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Sample records for athletes weight lifters

  1. Cardiovascular responses to static exercise in distance runners and weight lifters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhurst, J. C.; Kelly, A. R.; Gonyea, W. J.; Mitchell, J. H.

    1980-01-01

    Three groups of athletes including long-distance runners, competitive and amateur weight lifters, and age- and sex-matched control subjects have been studied by hemodynamic and echocardiographic methods in order to determine the effect of the training programs on the cardiovascular response to static exercise. Blood pressure, heart rate, and double product data at rest and at fatigue suggest that competitive endurance (dynamic exercise) training alters the cardiovascular response to static exercise. In contrast to endurance exercise, weight lifting (static exercise) training does not alter the cardiovascular response to static exercise: weight lifters responded to static exercise in a manner very similar to that of the control subjects.

  2. WeightLifter: Visual Weight Space Exploration for Multi-Criteria Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajer, Stephan; Streit, Marc; Torsney-Weir, Thomas; Spechtenhauser, Florian; Muller, Torsten; Piringer, Harald

    2017-01-01

    A common strategy in Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) is to rank alternative solutions by weighted summary scores. Weights, however, are often abstract to the decision maker and can only be set by vague intuition. While previous work supports a point-wise exploration of weight spaces, we argue that MCDM can benefit from a regional and global visual analysis of weight spaces. Our main contribution is WeightLifter, a novel interactive visualization technique for weight-based MCDM that facilitates the exploration of weight spaces with up to ten criteria. Our technique enables users to better understand the sensitivity of a decision to changes of weights, to efficiently localize weight regions where a given solution ranks high, and to filter out solutions which do not rank high enough for any plausible combination of weights. We provide a comprehensive requirement analysis for weight-based MCDM and describe an interactive workflow that meets these requirements. For evaluation, we describe a usage scenario of WeightLifter in automotive engineering and report qualitative feedback from users of a deployed version as well as preliminary feedback from decision makers in multiple domains. This feedback confirms that WeightLifter increases both the efficiency of weight-based MCDM and the awareness of uncertainty in the ultimate decisions.

  3. The Choice of Sports Nutrition Tonics for Weight Lifters

    OpenAIRE

    Yan Chen

    2015-01-01

    The study selected sports tonics which can increase levels of anabolic hormones, promote synthesis of the protein in weightlifters’ bodies, improve proportion of energize of phosphagen system in weightlifting exercise. A theoretical analysis of the biological function for the sports tonics that weight lifters selected are carried. Results indicate that heme iron, lycopene and chromium and zinc (Zn) can be used as sports tonics for weight lifters, at the same time the effect will be better if ...

  4. Echocardiographic left ventricular masses in distance runners and weight lifters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhurst, J. C.; Gonyea, W. J.; Mitchell, J. H.; Kelly, A. R.

    1980-01-01

    The relationships of different forms of exercise training to left ventricular mass and body mass are investigated by echocardiographic studies of weight lifters, long-distance runners, and comparatively sized untrained control subjects. Left ventricular mass determinations by the Penn convention reveal increased absolute left ventricular masses in long-distance runners and competitive weight lifters with respect to controls matched for age, body weight, and body surface area, and a significant correlation between ventricular mass and lean body mass. When normalized to lean body mass, the ventricular masses of distance runners are found to be significantly higher than those of the other groups, suggesting that dynamic training elevates left ventricular mass compared to static training and no training, while static training increases ventricular mass only to the extent that lean body mass is increased.

  5. Self-Reported Use of Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids by Elite Power Lifters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesalis III, Charles E.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Thirty-three percent of a sample of 45 power lifters surveyed by questionnaire admitted to using steroids, while 55 percent of 20 lifters surveyed by phone admitted steroid use. The researchers suggest that there was significant underreporting by these athletes, who consider steroids primarily as a means to improve athletic performance. (IAH)

  6. Exercise dependence and the drive for muscularity in male bodybuilders, power lifters, and fitness lifters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Bruce D; Roth, Andrew D; DeLong, Ryan E; Briggs, Michael S

    2010-06-01

    Researchers have hypothesized differences in exercise dependence and drive for muscularity between bodybuilders and power lifters, while others have not found the predicted differences. This study assessed 146 weight lifters (bodybuilders, n=59; power lifters, n=47; fitness lifters, n=40) on the Exercise Dependence Scale, Bodybuilding Dependence Scale, and the Drive for Muscularity Scale. Results showed that bodybuilders and power lifters were significantly higher than fitness lifters on EDS Total, 7 EDS scales, and the 3 BDS scales. In contrast, power lifters were found to be significantly higher on DMS Total and DMS Behavior scales than bodybuilders. The regression results suggest that exercise dependence may be directly related to the drive for muscularity. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Core lifter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlov, N G; Edel' man, Ya A

    1981-02-15

    A core lifter is suggested which contains a housing, core-clamping elements installed in the housing depressions in the form of semirings with projections on the outer surface restricting the rotation of the semirings in the housing depressions. In order to improve the strength and reliability of the core lifter, the semirings have a variable transverse section formed from the outside by the surface of the rotation body of the inner arc of the semiring aroung the rotation axis and from the inner a cylindrical surface which is concentric to the outer arc of the semiring. The core-clamping elements made in this manner have the possibility of freely rotating in the housing depressions under their own weight and from contact with the core sample. These semirings do not have weakened sections, have sufficient strength, are inserted into the limited ring section of the housing of the core lifter without reduction in its through opening and this improve the reliability of the core lifter in operation.

  8. Economic fork lifters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roedig, W

    1981-01-01

    Increased energy costs attribute new interest to the choice between electric fork lifters and fork lifters driven by combustion engines. The advantages and shortcomings of the two drive systems are listed. As previous cost-comparisons are no longer up-to-date a new comparison is made in order to find out which of the three types works most economically: electric diesel- or fuel gas driven fork lifters. The comparison is based on a one-year-operation with a load capacity of 1,5 to 5 tons under normal stress conditions. The following parameters are compared: sum of investments, depreciation, interest rates, fixed costs per annum and per hour of operation. Variable costs like: repair costs, costs for replacement parts, energy cost and total cost. The three-wheeled electric fork lifter has proved to be the most economic one followed by the diesel-driven fork lifter, the four-wheel electric fork lifter and the fuel-gas driven fork lifter.

  9. The Effect of Ramadan Fasting and Weight-Lifting Training on Plasma Volume, Glucose and Lipids Profile of Male Weight-Lifters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Morteza Tayebi

    Full Text Available Objective(sThe purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Ramadan fasting and weight-lifting training on plasma volume, glucose, and lipids profile of male weight-lifter.Materials and MethodsForty male weight-lifters were recruited and divided into 4 groups (n=10 each and as the following groups: control (C, fasting (F, training (T and fasting-training (F-T. The T and F-T groups performed weight-lifting technique trainings and hypertrophy body building (3 sessions/week, 90 min/session. All subjects were asked to complete a medical examination as well as a medical questionnaire to ensure that they were not taking any medication, were free of cardiac, respiratory, renal, and metabolic diseases, and were not using steroids. Blood samples were taken at 24 hr before and 24 hr after one month of fasting and weight-lifting exercise. The plasma volume, fasting blood sugar (FBS, lipid profiles, and lipoproteins were analyzed in blood samples. ResultsBody weight and plasma volume showed significant (P< 0.05 decrease and increase in the F group (P< 0.05 respectively. Also, a significant reduction was observed in F-T group body weight (P< 0.01. A significant increase was found in FBS level of F group (P< 0.05. The lipid profiles and lipoproteins didn’t change significantly in C, F, T and the F-T groups.ConclusionThe effect of Ramadan fasting on body weight and plasma volumes may be closely related to the nutritional diet or biochemical response to fasting.

  10. Effect of 48 h Fasting on Autonomic Function, Brain Activity, Cognition, and Mood in Amateur Weight Lifters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skurvydas, Albertas

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The acute fasting-induced cardiovascular autonomic response and its effect on cognition and mood remain debatable. Thus, the main purpose of this study was to estimate the effect of a 48 h, zero-calorie diet on autonomic function, brain activity, cognition, and mood in amateur weight lifters. Methods. Nine participants completed a 48 h, zero-calorie diet program. Cardiovascular autonomic function, resting frontal brain activity, cognitive performance, and mood were evaluated before and after fasting. Results. Fasting decreased (p Fasting decreased (p Fasting also increased (p fasting resulted in higher parasympathetic activity and decreased resting frontal brain activity, increased anger, and improved prefrontal-cortex-related cognitive functions, such as mental flexibility and set shifting, in amateur weight lifters. In contrast, hippocampus-related cognitive functions were not affected by it. PMID:28025637

  11. Side core lifter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelman, Ya A

    1982-01-01

    A side core lifter is proposed which contains a housing with guide slits and a removable core lifter with side projections on the support section connected to the core receiver. In order to preserve the structure of the rock in the core sample by means of guaranteeing rectilinear movement of the core lifter in the rock, the support and core receiver sections are hinged. The device is equipped with a spring for angular shift in the core-reception part.

  12. The Effects of 24 weeks of Resistance Training with Simultaneous Elastic and Free Weight Loading on Muscular Performance of Novice Lifters

    OpenAIRE

    Shoepe, Todd C.; Ramirez, David A.; Rovetti, Robert J.; Kohler, David R.; Almstedt, Hawley C.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to assess the effectiveness of variable resistance as provided through elastic plus free weight techniques in college aged males and females. Twenty novice lifters were randomly assigned to a traditional free weight only (6 males and 5 females) or elastic band plus free weight group (5 males and 5 females) and 9 more normally active controls (5 males and 4 females), were recruited to maintain normal activity for the duration of the study. No differences e...

  13. Cutaneous community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection in participants of athletic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Philip R

    2005-06-01

    Cutaneous community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CAMRSA) has been identified in otherwise healthy individuals either with or without methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA)-associated risk factors who participate in athletic activities. The purpose of this study was to describe the clinical features of CAMRSA skin infection that occurred in university student athletes, evaluate the potential mechanisms for the transmission of MRSA infection of the skin in participants of athletic activities, and review the measures for preventing the spread of cutaneous CAMRSA infection in athletes. A retrospective chart review of the student athletes from the University of Houston whose skin lesions were evaluated at the Health Center and grew MRSA was performed. The clinical characteristics and the postulated mechanisms of cutaneous MRSA infection in the athletes were compared with those previously published in reports of CAMRSA skin infection outbreaks in other sports participants. Cutaneous CAMRSA infection occurred in seven student athletes (four women and three men) who were either weight lifters (three students) or members of a varsity sports team: volleyball (two women), basketball (one woman), and football (one man). The MRSA skin infection presented as solitary or multiple, tender, erythematous, fluctuant abscesses with surrounding cellulitis. The lesions were most frequently located in the axillary region (three weight lifters), on the buttocks (two women), or on the thighs (two women). The drainage from all of the skin lesions grew MRSA, which was susceptible to clindamycin, gentamicin, rifampin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, and vancomycin; five of the isolates were also susceptible to ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin. All of the bacterial strains were resistant to erythromycin, oxacillin, and penicillin. The cutaneous MRSA infections persisted or worsened in the six athletes who were empirically treated for methicillin-sensitive S. aureus at

  14. Drilling string lifter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shakhobalov, A B; Galiopa, A A; Ponomarev, G V; Ushakov, A M

    1981-04-28

    A drilling string lifter is suggested which includes a rotating tower installed on a fixed base, hydraulic cylinder and pipe-clamping assembly connected through a chain gear to the drive motor. In order to simplify the design of the hydraulic lifter, the drive motor is installed on a fixed base so that the axis of the outlet shaft of the drive motor coincides with the axis of rotation of the tower. In addition, the axis of rotation of the tower is made in the form of a tubular element, and the outlet shaft of the drive motor is ranged between the tubular element.

  15. Mechanical lifter for recovering highly viscous oil and bitumens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakhmanov, R N; Akhunov, A M; Asfandiyarov, Kh A; Maksutov, R A

    1982-01-01

    A mechanical lifter is described for recovering highly viscous oil and bitumens. The lifter differs from the known and has significant advantages over them. The lifter was made and tested on a stand well.

  16. Dependence of sports results on data of physical development, morphofunctional and special power preparedness of weight-lifters at the stage of initial preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Bugaev

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the establishment of nature of the interrelation between sports results of weight-lifters and level of their special physical and morphofunctional preparedness. Material & Methods: 48 sportsmen of group of initial preparation of the first year of training were involved to the experiment. The research was conducted on the basis of the chair of weightlifting and boxing of Kharkov state academy of physical culture and CYSS “HTZ”. Results: the correlation between indicators of morphofunctional, high-speed and power and special (competitive preparedness of weight-lifters is revealed at the stage of initial preparation. The conducted research shows that the result of competitive exercises of the sportsmen, specializing in weightlifting at the stage of initial preparation, depends on power and high-speed and power preparedness. Conclusions: it is established that the correlation between results of competitive exercises and jumps uphill from the place, in length from the place, run on 30 m can demonstrate the interrelation of power and high-speed and power preparedness of the sportsmen, specializing in weightlifting at the stage of initial preparation.

  17. Solar water lifter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khandurdyyev, A; Daykhanov, S; Itayev, K I; Kurbanov, N

    1982-01-01

    A water lifter is described which contains a diaphram pump with working cavity and inlet and outlet valves and solar energy collector filled with easily boiling fluid. In order to improve the degree of use of the solar energy and output, the water lifter additionally contains a bellows arranged in the working cavity of the pump and connected to it and the collector, and a cylinder made of magnetic-soft material with a magnetic valve arranged in it with a rod connected to the bellows, a seat for the valve on the upper end and contact plate interacting with the valve in its lower position.

  18. Level of physical development and physical preparedness of weight-lifters of 10–12 years old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Dzhym

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to determine the level of physical development and physical preparedness of weight-lifters of 10–12 years old. Material & Methods: boys of 10–12 years old, who go in for weightlifting sections in CYSS HTZ, and also in sports boarding school No 2 of Kharkiv, participated in this research. 34 boys were attracted to the experiment. Research methods: theoretical method and generalization of literature, pedagogical observation, pedagogical experiment, method of mathematical statistics. Results: differences in intensity of gain of indicators of physical development for the biennium of observations display unevenness and heterochrony of ripening of organism of children were found. The noticeable difference in intensity of gain of the majority of the studied indicators of physical development is noted even for such rather short period (two years. The increase during the whole biennium is established for absolute values of the general physical operability of the tested. However, the size of relative intensity of gain of absolute values of general physical working capacity at stages of observations is different: the first year – 10,48%, the second – 0,86% (t=22,3; р<0,01. In other words, indicators of general physical working capacity considerably grow for the first year of observations (10–11 years old, and practically do not change for the second year (11–12 years old. Conclusions: the established decrease in relative sizes of the general physical working capacity, which is noted at boys in total with the deterioration in results in run at distance of 1000 m, allowed to draw conclusion on the underdevelopment at them the major physical qualities and systems of organism, which define endurance and general physical working capacity. Undoubtedly, the insufficient level of endurance and general physical working capacity reduces adaptation opportunities of boys-weight-lifters.

  19. The Effects of 24 weeks of Resistance Training with Simultaneous Elastic and Free Weight Loading on Muscular Performance of Novice Lifters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoepe, Todd C; Ramirez, David A; Rovetti, Robert J; Kohler, David R; Almstedt, Hawley C

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to assess the effectiveness of variable resistance as provided through elastic plus free weight techniques in college aged males and females. Twenty novice lifters were randomly assigned to a traditional free weight only (6 males and 5 females) or elastic band plus free weight group (5 males and 5 females) and 9 more normally active controls (5 males and 4 females), were recruited to maintain normal activity for the duration of the study. No differences existed between control, free weight and elastic band at baseline for age, body height, body mass, body mass index, and body fat percentage. One-repetition maximums were performed for squat and bench press while both strength and power were assessed using isokinetic dynamometry. Elastic groups and free-weight groups completed 24 weeks of whole body, periodized, high intensity resistance (65-95% of one-repetition maximum) training three times/week. Training programs were identical except that the elastic group trained the barbell squat, bench press and stiff-legged deadlift with 20-35% of their total prescribed training loads coming from band resistance (assessed at the top of the range of motion) with the remainder from free weight resistance. A mixed-model analysis revealed that peak torque, average power and one-repetition maximums for squat were significantly greater after training for the elastic group compared to the control (pfree weight group also showed significantly greater improvements over the control in peak torque and one-repetition maximums for squat and bench press. No significant differences were observed between the elastic band and free weight groups. Combined variable elastic band plus free weight exercises are effective at increasing strength and power similar to free-weights alone in novice college aged males and females. However, due to complexity in set-up and load assignment elastic adoption by novice lifters in an unsupervised situation is not advised.

  20. Solar water lifter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazarov, B A; Gonchar, V I; Maymerdangulyyev, G; Orekhova, N P; Ryabikov, S V; Strevkov, D S; Tereshin, V D; Yurin, Ye M

    1982-01-01

    A water lifter is described which contains a pump, whose piston is kinematically connected to the drive element made of material with thermal-mechanical memory of the shape in the hot state, and a solar heater.

  1. Increasing the working efficiency of core lifter in a sectional turbobit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shakhmaev, Z M; Kutepov, A I; Ganiev, G M

    1969-01-01

    Reasons for decreases of core recovery and decreases of drilling efficiency in core drilling are presented. One of the main faults with the turbobit is breakage of core lifter. As the length of the core lifter was increased, its strength was reduced. Use of ordinary tubing is not satisfactory with core lifters equipped with turbobits of 170 and 235 mm diam. The construction of lightweight alloy tubing (73 mm diam) for use with 235 mm turbobits is described. Tests showed that the lightweight core lifter assembly works satisfactorily. Schematic diagrams and descriptions of lightweight core lifters are supplied.

  2. Publicizing female athletes' weights: implications for female psychology undergraduates acting as spectators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm-Denoma, Jill; Smith, April; Waesche, Matthew

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of including female athletes' weights in athletic event programs on female spectators' body image, eating disorder symptoms, self-esteem, and affective state and to investigate whether the magnitude of the athletes' reported weights had differential effects on female spectators (i.e., do female spectators who view heavier athletes respond differently than those who view less heavy athletes?). We used an experimental design to examine hypotheses derived from competing theories to determine whether exposure to female athletes of varying weight would adversely or beneficially impact female undergraduates (N = 152) who served as athletic event spectators. Analyses indicated that in this simulated study, female spectators' body image, eating disorder symptoms, self-esteem, and affective states were not impacted by the presence or by the magnitude of female athletes' weights in athletic event programs. The results imply that including athletes' weights in game-day programs at women's athletic events does not affect female spectators on an individual level.

  3. Studies of valve lifter for automotive heavy duty diesel engine by ceramic materials. II. Development of SiC valve lifter by injection molding method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, H W [Technical Centre of KIA-ASIA MOTORS (Korea, Republic of); Han, I S [Korea Institute of Energy Research, Tajeon (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Y S; Chung, Y J [Myong Ji University (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-02-01

    Valve lifter, namely tappet, is supported by lifter hole which is located upper side of camshaft in cylinder block, transforms rotatic movement of camshaft into linear movement and helps to open and shut the engine valve as an engine parts. The face of valve lifter, which is continuously contacting with camshaft, brings about abnormal wears, such as unfair wear and early wear, because it is severely loaded in the valve train system. These wears act as a defect like over-clearance and cause imperfect combustion of fuel during the valve lifting in the combustion chamber. Consequently, this imperfect combustion makes the engine out-put decrease and has cause on air pollution. To prevent these wears, therefore, the valve lifter cast in metal developed into SiC ceramics valve lifter which has an excellence in wear and impact resistance. As a result, the optimum process conditions like injection condition, mixture ratio and debonding process could be established. After sintering, fine-sinered dual microstructure in which prior {alpha}-SiC, carbon and silicon was obtained. Based on the new SiC({beta}-SiC) produced by reaction among the {alpha}-SiC, carbon and silicon was obtained. Based on the study, it is verified that mechanical properties of SiC valve lifter are excellent in Vickers hardness 1100{approx}1200 bending strength (300{approx}350 Pa), fracture toughness (1.5{approx}1.7 MPacentre dotm{sup 1/2}). Through engine dynamo testing, SiC valve lifter and metal valve lifter are examined and compared into abnormal phenomena such early fracture, unfair and early wear. It is hoped that this research will serve as an important springboard for the future study of heavy duty diesel engine parts developed by ceramics which has a good wear resistance, reliability, and lightability.

  4. Hydraulic lifter of a drilling unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velikovskiy, L S; Demin, A V; Shadchinov, L M

    1979-01-08

    The invention refers to drilling equipment, in particular, devices for lowering and lifting operations during drilling. A hydraulic lifter of the drilling unit is suggested which contains a hydraulic cylinder, pressure line and hollow plunger whose cavities are hydraulically connected. In order to improve the reliability of the hydraulic lifter by balancing the forces of compression in the plunger of the hydraulic cylinder, a closed vessel is installed inside the plunger and rigidly connected to its ends. Its cavity is hydraulically connected to the pressure line.

  5. Solar water lifter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seyitkurbanov, S; Kerimov, E

    1982-01-01

    A water lifter is described which contains a steam generator with easily boiling fluid and capacitor connected to the working chamber equipped with an elastic container and connected to the pumping chamber having a pressure pipeline. In order to improve efficiency, the capacitor is arranged on the pressure pipeline.

  6. Weight Management for Athletes: Important Things to be Considered

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chara Odysseos Maria Avraamidou

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Weight management is difficult for most individuals, as indicated by the high numbers of obesity around the world. Obesity has increased dramatically over the past decades. Unfortunately, this epidemic is not limited to adults but also to children in both globally and Cyprus. Developing a weight management plan is essential for everyone. Regarding to an athlete, weight management is an increasingly integral part, as consuming the right kind of food can lead them in success or failure. The special nutritional needs of athletes are depending on the sport. The most important priority for them is to establish a well-chosen nutrition program based on the type of the sport; the training load and the competitions needs. Health professionals and sport nutritionists need to understand dynamic energy balance and be prepared with effective and evidence-based dietary approaches to help athletes and active individuals achieve their body-weight goals. Therefore, the following review aiming to examine the most recent published data for weight-management both elite and recreational athletes of all ages, and to set out the most appropriate weight-management guidelines and dietary strategies to help them apply this knowledge to the practicalities of their own sport and individual situation.

  7. Weight Management Practices of Australian Olympic Combat Sport Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reale, Reid; Slater, Gary; Burke, Louise M

    2017-09-05

    Combat sport athletes undertake chronic and rapid weight loss (RWL) practices to qualify for weight divisions lower than their training weight. Variation between sports in the prevalence, methods, and magnitude of weight loss as well as recovery practices may be influenced by factors including competition level and culture. Differences in methodologies of previous research in combat sports make direct comparisons difficult, thus this study aimed to examine weight loss practices among all Olympic combat sports in Australia, using standardised methodology. High calibre competitors in wrestling, boxing, judo and taekwondo (n=260) at Australian competitions were surveyed using a validated tool which provides quantification of how extreme an athlete's weight loss practices are; the RWL score (RWLS). Additional qualitative and quantitative survey data were also collected. Neither sport, sex or weight division group had an effect on RWLS however a significant effect of athlete calibre was detected [F (2,215) = 4.953, MSE = 4.757, p = 0.00792]. Differences between sports were also evident for: most weight ever lost in order to compete [H = 19.92, p = 0.0002), age at which weight cutting began (H = 16.34, p = 0.001) and selected methods/patterns of RWL (p < 0.001). Weight cycling between competitions was common among all sports as were influences on athlete's behaviours. While many similarities in weight loss practices and experiences exist between combat sports, specific differences were evident. Nuanced, context/culturally specific guidelines should be devised to assist fighters' in optimising performance while minimising health implications.

  8. A determination of discharge head of the Cherepnov water lifter with siphon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kwan Soo; Rhee, Kyoung Hoon [Chonnam National Univ., Kwangju (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sung Chun [Dongshin University, Naju (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Byoung Kyen [Sunchon Technical Junior College, Sunchon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-02-29

    This paper presents an experimental study on the discharge head of Cherepnov water lifter that was continuously operated with the aid of the siphon. The energy used by the Cherepnov water lifter is derived from the potential energy of the water itself. The lifter consists of three interconnected tanks and five pipes, one of which is open and two others are hermetically sealed. The effects of varying operating parameters such as the tank and pipe size, the ratio between head of discharge and drop height were analyzed. As a result, factors that can maximize the efficiency and increase the average delivery rate were identified. When the ratio between head of discharge and drop height is about 0.5, the efficiency of Cherepnov water lifter is maximized. In order to design the efficient Cherepnov water lifter, the discharge head of the Cherepnov water lifter should be assigned to be twice as much as the drop height. The effect of tank size on the efficiency is less than 5%, while the effect of the pipe size is not negligible. The larger the pipe size is, the more the efficiency increases. (author). 13 refs., 4 tabs., 8 figs.

  9. National Athletic Trainers' Association position statement: safe weight loss and maintenance practices in sport and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turocy, Paula Sammarone; DePalma, Bernard F; Horswill, Craig A; Laquale, Kathleen M; Martin, Thomas J; Perry, Arlette C; Somova, Marla J; Utter, Alan C

    2011-01-01

    To present athletic trainers with recommendations for safe weight loss and weight maintenance practices for athletes and active clients and to provide athletes, clients, coaches, and parents with safe guidelines that will allow athletes and clients to achieve and maintain weight and body composition goals. Unsafe weight management practices can compromise athletic performance and negatively affect health. Athletes and clients often attempt to lose weight by not eating, limiting caloric or specific nutrients from the diet, engaging in pathogenic weight control behaviors, and restricting fluids. These people often respond to pressures of the sport or activity, coaches, peers, or parents by adopting negative body images and unsafe practices to maintain an ideal body composition for the activity. We provide athletic trainers with recommendations for safe weight loss and weight maintenance in sport and exercise. Although safe weight gain is also a concern for athletic trainers and their athletes and clients, that topic is outside the scope of this position statement. Athletic trainers are often the source of nutrition information for athletes and clients; therefore, they must have knowledge of proper nutrition, weight management practices, and methods to change body composition. Body composition assessments should be done in the most scientifically appropriate manner possible. Reasonable and individualized weight and body composition goals should be identified by appropriately trained health care personnel (eg, athletic trainers, registered dietitians, physicians). In keeping with the American Dietetics Association (ADA) preferred nomenclature, this document uses the terms registered dietitian or dietician when referring to a food and nutrition expert who has met the academic and professional requirements specified by the ADA's Commission on Accreditation for Dietetics Education. In some cases, a registered nutritionist may have equivalent credentials and be the

  10. Practices of weight regulation among elite athletes in combat sports: a matter of mental advantage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, Stefan; Ekström, Marianne Pipping; Berg, Christina M

    2013-01-01

    The combination of extensive weight loss and inadequate nutritional strategies used to lose weight rapidly for competition in weight-category sports may negatively affect athletic performance and health. To explore the reasoning of elite combat-sport athletes about rapid weight loss and regaining of weight before competitions. Qualitative study. With grounded theory as a theoretical framework, we employed a cross-examinational approach including interviews, observations, and Internet sources. Sports observations were obtained at competitions and statements by combat-sport athletes were collected on the Internet. Participants in the interviews were 14 Swedish national team athletes (9 men, 5 women; age range, 18 to 36 years) in 3 Olympic combat sports (wrestling, judo, and taekwondo). Semistructured interviews with 14 athletes from the Swedish national teams in wrestling, judo, and taekwondo were conducted at a location of each participant's choice. The field observations were conducted at European competitions in these 3 sports. In addition, interviews and statements made by athletes in combat sports were collected on the Internet. Positive aspects of weight regulation other than gaining physical advantage emerged from the data during the analysis: sport identity, mental diversion, and mental advantage. Together and individually, these categories point toward the positive aspects of weight regulation experienced by the athletes. Practicing weight regulation mediates a self-image of being "a real athlete." Weight regulation is also considered mentally important as a part of the precompetition preparation, serving as a coping strategy by creating a feeling of increased focus and commitment. Moreover, a mental advantage relative to one's opponents can be gained through the practice of weight regulation. Weight regulation has mentally important functions extending beyond the common notion that combat-sport athletes reduce their weight merely to gain a physical edge

  11. Practices of Weight Regulation Among Elite Athletes in Combat Sports: A Matter of Mental Advantage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, Stefan; Ekström, Marianne Pipping; Berg, Christina M

    2013-01-01

    Context The combination of extensive weight loss and inadequate nutritional strategies used to lose weight rapidly for competition in weight-category sports may negatively affect athletic performance and health. Objective To explore the reasoning of elite combat-sport athletes about rapid weight loss and regaining of weight before competitions. Design Qualitative study. Setting With grounded theory as a theoretical framework, we employed a cross-examinational approach including interviews, observations, and Internet sources. Sports observations were obtained at competitions and statements by combat-sport athletes were collected on the Internet. Patients or Other Participants Participants in the interviews were 14 Swedish national team athletes (9 men, 5 women; age range, 18 to 36 years) in 3 Olympic combat sports (wrestling, judo, and taekwondo). Data Collection and Analysis Semistructured interviews with 14 athletes from the Swedish national teams in wrestling, judo, and taekwondo were conducted at a location of each participant's choice. The field observations were conducted at European competitions in these 3 sports. In addition, interviews and statements made by athletes in combat sports were collected on the Internet. Results Positive aspects of weight regulation other than gaining physical advantage emerged from the data during the analysis: sport identity, mental diversion, and mental advantage. Together and individually, these categories point toward the positive aspects of weight regulation experienced by the athletes. Practicing weight regulation mediates a self-image of being “a real athlete.” Weight regulation is also considered mentally important as a part of the precompetition preparation, serving as a coping strategy by creating a feeling of increased focus and commitment. Moreover, a mental advantage relative to one's opponents can be gained through the practice of weight regulation. Conclusions Weight regulation has mentally important functions

  12. Soil tare and relative soil adherence after uprooting sugar beet by a share lifter, a driven rotary-shoe lifter and a grab lifter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, G.D.; Klooster, J.J.; Sprong, M.C.; Verwijs, B.R.

    2003-01-01

    The soil tare of sugar beet from wet clay soils should be reduced to lower the cost and prevent some negative effects of soil tare. Commonly used share lifters press the soil onto the sugar beet and, thereafter, the soil adheres strongly to the beet and is difficult to remove from the beet by

  13. Robotic-Movement Payload Lifter and Manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doggett, William R. (Inventor); King, Bruce D. (Inventor); Collins, Timothy J. (Inventor); Dorsey, John T. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A payload lifter/manipulator module includes a rotatable joint supporting spreader arms angularly spaced with respect to one another. A rigid arm is fixedly coupled to the joint and extends out therefrom to a tip. A tension arm has a first end and a second end with the first end being fixedly coupled to the tip of the rigid arm. The tension arm incorporates pivots along the length thereof. Each pivot can be engaged by or disengaged from the outboard end of a spreader arm based on a position of the spreader arm. A hoist, positioned remotely with respect to the module and coupled to the second end of the tension arm, controls the position of the spreader arms to thereby control the position of the rigid arm's tip. Payload lifter/manipulator assemblies can be constructed with one or more of the modules.

  14. The food and weight combat. A problematic fight for the elite combat sports athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, Stefan; Pipping Ekström, Marianne; Berg, Christina M

    2012-10-01

    Weight reduction in athletes is motivated by optimisation of performance, aesthetic reasons or to achieve a pre-designated weight. Previous research has shown that dietary restraint and short term weight regulation frequently takes place among combat sports athletes such as wrestlers and judokas. The aim of this study was to explore negative experiences related to dietary strategies and weight-making practises used by elite combat sports athletes. Using semi-structured interviews, 14 Swedish national team athletes in wrestling, judo and taekwondo were asked about their dietary intake and their engagement in both long- and short-term weight regulation practises. Content analysis of the transcribed interviews, display a constant struggle regarding nutritional standpoints. Sport demands such as achieving an optimal weight and nutritional intake were considered as central in order for excellent performance. Adhering to these demands was found to be problematic however, primarily because of; (1) negative physiological responses and (2) opposing ideals of a non-sport related nature, such as the importance of the athletes to be healthy and social in their everyday lives. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Impact Load Behavior between Different Charge and Lifter in a Laboratory-Scale Mill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zixin; Peng, Yuxing; Zhu, Zhencai; Yu, Zhangfa; Li, Tongqing

    2017-07-31

    The impact behavior between the charge and lifter has significant effect to address the mill processing, and is affected by various factors including mill speed, mill filling, lifter height and media shape. To investigate the multi-body impact load behavior, a series of experiments and Discrete Element Method (DEM) simulations were performed on a laboratory-scale mill, in order to improve the grinding efficiency and prolong the life of the lifter. DEM simulation hitherto has been extensively applied as a leading tool to describe diverse issues in granular processes. The research results shown as follows: The semi-empirical power draw of Bond model in this paper does not apply very satisfactorily for the ball mills, while the power draw determined by DEM simulation show a good approximation for the measured power draw. Besides, the impact force on the lifter was affected by mill speed, grinding media filling, lifter height and iron ore particle. The maximum percent of the impact force between 600 and 1400 N is at 70-80% of critical speed. The impact force can be only above 1400 N at the grinding media filling of 20%, and the maximum percent of impact force between 200 and 1400 N is obtained at the grinding media filling of 20%. The percent of impact force ranging from 0 to 200 N decreases with the increase of lifter height. However, this perfect will increase above 200 N. The impact force will decrease when the iron ore particles are added. Additionally, for the 80% of critical speed, the measured power draw has a maximum value. Increasing the grinding media filling increases the power draw and increasing the lifter height does not lead to any variation in power draw.

  16. Acute aortic dissection in a young healthy athlete with androgenic anabolic steroid use: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barman M, Djamel B, Mathews J

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute aortic dissection can occur at the time of intense physical exertion in strength-trained athletes like weight lifters, bodybuilders, throwers, and wrestlers. Rapid rise in blood pressure and history of hypertension are the most common causes of aortic dissection in athletes. It is a very tragic event because of its high mortality rate of about 32% in young patients. We report a case of aortic dissection in a young weightlifter with a history of anabolic steroid usage with an extensive intimal tear of the aorta at Sino tubular junction and arch. All athletes must be assessed for predisposing factors for aortic dissection, and all patients should be encouraged to undergo appropriate diagnostic studies, like echocardiography and blood pressure monitoring while weightlifting to recognize possible predisposing factors for aortic dissection. Athletes who do have a problem should be encouraged to avoid or limit their exercise or activity by their cardiologist. It is vital that this disastrous event be prevented in young people. In conclusion, although a rare occurrence, AD should be considered in symptomatic patients with any family history of early cardiac deaths, a history suggestive of a connective tissue disorder (that is, multiple joint surgeries or who practice weightlifting.

  17. Solar water lifter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khandurdyyev, A; Daykhanov, S

    1982-01-01

    A water lifter is proposed which contains a piston pump, whose rod of the piston is connected to the drive element having periodic contact with the solar heater storage battery. In order to expand the range of operation and to simplify design, the drive element is made in the form of a hollow tube with closed ends equipped with mobile supports, and a ridged HE attached to its middle part, hydraulically connected to the cavity of the tube, and the latter is made of material which has the memory of the shape in the hot state.

  18. A Mediation Analysis of the ATHENA Intervention for Female Athletes: Prevention of Athletic-Enhancing Substance Use and Unhealthy Weight Loss Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranby, Krista W; Aiken, Leona S; Elliot, Diane L; Moe, Esther L; McGinnis, Wendy; Goldberg, Linn

    2009-01-01

    Objective To explain, through mediation analyses, the mechanisms by which ATHENA (Athletes Targeting Healthy Exercise and Nutrition Alternatives), a primary prevention and health promotion intervention designed to deter unhealthy body shaping behaviors among female high school athletes, produced immediate changes in intentions for unhealthy weight loss and steroid/creatine use, and to examine the link to long-term follow-up intentions and behaviors. Methods In a randomized trial of 1668 athletes, intervention participants completed coach-led peer-facilitated sessions during their sport season. Participants provided pre-test, immediate post-test, and 9-month follow-up assessments. Results ATHENA decreased intentions for steroid/creatine use and intentions for unhealthy weight loss behaviors at post-test. These effects were most strongly mediated by social norms and self-efficacy for healthy eating. Low post-test intentions were maintained 9 months later and predicted subsequent behavior. Conclusions ATHENA successfully modified mediators that in turn related to athletic-enhancing substance use and unhealthy weight loss practices. Mediation analyses aid in the understanding of health promotion interventions and inform program development. PMID:19386771

  19. Weight Management for Athletes: Important Things to be Considered

    OpenAIRE

    Chara Odysseos Maria Avraamidou; Maria Avraamidou

    2017-01-01

    Weight management is difficult for most individuals, as indicated by the high numbers of obesity around the world. Obesity has increased dramatically over the past decades. Unfortunately, this epidemic is not limited to adults but also to children in both globally and Cyprus. Developing a weight management plan is essential for everyone. Regarding to an athlete, weight management is an increasingly integral part, as consuming the right kind of food can lead them in success or failure. The spe...

  20. Case studies of heat conduction in rotary drums with L-shaped lifters via DEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Xie

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Rotary drums are widely used in numerous processes in industry to handle granular materials. In present work, heat transfer processes in drums with L-shaped lifters have been investigated by coupling the discrete element method (DEM with heat transfer model. Effects of both operational and structural parameters have been analyzed. It is found that increasing rotational speed could improve heat transfer to a certain extent, however, just in relatively low speed stage. When lifter number increases, the heat transfer speed slightly decreases. An increasing lifter height could promote heat transfer first and then reduces it, but the amplitude of variation keeps small. The heat transfer rate descends with increasing lifter width. The heat transfer mechanisms have also been discussed by comparing mixing rates, total contact areas for thermal conduction, time constants (TC indicating apparent heat transfer rate and effective heat transfer coefficients(HTC. It is concluded that dynamic conduction due to particle flow is dominated in all cases. The L-shaped lifers are turned out not a good choice when heat conduction between particles is prominent.

  1. Anti-inflammatory and combined anti- inflammatory/analgesic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    been described in military recruits, ,9 weight lifters,4 downhill skiers4 and athletes engaged ... studies have been conducted on acute injuries and only one studyl1 has ..... groups indicating that they were probably not related to the medication.

  2. Weightlifting, weight training and injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basford, J R

    1985-08-01

    Although millions of men and women in the United States are regularly involved in some form of weightlifting, the average physician knows, and frequently cares, little about the sports involved. As a result, his or her knowledge of the medical and physiological issues involved is limited This article attempts to address this lack by beginning with a brief introductory section outlining some of the similarities differences between the major weight lifting approaches (power lifting, olympic lifting, weight training and body building). Next it reviews major issues and controversies such as age restrictions for lifters, physiological effects, drug use, potential strength gains and hypertrophy. Finally, it discusses some of the more frequent and unique injuries that can occur in lifters.

  3. The National Football League-225 Bench Press Test and the Size-Weight Illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luebbers, Paul E; Buckingham, Gavin; Butler, Michael S

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to test reports that size and arrangement manipulations of weight plates (i.e., inducing a size-weight illusion [SWI]) effect athletic weightlifting performance. The participants were 72 experienced, weight-trained collegiate American football players. Across three weeks, each athlete performed three different repetitions-to-fatigue bench press tests (NFL-225, SWI-225, and SWI-215). A multiple regression revealed a positive association between participants' strength relative to the test load and repetitions for NFL-225 and SWI-215, but no association with SWI-225. To explore these results, players were ranked into quartiles based on their one-repetition maximum relative to 102.27 kg (225 lb), and a 3 × 4 repeated measures analysis of variance was conducted. The primary finding was a significant Test Condition × Quartile interaction ( p = .004). Bonferroni-corrected pairwise comparisons revealed that Quartile 4 (those with lowest strength relative to test load) completed more repetitions for SWI-225 compared with NFL-225 ( p = .049). These results suggest that alternate weight plate arrangements may be beneficial for those whose bench press load is near the lifter's one-repetition maximum. However, variations of the SWI do not appear to affect the performance of repetitions-to-fatigue bench press tests for the majority of collegiate American football players.

  4. Acute Effects of the Elevation Training Mask on Strength Performance in Recreational Weight lifters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagim, Andrew R; Dominy, Trevor A; Camic, Clayton L; Wright, Glenn; Doberstein, Scott; Jones, Margaret T; Oliver, Jonathan M

    2018-02-01

    Jagim, AR, Dominy, TA, Camic, CL, Wright, G, Doberstein, S, Jones, MT, and Oliver, JM. Acute effects of the elevation training mask on strength performance in recreational weightlifters. J Strength Cond Res 32(2): 482-489, 2018-The Elevation Training Mask 2.0 (ETM) is a novel device that purportedly simulates altitude training. The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effects of the ETM on resistance exercise performance, metabolic stress markers, and ratings of mental fatigue. Twenty male recreational weight lifters completed 2 training sessions of back squat and bench press (6 sets of 10 repetitions at 85% of 5-repetition maximum and seventh set to failure) as well as a maximal effort sprint test (18% body mass) with the mask (ETM) and without the mask (NM). Training evaluation included baseline and postexercise blood lactate and oxygen saturation measures. Performance evaluation included peak and average velocity bar velocity, total volume load, total work, total repetitions completed, and sprint performance. Adverse side effects were reported in 12% (n = 3) of participants, which included feelings of light headedness, anxiety, and discomfort. No differences were found in repetitions or total workload in back squat (p = 0.07) or bench press (p = 0.08) between conditions. A lower peak velocity was identified during the back squat, bench press, and sprint test in the ETM condition (p = 0.04). Blood lactate values were lower after bench press and sprint during the ETM condition (p bench press, and sprint test in the ETM condition compared with the NM condition (p velocity during training bouts and negatively influence ratings of alertness and focus for task.

  5. Development of a specific index to detect malnutrition in athletes: Validity in weight class or intermittent fasted athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François D. Desgorces

    2017-06-01

    Albumin concentrations combined to weight loss appeared relevant to delineate nutrition-related risks of fatigue and/or competitive failure associated with mid-term diets (about 30 days as observed in rowers and Ramadan-fasted runners. ANRI may benefit to athletes monitoring by delineating effects of their weight loss program.

  6. Guide of a mine lifter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mochkov, V S

    1979-01-10

    The design of mine lifter guide closest to the invention contains a flexible mechanism interacting with the shoes of the lifting vessel. The shortcoming of this design is insignificant stiffness of the flexible mechanism which makes it possible to fluctuate the lifting vessel interacting through the shoe with each flexible mechanism. This reduces the degree of safety of the design in operation. This shortcoming is eliminated because of flexible mechanism which contain two flat cables installed at a right angle to each other and interconnected.

  7. Muscle dysmorphia in elite-level power lifters and bodybuilders: a test of differences within a conceptual model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz, Christopher D; Rhea, Deborah J; Cornelius, Allen E

    2002-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if associated characteristics of muscle dysmorphia (MD) were different between elite-level competitive bodybuilders and power lifters. Elite-level competitive bodybuilders (n = 100) and power lifters (n = 68) completed the muscle dysmorphia inventory (MDI) at the time of or immediately before competition. A 2 x 6 (group x MDI subscales) multivariate analysis of variance indicated that bodybuilders were significantly more likely to report body size-symmetry concerns (F(1, 167) = 10.31, p < 0.001), physique protection (F(1, 167) = 10.27, p < 0.001), dietary behavior (F(1, 167) = 28.38, p < 0.001), and pharmacological use (F(1, 167) = 19.64, p < 0.001) than were power lifters. These results suggest that elite-level bodybuilders are significantly more likely to engage in characteristics associated with MD than are elite-level power lifters.

  8. Study of the mechanism of clamping and detachment of a core sample by core lever lifters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barabashkin, I I; Mizyakin, V M; Nikitin, S V

    1981-01-01

    Geometric dimensions of the basic elements of a core lifter should be determined depending on the clamping conditions. The changes should be determined depending on the conditions of the core sample diameter, critical angle between the lever and the core samples in the necessary depth of submersion of the contact edge of the lever into its surface. The core lifter KTsRZ-80 with eccentric core reception makes it possible to arrange more efficiently the core removing elements on the edge of the band. The use of the core lifters with eccentric plan of arrangement of the levers and their optimal length increases the removal of the core sample.

  9. Alteration of properties of rock during their selection by shooting core lifter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malinin, V F

    1969-01-01

    During the process of intrusion of the core lifter into rock, splitting and dislocation of the granules and crystals which compose it occur. In the core lifters, single small nondisintegrated fragments are sometimes encountered. Data on comparison of porosity of crushed cores and rock from which they were selected indicate increase in porosity and penetration of the filtrate of the drilling solution during the process of coring. The determined residual oil saturation of the core is different from the residual oil saturation of the rock from which they were selected. The permeability of cores of rock with high porosity is altered.

  10. False-positive defects in technetium-99m sestamibi myocardial single-photon emission tomography in healthy athletes with left ventricular hypertrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartram, P.; Hanel, B.; Gustafsson, F.; Mortensen, J.; Hesse, B.; Toft, J.; Ali, S.

    1998-01-01

    Exercise ECG and myocardial single-photon emission tomography (SPET) are fundamental in the non-invasive evaluation of patients suspected of having coronary artery disease (CAD). The purpose of the present study was to investigate the influence of physiological left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) on myocardial sestamibi SPET in healthy young and old athletes. Eighteen young male elite athletes (ten rowers, five power/weight lifters and three triathletes) and 14 well-trained elderly rowers were studied. All underwent a bicycle test as part of a 2-day sestamibi SPET protocol. Attenuation correction was not performed. The studies were evaluated visually and quantitatively analysed by the CEqual program with its reference files and with a file from a local non-athletic age-matched population. Echocardiographic LVH was an inclusion criterion in the young athletes. Exercise ECG was normal in all subjects. In at least three of the young athletes a reversible defect was observed by visual analysis. On quantitative analysis one-third of the young athletes had ''significant'' (>10 pixels) defects compared with both the local reference base and the CEqual reference population. Nearly all defects were found in the anterior or inferior wall. The remaining subjects, including all old rowers, had normal SPET findings. Anterior and inferior wall defects are so common in healthy athletes with physiological LVH that the specificity of myocardial SPET, in contrast to exercise ECG, seems to be too low for evaluation of chest pain in this group. The mechanism of anterior and inferior defects may be related to hot spots (papillary muscles?) in the lateral wall. The specificity of SPET is maintained in athletes without LVH. (orig.)

  11. Effect of choline supplementation on rapid weight loss and biochemical variables among female taekwondo and judo athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsawy, Gehan; Abdelrahman, Osama; Hamza, Amr

    2014-03-27

    Taekwondo and judo competitions are divided into weight categories. Many athletes reduce their body mass a few days before competition in order to obtain a competitive advantage over lighter opponents. To achieve fast body mass reduction, athletes use a number of nutritional strategies, including choline supplementation. The goal of this study was to identify the effects of choline supplementation on body mass reduction and leptin levels among female taekwondo and judo athletes. Twenty-two female athletes (15 taekwondo and 7 judo athletes) were selected from different weight categories and divided into two groups, according to weight. The players in the experimental group took choline tablets for one week before a competition. The results revealed significant differences between pre- and post-competition measurements of leptin, free plasma choline, urine choline and urine malondialdehyde levels; body mass was also reduced in the post-competition measurements. In conclusion, choline supplementation could rapidly reduce body mass without any side effects on biochemical levels or static strength.

  12. Cardiotoxic effects of cocaine and anabolic-androgenic steroids in the athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welder, A A; Melchert, R B

    1993-04-01

    Cocaine and anabolic-androgenic steroid abuse have become major drug problems in the United States. Cocaine has been designated as "the drug of greatest national health concern" while as many as 1 million Americans have used or are currently using anabolic-androgenic steroids to promote athletic performance and/or improve physical appearance. Unfavorable cardiovascular events have been linked to both cocaine and anabolic-androgenic steroid abuse in healthy, physically active individuals. Deaths of several United States athletes in 1986 focused attention on the life-threatening cardiovascular consequences of cocaine abuse. Reports of myocardial injury with anabolic-androgenic steroid abuse are anecdotal. Nevertheless, case reports have illustrated the alarming cardiotoxic potential of these steroids in athletes. Anabolic-androgenic steroids were correlated to myocardial infarction in weight lifters and cardiomyopathy in a former professional football player. From the total emergency room episodes where cocaine was mentioned in 1990, approximately 66% of these episodes occurred in young individuals 18-29 years of age. Over 500,000 of the individuals currently taking anabolic-androgenic steroids for nonmedical purposes are high-school children. Because cocaine and anabolic-androgenic steroids are used improperly, more focus needs to be paid to the toxic mechanisms of their adverse effects. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to discuss mechanisms whereby exercise and/or exercise training may alter the cardiovascular responses to these drugs. Furthermore, we would like to illustrate that contrary to the popular belief, acute and chronic abuse of cocaine and anabolic-androgenic steroids have a negative impact on exercise performance.

  13. Hypercholesterolemia in Male Power Lifters Using Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jonathan C.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Measurement of serum cholesterol concentrations in male power lifters who used anabolic-androgenic steroids for eight weeks, three years, or eight years indicated that mean serum cholesterol levels increased with drug use, but decreased promptly to near pre-steroid levels after steroid use ended. (Author/CB)

  14. Extreme Rapid Weight Loss and Rapid Weight Gain Observed in UK Mixed Martial Arts Athletes Preparing for Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Joseph John; Nicholas, Ceri

    2017-04-01

    There is a lack of research documenting the weight-making practices of mixed-martial-arts (MMA) competitors. The purpose of the investigation was to quantify the magnitude and identify the methods of rapid weight loss (RWL) and rapid weight gain (RWG) in MMA athletes preparing for competition. Seven athletes (mean ± SD, age 24.6 ± 3.5 yrs, body mass 69.9 ± 5.7 kg, competitive experience 3.1 ± 2.2 yrs) participated in a repeated-measures design. Measures of dietary intake, urinary hydration status, and body mass were recorded in the week preceding competition. Body mass decreased significantly (p < .0005) from baseline by 5.6 ± 1.4 kg (8 ± 1.8%). During the RWG period (32 ± 1 hr) body mass increased significantly (p < .001) by 7.4 ± 2.8 kg (11.7 ± 4.7%), exceeding RWL. Mean energy and carbohydrate intake were 3176 ± 482 kcal・day -1 and 471 ± 124 g・day -1 , respectively. At the official weigh-in 57% of athletes were dehydrated (1033 ± 19 mOsmol・kg -1 ) and the remaining 43% were severely dehydrated (1267 ± 47 mOsmol・kg -1 ). Athletes reported using harmful dehydration-based RWL strategies, including sauna (43%) and training in plastic suits (43%). Results demonstrated RWG greater than RWL, this is a novel finding and may be attributable to the 32 hr duration from weigh-in till competition. The observed magnitude of RWL and strategies used are comparable to those which have previously resulted in fatalities. Rule changes which make RWL impractical should be implemented with immediate effect to ensure the health, safety and wellbeing of competitors.

  15. Drilling equipment for difficult coring conditions: a new type of core lifter and triple tube core barrel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, J B

    1968-08-01

    Although considerable improvements in diamond drilling equipment have been made since the early 1950's, deficiencies in existing equipment led to the development of a new type core lifter and special 20 ft triple tube core barrel designed to operate in bad coring conditions. It is claimed that although developed essentially for coal drilling, the new equipment could be adapted to other fields of diamond drilling with the cost advantage of increased life of the core lifter.

  16. Monitoring Hydration Status Pre- and Post-Training among University Athletes Using Urine Color and Weight Loss Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Marquitta C.; Salandy, Sinead T.; Beckford, Safiya E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the hydration status pre- and post-training among university athletes using urine color and weight loss as indicators. Participants: Participants were 52 university athletes training for campus games in a developing country. Methods: Pre- and post-training urine specimens were compared with a standard urine color scale.…

  17. Rapid Weight Loss Elicits Harmful Biochemical and Hormonal Responses in Mixed Martial Arts Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coswig, Victor Silveira; Fukuda, David Hideyoshi; Del Vecchio, Fabrício Boscolo

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare biochemical and hormonal responses between mixed martial arts (MMA) competitors with minimal prefight weight loss and those undergoing rapid weight loss (RWL). Blood samples were taken from 17 MMA athletes (Mean± SD; age: 27.4 ±5.3yr; body mass: 76.2 ± 12.4kg; height: 1.71 ± 0.05m and training experience: 39.4 ± 25 months) before and after each match, according to the official events rules. The no rapid weight loss (NWL, n = 12) group weighed in on the day of the event (~30 min prior fight) and athletes declared not having used RWL strategies, while the RWL group (n = 5) weighed in 24 hr before the event and the athletes claimed to have lost 7.4 ± 1.1kg, approximately 10% of their body mass in the week preceding the event. Results showed significant (p < .05) increases following fights, regardless of group, in lactate, glucose, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatinine, and cortisol for all athletes. With regard to group differences, NWL had significantly (p < .05) greater creatinine levels (Mean± SD; pre to post) (NWL= 101.6 ± 15-142.3 ± 22.9μmol/L and RWL= 68.9 ± 10.6-79.5 ± 15.9μmol/L), while RWL had higher LDH (median [interquartile range]; pre to post) (NWL= 211.5[183-236] to 231[203-258]U/L and RWL= 390[370.5-443.5] to 488[463.5-540.5]U/L) and AST (NWL= 30[22-37] to 32[22-41]U/L and 39[32.5-76.5] to 72[38.5-112.5] U/L) values (NWL versus RWL, p < .05). Post hoc analysis showed that AST significantly increased in only the RWL group, while creatinine increased in only the NWL group. The practice of rapid weight loss showed a negative impact on energy availability and increased both muscle damage markers and catabolic expression in MMA fighters.

  18. Eating disorder pathology in elite adolescent athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giel, Katrin Elisabeth; Hermann-Werner, Anne; Mayer, Jochen; Diehl, Katharina; Schneider, Sven; Thiel, Ansgar; Zipfel, Stephan

    2016-06-01

    We aimed to investigate eating disorder pathology in German elite adolescent athletes. Evidence suggests that eating disorder pathology is more common in adult elite sports, especially in female athletes and in sports emphasizing leanness. There is a scarcity of studies in elite adolescent athletes who are in a vulnerable developmental stage and are affected by general as well as sport-specific risk factors. Our data was derived from the German Young Olympic Athletes' Lifestyle and Health Management Study (GOAL) which conducted a survey in 1138 elite adolescent athletes. In this sample, we assessed body weight, weight control behavior, body acceptance and screened overall for core symptoms of eating disorders, depression and anxiety. We performed a tree analysis to identify high risk groups for eating disorder pathology. High risk groups comprised (a) athletes competing in weight dependent sports, and among athletes competing in disciplines other than weight dependent sports (b) athletes who are high on negative affectivity, (c) female athletes and (d) male athletes competing in endurance, technical or power sports. Athletes competing in weight dependent disciplines reported wide spread use of compensatory behaviors to influence body weight. Athletes reporting eating disorder pathology showed higher levels of depression and anxiety than athletes without eating disorder pathology. Increased psychosocial burden in athletes with eating disorder pathology suggests that eating disorder symptoms should not be accepted as an unproblematic and functional part of elite sports. The prevention and management of eating disorder pathology is especially important in weight dependent sports. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2016; 49:553-562). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Effect of rapid weight loss and glutamine supplementation on immunosuppression of combat athletes: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tritto, Aline C C; Amano, Mariane T; De Cillo, Maria E; Oliveira, Vinicius A; Mendes, Sandro H; Yoshioka, Caroline; Roschel, Hamilton; Camara, Niels Olsen S; Gualano, Bruno; Artioli, Guilherme G

    2018-02-01

    The role of plasma glutamine concentration and glutamine supplementation on immunosuppression was investigated in combat athletes. Twenty-three male athletes were randomly assigned to receive glutamine (21 g/day, n=12) or placebo (ovalbumin, n=11) for 10 days. Six athletes who did not lose weight served as controls. Athletes were assessed 21 days before (-21d), 1 day before (-1d) and 5 days after (+5d) a competition. Weight reduction was similar between glutamine (-8.2%± 4.1%) and placebo (-8.5%±2.4%) and negligible in control (-0.6%±1.4%). In both weight-loss groups, the majority of athletes reported symptoms of upper respiratory symptoms, as assessed by the Wisconsin upper respiratory symptom survey questionnaire. Only two athletes reported symptoms in the control group. Immune cell function remained unchanged throughout the study except for an increase in neutrophil phagocytic activity (placebo: -21d=5,251±2,986; -1d=17,428±22,374; +5d=21,125±21,934; glutamine: -21d=6,096±3,549; -1d=11,029±17,113; +5d=28,186±21,032 FI) and a minor change in monocyte phagocytic activity (placebo: -21d=4,421±3,634; -1d=3,329±6,283; +5d=3,243± 2,553; glutamine: -21d=4,051±3,186; -1d=3,106±2,625; +5d=4,981± 4,598) in both glutamine and placebo after weight loss. Plasma glutamine and cortisol remained unchanged across the study. creatine kinase levels were increased in placebo (-21d=125.2±54.1; -1d=187.2± 73.5; +5d=111.3±59.1 U/L) but not in glutamine (-21d=136.2±58.2; -1d= 168.8±65.0; +5d=129.7±64.0 U/L). Rapid weight loss increased the frequency and severity of infection symptoms, but this was neither associated with plasma glutamine depletion nor counteracted by glutamine supplementation.

  20. Hydraulic lifter for an underwater drilling rig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garan' ko, Yu L

    1981-01-15

    A hydraulic lifter is suggested for an underwater drilling rig. It includes a base, hydraulic cylinders for lifting the drilling pipes connected to the clamp holder and hydraulic distributor. In order to simplify the design of the device, the base is made with a hollow chamber connected to the rod cavities and through the hydraulic distributor to the cavities of the hydraulic cylinders for lifting the drilling pipes. The hydraulic distributor is connected to the hydrosphere through the supply valve with control in time or by remote control. The base is equipped with reverse valves whose outlets are on the support surface of the base.

  1. Helping Athletes Avoid Hazardous Weight Control Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janz, Kathleen

    1988-01-01

    This article addresses dangerous dieting techniques used by athletes and provides coaches and teachers specific strategies to aid in preventing eating-related disorders among athletes. Symptoms of anorexia and of bulimia are described. (JL)

  2. Retrospective injury epidemiology of one hundred one competitive Oceania power lifters: the effects of age, body mass, competitive standard, and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, Justin; Hume, Patria A; Pearson, Simon

    2006-08-01

    The injury epidemiology of competitive power lifters was investigated to provide a basis for injury prevention initiatives in power lifting. Self-reported retrospective injury data for 1 year and selected biographical and training information were obtained via a 4-page injury survey from 82 men and 19 women of varying ages (Open and Masters), body masses (lightweight and heavyweight), and competitive standards (national and international). Injury was defined as any physical damage to the body that caused the lifter to miss or modify one or more training sessions or miss a competition. A total of 118 injuries, which equated to 1.2 +/- 1.1 injuries per lifter per year and 4.4 +/- 4.8 injuries per 1,000 hours of training, were reported. The most commonly injured body regions were the shoulder (36%), lower back (24%), elbow (11%), and knee (9%). More injuries appeared to be of a sudden (acute) (59%) rather than gradual (chronic) nature (41%). National competitors had a significantly greater rate of injury (5.8 +/- 4.9 per 1,000 hours) than international competitors (3.6 +/- 3.6 per 1,000 hours). The relative proportion of injuries at some body regions varied significantly as a function of competitive standard and gender. No significant differences in injury profile were seen between Open and Masters or between lightweight and heavyweight lifters. Power lifting appears to have a moderately low risk of injury, regardless of the lifter's age, body mass, competitive standard, or gender, compared with other sports. Future research should utilize a prospective cohort or case-controlled design to examine the effect of a range of other intrinsic and extrinsic factors on injury epidemiology and to assess the effects of various intervention strategies.

  3. Coaching the Vegetarian Athlete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandali, Swarna L.

    2011-01-01

    Good nutrition is important for optimal athletic performance. Adolescent athletes often depend on their coaches for nutritional information on weight management, dietary supplements, and dietary practices. Some dietary practices, such as vegetarianism, have the potential to be harmful to the adolescent athlete if not followed with careful…

  4. Increased protein intake reduces lean body mass loss during weight loss in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mettler, Samuel; Mitchell, Nigel; Tipton, Kevin D

    2010-02-01

    To examine the influence of dietary protein on lean body mass loss and performance during short-term hypoenergetic weight loss in athletes. In a parallel design, 20 young healthy resistance-trained athletes were examined for energy expenditure for 1 wk and fed a mixed diet (15% protein, 100% energy) in the second week followed by a hypoenergetic diet (60% of the habitual energy intake), containing either 15% (approximately 1.0 g x kg(-1)) protein (control group, n = 10; CP) or 35% (approximately 2.3 g x kg(-1)) protein (high-protein group, n = 10; HP) for 2 wk. Subjects continued their habitual training throughout the study. Total, lean body, and fat mass, performance (squat jump, maximal isometric leg extension, one-repetition maximum (1RM) bench press, muscle endurance bench press, and 30-s Wingate test) and fasting blood samples (glucose, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), glycerol, urea, cortisol, free testosterone, free Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and growth hormone), and psychologic measures were examined at the end of each of the 4 wk. Total (-3.0 +/- 0.4 and -1.5 +/- 0.3 kg for the CP and HP, respectively, P = 0.036) and lean body mass loss (-1.6 +/- 0.3 and -0.3 +/- 0.3 kg, P = 0.006) were significantly larger in the CP compared with those in the HP. Fat loss, performance, and most blood parameters were not influenced by the diet. Urea was higher in HP, and NEFA and urea showed a group x time interaction. Fatigue ratings and "worse than normal" scores on the Daily Analysis of Life Demands for Athletes were higher in HP. These results indicate that approximately 2.3 g x kg(-1) or approximately 35% protein was significantly superior to approximately 1.0 g x kg(-1) or approximately 15% energy protein for maintenance of lean body mass in young healthy athletes during short-term hypoenergetic weight loss.

  5. Resting energy expenditure prediction in recreational athletes of 18-35 years: confirmation of Cunningham equation and an improved weight-based alternative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Haaf, Twan; Weijs, Peter J M

    2014-01-01

    Resting energy expenditure (REE) is expected to be higher in athletes because of their relatively high fat free mass (FFM). Therefore, REE predictive equation for recreational athletes may be required. The aim of this study was to validate existing REE predictive equations and to develop a new recreational athlete specific equation. 90 (53 M, 37 F) adult athletes, exercising on average 9.1 ± 5.0 hours a week and 5.0 ± 1.8 times a week, were included. REE was measured using indirect calorimetry (Vmax Encore n29), FFM and FM were measured using air displacement plethysmography. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to develop a new FFM-based and weight-based REE predictive equation. The percentage accurate predictions (within 10% of measured REE), percentage bias, root mean square error and limits of agreement were calculated. Results: The Cunningham equation and the new weight-based equation REE(kJ / d) = 49.940* weight(kg) + 2459.053* height(m) - 34.014* age(y) + 799.257* sex(M = 1,F = 0) + 122.502 and the new FFM-based equation REE(kJ / d) = 95.272*FFM(kg) + 2026.161 performed equally well. De Lorenzo's equation predicted REE less accurate, but better than the other generally used REE predictive equations. Harris-Benedict, WHO, Schofield, Mifflin and Owen all showed less than 50% accuracy. For a population of (Dutch) recreational athletes, the REE can accurately be predicted with the existing Cunningham equation. Since body composition measurement is not always possible, and other generally used equations fail, the new weight-based equation is advised for use in sports nutrition.

  6. Development of the Muscle Dysmorphia Inventory (MDI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhea, D J; Lantz, C D; Cornelius, A E

    2004-12-01

    The development of the 6-factor, 27-item Muscle Dysmorphia Inventory (MDI) was based on Lantz et al. proposed model of characteristics associated with Muscle Dysmorphia. quantitative procedures including item-to-total correlations, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, and structure equation modeling confirmed the construct validity of the scale. Convergent validity was also tested. bodybuilding and powerlifting competition venues, weight training facilities, and university athletic venues. the 1(st) study consisted of 77 experienced male free weight lifters. The 2(nd) study consisted of 156 male non-competitive bodybuilders and weight lifters and 168 elite level powerlifters and bodybuilders. The 3(rd) study consisted of 151 male and female bodybuilders and weight lifters. each participant completed demographic information, the MDI, Drive for Thinness subscale of the Eating Disorder Inventory, and the Training Dependency subscale of the Bodybuilding Dependence Scale. Reliability estimates (Cronbach's a) ranged from 0.72 to 0.94. Factor loadings in all 3 studies supported the 6-factor structure (size/symmetry, supplement use, exercise dependence, pharmacological use, dietary behavior, and physique protection). Much of the scale validation was focused on construct validity, however, correlations with the MDI's subscales and the Training Dependency subscale of the Bodybuilding Dependence Scale and the Drive for Thinness subscale of the Eating Disorder Inventory provided evidence of convergent validity also. From these preliminary results, the MDI appears to contribute to the identification of a newly formed disorder by offering a multi-dimensional measure of factors related to Muscle Dysmorphia.

