of practice and body fat mass. In relation to TRS all groups tend to a value near to 300 ms without significant differences among them, but the TRE and the TD are significantly higher in the Dan athletes and in the +35 yrs athletes than in the other groups. On the other hand the Dan and +35 yrs athletes tend to do less mistakes. Gender does not influence significantly the reaction time in the Shotokan karate athletes, but it seems that women tend to have smaller reaction times than men. Athletes with more years of practice and more graduation need more time to reply to the stimulus than the other athletes, but they tend to do fewer mistakes on their choices than other subjects. As for distributed attention, no significant differences were found in function of the athlete graduation, nor in function of gender. However, for distributed attention, we found statistical significant differences in function of the age, with the oldest athletes presenting lower levels of distributed attention. Our results seem to show that is necessary to do some modifications in the training process of Portuguese Shotokan karate athletes.

  9. Use of plyometric trainings in physical rehabilitation of athletes in playing sports with injuries of the capsule-ligament apparatus of knee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh'd Khalil Moh'd Abdel Kader.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The question of possibility of application is considered in the programs of physical rehabilitation of the special physical exercises for the athletes in playing sports with the damage of knee-joint. An analysis and generalization of scientific-methodical information on questions of mechanisms and features of origin of sporting traumas, and also modern facilities and methods of renewal at the traumas of the capsule-ligament apparatus of knee is conducted. It is set that in the modern methods of physical rehabilitation of sportsmen with the traumas of locomotorium the complex programs do not meet with the use of plyometric exercises. Their application is instrumental in the prophylaxis of origin of recurrent sporting traumas, renewal of the special capacity and speed-power qualities of athletes.

  10. Treatment of Hip Dislocations and Associated Injuries: Current State of Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, Michael J; Bauer, Jennifer M; Mir, Hassan R

    2016-07-01

    Hip dislocations, most often caused by motor vehicle accidents or similar high-energy trauma, traverse a large subset of distinct injury patterns. Understanding these patterns and their associated injuries allows surgeons to provide optimal care for these patients both in the early and late postinjury periods. Nonoperative care requires surgeons to understand the indications. Surgical care requires the surgeon to understand the benefits and limitations of several surgical approaches. This article presents the current understanding of hip dislocation treatment, focusing on anatomy, injury classifications, nonoperative and operative management, and postinjury care.

  11. OCCULT MANUBRIOSTERNAL JOINT INJURY ASSOCIATED WITH FRACTURE OF THE THORACIC SPINE

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The authors report the occurrence of an occult manubriosternal joint injury in the initial evaluation on a patient with a thoracic spine fracture (T9). This T9 fracture was diagnosed in a 37-year-old man and was associated with a partial neurological deficit. At the initial evaluation, the radiographs produced did not show the manubriosternal joint injury. During rehabilitation, after surgical stabilization of the thoracic spine fracture, the patient suddenly felt an intense pain accompanied ...

  12. Burn-injury affects gut-associated lymphoid tissues derived CD4+ T cells☆

    OpenAIRE

    Fazal, Nadeem; Shelip, Alla; Alzahrani, Alhusain J.

    2013-01-01

    After scald burn-injury, the intestinal immune system responds to maintain immune balance. In this regard CD4+T cells in Gut-Associated Lymphoid Tissues (GALT), like mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) and Peyer's patches (PP) respond to avoid immune suppression following major injury such as burn. Therefore, we hypothesized that the gut CD4+T cells become dysfunctional and turn the immune homeostasis towards depression of CD4+ T cell-mediated adaptive immune responses. In the current study we show ...

  13. International Association of Dental Traumatology guidelines for the management of traumatic dental injuries. 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diangelis, A J; Andreasen, J O; Ebeleseder, K A;

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic dental injuries (TDIs) of permanent teeth occur frequently in children and young adults. Crown fractures and luxations are the most commonly occurring of all dental injuries. Proper diagnosis, treatment planning and follow up are important for improving a favorable outcome. Guidelines...... should assist dentists and patients in decision making and for providing the best care effectively and efficiently. The International Association of Dental Traumatology (IADT) has developed a consensus statement after a review of the dental literature and group discussions. Experienced researchers...

  14. Management of severe pelvic fracture associated with injuries of adjacent viscera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高劲谋; 田显扬; 胡平; 李昌华; 王建柏; 曾剑波

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the approach of emergency management for severe pelvic fracture associated with injuries of adjacent viscera and evaluate the therapeutic effect. Methods: The data of 79 patients with severe pelvic fracture associated with injuries of adjacent viscera were retrospectively studied, and the study covered a period of 14 years. Results: To cease massive bleeding due to pelvic fracture, ligation of internal iliac arteries was performed on 33 cases, and angioembolization on 8. Of 42 patients with cystic or/and urethral injury, 35 underwent cystostomy and delayed reconstruction, and 7 received a primary realignment. All of 17 patients with injury of retroperitoneal rectum underwent diverting colostomy of the proximal end of sigmoid with presacral drainage, but 4 received primary repair without colostomy. In 22 patients with intraperitoneal colorectal injury, 19 were managed with primary repair or anastomosis while 3 received a colostomy. The overall mortality rate was 8.86% (7/79); the main causes were hemorrhagic shock and associated injury. The complications included urethro-rectal fistula in 4 cases, thrombosis of right common iliac artery in 1, ARDS following chest trauma in 1, and paraplegia in 1. Except the patient with paraplegia, all of them were cured. Conclusions: Prompt diagnosis and proper treatment are the key to success. Devascularization of internal iliac arteries with external fixation cage of the pelvis, cystostomy and proximal sigmoidostomy are effective procedures in emergency treatment of the critical patients.

  15. MR imaging of associated brain injuries in cases of acute extradural hematoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komatsu, Yoji; Matsumura, Akira; Meguro, Kotoo; Shibata, Tomoyuki; Shibuya, Fumiho; Nakata, Yoshitaka (Tsukuba Medical Center Hospital, Ibaraki (Japan)); Nose, Tadao

    1993-09-01

    To assess the efficacy of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging for detection of associated brain injuries in cases of extradural hematoma (EDH), 32 patients with EDH were examined by MR. CT detected associated lesion in eleven patients (34%), while MR detected them in 24 patients (75%). MR is more sensitive than CT in detecting associated lesions, especially when T2-weighted imaging is used. Non-hemorrhagic contusions adjacent to EDH and near the cranial base were well shown by MR; however, they tended to be missed by CT. EEG findings were clearly related to abnormalities detected by MR. Coupling between functional change and organic change was confirmed. The improved detection and anatomic localization of associated brain injuries by MR should allow more accurate assessment of brain injuries, and sophisticated management of EDH patient. The authors also discuss the cardiorespiratory monitoring and support during MRI examination in critically ill patients. (author).

  16. Novel biomarkers for cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury: a skeptical assessment of their role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidebotham, David

    2012-12-01

    Cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury (AKI) is common and is associated with a high mortality rate. Traditional biomarkers of AKI (creatinine and urea) increase slowly in response to renal injury, are insensitive to mild degrees of AKI, and are influenced by nonrenal factors. There is considerable interest in novel biomarkers of AKI such as neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin that increase rapidly after renal injury, detect mild degrees of AKI, and are less subject to nonrenal factors. It has been postulated that the early diagnosis of cardiac surgery-associated AKI using novel biomarkers will result in improved outcomes. However, there is little evidence that interventions started early in the course of evolving AKI enhance renal recovery. Until effective therapies are developed that significantly improve the outcome from AKI, there is little benefit from early diagnosis using novel biomarkers.

  17. Athletic Apparel Industry Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIE; TAN; NAFISUL; ISLAM; MILAN; MITRASINOVIC

    2015-01-01

    Industry Overview The athletic apparel industry is the fastest growing segment of global clothing industry differentiated by offering high quality athletic apparel made of technically advanced fabrics.The athletic apparel is made for a variety of sports and physical activities for children,men and women and enhances comfort and performance of athletes.The industry consists of companies that design and market

  18. Bone alterations by stress in athletes. Schaedigung des Knochens durch Ueberlastung bei Leistungssportlern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doege, H. (Bezirkskrankenhaus ' Friedrich Wolf' , Abt. fuer Nuklearmedizin, Chemnitz (Germany))

    1990-01-01

    This report describes our experiences with the bone imaging in athletes. We studied 10 athletes and 10 other patients with spondylolisthesis of the lumbar spine and 16 athletes with suspicion of alterations of extremities. An increased uptake of this radiopharmaceutical was detected in six of 10 athletes with spondylolisthesis caused probably by stress fracture. Bone scans were negative in seven of 16 athletes with suspicion of lesion of extremities. In the remaining 9 patients scans were abnormal and showed periosteal injuries, epiphyseal alteration, joint abnormalities, tibial stress fractures and couvert fracture. It was also abnormal in bone injuries not evident in radiography. (orig.).

  19. Fracturas por estrés en deportistas: Valor de la resonancia magnética en la predicción de la morbilidad Stress fractures in athletes: Role of magnetic resonance imaging in predicting injury morbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Maquirriain

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available La resonancia magnética ha mostrado ser una herramienta eficaz para el diagnóstico precoz de las fracturas por estrés y para la determinación de la gravedad de estas lesiones. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la relación entre la gravedad de las fracturas por estrés en deportistas, determinada por resonancia magnética y la morbilidad, estimada por el tiempo de retorno al deporte. Se estudiaron 34 casos de fracturas por estrés, correspondientes a 29 deportistas (12 mujeres; 17 varones; edad 26.3 ± 12.5 años, mediante radiografías y resonancia magnética. Las lesiones fueron clasificadas en cuatro grados según la escala de Arendt. Se determinaron la localización anatómica, el nivel de actividad, el tiempo de diagnóstico y el tiempo de retorno a la actividad deportiva. Los huesos más afectados fueron la tibia (n=12; 35.2%, el escafoides tarsiano (n=5; 14.7% y los metatarsianos (n=4; 11.7. La gravedad de las lesiones fue: grado 1: 14.7%; grado 2: 14.7%; grado 3: 38.2%; grado 4: 32.4%. La correlación entre la gravedad de la lesión y el tiempo de recuperación fue de r=0.66 (p=0.0002. Como conclusión, existe una correlación positiva significativa entre la gravedad de la fractura por estrés, determinada por resonancia magnética, y el tiempo de recuperación. La utilización sistemática de esta clasificación puede ayudar a definir con mayor precisión el cuadro clínico, controlar la rehabilitación y estimar el retorno a la actividad deportiva.Magnetic resonance imaging is a useful tool for stress fractures (SF diagnosis, allowing the estimation of injury severity. The aim of this study was to determine the relation between the severity of SF in athletes determined by magnetic resonance imaging and the morbidity estimated as the time to return to sport. Thirty-four cases of stress fractures, (29 athletes; 12 female, 17 male; age 26.3 ± 12.5, were studied by radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging. Injuries were

  20. "Numb-Leg" in a Cross-Fit Athlete: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esser, Stephan; Thurston, Mckennan; Nalluri, Krishna; Muzaurieta, Aurelio

    2017-04-04

    Participation in "CrossFit" athletics and Olympic-styled lifting by the general populace has rapidly increased in the last 10 years. Such athletic engagement poses unique, inadequately defined risks to the participant. We describe the case of a 36 y/o male presenting to an outpatient sports medicine clinic with six weeks of numbness and tingling in the lateral right proximal thigh. After thorough examination and EMG testing, he was found to have a lateral femoral cutaneous neuropathy caused by performing supine gluteal bridges with a weighted barbell resting across his anterior thighs. His case exemplifies the unique exercise demands and injury risks of CrossFit styled exercise. Sports medicine providers should be familiar with both trends in sports/fitness participation and the associated unique risks such sports pose so they can adequately counsel on safety of participation and correctly differentiate cause of injury when evaluating patients in the clinic setting.

  1. Responsibility for child and adolescent’s psychosocial support associated with severe sports injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallquist, Charlotte; Fitzgerald, Ulrika Tranaeus; Alricsson, Marie

    2016-01-01

    The manner in which health professionals and coaches act and decide on treatment and prognosis can influence athletes in a way that not only strengthens them, but it can also reduce their confidence in their own ability. The purpose was to determine who has the responsibility for child and adolescent psychosocial support needed in connection with a severe sports injury as well as investigate whether coaches, physiotherapists and parents are aware of the support that is needed. Qualitative interviews with coaches, parents and physiotherapists with experience of serious sports injuries in young people aged 12 to 16 years old from different sports were analysed using content analysis. The study showed that all actors independently imparted communication as being the major problem and indicated that the role of a coordinator was missing. They imparted cognitive, emotional and behavioural reactions in children, which were considered to be more common in younger children as indicated in previous studies. Coaches felt they had lack of education and time; parents described their disappointment in caregivers and personality changes in their children in connection with the injury. Physiotherapists felt that rehabilitation was often served as a substitute for the sport and that they therefore had greater responsibility for the child than they had been educated for. Results should be communicated to participants who are involved in children’s and adolescent’s sports to increase their knowledge and thus allow them to be able to give our children the best possibility, regardless of whether they return to the sport or not. PMID:28119882

  2. No association between q-angle and foot posture with running-related injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramskov, Daniel; Jensen, M L; Obling, K;

    2013-01-01

    There is a paucity of knowledge on the association between different foot posture quantified by Foot Posture Index (FPI) and Quadriceps angle (Q-angle) with development of running-related injuries. Earlier studies investigating these associations did not include an objective measure of the amount...

  3. Retention among Community College Student-Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Pilar; Horton, David, Jr.; Mendez, Jesse P.

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the impact of financial-aid on student-athletes' academic progression from freshmen to sophomore year in associates' degree programs in Oklahoma. Differences were found according to socioeconomic status (SES), gender, and race/ethnicity and between athlete and nonathlete students. (Contains 6 tables and 2 figures.)

  4. Iron deficiency in the young athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, T W

    1990-10-01

    Although overt anemia is uncommon, depletion of body iron stores is common among adolescent female athletes. Poor dietary iron intake, menstruation, and increased iron losses associated with physical training all appear to be important factors. Whether nonanemic iron deficiency can impair exercise performance is uncertain. Nonetheless, athletes with low ferritin levels are at risk for impaired erythropoiesis and should receive therapeutic iron supplementation.

  5. High Injury Incidence in Adolescent Female Soccer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Mikkel Bek; Zebis, Mette Kreutzfeldt; Møller, Merete

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies report varying rates of time-loss injuries in adolescent female soccer, ranging from 2.4 to 5.3 per 1000 athlete-exposures or 2.5 to 3.7 per 1000 hours of exposure. However, these studies collected data using traditional injury reports from coaches or medical staff......, with methods that significantly underestimate injury rates compared with players' self-reports. PURPOSE: The primary aim was to investigate the injury incidence in adolescent female soccer using self-reports via mobile telephone text messaging. The secondary aim was to explore the association between soccer...... exposure, playing level, and injury risk. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive epidemiology study and cohort study; Level of evidence, 2 and 3. METHODS: During a full adolescent female soccer season in Denmark (February-June 2012), a population-based sample of 498 girls aged 15 to 18 years was included...

