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Sample records for athetosis

  1. 综合手法治疗痉挛及手足徐动型脑性瘫痪的初探%Comprehensive manual treatment of cerebral palsy with spasm and athetosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张华; 李初阳

    2002-01-01

    @@ Background: Comprehensive manual treatment consists of Shangtian Zheng therapy and posture correction used in China ,which is effective in relieving cerebral palsy with spasm and athetosis. According to Shangtian Zheng principle, spasm and extreme tension are the main causes underlying cerebral palsy. So, extreme tension in hands and feet should be delimitated.

  2. Kinetografia: interpretação dos kinetogramas em um caso de atetose unilateral Kinetography: interpretation of the kinetograms in a case of unilateral athetosis

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    Milton B. Moreira

    1967-03-01

    Full Text Available O autor define e explica o que é kinetograma e a técnica de sua realização. Mostra que a movimentação exigida resulta do funcionamento de quase todo o sistema nervoso central através de um mecanismo interno complexo do qual participam vários circuitos nervosos. Adverte que as lesões localizadas nestes últimos acarretam deformações e desorganizações kinetográficas peculiares. Informa que a observação vem demonstrando que desde o início de algumas enfermidades sistematizadas do sistema nervoso central existem variações características nos traçados. Em um caso de atetose unilateral, por lesão do striatum contralateral, o autor procura explicar a ação vicariante do hemisfério cerebral homolateral íntegro, por ocasião dos movimentos simultâneos e sinérgicos das duas mãos. Responsabiliza a comissura de Meynert pela condução interpalidal da suplência verificada mediante os kinetogramas e expõe o circuito reverberante aberrante (extrapiramidal que entra em funcionamento nestas condições excepcionais.The author explains the kinetogram's technique and says that the necessary movimentation results from a complex mechanism where various nervous circuits participate, emphasizing that lesions located on these circuits produce peculiar kinetographic distortions. He points out that from the beginning of some diseases of the central nervous system there are characteristic changes on the tracings. In one case of unilateral athetosis the author tries to explain the vicariant action of the normal homolateral cerebral hemisphere during simultaneous movements of both hands. Probably the Meynert's commissure is responsible for the interpallidal conduction of the vicariant control verified through the kinetograms. The reverberating and aberrant circuit which takes action on these conditions is discussed.

  3. Analysis of cranial CT-scan findings in cerebral palsy

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    Wada, F.; Andoh, T.; Une, K.; Takamatsu, T. (Kitakyushu Municipal Sogo-Ryoiku Center (Japan))

    1981-06-01

    CT-scan findings of 87 cerebral palsied children were studied. They consist of 23 cases of spastic quadriplegia, 9 cases of diplegia, 12 cases of paraplegia, 24 cases of athetosis and mixed type, and 19 cases of hemiplegia. In the former four types, ventricular dilatation and cortical atrophy were measured and abnormal changes in cerebral substance and cerebellar atrophy were observed. Spastic quadriplegia showed most intense changes in every aspect of the abnormalities, while paraplegia had almost normal appearance. Athetosis and mixed type had moderate changes. Hemiplegia always showed asymmetrical view on CT-scan, dilatation of lateral ventricle or atrophy of hemisphere in contralateral side being observed.

  4. Analysis of cranial CT-scan findings in cerebral palsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CT-scan findings of 87 cerebral palsied children were studied. They consist of 23 cases of spastic quadriplegia, 9 cases of diplegia, 12 cases of paraplegia, 24 cases of athetosis and mixed type, and 19 cases of hemiplegia. In the former four types, ventricular dilatation and cortical atrophy were measured and abnormal changes in cerebral substance and cerebellar atrophy were observed. Spastic quadriplegia showed most intense changes in every aspect of the abnormalities, while paraplegia had almost normal appearance. Athetosis and mixed type had moderate changes. Hemiplegia always showed asymmetrical view on CT-scan, dilatation of lateral ventricle or atrophy of hemisphere in contralateral side being observed. (author)

  5. Continuous drug delivery in early- and late-stage Parkinson's disease as a strategy for avoiding dyskinesia induction and expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jenner, P.; McCreary, A. C.; Scheller, D. K. A.