  7. Studies of valve lifter for automotive heavy duty diesel engine by ceramic materials. I. Development of ceramic-metal joint by brazing method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, H W [Technical Centre of KIA-ASIA MOTORS (Korea, Republic of); Han, I S [Korea Institute of Energy Research, Tajeon (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Y S; Chung, Y J [Myong Ji University (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-02-01

    Continuously contacting with camshaft, the face of Valve Lifter, made of cast iron, brings about abnormal wear such as unfair wear or early wear because it is heavily loaded in the valve train system as the engine gets more powered. This abnormal sear becomes a defect namely over-clearance when the valve is lifting so that the fuel gas imperfectly combusted by unsuitable open or close action of engine valve in the combustion chamber. The imperfect combustion, in the end, results in the major causes of air pollution and decrease of the engine output. Consequently, to prevent this wear, this study was to develop the valve lifter which is joined by brazing process with SCM435H and a tip by manufacturing the face as a superhardened ceramics alloy which has high wear resistance. Having the excellent surface hardness with Hv1100-1200, the sintered body developed with superhardened alloy(WC) can endure the severe face loading in the valve train system. We experienced with various brazing alloys and obtained the excellent joining strength to the joint had 150 MPa shear strength. Interface analysis and microstructure in a joint were examined through SEM and EDS, Optical microscope. Also, 2,500 hours, high speed(3,000{approx}4,000 rpm) and continuous (1step 12hr) engine dynamo testing was carried out to the casting valve lifter and ceramics-metal joint valve lifter so that the abnormal wears were compared and evaluated.

  8. Method of determining the depth of gas entry into the lifter of a gas lift well

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishalov, N F; Popov, V A

    1981-01-01

    A method is proposed for determining the depth of gas entry into the lifter of a gas lift well, based on the data for measuring downhole and effective pressures. The method is used when analyzing and selecting operating conditions for gas lift wells at the Pravdinsk field.

  9. Diet Quality of Collegiate Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Kelly; Stoess, Amanda Ireland; Forsythe, Hazel; Kurzynske, Janet; Vaught, Joy Ann; Adams, Bailey

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Collegiate athletes generally appear healthy according to weight for height and body fat standards. Despite the fact that there are well known connections between athletic performance and nutrition, little is known about the diets of collegiate athletes. The objective of this study was to determine the diet quality of 138…

  10. Discussion on stochastic braking for a single-rail rope-driven lifter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-02-01

    This paper discusses the braking and control of a A-2/73 clip type friction brake system made in FRG - a clamp type brake system made in USSR and an eccentric wheel type brake system made in Poland. Then it analyses a ZGZ auto increasing force type braking system of a single-rail rope driven lifter. The braking principle of the ZGZ system is that the braking blocks insert along the brake base and contact with the ribs of the single-rail. Then the braking would be realized as a function of increasing frictional force.

  11. Destratification efficiency by hypolimnitic water lifter with air bullets. Kihodan wo mochiita shinsosui yosui shisetsu ni yoru mitsudo seiso no kongo koritsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, H; Suga, K [Utsunomiya University, Tochigi (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Asaeda, T [Saitama University, Saitama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1994-02-21

    The intermittent aeration and circulation method is used frequently to destruct temperature stratification in a reservoir to prevent it from eutrophication. This method uses a cylinder erected in water, into which air bullets are shot out intermittently to circulate and mix heavier water mass upward. The present study has performed numerical analysis on the process to mix density stratifications by operating an intermittent water lifter cylinder for an extended period of time, and discussed responses of each factor to variation. The numerical computation has been carried out according to the equation of motion for water and air in the water lifter cylinder, and the numerical model that hypothesizes the double plume after air bubbles have departed from the water lifter cylinder. The result indicated that the amount of hypolimnitic water lifted against the amount of air injected can be expressed by an empirical formula that uses only the relative air bullet volumes. An evaluation formula for the water lifting efficiency has also been derived. It has been found for the stratification mixing that trends in the mixing efficiency can be identified by two parameters of dimensionless air bubble amount and stratification strength. 17 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Female athlete triad update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beals, Katherine A; Meyer, Nanna L

    2007-01-01

    The passage of Title IX legislation in 1972 provided enormous opportunities for women to reap the benefits of sports participation. For most female athletes, sports participation is a positive experience, providing improved physical fitness, enhanced self-esteem, and better physical and mental health. Nonetheless, for a few female athletes, the desire for athletic success combined with the pressure to achieve a prescribed body weight may lead to the development of a triad of medical disorders including disordered eating, menstrual dysfunction, and low bone mineral density (BMD)--known collectively as the female athlete triad. Alone or in combination, the disorders of the triad can have a negative impact on health and impair athletic performance.

  13. Device for controlling the hydraulic lifter of drilling unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraskov, P N

    1981-04-10

    A device is suggested for controlling the hydraulic lifter of a drilling unit. It contains a throttling valve with cylinder for servocontrol, mechanism for assigning the program for lowering velocity connected to the power cylinder, and oil tank. In order to improve the reliable concentration of the drilling unit by guaranteeing possible alternation for halting descent when the string falls on a projection in the well, the device is equipped with a normally open two-position hydraulically controlled distributor with spring return connected to the working surface of the power cylinder and valve connected to it with logical function of ILI for hydraulic control of the normally opened two-position distributor. The latter connects the working cavity of the servocontrol cylinder with the oil tank.

  14. Comparison of bone density in amenorrheic women due to athletics, weight loss, and premature menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, K P; Ravnikar, V A; Tulchinsky, D; Schiff, I

    1985-07-01

    Studied was the peripheral bone density of 39 women (ages 18 to 43) with the diagnosis of secondary amenorrhea in an effort to define the population of amenorrheic women at risk for osteoporosis. Eight women had exercise-induced amenorrhea (athletes), 20 women had amenorrhea associated with weight loss, and 11 women had premature menopause. These diagnoses were made on the basis of history, physical examination, and luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and prolactin levels, and failure to have withdrawal bleeding after the administration of progestin. Twenty-five nonathletic, normally menstruating women served as control subjects. The peripheral bone density of the amenorrheic athletes (0.738 g/cm2 +/- 0.047) was not significantly different from that of the controls (0.726 g/cm2 +/- 0.044). The average bone density of the group with weight loss-associated amenorrhea (0.672 g/cm2 +/- 0.066) was significantly less than controls (P less than .005) as was that of the women with premature menopause (0.616 g/cm2 +/- 0.048, P less than .001). There was a significant correlation between months of amenorrhea and decrease in bone density (r = 0.506, P less than .001). From this study it was concluded that women with exercise-associated amenorrhea are not at significant risk for cortical bone loss as measured by direct photon absorptiometry. Women with weight loss-associated amenorrhea and women with premature menopause are at significant risk for bone loss when compared with normal controls.

  15. Resistance training among young athletes: safety, efficacy and injury prevention effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faigenbaum, A D; Myer, G D

    2010-01-01

    A literature review was employed to evaluate the current epidemiology of injury related to the safety and efficacy of youth resistance training. Several case study reports and retrospective questionnaires regarding resistance exercise and the competitive sports of weightlifting and powerlifting reveal that injuries have occurred in young lifters, although a majority can be classified as accidental. Lack of qualified instruction that underlies poor exercise technique and inappropriate training loads could explain, at least partly, some of the reported injuries. Current research indicates that resistance training can be a safe, effective and worthwhile activity for children and adolescents provided that qualified professionals supervise all training sessions and provide age-appropriate instruction on proper lifting procedures and safe training guidelines. Regular participation in a multifaceted resistance training programme that begins during the preseason and includes instruction on movement biomechanics may reduce the risk of sports-related injuries in young athletes. Strategies for enhancing the safety of youth resistance training are discussed.

  16. Universal machine ''Shtrek'' and the tractor-lifter with pneumatic-equipment control. [Auxiliary multipurpose materials handling equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bal' bert, B M; Borumenskiy, V A; Lishenko, A P; Mitchenko, G A

    1982-01-01

    The machine ''Shtrek'' is described. It makes it possible to mechanize over 20 auxiliary operations: loading-unloading operations: extraction of old and deformed timbering; dissmantling of obstructions; erection of different types of timbering; making and restoring of drainage channels; laying and straightening of a drift and its leveling; assembly and disassembly of pipelines and mine equipment, etc. Depending on the type of operation, the machine has the corresponding suspended equipment. The elementary variant has a limited area of application at mines of the central region of the Dunbass. Currently a pneumatic variant of the machine ''Shtrek'' has been developed. The electric motor and the starter of the pumping equipment of the machine have been replaced by a pneumatic motor and pneumatically controlled valve KTM-50. In this case there was significant reduction in the weight of the pumping equipment and in its overall dimensions; the electric drive of the hydraulic distributors for controlling the mechanisms were replaced by simpler pneumatic ones; the logical circuit of the control system was constructed on the USEPPA elements. A specialized tractor-lifter designed for moving suspended loads is described for auxiliary operations in the near-face zone of the preparatory drifts. The machine also lifts and lowers the boom, rotates the boom by 270/sup 0/ and additionally lifts and lowers the weight-lifting hook.

  17. Somatotype analysis of elite boxing athletes compared with nonathletes for sports physiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Ji-Woong; Kim, Ju-Hyun; Kim, Mee-Young; Lee, Jeong-Uk; Lee, Lim-Kyu; Park, Byoung-Sun; Yang, Seung-Min; Jeon, Hye-Joo; Lee, Won-Deok; Kwak, Taek-Yong; Jang, Sung-Ho; Lee, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Ju-Young; Kim, Junghwan

    2014-08-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to show somatotype and physical characteristic differences between elite boxing athletes and non-athletes. [Methods] The somatotypes of 23 elite boxing athletes and 23 nonathletes were measured with the Heath-Carter method. The subjects were divided into four weight divisions as follows: lightweight, light middleweight, middleweight, and heavyweight class. [Results] The endomorphic component values of the boxing athletes were lower than those of the nonathletes. However, the mesomorphic component values of the boxing athletes were higher than those of the nonathletes. There was no significant difference in the ectomorphic component between the two groups. The higher weight divisions tended to have higher values of height, weight, and BMI than the lower weight divisions. The higher weight divisions also tended to have higher values for the endomorphic and mesomorphic components and a lower value for the ectomorphic component than the lower weight divisions. The group of nonathletes consisted of eight endomorphs, four mesomorphs, six ectomorphs, and five central types. Among the boxing athletes, there were 16 mesomorphic, four ectomorphic, and two central types and one endomorphic type. Subdividing the athletes into 13 somatotypes resulted in five balanced mesomorphs, five endomorphic mesomorphs, five mesomorph-ectomorphs, three mesomorph-endomorphs, two mesomorphic ectomorphs, two central types, and one ectomorphic mesomorph type. [Conclusion] The data from this study provides in part physical characteristics of elite boxing athletes that can be used to establish a reference for systemic study of sports physiotherapy.

  18. The Study of Eating Disorders and Body Image Among Elite Martial Arts Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Taheri

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Study objective: The competitive sports environment can enhance social and cultural pressure towards having ideal body weight in weight-sensitive sports. The close relationship between body image and performance makes the elite athletes vulnerable to eating disorders. Thus, the purpose of this research was to study eating disorders and body image among weight-class elite athletes. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out with elite martial arts athletes (Karate, Taekwondo, and Judo who were considered to be of higher risk for eating disorders. 63 elite martial arts male athletes (18.59 ± 5.29 yrs, and 63 non-athlete persons (17.3 ± 3.4 yrs were recruited. Body Mass Index (BMI, Waist Hip Ratio (WHR, and Percent Body Fat (PBF were measured using caliper and meter. Eating Disorder Diagnosis Scale (EDDS and Body Image Rating Scale (BIRS were used to study eating disorders and body image among elite martial arts athletes. Results: no sign of clinical EDDS were found among the investigated athletes, and non-athletes. There were significant differences in total score of EDDS (p=0.001, eating disorder and weight concern subscales (respectively p=0.012, p=0.001 in athletes and non-athletes. Furthermore, compared with the non-athlete group, elite athlete group with middle, good, and great body images scored higher on total score and all subscales of EDDS (p ≤ 0.05. Conclusion: The results from our study show the presence of worriment about eating disorder especially body weight and eating concern in elite athletes and the early detection of it may prevent progression to severe eating disorders.

  19. Nutritional needs of the female athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manore, M M

    1999-07-01

    US women, including female athletes, are under ever increasing pressure to be thin ar thinner. this pressure to achieve and maintain a low body weight leads to potentially harmful patterns of long-term dieting or disordered eating, which can affect long-term health. Some of the health consequences of long-term energy restriction in female athletes may include poor energy and nutrient intakes, poor nutritional status, decreased RMR and total daily energy expenditure, increased psychological stress and risk for a clinical eating disorder, and increased risk for exercise-induced amenorrhea and osteoporosis. Female athletes participating in thin-build sports may be at risk for the disorders of the female athlete triad: disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. This triad of disorders can also produce severe health consequences that can influence present and future health. Strategies for helping active women get off the dieting "bandwagon" requires the identification of an appropriate and healthy body weight, good eating and exercise habits, and techniques for maintaining these habits throughout life.

  20. Secondary Amenorrhea among Female Athletes. Current Understandings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasiene, Gwen Hagenbuch

    1983-01-01

    Research pertaining to female athletes' problems with secondary amenorrhea is reviewed. Studies point to stress, weight loss, anorexia nervosa, obesity, arduous athletic training, and age of onset of training as factors which may contribute to this disorder. (PP)

  1. Seasonal fluctuations in body weight during growth of Thoroughbred racehorses during their athletic career.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yuji; Takahashi, Toshiyuki

    2017-08-18

    Domesticated horses adapt to environmental conditions through seasonal fluctuations in their metabolic rate. The seasonal change of metabolic rates of domesticated horses in pastures is documented. However, there are few investigations on seasonal body weight change of domesticated horses housed in stables, which are provided constant energy intake throughout the year. Both seasonal changes and gain in body weight of racehorses during their athletic career is known to a lesser extent because their body weight are not measured in most countries. Here, we used a seasonal-trend decomposition method to conduct a time series analysis of body weight of Thoroughbred racehorses participating in flat races held by the Japan Racing Association from 1 January 2002 to 31 December 2014. We acquired 640,431 body weight measurements for race starts and included 632,540 of these in the time series analysis. Based on seasonal component analysis, the body weight of male and gelding horses peaked in autumn and winter and reached its nadir in summer. In contrast, the body weight of female horses peaked in autumn and reached the nadir in spring. Based on trend component analysis, most of the increase in body weight was observed when all sexes approached 5 years of age. The slope of the body weight gain was smaller after that, and an approximately 30 kg gain was observed during their careers. These results indicate that the body weight of a Thoroughbred racehorse fluctuates seasonally, and that there may be sex differences in energy balance mechanisms. Moreover, the present results suggest that the physiological development of Thoroughbred racehorses is completed just before they reach 5 years of age.

  2. [Athletic drinks: body rehydration as a vital aspect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novokshanova, A L; Ozhiganova, E V

    2013-01-01

    106 students of the Faculty of Physical Education and athletes who train at the center of power arts (aged 18 to 30 years) have been investigated. The relation between the amount of lost and consumed liquid during physical activity has been studied. The amount of fluid lost was determined by the method of measuring the body mass of an athlete before and after the workout. The kinds of liquids used for eliminating dehydration have been analyzed. It has been revealed that while doing some physical activity and sports most of those being tested don't restore the lost liquid volume (with an average weight loss of 1,15 kg the amount of fluids they drunk was 0.91 l). In the given research the interrelation between the body weight and the lost liquid amount, and between the lost liquid amount and the kind of sports has not been exposed. Liquid loss of athletes in the medium intensive training process during the period of 1.5 h at the ambient temperature 21-22 degrees C constituted on average 1.53% of the body weight and didn't depend on the kind of sports. Despite the advantages of the athletic drinks are evident, the share of their consumption among the athletes in Russia is negligibly small. The great majority of respondents, namely 72%, use common or mineral water to restore the liquid. Only 6% of those being tested consume specialized athletic drinks.

  3. Bone health in endurance athletes: runners, cyclists, and swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scofield, Kirk L; Hecht, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    Weight-bearing exercise has been recognized widely to be beneficial for long-term bone health. However inherent differences in bone-loading characteristics and energy expenditure during participation in endurance sports place many endurance athletes at a relative disadvantage with regard to bone health compared with other athletes. Adolescents and adults who participate in endurance sports, such as running, and non-weight-bearing sports, such as biking and swimming, often have lower bone mineral density (BMD) than athletes participating in ball and power sports, and sometimes their BMD is lower than their inactive peers. Low BMD increases the risk of stress and fragility fractures, both while an athlete is actively competing and later in life. This article reviews the variable effects of distance running, cycling, swimming, and triathlons on bone health; the evaluation of stress and fragility fractures; and the diagnosis, management, and prevention of low BMD in endurance athletes.

  4. Understanding the Female Athlete Triad: Eating Disorders, Amenorrhea, and Osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beals, Katherine A.; Brey, Rebecca A.; Gonyou, Julianna B.

    1999-01-01

    Examines three disorders that can affect female athletes who focus on succeeding athletically and achieving a prescribed body weight: disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. The paper presents prevention and treatment suggestions for athletes with eating disorders, focusing on primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention. Recommends that…

  5. Study of muscular skeletal apparatus’s functional state of junior sportsmen-power lifters, who have backbone verterbral abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.R. Ilmatov

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: determination of abnormalities and disorders of muscular skeletal apparatuses’ status of power lifters, who have vertebral abnormalities of backbone. Material: 58 junior sportsmen participated in the research. 36 sportsmen were the main group of the research and had vertebral disorders in backbone. For posture testing visual examination was used. Backbone mobility was tested with goniometry method. Flat feet were registered with plantography method. Results: we determined posture abnormalities in sagittal and frontal planes; feet flat, limited maximal movements in thoracic and lumbar spines. It was determined that the most limited were rotational movements and backbone unbending. The next were side bents. These limitations were accompanied by pain syndrome. These observations indirectly confirmed theory of direct interaction of backbone structures with nervous structures. It is also a confirmation of vertebral abnormalities’ presence in junior sportsmen. Conclusions: it was found that in junior sportsmen - power lifters with backbone pathologies in 100% of cases symptoms are determined by local limitations of backbone mobility with pain syndrome. In 35% of cases they are accompanied by posture’s disorders and feet flat. Orientation and methodic of rehabilitation of such sportsmen have been determined.

  6. The female athlete triad in student track and field athletes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Outcome measures: Athletes completed a demographic, health and sport questionnaire; pathogenic body weight control questionnaire; menstrual history questionnaire; four 24-hour dietary recalls and one three-day diet and exercise record form. Body composition and bone mineral density (BMD) were assessed with dual ...

  7. NUTRIONAL NEEDS OF ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Pandey

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim – is to provide a comprehensive information regarding the nutritional needs of athletes, followed by female athletes who have a higher necessity for Iron. Sports and nutrition are directly related to each other. Taking into consideration the fact that sports person need more energy to carry out their sporting activity effectively, it becomes of prime importance to take care for sports performance. Athletes must supposedly eat the perfect ratio of Protein, carbohydrate and fat at each meal and snack to control the hormonal systems and thus reach their maximum performance and ideal weight .The carbohydrate/protein/fat ratio of the 40-30-30 diet allegedly maintains the proper balance between the hormones insulin and glucagon. The present review focuses on the intake for a wholesome nutrient and well balanced diet for better performance among male as well as female athletes.

  8. Characterization of college football athletes and basketball: Anthropometry and Body Composition

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    Jesús Gil Gómez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction and Objectives. Anthropometric study of university population, comprising men and women college athletes participating in the Championships of Spain's 2008 College basketball and football. The aim of this study is to describe the body composition of male and female college athletes in football and basketball specialtiesMethods. This is a cross-sectional study with direct anthropometric measurements. These have been obtained by following the rules and techniques recommended by the International Group of Cineantropometry.Results. The college athletes generally have a higher percentage of muscle weight and fat mass and bone weight lower percentage of male college athletes. The male basketball players have a higher percentage of fat mass and bone weight and lower percentage of muscle weight in football players.  mong women, we found that basketball players have a higher percentage of bone weight and lower percentage of fat mass and muscle mass than soccer players.Conclusions. The competitive level of body composition changes substantially, primarily among females. It is important to have data on body composition at the college level.Keywords: Body Composition, Fat Mass, Muscle Mass, Weight Bone, Anthropometry.

  9. The Epidemiology of Injuries Across the Weight-Training Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, Justin W L; Winwood, Paul W

    2017-03-01

    Weight-training sports, including weightlifting, powerlifting, bodybuilding, strongman, Highland Games, and CrossFit, are weight-training sports that have separate divisions for males and females of a variety of ages, competitive standards, and bodyweight classes. These sports may be considered dangerous because of the heavy loads commonly used in training and competition. Our objective was to systematically review the injury epidemiology of these weight-training sports, and, where possible, gain some insight into whether this may be affected by age, sex, competitive standard, and bodyweight class. We performed an electronic search using PubMed, SPORTDiscus, CINAHL, and Embase for injury epidemiology studies involving competitive athletes in these weight-training sports. Eligible studies included peer-reviewed journal articles only, with no limit placed on date or language of publication. We assessed the risk of bias in all studies using an adaption of the musculoskeletal injury review method. Only five of the 20 eligible studies had a risk of bias score ≥75 %, meaning the risk of bias in these five studies was considered low. While 14 of the studies had sample sizes >100 participants, only four studies utilized a prospective design. Bodybuilding had the lowest injury rates (0.12-0.7 injuries per lifter per year; 0.24-1 injury per 1000 h), with strongman (4.5-6.1 injuries per 1000 h) and Highland Games (7.5 injuries per 1000 h) reporting the highest rates. The shoulder, lower back, knee, elbow, and wrist/hand were generally the most commonly injured anatomical locations; strains, tendinitis, and sprains were the most common injury type. Very few significant differences in any of the injury outcomes were observed as a function of age, sex, competitive standard, or bodyweight class. While the majority of the research we reviewed utilized retrospective designs, the weight-training sports appear to have relatively low rates of injury compared with common team

  10. The spectroscopic detection of drugs of abuse in fingerprints after development with powders and recovery with adhesive lifters

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Matthew J.; Went, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    The application of powders to fingerprints has long been established as an effective and reliable method for developing latent fingerprints. Fingerprints developed in situ at a crime scene routinely undergo lifting with specialist tapes and are then stored in evidence bags to allow secure transit and also to preserve the chain of evidence. In a previous study we have shown that exogenous material within a fingerprint can be detected using Raman spectroscopy following development with powders and lifting with adhesive tapes. Other reports have detailed the use of Raman spectroscopy to the detection of drugs of abuse in latent fingerprints including cyanoacrylate-fumed fingerprints. This study involves the application of Raman spectroscopy for the analysis of drugs of abuse in latent fingerprints for fingerprints that had been treated with powders and also subsequently lifted with adhesive tapes. Samples of seized ecstasy, cocaine, ketamine and amphetamine were supplied by East Sussex Police and by the TICTAC unit at St. Georges Hospital Tooting. Contaminated fingerprints were deposited on clean glass slides. The application of aluminium or iron based powders to contaminated fingerprints did not interfere with the Raman spectra obtained for the contaminants. Contaminated fingerprints developed with powders and then lifted with lifting tapes were also examined. The combination of these two techniques did not interfere with the successful analysis. The lifting process was repeated using hinge lifters. As the hinge lifters exhibited strong Raman bands the spectroscopic analysis was more complex and an increase in the number of exposures to the detector allowed for improved clarification. Spectral subtraction was performed to remove peaks due to the hinge lifters using OMNIC software. Raman spectra of developed and lifted fingerprints recorded through evidence bags were obtained and it was found that the detection process was not compromised. Although the application of

  11. Features power ectomorphs athletes are engaged in bodybuilding in transition training

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    Viktor Dzhym

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to develop and study the diet of athletes engaged in bodybuilding ectomorphs in transition training considering the restoration of lean body mass and functional state of an athlete Material and Methods: the study involved 18 athletes engaged in bodybuilding ectomorphs included in the national team in the Kharkiv region bodybuilding. Methods were used: the theoretical method and summarize the literature, pedagogical supervision, pedagogical experiment, methods of mathematical statistics. Results: comparative characteristics of the diet have been developed for athletes ectomorphs engaged on bodybuilding to increase muscle weight. It was divided the athletes into two experimental groups: the first EG used a balanced diet that made protein 2 grams per 1 kilogram of body weight and carbohydrates 4–5 g•kg–1 in the second EG was protein 3 grams per 1 kilogram of body weight, and carbohydrate 6 grams kg. Second EG diet consists of 6 single meal and is about 2800–3500 calories per day. Conclusions: on the basis of research by the author offered the optimal diet for athletes ektomorfiv second experimental group engaged in bodybuilding.

  12. Effects of Resistance Training in Youth Athletes on Muscular Fitness and Athletic Performance: A Conceptual Model for Long-Term Athlete Development

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    Urs eGranacher

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available During the stages of long-term athlete development (LTAD, resistance training (RT is an important means for (i stimulating athletic development, (ii tolerating the demands of long-term training and competition, and (iii inducing long-term health promoting effects that are robust over time and track into adulthood. However, there is a gap in the literature with regards to optimal RT methods during LTAD and how RT is linked to biological age.Thus, the aims of this scoping review were (i to describe and discuss the effects of RT on muscular fitness and athletic performance in youth athletes, (ii to introduce a conceptual model on how to appropriately implement different types of RT within LTAD stages, and (iii to identify research gaps from the existing literature by deducing implications for future research.In general, RT produced small-to-moderate effects on muscular fitness and athletic performance in youth athletes with muscular strength showing the largest improvement. Free weight, complex, and plyometric training appear to be well-suited to improve muscular fitness and athletic performance. In addition, balance training appears to be an important preparatory (facilitating training program during all stages of LTAD but particularly during the early stages. As youth athletes become more mature, specificity and intensity of RT methods increase. This scoping review identified research gaps that are summarized in the following and that should be addressed in future studies: (i to elucidate the influence of gender and biological age on the adaptive potential following RT in youth athletes (especially in females, (ii to describe RT protocols in more detail (i.e., always report stress and strain-based parameters, and (iii to examine neuromuscular and tendomuscular adaptations following RT in youth athletes.

  13. How do low/high height and weight variation affect upper limb movements during manual material handling of industrial boxes?

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    Ana B. Oliveira

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of surface height and load weight on upper limb movements and electromyographic (EMG recordings during manual handling performed by both experienced and inexperienced lifter subjects. METHODS: Sixteen experienced and sixteen inexperienced lifters handled a box (both 7 and 15 kg from an intermediate height (waist level to either a high or low surface. Electromyography and video images were recorded during the tasks. The 10th, 50th and 90th percentiles were calculated for the deltoid and biceps muscles, shoulder flexion, shoulder abduction, and elbow flexion movements. Groups, right/left sides, weights and heights were compared. There were no differences between either groups or sides. RESULTS: Weight and height variations affected EMG and posture, although weight had more impact on EMG. Shoulder abduction and flexion movements higher than 60º occurred, particularly for the higher surface. Shoulder flexion was also higher when the box was moved to the low height. This study provides new evidence as shoulder postures during boxes handling on low surfaces had not previously been evaluated. CONCLUSIONS: The high demand of upper limb in manual material handling tasks is clear, particularly for the shoulder. This knowledge can be used by physical therapists to plan better rehabilitation programs for manual material handling-related disorders, particularly focusing on return to work.

  14. Control of physical fitness of athletes specializing in combat sambo

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    R.A. Tron

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Confiscation of informative educational tests to assess motor qualities of skilled athletes. The survey was attended by 94 athletes (18 to 30 years. This group of tests includes: running too far on the bridge (second coups in space (second; perform 100 punches on the punching bag (second, perform 50 kicks on the punching bag (second. It was found that the highest correlation between the result and the qualifications of athletes seen in tests involving the use of wrestling skills (rushing on the bridge and from the place of revolutions. It is shown that in the groups of athletes of medium and heavy weight categories in tests measuring the speed of the application of various attacks on the punching bag have a weak relationship with the level of sportsmanship. The trend is strengthening correlation sports training and exercise, describing the power of athletes of different skills to increase their weight classes.

  15. Postural Stability and Functional Capacity in Recreational Athletes with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    SAKA, Tolga; YILDIZ, Yavuz; DENİZ, Ferhat

    2009-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate postural stability and functional capacity in recreational athletes with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1 DM) and to compare them with healthy recreational athletes. Materials and Methods: Sixteen recreational athletes with T1 DM (21.4 ± 2.1 years of age, 174.3 ± 7 cm height, 64.5 ± 10.1 kg weight, 10.9 ± 5.3 body fat percentage [BFP]) and 19 healthy recreational athletes (21.9 ± 2.5 years of age, 173.1 ± 5.2 cm height, 66.1 ± 4 kg weight, 14.4 ± 1.5 B...

  16. Influence of Ghrelin and Adipocytokines on Bone Mineral Density in Adolescent Female Athletes with Amenorrhea and Eumenorrheic Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Russell, Melissa; Misra, Madhusmita

    2010-01-01

    Adolescent female athletes are at increased risk for low bone mineral density (BMD) secondary to exercise-induced hypogonadism. Of particular concern is that the adolescent years are also a critical time for bone accrual, and deficits incurred during this period could lead to suboptimal peak bone mass acquisition and subsequent fracture risk in later life. Although weight bearing exercise is typically associated with an increase in BMD, amenorrheic athletes have lower BMD than eumenorrheic at...

  17. Can height categories replace weight categories in striking martial arts competitions? A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubnov-Raz, Gal; Mashiach-Arazi, Yael; Nouriel, Ariella; Raz, Raanan; Constantini, Naama W

    2015-09-29

    In most combat sports and martial arts, athletes compete within weight categories. Disordered eating behaviors and intentional pre-competition rapid weight loss are commonly seen in this population, attributed to weight categorization. We examined if height categories can be used as an alternative to weight categories for competition, in order to protect the health of athletes. Height and weight of 169 child and adolescent competitive karate athletes were measured. Participants were divided into eleven hypothetical weight categories of 5 kg increments, and eleven hypothetical height categories of 5 cm increments. We calculated the coefficient of variation of height and weight by each division method. We also calculated how many participants fit into corresponding categories of both height and weight, and how many would shift a category if divided by height. There was a high correlation between height and weight (r = 0.91, p<0.001). The mean range of heights seen within current weight categories was reduced by 83% when participants were divided by height. When allocating athletes by height categories, 74% of athletes would shift up or down one weight category at most, compared with the current categorization method. We conclude that dividing young karate athletes by height categories significantly reduced the range of heights of competitors within the category. Such categorization would not cause athletes to compete against much heavier opponents in most cases. Using height categories as a means to reduce eating disorders in combat sports should be further examined.

  18. STRESS FRACTURE OF THE FIRST RIB IN A HIGH SCHOOL WEIGHT LIFTER

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    Hiroyuki Fujioka

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A 17-year-old boy, who played a weight lifting in high school, sustained stress fracture of the first rib without any causes. We successfully treated first rib stress fracture with limitation of using the upper extremity and with using low-intensity pulsed ultrasound

  19. Inter-subject variability of muscle synergies during bench press in power lifters and untrained individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristiansen, M; Madeleine, P; Hansen, E A; Samani, A

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to elucidate the role of expertise on muscle synergies involved in bench press. Ten expert power lifters (EXP) and nine untrained participants (UNT) completed three sets of eight repetitions at 60% of three repetition maximum in bench press. Muscle synergies were extracted from surface electromyography data of 21 bench press cycles using non-negative matrix factorization algorithm. The synergy activation coefficient represents the relative contribution of the muscle synergy to the overall muscle activity pattern, while the muscle synergy vector represents the relative weighting of each muscle within each synergy. Describing more than 90% of the variability, two muscle synergies reflected the eccentric and concentric phase. The cross-correlations (ρ(max)) for synergy activation coefficient 2 (concentric phase) were 0.83 [0.71;0.88] and 0.59 [0.49;0.77] [Median ρ(max) (25th;75th percentile)] (P = 0.001) in UNT and EXP, respectively. Median correlation coefficient (ρ) for muscle synergy vector 2 was 0.15 [-0.08;0.46] and 0.48 [0.02;0.70] (P = 0.03) in UNT and EXP, respectively. Thus, EXP showed larger inter-subject variability than UNT in the synergy activation coefficient during the concentric phase, while the muscle synergy vectors were less variable in EXP. This points at the importance of a specialized neural strategy in elite bench press performance. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Weight Preoccupation in Female Mexican American Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinn, Bobby; Jorgensen, Layne; Semper, Tom; Vincent, Vern

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the contribution of body size, self-esteem, age, mainstream acculturation, and athletic status to concern or preoccupation about weight among female Mexican American adolescents. Students had low acculturation, high body fatness, and moderate self-esteem. There was little difference between athletes and non-athletes. Greater body size…

  1. The Relationship Between Biomechanical Indicators of the Snatch Technique and Female Weightlifters' Levels

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    Szyszka Paulina

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The snatch technique is a discipline in Olympic weightlifting. The lifter has to raise the barbell from the platform directly above their head in one movement. While reviewing the literature on biomechanical analysis of the techniques of weightlifting, one can find positions on the analysis of parameters, such as barbell track, horizontal displacement, and angular positions of the joints in the individual phases of the lifter's movement. Many texts concern female and male lifters taking part in World or European Championships. The parameters of the best competitors are outlined - mostly those who finish in the top five places in competition. Mostly these are parameters regarding male lifters, and less frequently those of female lifters. In the literature review, an overlooked aspect is that of the definition of the diversity of indicators as regards the snatch technique practiced by female lifters depending on score. Material and methods. In the research, registered snatch attempts during the World Championship were used. Videos were used by judges to establish a maximum weight limit for female lifters. The attempts were registered by two cameras and were later digitally processed by the APAS 2000 system. Barbell parameters, maximum speed, average of the bar, and the parameters of the lifter-bar collocation (horizontal displacement of barbell weights and height elevation were assessed. Results. The analysed attempts show the margin of error for measurement of the average speed of the barbell as 0.03 m/s. The difference in maximum speed of analysed attempts is 15%. The height of clearance of the first-placed female lifter's barbell was 12.7 cm, 30 cm for the last-placed. Conclusions. The sporting level of weightlifting by female lifters influences the analysed biomechanical indicators of the snatch. Those indicators, which are similar in the case of both the World Championship winner and the female lifter who came last, may be

  2. MR findings in athletes with pubalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, S L; Spritzer, C E; Garrett, W E; Meyers, W C

    2001-05-01

    To describe the MR findings in athletes with pubalgia. Pelvic MR images of 32 athletes (30 men, 2 women) with pubalgia were studied. T1-weighted and T2-weighted (SE and FSE) and STIR images in the axial and coronal planes were obtained on a 1.5-T system. Images were reviewed for general pelvic pathology. Special attention was given to the pubic symphysis, groin and pelvic musculature, and to the abdominal wall musculature. Thirty surgically confirmed cases comprise the study group. Abnormalities in the following were found: pubic symphysis (21/30), abdominal wall (27/30), groin musculature, including rectus abdominis (21/30), pectineus (6/30), and adductor muscle group (18/30). Pubalgia is a complex process which is frequently multifactorial. The MRI findings can alter the surgical approach.

  3. Influence of pre-pregnancy leisure time physical activity on gestational and postpartum weight gain and birth weight - a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegaard, Hanne Kristine; Rode, Line; Katballe, Malene Kjær; Langberg, Henning; Ottesen, Bent; Damm, Peter

    2017-08-01

    In order to examine the association between pre-pregnancy leisure time physical activities and gestational weight gain, postpartum weight gain and birth weight, we analysed prospectively collected data from 1827 women with singleton term pregnancies. Women were categorised in groups of sedentary women, light exercisers, moderate exercisers and competitive athletes. The results showed that sedentary women on average gained 14.1 kg during pregnancy, whereas light exercisers gained 13.7 kg, moderate exercisers gained 14.3 kg and competitive athletes 16.1 kg. Competitive athletes had an increased risk of having a gestational weight gain above Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations with an odds ratio of 2.60 (1.32-5.15) compared to light exercisers. However, birth weight and one year postpartum weight was similar for all four groups. Thus, although competitive athletes gain more weight than recommended during pregnancy, this may not affect birth weight or postpartum weight. Impact statement What is already known on this subjectPrevious studies have found that increased pre-pregnancy physical activity is associated with lower gestational weight gain during the last trimester, but showed no association between the pre-pregnancy level of physical activity and mean birth weight. What the results of this study addWe found that women classified as competitive exercisers had a 2.6-fold increased risk of gaining more weight than recommended compared to light exercisers. Nearly 6 out of 10 women among the competitive exercisers gained more weight than recommended by IOM. Surprisingly, this did not appear to increase birth weight or post-partum weight gain, but other adverse effects cannot be excluded. What the implications are of these findings for clinical practice and/or further researchIn the clinical practice it may be relevant to focus on and advise pre-pregnancy competitive exercisers in order to prevent excessive gestational weight gain.

  4. Performance Motivation of Elite Athletes, Recreational Athletes and Non-Athletes

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    Šmela Pavel

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to widen knowledge about motivation of elite, recreational athletes and non-athletes. Participants from the elite athletes group (n = 35, 16.7 ± .70 years old were football players of the Slovak national team. Recreational athletes (n = 31, 16.8 ± .80 years old and non-athletes (n = 29, 15.7 ± .60 years old are visiting Grammar School in Zvolen. D-M-V standardized questionnaire was used to determine performance motivation. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov's test disconfirmed the null hypothesis on the normality of data. We used the non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests to determine the statistical significance of the differences. The results showed that there were significant (p .0.01 differences with large effect size (η2 ≥ .14 in all the three (the performance motives scale, the anxiety inhibiting performance scale and the anxiety supporting performance scale dimensions among the research groups. The motivation of elite athletes is significantly higher (p = .048; r = .25 compared to the recreational athletes. Also, compared to the non-athletes, the level of performance motivation is significantly higher (p = .002; r = .51 in the elite athletes. Based on the results of the study we can formulate the statement that the level of performance motivation is contingent on the level of sport activity.

  5. The relation between athletic sports and prevalence of amenorrhea and oligomenorrhea in Iranian female athletes

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    Dadgostar Haleh

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 1992, the concept of female athlete triad was introduced to describe the interrelated problems of amenorrhea, eating disorders and osteoporosis seen in female athletes. To gain a clearer picture of amenorrhea/oligomenorrhea in Iran, one of the main components of the female athlete triad, we therefore established this study on the prevalence of amenorrhea/oligomenorrhea in elite Iranian female athletes, also evaluating the risk factors of these disorders in the same population. Methods This study performed as a cross-sectional study. All elite Iranian female athletes of 34 sports federation, including female athletes in national teams and medalists of Tehran were invited to participate. A total of 788 (95% response rate returned the questionnaires and were examined. Younger athletes under the age of menarche were excluded. Each athlete completed a self-administered questionnaire, which covered the following questions about participant's demographic information, athletic history, history of injuries and menstrual pattern. In order to diagnose the causes of amenorrhea/Oligomenorrhea including polycystic ovary syndrome(PCOS, participants with amenorrhea/Oligomenorrhea underwent further investigation. They were evaluated by following Para clinic investigation, and an ultrasonographic study of ovary. Results The age ranged from 13–37 (mean = 21.1, SD = 4.5. Seventy one (9.0% individuals had amenorrhea/oligomenorrhea, among those, 11 (15.5% had PCOS. There was also a positive association between amenorrhea/oligomenorrhea and the following: age under 20 OR; 2.67, 95%CI(1.47 – 4.85, weight class sports OR; 2.09, 95%CI(1.15 – 3.82, endurance sports OR; 2.89, 95%CI(1.22 – 6.84, late onset of menarche OR; 3.32 95%CI(1.04–10.51, and use of oral contraceptive pills OR; 6.17, 95%CI(3.00 – 12.69. Intensity of training sport or BMI were not risk factors. Conclusion These findings support the previous findings in the literature

  6. MR findings in athletes with pubalgia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albers, S.L.; Spritzer, C.E.; Garrett, W.E. Jr.; Meyers, W.C.

    2001-01-01

    Objective. To describe the MR findings in athletes with pubalgia.Design and patients. Pelvic MR images of 32 athletes (30 men, 2 women) with pubalgia were studied. T1-weighted and T2-weighted (SE and FSE) and STIR images in the axial and coronal planes were obtained on a 1.5-T system. Images were reviewed for general pelvic pathology. Special attention was given to the pubic symphysis, groin and pelvic musculature, and to the abdominal wall musculature.Results. Thirty surgically confirmed cases comprise the study group. Abnormalities in the following were found: pubic symphysis (21/30), abdominal wall (27/30), groin musculature, including rectus abdominis (21/30), pectineus (6/30), and adductor muscle group (18/30).Conclusions. Pubalgia is a complex process which is frequently multifactorial. The MRI findings can alter the surgical approach. (orig.)

  7. MR findings in athletes with pubalgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albers, S.L. [Dept. of Radiology, Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Dept. of Radiology, Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Spritzer, C.E. [Dept. of Radiology, Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Garrett, W.E. Jr.; Meyers, W.C. [Dept. of Orthopaedics, Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    2001-05-01

    Objective. To describe the MR findings in athletes with pubalgia.Design and patients. Pelvic MR images of 32 athletes (30 men, 2 women) with pubalgia were studied. T1-weighted and T2-weighted (SE and FSE) and STIR images in the axial and coronal planes were obtained on a 1.5-T system. Images were reviewed for general pelvic pathology. Special attention was given to the pubic symphysis, groin and pelvic musculature, and to the abdominal wall musculature.Results. Thirty surgically confirmed cases comprise the study group. Abnormalities in the following were found: pubic symphysis (21/30), abdominal wall (27/30), groin musculature, including rectus abdominis (21/30), pectineus (6/30), and adductor muscle group (18/30).Conclusions. Pubalgia is a complex process which is frequently multifactorial. The MRI findings can alter the surgical approach. (orig.)

  8. Bone marrow edema-like signal in the athlete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kornaat, Peter R.; Jonge, Milko C. de; Maas, Mario

    2008-01-01

    Sports medicine is one of the most rapidly growing subspecialties in orthopaedics and therefore radiologists will be confronted with it more and more often. With the increased use of MR imaging in evaluating joint and muscle pathology in athletes new challenges emerge. One of these challenges is the role of BME, high-signal intensity on T2-weighted MR images. Some studies find a positive association between BME and clinical complaints, whereas other studies do not. Even more interesting is the finding that BME seems to appear quite often in asymptomatic athletes, although little has been reported in the literature about the MR imaging findings in the asymptomatic knee of the dedicated athlete. As the field of sports medicine expands, radiologists will increasingly deal with the presence of BME in athletes

  9. Hybrid welding of hollow section beams for a telescopic lifter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jernstroem, Petteri

    2003-03-01

    Modern lifting equipment is normally constructed using hollow section beams in a telescopic arrangement. Telescopic lifters are used in a variety number of applications including e.g. construction and building maintenance. Also rescue sector is one large application field. It is very important in such applications to use a lightweight and stable beam construction, which gives a high degree of flexibility in working high and width. To ensure a high weld quality of hollow section beams, high efficiency and minimal distortion, a welding process with a high power density is needed. The alternatives, in practice, which fulfill these requirements, are laser welding and hybrid welding. In this paper, the use of hybrid welding process (combination of CO2 laser welding and GMAW) in welding of hollow section beam structure is presented. Compared to laser welding, hybrid welding allows wider joint tolerances, which enables joints to be prepared and fit-up less accurately, aving time and manufacturing costs. A prerequisite for quality and effective use of hybrid welding is, however, a complete understanding of the process and its capabilities, which must be taken into account during both product design and manufacture.

  10. Epidemiologic comparison of injured high school basketball athletes reporting to emergency departments and the athletic training setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Erica N; McKenzie, Lara B; Comstock, R Dawn

    2014-01-01

    Basketball is a popular US high school sport with more than 1 million participants annually. To compare patterns of athletes with basketball-related injuries presenting to US emergency departments from 2005 through 2010 and the high school athletic training setting from the 2005-2011 seasons. Descriptive epidemiology study. Data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System of the US Consumer Product Safety Commission and the High School Reporting Information Online database. Complex sample weights were used to calculate national estimates of basketball-related injuries for comparison. Adolescents from 13 to 19 years of age treated in US emergency departments for basketball-related injuries and athletes from 13 to 19 years of age from schools participating in High School Reporting Information Online who were injured while playing basketball. Nationally, an estimated 1,514,957 (95% confidence interval = 1,337,441, 1,692,474) athletes with basketball-related injuries reported to the emergency department and 1,064,551 (95% confidence interval = 1,055,482, 1,073,620) presented to the athletic training setting. Overall, the most frequent injuries seen in the emergency department were lacerations and fractures (injury proportion ratios [IPRs] = 3.45 and 1.72, respectively), whereas those seen in the athletic training setting were more commonly concussions and strains/sprains (IPRs = 2.23 and 1.19, respectively; all P values training setting (IPR = 1.18; all P values basketball players presenting for treatment in the emergency department and the athletic training setting. Understanding differences specific to clinical settings is crucial to grasping the full epidemiologic and clinical picture of sport-related injuries. Certified athletic trainers play an important role in identifying, assessing, and treating athletes with sport-related injuries who might otherwise present to clinical settings with higher costs, such as the emergency department.

  11. Nutrition support programs for young adult athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, N

    1998-12-01

    After graduating from college and entering the work force, young adult athletes often struggle with the task of fueling themselves optimally for top performance and weight control. The stresses and time constraints of work, family, and social responsibilities often result in eating fast foods on the run. These young adults can benefit from nutrition education programs in the worksite, at health clubs, in the community, and via the media. Dietitians who specialize in sport nutrition have particular appeal to these athletes, who are struggling to each well, exercise well, and stay lean yet put little time or effort into their food program. This article includes two case studies of young adults and the dietary recommendations that taught them how to make wise food choices, fuel themselves well for high energy, and control their weight.

  12. Investigation of Management Models in Elite Athlete Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen-Kai Chen

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study investigated management models among elite athletes participating in sports including baseball, basketball, soccer, volleyball, tennis, softball, football, handball, track and field, swimming, judo, tae-kwon-do, gymnastics, archery, and weight lifting at the Tsoying National Sport Training Center. Data were collected by questionnaire. Of the 393 athletes investigated, 56% were male and 44% were female, with an average age of 20.9 years and average length of athletic experience of 9.8 years. At the time of the survey, 74.8% had sporting injuries and were being treated with Chinese and/or Western medicine. Among injured athletes, 14.5% chose Western treatment, 8.1% chose Chinese medicine, and 75.4% received combined treatment. There were various reasons for choosing the management model. Most athletes had ordinary self-recognition of sports injury prevention. Their qualified ability for sports injury prevention was 70%. This ability was significantly correlated with age, education, and sports experience. Within Taiwan's current medical and social environment, elite athletes prefer a combination of Eastern and Western treatments for sports injuries. Each of the medical approaches are widely accepted by elite athletes and their coaches. Doctors trained in Western medicine should learn these alternative treatment methods and apply them effectively in athletes, so that a better medical network can be established.

  13. Children's judgements and emotions about social exclusion based on weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Christine; Malti, Tina

    2014-09-01

    This study examined children's judgements and emotions associated with weight-based social exclusion using an ethnically diverse sample of one hundred and seventeen 9- and 13-year-old children. Children were interviewed about three scenarios depicting weight-based exclusion in athletic, academic, and social contexts. Children's judgements of exclusion, emotions attributed to the excluder and excluded targets, and justifications for judgements and emotions were examined. Overall, children judged weight-based exclusion to be wrong for moral reasons. However, they viewed weight-based exclusion in athletic contexts as less wrong compared with academic contexts, and they used more social-conventional reasoning to justify judgements and emotions attributed to excluders in athletic contexts compared with academic and social contexts. Children also expected excluded targets to feel negative emotions, whereas a range of positive and negative emotions was attributed to excluders. In addition, older children were more accepting of weight-based exclusion in athletic contexts than in academic and social contexts. We discuss the results in relation to the development of children's understanding of, and emotions associated with, exclusion based on weight. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  14. Three-dimensional motion analysis of the lumbar spine during "free squat" weight lift training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, James C; Quinlan, John F; Stapleton, Robert; FitzPatrick, David P; McCormack, Damian

    2007-06-01

    Heavy weight lifting using a squat bar is a commonly used athletic training exercise. Previous in vivo motion studies have concentrated on lifting of everyday objects and not on the vastly increased loads that athletes subject themselves to when performing this exercise. Athletes significantly alter their lumbar spinal motion when performing squat lifting at heavy weights. Controlled laboratory study. Forty-eight athletes (28 men, 20 women) performed 6 lifts at 40% maximum, 4 lifts at 60% maximum, and 2 lifts at 80% maximum. The Zebris 3D motion analysis system was used to measure lumbar spine motion. Exercise was performed as a "free" squat and repeated with a weight lifting support belt. Data obtained were analyzed using SAS. A significant decrease (P free squat or when lifting using a support belt in any of the groups studied. Weight lifting using a squat bar causes athletes to significantly hyperextend their lumbar spines at heavier weights. The use of a weight lifting support belt does not significantly alter spinal motion during lifting.

  15. It is Time to Ban Rapid Weight Loss from Combat Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artioli, Guilherme G; Saunders, Bryan; Iglesias, Rodrigo T; Franchini, Emerson

    2016-11-01

    Most competitions in combat sports are divided into weight classes, theoretically allowing for fairer and more evenly contested disputes between athletes of similar body size, strength and agility. It has been well documented that most athletes, regardless of the combat sports discipline, reduce significant amounts of body weight in the days prior to competition to qualify for lighter weight classes. Rapid weight loss is characterised by the reduction of a significant amount of body weight (typically 2-10 %, although larger reductions are often seen) in a few days prior to weigh-in (mostly in the last 2-3 days) achieved by a combination of methods that include starvation, severe restriction of fluid intake and intentional sweating. In doing so, athletes try to gain a competitive advantage against lighter, smaller and weaker opponents. Such a drastic and rapid weight reduction is only achievable via a combination of aggressive strategies that lead to hypohydration and starvation. The negative impact of these procedures on health is well described in the literature. Although the impact of rapid weight loss on performance is debated, there remains robust evidence showing that rapid weight loss may not impair performance, and translates into an actual competitive advantage. In addition to the health and performance implications, rapid weight loss clearly breaches fair play and stands against the spirit of the sport because an athlete unwilling to compete having rapidly reduced weight would face unfair contests against opponents who are 'artificially' bigger and stronger. The World Anti-Doping Agency Code states that a prohibited method must meet at least two of the following criteria: (1) enhances performance; (2) endangers an athlete's health; and (3) violates the spirit of the sport. We herein argue that rapid weight loss clearly meets all three criteria and, therefore, should be banned from the sport. To quote the World Anti-Doping Agency Code, this would "protect

  16. Female Collegiate Athletes: Prevalence of Eating Disorders and Disordered Eating Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, Christy; Petrie, Trent A.; Carter, Jennifer; Reel, Justine J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors assessed the prevalence of pathogenic eating and weight-control behaviors among female college athletes, using a psychometrically valid measure. Participants: Participants were 204 college athletes (M age = 20.16 years, SD = 1.31 years) from 17 sports at 3 universities. On average, they participated in their sport for 10.88…

  17. The need of a weight management control program in judo: a proposal based on the successful case of wrestling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artioli, Guilherme G; Franchini, Emerson; Nicastro, Humberto; Sterkowicz, Stanislaw; Solis, Marina Y; Lancha, Antonio H

    2010-05-04

    Judo competitions are divided into weight classes. However, most athletes reduce their body weight in a few days before competition in order to obtain a competitive advantage over lighter opponents. To achieve fast weight reduction, athletes use a number of aggressive nutritional strategies so many of them place themselves at a high health-injury risk. In collegiate wrestling, a similar problem has been observed and three wrestlers died in 1997 due to rapid weight loss regimes. After these deaths, the National Collegiate Athletic Association had implemented a successful weight management program which was proven to improve weight management behavior. No similar program has ever been discussed by judo federations even though judo competitors present a comparable inappropriate pattern of weight control. In view of this, the basis for a weight control program is provided in this manuscript, as follows: competition should begin within 1 hour after weigh-in, at the latest; each athlete is allowed to be weighed-in only once; rapid weight loss as well as artificial rehydration (i.e., saline infusion) methods are prohibited during the entire competition day; athletes should pass the hydration test to get their weigh-in validated; an individual minimum competitive weight (male athletes competing at no less than 7% and females at no less than 12% of body fat) should be determined at the beginning of each season; athletes are not allowed to compete in any weight class that requires weight reductions greater than 1.5% of body weight per week. In parallel, educational programs should aim at increasing the athletes', coaches' and parents' awareness about the risks of aggressive nutritional strategies as well as healthier ways to properly manage body weight.

  18. Eating Disorders: A Problem in Athletics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burckes-Miller, Mardie E.; Black, David R.

    1988-01-01

    A review of research regarding athletes' eating habits suggests that they may practice eating disorder habits and poor weight management behaviors as well as have poor attitudes and knowledge regarding nutrition, indicating their immediate need for appropriate education about the possible detrimental effects of such practices. (CB)

  19. ESC study group of sports cardiology position paper on adverse cardiovascular effects of doping in athletes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deligiannis, A.; Bjornstad, H.; Carre, F.; Heidbuchel, H.; Kouidi, E.; Panhuyzen-Goedkoop, N.M.; Pigozzi, F.; Schanzer, W; Vanhees, L.

    2006-01-01

    The use of doping substances and methods is extensive not only among elite athletes, but also among amateur and recreational athletes. Many types of drugs are used by athletes to enhance performance, to reduce anxiety, to increase muscle mass, to reduce weight or to mask the use of other drugs

  20. Pre-competition habits and injuries in Taekwondo athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Choung Young

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the past decade, there has been heightened interest in injury rates sustained by martial arts athletes, and more specifically, Taekwondo athletes. Despite this interest, there is a paucity of research on pre-competition habits and training of these athletes. The purpose of this pilot study was to assess training characteristics, competition preparation habits, and injury profiles of Taekwondo athletes. Methods A retrospective survey of Canadian male and female Taekwondo athletes competing in a national tournament was conducted. Competitors at a Canadian national level tournament were given a comprehensive survey prior to competition. Items on training characteristics, diet, and injuries sustained during training and competition were included. Questionnaires were distributed to 60 athletes. Results A response rate of 46.7% was achieved. Of those that responded, 54% dieted prior to competition, and 36% dieted and exercised pre-competition. Sixty-four percent of the athletes practised between 4–6 times per week, with 54% practicing 2 hours per session. Lower limb injuries were the most common (46.5%, followed by upper extremity (18%, back (10%, and head (3.6%. The majority of injuries consisted of sprains/strains (45%, followed by contusions, fractures, and concussions. More injuries occurred during training, including 59% of first injuries. Conclusion More research needs to be conducted to further illustrate the need for appropriate regulations on weight cycling and injury prevention.

  1. Pre-competition habits and injuries in Taekwondo athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Mohsen; Shearer, Heather; Su Choung, Young

    2005-01-01

    Background Over the past decade, there has been heightened interest in injury rates sustained by martial arts athletes, and more specifically, Taekwondo athletes. Despite this interest, there is a paucity of research on pre-competition habits and training of these athletes. The purpose of this pilot study was to assess training characteristics, competition preparation habits, and injury profiles of Taekwondo athletes. Methods A retrospective survey of Canadian male and female Taekwondo athletes competing in a national tournament was conducted. Competitors at a Canadian national level tournament were given a comprehensive survey prior to competition. Items on training characteristics, diet, and injuries sustained during training and competition were included. Questionnaires were distributed to 60 athletes. Results A response rate of 46.7% was achieved. Of those that responded, 54% dieted prior to competition, and 36% dieted and exercised pre-competition. Sixty-four percent of the athletes practised between 4–6 times per week, with 54% practicing 2 hours per session. Lower limb injuries were the most common (46.5%), followed by upper extremity (18%), back (10%), and head (3.6%). The majority of injuries consisted of sprains/strains (45%), followed by contusions, fractures, and concussions. More injuries occurred during training, including 59% of first injuries. Conclusion More research needs to be conducted to further illustrate the need for appropriate regulations on weight cycling and injury prevention. PMID:15921510

  2. Visual efficiency among teenaged athletes and non-athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rokiah Omar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To compare visual efficiency, specifically accom-modation, vergence, and oculomotor functions among athletes and non-athletes. METHODS: A cross-sectional study on sports vision screening was used to evaluate the visual skills of 214 elementary students (107 athletes, 107 non-athletes, aged between 13 and 16y. The visual screening assessed visual parameters such as ocular motor alignment, accommodation, and vergence functions. RESULTS: Mean visual parameters were compared between age-group matched athletes (mean age 14.82±0.98y and non-athletes (mean age 15.00±1.04y. The refractive errors of all participants were corrected to maximal attainable best corrected visual acuity of logMAR 0.0. Accommodation function assessment evaluated amplitude of accommodation and accommodation facility. Vergence functions measured the near point of convergence, vergence facility, and distance fusional vergence at break and recovery point. Ocular motor alignment was not statistically significant between both groups. Athletes had a statistically significant amplitude of accommodation for both the right eye (t=2.30, P=0.02 and the left eye (t=1.99, P=0.05. Conversely, non-athletes had better accommodation facility (t=-2.54, P=0.01 and near point of convergence (t=4.39, P<0.001 when compared to athletes. Vergence facility was found to be better among athletes (t=2.47, P=0.01. Nevertheless, non-athletes were significantly better for both distance negative and positive fusional vergence. CONCLUSION: Although the findings are still inconclusive as to whether athletes had superior visual skills as compared to non-athletes, it remains important to identify and elucidate the key visual skills needed by athletes in order for them to achieve higher performance in their sports.

  3. Exercise dependence and muscle dysmorphia in novice and experienced female bodybuilders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Bruce D; Diehl, Danielle; Weaver, Krista; Briggs, Michael

    2013-12-01

    Extensive research has shown that male bodybuilders are at high risk for exercise dependence, but few studies have measured these variables in female bodybuilders. Prior research has postulated that muscular dysmorphia was more prevalent in men than women, but several qualitative studies of female bodybuilders have indicated that female bodybuilders show the same body image concerns. Only one study has compared female bodybuilders with control recreational female lifters on eating behaviors, body image, shape pre-occupation, body dissatisfaction, and steroid use. The purpose of this study was to compare exercise dependence and muscle dysmorphia measures between groups of female weight lifters. Seventy-four female lifters were classified into three lifting types (26 expert bodybuilders, 10 or more competitions; 29 novice bodybuilders, 3 or less competitions; and 19 fitness lifters, at least 6 months prior lifting) who each completed a demographic questionnaire, the Exercise Dependence Scale (EDS), the Drive for Thinness scale (DFT) of the Eating Disorder Inventory-2, the Bodybuilding Dependence Scale (BDS), and the Muscle Dysmorphia Inventory (MDI). Female bodybuilders scored higher than fitness lifters for EDS Total, BDS Training and Social Dependence, and on Supplement Use, Dietary Behavior, Exercise Dependence, and Size Symmetry scales of the MDI. Female bodybuilders seem to be more at risk for exercise dependence and muscle dysmorphia symptoms than female recreational weight lifters.

  4. Risk Factors for Eating Disorders among Male Adolescent Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pustivšek, Suzana; Hadžić, Vedran; Dervišević, Edvin

    2015-03-01

    Eating disorders (ED) are an important and increasing problem in adolescents. The objective of this study was to examine the risk factors and the prevalence of risk for ED among male adolescent elite athletes and nonathletic controls. Differences between male athletes competing in aerobic, anaerobic and aerobic-anaerobic sports were examined as well. This was a cross-sectional epidemiological study. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey and anthropometric measurements were conducted on 351 adolescents (athletes n = 228; controls n = 123). All participants were aged 15-17 at the time of measuring. Risk for ED was determined using a SCOFF questionnaire. The overall prevalence of the risk for ED in male adolescents was 24.8%, with no significant differences among athletes and controls or different subgroups of athletes (p>0.05), although the highest prevalence (37.2%) was registered in aerobic subgroup of athletes. Higher number of attempts to lose weight was associated with increased risk of ED in each group (athletes and controls). Other predictors referred to lack of breakfast and body composition in aerobic subgroup of athletes and number of meals and training frequency in anaerobic subgroup. The most common reasons for dieting were improvement of sport results (19.6-44.2%) and better self-esteem (41.5%) in athletes and controls respectively. Participation in the competitive sport itself is not associated with the increased risk for ED. It seems that risk factors for ED for adolescent athletes competing in aerobic and anaerobic sports represent a subject that deserves consideration and further investigation in the future.

  5. Charlie's Words: Supporting Gifted Male Athletes Using Athletes' Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Richard

    2012-01-01

    A gifted student-athlete, Charlie Bloomfield is introduced to athlete's journals by his coaches at Burke Mountain Academy (Vermont), an elite American ski school. Used by Olympians and professionals alike, journals provide athletes with ways to organize and reflect on training and competitions. Athlete's journals help gifted male athletes address…

  6. Prevalence of Jumper's knee among nonelite athletes from different sports: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwerver, Johannes; Bredeweg, Steven W; van den Akker-Scheek, Inge

    2011-09-01

    The prevalence of jumper's knee among nonelite athletes from different sports is unknown. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of jumper's knee in nonelite athletes from different sports and to determine potential risk factors for jumper's knee. Cohort study (prevalence); Level of evidence, 2. The authors interviewed 891 male and female nonelite athletes from 7 popular sports in The Netherlands: basketball, volleyball, handball, korfball, soccer, field hockey, and track and field. Using a specially developed questionnaire, information was obtained about individual characteristics (age, height, and weight), training background, previous and actual knee problems, and the VISA-P (Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment-Patella) score. The overall prevalence of current jumper's knee was 8.5% (78 of 891 athletes), showing a significant difference between sports with different loading characteristics. Prevalence was highest among volleyball players (14.4%) and lowest among soccer players (2.5%); it was significantly higher among male athletes (51 of 502 [10.2%]) than female athletes (25 of 389 [6.4%]) (χ(2) = 3.91, P = .048). The mean duration of symptoms was 18.9 months (standard deviation [SD], 21.6; median value, 12.0; range, 2.0-59.8). The mean VISA-P score of the athletes with jumper's knee was 71.4 (SD, 13.8). Athletes with jumper's knee were significantly younger, taller, and heavier than those without jumper's knee. Prevalence of jumper's knee is high among nonelite athletes and varies between 14.4% and 2.5% for different sports. Jumper's knee is almost twice as common among male nonelite athletes compared with female athletes. Different sport-specific loading characteristics of the knee extensor apparatus, a younger age, a taller body stature, and higher body weight seem to be risk factors associated with patellar tendinopathy.

  7. RECOVERY OF BONE MINERAL DENSITY AND FERTILITY IN A FORMER AMENORRHEIC ATHLETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Hind

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Inadequate dietary intake and prolonged amenorrhea in women athletes can lead to bone loss, particularly at the spine, which may be irreversible. This report presents the case of a woman endurance runner, followed prospectively over 6 years after presenting with the female athlete triad. Bone mineral density (BMD and body composition were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. At baseline, lumbar spine (LS, total hip and total body (TB BMD Z-scores were -2.2, -0.5 and -0.3 respectively. At 6 years, following a recovery plan of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT, weight gain, improved dietary intake and reduced training load, the athlete regained menstrual function and BMD. LS, TB and hip BMD Z-scores improved to -0.6, -0.1 and 0.1 respectively. Restoration of fertility was indicated by pregnancy, following only 4 months of regular menstruation. This case report suggests that bone density and fertility may not be completely jeopardised in formerly amenorrheic and osteopenic athletes, providing recovery through diet, weight gain, and return of menstruation is achieved within the third decade. Longitudinal studies tracking bone changes in women with amenorrhea and low BMD are required and would have important implications for the treatment of the female athlete triad

  8. Spatial Ability Differences in Athletes and Non-Athletes

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    Jessica Cynthia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cognitive processes, specifically spatial abilities, are responsible for integration of daily activities. Many factors contribute to the plasticity of the brain which, furthermore, alter the spatial ability. Physical activity, which can be further grouped into sport and exercise, is a modifiable factor that enhances the cognitive processes through a divergent mechanism. This study aimed to gain further understanding on whether sport differs from exercise in altering spatial ability in athletes and non-athletes. Methods: This observational study compared the spatial ability score of athletes of Indonesia National Sport Comitte (Komite Olahraga Nasional Indonesia, KONI in West Java (n= 21 and non-athletes (n= 21. Sampling were performed using stratified random technique and data were collected between August and October 2015 which included spatial scores and demographic of subjects. Results: The difference in spatial scores between athletes and non-athletes were not significant (p=0.432. Conclusions: This study suggests an insignificant difference in spatial ability in athletes performing sport and non-athletes performing exercise. Hence, the cognitive component skills in sport experience do not alter the spatial ability.

  9. Disordered eating behaviors and body image in male athletes

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    Fernanda Reistenbach Goltz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify disordered eating behaviors and body image dissatisfaction, as well as their relationship to body fat (BF, among male athletes in high risk sports for eating disorders. Methods: One hundred and fifty-six male athletes were divided into the following categories: weight-class sports, sports where leanness improves performance, and sports with aesthetic ideals. BF was assessed and three questionnaires were used: the Eating Attitudes Test; the Bulimic Investigatory Test, Edinburgh; the Body Shape Questionnaire. Results: Disordered eating behaviors and body image dissatisfaction were found in 43 (27.6% and 23 athletes (14.7%, respectively, and an association was detected between the two variables (p < 0.001. Athletes with and without disordered eating behaviors did not differ in %BF (11.0±5.2% and 9.8±4.0%, respectively; p = 0.106. However, athletes with body image dissatisfaction had higher %BF than those who were satisfied (12.6±5.9% and 9.7±3.9%, respectively; p = 0.034. There were no differences in BF, frequency of disordered eating behaviors, and body image dissatisfaction between sports categories. Conclusion: Nearly one-quarter of athletes showed disordered eating behaviors, which was associated with body image dissatisfaction. Athletes with higher %BF were more likely to be dissatisfied with body image. There was no difference in eating behavior and body image between athletes from different sports categories.

