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Sample records for atherinops affinis ayres

  1. Two myxozoans from the urinary tract of topsmelt, Atherinops affinis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Justin L.; Jaramillo, Alejandra G.; Ashford, Jacob E.; Feist, Stephen W.; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Kent, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    Two myxozoan species were observed in the kidney of topsmelt, Atherinops affinis, during a survey of parasites of estuarine fishes in the Carpinteria Salt Marsh Reserve, California. Fish collected on three dates in 2012 and 2013 were sectioned and examined histologically. Large extrasporogonic stages occurred in the renal interstitium of several fish from the first two collections (5/8, 11/20, respectively), and, in some fish, these replaced over 80% of the kidney. In addition, presporogonic and polysporogonic stages occurred in the lumen of the renal tubules, collecting and mesonephric ducts. The latter contained subspherical spores with up to 4 polar capsules, consistent with the genus Chloromyxum. For the third collection (15 May 2013, n=30), we portioned kidneys for examination by histology, wet mount, and DNA extraction for small subunit ribosomal gene sequencing. Histology showed the large extrasporogonic forms in the kidney interstitium of 3 fish, and 2 other fish with subspherical myxospores in the lumen of the renal tubules with smooth valves and two spherical polar capsules consistent with the genus Sphaerospora. Chloromyxum-type myxospores were observed in the renal tubules of one fish by wet mount. Sequencing of the kidney tissue from this fish yielded a partial SSU rDNA sequence of 1769 bp. Phylogenetic reconstruction suggested this organism to be a novel species of Chloromyxum, most similar to Chloromyxum careni (84% similarity). In addition, subspherical myxospores with smooth valves and two spherical polar capsules consistent with the genus Sphaerospora were observed in wet mounts of 2 fish. Sequencing of the kidney tissue from 1 fish yielded a partial SSU rDNA sequence of 1937 bp. Phylogenetic reconstruction suggests this organism to be a novel species of Sphaerospora most closely related to Sphaerospora epinepheli (93%). We conclude that these organisms represent novel species of the genera Chloromyxum and Sphaerospora based on host, location, and

  2. Ayres' bifurcated solar model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalkofen, W.

    1985-01-01

    The assumptions of Ayres' model of the upper solar atmosphere are examined. It is found that the bistable character of his model is postulated - through the assumptions concerning the opacity sources and the effect of mechanical waves, which are allowed to destroy the CO molecules but not to heat the gas. The neglect of cooling by metal lines is based on their reduced local cooling rate, but it ignores the increased depth over which this cooling occurs. Thus, the bifurcated model of the upper solar atmosphere consists of two models, one cold at the temperature minimum, with a kinetic temperature of 2900 K, and the other hot, with a temperature of 4900 K. 8 references

  3. VALIDATION OF OTOLITH GROWTH RATE ANALYSIS USING CADMIUM-EXPOSED LARVAL TOPSMELT (ATHERINOPS AFFINIS). (R828676C002)

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    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  4. Population dynamics of the invasive fish, Gambusia affinis , in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Repeated-measures ANOVA analyses on the catch per unit effort (CPUE) of G. affinis between sampling events and dams revealed significant differences in population dynamics among dams, although an overall trend of rapid increase followed by plateau in summer, with a rapid decline in winter was seen in most dams.

  5. Antifertility effects of Oldenlandia affinis in male rats - a preliminary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Testis histology revealed fewer spermatozoa or azoospermic seminiferous tubules in treated animals compared to controls with no change in neither tubule thickness nor Sertoli cell structure. O. affinis treatment caused a 17% decrease in sperm motility but there was no change in cauda epididymal sperm counts. However ...

  6. The Ayre's T-piece turns 80: A 21st century review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, Lauren; Smith, Emma-Jane; Mathew, Malcolm; Goonasekera, Chulananda

    2018-06-07

    Ayre's T-piece, first introduced 80 years ago, continues to be widely used in pediatric anesthesia despite colossal advances in equipment and technology. We present a review of its history, advantages, and disadvantages, and place in modern-day clinical practice. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Temperature discrimination by captive free-swimming tuna, Euthynnus affinis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steffel, S.; Dizon, A.E.; Magnuson, J.J.; Neill, W.H.

    1976-01-01

    Captive kawakawa, Euthynnus affinis, were instrumentally conditioned to respond to an increase in temperature to determine discrimination abilities. Two fish yielded a discrimination threshold of 0.10 to 0.15 0 C. Thermal sensitivity of this high-seas pelagic fish is thus no more acute than that of inshore fishes and appears inadequate for direct sensing of weak horizontal temperature gradients at sea

  8. Price Theory and Money Coupled: some Remarks on the Ayres-Martinás Theory

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    Zsolt Gilanyi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main concern of economic science is to explain the Wealth of Nations. This tradition implies on the one hand, that wealth must be evaluated i.e.: economic science must elaborate a price theory; on the other hand, money should be integrated in economic theories because prices are expressed in monetary terms. Mainstream economic theory succeeds in price determination (with some limits but fails on money integration, while non-mainstream monetary models succeed on money integration but fail on price determination. In this paper I argue that the Ayres-Martinás theoretical framework is a promising tentative to cope with this challenge of economic science.

  9. Doğu-Batı Ayrımı Ekseninde Oryantalizm ve Emperyalizm

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    Erkan DİKİCİ

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Öz Bu çalışma, Doğu ile Batı arasındaki ilişkiyi incelemek adına Edward Said tarafından 1978 yılında kaleme alınan “Oryantalizm” kitabında ifade edilen oryantalist yaklaşımdan yola çıkarak, Doğu-Batı ayrımına vurgu yapmakta ve bu ayrımın arkasında yatan çıkar ilişkilerini dile getirmeye çalışmaktadır. Söz konusu Doğu-Batı ayrımı ile birlikte oryantalizm ile emperyalizm arasındaki ilişkiye de temas edilmek istenmiştir. Bu ilişkiler zinciri içerisinde dile getirdiğimiz bu ayrım, Batılıların, Batılı olmayan toplumlar üzerindeki emperyalist düşünceleri uygulayabilmek amacıyla, Batılıların kendileri tarafından ortaya çıkartılmıştır. Bu nedenle çalışmanın temel amacı, Batılıların, ötekileştirdiği Batı-dışı toplumlar üzerindeki emellerine ulaşmada oryantalizmi biçilmiş kaftan olarak görmekte olduklarını ve oryantalizmi, emperyalizmin meşrulaştırıcısı olarak düşündüklerini ifade etmektir. Anahtar Kelimeler: Oryantalizm, Doğu-Batı Ayrımı, Emperyalizm, Ötekileştirme. Orientalism and Imperialism within the Concept of East-West Division This study emphasizes the East-West division based upon the orientalist approach stated in the book “Orientalism” written by Edward Said in 1978 to study the relation between the East and the West, and tries to depict the relationships based on self-interest underlying this division. With the aforesaid East and West division, it is also wanted to mention the relation between orientalism and Imperialism. The division that we have mentioned has been posed by the Westerners to carry out their imperialist thoughts over non-western societies. For his reason, the main aim of this study is to express that the westerners see orientalism perfectly suited to reach their goals over non-western societies that they have otherized, and they also think orientalism as the legitimization of imperialism. Keywords: Orientalism, East

  10. Genealogy of John and Charles Bell: their relationship with the children of Charles Shaw of Ayr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, M

    2005-11-01

    The Reverend William Bell had six children who survived infancy. Two of his sons entered the legal profession and two other sons became distinguished anatomists and surgeons--John Bell, said for 20 years to have been the leading operating surgeon in Britain and throughout the world--and Sir Charles Bell, possibly the most distinguished anatomist and physiologist of his day. Information is not known about the fifth son or their sister. Charles Shaw, a lawyer of Ayr, had four sons and two daughters who survived infancy. Two of his sons, John and Alexander, became anatomists and later surgeons at the Middlesex Hospital, and both worked closely with Charles Bell at the Great Windmill Street School of Anatomy. His third son entered the law and his fourth son became a distinguished soldier. The two daughters of Charles Shaw married into the Bell family: Barbara married George Joseph Bell and Marion married Mr (later Sir) Charles Bell.

  11. Manualization of Occupational Therapy Using Ayres Sensory Integration® for Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Joanne; van Hooydonk, Elke; Faller, Patricia; Mailloux, Zoe; Schaaf, Roseann

    2017-07-01

    This article reports on the development of a Stage 3 manual (following pilot effectiveness study) for implementing occupational therapy using Ayres Sensory Integration® (OT/ASI) for children with autism spectrum disorders to enhance participation in daily occupations. Three stakeholder groups were surveyed to aid in translation of manual from research to practice (i.e., Stage 3 manual) and an expert consensus meeting was held to finalize recommendations. Data indicated that the manuals usability could be improved by including a section on frequently encountered problems and solutions, and by including video case examples. Also recommended were greater chapter uniformity, improved clarity of forms and charts, and inclusion of a glossary. Changes were made and subject to expert review and consensus using modified Delphi process. The Stage 3 manual has been rigorously vetted and is ready for practice and research replication.

  12. COGNITIVE LOAD THEORY Written by John SWELLER, Paul AYRES, and Slava KALYUGA,

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    Reviewed by Kadir KOZAN

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive load theory (2011 by John Sweller, Paul Ayres, and Slava Kalyuga presents the state-of-the art form of cognitive load theory (CLT including instructional guidelines produced by the theory so far. The book achieves this in a precise, detailed and well-organized manner thereby being very informative from the very beginning to the very end. For instance, even the preface provides an ample amount of information about CLT after stating the main premise of this theory: “Without knowledge of human cognitive processes, instructional design is blind.” (p. v. As stated in the book, CLT is that sort of a theory that informs instructional design from a cognitive perspective or on the basis of how human cognition works.

  13. Low genetic variation suggest single stock of Kawakawa Euthynnus affinis (Cantor, 1849) along the Indian coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    GirishKumar; Kunal, S.P.; Menezes, M.R.

    Kawakawa Euthynnus affinis is an epipelagic migratory tuna species, widely distributed in the tropical and subtropical waters of the Indo-Pacific region. It constitutes the largest tuna fishery in Indian waters. In present study, restriction...

  14. Complete mitochondrial DNA sequence of the Eastern keelback mullet Liza affinis.

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    Gong, Xiaoling; Zhu, Wenjia; Bao, Baolong

    2016-05-01

    Eastern keelback mullet (Liza affinis) inhabits inlet waters and estuaries of rivers. In this paper, we initially determined the complete mitochondrial genome of Liza affinis. The entire mtDNA sequence is 16,831 bp in length, including 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes and 1 putative control region. Its order and numbers of genes are similar to most bony fishes.

  15. A High-Quality Reference Genome for the Invasive Mosquitofish Gambusia affinis Using a Chicago Library.

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    Hoffberg, Sandra L; Troendle, Nicholas J; Glenn, Travis C; Mahmud, Ousman; Louha, Swarnali; Chalopin, Domitille; Bennetzen, Jeffrey L; Mauricio, Rodney

    2018-04-27

    The western mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis, is a freshwater poecilid fish native to the southeastern United States but with a global distribution due to widespread human introduction. Gambusia affinis has been used as a model species for a broad range of evolutionary and ecological studies. We sequenced the genome of a male G. affinis to facilitate genetic studies in diverse fields including invasion biology and comparative genetics. We generated Illumina short read data from paired-end libraries and in vitro proximity-ligation libraries. We obtained 54.9× coverage, N50 contig length of 17.6 kb, and N50 scaffold length of 6.65 Mb. Compared to two other species in the Poeciliidae family, G. affinis has slightly fewer genes that have shorter total, exon, and intron length on average. Using a set of universal single-copy orthologs in fish genomes, we found 95.5% of these genes were complete in the G. affinis assembly. The number of transposable elements in the G. affinis assembly is similar to those of closely related species. The high-quality genome sequence and annotations we report will be valuable resources for scientists to map the genetic architecture of traits of interest in this species. Copyright © 2018, G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics.

  16. A High-Quality Reference Genome for the Invasive Mosquitofish Gambusia affinis Using a Chicago Library

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    Sandra L. Hoffberg

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The western mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis, is a freshwater poecilid fish native to the southeastern United States but with a global distribution due to widespread human introduction. Gambusia affinis has been used as a model species for a broad range of evolutionary and ecological studies. We sequenced the genome of a male G. affinis to facilitate genetic studies in diverse fields including invasion biology and comparative genetics. We generated Illumina short read data from paired-end libraries and in vitro proximity-ligation libraries. We obtained 54.9× coverage, N50 contig length of 17.6 kb, and N50 scaffold length of 6.65 Mb. Compared to two other species in the Poeciliidae family, G. affinis has slightly fewer genes that have shorter total, exon, and intron length on average. Using a set of universal single-copy orthologs in fish genomes, we found 95.5% of these genes were complete in the G. affinis assembly. The number of transposable elements in the G. affinis assembly is similar to those of closely related species. The high-quality genome sequence and annotations we report will be valuable resources for scientists to map the genetic architecture of traits of interest in this species.

  17. Proteogenomic Analysis Greatly Expands the Identification of Proteins Related to Reproduction in the Apogamous Fern Dryopteris affinis ssp. affinis.

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    Grossmann, Jonas; Fernández, Helena; Chaubey, Pururawa M; Valdés, Ana E; Gagliardini, Valeria; Cañal, María J; Russo, Giancarlo; Grossniklaus, Ueli

    2017-01-01

    Performing proteomic studies on non-model organisms with little or no genomic information is still difficult. However, many specific processes and biochemical pathways occur only in species that are poorly characterized at the genomic level. For example, many plants can reproduce both sexually and asexually, the first one allowing the generation of new genotypes and the latter their fixation. Thus, both modes of reproduction are of great agronomic value. However, the molecular basis of asexual reproduction is not well understood in any plant. In ferns, it combines the production of unreduced spores (diplospory) and the formation of sporophytes from somatic cells (apogamy). To set the basis to study these processes, we performed transcriptomics by next-generation sequencing (NGS) and shotgun proteomics by tandem mass spectrometry in the apogamous fern D. affinis ssp. affinis . For protein identification we used the public viridiplantae database (VPDB) to identify orthologous proteins from other plant species and new transcriptomics data to generate a "species-specific transcriptome database" (SSTDB). In total 1,397 protein clusters with 5,865 unique peptide sequences were identified (13 decoy proteins out of 1,410, protFDR 0.93% on protein cluster level). We show that using the SSTDB for protein identification increases the number of identified peptides almost four times compared to using only the publically available VPDB. We identified homologs of proteins involved in reproduction of higher plants, including proteins with a potential role in apogamy. With the increasing availability of genomic data from non-model species, similar proteogenomics approaches will improve the sensitivity in protein identification for species only distantly related to models.

  18. Response of mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) populations to seasonally unpredictable perturbations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, M.J.; Stewart, A.J.

    1990-07-01

    Many questions remain unresolved about the linkages between life history attributes of fishes and the tactics that these organisms employ in response to environmental uncertainty. Such questions include (1). If a perturbation affects the entire ecosystem, what are the consequences for a given population of fish (2) What tactics can a fish employ to increase its chances of leaving offspring (3) Do fish respond differently to such perturbations depending on the season (4) How do these changes relate to the overall resilience of the population The research reported here was designed to address such questions. Mosquito fish (Gambusia affinis) populations in thirteen experimental ponds at Oak Ridge National Laboratory were sampled ten times between June 1988, and July 1989 in response to a series of chemical disturbances. During each sampling period the population size and total biomass of Gambusia in each pond was estimated using photographs and a length weight regression. Size-frequency histograms were used to examine seasonal and dose-related changes in population structure. Lipid content and reproductive allotment were measured for a series of fish from each pond on all dates to explore the energy allocation patterns at the individual. 106 refs., 38 figs., 16 tabs.

  19. Impact of metal pollution on shrimp Crangon affinis by NMR-based metabolomics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Chenglong; Yu, Deliang; Wang, Qing; Li, Fei; Zhao, Jianmin; Wu, Huifeng

    2016-01-01

    Both cadmium and arsenic are the important metal/metalloid pollutants in the Bohai Sea. In this work, we sampled the dominant species, shrimp Crangon affinis, from three sites, the Middle of the Bohai Sea (MBS), the Yellow River Estuary (YRE) and the Laizhou Bay (LZB) along the Bohai Sea. The concentrations of metals/metalloids in shrimps C. affinis indicated that the YRE site was polluted by Cd and Pb, while the LZB site was contaminated by As. The metabolic differences between shrimps C. affinis from the reference site (MBS) and metal-pollution sites (YRE and LZB) were characterized using NMR-based metabolomics. Results indicated that the metal pollutions in YRE and LZB induced disturbances in osmotic regulation and energy metabolism via different metabolic pathways. In addition, a combination of alanine and arginine might be the biomarker of Cd contamination, while BCAAs and tyrosine could be the biomarkers of arsenic contamination in C. affinis. - Highlights: •YRE and LZB are mainly polluted by Cd and As, respectively. •Metal pollutions caused differential effects in C. affinis from different sites. •Metabolomics is useful to elucidate metal pollution-induced biological effects.

  20. [Effects of starvation on the consumption of energy sources and swimming performance in juvenile Gambusia affinis and Tanichthys albonubes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiang-tao; Lin, Xiao-tao; Zhou, Chen-hui; Zeng, Peng; Xu, Zhong-neng; Sun, Jun

    2016-01-01

    To explore the consumption of energy sources and swimming performance of juvenile Gambusia affinis and Tanichthys albonubes after starvation, contents of glycogen, lipid and protein, burst swimming speeds (Uburst), and critical swimming speeds (Ucrit) at different starvation times (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 days) were evaluated. The results showed that, at 0 day, contents of glycogen and lipid were significantly lower in G. affinis than those in T. albonubes, whereas no significant difference in content of protein between two experimental fish was found. Swimming speeds in G. affinis were significantly lower than those in T. albonubes for all swimming performances. After different starvation scenarios, content of glycogen both in G. affinis and T. albonubes decreased significantly in power function trend with starvation time and were close to zero after starvation for 10 days, whereas the contents of lipid and protein were linearly significantly decreased. The slope of line regression equation between content of lipid and starvation time in G. affinis was significantly lower than that in T. albonubes, whereas there was a significantly higher slope of line equation between content of protein and starvation time in G. affinis. 40 days later, the consumption rate of glycogen both in G. affinis and T. albonubes were significantly higher than that of lipid, while the consumption rate of protein was the least. Consumption amounts of glycogen in all experimental fish were the least, G. affinis consumed more protein than lipid, and T. albonubes consumed more lipid than protein. Uburst and Ucrit decreased significantly linearly with starvation time for all experimental fish. Slope of linear equation between Uburst and starvation time was not significantly different between G. affinis and T. albonubes. However, the straight slope between Ucrit and starvation time was significantly lower in G. affinis than that in T. albonubes. These findings indicated that there was close

  1. Effects of chronic low-level irradiation on Gambusia affinis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaylock, B.G.; Frank, M.L.

    1979-01-01

    Since 1944, White Oak Lake (WOL), located on the Oak Ridge Reservation, has served as a final settling basin for low-level radioactive effluents from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Organisms inhabiting the lake have been exposed for many generations to chronic low-level radiation significantly higher than background. During the past decade, studies on Gambusia affinis from WOL have been carried out to relate estimated radiation doses to effects on the fitness of the Gambusia population. Results of studies on fecundity, temperature tolerance, and embryonic mortality have led to the conclusion that the Gambusia population in White Oak Lake has an increased frequency of deleterious and recessive lethal genes which may be attributed to the radiation exposure history. The frequency of nonviable embryos from WOL Gambusia did not change significantly from 1966 to 1978; however, it was still significantly greater than that of a control population. In July 1977, Gambusia from a control population were stocked into a 0.45-ha pond which had served as a low-level waste settling basin. The beta and gamma dose rate in this pond averaged from 37 rad/yr at the water surface, 394 rad/yr at mid-depth, and 1150 rad/yr at the surface of the sediments. Preliminary results from samples taken in August 1978 showed that although the frequency of nonviable embryos increased, the frequency was not significantly greater than that of the control parent population. Additional sampling of future generations of Gambusia in this pond will determine whether the frequency of nonviable embryos increases as succeeding generations are exposed to dose rates that are higher than the dose rates in WOL

  2. Identification of candidates for cyclotide biosynthesis and cyclisation by expressed sequence tag analysis of Oldenlandia affinis

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    Suda Jan

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cyclotides are a family of circular peptides that exhibit a range of biological activities, including anti-bacterial, cytotoxic, anti-HIV activities, and are proposed to function in plant defence. Their high stability has motivated their development as scaffolds for the stabilisation of peptide drugs. Oldenlandia affinis is a member of the Rubiaceae (coffee family from which 18 cyclotides have been sequenced to date, but the details of their processing from precursor proteins have only begun to be elucidated. To increase the speed at which genes involved in cyclotide biosynthesis and processing are being discovered, an expressed sequence tag (EST project was initiated to survey the transcript profile of O. affinis and to propose some future directions of research on in vivo protein cyclisation. Results Using flow cytometry the holoploid genome size (1C-value of O. affinis was estimated to be 4,210 - 4,284 Mbp, one of the largest genomes of the Rubiaceae family. High-quality ESTs were identified, 1,117 in total, from leaf cDNAs and assembled into 502 contigs, comprising 202 consensus sequences and 300 singletons. ESTs encoding the cyclotide precursors for kalata B1 (Oak1 and kalata B2 (Oak4 were among the 20 most abundant ESTs. In total, 31 ESTs encoded cyclotide precursors, representing a distinct commitment of 2.8% of the O. affinis transcriptome to cyclotide biosynthesis. The high expression levels of cyclotide precursor transcripts are consistent with the abundance of mature cyclic peptides in O. affinis. A new cyclotide precursor named Oak5 was isolated and represents the first cDNA for the bracelet class of cyclotides in O. affinis. Clones encoding enzymes potentially involved in processing cyclotides were also identified and include enzymes involved in oxidative folding and proteolytic processing. Conclusion The EST library generated in this study provides a valuable resource for the study of the cyclisation of plant

  3. Ontogenetic optimal temperature and salinity envelops of the copepod Eurytemora affinis in the Seine estuary (France)

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    Dur, Gaël; Souissi, Sami

    2018-01-01

    Temperature and salinity are important factors shaping the habitats of estuarine ectotherms. Their respective effect varies along the life history moments of species with a complex life cycle. Estuarine species, particularly those living in the salinity gradient, are concerned by habitat changes that can reduce their fitness. Consequently, efforts to define the importance of those two environmental variables on developmental stages are required to enable forecasting estuarine species' future distributions. The present study focuses on the main component of the Seine estuary's zooplankton, i.e. the calanoid copepod Eurytemora affinis, and aims: (i) to establish the role of temperature and salinity in designing the habitat of E. affinis within the Seine estuary; and (ii) to model the habitat of three groups of E. affinis defined through the life cycle as follows: all larval instars (N1-N6), the first to fourth juvenile instars (C1-C4), and the pre-adult and adults instars (C5-Adults). For this purpose, data from intensive field studies of zooplankton sampling during 2002-2010 were used. The fine-scale data, i.e., every 10-20 min, on density and abiotic conditions (salinity, temperature) provided inputs for the computation. We established regions in salinity-temperature space where the three groups of developmental instars exhibit higher densities. The computed habitats differ between developmental groups. In general, the preferendum of salinity increases with ontogeny. The optima of temperature are rather constant between developmental stages (∼14 °C). Our model can be used to determine E. affinis functional habitat (i.e., the spatial relation with structuring factors), to carry out retrospective analysis, and to test future distributions. The present study also emphasizes the need of data from appropriate sampling strategies to conduct habitat definition.

