Przekop, Allison; Sanger, Terence D
"Athetosis," from the Greek athetos, meaning "without fixed position," is a movement disorder first described by Hammond in 1871. The term described slow, irregular continual movements of the distal extremities. In 1983, Foley defined the athetoid syndrome as "a nonprogressive but evolving disorder due to damage to the basal ganglia of the full-term brain … [with] impairment of postural reflexes, arrhythmical involuntary movements, and dysarthria, [but] sparing … sensation, ocular movements and … intelligence." A decade later, "athetoid syndrome" was replaced by "dyskinetic cerebral palsy." Injury to basal ganglia by various mechanisms, including asphyxia, trauma, perinatal strokes, and kernicterus, is known to cause birth-related athetosis. Kernicterus originally described the neuropathology of bilirubin-induced brain injury, where the deep nuclei of the brain stain yellow. Kernicterus now describes the clinical features of chronic bilirubin encephalopathy, which include an extrapyramidal movement disorder, sensorineural hearing loss, impaired upward gaze, and dental enamel dysplasia. Aggressive treatment of perinatal hyperbilirubinemia has led to a decline in kernicterus so that, today, it is a rare cause of dyskinetic cerebral palsy. In this chapter, we provide a historic overview of athetosis and its formerly common cause, kernicterus. We relate earlier terminology to more recent definitions of impairments in dyskinetic cerebral palsy, including dystonia, chorea, and choreoathetosis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Lanska, Douglas J
Since the description of athetosis in 1871 by American neurologist William Alexander Hammond (1828-1900) the disorder has been a source of controversy, as were many aspects of Hammond's career. Primary sources have been used to review controversies in the 50-year period since the initial description of athetosis, in particular those concerning clinical features, differentiation from other movement disorders, associated conditions, and pathology. Controversies concerning treatment will be addressed in a subsequent article. Hammond struggled to establish athetosis as a distinct clinical-pathological entity, and had successfully predicted the striatal pathology in his initial case (albeit somewhat serendipitously). Athetosis was, nevertheless, considered by many neurologists to be a form of post-hemiplegic chorea or part of a continuum between chorea and dystonia. European neurologists, and particularly the French, initially ignored or discounted the concept. Additional controversies arose over whether the movements persisted during sleep, whether athetosis was, or could be, associated with imbecility or insanity, and how it should be treated. Some controversies concerning athetosis served to identify areas where knowledge was insufficient to make accurate statements, despite prior self-assured or even dogmatic statements to the contrary. Other controversies illustrated established prejudices, even if these biases were often only apparent with the greater detachment of hindsight.
Full Text Available ... of body parts and organ systems and how diseases and conditions affect them. Allergies Alzheimer disease Arrhythmias Atherosclerosis Athetosis resulting from basal ganglia injury ...
Full Text Available ... and how diseases and conditions affect them. Allergies Alzheimer disease Arrhythmias Atherosclerosis Athetosis resulting from basal ganglia injury ... DCA) Endocrine glands Enlarged prostate gland Epinephrine and exercise Feeling pain Gas exchange Glaucoma Gout Hearing and ...
Full Text Available ... and how diseases and conditions affect them. Allergies Alzheimer disease Arrhythmias Atherosclerosis Athetosis resulting from basal ganglia ... breast Macular degeneration Nerve ... transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) Peristalsis Phagocytosis ...
Wada, F.; Andoh, T.; Une, K.; Takamatsu, T. (Kitakyushu Municipal Sogo-Ryoiku Center (Japan))
CT-scan findings of 87 cerebral palsied children were studied. They consist of 23 cases of spastic quadriplegia, 9 cases of diplegia, 12 cases of paraplegia, 24 cases of athetosis and mixed type, and 19 cases of hemiplegia. In the former four types, ventricular dilatation and cortical atrophy were measured and abnormal changes in cerebral substance and cerebellar atrophy were observed. Spastic quadriplegia showed most intense changes in every aspect of the abnormalities, while paraplegia had almost normal appearance. Athetosis and mixed type had moderate changes. Hemiplegia always showed asymmetrical view on CT-scan, dilatation of lateral ventricle or atrophy of hemisphere in contralateral side being observed.