  10. Evaluation of a Theory-Based Intervention Aimed at Reducing Intention to Use Restrictive Dietary Behaviors Among Adolescent Female Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laramée, Catherine; Drapeau, Vicky; Valois, Pierre; Goulet, Claude; Jacob, Raphaëlle; Provencher, Véronique; Lamarche, Benoît

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a theory-based intervention to reduce the intention to use restrictive dietary behaviors for losing weight among adolescent female athletes involved in aesthetic sports. Cluster-randomized controlled trial. Aesthetic sport teams of adolescent female athletes aged 12-17 years. Two teams (n = 37 athletes) in the intervention group and 3 teams (n = 33) in the comparison group. The 2 groups received nutrition education during 3 weekly 60-minute sessions. The intervention group was further exposed to a theory-based intervention targeting the specific determinant of intention to use restrictive dietary behaviors for losing weight, namely attitude. Difference over time between groups in intention to use restrictive dietary behaviors for losing weight and in nutrition knowledge. Mixed models for repeated measures. The theory-based intervention contributed to maintaining a low intention of using restrictive dietary behaviors for losing weight over time in the intervention group compared with the comparison group (P theory-based behavior change intervention may help maintain a low intention of using restrictive dietary behaviors for losing weight among female high school athletes involved in aesthetic sports. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Comparison of Body Image between Disabled Athletes, Disabled Non-Athletes and Non-Disable Non-Athletes Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollah Ghasemi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this research was to compare the body image between disabled athletes with disabled and non-disabled non- athletes. Materials & Methods: In this cross sectional and comparative study, fifty disabled athletes from the handicapped sports club, fifty disabled non athletes from Kahrizak disabled rest house and fifty non athlete healthy persons from governmental administrations were selected randomly by classified clustered method and their body image were compared. Data collection tools included a personal information questionnaire and a physical self description questionnaire (PSDQ which included 11 sub-scales such as power, endurance, coordination, general health, flexibility, self-esteem, athletic competence, fat, body appearance, body activity and the global physical. The statistical procedures used in this study comprised one way ANOVA and the Newman-keuls test. Results: Body image of disabled athletes in the sub-scales of power, endurance, coordination, flexibility, self-esteem, athletic competence, body activity were higher than disabled and non-disabled individuals who were not athletes (P&le0.001. In addition the sub-scales of the body fat (P=0.012, body appearance (P=0.002 and general health (P=0.001, the results showed that a higher significance for the disabled athletes, however, there wasn’t significant difference for the non-disabled athletes. Conclusion: Thus the result showed that the attitude of the disabled and non-disabled individual in due to their continuous physical activity in that the disabled athletes have got better body images as compared to the disabled and non-disabled individual who have not physical activity.

  12. Biomechanical aspects of lumbar spine injuries in athletes: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, M J

    1985-03-01

    One of the areas of the body which is very often injured by athletes is the lower lack, or the lumbar area of the spine. This problem is of some concern to physical educators, athletic therapists, coaches, athletes, and physicians. The type of injury which occurs in the lumbar spine is dependent on the direction, magnitude, and the point of application of the forces to the spine. This part of the body is susceptible to injury due to the large forces which must be supported, which include the body weight and any external weights, as well as the forces due to very high accelerations of the body parts. Since the lumbar spine is the only connecting column between the upper and lower parts of the body, all the forces must be transmitted via these structures. There are two general techniques of calculating the forces on the lumbar spinal structures, a static approach and a dynamic approach. The static approach may be useful to calculate compression and shear forces on the spine in stationary positions as may be seen in weightlifting. However, the dynamics approach should be used to calculate the effects of the various weights and inertial forces on spinal structures. The most common types of lower back injuries found in athletes were: muscle strains, ligament sprains, lumbar vertebral fractures, disc injuries, and neural arch fractures. The most common serious athletic injury to the lower back was found to be neural arch fractures at the pars interarticularis, or the isthmus between the superior and inferior articular processes. These fractures are known as spondylolysis, or defect in the pars interarticularis of one side of the vertebrae; and spondylolisthesis, a bilateral defect in the pars interarticularis, often accompanied by forward displacement of the vertebral body. The sports in which lower back injuries commonly occurred were also examined, and it was determined that gymnastics, weightlifting and football were the sports in which the lower back is at greatest

  13. Optimizing sleep to maximize performance: implications and recommendations for elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, N S; Gibbs, E L; Matheson, G O

    2017-03-01

    Despite a growing body of literature demonstrating a positive relationship between sleep and optimal performance, athletes often have low sleep quality and quantity. Insufficient sleep among athletes may be due to scheduling constraints and the low priority of sleep relative to other training demands, as well as a lack of awareness of the role of sleep in optimizing athletic performance. Domains of athletic performance (e.g., speed and endurance), neurocognitive function (e.g., attention and memory), and physical health (e.g., illness and injury risk, and weight maintenance) have all been shown to be negatively affected by insufficient sleep or experimentally modeled sleep restriction. However, healthy adults are notoriously poor at self-assessing the magnitude of the impact of sleep loss, underscoring the need for increased awareness of the importance of sleep among both elite athletes and practitioners managing their care. Strategies to optimize sleep quality and quantity in athletes include approaches for expanding total sleep duration, improving sleep environment, and identifying potential sleep disorders. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Dietary regimens of athletes competing at the Delhi 2010 Commonwealth Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelly, Fiona E; Burkhart, Sarah J

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the dietary regimens reported by athletes competing at a major international competition and report whether these were based on nutrient composition, religious beliefs, cultural eating style, food intolerance or avoidance of certain ingredients. A questionnaire was randomly distributed to 351 athletes in the main dining hall of the athletes' village over the three main meal periods during the Delhi 2010 Commonwealth Games (23rd Sept-14th Oct, 2010). The majority (n = 218, 62%) of athletes reported following one or more dietary regimens, with 50% (n = 174) following a diet based on the nutrient composition of the food. Significantly more athletes from weight category and aesthetic sports (28%, p = .005) and from power/sprint sports (41%, p = .004) followed low fat and high protein regimens respectively. Other specialized dietary regimens were followed by 33% of participants, with avoidance of red meat (13%), vegetarian (7%), Halal (6%), and low lactose regimens (5%) reported most frequently. Significantly more athletes from non-Western regions followed a vegetarian diet (p food items are available at similar events.

  15. Coach-athlete attachment and the quality of the coach-athlete relationship: implications for athlete's well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Louise; Jowett, Sophia

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether athletes' attachment styles with the coach were linked to aspects of the coach-athlete relationship quality and, in turn, whether relationship quality was linked to athletes' well-being. One hundred and ninety-two athletes completed a questionnaire measuring their attachment styles and relationship quality with the coach as well as their feelings of positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA). Structural equation modelling (SEM) analysis found athletes' avoidant and secure attachment styles to be associated with aspects of coach-athlete relationship quality such as social support, relationship depth, and interpersonal conflict. Interpersonal conflict appeared to play a key role in athletes' PA and NA. From a practical perspective, an understanding of conflict management could provide a resource that allows athletes (and coaches) to enhance the quality of their sporting relationships. Specifically, an awareness of proactive strategies (e.g., steps to clarify expectations) and reactive strategies (e.g., cooperation during the discussion of disagreements) could potentially lead both coaches and athletes to "broaden" their viewpoints and in turn "build" connections that are capable of generating positive emotions including interest, excitement, happiness, and zeal.

  16. Validation of the computer code system ATHLET / ATHLET-CD. Final report; Validierung des Rechenprogrammsystems ATHLET / ATHLET-CD. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Austregesilo, H.; Bals, C.; Erdmann, W.; Horche, W.; Krzykacz-Hausmann, B.; Pointner, W.; Schoeffel, P.; Skorek, T.; Weber, S.; Wielenberg, A.

    2010-04-15

    In the frame of the reactor safety project RS1173, sponsored by the German Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology, analyses of international integral and separate effects tests have been performed for the validation of the code system ATHLET/ATHLET-CD. The work mainly comprised post-test calculations of selected experiments and the contributions to the working groups accompanying the experimental programs. For the assessment of the thermal-hydraulic models in ATHLET 8 integral tests and 4 separate effect tests have been considered. Together with the corroboration of the existing models, the validation analyses were mainly dedicated to the assessment of the modelling of non-condensable gases and their influence on two-phase natural circulation and on the primary heat removal through steam generators, as well as of the simulation of multi-dimensional flow processes. The validation calculations with respect to the simulation of multi-dimensional one- and two-phase flows aimed to investigate the range of applicability and limitations of the method of parallel channels in connection with the separate momentum equations for water and steam current used in ATHLET as well as to assess the status of the coupled version ATHLET/FLUBOX-3D. The ATHLET-CD validation analyses included the post-test calculations of 9 bundle tests, and was mainly focussed on the assessment of the improved and new models for core degradation, including the models for oxidation, melt formation and relocation for BWR components, as well as of the modelling of fission products and aerosol transport within the primary circuit taking into account chemical reactions within the module SOPHAEROS. As an additional contribution to code validation, the GRS methodology of uncertainty and sensitivity analysis was applied exemplarily to two validation calculations, one with ATHLET and one with ATHLET-CD. The results of these uncertainty analyses endorse the capability of the code system to reproduce

  17. Influence of ghrelin and adipocytokines on bone mineral density in adolescent female athletes with amenorrhea and eumenorrheic athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Melissa; Misra, Madhusmita

    2010-01-01

    Adolescent female athletes are at increased risk for low bone mineral density (BMD) secondary to exercise-induced hypogonadism. Of particular concern is that the adolescent years are also a critical time for bone accrual, and deficits incurred during this period could lead to suboptimal peak bone mass acquisition and subsequent fracture risk in later life. Although weight-bearing exercise is typically associated with an increase in BMD, amenorrheic athletes have lower BMD than eumenorrheic athletes and nonathletic controls as a consequence of low energy availability and subsequent hypogonadism. It is important to recognize that critical interactions exist between net energy availability and the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal (H-P-G) axis that are key to the development of a hypogonadal state when energy intake cannot keep pace with expenditure. While the link between energy availability and gonadtotropin pulsatility patterns is well established, the actual metabolic signals that link the two are less clear. Decreased energy availability in athletes is associated with decreases in fat mass, and alterations in adipokines (such as leptin and adiponectin) and fat-regulated hormones (such as ghrelin and peptide YY). These hormones impact the H-P-G axis in animal models, and it is possible that in athletes alterations in fat-related hormones signal the state of energy availability to the hypothalamus and contribute to suppression of gonadotropin pulsatility, hypothalamic amenorrhea and consequent decreased BMD. A better understanding of pathways linking low energy availability with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea and low BMD is critical for the development of future therapeutic strategies addressing these issues in amenorrheic athletes. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Psychometric properties and construct validity of the Muscle Appearance Satisfaction Scale among Hungarian men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babusa, Bernadett; Urbán, Róbert; Czeglédi, Edit; Túry, Ferenc

    2012-01-01

    Limited studies have evaluated the psychometric properties of the Muscle Appearance Satisfaction Scale (MASS), a measure of muscle dysmorphia, in different cultures and languages. The aims were to examine the psychometric properties of the Hungarian version of the MASS (MASS-HU), and to investigate its relationship with self-esteem and exercise-related variables. Two independent samples of male weight lifters (ns=289 and 43), and a sample of undergraduates (n=240) completed the MASS, Eating Disorder Inventory, and Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale. Exploratory factor analysis supported the original five-factor structure of the MASS only in the weight lifter sample. The MASS-HU had excellent scale score reliability and good test-retest reliability. The construct validity of the MASS-HU was tested with multivariate regression analyses which indicated an inverse relationship between self-esteem and muscle dysmorphia. The 18-item MASS-HU was found to be a useful measure for the assessment of muscle dysmorphia among male weight lifters. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Left ventricular mass in male adolescent athletes and non-athletes

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    Erling David Kaunang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Systematic exercise leads to increased left ventricular mass, which may be misleading in a differential diagnosis of heart disease in athletes (physiologic hypertrophy versus pathologic hypertrophy. T he cause of left ventricular hypertrophy is an important risk factor in the morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular diseases. Objective To compare left ventricular mass and left ventricular hypertrophy in male adolescent athletes and non-athletes. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional, analytic study, from September to December 2012 in male adolescents aged 15-18 years. The case group included athletes from the Bina Taruna Football Club Manado, while the control group included non-athlete adolescents. All subjects underwent history-taking, physical examinations and further supporting examinations. Left ventricular mass was measured by cardiovascular echocardiography (Esaote Mylab 4.0 and calculated based on a formula. Left ventricular hypertrophy was defined as left ventricular mass of > 134 g/m2 body surface area. Results Subjects' mean left ventricular masses were 359.69 (SD 188.4; 95%CI 283.58 to 435.81 grams in the athlete group and 173.04 (SD 50.69; 95%CI 152.56 to 103.51 grams in the non· athlete group, a statistically significant difference (P=0.0001. Ventricular hypertrophy was found 76.9% compared to 11.5% in  the non-athlete group (P= 0.0001. Conclusion Left ventricular mass in athletes is bigger than in non-athletes. In addition, left ventricular hypertrophy is more cornmon in male adolescent athletes than in non-athletes.

  20. A novel technique for correction of total rectal prolapse: Endoscopic-assisted percutaneous rectopexy with the aid of the EndoLifter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante-Lopez, L; Sulbaran, M; Sakai, C; de Moura, E G; Bustamante-Perez, L; Nahas, C S; Nahas, S C; Cecconello, I; Sakai, P

    Rectal prolapse is common in the elderly, having an incidence of 1% in patients over 65years of age. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and feasibility of a new endoluminal procedure for attaching the previously mobilized rectum to the anterior abdominal wall using an endoscopic fixation device. The study is a single-arm phasei experimental trial. Under general anesthesia, total rectal prolapse was surgically reproduced in five pigs. Transanal endoscopic reduction of the rectal prolapse was performed. The best site for transillumination of the abdominal wall, suitable for rectopexy, was identified. The EndoLifter was used to approximate the anterior wall of the proximal rectum to the anterior abdominal wall. Two percutaneous rectopexies were performed by puncture with the Loop FixtureII Gastropexy Kit ® at the preset site of transillumination. After the percutaneous rectopexies, rectoscopy and exploratory laparotomy were performed. Finally, the animals were euthanized. The mean procedure time was 16min (11-21) and the mean length of the mobilized specimen was 4.32cm (range 2.9-5.65cm). A total of 10 fixations were performed with a technical success rate of 100%. There was no evidence of postoperative rectal prolapse in any of the animals. The EndoLifter facilitated the process by allowing the mucosa to be held and manipulated during the repair. Endoscopic-assisted percutaneous rectopexy is a safe and feasible endoluminal procedure for fixation of the rectum to the anterior abdominal wall in experimental animals. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  1. How Stereotypes Affect Current Collegiate Female Athletes' Athletic Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Melissa

    2017-01-01

    Stereotype discrimination affects female athletes' athletic experiences. Studies have been conducted of former collegiate female athletes' perceptions of the lesbian stereotype found that they were discriminated against because of their sport participation. These limit the recalling of thoughts and experience from the female athletes' playing…

  2. Athletic Population with Spondylolysis: Review of Outcomes following Surgical Repair or Conservative Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panteliadis, Pavlos; Nagra, Navraj S.; Edwards, Kimberley L.; Behrbalk, Eyal; Boszczyk, Bronek

    2016-01-01

    Study Design  Narrative review. Objective  The study aims to critically review the outcomes associated with the surgical repair or conservative management of spondylolysis in athletes. Methods  The English literature listed in MEDLINE/PubMed was reviewed to identify related articles using the term “spondylolysis AND athlete.” The criteria for studies to be included were management of spondylolysis in athletes, English text, and no year, follow-up, or study design restrictions. The references of the retrieved articles were also evaluated. The primary outcome was time to return to sport. This search yielded 180 citations, and 25 publications were included in the review. Results  Treatment methods were dichotomized as operative and nonoperative. In the nonoperative group, 390 athletes were included. A combination of bracing with physical therapy and restriction of activities was used. Conservative measures allowed athletes to return to sport in 3.7 months (weighted mean). One hundred seventy-four patients were treated surgically. The most common technique was Buck's, using a compression screw (91/174). All authors reported satisfactory outcomes. Time to return to play was 7.9 months (weighted mean). There were insufficient studies with suitably homogenous subgroups to conduct a meta-analysis. Conclusion  There is no gold standard approach for the management of spondylolysis in the athletic population. The existing literature suggests initial therapy should be a course of conservative management with thoracolumbosacral orthosis brace, physiotherapy, and activity modification. If conservative management fails, surgical intervention should be considered. Two-sided clinical studies are needed to determine an optimal pathway for the management of athletes with spondylolysis. PMID:27556003

  3. Radiographic Evidence of Femoroacetabular Impingement in Athletes With Athletic Pubalgia

    OpenAIRE

    Economopoulos, Kostas J.; Milewski, Matthew D.; Hanks, John B.; Hart, Joseph M.; Diduch, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Two of the most common causes of groin pain in athletes are femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) and athletic pubalgia. An association between the 2 is apparent, but the prevalence of radiographic signs of FAI in patients undergoing athletic pubalgia surgery remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of radiologic signs of FAI in patients with athletic pubalgia. Hypothesis: We hypothesized that patients with athletic pubalgia would have a high prevale...

  4. Altitude training for elite endurance athletes: A review for the travel medicine practitioner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaherty, Gerard; O'Connor, Rory; Johnston, Niall

    2016-01-01

    High altitude training is regarded as an integral component of modern athletic preparation, especially for endurance sports such as middle and long distance running. It has rapidly achieved popularity among elite endurance athletes and their coaches. Increased hypoxic stress at altitude facilitates key physiological adaptations within the athlete, which in turn may lead to improvements in sea-level athletic performance. Despite much research in this area to date, the exact mechanisms which underlie such improvements remain to be fully elucidated. This review describes the current understanding of physiological adaptation to high altitude training and its implications for athletic performance. It also discusses the rationale and main effects of different training models currently employed to maximise performance. Athletes who travel to altitude for training purposes are at risk of suffering the detrimental effects of altitude. Altitude illness, weight loss, immune suppression and sleep disturbance may serve to limit athletic performance. This review provides an overview of potential problems which an athlete may experience at altitude, and offers specific training recommendations so that these detrimental effects are minimised. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison of Mental Health Components among Athlete and Non-athlete Adolescents

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    Zeinab Ghiami

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescence is a period of rapid biological and behavioral changes that may expand the risk of mental health issues. Objective: This study aimed to compare the mental health of male and female athletes and non-athletes among a high school student groups. Methodology: On this base 100 students (50 athletes and 50 non-athletes, Mage = 16 (SD = ±1 were selected through multi stage random sampling and divided equally into four groups (female athlete / non-athlete, male athlete / non-athlete. General Health Questionnaire designed by Goldberg and Hiller (1979 was used for data collections. Results: The analysis of one-way ANOVA displayed significant differences between the mean scores in mental health among the groups in terms of mental health, F (3, 96 =39, P = .01 with less prevalence of these symptoms among athletes comparing to non-athletes. Conclusion: Increasing opportunities for students to take part in sport competitions can protect them against poor psychological well-being. Keywords: Mental Health; Depression; Anxiety; Social dysfunction; Somatic

  6. Bone density and young athletic women. An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, David L; Sanborn, Charlotte F; Essery, Eve V

    2007-01-01

    High-school girls and collegiate women have tremendous opportunities to participate in athletic teams. Young girls are also playing in club and select teams at an early age and often, year-round. There are many benefits for participating in sport and physical activity on both the physical and mental health of girls and women. Decreased risk for heart disease and diabetes mellitus, along with improved self-esteem and body-image, were among the first reported benefits of regular physical activity. In addition, sport participation and physical activity is also associated with bone health. Athletes have a greater bone mineral density compared with non-active and physically active females. The increase in bone mass should reduce the risk of fragility fractures in later life. There appears to be a window of opportunity during the development of peak bone mass in which the bone is especially responsive to weight-bearing physical activity. Impact loading sports such as gymnastics, rugby or volleyball tend to produce a better overall osteogenic response than sports without impact loading such as cycling, rowing and swimming. Relatively little is known about the impact of retiring from athletics on bone density. It appears that former athletes continue to have a higher bone density than non-athletes; however, the rate of bone loss appears to be similar in the femoral neck. The positive impact of sports participation on bone mass can be tempered by nutritional and hormonal status. It is not known whether female athletes need additional calcium compared with the general female population. Due to the increased energy expenditure of exercise and/or the pressure to obtain an optimal training bodyweight, some female athletes may develop low energy availability or an eating disorder and subsequently amenorrhoea and a loss of bone mineral density. The three inter-related clinical disorders are referred to as the 'female athlete triad'. This article presents a review of the

  7. The Feeding Behavior and Dissatisfaction With Body Image of Female Basketball Athletes' A City Central São Paulo

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    Micheli Bordonal Gazolla

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The most important eating disorders are anorexia and bulimia nervosa. This study intended to appraise athletes' behavior related to food , weight control and body image. The obtained results were: 25% present light distortions of their body image and 16,66% show moderate distortions. Based on the silhouettes of Stunkard et al., 66,66% overestimate their weight, 16,66% show dissatisfaction in relation to their thinness, 16,67% are pleased with their body weight. The majority of the athletes presents proper body composition, but presents a distortion of their body image.

  8. Commercially marketed supplements for bodybuilding athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunewald, K K; Bailey, R S

    1993-02-01

    We conducted a survey of 624 commercially available supplements targeted towards bodybuilding athletes. Over 800 performance claims were made for these supplements. Supplements include amino acids, boron, carnitine, choline, chromium, dibencozide, ferulic acid, gamma oryzanol, medium chain triglycerides, weight gain powders, Smilax compounds and yohimbine. Many performance claims advertised were not supported by published research studies. In some instances, we found no research to validate the claims; in other cases, research findings were extrapolated to inappropriate applications. For example, biological functions of some non-essential compounds were interpreted as performance claims for the supplements. Claims for others were based on their ability to enhance hormonal release or activity. We suggest that more research be conducted on this group of athletes and their nutritional needs. Furthermore, the effectiveness and safety of supplements merit further investigation.

  9. Female Athletes Facing Discrimination: Curriculum Regarding Female Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palis, Regina

    There continues to be oppression among female athletes, even after the enactment of Title IX in 1972. Female athletes in secondary schools deal with low self-esteem, eating disorders such as anorexia and bulimia, and depression. Female athletes struggle with societal pressures to maintain a model-like figure, while trying to train and perform for…

  10. [Performance of entero-insular axis in an athletic population: diet and exercise influence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Carmen; Quezada-Feijoo, Maribel; Toro, Carmen; Barón-Esquivias, Gonzalo; Segura, Eduardo; Mangas, Alipio; Toro, Rocio

    2015-05-01

    The relationship between physical exercise and appetite regulation can lead to improved competitive performance of athletes. Mediators of the entero-insular axis generate neurohumoral signals that influence on the appetite regulation and energy homeostasis. Determine the influence of diet and prolonged exercise on intestinal peptide, ghrelin, resistin, leptin, and incretins (GLP-1 and GIP) in an athlete population. It is a prospective intervention study, conducted from October 2012 to March 2013. 32 healthy semiprofessional rugby players, aged 13-39 years were included. Anthropometric measurements and blood samples were taken at time 0 and after six months of study. Athletes were randomized to a protein diet (PD) or Mediterranean diet (MD) and plasma levels of intestinal peptide, ghrelin, resistin, leptin, and incretins were calculated. In the PD group, GLP-1 and GIP plasmatic levels showed a significant decrease (p <0.03; p <0.01 respectively). GLP-1 and ghrelin plasmatic concentration demonstrated a significant decrease (p <0.03 respectively) in those who experienced gain of muscle mass (MM). Finally, the athletes related to the PD who showed increased total weight and muscle mass presented significantly decreased GLP-1 concentration (p <0.03 and p<0.002, respectively). GLP-1 plasmatic concentration was decreased, with the PD suggesting to be more beneficial for the athletes in order to avoid hypoglycemia. Furthermore, muscle mass and total weight gain, linked to the PD, could enhance athletic performance in certain sport modalities. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  11. Radiographic evidence of femoroacetabular impingement in athletes with athletic pubalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economopoulos, Kostas J; Milewski, Matthew D; Hanks, John B; Hart, Joseph M; Diduch, David R

    2014-03-01

    Two of the most common causes of groin pain in athletes are femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) and athletic pubalgia. An association between the 2 is apparent, but the prevalence of radiographic signs of FAI in patients undergoing athletic pubalgia surgery remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of radiologic signs of FAI in patients with athletic pubalgia. We hypothesized that patients with athletic pubalgia would have a high prevalence of underlying FAI. Case series. Level 4. A retrospective review of all patients evaluated at our institution with athletic pubalgia who underwent surgical treatment (ie, for sports hernia) from 1999 to 2011 was performed. The radiographs of patients with athletic pubalgia were reviewed for radiographic signs of FAI. Alpha angles were measured using frog-leg lateral radiographs. Pincer lesions were identified by measuring the lateral center-edge angle and identifying the presence of a "crossover" sign on anteroposterior radiographs. Phone follow-up was performed 2 years or more after the initial sports hernia surgery to evaluate recurrent symptoms. Forty-three patients underwent 56 athletic pubalgia surgeries. Radiographic evidence of FAI was identified in at least 1 hip in 37 of 43 patients (86%). Cam lesions were identified in 83.7% of the population; the alpha angle averaged 66.7° ± 17.9° for all hips. Pincer lesions were present in 28% of the hips. Eight patients had recurrent groin pain, 3 patients had revision athletic pubalgia surgery, and 1 had hip arthroscopy. The study demonstrates a high prevalence of radiographic FAI in patients with athletic pubalgia. Underlying FAI may be a cause of continued groin pain after athletic pubalgia surgery. Patients with athletic pubalgia should be evaluated closely for FAI.

  12. The Research on the High-Protein Low-Calorie Food Recipe for Teenager Gymnastics Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Cong

    2015-01-01

    In order to prevent teenager gymnastics athletes getting fat deposition, weight gain, they should supply a rational food. This paper considers the normal growth and development of athletes, body fat deposition proteins and hunger feel, configured high-protein low-calorie food recipe. Then analysis the composition and the essential amino acids of the recipe. In the final choiced 18 adolescent gymnastics athletes as subjects, to verify the validity of the formula. And analysis the experimental results. The experimental results analysis shows that this recipe basically meets the design requirements.

  13. Dietary Habits of Young Athletes Going in for Cyclic Sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Makarova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In modern sports, outlining an adequate diet is one of the key issues in training young athletes. The following literature review presents new approaches to nutrition of young athletes going in for cyclic sports. These sports take a lot of energy, entail great strain and significant intensity of training. Correspondingly, the ratio of nutrients in athletes training for endurance tends to shift toward carbohydrates, the amount of which in the body should cover the increased need for workload as may be defined by the training process and the amount of workload. High-fat diets have proved irrelevant in terms of providing energy function; therefore, this nutritive approach was dismissed, since an athlete should have an about 25% share of fats of his/her menu’s total caloric value. According to modern standards, the amount of proteins in athletes’ menu should not exceed 1.2–1.6g per 1kg of body weight. To avoid the risk of dehydration and physical weakness, cyclic athletes should take sport drinks (in small portions prior to and following a training session (competition. They contain carbohydrates and electrolytes and therefore are more preferable than pure water. 

  14. MORPHOLOGICAL STATUS OF THE FEMALE ATHLETE FINALIST IN JUMPING DISCIPLINES AT THE BEIJING OLYMPICS

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    Ratko Pavlović

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Morphological status of athletes is his, we can say, based on an identification card, which can be assigned to a particular constitutional type, and we also got information about his body height, body weight, BMI, and even used to analyze and age. Different constitutional types are present in the sport and are important in terms of targeting, selection and performance of a specific sport. This is particularly pronounced in the athletic sport where within athletics have many different types of athletes is constitutional requires a certain discipline. This paper analyzes the morphological status of female finalists in jumping events at the Olympic Games in Beijing 2008. The survey included 32 athletes who performed in the final of the measured variables to assess the morphological status: body height (AVIS, body mass (AMAS, derived body mass index (BMI and age athletes (GOD. Applying basic statistical parameters (mean made a comparative analysis of the applied variables based competitors that have passed certain conclusions.

  15. Prevention of eating disorders in female athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coelho GMO

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Gabriela Morgado de Oliveira Coelho,1 Ainá Innocencio da Silva Gomes,2 Beatriz Gonçalves Ribeiro,2 Eliane de Abreu Soares11Nutrition Institute, Rio de Janeiro State University, Maracanã, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 2Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Macaé Campus, Granja dos Cavaleiros, Macaé, BrazilAbstract: Eating disorders are serious mental diseases that frequently appear in female athletes. They are abnormal eating behaviors that can be diagnosed only by strict criteria. Disordered eating, although also characterized as abnormal eating behavior, does not include all the criteria for diagnosing eating disorders and is therefore a way to recognize the problem in its early stages. It is important to identify factors to avoid clinical progression in this high-risk population. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to discuss critical information for the prevention of eating disorders in female athletes. This review discusses the major correlates for the development of an eating disorder. We also discuss which athletes are possibly at highest risk for eating disorders, including those from lean sports and female adolescent athletes. There is an urgent need for the demystification of myths surrounding body weight and performance in sports. This review includes studies that tested different prevention programs' effectiveness, and the majority showed positive results. Educational programs are the best method for primary prevention of eating disorders. For secondary prevention, early identification is essential and should be performed by preparticipation exams, the recognition of dietary markers, and the use of validated self-report questionnaires or clinical interviews. In addition, more randomized clinical trials are needed with athletes from multiple sports in order for the most reliable recommendations to be made and for some sporting regulations to be changed.Keywords: nutrition, disordered eating, sport, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa

  16. Body dissatisfaction and sociodemographic, anthropometric and maturational factors among artistic gymnastics athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Mockdece NEVES

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the overall body dissatisfaction and in specific areas in adolescents who practice artistic gymnastic in elite and non-elite levels, and to analyze the influence of sociodemographic, anthropometric and maturational factors on body dissatisfaction. The research is characterized as transversal, quantitative, descriptive and correlational. The sample consisted of 285 adolescents, of both sexes, practicing gymnastics. They were divided into two groups: 245 non-elite athletes and 40 elite athletes. The participants were aged between 10 and 18 years (mean 12.86 ± 1.80 and were resident of the city of Três Rios-RJ. The assessment instruments were: Body Shape Questionnaire, Body Areas Scale, Critério de Classificação Econômica Brasil and socio-demographic questionnaire. Anthropometric and somatic maturation data were collected. The results showed that 24.9% of the non-elite athletes and 15% of elite athletes were dissatisfied with their body as a whole. For specific body areas, nonelite athletes were significantly more dissatisfied with their body area “weight” than the elite athletes. Sociodemographic and economic factors had no influence on overall body dissatisfaction. For non-elite athletes, only the body percentage of fat and somatic maturation were predictors for the overall body dissatisfaction and in specific areas, respectively. It was concluded that the non-elite athletes were more dissatisfied with their body and weight than the elite athletes.

  17. A Tale of Two Runners: A Case Report of Athletes' Experiences with Eating Disorders in College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quatromoni, Paula A

    2017-01-01

    Athletes are at higher risk than the general population for eating disorders, and risk is heightened for athletes in thin-build sports, including track. Collegiate athletes are particularly vulnerable to disordered eating when the transition from home to the college environment adds to the stress of performance pressures and the high demands of the sport environment. Male and female athletes who develop eating disorders share some common characteristics, yet their experiences can be quite different, in part as a consequence of their sex and how eating disorders develop, and are recognized, acknowledged, and treated, within the culture of sports. This case report describes the experiences of two track athletes, one male and one female, who were recruited to the same Division 1 collegiate track program. Both were elite athletes, freshmen in the same year, experiencing the same urban college environment, and experiencing an eating disorder characterized by restrictive eating, significant weight loss, injury, and compromised performance in sport. Both received treatment from a multidisciplinary team of professionals. Both athletes achieved weight restoration, recovery from the disorder, and success in their sport. In spite of the similarities, striking differences were apparent in clinical presentation, predisposing features, onset of symptoms, entry points to treatment, interventions received, and clinical courses through treatment that depict sex differences in how eating disorders present in athletes and are addressed in the sport environment. Findings endorse the need for research and inform prevention strategies, risk assessment, and intervention approaches for nutrition and sports medicine professionals and collegiate athletic departments. Copyright © 2017 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Anabolic-androgenic Steroid use and Psychopathology in Athletes. A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piacentino, Daria; Kotzalidis, Georgios D.; del Casale, Antonio; Aromatario, Maria Rosaria; Pomara, Cristoforo; Girardi, Paolo; Sani, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    The use of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AASs) by professional and recreational athletes is increasing worldwide. The underlying motivations are mainly performance enhancement and body image improvement. AAS abuse and dependence, which are specifically classified and coded by the DSM-5, are not uncommon. AAS-using athletes are frequently present with psychiatric symptoms and disorders, mainly somatoform and eating, but also mood, and schizophrenia-related disorders. Some psychiatric disorders are typical of athletes, like muscle dysmorphia. This raises the issue of whether AAS use causes these disorders in athletes, by determining neuroadaptive changes in the reward neural circuit or by exacerbating stress vulnerability, or rather these are athletes with premorbid abnormal personalities or a history of psychiatric disorders who are attracted to AAS use, prompted by the desire to improve their appearance and control their weights. This may predispose to eating disorders, but AASs also show mood destabilizing effects, with longterm use inducing depression and short-term hypomania; withdrawal/discontinuation may be accompanied by depression. The effects of AASs on anxiety behavior are unclear and studies are inconsistent. AASs are also linked to psychotic behavior. The psychological characteristics that could prompt athletes to use AASs have not been elucidated. PMID:26074746

  19. Injured Athletes' Perceived Loss of Identity: Educational Implications for Athletic Trainers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockhart, Barbara D.

    2010-01-01

    Context: As educators, athletic trainers should familiarize athletes with the concepts of self acceptance self-esteem and identity to assuage psychological trauma accompanying injury because the more a person identifies with being an athlete, the more difficult it is to deal with athletic injury. Objective: The objective of this article is to…

  20. American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Nutrition and athletic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Nancy R; Di Marco, Nancy M; Langley, Susie

    2009-03-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine that physical activity, athletic performance, and recovery from exercise are enhanced by optimal nutrition. These organizations recommend appropriate selection of foods and fluids, timing of intake, and supplement choices for optimal health and exercise performance. This updated position paper couples a rigorous, systematic, evidence-based analysis of nutrition and performance-specific literature with current scientific data related to energy needs, assessment of body composition, strategies for weight change, nutrient and fluid needs, special nutrient needs during training and competition, the use of supplements and ergogenic aids, nutrition recommendations for vegetarian athletes, and the roles and responsibilities of the sports dietitian. Energy and macronutrient needs, especially carbohydrate and protein, must be met during times of high physical activity to maintain body weight, replenish glycogen stores, and provide adequate protein to build and repair tissue. Fat intake should be sufficient to provide the essential fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins and to contribute energy for weight maintenance. Although exercise performance can be affected by body weight and composition, these physical measures should not be a criterion for sports performance and daily weigh-ins are discouraged. Adequate food and fluid should be consumed before, during, and after exercise to help maintain blood glucose concentration during exercise, maximize exercise performance, and improve recovery time. Athletes should be well hydrated before exercise and drink enough fluid during and after exercise to balance fluid losses. Sports beverages containing carbohydrates and electrolytes may be consumed before, during, and after exercise to help maintain blood glucose concentration, provide fuel for muscles, and decrease risk of dehydration and hyponatremia. Vitamin

  1. An Epidemiological Profile of CrossFit Athletes in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprey, Jan W C; Ferreira, Thiago; de Lima, Marcos V; Duarte, Aires; Jorge, Pedro B; Santili, Claudio

    2016-08-01

    CrossFit is a conditioning and training program that has been gaining recognition and interest among the physically active population. Approximately 440 certified and registered CrossFit fitness centers and gyms exist in Brazil, with approximately 40,000 athletes. To date, there have been no epidemiological studies about the CrossFit athlete in Brazil. To evaluate the profile, sports history, training routine, and presence of injuries among athletes of CrossFit. Descriptive epidemiological study. This cross-sectional study was based on a questionnaire administered to CrossFit athletes from various specialized fitness centers in Brazil. Data were collected from May 2015 to July 2015 through an electronic questionnaire that included demographic data, level of sedentary lifestyle at work, sports training history prior to starting CrossFit, current sports activities, professional monitoring, and whether the participants experienced any injuries while practicing CrossFit. A total of 622 questionnaires were received, including 566 (243 women [42.9%] and 323 men [57.1%]) that were completely filled out and met the inclusion criteria and 9% that were incompletely filled out. Overall, 176 individuals (31.0%) mentioned having experienced some type of injury while practicing CrossFit. We found no significant difference in injury incidence rates regarding demographic data. There was no significant difference regarding previous sports activities because individuals who did not practice prior physical activity showed very similar injury rates to those who practiced at any level. CrossFit injury rates are comparable to those of other recreational or competitive sports, and the injuries show a profile similar to weight lifting, power lifting, weight training, Olympic gymnastics, and running, which have an injury incidence rate nearly half that of soccer.

  2. Effect of ramadan fasting on body composition and physical performance in female athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memari, Amir-Hossein; Kordi, Ramin; Panahi, Nekoo; Nikookar, Laya R; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Akbarnejad, Ali

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of Ramadan fasting on body composition, calorie intake and physical performance in young female athletes undertaking training sessions during Ramadan. Twelve voluntary female athletes (15-27 years old) were assigned to the research. A prospective study was conducted to investigate the athletes on four different occasions: one week before Ramadan (T1), the second (T2) and fourth (T3) weeks of Ramadan, and two weeks after the end of Ramadan (T4). Food intake, body composition and physical performance (agility, balance and explosive leg power) were investigated on each occasion. Further, Physical performance was assessed by agility, vertical jump and balance tests. There was a significant main effect for time for body composition indices. A significant decrease was observed in weight (P=0.01) and body mass index (BMI) (P=0.01) in T2 compared with T1, further decrease in weight (Peffect for time for agility performance (P=0.03), but no significant main effect for time was observed for vertical jumping (P=0.1) and balance performance (P=0.3). This study has found that Ramadan fasting could affect the body composition, but not physical performance in female athletes during Ramadan.

  3. US Air Force 1989 Research Initiation Program. Volume 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-25

    1982, Epperson, Burton and Bernauer investigated 24 individuals divided into 3 separate exercise training groups ( runners , weight lifters and control...muscle fiber types in power lifters, distance runners and untrained 93-31 subjects. Eur J Physiol 1976; 363:19-26. 47. Shrout PE, Fleiss JL. Intraclass...and Gilmore, 1983; Stokes, Wickens, and Kite , 1990). Thus, animated mimic displays provide representations of the important components, systems, or

  4. Energy Balance over One Athletic Season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Analiza M; Matias, Catarina N; Santos, Diana A; Thomas, Diana; Bosy-Westphal, Anja; Müller, Manfred J; Heymsfield, Steven B; Sardinha, Luís B

    2017-08-01

    Magnitude and variation in energy balance (EB) components over an athletic season are largely unknown. We investigated the longitudinal changes in EB over one season and explored the association between EB variation and change in the main fat-free mass (FFM) components in highly trained athletes. Eighty athletes (54 males; handball, volleyball, basketball, triathlete, and swimming) were evaluated from the beginning of the season to the main competition stage. Resting and total energy expenditure (REE and TEE, respectively) were assessed by indirect calorimetry and doubly labeled water, respectively. Physical activity energy expenditure was calculated as TEE - 0.1 TEE - REE. Fat mass (FM), FFM, and bone mineral were evaluated with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; changed body energy stores were calculated as 1.0(ΔFFM/Δtime) + 9.5(ΔFM/Δtime). Total-body water (TBW) and its compartments were assessed through dilution techniques, and total-body protein was calculated from a four-compartment model, with body volume assessed by air displacement plethysmography. Although a negative EB of -17.4 ± 72.7 kcal·d was observed (P sports and across sex groups resulting in a net weight increase (0.7 ± 2.3 kg) that is attributable to significant changes in FFM (1.2 ± 1.6 kg) and FM (-0.7 ± 1.5 kg) (P sports, and age. The mean negative EB observed over the season resulted from the rate of FM use and FFM accretion, but with a large variation by sex and sports. TBW, but not total-body protein or mineral balance, explained the magnitude of EB, which means that athletes under a positive or a negative EB showed a TBW expansion or shrinkage, respectively, specifically within the cells, over one athletic season.

  5. Fluid Balance During Training in Elite Young Athletes of Different Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaoutis, Giannis; Kavouras, Stavros A; Angelopoulou, Athanasia; Skoulariki, Chara; Bismpikou, Stefani; Mourtakos, Stamatis; Sidossis, Labros S

    2015-12-01

    Although there are many studies demonstrating a high percentage of adult athletes who start exercise in suboptimal hydration state, limited data concerning hydration levels in athletic youth exist. The purpose of this study was to identify the hydration status of elite young athletes of different sports, during a typical day of training. Fifty-nine young elite male athletes from different sports (basketball, gymnastics, swimming, running, and canoeing) participated in the study (age: 15.2 ± 1.3 years; years of training: 7.7 ± 2.0). Hydration status was assessed in the morning, before and immediately after practice. Data collection took place at the same time of the day, with mean environmental temperature and humidity at the time of the measurements at 27.6 ± 0.9° C and 58 ± 8%, respectively. All athletes trained for approximately 90 minutes, and they were consuming fluids ad libitum throughout their practice. Over 89% of the athletes were hypohydrated (urine specific gravity [USG] ≥1.020 mg·dl) based on their first morning urine sample. Pretraining urine samples revealed that 76.3% of the athletes were hypohydrated, whereas a significant high percent remained hypohydrated even after training according to USG values ≥1.020 mg·dl (74.5%) and urine color scale: 5-6 (76.3%). Mean body weight loss during training was -1.1 ± 0.07%. We concluded that the prevalence of hypohydration among elite young athletes is very high, as indicated by the USG and urine color values. The majority of the athletes was hypohydrated throughout the day and dehydrated even more during practice despite fluid availability.

  6. Division I Student Athletes' Perceptions: How Well Does the Athletic Department Promote Student Athlete Development in an Urban-Serving University?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermillion, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to identify student athletes' perceptions of their athletic department regarding student development. Student athletes from a Division I athletic department were surveyed (n = 369) in order to monitor their development. Regression analyses, which included respondent's sport, gender, classification, reports of abuse,…

  7. Influence of bodybuilding training on changes in the anthropometric indicators of skilled female athletes in different phases of a specific biological cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yevheniia Dzhym

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to carry out research on the influence of the activities of female athletes engaged in bodybuilding on changes in anthropometric indicators in different phases of the ovarian-menstrual cycle (OMC. Material & Methods: studies were conducted in the fitness clubs of Kharkiv "Pheromone", "City", "King" with qualified athletes who are engaged in bodybuilding for 3 months of the preparatory period in the amount of 22 people. As research methods used: analysis of literature sources and testing of the level of motor qualities in individual phases of the OMC. Result: presented analysis of the condition of the female athletes taking into account the features of the OMC phases and the testing of body weight and anthropometric indicators in different phases of a specific biological cycle in qualified female athletes engaged in bodybuilding. Conclusion: Obtained results indicate that the anthropometric indicators of qualified female athletes engaged in bodybuilding are not the same in the phases of the ovarian-menstrual cycle. It was revealed that during the OMC period the body is able to retain water, which leads to fluctuations in the body weight of female athletes from 0,5 to 2,5 kg, while on the 3rd-6th day and on the 25–26th there is an increase in body weight, and on the 7th and 16th - its decrease. According to the results of the study, in the first phase, the decrease in anthropometry and body weight, this is due to the rejection of the mucous membrane of the uterus and menstrual bleeding.

  8. Does Love Influence Athletic Performance? The Perspectives of Olympic Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Kelly; Hosseini, Cheyenne; Myers, Kelly; Calub, Nina

    2016-06-01

    In this brief report, we provide an initial account of the association between love and athletic performance from the perspective of Olympic athletes. We posit that Romantic Passionate Love (RPL) and athletic performance may both involve the reward-motivation system of the brain. Based on this premise, we explored whether activation in one domain (love) might influence the other (sport). Our investigation was framed using Sternberg's triangular theory of love. Twenty Olympic athletes representing different sports were interviewed at the Games. Most athletes (n = 15) reported that their performance was better while in love; however, qualitative responses suggested that the benefits were correlated with rather than resulting from RPL. Although the athletes were provided with a definition of RPL and affirmed that their relationship met the criteria, interview responses reflected companionate rather than passionate love, suggesting that RPL may be differentially conceptualized across cultures. The study provides preliminary data that may be used to inform and refine future work on this topic.

  9. Gender differences in muscular protection of the knee in torsion in size-matched athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtys, Edward M; Huston, Laura J; Schock, Harold J; Boylan, James P; Ashton-Miller, James A

    2003-05-01

    Female athletes who participate in sports involving jumping and cutting maneuvers are up to eight times more likely to sustain a rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament than are men participating in the same sports. We tested the hypothesis that healthy young women are able to volitionally increase the apparent torsional stiffness of the knee, by maximally activating the knee muscles, significantly less than are size-matched men participating in the same type of sport. Twenty-four NCAA (National Collegiate Athletic Association) Division-I athletes (twelve men and twelve women) competing in sports associated with a high risk of injury to the anterior cruciate ligament (basketball, volleyball, and soccer) were compared with twenty-eight collegiate endurance athletes (fourteen men and fourteen women) participating in sports associated with a low risk of such injuries (bicycling, crew, and running). Male and female pairs were matched for age, height, weight, body mass index, shoe size, and activity level. Testing was performed with a weighted pendulum that applied a medially directed 80-N impulse force to the lateral aspect of the right forefoot. The resulting internal rotation of the leg was measured optically, to the nearest 0.25 degrees, at 30 degrees and 60 degrees of knee flexion, both with and without maximal activation of the knee muscles. Maximal rotations of the leg were greater in women than in men in both the passive and the active muscle state (16% and 27% greater [p = 0.01 and p = 0.02], respectively). Moreover, female athletes exhibited a significantly (18%) smaller volitional increase in apparent torsional stiffness of the knee under internal rotation loading than did the matched male athletes (p = 0.014); this was particularly the case for those who participated in sports involving jumping and pivoting maneuvers (42% difference between genders, p = 0.001). The collegiate female athletes involved in high-risk sports exhibited less muscular protection

  10. The Experiences of Female Athletic Trainers in the Role of the Head Athletic Trainer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Burton, Laura; Cotrufo, Raymond J.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Very few women have leadership positions in athletic training (ie, head athletic training positions) in intercollegiate athletics. Research exists on the barriers to attaining the role; however, our understanding about the experiences of those currently engaged in the role is limited. Objective: To examine the experiences of female head athletic trainers as they worked toward and attained the position of head athletic trainer. Design: Qualitative study. Setting: National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I setting. Patients or Other Participants: Eight female athletic trainers serving in the role of head athletic trainer participated in our study. The mean age of the participants was 45 ± 12 years, with 5 ± 1.5 years of experience in the role of head athletic trainer and 21 ± 10 years of experience as athletic trainers. Data Collection and Analysis: We conducted phone interviews with the 8 participants following a semistructured format. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed following a general inductive approach as described by Thomas. To establish credibility, we used a peer reviewer, member checks, and multiple-analyst triangulation. Results: Six major themes emerged from our analysis regarding the experiences of female head athletic trainers. Opportunities to become a head athletic trainer, leadership qualities, and unique personal characteristics were discussed as factors leading to the assumption of the role of the head athletic trainer. Where women hold back, family challenges, and organizational barriers speak to the potential obstacles to assuming the role of head athletic trainer. Conclusions: Female head athletic trainers did not seek the role, but through persistence and encouragement, they find themselves assuming the role. Leadership skills were discussed as important for success in the role of head athletic trainer. Life balancing and parenting were identified as barriers to women seeking the role of head athletic

  11. The experiences of female athletic trainers in the role of the head athletic trainer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M; Burton, Laura; Cotrufo, Raymond J

    2015-01-01

    Very few women have leadership positions in athletic training (ie, head athletic training positions) in intercollegiate athletics. Research exists on the barriers to attaining the role; however, our understanding about the experiences of those currently engaged in the role is limited. To examine the experiences of female head athletic trainers as they worked toward and attained the position of head athletic trainer. Qualitative study. National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I setting. Eight female athletic trainers serving in the role of head athletic trainer participated in our study. The mean age of the participants was 45 ± 12 years, with 5 ± 1.5 years of experience in the role of head athletic trainer and 21 ± 10 years of experience as athletic trainers. We conducted phone interviews with the 8 participants following a semistructured format. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed following a general inductive approach as described by Thomas. To establish credibility, we used a peer reviewer, member checks, and multiple-analyst triangulation. Six major themes emerged from our analysis regarding the experiences of female head athletic trainers. Opportunities to become a head athletic trainer, leadership qualities, and unique personal characteristics were discussed as factors leading to the assumption of the role of the head athletic trainer. Where women hold back, family challenges, and organizational barriers speak to the potential obstacles to assuming the role of head athletic trainer. Female head athletic trainers did not seek the role, but through persistence and encouragement, they find themselves assuming the role. Leadership skills were discussed as important for success in the role of head athletic trainer. Life balancing and parenting were identified as barriers to women seeking the role of head athletic trainer.

  12. The Impact of Athletic Facilities on the Recruitment of Potential Student-Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Ray; Messenger, Steve

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the impact that athletic facilities and other college choice factors have on the recruitment of student-athletes to play Division I college hockey compared to the influence of other college choice factors. Although athletic facilities and their seeming importance in the recruitment of top level student-athletes are…

  13. Female Athletic Training Students' Perceptions of Motherhood and Retention in Athletic Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Gavin, Kerri

    2013-01-01

    Context: Motherhood appears to be a catalyst in job turnover for female athletic trainers, especially those employed at the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I level. However, most researchers examining this topic have investigated the perspectives of those who are currently employed rather than those who are preparing to enter the profession. Objective: To evaluate female athletic training students' perceptions of motherhood and retention. Design: Qualitative study. Setting: Athletic training education program. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 18 female athletic training students volunteered to participate. They were enrolled in 1 Commission on Accrediting Athletic Training Education–accredited athletic training program and represented 3 levels of academic study. Data Collection and Analysis: The participants responded to a series of questions related to work–life balance and retention in athletic training. Analysis of the data followed a general inductive process. Credibility was established by interpretive member checks and peer review. Results: The first theme, clinical setting, speaks to the belief that work–life balance and retention in athletic training require an employment setting that fosters a family-friendly atmosphere and a work schedule (including travel) that allows for time at home. The second theme, mentorship, reflects the acknowledgment that a female mentor who is successful in balancing the roles of mother and athletic trainer can serve as a role model. The final theme, work–life balance strategies, illustrates the need to have a plan in place to meet the demands of both home and work life. Conclusions: A female athletic trainer who is successfully balancing her career and family responsibilities may be the most helpful factor in retention, especially for female athletic training students. Young professionals need to be educated on the importance of developing successful work–life balance strategies, which can

  14. Female athletic training students' perceptions of motherhood and retention in athletic training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M; Gavin, Kerri

    2013-01-01

    Motherhood appears to be a catalyst in job turnover for female athletic trainers, especially those employed at the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I level. However, most researchers examining this topic have investigated the perspectives of those who are currently employed rather than those who are preparing to enter the profession. To evaluate female athletic training students' perceptions of motherhood and retention. Qualitative study. Athletic training education program. A total of 18 female athletic training students volunteered to participate. They were enrolled in 1 Commission on Accrediting Athletic Training Education-accredited athletic training program and represented 3 levels of academic STUDY. The participants responded to a series of questions related to work-life balance and retention in athletic training. Analysis of the data followed a general inductive process. Credibility was established by interpretive member checks and peer review. The first theme, clinical setting, speaks to the belief that work-life balance and retention in athletic training require an employment setting that fosters a family-friendly atmosphere and a work schedule (including travel) that allows for time at home. The second theme, mentorship, reflects the acknowledgment that a female mentor who is successful in balancing the roles of mother and athletic trainer can serve as a role model. The final theme, work-life balance strategies, illustrates the need to have a plan in place to meet the demands of both home and work life. A female athletic trainer who is successfully balancing her career and family responsibilities may be the most helpful factor in retention, especially for female athletic training students. Young professionals need to be educated on the importance of developing successful work-life balance strategies, which can be helpful in reducing attrition from the profession.

  15. Preventive Neuromuscular Training for Young Female Athletes: Comparison of Coach and Athlete Compliance Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Dai; Mattacola, Carl G; Bush, Heather M; Thomas, Staci M; Foss, Kim D Barber; Myer, Gregory D; Hewett, Timothy E

    2017-01-01

     Fewer athletic injuries and lower anterior cruciate ligament injury incidence rates were noted in studies of neuromuscular-training (NMT) interventions that had high compliance rates. However, several groups have demonstrated that preventive NMT interventions were limited by low compliance rates.  To descriptively analyze coach and athlete compliance with preventive NMT and compare the compliance between study arms as well as among school levels and sports.  Randomized, controlled clinical trial.  Middle and high school athletic programs. Participants or Other Participants: A total of 52 teams, comprising 547 female athletes, were randomly assigned to the experimental or control group and followed for 1 athletic season.  The experimental group (n = 30 teams [301 athletes]: 12 basketball teams [125 athletes], 6 soccer teams [74 athletes], and 12 volleyball teams [102 athletes]) participated in an NMT program aimed at reducing traumatic knee injuries through a trunk-stabilization and hip-strengthening program. The control group (n = 22 teams [246 athletes]: 11 basketball teams [116 athletes], 5 soccer teams [68 athletes], and 6 volleyball teams [62 athletes]) performed a resistive rubber-band running program.  Compliance with the assigned intervention protocols (3 times per week during the preseason [mean = 3.4 weeks] and 2 times per week in-season [mean = 11.9 weeks] of coaches [coach compliance] and athletes [athlete compliance]) was measured descriptively. Using an independent t test, we compared coach and athlete compliance between the study arms. A 2-way analysis of variance was calculated to compare differences between coach and athlete compliance by school level (middle and high schools) and sport (basketball, soccer, and volleyball).  The protocols were completed at a mean rate of 1.3 ± 1.1 times per week during the preseason and 1.2 ± 0.5 times per week in-season. A total of 88.4% of athletes completed 2/3 of the intervention sessions

  16. Isokinetic dynamometry of knee flexors and extensors: comparative study among non-athletes, jumper athletes and runner athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siqueira Cássio Marinho

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Participation in intensive sports activities leads to muscular specializations that may generate alterations in involved articular forces and cause static (posture and dynamic changes (alterations of articular stability, coordination, etc.. Prevention of injury requires specific functional muscular evaluation in all athletes and for any kind of sport. OBJECTIVE: To dynamically evaluate, through isokinetic tests, the peak torque, total work, and average power of the knee flexor and extensor muscles of jumper and runner athletes and compare them to those of a non-athletic population, evaluating dominance and balance between agonistic and antagonistic muscle groups. RESULTS: In the non-athlete group, we noted a higher asymmetry between the dominant and nondominant members. The jumpers had the highest values of the evaluated parameters of all groups, whereas parameters for the runners were intermediate between non-athletes and jumpers.

  17. Automated external defibrillators in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Athletics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coris, Eric E; Sahebzamani, Frances; Walz, Steve; Ramirez, Arnold M

    2004-01-01

    Sudden cardiac death is the leading cause of death in athletes. Evidence on current sudden cardiac death prevention through preparticipation history, physicals, and noninvasive cardiovascular diagnostics has demonstrated a low sensitivity for detection of athletes at high risk of sudden cardiac death. Data are lacking on automated external defibrillator programs specifically initiated to respond to rare dysrhythmia in younger, relatively low-risk populations. Surveys were mailed to the head athletic trainers of all National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I athletics programs listed in the National Athletic Trainers' Association directory. In all, 303 surveys were mailed; 186 departments (61%) responded. Seventy-two percent (133) of responding National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I athletics programs have access to automated external defibrillator units; 54% (101) own their units. Proven medical benefit (55%), concern for liability (51%), and affordability (29%) ranked highest in frequency of reasons for automated external defibrillator purchase. Unit cost (odds ratio = 1.01; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.0), donated units (odds ratio = 1.92; confidence interval, 3.66-1.01), institution size (odds ratio =.0001; confidence interval, 1.3 E-4 to 2.2E-05), and proven medical benefit of automated external defibrillators (odds ratio = 24; confidence interval, 72-8.1) were the most significant predictors of departmental defibrillator ownership. Emergency medical service response time and sudden cardiac death event history were not significantly predictive of departmental defibrillator ownership. The majority of automated external defibrillator interventions occurred on nonathletes. Many athletics medicine programs are obtaining automated external defibrillators without apparent criteria for determination of need. Usage and maintenance policies vary widely among departments with unit ownership or access. Programs need to approach the issue of unit

  18. Enhancing appearance and sports performance: are female collegiate athletes behaving more like males?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Susan M; Gorrow, Teena R; Schneider, Sidney R

    2009-01-01

    The authors designed this study to determine if differences exist between male and female collegiate athletes' supplement use and behaviors to modify body appearance. Collegiate athletes who participated in this study were 241 females and 210 males, aged 17 to 28 years. Participants completed a questionnaire about the average number of times each week they performed specific supplementing, exercise, or dietary behaviors. The authors found differences associated with gender for 9 of the 18 behaviors. Specifically, 2 of these 9 behaviors were dietary, 1 was supplementary, 3 were physique concerns, and 3 involved personal motivation for weightlifting. Male athletes reported a higher drive for size, speed, and power, whereas female athletes were more concerned with body fat, more likely to restrict caloric intake, and more prone to consume weight loss supplements. No differences were found by gender regarding supplement use to increase body size.

  19. Psychological Properties and Stress Tolerance of High-Qualified Athletes Specializing in Athletic Walking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasyl Vasylyuk

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In the field of sports, there is a strong interest in the behavioral strategies of professional athletes, thus the study of the psychological characteristics of highly skilled athletes is a very topical issue. The article raises the question of the characteristics of the sports environment and the manifestations of stress among athletes. In the paper the psychological features of the personalities of highly qualified athletes who specialize in athletic walking on a scale of neuroticism and extraversion are investigated and the level of neuro-psychological stability of highly skilled athletes specializing in athletic walking is revealed. The main factors of stress in sports activities are: intense competition during a sporting contestation aimed at establishing a record or achieving victory over the rival; maximum physical and psychological stress during the contestation; systematic, long and intense training, which significantly affect the daily regime and everyday life. Two types of stress among athletes are singled out: social-emotional and training. A study of 12 highly qualified athletes who specialize in athletic walking showed that most of them (50 % have ambivert abilities. They are concordants and normostenics that are characterized by significant emotional stability, good adaptability, resistance to external influences. However, among the respondents there were some with low and below average neuropsychic stability.

  20. Predicting basal metabolic rates in Malaysian adult elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jyh Eiin; Poh, Bee Koon; Nik Shanita, Safii; Izham, Mohd Mohamad; Chan, Kai Quin; Tai, Meng De; Ng, Wei Wei; Ismail, Mohd Noor

    2012-11-01

    This study aimed to measure the basal metabolic rate (BMR) of elite athletes and develop a gender specific predictive equation to estimate their energy requirements. 92 men and 33 women (aged 18-31 years) from 15 sports, who had been training six hours daily for at least one year, were included in the study. Body composition was measured using the bioimpedance technique, and BMR by indirect calorimetry. The differences between measured and estimated BMR using various predictive equations were calculated. The novel equation derived from stepwise multiple regression was evaluated using Bland and Altman analysis. The predictive equations of Cunningham and the Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization/United Nations University either over- or underestimated the measured BMR by up to ± 6%, while the equations of Ismail et al, developed from the local non-athletic population, underestimated the measured BMR by 14%. The novel predictive equation for the BMR of athletes was BMR (kcal/day) = 669 + 13 (weight in kg) + 192 (gender: 1 for men and 0 for women) (R2 0.548; standard error of estimates 163 kcal). Predicted BMRs of elite athletes by this equation were within 1.2% ± 9.5% of the measured BMR values. The novel predictive equation presented in this study can be used to calculate BMR for adult Malaysian elite athletes. Further studies may be required to validate its predictive capabilities for other sports, nationalities and age groups.

  1. Are NCAA Division I Athletes Prepared for End-of-Athletic-Career Transition? A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lauren; Buttell, Frederick P

    2018-01-01

    This review focuses on research that specifically highlights the constructs, paradigms, and factors that impact the end-of-athletic-career transition. However, the majority of the research conducted around this topic is established outside of the United States and regarding professional athletes. The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) is one of the most dominant athletic institutions in the world, and arguably transitions the most end-of-athletic-career athletes per year, and minimal research exists on this specific collegiate athletic population. The purpose of this review is to review the existent literature on this topic and highlight the leading research and components impacting athletes during the end-of-athletic-career transition in order to inform future research and practices with the college athletics population. This review utilizes a Client Oriented Practical Evidence Search question as an Evidence Based Practice approach to guide the literature search and literature review process while identifying the leading research contributing to end-of-athletic-career transition. Following rigorous search criteria, a total of 14 articles were included in the literature review. The selected articles identified central constructs impacting the athletic career transition process, including retirement planning, identity loss, coping skills, and support systems. Additional research is warranted in the United States, particularly with the NCAA collegiate athletes in order to better understand the end-of-athletic-career transition process, as well as instituting interventions to increase resilience in college senior NCAA athletes transitioning out of sport.

  2. Multi-indicator Evaluation System for Broadsword, Rod, Sword and Spear Athletes Based on Analytic Hierarchy Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Lin

    2017-08-01

    In the practical selection of Wushu athletes, the objective evaluation of the level of athletes lacks sufficient technical indicators and often relies on the coach’s subjective judgments. It is difficult to accurately and objectively reflect the overall quality of the athletes without a fully quantified indicator system, thus affecting the level improvement of Wushu competition. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) is a systemic analysis method combining quantitative and qualitative analysis. This paper realizes structured, hierarchized and quantified decision-making process of evaluating broadsword, rod, sword and spear athletes in the AHP. Combing characteristics of the athletes, analysis is carried out from three aspects, i.e., the athlete’s body shape, physical function and sports quality and 18 specific evaluation indicators established, and then combining expert advice and practical experience, pairwise comparison matrix is determined, and then the weight of the indicators and comprehensive evaluation coefficient are obtained to establish the evaluation model for the athletes, thus providing a scientific theoretical basis for the selection of Wushu athletes. The evaluation model proposed in this paper has realized the evaluation system of broadsword, rod, sword and spear athletes, which has effectively improved the scientific level of Wushu athletes selection in practical application.

  3. [Characteristics of Nutrition in Competitive Sports, Ranging from Leisure Activities to High-Performance Athletics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, H

    2016-08-01

    Nutrition has a crucial influence on physical and mental performance ability and is an important measure along sidetraining in high-performance athletes. However, this form of nutritionis not applicable for every athlete and in every situation. The question of optimal nutrition requires involvement with the particular type of sports, an athlete's current training stage, and athletes' individual requirements and objectives. Implementation takes time and individual motivation on the part of athletes and the specialist staff who engage intensively with the nutritional needs of athletes. In addition to adequate energy provision, it is important to divide the energy sensibly among the energy sources carbohydrates, fats, and protein. Performance athletes' higher need for protein can usually be covered in their regular diet; supplements are needed only in exceptional cases. Studies have shown that small amounts of 15 - 25 g protein are sensible after weight training, in order to stimulate muscle protein synthesis. The need for carbohydrates increases dynamically with the intensity and duration of physical exertion. A sufficient supply is crucial for achieving maximum performance. Low carb diets are unsuitable for performance athletes. So called low-glycogen training, however, can lead to better adjustment/adaptation processes in selected training stages and can increase performance ability. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Basal metabolic rate and body composition of elite Japanese male athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshimizu, Takako; Matsushima, Yoshiko; Yokota, Yukari; Yanagisawa, Kae; Nagai, Satsuki; Okamura, Koji; Komatsu, Yutaka; Kawahara, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    The estimated energy requirement is important for adequate nutritional management in athletes. The energy requirement can be estimated from the basal metabolic rate (BMR). However, there is little data regarding the BMR of Japanese athletes. This study measured the BMR and body composition of 81 elite Japanese male athletes in different sports categories: endurance (E), strength, power and sprint (S) and ball game (B). The factors influencing the BMR were also investigated. The BMR and body composition were measured by indirect calorimetry and an air-displacement plentysmograph device (the BOD POD), respectively. The BMR per lean body mass (LBM) differed significantly among the three groups. The BMR was significantly correlated with the body weight (BW) and LBM in all groups. A multiple-regression analysis showed that the LBM was the most powerful predictor in the E and S groups, whereas the BW was the most powerful predictor in the B group. The BW appears to become an important predictor as the BW of athletes increases. Additionally, height was the second explanatory variable in the S and B groups, thus suggesting that height needs to be considered for the BMR in these groups. Therefore, the BMR in elite athletes needs to be estimated according to their body composition.