  6. The NLstart2run study : Training-related factors associated with running-related injuries in novice runners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluitenberg, Bas; van der Worp, Henk; Huisstede, Bionka M A; Hartgens, Fred; Diercks, Ron; Verhagen, Evert; van Middelkoop, Marienke

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The incidence of running-related injuries is high. Some risk factors for injury were identified in novice runners, however, not much is known about the effect of training factors on injury risk. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the associations between training factors

  7. The elite young athlete: strategies to ensure physical and emotional health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabato, Todd M; Walch, Tanis J; Caine, Dennis J

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a current review of the risk of physical and psychological injury associated with participation in elite youth sport, and suggests strategies to ensure the physical and emotional health of these young athletes. Although there is lack of epidemiological data, especially with regard to psychological injury, preliminary data suggest that the risk of injury is high in this population. While there is lack of incident and follow-up data, there is also concern regarding burnout, disordered eating, and the long-term consequences of injury. Modifiable injury risk factors identified include postural control, competition anxiety, life events, previous injury, and volume of training. There are presently no studies designed to determine the effectiveness of injury prevention measures in elite youth sports. However, there is adequate evidence arising from injury prevention studies of youth sports participants - including neuromuscular training, protective equipment, mental training to enhance self-esteem, and sport rules modification - to prevent injuries in elite youth sports settings. Although not tested, psychosocial prevention strategies such as adoption of task-oriented coping mechanisms, autonomous support from parents, and a proactive organizational approach also show promise in injury prevention.

  8. YOUNG ATHLETES' MOTIVATIONAL PROFILES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Moreno Murcia

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between motivational characteristics and dispositional flow. In order to accomplish this goal, motivational profiles emerging from key constructs within Achievement Goal Theory and Self-Determination Theory were related to the dispositional flow measures. A sample of 413 young athletes (Age range 12 to 16 years completed the PMCSQ-2, POSQ, SMS and DFS measures. Cluster analysis results revealed three profiles: a "self-determined profile" characterised by higher scores on the task-involving climate perception and on the task orientation; a "non-self-determined profile", characterised by higher scores on ego-involving climate perception and ego orientation; and a "low self-determined and low non-self-determined profile" which had the lowest dispositional flow. No meaningful differences were found between the "self-determined profile" and the "non-self-determined profile" in dispositional flow. The "self-determined profile" was more commonly associated with females, athletes practising individual sports and those training more than three days a week. The "non-self-determined profile" was more customary of males and athletes practising team sports as well as those training just two or three days a week

  9. Refractory epilepsy is highly associated with severe dentoalveolar and maxillofacial injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Andre Luiz F; Yasuda, Clarissa Lin; França, Marcondes C; Morita, Marcia Elisabete; Cendes, Fernando

    2011-03-01

    Dental intrusion and avulsion, crown fracture and mandibular fractures are important dentofacial complications in patients with epilepsy-related traumas. The objective of the present study was to describe the occurrence of orofacial injuries in patients with epilepsy. One hundred and nine consecutive patients (60 women; mean age 38.81 ± 14 years), treated for refractory epilepsy (45 with extratemporal epilepsy and 64 with temporal epilepsy) at the outpatient clinic of our University Hospital, were included in the present study. Orofacial injury occurring as a direct result of a seizure was determined by clinical examination and interview. In addition, seizure frequency, use of medication, and the occurrence and type of injury to other parts of the body, were documented. We employed regression analyses to investigate the association between teeth fractures and frequency of seizures. The majority of injuries were crown fractures (42 subjects), followed by mandibular fractures (eight subjects) and tooth avulsion (eight subjects). Sixteen patients had more than two fractured teeth. Patients with mandibular trauma also suffered concomitant injuries (teeth fracture, avulsion and dislocation). The number of fractured teeth was associated with seizure frequency (r(2) = 0.59, p dentoalveolar and maxillofacial injuries in patients with poorly controlled epileptic seizures.

  10. Whole-body cryotherapy in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banfi, Giuseppe; Lombardi, Giovanni; Colombini, Alessandra; Melegati, Gianluca

    2010-06-01

    Cold therapy is commonly used as a procedure to relieve pain symptoms, particularly in inflammatory diseases, injuries and overuse symptoms. A peculiar form of cold therapy (or stimulation) was proposed 30 years ago for the treatment of rheumatic diseases. The therapy, called whole-body cryotherapy (WBC), consists of exposure to very cold air that is maintained at -110 degrees C to -140 degrees C in special temperature-controlled cryochambers, generally for 2 minutes. WBC is used to relieve pain and inflammatory symptoms caused by numerous disorders, particularly those associated with rheumatic conditions, and is recommended for the treatment of arthritis, fibromyalgia and ankylosing spondylitis. In sports medicine, WBC has gained wider acceptance as a method to improve recovery from muscle injury. Unfortunately, there are few papers concerning the application of the treatment on athletes. The study of possible enhancement of recovery from injuries and possible modification of physiological parameters, taking into consideration the limits imposed by antidoping rules, is crucial for athletes and sports physicians for judging the real benefits and/or limits of WBC. According to the available literature, WBC is not harmful or detrimental in healthy subjects. The treatment does not enhance bone marrow production and could reduce the sport-induced haemolysis. WBC induces oxidative stress, but at a low level. Repeated treatments are apparently not able to induce cumulative effects; on the contrary, adaptive changes on antioxidant status are elicited--the adaptation is evident where WBC precedes or accompanies intense training. WBC is not characterized by modifications of immunological markers and leukocytes, and it seems to not be harmful to the immunological system. The WBC effect is probably linked to the modifications of immunological molecules having paracrine effects, and not to systemic immunological functions. In fact, there is an increase in anti

  11. Drug-Induced Liver Injury Associated with Noni (Morinda citrifolia) Juice and Phenobarbital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrzljak, Anna; Kosuta, Iva; Skrtic, Anita; Kanizaj, Tajana Filipec; Vrhovac, Radovan

    2013-01-01

    Noni (Morinda citrifolia) juice is a popular herbal dietary supplement globally used for preventive or therapeutic purposes in a variety of ailments, claiming to exhibit hepatoprotective properties as well. Herein we present the case of a 38-year-old woman who developed acute liver injury associated with noni juice consumption on a long-term (9 months) anticonvulsant therapy. Clinical presentation and liver biopsy were consistent with severe, predominantly hepatocellular type of injury. Both agents were stopped and corticosteroids were initiated. Five months later the patient had fully recovered. Although in the literature the hepatotoxicity of noni juice remains speculative, sporadic but emerging cases of noni juice-associated liver injury address the need to clarify and investigate potential harmful effects associated with this supplement.

  12. Drug-Induced Liver Injury Associated with Noni (Morinda citrifolia Juice and Phenobarbital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Mrzljak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Noni (Morinda citrifolia juice is a popular herbal dietary supplement globally used for preventive or therapeutic purposes in a variety of ailments, claiming to exhibit hepatoprotective properties as well. Herein we present the case of a 38-year-old woman who developed acute liver injury associated with noni juice consumption on a long-term (9 months anticonvulsant therapy. Clinical presentation and liver biopsy were consistent with severe, predominantly hepatocellular type of injury. Both agents were stopped and corticosteroids were initiated. Five months later the patient had fully recovered. Although in the literature the hepatotoxicity of noni juice remains speculative, sporadic but emerging cases of noni juice-associated liver injury address the need to clarify and investigate potential harmful effects associated with this supplement.

  13. Drug-Induced Liver Injury Associated with Noni (Morinda citrifolia) Juice and Phenobarbital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrzljak, Anna; Kosuta, Iva; Skrtic, Anita; Kanizaj, Tajana Filipec; Vrhovac, Radovan

    2013-01-01

    Noni (Morinda citrifolia) juice is a popular herbal dietary supplement globally used for preventive or therapeutic purposes in a variety of ailments, claiming to exhibit hepatoprotective properties as well. Herein we present the case of a 38-year-old woman who developed acute liver injury associated with noni juice consumption on a long-term (9 months) anticonvulsant therapy. Clinical presentation and liver biopsy were consistent with severe, predominantly hepatocellular type of injury. Both agents were stopped and corticosteroids were initiated. Five months later the patient had fully recovered. Although in the literature the hepatotoxicity of noni juice remains speculative, sporadic but emerging cases of noni juice-associated liver injury address the need to clarify and investigate potential harmful effects associated with this supplement. PMID:23467452

  14. Heart lesions associated with anabolic steroid abuse: comparison of post-mortem findings in athletes and norethandrolone-induced lesions in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanton, Laurent; Belhani, Dalila; Vaillant, Fanny; Tabib, Alain; Gomez, Ludovic; Descotes, Jacques; Dehina, Leila; Bui-Xuan, Bernard; Malicier, Daniel; Timour, Quadiri

    2009-07-01

    Among 15,000 forensic post-mortem examinations performed on the coroner's order over a 24-year period (January 1981-December 2004) in the area of Lyon, France (population: 2,000,000), 2250 cases of unexpected cardiac sudden death were identified retrospectively according to WHO criteria. Of these, 108 occurred during recreational sport and 12 occurred in athletes. In the latter category, a history of anabolic steroid abuse was found in 6 cases, whereas pre-existing ordinary cardiac lesions were observed in the 6 remaining cases. To shed light on the possible role of anabolic steroids in the induction of cardiac lesions, an experimental study was conducted in rabbits that were treated orally with norethandrolone 8mg/kg/day for 60 days, and sacrificed at day 90. The histopathological examination of the heart from treated animals showed coronary thrombosis associated with left ventricle hypertrophy in 3 cases, and lesions analogous to toxic or adrenergic myocarditis in all other treated animals. These findings were very similar to those observed after cardiac sudden death in the 6 athletes with a history of anabolic steroid abuse. In addition, elevated caspase-3 activity in the heart of treated rabbits as compared to controls suggests that apoptosis is involved in the induction of norethandrolone-induced cardiac lesions. These results confirm the cardiotoxic potential of anabolic steroid abuse.

  15. Hip Imaging in Athletes: Sports Imaging Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agten, Christoph A; Sutter, Reto; Buck, Florian M; Pfirrmann, Christian W A

    2016-08-01

    Hip or groin pain in athletes is common and clinical presentation is often nonspecific. Imaging is a very important diagnostic step in the work-up of athletes with hip pain. This review article provides an overview on hip biomechanics and discusses strategies for hip imaging modalities such as radiography, ultrasonography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (MR arthrography and traction MR arthrography). The authors explain current concepts of femoroacetabular impingement and the problem of high prevalence of cam- and pincer-type morphology in asymptomatic persons. With the main focus on MR imaging, the authors present abnormalities of the hip joint and the surrounding soft tissues that can occur in athletes: intraarticular and extraarticular hip impingement syndromes, labral and cartilage disease, microinstability of the hip, myotendinous injuries, and athletic pubalgia. (©) RSNA, 2016.

  16. Dietary Intakes and Eating Habits of College Athletes: Are Female College Athletes Following the Current Sports Nutrition Standards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriver, Lenka H.; Betts, Nancy M.; Wollenberg, Gena

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to assess dietary intakes and eating habits of female college athletes and compared them with the minimum sports nutrition standards. Participants: Data were obtained from 52 female college athletes from a National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I university between January 2009 and May…

  17. Serum zinc is associated with plasma leptin and Cu-Zn SOD in elite male basketball athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jiexiu; Fan, Bin; Wu, Zhaozhao; Xu, Minxiao; Luo, Yufeng

    2015-04-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between plasma trace element and plasma leptin, as well as percent fat mass, in 16 male basketball athletes. Blood samples were obtained before intensive training and 24h after intensive training to measure plasma zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe), and leptin levels. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), triglyceride (TG), total and cholesterol (TC) levels were determined using commercially available kits for humans. Subjects presented similar values in terms of age (21.1±2.2 years old), body mass index (23.9±2.00kg/m(2)), percent body fat (14.40±1.52%), plasma hemoglobin (150.1±9.4g/L), plasma Zn (17.47±1.28μmol/l), plasma Cu (13.42±1.40μmol/L), plasma Ca (2.41±0.14mmol/L), and plasma Mg (0.96±0.02mmol/L). The correlation analysis between degree of plasma leptin and plasma element contents was performed using the SPSS 16.0 software. Plasma Zn correlated positively with plasma leptin (r=0.746, P0.05). In conclusion, plasma Zn may be involved in the regulation of plasma leptin and may serve as a lipid-mobilizing factor in Chinese men's basketball athletes.

  18. Controlling Coaching Behaviors and Athlete Burnout: Investigating the Mediating Roles of Perfectionism and Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcza-Renner, Kelly; Eklund, Robert C; Morin, Alexandre J; Habeeb, Christine M

    2016-02-01

    This investigation sought to replicate and extend earlier studies of athlete burnout by examining athlete-perceived controlling coaching behaviors and athlete perfectionism variables as, respectively, environmental and dispositional antecedents of athlete motivation and burnout. Data obtained from NCAA Division I swimmers (n = 487) within 3 weeks of conference championship meets were analyzed for this report. Significant indirect effects were observed between controlling coaching behaviors and burnout through athlete perfectionism (i.e., socially prescribed, self-oriented) and motivation (i.e., autonomous, amotivation). Controlling coaching behaviors predicted athlete perfectionism. In turn, self-oriented perfectionism was positively associated with autonomous motivation and negatively associated with amotivation, while socially prescribed perfectionism was negatively associated with autonomous motivation and positively associated with controlled motivation and amotivation. Autonomous motivation and amotivation, in turn, predicted athlete burnout in expected directions. These findings implicate controlling coaching behaviors as potentially contributing to athlete perfectionism, shaping athlete motivational regulations, and possibly increasing athlete burnout.

  19. No association between q-angle and foot posture with running-related injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Daniel Ramskov; Jensen, Majbritt Lykke; Obling, Kirstine Høj;

    2013-01-01

    There is a paucity of knowledge on the association between different foot posture quantified by Foot Posture Index (FPI) and Quadriceps angle (Q-angle) with development of running-related injuries. Earlier studies investigating these associations did not include an objective measure of the amount...... of running performed. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate if kilometers to running-related injury (RRI) differ among novice runners with different foot postures and Q-angles when running in a neutral running shoe....

  20. Diffuse white matter tract abnormalities in clinically normal ageing retired athletes with a history of sports-related concussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Sebastien; Henry, Luke C; Bedetti, Christophe; Larson-Dupuis, Camille; Gagnon, Jean-François; Evans, Alan C; Théoret, Hugo; Lassonde, Maryse; De Beaumont, Louis

    2014-11-01

    Sports-related concussions have been shown to lead to persistent subclinical anomalies of the motor and cognitive systems in young asymptomatic athletes. In advancing age, these latent alterations correlate with detectable motor and cognitive function decline. Until now, the interacting effects of concussions and the normal ageing process on white matter tract integrity remain unknown. Here we used a tract-based spatial statistical method to uncover potential white matter tissue damage in 15 retired athletes with a history of concussions, free of comorbid medical conditions. We also investigated potential associations between white matter integrity and declines in cognitive and motor functions. Compared to an age- and education-matched control group of 15 retired athletes without concussions, former athletes with concussions exhibited widespread white matter anomalies along many major association, interhemispheric, and projection tracts. Group contrasts revealed decreases in fractional anisotropy, as well as increases in mean and radial diffusivity measures in the concussed group. These differences were primarily apparent in fronto-parietal networks as well as in the frontal aspect of the corpus callosum. The white matter anomalies uncovered in concussed athletes were significantly associated with a decline in episodic memory and lateral ventricle expansion. Finally, the expected association between frontal white matter integrity and motor learning found in former non-concussed athletes was absent in concussed participants. Together, these results show that advancing age in retired athletes presenting with a history of sports-related concussions is linked to diffuse white matter abnormalities that are consistent with the effects of traumatic axonal injury and exacerbated demyelination. These changes in white matter integrity might explain the cognitive and motor function declines documented in this population.