  4. Viability costs of reproduction and behavioral compensation in western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis.

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    Clinton T Laidlaw

    Full Text Available The cost of reproduction hypothesis suggests that current reproduction has inherent tradeoffs with future reproduction. These tradeoffs can be both in the form of energy allocated to current offspring as opposed to somatic maintenance and future reproduction (allocation costs, or as an increase in mortality as a result of morphological or physiological changes related to reproduction (viability costs. Individuals may be able to decrease viability costs by altering behavior. Female western mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis experience a reduction in swimming ability as a consequence of pregnancy. We test for a viability cost of reproduction, and for behavioral compensation in pregnant female G. affinis by measuring survival of females in early and later stages of pregnancy when exposed to predation. Late-stage pregnant females experience a 70% greater probability of mortality compared to early-stage pregnant females. The presence of a refuge roughly doubled the odds of survival of both early and late-stage pregnant females. However, there was no interaction between refuge availability and stage of pregnancy. These data do not provide evidence for behavioral compensation by female G. affinis for elevated viability costs incurred during later stages of pregnancy. Behavioral compensation may be constrained by other aspects of the cost of reproduction.

  5. Application of the bomb radiocarbon chronometer to the validation of redfish Centroberyx affinis age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalish, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    Validation of methods used to estimate fish age is a critical element of the fish stock assessment process. Despite the importance of validation, few procedures are available that provide unbiased estimates of true fish age and those methods that are available are seldom used. The majority of these methods are unlikely to provide an indication of the true age of individual fish, data that are best suited to the validation process. Accelerator mass spectrometry analyses of radiocarbon in selected regions of Centroberyx affinis otoliths were used to validate the age estimation method for this species. Radiocarbon data from the otoliths of C. affinis with presumed birth dates between 1955 and 1985 described the increase in ocean radiocarbon attributable to the atmospheric detonation of nuclear weapons in the 1950s and 1960s. The results confirm the longevity of C. affinis and demonstrate the effectiveness of the bomb radiocarbon chronometer for the validation of age-estimation methods. (author). 31 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  6. Characteristics of suspended solids affect bifenthrin toxicity to the calanoid copepods Eurytemora affinis and Pseudodiaptomus forbesi.

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    Parry, Emily; Lesmeister, Sarah; Teh, Swee; Young, Thomas M

    2015-10-01

    Bifenthrin is a pyrethroid pesticide that is highly toxic to aquatic invertebrates. The dissolved concentration is generally thought to be the best predictor of acute toxicity. However, for the filter-feeding calanoid copepods Eurytemora affinis and Pseudodiaptomus forbesi, ingestion of pesticide-bound particles could prove to be another route of exposure. The present study investigated bifenthrin toxicity to E. affinis and P. forbesi in the presence of suspended solids from municipal wastewater effluent and surface water of the San Francisco (CA, USA) Estuary. Suspended solids mitigated the toxicity of total bifenthrin to E. affinis and P. forbesi, but mortality was higher than what would be predicted from dissolved concentrations alone. The results indicate that the toxicity and bioavailability of particle-associated bifenthrin was significantly correlated with counts of 0.5-µm to 2-µm particle sizes. Potential explanations could include direct ingestion of bifenthrin-bound particles, changes in food consumption and feeding behavior, and physical contact with small particles. The complex interactions between pesticides and particles of different types and sizes demonstrate a need for future ecotoxicological studies to investigate the role of particle sizes on aquatic organisms. © 2015 SETAC.

  7. A new subspecies of Nitokra affinis Gurney, 1927 (Copepoda, Harpacticoida) from the Caribbean coast of Colombia

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    Fuentes-Reinés, Juan M.; Suárez-Morales, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Plankton samples from Laguna Navio Quebrado, La Guajira, northern Colombia, yielded male and female specimens of an harpacticoid copepod that was first identified as the widely distributed species Nitokra affinis Gurney, 1927 for which at least four subspecies have been described from different geographic areas. A more detailed examination of the Colombian specimens revealed that it differs from the other morphs so far considered as subspecies. The Colombian specimens differ from the other four known subspecies in the following aspects: (1) rostrum with long projection, (2) relatively long exopod of P1, almost as long as first endopodal segment, (3) endopodal and exopodal rami of P2 equally long, (4) a reduced number of endopodal setal elements of the male P5. It also differs from N. a. californica Lang in details of the ornamentation of the urosomites. Descriptions and illustrations of this new subspecies, the first one described from the Neotropical region, are presented together with a key to the five known subspecies of Nitokra affinis. As in many other cases of presumedly widespread species of harpacticoids, it is possible that N. affinis represents a species complex with more restricted distributional patterns, a notion that certainly deserves further study. PMID:24574850

  8. Viability costs of reproduction and behavioral compensation in western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidlaw, Clinton T; Condon, Jacob M; Belk, Mark C

    2014-01-01

    The cost of reproduction hypothesis suggests that current reproduction has inherent tradeoffs with future reproduction. These tradeoffs can be both in the form of energy allocated to current offspring as opposed to somatic maintenance and future reproduction (allocation costs), or as an increase in mortality as a result of morphological or physiological changes related to reproduction (viability costs). Individuals may be able to decrease viability costs by altering behavior. Female western mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis experience a reduction in swimming ability as a consequence of pregnancy. We test for a viability cost of reproduction, and for behavioral compensation in pregnant female G. affinis by measuring survival of females in early and later stages of pregnancy when exposed to predation. Late-stage pregnant females experience a 70% greater probability of mortality compared to early-stage pregnant females. The presence of a refuge roughly doubled the odds of survival of both early and late-stage pregnant females. However, there was no interaction between refuge availability and stage of pregnancy. These data do not provide evidence for behavioral compensation by female G. affinis for elevated viability costs incurred during later stages of pregnancy. Behavioral compensation may be constrained by other aspects of the cost of reproduction.

  9. Primer registro para la flora argentina de Ilex affinis (Aquifoliaceae, sustituto de la "yerba mate" First report for Argentina of Ilex affinis (Aquifoliaceae, a "mate" substitute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor A. Keller

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El hallazgo de Ilex affinis Gardner (Aquifoliaceae en los paredones rocosos y áreas pantanosas del paraje Teyú Cuaré, Misiones, Argentina, permite elevar a siete el número de especies de este género para nuestro país y desplaza al sur el límite austral de dispersión de esta especie. Se describe la especie sobre la base de los ejemplares hallados, y se la ilustra mediante fotografías. Además se presentan consideraciones sobre su distribución, observaciones ecológicas y su relación con la yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis A. St. Hil..The finding of Ilex affinis Gardner (Aquifoliaceae in the rocky cliffs and swampy places of Teyú Cuaré, Misiones Province, Argentina, raises to seven the number of species of this genus for our country and moves southward the distribution limits of the species. The species is described on the basis of the specimens collected, and it is illustrated by photographies. Moreover, considerations about distribution, ecology and relationships with maté (Ilex paraguariensis A. St. Hil. are given.

  10. Estratégia reprodutiva do peixe voador, Hirundichthys affinis Günther (Osteichthyes, Exocoetidae Reproductive stralegy of the flying fish, Hirundichthys affinis Gunther (Osteichthyes, Exocoetidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Soares de Araújo

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the reproductive aspects of the flying fish, Hirundichthys affinis Günther, 1866 considering their importance in the fish production of the Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil. Fish samples were collected from the Municipality of Caiçara do Norte, northern coast of the state, during the period of April, 1999 to April, 2000. The fish were measured, weighed, dissected and the gonads were examined to separate the sex and to determine the stage of maturation. Histological studies were done for microscopic characterization of the gonads. The results indicated that H. affinis had a sexual proportion of 1:1; condition factor was inversely related to the gonadosomatic index during the reproductive phase; and the highest for both sexes was registered during the breeding season. Males and females showed four devolopmental stages of the gonads: immature, initial maturation, mature and spent. Absolute fecundity varied from 4400 to 6400 oocytes, with a mean of 5400. The species presents total spawing and the spawing season occurred in the months of May and June. The rainy season preceeded the occurrence of breeding flying fishes in the coastal waters of Caiçara do Norte.

  11. Notes on a mating event of the deep-sea crab Chaecon affinis in the Gorringe Bank (NE Atlantic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilário, A.; Cunha, M. R.

    2013-08-01

    The deep-water red crab Chaceon affinis is the largest species of the family Geryonidae. Unlike other species of the same genus, C. affinis is not yet subject to intense commercial exploitation but it has been appointed as a new target resource in European waters, in spite of the lack of information on its biology, life cycle and distribution, which is essential to provide advice for a sustainable exploitation. Here we report for the first time the presence of C. affinis in the Gorringe Bank and give the first account of the mating behavior of this species. All mating pairs were found at the interface of the Mediterranean Outflow Water with North Atlantic Deep Water, suggesting that environmental parameters associated with the interface of these water masses may be relevant for mating in this species. The majority of C. affinis was mating which is an indication of synchrony and reproductive seasonality. A biennial female reproductive cycle is hypothesized, involving molting and mating in the first year with subsequent oviposition during the autumn, and spawning during spring of the second year. We suggest that synchrony and seasonality in the reproduction of C. affinis is linked to the formation of phytoplankton blooms in surface waters, with females carrying embryos from autumn to spring, possibly timing the release of planktotrophic larvae to exploit a seasonal peak in surface productivity and its export.

  12. Toxicological effects of the herbicide oxyfluorfen on acetylcholinesterase in two fish species: Oreochromis niloticus and Gambusia affinis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanein, Hamdy M A

    2002-01-01

    The alterations of the AChE activity in the brains of two fresh water fishes; Oreochromis niloticus and Gambusia affinis were measured after exposure to acute, sub-acute and chronic concentrations from the widely used herbicide; oxyfluorfen. Bioassays were conducted under controlled laboratory conditions. The used concentrations were acute: LC50 for 6 days, sub-acute 1/3 LC50 for 15 days and chronic 1/10 LC50 for 30 days. The obtained results showed marked inhibitory effects of the herbicide on the activity of AChE in both fishes. However, these effects were more pronounced in O. niloticus where the decline in the enzyme activity ranged from 19.7 to 81.28% while in case of G. affinis it ranged from 5.7 to 36.7%. These findings demonstrate that G. affinis is most tolerant to oxyfluorfen toxicity compared with O. niloticus.

  13. Antioxidant Potential of Vespa affinis L., a Traditional Edible Insect Species of North East India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Prachurjya; Dey, Tapan; Manna, Prasenjit; Kalita, Jatin

    2016-01-01

    Elevated oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of health disorders, like arthritis. Traditionally, Vespa affinis L., a common edible insect among many tribes in North-East India, is believed to have a beneficial role in extenuating health disorders, such as arthritis. The present study investigated the molecular mechanism underlying medicinal benefit of the Aqueous Extract of Vespa affinis L. (AEVA) against oxidative stress pathophysiology. The free radical scavenging activities of AEVA were examined against DPPH, hydroxyl, and superoxide radicals and the effect on the activities of antioxidant enzyme (GST and CAT) was determined using both recombinant proteins and human plasma. The antioxidant potential of AEVA was again investigated using THP-1 monocytes. AEVA possesses a significant free radical scavenging activity as evident from the DPPH, superoxide, and hydroxyl radical scavenging assay. Incubation of AEVA (2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10 μg/μL) with the recombinant antioxidant enzymes, rGST and rCAT significantly increased the enzyme activities compared to those observed in corresponding enzyme alone or AEVA itself. AEVA supplementation (5, 7.5, and 10 μg/μL) also stimulates the activities of GST and CAT when incubated with human plasma. A cell culture study also confirmed the beneficial role of AEVA (0.8 and 1.2 μg/μL) which enhances the activities of GST and CAT, and also reduces the intercellular ROS production in monocytes treated with or without H2O2 and the effects are at par with what is observed in N-acetyl cysteine-treated cells. The antioxidant potential of the aqueous extract of Vespa affinis L. may mediate its therapeutic activities in oxidative stress-associated health disorders.

  14. Antioxidant Potential of Vespa affinis L., a Traditional Edible Insect Species of North East India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prachurjya Dutta

    Full Text Available Elevated oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of health disorders, like arthritis. Traditionally, Vespa affinis L., a common edible insect among many tribes in North-East India, is believed to have a beneficial role in extenuating health disorders, such as arthritis. The present study investigated the molecular mechanism underlying medicinal benefit of the Aqueous Extract of Vespa affinis L. (AEVA against oxidative stress pathophysiology.The free radical scavenging activities of AEVA were examined against DPPH, hydroxyl, and superoxide radicals and the effect on the activities of antioxidant enzyme (GST and CAT was determined using both recombinant proteins and human plasma. The antioxidant potential of AEVA was again investigated using THP-1 monocytes.AEVA possesses a significant free radical scavenging activity as evident from the DPPH, superoxide, and hydroxyl radical scavenging assay. Incubation of AEVA (2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10 μg/μL with the recombinant antioxidant enzymes, rGST and rCAT significantly increased the enzyme activities compared to those observed in corresponding enzyme alone or AEVA itself. AEVA supplementation (5, 7.5, and 10 μg/μL also stimulates the activities of GST and CAT when incubated with human plasma. A cell culture study also confirmed the beneficial role of AEVA (0.8 and 1.2 μg/μL which enhances the activities of GST and CAT, and also reduces the intercellular ROS production in monocytes treated with or without H2O2 and the effects are at par with what is observed in N-acetyl cysteine-treated cells.The antioxidant potential of the aqueous extract of Vespa affinis L. may mediate its therapeutic activities in oxidative stress-associated health disorders.

  15. Spermiogenesis and sperm ultrastructure in Calicotyle affinis Scott, 1911 (Platyhelminthes, Monogenea, Monopisthocotylea, Monocotylidae

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    Bruňanská M.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Spermatological characteristics of Calicotyle affinis Scott, 1911, an endoparasitic monocotylid monogenean from the cloaca of a holocephalan fish Chimaera monstrosa L, have been investigated by means of transmission electron microscopy for the first time. Spermiogenesis exhibits features basically similar to those of the congeneric Calicotyle kroyeri and Calicotyle australiensis, but there are some new findings with respect to the formation and fine structure of the spermatozoon including the remarkable complex end-piece (EP. Morphogenesis of the EP, which is located at the anterior (proximal region of the late spermatid, includes two stages: (1 the centriolar region is continuous with a cytoplasmic mass of the zone of differentiation, the electron-dense surface of the spermatid undergoes significant changes in the sculpturing and the inner core of developing spermatid is electron-lucent; (2 after central fusion of the arching membranes a definitive structure of the EP is subsequently evolved, finally comprising 3 – 4 electron-dense discs attached to a central common electron-lucent column. The EP is considered as a synapomorphy of the genera Calicotyle + Dictyocotyle. The mature spermatozoon of C. affinis comprises the EP, two parallel axonemes of almost equal lengths with the 9 + “1” trepaxonematan pattern, mitochondrion, nucleus, and a reduced number of parallel cortical microtubules (1 – 3. The posterior (distal extremity of the mature spematozoon contains a single tapering axoneme. Ultrastructural characteristics of the mature spermatozoon of C. affinis coincide mostly with those of congeneric C. australiensis. Variations of the spermatological characters within the genus Calicotyle, between Calicotyle and enigmatic Dictyocotyle as well as other monocotylid monogeneans are discussed.

  16. A transcriptome derived female-specific marker from the invasive Western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis.

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    Dunja K Lamatsch

    Full Text Available Sex-specific markers are a prerequisite for understanding reproductive biology, genetic factors involved in sex differences, mechanisms of sex determination, and ultimately the evolution of sex chromosomes. The Western mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis, may be considered a model species for sex-chromosome evolution, as it displays female heterogamety (ZW/ZZ, and is also ecologically interesting as a worldwide invasive species. Here, de novo RNA-sequencing on the gonads of sexually mature G. affinis was used to identify contigs that were highly transcribed in females but not in males (i.e., transcripts with ovary-specific expression. Subsequently, 129 primer pairs spanning 79 contigs were tested by PCR to identify sex-specific transcripts. Of those primer pairs, one female-specific DNA marker was identified, Sanger sequenced and subsequently validated in 115 fish. Sequence analyses revealed a high similarity between the identified sex-specific marker and the 3´ UTR of the aminomethyl transferase (amt gene of the closely related platyfish (Xiphophorus maculatus. This is the first time that RNA-seq has been used to successfully characterize a sex-specific marker in a fish species in the absence of a genome map. Additionally, the identified sex-specific marker represents one of only a handful of such markers in fishes.

  17. Genetics of radionuclide-contaminated mosquitofish populations and homology between Gambusia affinis and G. holbrooki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theodorakis, C.W.; Bickham, J.W.; Chesser, R.K.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of radionuclide contamination on genetic structure of eastern mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) populations from the US Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS) were investigated to develop methods of assessing ecological risk of chronic exposures to xenobiotics. Fish from two contaminated and two reference sites were examined by the randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique, which revealed that the frequency of three markers was greater in the contaminated than the reference sites and that the frequency of two markers was greater in reference than in the contaminated sites. A previous study examined populations of western mosquitofish (G. affinis) from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and found that certain RAPD markers were present in radionuclide-contaminated ORNL populations at a higher frequency than in reference populations. The contaminant-indicative markers observed in the SRS populations were the same size and amplified by the same polymerase chain reaction primers used in the ORNL study. Southern blot analysis revealed that the SRS G. holbrooki contaminant-indicative markers were homologous to the ORNL G. affinis contaminant-indicative markers. The observation that two species show similar patterns of band frequency shifts at two separate localities is consistent with the hypothesis that these DNA markers may originate from genetic elements that provide a selective advantage in contaminated habitats. Thus, the methodology used in these studies may prove to be useful to indicate population-level effects of environmental contamination

  18. First record of the association between Lychnorhiza lucerna (Scyphozoa, Rhizostomeae and Cyrtograpsus affinis (Decapoda, Varunidae Primer registro de la asociación entre Lychnorhiza lucerna (Scyphozoa, Rhizostomeae y Cyrtograpsus affinis (Decapoda, Varunidae

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    Agustín Schiariti

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We report the association between the jellyfish Lychnorhiza lucerna and the crab Cyrtograpsus affinis. Numerous examples of associations between medusae and brachyurans have been observed in the field and noted in the literature. All of these cases involve medusae of the Class Scyphozoa and crabs belonging to the families Majidae and Portunidae. The presence of three individuals of C. affinis within the subgenital space of L. lucerna constitutes a striking finding since none species of this brachyuran family (Varunidae has been previously reported associated to scyphomedusae.Se reporta la asociación entre la medusa Lychnorhiza lucerna y el cangrejo Cyrtograpsus affinis. Existen numerosos ejemplos de asociaciones entre medusas y brachiuros mencionados en la literatura. Todos ellos involucran a las medusas de la Clase Scyphozoa y a cangrejos pertenecientes a las familias Majidae y Portunidae. La presencia de tres individuos de C. affinis dentro de la cavidad subgenital de L. lucerna es un hecho llamativo dado que, hasta el momento, no se habia reportado a ninguna especie de esta familia de brachiuros (Varunidae asociada con medusas de la Clase Scyphozoa.

  19. Naphthalene induced activities on growth, respiratory metabolism and biochemical composition in juveniles of Metapenaeus affinis (H.Milne Edward, 1837)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ansari, Z.A.; Farshchi, P.; Faniband, M.

    Toxicity of naphthalene was carried out on Metapenaeus affinis (H. Milne Edward, 1837) to investigate its effects on growth, metabolic index and biochemical constituents. Growth rate in terms of weight gain was 32.13% in control, 12.12% in 0.125 ppm...

  20. IDENTIFIKASI BAKTERI DARI IKAN TONGKOL (Euthynnus affinis YANG DIPERDAGANGKAN DI PASAR IKAN KEDONGANAN BALI

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    Gusti Ayu Dianti Violentina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ikan tongkol (Euthynnus affinis merupakan ikan konsumsi yang disukai masyarakat.Pengetahuan tentang bakteri yang ditemukan pada tubuh ikan ini sangat penting untuk tujuan kesehatan masyarakat dan kajian biologi ikan.  Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengidentifikasi bakteri yang berasosiasi dengan ikan tersebut.Bakteri dari usus ikan diambil secara aseptis dan ditumbuhkan pada Blood Agar dan Nutrient Broth. DNA total dari kultur agar cair diisolasi dengan chelax, gen 16S RNA diamplifikasi dengan PCR menggunakan primer universal dengan produk sekitar 1300 bp. Produk PCR dirunut dengan metode Big-Dye termination. Hasilnya disepadankan dan dianalisis dengan MEGA 6.0. Pada penelitian ini, 14 spesies bakteri yang memiliki > 99% kesamaan dengan data GenBankteridentifikasi, yaitu Photobacterium leiognathi, Uruburuella testudinis, Aeromonas molluscorum, Psychrobacter celer, Psychrobacer faecalis, Acinetobacter johnsonii, Vibrio gallicus, Bacillus megaterium, Vagococcus fessus, Shewanella baltica, Shewanella algae, Rothia nasimurium, Myroides phaeus dan Yersinia ruckeri. Peran bakteribakteri tersebut dalam biologi ikan dan kesehatan masyarakat perlu dikaji lebih lanjut.