  5. Sleep and Athletic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Andrew M

    Sleep is an essential component of health and well-being, with significant impacts on physical development, emotional regulation, cognitive performance, and quality of life. Along with being an integral part of the recovery and adaptive process between bouts of exercise, accumulating evidence suggests that increased sleep duration and improved sleep quality in athletes are associated with improved performance and competitive success. In addition, better sleep may reduce the risk of both injury and illness in athletes, not only optimizing health but also potentially enhancing performance through increased participation in training. Despite this, most studies have found that athletes fail to obtain the recommended amount of sleep, threatening both performance and health. Athletes face a number of obstacles that can reduce the likelihood of obtaining proper sleep, such as training and competition schedules, travel, stress, academic demands, and overtraining. In addition, athletes have been found to demonstrate poor self-assessment of their sleep duration and quality. In light of this, athletes may require more careful monitoring and intervention to identify individuals at risk and promote proper sleep to improve both performance and overall health. This review attempts to highlight the recent literature regarding sleep issues in athletes, the effects of sleep on athletic performance, and interventions to enhance proper sleep in athletes.

  6. The Impact of Knee Injury History on Health-Related Quality of Life in Adolescent Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Kenneth C; Markbreiter, Jessica G

    2017-10-16

    Current evidence suggests that, despite returning to full participation, physically active adults with a previous knee injury experience lower health-related quality of life (HRQOL) than those with no knee injury history. It is unknown if this relationship is present in adolescent athletes. To determine the impact of knee injury history on HRQOL in adolescent athletes who were medically cleared for full participation. Cross-sectional. Athletic training clinics. A convenience sample of 183 adolescent athletes, who were medically cleared for full participation, were grouped by self-report of a previous knee injury: positive knee injury history [HIS] (n=36, age=15.7+1.35 years, height=168.0+11.9 cm; weight=71.8+11.9 kg) and no knee injury history [NO-HIS] (n=147, age=15.5+1.4 years, height=166.0+10.5 cm, weight=67.6+14.6 kg). Participants completed the pediatric version of the International Knee Documentation Committee form (Pedi-IKDC) and Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) during their preparticipation examination. Generalized linear models were used to compare group differences for the total and subscale scores of the Pedi-IKDC and PedsQL. Main effects of injury group indicated that the HIS group reported significantly lower scores than the NO-HIS group for the Pedi-IKDC total score (p.05). Our findings suggest that, despite returning to full sport participation, adolescent athletes with a previous knee injury generally experience lower HRQOL than their peers with no knee injury history, specifically for knee-specific HRQOL, physical functioning, school functioning and social functioning. Our results are similar to previous findings reported in collegiate athletes and military cadets.

  7. Navigational strategies during fast walking: a comparison between trained athletes and non-athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gérin-Lajoie, Martin; Ronsky, Janet L; Loitz-Ramage, Barbara; Robu, Ion; Richards, Carol L; McFadyen, Bradford J

    2007-10-01

    Many common activities such as walking in a shopping mall, moving in a busy subway station, or even avoiding opponents during sports, all require different levels of navigational skills. Obstacle circumvention is beginning to be understood across age groups, but studying trained athletes with greater levels of motor ability will further our understanding of skillful adaptive locomotor behavior. The objective of this work was to compare navigational skills during fast walking between elite athletes (e.g. soccer, field hockey, basketball) and aged-matched non-athletes under different levels of environmental complexity in relation to obstacle configuration and visibility. The movements of eight women athletes and eight women non-athletes were measured as they walked as fast as possible through different obstacle courses in both normal and low lighting conditions. Results showed that athletes, despite similar unobstructed maximal speeds to non-athletes, had faster walking times during the navigation of all obstructed environments. It appears that athletes can process visuo-spatial information faster since both groups can make appropriate navigational decisions, but athletes can navigate through complex, novel, environments at greater speeds. Athletes' walking times were also more affected by the low lighting conditions suggesting that they normally scan the obstructed course farther ahead. This study also uses new objective measures to assess functional locomotor capacity in order to discriminate individuals according to their level of navigational ability. The evaluation paradigm and outcome measures developed may be applicable to the evaluation of skill level in athletic training and selection, as well as in gait rehabilitation following impairment.

  8. Assessment of body composition by segmental bioelectrical impedance method in Japanese college athletes : focus on the different characteristic of sports

    OpenAIRE

    村松, 愛梨奈; 乙木, 幸道; 井川, 正治

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify a characteristic of body composition of limbs in Japanese athletes by the segmental bioelectric impedance analysis (S-BIA) method. The subjects were 131 college athletes (baseball, volleyball, handball, combined competition, wrestling, soft tennis, swimming; athletes group) and 107 healthy college students (control group). The items of measurement were body height, body weight, BMI, percent of body fat (%FAT), skeletal muscle mass (SMM). We measured %F...

  9. Demonstration of intuitive thinking in conditions of competitive activity depending on athletes' psychophysiological state.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korobeynikov G.V.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available One investigated application of intuitive thinking, depending on the physiological status of skilled fighters in their competitive activity. In research members of the team of Ukraine in Greco-Roman wrestling participated. 29 effective throws were analysed reverse a capture from position orchestra. One analyzed the effectiveness of intuitive thinking in athletes of different weight categories and the distribution coefficients of correlation of psychophysiological functions of athletes directly in competition during championships of Ukraine, World and Europe. One found that expression of intuitive thinking is associated with weight category of skilled fighters. It is shown that the effectiveness of intuitive thinking in terms of competitive activity is related to physiological state, and, above all qualified wrestlers' neurodynamic functions.

  10. Assessment of psychological pain management techniques: a comparative study between athletes and non-athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azevedo Daniel Câmara

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Athletes usually deal with injuries and pain. They seem to have similar pain threshold when compared to non-athletes, although they have higher pain tolerance and the exact cause for that is unknown. High levels for pain tolerance and control can improve performance and time for injury recovery. The literature shows that use of coping strategies can increase pain control; possible differences on coping with pain between athletes and non-athletes are poorly described. The purpose of this study was to evaluate frequency of coping strategies used by athletes and non-athletes of both genders and look for possible association between preferred coping style and pain intensity. The sample included 160 subjects with actual pain experience, 80 athletes (52 male, 28 female and 80 non-athletes (50 male and 30 female. All subjects were evaluated for pain intensity, frequency and duration and for coping strategies using a questionnaire (SBS-V. The results show that athletes and non-athletes, despite of gender, use with the same frequency coping strategies. The less common coping strategies for all groups were those poor-adaptative (p < 0.001; the most commonly strategy used was self-statement and regulation of body tension (p < 0.001. Female athletes use more frequently poor-adaptative strategies when pain intensity increases (p < 0.05.

  11. Central Hemodynamics Measured During 5 Repetition Maximum Free Weight Resistance Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Jonathan S; McLester, Cherilyn N; Evans, Thomas W; McLester, John R; Calloway, Jimmy P

    2018-01-01

    The PhysioFlow™ is a piece of equipment that uses bioimpedance cardiography to measure central hemodynamics. The purpose of this research was to explore the novel approach of monitoring central hemodynamics during free weight resistance exercise using bioimpedance cardiography throughout a 5 repetition maximum (5RM). Thirty participants ranging from beginner to advanced lifters (16 males and 14 females) completed a 5RM for back squat, seated push press, and bicep curl while connected to the PhysioFlow™ to assess the response of heart rate (HR), stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (Q), and ejection fraction (EF). Participants were cued for form and to breathe normally throughout the lifts. The PhysioFlow™ detected an increase in HR and Q for all lifts between rest and each repetition ( p 0.05) and no changes in EF or SV were detected when all repetitions were compared to each other for all lifts ( p > 0.05). In conclusion, the PhysioFlow™ was able to detect changes in HR and Q during dynamic free weight resistance exercise. This novel approach may provide a mechanism for monitoring central hemodynamics during free weight resistance training. However, more research needs to be conducted as the exercise protocol for this investigation did not allow for a comparison to a reference method.

  12. Athletes at High Altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodaee, Morteza; Grothe, Heather L; Seyfert, Jonathan H; VanBaak, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Athletes at different skill levels perform strenuous physical activity at high altitude for a variety of reasons. Multiple team and endurance events are held at high altitude and may place athletes at increased risk for developing acute high altitude illness (AHAI). Training at high altitude has been a routine part of preparation for some of the high level athletes for a long time. There is a general belief that altitude training improves athletic performance for competitive and recreational athletes. A review of relevant publications between 1980 and 2015 was completed using PubMed and Google Scholar. Clinical review. Level 3. AHAI is a relatively uncommon and potentially serious condition among travelers to altitudes above 2500 m. The broad term AHAI includes several syndromes such as acute mountain sickness (AMS), high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE), and high altitude cerebral edema (HACE). Athletes may be at higher risk for developing AHAI due to faster ascent and more vigorous exertion compared with nonathletes. Evidence regarding the effects of altitude training on athletic performance is weak. The natural live high, train low altitude training strategy may provide the best protocol for enhancing endurance performance in elite and subelite athletes. High altitude sports are generally safe for recreational athletes, but they should be aware of their individual risks. Individualized and appropriate acclimatization is an essential component of injury and illness prevention.

  13. Imaging of upper extremity stress fractures in the athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Mark W

    2006-07-01

    Although it is much less common than injuries in the lower extremities, an upper extremity stress injury can have a significant impact on an athlete. If an accurate and timely diagnosis is to be made, the clinician must have a high index of suspicion of a stress fracture in any athlete who is involved in a throwing, weightlifting, or upper extremity weight-bearing sport and presents with chronic pain in the upper extremity. Imaging should play an integral role in the work-up of these patients; if initial radiographs are unrevealing, further cross-sectional imaging should be strongly considered. Although a three-phase bone scan is highly sensitive in this regard, MRI has become the study of choice at most centers.

  14. The career planning, athletic identity, and student role identity of intercollegiate student athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lally, Patricia S; Kerr, Gretchen A

    2005-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the career planning of university student athletes and relationships between their career planning and athletic and student role identities. Two retrospective in-depth interviews were held with four male and four female university student athletes. Participants entered university with vague or nonexistent career objectives and invested heavily in their athletic roles. In the latter years of their college career, the participants discarded their sport career ambitions and allowed the student role to become more prominent in their identity hierarchies. The current findings support Brown and Hartley's (1998) suggestion that student athletes may invest in both the athlete and student role identities simultaneously and that investing in the latter may permit the exploration of nonsport career options.

  15. Nutritional Practices of Athletes in Oman: A Descriptive Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa I. Waly

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Adequate dietary intake is crucial for optimum training and performance of athletes. There is almost no available information related to dietary practices among Omani athletes, especially during the competition. This study aimed to assess the nutritional practices (nutritional knowledge, eating habits and daily nutrients intake among Omani male handball athletes in Muscat city, Oman.Methods: This is a cross sectional study including 35 male handball athletes involved in serious training for no less than three years. Data collection was done through personal interviews using a study questionnaire which enlisted questions relating to socio-demographic information, anthropometric measurements and nutritional practices. All the study participants declared no intake of anabolic steroids.Results: The mean age of the study participants was 27 ± 3 years. Their anthropometric assessment revealed that their mean height was 166 ± 12 cm, mean weight was 75 ± 10 kg, and body mass index was 27 ± 3. Nutritional knowledge analysis revealed that 80% had no nutritional supervision by a nutritionist/dietitian. Their knowledge of nutritional requirements was only 23% correct for total energy intake, 63% for protein intake, 46% for carbohydrate intake, 11% for fat intake and 83% for water intake. Eating habits indicated that 55% had <3 meals/day, 51% had lunch as the principal meal, 51% always added extra salt to their food, 28% took protein supplements on a daily basis, and 51% used pre-competition glycogen load diet. However, none consumed vitamins or mineral supplements. The mean daily caloric intake was 3674 ± 265 kcal/day, which was roughly comprised of 596 ± 66 g carbohydrates, 147 ± 28 g of protein and 78 ± 20 g of total fat.Conclusion: Professional nutritional supervision is needed in order to improve the nutritional knowledge and eating habits of Omani athletes, and therefore improve their athletic performance.

  16. Nutritional practices of athletes in oman: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waly, Mostafa I; Kilani, Hashem A; Al-Busafi, Majid S

    2013-09-01

    Adequate dietary intake is crucial for optimum training and performance of athletes. There is almost no available information related to dietary practices among Omani athletes, especially during the competition. This study aimed to assess the nutritional practices (nutritional knowledge, eating habits and daily nutrients intake) among Omani male handball athletes in Muscat city, Oman. This is a cross sectional study including 35 male handball athletes involved in serious training for no less than three years. Data collection was done through personal interviews using a study questionnaire which enlisted questions relating to socio-demographic information, anthropometric measurements and nutritional practices. All the study participants declared no intake of anabolic steroids. The mean age of the study participants was 27 ± 3 years. Their anthropometric assessment revealed that their mean height was 166 ± 12 cm, mean weight was 75 ± 10 kg, and body mass index was 27 ± 3. Nutritional knowledge analysis revealed that 80% had no nutritional supervision by a nutritionist/dietitian. Their knowledge of nutritional requirements was only 23% correct for total energy intake, 63% for protein intake, 46% for carbohydrate intake, 11% for fat intake and 83% for water intake. Eating habits indicated that 55% had lunch as the principal meal, 51% always added extra salt to their food, 28% took protein supplements on a daily basis, and 51% used pre-competition glycogen load diet. However, none consumed vitamins or mineral supplements. The mean daily caloric intake was 3674 ± 265 kcal/day, which was roughly comprised of 596 ± 66 g carbohydrates, 147 ± 28 g of protein and 78 ± 20 g of total fat. Professional nutritional supervision is needed in order to improve the nutritional knowledge and eating habits of Omani athletes, and therefore improve their athletic performance.

  17. Validation of the student athletes' motivation towards sports and academics questionnaire to Korean student-athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sunghee; Hong, Seungbun; Lee, Miyoung

    2015-08-01

    The current study had three aims: (1) to validate a Korean version of the Student Athletes' Motivation toward Sports and Academics Questionnaire (SAMSAQ-Kr), (2) to examine South Korean university student-athletes' motivation towards athletic and academic achievement, and (3) to identify the relationship between athletic identity and their athletic and academic achievement. A total of 126 South Korean university student-athletes (41.4% males and 58.6% females; mean age 20.5, SD = 2.74) completed the SAMSAQ-Kr. To investigate the validity evidence of the SAMSAQ-Kr a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and Rasch model were employed. To examine the relationship between Athletic Identity Measurement Scale (AIMS) and SAMSAQ for Spearman correlation coefficients were calculated. Findings indicated that the SAMSAQ-Kr showed a different model from other versions and revealed positive correlations between AIMS scores and athletic motivations. The current study highlighted that importance of considering socio-cultural context in developing questionnaire and contributed to help understand South Korean university student-athletes' motivation towards athletic and academic achievement.

  18. Lower limb strength and flexibility in athletes with and without patellar tendinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scattone Silva, Rodrigo; Nakagawa, Theresa H; Ferreira, Ana Luisa G; Garcia, Luccas C; Santos, José E M; Serrão, Fábio V

    2016-07-01

    To compare the hip, knee and ankle torques, as well as knee and ankle flexibility between athletes with patellar tendinopathy and asymptomatic controls. Cross-sectional study. Laboratory setting. Fourteen male volleyball, basketball or handball athletes, divided into 2 groups, patellar tendinopathy group (TG; n = 7) and asymptomatic control group (CG; n = 7). Hip, knee and ankle isometric torques were measured with a handheld dynamometer. Weight-bearing ankle dorsiflexion, hamstring and quadriceps flexibility were measured with a gravity inclinometer. The TG had 27% lower hip extensor torque when compared to the CG (P = 0.031), with no group differences in knee and ankle torques (P > 0.05). Also, the TG had smaller weight-bearing ankle dorsiflexion (P = 0.038) and hamstring flexibility (P = 0.006) when compared to the CG. Regarding quadriceps flexibility, no group differences were found (P = 0.828). Strength and flexibility deficits might contribute to a greater overload on the knee extensor mechanism, possibly contributing to the origin/perpetuation of patellar tendinopathy. Interventions aiming at increasing hip extensors strength as well as ankle and knee flexibility might be important for the rehabilitation of athletes with patellar tendinopathy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. National athletic trainers' association position statement: management of the athlete with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Carolyn C; Corcoran, Matthew H; Crawley, James T; Guyton Hornsby, W; Peer, Kimberly S; Philbin, Rick D; Riddell, Michael C

    2007-01-01

    To present recommendations for the certified athletic trainer in the management of type 1 diabetes in the athlete. In managing diabetes, the most important goal is to keep blood glucose levels at or as close to normal levels as possible without causing hypoglycemia. This goal requires the maintenance of a delicate balance among hypoglycemia, euglycemia, and hyperglycemia, which is often more challenging in the athlete due to the demands of physical activity and competition. However, effectively managing blood glucose, lipid, and blood pressure levels is necessary to ensuring the long-term health and well-being of the athlete with diabetes. These recommendations are intended to provide the certified athletic trainer participating in the management of an athlete with type 1 diabetes mellitus with the specific knowledge and problem-solving skills needed. Athletic trainers have more contact with the athlete with diabetes than most members of the diabetes management team do and so must be prepared to assist the athlete as required.

  20. Awareness and use of caffeine by athletes competing at the 2005 Ironman Triathlon World Championships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desbrow, Ben; Leveritt, Michael

    2006-10-01

    This study assessed the knowledge, prevalence, and quantity of caffeine use by athletes competing at the 2005 Ironman Triathlon World Championships. Caffeine-related questionnaires were self-administered to 140 (105 male and 35 female, 40.3 +/- 10.7 y) athletes representing 16 countries. Fifty of these athletes further consented to immediate post-race blood samples for analysis of plasma caffeine and paraxanthine using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Seventy-two percent of 70 athletes correctly identified caffeine as being an unrestricted substance in triathlon. The majority of athletes [125 (89%)] were planning on using a caffeinated substance immediately prior to or throughout the race. Cola drinks (78%), caffeinated gels (42%), coffee (usually pre-race) (37%), energy drinks (13%), and NoDoz tablets (9%) were the most popular caffeinated choices. Mean +/- standard deviation (and range) post race plasma caffeine and paraxanthine levels were 22.3 +/- 20 micromol/L (1.7 to 98.4) and 9.4 +/- 6 micromol/L (1.8 to 28.9), respectively. Seven athletes (14%) finished with plasma caffeine levels > or = 40 micromol/L. Plasma values from elite athletes did not differ from age group competitors. Despite the prevalence of its consumption and the training experience of this athletic group, over one quarter of athletes remained either confused or uninformed about caffeine's legality. Levels of plasma caffeine taken immediately post race indicated that athletes typically finish with quantities of caffeine that have been shown to improve endurance performance (i.e., approximately 20 micromol/L or a dose of > or = 3 mg/kg body weight).

  1. Associations of Body Mass Index, Motor Performance, and Perceived Athletic Competence with Physical Activity in Normal Weight and Overweight Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Kyle M; Cairney, John; Eisenmann, Joe; Pfeiffer, Karin; Gould, Dan

    2018-01-01

    Children who are overweight and obese display lower physical activity levels than normal weight peers. Measures of weight status, perceived motor competence, and motor skill performance have been identified as potential correlates explaining this discrepancy. 1881 children (955 males; 926 females; 9.9 years) were assessed as part of the Physical Health Activity Study Team project. The age, habitual physical activity participation (PAP), body mass index (BMI), socioeconomic status (SES), motor performance (MP), and perceived athletic competence (PAC) of each child included were assessed. Gender-specific linear regression analyses (main effects model) were conducted to identify the percent variance in PAP explained by the following variables: BMI, MP, and PAC. For males, 18.3% of the variance in PAP was explained by BMI, MP, and PAC. PAC explained 17% of the variance, while MP, BMI, and SES only accounted for 0.6%, 0.7%, and 0.5%, respectively. PAC explained 17.5% of PAP variance in females; MP explained 0.8%. BMI, SES, and chronological age were not significant correlates of PAP in girls. An established repertoire of motor skill performance has been seen as a vehicle to PAP in children; however, this study indicates that PAC should not be overlooked in intervention strategies to promote increased PAP.

  2. Associations of Body Mass Index, Motor Performance, and Perceived Athletic Competence with Physical Activity in Normal Weight and Overweight Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle M. Morrison

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Children who are overweight and obese display lower physical activity levels than normal weight peers. Measures of weight status, perceived motor competence, and motor skill performance have been identified as potential correlates explaining this discrepancy. 1881 children (955 males; 926 females; 9.9 years were assessed as part of the Physical Health Activity Study Team project. The age, habitual physical activity participation (PAP, body mass index (BMI, socioeconomic status (SES, motor performance (MP, and perceived athletic competence (PAC of each child included were assessed. Gender-specific linear regression analyses (main effects model were conducted to identify the percent variance in PAP explained by the following variables: BMI, MP, and PAC. For males, 18.3% of the variance in PAP was explained by BMI, MP, and PAC. PAC explained 17% of the variance, while MP, BMI, and SES only accounted for 0.6%, 0.7%, and 0.5%, respectively. PAC explained 17.5% of PAP variance in females; MP explained 0.8%. BMI, SES, and chronological age were not significant correlates of PAP in girls. An established repertoire of motor skill performance has been seen as a vehicle to PAP in children; however, this study indicates that PAC should not be overlooked in intervention strategies to promote increased PAP.

  3. Amphetamine margin in sports. [Effects on performance of highly trained athletes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laties, V.G.; Weiss, B.

    1980-01-01

    The amphetamines can enhance athletic performance. That much seems clear from the literature, some of which is reviewed here. Increases in endurance have been demonstrated in both man and rat. Smith and Beecher, 20 years ago, showed improvement of running, swimming, and weight throwing in highly trained athletes. Laboratory analogues of such performance have also been used and similar enhancement demonstrated. The amount of change induced by the amphetamines is usually small, of the order of a few percent. Nevertheless, since a fraction of a percent improvement can make the difference between fame and oblivion, the margin conferred by these drugs can be quite important.

  4. The sporting body: body image and eating disorder symptomatology among female athletes from leanness focused and nonleanness focused sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Peiling; Harris, Lynne M

    2015-01-01

    Female athletes experience pressure to conform to social and sporting norms concerning body weight. This study compared general and sporting body dissatisfaction and disordered eating symptomatology among 320 elite, recreational, and noncompetitive female athletes aged 17 to 30 years competing in leanness focused sports and nonleanness focused sports. Participants completed an online questionnaire including demographic questions, the Eating Attitudes Test, and the Figure Rating Scale. Athletes from leanness focused sports reported higher levels of body dissatisfaction and greater disordered eating symptomatology regardless of participation level. Elite athletes reported higher levels of body dissatisfaction and greater disordered eating symptomatology regardless of sport type, and differences between recreational and noncompetitive athletes were not found. More than 60% of elite athletes from leanness focused and nonleanness focused sports reported pressure from coaches concerning body shape. The findings have important implications for identifying risk factors for eating disorders among female athletes, where athletes who compete at elite level and those who compete in leanness focused sports at any level may be at higher risk for developing eating disorders.

  5. WATER TEMPERATURE, VOLUNTARY DRINKING AND FLUID BALANCE IN DEHYDRATED TAEKWONDO ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Khamnei

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Voluntary drinking is one of the major determiners of rehydration, especially as regards exercise or workout in the heat. The present study undertakes to search for the effect of voluntary intake of water with different temperatures on fluid balance in Taekwondo athletes. Six young healthy male Taekwondo athletes were dehydrated by moderate exercise in a chamber with ambient temperature at 38-40°C and relative humidity between 20-30%. On four separate days they were allowed to drink ad libitum plane water with the four temperatures of 5, 16, 26, and 58°C, after dehydration. The volume of voluntary drinking and weight change was measured; then the primary percentage of dehydration, sweat loss, fluid deficit and involuntary dehydration were calculated. Voluntary drinking of water proved to be statistically different in the presented temperatures. Water at 16°C involved the greatest intake, while fluid deficit and involuntary dehydration were the lowest. Intake of water in the 5°C trial significantly correlated with the subject's plasma osmolality change after dehydration, yet it showed no significant correlation with weight loss. In conclusion, by way of achieving more voluntary intake of water and better fluid state, recommending cool water (~16°C for athletes is in order. Unlike the publicly held view, drinking cold water (~5°C does not improve voluntary drinking and hydration status.

  6. Comparison of posture among adolescent male volleyball players and non-athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Grabara

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to high training loads and frequently repeated unilateral exercises, several types of sports training can have an impact on the process of posture development in young athletes. The objective of the study was to assess and compare the postures of adolescent male volleyball players and their non-training peers. The study group comprised 104 volleyball players while the control group consisted of 114 non-training individuals aged 14-16 years. Body posture was assessed by the Moiré method. The volleyball players were significantly taller, and had greater body weight and fat-free mass. The analysis of posture relative to symmetry in the frontal and transverse planes did not show any significant differences between the volleyball players and non-athletes. Postural asymmetries were observed in both the volleyball players and the control participants. Lumbar lordosis was significantly less defined in the volleyball players compared to non-training individuals while no difference was observed in thoracic kyphosis. All athletes demonstrated a loss of lumbar lordosis and an increase in thoracic kyphosis. Significant differences in anteroposterior curvature of the spine between the volleyball players and the non-athletes might be associated with both training and body height. Considering the asymmetric spine overloads which frequently occur in sports training, meticulous posture assessment in young athletes seems well justified.

  7. Comparison of posture among adolescent male volleyball players and non-athlete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Grabara

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to high training loads and frequently repeated unilateral exercises, several types of sports training can have an impact on the process of posture development in young athletes. The objective of the study was to assess and compare the postures of adolescent male volleyball players and their non-training peers. The study group comprised 104 volleyball players while the control group consisted of 114 non-training individuals aged 14-16 years. Body posture was assessed by the Moiré method. The volleyball players were significantly taller, and had greater body weight and fat-free mass. The analysis of posture relative to symmetry in the frontal and transverse planes did not show any significant differences between the volleyball players and non-athletes. Postural asymmetries were observed in both the volleyball players and the control participants. Lumbar lordosis was significantly less defined in the volleyball players compared to non-training individuals while no difference was observed in thoracic kyphosis. All athletes demonstrated a loss of lumbar lordosis and an increase in thoracic kyphosis. Significant differences in anteroposterior curvature of the spine between the volleyball players and the non-athletes might be associated with both training and body height. Considering the asymmetric spine overloads which frequently occur in sports training, meticulous posture assessment in young athletes seems well justified.

  8. Comparison of posture among adolescent male volleyball players and non-athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Due to high training loads and frequently repeated unilateral exercises, several types of sports training can have an impact on the process of posture development in young athletes. The objective of the study was to assess and compare the postures of adolescent male volleyball players and their non-training peers. The study group comprised 104 volleyball players while the control group consisted of 114 non-training individuals aged 14-16 years. Body posture was assessed by the Moiré method. The volleyball players were significantly taller, and had greater body weight and fat-free mass. The analysis of posture relative to symmetry in the frontal and transverse planes did not show any significant differences between the volleyball players and non-athletes. Postural asymmetries were observed in both the volleyball players and the control participants. Lumbar lordosis was significantly less defined in the volleyball players compared to non-training individuals while no difference was observed in thoracic kyphosis. All athletes demonstrated a loss of lumbar lordosis and an increase in thoracic kyphosis. Significant differences in anteroposterior curvature of the spine between the volleyball players and the non-athletes might be associated with both training and body height. Considering the asymmetric spine overloads which frequently occur in sports training, meticulous posture assessment in young athletes seems well justified. PMID:25729154

  9. Effects of athletic training on the spinal curvature in child athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betsch, Marcel; Furian, Thimm; Quack, Valentin; Rath, Björn; Wild, Michael; Rapp, Walter

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the spinal posture in young athletes depending on training intensity. The spinal curvature of 245 children, age 8 to 12 years, was evaluated using rasterstereography. According to their weekly training time group 1 (mean age: 9.54 ± 1.18) did 2-6, group 2 (mean age: 9.49 ± 0.87) did 6-15 and group 3 (mean age: 9.68 ± 0.87) did over 15 hours of training. Group 1 had a significantly higher weight (p = 0.028) (33.86 ± 7. kg) than those of the more active groups (30.67 ± 6.49 kg and 29.46 ± 4.33 kg). The mean kyphotic angle decreased significantly (p spine.

  10. THE INVESTIGATION TO THE SEX OF BODY COMPOSITION AND PHYSICAL PERFORMANCE OF ELITE MASTER ATHLETES

    OpenAIRE

    Aksel ÇELİK; Mert TUNER

    2010-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effect of regular aerobic exercise on body composition by bioelektrik impedance analysis (BIA) methods, respiratory function parameters and physical performance levels. 20 men and 10 women, total 30 long-distance elite master athletes who had joined World, European and The Balkans Championships in Athletics and into at least one degree, were included in the study. The body composition such as skeletal muscle mass, body fat weight, Waist-hip ratio an...

  11. THE ROLE OF PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF ATHLETES IN COACH-ATHLETE RELATIONSHIPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hülya Aşçı, F; Kelecek, Selen; AltintaŞ, Atahan

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the relationship between athletes' personality characteristics and the quality of the coach-athlete relationship. 84 female (M age = 20.6 yr., SD = 2.8) and 129 male (M age = 22.0 yr., SD = 3.3) elite youth athletes competing at least for 7 yr. participated in this study. The Five-Factor Personality Inventory (short version) and the Quality of Relationships Inventory were administered to all participants. Stepwise multiple regression analysis assessed which of the five personality factors predicted scores for the different subscales of the Quality of Relationships Inventory (Depth, Support, and Conflict). Results indicated that depth of relationship was not predicted by personality factors. On the other hand, neuroticism and extraversion were significant predictors of support dimension of relationship. Analysis indicated that conscientiousness was the strongest predictor of conflict. In conclusion, athletes' personality characteristics may be important in determining the quality of the coach-athlete relationship.

  12. Faculty Perceptions of Division I Male Student-Athletes: The Relationship between Student-Athlete Contact, Athletic Department Involvement, and Perceptions of Intercollegiate Athletics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar, Elizabeth A.

    2011-01-01

    It has been widely recognized that student-athletes, especially in the sports of men's basketball and football, endure stereotyping (Bowen & Levin, 2003; Simons, Bosworth, Fujita, & Jensen, 2007, Baucom & Lantz, 2001). Although stereotypes about male basketball and football student-athletes academic behaviors are expressed by many sectors of the…

  13. Eating attitudes, body esteem, perfectionism and anxiety of judo athletes and nonathletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouveix, M; Bouget, M; Pannafieux, C; Champely, S; Filaire, E

    2007-04-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the prevalence and relationships between disordered eating, menstrual irregularity, musculoskeletal injuries and psychological characteristics in 24 judo athletes (12 females and 12 males) and 31 controls (14 females and 17 males). All these parameters were assessed by a health/medical, dieting and menstrual history questionnaire, the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26), the Multidimensional perfectionism scale, the Rosenberg Self-esteem, the Body esteem scale, and the Profile of Mood States. Body mass index (BMI) was also computed. Twenty-five percent of female athletes would be "at risk" of EDs (EAT-26 > 20) and 0 % in the other sample groups. Bone injuries sustained over the judo athlete career were reported by 25 % of females and 33.3 % of males, while 35.7 % of the female controls reported bone injuries. The total frequency of menstrual dysfunction among judo athletes was 58.3 %, while 7.1 % of female controls reported oligoamenorrhea. Regression analyses showed that BE-Weight Satisfaction and BMI contributed to 54.6 % and 17 % of the variance, respectively, in the prediction of log-transformed Global EAT scores among female judo athletes. These data indicate that while the prevalence of clinical eating disorders is low in judo athletes, many are "at risk" for an eating disorder, which places them at an increased risk for menstrual irregularity and bone injuries. This study also highlights the relevance of body esteem to eating disorder symptoms.

  14. Weight Loss Strategies in Combat Sports and Concerning Habits in Mixed Martial Arts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barley, Oliver R; Chapman, Dale W; Abbiss, Chris R

    2017-12-28

    Combat sports are typically divided into weight classes and body mass manipulation to reach a weight class is commonplace. Previous research suggests that mixed martial arts (MMA) weight loss practices may be more extreme than other combat sports. We sought to investigate the magnitude of weight lost and prevalence of weight loss strategies in different combat sports. Competitors (n=637) from Brazilian jiu jitsu (BJJ), boxing, judo, MMA, muay Thai/kickboxing (MT/K), taekwondo (TKD) and wrestling completed an online questionnaire seeking information regarding their weight loss practices. Body mass manipulation was commonly undertaken by all combat sports athletes, with a particularly high incidence of gradual dieting, increased exercise and fluid restriction. Skipping meals was higher in TKD and wrestling (84%) compared with the other combat sports (~58%), whilst training in heated rooms and forced oral fluid loss (spitting) was higher in wrestling (83% and 47%, respectively) compared with other combat sports (~45% and ~19%, respectively). MMA athletes reported the highest usage of sauna (76%) and water loading (67%) whilst also reporting the second highest use of training in rubber/plastic suits (63%). Body mass manipulation was present in all combat sports with the prevalence and magnitude of acute weight loss greater in MMA. The incidence of and practices reported will assist support staff to be fully aware of the variety of methods these athletes and coaches may use to achieve weight loss. Additionally, the results could aid regulatory bodies in the further development of policies on weight cutting.

  15. Body Size Changes Among National Collegiate Athletic Association New England Division III Football Players, 1956-2014: Comparison With Age-Matched Population Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Kayla R; Harmatz, Jerold S; Zhao, Yanli; Greenblatt, David J

    2016-05-01

    Collegiate football programs encourage athletes to pursue high body weights. To examine position-dependent trends over time in body size characteristics among football players in the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division III New England Small College Athletic Conference (NESCAC) from 1956 to 2014 and to compare the observed absolute and relative changes with those in age-matched male population controls. Descriptive laboratory study. Medical school affiliated with a NESCAC institution. Football team rosters from the 10-member NESCAC schools, available as public documents, were analyzed along with body size data from general population males aged 20 to 29 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Body weight, height, and calculated body mass index were evaluated using analysis of variance, linear regression, and nonlinear regression to determine the distribution features of size variables and changes associated with time (year), school, and position. Among NESCAC linemen, absolute and relative changes over time in body weight and body mass index exceeded corresponding changes in the NHANES population controls. New England Small College Athletic Conference offensive linemen body weights increased by 37.5% from 1956 to 2014 (192 to 264 lb [86.4 to 118.8 kg]), compared with a 12% increase (164 to 184 lb [73.8 to 82.8 kg]) since 1961 in the NHANES population controls. Body mass index changed in parallel with body weight and exceeded 35 kg/m(2) in more than 30% of contemporary NESCAC offensive linemen. Among skill players in the NESCAC group, time-related changes in body size characteristics generally paralleled those in the NHANES controls. High body weight and body mass indices were evident in offensive linemen, even among those in Division III football programs with no athletic scholarships. These characteristics may be associated with adverse cardiovascular and metabolic outcomes. We need approaches to encourage risk

  16. An interrelation of physical working capacity and body component composition indicators of amateur athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoya Gorenko

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: determine the features of the body component composition and the level of physical performance, as well as the structure of the correlation between these indicators in amateur athletes. Material & Methods: in conditions of the test with physical load with stepwise increasing power in the 71-st physically active person, the reaction of the cardio-respiratory system to physical activity. The body component composition was determined by the bioelectrical impedance method. Result: in amateur athletes, the relative VO2max and power ratings are positively correlated with the relative body water content and have a negative relationship with age, body weight, body mass index, fat content. Oxygen pulse with a high degree of probability positively correlated with body weight, body mass index, metabolic rate, fat-free mass, water content and predictable muscle mass in all body segments. Conclusion: Conducted studies indicate a sufficient level of aerobic capacity, overall performance, the efficiency of the cardiac cycle, the functioning of the О2-transport system and skeletal muscles ability to absorb oxygen from the amateur athletes, and excess fat tissue negatively affects physical performance, overall endurance and achieving high sports results in sports on the endurance.

  17. RISK FACTORS AND BONE MINERAL DENSITY IN ATHLETES AND NON-ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša Bubanj

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Risk factors are important aspects in the treatment of patients with lower bone mineral density (BMD.The objective of this study was to estimate the association between risk factors and BMD status of subjects.Forty subjects - athletes of first sub-sample, were recruited from a football club “Železničar” in Niš, while forty subjects - non-athletes of the second sub-sample, were recruited from the Faculty of Occupational Safety in Niš, totally 80 subjects of masculine sex. BMD was diagnosed by using Dual X-Ray Energy Absorptiometry (DEXA densitometer, in the lumbar region of the spinal column and region of the hip articulation, while the presence of risk factors was evaluated by the One-Minute Osteoporosis Risk Test, ie. questionnaire of the International Osteoporosis Foundation, just before the diagnostics of BMD. All subjects agreed with the terms of research, conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki.Among 80 subjects, in six (1 athlete and 5 non-athletes athletes osteopenia was found in the lumbar region of the spinal column, and in three (non-athletes osteopenia was found in the region of hip articulation. Based on the results of χ2 test, there was the association between the lack of physical activity as a risk factor and osteopenia in the lumbar region of the spinal column (BMDSPINE osteopenia, and between the lack of physical activity as a risk factor and osteopenia in the region of hip articulation (BMDHIP osteopenia, while the association significance between smoking as a risk factor and BMDSPINE osteopenia should be taken with caution, because it is approaching the critical value (p=0.056.Concerning this research, the risk factors had a considerably greater impact on low BMD in non-athletes, compared to athletes, ie., in patients who are smokers and lack physical activity.

  18. Hypertension in master endurance athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernelahti, M; Kujala, U M; Kaprio, J; Karjalainen, J; Sarna, S

    1998-11-01

    To determine whether long-term very vigorous endurance training prevents hypertension. Cohort study of master orienteering runners and controls. Finland. In 1995, a health questionnaire was completed by 264 male orienteering runners (response rate 90.4%) who had been top-ranked in competitions among men aged 35-59 years in 1984, and by 388 similarly aged male controls (response rate 87.1%) who were healthy at the age of 20 years and free of overt ischemic heart disease in 1985. Self-report of medication for hypertension. In the endurance athlete group, the crude prevalence (8.7%) of subjects who had used medication for hypertension was less than a third of that in the control group (27.8%). Even after adjusting for age and body mass index, the difference between the groups was still significant (odds ratio for athletes 0.43, 95% confidence interval 0.25-0.76). Long-term vigorous endurance training is associated with a low prevalence of hypertension. Some of the effect can be explained by a lower body mass, but exercise seems to induce a lower rate of hypertension by other mechanisms than by decreasing body weight

  19. Eccentric and isometric shoulder rotator cuff strength testing using a hand-held dynamometer: reference values for overhead athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cools, Ann M J; Vanderstukken, Fran; Vereecken, Frédéric; Duprez, Mattias; Heyman, Karel; Goethals, Nick; Johansson, Fredrik

    2016-12-01

    In order to provide science-based guidelines for injury prevention or return to play, regular measurement of isometric and eccentric internal (IR) and external (ER) rotator strength is warranted in overhead athletes. However, up to date, no normative database exists regarding these values, when measured with a hand-held dynamometer. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to provide a normative database on isometric and eccentric rotator cuff (RC) strength values in a sample of overhead athletes, and to discuss gender, age and sports differences. A HHD was used to measure RC strength in 201 overhead athletes between 18 and 50 years old from three different sports disciplines: tennis, volleyball and handball. Isometric as well as eccentric strength was measured in different shoulder positions. Outcome variables of interest were isometric ER and IR strength, eccentric ER strength, and intermuscular strength ratios ER/IR. Our results show significant side, gender and sports discipline differences in the isometric and eccentric RC strength. However, when normalized to body weight, gender differences often are absent. In general, strength differences are in favour of the dominant side, the male athletes and handball. Intermuscular ER/IR ratios showed gender, sports, and side differences. This normative database is necessary to help the clinician in the evaluation of RC strength in healthy and injured overhead athletes. In view of the preventive screening and return-to-play decisions in overhead athletes, normalization to body weight and calculating intermuscular ratios are key points in this evaluation. Diagnostic study, Level III.

  20. Athletic Engagement and Athletic Identity in Top Croatian Sprint Runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babić, Vesna; Sarac, Jelena; Missoni, Sasa; Sindik, Josko

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the research was to determine construct validity and reliability for two questionnaires (Athlete Engagement Questionnaire-AEQ and Athletic Identity Measurement Scale-AIMS), applied on elite Croatian athletes-sprinters, as well as the correlations among the dimensions in these measuring instruments. Then, we have determined the differences in the dimensions of sport engagement and sport identity, according to gender, education level and winning medals on international competitions. A total of 71 elite athletes-sprinters (former and still active) are examined, from which 27 (38%) females and 44 (62%) males. The results of factor analyses revealed the existence of dimensions very similar as in the original instruments, which showed moderate to-high reliabilities. A small number of statistically significant correlations have been found between the dimensions of sport engagement and sport identity, mainly in male sprinter runners. Small number of statistically significant differences in the dimensions of sport engagement and sport identity have been found according to the gender, education level and winning medals on the international competitions. The most reasonable explanation of these differences could be given in terms of very similar characteristics of elite athletes on the same level of sport excellence.

  1. An Investigation of Scholar-Baller and Non Scholar-Baller Division I Football Student-Athletes' Academic, Athletic, Intrinsic Motivation and Athletic Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Janet M.

    2009-01-01

    As less than 3% of student-athletes go on to play sport professionally, it is important that they are prepared for careers outside of athletics (Susanj & Stewart, 2005). Many football student-athletes have low grade point averages and graduation rates. Universities incorporate academic motivational programs to help combat low academic performance.…

  2. Assessment of nutritional knowledge in female athletes susceptible to the Female Athlete Triad syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petroczi Andrea

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study aimed to i assess nutritional knowledge in female athletes susceptible to the Female Athlete Triad (FAT syndrome and to compare with controls; and ii to compare nutritional knowledge of those who were classified as being 'at risk' for developing FAT syndrome and those who are 'not at risk'. Methods In this study, participants completed General Nutritional Knowledge Questionnaire (GNKQ, the Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26 and survey measures of training/physical activity, menstrual and skeletal injury history. The sample consisted of 48 regional endurance athletes, 11 trampoline gymnasts and 32 untrained controls. Based on proxy measures for the FAT components, participants were classified being 'at risk' or 'not at risk' and nutrition knowledge scores were compared for the two groups. Formal education related to nutrition was considered. Results A considerably higher percentage of athletes were classified 'at risk' of menstrual dysfunction than controls (28.8% and 9.4%, respectively and a higher percentage scored at or above the cutoff value of 20 on the EAT-26 test among athletes than controls (10.2% and 3.1%, respectively. 8.5% of athletes were classified 'at risk' for bone mineral density in contrast to none from the control group. Nutrition knowledge and eating attitude appeared to be independent for both athletes and controls. GNKQ scores of athletes were higher than controls but the differences between the knowledge of 'at risk' and 'not at risk' athletes and controls were inconsequential. Formal education in nutrition or closely related subjects does not have an influence on nutrition knowledge or on being classified as 'at risk' or 'not at risk'. Conclusion The lack of difference in nutrition knowledge between 'at risk' and 'not at risk' athletes suggests that lack of information is not accountable for restricted eating associated with the Female Athlete Triad.

  3. Influence of pre-pregnancy leisure time physical activity on gestational and postpartum weight gain and birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegaard, Hanne Kristine; Rode, Line; Katballe, Malene Kjær

    2017-01-01

    In order to examine the association between pre-pregnancy leisure time physical activities and gestational weight gain, postpartum weight gain and birth weight, we analysed prospectively collected data from 1827 women with singleton term pregnancies. Women were categorised in groups of sedentary...... risk of having a gestational weight gain above Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations with an odds ratio of 2.60 (1.32-5.15) compared to light exercisers. However, birth weight and one year postpartum weight was similar for all four groups. Thus, although competitive athletes gain more weight than...... recommended during pregnancy, this may not affect birth weight or postpartum weight. Impact statement: What is already known on this subject: Previous studies have found that increased pre-pregnancy physical activity is associated with lower gestational weight gain during the last trimester, but showed...

  4. Self-concept and physical activity in athletes with physical disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jeffrey J; Whalen, Laurel

    2012-07-01

    Few researchers have examined multi-dimensional physical self-concept among athletes with disabilities despite extensive evidence indicating the value of such an approach. To describe multidimensional self-concept and to predict both physical activity (PA) and self-esteem using various dimensions of physical self-concept (e.g., endurance, strength). The study was a one-time cross-sectional design involving self-report questionnaires. Participants (n = 50) were adolescents and adult athletes with physical disabilities (M age = 26.5, SD = 10.1) who completed the short version of the Physical Self-Description Questionnaire (PSDQ-S). Athletes reported neutral to positive perceptions of multidimensional physical self-concept (M's ranging from 3.3 to 5.9 of 6). Using multiple regression analyses, we were able account for 29 and 47 percent of the variance in global self-concept and PA, respectively. Global physical self-concept and strength self-concept were important in predicting global self-concept and PA, respectively. These findings support the promotion of weight training programs specifically and PA programs more generally for people with disabilities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A systematic review of studies comparing body image concerns among female college athletes and non-athletes, 1997-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varnes, Julia R; Stellefson, Michael L; Janelle, Christopher M; Dorman, Steven M; Dodd, Virginia; Miller, M David

    2013-09-01

    Research prior to 2001 indicated that athletes experienced better body image than non-athletes, with no differences among sport types. Since then, female athletes have become increasingly sexually objectified in the media, and the sociocultural beauty ideal has shifted to emphasize appearing both athletic and thin. Part I of this paper explores the literature describing these changes. Part II presents a systematic and comprehensive literature review of 10 recent studies comparing body image concerns (BIC) among collegiate female athletes and non-athletes to identify the current status of BIC in female athletes. Findings indicate that involvement in collegiate athletics provides some protection from BIC; however, this protection appears attenuated for athletes in more feminine sports (e.g., gymnastics), and higher level athletes (Division I). Researchers should examine how sociocultural pressures unrelated to competition predict female athletes' BIC using measures that focus on objectification, positive body image, body functionality, and thin- and athletic-ideal internalization. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Lower body symmetry and running performance in elite Jamaican track and field athletes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Trivers

    Full Text Available In a study of degree of lower body symmetry in 73 elite Jamaican track and field athletes we show that both their knees and ankles (but not their feet are-on average-significantly more symmetrical than those of 116 similarly aged controls from the rural Jamaican countryside. Within the elite athletes, events ranged from the 100 to the 800 m, and knee and ankle asymmetry was lower for those running the 100 m dashes than those running the longer events with turns. Nevertheless, across all events those with more symmetrical knees and ankles (but not feet had better results compared to international standards. Regression models considering lower body symmetry combined with gender, age and weight explain 27 to 28% of the variation in performance among athletes, with symmetry related to about 5% of this variation. Within 100 m sprinters, the results suggest that those with more symmetrical knees and ankles ran faster. Altogether, our work confirms earlier findings that knee and probably ankle symmetry are positively associated with sprinting performance, while extending these findings to elite athletes.

  7. Are Elite Female Soccer Athletes at Risk for Disordered Eating Attitudes, Menstrual Dysfunction, and Stress Fractures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prather, Heidi; Hunt, Devyani; McKeon, Kathryn; Simpson, Scott; Meyer, E Blair; Yemm, Ted; Brophy, Robert

    2016-03-01

    To determine the prevalence of stress fractures, menstrual dysfunction and disordered eating attitudes in elite female soccer athletes. Cross-sectional descriptive study. Female soccer athletes were recruited from a national level youth soccer club, an NCAA Division I university team, and a women's professional team. Two hundred twenty female soccer athletes with a mean age of 16.4 ± 4 years and BMI of 20.8 ± 2 kg/m(2) completed the study, representing all athletes from the included teams. One-time surveys completed by the athletes. Height and weight were recorded, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated for each athlete. Athletes reported age of menarche, history of missing 3 or more menses within a 12-month period and stress fracture. The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) was used to assess the athlete's body perception and attitudes toward eating. Of the 220 soccer athletes, 3 athletes (1.6%) had a low BMI for their age, and 19 (8.6%) reported stress fractures of the lower extremity. Among athletes who had reached menarche, the average onset was 13 + 1 year; menstrual dysfunction were present in 21 (19.3%). On the EAT-26, 1 player scored in the high risk range (>20) and 17 (7.7%) scored in the intermediate risk range (10-19) for eating disorders. Athletes with an EAT-26 score ≥ 10 points had a significantly higher prevalence of menstrual dysfunction in the past year compared to athletes with an EAT-26 score of less than 10 (P = .02). Elite female soccer athletes are susceptible to stress fractures and menstrual dysfunction and have delayed onset of menarche despite normal BMI and appropriate body perception and attitudes towards eating. Further studies are needed to better understand stress fracture risk in female soccer athletes and in other team sports to determine how these findings relate to long-term bone health in this population. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. An Interpersonal Psychotherapy Approach to Counseling Student Athletes: Clinical Implications of Athletic Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heird, Emily Benton; Steinfeldt, Jesse A.

    2013-01-01

    Research has shown that disruptive circumstances in an athlete's career (temporary injury, permanent injury, retirement) can pose significant difficulties, especially if the athlete has developed a salient athletic identity at the expense of a multidimensional self-concept. The authors present an interpersonal psychotherapy approach to case…

  9. Do athletes have a right to access data in their Athlete Biological Passport?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devriendt, Thijs; Chokoshvili, Davit; Favaretto, Maddalena; Borry, Pascal

    2018-05-01

    The Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) refers to the collection of data related to an individual athlete. The ABP contains the Haematological Module and the Steroidal Module, which are used for the longitudinal monitoring of variables in blood and urine, respectively. Based on changes in these variables, a statistical model detects outliers which indicate doping use and guide further targeted testing of the athlete. Presently, athletes can access their data of the Haematological Module in the Anti-Doping Administration and Management System (ADAMS). However, granting athletes access to this data has been a matter of debate within the anti-doping community. This article investigates whether an athlete has a right to access the contents of their ABP profile. We approached this discussion by comparing the nature of ABP data with that of forensic and medical data and touched on important concerns with ABP data disclosure to athletes such as potentially allowing for the development of alternative doping techniques to circumvent detection; and making athletes vulnerable to pressure by the media to publicly release their data. Furthermore, given that ABP data may contain medically relevant information that can be used to diagnose disease, athletes may over-interpret its medical significance and wrongly see it as a free health check. We argue that safeguarding the integrity of the ABP system must be seen as the most essential element and thus a departure from immediate data disclosure is necessary. Two different strategies for delayed data disclosure are proposed which diminish the chances of ABP data being misused to refine doping techniques. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Quantifying Parental Influence on Youth Athlete Specialization: A Survey of Athletes' Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padaki, Ajay S; Ahmad, Christopher S; Hodgins, Justin L; Kovacevic, David; Lynch, Thomas Sean; Popkin, Charles A

    2017-09-01

    Youth athlete specialization has been linked to decreased enjoyment, burnout, and increased injury risk, although the impact of specialization on athletic success is unknown. The extent to which parents exert extrinsic influence on this phenomenon remains unclear. The goal of this study was to assess parental influences placed on young athletes to specialize. It was hypothesized that parents generate both direct and indirect pressures on specialized athletes. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. A survey tool was designed by an interdisciplinary medical team to evaluate parental influence on youth specialization. Surveys were administered to parents of the senior author's orthopaedic pediatric patients. Of the 211 parents approached, 201 (95.3%) completed the assessment tool. One-third of parents stated that their children played a single sport only, 53.2% had children who played multiple sports but had a favorite sport, and 13.4% had children who balanced their multiple sports equally. Overall, 115 (57.2%) parents hoped for their children to play collegiately or professionally, and 100 (49.7%) parents encouraged their children to specialize in a single sport. Parents of highly specialized and moderately specialized athletes were more likely to report directly influencing their children's specialization ( P = .038) and to expect their children to play collegiately or professionally ( P = .014). Finally, parents who hired personal trainers for their children were more likely to believe that their children held collegiate or professional aspirations ( P = .009). Parents influence youth athlete specialization both directly and by investment in elite coaching and personal instruction. Parents of more specialized athletes exert more influence than parents of unspecialized athletes.

  11. The influence of athletic activity on the plantar fascia in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzel, Murat; Cetinus, Ercan; Ekerbicer, H Cetin; Karaoguz, Ahmet

    2006-01-01

    Complaints deriving from the plantar fascia are relatively common in athletes. This study aimed to investigate the changes of thickness of plantar fascia via sonography in healthy young adults with different levels of activity. One hundred ten adults with normal body mass index were separated into three groups according to activity level: sedentary (group 1, n = 50), athletic activity less than 7 hours per week (group 2, n = 30), and athletic activity 7 or more hours per week (group 3, n = 30). The thicknesses of the plantar fascia at origin and at a point 5 mm distal to origin were measured via sonography. The mean values of the thickness of the proximal plantar fascia (PFp) and the distal plantar fascia (PFd) in group 1 were similar to those of groups 2 and 3 (p > 0.05). The mean values of PFp and PFd were significantly higher in men than in women (p 0.05). There were moderate positive correlations between PFp and weight, height, and body mass index but no correlation between PFp and amount of athletic activity. The thickness of the plantar fascia at origin did not change with athletic activity at the amateur level. Copyright 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Body Size Changes Among National Collegiate Athletic Association New England Division III Football Players, 1956−2014: Comparison With Age-Matched Population Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Kayla R.; Harmatz, Jerold S.; Zhao, Yanli; Greenblatt, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Context:  Collegiate football programs encourage athletes to pursue high body weights. Objective:  To examine position-dependent trends over time in body size characteristics among football players in the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division III New England Small College Athletic Conference (NESCAC) from 1956 to 2014 and to compare the observed absolute and relative changes with those in age-matched male population controls. Design:  Descriptive laboratory study. Setting:  Medical school affiliated with a NESCAC institution. Patients or Other Participants:  Football team rosters from the 10-member NESCAC schools, available as public documents, were analyzed along with body size data from general population males aged 20 to 29 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Main Outcome Measure(s):  Body weight, height, and calculated body mass index were evaluated using analysis of variance, linear regression, and nonlinear regression to determine the distribution features of size variables and changes associated with time (year), school, and position. Results:  Among NESCAC linemen, absolute and relative changes over time in body weight and body mass index exceeded corresponding changes in the NHANES population controls. New England Small College Athletic Conference offensive linemen body weights increased by 37.5% from 1956 to 2014 (192 to 264 lb [86.4 to 118.8 kg]), compared with a 12% increase (164 to 184 lb [73.8 to 82.8 kg]) since 1961 in the NHANES population controls. Body mass index changed in parallel with body weight and exceeded 35 kg/m2 in more than 30% of contemporary NESCAC offensive linemen. Among skill players in the NESCAC group, time-related changes in body size characteristics generally paralleled those in the NHANES controls. Conclusions:  High body weight and body mass indices were evident in offensive linemen, even among those in Division III football programs with no athletic

  13. Asthma in elite athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elers, Jimmi; Pedersen, Lars; Backer, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    Asthma is frequently found among elite athletes performing endurance sports such as swimming, rowing and cross-country skiing. Although these athletes often report symptoms while exercising, they seldom have symptoms at rest. Moreover, compared with nonathletic asthmatic individuals, elite athletes...... their physical capacity. Elite athletes should undergo comprehensive assessment to confirm an asthma diagnosis and determine its degree of severity. Treatment should be as for any other asthmatic individual, including the use of ß2-agonist, inhaled steroid as well as leukotriene-antagonist. It should, however......, be noted that daily use of ß-agonists could expose elite athletes to the risk of developing tolerance towards these drugs. Use of ß2-agonist should be replaced with daily inhaled corticosteroid treatment, the most important treatment of exercise-induced asthma. All physicians treating asthma should...

  14. Asthma in elite athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elers, Jimmi; Pedersen, Lars; Backer, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    Asthma is frequently found among elite athletes performing endurance sports such as swimming, rowing and cross-country skiing. Although these athletes often report symptoms while exercising, they seldom have symptoms at rest. Moreover, compared with nonathletic asthmatic individuals, elite athletes...... their physical capacity. Elite athletes should undergo comprehensive assessment to confirm an asthma diagnosis and determine its degree of severity. Treatment should be as for any other asthmatic individual, including the use of β2-agonist, inhaled steroid as well as leukotriene-antagonist. It should, however......, be noted that daily use of β-agonists could expose elite athletes to the risk of developing tolerance towards these drugs. Use of β2-agonist should be replaced with daily inhaled corticosteroid treatment, the most important treatment of exercise-induced asthma. All physicians treating asthma should...

  15. Protein needs in athletes and dietary-nutrition guidelines to gain muscle mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aritz Urdampilleta

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important effects of strength training is muscular hypertrophy. Athletes should optimize their nutritional management in order to compensate their own genetic limitations. The aim of this review is to analyze the scientific evidence concerning protein intake as a tool to achieve muscle hypertrophy. Depending on the expenditure and energy intake of athlete, a daily protein ranging between 10-15% of total dietary intake is needed. However in sports diets, it is preferable to estimate the amount of protein needed per kilogram of body weight in each individual. In this regard athletes should ingest an amount between 1.2 g and 1.8 g of proteins/kg of body mass/day to maintain their lean mass. In order to increase muscle mass (0.5 kg/week, athletes should take between 1.6 g and 1.8 g of protein/kg/day with an increase of 400-500 kcal in their daily diet. These needs will depend on the sport, muscular catabolic status, the athlete’s lean mass and glycogen stores. Protein needs will increase if muscle and liver glycogen stores are empty. Excess of protein intake (more than 2 g/kg/day, with full glycogen stores, does not benefit the athlete and could cause an increase in circulating ketones and urea, thereby producing an early dehydration.

  16. Sonographic evaluation of athletic pubalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, Nicholas; Grant, Thomas; Blount, Kevin; Omar, Imran

    2016-05-01

    Athletic pubalgia, or "sports hernia", represents a constellation of pathologic conditions occurring at and around the pubic symphysis. These injuries are primarily seen in athletes or those involved in athletic activity. In this article, we review the sonographic appearance of the relevant complex anatomy, scanning technique for ultrasound evaluation of athletic pubalgia, and the sonographic appearances of associated pathologic conditions.

  17. Sports Hernia/Athletic Pubalgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Christopher M.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Sports hernia/athletic pubalgia has received increasing attention as a source of disability and time lost from athletics. Studies are limited, however, lacking consistent objective criteria for making the diagnosis and assessing outcomes. Evidence Acquisition: PubMed database through January 2013 and hand searches of the reference lists of pertinent articles. Study Design: Review article. Level of Evidence: Level 5. Results: Nonsurgical outcomes have not been well reported. Various surgical approaches have return-to–athletic activity rates of >80% regardless of the approach. The variety of procedures and lack of outcomes measures in these studies make it difficult to compare one surgical approach to another. There is increasing evidence that there is an association between range of motion–limiting hip disorders (femoroacetabular impingement) and sports hernia/athletic pubalgia in a subset of athletes. This has added increased complexity to the decision-making process regarding treatment. Conclusion: An association between femoroacetabular impingement and athletic pubalgia has been recognized, with better outcomes reported when both are managed concurrently or in a staged manner. PMID:24587864

  18. Sport-related achievement motivation and alcohol outcomes: an athlete-specific risk factor among intercollegiate athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Cameron C; Martens, Matthew P; Cadigan, Jennifer M; Takamatsu, Stephanie K; Treloar, Hayley R; Pedersen, Eric R

    2013-12-01

    Intercollegiate athletes report greater alcohol consumption and more alcohol-related problems than their non-athlete peers. Although college athletes share many of the same problems faced by non-athletes, there are some consequences that are unique to athletes. Studies have demonstrated that alcohol negatively affects athletic performance including increased dehydration, impeded muscle recovery, and increased risk for injury. Beyond risk factors for alcohol misuse that may affect college students in general, research has begun to examine risk factors that are unique to collegiate athletes. For example, research has found that off-season status, the leadership role, and athlete-specific drinking motives are associated with increased alcohol use. Given these findings, it is possible that other athlete-specific variables influence alcohol misuse. One such variable may be sport achievement orientation. The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between sport achievement orientation and alcohol outcomes. Given previous research regarding seasonal status and gender, these variables were examined as moderators. Varsity athletes (n=263) completed the Sport Orientation Questionnaire, which assesses sport-related achievement orientation on three scales (Competitiveness, Win Orientation, and Goal Orientation). In addition, participants completed measures of alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. Results indicated that Competitiveness, Win Orientation, and Goal Orientation were all significantly associated with alcohol use, but not alcohol-related problems. Moreover, these relationships were moderated by seasonal status and gender. These interactions, clinical implications, and limitations are discussed. © 2013.

  19. Support Services for Student-Athletes: Assessing the Differences in Usage among Student-Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Julie A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the usage rates of support services for student-athletes at a small, private college in the southeast with membership in the National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics (NAIA), in efforts to understand how universities and sport organizations can assist in the challenges student-athletes face when…

  20. Comparison of disordered eating symptoms and emotion regulation difficulties between female college athletes and non-athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollenberg, Gena; Shriver, Lenka H; Gates, Gail E

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the prevalence of disordered eating between female college athletes and non-athletes and explore emotion regulation as a potential mediator of the link between participation in athletics and disordered eating symptoms. Data for this cross-sectional study came from 527 college students in a mid-western state of the USA in fall of 2013 (376 non-athletes and 151 athletes). Disordered eating symptoms and emotion regulation were assessed utilizing the Eating Attitudes Test and the Difficulties with Emotion Regulation Scale in a survey-based format. The prevalence of disordered eating was higher in non-athletes (16.5%, vs. 6.6%; X(2)=62.8; pathletes reported more signs and symptoms of disordered eating than athletes (pathletic-status on disordered eating via emotion regulation; however, this effect did not reach practical significance. Our findings show that female athletes in our sample were somewhat protected from disordered eating compared to non-athletes, but the mechanism of this relationship is unclear. A further in-depth examination of other factors, such as self-esteem and body satisfaction, that may have contributed to this finding is warranted utilizing a large sample of female college students and athletes representing a variety of sports. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. CARBOHYDRATE INTAKE CONSIDERATIONS FOR YOUNG ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Montfort-Steiger

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Good nutritional practices are important for exercise performance and health during all ages. Athletes and especially growing children engaged in heavy training have higher energy and nutrient requirements compared to their non-active counterparts. Scientific understanding of sports nutrition for the young athlete is lacking behind the growing number of young athletes engaged in sports. Most of the sports nutrition recommendations given to athletic children and adolescents are based on adult findings due to the deficiency in age specific information in young athletes. Therefore, this review reflects on child specific sports nutrition, particularly on carbohydrate intake and metabolism that distinguishes the child athlete from the adult athlete. Children are characterised to be in an insulin resistance stage during certain periods of maturation, have different glycolytic/metabolic responses during exercise, have a tendency for higher fat oxidation during exercise and show different heat dissipation mechanisms compared to adults. These features point out that young athletes may need different nutritional advice on carbohydrate for exercise to those from adult athletes. Sport drinks for example may need to be adapted to children specific needs. However, more research in this area is warranted to clarify sports nutrition needs of the young athlete to provide better and healthy nutritional guidance to young athletes

  2. Elite athletes and pubertal delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapczuk, Karina

    2017-10-01

    Intensive physical training and participation in competitive sports during childhood and early adolescence may affect athletes' pubertal development. On the other hand, pubertal timing, early or late, may impact on an athlete selection for a particular sport. Genetic predisposition, training load, nutritional status and psychological stress determine athletes' pubertal timing. Athletes that practice esthetic sports, especially gymnasts, are predisposed to a delay in pubertal development. The growing evidence indicates that energy deficiency, not a systemic training per se, plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of functional hypothalamic hypogonadism in female athletes. Metabolic and psychologic stress activate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and suppress hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. Female athletes who do not begin secondary sexual development by the age of 14 or menstruation by the age of 16 warrant a comprehensive evaluation and a targeted treatment. Somatic growth and sexual maturation of elite female athletes are largely sport-specific since each sport favors a particular somatotype and requires a specific training. Chronic negative energy balance resulting from a systemic physical training and inadequate energy intake may delay pubertal development in elite athletes. Youth athletes, especially those engaged in competitive sports that emphasize prepubertal or lean appearance, are at risk of developing relative energy deficiency in sport associated with disordered eating or eating disorders. Management strategies should address the complex conditions underlying functional hypothalamic hypogonadism.

  3. Athlete endorsements in food marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg, Marie A; Yanamadala, Swati; Roberto, Christina A; Harris, Jennifer L; Brownell, Kelly D

    2013-11-01

    This study quantified professional athletes' endorsement of food and beverages, evaluated the nutritional quality of endorsed products, and determined the number of television commercial exposures of athlete-endorsement commercials for children, adolescents, and adults. One hundred professional athletes were selected on the basis of Bloomberg Businessweek's 2010 Power 100 rankings, which ranks athletes according to their endorsement value and prominence in their sport. Endorsement information was gathered from the Power 100 list and the advertisement database AdScope. Endorsements were sorted into 11 endorsement categories (eg, food/beverages, sports apparel). The nutritional quality of the foods featured in athlete-endorsement advertisements was assessed by using a Nutrient Profiling Index, whereas beverages were evaluated on the basis of the percentage of calories from added sugar. Marketing data were collected from AdScope and Nielsen. Of 512 brands endorsed by 100 different athletes, sporting goods/apparel represented the largest category (28.3%), followed by food/beverages (23.8%) and consumer goods (10.9%). Professional athletes in this sample were associated with 44 different food or beverage brands during 2010. Seventy-nine percent of the 62 food products in athlete-endorsed advertisements were energy-dense and nutrient-poor, and 93.4% of the 46 advertised beverages had 100% of calories from added sugar. Peyton Manning (professional American football player) and LeBron James (professional basketball player) had the most endorsements for energy-dense, nutrient-poor products. Adolescents saw the most television commercials that featured athlete endorsements of food. Youth are exposed to professional athlete endorsements of food products that are energy-dense and nutrient-poor.