    2011-01-01

    The treatment of the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) is dependent on the use of dopamine replacement therapy in the form of l-dopa and dopamine agonist drugs. However, the development of dyskinesia (chorea, dystonia, athetosis) can become treatment limiting. The initiation of dyskinesia i

  6. Development of postural adjustments during reaching in infants with CP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadders-Algra, M; van der Fits, IBM; Stremmelaar, EF; Touwen, BCL

    1999-01-01

    The development of postural adjustments during reaching movements was longitudinally studied in seven infants with cerebral palsy (CP) between 4 and 18 months of age. Five infants developed spastic hemiplegia, one spastic tetraplegia, and one spastic tetraplegia with athetosis. Each assessment consi

  7. Biomechanical analysis of countermovement jump in people with cerebral palsy Análisis biomecánico del salto vertical con contramovimiento en personas con parálisis cerebral

    OpenAIRE

    K. Gianikellis; Bote, A.; J. M.ª Pulido; Pérez, A.

    2010-01-01

    The main purpose of the study was to evaluate the patterns of the developed ground reaction forces in the two – legged countermovement jumping, performed by persons affected by tetraparesis with ataxia, tetraparesis with athetosis, tetraparesis with spasticity, diplegia with spasticity, right and left hemiplegia and, finally, right and left hemiparesis. After twenty subjects jumped on the surface of a force plate analysis of the ground reaction force &nd...

  8. Brain CT findings of severely multiple handicapped children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brain CT were performed in 63 severely multiple handicapped children (30 males and 33 females) ranging in age from 2 to 21 years. Abnormal findings including ventricular dilatation and cortical atrophy were detected in 56 of the patients (88.9%). There was no specific finding for athetosis type cerebral palsy. There was no constant relationship between underlying diseases and CT findings.(Namekawa, K.)

  9. Polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis associated with Fahr′s syndrome

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    U Dundar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral symmetric calcification involving striatum pallidum with or without deposits in the dentate nucleus, thalamus and white matter is commonly referred to as Fahr′s syndrome. Symptoms of the disorder may include deterioration of motor function, spasticity, spastic paralysis, dysarthria, dementia, seizures, headache and athetosis. The clinical and imaging abnormalities are restricted to the central nervous system (CNS. We report an unusual association of Fahr′s syndrome with polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis in a girl.

  10. CT cold areas in both putamens in cases with history of perinatal asphyxia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CT bilaterally showed a cold area in the putamen of 5 infants with cerebral palsy who had had asphyxia at birth. The etiology was discussed, and 4 of the cases were clinically studied. All four patients had convulsive tetraplegia, or convulsive bilateral paralysis with the element of athetosis. Three of them had a history of infantile epilepsy, accompanied by abnormal ocular movement. Two patients with tetraplegia showed marked hypotonia of the trunk in ventral support (Landau). Impairment of the bilateral putamens in the abnormal muscle tone was inferred. (Chiba, N.)

  11. 颈总动脉交感神经网剥脱术治疗脑性瘫痪的探讨%Discussion of common carotid artery sympathetic nerve net exfoliation therapy treating cerebral palsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹彪中; 李如求; 成顺成

    2002-01-01

    Objective To discuss mechanism of common carotid artery sympathetic nerve net exfoliation therapy treating sequela of cerebral palsy. Methods Examing and assessing before and after operation, curative effect analysis, Wals value assay and 1 year follow up to 124 patients. Result Score of patients in this group reached excellent 1 week after operation, reached good 1 year after operation, Wals value measure P≤ 0.05. Conclusion This operation had an effect on the promotion of mixed type; athetosis type cerebral palsy, upper limb function disorder and malfunction.

  12. CT cold areas in both putamens in cases with history of perinatal asphyxia

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    Ishizaki, Asayo; Maruyama, Hiroshi (Tokyo Women' s Medical Coll. (Japan))

    1982-12-01

    CT bilaterally showed a cold area in the putamen of 5 infants with cerebral palsy who had had asphyxia at birth. The etiology was discussed, and 4 of the cases were clinically studied. All four patients had convulsive tetraplegia, or convulsive bilateral paralysis with the element of athetosis. Three of them had a history of infantile epilepsy, accompanied by abnormal ocular movement. Two patients with tetraplegia showed marked hypotonia of the trunk in ventral support (Landau). Impairment of the bilateral putamens in the abnormal muscle tone was inferred.

  13. Development of postural adjustments during reaching in infants with CP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadders-Algra, M; van der Fits, I B; Stremmelaar, E F; Touwen, B C

    1999-11-01

    The development of postural adjustments during reaching movements was longitudinally studied in seven infants with cerebral palsy (CP) between 4 and 18 months of age. Five infants developed spastic hemiplegia, one spastic tetraplegia, and one spastic tetraplegia with athetosis. Each assessment consisted of a simultaneous recording of video data and surface EMGs of arm, neck, trunk, and leg muscles during reaching in various lying and sitting positions. The basic organization of postural adjustments of the children developing spastic CP was intact. Their main problem was a deficient capacity to modulate the postural adjustments to task-specific constraints - a deficit which was attributed to a combination of an impaired motor coordination and deficits in sensory integration. The child with spastic-dyskinetic CP showed distinct abnormalities in the basic organization of postural adjustments. PMID:10576641