  1. Genetic diversity in Monoporeia affinis at polluted and reference sites of the Baltic Bothnian Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guban, Peter; Wennerström, Lovisa; Elfwing, Tina; Sundelin, Brita; Laikre, Linda

    2015-04-15

    The amphipod Monoporeia affinis plays an important role in the Baltic Sea ecosystem as prey and as detritivore. The species is monitored for contaminant effects, but almost nothing is known about its genetics in this region. A pilot screening for genetic variation at the mitochondrial COI gene was performed in 113 individuals collected at six sites in the northern Baltic. Three coastal sites were polluted by pulp mill effluents, PAHs, and trace metals, and two coastal reference sites were without obvious connection to pollution sources. An off-coastal reference site was also included. Contaminated sites showed lower levels of genetic diversity than the coastal reference ones although the difference was not statistically significant. Divergence patterns measured as ΦST showed no significant differentiation within reference and polluted groups, but there was significant genetic divergence between them. The off-coastal sample differed significantly from all coastal sites and also showed lower genetic variation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Prymnesium parvum exotoxins affect the grazing and viability of the calanoid copepod Eurytemora affinis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sopanen, S.; Koski, Marja; Uronen, P.

    2008-01-01

    The calanoid copepod Eurytemora affinis from the northern Baltic Sea was exposed to cell-free filtrates of the toxic haptophyte Prymnesium parvum as well as to cell mixtures of P. parvum and Rhodomonas salina. To test the effects of P. parvum exudates and allelopathy on selective grazers, copepods...... cultures were grown in nutrient-balanced (+NP) or limited (-N or -P) media to obtain different levels of toxicity. Survival, ingestion, faecal pellet production rates and egg production were measured over 3 d, together with measurements of P. parvum toxicity (hemolytic activity) (HA). Most of the copepods...... on grazers, and these effects are stronger under nutrient-depleted conditions; however, the presence of good-quality food lowers harmful effects for copepods. The negative effects caused either by direct intoxication or by food limitation following from strong allelopathic effects of P. parvum on other...

  3. Physiological improvement in the copepod Eurytemora affinis through thermal and multi-generational selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Souissi, Anissa; Souissi, Sami; Hansen, Benni Winding

    2016-01-01

    As a major part of fish larval diet in nature, copepods constitute an appropriate live prey for aquaculture purposes. Considering the difficulty of mastering copepod mass production, studies on their growth performance at different environmental conditions are needed to improve their productivity....... In this study a new selective approach based on temperature control is proposed to improve the physiological (body size, fecundity and lipid storage) performance of copepods. The estuarine copepod Eurytemora affinis known to have a high genetic variance in temperature tolerance was used as a biological model....... First two different copepod lines were obtained after long-term culture at constant cold (7°C) and warm (20°C) temperatures. Then both populations were transferred to a higher temperature of 24°C appropriate for aquaculture use and followed during five generations. During the first two generations (F1–F...

  4. Life-history responses to changing temperature and salinity of the Baltic Sea copepod Eurytemora affinis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Konrad; Puiac, Simona; Winder, Monika

    2018-01-01

    To understand the effects of predicted warming and changing salinity of marine ecosystems, it is important to have a good knowledge of species vulnerability and their capacity to adapt to environmental changes. In spring and autumn of 2014, we conducted common garden experiments to investigate how different populations of the copepod Eurytemora affinis from the Baltic Sea respond to varying temperatures and salinity conditions. Copepods were collected in the Stockholm archipelago, Bothnian Bay, and Gulf of Riga (latitude, longitude: 58°48.19', 17°37.52'; 65°10.14', 23°14.41'; 58°21.67', 24°30.83'). Using individuals with known family structure, we investigated within population variation of the reaction norm (genotype and salinity interaction) as a means to measure adaptive capacity. Our main finding was that low salinity has a detrimental effect on development time, the additive effects of high temperature and low salinity have a negative effect on survival, and their interaction has a negative effect on hatching success. We observed no variation in survival and development within populations, and all genotypes had similar reaction norms with higher survival and faster development in higher salinities. This suggests that there is no single genotype that performs better in low salinity or high salinity; instead, the best genotype in any given salinity is best in all salinities. Genotypes with fast development time also had higher survival compared to slow developing genotypes at all salinities. Our results suggest that E. affinis can tolerate close to freshwater conditions also in high temperatures, but with a significant reduction in fitness.

  5. Eucharitidae (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea, a family new to the fauna of Saudi Arabia, with the description of the previously unknown male of Eucharis (Psilogastrellus affinis Bouček

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    Neveen S. Gadallah

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The family Eucharitidae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea is recorded for the first time for the fauna of Saudi Arabia based on Hydrorhoa caffra (Westwood and Eucharis (Psilogastrellus affinis Bouček. The record of H. caffra suggests that Al-Baha and Asir provinces should be considered as part of the Afrotropical rather than the Palaearctic region. The previously unknown male of E. affinis Bouček is described and figured. Macrophotographs of the species are provided.

  6. Estudo comparativo de flores casmógamas, cleistógamas e de frutos de Camarea affinis St.-Hil. (Malpighiaceae Comparative study of casmogamous and cleistogamous flowers and Camarea affinis St.-Hil. fruits (Malpighiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Candida Henrique Mamede

    1993-07-01

    Full Text Available O gênero Camarea pertence a tribo Gaudichaudieae caracterizada pela redução no número de elementos do androceu, gineceu parcialmente sincárpico, estilete único e ginobásico e pela ocorrência de flores cleistógamas. Neste trabalho é feito o estudo de Camarea affinis St-Hil. no que se refere à morfologia e á anatomia de flores casmógamas e cleistógamas, assim como de seus respectivos frutos.The genus Camarea belongs to the tribe Gaudichaudieae, which is traditionally characterized by a solitaiy gynobasic style, presence of veiy reduced cleistogamous flowers, an androecium of 6 staminal elements and carpels only partially united. This paper presents information about the morphology and the anatomy of chamosgamous and cleistogamous flowers and fruits of Camarea affinis St HiL

  7. Mesopelagic fishes of the Arabian Sea: distribution, abundance and diet of Chauliodus pammelas, Chauliodus sloani, Stomias affinis, and Stomias nebulosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Mari; Bollens, Stephen M.; Burkhalter, Brenda; Madin, Laurence P.; Horgan, Erich

    Four species of predatory fishes - Chauliodus pammelas, Chauliodus sloani, Stomias affinis and Stomias nebulosus - were collected on two cruises to the Arabian Sea during 1995. We present data on the abundances, horizontal and vertical distributions, and diet of these fishes. We also discuss briefly the importance of the oxygen minimum zone and predation on myctophid fishes to the ecology of these mesopelagic predators. Chauliodus pammelas and C. sloani appear to have only partially overlapping horizontal distributions in the Arabian Sea, with C. pammelas more common to the north and C. sloani more common to the south. Our data support previous results suggesting that diel vertical migration is the norm for these species, with smaller individuals usually nearer to the surface and larger individuals tending to stay deeper. In contrast to Chauliodus, Stomias affinis and S. nebulosus appear to have largely overlapping horizontal distributions in the Arabian Sea. However, they may have slightly different vertical distributions, with S. affinis living slightly shallower (especially at night) than S. nebulosus. All four species spend most of their time in the oxygen minimum zone, entering the surface oxygenated waters (100-150 m) only at night (if at all). The diets of C. pammelas, C. sloani, and S. affinis consisted mainly of lanternfishes, Myctophidae, and other fishes. In contrast, S. nebulosus, the smaller of the two Stomias species, ate mostly copepods and other crustaceans. This differential feeding may allow the two Stomias species to co-occur. Three of these four stomiids appear to play an important role in predation on myctophid fish populations in the Arabian Sea.

  8. Geographic differences in the carapace shape of the crab Cyrtograpsus affinis (Decapoda: Varunidae and its taxonomic implications

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    Aníbal H. Lezcano

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Cyrtograpsus genus was traditionally considered to be composed of three species: C. angulatus, C. altimanus and C. affinis. However, recent studies have found solid evidence suggesting that C. affinis and C. altimanus belong to a single species and hypothesize that the morphological differences which caused this misclassification could be related to different ecophenotypes or life stages. Here we report a geometric morphometrics study on the carapace shape of Cyrtograpsus specimens from the Río de la Plata estuary (36°S and the Nuevo Gulf (42.75°S, testing for shape differences between different sizes (allometry in the two environments. We found that previous morphological descriptions of the two species were associated with different sizes of a continuous, statistically significant allometric shape variation, concluding that C. affinis is a junior synonym of C. altimanus. We also found significant differences in the carapace shape between estuarine and marine environments, suggesting an effect of the environmental variables on carapace shape and a potential adaptive value of this trait.

  9. Personality differentially affects individual mate choice decisions in female and male Western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bo-Jian; Liu, Kai; Zhou, Lin-Jun; Gomes-Silva, Guilherme; Sommer-Trembo, Carolin; Plath, Martin

    2018-01-01

    Consistent individual differences in behavioral tendencies (animal personality) can affect individual mate choice decisions. We asked whether personality traits affect male and female mate choice decisions similarly and whether potential personality effects are consistent across different mate choice situations. Using western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) as our study organism, we characterized focal individuals (males and females) twice for boldness, activity, and sociability/shoaling and found high and significant behavioral repeatability. Additionally, each focal individual was tested in two different dichotomous mate choice tests in which it could choose between computer-animated stimulus fish of the opposite sex that differed in body size and activity levels, respectively. Personality had different effects on female and male mate choice: females that were larger than average showed stronger preferences for large-bodied males with increasing levels of boldness/activity (i.e., towards more proactive personality types). Males that were larger than average and had higher shoaling tendencies showed stronger preferences for actively swimming females. Size-dependent effects of personality on the strength of preferences for distinct phenotypes of potential mating partners may reflect effects of age/experience (especially in females) and social dominance (especially in males). Previous studies found evidence for assortative mate choice based on personality types or hypothesized the existence of behavioral syndromes of individuals' choosiness across mate choice criteria, possibly including other personality traits. Our present study exemplifies that far more complex patterns of personality-dependent mate choice can emerge in natural systems.

  10. Development of mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis holbrooki populations in lentic mesocosms. Perspectives for ecotoxicological studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DREZE V.

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available In the perspective of ecotoxicological assays in mesocosms, the development of mosquitofish populations (Gambusia affinis holbrooki has been assessed. The objective was to evaluate the ability of fish to reproduce in these experimental ponds under the climatic conditions of Brittany, and to see if population size and individual criteria were related to the number of adults initially introduced. Six mesocosms (3.2 m diameter and 0.7 m water depth similarly designed received sexually mature mosquitofish at the rate of 12 (6 females and 6 males, 6 (3 females and 3 males and 2 (1 female and 1 male in June 1996. Each assay was duplicated. In December 1996, the entire populations were collected and the weight, size and sex of the individuals were noted. Length-frequency distributions were relatively similar between mesocosms and the different mode groups showed that the reproductive activity occurred until the beginning of fall. The produced biomass (from 4.1 to 38.3 g and number of fish collected (from 26 to 301 were statistically correlated to the number of pairs initially introduced. This study provides interesting perspectives for ecotoxicological investigations in which the effects of pollutants on mosquitofish would be assessed at the population level.

  11. Effects of mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis cues on wood frog (Lithobates sylvaticus tadpole activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine F. Buttermore

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We examined the changes in activity of wood frog (Lithobates sylvaticus tadpoles exposed to combinations of visual, chemical, and mechanical cues of the invasive mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis. We also examined whether the responses of the tadpoles to the predator cues were influenced by the short-term accumulation of chemical cues in the experimental container. In our experiment, the activity of wood frog (L. sylvaticus tadpoles was not affected by the presence of various cues from mosquitofish. Our experiment demonstrated that the repeated use of trial water can influence the activity level of tadpoles, regardless of the predator cue treatment used. Tadpoles in the first trial tended to be less active than tadpoles in subsequent trials. This effect does not appear to be mediated by the accumulation of predator cues since there was no significant interaction term. Our results suggest that short-term accumulation of predator chemical cues do not affect the behavior of wood frog tadpoles: however, our results suggest that the repeated use of the same water in consecutive trials may affect tadpole behavior, perhaps through the accumulation of conspecific chemical cues.

  12. Endogenous contributions to egg protein formation in lesser scaup Aythya affinis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutting, Kyle A.; Hobson, Keith A.; Rotella, Jay J.; Warren, Jeffrey M.; Wainwright-de la Cruz, Susan E.; Takekawa, John Y.

    2011-01-01

    Lesser scaup Aythya affinis populations have declined throughout the North American continent for the last three decades. It has been hypothesized that the loss and degradation of staging habitats has resulted in reduced female body condition on the breeding grounds and a concomitant decline in productivity. We explored the importance of body (endogenous) reserves obtained prior to arrival on the breeding ground in egg protein formation in southwestern Montana during 2006–2008 using stable-carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotope analyses of scaup egg components, female tissue, and local prey items. From arrival on the breeding grounds through the egg-laying period, δ15N values of scaup red blood cells decreased while δ13C values became less variable; a pattern consistent with endogenous tissues equilibrating with local (freshwater) dietary sources. In 2006 and 2008, isotopic values for egg albumen and yolk protein indicated that most (>90%) protein used to produce these components was obtained on the breeding grounds. However, in 2007, a year with an exceptionally warm and dry spring, endogenous reserves contributed on average 41% of yolk and 29% of albumen. Results from this study suggest that female scaup can meet the protein needs of egg production largely from local dietary food sources. This highlights the importance of providing high-quality breeding habitats for scaup. Whether this pattern holds in areas with similar breeding season lengths but longer migration routes, such as those found in the western boreal forest, should be investigated.

  13. Hepatic element concentrations of lesser scaup (aythya affinis) during spring migration in the upper midwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillatzki, A.E.; Neiger, R.D.; Chipps, S.R.; Higgins, K.F.; Thiex, N.; Afton, A.D.

    2011-01-01

    High concentrations of some hepatic elements might be contributing to the decline of the continental lesser scaup (Aythya affinis) population. We evaluated hepatic element concentrations of male and female lesser scaup collected from the upper Midwest (Iowa, Minnesota, North Dakota, and South Dakota) during the 2003 and 2004 spring migrations. We measured concentrations of 24 elements in livers of 117 lesser scaup. We found that only selenium concentrations were at levels (>3.0 ??g/g wet weight [ww)]) proposed to adversely affect reproduction. Approximately 49% of females (n = 61) had individual hepatic concentrations >3.0 ??g/g ww selenium (Se). Our observed hepatic concentration of Se was similar to that reported in lesser scaup collected from the mid-continental United States but less than Se concentrations reported from the Great Lakes region. We found that the liver cadmium (Cd) concentration for males was significantly higher than that for females. Gender differences in hepatic Cd concentrations have not been previously reported for lesser scaup, but Cd is known to have negative impacts on male reproduction. Our results indicate that lesser scaup migrating through the upper Midwest in spring have elevated Se levels and that males carry a significantly greater Cd burden than females. Moreover, elemental concentrations might be high enough to affect reproduction in both male and female lesser scaup, but controlled laboratory studies are needed to adequately assess the effects of Se and Cd on lesser scaup reproduction. ?? 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  14. Identificação de Paspalum notatum fluegge e Axonopus affinis chase através da análise de fragmentos foliares Identification of Paspalum notatum fluegge and Axonopus affinis chase through leaf fragments analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cláudia Lopes Nogueira

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo a caracterização e identificação de fragmentos foliares de Paspalum notatum Fluegge e Axonopus affinis Chase, como forma de subsidiar projetos de avaliação da dieta de animais fistulados. Para a caracterização das espécies, foram feitas várias coletas de folhas em áreas de pastagem natural do Campus da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (RS, de maio de 1992 a junho de 1993. A diferenciação das espécies foi baseada no padrão de nervação, presença de pêlos e características do ápice e bordo foliar, observadas com auxílio de estereomicroscópio. A habilidade de um observador em identificar fragmentos das duas espécies numa mistura e a eficácia dos descritores foliares mencionados foram testadas através de análise estatística. Desta forma, foi constatado que o padrão de nervação é o melhor critério de diferenciação e que A. affinis difere de P. notatum, basicamente, pelo ápice foliar obtuso e pela presença de nervuras quaternárias. A análise estatística confirmou a capacidade do observador em reconhecer fragmentos das duas espécies.This research aimed at the characterization and identification of leaves, fragments of Paspalum notatum Fluegge and Axonopus affinis Chase, for future studies of diet evaluation of fistuleted animals. For the species characterization, several collections of leaves were made in native pasture areas at the UFSM Campus (Santa Maria, RS from May, 1992 to June, 1993. The differentiation of the species was based on the leave’s venation pattern, hair presence, leaf border and apex features, observed with a stereomicroscope. The obverver’s ability to identify the two species of leaves in a misture were tested with statistical analysis. It was observed that the venation pattern is the best characterization criteria and that A. affinis differs from P. notatum mainly by the obtuse leaf apex and by the quaternary vein presence. The statistical analysis

  15. Tracking the movements of a post-nesting Southern River Terrapin (Batagur affinis edwardmolli)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pelf-Nyok; Wong, Adrian

    2015-09-01

    A Southern River Terrapin (Batagur affinis edwardmolli) Conservation Project was initiated on one terrapin nesting bank in 2011, following the discovery of a River Terrapin population in the Kemaman River, Terengganu in 2010. Since this project was initiated, Turtle Conservation Society of Malaysia (TCS) was instrumental in the gazettement of three nesting banks along the Kemaman River, from which all River Terrapin eggs are collected for incubation. However, there are at least a dozen other "unprotected" nesting banks along the river, where all eggs were collected for human consumption. This project attempted to determine the movements of a post-nesting River Terrapin, with hopes that it would provide the preliminary baseline information on the utilization of adjacent nesting banks. The solution was a GPS tracking device that transmitted coordinates every hour over cellular networks. Location-based data was sent via Short Message Service (SMS) to our own SMS gateway running on a Raspberry Pi credit-card size computer, which was then logged in a database and presented graphically via Google Maps. It was a complete tracking and monitoring system. This solution enabled researchers to remotely track the movements of a River Terrapin, hence reducing the costs of research. The movements of a post-nesting River Terrapin were tracked for eight days before the battery was drained. On the third day, this River Terrapin ascended an adjacent riverbank and spent less than an hour on the bank, presumably to deposit her remaining eggs. This study confirmed that River Terrapins do utilize other suitable nesting banks if/whenever available. Results from such tracking studies will be used to leverage on the protection of adjacent nesting banks, thus providing greater protection for the critically endangered River Terrapins.

  16. Mitigation of algal organic matter released from Chaetoceros affinis and Hymenomonas by in situ generated ferrate

    KAUST Repository

    Deka, Bhaskar Jyoti

    2018-05-10

    This study demonstrates the application of in situ ferrate (Fe(VI)) for the efficient removal of dissolved algal organic matter (AOM) from seawater. Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and ferric (Fe(III)) were used to produce in situ Fe(VI) by wet chemical oxidation. First, the removal efficiencies of model AOM compounds, humic acid (HA), and sodium alginate (SA) were evaluated in the presence of sodium chloride with an initial influent dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration of 5.0 mg C L−1 at different pH levels to establish the optimal doses for in situ Fe(VI) generation. The concentration of Fe(VI) was determined by the 2,2-Azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometry method. In the case of HA, 72% DOC removal was recorded when applied with 1.5 mg L−1 of Fe(III) and 1.5 mg L−1 of NaOCl (in situ Fe(VI) concentration of 1.46 mg L−1) while 42% DOC removal was observed for SA. Subsequently, the removal of AOM extracted from two bloom-forming algal species, Chaetoceros affinis (CA) and Hymenomonas (Hym), cultivated in seawater from the Red Sea, were tested with in situ generated Fe(VI) at the established optimum condition. In situ Fe(VI) recorded superior performance in removing AOM extracted from CA and Hym, showing 83% and 92% DOC removal when the influent DOC concentrations were 2.48 and 2.63 mg L−1, respectively. A detailed AOM characterization was conducted using liquid chromatography–organic carbon detection.