  4. Weight reduction of automobile parts using light metals. Keikinzoku shiyo ni yoru jidosha buhin no keiryoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, S [Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan)

    1992-12-25

    Weight reduction of automobiles is required from the viewpoint of reduction of CO2 emission and energy conservation. Comparing a car with another one of almost the same size and performance with 1% reduced weight, combustion efficiency of the latter can be improved by 0.5-0.8%. This report introduces several examples, in which steel parts are replaced with light alloy parts to reduce car weight, and describes the future perspective. Concerning a cylinder block which is the heaviest part among engine parts, a block made of aluminum alloy with no cast liner has been developed. There is also an example of an oil pan adopting aluminum die-cast for a part of it. A valve lifter made of aluminum alloy has been developed for valve system parts and has contributed to friction loss, noise reduction, and improvement of fuel consumption. As for steering system parts, a steering bracket made of Mg alloy die-cast has been developed. The use of light alloy parts, in general, increases material cost. Therefore it is now required to build up closer connection between designs and production techniques and to improve reliability of casting and forging technologies. 5 refs., 20 figs.

  5. The Comparison of Body Image Between Athletes and Non-Athletes Postmenopausal Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollah Ghasemi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the present study was to compare and contrastthe sub-scale of the body image of the athletes and nonathlete menopaused females. Methods & Materials: The subjects of the research comprise 60 individuals who were between 43-53 years old. In this study the personalinformation questionnaire and PSDQ test were used.The Personal information questionnaire included the sub-scales of power, endurance, coordination, general health, flexibility, self-esteem, athletic competence, body appearance and, body activity. The Kolmogrov-Smirnov and T test used to analys data . Results: The results showed that the body image of the athletes in all of the sub-scales such as power, endurance, coordination, general health, flexibility, self esteem, athletic competence, fat, body appearance, body activity and whole body was significantly better than individuals who were not athletes. Conclusion: It seems that participation in physical activity programs have a positive effect on menopausal negative side effects.

  6. Thermoregulation of competitive artistic gymnastic athletes and non-athlete girls exercising in the heat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Tomedi Leites

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2016v18n2p143   It’s unclear whether the combination of intense, chronic training and heat exposure during prepubescence improves thermoregulatory responses to exercise in artistic gymnastics athletes. The objective of this study was to compare thermoregulatory and perceptual responses between artistic gymnastics athletes and non-athlete girls while exercising both in heat and thermoneutral conditions. Seven athletes (8.7 ± 1.3 yrs and 7 nonathletes (9.4 ± 1.5 yrs cycled for 30 min at load (W of ~55% VO2peak, on two separate occasions in a randomized order: heat (35˚C, 40% relative humidity and thermoneutral conditions (24˚C, 50% relative humidity. Rectal temperature, heart rate, rate of perceived exertion, thermal sensation, thermal comfort and irritability were measured throughout the exercise. Initial rectal temperature was similar between athletes and non-athletes in both heat (37.2 ± 0.4 vs. 37.4 ± 0.2˚C, respectively and thermoneutral conditions (37.3 ± 0.2 vs. 37.3 ± 0.3˚C. Final rectal temperature was similar between groups (38.0 ± 0.2 vs. 38.2 ± 0.2˚C in heat and 37.8 ± 0.2 vs. 37.9 ± 0.2˚C in thermoneutral conditions. Initial heart rate was lower in athletes in the heat (76 ± 7 vs. 91 ± 11 bpm, P = 0.01; however, throughout cycling, it became similar between groups. Athletes reported similar perceptual responses compared to non-athletes, with the exception of higher thermal comfort in the 10th minute of exercise in thermoneutral conditions (P = 0.003. It was concluded that athletes were similar to non-athletes with respect to thermoregulatory and perceptual responses during 30 min of cycling at similar relative intensities.

  7. female collegiate athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JL Ayers

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Olympic weightlifting movements and their variations are believed to be among the most effective ways to improve power, strength, and speed in athletes. This study investigated the effects of two Olympic weightlifting variations (hang cleans and hang snatches, on power (vertical jump height, strength (1RM back squat, and speed (40-yard sprint in female collegiate athletes. 23 NCAA Division I female athletes were randomly assigned to either a hang clean group or hang snatch group. Athletes participated in two workout sessions a week for six weeks, performing either hang cleans or hang snatches for five sets of three repetitions with a load of 80-85% 1RM, concurrent with their existing, season-specific, resistance training program. Vertical jump height, 1RM back squat, and 40-yard sprint all had a significant, positive improvement from pre-training to post-training in both groups (p≤0.01. However, when comparing the gain scores between groups, there was no significant difference between the hang clean and hang snatch groups for any of the three dependent variables (i.e., vertical jump height, p=0.46; 1RM back squat, p=0.20; and 40-yard sprint, p=0.46. Short-term training emphasizing hang cleans or hang snatches produced similar improvements in power, strength, and speed in female collegiate athletes. This provides strength and conditioning professionals with two viable programmatic options in athletic-based exercises to improve power, strength, and speed.

  8. National collegiate athletic association division and primary job title of athletic trainers and their job satisfaction or intention to leave athletic training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terranova, Aaron B; Henning, Jolene M

    2011-01-01

    Membership in the National Athletic Trainers' Association (NATA) has declined in recent years, generating much debate about professional commitment. To compare the contributing factors of job satisfaction and intention to leave athletic training of certified athletic trainers (ATs) employed in National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) institutions. Cross-sectional study. A link to a Web-based questionnaire containing the Spector Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS) and an original Intention to Leave Survey (ITLS) was distributed by e-mail to 1003 certified members of the National Athletic Trainers' Association. A total of 191 certified members of the NATA employed in a college or university setting in a primarily clinical capacity; representing all NCAA divisions; and having the job title of head athletic trainer, associate/assistant athletic trainer, or graduate assistant/intern athletic trainer. We used separate 3 x 3 factorial analyses of variance to compare the mean scores of each JSS subscale and of the ITLS with NCAA division and job title. A stepwise multiple regression was used to determine the strength of the relationships between the JSS subscales and the ITLS. We found differences for job title in the subscales of Fringe Benefits (F(2182) = 7.82, P = .001 ) and Operating Conditions (F(2,182) = 12.01, P < .001). The JSS subscale Nature of Work was the'greatest indicator of intention to leave (β = -0.45). We found a strong negative correlation between various facets of job satisfaction and intention to leave athletic training. The NCAA division seemed to have no effect on an individual's job satisfaction or intention to leave the profession. In addition, only Fringe Benefits and Operating Conditions seemed to be affected by job title. The ATs had similar levels of job satisfaction regardless of NCAA division, and their job titles were not a major factor in job satisfaction.

  9. Evaluating the Relation between Dominant and Non-Dominant Hand Perimeters and Handgrip Strength of Basketball, Volleyball, Badminton and Handball Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Defne Öcal

    2016-01-01

    In this study, it's aimed to evaluate the relation between dominant and non-dominant hand perimeters and handgrip strength of basketball, volleyball, badminton and handball athletes. Totally 101 active athletes (49 females, 52 male), of the average age in female 20±1.42 years, in male 21±1.99 years, joined to this study. Height, body weight, BMI…

  10. THE LEVEL AND AGE DYNAMICS OF SPORTS ACHIEVEMENTS OF ATHLETES-VETERANS OF THE HAMMER THROW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanova Natalya Dmitrievna

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the records of the world and Russian athletes veterans in the hammer throw, starting with the age group 35-39 years and up to age group 100-104 years, and a comparison of the records of veterans subject to an age factor and of the high scores of athletes in the current sports. The aim of the work is to analyze the level and dynamics of the records of the world and Russian athletes, veterans in the hammer throw in each five-year group starting with the age group 35-39 years and up to age group 100-104 years. The novelty of the work consists in comparison of the records of the world and Russia in the hammer throw active athletes and records of veterans with the amendment to the age factor. Analysis of the level and age dynamics of sports achievements of domestic and foreign athletes-throwers older age groups. In the course of the research it is established, that in the throwing hammer, decreasing absolute (without regard to the age factor results, which is largely due to the natural age-related changes in the organism of athletes. Records of the world athletes-veterans compared with the records of active athletes and the transition from each of the five-year group in the following, decline on average in men by 10,0%, among women by 19,3%, in spite of the fact that the weight of the shells in the hammer throw with age decreases. Presented the reasons for the backwardness of Russian athletes older than 35 years of foreign veterans.

  11. The FTO A/T Polymorphism and Elite Athletic Performance: A Study Involving Three Groups of European Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eynon, Nir; Nasibulina, Emiliya S.; Banting, Lauren K.; Cieszczyk, Pawel; Maciejewska-Karlowska, Agnieszka; Sawczuk, Marek; Bondareva, Elvira A.; Shagimardanova, Roza R.; Raz, Maytal; Sharon, Yael; Williams, Alun G.; Ahmetov, Ildus I.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The FTO A/T polymorphism (rs9939609) is a strong candidate to influence obesity-related traits. Elite athletes from many different sporting disciplines are characterized by low body fat. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess whether athletic status is associated with the FTO A/T polymorphism. Subjects and Methods A large cohort of European Caucasians from Poland, Russia and Spain were tested to examine the association between FTO A/T polymorphism (rs9939609) and athletic status. A total of 551 athletes were divided by type of sport (endurance athletes, n = 266 vs. sprint/power athletes, n = 285) as well as by level of competition (elite-level vs. national-level). The control group consisted of 1,416 ethnically-matched, non-athletic participants, all Europeans. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the association between FTO A/T genotypes and athletic status/competition level. Results There were no significantly greater/lesser odds of harbouring any type of genotype when comparing across athletic status (endurance athletes, sprint/power athletes or control participants). These effects were observed after controlling for sex and nationality. Furthermore, no significantly greater/lesser odds ratios were observed for any of the genotypes in respect to the level of competition (elite-level vs. national-level). Conclusion The FTO A/T polymorphism is not associated with elite athletic status in the largest group of elite athletes studied to date. Large collaborations and data sharing between researchers, as presented here, are strongly recommended to enhance the research in the field of exercise genomics. PMID:23573268

  12. The FTO A/T polymorphism and elite athletic performance: a study involving three groups of European athletes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nir Eynon

    Full Text Available The FTO A/T polymorphism (rs9939609 is a strong candidate to influence obesity-related traits. Elite athletes from many different sporting disciplines are characterized by low body fat. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess whether athletic status is associated with the FTO A/T polymorphism.A large cohort of European Caucasians from Poland, Russia and Spain were tested to examine the association between FTO A/T polymorphism (rs9939609 and athletic status. A total of 551 athletes were divided by type of sport (endurance athletes, n = 266 vs. sprint/power athletes, n = 285 as well as by level of competition (elite-level vs. national-level. The control group consisted of 1,416 ethnically-matched, non-athletic participants, all Europeans. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the association between FTO A/T genotypes and athletic status/competition level.There were no significantly greater/lesser odds of harbouring any type of genotype when comparing across athletic status (endurance athletes, sprint/power athletes or control participants. These effects were observed after controlling for sex and nationality. Furthermore, no significantly greater/lesser odds ratios were observed for any of the genotypes in respect to the level of competition (elite-level vs. national-level.The FTO A/T polymorphism is not associated with elite athletic status in the largest group of elite athletes studied to date. Large collaborations and data sharing between researchers, as presented here, are strongly recommended to enhance the research in the field of exercise genomics.

  13. Does the athletes? body shape the athletes? mind? A few ideas on athletes? mental rotation performance. Commentary on Jansen and Lehmann

    OpenAIRE

    Heinen, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Athletes exhibit differences in perceptual-cognitive abilities when compared to non-athletes. Recent theoretical developments focus on the role of the athletes? body in perceptual-cognitive tasks such as mental rotation tasks. It is assumed that the degree to which stimuli in mental rotation tasks can be embodied facilitates the mental rotation process. The implications of this assumption are discussed and ideas for future research are presented.

  14. Proposed algorithm for the management of athletes with athletic pubalgia (sports hernia): a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachingwe, Aimie F; Grech, Steven

    2008-12-01

    A case series of 6 athletes with a suspected sports hernia. Groin pain in athletes is common, and 1 source of groin pain is athletic pubalgia, or a sports hernia. Description of this condition and its management is scarce in the physical therapy literature. The purpose of this case series is to describe a conservative approach to treating athletes with a likely sports hernia and to provide physical therapists with an algorithm for managing athletes with this dysfunction. Six collegiate athletes (age range, 19-22 years; 4 males, 2 females) with a physician diagnosis of groin pain secondary to possible/probable sports hernia were referred to physical therapy. A method of evaluation was constructed and a cluster of 5 key findings indicative of a sports hernia is presented. The athletes were managed according to a proposed algorithm and received physical therapy consisting of soft tissue and joint mobilization/manipulation, neuromuscular re-education, manual stretching, and therapeutic exercise. Three of the athletes received conservative intervention and were able to fully return to sport after a mean of 7.7 sessions of physical therapy. The other 3 athletes reached this outcome after surgical repair and a mean of 6.7 sessions of physical therapy. Conservative management including manual therapy appears to be a viable option in the management of athletes with a sports hernia. Follow-up randomized clinical trials should be performed to further investigate the effectiveness of conservative rehabilitation compared to a homogeneous group of patients undergoing surgical repair for this condition. Therapy, level 4.

  15. Alcohol use, sexual activity, and perceived risk in high school athletes and non-athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetherill, Reagan R; Fromme, Kim

    2007-09-01

    The current study examined one's sense of personal invincibility as a contributing factor to high school athletes' more frequent behavioral risks compared to those of non-athletes. Perceived risk was assessed as a mediator of sports participation and alcohol use, and sports participation and sexual activity among high school athletes. Prior to leaving home, college-bound high school graduates (n = 2,247) completed web-based surveys assessing alcohol use, sexual activity, sports participation, and perceived risk. The mediational models were analyzed using generalized linear modeling and the procedures of Baron and Kenny (1986). Relative to non-athletes, athletes reported greater alcohol use, more sexual partners, and lower perceived risk. Perceived risk mediated the association between sports participation and alcohol use for both young men and women. Perceived risk also mediated the association between sports participation and number of sexual partners for women and partially mediated this association for men. Perceived risk partially mediated the association between sports participation and episodes of unsafe sexual activity in both men and women. These findings suggest a potential cognitive mechanism which may account for differences in alcohol use and sexual activity between athletes and non-athletes during late adolescence.

  16. Effects of exercise on plasma adiponectin levels in athletes

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    Popović Mirjana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue is an endocrine organ which releases biologically active adipokines. Adiponectin, an adipocyte-derived protein structurally similar to complement 1q, plays a significant role in metabolic disorders, due to its insulin sensitizing, anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic properties. AdipoR1 and AdipoR2, mediate the metabolic actions of adiponectin by activating adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors- alpha (PPAR-α which leads to an increase in fatty acid combustion and energy consumption, fatty acid oxidation and glucose uptake in myocytes and reduces gluconeogenesis and thus leads to increased insulin sensitivity. Plasma adiponectin level is affected by multiple factors: gender (females have higher plasma adiponectin levels, obesity-linked diseases (metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus type 2 and atherosclerosis are associated with lower adiponectin levels, lifestyle -including exercise. Yet, to date, little is known about the response of adiponectin concentrations to exercise and, in particular, the response of this hormone to training in population of athletes. The aim of this review is to overview the published evidence for the effects of exercise on adiponectin levels in athletes. Adiponectin concentration presents a delayed increase (30 min after short-term intense performance, by athletes, both male and female. It seems that adiponectin concentrations do not change in response to long-term exercise. No significant difference was found in total adiponectin and/or high-molecular weight (HMW oligomers in long-term effects of high physical training in athletes. Adiponectin can serve to monitor training loads and the establishment of individual limit values of training loads. Further studies are needed to clarify possible mechanisms by which adiponectin might influence energy homeostasis during heavy training in elite athletes.

  17. Athletic identity and self-esteem among active and retired Paralympic athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin-Urquiza, Adriana; Ferreira, José Pedro; Van Biesen, Debbie

    2018-04-17

    Athletic identity (AI) has been suggested as a variable that can have an impact on the psychological health of the athletes upon retirement. The aim of this study was to provide more insight on the transition out of elite sport by assessing and comparing the extent of AI and self-esteem in an active group (AG) and a retired group (RG) of Paralympic athletes. Perceived stress and depressive symptoms were additionally assessed in the AG and RG, respectively. A non-probability sampling method was used to recruit active and retired Paralympic athletes (AG, n = 43; RG, n = 41, where 35 retired voluntarily and 6 retired involuntarily) with visual or physical impairments, from Dutch-, English-, Portuguese- and Spanish-speaking countries. Participants completed an electronic survey with questionnaires to assess the study variables mentioned above. Descriptive analysis, comparisons (Mann-Whitney U test and t-test) and Spearman's correlation coefficient were performed for the statistical analysis. Scores of AI were significantly lower in the RG (44.6 ± 9.6) compared to the AG (49.4 ± 8.9); t(82) = 2.36, p = .021, d = 0.51. No differences in self-esteem were found between RG and AG; however, within the RG, athletes who involuntarily retired (21 ± 7.1) had significantly lower self-esteem scores than those who retired voluntarily (25.2 ± 4.2); t(39) = 2.04, p = .049, d = 0.73. In conclusion, free choice upon retirement can positively influence the athletes' self-esteem, whereas a strong AI may negatively influence the retirement process, as it was positively correlated with depressive symptoms (ρ = .409, p = .008). These findings can have practical implications for sport psychologists to better support their athletes.

  18. Ontology-based personalized dietary recommendation for weightlifting

    OpenAIRE

    Tumnark, Piyaporn; Conceição, Filipe Almeida da; Vilas-Boas, João Paulo; Oliveira, Leandro; Cardoso, Paulo; Cabral, Jorge; Santibutr, Nonchai

    2013-01-01

    As pointed at LIVESTRONG.COM, Olympic weightlifters are quite possibly the strongest and most skilled lifters on earth. The ability to put nearly 300 kg over head or clean and jerk three times their bodyweight is feat of strength unmatched in other sports. While this takes years of dedicated training, diet is also critical as optimal nutrition is essential for peak performance. Nutritional misinformation can do as much harm to the ambitious athlete as good nutrition can help. In this study, w...

  19. Epidemiology of injuries in elite taekwondo athletes: two Olympic periods cross-sectional retrospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altarriba-Bartes, Albert; Drobnic, Franchek; Til, Lluís; Malliaropoulos, Nikolaos; Montoro, José Bruno; Irurtia, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Objective Taekwondo injuries differ according to the characteristics of the athletes and the competition. This analytical cross-sectional retrospective cohort study aimed to describe reported taekwondo injuries and to determine the prevalence, characteristics and possible risk factors for injuries sustained by athletes of the Spanish national team. In addition, we compared each identified risk factor—age, weight category, annual quarter, injury timing and competition difficulty level—with its relation to injury location and type. Settings Injury occurrences in taekwondo athletes of the Spanish national team during two Olympic periods at the High Performance Centre in Barcelona were analysed. Participants 48 taekwondo athletes (22 male, 26 female; age range 15–31 years) were studied; 1678 injury episodes occurred. Inclusion criteria were: (1) having trained with the national taekwondo group for a minimum of one sports season; (2) being a member of the Spanish national team. Results Independently of sex or Olympic period, the anatomical sites with most injury episodes were knee (21.3%), foot (17.0%), ankle (12.2%), thigh (11.4%) and lower leg (8.8%). Contusions (29.3%) and cartilage (17.6%) and joint (15.7%) injuries were the prevalent types of injury. Chronological age, weight category and annual quarter can be considered risk factors for sustaining injuries in male and female elite taekwondists according to their location and type (p≤0.001). Conclusions This study provides epidemiological information that will help to inform future injury surveillance studies and the development of prevention strategies and recommendations to reduce the number of injuries in taekwondo competition. PMID:24531455

  20. Fueling the vegetarian (vegan) athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrman, Joel; Ferreri, Deana M

    2010-01-01

    Vegetarian diets are associated with several health benefits, but whether a vegetarian or vegan diet is beneficial for athletic performance has not yet been defined. Based on the evidence in the literature that diets high in unrefined plant foods are associated with beneficial effects on overall health, lifespan, immune function, and cardiovascular health, such diets likely would promote improved athletic performance as well. In this article, we review the state of the literature on vegetarian diets and athletic performance, discuss prevention of potential micronutrient deficiencies that may occur in the vegan athlete, and provide strategies on meeting the enhanced caloric and protein needs of an athlete with a plant-based diet.

  1. Injured athletes' perceptions about social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Damien; Shannon, Vanessa R

    2011-11-01

    According to the buffering hypothesis, social support moderates the harmful effects of stress and, in turn, indirectly affects injured athletes' health and well-being. Previous research suggests that perceptions of social support influence athletes' psychological reactions, as well as their rehabilitation adherence, but additional research in this area is warranted. To examine injured athletes' perceptions regarding satisfaction, availability, and contribution for each of the 8 types of social support. Descriptive. Mid-Atlantic Division II and III institutions. 49 injured athletes. Social support was assessed using a modified version of the Social Support Survey. Injured athletes were significantly more satisfied with social support provided by athletic trainers (ATCs) than that provided by coaches and teammates. In addition, injured athletes reported that social support provided by ATCs contributed significantly more to their overall well-being. Athletes reported several significant differences regarding satisfaction and contribution to well-being among the 8 different types of social support. Injury, an unavoidable part of sport, is often accompanied by negative psychological reactions. This reaction may have a negative influence on an athlete's experience of injury and rehabilitation. Findings suggest that perceptions of social support provided by ATCs have the greatest influence on injured athletes' rehabilitation and well-being.

  2. Relationship between Anthropometric Factors and Ability of Standing Long-Jump Among Track and Field Cadet Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meysam Gholamali

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available From the most important factors that involved in success of sport disciplines, we can note to physiolological, psychological and specific given anthropometric factors of these disciplines [1]. In turn, a few studies have been done about the amount of relationship and strength of anthropometric factors in success prediction, athletes advising about continue given sport discipline in childhood and talent identification. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between some anthropometric factors and ability of standing long-jump (ASLJ among track and field cadet athletes. Thirty-four cadets (Age=10.03±2.90 that regularly performed track and field training participated in this study. Height, waist to hip ratio (WHR and weight measured by flexible tape and digital Scale, respectively. BMI calculated by weight/height [2].

  3. Sports-related injuries among high school athletes--United States, 2005-06 school year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-29

    Participation in high school sports helps promote a physically active lifestyle. High school sports participation has grown from an estimated 4 million participants during the 1971-72 school year to an estimated 7.2 million in 2005-06. However, despite the documented health benefits of increased physical activity (e.g., weight management, improved self-esteem, and increased strength, endurance, and flexibility), those who participate in athletics are at risk for sports-related injuries. High school athletes account for an estimated 2 million injuries, 500,000 doctor visits, and 30,000 hospitalizations annually. To date, the study of these injuries has been limited by inabilities to calculate injury rates, compare results among groups, and generalize findings from small, nonrepresentative samples. During the 2005-06 school year, researchers at a children's hospital in Ohio used an Internet-based data-collection tool to pilot an injury surveillance system among athletes from a representative national sample of U.S. high schools. This report summarizes the findings of that study, which indicated that participation in high school sports resulted in an estimated 1.4 million injuries at a rate of 2.4 injuries per 1,000 athlete exposures (i.e., practices or competitions). Surveillance of exposure-based injury rates in a nationally representative sample of high school athletes and analysis of injury patterns can help guide activities aimed at reducing these injuries.

  4. Weight-training injuries. Common injuries and preventative methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, L J; Yetman, R J; Risser, W L

    1993-07-01

    The use of weights is an increasingly popular conditioning technique, competitive sport and recreational activity among children, adolescents and young adults. Weight-training can cause significant musculoskeletal injuries such as fractures, dislocations, spondylolysis, spondylolisthesis, intervertebral disk herniation, and meniscal injuries of the knee. Although injuries can occur during the use of weight machines, most apparently happen during the aggressive use of free weights. Prepubescent and older athletes who are well trained and supervised appear to have low injury rates in strength training programmes. Good coaching and proper weightlifting techniques and other injury prevention methods are likely to minimise the number of musculoskeletal problems caused by weight-training.

  5. Athletic identity and well-being among young talented athletes who live at a Dutch elite sport center

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkooijen, K.T.; Hove, van P.; Dik, G.

    2012-01-01

    Differences in athletic identity and well-being were examined between athletes living in a Dutch elite sport center (CTO) and athletes not living in such a center (age range: 16–30). Measures included the Athletic Identity Measurement Scale (AIMS; Brewer & Cornelius, 20014. Brewer , B. W. and

  6. The Organizational Climate in Collegiate Athletics: An Athletic Trainer's Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M; Eason, Christianne M

    2018-01-01

      An organizational climate is largely based on an employee's perceptions of the working conditions in which he or she engages regularly. A multifaceted concept, the organizational climate is often formed by perceptions of employee welfare, rewards, and support. Achieving work-life balance is also a part of the climate.   To learn collegiate athletic trainers' perceptions of organizational climate and specifically how it may pertain to their work-life balance.   Phenomenologic study.   Collegiate practice setting.   Thirty athletic trainers working in the collegiate athletics setting took part in 1-on-1 phone interviews. The participants were 30.5 (interquartile range [IQR] = 7.75) years old and had been certified for 7 (IQR = 5) years and at their current position for 4 (IQR = 3) years.   Participants completed a phone interview that followed a semistructured framework. All transcribed interviews were analyzed using a phenomenologic approach. Researcher triangulation, expert review, and data saturation were used to establish credibility.   Athletic trainers working in the collegiate athletics setting who had positive perceptions of their work-life balance described their organizational climate as family friendly. Our participants' supervisors allowed for autonomy related to work scheduling, which provided opportunities for work-life balance. These athletic trainers believed that they worked in a climate that was collegial, which was helpful for work-life balance. In addition, the importance of placing family first was part of the climate.   The perceptions of our participants revealed a climate of family friendliness, supervisor support, and collegiality among staff members, which facilitated the positive climate for work-life balance. The mindset embraced the importance of family and recognized that work did not always have to supersede personal priorities.

  7. Athletic Hip Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, T Sean; Bedi, Asheesh; Larson, Christopher M

    2017-04-01

    Historically, athletic hip injuries have garnered little attention; however, these injuries account for approximately 6% of all sports injuries and their prevalence is increasing. At times, the diagnosis and management of hip injuries can be challenging and elusive for the team physician. Hip injuries are seen in high-level athletes who participate in cutting and pivoting sports that require rapid acceleration and deceleration. Described previously as the "sports hip triad," these injuries consist of adductor strains, osteitis pubis, athletic pubalgia, or core muscle injury, often with underlying range-of-motion limitations secondary to femoroacetabular impingement. These disorders can happen in isolation but frequently occur in combination. To add to the diagnostic challenge, numerous intra-articular disorders and extra-articular soft-tissue restraints about the hip can serve as pain generators, in addition to referred pain from the lumbar spine, bowel, bladder, and reproductive organs. Athletic hip conditions can be debilitating and often require a timely diagnosis to provide appropriate intervention.

  8. Sudden death in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrado, Domenico; Zorzi, Alessandro

    2017-06-15

    Competitive sports activity is associated with an increased risk of sudden cardiovascular death (SCD) in adolescents and young adults with clinically silent cardiovascular disorders. While in middle-aged/senior athletes atherosclerotic coronary artery disease accounts for the vast majority of SCDs, in young athletes the spectrum of substrates is wider and includes inherited (cardiomyopathies) and congenital (anomalous origin of coronary arteries) structural heart diseases. Inherited ion channel diseases have been implicated in SCDs occurring with an apparently normal heart at autopsy. Screening including the ECG allows identification of athletes affected by heart muscle diseases at a pre-symptomatic stage and may lead to reduction of the risk of SCD during sports. The use of modern criteria for interpretation of the ECG in the athlete offers the potential to improve the screening accuracy by reducing the number of false positives. Screening with exercise testing middle aged/senior athletes engaged in leisure sports activity is likely to be effective in patients with significant coronary risk factors, while it is not useful in low-risk subgroups. The availability of automated external defibrillator on the athletic field provides a "back-up" preventive strategy for unpredictable arrhythmic cardiac arrest, mostly occurring in patients with coronary artery diseases. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. The effects of weighted skates on ice-skating kinematics, kinetics and muscular activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavor, Matthew P; Hay, Dean C; Graham, Ryan B

    2018-07-01

    Sport-specific resistance training, through limb loading, can be a complimentary training method to traditional resistance training by loading the working muscles during all phases of a specific movement. The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of skating with an additional load on the skate, using a skate weight prototype, on kinematics, kinetics, and muscle activation during the acceleration phase while skating on a synthetic ice surface. 10 male hockey skaters accelerated from rest (standing erect with knees slightly bent) under four non-randomized load conditions: baseline 1 (no weight), light (0.9 kg per skate), heavy (1.8 kg per skate), and baseline 2 (no weight). Skating with additional weight caused athletes to skate slower (p skates decreased skating velocity, but athletes maintained similar muscle activation profiles (magnitude and trends) with minor changes to their skating kinematics.

  10. Campus Environmental Impact--Fallout for Women Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawshaw, Linda S.

    1990-01-01

    Although participation in college athletics by women has increased, the number of women in athletic administrative positions has decreased. Factors which contribute to the paucity of women athletic administrators, implications for female athletes, and steps which may increase the number of women in collegiate athletic administration are discussed.…

  11. Sports Nutrition for Young Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotugna, Nancy; Vickery, Connie E.; McBee, Sheldon

    2005-01-01

    Nutritional needs for peak athletic performance include sufficient calorie intake, adequate hydration, and attention to timing of meals. Student athletes and their advisors often are misinformed or have misconceptions about sports nutrition. This paper identifies nutritional needs of young athletes, reviews common misconceptions, and examines the…

  12. Differences in muscle mechanical properties between elite power and endurance athletes: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loturco, Irineu; Gil, Saulo; Laurino, Cristiano Frota de Souza; Roschel, Hamilton; Kobal, Ronaldo; Cal Abad, Cesar C; Nakamura, Fabio Y

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare muscle mechanical properties (using tensiomyography-TMG) and jumping performance of endurance and power athletes and to quantify the associations between TMG parameters and jumping performance indices. Forty-one high-level track and field athletes from power (n = 22; mean ± SD age, height, and weight were 27.2 ± 3.6 years; 180.2 ± 5.4 cm; and 79.4 ± 8.6 kg, respectively) and endurance (endurance runners and triathletes; n = 19; mean ± SD age, height, and weight were 27.1 ± 6.9 years; 169.6 ± 9.8 cm; 62.2 ± 13.1 kg, respectively) specialties had the mechanical properties of their rectus femoris (RF) and biceps femoris (BF) assessed by TMG. Muscle displacement (Dm), contraction time (Tc), and delay time (Td) were retained for analyses. Furthermore, they performed squat jumps (SJs), countermovement jumps (CMJs), and drop jumps to assess reactive strength index (RSI), using a contact platform. Comparisons between groups were performed using differences based on magnitudes, and associations were quantified by the Spearman's ρ correlation. Power athletes showed almost certain higher performance in all jumping performance indices when compared with endurance athletes (SJ = 44.9 ± 4.1 vs. 30.7 ± 6.8 cm; CMJ = 48.9 ± 4.5 vs. 33.6 ± 7.2 cm; RSI = 2.19 ± 0.58 vs. 0.84 ± 0.39, for power and endurance athletes, mean ± SD, respectively; 00/00/100, almost certain, p ≤ 0.05), along with better contractile indices reflected by lower Dm, Tc, and Td (Tc BF = 14.3 ± 2.3 vs. 19.4 ± 3.3 milliseconds; Dm BF = 1.67 ± 1.05 vs. 4.23 ± 1.75 mm; Td BF = 16.8 ± 1.6 vs. 19.6 ± 1.3 milliseconds; Tc RF = 18.3 ± 2.8 vs. 22.9 ± 4.0 milliseconds; Dm RF = 4.98 ± 3.71 vs. 8.88 ± 3.45 mm; Td RF = 17.5 ± 1.0 vs. 20.9 ± 1.6 milliseconds, for power and endurance athletes, mean ± SD, respectively; 00/00/100, almost certain, p ≤ 0.05). Moderate correlations (Spearman's ρ between -0.61 and -0.72) were found between TMG and jumping

  13. Development of the athlete sleep behavior questionnaire: A tool for identifying maladaptive sleep practices in elite athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driller, Matthew W; Mah, Cheri D; Halson, Shona L

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Existing sleep questionnaires to assess sleep behaviors may not be sensitive in determining the unique sleep challenges faced by elite athletes. The purpose of the current study was to develop and validate the Athlete Sleep Behavior Questionnaire (ASBQ) to be used as a practical tool for support staff working with elite athletes. Methods 564 participants (242 athletes, 322 non-athletes) completed the 18-item ASBQ and three previously validated questionnaires; the Sleep Hygiene Index (SHI), the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). A cohort of the studied population performed the ASBQ twice in one week to assess test-retest reliability, and also performed sleep monitoring via wrist-actigraphy. Results Comparison of the ASBQ with existing sleep questionnaires resulted in moderate to large correlations (r=0.32 - 0.69). There was a significant difference between athletes and non-athletes for the ASBQ global score (44±6 vs. 41±6, respectively, psleep time (r=-0.42). Conclusion The ASBQ is a valid and reliable tool that can differentiate the sleep practices between athletes and non-athletes, and offers a practical instrument for practitioners and/or researchers wanting to evaluate the sleep behaviors of elite athletes. The ASBQ may provide information on areas where improvements to individual athletes’ sleep habits could be made. PMID:29796200

  14. Does Caffeine Enhance Athletic Performance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcou Juliana

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion: Caffeine consumption may enhance athletic endurance, based on strong evidence, but further research needs to be conducted. High caffeine doses than the optimal, 3-6 mg/kg, before exercise does not confer any additional improvement in athletic performance. Additional, higher caffeine doses may cause side effects in athletes.

  15. Injury prevalence in young athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariadne Maria dos Santos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The injuries in young athletes are becoming more frequent, due to the wade dissemination of sports and the excessive training aimed at high performance. The requirements in sports can lead to the development of pathologies and injuries that could be prevented if the young athlete's training was well oriented. We emphasize the importance of professional and competition calendar planning always seeking the recovery of the athlete. It’s also important to have knowledge of injuries, training load, the previous history of the athlete, and correction of improper movement technique.Objective: To identify the most common injuries in young athletes of different sports. Material and Methods: The study included 36 athletes, aged 12-17 years, of both sexes, the Athletics rules, futsal, swimming and volleyball. An interview that contained information about age, practice time and sport was initially applied. Then two questionnaires were applied, the first consisting of a pain distribution table by body region and the second by a pain scale and this interference in daily activities. Results:Obtained results as mean age 13.86 years. Among the participants, 66.7% reported practicing sports or other physical activities, 55.6% reported that they have suffered injury in some cases with recurrence and 50% who have had any treatment for pain.Conclusion: Based on the results we conclude the importance of knowledge about sports injury prevention strategies in young athletes as a way to ensure longevity in the sport.

  16. Physical and Physiological Characteristics of Judo Athletes: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gema Torres-Luque

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Judo competition is characterized structurally by weight category, which raises the importance of physiological control training in judo. The aim of the present review was to examine scientific papers on the physiological profile of the judokas, maintenance or loss of weight, framing issues, such as anthropometric parameters (body fat percentage, heart rate responses to training and combat, maximal oxygen uptake, hematological, biological and hormones indicators. The values shown in this review should be used as a reference for the evaluation of physical fitness and the effectiveness of training programs. Hence, this information is expected to contribute to the development of optimal training interventions aiming to achieve maximum athletic performance and to maintain the health of judokas.

  17. High Prevalence of Dehydration and Inadequate Nutritional Knowledge Among University and Club Level Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Pamela Jane; Gallagher, Alison M; McCormack, Jacqueline M

    2017-04-01

    Although dehydration of ≥ 2% body weight (BW) loss significantly impairs endurance performance, dehydration remains prevalent among athletes and may be owing to a lack of knowledge in relation to fluid requirements. The aim of this study was to assess the hydration status of university/club level athletes (n = 430) from a range of sports/activities (army officer cadet training; bootcamp training; cycling; Gaelic Athletic Association camogie, football and hurling; golf; hockey; netball; rugby; running (sprinting and endurance); Shotokan karate and soccer) immediately before and after training/competition and to assess their nutritional knowledge. Urine specific gravity (USG) was measured immediately before and after exercise and BW loss during exercise was assessed. Nutritional knowledge was assessed using a validated questionnaire. 31.9% of athletes commenced exercise in a dehydrated state (USG >1.020) with 43.6% of participants dehydrated posttraining/competition. Dehydration was particularly prevalent (>40% of cohort) among karateka, female netball players, army officer cadets, and golfers. Golfers that commenced a competitive 18 hole round dehydrated took a significantly higher number of strokes to complete the round in comparison with their euhydrated counterparts (79.5 ± 2.1 vs. 75.7 ± 3.9 strokes, p = .049). Nutritional knowledge was poor among participants (median total score [IQR]; 52.9% [46.0, 59.8]), albeit athletes who were euhydrated at the start of exercise had a higher overall score in comparison with dehydrated athletes (55.2% vs. 50.6%, p = .001). Findings from the current study, therefore, have significant implications for the education of athletes in relation to their individual fluid requirements around exercise.

  18. A Qualitative Study of Male Student-Athletes and Coaches Attitudes towards Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgendered Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanPatten, Bryn

    2016-01-01

    The success of a team relies as much on the relationship between coaches and players as it does on athletic skill. Coaches, at times, become surrogate parental figures in the lives of their athletes and teammates become siblings who all work together towards a common goal. Athletes at the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I…

  19. National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Certified Athletic Trainers' Perceptions of the Benefits of Sport Psychology Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrajsek, Rebecca A.; Martin, Scott B.; Wrisberg, Craig A.

    2016-01-01

    Context:  Certified athletic trainers (ATs) are responsible for integrating relevant professionals into the rehabilitation team to assist with the holistic care of injured athletes. Objective:  To explore National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I (DI) ATs' experience with sport psychology consultants (SPCs), willingness to encourage athletes to use SPCs for injury rehabilitation, and perceptions of the benefits of sport psychology services. Design:  Quantitative study. Setting:  A Web-based survey was administered to a national sample of DI ATs. Patients or Other Participants:  A total of 659 (341 men, 318 women) ATs completed the survey. Main Outcome Measure(s):  Athletic trainers' experience with SPCs, willingness to encourage athletes to seek sport psychology services, and perceptions of the benefits of those services in injury-rehabilitation settings were self-reported using a rating scale that ranged from 1 (never or not at all) to 5 (definitely or extremely). Results:  Logistic regression revealed that the availability of SPCs, previous encouragement to athletes to seek sport psychology services, and previous positive interactions with SPCs predicted the ATs' willingness to encourage athletes to use these services (P psychology services might call on SPCs to complement their work with injured athletes. PMID:27159188

  20. Psychometric properties of the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS: measurement invariance between athletes and non-athletes and construct validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Hsiang Chiu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Although Perceived Stress Scale (PSS, Cohen, Kamarack & Mermelstein, 1983 has been validated and widely used in many domains, there is still no validation in sports by comparing athletes and non-athletes and examining related psychometric indices. Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine the measurement invariance of PSS between athletes and non-athletes, and examine construct validity and reliability in the sports contexts. Methods Study 1 sampled 359 college student-athletes (males = 233; females = 126 and 242 non-athletes (males = 124; females = 118 and examined factorial structure, measurement invariance and internal consistency. Study 2 sampled 196 student-athletes (males = 139, females = 57, Mage = 19.88 yrs, SD = 1.35 and examined discriminant validity and convergent validity of PSS. Study 3 sampled 37 student-athletes to assess test-retest reliability of PSS. Results Results found that 2-factor PSS-10 fitted the model the best and had appropriate reliability. Also, there was a measurement invariance between athletes and non-athletes; and PSS positively correlated with athletic burnout and life stress but negatively correlated with coping efficacy provided evidence of discriminant validity and convergent validity. Further, the test-retest reliability for PSS subscales was significant (r = .66 and r = .50. Discussion It is suggested that 2-factor PSS-10 can be a useful tool in assessing perceived stress either in sports or non-sports settings. We suggest future study may use 2-factor PSS-10 in examining the effects of stress on the athletic injury, burnout, and psychiatry disorders.

  1. Dual career pathways of transnational athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryba, T. V.; Stambulova, N. B.; Ronkainen, Noora J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Transnationalism, as part of the globalization processes, has transformed the lifestyle and the course of athletes' careers. This presents previously unexplored challenges encountered by student-athletes in combining athletic and academic pursuits. In this article, we propose a concep......Objectives: Transnationalism, as part of the globalization processes, has transformed the lifestyle and the course of athletes' careers. This presents previously unexplored challenges encountered by student-athletes in combining athletic and academic pursuits. In this article, we propose...... patterns of transnational DC were discerned from the narratives based on the direction of geographic mobility and the core migration motive underpinning the storyline. Within the present dataset, the taxonomies are: (1) Within EU mobility: the sport exile DC pathway; (2) Mobility to the U.S.A.: the sport...

  2. High Prevalence of Hypertension Among Collegiate Football Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpinos, Ashley Rowatt; Roumie, Christianne L.; Nian, Hui; Diamond, Alex B.; Rothman, Russell L.

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of hypertension among collegiate football athletes is not well described. Methods and Results A retrospective cohort of all male athletes who participated in varsity athletics at a National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I university between 1999–2012 was examined through chart review. Mandatory annual preparticipation physical examinations included blood pressure, body mass index, medication use, and supplement use. Prevalence of hypertension was compared between football and non-football athletes. A mixed-effects linear regression model examined change in blood pressure over time. 636 collegiate athletes, including 323 football players, were identified. In the initial year of athletic participation, 19.2% of football athletes had hypertension and 61.9% had prehypertension. The prevalence of hypertension was higher among football athletes than non-football athletes in their initial (19.2% vs. 7.0%, Pfootball athletes in the initial year (AOR 2.28, 95% CI 1.21 to 4.30) but not the final year (AOR 1.25, 95% CI 0.69 to 2.28). Over the course of their collegiate career, football athletes had an annual decrease in systolic blood pressure (−0.82 mmHg, P=0.002), while non-football athletes did not (0.18 mmHg, P=0.58). Conclusions Hypertension and prehypertension were common among collegiate football athletes, and football athletes were more likely to have hypertension than male non-football athletes. This presents a potential cardiovascular risk in a young population of athletes. Strategies for increasing awareness, prevention and treatment are needed. PMID:24221829

  3. Athlete's Foot: Clinical Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, M L

    1989-10-01

    In brief: Athletes are particularly prone to athlete's foot because they are generally more exposed than others to conditions that encourage fungal growth, eg, communal showers and locker rooms. Diagnosis of athlete's foot rests on clinical suspicion and laboratory testing. Treatment may consist of topical antifungal agents and, for more resistant cases, oral griseofulvin. Preventive measures include keeping the feet dry, wearing nonocclusive leather shoes or sandals and absorbent cotton socks, and applying talcum or antifungal powder at least twice daily.

  4. Peptide YY in Adolescent Athletes with Amenorrhea, Eumenorrheic Athletes and Non-Athletic Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Melissa; Stark, Jenna; Nayak, Shriddha; Miller, Karen K.; Herzog, David B.; Klibanski, Anne; Misra, Madhusmita

    2009-01-01

    Background Bone mineral density (BMD) is lower in amenorrheic athletes (AA) compared with eumenorrheic athletes (EA). Decreased energy availability and altered levels of appetite regulating hormones (ghrelin and leptin) in AA contribute to hypogonadism, an important cause of low BMD. The role of other nutritionally regulated hormones such as peptide YY (PYY) and adiponectin in mediating gonadal status and bone metabolism remains to be determined. Objectives Our objective was to determine whether PYY and adiponectin are higher in AA compared with EA and contribute to hypogonadism and impaired bone metabolism in AA. Methods We determined PYY and adiponectin in 16 AA, 15 EA and 16 non-athletic controls 12–18 years old, and other nutritionally dependent hormones including ghrelin, leptin and IGF-1. We also measured testosterone, estradiol, PINP and NTX (markers of bone formation and resorption) and BMD. Results PYY was higher in AA than EA (111±52 vs. 61±29 ng/ml, p<0.05), whereas adiponectin did not differ between groups. Although activity scores did not differ, BMI was lower in AA than EA and a larger proportion (62.5% vs. 6.7%) reported disordered eating, indicating lower energy availability. PYY and adiponectin were independent predictors of testosterone in a regression model (p=0.01 and 0.04), but did not predict estradiol. PYY, but not adiponectin, was an independent and negative predictor of PINP (p=0.002) and lumbar bone mineral apparent density Z-scores (p=0.045) in this model. Conclusion High PYY levels (but not adiponectin) differentiate AA from EA, and may be an important factor contributing to low bone density in athletes. PMID:19344792

  5. Expected Time to Return to Athletic Participation After Stress Fracture in Division I Collegiate Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Timothy L; Jamieson, Marissa; Everson, Sonsecharae; Siegel, Courtney

    2017-12-01

    Few studies have documented expected time to return to athletic participation after stress fractures in elite athletes. Time to return to athletic participation after stress fractures would vary by site and severity of stress fracture. Retrospective cohort study. Level 3. All stress fractures diagnosed in a single Division I collegiate men's and women's track and field/cross-country team were recorded over a 3-year period. Site and severity of injury were graded based on Kaeding-Miller classification system for stress fractures. Time to return to full unrestricted athletic participation was recorded for each athlete and correlated with patient sex and site and severity grade of injury. Fifty-seven stress fractures were diagnosed in 38 athletes (mean age, 20.48 years; range, 18-23 years). Ten athletes sustained recurrent or multiple stress fractures. Thirty-seven injuries occurred in women and 20 in men. Thirty-three stress fractures occurred in the tibia, 10 occurred in the second through fourth metatarsals, 3 occurred in the fifth metatarsal, 6 in the tarsal bones (2 navicular), 2 in the femur, and 5 in the pelvis. There were 31 grade II stress fractures, 11 grade III stress fractures, and 2 grade V stress fractures (in the same patient). Mean time to return to unrestricted sport participation was 12.9 ± 5.2 weeks (range, 6-27 weeks). No significant differences in time to return were noted based on injury location or whether stress fracture was grade II or III. The expected time to return to full unrestricted athletic participation after diagnosis of a stress fracture is 12 to 13 weeks for all injury sites. Athletes with grade V (nonunion) stress fractures may require more time to return to sport.

  6. The Effect of Athletic Identity and Locus of Control on the Stress Perceptions of Community College Student-Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Joshua C.

    2016-01-01

    Over 72,000 student-athletes compete annually in athletic programs at the community college level. However, research addressing the effect of athletic participation on the psychological well-being of the community college student-athlete is sparse. This study represents an attempt to address this gap by examining the relationship among perceived…

  7. Development of the athlete sleep behavior questionnaire: A tool for identifying maladaptive sleep practices in elite athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew W Driller

    Full Text Available Introduction: Existing sleep questionnaires to assess sleep behaviors may not be sensitive in determining the unique sleep challenges faced by elite athletes. The purpose of the current study was to develop and validate the Athlete Sleep Behavior Questionnaire (ASBQ to be used as a practical tool for support staff working with elite athletes. Methods: 564 participants (242 athletes, 322 non-athletes completed the 18-item ASBQ and three previously validated questionnaires; the Sleep Hygiene Index (SHI, the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI. A cohort of the studied population performed the ASBQ twice in one week to assess test-retest reliability, and also performed sleep monitoring via wrist-actigraphy. Results: Comparison of the ASBQ with existing sleep questionnaires resulted in moderate to large correlations (r=0.32 - 0.69. There was a significant difference between athletes and non-athletes for the ASBQ global score (44±6 vs. 41±6, respectively, p<0.01 and for the PSQI, but not for the SHI or the ESS. The reliability of the ASBQ was acceptable (ICC=0.87 when re-tested within 7 days. There was a moderate relationship between ASBQ and total sleep time (r=-0.42. Conclusion: The ASBQ is a valid and reliable tool that can differentiate the sleep practices between athletes and non-athletes, and offers a practical instrument for practitioners and/or researchers wanting to evaluate the sleep behaviors of elite athletes. The ASBQ may provide information on areas where improvements to individual athletes’ sleep habits could be made.

  8. Individualised dietary strategies for Olympic combat sports: Acute weight loss, recovery and competition nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reale, Reid; Slater, Gary; Burke, Louise M

    2017-07-01

    Olympic combat sports separate athletes into weight divisions, in an attempt to reduce size, strength, range and/or leverage disparities between competitors. Official weigh-ins are conducted anywhere from 3 and up to 24 h prior to competition ensuring athletes meet weight requirements (i.e. have 'made weight'). Fighters commonly aim to compete in weight divisions lower than their day-to-day weight, achieved via chronic and acute manipulations of body mass (BM). Although these manipulations may impair health and absolute performance, their strategic use can improve competitive success. Key considerations are the acute manipulations around weigh-in, which differ in importance, magnitude and methods depending on the requirements of the individual combat sport and the weigh-in regulations. In particular, the time available for recovery following weigh-in/before competition will determine what degree of acute BM loss can be implemented and reversed. Increased exercise and restricted food and fluid intake are undertaken to decrease body water and gut contents reducing BM. When taken to the extreme, severe weight-making practices can be hazardous, and efforts have been made to reduce their prevalence. Indeed some have called for the abolition of these practices altogether. In lieu of adequate strategies to achieve this, and the pragmatic recognition of the likely continuation of these practices as long as regulations allow, this review summarises guidelines for athletes and coaches for manipulating BM and optimising post weigh-in recovery, to achieve better health and performance outcomes across the different Olympic combat sports.

  9. History and epidemiology of anabolic androgens in athletes and non-athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanayama, Gen; Pope, Harrison G

    2018-03-15

    The use of androgens, frequently referred to as anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS), has grown into a worldwide substance abuse problem over the last several decades. Testosterone was isolated in the 1930s, and numerous synthetic androgens were quickly developed thereafter. Athletes soon discovered the dramatic anabolic effects of these hormones, and AAS spread rapidly through elite athletics and bodybuilding from the 1950s through the 1970s. However it was not until the 1980s that widespread AAS use emerged from the elite athletic world and into the general population. Today, the great majority of AAS users are not competitive athletes, but instead are typically young to middle-aged men who use these drugs primarily for personal appearance. AAS abuse has now become particularly prevalent in regions such as Scandinavia, the United States, Brazil, and British Commonwealth countries, but remains rare in countries such as China, Korea, and Japan - a pattern that reflects cultural differences in attitudes towards male muscularity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The Athletic Body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, Andrew

    2016-09-10

    This paper seeks to explore the attraction and the beauty of the contemporary athletic body. It will be suggested that a body shaped through muscular bulk and definition has come to be seen as aesthetically normative. This body differs from the body of athletes from the early and mid-twentieth century. It will be argued that the contemporary body is not merely the result of advances in sports science, but rather that it is expressive of certain meanings and values. The visual similarity of the contemporary athletic body and that of the comic book superhero suggests that both bodies carry a similar potential for narrative story-telling, and that their attraction is bound up with this narrative potential. The superhero and athlete live meaningful lives, pursuing clear and morally unambiguous goals. The aesthetic attraction of the body lies in its capacity to facilitate the articulation of a story of a meaningful life, and to do so in the face of the growing anomie and thus meaninglessness of life as experienced in contemporary society. Athleticism offers an illusion of meaning, serving to reproduce dominant justificatory narratives and social stereotypes. Yet, as an illusion of meaning, it may be challenged and negotiated, not least with respect to its bias towards a certain form of the male body. The female athletic body disrupts the illusion, opening up new existential possibilities, new ways of living and being, and thus new, and potentially disruptive, narratives.

  11. Bibliography on Collegiate Athletics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francois, Denise; And Others

    1979-01-01

    A bibliography on collegiate athletics with approximately 400 items is presented. Topics include: sports administration, sports histories, women's athletics, physical education, problems and scandals, sports organizations, sports and health, and references on many specific sports, especially football. (JMD)

  12. Asthma in elite athletes: how do we manage asthma-like symptoms and asthma in elite athletes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Thomas Kromann

    2009-01-01

    . Elite athletes with physician-diagnosed asthma seem to have less airway reactivity and fewer sputum eosinophils than non-athletes with physician-diagnosed asthma, but more studies are needed to further investigate if and how the asthma phenotype of elite athletes differs from that of classical asthma....

  13. Bone alterations by stress in athletes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doege, H.

    1990-01-01

    This report describes our experiences with the bone imaging in athletes. We studied 10 athletes and 10 other patients with spondylolisthesis of the lumbar spine and 16 athletes with suspicion of alterations of extremities. An increased uptake of this radiopharmaceutical was detected in six of 10 athletes with spondylolisthesis caused probably by stress fracture. Bone scans were negative in seven of 16 athletes with suspicion of lesion of extremities. In the remaining 9 patients scans were abnormal and showed periosteal injuries, epiphyseal alteration, joint abnormalities, tibial stress fractures and couvert fracture. It was also abnormal in bone injuries not evident in radiography. (orig.) [de

  14. The Female Athlete Triad: A Metabolic Phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne B. Loucks

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE The Female Athlete Triad (Triad is a syndrome in which low energy availability triggers a broad range of endocrine mechanisms that conserve energy expenditure, and thereby impairs reproductive and skeletal health.  Energy availability is the amount of dietary energy remaining after exercise training for all other physiological functions each day.  The specific kind of reproductive dysfunctions caused by low energy availability are functional hypothalamic menstrual disorders.  To ensure that affected athletes receive appropriate care, endocrine tests are required to diagnose these disorders by the exclusion of other types of menstrual disorders unrelated to the Triad.  In addition, low energy availability impairs skeletal health by uncoupling bone turnover, in which the rate of bone resorption increases while the rate of bone formation declines.  The result is a progressive loss or failure to accrue bone mass, which increases the risks of stress fractures and osteoporosis.  Low energy availability originates in one or more of three sources:  restrictive eating disorders, especially anorexia nervosa; intentional efforts to lose body weight or body fat to improve athletic performance or appearance; and the inadvertent suppression of appetite by exercise and diets containing a high percentage of carbohydrates.  It is necessary to know the origin of low energy availability in a particular athlete in order to intervene effectively with her.  The key behavior modification for preventing and treating the Triad is to increase energy availability, either by increasing dietary energy intake, reducing exercise energy expenditure, or both.  Guidelines for doing so are provided. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5

  15. Excellence in sport: Towards an understanding of the psychological “architecture” of elite athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.S. Almeida

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to provide a brief overview of the literature around the field of excellence, focused on the sport's context. Thus, the main approaches to the study of excellence were presented and then some important factors in its development and maintenance were sought considering a set of social and personal dimensions. Among the latter, the focus of attention was on the athlete's psychological, motivational, affective, and emotional characteristics and skills, in an attempt to design the elite athletes' psychological "architecture". The characterization of these athletes included a number of consensual factors and strategies, such as high levels of motivation, commitment, concentration, and self-confidence, as well as the use of adaptive coping strategies, self-regulation, goal-setting and mental imagery. Although these results show some consistency in terms of research, it is still unsolved the issue of the weight and importance of each one of these factors and how such factors are combined in order to "produce" excellent performances.

  16. Compensatory Changes in Energy Balance Regulation over One Athletic Season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Analiza M; Matias, Catarina N; Santos, Diana A; Thomas, Diana; Bosy-Westphal, Anja; MüLLER, Manfred J; Heymsfield, Steven B; Sardinha, LUíS B

    2017-06-01

    Mechanisms in energy balance (EB) regulation may include compensatory changes in energy intake (EI) and metabolic adaption (MA), but information is unavailable in athletes who often change EB components. We aim to investigate EB regulation compensatory mechanisms over one athletic season. Fifty-seven athletes (39 males/18 females; handball, volleyball, basketball, triathlon, and swimming) were evaluated from the beginning to the competitive phase of the season. Resting and total energy expenditure (REE and TEE, respectively) were assessed by indirect calorimetry and doubly labeled water, respectively, and physical activity energy expenditure was determined as TEE - 0.1(TEE) - REE. Fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) were evaluated by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and changed body energy stores was determined by 1.0(ΔFFM/Δtime) + 9.5(ΔFM/Δtime). EI was derived as TEE + EB. REE was predicted from baseline FFM, FM, sex, and sports. %MA was calculated as 100(measured REE/predicted REE-1) and MA (kcal) as %MA/100 multiplied by baseline measured REE. Average EI minus average physical activity energy expenditure was computed as a proxy of average energy availability, assuming that a constant nonexercise EE occurred over the season. Body mass increased by 0.8 ± 2.5 kg (P energy availability (r = 0.356 and r = 0.0644, respectively). TEE increased over the season without relevant mean changes in weight, suggesting that EI compensation likely occurred. The thrifty or spendthrift phenotypes observed among sports and the demanding workloads these athletes are exposed to highlight the need for sport-specific energy requirements.

  17. National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Certified Athletic Trainers' Perceptions of the Benefits of Sport Psychology Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrajsek, Rebecca A; Martin, Scott B; Wrisberg, Craig A

    2016-05-01

    Certified athletic trainers (ATs) are responsible for integrating relevant professionals into the rehabilitation team to assist with the holistic care of injured athletes. To explore National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I (DI) ATs' experience with sport psychology consultants (SPCs), willingness to encourage athletes to use SPCs for injury rehabilitation, and perceptions of the benefits of sport psychology services. Quantitative study. A Web-based survey was administered to a national sample of DI ATs. A total of 659 (341 men, 318 women) ATs completed the survey. Athletic trainers' experience with SPCs, willingness to encourage athletes to seek sport psychology services, and perceptions of the benefits of those services in injury-rehabilitation settings were self-reported using a rating scale that ranged from 1 (never or not at all) to 5 (definitely or extremely). Logistic regression revealed that the availability of SPCs, previous encouragement to athletes to seek sport psychology services, and previous positive interactions with SPCs predicted the ATs' willingness to encourage athletes to use these services (P sport and building confidence). Chi-square analyses indicated that female ATs' ratings of perceived benefits were higher (P ≤ .001) than those of male ATs, and the ratings of ATs who were likely to encourage the use of SPCs were higher (P ≤ .001) than those who were unlikely to encourage SPC service use. Athletic trainers in our study who had previous positive SPC experiences were most likely to use SPCs and their services during the injury-rehabilitation process. Possible implications are offered for how ATs interested in sport psychology services might call on SPCs to complement their work with injured athletes.

  18. National Athletic Trainers' Association-accredited postprofessional athletic training education: attractors and career intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M; Dodge, Thomas M

    2012-01-01

    Anecdotally, we know that students select graduate programs based on location, finances, and future career goals. Empirically, however, we lack information on what attracts a student to these programs. To gain an appreciation for the selection process of graduate study. Qualitative study. Postprofessional programs in athletic training (PPATs) accredited by the National Athletic Trainers' Association. A total of 19 first-year PPAT students participated, representing 13 of the 16 accredited PPAT programs. All interviews were conducted via phone and transcribed verbatim. Analysis of the interview data followed the procedures as outlined by a grounded theory approach. Trustworthiness was secured by (1) participant checks, (2) participant verification, and (3) multiple analyst triangulations. Athletic training students select PPAT programs for 4 major reasons: reputation of the program or faculty (or both), career intentions, professional socialization, and mentorship from undergraduate faculty or clinical instructors (or both). Participants discussed long-term professional goals as the driving force behind wanting an advanced degree in athletic training. Faculty and clinical instructor recommendations and the program's prestige helped guide the decisions. Participants also expressed the need to gain more experience, which promoted autonomy, and support while gaining that work experience. Final selection of the PPAT program was based on academic offerings, the assistantship offered (including financial support), advanced knowledge of athletic training concepts and principles, and apprenticeship opportunities. Students who attend PPAT programs are attracted to advancing their entry-level knowledge, are committed to their professional development as athletic trainers, and view the profession of athletic training as a life-long career. The combination of balanced academics, clinical experiences, and additional professional socialization and mentorship from the PPAT program

  19. Athletic pubalgia and associated rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellsworth, Abigail A; Zoland, Mark P; Tyler, Timothy F

    2014-11-01

    Evaluation and treatment of groin pain in athletes is challenging. The anatomy is complex, and multiple pathologies often coexist. Different pathologies may cause similar symptoms, and many systems can refer pain to the groin. Many athletes with groin pain have tried prolonged rest and various treatment regimens, and received differing opinions as to the cause of their pain. The rehabilitation specialist is often given a non-specific referral of "groin pain" or "sports hernia." The cause of pain could be as simple as the effects of an adductor strain, or as complex as athletic pubalgia or inguinal disruption. The term "sports hernia" is starting to be replaced with more specific terms that better describe the injury. Inguinal disruption is used to describe the syndromes related to the injury of the inguinal canal soft tissue environs ultimately causing the pain syndrome. The term athletic pubalgia is used to describe the disruption and/or separation of the more medial common aponeurosis from the pubis, usually with some degree of adductor tendon pathology. Both non-operative and post-operative treatment options share the goal of returning the athlete back to pain free activity. There is little research available to reference for rehabilitation guidelines and creation of a plan of care. Although each surgeon has their own specific set of post-operative guidelines, some common concepts are consistent among most surgeons. Effective rehabilitation of the high level athlete to pain free return to play requires addressing the differences in the biomechanics of the dysfunction when comparing athletic pubalgia and inguinal disruption. Proper evaluation and diagnostic skills for identifying and specifying the difference between athletic pubalgia and inguinal disruption allows for an excellent and efficient rehabilitative plan of care. Progression through the rehabilitative stages whether non-operative or post-operative allows for a focused rehabilitative program. As more

  20. Organic food consumption by athletes in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranauskas, Marius; Stukas, Rimantas; Tubelis, Linas; Žagminas, Kęstutis; Šurkienė, Genė; Dobrovolskij, Valerij; Jakubauskienė, Marija; Giedraitis, Vincentas Rolandas

    2015-01-01

    With environmental pollution increasing, interest in organic farming and organic foodstuffs has been growing all over the world. Data on organic food consumption by Lithuanian athletes is not yet available. This lack of data determined the aim of this study: to identify the particulars of organic foodstuff consumption among athletes. In September-November 2012, we polled 158 of the best-performing athletes of the Olympic sports team through direct interviews. An approved questionnaire was used to identify the specifics of organic foodstuff consumption among athletes. The survey results showed that 97% of athletes consume organic foodstuffs, and 80% of athletes highlighted the positive impact of organic food on health. Nevertheless, a slim majority of athletes (51.7%) consume organic foodstuffs seldomly, 2-3 times per week. The range of organic foodstuffs consumed depends on the gender of athletes, and the consumption of some products depends on monthly incomes. Survey results confirm the need for the production and expansion of the variety of organic foodstuffs. In the course of the development of the organic food market, it should be beneficial for manufacturers to target high-performance athletes and physically active people.

  1. Gender Verification of Female Olympic Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Barry D.; Genel, Myron; Robinowitz, Carolyn B.; Turner, Patricia L.; Woods, Gary L.

    2002-01-01

    Gender verification of female athletes has long been criticized by geneticists, endocrinologists, and others in the medical community. Recently, the International Olympic Committee's Athletic Commission called for discontinuation of mandatory laboratory-based gender verification of female athletes. This article discusses normal sexual…

  2. Making the weight: a case study from professional boxing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, James P; Robertson, Colin; Sutton, Laura; MacLaren, Don P M

    2010-02-01

    Professional boxing is a combat sport categorized into a series of weight classes. Given the sport's underpinning culture, boxers' typical approach to "making weight" is usually via severe acute and/or chronic energy restriction and dehydration. Such practices have implications for physical performance and also carry health risks. This article provides a case-study account outlining a more structured and gradual approach to helping a professional male boxer make weight for the 59-kg superfeatherweight division. Over a 12-week period, the client athlete adhered to a daily diet approximately equivalent to his resting metabolic rate (6-7 MJ; 40% carbohydrate, 38% protein, 22% fat). Average body-mass loss was 0.9 + or - 0.4 kg/wk, equating to a total loss of 9.4 kg. This weight loss resulted in a decrease in percent body fat from 12.1% to 7.0%. In the 30 hr between weigh-in and competition, the client consumed a high-carbohydrate diet (12 g/kg body mass) supported by appropriate hydration strategies and subsequently entered the ring at a fighting weight of 63.2 kg. This nutritional strategy represented a major change in the client's habitual weight-making practices and did not rely on any form of intended dehydration during the training period or before weighing in. The intervention demonstrates that a more gradual approach to making weight in professional boxing can be successfully achieved via a combination of restricted energy intake and increased energy expenditure, providing there is willingness on the part of the athlete and coaches involved to adopt novel practices.

  3. Panhellenic athletics at Olympia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Heine

    2014-01-01

    The paper discusses Olympia as a panhellenic venue for athletics and the city-state interaction which took place at the sanctuary......The paper discusses Olympia as a panhellenic venue for athletics and the city-state interaction which took place at the sanctuary...

  4. Academic performance study in young athletes from Playas de Castellón Athletics Club

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Capdevila Seder; Héctor Bellmunt Villalonga; Carlos Hernando Domingo

    2014-01-01

    The study analyzed the possible relationship between academic performance of young athletes and some of the variables most used in this field. The sample consisted of 40 athletes Athletics Club Playas de Castellón, between 14 and 16 years, 22 boys and 18 girls. The main variables analyzed were academic performance, study habits, gender, sleep, sedentary leisure, socioeconomic status and dedication to sport. The instruments used were questionnaires CHTE (habits and study skills), PFYTL (physic...