Hadders-Algra, M; van der Fits, IBM; Stremmelaar, EF; Touwen, BCL
The development of postural adjustments during reaching movements was longitudinally studied in seven infants with cerebral palsy (CP) between 4 and 18 months of age. Five infants developed spastic hemiplegia, one spastic tetraplegia, and one spastic tetraplegia with athetosis. Each assessment
K. Gianikellis; A. Bote; J. M.ª Pulido; Pérez, A.
The main purpose of the study was to evaluate the patterns of the developed ground reaction forces in the two – legged countermovement jumping, performed by persons affected by tetraparesis with ataxia, tetraparesis with athetosis, tetraparesis with spasticity, diplegia with spasticity, right and left hemiplegia and, finally, right and left hemiparesis. After twenty subjects jumped on the surface of a force plate analysis of the ground reaction force &nd...
IOSCA is a difficult, progressive degenerative disease causing damage to the peripheral and central nervous system. All known 24 patients are Finnish. Initial symptoms include ataxia, athetosis, ophthalmoplegia, hearing disability and muscular hypotonia. Sensory axonal neuropathy and associated optic atrophy are typical of the disease, as well as primary hypergonadotropic hypogonadism in girls. The patients are progressively severely disabled from the age of approx. eighteen months. The pathogenesis is unknown and there is no curative treatment for the disease.
Ishizaki, Asayo; Maruyama, Hiroshi (Tokyo Women' s Medical Coll. (Japan))
CT bilaterally showed a cold area in the putamen of 5 infants with cerebral palsy who had had asphyxia at birth. The etiology was discussed, and 4 of the cases were clinically studied. All four patients had convulsive tetraplegia, or convulsive bilateral paralysis with the element of athetosis. Three of them had a history of infantile epilepsy, accompanied by abnormal ocular movement. Two patients with tetraplegia showed marked hypotonia of the trunk in ventral support (Landau). Impairment of the bilateral putamens in the abnormal muscle tone was inferred.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or the Agency) is publishing an order granting a petition requesting exemption from premarket notification requirements for electric positioning chair devices. An electric positioning chair is a device with a motorized positioning control that is intended for medical purposes and that can be adjusted to various positions. These devices are used to provide stability for patients with athetosis (involuntary spasms) and to alter postural positions. This order exempts electric positioning chairs, class II devices, from premarket notification, subject to certain conditions for exemption. This exemption from premarket notification, subject to these conditions (and the limitations in the physical medicine devices limitations of exemptions from premarket notification section of the device regulations), is immediately in effect for electric positioning chairs. FDA is publishing this order in accordance with the exemption from class II premarket notification section of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act).
Gasquoine, Philip Gerard
Distinct forms of acquired neurocognitive impairment are often described by "a" prefixed terms that derive from ancient Greek (and in one case Latin). Two modern English language neurological and neuropsychological reference books were searched to identify 17 such terms in contemporary usage: amnesia, akinesia, ataxia, aphasia, agraphia, anosmia, apraxia, athetosis, ageusia, achromatopsia, agnosia, alexia, amusia, anomia, anarthria, anosognosia, and acalculia. These were traced to their initial association with acquired neurocognitive impairment in German, English, and French language medical publications from the late 18th, 19th, and early 20th centuries (1770 through 1920). Some of these terms (e.g., agnosia) were used in ancient Greek, although not associated with neurocognitive impairment. The remainder constitute novel semantically plausible (e.g., anosmia) and unclear (e.g., alexia) formulations. In the localizationist thinking of the time, neurocognition was conceived as being organized within specialized "centers" in specific locations connected by pathways within the brain.
Santos, Ana Filipa; Rocha, Sofia; Varanda, Sara; Pinho, João; Rodrigues, Margarida; Ramalho Fontes, João; Soares-Fernandes, João; Ferreira, Carla
Hypertrophic olivary degeneration is a rare kind of trans-synaptic degeneration that occurs after lesions of the dentatorubro-olivary pathway. The lesions, commonly unilateral, may result from hemorrhage due to vascular malformation, trauma, surgical intervention or hypertension, tumor, or ischemia. Bilateral cases are extremely rare. This condition is classically associated with development of palatal tremor, but clinical manifestations can include other involuntary movements. We describe 2 cases: unilateral hypertrophic olivary degeneration in a 60-year-old man with contralateral athetosis and neurologic worsening developing several years after a pontine hemorrhage and bilateral hypertrophic olivary degeneration in a 77-year-old woman with development of palatal tremor, probably secondary to pontine ischemic lesions (small vessel disease). Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Durkin, M V; Kaveggia, E G; Pendleton, E; Neuhaüser, G; Opitz, J M
We analyzed the gestational, parturitional, neonatal (GPN) histories of 281 severely mentally retarded patients with cerebral palsy to define the etiology or pathogenesis of cerebral palsy in each patient. No association between type of cerebral palsy and GPN histories was found except for an increase in spastic-athetoid patients in the breech delivery subgroup. Significant findings include: increased incidence of prematurity and postmaturity, small and large for-gestational age (GA) fetal size, a normal birthweight for GA distribution of patients with diabetic mothers, an excess of mothers greater than or equal to 35 and less than or equal to 20 years old, an increased immediately-previous sib interval of 2.59 years suggestive of an "infertility factor", an unremarkable GPN history in one third of the cases, in another one third GPN problems not usually associated with a high risk of CNS damage, and in one third gross complications which were probably responsible for the CP, including: an increased incidence of breech deliveries, twinning, prolonged and precipitous labor and placental complications; no increased association of athetosis and Rh incompatibility or incidence of toxemia was found. Disseminated intravascular coagulation due to prenatal death of a twin may have been the cause of brain damage in several patients.