  14. MR imaging of cerebral palsy

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    Saginoya, Toshiyuki [Urasoe General Hospital, Okinawa (Japan); Yamaguchi, Keiichiro; Kuniyoshi, Kazuhide [and others

    1996-06-01

    We evaluated 35 patients with cerebral palsy on the basis of MR imaging findings in the brain. The types of palsy were spastic quadriplegia (n=11), spastic diplegia (n=9), spastic hemiplegia (n=2), double hemiplegia (n=1), athetosis (n=10) and mixed (n=2). Of all patients, 28 (80%) generated abnormal findings. In spastic quadriplegia, although eight cases revealed severe brain damage, two cases showed no abnormal findings in the brain. One of the three had cervical cord compression caused by atlanto-axial subluxation. In spastic diplegia, the findings were divided according to whether the patient was born at term or preterm. If the patient had been born prematurely, the findings showed periventricular leukomalacia and abnormally high intensity in the posterior limbs of the internal capsule on T2-weighted images. MR imaging in spastic hemiplegia revealed cerebral infarction. In the athetoid type, half of all cases showed either no abnormal findings or slight widening of the lateral ventricle. Three cases showed abnormal signals of the basal ganglia. The reason why athetoid-type palsy did not show severe abnormality is unknown. We believe that MR imaging is a useful diagnostic modality to detect damage in the brain in cerebral palsy and plays an important role in the differentiation of cerebral palsy from the spastic palsy disease. (author)

  15. CT findings of cerebral palsy and behaviour development

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    Sakamoto, Zenji

    1987-06-01

    It is well recognized that CT scan is very useful in the early diagnosis of cerebral palsy. The author has studied this time the CT scan findings of cerebral palsy children in their relations to the type of palsy, cause of palsy, complications in the central nervous system, and prognosis of behaviour development, in order to predict the prognosis of behaviour development. Dilatation of the contralateral cerebral ventricle was found in 82 % of hemiplegic type. Abnormal EEG was found in 73 %, but their behaviour development was satisfactory, with good development of speech regardless to the side of palsy. This might be helped by compensational function of the brain due to plasticity. Diplegia presented bilateral moderate dilatation of ventricles with favorable prognosis. Tetraplegia was caused mostly by asphyxia or congenital anomaly and revealed marked dilatation of ventricles or severe cortical atrophy. Some cases presented diffuse cortical low-density, often associated with abnormal EEG, and their prognosis was worst. Athetosis had normal CT finding or mild ventricular dilatation, but all cases of ataxia presented normal CT findings. Hypotonia had mild ventricular dilatation. Two of three mixed type cases had normal CT findings and another had mild ventricular dilatation. No correlation was found between ventricular dilatation and behaviour development, but statistically significant difference was found in the cases with 30 % or more Evans' ratio (P < 0.05). Prognosis of severe ventricular dilatation cases was poor.

  16. MR imaging of cerebral palsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We evaluated 35 patients with cerebral palsy on the basis of MR imaging findings in the brain. The types of palsy were spastic quadriplegia (n=11), spastic diplegia (n=9), spastic hemiplegia (n=2), double hemiplegia (n=1), athetosis (n=10) and mixed (n=2). Of all patients, 28 (80%) generated abnormal findings. In spastic quadriplegia, although eight cases revealed severe brain damage, two cases showed no abnormal findings in the brain. One of the three had cervical cord compression caused by atlanto-axial subluxation. In spastic diplegia, the findings were divided according to whether the patient was born at term or preterm. If the patient had been born prematurely, the findings showed periventricular leukomalacia and abnormally high intensity in the posterior limbs of the internal capsule on T2-weighted images. MR imaging in spastic hemiplegia revealed cerebral infarction. In the athetoid type, half of all cases showed either no abnormal findings or slight widening of the lateral ventricle. Three cases showed abnormal signals of the basal ganglia. The reason why athetoid-type palsy did not show severe abnormality is unknown. We believe that MR imaging is a useful diagnostic modality to detect damage in the brain in cerebral palsy and plays an important role in the differentiation of cerebral palsy from the spastic palsy disease. (author)