  17. Fluctuación poblacional de Xyleborus ferrugineus y X. affinis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae en ecosistemas de Tabasco, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Rangel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Los Scolytinae son insectos comúnmente conocidos como coleópteros descortezadores o ambrosiales debido a su forma de alimentarse. Existen especies que restringen su actividad reproductiva a una planta huésped o a un número reducido de ellas, otras son altamente polífagas. Se estudiaron las poblaciones de Scolytinae con el objetivo de conocer la fluctuación poblacional de X. ferrugineus y X. affinis en ecosistemas de Tabasco, México durante noviembre 2010-julio 2011, febrero 2010-enero 2011 y 2007. Los métodos de captura utilizados fueron trampa de alcohol, trampa de luz y captura directa sobre sus plantas huésped. Se recolectaron 688 especímenes de X. ferrugineus y 3 911 de X. affinis. La fluctuación poblacional de X. ferrugineus mostró de manera general poblaciones bajas en los ecosistemas estudiados sin alguna estacionalidad marcada, registrándose los máximos picos poblacionales tanto en época seca (marzo-mayo como lluviosa (septiembre-diciembre. A diferencia de las poblaciones de X. affinis que fueron más abundantes y mostraron en la mayoría de los sitios (excepto en el Jardín Botánico José Narciso Rovirosa que se presentó en mayo picos poblacionales en época lluviosa. Las trampas de alcohol y de luz son métodos de recolecta que pueden ser complementarios para el monitoreo de las poblaciones de estos insectos, los cuales se encuentran presentes durante la mayor parte del año y su fluctuación poblacional es dependiente de los recursos alimenticios y sobre todo de factores ambientales como la temperatura y humedad. Se sugiere que X. affinis se ha adaptado y explotado los recursos de mejor manera que X. ferrugineus en estos ecosistemas, a juzgar por la abundancia observada. Las correlaciones entre la abundancia y los factores climáticos presentaron valores positivos y negativos. Los resultados reflejan el comportamiento de las poblaciones, sin embargo, hace falta evaluar de manera detallada algunos factores biol

  18. Türkiye Ekonomisinde Sektörel Enerji Tüketiminin Ayrıştırma Yöntemiyle Analizi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alper Yılmaz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışma 1970-2013 yılları arasında Türkiye ekonomisi için sektörel enerji tüketimini ayrıştırma yöntemiyle analiz etmeyi amaçlamaktadır. Çalışmanın sonuçlarına göre sektörel enerji tüketiminin çıktı ve yapısal etki nedeniyle arttığı, yoğunluk etkisi nedeniyle ise düştüğü görülür. Ayrıca diğer iki etkiye göre çıktı etkisi sektörel enerji tüketimi üzerinde en güçlü etkiye sahiptir. Sektörel enerji tüketiminin üretim artışı ile oldukça yakın ilişkili (doğrusal olduğu görülür. Benzer şekilde yapısal etkinin, Türkiye ekonomisindeki enerji yoğun sektörlerinin ağırlığının artmasına bağlı olarak sektörel enerji tüketimini arttırıcı yönde etki yaptığı görülür. Ancak yoğunluk etkisine bakıldığında 1980 sonrasında Türkiye ekonomisi enerji yoğunluğunun yavaş bir düşme eğilimi içinde olduğu görülür.

  19. Inbreeding depression in the partially self-incompatible endemic plant species Scalesia affinis (Asteraceae) from Galápagos islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, L.R.; Siegismund, Hans Redlef; Hansen, T.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract  A previous study showed that some individuals of the tetraploid Galápagos endemic Scalesia affinis were able to produce offspring after selfing. The present study compares the fitness of self-pollinated offspring with the fitness of cross-pollinated offspring. Germination success, seedl...

  20. Partial self-incompatibility in the polyploid endemic species Scalesia affinis (Asteraceae) from the Galápagos: remnants of a self-incompatibility system?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    NIELSEN, LENE ROSTGAARD; SIEGISMUND, HANS R.; PHILIPP, MARIANNE

    2003-01-01

    Different pollination treatments of capitula were used to examine the breeding system of individuals of the tetraploid endemic species Scalesia affinis from the Galápagos Islands. All types of crossings resulted in approximately 35 achenes per capitulum, but in actively and passively self-pollina...

  1. Contaminants and habitat choice in the Baltic Sea: Behavioural experiments with the native species, Monoporeia affinis, and the invasive genus, Marenzelleria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson Wiklund, Ann-Kristin; Vilhelmsson, Sandra; Wiklund, Stig Johan; Eklund, Britta

    2009-01-01

    The invasive polychaete genus, Marenzelleria and the native amphipod, Monoporeia affinis are food and habitat competitors in the Baltic Sea. Previous studies have shown that moderate densities of Marenzelleria can affect the behaviour of M. affinis. To examine the short-term interactive effects of interspecific habitat choice and environmental contaminants a series of habitat colonisation experiments were performed. The contaminants examined included harbor sediments and sediment spiked with the antifouling substances, Cu, Zn and Irgarol. Polychaetes and amphipods were exposed to contaminants in single-species and two-species experiments. In spiked-sediment experiments, M. affinis showed clear dose-dependent response. These experiments verified that behavioural response of M. affinis to different habitats is a sensitive method for testing toxicity under controlled conditions. In experiments with three different harbor sediments and reference sediment both species showed the lowest preference for the reference sediment. This sediment also had the lowest content of quality food, indicating that factors such as food quality and quantity may override the disturbing effects of contaminants in natural sediments. The presence of Marenzelleria spp. did not affect amphipod habitat choice, indicating no short-term effects, which implies that both species can co-exist provided sufficient food is available.

  2. Ayrıntılandırma Olasılığı Modeli ve Uygulama Alanları

    OpenAIRE

    Kıymalıoğlu, Aslıhan

    2014-01-01

    İkna kavramını açıklayan önemli modellerden biri, ikna sürecinde merkezi ve çevresel ikna yolu olmak üzere iki süreç bulunduğunu savunan Ayrıntılandırma Olasılığı Modeli’dir. Türkçe yazında modeli kapsamlı bir şekilde ele alan bir çalışmaya rastlanılmamış olması dolayısıyla, modelin detaylı anlatımını ve modelle ilgili literatür taramasını içeren çalışmanın bu konuda bir boşluğu doldurduğu düşünülmektedir. Yapılan literatür taraması bulguları modelin en fazla pazarlama ve reklam alanlarındaki...

  3. Behavioral responses of the estuarine calanoid copepod Eurytemora affinis to sub-lethal concentrations of waterborne pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalec, François-Gaël [Université Lille Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); USTL, LOG, Station Marine de Wimereux, F-62930 Wimereux (France); CNRS, UMR 8187, F-62930 Wimereux (France); National Taiwan Ocean University, Institute of Marine Biology, Keelung, Taiwan, ROC (China); Holzner, Markus [Institute of Environmental Engineering, ETH Zürich (Switzerland); Menu, Dominique [Université Lille Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); USTL, LOG, Station Marine de Wimereux, F-62930 Wimereux (France); CNRS, UMR 8187, F-62930 Wimereux (France); Hwang, Jiang-Shiou [National Taiwan Ocean University, Institute of Marine Biology, Keelung, Taiwan, ROC (China); Souissi, Sami, E-mail: sami.souissi@univ-lille1.fr [Université Lille Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); USTL, LOG, Station Marine de Wimereux, F-62930 Wimereux (France); CNRS, UMR 8187, F-62930 Wimereux (France)

    2013-08-15

    Highlights: •We studied the effects of sub-lethal exposure to pollutants on Eurytemora affinis swimming behavior. •Nonylphenol, cadmium and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons caused hyperactivity. •Effects were observable within 30 min of exposure and persisted during a depuration period. •The response resembles an escape reaction allowing copepods to evade stressful conditions. -- Abstract: Estuarine waters contain a variety of chemicals which affect to various extents the behavior of aquatic organisms. Little is known, however, on the behavioral response of copepods. The present study shows the results of laboratory experiments investigating the immediate effects of sub-lethal concentrations of three commonly found contaminants on the three-dimensional swimming behavior of the estuarine calanoid copepod Eurytemora affinis. Nonylphenol at 2 μg L{sup −1}, cadmium at 45 ng L{sup −1} and a mixture of low to medium molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at 40 ng L{sup −1} all affected the swimming behavior of E. affinis adults, increasing both swimming speed and activity. In most cases, effects were observable within 30 min of exposure and persisted or faded during a period of depuration in uncontaminated water of similar duration. In ovigerous females exposed to Cd and PAHs, effects appeared to be more pronounced during the depuration period, suggesting that carrying ovisacs may impair recovery. We quantified differences in the distribution of swimming speed values by considering the relative frequencies of periods of break, slow and fast swimming and we observed a trend toward faster movements in the presence of pollutants. The degree of trajectory complexity, estimated through their fractal dimension, was unaffected by pollutants. Since both narcotic and non-narcotic pollutants induced hyperactivity, our results suggest that changes in behavior after a short-term exposure may be independent of the general mode of action of the chemicals. The

  4. Behavioral responses of the estuarine calanoid copepod Eurytemora affinis to sub-lethal concentrations of waterborne pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michalec, François-Gaël; Holzner, Markus; Menu, Dominique; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou; Souissi, Sami

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •We studied the effects of sub-lethal exposure to pollutants on Eurytemora affinis swimming behavior. •Nonylphenol, cadmium and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons caused hyperactivity. •Effects were observable within 30 min of exposure and persisted during a depuration period. •The response resembles an escape reaction allowing copepods to evade stressful conditions. -- Abstract: Estuarine waters contain a variety of chemicals which affect to various extents the behavior of aquatic organisms. Little is known, however, on the behavioral response of copepods. The present study shows the results of laboratory experiments investigating the immediate effects of sub-lethal concentrations of three commonly found contaminants on the three-dimensional swimming behavior of the estuarine calanoid copepod Eurytemora affinis. Nonylphenol at 2 μg L −1 , cadmium at 45 ng L −1 and a mixture of low to medium molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at 40 ng L −1 all affected the swimming behavior of E. affinis adults, increasing both swimming speed and activity. In most cases, effects were observable within 30 min of exposure and persisted or faded during a period of depuration in uncontaminated water of similar duration. In ovigerous females exposed to Cd and PAHs, effects appeared to be more pronounced during the depuration period, suggesting that carrying ovisacs may impair recovery. We quantified differences in the distribution of swimming speed values by considering the relative frequencies of periods of break, slow and fast swimming and we observed a trend toward faster movements in the presence of pollutants. The degree of trajectory complexity, estimated through their fractal dimension, was unaffected by pollutants. Since both narcotic and non-narcotic pollutants induced hyperactivity, our results suggest that changes in behavior after a short-term exposure may be independent of the general mode of action of the chemicals. The increase in

  5. Iboga alkaloids from Peschiera affinis (Apocynaceae) - unequivocal {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C chemical shift assignments: antioxidant activity; Alcaloides iboga de Peschiera affinis (Apocynaceae) - atribuicao inequivoca dos deslocamentos quimicos dos atomos de hidrogenio e carbono: atividade antioxidante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Allana Kellen L.; Magalhaes, Ticiane S.; Monte, Francisco Jose Q.; Mattos, Marcos Carlos de; Oliveira, Maria Conceicao F. de; Almeida, Maria Mozarina B.; Lemos, Telma L.G.; Braz-Filho, Raimundo [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica], e-mail: tlemos@dqoi.ufc.br

    2009-07-01

    Six known alkaloids iboga type and the triterpene {alpha}- and {beta}-amyrin acetate were isolated from the roots and stems of Peschiera affinis. Their structures were characterized on the basis of spectral data mainly NMR and mass spectra. 1D and 2D NMR spectra were also used to unequivocal {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C chemical shift assignments of alkaloids. The ethanolic extract of roots, alkaloidic and no-alkaloidic fractions and iso-voacristine hydroxyindolenine and voacangine were evaluated for their antioxidative properties using an autographic assay based on {beta}-carotene bleaching on TLC plates, and also spectrophotometric detection by reduction of the stable DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) free radical. (author)

  6. Annickia affinis and A. chlorantha (Enantia chlorantha)--A review of two closely related medicinal plants from tropical Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, D K; Van Vuuren, S F; Moteetee, A N

    2015-12-24

    Annickia affinis (Exell) Versteegh & Sosef, closely related to A. chlorantha Setten & P.J.Maas (both species also referred to as Enantia chlorantha Oliv.), from the Annonaceae family, are multi-purpose medicinal plants used widely across tropical Africa. The two Annickia species are morphologically distinct from each other and have different distribution patterns, but are frequently confused. Furthermore, the name Enantia chlorantha is an illegitimate name, but is still used today. A review of the literature was undertaken and an in-depth analysis of previous research and future prospectives are considered. While a myriad of publications cite the species "Enantia chlorantha", this is not the case for A. affinis and A. chlorantha, and no reviews are available for any of the species to date. Consequently, a summary of their ethnobotany, phytochemistry and biological properties is presented here (for the period 1933 - November 2014) in order to substantiate their traditional importance as medicines for rural people in Africa. To this effect, these species seem to be the preferred traditional treatments for malaria in tropical Africa, an area suffering heavily under the malaria pandemic. Their chemical composition is dominated particularly by various isoquinoline alkaloids, as well as by acetogenins and sesquiterpenes, which have been isolated from the bark and leaves. All three of these classes of compounds have been reported to exhibit noteworthy biological activity. Due to their widespread use, especially of the bark, these species have already been categorized as threatened with extinction. Consequently this study further aims to identify areas where more research needs to be conducted involving these important species, and also to suggest possible means of increasing the biological activities of their extracts as a way to conserve the species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. 77 FR 75429 - Notice of Availability of Proposed National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-20

    ... with a plant (giant kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera), a vertebrate (topsmelt, Atherinops affinis) and an... Federal agencies regarding threatened or endangered species of fish, wildlife, or plants and habitat of... Sanctuaries Act The Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary was designated in 1980 and encompasses...

  8. Das citações (indiretas na discursividade do voto de Carlos Ayres Britto acerca da união homoafetiva: efeitos de sentido possíveis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia NEGRI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, trazemos o acontecimento que o voto do ministro relator Carlos Ayres Britto funda pela sua enunciação, no Supremo Tribunal Federal, referente à recente (2011 questão da união homoafetiva no Brasil, tendo como corpus de análise as citações (indiretas extraídas de afirmações de personalidades célebres (Platão, Max Scheler, Descartes, Fernando Pessoa, Nietzsche, Hegel, Jung, Caetano Veloso, Rui Barbosa, Spinoza, Sartre e Chico Xavier, postas em jogo na materialidade linguística. Discutimos os efeitos de sentido possíveis delas decorrentes, mediante a perspectiva da Análise do Discurso de orientação francesa, tendo em conta os aspectos relevantes das condições de produção do discurso, sem deixarmos de aventar os efeitos de articulação entre citações e enunciados que as circunscrevem no voto, paralelismos etc. Lançaremos, ainda, breve olhar sobre o ethos do sujeito do discurso, a partir dos efeitos de sentido das citações. Dentre outras avaliações e reflexões, concluiremos que o discurso tem como argumento maior o amor, confrontando uma FD (Formação Discursiva prototípica do judiciário, inclusive nas menções a interdiscursos religiosos. Para nosso exercício analítico, contamos especialmente com Possenti (2009, 2002, Eni Orlandi (2009, 2006, Foucault (2010, 2009, Maingueneau (1997 e Pêcheux (2009, para que constituam nosso aporte teórico.

  9. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected, Polk County retained Ayres Associates to acquire digital aerial photography during the spring of 2010 suitable for the production of color orthophotography at a 12-inch ground pixel resolution (approximately 956 sq. miles). The photography was obtained du, Published in 2010, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Polk County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected dataset current as of 2010. Polk County retained Ayres Associates to acquire digital aerial photography during the...

  10. Hydrography, Polk County was flown in May 1996. Ayres Associates, Madison, digitized all hydrography features and provided this data as a two-dimensional AutoCAD drawing file. In 2006 Polk County converted the AutoCAD hydrography file into and shapefile creating the h, Published in 1996, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Polk County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Hydrography dataset current as of 1996. Polk County was flown in May 1996. Ayres Associates, Madison, digitized all hydrography features and provided this data as a...

  11. Resource use by the facultative lepidophage Roeboides affinis (Günther, 1868: a comparison of size classes, seasons and environment types related to impoundment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam P. Albrecht

    Full Text Available We report the consumption of scales and other food resources by the facultative lepidophage Roeboides affinis in the upper Tocantins River where it was impounded by the Serra da Mesa Hydroelectric Dam. We compared the diet among size classes, between dry and wet seasons, and between sites with distinct water flow characteristics (lotic vs. lentic related to the distance from the dam and phase of reservoir development. As transparency and fish abundance increased after impoundment, we expected a higher consumption of scales in lentic sites. Likewise, habitat contraction, higher transparency and decrease in terrestrial resources availability, would promote a higher consumption of scales. Scales were consumed by 92% of individuals and represented 26% of the total volume of resources ingested by R. affinis. Diet composition varied significantly among size classes, with larger individuals consuming more scales and larger items, especially odonatans and ephemeropterans. Scale consumption was not significantly different between dry and wet seasons. Roeboides affinis incorporated some food items into the diet as a response to the impoundment, like other species. Scale consumption was higher in lotic sites, refuting our initial hypothesis, what suggests that the lepidophagous habit is related the rheophilic nature of R. affinis.Caracterizamos o consumo de escamas e outros recursos alimentares por Roeboides affinis, um lepidófago facultativo, no alto rio Tocantins, na região represada pela Usina Hidrelétrica de Serra da Mesa. A dieta foi avaliada em relação a classes de tamanho, estações chuvosa e seca, e entre locais com características distintas de fluxo d'água (lótico vs. lêntico relacionadas com a distância da barragem e fase de desenvolvimento do reservatório. Com o aumento da abundância de peixes e da transparência da água após o represamento, esperamos um maior consumo de escamas nos locais lênticos. Da mesma forma, na época seca

  12. Presencia de Gambusia affinis (Baird & Girard, 1853 en un humedal boscoso del Sur de Chile. Posibles implicancias sobre la fauna local de invertebrados.

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    L. Parra-Coloma

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Las especies invasoras son la principal causa de pérdida debiodiversidad del planeta, producto de la depredación que afecta a la faunalocal mediante competencia, hibridación, alteración del hábitat y transmisiónde enfermedades. En este estudio se describe la posible implicancia del pezmosquito sobre la fauna de invertebrados en un humedal boscoso presente en laregión de la Araucanía, Chile. Los resultados nos indican la presencia de Gambusia affinis en todos los sitios demuestreo, destacándose su gran adaptabilidad a la temperatura y pH. El roldepredador de Gambusia affinis sobremosquitos, puede favorecer al desarrollo de sus larvas, al consumirinvertebrados predadores de éstas, influyendo en la estructura trófica de lascomunidades.

  13. Population trends of Rhinolophus affinis during the breeding and non-breeding season roosting at the Kota Gelanggi limestone complex, Pahang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sia, Ting Jin; Zubaid, Akbar; Foo, Ng Yong

    2015-09-01

    Monitoring population trends of bats in caves is difficult but is very important for their conservation. Their vulnerability to decline cannot be taken lightly and must be monitored for future management purposes especially in places open to the public. No studies have been done on bats roosting in caves at Kota Gelanggi and there are very few published studies of cave-dwelling bats in Malaysia. To fill this gap, a study on monitoring the population trends of Rhinolophus affinis was carried out in two caves namely, Gua Kepala Gajah and Gua Tongkat. This study was conducted from October 2013 until December 2014. The population size was estimated by direct visual counts and photographic methods during the day. The bats were caught by using mists net and harp traps. The reproductive condition of both female and male individuals was examined. The mean estimated population size for R. affinis in Gua Kepala Gajah was 221 individuals and 464 in Gua Tongkat. The population size of R. affinis showed an obvious decline during the breeding season and increased gradually after that for both caves. Pregnant R. affinis were found in April 2014 and lactating in June 2014 in both caves. It is important to know the breeding and non-breeding season of bats in both caves and their roosting behaviour in order to protect the bats from human disturbance as these caves are open to the public. The findings will enable the TEKAM management to come out with a proper conservation and management plan for protecting the bat fauna in these caves.

  14. A new subspecies of Nitokra affinis Gurney, 1927 (Copepoda, Harpacticoida from the Caribbean coast of Colombia

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    Juan Fuentes

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Plankton samples from Laguna Navio Quebrado, La Guajira, northern Colombia, yielded male and female specimens of an harpacticoid copepod that was first identified as the widely distributed species Nitokra affinis Gurney, 1927 for which at least four subspecies have been described from different geographic areas. A more detailed examination of the Colombian specimens revealed that it differs from the other morphs so far considered as subspecies. The Colombian specimens differ from the other four known subspecies in the following aspects: (1 rostrum with long projection, (2 relatively long exopod of P1, almost as long as first endopodal segment, (3 endopodal and exopodal rami of P2 equally long, (4 a reduced number of endopodal setal elements of the male P5. It also differs from N. a. californica Lang in details of the ornamentation of the urosomites. Descriptions and illustrations of this new subspecies, the first one described from the Neotropical region, are presented together with a key to the five known subspecies of Nitokra affinis. As in many other cases of presumedly widespread species of harpacticoids, it is possible that N. affinis represents a species complex with more restricted distributional patterns, a notion that certainly deserves further study.

  15. The Features, Current Status and Ecological Risks of Invasive Gambusia Species (Gambusia holbrooki ve G. affinis in Turkey

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    Irmak KURTUL

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it is presented systematic place, distributions in Turkey, morphological characteristics, ecological features, habitat and feeding preferences, reproductive characteristics of two mosquitofishes, which are considered as a threat especially for endemic species’ persistence. Gambusia affinis and Gambusia holbrooki are known as mosquitofishes all over the world. Because of these two species are constantly confused, also they have similar biological and morphological features, both species were examined together, in this study. Because they are used in biological control fruquently since the beginning of the 20th century and have high environmental adaptability, they are distributed in many water bodies in the world today. Some scientific studies demonstrated that unlike the common sense they are not harmless to the ecosystem. Mosquitofishes threat the other species, which are living together at the same ecosystem, especially by predating on their eggs and larvae, and competing on habitat and space. Both species are also known to exist in Turkish inland waters. Since there are many endemic fishes belonging to Turkey, mosquitofish is a major threat for the biological diversity. Introduction of mosquitofish to water resources in Turkey has banned by official statement issued by institutions.

  16. Spatiotemporal distributions of intestinal helminths in female lesser scaup Aythya affinis during spring migration from the upper Midwest, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, J C; Levengood, J M; Osborn, J M; Yetter, A P; Kinsella, J M; Cole, R A; Suski, C D; Hagy, H M

    2017-07-01

    We examined the associations between intestinal helminth infracommunity structure and infection parameters and the age, size, and year and region of collection of 130 female lesser scaup (Aythya affinis) during their 2014-2015 spring migrations through the upper Midwest, USA. We identified a total of 647,174 individual helminths from 40 taxa, including 20 trematodes, 14 cestodes, 4 nematodes and 2 acanthocephalans parasitizing lesser scaup within the study area. Lesser scaup were each infected with 2-23 helminth taxa. One digenean, Plenosoma minimum, is reported for the first time in lesser scaup and in the Midwest. Mean trematode abundance and total helminth abundance was significantly less in 2015 than 2014, and we suspect that colder weather late in 2015 impacted the intermediate host fauna and caused the observed differences. Brillouin's species diversity of helminths was greatest in the northernmost region of the study area, which coincides with the range of a non-indigenous snail that indirectly causes annual mortality events of lesser scaup. While host age and size were not determined to be influential factors of helminth infracommunity structure, non-parametric ordination and permutational analysis of co-variance revealed that year and region of collection explained differences in helminth infracommunities. Our results suggest that spatiotemporal variations play an important role in the structure of intestinal helminth infracommunities found in migrating lesser scaup hosts, and may therefore impact host ability to build endogenous reserves at certain stopover locations in the Midwest.