  5. Substantial injuries influence ranking position in young elite athletes of athletics, cross-country skiing and orienteering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Rosen, P; Heijne, A

    2018-04-01

    The relationship between injury and performance in young athletes is scarcely studied. The aim of this study was therefore to explore the association between injury prevalence and ranking position among adolescent elite athletes. One hundred and sixty-two male and female adolescent elite athletes (age range 15-19), competing in athletics (n = 59), cross-country skiing (n = 66), and orienteering (n = 37), were monitored weekly over 22-47 weeks using a web-based injury questionnaire. Ranking lists were collected. A significant (P = .003) difference was found in the seasonal substantial injury prevalence across the ranked athletes over the season, where the top-ranked (median 3.6%, 25-75th percentiles 0%-14.3%) and middle-ranked athletes (median 2.3%, 25-75th percentiles 0%-10.0%) had a lower substantial injury prevalence compared to the low-ranked athletes (median 11.3%, 25-75th percentiles 2.5%-27.1%), during both preseason (P = .002) and competitive season (P = .031). Athletes who improved their ranking position (51%, n = 51) reported a lower substantial injury prevalence (median 0%, 25-75th percentiles 0%-10.0%) compared to those who decreased (49%, n = 49) their ranking position (md 6.7%, 25-75th percentiles 0%-22.5%). In the top-ranked group, no athlete reported substantial injury more than 40% of all data collection time points compared to 9.6% (n = 5) in the middle-ranked, and 17.3% (n = 9) in the low-ranked group. Our results provide supporting evidence that substantial injuries, such as acute and overuse injuries leading to moderate or severe reductions in training or sports performance, influence ranking position in adolescent elite athletes. The findings are crucial to stakeholders involved in adolescent elite sports and support the value of designing effective preventive interventions for substantial injuries. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. A displaced stress fracture of the femoral neck in an adolescent female distance runner with female athlete triad: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okamoto Shinichi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This report presents a case of a displaced stress fracture of the femoral neck in an adolescent female distance runner with amenorrhea. Both reduction and internal fixation were performed early after the injury. At 24 months postoperatively, magnetic resonance imaging and bone scintigraphy showed no positive signs of femoral head necrosis and bone union was confirmed on plain X-ray. A medical examination for the presence of the signs of the female athlete triad by checking weight, calorie intake and menstrual cycles is most important to prevent such stress fractures. Athletes as well as their coaches or parents therefore need to understand female athlete triad.

  7. Coping skills of olympic developmental soccer athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, M C; Stewart, C C; Laurent, C M; Leunes, A D; Bourgeois, A E

    2008-12-01

    Athletes at Olympic Developmental Program (ODP) camps experience unusually high levels of expectations and inherent mental and physical challenges within such a short span of time. With the increasing emphasis on talent development, there has been consensus by the ODP staff to more clearly define present levels of coping skills, in order to enhance athletic prediction, maximize training efforts, identify the predisposition to injury, and focus on areas pertinent to successful performance. This study examined athletic and pain coping skills of U. S. ODP soccer athletes not previously investigated. Following written informed consent, 70 males completed the Athletic Coping Skills Inventory and the Sports Inventory for Pain. Data were analyzed by competitive level (U-14, U-15), and skill position (goalkeeper/defense, midfield/foward). MANOVA indicated a significant main effect across competitive level (Wilks' Lambda F(12,57) = 2.27; p = 0.02; n-beta = 0.915) but no significant effect by skill position (Wilks' Lambda F(12,57) = 0.931; p = 0.523; n-beta = 0.457). Post hoc analyses indicated that U-15 athletes scored significantly higher in concentration (p = 0.01) and body awareness (p = 0.03), but lower in avoidance (p = 0.01) than U-14 competitors. In conclusion, older, more experienced athletes revealed more positive athletic and pain coping skills than younger, less experienced athletes, although athletes in skill positions requiring spontaneous decision-making skills and split-second adjustment in a constantly changing sport environment (forwards, midfielders) did not exhibit more positive athletic and pain coping skills than those positions requiring reaction and protection (defenders, goalkeepers).

  8. Athletic pubalgia (sports hernia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwin, Demetrius E M; Sneider, Erica B; McEnaney, Patrick M; Busconi, Brian D

    2011-04-01

    Athletic pubalgia or sports hernia is a syndrome of chronic lower abdomen and groin pain that may occur in athletes and nonathletes. Because the differential diagnosis of chronic lower abdomen and groin pain is so broad, only a small number of patients with chronic lower abdomen and groin pain fulfill the diagnostic criteria of athletic pubalgia (sports hernia). The literature published to date regarding the cause, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of sports hernias is confusing. This article summarizes the current information and our present approach to this chronic lower abdomen and groin pain syndrome. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Transportation Practices in Community College Athletics

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaVetter, David; Kim, Hyun Duck

    2010-01-01

    Over 45,000 U.S. community college athletes were transported to events during 2005-2006. Transporting college athletes has been an overlooked risk management issue facing administrators. Team travel accidents have caused death, injury, liability claims, property loss, and grief. National Junior College Athletic Association (NJCAA) member…

  10. Student retention in athletic training education programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Thomas M; Mitchell, Murray F; Mensch, James M

    2009-01-01

    The success of any academic program, including athletic training, depends upon attracting and keeping quality students. The nature of persistent students versus students who prematurely leave the athletic training major is not known. Understanding the profiles of athletic training students who persist or leave is important. To (1) explore the relationships among the following variables: anticipatory factors, academic integration, clinical integration, social integration, and motivation; (2) determine which of the aforementioned variables discriminate between senior athletic training students and major changers; and (3) identify which variable is the strongest predictor of persistence in athletic training education programs. Descriptive study using a qualitative and quantitative mixed-methods approach. Thirteen athletic training education programs located in District 3 of the National Athletic Trainers' Association. Ninety-four senior-level athletic training students and 31 college students who changed majors from athletic training to another degree option. Data were collected with the Athletic Training Education Program Student Retention Questionnaire (ATEPSRQ). Data from the ATEPSRQ were analyzed via Pearson correlations, multivariate analysis of variance, univariate analysis of variance, and a stepwise discriminant analysis. Open-ended questions were transcribed and analyzed using open, axial, and selective coding procedures. Member checks and peer debriefing techniques ensured trustworthiness of the study. Pearson correlations identified moderate relationships among motivation and clinical integration (r = 0.515, P accounting for 37.2% of the variance between groups. The theoretic model accurately classified 95.7% of the seniors and 53.8% of the major changers. A common theme emerging from the qualitative data was the presence of a strong peer-support group that surrounded many of the senior-level students. Understanding student retention in athletic training is

  11. The Athletic Shoe in Football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastifer, James; Kent, Richard; Crandall, Jeff; Sherwood, Chris; Lessley, David; McCullough, Kirk A; Coughlin, Michael J; Anderson, Robert B

    Foot and ankle injuries are common in sports, particularly in cleated athletes. Traditionally, the athletic shoe has not been regarded as a piece of protective equipment but rather as a part of the uniform, with a primary focus on performance and subjective feedback measures of comfort. Changes in turf and shoe design have poorly understood implications on the health and safety of players. A literature search of the MEDLINE and PubMed databases was conducted. Keywords included athletic shoewear, cleated shoe, football shoes, and shoewear, and search parameters were between the years 2000 and 2016. Clinical review. Level 5. The athletic shoe is an important piece of protective sports equipment. There are several important structural considerations of shoe design, including biomechanical compliance, cleat and turf interaction, and shoe sizing/fit, that affect the way an athlete engages with the playing surface and carry important potential implications regarding player safety if not understood and addressed. Athletic footwear should be considered an integral piece of protective equipment rather than simply an extension of the uniform apparel. More research is needed to define optimal shoe sizing, the effect that design has on mechanical load, and how cleat properties, including pattern and structure, interact with the variety of playing surfaces.

  12. Blood tests in tired elite athletes: expectations of athletes, coaches and sport science/sports medicine staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, K E

    2007-01-01

    The issue of the expectations of elite athletes, their coaches and non-medically qualified athlete support staff of consultations with sports physicians has not been previously dealt with in the sports medicine literature. As fulfillment of expectations of the content of a consultation may influence patient's satisfaction and clinical outcome, it is important to assess the expectations of athletes and, most importantly, coaches. To assess the expectations and beliefs about fatigue, particularly in relation to blood tests, of athletes, their coaches and support staff in the specific context of tiredness of sports science or non-medically qualified sports medicine staff, 22 elite coaches and 62 elite athletes from the Australian Institute of Sport were included in this study. A single questionnaire. The expectation for a blood test at the initial consultation for short-term fatigue was particularly high among athletes (81%) and coaches (91%). This expectation increased in athletes if their performance was worsening. All groups unanimously suggested that a blood test be performed in cases of more prolonged fatigue. Increase in total training load was perceived to be the most important cause of fatigue, but issues relating to sleep were also thought to be highly relevant. All groups suggested that blood tests provide some degree of reassurance, and all groups suggested that the most important blood tests that might be performed related to exclusion of iron deficiency, anaemia and infection. Athletes and their coaches generally expect that blood tests will be performed even when fatigue has been present for performed.

  13. Blood tests in tired elite athletes: expectations of athletes, coaches and sport science/sports medicine staff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, K E

    2007-01-01

    Background The issue of the expectations of elite athletes, their coaches and non‐medically qualified athlete support staff of consultations with sports physicians has not been previously dealt with in the sports medicine literature. As fulfilment of expectations of the content of a consultation may influence patient's satisfaction and clinical outcome, it is important to assess the expectations of athletes and, most importantly, coaches. Objective To assess the expectations and beliefs about fatigue, particularly in relation to blood tests, of athletes, their coaches and support staff in the specific context of tiredness of sports science or non‐medically qualified sports medicine staff, 22 elite coaches and 62 elite athletes from the Australian Institute of Sport were included in this study. Methods A single questionnaire. Results The expectation for a blood test at the initial consultation for short‐term fatigue was particularly high among athletes (81%) and coaches (91%). This expectation increased in athletes if their performance was worsening. All groups unanimously suggested that a blood test be performed in cases of more prolonged fatigue. Increase in total training load was perceived to be the most important cause of fatigue, but issues relating to sleep were also thought to be highly relevant. All groups suggested that blood tests provide some degree of reassurance, and all groups suggested that the most important blood tests that might be performed related to exclusion of iron deficiency, anaemia and infection. Conclusion Athletes and their coaches generally expect that blood tests will be performed even when fatigue has been present for performed. PMID:17062653

  14. Negligence and Athletic Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawdsley, Ralph D.

    2001-01-01

    Although athletic events generate their share of negligence lawsuits, the relatively small number, compared with other education areas, suggests that defenses (like assumption or risk and contributory negligence) have a better fit in athletics. Implications of newer litigation trends involving coaches' misconduct and interpretation of state…

  15. Association between eating disorders and body image in athletes and non-athlete students in Qazvin University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Miri

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Body image dissatisfaction and eating disorders are of common problems in adolescence and adulthood especially among athletes. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the association of eating disorders and body image in athletes and non-athlete students in Qazvin University of Medical Sciences. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 226 athlete students and 350 non-athlete students of Qazvin University of Medical Sciences during 2013-2014. Students who followed a specific sport field and had participated in at least one sport event were considered as athlete students. All athlete students were entered the study by census method. Non-athlete students were selected among students who had not any exercise activity and by random sampling method. Data were collected through demographic questionnaire, Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26, and Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire (MBSRQ. Data were analyzed using T-test and Chi-square test. Results: Mean age was 21.92±3.19 years and mean body mass index (BMI was 22.24±3.18 kg/m2. The frequency of eating disorders was 11.5% among the athlete students and 11.2% among the non-athlete students. Anorexia nervosa was found to be more prevalent than bulimia nervosa in both groups. The students with normal BMI had better body image perception and less eating disorders symptoms than other students. The association of age, educational level, and gender with eating disorders and body image was not statistically significant. The association of eating disorders and body image was not statistically significant. Eating disorders were more prevalent in males than females but the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion: With regards to the results, it seems that eating disorders and body image dissatisfaction are relatively prevalent among both athletes and non-athlete students and BMI is predictor of eating disorders.

  16. The female athlete triad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazis, Keren; Iglesias, Elba

    2003-02-01

    The female athlete triad is a syndrome consisting of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. The syndrome is increasing in prevalence as more women are participating in sports at a competitive level. Behaviors such as intense exercise or disordered eating patterns can lead to dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitarian-ovarian (HPO) axis, resulting in amenorrhea. Hypothalamic amenorrhea can lead to osteoporosis and increased fracture risk. Adolescents may particularly be at risk because it is during this crucial time that females attain their peak bone mass. Prevention of the female athlete triad through education and identification of athletes at risk may decrease the incidence of long-term deleterious consequences. Treatment of the female athlete triad is initially aimed at increasing caloric intake and decreasing physical activity until there is resumption of normal menses. Treatment of decreased bone mineral density and osteoporosis in the adolescent population, however, is controversial, with new treatment modalities currently being investigated in order to aid in the management of this disorder.

  17. Athletes' Perception of Athletic Trainer Empathy: How Important Is It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Shannon; Larson, Mary

    2018-01-01

    Health care practitioners face increasing expectations to provide patient-centered care. Communication skills, specifically empathy, are critical in the provision of patient-centered care. Past work correlates empathy with improved patient satisfaction, compliance, and treatment outcomes. In particular, a predictive relationship exists between clients' ratings of their clinician's empathy and treatment outcomes. There is a dearth of studies examining empathy using qualitative methodology and factors of empathy in athletic training. To gain an understanding of athletes' perceptions of empathy in the patient-clinician relationship. Qualitative interviews were completed using grounded-theory techniques. A quiet office. A typical, purposeful sample of 15 college-age Division I student-athletes (8 female, 7 male; 19.3 ± 1.2 y) from a variety of sports (football, wrestling, volleyball, baseball, etc) participated. Researchers utilized an interview protocol designed to understand the factors of empathy related to athletic training. The interview protocol established a concept of empathy to help facilitate discussion of ideas. Data were transcribed, coded, and analyzed for themes and patterns using grounded-theory techniques. Trustworthiness of the data was ensured using an external auditor, member checks, and methods triangulation. Five themes described empathy: advocacy, communication, approachability, access, and competence. Advocacy was described as the athletic trainer (AT) representing the patient. Communication was the ability to listen reflectively; approachability emerged as the comfort and personal connection the patient felt with the AT. Access and technical competence were bridges required for the development of empathy. Providing patient-centered care facilitated by developing good patient-clinician relationships is critical in enabling the best treatment outcomes. ATs portray empathy through advocacy, communication, and approachability. Empathy

  18. The Art of Athlete Leadership: Identifying High-Quality Athlete Leadership at the Individual and Team Level Through Social Network Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fransen, Katrien; Van Puyenbroeck, Stef; Loughead, Todd M; Vanbeselaere, Norbert; De Cuyper, Bert; Vande Broek, Gert; Boen, Filip

    2015-06-01

    This research aimed to introduce social network analysis as a novel technique in sports teams to identify the attributes of high-quality athlete leadership, both at the individual and at the team level. Study 1 included 25 sports teams (N = 308 athletes) and focused on athletes' general leadership quality. Study 2 comprised 21 sports teams (N = 267 athletes) and focused on athletes' specific leadership quality as a task, motivational, social, and external leader. The extent to which athletes felt connected with their leader proved to be most predictive for athletes' perceptions of that leader's quality on each leadership role. Also at the team level, teams with higher athlete leadership quality were more strongly connected. We conclude that social network analysis constitutes a valuable tool to provide more insight in the attributes of high-quality leadership both at the individual and at the team level.

  19. Special nutritional concerns for the female athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabel, Kathe A

    2006-06-01

    Inadequate dietary intake is the primary nutritional concern of today's female athlete. As these athletes fail to consume enough energy to support the physical demands of training, they become at risk for disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis, conditions collectively identified as the female athlete triad. This review addresses nutritional concerns of the female athlete, identification of those at risk, relationship of energy intake to menstrual irregularities, and recently identified chronic diseases associated with the female athlete triad. Strategies are offered to prevent harmful behaviors leading to the comorbidities associated with inadequate dietary intakes.

  20. Neuromuscular Retraining in Female Adolescent Athletes: Effect on Athletic Performance Indices and Noncontact Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank R. Noyes

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available While many anterior cruciate ligament (ACL prevention programs have been published, few have achieved significant reductions in injury rates and improvements in athletic performance indices; both of which may increase compliance and motivation of athletes to participate. A supervised neuromuscular retraining program (18 sessions was developed, aimed at achieving both of these objectives. The changes in neuromuscular indices were measured after training in 1000 female athletes aged 13–18 years, and the noncontact ACL injury rate in 700 of these trained athletes was compared with that of 1120 control athletes. There were significant improvements in the drop-jump test, (p < 0.0001, effect size [ES] 0.97, the single-leg triple crossover hop (p < 0.0001, ES 0.47, the t-test (p < 0.0001, ES 0.64, the multi-stage fitness test (p < 0.0001, ES 0.57, hamstring strength (p < 0.0001, and quadriceps strength (p < 0.01. The trained athletes had a significant reduction in the noncontact ACL injury incidence rate compared with the controls (1 ACL injury in 36,724 athlete-exposures [0.03] and 13 ACL injuries in 61,244 exposures [0.21], respectively, p = 0.03. The neuromuscular retraining program was effective in reducing noncontact ACL injury rate and improving athletic performance indicators.

  1. Nutritional Supplements for Endurance Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Christopher J.

    Athletes engaged in heavy endurance training often seek additional nutritional strategies to help maximize performance. Specific nutritional supplements exist to combat certain factors that limit performance beginning with a sound everyday diet. Research has further demonstrated that safe, effective, legal supplements are in fact available for today's endurance athletes. Several of these supplements are marketed not only to aid performance but also to combat the immunosuppressive effects of intense endurance training. It is imperative for each athlete to research the legality of certain supplements for their specific sport or event. Once the legality has been established, it is often up to each individual athlete to decipher the ethics involved with ingesting nutritional supplements with the sole intent of improving performance.

  2. Athletic Involvement and Adolescent Delinquency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnick, Merrill J.; Barnes, Grace M.; Sabo, Don; Farrell, Michael P.

    2007-01-01

    Athough conventional wisdom suggests that organized sport deters delinquency by building character, structuring adolescents’ time, and providing incentives for socially approved behavior, the empirical evidence to date has been mixed. Based on a sample of approximately 600 Western New York adolescents, the present study examined how self-reported jock identity, school athlete status, and frequency of athletic activity differentially influenced a range of delinquent behaviors. Neither athlete status nor frequency of athletic activity predicted these behaviors; however, jock identity was associated with significantly more incidents of delinquency. This finding was robust across both gender and race. Follow-up analyses indicated that jock identity facilitated both minor and major delinquency, with major delinquency effects for white but not black adolescents. PMID:18079971

  3. The Kansas Squat Test Modality Comparison: Free Weights vs. Smith Machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luebbers, Paul E; Fry, Andrew C

    2016-08-01

    Luebbers, PE and Fry, AC. The Kansas squat test modality comparison: free weights vs. smith machine. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2186-2193, 2016-Standardized methods of testing power are instrumental in planning and implementing training regimens for many athletes, and also in tracking training adaptations. Previous work has demonstrated that the Kansas squat test (KST) is a valid test for measuring indices of mean and peak power when compared with the Wingate anaerobic cycle test. Although the KST was designed for use with a Smith machine (SM), many power athletes use free weights for training. The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of using free weights (FW) for the KST by comparing it with the SM modality. Twenty-three track and field athletes participated (mean ± SD; weight, 69.7 ± 10.6 kg; age, 20.1 ± 1.1 years) in this study. Each completed familiarization sessions with the FW and SM modalities before data collection. A 1-repetition maximum squat was also determined for both the FW and SM. Correlation coefficients indicated significant relationships between the FW KST and SM KST on measures of peak test power (r = 0.955; p 0.05) or posttest lactate (r = 0.109; p > 0.05). Paired samples t-tests indicated that the FW KST resulted in significantly higher measures of peak power and mean power (p ≤ 0.01), although no differences were observed for relative fatigue or lactate (p > 0.05). These data indicate that the FW KST is a valid and feasible alternative to the SM KST in measuring peak and mean power.

  4. Intercollegiate Athletics Subsidies: A Regressive Tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denhart, Matthew; Vedder, Richard

    2010-01-01

    For most colleges and universities in the United States, intercollegiate athletics is a losing financial proposition. The vast majority ICA departments do not break even and require subsidization from the institution as a whole. When schools are forced to heavily subsidize athletics, ICA serves to impose an "athletics tax" on other dimensions of…

  5. [Sleep and academic performance in young elite athletes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poussel, M; Laure, P; Genest, J; Fronzaroli, E; Renaud, P; Favre, A; Chenuel, B

    2014-07-01

    In French law (Code du Sport), the status of elite athlete is allowed for young athletes beginning at the age of 12 years. For these young athletes, the aim is to reach the highest level of performance in their sport without compromising academic performance. Training time is therefore often substantial and sleep patterns appear to play a key role in performance recovery. The aim of this study was to assess sleep patterns and their effects on academic performance in young elite athletes. Sleep patterns were assessed using questionnaires completed during a specific information-based intervention on sports medicine topics. The academic performance of young elite athletes was assessed by collecting their grades (transmitted by their teachers). Sleep patterns were assessed for 137 young elite athletes (64 females, 73 males; mean age, 15.7 years) and academic performance for 109 of them. Daily sleep duration during school periods (8h22 ± 38 min) were shorter compared to holidays and week-ends (10h02 ± 1h16, Psleep quality as poor or just sufficient. Poor sleep quality was correlated with poor academic performance in this specific athlete population. Sleep is the most important period for recovery from daily activity, but little information is available regarding the specific population of young elite athletes. The results reported herein suggest insufficiency (quantitatively and qualitatively) of sleep patterns in some of the young athletes, possibly leading to detrimental effects on athletic performance. Moreover, disturbed sleep patterns may also impact academic performance in young elite athletes. Teachers, athletic trainers, physicians, and any other professionals working with young elite athletes should pay particular attention to this specific population regarding the possible negative repercussions of poor sleep patterns on academic and athletic performance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Perception of Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction in College Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, David M; Vardiman, John P; Deckert, Jake A; Ward, Jaimie L; Sharpe, Matthew R

    2016-07-01

    Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) can lead to long-term respiratory illness and even death. EIB prevalence rates are both high and variable in college athletes. Also, prevalence rates may be underestimated due to ineffective screening. The purpose of this study is to investigate the prevalence of EIB and the perceived impact of EIB in college athletes via a self-report questionnaire. A self-report EIB questionnaire was administered to college athletes on 8 different sports teams. Information collected was used to identify athletes who self-reported: (1) a history of EIB and/or asthma, (2) respiratory symptoms during exercise, (3) medication use, and (4) concern about EIB. Results showed that 56 of 196 athletes (28.6%) self-reported a history of EIB or asthma. Over half (52%) reported a history of EIB/asthma or current EIB symptoms. Forty-six of the 140 athletes (32.9%) who did not report a history of EIB or asthma indicated symptoms of EIB during sports, training, or exercise. Fourteen of 56 athletes (25%) self-reporting a history of EIB or asthma did not report the use of a respiratory medication. Nineteen of 196 athletes (9.7%) reported being concerned that EIB was adversely affecting their sports performance. College athletes self-report a high prevalence of EIB or asthma. Although college athletes may not report a history of EIB or asthma, they indicate symptoms of EIB. A majority of athletes reported a history or current symptoms related to EIB or asthma. Many athletes with a history of EIB or asthma are not taking any asthma medication. Last, athletes report concern about EIB adversely affecting their sports performance. More work is needed using a combination of a screening questionnaire and standardized EIB testing to develop a validated tool for accurately screening and diagnosing EIB in college athletes. Copyright © 2016 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  7. Managing respiratory problems in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, James H; Ansley, Les; Robson-Ansley, Paula; Parsons, Jonathan P

    2012-08-01

    Respiratory problems are common in athletes of all abilities and can significantly impact upon their health and performance. In this article, we provide an overview of respiratory physiology in athletes. We also discuss the assessment and management of common clinical respiratory conditions as they pertain to athletes, including airways disease, respiratory tract infection and pneumothorax. We focus on providing a pragmatic approach and highlight important caveats for the physician treating respiratory conditions in this highly specific population.

  8. Improvement of technique of a jerk of the qualified sportswomen in weightlifting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Solodka

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the improvement of technical preparedness of the qualified female weight-lifters taking into account the group model characteristics of technique of a jerk. Material & Methods: analysis and synthesis of data of scientific and methodical literature, pedagogical experiment, method of mathematical statistics. Results: the revealed shortcomings of technique of the execution of a jerk of the qualified female weight-lifters were, considering the group model characteristics of technique of a jerk of the first group of weight categories. Complexes of compensatory exercises were offered for the purpose of correction. Conclusions: the performance of complexes of the compensatory exercises, which are directed to the improvement of competitive exercise of a jerk of bar, allowed to increase the number of successfully executed raising of bar, for 10,3–19,8%, according to initial indicators of number of rises, and also to receive positive shifts in motive structure of a jerk of bar.

  9. Collegiate coaches' knowledge of the female athlete triad in relation to sport type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frideres, Jillian E; Mottinger, Sue G; Palao, José M

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine what coaches of female athletes know about the three components of the female athlete triad with regard to type of sport coached and the characteristics of the coach. The sample consisted of 309 NCAA Division I coaches of female athletes in the sports of: sports with subjective scoring of performance (gymnastics and diving), low body weight sports (cross country and rowing), revealing or fitted clothing (volleyball and swimming), and other (soccer and basketball). An original, self-report questionnaire, and a 4-point Likert scale to measure confidence in answer was used. The variables were: knowledge, confidence, and coach's characteristics (coach's gender, degree held, years of experience in coaching females, continuing education participation specific to the triad and triad components, and type of sport coached). Coaches of low body weight sports scored significantly higher than both coaches of sports requiring fitted clothing and "other" sports in the overall score. They further had significantly more confidence in their answers than coaches of "other" sports. No significant differences in the overall score in any of the types of sport or total values were found regarding gender, experience, and degree. Coaches who had received training about the triad or its components scored significantly higher than coaches who did not receive training. The results demonstrated a lack of information among coaches and that participating in formative training can help to reduce this problem. The results found can help in the design of continuing education for coaches.

  10. Goal orientation and well-being in college athletes: The importance of athletic social connectedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayment, Heidi A; Walters, Andrew Schrack

    2017-11-01

    The present study examined the ability of an interpersonal construct called athletic connectedness to mediate the relationship between task and ego goal orientations and well-being. We operationalised athletic social connectedness as a sense of social belonging and sense of connection with teammates. We hypothesised that athletic social connectedness would be positively associated with task goals, negatively associated with ego goals, and would at least partially mediate the relationship between achievement goals and well-being. We administered questionnaires to female (N = 106; mean age = 20.47, SD = 1.12) and male (N = 100; mean age = 20.95, SD = 1.21) NCAA Division III college athletes. We tested our hypothesised model using structural equation modelling, which included testing a measurement model that specified four latent variables and then comparing the estimates generated by our hypothesised model with our data. We also tested three alternative models and found our hypothesised model to fit best. As predicted, there were significant indirect effects of task and ego motivation on well-being through athletic connectedness, demonstrating formal evidence of mediation. The r 2 coefficient indicated that the model explained 30% of the variance in well-being, a moderate effect size (Cohen, 1988). Discussion focuses on the importance of considering interpersonal constructs as a way to improve our understanding of relationship between task and ego goal orientations to well-being in athletes.

  11. The Influence of Mulligan Ankle Taping on Dynamic Balance in the Athletes with and without Chronic Ankle Instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Pourkhani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The ankle joint is the most frequently injured anatomical site in athletes. Ankle instability is responsible for 25% of all time lost from sport. Clinical efficacy of the effect of taping in athletes with chronic ankle instability is unknown. So the purpose of this investigation is the study of the influence of Mulligan ankle taping on dynamic balance in the athletes with and without chronic ankle instability. Materials & Methods: 32 athletes participated in this investigation: 16 subjects with chronic ankle instability, 6 women and 10 men (age 23.5±0.3 years, height 175.4±10.3 cm, weight 73.6±14.5 kg, Foot Ankle Disability Index 74.5±8.62% and Foot Ankle Disability Index Sport 63.5±7.86% and 16 healthy subjects, 6 women and 10 men (age 22.81±7.1 years, height 173.6±12.26 cm, weight 66.4±11.4 kg, Foot Ankle Disability Index and Foot Ankle Disability Index Sport 100%. Dynamic balance was assessed with Star Excursion Balance Test in 3 reaching directions (medial, antero-medial and postero-medial before and after Mulligan ankle taping. Independent and paired t-test were used for statistical analysis. Results: Dynamic balance in healthy group significantly was better than injured group (P&le0.05. Application of taping caused significantly improvement in dynamic balance in both groups (reaching in media, antero-medial and postero-medial directions (P&le0.05 (except reaching in antero-medial direction in healthy group (P>0.05. Conclusion: So it seems that Mulligan ankle taping can improve dynamic balance in the athletes with and without chronic ankle instability.

  12. Male and Female: Career Development of African American College Athletes and Non-Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Jamie Dowdy

    2015-01-01

    Tendency to foreclose on careers, vocational exploration, and career commitment were examined in relationship to racial-ethnic socialization, parental responsiveness, and career-related verbal encouragement and emotional support among 228 African American male and female college athletes and non-athletes. A number of tests were conducted to test…

  13. Psychological impact of injuries in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A M

    1996-12-01

    Although research on the psychological impact of injury is in its infancy, this article reviews relevant literature focusing on post-injury emotional response, self-esteem, and the effect of mood disturbance on rehabilitation from sport injury. Injury is often accompanied by depression, tension, anger and low self-esteem, particularly in competitive, seriously injured athletes. Mood disturbance seems to relate to the athlete's perceived progress in rehabilitation and has been shown to negatively relate to attendance at rehabilitation sessions. This article also describes how the Emotional Responses of Athletes to Injury Questionnaire (ERAIQ) serves as a guide for the initial interview of an injured athlete. Interventions such as positive self-talk, relaxation, goal setting and healing imagery, all used by a faster healing group of athletes, and although not well researched, seem appropriate to assist athletes in coping with injury. Modelling interventions during injury rehabilitation have also been shown to have a positive effect on rehabilitation and should be used. These relationships are described in more depth and in the context of a theoretical model. Directions for future research are suggested.

  14. Quality Improvement in Athletic Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes Sauers, Andrea D; Sauers, Eric L; Valier, Alison R Snyder

    2017-11-01

      Quality improvement (QI) is a health care concept that ensures patients receive high-quality (safe, timely, effective, efficient, equitable, patient-centered) and affordable care. Despite its importance, the application of QI in athletic health care has been limited.   To describe the need for and define QI in health care, to describe how to measure quality in health care, and to present a QI case in athletic training.   As the athletic training profession continues to grow, a widespread engagement in QI efforts is necessary to establish the value of athletic training services for the patients that we serve. A review of the importance of QI in health care, historical perspectives of QI, tools to drive QI efforts, and examples of common QI initiatives is presented to assist clinicians in better understanding the value of QI for advancing athletic health care and the profession. Clinical and Research Advantages:  By engaging clinicians in strategies to measure outcomes and improve their patient care services, QI practice can help athletic trainers provide high-quality and affordable care to patients.

  15. The Athletic Shoe in Football

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastifer, James; Kent, Richard; Crandall, Jeff; Sherwood, Chris; Lessley, David; McCullough, Kirk A.; Coughlin, Michael J.; Anderson, Robert B.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Foot and ankle injuries are common in sports, particularly in cleated athletes. Traditionally, the athletic shoe has not been regarded as a piece of protective equipment but rather as a part of the uniform, with a primary focus on performance and subjective feedback measures of comfort. Changes in turf and shoe design have poorly understood implications on the health and safety of players. Evidence Acquisition: A literature search of the MEDLINE and PubMed databases was conducted. Keywords included athletic shoewear, cleated shoe, football shoes, and shoewear, and search parameters were between the years 2000 and 2016. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 5. Results: The athletic shoe is an important piece of protective sports equipment. There are several important structural considerations of shoe design, including biomechanical compliance, cleat and turf interaction, and shoe sizing/fit, that affect the way an athlete engages with the playing surface and carry important potential implications regarding player safety if not understood and addressed. Conclusion: Athletic footwear should be considered an integral piece of protective equipment rather than simply an extension of the uniform apparel. More research is needed to define optimal shoe sizing, the effect that design has on mechanical load, and how cleat properties, including pattern and structure, interact with the variety of playing surfaces. PMID:28151702

  16. Sport fans' impressions of gay male athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jamonn; Cothren, Denise; Rogers, Ross; Kistler, Lindsay; Osowski, Anne; Greenauer, Nathan; End, Christian

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine sport fans' impressions of gay male athletes. Participants formed impressions of a fictional athlete from their favorite team after reading a short scenario about the player. The scenarios described the athlete as being gay or straight, and either becoming a distraction or not causing a distraction to the team. While males' ratings of the athlete did not significantly differ, female fans formed significantly more positive impressions of the gay male player than the straight athlete. These results are discussed in terms of the ingroup bias and the shifting culture of homophobia in sport.

  17. High-intensity interval training and athletic performance in Taekwondo athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monks, Lynne; Seo, Myong-Won; Kim, Hyun-Bae; Jung, Hyun C; Song, Jong K

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on athletic performance in Taekwondo athletes. Thirty-three male and female collegiate Taekwondo athletes were randomly divided into a HIIT group (N.=16) or a high-intensity continuous running (HICR) group (N.=17). The HIIT group undertook training of high-intensity sprints interspersed with active rest periods whilst the HICR group participated in high-intensity running for a continuous period. Both groups completed 11 sessions over 4 weeks. Physique, body composition, Wingate anaerobic test and VO2max test were measured. The vertical jump test, agility T-test and sit-ups were used to assess physical fitness. Repeated measures ANCOVAs with sex as a covariate were applied and significant level was set at 0.05. Following 11 sessions of training, significant improvements in anaerobic peak power (Ptraining, specifically the influence of training intensity on anaerobic capacity.

  18. Electrocardiographic Findings in National Basketball Association Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waase, Marc P; Mutharasan, R Kannan; Whang, William; DiTullio, Marco R; DiFiori, John P; Callahan, Lisa; Mancell, Jimmie; Phelan, Dermot; Schwartz, Allan; Homma, Shunichi; Engel, David J

    2018-01-01

    While it is known that long-term intensive athletic training is associated with cardiac structural changes that can be reflected on surface electrocardiograms (ECGs), there is a paucity of sport-specific ECG data. This study seeks to clarify the applicability of existing athlete ECG interpretation criteria to elite basketball players, an athlete group shown to develop significant athletic cardiac remodeling. To generate normative ECG data for National Basketball Association (NBA) athletes and to assess the accuracy of athlete ECG interpretation criteria in this population. The NBA has partnered with Columbia University Medical Center to annually perform a review of policy-mandated annual preseason ECGs and stress echocardiograms for all players and predraft participants. This observational study includes the preseason ECG examinations of NBA athletes who participated in the 2013-2014 and 2014-2015 seasons, plus all participants in the 2014 and 2015 NBA predraft combines. Examinations were performed from July 2013 to May 2015. Data analysis was performed between December 2015 and March 2017. Active roster or draft status in the NBA and routine preseason ECGs and echocardiograms. Baseline quantitative ECG variables were measured and ECG data qualitatively analyzed using 3 existing, athlete-specific interpretation criteria: Seattle (2012), refined (2014), and international (2017). Abnormal ECG findings were compared with matched echocardiographic data. Of 519 male athletes, 409 (78.8%) were African American, 96 (18.5%) were white, and the remaining 14 (2.7%) were of other races/ethnicities; 115 were predraft combine participants, and the remaining 404 were on active rosters of NBA teams. The mean (SD) age was 24.8 (4.3) years. Physiologic, training-related changes were present in 462 (89.0%) athletes in the study. Under Seattle criteria, 131 (25.2%) had abnormal findings, compared with 108 (20.8%) and 81 (15.6%) under refined and international criteria, respectively

  19. Effects of oral sodium supplementation on indices of thermoregulation in trained, endurance athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earhart, Elizabeth L; Weiss, Edward P; Rahman, Rabia; Kelly, Patrick V

    2015-03-01

    Guidelines recommend the consumption of sodium during exercise to replace losses in sweat; however, the effects of sodium on thermoregulation are less clear. To determine the effects of high-dose sodium supplementation on indices of thermoregulation and related outcomes, 11 endurance athletes participated in a double-blind, randomized-sequence, crossover study in which they underwent 2-hrs of endurance exercise at 60% heart rate reserve with 1800 mg of sodium supplementation (SS) during one trial and placebo (PL) during the other trial. A progressive intensity time-to-exhaustion test was performed after the 2-hr steady state exercise as an assessment of exercise performance. Sweat rate was calculated from changes in body weight, accounting for fluid intake and urinary losses. Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and heat stress were assessed using verbal numeric scales. Cardiovascular drift was determined from the rise in HR during the 2-hr steady state exercise test. Skin temperature was measured with an infrared thermometer. Dehydration occurred in both SS and PL trials, as evidenced by substantial weight loss (2.03 ± 0.43% and 2.27 ± 0.70%, respectively; p = 0.261 between trials). Sweat rate was 1015.53 ± 239.10 ml·hr(-1) during the SS trial and 1053.60±278.24 ml/hr during the PL trial, with no difference between trials (p = 0.459). Heat stress ratings indicated moderate heat stress ("warm/hot" ratings) but were not different between trials (p = 0.825). Time to exhaustion during the SS trial was 6.88 ± 3.88 minutes and during the PL trial averaged 6.96 ± 3.61 minutes, but did not differ between trials (p = 0.919). Cardiovascular drift, skin temperature, and RPE did not differ between trials (all p > 0.05). High-dose sodium supplementation does not appear to impact thermoregulation, cardiovascular drift, or physical performance in trained, endurance athletes. However, in light of the possibility that high sodium intakes might have other adverse effects

  20. Symptoms of Anxiety and Depression in Young Athletes Using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Weber

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Elite young athletes have to cope with multiple psychological demands such as training volume, mental and physical fatigue, spatial separation of family and friends or time management problems may lead to reduced mental and physical recovery. While normative data regarding symptoms of anxiety and depression for the general population is available (Hinz and Brähler, 2011, hardly any information exists for adolescents in general and young athletes in particular. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess overall symptoms of anxiety and depression in young athletes as well as possible sex differences. The survey was carried out within the scope of the study “Resistance Training in Young Athletes” (KINGS-Study. Between August 2015 and September 2016, 326 young athletes aged (mean ± SD 14.3 ± 1.6 years completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD Scale. Regarding the analysis of age on the anxiety and depression subscales, age groups were classified as follows: late childhood (12–14 years and late adolescence (15–18 years. The participating young athletes were recruited from Olympic weight lifting, handball, judo, track and field athletics, boxing, soccer, gymnastics, ice speed skating, volleyball, and rowing. Anxiety and depression scores were (mean ± SD 4.3 ± 3.0 and 2.8 ± 2.9, respectively. In the subscale anxiety, 22 cases (6.7% showed subclinical scores and 11 cases (3.4% showed clinical relevant score values. When analyzing the depression subscale, 31 cases (9.5% showed subclinical score values and 12 cases (3.7% showed clinically important values. No significant differences were found between male and female athletes (p ≥ 0.05. No statistically significant differences in the HADS scores were found between male athletes of late childhood and late adolescents (p ≥ 0.05. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing questionnaire based indicators of symptoms of anxiety and depression in young

  1. [Athletic pubalgia and hip impingement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthaudin, A; Schindler, M; Ziltener, J-L; Menetrey, J

    2014-07-16

    Athletic pubalgia is a painful and complex syndrom encountered by athletes involved in pivoting and cutting sports such as hockey and soccer. To date, there is no real consensus on the criteria for a reliable diagnostic, the different investigations, and the appropriate therapy. Current literature underlines intrinsic and extrinsic factors contributing to athletic pubalgia. This review article reports upon two novelties related to the issue: the importance and efficience of prevention program and the association of femoro-acetabular impingement with the pubalgia.

  2. The pediatric athlete: younger athletes with sport-related concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, William P; Taylor, Alex M; Proctor, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Although much of the lay media attention surrounding sport-related concussion (SRC) focuses on professional athletes, SRC is a common injury in pediatric sports. The anatomy, biomechanics, and response to injury of the developing pediatric brain differ from those of the adult. Similarly, the neurocognitive abilities of the child are developing more rapidly than in an adult. The effects of concussive brain injury on the life of a child are different from those of an adult. This article focuses on the aspects of SRC that are specific to the younger athletes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. National Athletic Trainers' Association Position Statement: Conservative Management and Prevention of Ankle Sprains in Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminski, Thomas W.; Hertel, Jay; Amendola, Ned; Docherty, Carrie L.; Dolan, Michael G.; Hopkins, J. Ty; Nussbaum, Eric; Poppy, Wendy; Richie, Doug

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To present recommendations for athletic trainers and other allied health care professionals in the conservative management and prevention of ankle sprains in athletes. Background: Because ankle sprains are a common and often disabling injury in athletes, athletic trainers and other sports health care professionals must be able to implement the most current and evidence-supported treatment strategies to ensure safe and rapid return to play. Equally important is initiating preventive measures to mitigate both first-time sprains and the chance of reinjury. Therefore, considerations for appropriate preventive measures (including taping and bracing), initial assessment, both short- and long-term management strategies, return-to-play guidelines, and recommendations for syndesmotic ankle sprains and chronic ankle instability are presented. Recommendations: The recommendations included in this position statement are intended to provide athletic trainers and other sports health care professionals with guidelines and criteria to deliver the best health care possible for the prevention and management of ankle sprains. An endorsement as to best practice is made whenever evidence supporting the recommendation is available. PMID:23855363

  4. Treatment of athletes with symptomatic intra-articular hip pathology and athletic pubalgia/sports hernia: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Christopher M; Pierce, Bradley R; Giveans, M Russell

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the results of surgical treatment in athletes with associated intra-articular hip pathology and extra-articular sports pubalgia. Between December 2003 and September 2009, 37 hips (mean patient age, 25 years) were diagnosed with both symptomatic athletic pubalgia and symptomatic intra-articular hip joint pathology. There were 8 professional athletes, 15 collegiate athletes, 5 elite high school athletes, and 9 competitive club athletes. Outcomes included an evaluation regarding return to sports and modified Harris Hip Score, Short Form 12 score, and visual analog scale score. We evaluated 37 hips at a mean of 29 months (range, 12 to 78 months) after the index surgery. Thirty-one hips underwent thirty-five athletic pubalgia surgeries. Hip arthroscopy was performed in 32 hips (30 cases of femoroacetabular impingement treatment, 1 traumatic labral tear, and 1 borderline dysplasia). Of 16 hips that had athletic pubalgia surgery as the index procedure, 4 (25%) returned to sports without limitations, and 11 (69%) subsequently had hip arthroscopy at a mean of 20 months after pubalgia surgery. Of 8 hips managed initially with hip arthroscopy alone, 4 (50%) returned to sports without limitations, and 3 (43%) had subsequent pubalgia surgery at a mean of 6 months after hip arthroscopy. Thirteen hips had athletic pubalgia surgery and hip arthroscopy at one setting. Concurrent or eventual surgical treatment of both disorders led to improved postoperative outcomes scores (P pubalgia or intra-articular hip pathology in this patient population, outcomes were suboptimal. Surgical management of both disorders concurrently or in a staged manner led to improved postoperative outcomes scoring and an unrestricted return to sporting activity in 89% of hips. Level IV, therapeutic case series. Copyright © 2011 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Servant Leadership in Intercollegiate Athletics: Follower Perceptions of NCAA Division II Athletic Directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Harlan L.

    2016-01-01

    Leadership in the intercollegiate athletic setting has come under pressure in recent years due to problem of unethical behavior and falling short of the expectation of serving students in higher education. While servant leadership has been examined in many different contexts, the literature is limited within the intercollegiate athletic setting.…

  6. The Student-Athlete and the National Collegiate Athletic Association: The Need for a Prima Facie Tort Doctrine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckworth, Roy D., III

    1975-01-01

    In examining whether courts have jurisdiction to hear student-athlete grievances against the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) the author rejects the position that the NCAA's activities are under cover of state law, and instead proposes that the student-athlete's remedy lies in an action against the NCAA for a prima facie tort. (JT)

  7. Irisin levels are lower in young amenorrheic athletes compared with eumenorrheic athletes and non-athletes and are associated with bone density and strength estimates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vibha Singhal

    Full Text Available Irisin and FGF21 are novel hormones implicated in the "browning" of white fat, thermogenesis, and energy homeostasis. However, there are no data regarding these hormones in amenorrheic athletes (AA (a chronic energy deficit state compared with eumenorrheic athletes (EA and non-athletes. We hypothesized that irisin and FGF21 would be low in AA, an adaptive response to low energy stores. Furthermore, because (i brown fat has positive effects on bone, and (ii irisin and FGF21 may directly impact bone, we hypothesized that bone density, structure and strength would be positively associated with these hormones in athletes and non-athletes. To test our hypotheses, we studied 85 females, 14-21 years [38 AA, 24 EA and 23 non-athletes (NA]. Fasting serum irisin and FGF21 were measured. Body composition and bone density were assessed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, bone microarchitecture using high resolution peripheral quantitative CT, strength estimates using finite element analysis, resting energy expenditure (REE using indirect calorimetry and time spent exercising/week by history. Subjects did not differ for pubertal stage. Fat mass was lowest in AA. AA had lower irisin and FGF21 than EA and NA, even after controlling for fat and lean mass. Across subjects, irisin was positively associated with REE and bone density Z-scores, volumetric bone mineral density (total and trabecular, stiffness and failure load. FGF21 was negatively associated with hours/week of exercise and cortical porosity, and positively with fat mass and cortical volumetric bone density. Associations of irisin (but not FGF21 with bone parameters persisted after controlling for potential confounders. In conclusion, irisin and FGF21 are low in AA, and irisin (but not FGF21 is independently associated with bone density and strength in athletes.

  8. Athletic pubalgia: definition and surgical treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahumada, Leonik A; Ashruf, Salman; Espinosa-de-los-Monteros, Antonio; Long, James N; de la Torre, Jorge I; Garth, William P; Vasconez, Luis O

    2005-10-01

    Athletic pubalgia, or "sports hernia," affects people actively engaged in sports. Previously described in high-performance athletes, it can occur in recreational athletes. It presents with inguinal pain exacerbated with physical activity. Examination reveals absence of a hernia with pubic point tenderness accentuated by resisted adduction of the hip. Diagnosis is by history and physical findings. Treatment with an internal oblique flap reinforced with mesh alleviates symptoms. A retrospective review from December 1998 to November 2004 for patients with athletic pubalgia who underwent operative repair was performed. Descriptive variables included age, gender, laterality, sport, time to presentation, outcome, anatomy, and length of follow-up. Twelve patients, 1 female, with median age 25 years were evaluated. Activities included running (33%), basketball (25%), soccer (17%), football (17%), and baseball (8%). The majority were recreational athletes (50%). Median time to presentation was 9 months, with a median 4 months of follow-up. The most common intraoperative findings were nonspecific attenuation of the inguinal floor and cord lipomas. All underwent open inguinal repair, with 9 being reinforced with mesh. Four had adductor tenotomy. Results were 83.3% excellent and 16.7% satisfactory. All returned to sports. Diagnosis of athletic pubalgia can be elusive, but is established by history and physical examination. It can be found in recreational athletes. An open approach using mesh relieves the pain and restores activity.

  9. Screening adolescent athletes for exercise-induced asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, R A; LaRussa, J; Wang-Dohlman, A; Bartolucci, A A

    1996-04-01

    To pilot test an exercise-induced asthma (EIA) screening program using a submaximal step-test and pulmonary function test (PFT) to identify athletes with EIA and to determine if a physical examination or self-reported history could be used to predict the existence of EIA. Screening and diagnostic testing using a convenience sample. Birmingham, Alabama, during athletic preparticipation examination (PPE). Fifty-two African-American, male football players aged 14-18 years being evaluated for participation in scholastic athletics. No athlete refused participation. Four were excluded because of need for further evaluation unrelated to any pulmonary condition. Each athlete completed a medical history, allergy history, physical examination, preexercise pulmonary function test (PFT), submaximal step-test, and a series of postexercise PFTs. Major outcome measurements were changes in forced expiration volume in 1s (FEV1) or peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) after completing an exercise challenge. Seventeen of 48 athletes had a > or = 15% decrease in PEFR after exercise. Nine of 48 athletes had a > or = 15% decrease in FEV1 after exercise. The only self-reported item that differentiated subjects with normal and abnormal PFTs was a personal history of asthma (p < 0.05). Many athletes can be identified as having abnormal PFTs by use of a submaximal step-test as an exercise challenge. Self-reporting questionnaires and PPEs do not appear to be sensitive enough to identify athletes with this condition. If validated by future studies, this protocol could be used for the diagnosis of EIA.

  10. Analyses of Helsinki 2012 European Athletics Championships injury and illness surveillance to discuss elite athletes risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edouard, Pascal; Depiesse, Frédéric; Branco, Pedro; Alonso, Juan-Manuel

    2014-09-01

    To further analyze newly incurred injuries and illnesses (I&Is) during Athletics International Championships to discuss risk factors. Prospective recording of newly occurred injuries and illnesses. The 2012 European Athletics (EA) Championships in Helsinki, Finland. National team and local organizing committee physicians and physiotherapists and 1342 registered athletes. Incidence and characteristics of new injuries and illnesses. Ninety-three percent of athletes were covered by medical teams, with a response rate of 91%. One hundred thirty-three injuries were reported (incidence of 98.4 injuries per 1000 registered athletes). Sixty-two injuries (47%) resulted in time loss from sport. The most common diagnosis was hamstring strain (11.4% of injuries and 21% of time-loss injuries). Injury risk was higher in males and increased with age. The highest incidences of injuries were found in combined events and middle- and long-distance events. Twenty-seven illnesses were reported (4.0 illnesses per 1000 athlete days). The most common diagnoses were upper respiratory tract infection (33.3%) and gastroenteritis/diarrhea (25.9%). During outdoor EA Championships, injury and illness incidences were slightly lower and injury characteristics were comparable with those during outdoor World Athletics Championships. During elite athletics Championships, gender (male), age (older than 30 years), finals, and some events (combined events and middle- and long-distance races) seem to be injury risk factors. Illness risk factors remain unclear. As in previous recommendations, preventive interventions should focus on overuse injuries, hamstring strains, and adequate rehabilitation of previous injuries, decreasing risk of infectious diseases transmission, appropriate event scheduling, sports clothes, and heat acclimatization.

  11. Insecure attachment and anxiety in student athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, D H; Kim, S M; Zaichkowsky, L

    2013-06-01

    The main purpose of our research was to examine attachment type and competition anxiety in high school student athletes and general high school students. We recruited 465 student athletes and 543 general students to participate in our study. The Revised Korean version of the Experiences in Close Relationships Scale (K-ECRS) and the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2) were given to all students. In χ2 tests, athletes showed attachment types in the following order of prevalence: fearful, dismissive, and preoccupied, compared to the fearful, preoccupied, and dismissive order observed in general students. In parametric, independent t-tests, athletes reported significantly higher cognitive anxiety scores, relative to general students. Further, athletes with insecure attachment compared to those with secure attachment reported higher cognitive anxiety scores and self-confidence scores. In both the athletes with insecure attachment and general students with insecure attachment groups, the K-ECRS anxiety subscale was significantly correlated with CSAI-2 total score. In post hoc analysis in the athletes with insecure attachment group, the K-ECRS anxiety subscale was also significantly correlated with the CSAI-2 cognitive anxiety subscale. These results suggest that anxious athletes with an insecure attachment style tend to exaggerate threats from both external and internal sources, which negatively affect their performances.

  12. Predicting athletic success motivation using mental skin and emotional intelligence and its components in male athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajbafnezhad, H; Ahadi, H; Heidarie, A; Askari, P; Enayati, M

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to predict athletic success motivation by mental skills, emotional intelligence and its components. The research sample consisted of 153 male athletes who were selected through random multistage sampling. The subjects completed the Mental Skills Questionnaire, Bar-On Emotional Intelligence questionnaire and the perception of sport success questionnaire. Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficient and multiple regressions. Regression analysis shows that between the two variables of mental skill and emotional intelligence, mental skill is the best predictor for athletic success motivation and has a better ability to predict the success rate of the participants. Regression analysis results showed that among all the components of emotional intelligence, self-respect had a significantly higher ability to predict athletic success motivation. The use of psychological skills and emotional intelligence as an mediating and regulating factor and organizer cause leads to improved performance and can not only can to help athletes in making suitable and effective decisions for reaching a desired goal.

  13. The influence of athletic status on maximal and rapid isometric torque characteristics and postural balance performance in Division I female soccer athletes and non-athlete controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Ty B; Hawkey, Matt J; Thiele, Ryan M; Conchola, Eric C; Adams, Bailey M; Akehi, Kazuma; Smith, Doug B; Thompson, Brennan J

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of maximal and rapid isometric torque characteristics of the hip extensor muscles and postural balance performance to discriminate between female collegiate soccer athletes and non-athlete controls. Ten athletes (mean ± SE: age = 19·20 ± 0·36 year; mass = 62·23 ± 3·12 kg; height = 162·43 ± 1·70 cm) and 10 non-athletes (age = 20·30 ± 0·40 year; mass = 69·64 ± 3·20 kg; height = 163·22 ± 2·10 cm) performed two isometric maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) of the hip extensor muscles. Peak torque (PT) and absolute and relative rate of torque development (RTD) at early (0-50 ms) and late (100-200 ms) phases of muscle contraction were examined during each MVC. Postural balance was assessed using a commercially designed balance testing device, which provides a measurement of static stability based on sway index (SI). Results indicated that absolute and relative RTD at 0-50 ms (RTD50 and RTD50norm) were greater (P = 0·007 and 0·026), and postural SI was lower (P = 0·022) in the athletes compared with the non-athletes. However, no differences (P = 0·375-0·709) were observed for PT nor absolute and relative RTD at 100-200 ms (RTD100-200 and RTD100-200norm). Significant relationships were also observed between RTD50 and RTD50norm and SI (r = -0·559 and -0·521; P = 0·010 and 0·019). These findings suggest that early rapid torque characteristics of the hip extensor muscles and postural balance performance may be sensitive and effective measures for discriminating between college-aged athletes and non-athletes. Coaches and practitioners may use these findings as performance evaluation tools to help in identifying athletes with both superior early rapid torque and balance performance abilities, which may possibly be an indicator of overall athletic potential. © 2014 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John

  14. Markers of Oxidative stress in Smoker and Nonsmoker Athletes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahba, O.; Shalby, H.; Ashry, Kh.

    2009-01-01

    To Investigate the effect of smoking on oxidative stress in male athletes. Plasma levels of nitric oxide (NO), apoptosis % in circulating lymphocytes and inducible nitric oxide synthase mRNA (iNOS mRNA) expression in neutrophils, erythrocytes antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were measured in the blood of 40 non smoker and 25 smoker athletes compared to age and socioeconomic class matching 20 smoker and 20 non-smoker non-athlete controls. Plasma levels NO, apoptosis % in circulating lymphocytes and inducible iNOS mRNA expression in neutrophils were significantly higher among athletes compared to non athletes and exhibited the highest levels in athlete smokers followed by control smokers. Concurrently, erythrocytes SOD was significantly higher among athletes compared to non athletes and exhibited highest levels in athlete smokers followed by control smokers. Conclusion: The results of this work demonstrate the impact of smoking on the health of athletes

  15. Further development of the computer code ATHLET-CD; Weiterentwicklung des Rechenprogramms ATHLET-CD. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Sebastian; Austregesilo, Henrique; Bals, Christine; Band, Sebastian; Hollands, Thorsten; Koellein, Carsten; Lovasz, Liviusz; Pandazis, Peter; Schubert, Johann-Dietrich; Sonnenkalb, Martin

    2016-10-15

    In the framework of the reactor safety research program sponsored by the German Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi), the computer code system ATHLET/ATHLET-CD has been further developed as an analysis tool for the simulation of accidents in nuclear power plants with pressurized and boiling water reactors as well as for the evaluation of accident management procedures. The main objective was to provide a mechanistic analysis tool for best estimate calculations of transients, accidents, and severe accidents with core degradation in light water reactors. With the continued development, the capability of the code system has been largely improved, allowing best estimate calculations of design and beyond design base accidents, and the simulation of advanced core degradation with enhanced model extent in a reasonable calculation time. ATHLET comprises inter alia a 6-equation model, models for the simulation of non-condensable gases and tracking of boron concentration, as well as additional component and process models for the complete system simulation. Among numerous model improvements, the code application has been extended to super critical pressures. The mechanistic description of the dynamic development of flow regimes on the basis of a transport equation for the interface area has been further developed. This ATHLET version is completely integrated in ATHLET-CD. ATHLET-CD further comprises dedicated models for the simulation of fuel and control assembly degradation for both pressurized and boiling water reactors, debris bed with melting in the core region, as well as fission product and aerosol release and transport in the cooling system, inclusive of decay of nuclide inventories and of chemical reactions in the gas phase. The continued development also concerned the modelling of absorber material release, of melting, melt relocation and freezing, and the interaction with the wall of the reactor pressure vessel. The following models were newly

  16. Balance ability and athletic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrysomallis, Con

    2011-03-01

    The relationship between balance ability and sport injury risk has been established in many cases, but the relationship between balance ability and athletic performance is less clear. This review compares the balance ability of athletes from different sports, determines if there is a difference in balance ability of athletes at different levels of competition within the same sport, determines the relationship of balance ability with performance measures and examines the influence of balance training on sport performance or motor skills. Based on the available data from cross-sectional studies, gymnasts tended to have the best balance ability, followed by soccer players, swimmers, active control subjects and then basketball players. Surprisingly, no studies were found that compared the balance ability of rifle shooters with other athletes. There were some sports, such as rifle shooting, soccer and golf, where elite athletes were found to have superior balance ability compared with their less proficient counterparts, but this was not found to be the case for alpine skiing, surfing and judo. Balance ability was shown to be significantly related to rifle shooting accuracy, archery shooting accuracy, ice hockey maximum skating speed and simulated luge start speed, but not for baseball pitching accuracy or snowboarding ranking points. Prospective studies have shown that the addition of a balance training component to the activities of recreationally active subjects or physical education students has resulted in improvements in vertical jump, agility, shuttle run and downhill slalom skiing. A proposed mechanism for the enhancement in motor skills from balance training is an increase in the rate of force development. There are limited data on the influence of balance training on motor skills of elite athletes. When the effectiveness of balance training was compared with resistance training, it was found that resistance training produced superior performance results for

  17. Position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and athletic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Nancy R; DiMarco, Nancy M; Langley, Susie

    2009-03-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine that physical activity, athletic performance, and recovery from exercise are enhanced by optimal nutrition. These organizations recommend appropriate selection of foods and fluids, timing of intake, and supplement choices for optimal health and exercise performance. This updated position paper couples a rigorous, systematic, evidence-based analysis of nutrition and performance-specific literature with current scientific data related to energy needs, assessment of body composition, strategies for weight change, nutrient and fluid needs, special nutrient needs during training and competition, the use of supplements and ergogenic aids, nutrition recommendations for vegetarian athletes, and the roles and responsibilities of sports dietitians. Energy and macronutrient needs, especially carbohydrate and protein, must be met during times of high physical activity to maintain body weight, replenish glycogen stores, and provide adequate protein to build and repair tissue. Fat intake should be sufficient to provide the essential fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins, as well as contribute energy for weight maintenance. Although exercise performance can be affected by body weight and composition, these physical measures should not be a criterion for sports performance and daily weigh-ins are discouraged. Adequate food and fluid should be consumed before, during, and after exercise to help maintain blood glucose concentration during exercise, maximize exercise performance, and improve recovery time. Athletes should be well hydrated before exercise and drink enough fluid during and after exercise to balance fluid losses. Sports beverages containing carbohydrates and electrolytes may be consumed before, during, and after exercise to help maintain blood glucose concentration, provide fuel for muscles, and decrease risk of dehydration and hyponatremia. Vitamin

  18. Dietary Intakes and Supplement Use in Pre-Adolescent and Adolescent Canadian Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill A. Parnell

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Young athletes experience numerous dietary challenges including growth, training/competition, unhealthy food environments, and travel. The objective was to determine nutrient intakes and supplement use in pre-adolescent and adolescent Canadian athletes. Athletes (n = 187 aged 11–18 years completed an on-line 24-h food recall and dietary supplement questionnaire. Median energy intake (interquartile range varied from 2159 kcal/day (1717–2437 in 11–13 years old females to 2905 kcal/day (2291–3483 in 14–18 years old males. Carbohydrate and protein intakes were 8.1 (6.1–10.5; 2.4 (1.6–3.4 in males 11–13 years, 5.7 (4.5–7.9; 2.0 (1.4–2.6 in females 11–13 years, 5.3 (4.3–7.4; 2.0 (1.5–2.4 in males 14–18 y and 4.9 (4.4–6.2; 1.7 (1.3–2.0 in females 14–18 years g/kg of body weight respectively. Median vitamin D intakes were below the recommended dietary allowance (RDA and potassium was below the adequate intake (AI for all athlete groups. Females 14–18 years had intakes below the RDA for iron 91% (72–112, folate 89% (61–114 and calcium 84% (48–106. Multivitamin-multiminerals, vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin-enriched water, protein powder, sport foods, fatty acids, probiotics, and plant extracts were popular supplements. Canadian pre-adolescent and adolescent athletes could improve their dietary intakes by focusing on food sources of calcium, vitamin D, potassium, iron, and folate. With the exceptions of vitamin D and carbohydrates during long exercise sessions, supplementation is generally unnecessary.

  19. Team physicians in college athletics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Mark E; Quigley, D Bradford; Wang, Frank; Balint, Christopher R; Boland, Arthur L

    2005-10-01

    There has been little documentation of what constitutes the clinical work of intercollegiate team physicians. Team physicians could be recruited based on the needs of athletes. A multidisciplinary team of physicians is necessary to treat college athletes. Most physician evaluations are for musculoskeletal injuries treated nonoperatively. Descriptive epidemiology study. For a 2-year period, a database was created that recorded information on team physician encounters with intercollegiate athletes at a major university. Data on imaging studies, hospitalizations, and surgeries were also recorded. The diagnoses for physician encounters with all undergraduates through the university's health service were also recorded. More initial athlete evaluations were for musculoskeletal diagnoses (73%) than for general medical diagnoses (27%) (P respiratory infections and dermatologic disorders, or multiple visits for concussions. Football accounted for 22% of all physician encounters, more than any other sport (P athletes did not require a greater number of physician encounters than did the general undergraduate pool of students on a per capita basis. Intercollegiate team physicians primarily treat musculoskeletal injuries that do not require surgery. General medical care is often single evaluations of common conditions and repeat evaluations for concussions.

  20. Drug abuse in athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reardon CL

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Claudia L Reardon, Shane Creado Department of Psychiatry, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI, USA Abstract: Drug abuse occurs in all sports and at most levels of competition. Athletic life may lead to drug abuse for a number of reasons, including for performance enhancement, to self-treat otherwise untreated mental illness, and to deal with stressors, such as pressure to perform, injuries, physical pain, and retirement from sport. This review examines the history of doping in athletes, the effects of different classes of substances used for doping, side effects of doping, the role of anti-doping organizations, and treatment of affected athletes. Doping goes back to ancient times, prior to the development of organized sports. Performance-enhancing drugs have continued to evolve, with “advances” in doping strategies driven by improved drug testing detection methods and advances in scientific research that can lead to the discovery and use of substances that may later be banned. Many sports organizations have come to ban the use of performance-enhancing drugs and have very strict consequences for people caught using them. There is variable evidence for the performance-enhancing effects and side effects of the various substances that are used for doping. Drug abuse in athletes should be addressed with preventive measures, education, motivational interviewing, and, when indicated, pharmacologic interventions. Keywords: doping, athletes, steroids, drug abuse, mental illness

  1. Do Dynamic Fat and Fat-Free Mass Changes follow Theoretical Driven Rules in Athletes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Analiza M; Matias, Catarina N; Santos, Diana A; Rocha, Paulo M; Minderico, Cláudia S; Thomas, Diana; Heymsfield, Steven B; Sardinha, Luís B

    2017-10-01

    Maximizing fat mass (FM) loss while preserving or increasing fat-free mass (FFM) is a central goal for athletic performance but the composition of body weight (BW) changes over time with training are largely unknown. We aimed to analyze FM and FFM contributions to BW changes and to test if these contributions follow established rules and predictions over one athletic season. Seventy athletes (42 men; handball, volleyball, basketball, triathlon, and swimming) were evaluated from the beginning to the competitive stage of the season and were empirically divided into those who lost (n = 20) or gained >1.5% BW (n = 50). FM and FFM were evaluated with a four-compartment model. Energy densities (ED) of 1.0 kcal·g for FFM and 9.5 kcal·g for FM were used to calculate ED/per kilogram BW change. Athletes that lost >1.5% BW decreased FM by 1.7 ± 1.6 kg (P FFM loss was nonsignificant (-0.7 ± 2.1 kg). Those who gained >1.5% BW increased FFM by 2.3 ± 2.1 kg (P FFM changes from Forbes Curve were inversely related to observed changes (r = -0.64; r = -0.81, respectively for those who lost or gained BW). Athletes that lost BW used 90% of the energy from FM while in those gaining BW, 95% was directed to FFM. When BW is lost, dynamic changes in its composition do not follow established rules and predictions used for lean or overweight/obese nonathletic populations.