Full Text Available Dystonia is defined as a neurological syndrome characterized by involuntary sustained or intermittent muscle contractions causing twisting, often repetitive movements and postures. Paroxysmal dyskinesias are episodic movement disorders encompassing dystonia, chorea, athetosis and ballism in conscious individuals. Several decades of research have enhanced the understanding of the etiology of human dystonia and dyskinesias that are associated with dystonia, but the pathophysiology remains largely unknown. The spontaneous occurrence of hereditary dystonia and paroxysmal dyskinesia is well documented in rodents used as animal models in basic dystonia research. Several hyperkinetic movement disorders, described in dogs, horses and cattle, show similarities to these human movement disorders. Although dystonia is regarded as the third most common movement disorder in humans, it is often misdiagnosed because of the heterogeneity of etiology and clinical presentation. Since these conditions are poorly known in veterinary practice, their prevalence may be underestimated in veterinary medicine. In order to attract attention to these movement disorders, i.e. dystonia and paroxysmal dyskinesias associated with dystonia, and to enhance interest in translational research, this review gives a brief overview of the current literature regarding dystonia/paroxysmal dyskinesia in humans, and summarizes similar hereditary movement disorders reported in domestic animals.
Saito-Ohara, Fumiko; Fukuda, Yoji; Ito, Masahiro; Agarwala, Kishan Lal; Hayashi, Masaharu; Matsuo, Masafumi; Imoto, Issei; Yamakawa, Kazuhiro; Nakamura, Yusuke; Inazawa, Johji
A male patient with profound mental retardation, athetosis, nystagmus, and severe congenital hypotonia (Duchenne muscular dystrophy [DMD]) was previously shown to carry a pericentric inversion of the X chromosome, 46,Y,inv(X)(p21.2q22.2). His mother carried this inversion on one X allele. The patient's condition was originally misdiagnosed as cerebral palsy, and only later was it diagnosed as DMD. Because the DMD gene is located at Xp21.2, which is one breakpoint of the inv(X), and because its defects are rarely associated with severe mental retardation, the other clinical features of this patient were deemed likely to be associated with the opposite breakpoint at Xq22. Our precise molecular-cytogenetic characterization of both breakpoints revealed three catastrophic genetic events that had probably influenced neuromuscular and cognitive development: deletion of part of the DMD gene at Xp21.2, duplication of the human proteolipid protein gene (PLP) at Xq22.2, and disruption of a novel gene. The latter sequence, showing a high degree of homology to the Sec4 gene of yeast, encoded a putative small guanine-protein, Ras-like GTPase that we have termed "RLGP." Immunocytochemistry located RLGP at mitochondria. We speculate that disruption of RLGP was responsible for the patient's profound mental retardation.
It is well recognized that CT scan is very useful in the early diagnosis of cerebral palsy. The author has studied this time the CT scan findings of cerebral palsy children in their relations to the type of palsy, cause of palsy, complications in the central nervous system, and prognosis of behaviour development, in order to predict the prognosis of behaviour development. Dilatation of the contralateral cerebral ventricle was found in 82 % of hemiplegic type. Abnormal EEG was found in 73 %, but their behaviour development was satisfactory, with good development of speech regardless to the side of palsy. This might be helped by compensational function of the brain due to plasticity. Diplegia presented bilateral moderate dilatation of ventricles with favorable prognosis. Tetraplegia was caused mostly by asphyxia or congenital anomaly and revealed marked dilatation of ventricles or severe cortical atrophy. Some cases presented diffuse cortical low-density, often associated with abnormal EEG, and their prognosis was worst. Athetosis had normal CT finding or mild ventricular dilatation, but all cases of ataxia presented normal CT findings. Hypotonia had mild ventricular dilatation. Two of three mixed type cases had normal CT findings and another had mild ventricular dilatation. No correlation was found between ventricular dilatation and behaviour development, but statistically significant difference was found in the cases with 30 % or more Evans' ratio (P < 0.05). Prognosis of severe ventricular dilatation cases was poor.