  1. Association between body mass index and recovery from whiplash injuries: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoqing; Côté, Pierre; Cassidy, J David; Carroll, Linda

    2007-05-01

    It is hypothesized that excess weight is a risk factor for delayed recovery from neck pain, such as from whiplash injuries. However, the association between obesity and recovery from whiplash injury has not been studied. The authors examined the association between body mass index and time to recovery from whiplash injuries in a population-based cohort study of traffic injuries in Saskatchewan, Canada. The cohort included 4,395 individuals who made an insurance claim to Saskatchewan Government Insurance and were treated for whiplash injury between July 1, 1994, and December 31, 1995. Of those, 87.7% had recovered by November 1, 1997. No association was found between baseline body mass index and time to recovery. Compared with individuals with normal weight, those who were underweight (hazard rate ratio = 0.88, 95% confidence interval: 0.73, 1.06), overweight (hazard rate ratio = 1.01, 95% confidence interval: 0.94, 1.09), and obese (hazard rate ratio = 0.99, 95% confidence interval: 0.90, 1.08) had similar rates of recovery, even after adjustment for other factors. The results do not support the hypothesis that individuals who are overweight or obese have a worse prognosis for whiplash.

  2. Nonfatal occupational injuries associated with slips and falls in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hoon-Yong; Lockhart, Thurmon E

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine nonfatal occupational injury data associated with slip and fall accidents by extracting the latest information from the database of the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS). Systematic information on the cost and causes of industrial slip and fall accidents are not readily available from statistical and survey data sources, as such, detailed information regarding the slip-/fall-related injuries in US industries categorized by various factors are presented in this study. Nonfatal injuries resulting in days lost from work due to fall and slip were categorized by the number and incidence rate by various characteristics such as major US industry, nature of injury, source of injury, types of fall, occupation, part of body injured, age of the injured, gender of the injured and number of lost workdays utilizing the BLS database. Additionally, cost per claim associated with industrial slip and fall accidents are reviewed using the National Safety Council database. This information may be used to focus our attention toward most relevant intervention strategies associated with workplace slip and fall accidents.

  3. Intra-articular pathology associated with isolated posterior cruciate ligament injury on MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringler, Michael D.; Collins, Mark S.; Howe, B.M. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology, Rochester, MN (United States); Shotts, Ezekiel E. [NEA Baptist Clinic, Jonesboro, AR (United States)

    2016-12-15

    Unlike with anterior cruciate ligament injury, little is known about the prevalence of intra-articular pathology associated with isolated posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) injury in the knee. The objectives of this study were to characterize and identify the frequency of meniscal tears and osteochondral injuries in these patients, and to see if management might be affected. Altogether, 48 knee MRI exams with isolated PCL tears were evaluated for the presence of: grade and location of PCL tear, meniscal tear, articular chondral lesion, bone bruise, and fracture. Comparisons between PCL tear grade and location, as well as mechanism of injury when known, with the presence of various intra-articular pathologies, were made using the chi-square or Fisher's exact test as appropriate. In all, 69 % of isolated PCL tears occur in the midsubstance, 27 % proximally. Meniscal tears were seen in 25 % of knees, involving all segments of both menisci, except for the anterior horn medial meniscus. Altogether, 23 % had focal cartilage lesions, usually affecting the central third medial femoral condyle and medial trochlea, while 12.5 % of knees had fractures, and 48 % demonstrated bone bruises, usually involving the central to anterior tibiofemoral joint. The presence of a fracture (p = 0.0123) and proximal location of PCL tear (p = 0.0016) were both associated with the hyperextension mechanism of injury. There were no statistically significant associations between PCL tear grade and presence of intra-articular abnormality. Potentially treatable meniscal tears and osteochondral injuries are relatively prevalent, and demonstrable on MRI in patients with isolated acute PCL injury of the knee. (orig.)

  4. The Acute Management of Sport Concussion in Pediatric Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resch, Jacob E; Kutcher, Jeffrey S

    2015-10-01

    During the past two decades the focus on sport concussion has increased significantly. Young athletes represent the most vulnerable population to sustain a sport concussion yet receive the least amount of attention. Specifically, young athletes who sustain a sport concussion can go unrecognized and continue to participate in sport putting them at an increased risk for a more significant injury. The purpose of this review is to provide a clinical framework for the evaluation and management of sport concussion. In addition, this review provides considerations for health care professionals in regard to clinical measures and follow-up strategies during the acute phase following concussion in young concussed athletes following injury.

  5. The adolescent female athlete: current concepts and conundrums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greydanus, Donald E; Omar, Hatim; Pratt, Helen D

    2010-06-01

    The adolescent female athlete has become a common part of the sports environment at all levels from childhood play to professional adult sports. This article considers various issues common to this athlete to help clinicians care for their patients. Basic sports physiology is reviewed and then specific conditions are considered, including iron deficiency anemia, stress urinary incontinence, breast issues (ie, pain, asymmetry, galactorrhea, injury), the female athlete triad (ie, menstrual dysfunction, abnormal eating patterns, and osteopenia or osteoporosis), and injuries. Clinical conundrums are considered including the difficulty in caring for a dedicated athlete whose intense love of her sport may lead to menstrual and bone loss complications. The knowledgeable clinician in the twenty-first century can be of considerable help to the female athlete who is at and beyond puberty.

  6. Ventilator-associated pneumonia after combined burn and trauma is caused by associated injuries and not the burn wound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, Matthew J; Wade, Terence E; Davis, Kimberly A; Luchette, Fred A; Esposito, Thomas J; Poulakidas, Stathis J; Santaniello, John M; Gamelli, Richard L

    2006-01-01

    An increased risk of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) has previously been demonstrated in trauma patients urgently intubated in the prehospital (ie, field) and emergency department (ED) settings. This study investigated the impact of urgent intubation on subsequent VAP in patients who sustained both a burn injury and a traumatic injury. We undertook a retrospective review of both trauma registry data and medical records for all patients with combined thermal and traumatic injuries admitted to a single verified burn center and level I trauma center. Patients undergoing field or ED intubation during the 5-year period ending December 2002 were identified and studied. Data abstracted included admission demographics and vital signs, presence of inhalation injury, location at the time of intubation, presence of associated injury, percentage TBSA burn, hospital and intensive care unit length of stay, and hospital day of VAP diagnosis. Seventy-eight of the 3388 patients (2.3%) admitted during the study period sustained a combination of burn wounds and trauma and underwent urgent field or ED intubation. The majority of patients were men (71%), with a mean age of 46 +/- 24 years. There was one failed oral intubation, which required cricothyroidotomy. The location of the patient at the time of intubation was ED, 66%; burn center ED, 17%; and field, 17%. Eighty percent of all patients were diagnosed with an inhalation injury. VAP was diagnosed in 39 patients (50%), with a mean time to diagnosis of 10 +/- 9 days. TBSA burn, smoke inhalation, and time (in days) to diagnosis of VAP were not independent risk factors for the occurrence of pneumonia in any of the 3 groups. However, those intubated at the initial ED were more likely to develop VAP (P = .028) compared to those intubated in the field or in the burn center. The incidence of associated injuries was significantly greater (P burn patients also sustain blunt trauma. VAP occurs in 50% of the patients requiring urgent

  7. Impact of Demographic Variables on African-American Student Athletes' Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Lacey; Fisher, Dwalah; Cavil, J. Kenyatta

    2012-01-01

    Since the passage of Proposition 48 (NCAA, 1984), African-American student-athletes entering National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) major colleges and universities have meet new challenges in their future as student-athletes. This major change altered the landscape of the future of college athletics particularly for students of color.…

  8. Game Changers: The Role Athletic Identity and Racial Identity Play on Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bimper, Albert Y., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the degree to which athletic and racial identity predict the academic outcomes of Black student athletes participating in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division 1 Football Bowl Series football. The academic outcomes of Black student athletes are a growing concern to both scholars and…

  9. Perceptions of Mental Illness Stigma: Comparisons of Athletes to Nonathlete Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaier, Emily; Cromer, Lisa DeMarni; Johnson, Mitchell D.; Strunk, Kathleen; Davis, Joanne L.

    2015-01-01

    Stigma related to mental health and its treatment can thwart help-seeking. The current study assessed college athletes' personal and perceived public mental illness stigma and compared this to nonathlete students. Athletes (N = 304) were National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I athletes representing 16 teams. Results indicated…

  10. Monitoring endurance athletes : A multidisciplinary approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otter, Tina Ardi

    2016-01-01

    Endurance athletes seek for the optimal balance in training stress and recovery so they can perform at their best and avoid injuries. The PhD thesis of Ruby Otter at the School of Sport Studies (Hanze University of Applied Sciences) and the Center of Human Movement Sciences (UMCG, University of Gron

  11. An ancient greek pain remedy for athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartels, Else M.; Swaddling, Judith; Harrison, Adrian Paul

    2006-01-01

    While Hippocratic writings make no reference to the actual Olympics, there is frequent mention of diet, exercise, and the treatment of injuries sustained by the athletic participants. Indeed, Galen in his Composition of Medicines gives details of a remedy prescribed for the relief of pains...

  12. Investigation and analysis on sports injuries of youth women basketball athletes of Fujian province elite youth%福建省优秀青年女子篮球运动员运动损伤调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马玉龙; 归予恒; 李长飞; 张立坤; 陈斌

    2015-01-01

    Purpose:This article in order to understand the incidence of sports injuries of elite young women bas -ketball players in Fujian Province , to Summarize characteristics and explore the preventive measures.Methods:re-cording the treatment of 16 Fujian Province young women basketball players after training in the infirmary from De-cember 2013 to 2014.Results: there are a total of 92 times damage in different degree in 13 athletes.The injury parts of different position players as follows , the knee joint movement of players in , center-forward, forward are (7 cases, 35 cases, 1 cases), ankle injury (2 cases, 9 cases, 3 cases), waist injury (guard 1 cases, center-forward 9 cases ), thigh injury ( 1 cases, 2 cases , 4 cases ), neck injury (center-forward 6 cases), back inju-ry (guard 1 cases, center-forward 5 cases ), 3 case of shoulder injury, 3 cases of calf injury.In sports injuries, chronic injuries (68 person-time) was more than acute injuries (24 person-time), and the injuries was mainly caused by old injury , sprain and strain.The injury rate in basketball training is the highest , which account for 83.7% is followed by competitions , account for 16.3%respectively.There are 5 major factors cause injury:injury with training , irregular actions , partial overload , body fatigue and inattention.Suggestion: according to damage characteristics of different position players , strengthening joint muscle strength training and proprioceptive sensory training, specification technology action , strengthening medical supervision and monitoring functions , using protec-tive gear reasonably , handling acute injuries correctly , improving self-protect consciousness etc.measures to pre-vent the occurrence of injuries.%目的:了解福建省优秀青年女子篮球运动员运动损伤发病情况,总结特点,探讨预防措施。方法:2013年12月至2014年12月,跟综记录16名福建省青年女篮运动员训练过程中的临床检查情况。结果:共13名

  13. Association of Electroencephalography (EEG) Power Spectra with Corneal Nerve Fiber Injury in Retinoblastoma Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianliang; Sun, Juanjuan; Diao, Yumei; Deng, Aijun

    2016-09-04

    BACKGROUND In our clinical experience we discovered that EEG band power may be correlated with corneal nerve injury in retinoblastoma patients. This study aimed to investigate biomarkers obtained from electroencephalography (EEG) recordings to reflect corneal nerve injury in retinoblastoma patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS Our study included 20 retinoblastoma patients treated at the Department of Ophthalmology, Affiliated Hospital of Weifang Medical University between 2010 and 2014. Twenty normal individuals were included in the control group. EEG activity was recorded continuously with 32 electrodes using standard EEG electrode placement for detecting EEG power. A cornea confocal microscope was used to examine corneal nerve injury in retinoblastoma patients and normal individuals. Spearman rank correlation analysis was used to analyze the correlation between corneal nerve injury and EEG power changes. The sensitivity and specificity of changed EEG power in diagnosis of corneal nerve injury were also analyzed. RESULTS The predominantly slow EEG oscillations changed gradually into faster waves in retinoblastoma patients. The EEG pattern in retinoblastoma patients was characterized by a distinct increase of delta (PEEG spectra power and negatively correlated with theta EEG spectra power. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity by compounding in the series were 60% and 67%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS Changes in delta and theta of EEG appear to be associated with occurrence of corneal nerve injury. Useful information can be provided for evaluating corneal nerve damage in retinoblastoma patients through analyzing EEG power bands.

  14. Glucocorticoids aggravate retrograde memory deficiency associated with traumatic brain injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin; Zhang, Ke-Li; Yang, Shu-Yuan; Dong, Jing-Fei; Zhang, Jian-Ning

    2009-02-11

    Administration of glucocorticoid to patients with head injury has previously been demonstrated to impair memory. We hypothesize that glucocorticoids promote post-traumatic hippocampal apoptosis, resulting in retrograde memory deficiency associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI). In the present study, we tested this hypothesis by measuring spatial memory deficiency in rats subjected to fluid percussion injury (FPI) and receiving dexamethasone (DXM at 0.5-10 mg/kg) or methylprednisolone (MP at 5-30 mg/kg); we also examined neuronal apoptosis in hippocampus. Adult male Wistar rats were trained for the acquisition of spatial memory, then subjected to FPI and tested for spatial reference memory on post-injury days 7 and 14 using the Morris Water Maze. Brain tissue from injured rats was examined 24 h to 2 weeks after injury. The percent time in the goal quadrant, which measures spatial reference memory, was significantly lower in injured rats receiving either high-dose DXM or MP than in control groups. TUNEL-positive cells in hippocampus were first detected 24 h post-injury, plateauing at 48h. The number of TUNEL-positive cells was significantly higher in injured rats treated with either DXM or MP. The data suggest that glucocorticoid therapy for TBI may increase neuronal apoptosis in hippocampus and, as a result, aggravate retrograde memory deficits induced by TBI.