  17. CT findings of cerebral palsy and behaviour development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well recognized that CT scan is very useful in the early diagnosis of cerebral palsy. The author has studied this time the CT scan findings of cerebral palsy children in their relations to the type of palsy, cause of palsy, complications in the central nervous system, and prognosis of behaviour development, in order to predict the prognosis of behaviour development. Dilatation of the contralateral cerebral ventricle was found in 82 % of hemiplegic type. Abnormal EEG was found in 73 %, but their behaviour development was satisfactory, with good development of speech regardless to the side of palsy. This might be helped by compensational function of the brain due to plasticity. Diplegia presented bilateral moderate dilatation of ventricles with favorable prognosis. Tetraplegia was caused mostly by asphyxia or congenital anomaly and revealed marked dilatation of ventricles or severe cortical atrophy. Some cases presented diffuse cortical low-density, often associated with abnormal EEG, and their prognosis was worst. Athetosis had normal CT finding or mild ventricular dilatation, but all cases of ataxia presented normal CT findings. Hypotonia had mild ventricular dilatation. Two of three mixed type cases had normal CT findings and another had mild ventricular dilatation. No correlation was found between ventricular dilatation and behaviour development, but statistically significant difference was found in the cases with 30 % or more Evans' ratio (P < 0.05). Prognosis of severe ventricular dilatation cases was poor. (author)

  18. Case of dentato-rubro-pallido-luysian atrophy. MRI findings and disturbance of ocular movement

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    Usui, Sadanari; Komiya, Tadatoshi

    1988-06-01

    A clinical case of dentato-rubro-pallido-luysian atrophy (DRPLA) was reported. We established several aspects on the basis of MRI findings and a neuro-otological study. A 47-year-old woman had gait disturbance, involuntary movements, speech disturbance, and memory disturbance at the age of 42. She was admitted to the hospital because of worsening of the gait disturbance. Neurological examinations showed choreo-athetosis of the face, neck and upper extremities, mental disturbance, and scanning speech. However, she had neither ocular disturbance nor epilepsy or myoclonus. On the MRI-CT, an atrophy of midbrain and pontine tegmentum was observed. The neuro-otological study showed gaze nystagmus at the horizontal gaze, rebound nystagmus, hypometria of the saccade, saccadic pursuit, reduction of the optokinetic nystagmus, and increase in caloric nystagmus by means of visual input. A severe atrophy of the brainstem tegmentum and a mild atrophy of the cerebellar hemisphere and cerebral cortex are regarded as neuro-radiological features of DRPLA. Moreover, tegmental atrophy is related to ocular disturbance as a clinical feature. Various neuro-otological findings reveal many systems of ocular movements, i.e., a smooth pursuit system, a saccade system, and a vestibulo-ocular reflex system, involving flocculus. DRPLA can be clinically diagnosed by means of clinical features, MRI findings, and neuro-otological findings. A variety of neuro-otological abnormalities may indicate a progression of the ocular disturbance and a variety of lesions.

  19. CT findings of hereditary dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy (DRPLA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hereditary dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy (DRPLA) has recently been recognized as a clinicopathological entity. It may be defined as a multisystem degenerative disease of dominant inheritance, and characterized clinically by a combination of epilepsy, myoclonus, ataxia, dementia, and choreo-athetosis. This paper reports on the CT findings of ten patients (in four families) with DRPLA. In two families, the diagnosis was established on the basis of the clinicopathological findings, while in the other two, the diagnosis was made clinically. Although the CT findings were not identical in all patients, some degree of atrophic change was always observed in the cerebellum, brainstem, and cerebral cortex. Cerebellar atrophy was always accompanied by a dilatation of the fourth ventricle. Midbrain atrophy was characterized by a prominent tegmental atrophy and aqueductal dilatation, such as is seen in progressive supranuclear palsy. Of the four patients over 40 years of age, three had a diffuse hypodensity of the cerebral white matter on CT. To our knowledge, there have been no previous reports on this hypodensity in patients with spino-cerebellar degeneration or Huntington's chorea. CT may be helpful in the differential diagnosis of progressive neuro-degenerative disorders. (author)