Dündar, Halil; Ozgül, Rıza Köksal; Yalnızoğlu, Dilek; Erdem, Sevim; Oğuz, Kader Karlı; Tuncel, Deniz; Temuçin, Cağrı Mesut; Dursun, Ali
Whole exome sequencing combined with homozygosity mapping comprises a genetic diagnostic tool to identify genetic defects in families with multiple affected members, compatible with presumed autosomal recessively inherited neurometabolic/neurogenetic disease. These tools were applied to a family with two individuals manifesting ataxia, associated with peripheral sensory neuropathy, athetosis, seizures, deafness, and ophthalmoplegia. A novel homozygous missense mutation c.1366C>G (L456V) in C10orf2 (the Twinkle gene) was identified, confirming infantile onset spinocerebellar ataxia in the probands. Signs in infantile onset spinocerebellar ataxia follow a fairly distinct pattern, affecting early development, followed by ataxia and loss of skills. However, this very rare disease was previously reported only in Finland. We suggest that infantile onset spinocerebellar ataxia should be more frequently considered in the differential diagnosis of neurometabolic diseases in childhood. Next-generation sequencing and its use along with homozygosity mapping offer highly promising techniques for molecular diagnosis, especially in small families affected with very rare neurometabolic disorders such as infantile onset spinocerebellar ataxia. Copyright Â© 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Saginoya, Toshiyuki [Urasoe General Hospital, Okinawa (Japan); Yamaguchi, Keiichiro; Kuniyoshi, Kazuhide [and others
We evaluated 35 patients with cerebral palsy on the basis of MR imaging findings in the brain. The types of palsy were spastic quadriplegia (n=11), spastic diplegia (n=9), spastic hemiplegia (n=2), double hemiplegia (n=1), athetosis (n=10) and mixed (n=2). Of all patients, 28 (80%) generated abnormal findings. In spastic quadriplegia, although eight cases revealed severe brain damage, two cases showed no abnormal findings in the brain. One of the three had cervical cord compression caused by atlanto-axial subluxation. In spastic diplegia, the findings were divided according to whether the patient was born at term or preterm. If the patient had been born prematurely, the findings showed periventricular leukomalacia and abnormally high intensity in the posterior limbs of the internal capsule on T2-weighted images. MR imaging in spastic hemiplegia revealed cerebral infarction. In the athetoid type, half of all cases showed either no abnormal findings or slight widening of the lateral ventricle. Three cases showed abnormal signals of the basal ganglia. The reason why athetoid-type palsy did not show severe abnormality is unknown. We believe that MR imaging is a useful diagnostic modality to detect damage in the brain in cerebral palsy and plays an important role in the differentiation of cerebral palsy from the spastic palsy disease. (author)
Kaushik, A; Agarwal, R P; Sadhna
Fifty patients of various types of cerebral palsy were studied to find out an association between cerebral palsy, EEG abnormalities and development quotient. Seventy-six per cent patients had spastic cerebral palsy. Hypotonic cerebral palsy was the next common type (14%). Athetosis and ataxic forms were found to be rare (2% each). Epilepsy was associated with 56% patients. Clinical types of seizures observed were: Generalised tonic-clonic (43%), myoclonic (17.9%), generalised tonic (10.7%), partial simple (10.7%) and partial complex (17.9%). The incidence of seizures was highest in hypotonic type in which 85.7% had epilepsy. Mean developmental quotient of cerebral palsy patients was 34.9% with maximum retardation in hypotonic cerebral palsy (25.14%). Sixty per cent of patients had abnormal EEG, out of these hypotonic patients had maximum (70%) chances of EEG abnormality followed by spastic patients (55%). Developmental retardation was more severe statistically in the patients with abnormal EEG than normal EEG.