  17. Reproductive plasticity of Hypostomus affinis (Siluriformes: Loricariidae as a mechanism to adapt to a reservoir with poor habitat complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Duarte

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work we describe the gonad morphology and spawning season of Hypostomus affinis (Steindachner, 1877 in a tropical reservoir based on 55 males and 125 females. Our aim was to assess eventual adaptations in reproductive tactics developed by this riverine species inhabiting an oligotrophic reservoir with low habitat complexity, few rocks and few other preferred consolidated substrata. We described the stages of cells of reproductive lineage, gonadal development and some reproductive traits which were compared with information in the available literature. Cells from the spermatogenic lineage were spermatogonia, spermatocytes, spermatids and spermatozoa, and cells from the oocytarian lineage were primary oocytes, previtelogenic oocytes, cortical vesicle oocytes and yolk globules or vitellogenic. Five stages were described for the males/females according to the distribution of oocytes and spermatogenic lineage cells: resting; initial maturation; advanced maturation; partially spent/spawned; totally spent/spawn. Females outnumbered males and reached larger size. Synchronic ovary development in two groups was found with diameter of mature oocytes ranging from 2 to 3.35 mm. Indication of early maturation, a longer reproductive period and the production of smaller eggs in small clutches seems to be features of the reservoir population not found in riverine systems. Such changes in tactics may indicate a shift to an opportunistic strategy, helping the population to withstand environmental constraints and to succeed in this oligotrophic and poorly structured reservoir.

  18. Enhancement of neutral lipid productivity in the microalga Isochrysis affinis Galbana (T-Iso) by a mutation-selection procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougaran, Gaël; Rouxel, Catherine; Dubois, Nolwenn; Kaas, Raymond; Grouas, Sophie; Lukomska, Ewa; Le Coz, Jean-René; Cadoret, Jean-Paul

    2012-11-01

    Microalgae offer a high potential for energetic lipid storage as well as high growth rates. They are therefore considered promising candidates for biofuel production, with the selection of high lipid-producing strains a major objective in projects on the development of this technology. We developed a mutation-selection method aimed at increasing microalgae neutral lipid productivity. A two step method, based on UVc irradiation followed by flow cytometry selection, was applied to a set of strains that had an initial high lipid content and improvement was assessed by means of Nile-red fluorescence measurements. The method was first tested on Isochrysis affinis galbana (T-Iso). Following a first round of mutation-selection, the total fatty acid content had not increased significantly, being 262 ± 21 mgTFA (gC)-1 for the wild type (WT) and 269 ± 49 mgTFA (gC)-1 for the selected population (S1M1). Conversely, fatty acid distribution among the lipid classes was affected by the process, resulting in a 20% increase for the fatty acids in the neutral lipids and a 40% decrease in the phospholipids. After a second mutation-selection step (S2M2), the total fatty acid content reached 409 ± 64 mgTFA (gC)-1 with a fatty acid distribution similar to the S1M1 population. Growth rate remained unaffected by the process, resulting in a 80% increase for neutral lipid productivity. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Seasonal Variations of Oceanographic Variables and Eastern Little Tuna (Euthynnus affinis) Catches in the North Indramayu Waters Java Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syamsuddin, Mega; Sunarto; Yuliadi, Lintang

    2018-02-01

    The remotely derived oceanographic variables included sea surface temperature (SST), chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) and Eastern Little Tuna (Euthynnus affinis) catches are used as a combined dataset to understand the seasonal variation of oceanographic variables and Eastern Little Tuna catches in the north Indramayu waters, Java Sea. The fish catches and remotely sensed data were analysed for the 5 years datasets from 2010-2014. This study has shown the effect of monsoon inducing oceanographic condition in the study area. Seasonal change features were dominant for all the selected oceanographic parameters of SST and Chl-a, and also Eastern Little Tuna catches, respectively. The Eastern Little Tuna catch rates have the peak season from September to December (700 to 1000) ton that corresponded with the value of SST ranging from 29 °C to 30 °C following the decreasing of Chl-a concentrations in September to November (0.4 to 0.5) mg m-3. The monsoonal system plays a great role in determining the variability of oceanographic conditions and catch in the north Indramayu waters, Java Sea. The catches seemed higher during the northwest monsoon than in the southeast monsoon for all year observations except in 2010. The wavelet spectrum analysis results confirmed that Eastern Little Tuna catches had seasonal and inter-annual variations during 2012-2014. The SST had seasonal variations during 2010-2014. The Chl-a also showed seasonal variations during 2010-2011 and interannual variations during 2011-2014. Our results would benefit the fishermen and policy makers to have better management for sustainable catch in the study area.

  20. Genetic and ecological outcomes of Inga vera subsp. affinis (Leguminosae) tree plantations in a fragmented tropical landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz Neto, Oswaldo; Aguiar, Antonio V; Twyford, Alex D; Neaves, Linda E; Pennington, R Toby; Lopes, Ariadna V

    2014-01-01

    Planting of native trees for habitat restoration is a widespread practice, but the consequences for the retention and transmission of genetic diversity in planted and natural populations are unclear. Using Inga vera subsp. affinis as a model species, we genotyped five natural and five planted populations in the Atlantic forest of northeastern Brazil at polymorphic microsatellite loci. We studied the breeding system and population structure to test how much genetic diversity is retained in planted relative to natural populations. We then genotyped seedlings from these populations to test whether genetic diversity in planted populations is restored by outcrossing to natural populations of I. vera. The breeding system of natural I. vera populations was confirmed to be highly outcrossing (t = 0.92; FIS = -0.061, P = 0.04), with populations showing weak population substructure (FST = 0.028). Genetic diversity in planted populations was 50% less than that of natural populations (planted: AR = 14.9, HO = 0.865 and natural: AR = 30.8, HO = 0.655). However, seedlings from planted populations showed a 30% higher allelic richness relative to their parents (seedlings AR = 10.5, parents AR = 7.6). Understanding the processes and interactions that shape this system are necessary to provide ecologically sensible goals and successfully restore hyper-fragmented habitats. Future restoration plans for I. vera must consider the genetic diversity of planted populations and the potential for gene flow between natural populations in the landscape, in order to preserve ecological interactions (i.e. pollination), and promote opportunities for outcrossing.

  1. Selective advantage of ray florets in Scalesia affinis and S. pedunculata (Asteraceae), two endemic species from the Galápagos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lene Rostgaard; Philipp, Marianne; Siegismund, Hans R.

    2002-01-01

    The presence of neuter ray florets in species within Asteraceae is generally believed to increase pollinator attraction. In the endemic Galápagos genus Scalesia (Asteraceae) a natural variation in the presence/absence of neuter ray florets is found. To evaluate whether the presence of ray florets...... plays a selective role on female reproductive success we chose two species of Scalesia, Scalesia affinis that carries ray florets and S. pedunculata that is rayless. On Santa Cruz Island capitula of S. pedunculata were equipped with fake ray florets while others were untouched. On Isabela Island ray...

  2. Occurrence of Euplatypus parallelus, Euplatypus sp. (col.: Euplatypodidae and Xyleborus affinis (col.: Scolytidae in Pinus sp. in Ribas do Rio Pardo, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanuncio José Cola

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Wood borer species of the families Euplatypodidae and Scolytidae were observed attacking trees of Pinus sp. in the Municipality of Ribas do Rio Pardo, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, in March 2000. This plantation had been previously burned in an accidental fire in January 2000, causing the trees to become partially or totally unhealthy, rendering them more susceptible to attack of these pests. Galleries of these wood borers were opened with a chisel to observe parameters such as their direction and form of these galleries. Species observed as wood borers of Pinus sp. were Euplatypus parallelus, Euplatypus sp. (Coleoptera: Euplatypodidae and Xyleborus affinis (Coleoptera: Scolytidae.

  3. Mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis preference and behavioral response to animated images of conspecifics altered in their color, aspect ratio, and swimming depth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Polverino

    Full Text Available Mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis is an example of a freshwater fish species whose remarkable diffusion outside its native range has led to it being placed on the list of the world's hundred worst invasive alien species (International Union for Conservation of Nature. Here, we investigate mosquitofish shoaling tendency using a dichotomous choice test in which computer-animated images of their conspecifics are altered in color, aspect ratio, and swimming level in the water column. Pairs of virtual stimuli are systematically presented to focal subjects to evaluate their attractiveness and the effect on fish behavior. Mosquitofish respond differentially to some of these stimuli showing preference for conspecifics with enhanced yellow pigmentation while exhibiting highly varying locomotory patterns. Our results suggest that computer-animated images can be used to understand the factors that regulate the social dynamics of shoals of Gambusia affinis. Such knowledge may inform the design of control plans and open new avenues in conservation and protection of endangered animal species.

  4. Tidal influence on the distribution of hydrophobic organic contaminants in the Seine Estuary and biomarker responses on the copepod Eurytemora affinis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cailleaud, K. [Universite Bordeaux 1, CNRS, ISM-LPTC-UMR 5255, Laboratory of Physico- and Toxico-Chemistry, 351 Cours de la Liberation, 33405 Talence (France) and Universite des Sciences et Technologies de Lille - Lille 1, Laboratoire d' Oceanologie et de Geosciences, UMR CNRS 8187 LOG, Station Marine de Wimereux, 28 Avenue Foch, 62930 Wimereux (France) and Faculte des Sciences et Techniques du Havre, LEMA-UPRES EA3222, Laboratoire d' Ecotoxicologie-Milieux Aquatiques, GDR IMOPHYS, 25 rue Philippe Lebon, 76058 Le Havre (France); Forget-Leray, J. [Faculte des Sciences et Techniques du Havre, LEMA-UPRES EA3222, Laboratoire d' Ecotoxicologie-Milieux Aquatiques, GDR IMOPHYS, 25 rue Philippe Lebon, 76058 Le Havre (France); Peluhet, L.; LeMenach, K. [Universite Bordeaux 1, CNRS, ISM-LPTC-UMR 5255, Laboratory of Physico- and Toxico-Chemistry, 351 Cours de la Liberation, 33405 Talence (France); Souissi, S. [Universite des Sciences et Technologies de Lille - Lille 1, Laboratoire d' Oceanologie et de Geosciences, UMR CNRS 8187 LOG, Station Marine de Wimereux, 28 Avenue Foch, 62930 Wimereux (France); Budzinski, H. [Universite Bordeaux 1, CNRS, ISM-LPTC-UMR 5255, Laboratory of Physico- and Toxico-Chemistry, 351 Cours de la Liberation, 33405 Talence (France)], E-mail: h.budzinski@ism.u-bordeaux1.fr

    2009-01-15

    To elucidate tidally related variations of hydrophobic organic contaminant (HOC) bioavailability and the impact of these contaminants on estuarine ecosystems, both PCB and PAH concentrations were investigated in the dissolved phase and in the suspended particulate material (SPM) of the Seine Estuary. Both PAH and PCB highest levels were observed in surface and bottom water when SPM remobilizations were maximum, in relation to higher speed currents. In parallel, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities were investigated in the copepod Eurytemora affinis. Significant decreasing AChE levels were measured during the tidal cycle and between surface and bottom copepods related to salinity and to HOC concentration variations. Significant increasing GST levels were also observed when HOC concentrations in the water column were the highest. This study underlined the need to standardize sampling procedures for biomonitoring studies in order to avoid interfering factors that could modify biomarker responses to chemical exposure. - Variations of contamination of E. affinis and enzymatic responses have been studied over a tide cycle in view to improve the use of this copepod for biomonitoring.

  5. Tidal influence on the distribution of hydrophobic organic contaminants in the Seine Estuary and biomarker responses on the copepod Eurytemora affinis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cailleaud, K.; Forget-Leray, J.; Peluhet, L.; LeMenach, K.; Souissi, S.; Budzinski, H.

    2009-01-01

    To elucidate tidally related variations of hydrophobic organic contaminant (HOC) bioavailability and the impact of these contaminants on estuarine ecosystems, both PCB and PAH concentrations were investigated in the dissolved phase and in the suspended particulate material (SPM) of the Seine Estuary. Both PAH and PCB highest levels were observed in surface and bottom water when SPM remobilizations were maximum, in relation to higher speed currents. In parallel, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities were investigated in the copepod Eurytemora affinis. Significant decreasing AChE levels were measured during the tidal cycle and between surface and bottom copepods related to salinity and to HOC concentration variations. Significant increasing GST levels were also observed when HOC concentrations in the water column were the highest. This study underlined the need to standardize sampling procedures for biomonitoring studies in order to avoid interfering factors that could modify biomarker responses to chemical exposure. - Variations of contamination of E. affinis and enzymatic responses have been studied over a tide cycle in view to improve the use of this copepod for biomonitoring

  6. EVALUATION OF PHYTOTOXIC EFFECT OF DELETERIOUS RHIZOBACTERIA ON THE ROOT GROWTH OF AXONOPUS AFFINIS (CHASE AND LENS ESCULENTA (MOENCH

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    X.J Pacheco-Hernández

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Las malezas ocasionan una gran pérdida en las tierras agrícolas y comúnmente, las medidas de manejo y contención de estas especies se dan con la aplicación de herbicidas, sin embargo; en años recientes se ha presentado un interés en establecer mecanismos de biocontrol seguros, con el empleo de bacterias inhibidoras del crecimiento conocidas como rizobacterias deletéreas (Deleterious rhizobacteria: DRBque se consideran generalmente como no parasíticas, y causan, de manera sutil, efectos deletéreos a través de la producción de metabolitos dañinos a las plantas. El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo caracterizar la producción de ácido cianhídrico de pseudomonas rizobacterianas de malezas de un cultivo de alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. y evaluar el efecto fitotóxico de éstas sobre el crecimiento radical de plántulas de Axonopus affinis (Chase y Lens esculenta (Moench. De acuerdo con los resultados obtenidos con relación a la evidencia de que los aislados de pseudomonadas son rizobacterias cianogénicas y de su efecto fitotóxico medido sobre las especies vegetales bajo estudio; se sugieren a éstas como posibles agentes de biocontrol con pastos que sean considerados malezas; ya que en general se observó que inhiben su crecimiento radical; sin embargo, un enfoque particular lo tiene la rizobacteria Pseudomonas sp. A52, la cual presentó no solamente actividad como una DRB sino también como una rizobacteria promotora del crecimiento vegetal; lo que la hace más importante de analizar en cuanto a su potencial y espectro de acción; tanto para malezas monocotiledóneas como para dicotiledóneas, recomendable como un posible agente de biocontrol con actividad múltiple.

  7. DESCRIPCIÓN MORFOLÓGICA DEL TUBO DIGESTIVO DE JUVENILES DE RUBIO Salminus affinis (PISCES: CHARACIDAE

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    VJ Atencio

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio fue la descripción del tubo digestivo de juveniles de Rubio Salminus affinis. Se analizaron cinco juveniles con 23,6±2,6 cm de longitud total y 142,8±62,5 g de peso. Se realizó descripción topográfica y morfológica de los órganos y cortes histológicos con tinción H-E. El esófago es un órgano tubular corto de pared gruesa que representa el 7,8% de la longitud total del tubo digestivo, presenta pliegues internos que ofrecen gran capacidad de distensión permitiendo el paso de presas de gran tamaño. El estómago es una bolsa asimétrica en forma de “Y”, grande y musculosa, amplio en la porción anterior y estrecho hacia el fondo; el número de ciegos pilóricos varió entre 13 y 23 pudiendo ser monotubulares y ramificados. El intestino, con tres asas, se extiende desde el esfínter pilórico hasta el ano. Histológicamente el tubo digestivo está formado por cuatro capas: mucosa, submucosa, muscular y serosa; el epitelio de revestimiento del esófago es estratificado plano no queratinizado con células caliciformes, cambiando a simple cilíndrico mucosecretor llegando al estómago; en el estómago se encuentra epitelio simple cilíndrico mucosecretor y los ciegos pilóricos e intestino son revestidos por epitelio simple cilíndrico con células caliciformes. Tanto el valor promedio del coeficiente intestinal (0,58, como la pared distensible del estómago sugieren que el Rubio tiene un tubo digestivo propio de carnívoro y sus características histológicas presentan similitud con la mayoría de vertebrados superiores.

  8. Diagnostic value of an abnormal smear in non-pregnant women. Evaluation of positive smear from the surface of the portio obtained by the cottonswab method or by the dry wooden Ayre spatula and the relevance of positive smear from the endocervix and/or from the surface of the portio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundvall, L; Højgaard, L L; Højgaard, K

    1990-01-01

    During a 3-4 year period, 324 women with a positive smear were registered consecutively and prospectively and divided into two groups according to the design of the investigation. In one group the smear was taken with an Ayre spatula and in the other group with a cotton swab. The purpose of this ...

  9. Delice(Olea europea var. oleaster L.) ile zeytin (Olea europea var.sativa) arasında anatomik ve palinojik ayrıcalıklar (The Anatomic And Palynological Differences Between Olea europea var. oleaster L. AND Olea europea var.sativa)

    OpenAIRE

    Kaya, Zafer

    1991-01-01

    Delice(Olea europea var. oleaster L.) ile zeytin (Olea europea var.sativa) arasında anatomik ve palinojik ayrıcalıklar (The Anatomic And Palynological Differences Between Olea europea var. oleaster L. AND Olea europea var.sativa)

  10. Molecular evidence for the predation of Critically Endangered endemic Aphanius transgrediens from the stomach contents of world wide invasive Gambusia affinis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Emre

    2016-01-01

    Predation and competition among native and invasive species are difficult to study in aquatic environments. Identification of preys from semi-digested body parts sampled from stomach contents of the predator is very challenging. Recent studies were mainly based on use of DNA extracted from stomach content to identify the prey species. This study presents the molecular evidence that reveals the predation of critically endangered Aphanius transgrediens by world-wide invasive Gambusia affinis for a better understanding of the link between the invasion and the extinction of native species in freshwater ecosystems. DNA samples were extracted from semi-digested stomach contents of the invader and short fragments of mitochondrial NADH1 gene were amplified using species-specific primers designed in this study to make identification at species level. Existence of both the prey and the predator species were also confirmed using environmental DNA extracted from water samples.

  11. Cryptic or pseudocryptic: can morphological methods inform copepod taxonomy? An analysis of publications and a case study of the Eurytemora affinis species complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajus, Dmitry; Sukhikh, Natalia; Alekseev, Victor

    2015-01-01

    Interest in cryptic species has increased significantly with current progress in genetic methods. The large number of cryptic species suggests that the resolution of traditional morphological techniques may be insufficient for taxonomical research. However, some species now considered to be cryptic may, in fact, be designated pseudocryptic after close morphological examination. Thus the “cryptic or pseudocryptic” dilemma speaks to the resolution of morphological analysis and its utility for identifying species. We address this dilemma first by systematically reviewing data published from 1980 to 2013 on cryptic species of Copepoda and then by performing an in-depth morphological study of the former Eurytemora affinis complex of cryptic species. Analyzing the published data showed that, in 5 of 24 revisions eligible for systematic review, cryptic species assignment was based solely on the genetic variation of forms without detailed morphological analysis to confirm the assignment. Therefore, some newly described cryptic species might be designated pseudocryptic under more detailed morphological analysis as happened with Eurytemora affinis complex. Recent genetic analyses of the complex found high levels of heterogeneity without morphological differences; it is argued to be cryptic. However, next detailed morphological analyses allowed to describe a number of valid species. Our study, using deep statistical analyses usually not applied for new species describing, of this species complex confirmed considerable differences between former cryptic species. In particular, fluctuating asymmetry (FA), the random variation of left and right structures, was significantly different between forms and provided independent information about their status. Our work showed that multivariate statistical approaches, such as principal component analysis, can be powerful techniques for the morphological discrimination of cryptic taxons. Despite increasing cryptic species

  12. Caracterización fitoquímica y bromatológica de Dichapetalum spruceanum vell.affinis planta silvestre de la Orinoquia Colombiana y sus potencialidades de uso

    OpenAIRE

    Cortés-Castillo, Caroll E.; Quiñones-Méndez, Luz M; Hernández C, Catalina

    2010-01-01

    Dichapetalum spruceanum vell.affinis (DICHAPETALACEAE), es una especie espontánea del departamento del Casanare en la Orinoquia Colombiana, la cual ha sido poco estudiada y considerada una maleza para los cultivos que se desarrollan en esa zona; dentro del marco del proyecto Caracterización fitoquímica y bromatológica de Dichapetalum spruceanum, planta silvestre subexplotada de la Orinoquia Colombiana, financiado por el Instituto de Investigaciones de la Orinoquia Colombiana (IIOC), se desarr...

  13. New Insights in the Ontogeny and Taphonomy of the Devonian Acanthodian Triazeugacanthus affinis From the Miguasha Fossil-Lagerstätte, Eastern Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Chevrinais

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Progressive biomineralization of a skeleton occurs during ontogeny in most animals. In fishes, larvae are poorly mineralized, whereas juveniles and adults display a progressively more biomineralized skeleton. Fossil remains primarily consist of adult specimens because the fossilization of poorly-mineralized larvae and juveniles necessitates exceptional conditions. The Miguasha Fossil-Lagerstätte is renowned for its Late Devonian vertebrate fauna, revealing the exceptional preservation of fossilized ontogenies for 14 of the 20 fish species from this locality. The mineralization of anatomical structures of the acanthodian Triazeugacanthus affinis from Miguasha are compared among larval, juvenile and adult specimens using Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry. Chemical composition of anatomical structures of Triazeugacanthus reveals differences between cartilage and bone. Although the histology and anatomy is well-preserved, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry shows that the original chemical composition of bone is altered by diagenesis; the mineral phase of the bone (i.e., hydroxyapatite is modified chemically to form more stable carbonate-fluorapatite. Fluorination occurring in mineralized skeletal structures of adult Triazeugacanthus is indicative of exchanges between groundwater and skeleton at burial, whereas the preservation of larval soft tissues is likely owing to a rapid burial under anoxic conditions. The exceptional state of preservation of a fossilized ontogeny allowed us to characterize chemically the progressive mineralization of the skeleton in a Devonian early vertebrate.