  20. Prevalence of neurological disorders in Al Quseir, Egypt: methodological aspects

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    El-Tallawy H

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Hamdy El-Tallawy,1 Wafa Farghaly,1 Nabil Metwally,2 Tarek Rageh,1 Ghaydaa A Shehata,1 Reda Badry,1 Esam El Moselhy,2 Mahmoud Hassan,2 Mohamed M Sayed,3 Ahmed A Abdelwarith,1 Y Hamed,2 I Shaaban,2 Talal Mohamed,4 Mohamed Abd El Hamed,1 MR Kandil1 1Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt; 2Department of Neurology and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University (Assiut branch, Assiut, Egypt; 3Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Sohag University, Sohag, Egypt; 4Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Qena University, Qena, Egypt Abstract: Methodology and strategy play a very important role in epidemiological studies. Determination of the study area, geographical features, facilities, difficulties, and key personnel from the same area are important factors for successful methodology. Over 31 months (July 1, 2009 to January 31, 2012, a screening and an examination survey were carried out to ascertain the prevalence of epilepsy, stroke, dementia, cerebellar ataxia, migraine, cerebral palsy, Parkinsonism, chorea, athetosis, dystonia, trigeminal neuralgia, Bell's palsy, multiple sclerosis, spinal cord disorders, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders in Al Quseir, Red Sea Governorate, Egypt. A total of 33,285 people were screened by three neurologists in a door-to-door manner, including every door, using a standardized Arabic questionnaire to detect any subject with a neurological disorder. The methodological aspects of this project were carried out through eight phases: (1 data collection; (2 preparation; (3 screening; (4 case ascertainment; (5 investigations; (6 classifications; (7 data entry; and (8 statistics and tabulations. The results of this study reveal that the total prevalence of neurological disorders in Al Quseir was 4.6% and higher among females (5.2% than males (3.9%. The highest prevalence was recorded in the elderly population (60+ years [8.0%] and among the age

  1. Door-to-door survey of major neurological disorders (project in Al Quseir City, Red Sea Governorate, Egypt

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    El Tallawy HN

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Hamdy NA El Tallawy,1 Wafaa MA Farghaly,1 Tarek A Rageh,1 Ghaydaa A Shehata,1 Reda Badry,1 Nabil A Metwally,2 Esam A El Moselhy,2 Mahmoud Hassan,2 Mohamed A Sayed,3 Ahmed A Waris,1 Yaser Hamed,2 Islam Shaaban,2 Mohamed A Hamed,1 Mahmoud Raafat Kandil11Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt; 2Department of Neurology and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University (Assiut branch, Assiut, Egypt; 3Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Sohag University, Sohag, EgyptAbstract: A door-to-door survey, including every household, was conducted for all inhabitants of Al Quseir City (33,283, Red Sea Governorate, Egypt by three specialists of neurology as well as nine senior staff members of neurology and 15 female social workers to assess the epidemiology of major neurological disorders. Over six phases, from July 1, 2009 to January 31, 2012, screening of all eligible people in the population was carried out, by which case ascertainment of all major neurological disorders included in the study was done according to the accepted definitions and diagnostic criteria of the World Health Organization. The order of frequency of prevalence of the studied neurological disorders was dementia (3.83% for those aged > 60 years, migraine (2.8% for those aged > 8 years, stroke (6.2/1000 for those aged > 20 years, epilepsy (5.5/1000, Parkinson’s disease (452.1/100,000 for those aged > 40 years, cerebral palsy (3.6/1000 among children 37 years, chorea (21.03/100,000, athetosis (15/100,000, and multiple sclerosis (13.74/100,000. The incidence rates of stroke, epilepsy, and Bell’s palsy were 181/100,000, 48/100,000, and 98.9/100,000 per year, respectively.Keywords: prevalence, incidence, neurological disorders

  2. CT of the infants and children with mental and/or physical handicaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computed tomography (CT) was performed on 47 children and adolescents with mental and/or physical handicaps. Of these series, 22 cases of morphological change were noted. Another 25 cases showed no overt CT abnormality. These 47 cases were divided into three groups in the following manner. Group 1, with no CT abnormality; Group 2, with ventricular dilatation and/or cerebral atrophy, and Group 3, with a major morphological anomaly of the brain. Group 1 (25 cases) showed a marked dissociation between the CT findings and the IQ. EEG showed normal findings in two cases, diffuse abnormality in 5 cases, and focal abnormality in 9 cases. This group alone included 8 cases of athetosis. Group 2 (14 cases). Seven cases of EEG showed diffuse abnormality in 3 cases and focal abnormality in 4 cases. So-called cerebral palsy was noted in 11 cases. Group 3 (8 cases). This group included cases of hemihydranencephaly, porencephaly, agenesis of the corpus callosum, and arachnoid cyst. The mean and standard deviations of the IQ's in the groups are 57.1 +- 21.6, 65.2 +- 20.5, and 72.0 +- 8.0. That is, an inverted correlation between the CT abnormality and the IQ was noted. CT is a noninvasive study and a reasonable method of investigation for mentally handicapped children. DeMyer gave three categories of cerebral malformation: cytogenetic malformations, organogenetic disorders, and histogenetic disorders. On the other hand, EEG aimed at evaluating cerebral function and CT undertaken for morphological evaluation reveal no intimate correlation with one another. Rather, these two procedures each have their one value for the evaluation of the function and the structure of the brain. Mentally and/or physically handicapped patients without any overt cerebral anomaly have been found to be as follows: Murobushi, 12.29%; Malamud, 34%; Gross, 15.8%; Benda, 15%, and Hamada, 45.4%. (author)