  15. Overuse Injuries Associated with Mountain Biking: Is Single-Speed Riding a Predisposing Factor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T. Lebec

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Though mountain bikers are at significant risk for overuse injury, there is minimal quality research describing this relationship. Single-speed mountain biking, in which participants pedal a bike with only a single gear, may place riders at even greater risk for overuse problems due to the disproportionate physical effort associated with this type of riding. The focus of this study was to provide additional perspective on overuse injuries sustained by mountain bikers and to determine if single-speed mountain biking places participants at greater risk for overuse conditions. Four hundred and four (404 mountain bikers were surveyed concerning overuse injuries sustained during the previous year. Findings indicate that 63% of respondents reported an overuse injury affecting at least one area with the most commonly reported areas being the lumbar spine, knees, hand/wrist, and cervical spine. Individuals riding single-speed mountain bikes did not have a higher incidence of overuse injuries than riders of multiple-geared bikes. However, respondents who split time between riding single-speed and multiple-geared bikes were significantly more likely to report an overuse syndrome than those only riding single-speed or multiple-geared bikes (p = 0.0104. This group of riders may be at greater risk for overuse injury due to excessive fatigue and poor biomechanics.

  16. Pathophysiology Associated with Traumatic Brain Injury: Current Treatments and Potential Novel Therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearn, Matthew L; Niesman, Ingrid R; Egawa, Junji; Sawada, Atsushi; Almenar-Queralt, Angels; Shah, Sameer B; Duckworth, Josh L; Head, Brian P

    2016-07-06

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the leading causes of death of young people in the developed world. In the United States alone, 1.7 million traumatic events occur annually accounting for 50,000 deaths. The etiology of TBI includes traffic accidents, falls, gunshot wounds, sports, and combat-related events. TBI severity ranges from mild to severe. TBI can induce subtle changes in molecular signaling, alterations in cellular structure and function, and/or primary tissue injury, such as contusion, hemorrhage, and diffuse axonal injury. TBI results in blood-brain barrier (BBB) damage and leakage, which allows for increased extravasation of immune cells (i.e., increased neuroinflammation). BBB dysfunction and impaired homeostasis contribute to secondary injury that occurs from hours to days to months after the initial trauma. This delayed nature of the secondary injury suggests a potential therapeutic window. The focus of this article is on the (1) pathophysiology of TBI and (2) potential therapies that include biologics (stem cells, gene therapy, peptides), pharmacological (anti-inflammatory, antiepileptic, progrowth), and noninvasive (exercise, transcranial magnetic stimulation). In final, the review briefly discusses membrane/lipid rafts (MLR) and the MLR-associated protein caveolin (Cav). Interventions that increase Cav-1, MLR formation, and MLR recruitment of growth-promoting signaling components may augment the efficacy of pharmacologic agents or already existing endogenous neurotransmitters and neurotrophins that converge upon progrowth signaling cascades resulting in improved neuronal function after injury.

  17. Neonatal injury at cephalic vaginal delivery: a retrospective analysis of extent of association with shoulder dystocia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cantekin Iskender

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To describe the risk factors and labor characteristics of Clavicular fracture (CF and brachial plexus injury (BPI; and compare antenatal and labor characteristics and prognosis of obstetrical BPI associated with shoulder dystocia with obstetrical BPI not associated with shoulder dystocia. METHODS: This retrospective study consisted of women who gave birth to an infant with a fractured clavicle or BPI between January 2009 and June 2013. Antenatal and neonatal data were compared between groups. The control group (1300 was composed of the four singleton vaginal deliveries that immediately followed each birth injury. A multivariable logistic regression model, with backward elimination, was constructed in order to find independent risk factors associated with BPI and CF. A subgroup analysis involved comparison of features of BPI cases with or without associated shoulder dystocia. RESULTS: During the study period, the total number of vaginal deliveries was 44092. The rates of CF, BPI and shoulder dystocia during the study period were 0,6%, 0,16% and 0,29%, respectively. In the logistic regression model, shoulder dystocia, GDM, multiparity, gestational age >42 weeks, protracted labor, short second stage of labor and fetal birth weight greater than 4250 grams increased the risk of CF independently. Shoulder dystocia and protracted labor were independently associated with BPI when controlled for other factors. Among neonates with BPI whose injury was not associated with shoulder dystocia, five (12.2% sustained permanent injury, whereas one neonate (4.5% with BPI following shoulder dystocia sustained permanent injury (p = 0.34. CONCLUSION: BPI not associated with shoulder dystocia might have a higher rate of concomitant CF and permanent sequelae.

  18. Ankle ligament injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per A.F.H. Renström

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Acute ankle ligament sprains are common injuries. The majority of these occur during athletic participation in the 15 to 35 year age range. Despite the frequency of the injury, diagnostic and treatment protocols have varied greatly. Lateral ligament complex injuries are by far the most common of the ankle sprains. Lateral ligament injuries typically occur during plantar flexion and inversion, which is the position of maximum stress on the anterotalofibular liagment (ATFL. For this reason, the ATFL is the most commonly torn ligament during an inversion injury. In more severe inversion injuries the calcaneofibular (CFL, posterotalofibular (PTFL and subtalar ligament can also be injured. Most acute lateral ankle ligament injuries recover quickly with nonoperative management. The treatment program, called "functional treatment," includes application of the RICE principle (rest, ice, compression, and elevation immediately after the injury, a short period of immobilization and protection with an elastic or inelastic tape or bandage, and early motion exercises followed by early weight bearing and neuromuscular ankle training. Proprioceptive training with a tilt board is commenced as soon as possible, usually after 3 to 4 weeks. The purpose is to improve the balance and neuromuscular control of the ankle. Sequelae after ankle ligament injuries are very common. As much as 10% to 30% of patients with a lateral ligament injury may have chronic symptoms. Symptoms usually include persistent synovitis or tendinitis, ankle stiffness, swelling, and pain, muscle weakness, and frequent giving-way. A well designed physical therapy program with peroneal strengthening and proprioceptive training, along with bracing and/or taping can alleviate instability problems in most patients. For cases of chronic instability that are refractory to bracing and external support, surgical treatment can be explored. If the chronic instability is associated with subtalar instability

  19. SODIUM BICARBONATE INFUSION: TO PREVENT CARDIAC SURGERY - ASSOCIATED ACUTE KIDNEY INJURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The incidence of cardiac surgery – associated acute kidney injury is 50% of patients and is associated with increased mortality and morbidity. This study aimed to determine if perioperative urinary and plasma alkalization with sodium bicarbonate infusion re duces the incidence of cardiac surgery – associated acute kidney injury. SETTING AND DESIGN: This study is double blind randomized control trial conducted at U N Mehta Institute of Cardiology and Research Center , India. METHOD S AND RESULT: A total of 140 pat ients scheduled to undergo elective cardiac surgery , who were at increased risk of development of cardiac surgery – associated acute kidney injury using recognized risk factors. Patients were randomly allocated to receive either sodium bicarbonate (n = 70 o r sodium chloride (n = 70 infusion , commencing at the start of anesthesia , in a dose of 4 mmol/kg over 24 hour. The primary outcome measure was the number of patients with development of CSA - AKI , defined as an increase in creatinine greater than 25% from baseline to peak value within the first three postoperative days. Significant differences among the groups in both plasma and urinary pH were achieved 6 hours after commencement of the infusion , and these changes persisted for more than 24 hours. A total o f 7 out of 70(10% patients in the sodium bicarbonate group and 16 out of 70(22.85% patients in the sodium chloride group developed acute kidney injury within the first three postoperative days with p value of 0.06 which is statistically not significant . There were also no significant differences in ventilation hours , ICU or hospital length of stay , or mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Perioperative alkalization of blood and urine using an infusion of sodium bicarbonate did not result in a decrease in the incidence of acute kidney injury in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. KEYWORDS: Acute kidney injury; Cardiac surgery; Cardiopulmonary bypass; Creatinine

  20. Neuroimaging Biomarkers of a History of Concussion Observed in Asymptomatic Young Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Catherine A; Albaugh, Matthew D; Watts, Richard; Garavan, Hugh; Andrews, Trevor; Nickerson, Joshua P; Gonyea, Jay; Hipko, Scott; Zweber, Cole; Logan, Katherine; Hudziak, James J

    2016-05-01

    Participation in contact sports places athletes at elevated risk for repeated head injuries and is associated with negative mental health outcomes later in life. The current study identified changes observable on neuroimaging that persisted beyond the apparent resolution of acute symptoms of concussion. Sixteen young adult ice hockey players with a remote history of concussion but no subjective complaints were compared against 13 of their teammates with no history of concussion. Participants completed a detailed phenotypic assessment and a neuroimaging battery including diffusion kurtosis imaging and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Athletes with a history of concussion performed no differently from those without on phenotypic assessment, but showed significantly elevated fractional anisotropy (FA) in the left genu and anterior corona radiata relative to those without. Post hoc analyses revealed that elevated FA was associated with increased microstructural complexity perpendicular to the primary axon (radial kurtosis). Athletes with concussion history also showed significant differences in the organization of the default mode network (DMN) characterized by stronger temporal coherence in posterior DMN, decreased temporal coherence in anterior DMN, and increased functional connectivity outside the DMN. In the absence of deficits on detailed phenotypic assessment, athletes with a history of concussion displayed changes to the microstructural architecture of the cerebral white matter and to the functional connectivity of the brain at rest. Some of these changes are consistent with those previously associated with persisting deficits and complaints, but we also report novel, complementary changes that possibly represent compensatory mechanisms.

  1. Hip and groin pain in the professional athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSweeney, Sean E; Naraghi, Ali; Salonen, David; Theodoropoulos, John; White, Lawrence M

    2012-05-01

    Hip and groin pain is a common condition in professional athletes and may result from an acute injury or from chronic, repetitive trauma. It is responsible for significant morbidity, which leads to time away from training and competition, and may result in a career-ending injury. The anatomic and biomechanical causes for hip and groin injuries are among the most complex and controversial in the musculoskeletal system. This makes clinical differentiation and subsequent management difficult because of the considerable overlap of symptoms and signs. This review article will evaluate several pathologic conditions of the hip and groin in athletes, divided into acute (secondary to single event) and chronic (secondary to altered biomechanical load or repetitive microtrauma) injuries, with an emphasis on imaging in the diagnosis of these injuries. Appropriate use of imaging along with clinical findings can allow accurate diagnosis and subsequent appropriate management of these patients to ultimately allow return to athletic activity.

  2. Trigeminal nerve injury associated with injection of local anesthetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillerup, Søren; Jensen, Rigmor H.; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2011-01-01

    , prilocaine 3 percent, and articaine 4 percent sold in cartridges. Results. The study results showed a highly significant overrepresentation of NSDs associated with articaine 4 percent, in particular with mandibular blocks. Conclusions. The distribution of NSDs was disproportionate to the market share......Background. The authors used comprehensive national registry and clinical data to conduct a study of adverse drug reactions (ADRs), in particular neurosensory disturbance (NSD), associated with local anesthetics used in dentistry. Methods. The study included data sets of annual sales of local...... anesthetics (from 1995 through 2007), 292 reports to the Danish Medicines Agency, Copenhagen, Denmark, of adverse reactions to local anesthetic drugs, and a clinical sample of 115 patients with NSD associated with local anesthetics. The authors assessed lidocaine 2 percent, mepivacaine 2 percent and 3 percent...

  3. Program Orientation for High School Sport Coaches. Coaches Council and the National Council for Secondary School Athletic Directors, 2005. A Position Paper from the National Association for Sport and Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance (NJ1), 2005

    2005-01-01

    The National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE) believes that prior to the start of each season, all high school head coaches, assistant coaches, and volunteer coaches should be required to participate in a comprehensive orientation to the sport program. This orientation should be planned and conducted by the athletic director or…

  4. Trend of traumatic crown injuries and associated factors in preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Antonio AGOSTINI

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to assess trends in traumatic crown injuries (TCIs, their prevalence, and association with socioeconomic and clinical factors in preschool children over a 5-year period. A series of cross-sectional surveys was conducted in Santa Maria, Brazil, on children attending a National Day of Children’s Vaccination. The same protocol was used in all surveys conducted in 2008, 2010, and 2013. Clinical examinations were performed to evaluate types of traumatic crown injuries using the O’brien index. A semi-structured questionnaire was answered by the parents. It provided information about several socioeconomic factors as well as the parents’ perception of their child’s oral health. The chi-square for trends test was used to verify changes in TCI prevalence throughout the years. The association between socioeconomic and clinical factors with TCI was assessed by the Poisson regression analysis. A total of 1,640 children were examined. The prevalence of TCIs decreased significantly from 2008 to 2013 (10.12%; p < 0.001. Central incisors were the most vulnerable to injury, independent of the year. Moreover, older children and those with inadequate lip coverage were more likely to present with some traumatic dental injury (p < 0.001. prevalence of traumatic crown injuries decreased following the years, however TCI remain an important subject to consider when planning oral health policies.

  5. Injuries associated with combat sports, active component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2010-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    The practice of combat sports creates a potential for training- and sports-related injuries among military members. During the 4-year surveillance period, there were 12,108 cases of injuries associated with combat sports among active component service members; the overall incidence rate was 21.0 per 10,000 person-years (p-yrs). The rates were higher among service members who were male, Hispanic, in the youngest age groups, in the Army, junior enlisted, and in combat-specific occupations. The rate among recruit/ trainees (779.4 per 10,000 p-yrs) was more than 165 times the rate among all other active component service members (non-recruits) (4.7 per 10,000 p-yrs). Sprains, strains, and contusions accounted for more than one-half of the primary (first-listed) diagnoses associated with combat sports cases. More serious conditions such as concussions/head injuries and skull/face fractures/intracranial injuries were reported among 3.9% and 2.1% of all cases and were more common among boxing-related cases. Hand/wrist fractures were also common among boxing cases. Wrestling had comparatively greater proportions of dislocations and open wounds. Although the combat sport training provides many physical and mental benefits to the individual, safety practices should be enforced to reduce the most frequent and serious injuries.

  6. Galactorrhea and hyperprolactinemia associated with chest wall injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, J E; Dawson, M; Hodgkinson, H; Kalk, W J

    1977-11-01

    A 48 year old premenopausal woman presented with galactorrhea and amenorrhea associated with chest wall burns. Basal serum prolactin levels were raised, and were further elevated by the administration of L-dopa, chlorpromazine and TRH. Intercostal nerve block and bromocryptine treatment reduced prolactin levels to normal, but did not noticably reduce milk secretion.

  7. Spasm of the near reflex associated with head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Christopher; Sachdev, Arun; Gottlob, Irene

    2002-03-01

    Spasm of the near reflex is characterized by intermittent miosis, convergence spasm and pseudomyopia with blurred vision at distance. Usually, it is a functional disorder in young patients with underlying emotional problems. Only rarely is it caused by organic disorder. We report a patient who developed convergent spasm associated with miosis after head trauma at the age of 84 years.

  8. What Do We Know About the Association Between Firearm Legislation and Firearm-Related Injuries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santaella-Tenorio, Julian; Cerdá, Magdalena; Villaveces, Andrés; Galea, Sandro

    2016-01-01

    Firearms account for a substantial proportion of external causes of death, injury, and disability across the world. Legislation to regulate firearms has often been passed with the intent of reducing problems related to their use. However, lack of clarity around which interventions are effective remains a major challenge for policy development. Aiming to meet this challenge, we systematically reviewed studies exploring the associations between firearm-related laws and firearm homicides, suicides, and unintentional injuries/deaths. We restricted our search to studies published from 1950 to 2014. Evidence from 130 studies in 10 countries suggests that in certain nations the simultaneous implementation of laws targeting multiple firearms restrictions is associated with reductions in firearm deaths. Laws restricting the purchase of (e.g., background checks) and access to (e.g., safer storage) firearms are also associated with lower rates of intimate partner homicides and firearm unintentional deaths in children, respectively. Limitations of studies include challenges inherent to their ecological design, their execution, and the lack of robustness of findings to model specifications. High quality research on the association between the implementation or repeal of firearm legislation (rather than the evaluation of existing laws) and firearm injuries would lead to a better understanding of what interventions are likely to work given local contexts. This information is key to move this field forward and for the development of effective policies that may counteract the burden that firearm injuries pose on populations.