  2. Dietary Intakes and Eating Habits of College Athletes: Are Female College Athletes Following the Current Sports Nutrition Standards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriver, Lenka H.; Betts, Nancy M.; Wollenberg, Gena

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to assess dietary intakes and eating habits of female college athletes and compared them with the minimum sports nutrition standards. Participants: Data were obtained from 52 female college athletes from a National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I university between January 2009 and May…

  3. Sudden cardiac death in young athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Östman-Smith I

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Ingegerd Östman-SmithDivision of Paediatric Cardiology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg University, SwedenAbstract: Athletic activity is associated with an increased risk of sudden death for individuals with some congenital or acquired heart disorders. This review considers in particular the causes of death affecting athletes below 35 years of age. In this age group the largest proportion of deaths are caused by diseases with autosomal dominant inheritance such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, long QT-syndrome, and Marfan’s syndrome. A policy of early cascade-screening of all first-degree relatives of patients with these disorders will therefore detect a substantial number of individuals at risk. A strictly regulated system with preparticipation screening of all athletes following a protocol pioneered in Italy, including school-age children, can also detect cases caused by sporadic new mutations and has been shown to reduce excess mortality among athletes substantially. Recommendations for screening procedure are reviewed. It is concluded that ECG screening ought to be part of preparticipation screening, but using criteria that do not cause too many false positives among athletes. One such suggested protocol will show positive in approximately 5% of screened individuals, among whom many will be screened for these diseases. On this point further research is needed to define what kind of false-positive and false-negative rate these new criteria result in. A less formal system based on cascade-screening of relatives, education of coaches about suspicious symptoms, and preparticipation questionnaires used by athletic clubs, has been associated over time with a sizeable reduction in sudden cardiac deaths among Swedish athletes, and thus appears to be worth implementing even for junior athletes not recommended for formal preparticipation screening. It is strongly argued

  4. Respiratory inflammation and infections in high-performance athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleeson, Maree; Pyne, David B

    2016-02-01

    Upper respiratory illness is the most common reason for non-injury-related presentation to a sports medicine clinic, accounting for 35-65% of illness presentations. Recurrent or persistent respiratory illness can have a negative impact on health and performance of athletes undertaking high levels of strenuous exercise. The cause of upper respiratory symptoms (URS) in athletes can be uncertain but the majority of cases are related to common respiratory viruses, viral reactivation, allergic responses to aeroallergens and exercise-related trauma to the integrity of respiratory epithelial membranes. Bacterial respiratory infections are uncommon in athletes. Undiagnosed or inappropriately treated asthma and/or allergy are common findings in clinical assessments of elite athletes experiencing recurrent URS. High-performance athletes with recurrent episodes of URS should undergo a thorough clinical assessment to exclude underlying treatable conditions of respiratory inflammation. Identifying athletes at risk of recurrent URS is important in order to prescribe preventative clinical, training and lifestyle strategies. Monitoring secretion rates and falling concentrations of salivary IgA can identify athletes at risk of URS. Therapeutic interventions are limited by the uncertainty of the underlying cause of inflammation. Topical anti-inflammatory sprays can be beneficial for some athletes. Dietary supplementation with bovine colostrum, probiotics and selected antioxidants can reduce the incidence or severity of URS in some athletes. Preliminary studies on athletes prone to URS indicate a genetic predisposition to a pro-inflammatory response and a dysregulated anti-inflammatory cytokine response to intense exercise as a possible mechanism of respiratory inflammation. This review focuses on respiratory infections and inflammation in elite/professional athletes.

  5. [Electrical acupoint stimulation increases athletes' rapid strength].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hua-yuan; Liu, Tang-yi; Kuai, Le; Gao, Ming

    2006-05-01

    To search for a stimulation method for increasing athletes' performance. One hundred and fifty athletes were randomly divided into a trial group and a control group, 75 athletes in each group. Acupoints were stimulated with audio frequency pulse modulated wave and multi-blind method were used to investigate effects of the electric stimulation of acupoints on 30-meter running, standing long jumping and Cybex isokinetic testing index. The acupoint electric stimulation method could significantly increase athlete's performance (P < 0.05), and the biomechanical indexes, maximal peak moment of force (P < 0.05), force moment accelerating energy (P < 0.05) and average power (P < 0.05). Electrical acupoint stimulation can enhance athlete's rapid strength.

  6. Intercollegiate Athletics and Modeling Multiculturalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirko, Scott

    2009-01-01

    Research about student athletes contends that participation enhances both learning and character development, including leadership, interpersonal skills, social self-esteem, discipline, personal health, motivation, dedication, and life lessons. Other research expresses concern about the cognitive outcomes of student athletes relative to…

  7. Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome in Iranian Female Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Baradaran

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS is the most common overuse syndrome in athletes. It is one of the causes of anterior knee pain in athletic population who come to the sports medicine clinic. Patellofemoral pain is more common among female athletes especially adolescents and young adults. Symptoms include: persistent pain behind the patella or peripatella. Pain increases on ascending and descending stairs and squatting and prolonged sitting. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of PFPS in Iranian female athletes. 418 female athletes aged 15-35 years were examined in five sports: Soccer (190, volleyball (103, running (42, fencing (45 and rock climbing (38. The athletes who had non- traumatic onset anterior knee pain of at least 3 months that increased in descending and ascending stairs and squatting, had no other causes of anterior knee pain such as ligament instability, bursitis, meniscal injury, tendonitis and arthritis and no history of knee surgery during the one past year were diagnosed as PFPS. 26/190 (13.68 % soccer players, 21/103(20.38 % volleyball players, 7/42 (16.66 % runners, 6/45(13.33 % fencers and 10/38 (26.31% rock climbers had patellofemoral pain. Among the 418 female athletes who were evaluated 70 had PFPS. Rock climbers were the most common athletes with PFPS followed by volleyball players and runners.

  8. Exploring Summer Medical Care Within the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Setting: A Perspective From the Athletic Trainer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M; Eason, Christianne M; Goodman, Ashley

    2016-02-01

    Over the last few decades, the National Collegiate Athletics Association (NCAA) has made changes related to the increase in sanctioned team activities during summer athletics. These changes may affect how athletic training services are provided. To investigate the methods by which athletic training departments of NCAA institutions manage expectations regarding athletic training services during the summer. Mixed-methods qualitative and quantitative study. The NCAA Division I. Twenty-two athletic trainers (13 men, 9 women) participated. All were employed full time within the NCAA Division I setting. Participants were 35 ± 8 years of age (range, 26-52 years), with 12 ± 7 years (range, 3-29 years) of athletic training experience. All participants completed a series of questions online that consisted of closed- (demographic and Likert-scale 5-point) and open-ended items that addressed the research questions. Descriptive statistics, frequency distributions, and phenomenologic analyses were completed with the data. Peer review and multiple-analyst triangulation established credibility. Summer athletic training services included 3 primary mechanisms: individual medical care, shared medical care, or a combination of the 2. Participants reported working 40 ± 10 hours during the summer. Likert-item analysis showed that participants were moderately satisfied with their summer medical care structure (3.3 ± 1.0) and with the flexibility of summer schedules (3.0 ± 1.2). Yet the qualitative analysis revealed that perceptions of summer medical care were more positive for shared-care participants than for individual- or combination-care participants. The perceived effect on the athletic trainer included increased workload and expectations and a negative influence on work-life balance, particularly in terms of decreased schedule flexibility and opportunities for rejuvenation. For many, the summer season mimicked the hours, workload, and expectations of the nontraditional season

  9. Plyometric Training Effects on Athletic Performance in Youth Soccer Athletes: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedoya, Abigail A; Miltenberger, Matthew R; Lopez, Rebecca M

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this systematic review was to critically analyze the literature to determine the effectiveness of plyometric training on athletic performance in youth soccer athletes. A total of 7 studies were included in this review after meeting the following criteria: (a) used plyometric training programs to assess athletic performance, (b) subjects were soccer athletes aged preadolescent up to 17 years, and (c) were published from 2000 to January 2014. Study methods were assessed using the PEDro scale with scores ranging from 4 to 6. Results showed similarities and differences in methodologies and procedures among the included studies. Athletic performance consisting of kicking distance, speed, jumping ability, and agility significantly improved because of plyometric training interventions. The current evidence suggests that plyometric training should be completed 2 days per week for 8-10 weeks during soccer practice with a 72-hour rest period between plyometric training days. The initial number of foot contacts should be 50-60 per session and increase to no more than 80-120 foot contacts per session for this age group to prevent overuse injuries. A total of 3-4 plyometric training exercises should be performed 2-4 sets for 6-15 repetitions per training session. The evidence and the literature suggest that plyometric training for this age group should only be implemented using recommended safety guidelines such as those published by the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology and the National Strength and Conditioning Association and under appropriate supervision by trained personnel.

  10. Sports-specialized intensive training and the risk of injury in young athletes: a clinical case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayanthi, Neeru A; LaBella, Cynthia R; Fischer, Daniel; Pasulka, Jacqueline; Dugas, Lara R

    2015-04-01

    Data are lacking regarding the independent risk of injury related to intense single-sport training or growth rate in young athletes. To determine whether sports specialization, weekly training volumes, and growth rates are associated with increased risk for injury and serious overuse injury in young athletes. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Injured athletes aged 7 to 18 years were recruited from 2 hospital-based sports medicine clinics and compared with healthy controls from affiliated primary care clinics undergoing sports physicals (2010-2013). Participants completed surveys reporting hours per week spent in organized sports, physical education class, and free play, as well as degree of sports specialization and Tanner stage. Heights and weights were measured. Injury details were obtained from athlete surveys and electronic medical records. Of 1214 athletes enrolled, 1190 (50.7% male) had data satisfactory for analysis. There were 822 injured participants (49.5% male; unique injuries, n = 846) and 368 uninjured participants (55% male). Injured athletes were older than uninjured athletes (14.1 ± 2.1 vs. 12.9 ± 2.6 years; P sports activity (11.2 ± 2.6 vs. 9.1 ± 6.3 h/wk; P sports activity spent per week, sports-specialized training was an independent risk for injury (odds ratio [OR], 1.27; 95% CI, 1.07-1.52; P sports per week than number of age in years (OR, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.40-3.05; P sports to free play time was >2:1 hours/week had increased odds of having a serious overuse injury (OR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.26-2.76; P sports. There is an independent risk of injury and serious overuse injury in young athletes who specialize in a single sport. Growth rate was not related to injury risk. The study data provide guidance for clinicians counseling young athletes and their parents regarding injury risks associated with sports specialization. © 2015 The Author(s).

  11. Cardiovascular Effects of Altitude on Performance Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ankit B; Coplan, Neil

    Altitude plays an important role in cardiovascular performance and training for athletes. Whether it is mountaineers, skiers, or sea-level athletes trying to gain an edge by training or living at increased altitude, there are many potential benefits and harms of such endeavors. Echocardiographic studies done on athletes at increased altitude have shown evidence for right ventricular dysfunction and pulmonary hypertension, but no change in left ventricular ejection fraction. In addition, 10% of athletes are susceptible to pulmonary hypertension and high-altitude pulmonary edema. Some studies suggest that echocardiography may be able to identify athletes susceptible to high-altitude pulmonary edema prior to competing or training at increased altitudes. Further research is needed on the long-term effects of altitude training, as repeated, transient episodes of pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular dysfunction may have long-term implications. Current literature suggests that performance athletes are not at higher risk for ventricular arrhythmias when training or competing at increased altitudes. For sea-level athletes, the optimal strategy for attaining the benefits while minimizing the harms of altitude training still needs to be clarified, although-for now-the "live high, train low" approach appears to have the most rationale.

  12. The Clinical Validation of the Athlete Sleep Screening Questionnaire: an Instrument to Identify Athletes that Need Further Sleep Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Amy M; Lawson, Doug; Werthner, Penny; Samuels, Charles H

    2018-06-04

    Previous research has established that general sleep screening questionnaires are not valid and reliable in an athlete population. The Athlete Sleep Screening Questionnaire (ASSQ) was developed to address this need. While the initial validation of the ASSQ has been established, the clinical validity of the ASSQ has yet to be determined. The main objective of the current study was to evaluate the clinical validity of the ASSQ. Canadian National Team athletes (N = 199; mean age 24.0 ± 4.2 years, 62% females; from 23 sports) completed the ASSQ. A subset of athletes (N = 46) were randomized to the clinical validation sub-study which required subjects to complete an ASSQ at times 2 and 3 and to have a clinical sleep interview by a sleep medicine physician (SMP) who rated each subjects' category of clinical sleep problem and provided recommendations to improve sleep. To assess clinical validity, the SMP category of clinical sleep problem was compared to the ASSQ. The internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.74) and test-retest reliability (r = 0.86) of the ASSQ were acceptable. The ASSQ demonstrated good agreement with the SMP (Cohen's kappa = 0.84) which yielded a diagnostic sensitivity of 81%, specificity of 93%, positive predictive value of 87%, and negative predictive value of 90%. There were 25.1% of athletes identified to have clinically relevant sleep disturbances that required further clinical sleep assessment. Sleep improved from time 1 at baseline to after the recommendations at time 3. Sleep screening athletes with the ASSQ provides a method of accurately determining which athletes would benefit from preventative measures and which athletes suffer from clinically significant sleep problems. The process of sleep screening athletes and providing recommendations improves sleep and offers a clinical intervention output that is simple and efficient for teams and athletes to implement.

  13. Understanding sleep disturbance in athletes prior to important competitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliff, Laura E; Halson, Shona L; Peiffer, Jeremiah J

    2015-01-01

    Anecdotally many athletes report worse sleep in the nights prior to important competitions. Despite sleep being acknowledged as an important factor for optimal athletic performance and overall health, little is understood about athlete sleep around competition. The aims of this study were to identify sleep complaints of athletes prior to competitions and determine whether complaints were confined to competition periods. Cross-sectional study. A sample of 283 elite Australian athletes (129 male, 157 female, age 24±5 y) completed two questionnaires; Competitive Sport and Sleep questionnaire and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. 64.0% of athletes indicated worse sleep on at least one occasion in the nights prior to an important competition over the past 12 months. The main sleep problem specified by athletes was problems falling asleep (82.1%) with the main reasons responsible for poor sleep indicated as thoughts about the competition (83.5%) and nervousness (43.8%). Overall 59.1% of team sport athletes reported having no strategy to overcome poor sleep compared with individual athletes (32.7%, p=0.002) who utilised relaxation and reading as strategies. Individual sport athletes had increased likelihood of poor sleep as they aged. The poor sleep reported by athletes prior to competition was situational rather than a global sleep problem. Poor sleep is common prior to major competitions in Australian athletes, yet most athletes are unaware of strategies to overcome the poor sleep experienced. It is essential coaches and scientists monitor and educate both individual and team sport athletes to facilitate sleep prior to important competitions. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Spondylolysis and the sacro-horizontal angle in athletes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swaerd, L.; Hellstroem, M.; Jacobsson, B.; Peterson, L.; Sahlgrenska Sjukhuset, Goeteborg; King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh

    1989-01-01

    The frequency of spondylolysis and the relationship between spondylolysis and the sacro-horizontal angle in 143 athletes and 30 non-athletes is reported. Athletes had a larger sacro-horizontal angle than non-athletes. The sacro-horizontal angle was larger in athletes with spondylolysis as compared with those without. An increased incidence of spondylolysis with an increased angle was demonstrated. It is suggested that an increased sacro-horizontal angle may predispose to spondylolysis, especially in combination with the high mechanical loads sustained in certain sports. (orig.)

  15. Spondylolysis and the sacro-horizontal angle in athletes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaerd, L.; Hellstroem, M.; Jacobsson, B.; Peterson, L. (Oestra Sjukhuset, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Orthopaedics; Sahlgrenska Sjukhuset, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology; King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia). Dept. of Radiology)

    The frequency of spondylolysis and the relationship between spondylolysis and the sacro-horizontal angle in 143 athletes and 30 non-athletes is reported. Athletes had a larger sacro-horizontal angle than non-athletes. The sacro-horizontal angle was larger in athletes with spondylolysis as compared with those without. An increased incidence of spondylolysis with an increased angle was demonstrated. It is suggested that an increased sacro-horizontal angle may predispose to spondylolysis, especially in combination with the high mechanical loads sustained in certain sports. (orig.).

  16. The coach-athlete relationship: a motivational model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mageau, Geneviève A; Vallerand, Robert J

    2003-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a motivational model of the coach-athlete relationship that describes how coaches may influence athletes' motivation. In line with cognitive evaluation theory (Deci and Ryan, 1980, 1985) and the hierarchical model of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation (Vallerand, 1997, 2000), a motivational sequence is proposed where coaches' personal orientation towards coaching, the context within which they operate, and their perceptions of their athletes' behaviour and motivation influence coaches' behaviours. Also, coaches' behaviours in the form of autonomy-supportive behaviours, provision of structure and involvement have a beneficial impact on athletes' needs for autonomy, competence and relatedness, which, in turn, nurture athletes' intrinsic motivation and self-determined types of extrinsic motivation. Here, we first review coaches' autonomy-supportive behaviours. We then describe the psychological processes through which coaching behaviours have a positive influence on athletes' intrinsic and self-determined extrinsic motivation. Finally, we identify social and personality processes that determine coaching behaviours.

  17. Sports hernia/athletic pubalgia: evaluation and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Christopher M

    2014-03-01

    Sports hernia/athletic pubalgia has received increasing attention as a source of disability and time lost from athletics. Studies are limited, however, lacking consistent objective criteria for making the diagnosis and assessing outcomes. PubMed database through January 2013 and hand searches of the reference lists of pertinent articles. Review article. Level 5. Nonsurgical outcomes have not been well reported. Various surgical approaches have return-to-athletic activity rates of >80% regardless of the approach. The variety of procedures and lack of outcomes measures in these studies make it difficult to compare one surgical approach to another. There is increasing evidence that there is an association between range of motion-limiting hip disorders (femoroacetabular impingement) and sports hernia/athletic pubalgia in a subset of athletes. This has added increased complexity to the decision-making process regarding treatment. An association between femoroacetabular impingement and athletic pubalgia has been recognized, with better outcomes reported when both are managed concurrently or in a staged manner.

  18. Acute lumbar spondylolysis in intercollegiate athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Jeremy Hunter; Guin, Patrick D; Theiss, Stephen M

    2012-12-01

    A retrospective case series. The purpose of this study was to describe a unique group of intercollegiate athletes who are skeletally mature and who developed symptomatic acute lumbar spondylolysis and to study long-term return to play outcome of nonoperative and surgical repair of L3 and L4 spondylolysis in skeletally mature athletes. Traditionally, symptomatic acute lumbar spondylolysis is a defect found in skeletally immature athletes, most commonly in the pars interarticularis of L5, less commonly in the L3/L4 region, and even less commonly in skeletally mature athletes as described in this group. Eight intercollegiate athletes (2 women and 6 men, ages ranging from 19 to 21 y) with acute lumbar spondylolysis were diagnosed by means of computed tomography (CT) and single photon emission-CT bone scan. L3 lesions were present in 5 patients, and L4 lesions were present in 3 patients. All patients were treated initially nonoperatively with a protocol of bracing and activity modification. The healing progress was assessed through repeat CT scan. Patients who failed to respond to nonoperative procedures underwent direct repair of their pars defect through variable angle pedicle screw and sublaminar hook. Outcomes were measured by completion of the Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Questionnaire (mean follow-up 6.5 y) and return to athletic participation. All patients successfully returned to full athletic competition. Two patients showed radiographic healing and resolution of pain following 3 months of nonoperative treatment. Five patients required surgical repair of the pars defect. All of these patients eventually returned to unrestricted participation in athletics. This study shows that this subgroup will generally respond well to surgical correction of the pars defect and return to uninhibited competition following conservative treatment and/or surgical repair.

  19. Complex Dietary Supplements from Raw Plants Provide Nutrition for Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy M. Uvarov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of mechanically activated complexes from plant substances to enhance athletes’ adaptability to intense physical activity. Methods: The object of the study was the dietary supplement Kladorod, which is based on the reindeer lichen Cladonia rangiferina and Rhodiola rosea in weight ratio of 10:1. To test the dietary supplement, we developed a special scheme for the experiment and selected 10 elite athletes (boxers and mixfighters. Athletes were divided into 2 groups and were under the same conditions (nutrition, medical monitoring, living conditions and training process. Athletes of the experimental group were given the dietary supplement Kladorod (capsule of 0.4 g by mouth between meals 4 times a day for 28 days. The control group was given placebo (Ringer-Locke powder capsules in the same terms in a similar way. During the experiment, the athletes were medically examined 3 times: at the beginning, in the middle, and after the course of intervention. We measured muscle performance, fat mass, muscle mass, and serum concentrations of cortisol and total testosterone. Results: It was established that during the intensive training of boxers and mixfighters for rating fights, administration of the dietary supplement Kladorod for 28 days stabilized the absolute and relative muscle mass, preventing its reduction, in comparison with the placebo group. At the same time, indicators of fat mass decreased significantly in the experimental group. After administering the course of Kladorod, we did not observe a significant decrease in testosterone/cortisol ratio, compared to the control group Thus, the use of biologically active supplements based on lichen raw materials and complexes of lichen raw materials with different plant substances enables the body to increase its adaptive potential and physical capacity.

  20. Cartilage Repair in Football (Soccer) Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekkers, J.E.J.; de Windt, Th.S.; Brittberg, M.

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of focal articular cartilage lesions among athletes is higher than in the general population. Treatment goals differ considerably between the professional and recreational athlete. High financial stakes and the short duration of a professional career influence the treatment selection for the professional athlete, while such parameters weigh differently in recreational sports. This article describes our investigation of the relation between sports and a high prevalence of focal cartilage lesions. In addition, we provide a critical review of the best available evidence for cartilage surgery and treatment selection, evaluate specific patient profiles for professional and recreational athletes, and propose a treatment algorithm for the treatment of focal cartilage lesions in football (soccer) players. PMID:26069606

  1. 2009 Collegiate Athletic Department Sustainability Survey Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSherry, Mark

    2009-01-01

    This report shows that while sustainability efforts appear to be growing within collegiate athletics, commitment to sustainability is lower among athletic departments than compared to their institutions as a whole and to professional sports teams. The survey was distributed to the 119 athletic departments at National Collegiate Athletic…

  2. Issues in Athletic Administration: A Content Analysis of Syllabi from Intercollegiate Athletics Graduate Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comeaux, Eddie; Brown, Alan; Sieben, Nicole P.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined courses focused on intercollegiate athletics in sport-related graduate programs (e.g., Sport Leadership, Sport Management, and Athletic/Sport Administration). A content analysis of course syllabi was used to determine the alignment of course scope and content. Analysis included course type (i.e., required or elective),…

  3. The effect of body-weight and obesity bias on children’s self-esteem

    OpenAIRE

    Kornilaki, Ekaterina N.

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were: a) to compare the self-esteem of obese children and normal–weight controls, and b) to examine whether obesity bias moderates the relationship between weight status and self-esteem. Fifty three normal-weight and forty 11-year-old obese children were administered Harter’s (1985) Self-Perception Profile for Children (SPPC), which consists of a global self-worth subscale and five domain-specific subscales that measure scholastic competence, social acceptance, athletic...

  4. Total Energy Expenditure, Energy Intake, and Body Composition in Endurance Athletes Across the Training Season: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydenreich, Juliane; Kayser, Bengt; Schutz, Yves; Melzer, Katarina

    2017-12-01

    Endurance athletes perform periodized training in order to prepare for main competitions and maximize performance. However, the coupling between alterations of total energy expenditure (TEE), energy intake, and body composition during different seasonal training phases is unclear. So far, no systematic review has assessed fluctuations in TEE, energy intake, and/or body composition in endurance athletes across the training season. The purpose of this study was to (1) systematically analyze TEE, energy intake, and body composition in highly trained athletes of various endurance disciplines and of both sexes and (2) analyze fluctuations in these parameters across the training season. An electronic database search was conducted on the SPORTDiscus and MEDLINE (January 1990-31 January 2015) databases using a combination of relevant keywords. Two independent reviewers identified potentially relevant studies. Where a consensus was not reached, a third reviewer was consulted. Original research articles that examined TEE, energy intake, and/or body composition in 18-40-year-old endurance athletes and reported the seasonal training phases of data assessment were included in the review. Articles were excluded if body composition was assessed by skinfold measurements, TEE was assessed by questionnaires, or data could not be split between the sexes. Two reviewers assessed the quality of studies independently. Data on subject characteristics, TEE, energy intake, and/or body composition were extracted from the included studies. Subjects were categorized according to their sex and endurance discipline and each study allocated a weight within categories based on the number of subjects assessed. Extracted data were used to calculate weighted means and standard deviations for parameters of TEE, energy intake, and/or body composition. From 3589 citations, 321 articles were identified as potentially relevant, with 82 meeting all of the inclusion criteria. TEE of endurance athletes was

  5. Athletics Reform and Faculty Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Janet; Ott, Molly; Hendricks, Lori

    2009-01-01

    Since their inception, intercollegiate athletics have engendered controversy and stimulated debate. Supporters assert that "college sports are significant in defining the essence of the American college and university", suggesting that benefits associated with athletics include more increased fundraising, positive public perceptions of graduates,…

  6. Nutritional and body composition assessment and its relationship with athletic performance in a women’s soccer team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María González-Neira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In women’s soccer, meeting the nutritional requirements could have a positive impact on athletic performance. The aim of this study was to analyze dietary intake and body composition (CC, proving their relationship with athletic performance.Material and Methods: Observational, descriptive, prospective, and correlational study performed on 17 players from Torrelodones C.F., a semi-professional team in Madrid. Weight and height were measured and the body mass index (IMC was calculated. The CC was determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA. Dietary intake was analyzed through a weekly food registry (assessed with the program DIAL and the KIDMED test. The maximum volume of oxygen (VO2 max was determined by the Course-Navette test and the rating of perceived effort test (PSE was also taken.Results: IMC was 22.80±2.9kg/m2, fat mass was 24.51±5.5% and lean mass 43.6±2.9kg. Energy intake was 1901±388 kcal. The contribution of carbohydrates accounted for 40.3±5.6%, protein 15.9±3.29%, and fat 41.8±4.1% of total kcal. There was an inverse relationship between IMC and weight, and VO2 max values. There was a significant weight loss after training (p=0.003 and after the match (p=0.008.Conclusions: Player’s diet was inadequate, not corresponding nutrient intake with their requirements, despite training in a semi-professional team. Because of the importance that nutrition plays in competition and athletic performance, investigations should continue working on an appropriate recommendation for this collective.

  7. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: How Vulnerable Are Athletes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichner, Edward R.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses chronic fatigue syndrome as it affects elite athletes, noting that overtraining may mimic it. In some cases, athletes who have it perform exceedingly well in the face of debilitating fatigue. Among athletes and nonathletes, the cause and the mind-body connection are areas of controversy and research. (Author/SM)

  8. [Diet and exercise influence on the proteomic profile of an athlete population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro, Rocio; Mangas, Alipio; Quezada, Maribel; Rodriguez-Rosety, Manuel; Fournielles, Gabriel; Rodriguez-Rosety, Ignacio; Rodriguez Rosety, Miguel Angel; Alonso, Jose Angel; Garcia-Cozar, Francisco Jose; Duran, Maria Del Carmen

    2014-11-01

    Nutrition has emerged as a fundamental tool included in the training program of athletes. Body composition seeks different objectives depending on type of sport, position, or time of the season. Furthermore, analysis proteomics allows us to know the structure and function of proteins. To study, using proteomics, the influence of two different diets on the anthropometric profile in a rugby players group. It is a prospective and interventionist study. Thirty-two rugby players were included. Two groups were defined, one followed proteic diet (PD) and, the other group subscribed the Mediterranean diet (MD). All participants were evaluated anthropometrically at the beginning and after six months. A blood sample was taken to twenty -two players, half of each group, used for the proteomic analysis. MD highlight more benefit for these athletes. Two groups were defined based on their anthropometric behavior, G1 and G2. The proteomic analysis related significantly some TGF-family mediators with these groups. MD improves the muscular mass without increasing the total body weight, so this data could be determinant to define profiles for athletes. Some TGF-members could be implicated in the adipose tissue and muscular mass balance. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  9. The improvement of suspension training for trunk muscle power in Sanda athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiujie Ma

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate whether both suspension training (ST and traditional training (TT can improve Sanda athlete's strength quality of trunk muscles and to explore the effect of suspension training on Sanda athletes' trunk muscle power production. Twelve elite Sanda athletes from the Competitive Sports School of Shanghai University of Sport were randomly assigned to experimental group (EG and control group (CG. EG and CG were regularly trained with suspension training and traditional strength training for 40 minutes three times per week. The total duration of training was 10 weeks. The measurements including peak torque (PT, PT/body weight (BW, and rate of force development (RFD were used to assess trunk muscles strength. The results showed that there were significant differences between the two groups' performance when it was tested at the higher velocity of dynamometer (test of muscle power, but less significant differences when the two groups performance was tested at the lower velocity of dynamometer (test of maximum strength. The conclusion of this study is that compared with traditional training methods, suspension training can improve back and trunk flexion muscles strength more effectively. In particular, suspension training can improve the explosive power of trunk extension and flexion muscles.

  10. [The development of a new marker of the training status in athletes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statsenko, E A; Kovkova, A V; Nekhaĭ, E V

    2012-01-01

    The present study was based on the mathematical modeling of the middle molecular weight peptides (MMWP) concentration in the blood. On the one hand, MMWP are the products of partial protein catabolism, on the other hand, they act as inductors of protein synthesis. We have developed a complex hormonal marker that allows estimating the adaptive reactions in the organism of the athletes. The marker integrates the known hormonal indices, such as testosterone to cortisol ratio and aldosterone to cortisol ratio (-1,271 + 0,206 x 1n(testosterone) + 1,108 x 1n(aldosterone))/1n(cortisol). The use of a mathematical model for the prediction of MMWP levels in the rowers' blood provides a basis for the application of the new marker for the evaluation of physical conditions of the high-class athletes engaged in other sports. By way of example, the estimation of its informative value for the examination of swimmers has demonstrated significant positive correlation between the predicted and observed MMWP levels (r = 0,4187; p = 0,050). Practicability of applying the newly proposed hormonal marker for monitoring adaptative reactions in athletes is confirmed by significant correlation of calculated values with the real time the freestyle swimmers spend to cover a 50 m distance (r = - 0,4454; p = 0,001).

  11. Factors associated with illness in athletes participating in the London 2012 Paralympic Games: a prospective cohort study involving 49,910 athlete-days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwellnus, Martin; Derman, Wayne; Jordaan, Esme; Blauwet, Cheri A; Emery, Carolyn; Pit-Grosheide, Pia; Patino Marques, Norma-Angelica; Martinez-Ferrer, Oriol; Stomphorst, Jaap; Van de Vliet, Peter; Webborn, Nick; Willick, Stuart E

    2013-05-01

    The incidence and factors associated with illness in Paralympic athletes have not been documented. To determine the factors associated with illness in athletes participating in the London 2012 Paralympic Games. A cohort of 3565 athletes from 160 of the 164 participating countries in the London 2012 Paralympic Games were followed over a 14-day period (precompetition period=3 days, competition period=11 days; 49 910 athlete-days). Daily illness data were obtained from (1) teams with their own medical support who completed a daily illness log (78 teams, 3329 athletes) on a novel web-based system and (2) teams without their own medical support through the local organising committee database (82 teams, 236 athletes). Illness information from all athletes included age, gender, type of sport and the main system affected. Incidence rate (IR) of illness (illness per 1000 athlete-days) and factors associated with IR (time period, gender, age and sport). The IR of illness was 13.2 (95% CI 12.2 to 14.2). The highest IR of illness was in the respiratory system, followed by the skin, digestive, nervous and genitourinary systems. The IR in the precompetition period was similar to that in the competition period, but the IR was significantly higher in athletics compared with other sports. Age and gender were not independent predictors of illness. Illness is common in Paralympic athletes and the main factor associated with higher IR of illness was the type of sport (athletics).

  12. National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I football players' perceptions of women in the athletic training room using a role congruity framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Caitlin; Grappendorf, Heidi; Burton, Laura; Harmon, Sandra M; Henderson, Angela C; Peel, Judy

    2010-01-01

    Previous researchers have demonstrated that male and female athletes feel more comfortable with treatment by a same-sex athletic trainer for sex-specific injuries and conditions. To address football players' comfort with care provided by same-sex and opposite-sex athletic trainers for sex-specific and non-sex-specific injuries and conditions through the lens of role congruity theory. Cross-sectional study for the quantitative data and qualitative study for the qualitative data. Two National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Football Bowl Series university football programs. Male football players within the 2 university programs. We replicated existing methods and an existing survey to address male football players' comfort levels. Additionally, an open-ended question was used to determine male football players' perceptions of female athletic trainers. Paired-samples t tests were conducted to identify differences between the responses for the care given by a male athletic trainer and for the care given by a female athletic trainer. Three categories were analyzed: general medical conditions, psychological conditions, and sex-specific injuries. The qualitative data were coded and analyzed using content analysis. Male football players were more comfortable with treatment by a male athletic trainer (mean = 3.61 +/- 1.16) for sex-specific injuries and conditions than they were with treatment by a female athletic trainer (mean = 2.82 +/- 1.27; P female athletic trainer was preferred over a male athletic trainer for the treatment of depression (mean = 3.71 +/- 1.07 versus mean = 3.39 +/- 1.16, respectively; P < .001). Qualitative data provided support for role congruity theory. Both quantitative and qualitative evidence were provided for the support of role congruity theory.

  13. Mentorship of Black Student-Athletes at a Predominately White American University: Critical Race Theory Perspective on Student-Athlete Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bimper, Albert Y., Jr.

    2017-01-01

    Mentoring programs are evolving as common practice in athletic departments across national collegiate athletic association member institutions in the USA as means to address sociocultural issues faced by their student-athletes and to enhance their holistic development. There is a dearth of research exploring mentoring in the contexts of…

  14. Peer-Assisted Learning in the Athletic Training Clinical Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Jolene M; Weidner, Thomas G; Jones, James

    2006-01-01

    Context: Athletic training educators often anecdotally suggest that athletic training students enhance their learning by teaching their peers. However, peer-assisted learning (PAL) has not been examined within athletic training education in order to provide evidence for its current use or as a pedagogic tool. Objective: To describe the prevalence of PAL in athletic training clinical education and to identify students' perceptions of PAL. Design: Descriptive. Setting: “The Athletic Training Student Seminar” at the National Athletic Trainers' Association 2002 Annual Meeting and Clinical Symposia. Patients or Other Participants: A convenience sample of 138 entry-level male and female athletic training students. Main Outcome Measure(s): Students' perceptions regarding the prevalence and benefits of and preferences for PAL were measured using the Athletic Training Peer-Assisted Learning Assessment Survey. The Survey is a self-report tool with 4 items regarding the prevalence of PAL and 7 items regarding perceived benefits and preferences. Results: A total of 66% of participants practiced a moderate to large amount of their clinical skills with other athletic training students. Sixty percent of students reported feeling less anxious when performing clinical skills on patients in front of other athletic training students than in front of their clinical instructors. Chi-square analysis revealed that 91% of students enrolled in Commission on Accreditation of Allied Health Education Programs–accredited athletic training education programs learned a minimal to small amount of clinical skills from their peers compared with 65% of students in Joint Review Committee on Educational Programs in Athletic Training–candidacy schools (χ2 3 = 14.57, P < .01). Multiple analysis of variance revealed significant interactions between sex and academic level on several items regarding benefits and preferences. Conclusions: According to athletic training students, PAL is occurring in

  15. Effects of a Belt on Intra-Abdominal Pressure during Weight Lifting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-01

    potentially injurious b compressive forces on spinal discs during lifting. To investigate the effects of a standard lifting belt on lAP and lifting mechanics... injurious compressive forces on spinal discs during lifting. To investigate the effects of a standard lifting belt on IAP and lifting ! mechanics... weightlifting (7,9). Both olympic and power lifters have used lifting belts for many years, yet virtually no research has been reported which examines

  16. Self-Esteem of Adolescent Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Annette L.

    While self-esteem develops after life's primary needs have been satisfied, other factors can influence its development. This thesis investigates the self-esteem of high school and college athletes. The independent variables investigated were gender, athletic participation, family structure, and reported grades. The dependent variables were the…

  17. Sports-related injuries in athletes with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagher, K; Lexell, J

    2014-10-01

    The number of athletes with disabilities participating in organized sports and the popularity of the Paralympic Games is steadily increasing around the world. Despite this growing interest and the fact that participation in sports places the athlete at risk for injury, there are few studies concerning injury patterns, risk factors, and prevention strategies of injuries in disabled athletes. In this systematic literature search and critical review, we summarize current knowledge of the epidemiology of sports-related injuries in disabled athletes and describe their characteristics, incidence, prevalence, and prevention strategies. The outcomes of interest were any injury, either an acute trauma or an overuse event. PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Google Scholar were systematically searched and 25 of 605 identified studies met the inclusion criteria. Lower extremity injuries were more common in walking athletes, whereas upper extremity injuries were more prevalent in wheelchair athletes. The methodologies and populations varied widely between the studies. Few studies were sports or disability specific, which makes it difficult to determine specific risk factors, and few studies reported injury severity and prevention of injuries. Further longitudinal, systematic sports and disability specific studies are needed in order to identify and prevent injuries in athletes with disabilities. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Intervention Study of Women Wrestler on the Energy Consumption and Food Supplement in Weight Reduction Phase

    OpenAIRE

    Bing Li

    2015-01-01

    The research aimed to explore the influence of energy consumption on wrestler in weight reduction phase and the intervention of food supplement on athletes. Twenty wrestlers were divided into intervention group and control group and went through weight reduction phase and food supplement by using the methods of slow weight training and weighing method to meet the entry requirements of the athlete’s weight and improve exercise capacity at the same time.

  19. Bench press training program with attached chains for female volleyball and basketball athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnham, Timothy R; Ruud, Jason D; McGowan, Robert

    2010-02-01

    Attaching chains to barbells to increase strength and power has become popular for athletes; however, little scientific evidence supports this practice. The present purpose was to compare chain training to traditional training for the bench press. Women collegiate athletes in volleyball and basketball (N = 19) participated in a 16-session bench press program. They were matched into either a Traditional or a Chain training group by 1-repetition maximum (1RM). The Traditional group performed the bench press with conventional equipment, while the Chain group trained with attached chains (5% of weight). Analysis showed a significant increase in 1RM for both groups over 16 sessions, Traditional +11.8% and Chain +17.4%. The difference between the groups was not statistically significant, but suggests the women who trained with attached chains improved their bench press more than the Traditional group.

  20. Type 1 diabetes mellitus and exercise in competitive athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratjen, I; Weber, K S; Roden, M; Herrmann, M-E; Müssig, K

    2015-07-01

    The number of patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus who are actively participating in competitive sports is increasing. Here, we aimed to assess individual experiences of competitive athletes with type 1 diabetes and to compare these experiences with current recommendations. A survey of 20 competitive athletes with type 1 diabetes, categorized as endurance (n=10) and non-endurance (n=10) athletes, was performed. Endurance and non-endurance athletes did not differ in gender distribution, age, body mass index, and known diabetes duration. Self-reported target blood glucose values prior to exercise were lower in non-endurance than in endurance athletes (195±34 vs. 137±28 mg/dl, P=0.001). The majority of all athletes experienced activity-induced hypo- and hyperglycemic events, independently of exercise type. However, endurance athletes used additional carbohydrate units to prevent activity-induced hypoglycemic events more frequently without monitoring their blood glucose levels than non-endurance athletes (50% vs. 0%, P=0.01). The reduction of the insulin dose on training and competition days compared to days without exercise was similar for endurance and non-endurance athletes. These results point to a very individual adaption of the athlete's therapy during training and competition. However, there are distinct differences in diabetes management between endurance and non-endurance athletes. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Nutritional habits among high-performance endurance athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Baranauskas

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: The diet of highly trained endurance athletes does not fully meet their requirements and in this situation cannot ensure maximum adaptation to very intense and/or long-duration physical loads. The diet of highly trained endurance athletes must be optimized, adjusted and individualized. Particular attention should be focused on female athletes.

  2. Life Span Exercise Among Elite Intercollegiate Student Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Sorenson, Shawn C.; Romano, Russell; Azen, Stanley P.; Schroeder, E. Todd; Salem, George J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite prominent public attention, data on life span health and exercise outcomes among elite, competitive athletes are sparse and do not reflect the diversity of modern athletes. Hypothesis: Life span exercise behavior differs between National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) student athletes and a nonathlete control group. Sustained exercise is associated with improved cardiopulmonary health outcomes. Study Design: Cross-sectional, descriptive epidemiology study. Level of...

  3. Athletic Cardiac Remodeling in US Professional Basketball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, David J; Schwartz, Allan; Homma, Shunichi

    2016-04-01

    The incidence of sudden cardiac death is higher in US basketball players compared with other athlete groups. However, the recognition of the risk for sudden cardiac death among basketball players is challenging because little is known regarding athletic cardiac remodeling in these athletes or athletes of similarly increased size. To perform a comprehensive cardiac structural analysis of National Basketball Association (NBA) professional athletes. Echocardiographic observational study of NBA players on the active rosters for the 2013-2014 and 2014-2015 seasons was performed from December 16, 2013, to December 12, 2014. The policy of the NBA mandates annual preseason stress echocardiograms for each player. The NBA has sanctioned Columbia University Medical Center to conduct annual health and safety reviews of these echocardiograms. Data were analyzed from January to May 2015. Cardiac variables assessed included left ventricular (LV) size, mass, wall thickness, and hypertrophy patterns and function; left atrial volume; and aortic root diameter. All dimensions were biometrically scaled. Of the 526 athletes included in the study, 406 (77.2%) were African American and 107 (20.3%) were white, with a mean (SD) age of 25.7 (4.3) years. Mean (SD) athlete height was 200.2 (8.8) cm; mean body surface area, 2.38 (0.19) m2. Left ventricular size and mass in NBA athletes were proportional to body size, extending to the uppermost biometrics of the cohort. Left ventricular hypertrophy was present in 144 athletes (27.4%). African American athletes had increased LV wall thickness (unadjusted mean, 11.2 mm; 95% CI, 11.1-11.3 mm) and LV mass (unadjusted mean, 106.3 g/m2; 95% CI, 104.6-108.0 g/m2) compared with LV wall thickness (unadjusted mean, 10.5 mm; 95% CI, 10.3-10.7 mm; P basketball players and the athletic community at large.

  4. Inguinal Hernia in Athletes: Role of Dynamic Ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasileff, William Kelton; Nekhline, Mikhail; Kolowich, Patricia A; Talpos, Gary B; Eyler, Willam R; van Holsbeeck, Marnix

    Inguinal hernia is a commonly encountered cause of pain in athletes. Because of the anatomic complexity, lack of standard imaging, and the dynamic condition, there is no unified opinion explaining its underlying pathology. Athletes with persistent groin pain would have a high prevalence of inguinal hernia with dynamic ultrasound, and herniorrhaphy would successfully return athletes to activity. Case-control study. Level 3. Forty-seven amateur and professional athletes with sports-related groin pain who underwent ultrasound were selected based on history and examination. Patients with prior groin surgery or hip pathology were excluded. Clinical and surgical documentation were correlated with imaging. The study group was compared with 41 age-matched asymptomatic athletes. Ultrasound was positive for hernia with movement of bowel, bladder, or omental tissue anterior to the inferior epigastric vessels during Valsalva maneuver. The 47-patient symptomatic study group included 41 patients with direct inguinal hernias, 1 with indirect inguinal hernia, and 5 with negative ultrasound. Of 42 patients with hernia, 39 significantly improved with herniorrhaphy, 2 failed to improve after surgery and were diagnosed with adductor longus tears, and 1 improved with physical therapy. Five patients with negative ultrasound underwent magnetic resonance imaging and were diagnosed with hip labral tear or osteitis pubis. The 41-patient asymptomatic control group included 3 patients with direct inguinal hernias, 2 with indirect inguinal hernias, and 3 with femoral hernias. Inguinal hernias are a major component of groin pain in athletes. Prevalence of direct inguinal hernia in symptomatic athletes was greater than that for controls ( P < 0.001). Surgery was successful in returning these athletes to sport: 39 of 42 (93%) athletes with groin pain and inguinal hernia became asymptomatic. Persistent groin pain in the athlete may relate to inguinal hernia, which can be diagnosed with dynamic

  5. T-wave morphology analysis of competitive athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hong, L; Andersen, Lars Juel; Graff, Claus

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: T-wave morphology has been shown to be more sensitive than QT and QTc interval to describe repolarization abnormalities. The electrocardiogram (ECG) performed in athletes may manifest abnormalities, including repolarization alterations. The aim of this study was to investigate...... the characteristics of T-wave morphology features in athletes. METHODS: Eighty male elite athletes, consisting of 40 Tour de France cyclists (age 27±5years), 40 soccer players (age 26±6years) and 40 healthy men (age 27±5years) were included. RESULTS: Sinus bradycardia, left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy, incomplete...... interval, and repolarization features than the control group. CONCLUSIONS: T-wave morphology of athletes is different from non-athletes, depending of the sport. Decreased potassium current in cardiomyocytes associated with LVH may contribute to these changes....

  6. The effect of regular strength training on telomere length in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kadi, F.; Ponsot, Elodie; Piehl-Aulin, Karin

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: The length of DNA telomeres is an important parameter of the proliferative potential of tissues. A recent study has reported abnormally short telomeres in skeletal muscle of athletes with exercise-associated fatigue. This important report raises the question of whether long-term practice...... of sports might have deleterious effects on muscle telomeres. Therefore, we aimed to compare telomere length of a group of power lifters (PL; N = 7) who trained for 8 +/- 3 yr against that of a group of healthy, active subjects (C; N = 7) with no history of strength training. METHODS: Muscle biopsies were...

  7. Exploring Summer Medical Care Within the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Setting: A Perspective From the Athletic Trainer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Eason, Christianne M.; Goodman, Ashley

    2016-01-01

    Context:  Over the last few decades, the National Collegiate Athletics Association (NCAA) has made changes related to the increase in sanctioned team activities during summer athletics. These changes may affect how athletic training services are provided. Objective:  To investigate the methods by which athletic training departments of NCAA institutions manage expectations regarding athletic training services during the summer. Design:  Mixed-methods qualitative and quantitative study. Setting:  The NCAA Division I. Patients or Other Participants:  Twenty-two athletic trainers (13 men, 9 women) participated. All were employed full time within the NCAA Division I setting. Participants were 35 ± 8 years of age (range, 26−52 years), with 12 ± 7 years (range, 3−29 years) of athletic training experience. Data Collection and Analysis:  All participants completed a series of questions online that consisted of closed- (demographic and Likert-scale 5-point) and open-ended items that addressed the research questions. Descriptive statistics, frequency distributions, and phenomenologic analyses were completed with the data. Peer review and multiple-analyst triangulation established credibility. Results:  Summer athletic training services included 3 primary mechanisms: individual medical care, shared medical care, or a combination of the 2. Participants reported working 40 ± 10 hours during the summer. Likert-item analysis showed that participants were moderately satisfied with their summer medical care structure (3.3 ± 1.0) and with the flexibility of summer schedules (3.0 ± 1.2). Yet the qualitative analysis revealed that perceptions of summer medical care were more positive for shared-care participants than for individual- or combination-care participants. The perceived effect on the athletic trainer included increased workload and expectations and a negative influence on work-life balance, particularly in terms of decreased schedule flexibility and

  8. Management of Lumbar Conditions in the Elite Athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Wellington K; Jenkins, Tyler James

    2017-07-01

    Lumbar disk herniation, degenerative disk disease, and spondylolysis are the most prevalent lumbar conditions that result in missed playing time. Lumbar disk herniation has a good prognosis. After recovery from injury, professional athletes return to play 82% of the time. Surgical management of lumbar disk herniation has been shown to be a viable option in athletes in whom nonsurgical measures have failed. Degenerative disk disease is predominately genetic but may be accelerated in athletes secondary to increased physiologic loading. Nonsurgical management is the standard of care for lumbar degenerative disk disease in the elite athlete. Spondylolysis is more common in adolescent athletes with back pain than in adult athletes. Nonsurgical management of spondylolysis is typically successful. However, if surgery is required, fusion or direct pars repair can allow the patient to return to sports.

  9. "Numb-Leg" in a CrossFit Athlete: A Case Presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esser, Stephan; Thurston, Mckennan; Nalluri, Krishna; Muzaurieta, Aurelio

    2017-08-01

    Participation in CrossFit athletics and Olympic-style lifting by the general populace has rapidly increased in the last 10 years. Such athletic engagement poses unique, inadequately defined risks to the participant. We describe the case of a 36-year-old man who presented to an outpatient sports medicine clinic with 6 weeks of numbness and tingling in the lateral right proximal thigh. After thorough examination and electromyographic testing, he was found to have a lateral femoral cutaneous neuropathy caused by performing supine gluteal bridges with a weighted barbell resting across his anterior thighs. His case exemplifies the unique exercise demands and injury risks of CrossFit-style exercise. Sports medicine providers should be familiar with both trends in sports/fitness participation and the associated unique risks that such sports pose, so as to adequately counsel patients on safety of participation and to correctly identify the cause of injury when evaluating patients in the clinical setting. V. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Mechanisms and management of exercise-induced asthma in elite athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali, Zarqa; Norsk, Peter; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2012-01-01

    Asthma is often reported by elite athletes, especially endurance athletes. The aim of this article is to review current knowledge of mechanisms and management of exercise-induced asthma (EIA) in adult elite athletes.......Asthma is often reported by elite athletes, especially endurance athletes. The aim of this article is to review current knowledge of mechanisms and management of exercise-induced asthma (EIA) in adult elite athletes....

  11. Detailed heart rate variability analysis in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Orsolya; Sydó, Nóra; Vargha, Péter; Vágó, Hajnalka; Czimbalmos, Csilla; Édes, Eszter; Zima, Endre; Apponyi, Györgyi; Merkely, Gergő; Sydó, Tibor; Becker, Dávid; Allison, Thomas G; Merkely, Béla

    2016-08-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) analysis has been used to evaluate patients with various cardiovascular diseases. While the vast majority of HRV studies have focused on pathological states, our study focuses on the less explored area of HRV analysis across different training intensity and sports. We aimed to measure HRV in healthy elite and masters athletes and compare to healthy, but non-athletic controls. Time-domain HRV analysis was applied in 138 athletes (male 110, age 28.4 ± 8.3) and 100 controls (male 56, age 28.3 ± 6.9) during Holter monitoring (21.3 ± 3.0 h). All studied parameters were higher in elite athletes compared to controls [SDNN (CI) 225.3 (216.2-234.5) vs 158.6 (150.2-167.1) ms; SDNN Index (CI) 99.6 (95.6-103.7) vs 72.4 (68.7-76.2) ms; pNN50 (CI) 24.2 (22.2-26.3) vs 14.4 (12.7-16.3) %; RMSSD (CI) 71.8 (67.6-76.2) vs 50.8 (46.9-54.8) ms; p HRV values than controls, but no significant differences were found between elite athletes and masters athletes. Some parameters were higher in canoeists-kayakers and bicyclists than runners. Lower cut-off values in elite athletes were SDNN: 147.4 ms, SDNN Index: 66.6 ms, pNN50: 9.7 %, RMSSD: 37.9 ms. Autonomic regulation in elite athletes described with HRV is significantly different than in healthy controls. Sports modality and level of performance, but not age- or sex-influenced HRV. Our study provides athletic normal HRV values. Further investigations are needed to determine its role in risk stratification, optimization of training, or identifying overtraining.

  12. Academic performance study in young athletes from Playas de Castellón Athletics Club

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Capdevila Seder

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzed the possible relationship between academic performance of young athletes and some of the variables most used in this field. The sample consisted of 40 athletes Athletics Club Playas de Castellón, between 14 and 16 years, 22 boys and 18 girls. The main variables analyzed were academic performance, study habits, gender, sleep, sedentary leisure, socioeconomic status and dedication to sport. The instruments used were questionnaires CHTE (habits and study skills, PFYTL (physical practice and use of leisure time and the Questionnaire for parents. The results showed that academic performance was positively correlated with the dedication to sport and negatively with sleep. In addition, the female gender had a higher performance than male.

  13. Academic performance study in young athletes from Playas de Castellón Athletics Club

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Capdevila Seder

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzed the possible relationship between academic performance of young athletes and some of the variables most used in this field. The sample consisted of 40 athletes Athletics Club Playas de Castellón, between 14 and 16 years, 22 boys and 18 girls. The main variables analyzed were academic performance, study habits, gender, sleep, sedentary leisure, socioeconomic status and dedication to sport. The instruments used were questionnaires CHTE (habits and study skills, PFYTL (physical practice and use of leisure time and the Questionnaire for parents. The results showed that academic performance was positively correlated with the dedication to sport and negatively with sleep. In addition, the female gender had a higher performance than male.

  14. Intramedullary screw fixation with bone autografting to treat proximal fifth metatarsal metaphyseal-diaphyseal fracture in athletes: a case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsukada Sachiyuki

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Delayed unions or refractures are not rare following surgical treatment for proximal fifth metatarsal metaphyseal-diaphyseal fractures. Intramedullary screw fixation with bone autografting has the potential to resolve the issue. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the result of the procedure. Methods The authors retrospectively reviewed 15 athletes who underwent surgical treatment for proximal fifth metatarsal metaphyseal-diaphyseal fracture. Surgery involved intramedullary cannulated cancellous screw fixation after curettage of the fracture site, followed by bone autografting. Postoperatively, patients remain non weight-bearing in a splint or cast for two weeks and without immobilization for an additional two weeks. Full weight-bearing was allowed six weeks postoperatively. Running was permitted after radiographic bone union, and return-to-play was approved after gradually increasing the intensity. Results All patients returned to their previous level of athletic competition. Mean times to bone union, initiation of running, and return-to-play were 8.4, 8.8, and 12.1 weeks, respectively. Although no delayed unions or refractures was observed, distal diaphyseal stress fractures at the distal tip of the screw occurred in two patients and a thermal necrosis of skin occurred in one patient. Conclusions There were no delayed unions or refractures among patients after carrying out a procedure in which bone grafts were routinely performed, combined with adequate periods of immobilization and non weight-bearing. These findings suggest that this procedure may be useful option for athletes to assuring return to competition level.

  15. What do athletes drink during competitive sporting activities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garth, Alison K; Burke, Louise M

    2013-07-01

    requirements during long events. Across the sparse literature on competition hydration practices in other sports, there are examples of planned and/or ad hoc opportunities to consume fluid, where enhanced access to drinks may allow situations at least close to ad libitum drinking. However, this situation is not universal and, again, the complex array of factors that influence the opportunity to drink during an event is also often beyond the athletes' control. Additionally, some competition formats result in athletes commencing the event with a body fluid deficit because of their failure to rehydrate from a previous bout of training/competition or weight-making strategies. Finally, since fluids consumed during exercise may also be a source of other ingredients (e.g., carbohydrate, electrolytes, or caffeine) or characteristics (e.g., temperature) that can increase palatability or performance, there may be both desirable volumes and patterns of intake that are independent of hydration concerns or thirst, as well as benefits from undertaking a "paced" fluid plan. Further studies of real-life hydration practices in sports including information on motives for drinking or not, along with intervention studies that simulate the actual nature of real-life sport, are needed before conclusions can be made about ideal drinking strategies for sports. Different interpretations may be needed for elite competitors and recreational participants.

  16. Prevalence of Surgical Repair for Athletic Pubalgia and Impact on Performance in Football Athletes Participating in the National Football League Combine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapik, Derrick M; Gebhart, Jeremy J; Nho, Shane J; Tanenbaum, Joseph E; Voos, James E; Salata, Michael J

    2017-05-01

    To examine the prevalence and impact of athletic pubalgia (AP) surgery in elite American football athletes participating in the National Football League (NFL) Combine. Results from 1,311 athletes participating in the Combine from 2012 to 2015 were evaluated. Athletes with a history of AP repair were identified using the NFL Combine Database. Athlete history and available imaging was reviewed. NFL performance based on draft status, games played, games started, and current status in the NFL was gathered using publicly available databases. Statistical analysis was performed to detect for significant associations between athlete history and NFL performance in the presence of AP repair and pelvic pathology on postsurgical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). AP repair was identified in 4.2% (n = 55) of athletes. MRI was performed in 35% (n = 19 of 55) with AP repair, of which 53% (n = 10 of 19) had positive pathology. Athletes with repair were not at risk of playing (P = .87) or starting (P = .45) fewer regular season games, going undrafted (P = .27), or not being on an active NFL roster (P = .51). Compared with athletes with negative imaging findings, positive pathology on MRI did not have a significant impact on games played (P = .74), games started (P = .48), draft status (P = .26), or being on an active roster (P = .74). Offensive linemen (P = .005) and athletes with a history of repair within 1 year of the Combine (P = .03) had a significantly higher risk of possessing positive pathology on MRI. Athletes with a history of successful AP surgery invited to the NFL Combine and those with persistent pathology on MRI are not at increased risk for diminished performance in the NFL. Offensive linemen and athletes less than 1 year out from surgery have a higher risk for positive MRI findings at the pubic symphysis. Level IV, prognostic study-case series. Copyright © 2017 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Motivational Factors Affecting Athletes in Selecting the Sport Branches of Athletics, Ski and Tennis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyüz, Murat; Agar, Muharrem; Akyüz, Öznur; Dogru, Yeliz

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to research the motivational factors affecting athletes to select the branches of athletics, ski and tennis. Within the scope of the research, the survey developed by H. Sunay in 1996 was implemented and solution for the problem of the research was searched through the findings that were obtained from the survey. SPSS…

  18. A Study of Character among Collegiate Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heupel, Jill D.

    2017-01-01

    The idea that sport builds character has been around for a long time. However, sports may not build the type of character once thought. Character of athletes was defined based on differing views held by sport scholars, coaches, athletes, and sport enthusiast. Sport scholars tend to view character of athletes from a moral perspective. Coaches,…

  19. Analysis of Sport Nutrition and Diet for Swimming Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Jun An

    2014-01-01

    This current study analyzed nutrition and dietary structure of swimming athletes to clarify issues in nutrition and dietary structure of swimming athletes, based on which we designed achievable nutrition and diet strategies to equip the swimming athletes with the tools to achieve an adequate sport nutrition which helps them improve results. Firstly, we collected literatures about nutrition and diet of swimming athletes. Secondly, 40 swimming athletes were assigned to the test group and the co...

  20. The role of athlete narcissism in moderating the relationship between coaches' transformational leader behaviors and athlete motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Calum Alexander; Woodman, Tim; Ong, Chin Wei; Hardy, Lew; Ntoumanis, Nikos

    2011-02-01

    Leadership research that examines follower characteristics as a potential moderator of leadership effectiveness is lacking. Within Bass's (1985) transformational leadership framework, we examined follower narcissism as a moderator of the coach behavior-coach effectiveness relationship. Youth athletes (male = 103, female = 106) from the Singapore Sports Academy (mean age = 14.28, SD = 1.40 years) completed the Differentiated Transformational Leadership Inventory (Callow, Smith, Hardy, Arthur, & Hardy, 2009), the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (Raskin & Terry, 1988), and indices of follower effort. Multilevel analyses revealed that athlete narcissism moderated the relationship between fostering acceptance of group goals and athlete effort and between high performance expectations and athlete effort. All the other transformational leader behaviors demonstrated main effects on follower effort, except for inspirational motivation.

  1. Approach to the Underperforming Athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Mary L; Weiss Kelly, Amanda K

    2016-03-01

    Children and adolescents who participate in intense sports training may face physical and psychologic stresses. The pediatric health care provider can play an important role in monitoring an athlete's preparation by obtaining a proper sports history, assessing sleep hygiene, discussing nutrition and hydration guidelines, and evaluating physiologic causes of fatigue. Educating parents and athletes on the potential risks of high-intensity training, inadequate rest and sleep, and a poor diet may improve the athlete's performance and prevent symptoms of overtraining syndrome. Infectious mononucleosis must also be considered a cause of fatigue among adolescents. The signs and symptoms of overtraining and burnout are discussed in this article. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  2. Understanding Athletic Pubalgia: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Brian; Kleinhenz, Dominic; Schiller, Jonathan; Tabaddor, Ramin

    2016-10-04

    Athletic Pubalgia, more commonly known as sports hernia, is defined as chronic lower abdominal and groin pain without the presence of a true hernia. It is increasingly recognized in athletes as a source of groin pain and is often associated with other pathology. A comprehensive approach to the physical exam and a strong understanding of hip and pelvic anatomy are critical in making the appropriate diagnosis. Various management options are available. We review the basic anatomy, patholophysiology, diagnostic approach and treatment of athletic pubalgia as well as discuss associated conditions such as femoroacetabular impingement. [Full article available at http://rimed.org/rimedicaljournal-2016-10.asp].

  3. Psychological consequences of athletic injury among high-level competitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leddy, M H; Lambert, M J; Ogles, B M

    1994-12-01

    Injury prohibiting continued athletic participation has been hypothesized to have a predictable emotional impact on athletes (Rotella & Heyman, 1986). However, the psychological impact of injury has not been well documented. This study examined the psychological reactions to injury among 343 male collegiate athletes participating in 10 sports. All athletes were assessed using measures of depression, anxiety, and self-esteem during preseason physical examinations. Injured athletes along with matched controls were later assessed within one week of experiencing an athletic injury and 2 months later. A 4 x 3 (Injury Status x Time of Testing) repeated measures multivariate analysis of variance (DM MANOVA) revealed that injured athletes exhibited greater depression and anxiety and lower self-esteem than controls immediately following physical injury and at follow-up 2 months later. These findings supported the general observation that physically injured athletes experience a period of emotional distress that in some cases may be severe enough to warrant clinical intervention.

  4. Physical activity participation and constraints among athletic training students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanek, Justin; Rogers, Katherine; Anderson, Jordan

    2015-02-01

    Researchers have examined the physical activity (PA) habits of certified athletic trainers; however, none have looked specifically at athletic training students. To assess PA participation and constraints to participation among athletic training students. Cross-sectional study. Entry-level athletic training education programs (undergraduate and graduate) across the United States. Participants were 1125 entry-level athletic training students. Self-reported PA participation, including a calculated PA index based on a typical week. Leisure constraints and demographic data were also collected. Only 22.8% (252/1105) of athletic training students were meeting the American College of Sports Medicine recommendations for PA through moderate-intensity cardiorespiratory exercise. Although 52.3% (580/1105) were meeting the recommendations through vigorous-intensity cardiorespiratory exercise, 60.5% (681/1125) were meeting the recommendations based on the combined total of moderate or vigorous cardiorespiratory exercise. In addition, 57.2% (643/1125) of respondents met the recommendations for resistance exercise. Exercise habits of athletic training students appear to be better than the national average and similar to those of practicing athletic trainers. Students reported structural constraints such as lack of time due to work or studies as the most significant barrier to exercise participation. Athletic training students experienced similar constraints to PA participation as practicing athletic trainers, and these constraints appeared to influence their exercise participation during their entry-level education. Athletic training students may benefit from a greater emphasis on work-life balance during their entry-level education to promote better health and fitness habits.

  5. Frustrations among graduates of athletic training education programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Thomas G; Dodge, Thomas M

    2013-01-01

    Although previous researchers have begun to identify sources of athletic training student stress, the specific reasons for student frustrations are not yet fully understood. It is important for athletic training administrators to understand sources of student frustration to provide a supportive learning environment. To determine the factors that lead to feelings of frustration while completing a professional athletic training education program (ATEP). Qualitative study. National Athletic Trainers' Association (NATA) accredited postprofessional education program. Fourteen successful graduates (12 women, 2 men) of accredited professional undergraduate ATEPs enrolled in an NATA-accredited postprofessional education program. We conducted semistructured interviews and analyzed data with a grounded theory approach using open, axial, and selective coding procedures. We negotiated over the coding scheme and performed peer debriefings and member checks to ensure trustworthiness of the results. Four themes emerged from the data: (1) Athletic training student frustrations appear to stem from the amount of stress involved in completing an ATEP, leading to anxiety and feelings of being overwhelmed. (2) The interactions students have with classmates, faculty, and preceptors can also be a source of frustration for athletic training students. (3) Monotonous clinical experiences often left students feeling disengaged. (4) Students questioned entering the athletic training profession because of the fear of work-life balance problems and low compensation. In order to reduce frustration, athletic training education programs should validate students' decisions to pursue athletic training and validate their contributions to the ATEP; provide clinical education experiences with graded autonomy; encourage positive personal interactions between students, faculty, and preceptors; and successfully model the benefits of a career in athletic training.

  6. Analysis of Factors and Implications Influencing Leadership Ascension of Female Athletic Directors in Intercollegiate Athletics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burney, Rolanda C.

    2010-01-01

    This narrative analysis/life story study was designed to understand the factors influencing the career trajectory of female athletic directors in National Collegiate Athletic Association affiliated institutions and to discover how those factors functioned as a road map for future female administrators. Both social role and role congruity theories…

  7. The Vastus Medialis Oblique: Vastus Lateralis Electromyographic Intensity Ratio During Squat with Hip Adduction in Athletes with and Without Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Reza-zadeh

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was designed to compare vastus medialis oblique (VMO: vastus lateralis longus (VLL electromyographic intensity ratio during squat with hip adduction in athletes with and without patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS. Materials & Methods: In this non-experimental and case-control study, 16 male athletes with PFPS were selected purposefully and 16 healthy male athletes aged 18-30 years from national teams (Volleyball, Handball and Taekwondo were matched based on variables such as weight, height, age, dominancy. All subjects selected based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. EMG activity of VMO and VLL muscles was recorded by surface electrodes with Telemetric EMG System at 15, 30 and 45 degrees of squat and VMO: VLL ratio was calculated. One way ANOVA was used to compare these muscles ratio between two groups. Results: The ratio of VMO: VLL in both groups with and without PFPS in almost all angles were lower than one. However, healthy athletes had lower ratios. Also, there were no significant differences in VMO: VLL ratio at various angles. Conclusion: It seems that sports activities prevent VMO weakening in athletes. However, VMO: VLL ratio in athletes with and without patellofemoral pain does not influence by this syndrome.