  3. Disorders of Upper Limb Movements in Ataxia-Telangiectasia.

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    Aasef G Shaikh

    Full Text Available Ataxia-telangiectasia is known for cerebellar degeneration, but clinical descriptions of abnormal tone, posture, and movements suggest involvement of the network between cerebellum and basal ganglia. We quantitatively assessed the nature of upper-limb movement disorders in ataxia-telangiectasia. We used a three-axis accelerometer to assess the natural history and severity of abnormal upper-limb movements in 80 ataxia-telangiectasia and 19 healthy subjects. Recordings were made during goal-directed movements of upper limb (kinetic task, while arms were outstretched (postural task, and at rest. Almost all ataxia-telangiectasia subjects (79/80 had abnormal involuntary movements, such as rhythmic oscillations (tremor, slow drifts (dystonia or athetosis, and isolated rapid movements (dystonic jerks or myoclonus. All patients with involuntary movements had both kinetic and postural tremor, while 48 (61% also had resting tremor. The tremor was present in transient episodes lasting several seconds during two-minute recording sessions of all three conditions. Percent time during which episodic tremor was present was greater for postural and kinetic tasks compared to rest. Resting tremor had higher frequency but smaller amplitude than postural and kinetic tremor. Rapid non-rhythmic movements were minimal during rest, but were triggered during sustained arm postures and goal directed arm movements suggesting they are best considered a form of dystonic jerks or action myoclonus. Advancing age did not correlate with the severity of involuntary limb movements. Abnormal upper-limb movements in ataxia-telangiectasia feature classic cerebellar impairment, but also suggest involvement of the network between the cerebellum and basal ganglia.

  4. Wilson's disease: two treatment modalities. Correlations to pretreatment and posttreatment brain MRI

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    Leiros da Costa, Maria do Desterro [Federal University of Paraiba, Movement Disorders Unit, Paraiba (Brazil); Spitz, Mariana; Bacheschi, Luiz Alberto; Barbosa, Egberto Reis [University of Sao Paulo, Movement Disorders Unit, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Leite, Claudia Costa; Lucato, Leandro Tavares [University of Sao Paulo, Department of Radiology, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2009-10-15

    Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies on Wilson's disease (WD) show lack of correlations between neurological and neuroimaging features. Long-term follow-up reports with sequential brain MRI in patients with neurological WD comparing different modalities of treatment are scarce. Eighteen patients with neurological WD underwent pretreatment and posttreatment brain MRI scans to evaluate the range of abnormalities and the evolution along these different periods. All patients underwent at least two MRI scans at different intervals, up to 11 years after the beginning of treatment. MRI findings were correlated with clinical picture, clinical severity, duration of neurological symptoms, and treatment with two different drugs. Patients were divided into two groups according to treatment: d-penicillamine (D-P), zinc (Zn), and Zn after the onset of severe intolerance to D-P. MRI scans before treatment showed, in all patients, hypersignal intensity lesions on T2- and proton-density-weighted images bilaterally and symmetrically at basal nuclei, thalamus, brain stem, cerebellum, brain cortex, and brain white matter. The most common neurological symptoms were: dysarthria, parkinsonism, dystonia, tremor, psychiatric disturbances, dysphagia, risus sardonicus, ataxia, chorea, and athetosis. From the neurological point of view, there was no difference on the evolution between the group treated exclusively with D-P and the one treated with Zn. Analysis of MRI scans with longer intervals after the beginning of treatment depicted a trend for neuroimaging worsening, without neurological correspondence, among patients treated with Zn. Neuroimaging pattern of evolution was more favorable for the group that received exclusively D-P. (orig.)

  5. A case of idiopathic intracranial calcifications - Hahr syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The purpose of the study is to review the clinical manifestation, imaging characteristics and pathophysiology of the Fahr syndrome and to present a case of the Fahr syndrome from our clinic. The Fahr syndrome is a rare neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by seizures, tetany, psychomotor retardation, development of a spastic paralysis, athetosis and parkinson like syndrome. It is inherited by an AR way but in affected families (relatives) an AD way is also possible. Sporadic cases have been known. Recently a possible chromosome locus on 14q was proved. Probably the case in point is a group of anomalies, in which symmetrically and bilaterally significant calcifications in the region of the basal ganglia, dentate nuclei in cerebellum and centrum semiovale are found. It is not clear yet whether these calcifications are a result from a 'metastatic' deposition because of a local destruction of the blood-brain barrier or are due to a disturbance in the neuronic calcium metabolism. The X-ray findings could be accidental in an asymptomatic patient but a progressive development of an extrapyramidal syndrome may be also observed. Our case is a 37 years old woman with seizures with loss of consciousness, convulsions and urine incontinence. The complaints are dated from the age of 5 years old. The X-ray images disclosed striking non-natural calcifications in globus pallidus, putamen, n.caudatus, thalami, n.dentati, cerebellum.The blood test revealed normal serum levels of calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase. The CT findings put together with the typical clinical history and the normal blood test were a prerequisite for this diagnosis