  9. International Association of Dental Traumatology guidelines for the management of traumatic dental injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmgren, Barbro; Andreasen, Jens O; Flores, Marie Therese;

    2012-01-01

    Traumatic injuries to the primary dentition present special problems and the management is often different as compared with the permanent dentition. The International Association of Dental Traumatology (IADT) has developed a consensus statement after a review of the dental literature and group...

  10. Guideline on anterior cruciate ligament injury A multidisciplinary review by the Dutch Orthopaedic Association

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuffels, D.E.; Poldervaart, M.T.; Diercks, R.L.; Fievez, A.W.F.M.; Patt, T.W.; van der Hart, C.P.; Hammacher, E.R.; van der Meer, F.; Goedhart, E.A.; Lenssen, A.F.; Muller-Ploeger, S.B.; Pols, M.A.; Saris, D.B.F.

    2012-01-01

    The Dutch Orthopaedic Association has a long tradition of development of practical clinical guidelines. Here we present the recommendations from the multidisciplinary clinical guideline working group for anterior cruciate ligament injury. The following 8 clinical questions were formulated by a steer

  11. Dysarthria Associated with Traumatic Brain Injury: Speaking Rate and Emphatic Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.T.; Kent, R.D.; Duffy, J.R.; Thomas, J.E.

    2005-01-01

    Prosodic abnormality is common in the dysarthria associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI), and adjustments of speaking rate and emphatic stress are often used as steps in treating the speech disorder in patients with TBI-induced dysarthria. However, studies to date do not present a clear and detailed picture of how speaking rate and emphatic…

  12. Muscle function is associated with future patient-reported outcomes in young adults with ACL injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flosadottir, Vala; Roos, Ewa M; Ageberg, Eva

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIM: Consequences of an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury include worse patient-reported outcomes (PROs) and a decrease in activity level. Muscle function can be improved by targeted exercise. Our aims were to investigate cross-sectional and longitudinal associations among lower ...

  13. Intrapersonal and Interpersonal Functions of Non Suicidal Self-Injury: Associations with Emotional and Social Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Brianna J.; Chapman, Alexander L.; Layden, Brianne K.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the functions of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) has important implications for the development and refinement of theoretical models and treatments of NSSI. Emotional and social vulnerabilities associated with five common functions of NSSI-emotion relief (ER), feeling generation (FG), self-punishment (SP), interpersonal influence…

  14. Longitudinal association between lifestyle and coronary heart disease risk factors among individuals with spinal cord injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, S.; Post, M. W.; Snoek, G. J.; Schuitemaker, M.; van der Woude, L. H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate: (1) the course of coronary heart disease risk factors (lipid profiles and body mass index (BMI)) in the first five years after discharge from inpatient spinal cord injury (SCI) rehabilitation and (2) the association between lifestyle (physical activity, self-care related t

  15. EXPERIENCE IN TREATING SECONDARY SYSTEMIC MYCOTIC INFECTION AFTER SEVERE BURNS ASSOCIATED WITH ELECTRIC INJURY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢卫兴; 李秀芝

    1995-01-01

    One patient with wound surface sepsis caused by secondary pyocyanic infection after extensive burns associated with visceral injuries (peptic ulcer hemorrhage, renal insufficiency and hepatic dysfunction) and generalized candidiasis albicans was cured after anti-infection treatment with proper antibiotics, removal of the infected focus, and effective anti-fungal drugs.

  16. Characteristics of associated craniofacial trauma in patients with head injuries: An experience with 100 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Prasad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Facial fractures and concomitant cranial injuries carry the significant potential for mortality and neurological morbidity mainly in young adults. Aims and Objectives: To analyze the characteristics of head injuries and associated facial injuries, the management options and outcome following cranio-facial trauma. Methods: This retrospective review was performed at Justice K. S. Hegde Charitable Hospital, and associated A. B. Shetty Memorial Institute of Dental sciences, Deralakatte, Mangalore. Following Ethical Committee approval, hospital charts and radiographs of 100 consecutive patients of cranio-facial trauma managed at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery and Neurosurgery between January 2004 and December 2004 were reviewed. Results: Majority of the patients were in the 2nd to 4th decade (79% with a male to female ratio of -8.09:1. Road traffic accidents were the common cause of craniofacial trauma in present study (54% followed by fall from height (30%. Loss of consciousness was the most common clinical symptom (62% followed by headache (33%. Zygoma was the most commonly fractured facial bone 48.2% (alone 21.2%, in combination 27.2%. Majority of patients had mild head injury and managed conservatively in present series. Causes of surgical intervention for intracranial lesions were compound depressed fracture, contusion and intracranial hematoma. Operative indications for facial fractures were displaced facial bone fractures. Major causes of mortality were associated systemic injuries. Conclusion: Adult males are the most common victims in craniofacial trauma, and road traffic accidents were responsible for the majority. Most of the patients sustained mild head injuries and were managed conservatively. Open reduction and internal fixation with miniplates was used for displaced facial bone fractures.

  17. Sport Opportunities for Athletes with Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 1984

    1984-01-01

    This series outlines sport opportunities for athletes with disabilities. Included are articles discussing sports for athletes with cerebral palsy, deaf athletes, blind athletes, wheelchair bound athletes, amputee athletes, as well as a discussion of the Special Olympics. (JMK)

  18. Association between the levels of urine kidney injury molecule-1 and the progression of acute kidney injury in the elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunlin; Che, Xiajing; Shao, Xinghua; Xu, Yao; Ni, Zhaohui; Mou, Shan

    2017-01-01

    Background The factors influencing the prognosis of acute kidney injury (AKI) were analyzed in a group of elderly AKI patients to determine the markers of early prognosis. Methods A total of 258 patients were screened, and 201 patients were enrolled in the study. Eventually, 184 AKI patients were included in the study, including 79 elderly AKI patients (≥60 years old). During one year of follow-up, renal function changes were observed, and the risk factors that influenced the prognosis of AKI were analyzed. Results When AKI occurred, the urine kidney injury molecule-1 (uKIM-1) level was significantly higher in the progressive deterioration of renal function group than in the renal function stable group. The ROC curve analysis revealed that the area under the curve for poor progressive deterioration of renal function as predicted by the uKIM-1 level was 0.681. At a cutoff point of 2.46 ng/mg, the sensitivity was 71.9% and the specificity was 70.0%. In elderly AKI patients, uKIM-1 levels exceeding 2.46 ng/mg were positively associated with poor kidney prognosis. Conclusions Elderly AKI patients are at risk of developing progressive deterioration of renal function. In elderly AKI patients, the high uKIM-1 level may predict the prognosis of kidney function and may be used as an early screening indicator of poor kidney prognosis. PMID:28187124

  19. Nutrition and athletic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002458.htm Nutrition and athletic performance To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Nutrition can help enhance athletic performance. An active lifestyle ...

  20. Mandibular alveolar neurovascular bundle injury associated with impacted third molar surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruga, Emanuele; Gallesio, Cesare; Boffano, Paolo

    2010-07-01

    Inferior alveolar neurovascular bundle (IANB) injury is one of the most common complications of third molar removal and involves important medicolegal issues. An accurate preoperative radiographic assessment of surgical difficulty is necessary to correctly plan the removal of impacted third molars and to estimate the risk of IANB injury. Therefore, the preoperative knowledge of the exact location of the third molar roots in relation to the mandibular canal is mandatory. A direct contact between the tooth and neurovascular bundle is suggested by a radiotransparent band across the roots of the impacted third molar on panoramic radiograph. We present the management of a patient with IANB damage associated with third molar surgery.

  1. MicroRNA changes in rat mesentery and serum associated with drug-induced vascular injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Roberta A., E-mail: Roberta.A.Thomas@gsk.com; Scicchitano, Marshall S.; Mirabile, Rosanna C.; Chau, Nancy T.; Frazier, Kendall S.; Thomas, Heath C.

    2012-08-01

    Regulatory miRNAs play a role in vascular biology and are involved in biochemical and molecular pathways dysregulated during vascular injury. Collection and integration of functional miRNA data into these pathways can provide insight into pathogenesis at the site of injury; the same technologies applied to biofluids may provide diagnostic or surrogate biomarkers. miRNA was analyzed from mesentery and serum from rats given vasculotoxic compounds for 4 days. Fenoldopam, dopamine and midodrine each alter hemodynamics and are associated with histologic evidence of vascular injury, while yohimbine is vasoactive but does not cause histologic evidence of vascular injury in rat. There were 38 and 35 miRNAs altered in a statistically significant manner with a fold change of 2 or greater in mesenteries of fenoldopam- and dopamine-dosed rats, respectively, with 9 of these miRNAs shared. 10 miRNAs were altered in rats given midodrine; 6 were shared with either fenoldopam or dopamine. In situ hybridization demonstrated strong expression and co-localization of miR-134 in affected but not in adjacent unaffected vessels. Mesenteric miRNA expression may provide clarity or avenues of research into mechanisms involved in vascular injury once the functional role of specific miRNAs becomes better characterized. 102 miRNAs were altered in serum from rats with drug-induced vascular injury. 10 miRNAs were commonly altered in serum from dopamine and either fenoldopam or midodrine dosed rats; 18 of these 102 were also altered in mesenteries from rats with drug-induced vascular injury, suggesting their possible utility as peripheral biomarkers. -- Highlights: ► Mesentery and serum were examined from rats given vasoactive compounds for 4 days. ► 72 miRNAs were altered in mesenteries from rats with vascular injury. ► miR-134 was localized to affected but not adjacent unaffected vessels. ► 102 miRNAs were changed in serum from rats with vascular injury. ► 18 miRNAs changed in both

  2. The association of needlestick injury with depressive symptoms among first-year medical residents in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Koji; Sakata, Yumi; Fujino, Yoshihisa; Yoshikawa, Toru; Tanaka, Katsutoshi; Miyajima, Eriko; Watanabe, Mitsuyasu; Aizawa, Yoshiharu

    2007-12-01

    Depressive symptoms among medical residents are common. The objective of this study was to determine the association of depressive symptoms with needlestick injury among first-year medical residents (so-called "intern"). We conducted a prospective cohort study among 107 medical residents in 14 training hospitals. The baseline survey was conducted in August 2005 and the follow-up survey was conducted in March 2006. Depressive symptoms were based on the Center for Epidemiological Study of Depression. Factors associated with depressive symptoms were examined using logistic regression analysis. For medical residents without depressive symptoms at the baseline survey, needlestick injury events were associated with depressive symptoms at the follow-up survey (corrected odds ratio [cOR]=2.98; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.16-3.70). Because it was not possible to determine when the medical residents developed depressive symptoms, it is not possible to definitely determine causality between needlestick injury and depressive symptoms, although these findings are suggestive. Therefore, it would seem prudent to suggest the provision of mental health services to medical residents sustaining a needlestick injury since this may be helpful in identifying and treating depression.

  3. Risk Factors Associated with Injury and Mortality from Paediatric Low Speed Vehicle Incidents: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Paul Anthikkat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study reviews modifiable risk factors associated with fatal and nonfatal injury from low-speed vehicle runover (LSVRO incidents involving children aged 0–15 years. Data Sources. Electronic searches for child pedestrian and driveway injuries from the peer-reviewed literature and transport-related websites from 1955 to 2012. Study Selection. 41 studies met the study inclusion criteria. Data Extraction. A systematic narrative summary was conducted that included study design, methodology, risk factors, and other study variables. Results. The most commonly reported risk factors for LSVRO incidents included age under 5 years, male gender, and reversing vehicles. The majority of reported incidents involved residential driveways, but several studies identified other traffic and nontraffic locations. Low socioeconomic status and rental accommodation were also associated with LSVRO injury. Vehicles were most commonly driven by a family member, predominantly a parent. Conclusion. There are a number of modifiable vehicular, environmental, and behavioural factors associated with LSVRO injuries in young children that have been identified in the literature to date. Strategies relating to vehicle design (devices for increased rearward visibility and crash avoidance systems, housing design (physical separation of driveway and play areas, and behaviour (driver behaviour, supervision of young children are discussed.

  4. Analysis of Factors and Implications Influencing Leadership Ascension of Female Athletic Directors in Intercollegiate Athletics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burney, Rolanda C.

    2010-01-01

    This narrative analysis/life story study was designed to understand the factors influencing the career trajectory of female athletic directors in National Collegiate Athletic Association affiliated institutions and to discover how those factors functioned as a road map for future female administrators. Both social role and role congruity theories…

  5. ECHOCARDIOGRAPHIC PARAMETERS IN ATHLETES OF DIFFERENT SPORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Venckunas

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Competitive athletics is often associated with moderate left ventricular (LV hypertrophy, and it has been hypothesized that training mode and type of exercise modulates long-term cardiac adaptation. The purpose of the study was to compare cardiac structure and function among athletes of various sports and sedentary controls. Standard transthoracic two-dimensional M-mode and Doppler echocardiography was performed at rest in Caucasian male canoe/kayak paddlers (n = 9, long distance runners (LDR, n = 18, middle distance runners (MDR, n = 17, basketball players (BP, n = 31, road cyclists (n = 8, swimmers (n = 10, strength/power athletes (n = 9 of similar age (range, 15 to 31 yrs, training experience (4 to 9 years, and age-matched healthy male sedentary controls (n = 15. Absolute interventricular septum (IVS thickness and LV wall thickness, but not LV diameter, were greater in athletes than sedentary controls. Left ventricular mass of all athletes but relative wall thickness of only BP, swimmers, cyclists, and strength/power athletes were higher as compared with controls (p < 0.05. Among athletes, smaller IVS thickness was observed in MDR than BP, cyclists, swimmers or strength/power athletes, while LDR had higher body size-adjusted LV diameter as compared to BP, cyclists and strength/power athletes. In conclusion, relative LV diameter was increased in long distance runners as compared with basketball players, cyclists, and strength/power athletes. Basketball, road cycling, strength/power, and swimming training were associated with increased LV concentricity as compared with paddling or distance running

  6. Athletes in How Many, How Come?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Robert A

    1969-01-01

    Presented before the cobined session of the Section on Athletic Medicine and the Section on Mental Health, American College Health Association, Forty-sixth Annual Meeting, Minneapolis Minnesota, May 2, 1968.