Orthopedic surgery (OS) plays an important role in the management of cerebral palsy (CP). The objectives of OS are to optimize functions and prevent deformity. Newer developments in OS for CP include emphasis on hip surveillance, minimally invasive procedures, use of external fixators instead of plates and screws, better understanding of lever arm dysfunctions (that can only be corrected by bony OS), orthopedic selective spasticity-control surgery, and single-event multilevel lever arm restoration and anti spasticity surgery, which have led to significant improvements in gross motor function and ambulation, especially in spastic quadriplegia, athetosis, and dystonia. The results of OS can be dramatic and life altering for the person with CP and their caregivers if it is performed meticulously by a specialized surgical team, at the appropriate age, for the correct indications, employing sound biomechanical principles and is followed by physician-led, protocol based, intensive, multidisciplinary, institutional rehabilitation, and long term followup. However, OS can be a double-edged sword, and if performed less than optimally, and without the supporting multidisciplinary medical and rehabilitation team, expertise and infrastructure, it often leads to significant functional worsening of the person with CP, including irretrievable loss of previous ambulatory capacity. OS must be integrated into the long term management of the person with CP and should be anticipated and planned at the optimal time and not viewed as a "last resort" intervention or failure of rehabilitation. This instructional course lecture reviews the relevant contemporary principles and techniques of OS in CP.
Freemon, Frank R
The great formative event in the history of North America, the Civil War of 1861 to 1865, was the stimulus for the development of clinical neurology and the neurosciences. The first neurological research center on the continent was the US Army hospital at Turner's Lane, Philadelphia, PA. Silas Weir Mitchell and his colleagues described causalgia (reflex sympathetic dystrophy), phantom limb sensation, and Horner's syndrome (before Horner). The medical leader of the Northern army was William Hammond. After the conclusion of hostilities, he began a huge clinical practice in New York City. In the United States, clinical neurology began in private practice, unlike Europe, where neurology began in institutions. Hammond's textbook, which first used the term athetosis, was used by a generation of physicians who encountered patients with neurological signs and symptoms. Early in the 20th century, neurological institutions were formed around universities; probably the most famous was the Montreal Neurological Institute founded by Wilder Penfield. The US federal government sponsored extensive research into the function and dysfunction of the nervous system through the Neurological Institute of Neurological Diseases and Blindness, later called the National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke. The government officially classified the final 10 years of the 20th century as the Decade of the Brain and provided an even greater level of research funding.
Aasef G Shaikh
Full Text Available Ataxia-telangiectasia is known for cerebellar degeneration, but clinical descriptions of abnormal tone, posture, and movements suggest involvement of the network between cerebellum and basal ganglia. We quantitatively assessed the nature of upper-limb movement disorders in ataxia-telangiectasia. We used a three-axis accelerometer to assess the natural history and severity of abnormal upper-limb movements in 80 ataxia-telangiectasia and 19 healthy subjects. Recordings were made during goal-directed movements of upper limb (kinetic task, while arms were outstretched (postural task, and at rest. Almost all ataxia-telangiectasia subjects (79/80 had abnormal involuntary movements, such as rhythmic oscillations (tremor, slow drifts (dystonia or athetosis, and isolated rapid movements (dystonic jerks or myoclonus. All patients with involuntary movements had both kinetic and postural tremor, while 48 (61% also had resting tremor. The tremor was present in transient episodes lasting several seconds during two-minute recording sessions of all three conditions. Percent time during which episodic tremor was present was greater for postural and kinetic tasks compared to rest. Resting tremor had higher frequency but smaller amplitude than postural and kinetic tremor. Rapid non-rhythmic movements were minimal during rest, but were triggered during sustained arm postures and goal directed arm movements suggesting they are best considered a form of dystonic jerks or action myoclonus. Advancing age did not correlate with the severity of involuntary limb movements. Abnormal upper-limb movements in ataxia-telangiectasia feature classic cerebellar impairment, but also suggest involvement of the network between the cerebellum and basal ganglia.
Neilson, P D; McCaughey, J
Four young adult cerebral palsied subjects with a mixture of spasticity and athetosis attended an experimental reflex training program for three one-hour sessions each week over an 18 month period. During each session on-line measures of contraction level and tonic stretch reflex sensitivity from the biceps brachii muscle were shown to the subject on meter displays. Subjects were asked to attempt to control the displays. They were given goals such as: (1) reduce both contraction level and reflex sensitivity displays to zero and (2) increase the contraction level display to 10% of maximum while keeping the reflex sensitivity display at a minimum. Achievement of goals was automatically sensed and used to activate a cassette tape of the subject's favourite music. Contraction level and reflex sensitivity scores were averaged over one-minute intervals to provide a record of long term progress. Elbow-angle and IEMG data were recorded on FM tape for off-line analysis. All four subjects learned to suppress involuntary muscle activity and resting tonic stretch reflex responses. They also learned to produce a two or three-fold variation in action tonic stretch reflex sensitivity while sustaining 10% maximum voluntary contraction. In other words, subjects learned to self-regulate spasm and spasticity at the elbow and to regulate tonic stretch reflex sensitivity independently of contraction level. A visual tracking task requiring voluntary movement about the elbow was employed to assess improvement in functional control of elbow movement. One athetotic subject improved tracking accuracy as a consequence of reducing the amount of involuntary arm movement while the other three subjects showed negligible improvement in functional control.