  14. PREVALENCIA Y ABUNDANCIA DE Contracaecum sp. EN RUBIO Salminus affinis EN EL RÍO SINÚ Y SAN JORGE: DESCRIPCIÓN MORFOLÓGICA

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    Sandra Pardo C

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar la presencia de endoparásitos del género Anisakidae en rubioSalminus affinis en el medio natural. Materiales y métodos. Por medio de diseccióne inspección de las vísceras y la cavidad abdominal fueron analizados 45 ejemplarescapturados en los ríos Sinú (n=34 y San Jorge (n=11 (Córdoba, Colombia.Resultados. Larvas terciarias (L3 de nemátodos del género Contracaecum(Nematoda: Anisakidae fueron halladas en la cavidad visceral de rubio capturadosen ambos ríos. La prevalencia de este nemátodo en los dos ríos estudiados fuemayor de 95%. El grado de infestación fue leve en 94.1% de los rubios del río Sinú yel restante 5.9% tuvieron una infestación moderada; mientras que el 100% de loscasos del río San Jorge tuvieron un grado de infestación leve. Conclusiones. Losresultados permiten concluir que el rubio de los ríos Sinú y San Jorge se encuentrancon un grado de infestación leve del anisákido Contracaecum sp; el cual se encuentraalojado en el tracto digestivo y grasa mesentérica en estado larval terciario (L3.

  15. Effects of acute changes in salinity and temperature on routine metabolism and nitrogen excretion in gambusia (Gambusia affinis) and zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uliano, E; Cataldi, M; Carella, F; Migliaccio, O; Iaccarino, D; Agnisola, C

    2010-11-01

    Acute stress may affect metabolism and nitrogen excretion as part of the adaptive response that allows animals to face adverse environmental changes. In the present paper the acute effects of different salinities and temperatures on routine metabolism, spontaneous activity and excretion of ammonia and urea were studied in two freshwater fish: gambusia, Gambusia affinis and zebrafish, Danio rerio, acclimated to 27 degrees C. The effects on gill morphology were also evaluated. Five salinities (0 per thousand, 10 per thousand, 20 per thousand, 30 per thousand and 35 per thousand) were tested in gambusia, while four salinities were used in zebrafish (0 per thousand, 10 per thousand, 20 per thousand and 25 per thousand). Each salinity acute stress was tested alone or in combination with an acute temperature reduction to 20 degrees C. In gambusia, both salinity and temperature acute stress strongly stimulated urea excretion. Routine oxygen consumption was barely affected by acute salinity or temperature stress, and was reduced by the combined effects of temperature and high salinity. Gills maintained their structural integrity in all stressing conditions; hyperplasia and hypertrophy of mitochondria-rich cells were observed. In zebrafish, temperature and salinity acute changes, both alone and in combination, scarcely affected any parameter tested. The major effect observed was a reduction of nitrogen excretion at 20 degrees C-25 per thousand; under these extreme conditions a significant structural disruption of gills was observed. These results confirm the high tolerance to acute salinity and temperature stress in gambusia, and demonstrate the involvement of urea excretion modulation in the stress response in this species. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Heads or tails: do stranded fish (mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis know where they are on a slope and how to return to the water?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J Boumis

    Full Text Available Aquatic vertebrates that emerge onto land to spawn, feed, or evade aquatic predators must return to the water to avoid dehydration or asphyxiation. How do such aquatic organisms determine their location on land? Do particular behaviors facilitate a safe return to the aquatic realm? In this study, we asked: will fully-aquatic mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis stranded on a slope modulate locomotor behavior according to body position to facilitate movement back into the water? To address this question, mosquitofish (n = 53 were placed in four positions relative to an artificial slope (30° inclination and their responses to stranding were recorded, categorized, and quantified. We found that mosquitofish may remain immobile for up to three minutes after being stranded and then initiate either a "roll" or a "leap". During a roll, mass is destabilized to trigger a downslope tumble; during a leap, the fish jumps up, above the substrate. When mosquitofish are oriented with the long axis of the body at 90° to the slope, they almost always (97% initiate a roll. A roll is an energetically inexpensive way to move back into the water from a cross-slope body orientation because potential energy is converted back into kinetic energy. When placed with their heads toward the apex of the slope, most mosquitofish (>50% produce a tail-flip jump to leap into ballistic flight. Because a tail-flip generates a caudually-oriented flight trajectory, this locomotor movement will effectively propel a fish downhill when the head is oriented up-slope. However, because the mass of the body is elevated against gravity, leaps require more mechanical work than rolls. We suggest that mosquitofish use the otolith-vestibular system to sense body position and generate a behavior that is "matched" to their orientation on a slope, thereby increasing the probability of a safe return to the water, relative to the energy expended.

  17. Characterizing a novel predator–prey relationship between native Diplonychus esakii (Heteroptera: Belostomatidae and invasive Gambusia affinis (Teleostei: Poeciliidae in central China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Ouyang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A considerable body of the literature considers the potential impact of exotic predators on native prey organisms, while comparatively, few studies have asked whether and how native predators include novel prey types into their diet spectrum. Here, we asked whether the native aquatic heteropteran Diplonychus esakii preys on the highly invasive western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis, which has been introduced to southern China and threatens native fish species through competition and predation on their fry. We conducted 48-h prey choice experiments under semi-natural conditions. In a ‘no-choice’ experiment (one predator and one potential prey; n = 200, we found the heteropterans to prey more on large-bodied fish, a pattern that was also described for other belostomatids, while prey sex had no effect on capture rates. Moreover, large-bodied heteropterans caught more fish than small-bodied individuals. However, overall capture rates in our study were low (11.5–30% compared to studies on other belostomatids, which explains why subsequent binary prey choice experiments using one predator and two prey—either large and small females or male and female (with smaller sample sizes of n = 20 and 30, respectively—did not confirm the results of our first experiment. Our study exemplifies how a pattern of body size-dependent predation can arise in a novel (not coevolved predator–prey interaction. We tentatively argue that the observed pattern could be driven by intrinsic features of the predator, namely, altered prey preferences with increasing age coupled with a general preference for large-bodied prey, or changing nutritional needs at different developmental stages.

  18. Studies in two allopatric populations of Hypostomus affinis (Steindachner, 1877): the role of mapping the ribosomal genes to understand the chromosome evolution of the group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, Karina de Oliveira; Rocha-Reis, Dinaíza Abadia; Garcia, Caroline; Pazza, Rubens; de Almeida-Toledo, Lurdes Foresti; Kavalco, Karine Frehner

    2018-01-01

    Several cytogenetic markers show chromosomal diversity in the fish such as "armoured catfish". Although studies have characterized many species in the major genera representing these Siluridae, particularly in the genus Hypostomus Lacépède, 1803, trends in chromosome evolution of this group remain unclear. The Paraíba do Sul river basin contains the armoured catfish Hypostomus affinis Steindachner, 1877, which is unique because of its distribution of repetitive DNAs, the 5S and 18S rDNA. Identified samples and registered collections in Brazilian museums were identified as the same typological species, while we observed wide variations in the physical location of this gene in the karyotype based on fluorescent in situ hybridization results. In this study, we propose that these species can represent evolutionarily independent units, as these fish frequently undergo processes such as dispersion and vicariance and that the rDNA is associated with DNA that spreads in the genome, such as transposons. Additionally, the absence of gene flow due to the distance of the sample location could intensify evolutionary processes. The phenotypes found for the 18S rDNA showed minor changes in relation to the number of sites between the lower and upper drainage regions of Paraíba do Sul. The large difference in the number of sites found for the 5S rDNA entered the same region (upper drainage of the basin) and the literature data could represent a population dynamics where an expansion of the 5S rDNA sites provides an extinct or non-sampled cytotype in this work.

  19. ABD’deki Kadın Okul Bölgesi Müdürlerinin Yaşadığı Cinsiyet Ayrımcılığına Dayalı Sorunlar, Üstesinden Gelme Yolları ve Öneriler

    OpenAIRE

    Babaoğlan, Emine

    2017-01-01

    Araştırmanın amacı, ABD’deki okul bölgesi müdürlerinin cinsiyet ayrımcılığına dayalı yaşadıkları sorunları, nedenlerini, üstesinden gelme yollarını ve önerilerini belirlemektir. Araştırma 15 kadın okul bölgesi müdürünün görüşlerine dayanan nitel araştırmadır. Verilerin analizinde içerik analizi kullanılmıştır. Araştırmada, kadın müdürlerin çoğunluğunun cinsiyet ayrımcılığı yaşadığı belirlenmiştir. Yaşanan sorunlar erkeklerin müdür olarak tercih edilirken kadınların edilmemesi; kadınların yöne...

  20. Çalışanların İş Güvencesizliğinin İşten Ayrılma Niyetleri Üzerindeki Etkisi: Alanya Bölgesindeki Beş Yıldızlı Otellerde Bir Araştırma

    OpenAIRE

    KARACAOĞLU, Korhan

    2018-01-01

    İş güvencesizliği, mevcut işin sürekliliğine engel olacak her türlü yasal veya yasal olmayan örgütsel değişimler sonucunda ortaya çıkan, işgörende, belirsizlik düşüncesine dayalı olarak işini kaybetme kaygısı doğuran durumlardır. Alan yazında iş güvencesizliğinin sonuçlarından biri olan işten ayrılma niyeti ise bir çalışanın yakın bir zamanda işine son verme isteğiyle ilgili düşüncesi olarak tanımlanmaktadır. Bu çalışmada iş güvencesizliği ile işten ayrılma niyeti arasındaki etkileşim Alanya ...

  1. Türk Spor Basınında Cinsiyet Ayrımcılığı: Fotomaç ve Fanatik Gazeteleri Örneği / Gender Discrimination in Turkish Sport Press: A Case Study on Fotomaç and Fanatik Newspapers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet BÜYÜKAFŞAR

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Toplumsal değerler sistemi erkekliğe ayrıcalıklı bir konum sunmaktadır. Erkekler, toplumsal alanda kendilerine yüklenen ağır işler sebebiyle bu ayrıcalıklı konumu hak ettiklerini düşünürler. Ailede başlayan toplumsal cinsiyet öğrenimi, sosyal ilişkilerle devam ettirilir. Bu öğrenimi kitlelere yayan bir araç olarak medya, toplumsallaşma sürecinde önemli bir rol oynamaktadır. Toplumsal cinsiyetlerine göre kadınlığı ve erkekliği belirleyen ayrıştırma, ayrımcılık anlamı yüklenerek, sosyal kurumlar tarafından toplumun her alanında sürdürülmektedir. Ataerkil sisteme dayalı toplum yapısı, cinsiyet temelli ayrımcılığın ortaya çıkmasındaki başlıca sebeplerden birisidir. Ataerkil topluluklarda kadınlar her zaman geleneksel rolleriyle var olurlar. Çocukları büyütmek ve temizlik yapmak gibi sorumluluklar yüklenen kadının aksine erkek, gücün ve dayanıklılığın simgesi olarak görülür ve önemli işlerle görevlendirilir. Toplumun her alanında olduğu gibi kadınlar spor alanında da ikinci plana itilmektedir. Güç, rekabet, hırs ve çatışma konularıyla özdeşleştirilen spor alanı, erkekler kadar fiziksel güce sahip olmayan kadınları yok saymaktadır. Bu nedenlerden dolayı, spordaki kadın ve erkek eşitsizliği, bu çalışmanın odaklandığı temel noktadır. Spor basınının haber söylemi aracılığıyla yayılan erkek egemenliği konusu da bu çalışmanın üzerinde durduğu diğer bir önemli konudur. Bu bağlamda Türk spor basını, çalışmanın araştırma bölümü için seçilmiştir. Türk spor basının en önde gelen iki gazetesi, Fotomaç ve Fanatik gazetelerin 2013, 2014 ve 2015 yıllarındaki birer haftasına ait sayıları incelenip, cinsiyet ayrımcılığına yönelik bulgular araştırılmıştır. / The system of social values attributes masculinity an exclusive position. The man considers deserving this privileged position because of handling

  2. Sağlık Kurumlarında Çalışanların Kurumda Kalma ya da Ayrılma Kararlarının Belirlenmesinde Örgütsel Bağlılığın Etkisi: İzmir İlinde Bir Araştırma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suna AKÇA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sağlık hizmetlerinde hastalara güvenli ve kaliteli sağlık hizmeti sunmak kadar sağlık hizmet sunucularının memnuniyeti ve kuruma bağlılıkları da o kadar önemlidir. Daha verimli ve performansı yüksek çalışmayı amaç edinen sağlık kurum ve kuruluşları, çalışanlarının örgütsel bağlılıklarını artırmak için çeşitli politikalar geliştirmek zorundadırlar. Bu çalışma İzmir’de bulunan bir kamu diş merkezinde sağlık çalışanlarının örgütsel bağlılıkları ve işten ayrılma eğilimleri arasındaki ilişkiyi test etmek için yapılmıştır. Araştırma konularının arasındaki ilişkiyi test etmek için Allen ve Mayer tarafından geliştirilen “Örgütsel Bağlılık Ölçeği” kullanılmıştır. Araştırma sonuçları; sağlık çalışanlarının örgütsel bağlılıklarının düzeylerinin düşük olduğuna, örgütsel bağlılık faktörleri arasında pozitif bir ilişkinin mevcut olduğuna ve işten ayrılma düzeyleri ile negatif orantı gösterdiğine işaret etmektedir. Anahtar Kelimeler: Sağlık Kurumları, Örgütsel Bağlılık, İşten Ayrılma JEL Sınıflandırma Kodları: I19, M19

  3. İş Özellikleri, İş-Yaşam Dengesi ve Meslekten Ayrılma Niyeti Arasındaki İlişkilerin Aday Öğretmen Görüşlerine Göre İncelenmesi

    OpenAIRE

    Polat, Şule; Özdemir, Murat

    2017-01-01

    Bu araştırmada aday öğretmenlerin görüşlerine bağlı olarak öğretmenlik mesleği iş özellikleri, iş yaşam dengesi ve meslekten ayrılma niyeti arasındaki ilişki incelenmiştir. Araştırmanın çalışma grubunu, 2016-2017 eğitim öğretim yılının birinci döneminde Ankara ilinin dokuz ilçesindeki (Çankaya, Mamak, Altındağ, Keçiören, Yenimahalle, Sincan, Etimesgut, Gölbaşı ve Pursaklar) resmi ortaöğretim kurumlarında görev yapan 225 aday öğretmen oluşturmaktadır. Araştırma verileri “Öğretmenlik Mesleği İş...

  4. Konaklama İşletmelerinde Örgütsel Öğrenme, Örgütsel Bağlılık ve İşten Ayrılma Eğilimi Arasındaki İlişki

    OpenAIRE

    AVCI, Nilgün; KÜÇÜKUSTA, Deniz

    2009-01-01

    Çalışmanın amacı, konaklama işletmelerinde örgütsel öğrenmenin, örgütsel bağlılık ve işten ayrılma eğilimi üzerindeki etkilerini analiz etmektir. Çeşme'de faaliyet gösteren 5 adet beş yıldızlı otel araştırmaya dahil edilmiştir. Alan araştırması kapsamında, literatürden elde edilen bilgiler ışığında oluşturulan yapılandırılmış anket tekniği kullanılmış, elde edilen veriler SPSS 13.0 (Statistical Program for Social Sciences) programı ile analiz edilmiştir. Çalışmada öncelikle geçerlik ve g...

  5. Eco-friendly control of malaria and arbovirus vectors using the mosquitofish Gambusia affinis and ultra-low dosages of Mimusops elengi-synthesized silver nanoparticles: towards an integrative approach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Jayapal; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Kumar, Palanisamy Mahesh; Dinesh, Devakumar; Chandramohan, Balamurugan; Suresh, Udaiyan; Nicoletti, Marcello; Higuchi, Akon; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou; Kumar, Suresh; Alarfaj, Abdullah A; Munusamy, Murugan A; Messing, Russell H; Benelli, Giovanni

    2015-12-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases represent a deadly threat for millions of people worldwide. However, the use of synthetic insecticides to control Culicidae may lead to high operational costs and adverse non-target effects. Plant-borne compounds have been proposed for rapid extracellular synthesis of mosquitocidal nanoparticles. Their impact against biological control agents of mosquito larval populations has been poorly studied. We synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNP) using the aqueous leaf extract of Mimusops elengi as a reducing and stabilizing agent. The formation of AgNP was studied using different biophysical methods, including UV-vis spectrophotometry, TEM, XRD, EDX and FTIR. Low doses of AgNP showed larvicidal and pupicidal toxicity against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi and the arbovirus vector Aedes albopictus. AgNP LC50 against A. stephensi ranged from 12.53 (I instar larvae) to 23.55 ppm (pupae); LC50 against A. albopictus ranged from 11.72 ppm (I) to 21.46 ppm (pupae). In the field, the application of M. elengi extract and AgNP (10 × LC50) led to 100 % larval reduction after 72 h. In adulticidal experiments, AgNP showed LC50 of 13.7 ppm for A. stephensi and 14.7 ppm for A. albopictus. The predation efficiency of Gambusia affinis against A. stephensi and A. albopictus III instar larvae was 86.2 and 81.7 %, respectively. In AgNP-contaminated environments, predation was 93.7 and 88.6 %, respectively. This research demonstrates that M. elengi-synthesized AgNP may be employed at ultra-low doses to reduce larval populations of malaria and arbovirus vectors, without detrimental effects on predation rates of mosquito natural enemies, such as larvivorous fishes.

  6. Mercury in San Francisco Bay forage fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenfield, Ben K., E-mail: ben@sfei.or [San Francisco Estuary Institute, 7770 Pardee Lane, Oakland, CA 94621 (United States); Jahn, Andrew, E-mail: andyjahn@mac.co [1000 Riverside Drive, Ukiah, CA 95482 (United States)

    2010-08-15

    In the San Francisco Estuary, management actions including tidal marsh restoration could change fish mercury (Hg) concentrations. From 2005 to 2007, small forage fish were collected and analyzed to identify spatial and interannual variation in biotic methylmercury (MeHg) exposure. The average whole body total Hg concentration was 0.052 {mu}g g{sup -1} (wet-weight) for 457 composite samples representing 13 fish species. MeHg constituted 94% of total Hg. At a given length, Hg concentrations were higher in nearshore mudflat and wetland species (Clevelandia ios, Menidia audens, and Ilypnus gilberti), compared to species that move offshore (e.g., Atherinops affinis and Lepidogobius lepidus). Gut content analysis indicated similar diets between Atherinops affinis and Menidia audens, when sampled at the same locations. Hg concentrations were higher in sites closest to the Guadalupe River, which drains a watershed impacted by historic Hg mining. Results demonstrate that despite differences among years and fish species, nearshore forage fish exhibit consistent Hg spatial gradients. - Total mercury in estuarine forage fish varies with species, habitat, and proximity to a historic mercury mine.

  7. Mercury in San Francisco Bay forage fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenfield, Ben K.; Jahn, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    In the San Francisco Estuary, management actions including tidal marsh restoration could change fish mercury (Hg) concentrations. From 2005 to 2007, small forage fish were collected and analyzed to identify spatial and interannual variation in biotic methylmercury (MeHg) exposure. The average whole body total Hg concentration was 0.052 μg g -1 (wet-weight) for 457 composite samples representing 13 fish species. MeHg constituted 94% of total Hg. At a given length, Hg concentrations were higher in nearshore mudflat and wetland species (Clevelandia ios, Menidia audens, and Ilypnus gilberti), compared to species that move offshore (e.g., Atherinops affinis and Lepidogobius lepidus). Gut content analysis indicated similar diets between Atherinops affinis and Menidia audens, when sampled at the same locations. Hg concentrations were higher in sites closest to the Guadalupe River, which drains a watershed impacted by historic Hg mining. Results demonstrate that despite differences among years and fish species, nearshore forage fish exhibit consistent Hg spatial gradients. - Total mercury in estuarine forage fish varies with species, habitat, and proximity to a historic mercury mine.

  8. Milli eğitim bakanlığı sisteminin kuvvetler ayrılığından kuvvetler birliğine doğru dönüştürülmesi [The transformation of ministry of national education system from separation of powers to unity of powers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İrfan ERDOĞAN

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Kuramsal ve tarihsel bir değerlendirme niteliğinde olan bu makalenin amacı genelde Türkiye’deki Milli Eğitim Bakanlığı’nı (MEB demokratik bir sistem örneği temelinde ele almak, özelde de MEB bünyesindeki Talim ve Terbiye Kurulu’nun (TTK işlevlerindeki değişiklikleri irdelemektir. MEB’e ve TTK’ya dair irdelemeler, demokratik sistemlerin dayalı olduğu kuvvetler ayrılığı prensibi ile işleyen hukuk düzeni temel alınarak yapılmıştır. Bu anlamda MEB sisteminin çağdaş hukuk düzeninin temel dayanağı olan yasama, yürütme ve yargı unsurlarından oluşan bir sistem olarak yapılandırılmış olduğu; Talim ve Terbiye Kurulu’nun da bu düzenin temel organlarından biri olduğu varsayılmaktadır. Makalede MEB’in yapısının Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi’nden geçen yeni torba yasayla değiştiği ve Talim ve Terbiye Kurulu’nun karar organı olmaktan çıkarılarak danışma birimi haline getirildiği ileri sürülmektedir. Bu şekilde yetki ve sorumlulukların büyük ölçüde bir merkezde toplanmış olduğu, bununla birlikte MEB sisteminin daha merkeziyetçi hale dönüşeceği, dolayısıyla daha katı ve otoriter eğilimlerin ortaya çıkacağı iddia edilmektedir. Bu bağlamda Milli Eğitim Bakanlığı sisteminin tekrar ele alınması ve Talim ve Terbiye Kurulu’nun sistem içindeki yerinin ve rolünün güçlendirilmesi gerektiği önerilmektedir.