  7. Coaching the Vegetarian Athlete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandali, Swarna L.

    2011-01-01

    Good nutrition is important for optimal athletic performance. Adolescent athletes often depend on their coaches for nutritional information on weight management, dietary supplements, and dietary practices. Some dietary practices, such as vegetarianism, have the potential to be harmful to the adolescent athlete if not followed with careful…

  8. Dephosphorylation of cardiomyocyte Cx43 is associated with myocardial ischemia and reperfusion injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhijuan Cao; Xuan Xu; Linli Que; Qi Chen; Yuehua Li

    2009-01-01

    Objective:Myocardial ischemia/reperfusion(I/R) injury is the leading cause of death in the world. However, the details of the mechanism of its pathophysioiogy are still unknown. The present study was designed to investigate the role of connexin 43(Cx63) in acute models of myocardial I/R injury. Methods: Male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to myocardial ischemia(45 rain) followed by reperfusion(4 hrs) in vivo. The whole operation was monitored using a two-lead ECG. Hearts were harvested and the level of protein was assessed by western blot analysis. Haematoxylin and Eosin(HE) staining was used to detect the extent of neutrophil infiltration. The expression level of IL-6 was detected by ELISA. Results: A murine myocardial I/R injury model was constructed successfully. Phosphorylated Cx43 decreased 83.45% while non-phosphorylated Cx43 increased 1.62- fold in the myocardium after I/R injury. Neutrophil infiltration and the expression of the inflammatory cytokine IL-6 increased in the myocardium following I/R. Conclusion: During myocardial I/R injury, cardiomyocyte Cx43 is dephosphorylated, and this may be associated with an inflammatory response.

  9. Withdrawal-associated injury site pain (WISP): a descriptive case series of an opioid cessation phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieb, Launette Marie; Norman, Wendy V.; Martin, Ruth Elwood; Berkowitz, Jonathan; Wood, Evan; McNeil, Ryan; Milloy, M.-J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Withdrawal pain can be a barrier to opioid cessation. Yet, little is known about old injury site pain in this context. We conducted an exploratory mixed-methods descriptive case series using a web-based survey and in-person interviews with adults recruited from pain and addiction treatment and research settings. We included individuals who self-reported a past significant injury that was healed and pain-free before the initiation of opioids, which then became temporarily painful upon opioid cessation—a phenomenon we have named withdrawal-associated injury site pain (WISP). Screening identified WISP in 47 people, of whom 34 (72%) completed the descriptive survey, including 21 who completed qualitative interviews. Recalled pain severity scores for WISP were typically high (median: 8/10; interquartile range [IQR]: 2), emotionally and physically aversive, and took approximately 2 weeks to resolve (median: 14; IQR: 24 days). Withdrawal-associated injury site pain intensity was typically slightly less than participants' original injury pain (median: 10/10; IQR: 3), and more painful than other generalized withdrawal symptoms which also lasted approximately 2 weeks (median: 13; IQR: 25 days). Fifteen surveyed participants (44%) reported returning to opioid use because of WISP in the past. Participants developed theories about the etiology of WISP, including that the pain is the brain's way of communicating a desire for opioids. This research represents the first known documentation that previously healed, and pain-free injury sites can temporarily become painful again during opioid withdrawal, an experience which may be a barrier to opioid cessation, and a contributor to opioid reinitiation. PMID:27598412

  10. Functional Movement Screening Performance of Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu Athletes From Brazil: Differences Considering Practice Time and Combat Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Vecchio, Fabrício Boscolo; Gondim, Denis Foster; Arruda, Antonio Carlos Pereira

    2016-08-01

    Boscolo Del Vecchio, F, Foster, D, and Arruda, A. Functional movement screening performance of Brazilian jiu-jitsu athletes from Brazil: differences considering practice time and combat style. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2341-2347, 2016-Brazilian jiu-jitsu (BJJ) is a grappling combat sport that athletes, lying (guard fighter) or kneeling (pass fighter) on the mat, attempt to force their opponents to submit. Brazilian jiu-jitsu practices may result in muscular imbalances, which increase the risk of injury. Instead, the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) is an evaluation routine that could be related to injury incidence and seeks to detect muscular imbalance and movement dysfunction. Thus, the aim of the study was to investigate the injury profile and the FMS score and their relationship, with consideration for the BJJ fight style. Sports injuries were recorded in the last 12 months of 33 BJJ athletes, and the statistical analyses were applied to a routine evaluation FMS and a score of 14 points or less was considered low performance in FMS. We used a logistic regression; the effect size (ES) was calculated, and 5% was assumed as the statistical significance level. Pass fighters showed a higher percentage of injuries on the thorax (24.24%) than did guard fighters (6.67%, p = 0.01). Upper limbs were the most injured part of the body (χ = 36.7; p performance between guard and pass fighters (t = 1.97; p = 0.05), its magnitude was considered medium (ES = 0.77). There was an association between FMS and presence of injury (χ = 4.95; p = 0.03). Considering the FMS score as a predictor and the presence or absence of injury as the dependent variable, the data met a Wald coefficient of 4.55, p = 0.03 and Exp (B) = 5.71. The study found that almost half of the sample had injuries in the upper limbs and a quarter had injuries in the lower limbs in the last year. A poor FMS score was observed, and lower scores in the FMS were associated with a higher risk of injury in BJJ athletes.

  11. Rehabilitation of basketball injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malanga, Gerard A; Chimes, Gary P

    2006-08-01

    Basketball is one of the most popular sports in the United States and throughout the world, and therefore represents one of the most common sources of sports-related injuries. Basketball injuries should be managed by the same general rehabilitation principles as other sports injuries. Additionally, the clinician should be aware not only of general sports injuries but of those injuries most commonly seen in basketball players. By maintaining knowledge of the most common basketball injuries as well as their diagnosis and treatment, the clinician can help to optimize the athlete's return to play and enjoyment of the sport.

  12. Lisfranc Joint Injuries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lisa Chinn

    2009-01-01

    @@ The ankle and foot are the most common sites for athletic injuries.[1]Midfoot,or Lisfranc,injuries are the second most common foot injury and have a high in cidence in particular sports.They account for 4% of all football injuries per year,occurring frequently in linemen.[2]They are also common in equestrians,surfers,and windsurfers.[2]Lisfranc injuries are often misdiagnosed and if not treated properly can have lingering symptoms.It is estimated that Lisfranc joint injuries occur in 1 in every 55,000 persons every year.[3,4

  13. Determining the Incidence of Drug-Associated Acute Kidney Injury in Nursing Home Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handler, Steven M.; Cheung, Pui Wen; Culley, Colleen M.; Perera, Subashan; Kane-Gill, Sandra L.; Kellum, John A.; Marcum, Zachary A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Although acute kidney injury (AKI) is well-studied in the acute care setting, investigation of AKI in the nursing home (NH) setting is virtually nonexistent. The goal of this study was to determine the incidence of drug-associated AKI using the RIFLE (Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss of kidney function or End-Stage kidney disease) criteria in NH residents. Design/Setting/Participants/Measurements We conducted a retrospective study between February 9, 2012 and February 8, 2013 for all residents at four UPMC NHs located in Southwest Pennsylvania. The TheraDoc™ Clinical Surveillance System, which monitors laboratory and medication data and fires alerts when patients have a sufficient increase in serum creatinine, was used for automated case detection. An increase in serum creatinine in the presence of an active medication order identified to potentially cause AKI triggered an alert, and drug-associated AKI was staged according to the RIFLE criteria. Data were analyzed by frequency and distribution of alert type by risk, injury, and failure. Results Of the 249 residents who had a drug-associated AKI alert fire, 170 (68.3%) were female, and the mean age was 74.2 years. Using the total number of alerts (n=668), the rate of drug-associated AKI was 0.35 events per 100 resident-months. Based on the RIFLE criteria, there were 191, 70, and 44 residents who were classified as AKI risk, injury, and failure, respectively. The most common medication classes included in the AKI alerts were diuretics, ACEIs/ARBs, and antibiotics. Conclusion Drug-associated AKI was a common cause of potential adverse drug events. The vast majority of the cases were related to the use of diuretics, ACEIs/ARBs and antibiotics. Future studies are needed to better understand patient, provider and facility risk factors as well as strategies to enhance the detection and management of drug-associated AKI in the NH. PMID:24814042

  14. Diagnosis of Acute Groin Injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serner, Andreas; Tol, Johannes L; Jomaah, Nabil;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute groin injuries are common in high-intensity sports, but there are insufficient data on injury characteristics such as injury mechanisms and clinical and radiological findings. PURPOSE: To describe these characteristics in a cohort of athletes. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study...

  15. Principles and Application of Hydrotherapy for Equine Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Melissa R

    2016-04-01

    Hydrotherapy has become a key element within equine rehabilitation protocols and is used to address range of motion, proprioception, strength, neuromotor control, pain, and inflammation. Various forms of hydrotherapy can be tailored to the individual's injury and the expected return to athletic performance. This article describes the mechanisms of action of hydrotherapies and potential use in the clinical management of equine musculoskeletal injuries.

  16. Algorithm of physical rehabilitation of athletes in polyclinic stage of treatment of osteochondrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAKAROVA E. V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: develop an algorithm which improves the physical rehabilitation of athletes with osteochondrosis on polyclinic stage of treatment. Material: processed of scientific literature and Internet. Results: this research analyzes traditional recovery of athletes with spinal osteochondrosis on polyclinic stage of treatment. The practical and clinical study showed that etiopathogenesis injuries and diseases of the musculoskeletal system of athletes of different specialties have similar evidences. Therefore, a recovery of sports working capacity during medical rehabilitation treatment does not differ from ordinary patients. We propose an algorithm of physical rehabilitation, aimed for the fast recovery of health of athletes and return them to the athletic training, and conducting therapeutic exercises with specific objects such as balancing disk and preventive "Osan". Conclusions : established that the physical rehabilitation of athletes at polyclinic stage of treatment similar to the rehabilitation of patients non-athletes, and improved algorithm for the physical rehabilitation of athletes with osteochondrosis in the polyclinic stage of treatment.

  17. Association between heat stress and occupational injury among Thai workers: findings of the Thai Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawatsupa, Benjawan; Yiengprugsawan, Vasoontara; Kjellstrom, Tord; Berecki-Gisolf, Janneke; Seubsman, Sam-Ang; Sleigh, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Global warming will increase heat stress at home and at work. Few studies have addressed the health consequences in tropical low and middle income settings such as Thailand. We report on the association between heat stress and workplace injury among workers enrolled in the large national Thai Cohort Study in 2005 (N=58,495). We used logistic regression to relate heat stress and occupational injury separately for males and females, adjusting for covariate effects of age, income, education, alcohol, smoking, Body Mass Index, job location, job type, sleeping hours, existing illness, and having to work very fast. Nearly 20% of workers experienced occupational heat stress which strongly and significantly associated with occupational injury (adjusted OR 2.12, 95%CI 1.87-2.42 for males and 1.89, 95%CI 1.64-2.18 for females). This study provides evidence connecting heat stress and occupational injury in tropical Thailand and also identifies several factors that increase heat exposure. The findings will be useful for policy makers to consider work-related heat stress problems in tropical Thailand and to develop an occupational health and safety program which is urgently needed given the looming threat of global warming.

  18. Rehydration with soft drink-like beverages exacerbates dehydration and worsens dehydration-associated renal injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Arroyo, Fernando E; Cristóbal, Magdalena; Arellano-Buendía, Abraham S; Osorio, Horacio; Tapia, Edilia; Soto, Virgilia; Madero, Magdalena; Lanaspa, Miguel A; Roncal-Jiménez, Carlos; Bankir, Lise; Johnson, Richard J; Sánchez-Lozada, Laura-Gabriela

    2016-07-01

    Recurrent dehydration, such as commonly occurs with manual labor in tropical environments, has been recently shown to result in chronic kidney injury, likely through the effects of hyperosmolarity to activate both vasopressin and aldose reductase-fructokinase pathways. The observation that the latter pathway can be directly engaged by simple sugars (glucose and fructose) leads to the hypothesis that soft drinks (which contain these sugars) might worsen rather than benefit dehydration associated kidney disease. Recurrent dehydration was induced in rats by exposure to heat (36°C) for 1 h/24 h followed by access for 2 h to plain water (W), a 11% fructose-glucose solution (FG, same composition as typical soft drinks), or water sweetened with noncaloric stevia (ST). After 4 wk plasma and urine samples were collected, and kidneys were examined for oxidative stress, inflammation, and injury. Recurrent heat-induced dehydration with ad libitum water repletion resulted in plasma and urinary hyperosmolarity with stimulation of the vasopressin (copeptin) levels and resulted in mild tubular injury and renal oxidative stress. Rehydration with 11% FG solution, despite larger total fluid intake, resulted in greater dehydration (higher osmolarity and copeptin levels) and worse renal injury, with activation of aldose reductase and fructokinase, whereas rehydration with stevia water had opposite effects. In animals that are dehydrated, rehydration acutely with soft drinks worsens dehydration and exacerbates dehydration associated renal damage. These studies emphasize the danger of drinking soft drink-like beverages as an attempt to rehydrate following dehydration.

  19. Association Between Lateral Posterior Tibial Slope, Body Mass Index, and ACL Injury Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojicic, Katherine M.; Beaulieu, Mélanie L.; Imaizumi Krieger, Daniel Y.; Ashton-Miller, James A.; Wojtys, Edward M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: While body mass index (BMI), a modifiable parameter, and knee morphology, a nonmodifiable parameter, have been identified as risk factors for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture, the interaction between them remains unknown. An understanding of this interaction is important because greater compressive axial force (perhaps due to greater BMI) applied to a knee that is already at an increased risk because of its geometry, such as a steep lateral posterior tibial slope, could further increase the probability of ACL injury. Purpose: To quantify the relationship between BMI and select knee morphological parameters as potential risk factors for ACL injury. Study Design: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Sagittal knee magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) files from 76 ACL-injured and 42 uninjured subjects were gathered from the University of Michigan Health System’s archive. The posterior tibial slope (PTS), middle cartilage slope (MCS), posterior meniscus height (PMH), and posterior meniscus bone angle (MBA) in the lateral compartment were measured using MRI. BMI was calculated from demographic data. The association between the knee structural factors, BMI, and ACL injury risk was explored using univariate and multivariate logistic regression. Results: PTS (P = .043) and MCS (P = .037) significantly predicted ACL injury risk. As PTS and MCS increased by 1°, odds of sustaining an ACL injury increased by 12% and 13%, respectively. The multivariate logistic regression analysis, which included PTS, BMI centered around the mean (cBMI), and their interaction, showed that this interaction predicted the odds of ACL rupture (P = .050; odds ratio, 1.03). For every 1-unit increase in BMI from the average that is combined with a 1° increase in PTS, the odds of an ACL tear increased by 15%. Conclusion: An increase in BMI was associated with increased risk of ACL tear in the presence of increased lateral posterior tibial slope. Larger values of PTS or

  20. An epidemiological study of injuries in elite athletes of Olympic aquatic sports%奥运水上项目优秀运动员伤病的流行病学调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐金树; 李君; 徐成峰; 王宁; 石秀秀; 田宇; 杨全胜