  8. Medications for Sleep Schedule Adjustments in Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Matthew B; Asif, Irfan M

    Sleep schedule adjustments are common requirements of modern-day athletes. Many nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic strategies exist to facilitate circadian rhythm shifts to maximize alertness and performance during competition. This review summarizes the evidence for commonly used pharmacologic agents and presents recommendations for the sports medicine provider. MEDLINE searches were performed using the following keywords: sleep aids, circadian rhythm adjustment, athletes and sleep, caffeine and sports, melatonin and athletes, and sleep aids and sports. Pertinent articles were extracted and discussed. Clinical review. Level 2. There are very few available studies investigating pharmacologic sleep aids in athletes. Data from studies involving shift workers and airline personnel are more abundant and were used to formulate recommendations and conclusions. Melatonin, caffeine, and nonbenzodiazepine sleep aids have a role in facilitating sleep schedule changes in athletes and maximizing sports performance through sleep enhancement.

  9. SOCIAL SECURITY OF TURKISH ATHLETES

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    Barış ÖZTUNA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Law No. 5510 realized within the social security reform aims providing a structure which presents equal scope and quality of social security service other all citizens. According to Labor Law No 4857, unionization of sportsmen in Turkish legal environment is possible, sport clubs and sportsmen are continuing to live without so many rights and obligations but they didn’t. Aim of this study; to prove sportsmen of location of the labour law and to mark off. The purpose of the study is explained according to Law No. 4857 and Law No. 5510 Turkish athletes. Profesional athletes deemed to be insurance holders for the purposes of implementing short and long term insurance branches of No 5510 Law. But amateur athletes don't seem to be insurance holders for the purposes of implementing short and long term insurance branches of No 5510 Law. According to the law 5774 regarding to be called as an g overnment athlete, within the adults category of the sports that are accepted as olympic, paralympic and deaflympic; pension is paid to the amateur athletes who became first, second or third at Olymic games, World or European Champions as an individual or team sports and to the national team coaches and assistant coaches of the athletes’ who became Olympic or World Champion as a team.

  10. Why adolescent boys dream of becoming professional athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiles, D A; Gibbons, J L; Sebben, D J; Wiley, D C

    1999-06-01

    A review of studies which investigated drawings of the ideal man and the occupational aspirations of boys (ages 11-18 years) from several countries indicated that becoming a professional athlete was a popular but unrealistic aspiration for many adolescent boys. Boys who were athletes and nonathletes from diverse ethnic groups and nationalities dreamed of becoming professional athletes. In two additional studies in the United States of America, adolescents were asked why they thought boys most often selected professional athlete as a possible future occupation. Adolescents perceived professional athletes as rich, famous, and glorified. Enhancement of status and financial gain were ranked as more important than the desire to play sports.

  11. Structure of personality and motivation of extreme sports athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Mahnič

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of research was to define the eventual differences between personal and motivational structure among extreme sports athletes and non-athletes. Beside personal and motivational structure of both mentioned groups, we also examined state and trait anxiety as significant factors of success. We used a medium lengthy version of FPI inventory, Costell's questionnaire of achievement motivation and Spielberg's questionnaire STAI – X1 and STAI – X2. The pattern included 66 extreme sports athletes. We concluded that extreme sports athletes are significantly less suppressed and sincere, whereas they are more extrovert and masculine in comparison with the group of non-athletes. A trend that individuals, who reach for extreme sports, are more sociable, and less neurotic is pointed out, but it is not of significant importance. We found out that there is also a tendency that extreme sports athletes express more positive achievement motivation than non-athletes, who on the other hand express significantly higher negative achievement motivation. The analysis of anxiety differences on the other hand showed that extreme sports athletes have significantly lower state of anxiety and the anxiety itself as atrait is far less visible, but the difference did not appear as significant. The results however did not confirme previous studies' findings. Nevertheless they serve as a contribution to some earlier findings and suggest that extreme sports athletes are a special group, which differs from non-athlete population in both personal and motivational structure and relatively well suits to the profile of a top athlete. At the same time, the present research offers a possibility of shaping an extreme sports athlete's profile.

  12. Creating Healthy Environments For Youth Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has created a presentation and companion checklist to help coaches and athletic administrators better understand the environmental health risks associated with youth sports and the steps they can follow to protect young athletes.

  13. The effect of low extremity plyometric training on back muscle power of high school throwing event athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Gi Duck; Lee, Joong Chul; Lee, Juri

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The physical strength elements required for athletic throwing events include muscle strength, swiftness, agility, speed, flexibility, and physical balance. Although plyometric training and weight training are implemented as representative training methods for improving swiftness and agility, most studies of it have been conducted with players of other sports. [Subjects] The study subjects were 10 throwing event athletes attending K physical education high school. The subjects were randomly assigned to a control group of five subjects and an experimental group of five subjects. To analyze the body composition, an Inbody 3.0 instrument (Biospace, Korea) was used as experimental equipment to measure heights, weight, body fat percentages, and muscle masses and a Biodex system 4.0 (BIODEX, USA) was used to measure isokinetic muscle-joint and lumbar muscle strengths. The plyometric training consisted of 15 techniques out of the training methods introduced in the 'Power up plyometric training'. The plyometric program was implemented without any training load three times per week during daybreak exercises for the experimental group. The number of times and the number of sets were changed over time as follows: three sets of 10 times in the 1st -4th weeks, three sets of 15 times in the 5th-8th weeks, and five sets of 15 times in the 9th-12th weeks. [Results] According to the ANCOVA results of lumbar extensor muscle strength at 60°/sec, the overall reliability of the model was significant. According to the ANCOVA results of lumbar flexor muscle strength at 60°/sec, the overall reliability of the model was significant. [Conclusion] Plyometric training positively affected high school throwing event athletes. To summarize the study findings, the application of plyometric training with high intensity and loads improved the results of athletes who perform highly intensive exercises at normal times.

  14. High School Sport Specialization Patterns of Current Division I Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Eric G; Thein-Nissenbaum, Jill M; Stiffler, Mikel R; Brooks, M Alison; Bell, David R; Sanfilippo, Jennifer L; Trigsted, Stephanie M; Heiderscheit, Bryan C; McGuine, Timothy A

    Sport specialization is a strategy to acquire superior sport performance in 1 sport but is associated with increased injury risk. Currently, the degree of high school specialization among Division I athletes is unknown. College athletes will display increased rates of specialization as they progress through their high school careers. Descriptive epidemiological study. Level 4. Three hundred forty-three athletes (115 female) representing 9 sports from a Midwest Division I University completed a previously utilized sport specialization questionnaire regarding sport participation patterns for each grade of high school. McNemar and chi-square tests were used to investigate associations of grade, sport, and sex with prevalence of sport specialization category (low, moderate, high) (a priori P ≤ 0.05). Specialization increased throughout high school, with 16.9% (n = 58) and 41.1% (n = 141) of athletes highly specialized in 9th and 12th grades, respectively. Football athletes were less likely to be highly specialized than nonfootball athletes for each year of high school ( P 0.23). The majority of Division I athletes were not classified as highly specialized throughout high school, but the prevalence of high specialization increased as athletes progressed through high school. Nonfootball athletes were more likely to be highly specialized than football athletes at each grade level. Most athletes who are recruited to participate in collegiate athletics will eventually specialize in their sport, but it does not appear that early specialization is necessary to become a Division I athlete. Athletes should be counseled regarding safe participation in sport during high school to minimize injury and maximize performance.

  15. Cardiac pre-competiton screening in Swiss athletes. Current situation in competitive athletes and short-time assessment of an exemplary local screening program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmied, Christian; Notz, Sara; Cribari, Marco; Gähwiler, Roman; Keller, Dagmar I; Lüscher, Thomas F

    2012-05-31

    In Switzerland, screening concepts for the prevention of sports-associated sudden cardiac death are still insufficiently established in the large group of competitive athletes who are not integrated in an Olympic- or other high-level squad. The aim of the present study was to objectively determine the current situation in this particular group of athletes concerning cardiac pre-competition screening and define specific features of an "ideal" Swiss screening concept. Based on these data, the feasibility and validity was tested by the implementation of an exemplary local screening programme. A standardised questionnaire was completed by 1,047 competitive athletes of different ages and gender. The individual, sports-specific profile of an athlete and furthermore, the personal attitude towards and the vision of a "perfect" cardiac screening were assessed. Based on the results, an exemplary local screening programme for competitive athletes was implemented at the "Academic Sports Association Zurich" (ASVZ) in Zurich, Switzerland and evaluated 1 year after its introduction. Only 9% of the 1,047 interviewed competitive athletes (aged 13 to 64 years; median age 22 years, SD = 5.87) had previously undergone a cardiac screening. Only 47% of the interviewed competitive athletes expressed their interest to undergo a cardiac screening at all. Male and older athletes showed a significantly higher acceptance rate for the screening programme than women and younger athletes. All athletes accepted to bear the expenses for the baseline screening programme, adapted to international standards (minimal accepted fee of 60 Swiss Francs). Almost half of the athletes (49.2%) preferred easy accessibility to a sports cardiologist (max. distance of 10 kilometres). The exemplary local screening programme proved to be feasible and successful. However, only 30% of the 102 screened individuals were female and most of the athletes (80%) who made use of the screening had a specific concern or

  16. Elite athletes: is survival shortened in boxers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, M; Fabbricatore, C; Sanna, N; Fabiano, C; Palmieri, V; Zeppilli, P

    2007-08-01

    Moderate exercise and intense physical training are associated with increased life expectancy (LE). Boxing is characterized by intentional and repetitive head blows, sometimes causing brain injury, possibly reducing LE. We examined a sample of male athletes born between 1860 and 1930 selected from the international "hall of fame" inductees in baseball (n = 154), ice hockey (n = 130), tennis (n = 83), football (n = 81), boxing (n = 81), track and field (n = 59), basketball (n = 58), swimming (n = 37) and wrestling (n = 32). In boxing, we analyzed the number of disputed bouts/rounds and career records. Sports were also analyzed according to physiological demand and occurrence and kind of contact (intentional, unintentional). The Kaplan-Meier product limit method was used to compare survival curves (significance: p LE of the samples was 76.0 yrs and no differences were observed in different sports, although it was lower in boxers (73.0 yrs) and higher in tennis players (79.0 yrs). Sports of different physiological demand were similar in respect to LE. No differences in LE were found related to occurrence and kind of impact. Similar LE was found in boxers of different weight or career records. In conclusion, this study indicates that LE in top-level athletes is unaffected by the type of discipline, and not related to physiological demand and intentional contact.

  17. MRI of overuse injury in elite athletes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, E.S.; Lee, J.C.; Healy, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    Overuse injuries are a common finding in elite athletes. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the optimal method for the diagnosis of overuse injury in athletes of all levels. We present a review of common and important overuse injuries occurring in elite athletes. A systematic approach based on the functional anatomic units - tendons, bones and joints - may assist in diagnosis of these injuries

  18. Factors impacting participation of European elite deaf athletes in sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurková, Petra; Válková, Hana; Scheetz, Nanci

    2011-03-01

    This study examine 53 European elite deaf athletes for their family's hearing status, use of hearing aids, communication preference, education in integrated or segregated settings, family members' encouragement for participation in sports, coach preference (hearing or deaf), and conditions for competitive events with deaf or hearing athletes. These data were gathered through semi-structured interviews administered in the athlete's native language. Deaf athletes reported that when given the opportunity to compete with hearing athletes, it enhanced their opportunity for competition. Participating in sports with hearing athletes played an important role in the integration of deaf athletes into mainstream society. If adaptations to communication can be made in these integrated settings, the ability of deaf athletes to participate in such settings will increase.

  19. Coração de atleta em desportistas deficientes de elite Athlete's heart in elite disabled athletes

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    Japy Angelini Oliveira Fº

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar a prevalência de sinais de "coração de atleta" em desportistas deficientes para-olímpicos. MÉTODOS: Avaliação clínica, eletrocardiográfica, ecocardiográfica, vetorcardiográfica, ergométrica em 75 atletas, 27,8±6,7 anos, 56 homens, várias modalidades; com deficiência física (47, visual (12 e paralisia cerebral (16. RESULTADOS: Sinais de coração de atleta ocorreram em 33% dos exames clínicos (sopros e estalidos, em 55% dos eletrocardiogramas (bradicardia, bloqueio incompleto de ramo direito, sobrecargas, alterações de onda T, em 15% dos vetorcardiograma (sobrecargas, em 5% dos ecocardiogramas (dimensões cavitárias acima do habitual. Os sinais ocorreram em 51% dos atletas, sendo que em 46% dos casos havia 2 ou mais sinais e, em 12%, 4 ou mais sinais. O TE foi normal em 77% dos atletas; não houve ST isquêmico. Em 23% dos casos houve bloqueio divisional direito. CONCLUSÃO: Foram encontrados dois ou mais sinais de coração de atleta em 46% dos atletas deficientes para-olímpicos.PURPOSE: To assess the prevalence of the athlete's, heart syndrome in elite disabled Brazilians athletes. METHODS: Seventy-five athletes, age 27.8±6.7 years, 56 men, with various disabilities (47 physical, 12 visual and 16 cerebral paralysis underwent clinical, electrocardiographic, vectorcardiographic, ergometric and echocardiographic evaluations. RESULTS: Athlete's heart signs occurred in 33% of the clinical evaluations, in 55% of the electrocardiograms, in 15% of the vectorcardiograms, and in 5% of the echocardiograms. At least one of these signs was presented in 51% of the athletes. There were 2 or more abnormalities in 46% of the athletes and 4 or more signs in 12%. Exercise test was considered not ischemic in 77% of the subjects. There was right bundle branch block in 23% of the tests. CONCLUSION: There were two or more athlete's heart syndrome signs in 46% of Brazilian disabled athletes.

  20. Comparison of Athletes' Proneness to Depressive Symptoms in Individual and Team Sports: Research on Psychological Mediators in Junior Elite Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixdorf, Insa; Frank, Raphael; Beckmann, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Depression among elite athletes is a topic of increasing interest and public awareness. Currently, empirical data on elite athletes' depressive symptoms are rare. Recent results indicate sport-related mechanisms and effects on depression prevalence in elite athlete samples; specific factors associated with depression include overtraining, injury, and failure in competition. One such effect is that athletes competing in individual sports were found to be more prone to depressive symptoms than athletes competing in team sports. The present study examined this effect by testing three possible, psychological mediators based on theoretical and empirical assumptions: namely, cohesion in team or training groups; perception of perfectionistic expectations from others; and negative attribution after failure. In a cross-sectional study, 199 German junior elite athletes (M age = 14.96; SD = 1.56) participated and completed questionnaires on perfectionism, cohesion, attribution after failure, and depressive symptoms. Mediation analysis using path analysis with bootstrapping was used for data analysis. As expected, athletes in individual sports showed higher scores in depression than athletes in team sports [t(197) = 2.05; p sports (β = 0.27; p sports and depression scores. Neither cohesion nor perfectionism met essential criteria to serve as mediators: cohesion was not elevated in either team or individual sports, and perfectionism was positively related to team sports. The results support the assumption of previous findings on sport-specific mechanisms (here the effect between individual and team sports) contributing to depressive symptoms among elite athletes. Additionally, attribution after failure seems to play an important role in this regard and could be considered in further research and practitioners in the field of sport psychology.

  1. Adaptation of the Athlete Burnout Questionnaire in a Spanish sample of athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arce, Constantino; De Francisco, Cristina; Andrade, Elena; Seoane, Gloria; Raedeke, Thomas

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, we offer a general version of the Spanish adaptation of Athlete Burnout Questionnaire (ABQ) designed to measure the syndrome of burnout in athletes of different sports. In previous works, the Spanish version of ABQ was administered to different samples of soccer players. Its psychometric properties were appropriate and similar to the findings in original ABQ. The purpose of this study was to examine the generalization to others sports of the Spanish adaptation. We started from this adaptation, but we included three alternative statements (one for each dimension of the questionnaire), and we replaced the word "soccer" with the word "sport". An 18-item version was administered to a sample of 487 athletes aged 13 and 29 years old. Confirmatory factor analyses replicated the factor structure, but two items modification were necessary in order to obtain a good overall fit of the model. The internal consistency and test-retest reliability of the questionnaire were satisfactory.

  2. Athletic identity and psychiatric symptoms following retirement from varsity sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannone, Zarina A; Haney, Colleen J; Kealy, David; Ogrodniczuk, John S

    2017-11-01

    Despite evidence identifying adjustment difficulties among retiring athletes, research investigating factors that contribute to post-retirement complications is limited. Athletic identity may be an important determinant of adverse adaptation to sport retirement. The purpose of this study was to address the influence of athletic identity on post-retirement depression and anxiety symptoms among varsity athletes. An anonymous, online survey regarding athletic identity and psychiatric symptoms was completed by 72 self-identified varsity athletes during their final season of competition and 3 months after retiring from sport. After controlling for the effects of pre-retirement anxiety symptoms, endorsement of an athletic identity significantly predicted anxiety symptoms in the post-retirement period. A similar, but non-significant, pattern was observed for depressive symptoms. The findings of this study suggest that athletes' degree of athletic identity may be a risk factor for the emergence of psychiatric distress in the months following their retirement from sport. Identity-focused screening or intervention during athletes' sport careers could potentially mitigate some of the psychological difficulties associated with sport retirement.

  3. Gender differences in the electrocardiogram screening of athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessem, Bram B; de Bruijn, Matthijs M C; Nieuwland, Wybe W

    2017-02-01

    Gender-related differences are frequently used in medicine. Electrocardiograms are also subject to such differences. This study evaluated gender differences in ECG parameters of young athletes, discussing the possible implications of these differences for ECG criteria used in the cardiovascular screening of young athletes. Observational cross-sectional study. In 2013 and 2014 all the ECGs from the cardiovascular screenings performed at University Sports Medical Centre in Groningen of the student athletes who wanted to participate in a college sports program were collected. The ECG characteristics were scored using computer-based measurements and the Seattle ECG criteria. The study population included 1436 athletes, of which 72% were male. Male athletes were older (19.3 years vs. 18.6 years), participated in sports more frequently (4.0/week vs. 3.8/week) and spent more hours per week practising sports (6.4h/week vs. 5.8h/week) than female athletes. Male athletes had significantly higher PR intervals (149ms vs. 141ms), lead voltages and QRS duration (98ms vs. 88ms). Female athletes had significantly higher resting heart rates (69/min vs. 64/min) and QTc intervals (407ms vs. 400ms). Male athletes also had significantly higher amounts of sinus bradycardia (38.3% vs. 23.0%), incomplete RBBB (15.0% vs. 3.7%), early repolarisation (4.5% vs. 1.0%) and isolated QRS voltage criteria for LVH (26.3% vs. 4.6%). All P-values were ≤0.001. ECGs of young athletes demonstrate gender-related differences. These differences could be considered in their cardiovascular screening. For the Seattle ECG criteria we advise additional research into the clinical implications of using gender-based cut-off values for the QRS duration in the intraventricular conduction delay criterion. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Sexual Health of Polish Athletes with Disabilities

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    Ryszard Plinta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine sexual functioning of Polish athletes with disabilities (including paralympians. The study encompassed 218 people with physical disabilities, aged between 18 and 45 (149 men and 69 women. The entire research population was divided into three groups: Polish paralympians (n = 45, athletes with disabilities (n = 126 and non-athletes with disabilities (n = 47. The quality of sexual life of Polish paralympians was measured by using the Polish version of Female Sexual Function Index and International Index of Erectile Function. Clinically significant erectile dysfunctions were most often diagnosed in non-athletes (83.33% with 50% result of severe erectile dysfunctions, followed by athletes and paralympians with comparable results of 56.98% and 54.17% respectively (p = 0.00388. Statistically significant clinical sexual dysfunctions concerned lubrication, orgasm as well as pain domains, and prevailed among female non-athletes (68.42%, 68.42% and 57.89%. Practising sports at the highest level has a favourable effect on the sexuality of men and women with physical disabilities. Men with physical disabilities manifest more sexual disorders than women, an aspect which should be considered by health-care professionals working with people with disabilities.

  5. Paraoxonase activity in athletic adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakmak, Alpay; Zeyrek, Dost; Atas, Ali; Erel, Ozcan

    2010-02-01

    Regular physical activity may play a protective role against cardiovascular disease in adults, and paraoxonase activity may serve to mediate this effect. This study compared paraoxonase activity and that of other antioxidative agents in adolescent athletes compared with inactive youth. Paraoxonase level was 177.32 +/- 100.10 (U/L) in children with regular physical activity and 98.11 +/- 40.92 (U/L) in the control group (P total antioxidative capacity, total oxidative status, oxidative stress index, and lipid hydroperoxide were significantly higher in the athlete group compared with controls (P < 0.0001). Paraoxonase activity was found to be greater in adolescent athletes, suggesting that regular exercise might provide a cardio-protective effect by this means.

  6. Vitamin supplementation benefits in master athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisswalter, Jeanick; Louis, Julien

    2014-03-01

    Master athletes are more than 35 years of age and continue to train as hard as their young counterparts despite the aging process. All life long, they are capable of accomplishing exceptional sporting performances. For these participants in endurance events, matching energy intake and expenditure is critical to maintain health and performance. The proportions of carbohydrate, fat, and protein must be optimized to provide enough calories to sustain the energy requirements of competition or training, and for recovery. In addition, endurance athletes must include adequate vitamins and minerals in their diets to maintain healthy immune function. Vitamins and minerals may be sufficient in the diets of endurance athletes, who have a high energy intake. This would make it unnecessary to use vitamin and mineral supplements. Furthermore, one major limitation for these athletes is the management of oxidative stress, which, when in excess, can be deleterious for the organism. For individuals exposed to oxidative stress, micronutritional supplementations rich in vitamins and minerals can be also an alternative strategy. Although these supplementations are increasingly used by master athletes, very few data are available on their effects on oxidative stress, muscle recovery, and physical performance. The potential benefits of supplement use in athletes are thus questionable. Some studies indicate no benefits, while others highlight potential negative side effects of vitamin supplementation. Additional studies are warranted in order to design adapted prescriptions in antioxidant vitamins and minerals.

  7. THROWING INJURIES IN THE ADOLESCENT ATHLETE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thigpen, Chuck

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Adolescents ranging in age from 11–15 (early‐mid adolescence) comprise the largest percentage of baseball and softball athletes in the United States. Shoulder and elbow injuries are commonly experienced by these athletes with baseball pitchers and softball position players most likely to be injured. Common Injuries: Physeal injury often termed “Little League” shoulder or elbow is common and should be differentiated from soft tissue injuries such as biceps, rotator cuff, or UCL injuries. Regardless of diagnosis, rehabilitation of these athletes’ shoulder and elbow injuries provide a unique challenge given their rapidly changing physical status. Treatment: Common impairments include alterations in shoulder range of motion, decreased muscle performance, and poor neuromuscular control of the scapula, core, and lower extremity. A criterion based, progressive rehabilitation program is presented. Discharge from formal rehabilitation should occur only when the athlete has demonstrated a resolution of symptoms, acceptable ROM, muscle performance, and neuromuscular control while progressing through a symptom free return to sport. Prevention of Reinjury: Reintegration into the desired level of sport participation should be guided by the sports medicine professional with a focus on long‐term durability in sport performance as well as injury prevention. A prevention program which includes parent, coach, and athlete education, regular screening to identify those athletes at the highest risk, and monitoring athletes for the development of risk factors or warning signs of injury over the course of participation is indicated. Level of Evidence: 5 PMID:24175142

  8. Gender, ethnicity, self-esteem and disordered eating among college athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Craig; Crosby, Ross; Engel, Scott; Mitchell, James; Powers, Pauline; Wittrock, David; Wonderlich, Stephen

    2004-05-01

    This study was undertaken to compare ethnic and gender differences regarding self-esteem and various disordered eating attitudes and behaviors among elite college athletes. A total of 1445 student athletes from 11 Division I schools were surveyed using a 133-item questionnaire. White female athletes reported significantly lower self-esteem than Black female, Black male and White male athletes. Black female athletes' self-esteem was equal to both Black and White male athletes. White female athletes reported significantly higher drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction, and more disturbed eating behaviors than Black female and both groups of male athletes. The current study demonstrates that White female athletes appear to be most at risk for having difficulty with eating disorders. Their reporting of significantly lower self-esteem indicates that this may be a risk factor that is more characteristic of this ethnic group. Questions are raised about what factors exist in the Black female culture that protect them from low self-esteem and disordered eating attitudes and behaviors.

  9. Physical fitness profile of elite athletes with intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Vliet, P; Rintala, P; Fröjd, K; Verellen, J; van Houtte, S; Daly, D J; Vanlandewijck, Y C

    2006-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the physical fitness profile of high-performance athletes with intellectual disability (ID) in comparison with able-bodied individuals. Participants were 231 male and 82 female athletes. All evaluations were done using the EUROFIT physical fitness test. In comparison with population data, both male and female athletes with ID score better for flexibility and upper body muscle endurance, but have similar or lower values for running speed, speed of limb movement, and strength measures. Compared with age-matched physical education students, male athletes with ID score better for running speed and flexibility, and worse for strength. Female athletes with ID score not different from able-bodied individuals for flexibility, running speed, and upper body muscle endurance, but worse for strength measures. Athletes with ID also have poorer cardio respiratory endurance capacity compared with sportive peers without ID. Furthermore, male athletes have a more differentiated profile depending upon their sports discipline, compared with female athletes. It can be concluded that high-performance athletes with ID reach physical fitness levels that are equal to or lower than those of able-bodied sportive counterparts. Further research should investigate the importance of reduced muscle strength to be the limiting factor.

  10. National Athletic Trainers' Association Position Statement: Exertional Heat Illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casa, Douglas J; DeMartini, Julie K; Bergeron, Michael F; Csillan, Dave; Eichner, E Randy; Lopez, Rebecca M; Ferrara, Michael S; Miller, Kevin C; O'Connor, Francis; Sawka, Michael N; Yeargin, Susan W

    2015-09-01

    To present best-practice recommendations for the prevention, recognition, and treatment of exertional heat illnesses (EHIs) and to describe the relevant physiology of thermoregulation. Certified athletic trainers recognize and treat athletes with EHIs, often in high-risk environments. Although the proper recognition and successful treatment strategies are well documented, EHIs continue to plague athletes, and exertional heat stroke remains one of the leading causes of sudden death during sport. The recommendations presented in this document provide athletic trainers and allied health providers with an integrated scientific and clinically applicable approach to the prevention, recognition, treatment of, and return-to-activity guidelines for EHIs. These recommendations are given so that proper recognition and treatment can be accomplished in order to maximize the safety and performance of athletes. Athletic trainers and other allied health care professionals should use these recommendations to establish onsite emergency action plans for their venues and athletes. The primary goal of athlete safety is addressed through the appropriate prevention strategies, proper recognition tactics, and effective treatment plans for EHIs. Athletic trainers and other allied health care professionals must be properly educated and prepared to respond in an expedient manner to alleviate symptoms and minimize the morbidity and mortality associated with these illnesses.

  11. Nutritional Supplements for Strength Power Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilborn, Colin

    Over the last decade research involving nutritional supplementation and sport performance has increased substantially. Strength and power athletes have specific needs to optimize their performance. Nutritional supplementation cannot be viewed as a replacement for a balanced diet but as an important addition to it. However, diet and supplementation are not mutually exclusive, nor does one depend on the other. Strength and power athletes have four general areas of supplementation needs. First, strength athletes need supplements that have a direct effect on performance. The second group of supplements includes those that promote recovery. The third group comprises the supplements that enhance immune function. The last group of supplements includes those that provide energy or have a direct effect on the workout. This chapter reviews the key supplements needed to optimize the performance and training of the strength athlete.

  12. Cardiorespiratory screening in elite endurance sports athletes: the Quebec study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turmel, Julie; Poirier, Paul; Bougault, Valérie; Blouin, Evelyne; Belzile, Mireille; Boulet, Louis-Philippe

    2012-09-01

    Cardiorespiratory disorders are common in athletes. However, these conditions are often underdiagnosed, which potentially results in impaired performance and increased health risks. The aim of this study was to evaluate, in a research setting, the prevalence of cardiorespiratory disorders in athletes in order to determine the potential value of a screening program. One hundred thirty-three athletes were studied. Each subject underwent a physical examination. A eucapnic voluntary hyperventilation (EVH) test and a methacholine inhalation test were performed to confirm the diagnosis of asthma. A cardiovascular evaluation was also performed, including maximal exercise test with electrocardiogram, 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, 24-hour Holter monitoring, and blood sampling. Seventy-four (56%) athletes had airway hyperresponsiveness to EVH or the methacholine inhalation test. Among those with airway hyperresponsiveness, 45 (61%) athletes were only hyperresponsive to EVH, and 10 (14%) were only hyperresponsive to the methacholine inhalation test (using the criteria of a PC20 ≤ 4 mg/mL). Thirty-two (24%) athletes had a known diagnosis of asthma, while 34 (26%) athletes received a new asthma diagnosis. Ninety-seven (73%) athletes were sensitized to common airborne allergens. Forty-seven (35%) athletes completed the cardiovascular evaluation. Three (6%) and 7 (15%) athletes had a previous or new diagnosis of cardiovascular disease, respectively. Resting systemic hypertension was documented in 2 (4%) athletes and exaggerated blood pressure response to exercise was found in 12 (26%) athletes. This cardiorespiratory screening data set in athletes showed a high prevalence of exercise-induced asthma and exercise hypertension, which in many cases were not previously diagnosed.

  13. Splenic injuries in athletes: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannon, Elizabeth H; Howard, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Splenic injuries can be challenging to the sports medicine physician. While these injuries are not common among athletes, they can have serious, potentially fatal consequences if not properly diagnosed and managed in a prompt and timely fashion. Currently, there are no evidence-based guidelines on returning athletes to previous levels of activity after sustaining a splenic injury. In addition, there is no consensus on follow-up imaging after injury. This article discusses the evaluation of athletes with blunt abdominal trauma for splenic injury, including the imaging, management, and current return-to-play guidelines.

  14. The college life experiences of African American women athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, R M; Kuperminc, G P; Damas, A

    1997-10-01

    The present study provides a descriptive analysis of four areas of African American women student athletes' college life experiences: academic performance; alienation and abuse; perceived social advantage as the result of athletics; and life satisfaction. Multivariate comparisons were made between the four areas of college life experiences of 154 African American women student athletes and 793 White women student athletes, 250 African American women nonathletes, and 628 African American men student athletes from a national sample of 39 NCAA Division I universities. Overall, African American women student athletes are performing adequately academically, integrating socially within the university, perceiving some social advantage as the result of being athletes, and are fairly satisfied with their life. Their experiences seem most consistent with African American women nonathletes. Results are discussed in the context of potential policy recommendations as well as the need for more research on this particular population.

  15. Performance changes during a weeklong high-altitude alpine ski-racing training camp in lowlander young athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydren, Jay R; Kraemer, William J; Volek, Jeff S; Dunn-Lewis, Courtenay; Comstock, Brett A; Szivak, Tunde K; Hooper, David R; Denegar, Craig R; Maresh, Carl M

    2013-04-01

    Thousands of youth athletes travel to high altitude to participate in lift-access alpine sports. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of acute high-altitude exposure on balance, choice reaction time, power, quickness, flexibility, strength endurance, and V[Combining Dot Above]O2max in youth lowlander athletes during a weeklong preseason training camp in Summit County, CO, USA. Eleven youth ski racers (4 boys and 7 girls; age, 13.7 ± 0.5 years; height, 157.2 ± 12.6 cm; weight, 52.4 ± 6.8 kg) with 7.7 ± 2.2 skiing years of experience participated in baseline testing at 160 m one week before the camp and a set of daily tests in the morning and afternoon at 2,828 m and skied between 3,328 and 3,802 m during a 6-day camp. Balance and choice reaction time tests were stagnant or improved slightly during the first 3 days and then improved on days 4 and 6. Vertical jump, flexibility, T-agility test, and push-ups in 1 minute improved on day 6. The number of sit-ups in 1 minute did not improve, and scores on the multistage fitness test decreased 20.34%. There was no effect of Lake Louise acute mountain sickness (AMS) questionnaire scores on performance variables measured. Athletes sojourning to high altitude for ski camps can train on immediate ascent but should slowly increase training volume over the first 3 days. Athletes should expect improvements in balance and reaction time 3-6 days into acclimatization. Coaches and athletes should expect about 20% of youth lowlander athletes to have signs and symptoms of AMS during the first 3 days of altitude exposure for alpine lift access sports at altitudes of up to 3,800 m.

  16. Obturator externus was larger, while obturator internus size was similar in ballet dancers compared to nondancing athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Susan; Ferris, April-Rose; Smith, Peter; Cook, Jill

    2018-06-02

    To compare the cross-sectional area (CSA) of hip external rotators, obturator externus (OE) and obturator internus (OI), in ballet dancers and nondancing athletes, and evaluate the relationship between obturator muscle size and hip pain. Case-control study. Elite ballet and sport. 33 male and female professional ballet dancers and 33 age and sex-matched athletes. CSA's of OE and OI measured on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of one hip. Hip pain was scored with the Copenhagen Hip and Groin Outcome Score (HAGOS): HAGOS pain score of 100 was defined as no pain and a score less than 100 was defined as pain. Participants weight and height. Estimated marginal mean CSA of OE was 14% larger in dancers than athletes (p = 0.01, ηp2 = 0.1); the size of OI was similar (p > 0.05). Men and women in both groups had similar sized OI and OE. There was no interaction between the estimated marginal mean CSA of either obturator and hip pain. It appears that ballet selectively increases muscle size of OE, but not OI. Obturator size was not related to mild hip pain, as OE and OI size was similar in dancers and athletes with and without pain. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Oscillation of plantar pressure center in athletes and non-athletes with and without ankle sprains

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    André Kenzo Saito

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To assess whether there is any difference in the oscillation of the plantar pressure center in single-leg stance between athletes and non-athletes with and without ankle sprains. METHODS: 54 volunteers performed four static assessments and one dynamic assessment while standing on one foot on a baropodometer, barefoot, for 10 s in each test. The variables of area (cm2, distance (cm, anteroposterior oscillation (cm, mediolateral oscillation (cm and mean velocity (cm/s were analyzed. The items "other symptoms" and "sports and recreation" of the subjective Foot and Ankle Outcome Score (FAOS questionnaire were applied. For the statistical analysis, repeated-measurement ANOVA (ANOVA-MR, multivariate ANOVA (MANOVA, Tukey's post hoc test and partial eta squared were used. RESULTS: ANOVA-MR revealed differences regarding distance, with major effects for eyes (p 0.05; and "sport and recreation", p > 0.05. CONCLUSION: Athletes present higher mean velocity of oscillation of plantar pressure center and generally do not have differences in oscillation amplitude in the sagittal and coronal planes, in comparison with non-athletes.

  18. Cannabinoids cases in polish athletes

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    A Pokrywka

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the number of cases and the profiles of Polish athletes who had occasionally been using marijuana or hashish throughout the period of 1998-2004, with respect to: sex, age, and discipline of sport as well as the period of testing (in- and out-of-competition. Results of the study were compared with some data reported by other WADA accredited anti-doping laboratories. Totally, 13 631 urine samples taken from Polish athletes of both sexes, aged 10-67 years, performing 46 disciplines of sport were tested. Cannabinoids were detected in 267 samples. Among Polish athletes the relative number of positive THC (tetrahydrocannabinol samples was one of the highest in Europe. The group of young Polish athletes (aged 16-24 years was the most THC-positive. THC-positive cases were noted more frequently in male athletes tested during out of competitions. The so-called contact sports (rugby, ice hockey, skating, boxing, badminton, body building and acrobatic sports were those sports, where the higher risk of cannabis use was observed. The legal interpretation of some positive cannabinoids results would be difficult because of some accidental and unintentional use of the narcotics by sportsmen. It was concluded that national anti-doping organizations (NADO’s, which are competent to judge whether the anti-doping rules were violated, should take into account the possibility of non-intentional doping use of cannabinoids via passive smoking of marijuana.

  19. Visual- spatial capacity: gender and sport differences in young volleyball and tennis athletes and non-athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notarnicola, Angela; Maccagnano, Giuseppe; Pesce, Vito; Tafuri, Silvio; Novielli, Grazia; Moretti, Biagio

    2014-01-21

    In the general population visual-spatial ability is better in males, due to the influence of biological and socio-cultural factors. We know that sport activity improves motor skills. The aim of this work is to determine if these gender differences exist in young athletes. The orientation test described by Terzi and standardized by Cesaroni, used to measure spatial ability, was carried out on 60 volleyball or 60 tennis athletes as well as on 60 non-sporting subjects. The data analysis revealed a worse performance for non-athletes in comparison with athletes in both components of test (p volleyball and tennis groups. As far as gender comparison is concerned, as expected in the non- sport group the males presented better values (p volleyball and tennis the specific training is able to develop spatial ability. Besides, boys and girls have similar performance demands and training experience. It appears that this specific training could be responsible for modifying gender differences in performance of spatial ability during adolescence.

  20. Use of dietary supplements among Brazilian athletes

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    Hellen Clair Garcez NABUCO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate the prevalence and establish the profile of the consumption of dietary supplements among Brazilian athletes. Methods: A total of 182 athletes of both genders from 20 different sports participated in this study. The athletes answered a questionnaire containing sociodemographic and sports-related questions and were interviewed about the consumption of dietary supplements. Results: Forty seven percent of athletes reported having consumed at least one type of dietary supplement and 38% said they use more than three different types of supplements concurrently. Whey protein was the most commonly consumed supplement, and the most frequently mentioned reason for its consumption was performance improvement. The main source of information was coaches, and individual sport athletes were the greatest consumers and the most likely to seek dietary supplement. Conclusion: Approximately half of the participants used dietary supplements, which on most occasions were recommended by coaches. The consumption profile also revealed multiple supplementation practice and showed that nutrition education is essential for this specific population.

  1. Jumping Together: Apprenticeship Learning among Elite Trampoline Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Ole; Ravn, Susanne; Christensen, Mette Krogh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Elite athletes often take part in group trainings and use teammates as learning resources. Despite this, research on the training and learning of elite athletes tends to characterise this training and learning as primarily individual. Purpose: This study, explores interrelated learning processes among elite athletes by exploring the…

  2. Organizational commitment among intercollegiate head athletic trainers: examining our work environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterstein, A P

    1998-01-01

    To 1) examine the commitment of head athletic trainers to their intercollegiate work environments, 2) develop a model that better reflects the head athletic trainer's daily work setting, and 3) use new techniques to describe the various ways head athletic trainers demonstrate commitment to their organizations. Organizational commitment (OC) surveys were sent to 461 head athletic trainers identified for the sample. A response rate of 71.5% (330/461) was obtained from the mail survey. A proportional random sample of head athletic trainers was taken from a population identified in the National Association of Collegiate Directors of Athletics (NACDA) directory of intercollegiate athletics as Division I, II, and III institutions. Returned OC surveys were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics for all demographic and OC variables. Exploratory cluster analysis was performed to examine naturally clustering groups. Exploratory cluster analysis revealed five naturally clustering groups that represent the head athletic trainers' patterns of commitment across the specific organizational targets. Paired t tests indicated that the continuance commitment scores were significantly lower than the affective and normative scores across the sample. Analysis of variance tests indicated significant differences for specific commitment dimensions based on gender and NCAA division demographics. Beyond that, the five-cluster solution revealed no particular demographic characteristics that predisposed individuals to specific clusters. THE FINDINGS REINFORCE A CENTRAL THEME IN INTERCOLLEGIATE ATHLETIC TRAINING: that student-athletes and student athletic trainers are the primary focus of the head athletic trainers' commitment. Positive attachment and obligation directed toward student-athletes and student athletic trainers link the five clusters. Commitment patterns in areas other than student-athletes and student athletic trainers define the cluster membership or head athletic

  3. The LEAF questionnaire: a screening tool for the identification of female athletes at risk for the female athlete triad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melin, Anna; Tornberg, Asa B; Skouby, Sven; Faber, Jens; Ritz, Christian; Sjödin, Anders; Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn

    2014-04-01

    Low energy availability (EA) in female athletes with or without an eating disorder (ED) increases the risk of oligomenorrhoea/functional hypothalamic amenorrhoea and impaired bone health, a syndrome called the female athlete triad (Triad). There are validated psychometric instruments developed to detect disordered eating behaviour (DE), but no validated screening tool to detect persistent low EA and Triad conditions, with or without DE/ED, is available. The aim of this observational study was to develop and test a screening tool designed to identify female athletes at risk for the Triad. Female athletes (n=84) with 18-39 years of age and training ≥5 times/week filled out the Low Energy Availability in Females Questionnaire (LEAF-Q), which comprised questions regarding injuries and gastrointestinal and reproductive function. Reliability and internal consistency were evaluated in a subsample of female dancers and endurance athletes (n=37). Discriminant as well as concurrent validity was evaluated by testing self-reported data against measured current EA, menstrual function and bone health in endurance athletes from sports such as long distance running and triathlon (n=45). The 25-item LEAF-Q produced an acceptable sensitivity (78%) and specificity (90%) in order to correctly classify current EA and/or reproductive function and/or bone health. The LEAF-Q is brief and easy to administer, and relevant as a complement to existing validated DE screening instruments, when screening female athletes at risk for the Triad, in order to enable early detection and intervention.

  4. Effect of inhaled corticosteroids on bronchial asthma in Japanese athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshino, Yoshifumi; Koya, Toshiyuki; Kagamu, Hiroshi; Tsukioka, Keisuke; Toyama, Mio; Sakagami, Takuro; Hasegawa, Takashi; Narita, Ichiei; Arakawa, Masaaki; Suzuki, Eiichi

    2015-04-01

    Asthma has a higher prevalence in athlete populations such as Olympic athletes than in the general population. Correct diagnosis and management of asthma in athletes is important for symptom control and avoidance of doping accusations. However, few reports are available on asthma treatment in the athlete population in clinical practice. In this study, we focused on the clinical efficacy of inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) for asthma in a Japanese athlete population. The study subjects included athletes who visited the Niigata Institute for Health and Sports Medicine, Niigata, Japan for athletic tests and who were diagnosed with asthma on the basis of respiratory symptoms and positive results in a bronchodilator or bronchial provocation test such as exercise, hypertonic saline, or methacholine provocation. The athletes received ICS alone for at least 3 months, and the clinical background, sports type, and treatment efficacy were analyzed. The study population comprised 80 athletes (59 men and 21 women) with a median age of 16.0 years. Regarding sports type, 28 athletes engaged in winter sports (35%), 22 in endurance sports (27.5%), and 25 in indoor sports (31.3%). Although ICS is the primary treatment in athlete asthma, 16.3% of the athletes showed an unsatisfactory response to treatment according to the Global Evaluation of Treatment Effectiveness (GETE). These subjects were characterized by a decreased response to methacholine and lower values for FEV1/FVC and type 2 helper T cell (Th2)-associated biomarkers relative to responsive athletes. In multivariate analysis, FEV1/FVC and the logarithm to the base 10 of the IgE level were independently associated with the ICS response. These data suggest that ICS is effective for asthma in most athletes. However, certain asthmatic athletes are less responsive to ICS than expected. The pathogenesis in these subjects may differ from that of conventional asthma characterized by chronic allergic airway inflammation. Copyright

  5. Career commitment of postprofessional athletic training program graduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Thomas G; Mazerolle, Stephanie M; Goodman, Ashley

    2015-04-01

    Choosing to pursue an advanced degree in athletic training appears to indicate professional commitment and passion for the profession. Currently, there is a paucity of information regarding why some athletic trainers pursue enrollment in a postprofessional athletic training program (PPATP), indicating commitment to the profession, but later depart for another primary role outside of athletic training. To understand why athletic trainers invested in advanced training via a PPATP but then decided to leave the profession. Qualitative study. Online data collection. Twelve graduates (8 women [67%], 4 men [33%], age = 31.58 ± 3.06 years) from PPATPs who no longer had primary employment as an athletic trainer. Recruits responded to an e-mail invitation to participate by completing a confidential online questionnaire. We analyzed data using a general inductive approach and secured trustworthiness using multiple-analyst triangulation, peer review, and member checks. Two higher-order themes emerged regarding the career commitment of former athletic trainers who were PPATP graduates: (1) departure from an athletic training career and (2) partial continuance in athletic training. Two second-order themes emerged from the reasons for departure: (1) decreased recognition of value and (2) work-life imbalance. Finally, we identified 2 third-order themes from the participants' reasons for departure because of a perceived lack of value: (1) low salary and (2) long, inconsistent hours worked. Most of our participants intended to stay in the profession when they chose to attend a PPATP. However, during role inductance in either the clinical experience of the PPATP they attended or early in their careers, they began to have thoughts of leaving mainly because of inadequate financial compensation, challenging work schedules, or both.

  6. Improvement of the training process of qualified female athletes engaged in bodybuilding in the general preparatory stage of the preparatory period, taking into account the biological cycle

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    Viacheslav Mulyk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: substantiation of the methodology of the training process of qualified female athletes engaged in bodybuilding in the general preparatory stage of the preparatory period, taking into account the biological cycle. Material & Methods: in the study participated 18 qualified female athletes engaged in bodybuilding, included in the Kharkov region team of bodybuilding. Results: comparative characteristic of the most frequently used methodology of the training process in bodybuilding are shows. An optimal methodology for qualified female athletes engaged in bodybuilding has been developed and justified, depending on the initial form of the athlete at the beginning of the general preparatory stage of the training. The dependence of the change in the body weight of female athletes from the training process is shows. Conclusion: on the basis of the study, the author suggests an optimal training methodology depending on the mesocycle of training in the preparatory period in the general preparatory stage.

  7. Delayed Effects of Remote Limb Ischemic Preconditioning on Maximum Oxygen Consumption, Lactate Release and Pulmonary Function Tests in Athletes and non-Athletes

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    Mahnaz Momeni

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Remote Ischemic Preconditioning (RIPC improves exercise performance, and since this phenomenon has two phases, the aim of the current study was to investigate the delayed effects of remote ischemic preconditioning on cardiopulmonary function in athletes and non-athletes. Materials and Methods: 25 male and female students were studied in two main athletes and non-athletes groups. RIPC was induced by using 3 cycles of alternative 5 minutes ischemia and 5 minutes reperfusion at arms of participants. Cardiopulmonary tests were measured before, after and 24 hours after inducing remote ischemic preconditioning. Maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max estimated by using queen steps test. Results: Analysis of data demonstrated that delayed RIPC in non-athletes group caused significant improvement in Forced Expiratory Volume in one second (FEV1 and Maximum Voluntary Ventilation (MVV and noticeable improvement in some other parameters of pulmonary function tests. Moreover, it decreased systolic blood pressure and heart rate and decreased lactate release in both groups especially athletes group but it had no significant effect on VO2max of both groups. Conclusion: Delayed RIPC improves cardiovascular function of athletes and pulmonary function of non-athletes subjects. Thus, it can be considered as a good replacement for doping to improve sports performance of subjects in sports tournaments.

  8. The study of athletes' body perception and gender role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastug, Gulsum

    2011-12-01

    In this study, it has been aimed to examine athletes' body perception and gender role. 120 male athletes and 120 non-athletic male university students participated in the study voluntarily. In the study, as the data collecting means, The Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire-MBSRQ was used in order to determine males' body perception levels, BEM Sex Role Inventory-BSRI was used to determine gender roles and Personal Information Form developed by the researcher was used to ascertain personal features of the subjects. When the athletes' body perception levels are examined, the features of physical competence orientation, health orientation, appearance evaluation, fitness evaluation, health evaluation and body areas satisfaction have been found to be higher than non-athletes' (p orientation (p > 0.05). When gender roles are examined, athletes have been found to have higher values than non-athletes' in terms of masculinity, femininity and social desirability (p gender role, it is also thought that athletes care about health, appearance and physical competence and are glad of body parts because of their muscled body structure developing due to the exercises and have flexible personality to show feminine and masculine features that the environment needs in terms of gender role.

  9. Skin Cancer Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors in Collegiate Athletes

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    Courtney Hobbs

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Outdoor athletes represent an important group at risk for skin cancer because they are routinely exposed to high levels of ultraviolet radiation. The purpose of this study was to assess current skin cancer knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among collegiate athletes. A modified version of the Melanoma Risk Behavior Survey was completed by 343 athletes attending a Southern University in the USA, generating an 87% response rate. Survey results demonstrated that the majority of the athletes do not limit their sun exposure and reported low levels of sun protective behaviors. In addition, athletes lacked knowledge about skin cancer and sun protection. Eighty-three percent of the athletes stated that tanning beds improve one’s overall health. Race was significantly associated with skin cancer knowledge, whereas, gender was found to be significantly associated with knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors towards skin cancer. Additionally, there was a significant relationship between knowledge and behavior, but not between attitude and behavior. This study highlights the need to educate athletes about the hazards of tanning to minimize UV exposure and promote sun protection habits. Moreover, athletes should be educated on the dangers of indoor tanning facilities and encouraged to avoid these facilities.

  10. Motivation towards dual career of European student-athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, Corrado; Guidotti, Flavia; Goncalves, Carlos E; Moreira, Liliana; Doupona Topic, Mojca; Bellardini, Helena; Tonkonogi, Michail; Colin, Allen; Capranica, Laura

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate motivations for the dual career of European student-athletes living in countries providing different educational services for elite athletes: State-centric regulation-State as sponsor/facilitator (State), National Sporting Federations/Institutes as intermediary (Federation) and Laisser Faire, no formal structures (No Structure). Therefore, the European Student-athletes' Motivation towards Sports and Academics Questionnaire (SAMSAQ-EU) was administered to 524 European student-athletes. Exploratory Factor Analysis, and Confirmatory Factor Analysis were applied to test the factor structure, and the reliability and validity of the SAMSAQ-EU, respectively. A multivariate approach was applied to verify subgroup effects (P ≤ 0.05) according to gender (i.e., female and male), age (i.e., ≤ 24 years, > 24 years), type of sport (i.e., individual sport and team sport) and competition level (i.e., national and international). Insufficient confirmatory indexes were reported for the whole European student-athlete group, whereas distinct three factor models [i.e., Student Athletic Motivation (SAM); Academic Motivation (AM); Career Athletic Motivation (CAM)] emerged, with acceptable reliability estimates, for State (SAM = 0.82; AM = 0.75; and CAM = 0.75), Federation (SAM = 0.82; AM = 0.66; and CAM = 0.87) and No Structure (SAM = 0.78; AM = 0.74; and CAM = 0.79) subgroups. Differences between subgroups were found only for competition level (P student-athletes' motivation for dual career has to be specifically investigated according to social contexts.

  11. Premenstrual Syndrome and Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder in Japanese Collegiate Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Takashi; Imoto, Yoko; Nagasawa, Hiroyo; Muroya, Miyuki; Shiina, Masami

    2015-08-01

    To determine the prevalence and impact of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) in Japanese collegiate athletes, with a focus on their disruption of athletic performance. Cross-sectional study. A university in Osaka, the largest city in western Japan. 232 female collegiate athletes. Premenstrual symptoms and social activities. The prevalence of each premenstrual symptom was high. The prevalence of moderate to severe PMS and PMDD was 8.6% and 2.9%, respectively, the same as in general high school students. The athletic performance of 44.3% of athletes was found to suffer in a game or in practice. "Elite athletes" (OR 8.63, 95% CI: 1.22-120.0), "Difficulty concentrating" (OR 3.15, 95% CI: 1.05-10.6), and "Fatigue or lack of energy" (OR 5.92, 95% CI: 1.32-34.5) increased the risk of poor athletic performance. This study showed that premenstrual symptoms affect not only the daily activities but also the athletic performance of collegiate athletes. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Ankylosing spondylitis in an athlete with chronic sacroiliac joint pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Timothy L; Cass, Nathan; Siegel, Courtney

    2014-02-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis is a disease in which inflammation of joints, most often in the axial skeleton, can lead to reactive fibrosis and eventual joint fusion with associated immobility and kyphosis. The disease often involves extra-articular features, such as uveitis and aortic regurgitation, as well as associated inflammatory conditions of the intestines. Its etiology is unknown. Ankylosing spondylitis most commonly presents in young males (15-30 years old) as persistent low back pain and stiffness that is worse in the morning and at night and improves with activity. The authors report the case of a young male athlete whose symptoms were initially incorrectly diagnosed as sacroiliac joint instability and dysfunction and later as a sacroiliac stress fracture before further workup revealed a seronegative spondyloarthropathy and the diagnosis of ankylosing spondylitis. The patient was prescribed oral indomethacin daily by the attending rheumatologist and started on a slow progression of return to running, jumping, and weight lifting. Within 4 weeks of beginning this treatment, the patient had complete cessation of pain with the medication. At follow-up 1 year after graduation from his university, the patient was nearly symptom free and working in a non-heavy labor job. The purpose of this case report is to remind sports medicine physicians of the prevalence of rheumatologic diseases in general and ankylosing spondylitis in particular and of the various ways in which spondyloarthropathies may present in athletes. Increased suspicion may lead to earlier diagnosis and treatment, potentially reducing illness severity and duration and improving the performance of athletes with this condition. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  13. Athletes and Supplements: Prevalence and Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garthe, Ina; Maughan, Ronald J

    2018-03-01

    In elite sport, where opponents are evenly matched, small factors can determine the outcome of sporting contests. Not all athletes know the value of making wise nutrition choices, but anything that might give a competitive edge, including dietary supplements, can seem attractive. Between 40% and 100% of athletes typically use supplements, depending on the type of sport, level of competition, and the definition of supplements. However, unless the athlete has a nutrient deficiency, supplementation may not improve performance and may have a detrimental effect on both performance and health. Dietary supplements are classified as a subcategory of food, so manufacturers are not required to provide evidence of product safety and efficacy, nor obtain approval from regulatory bodies before marketing supplements. This creates the potential for health risks, and serious adverse effects have been reported from the use of some dietary supplements. Athletes who compete in sports under an anti-doping code must also realize that supplement use exposes them to a risk of ingesting banned substances or precursors of prohibited substances. Government systems of regulations do not include specific laboratory testing for banned substances according to the WADA list, so a separate regulatory framework to evaluate supplements for their risk of provoking a failed doping test is needed. In the high-performance culture typical of elite sport, athletes may use supplements regardless of possible risks. A discussion around medical, physiological, cultural, and ethical questions may be warranted to ensure that the athlete has the information needed to make an informed choice.

  14. ATHLETE: Trading Complexity for Mass in Roving Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Brian H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a scaling analysis of ATHLETE for exploration of the moon, Mars and Near-Earth Asteroids (NEAs) in comparison to a more conventional vehicle configuration. Recently, the focus of human exploration beyond LEO has been on NEAs. A low gravity testbed has been constructed in the ATHLETE lab, with six computer-controlled winches able to lift ATHLETE and payloads so as to simulate the motion of the system in the vicinity of a NEA or to simulate ATHLETE on extreme terrain in lunar or Mars gravity. Test results from this system are described.

  15. The neuromechanical functional contractile properties of the thigh muscles measured using tensiomyography in male athletes and non-athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toskić Lazar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Involuntary neuromechanical muscle contractile properties, especially of the extensor muscles and knee joint flexors as the largest muscle groups of the caudal part of the body, play an important role in both everyday movement and sport. Based on these data we can obtain important information on the functional properties of muscles. The basic means of evaluation of the functional involuntary neuromechanical muscles contractile properties is the non-invasive tensiomyographic method (TMG. The aim of this study was to determine the differences between the involuntary neuromechanical contractile properties of the thigh muscles measured using the TMG method on a sample of male athletes and non-athletes. The sample of participants was made up of 17 athletes and 10 non-athletes. By applying the multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA and the t-test, we achieved results which indicate that of the overall 30 variables, a difference was determined among 13 of them. Most of the differences were determined for the extensor muscles of the right knee, especially of the rectus femoris muscle. It was also shown that in addition to the main knee joint extensor muscle (rectus femoris the main knee joint flexor muscle (biceps femoris also takes part in the definition of the difference between athletes and non-athletes. The results have shown that the following variables: contraction time (Tc and delay contraction time (Td are the functional parameters for which the highest difference between athletes and non-athletes were determined (from t = -2.284, p < 0.05 for the vastus lateralis of the right leg to t = -4.018, p < 0.01 for the rectus femoris of the left leg. These results have shown that it is possible to determine the differences in the functional involuntary neuromechanical contractile properties of the thigh muscles among trained and untrained individuals using the tensiomyographic method, but at the same time indicated that these differences were very

  16. Motivation and Goal-Setting in College Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Cash, Erin

    2009-01-01

    Motivation and goal-setting are important concepts in athletics and sport and exercise psychology. However, little research has compared motivation and goal-setting by gender. The self-determination theory was used and the purpose of this study was to determine if there is a difference between male and female athletes when looking at amotivation, external regulation, identified regulation, intrinsic motivation, and goal-setting. One hundred and six student-athletes (fifty one males and f...

  17. Key Nutritional Strategies to Optimize Performance in Para Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaramella, Jacque; Kirihennedige, Nuwanee; Broad, Elizabeth

    2018-05-01

    Para athletes are a high-risk population for inadequate dietary intake leading to insufficiencies in nutrients important to athletic performance. This is partly due to minimal support and resources, especially in sport nutrition education, combined with limited prior nutrition knowledge and risks associated with different impairment types. Inadequate energy, carbohydrate, protein, iron, and vitamin D status are of particular concern in Para athletes. Assessment of these key nutrients, along with sport nutrition education, is needed to empower Para athletes with the knowledge to understand their individual nutrition needs and maximize athletic performance. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Reliability and Validity of Athletes Disability Index Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noormohammadpour, Pardis; Hosseini Khezri, Alireza; Farahbakhsh, Farzin; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali; Smuck, Matthew; Kordi, Ramin

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate validity and reliability of a new proposed questionnaire for assessment of functional disability in athletes with low back pain (LBP). Validity and reliability study. Elite athletes participating in different fields of sports. Participants were 165 male and female athletes (between 12 and 50 years old) with LBP. Athlete Disability Index (ADI) Questionnaire which is developed by the authors for assessing LBP-related disability in athletes, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), and the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (RDQ). Self-reported responses were collected regarding LBP-related disability through ADI, ODI, and RDQ. The test-retest reliability was strong, and intraclass correlation value ranged between 0.74 and 0.94. The Cronbach alpha coefficient value of 0.91 (P visual analog scale was r = 0.626 (P disability levels were mild in the large majority of subjects (91.5% and 86.0%, respectively). Alternatively, disability assessments by the ADI did not cluster at the mild level and ranged more broadly from mild to very high. The ADI is a reliable and valid instrument for assessing disability in athletes with LBP. Compared with the available LBP disability questionnaires used in the general population, ADI can more precisely stratify the disability levels of athletes due to LBP.

  19. Research Note: Athletic Graduation Rates and Simpson's Paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, Victor A.

    2007-01-01

    Graduation rates for male athletes overall as well as men's football and basketball players lag behind those of male non-athletes at Division I colleges and universities. Scholarship athletes, however, are much more likely to be drawn from racial and ethnic groups with lower average graduation rates. After accounting for differences in racial…

  20. Ergogenic risks elevate health risks in young athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesemer, Bernard A

    2003-11-01

    Young athletes may use many products and techniques in an attempt to increase competitive edge in sports. The doping techniques that were previously seen in elite adult athletes are now being noted in increasingly competitive elementary, middle, and high school male and female athletes. The risk of significant morbidity and mortality associated with the use of these products is substantially increased when other risk factors are present. The risk for heat-related illness and possible heat-related mortality is higher in physiologically immature, overweight, and poorly conditioned young athletes. These are the same athletes who may be more likely to use stimulant or anabolic steroid products in attempts to catch up on training and conditioning regimens, improve their competitive advantage, or improve their physiques. The risk for heat-related incidents is higher in young athletes who are predisposed to these events because of a family trait or a previous heat-related adverse event in their own medical histories. Combinations of these factors (eg, high osmotic dietary supplements, stimulants, pre-existing medical factors, adverse ambient conditions) may significantly increase a young athlete's chances of a serious, potentially fatal event. Similarly, the risk of cardiac-related sudden death in a young athlete is significantly increased by the use of stimulants such as methamphetamine. As is the case with heat-related adverse events, the risk of cardiac-related morbidity and mortality may be significantly increased when other variables are present, such as the presence of other medications and pre-existing medical factors. As athletic competition becomes increasingly intense for younger athletes, pediatricians need to be aware of the possibility that their young patients are using ergogenic aids that may increase the risk for sudden death significantly. Pediatricians should be aware of the products available to these young competitors, and of the co-factors that

  1. Athletic coaches as violence prevention advocates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaime, Maria Catrina D; McCauley, Heather L; Tancredi, Daniel J; Nettiksimmons, Jasmine; Decker, Michele R; Silverman, Jay G; O'Connor, Brian; Stetkevich, Nicholas; Miller, Elizabeth

    2015-04-01

    Adolescent relationship abuse (ARA) is a significant public health problem. Coaching Boys Into Men (CBIM) is an evidence-based ARA prevention program that trains coaches to deliver violence prevention messages to male athletes. Assessing acceptability and impact of CBIM on coaches may inform prevention efforts that involve these important adults in health promotion among youth. As part of a two-armed cluster-randomized controlled trial of CBIM in 16 high schools in Northern California, coaches completed baseline and postseason surveys (n = 176) to assess their attitudes and confidence delivering the program. Coaches in the intervention arm also participated in interviews (n = 36) that explored program acceptability, feasibility, and impact. Relative to controls, intervention coaches showed increases in confidence intervening when witnessing abusive behaviors among their athletes, greater bystander intervention, and greater frequency of violence-related discussions with athletes and other coaches. Coaches reported the program was easy to implement and valuable for their athletes. Findings illustrate the value of exploring attitudinal and behavioral changes among ARA prevention implementers, and suggest that coaches can gain confidence and enact behaviors to discourage ARA among male athletes. Coaches found the program to be feasible and valuable, which suggests potential for long-term uptake and sustainability. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Media portrayal of elite athletes with disability - a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Leanne; Robinson, Priscilla; Shields, Nora

    2017-11-10

    The media plays an important role in shaping society's beliefs about disability and sport. The aim of this systematic review is to identify how elite athletes with disability are portrayed in the media. Six electronic databases were searched from 2001 to March 2017 for quantitative or qualitative content analysis of media coverage of elite athletes with disability: SportsDiscus, CINAHL, PsychInfo, Medline 1996-, Embase, and Proquest. Quality assessment and data extraction were performed by two independent assessors. Seventeen moderate quality articles were included. Six themes emerged from the data such as frequency of articles and photos about elite athletes with disability; athlete gender; athlete nationality; disability; athleticism; and Olympic Games versus Paralympic Games. Our results show that elite athletes with disability are less visible in the media than their nondisabled counterparts; female athletes received less coverage than male; the media favored domestic athletes and certain types of disability; and, although there was a focus on athleticism, this was underpinned by a "supercrip" narrative and a medicalised description of disability. Although there has been a positive shift in the narrative around elite athletes with disability in media, relative absence and differing portrayal is present. Considering the power of media shaping society's perceptions of disability, further investigation is warranted. Implications for Rehabilitation Media has a role in how elite athletes with disability are portrayed and consequently perceived by the public. Elite athletes with disability rarely feature in media. Images of disability are minimized, and certain types of disabilities are favored. An athletic narrative is emerging; however, a medicalised description of athletes remains, shifting the focus from athleticism. "Supercrip" and "Superhuman" terms are commonly used, but may negatively impact the broader disability community.

  3. Perceptions of Coach-Athlete Relationship Are More Important to Coaches than Athletes in Predicting Dyadic Coping and Stress Appraisals: An Actor-Partner Independence Mediation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Adam R; Perry, John L

    2016-01-01

    Most attempts to manage stress involve at least one other person, yet coping studies in sport tend to report an athlete's individual coping strategies. There is a limited understanding of coping involving other people, particularly within sport, despite athletes potentially spending a lot of time with other people, such as their coach. Guided by the systemic-transactional model of stress and coping among couples (Bodenmann, 1995), from relationship psychology, we assessed dyadic coping, perceptions of relationship quality, and primary stress appraisals of challenge and threat among 158 coach-athlete dyads (n = 277 participants). The athletes competed at amateur (n = 123), semi-professional (n = 31), or professional levels (n = 4). Coaches and athletes from the same dyad completed a measure of dyadic coping, coach-athlete relationship, and stress appraisals. We tested an Actor-Partner Interdependence Mediation Model to account for the non-independence of dyadic data. These actor-partner analyses revealed differences between athletes and coaches. Although the actor effects were relatively large compared to partner effects, perceptions of relationship quality demonstrated little impact on athletes. The mediating role of relationship quality was broadly as important as dyadic coping for coaches. These findings provide an insight in to how coach-athlete dyads interact to manage stress and indicate that relationship quality is of particular importance for coaches, but less important for athletes. In order to improve perceptions of relationship quality among coaches and athletes, interventions could be developed to foster positive dy