Park, Mi-Hyun; Woo, Hae-Mi; Hong, Young Bin; Park, Ji Hoon; Yoon, Bo Ram; Park, Jin-Mo; Yoo, Jeong Hyun; Koo, Heasoo; Chae, Jong-Hee; Chung, Ki Wha; Choi, Byung-Ok; Koo, Soo Kyung
Recessive mutations in chromosome 10 open reading frame 2 (C10orf2) are relevant in infantile-onset spinocerebellar ataxia (IOSCA). In this study, we investigated the causative mutation in a Korean family with combined phenotypes of IOSCA, sensorimotor polyneuropathy, and myopathy. We investigated recessive mutations in a Korean family with two individuals affected by IOSCA. Causative mutations were investigated using whole exome sequencing. Electrophysiological analyses and muscle and nerve biopsies were performed, along with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain and lower extremities. Compound heterozygous mutations c.1460C>T and c.1485-1G>A in C10orf2 were identified as causative of IOSCA. Skeletal muscle showed mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletions. Both patients showed a period of normal development until 12-15 months, followed by ataxia, athetosis, hearing loss, and intellectual disability. Electrophysiological findings indicated motor and sensory polyneuropathies. Muscle biopsy revealed variations in the size and shape of myofibers with scattered, small, and angulated degenerating myofibers containing abnormal mitochondria; these observations are consistent with myopathy and may be the result of mtDNA deletions. Sural nerve biopsy revealed an axonal neuropathy. High-signal-intensity lesions in the middle cerebellar peduncles were correlated with clinical severity, and MRI of the lower legs was compatible with the hypothesis of length-dependent axonal degeneration. We identified novel compound heterozygous mutations of the C10orf2 gene as the cause of IOSCA with sensorimotor polyneuropathy and myopathy. Signs of motor neuropathy and myopathy were discovered for the first time in IOSCA patients with C10orf2 mutations. These results suggest that the clinical spectrum of IOSCA caused by C10orf2 mutations may be more variable than previously reported.
Full Text Available Orthopedic surgery (OS plays an important role in the management of cerebral palsy (CP. The objectives of OS are to optimize functions and prevent deformity. Newer developments in OS for CP include emphasis on hip surveillance, minimally invasive procedures, use of external fixators instead of plates and screws, better understanding of lever arm dysfunctions (that can only be corrected by bony OS, orthopedic selective spasticity-control surgery, and single-event multilevel lever arm restoration and anti spasticity surgery, which have led to significant improvements in gross motor function and ambulation, especially in spastic quadriplegia, athetosis, and dystonia. The results of OS can be dramatic and life altering for the person with CP and their caregivers if it is performed meticulously by a specialized surgical team, at the appropriate age, for the correct indications, employing sound biomechanical principles and is followed by physician-led, protocol based, intensive, multidisciplinary, institutional rehabilitation, and long term followup. However, OS can be a double-edged sword, and if performed less than optimally, and without the supporting multidisciplinary medical and rehabilitation team, expertise and infrastructure, it often leads to significant functional worsening of the person with CP, including irretrievable loss of previous ambulatory capacity. OS must be integrated into the long term management of the person with CP and should be anticipated and planned at the optimal time and not viewed as a “last resort” intervention or failure of rehabilitation. This instructional course lecture reviews the relevant contemporary principles and techniques of OS in CP.