  9. Kadına Karşı Ayrımcılığın Önlenmesi Sözleşmesinin (CEDAW Müslüman Ülke Kanunlarına Etkileri / The Impact of the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW on Muslim Countries Laws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Yalçın

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW, which was adopted by the UN and by most countries of the world, has influenced women’s rights and led to important developments in countries party to the treaty. Most Islamic countries have put reservations on some articles of the Convention citing Islamic law practices and local culture while ratifying the Treaty, but then have removed some of these reservations by passing adaptive laws. While some of these regulations such as women’s share in inheritance, their testimony, and obedience to husband have a strong connection to main religious sources, others such as reduced sentences in honor killings, women carrying their own surname, voting in elections, and female genital mutilation are based on customary and tacit law judgments. Through CEDAW, Muslim countries have faced pressure and criticism in international platforms with the allegation that their laws on person, family, inheritance, punishments, citizenship, and procedural law involve discrimination against women. With the influence of the international atmosphere, women’s movements have risen in Muslim countries and through legal changes there has been developments with regard to women’s rights in line with CEDAW. Even though after CEDAW there is some convergence between the Islamic World and the West in terms of women’s rights and gender equality, differences based on culture continue to exist.   Öz Dünya ülkelerinin büyük çoğunluğunun taraf olduğu Birleşmiş Milletler Kadına Karşı Her Türlü Ayrımcılığın Önlenmesi Sözleşmesi (CEDAW, imzalandığı günden bu tarafa kadın hakları alanında önemli gelişmelere sebep olmuş ve taraf ülkeleri etkilemiştir. İslam ülkelerinin birçoğu, İslam hukuku uygulamalarından veya yerel kültürden kaynaklanan farlılıklar sebebiyle, katılmadığı maddelere çekince koyarak Sözleşmeyi onaylamış ancak sonradan

  10. A new species of Pentamera Ayres, 1852 from the Brazilian coast (Holothuroidea, Dendrochirotida, Phyllophoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Prata

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Pentamera paraibanensis sp. n. is described from more than 3000 specimens as a new species of Phyllophoridae from northeast Brazil, in the tropical southwestern Atlantic. It is distinguished from its congeners by the shape of the calcareous ring with moderate posterior processes, and by the tables in the body wall with a usually quadrilocular disc and a low, toothed spire composed of two pillars. The body is brown, with the tube feet in double rows per ambulacrum, and tentacles more lightly colored. The species was found inside rodoliths in large numbers. This paper contains a morphological description of the specimens, and an account of their habitat characteristics.

  11. Growth response and heavy metals tolerance of Axonopus affinis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2010-12-20

    Dec 20, 2010 ... 1Laboratorio de Fisiología Vegetal, Escuela Nacional de Ciencias ... 3Dirección de Seguridad y Medio Ambiente, Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo, México City 07730, México. ... Generally, heavy metals are not degraded.

  12. Polyopes affinis alleviates airway inflammation in a murine model of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2Department of Physiology, Kangwon National University School of Medicine, Chuncheon 200-701,. Republic of Korea ..... Data values are presented as the mean ± SEM. ..... Akdis CA, Blaser K and Akdis M 2004 Genes of tolerance. Allergy.

  13. Photoprotective Effect of a Polyopes affinis (Harvey) Kawaguchi and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    anion or hydroxyl radical was detected using an electron spin resonance spectrometer after reaction with the nitrone spin trap. ... (A08-0000870) has been deposited at the herbarium of Jeju .... frosted microscopic slide pre-coated with 1 %.

  14. Isolation and Absolute Configuration of Boehmenan from Durio affinis Becc.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudiyansyah

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Boehmenan (1 is a lignan which has two feruloyl moieties at C-9 and C-9"' respectively. The structural characterization of (+-boehmenan was confirmed by 1H-NMR, 13C NMR and HRESIMS as well as by direct comparison with the literature. CD measurements established a 7S' , 8R' configuration. Cytotoxicity evaluation showed that boehmenan is moderately active against the T47D cell line with IC 50 13.7 m g/mL and shows weak activity against the HeLa cancer cell line with IC 50 93.5 m g/mL. Boehmenan is also non-cytotoxic to the Vero cell line. From this study, boehmenan X and erythro-carolignan E were also obtained.

  15. Syphacia obvelata and Radfordia affinis infection in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harslund, Jakob le Fèvre; Mandrupsen, Karina; Bollen, Peter

    Fèvre Harslund, Karina Mandrupsen & Peter Bollen, Biomedical Laboratory, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5000 Odense C, Denmark. Introduction: In 2014 we experienced an infection with pinworms. Subsequent health monitoring revealed positive findings of Radfordia and Tritrichomonas. Activities were...... of IVC have been negative.Treatment strategies for eliminating Tritrichomonas muris have not yet been established, and the protozoa is diagnosed on irregular basis by PCR and microscopy on intestinal smears. Discussion and conclusion: Previously new animals were accepted after evaluation of a recent...... with pinworms and fur mites were successfully treated, and successive health monitoring has demonstrated continuous absence of these pathogens. Tritrichomonas muris is to a wide extent regarded as a commensal in the intestinal lumen with minimal side effects on mice (3), and so far, the infection has not been...

  16. ISOTERMI SORPSI AIR DAN ANALISIS UMUR SIMPAN IKAN KAYU TONGKOL (Euthynnus affinis DARI ACEH [Moisture Sorption Isotherm and Shelf Life Analysis of Dried Tongkol (Euthynnus affinis from Aceh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Hayati1

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Tongkol dried fish (Ikan Kayu Tongkol is lumps of less salted dried fish usually used as popular ingredient for some traditional fish dishes in Aceh as well as in Malaysia. In Japan it is further processed into Katsou-bushi for preparation of special soup. The objective of this research was to find out water relation parameters in the less salted dried fish as related to shelf life, characteristic changes during storage and estimate analysis of its expired date. Dried fish samples were equilibrated in 15 levels of RH at 28oC and their equilibrium moisture contents were determined.Moisture sorption isotherm derived from the correlation of equilibrium moisture content data indicated a typical sigmoidal curve implying 3 regions of water adsorption. The water sorption regions accounted for three fractions of bound water as analyzed using three different mathematical models. The first water fraction ranged 0 - 5.95 %, the second 5.95 - 17.52 % and the third fraction ranged 17.52 - 91.12 % dry basis, equivalent to 0 - 5.6 %, 5.6 - 14.9 % and 14.9 - 47.4 % wet basis respectively. Storage simulation experiment in two packaging materials as carried out at 30oC and 90 % RH resulted shelf life of 2749 days (91 months in the packaging of plastic impregnated allumunium and 1204 days (40 months in plastic packaging. These very long shelf life was due to the added salt in the produt which increased Mc as high as 46.9 % to cause mold growth. This estimate analysis of shelf life using the mathematical model of Labuza (1984 is one of the appropriate methods to determining expired date of dry food products.

  17. Aplikasi Antioksidan dari Ekstrak Lamun (Cymodocea rotundata pada Minyak Ikan Tongkol (Euthynnus affinis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalia Rahmi Puspasari

    2017-09-01

    Cymodocea rotundata adalah spesies lamun yang mengandung senyawa flavonoid dan fenolik sehingga diharapkan mampu mencegah terjadinya oksidasi lemak melalui penghambatan pembentukan radikal bebas. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui efek konsentrasi ekstrak lamun yang berbeda terhadap nilai free fatty acid (FFA, peroxide value (PV, dan thiobarbituric acid (TBA selama penyimpanan suhu ruang. Materi yang dipergunakan adalah ikan tongkol dengan kisaran panjang 40 ± 1 cm dan berat sekitar 1 kg/ekor yang diolah menjadi minyak ikan. Rancangan percobaan yang digunakan adalah Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL pola faktorial untuk mengetahui pengaruh konsentrasi ekstrak lamun (0%; 0,1%; 0,2%; dan 0,3% dan lama penyimpanan (hari ke-0 dan hari ke-5 pada suhu ruang terhadap kualitas minyak ikan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan nilai FFA berkisar antara 0-27,477%, nilai PV berkisar antara 0-46,737 mEq/kg, dan nilai TBA berkisar antara 3,310-8,731 malonaldehid. Studi ini menunjukkan interaksi antara konsentrasi ekstrak lamun dan waktu penyimpanan sangat berpengaruh (p < 0,05 terhadap nilai FFA, PV, dan TBA.

  18. Dar clase en el aula. Insidie e risorse nell’insegnamento di lingue affini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Isabella Mininni

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Dar clase en el aula. Risks and opportunities in the teaching of related languages. Spanish, being near to Italian, is often seen as a language easy to learn for Italian native speakers. This kind of prejudice perpetuated by wrong and trivial evaluations is probably the first obstacle that a teacher must overcome in her work; on the other hand, media, especially music and cinema, have made Spanish a so widespread and known language, that the interest of young generations in it has grown rapidly, while only a few years ago it was even excluded, in Italy, from public education. This work proposes some reflections on the methodological frameworks used at present in the teaching of Spanish Language in Italian Secondary School, through a reasoned research conducted with the trainees of the T.F.A., working on recent publications (methods, courses, manuals and on original documents that a teacher of Spanish as a foreign language has at her disposition, with a special attention for the discussion of students’ elaborations of single didactical unities.

  19. Mitigation of algal organic matter released from Chaetoceros affinis and Hymenomonas by in situ generated ferrate

    KAUST Repository

    Deka, Bhaskar Jyoti; Jeong, Sanghyun; AlizadehTabatabai, S.Assiyeh; An, Alicia Kyoungjin

    2018-01-01

    This study demonstrates the application of in situ ferrate (Fe(VI)) for the efficient removal of dissolved algal organic matter (AOM) from seawater. Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and ferric (Fe(III)) were used to produce in situ Fe(VI) by wet chemical

  20. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) behavioural response to bioinspired robotic fish and mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polverino, Giovanni; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    The field of ethorobotics holds promise in aiding fundamental research in animal behaviour, whereby it affords fully controllable and easily reproducible experimental tools. Most of the current ethorobotics studies are focused on the behavioural response of a selected target species as it interacts with a biologically-inspired robot in controlled laboratory conditions. In this work, we first explore the interactions between two social fish species and a robotic fish, whose design is inspired by salient visual features of one of the species. Specifically, this study investigates the behavioural response of small shoals of zebrafish interacting with a zebrafish-inspired robotic fish and small shoals of mosquitofish in a basic ecological context. Our results demonstrate that the robotic fish differentially influences the behaviour of the two species by consistently attracting zebrafish, while repelling mosquitofish. This selective behavioural control is successful in spatially isolating the two species, which would otherwise exhibit prey–predator interactions, with mosquitofish attacking zebrafish. (communication)

  1. Using an integrated approach to link biomarker responses and physiological stress to growth impairment of cadmium-exposed larval topsmelt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, Wendy L.; Nisbet, Roger M.; Green, Peter G.; Norris, Sarah; Fan, Teresa; Smith, Edmund H.; Cherr, Gary N.; Anderson, Susan L.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we used an integrated approach to determine whether key biochemical, cellular, and physiological responses were related to growth impairment of cadmium (Cd)-exposed larval topsmelt (Atherinops affinis). Food intake (Artemia franciscana nauplii), oxygen consumption rates, apoptotic DNA fragmentation (TUNEL assay), and metallothionein (MT)-like protein levels, were separately measured in relation to growth of larval topsmelt aqueously exposed to sublethal doses of Cd for 14 days. Cadmium accumulation and concentrations of abundant metals were also evaluated in a subset of fish. Fish in the highest Cd treatments (50 and 100 ppb Cd) were smaller in final mean weight and length, and consumed fewer A. franciscana nauplii than control fish. Food intake was positively correlated with final weight of larval topsmelt in Cd and control treatments; food intake increased as final weight of the fish increased. Oxygen consumption rates were positively correlated with Cd concentration and mean oxygen consumption rates were inversely correlated with final mean weight of topsmelt; the smallest fish were found in the highest Cd treatment and were respiring at higher rates than control fish. Apoptotic DNA fragmentation was concentration-dependent and was associated with diminished growth. Apoptotic DNA fragmentation was elevated in the gill of fish exposed to 50 ppb Cd, and in the gut, gill, and liver of fish exposed to 100 ppb Cd. Metallothionein (MT)-like protein levels in fish from 100 ppb Cd treatments were significantly higher than those in other treatments. Oxygen consumption rates may have increased as a compensatory response to Cd exposure. However, it is likely that the energy produced was allocated to an increased metabolic demand due to apoptosis, MT synthesis, and changes in ion regulation. This diversion of energy expenditures could contribute to growth impairment of Cd-exposed fish

  2. Prey fish returned to Forster's tern colonies suggest spatial and temporal differences in fish composition and availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Sarah H; Ackerman, Joshua T; Eagles-Smith, Collin A; Herzog, Mark P; Hartman, C Alex

    2018-01-01

    Predators sample the available prey community when foraging; thus, changes in the environment may be reflected by changes in predator diet and foraging preferences. We examined Forster's tern (Sterna forsteri) prey species over an 11-year period by sampling approximately 10,000 prey fish returned to 17 breeding colonies in south San Francisco Bay, California. We compared the species composition among repeatedly-sampled colonies (≥ 4 years), using both relative species abundance and the composition of total dry mass by species. Overall, the relative abundances of prey species at seven repeatedly-sampled tern colonies were more different than would be expected by chance, with the most notable differences in relative abundance observed between geographically distant colonies. In general, Mississippi silverside (Menidia audens) and topsmelt silverside (Atherinops affinis) comprised 42% of individuals and 40% of dry fish mass over the study period. Three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) comprised the next largest proportion of prey species by individuals (19%) but not by dry mass (6%). Five additional species each contributed ≥ 4% of total individuals collected over the study period: yellowfin goby (Acanthogobius flavimanus; 10%), longjaw mudsucker (Gillichthys mirabilis; 8%), Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii; 6%), northern anchovy (Engraulis mordax; 4%), and staghorn sculpin (Leptocottus armatus; 4%). At some colonies, the relative abundance and biomass of specific prey species changed over time. In general, the abundance and dry mass of silversides increased, whereas the abundance and dry mass of three-spined stickleback and longjaw mudsucker decreased. As central place foragers, Forster's terns are limited in the distance they forage; thus, changes in the prey species returned to Forster's tern colonies suggest that the relative availability of some fish species in the environment has changed, possibly in response to alteration of the available habitat.

  3. Prey fish returned to Forster’s tern colonies suggest spatial and temporal differences in fish composition and availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Sarah; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Herzog, Mark; Hartman, C. Alex

    2018-01-01

    Predators sample the available prey community when foraging; thus, changes in the environment may be reflected by changes in predator diet and foraging preferences. We examined Forster’s tern (Sterna forsteri) prey species over an 11-year period by sampling approximately 10,000 prey fish returned to 17 breeding colonies in south San Francisco Bay, California. We compared the species composition among repeatedly-sampled colonies (≥ 4 years), using both relative species abundance and the composition of total dry mass by species. Overall, the relative abundances of prey species at seven repeatedly-sampled tern colonies were more different than would be expected by chance, with the most notable differences in relative abundance observed between geographically distant colonies. In general, Mississippi silverside (Menidia audens) and topsmelt silverside (Atherinops affinis) comprised 42% of individuals and 40% of dry fish mass over the study period. Three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) comprised the next largest proportion of prey species by individuals (19%) but not by dry mass (6%). Five additional species each contributed ≥ 4% of total individuals collected over the study period: yellowfin goby (Acanthogobius flavimanus; 10%), longjaw mudsucker (Gillichthys mirabilis; 8%), Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii; 6%), northern anchovy (Engraulis mordax; 4%), and staghorn sculpin (Leptocottus armatus; 4%). At some colonies, the relative abundance and biomass of specific prey species changed over time. In general, the abundance and dry mass of silversides increased, whereas the abundance and dry mass of three-spined stickleback and longjaw mudsucker decreased. As central place foragers, Forster’s terns are limited in the distance they forage; thus, changes in the prey species returned to Forster’s tern colonies suggest that the relative availability of some fish species in the environment has changed, possibly in response to alteration of the available

  4. Radioactive zinc ( sup 65 Zn), zinc, cadmium, and mercury in the Pacific Hake, Merluccius productus (Ayres), off the West Coast of the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naidu, J.R.

    1974-06-01

    The Pacific Hake, Merluccius productus (Ayers) was used to monitor the waters off Puget Sound and the West Coast of the US for zinc(Zn), cadmium(Cd), mercury(Hg) and {sup 65}Zn. The Columbia River is not the source of Zn, Cd or Hg contamination, but is the source of {sup 65}Zn, with the concentration in the Hake reflecting the position of the Columbia River plume. Zn and Cd accumulation in the Hake were fit to the equation Y=B{sub 1}+B{sub 2}e{sup B}{sub 3}X where Y is the concentration of the element and X is the length or weight of the fish. Biological attributes were assigned to the other parameters as follows: B{sub 1} is the asymptotic value for Zn or Cd at chemical maturity; B{sub 2} is the location of the curve with respect to the length or weight of the fish; and B{sub 3} is a constant pertaining to the rate of change of Zn or Cd. Although Zn, Cd and Hg are all Group 2B elements, only the concentrations of Zn and Cd were correlated for all locations; Hg concentrations varied as a function of location. Zn and Cd concentrations increase with fish size and approach an asymptotic value at maturity, while Hg concentrations were linear and the slope is a function of sampling location. Zn and Cd levels are regulated in the adult, while Hg continues to increase with age. It may be significant that the age distribution of fish caught commercially coincides with the maximum concentration of Zn and Cd. 195 refs., 30 figs., 10 tabs. (MHB)

  5. Morphological and molecular characterisation of Aporocotyle margolisi Smith, 1967 (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) from the North Pacific hake Merluccius productus (Ayres) (Gadiformes: Merlucciidae) off Oregon, USA

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hernandez-Orts, J. S.; Hernández-Mena, D. I.; Alama-Bermejo, Gema; Kuchta, Roman; Jacobson, K. C.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 94, č. 7 (2017), s. 819-829 ISSN 0165-5752 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP505/12/G112; GA ČR(CZ) GP14-28784P Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : blood flukes * phylogeny * platyhelminthes * sequences * sanguinicolidae * perciformes * models * gene Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine OBOR OECD: Veterinary science Impact factor: 1.181, year: 2016

  6. Aquatic Plant Control Research Program. Biological Control of Pistia stratiotes L. (Waterlettuce) Using Neohydronomus affinis Hustache (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-07-01

    plant must also be examined for herbivores attacking the weed. This ensures that time and money are not wasted by importing insects already present in...Agricultural Research Service Aquatic Weed Research Laboratory in Fort Lauder - dale, FL, from quarantine tacilities in Gainesville, FL, on 11 February

  7. Multi-biomarker responses as indication of contaminant effects in Gambusia affinis from impacted rivers by municipal effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guo-Yong; Liu, You-Sheng; Liang, Yan-Qiu; Shi, Wen-Jun; Hu, Li-Xin; Tian, Fei; Chen, Jun; Ying, Guang-Guo

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated toxic effects in mosquitofish from two urban rivers of South China impacted by municipal effluents by using multiple biomarkers including fish morphology, biochemical indicators and transcriptional responses, and explored potential cause-effect relationship with a list of chemicals (metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and pesticides). The results showed significant alterations in metallothionein (MT) protein and mRNA expression in mosquitofish collected from the two rivers and a strong association between MT protein and mRNA expression levels and heavy metals in the river water. Both ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity and cytochromes P450 1A (CYP1A) mRNA expression were significantly enhanced in mosquitofish at most sampling sites. There existed a strong correlation between EROD activity and CYP1A mRNA expression levels, but no clear correlations between these responses and PAHs in the river water possibly because of the presence of many other agonists of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor in the two rivers. Significant acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition was observed in mosquitofish brain samples. The pesticides in the two rivers showed an influence on the AChE activity, which was also found to be significantly negatively correlated to fipronil concentrations. Moreover, the result also indicates that metals and pesticides present in the two rivers might cause the observed estrogenic and androgenic effects in mosquitofish. The findings from this study clearly showed morphological, biochemical and transcriptional responses in mosquitofish due to chemical contamination of the two urban rivers. This multi-biomarker approach using mosquitofish can be applied to evaluate contamination of riverine environments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF AN ENZYME-LINKED IMMUNOSORBENT ASSAY (ELISA) FOR VITELLOGENIN OF THE MOSQUITOFISH (GAMBUSIA AFFINIS). (R826130)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  9. Nef’i’nin Kasidelerinde Mübalağa Sanatındaki Ayrıntılar Details of the Hypperbolısm in the Odes of Nef’i

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali BALALAN

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Nef’i is one of the most powerful ode and satirical poet of Divan literature. He had used all the details of hyperbolisim in his poems. He had used the hyperbolisim by using the power of poetry but at the same time he had not disturb the imagination of the readers while using the hyperbolisim. In order to lighten the mood of hyperbole he always left some doors open. Greatness of sultans are explained in the hyperbolisim related tothe parise of the sultans. Love towards the horses is not an ordinarybare love. He uses horse as an image by giving different meanings. Inhis satires he criticizes in a strong way just the opposite of hispraisings. The explanation of cosmic universe gives chance to explainthe ideas in an indirect way. In the odes of Nef-i the realities areexplained in degrees. In order to understand the meaning of his words,these degrees should be analised in detailes. He had resembled hiswords as an closed magazine. This feature also shows the walue of hisworks. In this ode Nef-i tries to Express the importance of the meaningof the words rather than the structures of the sentences.The poet sometimes sees himself as an diver who searches pear inthe sea of meaning. Sea symbolises the meaning of hugeness,greatness, foreverness. Sea represents the soul of poet and thinkingvisdom of poems. The poet had tried to explain his dream world whenhe had used the hyperbolisim in his poems. While he was exaggeratingthe events, he had tried to explain the hiden reality and he had alsotried to show the most extraordinarry events as ordinary tings.Theability of using hyperbolisim in his poems comes from this feature. Nef’i, Divan edebiyatının en güçlü kaside ve hiciv şairidir. Nef’i, kasidelerinde mübalağa sanatının bütün detaylarını işlemiştir. Şiirin üst dilinden yararlanarak mübalağa sanatını en iyi kullanan sanatçı, okuyucunun hayalini incitmemiştir. Şiirlerindeki aşırı abartıyı yumuşatmak için mutlaka bir açık kapı bırakmıştır. Bu çalışmada Nef’î’nin kasidelerinde mübalağa sanatının olduğu beyitler taranmış, padişaha övgü bölümünde; padişahın kadrinin yüceliği, şan ve ihtişam sahibi olması dile getiriliyor. At sevgisi bölümünde, ata duyulan sevgi kuru bir sevda değildir. Onu imgesel boyutta kullanarak ata farklı çağrışımlar yükler. Hiciv de ise övdüğü kişileri nasıl göklere çıkarıyorsa eleştirdiği kişileri de yerin dibine batırıyor. Kozmik âlem şairde doğrudan söyleyemediklerini dolaylı yoldan söyleme fırsatı verir. Söz ve mana konusuna gelince Nef’i’nin kasidelerinde hakikatler katman katmandır. Sözlerinin tam anlaşılması için bu katmanların aralanması gerekir. Kendisi de sözlerini gizli saklı tutulan bir mecmuaya benzetmektedir. Bu da onun eserlerinin ne kadar değerli olduğunu göstermektedir. İncelediğimiz bu kasidelerdeki beyitlerde Nef’i, sözden ziyade mana üzerinde durmaktadır. Şair bazen kendini mana denizinde inci arayan bir dalgıç olarak görüyor. Büyüklük, genişlik, sonsuzluk anlamlarını taşıyan deniz aslında şairin gönlü ve şiir düşünme yeteneği olan zekâsıdır. Şair, mübalağa sanatını kullanırken, hayal dünyasının derinliklerinde gezinmiştir. Okuyucuyu taşkınlığa sürükleyerek, bu kadar da olmaz dedirttikten sonra beytin arka planındaki hakikatleri açıklamış en olmayacak şeyleri olağan gibi göstermiştir. Mübalağa sanatını kullanma becerisi de bundan kaynaklanmaktadır.