  6. Fahr’s disease: a case series

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    Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Fahr’s disease is a rare idiopathic bilateral and symmetrical calcification of the basal ganglia, thalami, subcortical hemispheric white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei that usually presents between the 4nd and 6th decade of life with a variable combination of involuntary movements, Parkinsonism, presenile subcortical dementia, seizures, and ataxia. This longitudinal observational case series was conducted at the neurology outpatients’ department of Sulaimaniya general teaching hospital, Iraq. Three patients were diagnosed with Fahr’s disease. Their chief presenting complaint and other coexistent clinical features were noted and followed-up for at least one year. The ages of those consecutive patients were 25, 34, and 21 years, respectively. Two were females and the other patient was a male. The chief presenting complaint among the 3 patients was heterogeneous; cognitive impairment, seizures, and chorea, respectively. At the time of diagnosis, Parkinsonism and cognitive decline were present in all patients. The 3 patients never developed dystonia, dyskinesia, or athetosis and one patient only had mild cerebellar ataxia. Seizures were the presenting feature in one patient and they never developed in the other 2 patients. All patients had a variable degree of intracerebral calcification. Fahr’s disease has heterogeneous phenotypes and the brain radiological findings do not predict the clinical presentation and course. Although Parkinsonism was not the presenting feature, it was found in all patients at the time of diagnosis. Involuntary movements and cerebellar dysfunction were uncommon and the cognitive impairment was of the frontal lobe subcortical dysfunction. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(4.000: 823-831

  7. Biomechanical analysis of countermovement jump in people with cerebral palsy Análisis biomecánico del salto vertical con contramovimiento en personas con parálisis cerebral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Gianikellis

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The main purpose of the study was to evaluate the patterns of the developed ground reaction forces in the two – legged countermovement jumping, performed by persons affected by tetraparesis with ataxia, tetraparesis with athetosis, tetraparesis with spasticity, diplegia with spasticity, right and left hemiplegia and, finally, right and left hemiparesis. After twenty subjects jumped on the surface of a force plate analysis of the ground reaction force – time trend took place. The obtained results confirm the accomplishment of the biomechanical principle of the initial force as in the case of persons not affected by neurological disorders. Finally the calculated ratio between the breaking impulse and the acceleration impulse is very near to optimum values.
    KEY WORDS: cerebral palsy, biomechanics, countermovement jump.

     

    El valor óptimo del impulso de aceleración en el salto vertical con contra -movimiento, es aproximadamente tres veces superior al impulso de “frenaje”. El objetivo de este estudio ha sido investigar el modo de actuación de la cadena biocinemática del tren inferior en el salto vertical con contra -movimiento para personas afectadas por parálisis cerebral, concretamente, tetraparesia con ataxia, tetraparesia con atetosis, tetraparesia con espasticidad, diplegia con espasticidad, hemiplegia izquierda y derecha, y finalmente, hemiparesia izquierda y derecha. Para ello, se han analizado las fuerzas de reacción de veintitrés sujetos que han realizado saltos con contramovimiento sobre una plataforma de fuerzas. El hallazgo de un valor medio de la ratio entre el impulso de “frenaje” y el de aceleración muy próximo al valor teórico para los veintitrés sujetos con diferentes síntomas de parálisis cerebral, confirma el principio de la fuerza inicial mientras que el alto coeficiente de variación de los parámetros utilizados en este estudio confirma la esperada

  8. 小儿脑瘫危险因素与合并症相关分析%Correlation Analysis of Risk Factors and Complications on Children Cerebral Palsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王军英; 伍俊妮; 张惠佳; 汤清波; 覃蓉; 颜华; 熊毛伟; 易慧娟; 肖曙光; 王跑球