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate characteristics of injury sites and analyze causes of injuries in elite athletes of national training teams of Olympic aquatic sports. Methods From November 2013 to February 2014, medical screening and epidemiological analysis were conducted in elite athletes of canoeing, rowing, sailing and windsurfing. Injury site and difference of aquatic sports were analyzed. Results Each aquatic sport had its own characteristics in the distribution of injury sites. Top three injury sites of canoeing were wrist, shoulder and elbow, accounting for 37.9%, 20.7% and 17.2% respectively. Top three sites of rowing were wrist, knee, and buttock, accounting for 42.1%, 31.6%, and 10.5% respectively. Top three sites of sailing and windsurfing were knee, wrist, and shoulder, accounting for 37.0%, 29.6% and 11.1% respectively. Actual sites of back pain showed differences in aquatic sports above. Shoulder and elbow injuries mainly occurred in canoeing. Unilateral knee injury tended to be in rowing, while bilateral knee injury tended to be in sailing and windsurfing. Conclusions All Olympic aquatic sports have their own characteristics, and occurrence are related with sport modes. Features of injuries should be analyzed individually to facilitate prevention and treatment at the view of anatomy, biology and sports biomechanics.%目的:探讨奥运水上项目优秀运动员的伤病分布特点并对伤病原因进行分析。方法2013年11月至2014年2月,对皮划艇、赛艇和帆船帆板项目国家冬季集训的优秀运动员进行伤病的医学筛查,对伤病分布部位以及不同运动项目之间的伤病差别进行统计和分析。结果奥运水上项目优秀运动员的伤病部位在不同项目之间有各自的特点。皮划艇项目伤病前3位分别是腰部、肩部和肘部,分别占全部伤病的37.9%、20.7%和17.2%;赛艇项目伤病前3位分别是腰部、膝部和臀部,分别占全部伤病的42.1%、31.6%和10.5%

  1. Correlation between expectations of recovery and injury severity perception in whiplash-associated disorders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Robert FERRARI; Deon LOUW

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To assess the correlation between expectations of recovery and whiplash patients' perceptions of injury sevedty using a simplified instrument.Expectations of recovery have been shown to predict rate of recovery from whiplash injury in population-based studies.The perception of having more severe pathology or more ominous diagnostic labels has also been associated with a worse prognosis.Methods:Consecutive patients with whiplashassociated disorder grade 1 or 2,presenting in the acute stage to a primary care centre,were asked "do you think that your injury will…" with response options "get better soon; get better slowly; never get better; don't know." Injury severity perception (ISP) was measured with a numerical rating scale which ranged from 0-10,on which subjects were asked to rate how severe (in terms of damage) they thought their injury was.The anchors were labeled "no damage" (0) and "severe,and maybe permanent damage" (10).The primary outcome measure was the correlation between the subject's ISP score and expectation of recovery.Results:A total of 94 subjects (34 males,60 females,and mean age (40.6+10.0) years,range 19-60 years) were included.The initial responses to expectation of recovery were:get better soon (29/94); get better slowly (22/94); never get better (11/94); don't know (32/94).The mean ISP score was 4.9+1.7(range 2-9 out of 10).There was a high correlation between expectations and ISP scores (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient 0.68).Those who expected to recover soon and those who expected to get better slowly had the lowest ISP scores.Conclusions:The more slowly whiplash patients expect to recover,or the less sure they are of recovery,the more severe their initial perceptions of injury.

  2. Clinical observations from nutrition services in college athletics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quatromoni, Paula A

    2008-04-01

    College athletes are vulnerable to nutritional risks because of the rigorous demands of their sport, and because of the realities of college lifestyles. Athletes often adopt rigid training diets that predispose them to undernutrition, fatigue, and injury. Disordered eating, a common concern for college-aged women, affects a substantial number of female collegiate athletes, and is a growing concern for their male counterparts. Few resources exist to promote nutritional well-being among college athletes, particularly for individuals who suffer from eating pathology that is subclinical and often perceived as benign. This article presents evidence of the need for nutrition services for college athletes and describes nutritional risks that affect individuals across a variety of athletic teams. A multidisciplinary treatment model is depicted, featuring a nutrition practice at the core of a sports medicine wellness program in Division I college athletics. Observations from this practice document a substantial burden of subclinical eating disorders and elucidate characteristics of high-risk individuals. The Female Athlete Screening Tool is advocated as a useful tool for identifying eating pathology and triggering timely interventions. These insights from clinical practice identify opportunities and behavioral targets for intervention, and promote an effective model for health promotion in college athletics.

  3. The effectiveness of balance training programs on reducing the incidence of ankle sprains in adolescent athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valovich McLeod, Tamara C

    2008-08-01

    Ankle sprains are one of the most common sport-related injuries treated by rehabilitation professionals. These injuries often result in lost participation and can lead to subsequent injury episodes. Therefore, it is important to determine appropriate means of preventing these injuries. There has recently been an increase in the popularity of balance training programs for the prevention of knee anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, with some thought that starting these programs in younger athletes may be most beneficial. However, there is the potential that these types of training programs may also be beneficial for decreasing the risk of other lower extremity injuries, including ankle sprains in the adolescent athlete.

  4. Simultaneous surgical management of chronic grade-2 valgus instability of the knee and anterior cruciate ligament deficiency in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osti, Leonardo; Papalia, Rocco; Del Buono, Angelo; Merlo, Franco; Denaro, Vincenzo; Maffulli, Nicola

    2010-03-01

    We report on 22 patients with chronic grade-2 valgus laxity of the knee combined with chronic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) insufficiency, in whom the two lesions were addressed at the same surgical setting. At a minimum follow-up of 24 months, clinical and functional variables had improved significantly (P pre-injury level. There were no operative complications in this series. In selected athletes with chronic symptomatic valgus laxity of the knee combined with ACL insufficiency, surgical repair of the MCL in association with ACL reconstruction is a suitable and reliable option to restore knee stability and allow return to pre-injury activity level.

  5. Charlie's Words: Supporting Gifted Male Athletes Using Athletes' Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Richard

    2012-01-01

    A gifted student-athlete, Charlie Bloomfield is introduced to athlete's journals by his coaches at Burke Mountain Academy (Vermont), an elite American ski school. Used by Olympians and professionals alike, journals provide athletes with ways to organize and reflect on training and competitions. Athlete's journals help gifted male athletes address…

  6. 基因多态性与杰出运动能力%Association of elite athlete performance and gene polymorphisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨若愚; 王予彬; 沈勋章; 蔡广

    2014-01-01

    research results in the field of gene polymorphisms and elite athlete performance and to expatiate the problems in these researches, thereby offering some proposals. METHODS:A computer-based online research of PubMed and CNKI databases was performed to col ect articles published from 1998 to 2013 with the key words“elite athlete performance, gene polymorphisms, endurance, power, training response”in Chinese and English. There were 150 articles after the initial survey. A total of 80 articles were included according inclusion and exclusion criteria. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:The researches of this field are mainly focused on the three aspects:elite endurance performance, elite power performance, and training response, which are associated with gene polymorphisms. The main genes related to elite endurance performance are ACE, mtDNA, PPAR, ADR, GNB3, NRF2, etc. The main genes related to elite power performance are ACTN3, ACE, GDF-8, IL-6, HIF-1, etc. The main genes related to training response are HBB, TFAM, NRF2, AR, FECH, etc. Several gaps in the current researches have been identified including smal sample size of most athletic cohorts, lack of corroboration with replication cohorts of different ethnic backgrounds. The numerous research findings can be applied to the gene selection of athletes by creating some kinds of algorithms and models.

  7. The Electrocardiogram in Highly Trained Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Keerthi; Sharma, Sanjay

    2015-07-01

    Regular intensive exercise is associated with a constellation of several structural and functional adaptations within the heart that permit the generation of a large and sustained increase in cardiac output and/or increase in blood pressure. The magnitude with which these markers of physiological remodeling manifest on the surface electrocardiogram is governed by several factors and some athletes show electrical and structural changes that overlap with those observed in cardiomyopathy and in ion channel diseases, which are recognized causes of sudden cardiac death in young athletes. This article provides a critical appraisal of the athlete's ECG.

  8. Analysis of factors associated with injury severity in crashes involving young New Zealand drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weiss, Harold B.; Kaplan, Sigal; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    fit than a binary and a generalized ordered logit. Results show that the young drivers’ behavior, the presence of passengers and the involvement of vulnerable road users were the most relevant factors associated with higher injury severity in both single-vehicle and two-vehicle crashes. Seatbelt non......-use, inexperience and alcohol use were the deadliest behavioral factors in single-vehicle crashes, while fatigue, reckless driving and seatbelt non-use were the deadliest factors in two-vehicle crashes. The presence of passengers in the young drivers’ vehicle, and in particular a combination of males and females......Young people are a risk to themselves and other road users, as motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of their death. A thorough understanding of the most important factors associated with injury severity in crashes involving young drivers is important for designing well-targeted restrictive...

  9. Common cutaneous disorders in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conklin, R J

    1990-02-01

    Athletic activity may cause or aggravate skin disorders, which in turn may diminish athletic performance. Since many sporting activities necessitate prolonged exposure to the sun, athletes must avoid painful sunburn which will adversely affect their performance. Drugs and chemicals also may cause photoallergic and/or phototoxic reactions, including polymorphous light eruption and athletes should thus avoid photosensitising drugs and chemicals. The effects of chronic ultraviolet exposure include ageing, pigmentation and skin cancers. The most effective protection against excessive exposure to sunlight is the use of sunscreens, although inadequate application and poor protection in the UVA spectrum may diminish their effectiveness and contact allergies may create other problems. Viral, bacterial and fungal infections are common in athletes due to heat, friction and contact with others. Herpes simplex may be treated with any drying agents (e.g. alcohol) as they are as effective as more expensive topical agents such as acyclovir. Molluscum contagiosum may be spread by close contact or water contact and is treated by superficial incision, cryotherapy or standard wart varnishes. Plantar wart infection is transmitted by swimming pool decks, changing rooms and hand-to-hand from weights in gymnasiums. Plantar warts presenting with pain may be aggressively treated, by blunt dissection, but painless ones are best treated conservatively. Impetigo and folliculitis often develop after trauma. Antibiotics are effective against mild infections while abrasions and lacerations should be cleansed and dressed with occlusive dressings. Diphtheroid bacteria in moist footwear may produce pitted keratolysis and erythrasma. Tinea pedis is common in athletes and probably originates in swimming pools, gymnasium floors and locker rooms. Interdigital, dry-moccasin and pustular-midsole forms can be distinguished. The latter two forms respond to topical antifungal agents, while the interdigital

  10. A 5° medial wedge reduces frontal but not saggital plane motion during jump landing in highly trained women athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael F Joseph

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Michael F Joseph1, Craig R Denegar1, Elaine Horn1, Bradley MacDougall1, Michael Rahl1, Jessica Sheehan1, Thomas Trojian2, Jeffery M Anderson1, James E Clark1, William J Kraemer11Department of Kinesiology, 2Department of Sports Medicine, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, USAAbstract: Lower extremity mechanics during landing have been linked to traumatic and nontraumatic knee injuries, particularly in women’s athletics. The effects of efforts to mitigate these risks have not been fully elucidated. We previously reported that a 5° medial wedge reduced ankle eversion and knee valgus. In the present report we further investigated the effect of a 5° medial wedge inserted in the shoes of female athletes on frontal plane hip motion, as well as ankle, knee, hip, and trunk saggital plane motion during a jump landing task. Kinematic data were obtained from 10 intercollegiate female athletes during jump landings from a 31 cm platform with and without a 5° medial wedge. Hip adduction was reduced 1.98° (95% CI 0.97–2.99° by the medial wedge but saggital plane motions were unaffected. A 5° medial wedge reduces frontal plane motion and takes the knee away from a position associated with anterior cruciate ligament injury and patellofemoral pain syndrome. Although frontal plane motion was not captured it is unlikely to have increased in a bilateral landing task. Thus, it is likely that greater muscle forces were generated in these highly trained athletes to dissipate ground reaction forces when a medial wedge was in place. Additional investigation in younger and lesser trained athletes is warranted to assess the impact of orthotic devices on knee joint mechanics.Keywords: jump landing, foot orthotic, lower extremity kinematics, knee biomechanics, knee injury

  11. Analysis of patients with spinal cord trauma associated with traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Simão de Melo Neto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Characterize victims of spinal cord injury (SCI associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI and risk factors. Methods: Study conducted with 52 victims of SCI associated with TBI. The variables studied were: sex; age; marital status; occupation; educational level; religion; etiology and the lesion area; neurological condition by the ASIA scale; associated injuries and potential risk factors. Results: The male (85%, aged between 21-30 years (25%, civil status stable union (56%, low level of education (69% and the Roman Catholic religion (77% presented the greater number of victims. Motor vehicle accidents (58% were the main etiology. The cervical segment had higher injury risk (RR=3.48, p<0.0001. The neurological status ASIA-E (52%, the syndromic neck pain (35% and the rate of mild TBI (65% were the most frequent. Complications occurred in 13 patients with increased frequency of pneumonia (62%. The length of hospital stay was significantly higher (20±28 days and 17% of patients died. Men (RR=2.14, p=0.028 and individuals exposed to motor vehicle accidents (RR=1.91, p=0.022 showed a higher risk of these lesions concurrently. Moreover, these patients had 2.48 (p<0.01 higher risk of death than victims of SCI alone. Conclusion: The SCI associated with TBI was more frequent in men, young adults, and individuals exposed to motor vehicle accidents. The cervical spine is more likely to be affected. Furthermore, the length of hospitalization is significantly higher and the subjects analyzed have higher risk of death.

  12. Role of Sertraline in insomnia associated with post traumatic brain injury (TBI depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansari Ahmed

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI is a major cause of disability (1, 2. Sleep disturbances, such as insomnia, are very common following traumatic brain injury and have been reported in frequencies from 40% (3 to as high as 84% (4. Sleep disruption can be related to the TBI itself but may also be secondary to neuropsychiatric (e.g., depression or neuromuscular (e.g., pain conditions associated with TBI or to the pharmacological management of the injury and its consequences. Post-TBI insomnia has been associated with numerous negative outcomes including daytime fatigue, tiredness, difficulty functioning: impaired performance at work, memory problems, mood problems, greater functional disability, reduced participation in activities of daily living, less social and recreational activity, less employment potential, increased caregiver burden, greater sexual dysfunction, and also lower ratings of health, poor subjective wellbeing. These negative consequences can hamper the person’s reintegration into the community, adjustment after injury, and overall QOL. (5 The connection between depression and insomnia has not been investigated within the post TBI population to a great extent. For the general population, clinically significant insomnia is often associated with the presence of an emotional disorder (6. Fichtenberg et al. (2002 (7, in his study established that the strongest relationship with the diagnosis of insomnia belonged to depression. Given the high prevalence of depression during the first 2 years following TBI (8, a link between depression and insomnia among TBI patients makes innate sense. The present study aims at assessing role of sertralline in post TBI insomnia associated with depression.

  13. Evaluation of an Acute RNAi-Mediated Therapeutic for Visual Dysfunction Associated with Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death in children and young adults globally. Malignant cerebral edema plays a major role in the...pathophysiology which evolves after severe TBI. Added to this is the significant morbidity and mortality from cerebral edema associated with acute stroke...hypoxic ischemic coma, neurological cancers and brain infection. Therapeutic strategies to prevent cerebral edema are limited and if brain swelling

  14. Necrotrophic fungi associated with epidermal microcracking caused by chilling injury in pickling cucumber fruit

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this work was to visualize the association between microcracking and other epidermal chilling injury symptoms, and to identify rots in cucumber fruit (Cucumis sativus L.) by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Depressed epidermal areas and surface cracking due to damages of subepidermal cells characterized the onset of pitting in cucumber fruit. The germination of conidia of Alternaria alternata, with some of them evident on the fractures in the cultivar Trópico, occurred aft...