Orthopedic surgery (OS) plays an important role in the management of cerebral palsy (CP). The objectives of OS are to optimize functions and prevent deformity. Newer developments in OS for CP include emphasis on hip surveillance, minimally invasive procedures, use of external fixators instead of plates and screws, better understanding of lever arm dysfunctions (that can only be corrected by bony OS), orthopedic selective spasticity-control surgery, and single-event multilevel lever arm restoration and anti spasticity surgery, which have led to significant improvements in gross motor function and ambulation, especially in spastic quadriplegia, athetosis, and dystonia. The results of OS can be dramatic and life altering for the person with CP and their caregivers if it is performed meticulously by a specialized surgical team, at the appropriate age, for the correct indications, employing sound biomechanical principles and is followed by physician-led, protocol based, intensive, multidisciplinary, institutional rehabilitation, and long term followup. However, OS can be a double-edged sword, and if performed less than optimally, and without the supporting multidisciplinary medical and rehabilitation team, expertise and infrastructure, it often leads to significant functional worsening of the person with CP, including irretrievable loss of previous ambulatory capacity. OS must be integrated into the long term management of the person with CP and should be anticipated and planned at the optimal time and not viewed as a “last resort” intervention or failure of rehabilitation. This instructional course lecture reviews the relevant contemporary principles and techniques of OS in CP. PMID:28566775
Morioka, Ichiro; Nakamura, Hajime; Koda, Tsubasa; Sakai, Hitomi; Kurokawa, Daisuke; Yonetani, Masahiko; Morisawa, Takeshi; Katayama, Yoshinori; Wada, Hiroshi; Funato, Masahisa; Takatera, Akihiro; Okumura, Akihisa; Sato, Itsuko; Kawano, Seiji; Iijima, Kazumoto
This study aimed to evaluate peak serum total bilirubin (TB) and unbound bilirubin (UB) levels in preterm infants with clinical kernicterus (KI) who were diagnosed by clinical findings during infancy. For this multicenter retrospective study, 18 Japanese extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants with clinical KI were included. Clinical KI was diagnosed based on the presence of motor developmental impairment with/without athetosis, and abnormal magnetic resonance imaging or brainstem auditory evoked potential findings during infancy. High and low TB or UB levels were defined as serum TB levels ⩾ and <15 mg/dL or serum UB levels ⩾ and <0.8 μg/dL, respectively. The clinical characteristics of KI preterm infants were analyzed. The proportion of infants with high or low serum TB levels and with high or low serum UB levels was then investigated. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated. In 18 KI infants, the median age when serum TB levels peaked was 28 days after birth. In eight KI infants with low serum TB levels, 88% of them had high serum UB levels. For comparison of the number of infants who had high or low serum TB and UB levels, the sensitivity was 90% and specificity was 13%. Serum TB and UB levels peak at a later age than expected. Chronic serum UB monitoring may be helpful for identifying ELBW infants at risk for developing KI, even when they do not have high serum TB levels. Copyright © 2015 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
El Tallawy HN
Full Text Available Hamdy NA El Tallawy,1 Wafaa MA Farghaly,1 Tarek A Rageh,1 Ghaydaa A Shehata,1 Reda Badry,1 Nabil A Metwally,2 Esam A El Moselhy,2 Mahmoud Hassan,2 Mohamed A Sayed,3 Ahmed A Waris,1 Yaser Hamed,2 Islam Shaaban,2 Mohamed A Hamed,1 Mahmoud Raafat Kandil11Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt; 2Department of Neurology and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University (Assiut branch, Assiut, Egypt; 3Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Sohag University, Sohag, EgyptAbstract: A door-to-door survey, including every household, was conducted for all inhabitants of Al Quseir City (33,283, Red Sea Governorate, Egypt by three specialists of neurology as well as nine senior staff members of neurology and 15 female social workers to assess the epidemiology of major neurological disorders. Over six phases, from July 1, 2009 to January 31, 2012, screening of all eligible people in the population was carried out, by which case ascertainment of all major neurological disorders included in the study was done according to the accepted definitions and diagnostic criteria of the World Health Organization. The order of frequency of prevalence of the studied neurological disorders was dementia (3.83% for those aged > 60 years, migraine (2.8% for those aged > 8 years, stroke (6.2/1000 for those aged > 20 years, epilepsy (5.5/1000, Parkinson’s disease (452.1/100,000 for those aged > 40 years, cerebral palsy (3.6/1000 among children 37 years, chorea (21.03/100,000, athetosis (15/100,000, and multiple sclerosis (13.74/100,000. The incidence rates of stroke, epilepsy, and Bell’s palsy were 181/100,000, 48/100,000, and 98.9/100,000 per year, respectively.Keywords: prevalence, incidence, neurological disorders
Leiros da Costa, Maria do Desterro [Federal University of Paraiba, Movement Disorders Unit, Paraiba (Brazil); Spitz, Mariana; Bacheschi, Luiz Alberto; Barbosa, Egberto Reis [University of Sao Paulo, Movement Disorders Unit, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Leite, Claudia Costa; Lucato, Leandro Tavares [University of Sao Paulo, Department of Radiology, Sao Paulo (Brazil)
Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies on Wilson's disease (WD) show lack of correlations between neurological and neuroimaging features. Long-term follow-up reports with sequential brain MRI in patients with neurological WD comparing different modalities of treatment are scarce. Eighteen patients with neurological WD underwent pretreatment and posttreatment brain MRI scans to evaluate the range of abnormalities and the evolution along these different periods. All patients underwent at least two MRI scans at different intervals, up to 11 years after the beginning of treatment. MRI findings were correlated with clinical picture, clinical severity, duration of neurological symptoms, and treatment with two different drugs. Patients were divided into two groups according to treatment: d-penicillamine (D-P), zinc (Zn), and Zn after the onset of severe intolerance to D-P. MRI scans before treatment showed, in all patients, hypersignal intensity lesions on T2- and proton-density-weighted images bilaterally and symmetrically at basal nuclei, thalamus, brain stem, cerebellum, brain cortex, and brain white matter. The most common neurological symptoms were: dysarthria, parkinsonism, dystonia, tremor, psychiatric disturbances, dysphagia, risus sardonicus, ataxia, chorea, and athetosis. From the neurological point of view, there was no difference on the evolution between the group treated exclusively with D-P and the one treated with Zn. Analysis of MRI scans with longer intervals after the beginning of treatment depicted a trend for neuroimaging worsening, without neurological correspondence, among patients treated with Zn. Neuroimaging pattern of evolution was more favorable for the group that received exclusively D-P. (orig.)
Full Text Available Cerebral palsy has an incidence of about 1-2 per 1000 live births, and in spite of the progress of neonatal medicine, it seems that the incidence will not subside in the near future. The most important characteristic of cerebral palsy is movement abnormality: spasticity, chorea, athetosis, ataxia, dystonia, as well as their different combinations. About 70% of children who suffer from cerebral palsy also suffer from some form of spasticity. Spasticity is a type of muscle hypertonicity characterized by rapid increase in resistance to passive stretching of muscles. The interest for botulinum toxin application in the treatment of spasticity has dramatically increased in the last 10 years. Botulinum toxin is the most powerful neurotoxin that is found in nature. It is produced by anaerobic bacteria – clostridium botulinum. It is produced in eight serotypes of which type A is the most commonly used. Botulinum toxin blocks neuromuscular transmission and causes irreversible weakness of the treated muscle. It has been used since 1993 in the treatment of cerebral palsy in children. The toxin effect is permanent and it results in irreversible denervation. Functional recovery is possible after 2-4 months, due to sprouting of nerve endings and the formation of new synaptic contacts. Treatment with botulinum toxin is safe. Adverse effects are rare, temporary and completely reversible. Application of botulinum toxin prevents or reduces contractures and deformities, and thus delays or avoids surgical treatment. Yet, physical therapy, which prolongs and improves the effects of botulinum toxin, remains an essential and most important form of therapy in the treatment of children with cerebral palsy.
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The main purpose of the study was to evaluate the patterns of the developed ground reaction forces in the two – legged countermovement jumping, performed by persons affected by tetraparesis with ataxia, tetraparesis with athetosis, tetraparesis with spasticity, diplegia with spasticity, right and left hemiplegia and, finally, right and left hemiparesis. After twenty subjects jumped on the surface of a force plate analysis of the ground reaction force – time trend took place. The obtained results confirm the accomplishment of the biomechanical principle of the initial force as in the case of persons not affected by neurological disorders. Finally the calculated ratio between the breaking impulse and the acceleration impulse is very near to optimum values.
KEY WORDS: cerebral palsy, biomechanics, countermovement jump.
El valor óptimo del impulso de aceleración en el salto vertical con contra -movimiento, es aproximadamente tres veces superior al impulso de “frenaje”. El objetivo de este estudio ha sido investigar el modo de actuación de la cadena biocinemática del tren inferior en el salto vertical con contra -movimiento para personas afectadas por parálisis cerebral, concretamente, tetraparesia con ataxia, tetraparesia con atetosis, tetraparesia con espasticidad, diplegia con espasticidad, hemiplegia izquierda y derecha, y finalmente, hemiparesia izquierda y derecha. Para ello, se han analizado las fuerzas de reacción de veintitrés sujetos que han realizado saltos con contramovimiento sobre una plataforma de fuerzas. El hallazgo de un valor medio de la ratio entre el impulso de “frenaje” y el de aceleración muy próximo al valor teórico para los veintitrés sujetos con diferentes síntomas de parálisis cerebral, confirma el principio de la fuerza inicial mientras que el alto coeficiente de variación de los parámetros utilizados en este estudio confirma la esperada