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the risk factors related with children cerebral palsy (CP), the complications and the constituent ratio of types of cerebral palsies.Methods Retrospectively study 1204 cases of affected children' s clinical data from January 2005 to December 2009, using the statistical method of chi-square criterion, the relationships of the high risk factors and the complications resulted in children cerebral palsies were investigated, and the relationships of the incidence rate of types of CP constituent ratio and the complications were studied as well.Results There presented risk factors of 1044 in 1204 cases (86.71%).The major risk factors by turns were asphyxiation, preterm low weight, other un-definite factors, choloplania, intrauterine infection, superfoetation/twins, intracranial hemorrhage and the abnormal umbilical core.The rate of the CP children accompanied with complications was 91.35% (1102/1204), the incidence rate with mental retardation was 72.09% (868 cases), with language disturbance 43.52% (524 cases), with epilepsy 22.26% (268 cases), with hearing disturbance 22.09% (266 cases), with ingestion difficulty 58.47% (702 cases),with optic atrophy 25.75 % (310 cases), with hydrostomia 75.91% (914 cases), and there were statistical differences among different types of CP (P< 0.05), the three highest incidence rates was spasmus, athetosis and nixed types of CP by turns.And there were significant difference in statistics ( P < 0.01 ).Conclusions The CP was a kind of sophisticated disorder resulted from the lesion of brain, the affected presented a series of developmental disturbance.During the treatment, we should be pay attention to the entire rehabilitation for affected children.%目的 分析小儿脑瘫危险因素、脑瘫分型与合并症相关性.方法 回顾性调查2005年1月-2009年12月期间的1 204例脑瘫患儿临床资料,了解脑瘫高危因素与合并症的关系以及与脑瘫分型的发生率,用

  9. Associations between Manual Abilities, Gross Motor Function, Epilepsy, and Mental Capacity in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa GAJEWSKA*

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Gajewska E, Sobieska M, Samborski W. Associations between Manual Abilities, Gross Motor Function, Epilepsy, and Mental Capacity in Children with Cerebral Palsy. Iran J Child Neurol. 2014 Spring 8(2:45-52.ObjectiveThis study aimed to evaluate gross motor function and hand function in children with cerebral palsy to explore their association with epilepsy and mental capacity. Material & MethodsThe research investigating the association between gross and fine motor function and the presence of epilepsy and/or mental impairment was conducted on a group of 83 children (45 girls, 38 boys. Among them, 41 were diagnosedwith quadriplegia, 14 hemiplegia, 18 diplegia, 7 mixed form, and 3 athetosis.A neurologist assessed each child in terms of possible epilepsy and confirmed diagnosis in 35 children. A psychologist assessed the mental level (according toWechsler and found 13 children within intellectual norm, 3 children with mild mental impairment, 18 with moderate, 27 with severe, and 22 with profound.Children were then classified based on Gross Motor Function Classification System and Manual Ability Classification Scale.ResultsThe gross motor function and manual performance were analysed in relation to mental impairment and the presence of epilepsy. Epilepsy was found to disturb conscious motor functions, but also higher degree of mental impairment wasobserved in children with epilepsy.ConclusionThe occurrence of epilepsy in children with cerebral palsy is associated with worse manual function. The occurrence of epilepsy is associated with limitations in conscious motor functions. There is an association between epilepsy in children with cerebral palsy and the degree of mental impairment.The occurrence of epilepsy, mainly in children with hemiplegia and diplegia is associated with worse mental capacities.ReferencesRichards CL, Malouin F. Cerebral palsy: definition, assessment and rehabilitation. Handb Clin Neurol

  10. 苯海索治疗不同亚型不随意运动型脑瘫患儿运动功能的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张峰; 冯珍

    2016-01-01

    the target dose of 4 mg / d, daily dose divided into 2 or 3 times service. Respectively into the group, after treatment (6 months after), the were GMFM, GMFCS, FMFM and WeeFIM assessment, and record the salivation and drug resistance. Results The three groups after treatment in children with GMFM score [group A (35.490±19.327), group B (29.110±11.864), group C (15.540±11.598)] have significant difference (F=4.988, P<0.05), group AB and group C comparison were statistically significant (P<0.05), between the group AB compared with no significant difference. Have statistical difference (F=4.319, P<0.05) of three groups of children with WeeFIM scores [group A (49.000±22.520), group B (38.780±11.914), group C (27.000±12.179)], group A and group B with the score of patients compare with group C had significant difference (P<0.05), and in the groups A and B of children with no significant difference. There was no significant difference in GMFCS and FMFM between the three groups. Three groups of children with salivation were improved, no significant difference. The athetoid-spastic cerebral palsy children can be observed exacerbated with spastic. Conclusion Benzhexol hydrochloride in the treatment of chorea-athetoid and athetosis type of dyskinetic cerebral palsy (CP) is helpful to improve the motor function and the ability to live independently, curative effect is better than that of dystonic cerebral palsy children. There was no significant difference between the three groups in the classification of General motor function and the improvement of the Fine motor function.