  15. Association between risk factors for injurious falls and new benzodiazepine prescribing in elderly persons

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Benzodiazepines are frequently prescribed to elderly patients' despite concerns about adverse effects leading to injurious falls. Previous studies have not investigated the extent to which patients with pre-existing risk factors for falls are prescribed benzodiazepines. The objective of this study is to assess if some of the risk factors for falls are associated with new benzodiazepine prescriptions in elderly persons. Methods Using provincial administrative databases, eld...

  16. Avulsion fracture of the posterior cruciate ligament in an uncommon location associated with distal injury to the patellar ligament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Pires e Albuquerque

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Avulsion fractures of the posterior cruciate ligament in unusual locations are rare injuries. We report the first case in the literature of an avulsion fracture of the posterior cruciate ligament associated with distal injury to the patellar ligament. The aim of this study was to present a novel case, the therapy used and the clinical follow-up.

  17. Adolescent Peer Victimization, Peer Status, Suicidal Ideation, and Nonsuicidal Self-Injury Examining Concurrent and Longitudinal Associations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heilbron, N.; Prinstein, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined concurrent and longitudinal associations among peer victimization, peer status, and self-injurious thoughts and behaviors (i.e., suicidal ideation and nonsuicidal self-injury [NSSI]) over a 2-year period. A community sample of 493 adolescents (51% girls) in Grades 6-8 participate

  18. Adolescent Peer Victimization, Peer Status, Suicidal Ideation, and Nonsuicidal Self-Injury: Examining Concurrent and Longitudinal Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilbron, Nicole; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined concurrent and longitudinal associations among peer victimization, peer status, and self-injurious thoughts and behaviors (i.e., suicidal ideation and nonsuicidal self-injury [NSSI]) over a 2-year period. A community sample of 493 adolescents (51% girls) in Grades 6-8 participated in the study. Participants completed measures…

  19. Kidney injury molecule-1 expression is closely associated with renal allograft damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Lianlian; Xue, Lijuan; Yu, Jinyu; Zhao, Jun; Zhang, Wenlan; Fu, Yaowen

    2013-08-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the expression of kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) in renal allograft biopsy samples and assess the clinical significance of its use as a biomarker for tissue damage. A total of 69 renal allograft biopsy samples from 17 patients with normal serum creatinine and 52 cases of increased serum creatinine were collected. They were divided into different groups according to the Banff 2007 diagnostic criteria. KIM-1 expression was detected by immunohistochemical methods and the association of KIM-1 and blood biochemical indexes was analyzed. KIM-1 expression increased as Banff 2007 classification grade increased and was positively correlated with tubular inflammation severity in the acute T-cell rejection group. Moreover, KIM-1 expression was strongly positive in the chronic active antibody-mediated rejection group. Interestingly, KIM-1 was weakly positive in the normal group without obvious acute rejection and injury of immunosuppressant toxicity. In this group, 27.3% (3/11) of the cases with normal serum creatinine level showed weakly positive KIM-1 expression in their renal tissues. KIM-1 expression level is positively correlated with renal allograft damage and tubular cell injury. KIM-1 is expressed in tubular epithelial cells before blood biochemical indexes become elevated and morphological changes occur. KIM-1 expression is an early, sensitive, and specific biomarker to determine renal tubular epithelial cell injury in renal allograft tissue.

  20. Psychologic stress related to injury and impact on sport performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nippert, Angela H; Smith, Aynsley M

    2008-05-01

    Injury rates are high among children and adolescent athletes. Psychosocial stressors, such as personality, history of stressors, and life event stress can influence injury occurrence. After injury, those same factors plus athletic identity, self-esteem, and significant others-such as parents, coaches, and teammates-can affect injury response, recovery and subsequent sport performance. Goal setting, positive self-talk, attribution theory, and relaxation or mental imagery are psychologic interventions that can help injured athletes cope with psychosocial stressors. Medical professionals should be aware of the potential influence that psychosocial stressors and psychologic interventions can have on injury occurrence, injury recovery, and sport performance.

  1. Predictors of Airway Hyperresponsiveness in Elite Athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toennesen, Louise L; Porsbjerg, Celeste; Pedersen, Lars;

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Elite athletes frequently suffer from asthma and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). We aimed to investigate predictors of airway pathophysiology in a group of unselected elite summer-sport athletes, training for the summer 2008 Olympic Games, including markers of airway inflammation......, systemic inflammation and training intensity. METHODS: 57 Danish elite summer-sport athletes with and without asthma symptoms all gave a blood sample for measurements of high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF....... In these subjects, no association was found between the levels of AHR to mannitol and methacholine (r=0.032, p=0.91). CONCLUSION: Airway hyperresponsiveness in elite athletes is related to the amount of weekly training and the level of serum TNF-α. No association was found between the level of AHR to mannitol...

  2. On The Treatment And Recovery Of Knee Joint Injury For The Athletes%运动员膝关节损伤的治疗与康复

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许斌

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: explore the impact of players' knee injury treatment and rehabilitation of functional recovery.Method: 29 cases of patients with knee injurytreatment and rehabilitation training with conventionalphysical therapy and rehabilitation training.Normal 87% functional recovery of patients,10 percent of patients function recovered,and 3% of the functional recovery of patients is not obvious.Results Theory;after a knee injury treatment and rehabilitation to restore knee function and have a good effect.%采用常规物理治疗和康复训练对29例膝关节损伤患者进行治疗和康复训练。结果显示:87%患者功能恢复正常,10%患者功能基本恢复,3%患者功能恢复不明显。同时指出膝关节损伤后的治疗和康复,对膝关节的功能恢复有很好的效果,损伤后的功能恢复与膝关节损伤部位、损伤程度、治疗手段及康复训练的时机有关。

  3. Environmental exposure to arsenic and chromium in children is associated with kidney injury molecule-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas-González, M; Osorio-Yáñez, C; Gaspar-Ramírez, O; Pavković, M; Ochoa-Martínez, A; López-Ventura, D; Medeiros, M; Barbier, O C; Pérez-Maldonado, I N; Sabbisetti, V S; Bonventre, J V; Vaidya, V S

    2016-10-01

    Environmental hazards from natural or anthropological sources are widespread, especially in the north-central region of Mexico. Children represent a susceptible population due to their unique routes of exposure and special vulnerabilities. In this study we evaluated the association of exposure to environmental kidney toxicants with kidney injury biomarkers in children living in San Luis Potosi (SLP), Mexico. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 83 children (5-12 years of age) residents of Villa de Reyes, SLP. Exposure to arsenic, cadmium, chromium, fluoride and lead was assessed in urine, blood and drinking water samples. Almost all tap and well water samples had levels of arsenic (81.5%) and fluoride (100%) above the permissible levels recommended by the World Health Organization. Mean urine arsenic (45.6ppb) and chromium (61.7ppb) were higher than the biological exposure index, a reference value in occupational settings. Using multivariate adjusted models, we found a dose-dependent association between kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) across chromium exposure tertiles [(T1: reference, T2: 467pg/mL; T3: 615pg/mL) (p-trend=0.001)]. Chromium upper tertile was also associated with higher urinary miR-200c (500 copies/μl) and miR-423 (189 copies/μL). Arsenic upper tertile was also associated with higher urinary KIM-1 (372pg/mL). Other kidney injury/functional biomarkers such as serum creatinine, glomerular filtration rate, albuminuria, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and miR-21 did not show any association with arsenic, chromium or any of the other toxicants evaluated. We conclude that KIM-1 might serve as a sensitive biomarker to screen children for kidney damage induced by environmental toxic agents.

  4. Cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury in a developing country: Prevalence, risk factors and outcome

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury (CS-AKI) in children in developing regions of the world. The study aimed to determine the prevalence of CSAKI, associated factors and its impact on mortality and utilization of hospital services. The hospital records of children aged 0-17 years who underwent CS at an Indian hospital were reviewed. CS-AKI was defined as a rise in serum creatinine of ≥0.3 mg/dL in any 48 h and or by urine output

  5. Ultrasound in sports medicine: relevance of emerging techniques to clinical care of athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Eugene Sun; Corrado, Gianmichael

    2012-08-01

    The applications of ultrasound in managing the clinical care of athletes have been expanding over the past decade. This review provides an analysis of the research that has been published regarding the use of ultrasound in athletes and focuses on how these emerging techniques can impact the clinical management of athletes by sports medicine physicians. Electronic database literature searches were performed using the subject terms 'ultrasound' and 'athletes' from the years 2003 to 2012. The following databases were searched: PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, and SPORTDiscus™. The search produced 617 articles in total, with a predominance of articles focused on cardiac and musculoskeletal ultrasound. 266 of the studies involved application of ultrasound in evaluating the cardiovascular properties of athletes, and 151 studies involved musculoskeletal ultrasound. Other applications of ultrasound included abdominal, vascular, bone density and volume status. New techniques in echocardiography have made significant contributions to the understanding of the physiological changes that occur in the athlete's heart in response to the haemodynamic stress associated with different types of activity. The likely application of these techniques will be in managing athletes with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and the techniques are near ready for application into clinical practice. These techniques are highly specialized, however, and will require referral to dedicated laboratories to influence the clinical management of athletes. Investigation of aortic root pathology and pulmonary vascular haemodynamics are also emerging, but will require additional studies with larger numbers and outcomes analysis to validate their clinical utility. Some of these techniques are relatively simple, and thus hold the potential to enter clinical management in a point-of-care fashion. Musculoskeletal ultrasound has demonstrated a number of diagnostic and therapeutic techniques

  6. Single-leg postural stability deficits following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in pediatric and adolescent athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Dai; Howell, David R; Micheli, Lyle J; Meehan, William P

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the postural stability of pediatric and adolescent athletes without anterior cruciate ligament injury with those who underwent anterior cruciate reconstruction (ACLR). Postural stability ratings derived from a video-force plate system during the three stances of the modified Balance Error Scoring System were collected from pediatric and adolescent athletes who underwent ACLR (N=24; mean 1.2 years after surgery) and from uninjured controls (N=479). The postural control rating was calculated as the mean of the displacement and variance of the torso and center of pressure data, normalized on a scale from 0 to 100. A higher rating indicates greater postural stability. Participants who underwent ACLR showed lower postural stability ratings during single-leg stance compared with uninjured controls (40.0 vs. 48.7; P=0.037). ACLR is associated with deficits in postural stability.

  7. An Analysis of NCAA Division 1 Student Athlete Social Media Use, Privacy Management, and Perceptions of Social Media Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Eric M.

    2013-01-01

    The intercollegiate athletic subculture knows very little about how social media policies are perceived by students-athletes. Athletic department administrators, conference commissioners, and the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) who are in charge of creating new policies lack any meaningful data to help understand or negotiate new…

  8. Rethinking the Standard of Care in Treating Professional Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poma, Caroline; Sherman, Seth L; Spence, Bradley; Brenner, Lawrence H; Bal, B Sonny

    2016-04-01

    There is public discussion and debate about the role of the team physician in professional sports. There is uncertainty over whether a separate legal standard of care should apply when treating professional athletes. This article advocates a single standard of care for all patients. This article also proposes that it would be useful for team physicians to develop a consensus that there should be a health policy for professional athletes. This health policy should aspire that professional athletes can complete their career, while minimizing the risk of cognitive or physical injuries that affect later quality of life.

  9. Reduced thalamic volume in preterm infants is associated with abnormal white matter metabolism independent of injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wisnowski, Jessica L. [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Department of Radiology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); University of Pittsburgh, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); University of Southern California, Brain and Creativity Institute, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Ceschin, Rafael C. [University of Pittsburgh, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); University of Pittsburgh, Department of Biomedical Informatics, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Choi, So Young [University of Southern California, Brain and Creativity Institute, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Schmithorst, Vincent J. [University of Pittsburgh, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Painter, Michael J. [University of Pittsburgh, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neurology, Childrens Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Nelson, Marvin D. [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Department of Radiology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Blueml, Stefan [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Department of Radiology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Rudi Schulte Research Institute, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Panigrahy, Ashok [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Department of Radiology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); University of Pittsburgh, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Altered thalamocortical development is hypothesized to be a key substrate underlying neurodevelopmental disabilities in preterm infants. However, the pathogenesis of this abnormality is not well-understood. We combined magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the parietal white matter and morphometric analyses of the thalamus to investigate the association between white matter metabolism and thalamic volume and tested the hypothesis that thalamic volume would be associated with diminished N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA), a measure of neuronal/axonal maturation, independent of white matter injury. Data from 106 preterm infants (mean gestational age at birth: 31.0 weeks ± 4.3; range 23-36 weeks) who underwent MR examinations under clinical indications were included in this study. Linear regression analyses demonstrated a significant association between parietal white matter NAA concentration and thalamic volume. This effect was above and beyond the effect of white matter injury and age at MRI and remained significant even when preterm infants with punctate white matter lesions (pWMLs) were excluded from the analysis. Furthermore, choline, and among the preterm infants without pWMLs, lactate concentrations were also associated with thalamic volume. Of note, the associations between NAA and choline concentration and thalamic volume remained significant even when the sample was restricted to neonates who were term-equivalent age or older. These observations provide convergent evidence of a neuroimaging phenotype characterized by widespread abnormal thalamocortical development and suggest that the pathogenesis may involve impaired axonal maturation. (orig.)

  10. Breakfast and Snacks: Associations with Cognitive Failures, Minor Injuries, Accidents and Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Chaplin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available One strategy for examining effects of nutrients on cognitive function is to initially investigate foods that contain many different nutrients. If effects are demonstrated with these foods then further studies can address the role of specific nutrients. Breakfast foods (e.g., cereals, dairy products and fruit provide many important nutrients and consumption of breakfast has been shown to be associated with beneficial effects on cognitive function. Isolating effects of specific constituents of breakfast has proved more difficult and it is still unclear what impact breakfast has on real-life performance. The present study provided initial information on associations between breakfast consumption and cognitive failures and accidents. A second aim was to examine associations between consumption of snacks which are often perceived as being unhealthy (chocolate, crisps and biscuits. A sample of over 800 nurses took part in the study. The results showed that frequency of breakfast consumption (varied breakfasts: 62% cereal was associated with lower stress, fewer cognitive failures, injuries and accidents at work. In contrast, snacking on crisps, chocolate and biscuits was associated with higher stress, more cognitive failures and more injuries outside of work. Further research requires intervention studies to provide a clearer profile of causality and underlying mechanisms.

  11. Factors Associated With Length of Stay and Hospital Charges among Pediatric Burn Injury in Kermanshah, West of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satar Rezaei

    2015-01-01

    This study highlights that the independent predictors affecting hospital costs and LOS associated with pediatric burn injury in Kermanshah. Also, our study indicates the BBS was the main factors affecting hosp