  10. Cinsiyet Ayrımcılığı Olarak Üstün Erillik Olgusunun Aile İşletmelerindeki Etkisi: Kuramsal Bir Bakış

    OpenAIRE

    Soyşekerci, Serhat

    2006-01-01

    Erkekler aile ilişkilerinde koca, baba, oğul, ağabey gibi rollere sahiptirler. Benzer rol aile işletmelerinde ‘patron' ya da ‘kurucu-girişimci' olarak karşımıza çıkmaktadır. Erillik söylemleri ile yerine getirilen ana fonksiyonlardan birisi, erkek gücü ve iktidarının kabul ettirilmesine dayalı üstün erillik (hyper-masculinity) olgusudur. Erillik-dişillik ikiliği, güçlü-güçsüz, sert-yumuşak, aktif-pasif, verimli-verimsiz, savaşçı-boyun eğen karşıtlığı olarak devam etmekle beraber, ko...

  11. The journalistic discourse of the El discurso periodístico de la Gazeta de Buenos-Ayres of 1810. Destrezas para-textuales of 1810. Para-textual skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Néstor Cremonte

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews 1810 GBA appealing to the category of new discourse; it also includes the theoretical contribution of Gérard Genette and his notion of para-text for interrogating different topics and realized various forms of symbolic coercion aimed at controlling information from the Interim Goberning Board (JPG. The selection of this traditional historiographical methodology tense traditional paradigm on freedom of press and public opinion allotted to the GBA.

  12. Otel İşletmelerinde Psikolojik Sözleşme İhlalinin İş Tatmini ve İşten Ayrılma Niyetine Etkisi

    OpenAIRE

    Koyuncu, Mustafa; ÖZGÜL KATLAV, Eda

    2014-01-01

    Aim of this study is to determine psychological contract and psychological contract breach perceptions of the employees of accommodation enterprises and to discover how it affects employees’ job satisfaction and intent to quit. For this purpose, a model was proposed to define the impact of psychological contract and psychological contract breach in accommodation enterprises on job satisfaction and intent to quit and this model were analyzed via regression and logistic regression. Within the s...

  13. Single genetic stock of kawakawa Euthynnus affinis (Cantor, 1849) along the Indian coast inferred from sequence analyses of mitochondrial DNA D-loop region

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    GirishKumar; Kunal, S.P.; Menezes, M.R.; Meena, R.

    ) are the two important pathways of organic matter sulfurization. Compared to assimilatory biosynthesized sulfur (Dinur et al., 1981), organo-sulfur compounds formed by intra- and intermolecular incorporation of sulfur into organic matter during diagenesis....F., Sinnighé-Damste, J.S., Reiss,C., Maxwell, J.R., Grimalt, J.O., 1997. Sulfur-binding in recent environments: II. Speciation of sulfur and iron and implications for the occurrence of organo-sulfur compounds. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 61, 4769...

  14. RELACIÓN LONGITUD-PESO DEL RUBIO (Salminus affinis Steindachner, 1880 EN LA CUENCA DEL RÍO SINÚ, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Olaya-Nieto

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To estimate the length–weight relationship of rubio in the Sinu river basin, as a contribution to the management of their fishery. Materials and methods. Between January 2000 and August 2005, 122 individuals with sizes between 9.3 and 63.0 cm total length (TL and weight (WT ranged between 6.6 to 3966.0 g were collected. Resultados. The length–weight relationship was: TW = 0.005 (± 0.03 TL3.19 (± 0.02, positive allometric growth coefficient (b, and correlation coefficient of 0.99. The growth coefficient varied between 3.34 y 3.21 without statistically significant differences (p£0.05. The condition factor oscillated between 0.003 y 0.005, without statistically significant differences (p£0.05. We found a correlation among the condition factor, the level of the Sinu river, and spawning season of the rubio, which extends from March to September. Conclusions. Rubio have adapted to the new conditions of the Sinu river as determined by lack of significant differences in size and weight.

  15. Commercially important penaeid shrimp larvae in the estuaries of Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Achuthankutty, C.T.

    Larval stages of the penaeid shrimps, Metapenaeus dobsoni (Miers), M. affinis (Milne - Edwards) and Penaeus merguiensis De Man were mostly distributed at the lower reaches of Mandovi and Zuari estuaries. While larvae of M. dobsoni and M. affinis...

  16. Marka Yayma Stratejilerinde Ürün Benzerliğinin Etkisi ve Üç Ayrı Marka Üzerinde Bir Uygulama = The Effects of Product Sımilarities on Brand Extension Strategies and a Practice on Three Different Brands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeşim UZUN

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Brand extension strategy is an effort to extend a succesfull brand name to launch new or modified products or lines. Brand extension attitudes are influenced by the percieved quality of the core brand and the fit between the extended products. The similarity is important for brand extension because the greater perceived similarity between the current and new product leads to a greater transfer of positive or negative effect to the new product. Furthermore, higher levels of perceived fit between core brand and extension will lead to more favorable evaluations of the extension. The aim of this study is to analyze the effects of brand extension strategies on consumers' attitudes regarding the product similarity. Three different brands are used for the statistical analysis. According to the results, there is a relationship between the favorable opinion about core brand and the evaluation of similarity for extended products. Furthermore, there is a relationship between the similarity of extended products and extension evaluations.

  17. İş Motivasyonunun Çalışan Bağlılığı ve İşten Ayrılma Eğilimi Üzerindeki Etkileri = The Effects of Employee Work Motivation on Employee Commitment and Turnover Intention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan CEYLAN

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study conducted on 84 public ve private sector employees, the relationships between organizational commitment, motivation to work ve turnover intention are investigated ve to determine the statistically significant relations, Allen ve Meyer's model is used. Statistically coherent corellations between affective, continuance, normative commitment ve motivation to work ve their impact on turnover intention is also investigated by regression analysis. This study serves as an important guide for those who are interested in understanding ve increasing employee commitment.

  18. Örgütsel Politika Algısının İhmalkârlık Üzerindeki Etkisinde İşten Ayrılma Niyetinin Aracı Rolü(Intention to Quit as A Mediator of The Relationship between Perceptions of Organizational Politics and Neglect of Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ufuk BAŞAR

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to uncover whether employees’ perceptions of organizational politics have positive effect on both intention to quit and neglect of work as well as intention to quit has a mediating role in this process. Research data were collected from a total of 314 employees who work at central managerial department of a public organization, in Ankara, in October 2015 by means of questionnaire. Data were analyzed through regression analyses over structural equation models. Findings supported the approach that evaluates organizational politics as a threat to employees’ well being. According to the findings participants’ perceptions of organizational politics resulted in both intention to quit and neglect of work. Besides that, participants’ intention to quit mediated the effect of perceptions of organizational politics on neglect of work.

  19. Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Stricto ospC Alleles Associated with Human Lyme Borreliosis Worldwide in Non-Human-Biting Tick Ixodes affinis and Rodent Hosts in Southeastern United States

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rudenko, Natalia; Golovchenko, Maryna; Hönig, Václav; Mallátová, N.; Krbková, L.; Mikulášek, P.; Fedorovova, N.; Belfiore, N. M.; Grubhoffer, Libor; Lane, R. S.; Oliver, J. H., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 79, č. 5 (2013), s. 1444-1453 ISSN 0099-2240 Grant - others:NIH(US) R37AI-24899 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : North America * disease spirochete * genetic diversity * Europe * transmission Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.952, year: 2013

  20. Environmental Analysis of Lake Pontchartrain, Louisiana, Its Surrounding Wetlands, and Selected Land Uses. Volume 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-02-01

    967 A. Oligoplites saurus .... .............. . 967 XVIII. Poecilidae ................................... 968 A. Gambusia affinis... saurus . ................. 904 IV. Belonidae ...... .................... . 904 A. Strongylura marina .... .............. . 904 B. Diel Study

  1. Larval migration and growth of marine prawns in the estuarine habitat

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Achuthankutty, C.T.; Nair, S.R.S.

    -monsoon season (56.3%). The lower reaches of the estuary sustained the maximum density (73.2%). All species except @iM. affinis@@ had an initial growth in the mangrove swamp and a later stay in the estuary before finally migrating back to the sea. @iM. affinis...

  2. A comparison of cervical smear adequacy using either the cytobrush ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparison of cervical smear adequacy using either the cytobrush or the Ayre spatula: a practice audit. ... The purpose of this study was to compare the adequacy of cervical smears taken with the Ayre spatula as opposed to the cytobrush. Methods: This was a retrospective analytical study. One sampler, an experienced ...

  3. The Rare ospC Allele L of Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Stricto, Commonly Found among Samples Collected in a Coastal Plain Area of the Southeastern United States, Is Associated with Ixodes affinis Ticks and Local Rodent Hosts Peromyscus gossypinus and Sigmodon hispidus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rudenko, Natalia; Golovchenko, Maryna; Grubhoffer, Libor; Oliver, J. H., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 79, č. 4 (2013), s. 1403-1406 ISSN 0099-2240 Grant - others:NIH(US) R37AI-24899 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : lyme disease * genetic diversity * scapularis tick * Acari * North Carolina * heterogenity * polymorphism * cultivation Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.952, year: 2013

  4. Plantios monoespecíficos de INGA VERA SUBESP. AFFINIS (D.C.) T.D. PENN. influenciando o sucesso reprodutico, variação genética E fluxo gênico na FLORESTA ATLÂNTICA do NORDESTE do BRASIL

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz Neto, Oswaldo

    2013-01-01

    A manutenção das interações de polinização e do sucesso reprodutivo das angiospermas está relacionada ao tamanho e distribuição das populações de plantas e de seus polinizadores. Objetivamos entender neste trabalho, os efeitos dos plantios monoespecíficos de Inga, do isolamento geográfico das populações e do adensamento de indivíduos sobre o consumo de néctar e sucesso reprodutivo de Inga vera em populações plantadas e naturais na floresta Atlântica nordestina. Selecionamos e georeferenciamos...

  5. Predation vulnerability of planktonic copepods: consequences of predator foraging strategies and prey sensory abilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viitasalo, M; Kiørboe, T; Flinkman, J.

    1998-01-01

    We investigated the vulnerability of 2 copepod species (Eurytemora affinis and Temora longicornis) to predation by predators with different foraging modes, three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus juveniles and mysid shrimps Neomysis integer. Copepods were videofilmed escaping from predators...

  6. Inhibition of Nitric Oxide and Prostaglandin E 2 Expression by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inhibition of Nitric Oxide and Prostaglandin E 2 Expression by Methanol Extract of Polyopes affinis in Lipopolysaccharide-stimulated BV2 Microglial Cells through Suppression of Akt-dependent NF-kB Activity and MAPK Pathway.

  7. Biochemical composition of muscle tissue of penaeid prawns

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Achuthankutty, C.T.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Biochemical composition of muscle tissue of females belonging to four species of penaeid prawns, viz. Metapenaeus affinis, M. dobsoni, Penaeus merguiensis and Parapenaeopsis stylifera, inhabiting the coastal waters of Goa, India, was estimated...

  8. Further obsrvations on a newly located prawn fishery off Saurashtra coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gopalan, U.K.

    The abundance of prawns in a newly located ground off Saurashtra has been described Catch omposition showed that Metapenaeus affinis formed the bulk of the catches Previously this species was thought to be of not much commercial importance...

  9. Biology of commercially important penaeid prawns of Goa waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Achuthankutty, C.T.; Parulekar, A.H.

    . Breeding population of these species also showed monthly and seasonal fluctuation. In Metapenaeus dobsoni and Metapenaeus affinis, maximum number of gravid females was recorded during postmonsoon season while in the case of Penaeus merguiensis and Penaeus...

  10. Formulation of cheap prawn diets and their biological evaluation on some penaeid prawns

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Goswami, U.; Goswami, S.C.

    While using the cheap locally available wastes and raw materials, two compound diets have been formulated and prepared. Three species of penaeid prawns viz. Metapenaeus monoceros, M. affinis and Penaeus indicus were fed on these diets...

  11. The mirror-neuron system and observational learning: Implications for the effectiveness of dynamic visualizations.

    OpenAIRE

    Van Gog, Tamara; Paas, Fred; Marcus, Nadine; Ayres, Paul; Sweller, John

    2009-01-01

    Van Gog, T., Paas, F., Marcus, N., Ayres, P., & Sweller, J. (2009). The mirror-neuron system and observational learning: Implications for the effectiveness of dynamic visualizations. Educational Psychology Review, 21, 21-30.

  12. Plastic spatula with narrow long tip provides higher satisfactory smears for Pap test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pervinder Kaur

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ayre spatula for cervical smear collection is being used despite the suggestion that different modified spatulas provide more satisfactory sampling. Aims: To see whether the cytological pickup improves with the use of long tipped spatula. Setting and Design: Rurally based University Hospital; crossover study. Materials and Methods: Pap smear using Ayre spatula in 500 and with plastic narrow long tip (Szalay spatula in 500 clinic attending women was taken and analyzed. Crossover smears were taken with modified spatula in 163 and using Ayre spatula in 187 women after 2 weeks of initial smears. The same pathologist made cytological reporting for all smears and was unaware of the type of spatula used. Results: Smears from Ayre spatula had significantly higher reports of inadequate smears (94 of 500 vs. 68 of 500 for Ayre and Szalay, respectively; P = 0.032 and it remained so even after crossover (94 of 187 vs. 70 of 163 for Ayre and Szalay, respectively; P = 0.2. Cellular quality appeared better with smears taken using Szalay spatula, but the overall abnormal smear detection rate remained similar with either collection tool (χ2 = 1.5; P = 0.2. Conclusions: Proportion of satisfactory smears is higher when long tip plastic spatula is used for collection of sample.

  13. Plastic spatula with narrow long tip provides higher satisfactory smears for Pap test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Pervinder; Kushtagi, Pralhad

    2013-07-01

    Ayre spatula for cervical smear collection is being used despite the suggestion that different modified spatulas provide more satisfactory sampling. To see whether the cytological pickup improves with the use of long tipped spatula. Rurally based University Hospital; crossover study. Pap smear using Ayre spatula in 500 and with plastic narrow long tip (Szalay) spatula in 500 clinic attending women was taken and analyzed. Crossover smears were taken with modified spatula in 163 and using Ayre spatula in 187 women after 2 weeks of initial smears. The same pathologist made cytological reporting for all smears and was unaware of the type of spatula used. Smears from Ayre spatula had significantly higher reports of inadequate smears (94 of 500 vs. 68 of 500 for Ayre and Szalay, respectively; P = 0.032) and it remained so even after crossover (94 of 187 vs. 70 of 163 for Ayre and Szalay, respectively; P = 0.2). Cellular quality appeared better with smears taken using Szalay spatula, but the overall abnormal smear detection rate remained similar with either collection tool (χ(2) = 1.5; P = 0.2). Proportion of satisfactory smears is higher when long tip plastic spatula is used for collection of sample.

  14. Azo dye removal in a membrane-free up-flow biocatalyzed electrolysis reactor coupled with an aerobic bio-contact oxidation reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Dan; Guo, Yu-Qi; Cheng, Hao-Yi; Liang, Bin; Kong, Fan-Ying; Lee, Hyung-Sool; Wang, Ai-Jie

    2012-11-15

    Azo dyes that consist of a large quantity of dye wastewater are toxic and persistent to biodegradation, while they should be removed before being discharged to water body. In this study, Alizarin Yellow R (AYR) as a model azo dye was decolorized in a combined bio-system of membrane-free, continuous up-flow bio-catalyzed electrolysis reactor (UBER) and subsequent aerobic bio-contact oxidation reactor (ABOR). With the supply of external power source 0.5 V in the UBER, AYR decolorization efficiency increased up to 94.8±1.5%. Products formation efficiencies of p-phenylenediamine (PPD) and 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) were above 90% and 60%, respectively. Electron recovery efficiency based on AYR removal in cathode zone was nearly 100% at HRTs longer than 6 h. Relatively high concentration of AYR accumulated at higher AYR loading rates (>780 gm(-3) d(-1)) likely inhibited acetate oxidation of anode-respiring bacteria on the anode, which decreased current density in the UBER; optimal AYR loading rate for the UBER was 680 gm(-3) d(-1) (HRT 2.5 h). The subsequent ABOR further improved effluent quality. Overall the Chroma decreased from 320 times to 80 times in the combined bio-system to meet the textile wastewater discharge standard II in China. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Novel mobbing strategies of a fish population against a sessile annelid predator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachat, Jose; Haag-Wackernagel, Daniel

    2016-09-12

    When searching for food, foraging fishes expose themselves to hidden predators. The strategies that maximize the survival of foraging fishes are not well understood. Here, we describe a novel type of mobbing behaviour displayed by foraging Scolopsis affinis. The fish direct sharp water jets towards the hidden sessile annelid predator Eunice aphroditois (Bobbit worm). We recognized two different behavioural roles for mobbers (i.e., initiator and subsequent participants). The first individual to exhibit behaviour indicating the discovery of the Bobbit directed, absolutely and per time unit, more water jets than the subsequent individuals that joined the mobbing. We found evidence that the mobbing impacted the behaviour of the Bobbit, e.g., by inducing retraction. S. affinis individuals either mob alone or form mobbing groups. We speculate that this behaviour may provide social benefits for its conspecifics by securing foraging territories for S. affinis. Our results reveal a sophisticated and complex behavioural strategy to protect against a hidden predator.

  16. Effects of elevated pH on marine copepods in mass cultivation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Benni Winding; Hansen, Per Juel; Nielsen, Torkel Gissel

    2017-01-01

    both Acartia spp. and C. typicus had higher mortality at pH 9.5 than at the other pH regimes while E. affinis nauplii were not affected by pH. Wild Acartia spp. and A. tonsa from a culture showed some differences in response although of minor practical importance for aquaculture; both produced no eggs......Female tolerance to pH (8.0–9.5) by six marine copepods, Oithona similis, Temora longicornis, Acartia spp., Centropages typicus, Pseudocalanus elongatus and Eurytemora affinis was investigated to identify robust species for live feed production. The species with the most oceanic...

  17. Incorporation of nitrogen from N2 fixation into amino acids of zooplankton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loick-Wilde, Natalie; Dutz, Jörg; Miltner, Anja

    2012-01-01

    quantified the direct incorporation of 15N tracer from N2-fixing N. spumigena (diazotroph nitrogen) and ammonium-utilizing R. salina into the amino acid nitrogen (AA-N) of zooplankton using complementary gas chromatography– combustion–isotope ratio mass spectrometry, gas chromatography–mass spectrometry...... consistently low in E. affinis when exposed to N. spumigena, suggesting that these animals were reluctant to feed on N. spumigena. Essential isoleucine received most of the diazotroph nitrogen in field zooplankton, while nonessential amino acids received most 15N tracer in E. affinis. N. spumigena was clearly...... an important amino acid nitrogen source for Baltic Sea zooplankton...

  18. Disposition of two names in Almeidea (Rutaceae Disposição de dois nomes em Almeidea (Rutaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Groppo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Examination of type specimens at the P herbarium showed that Almeidea longifolia A. St.-Hil. (Rutaceae is an illegitimate substitute name for A. affinis A. St.-Hil. The latter name is proposed here as a heterotypic synonym of A. rubra A. St.-Hil.O estudo dos tipos nomenclatórios no herbário P mostrou que Almeidea longifolia A. St.-Hil. (Rutaceae é um nome substituto ilegítimo de Almeidea affinis A. St.-Hil., e este último nome é aqui considerado sinônimo heterotípico de A. rubra A. St.-Hil.

  19. Azo dye removal in a membrane-free up-flow biocatalyzed electrolysis reactor coupled with an aerobic bio-contact oxidation reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Dan; Guo, Yu-Qi; Cheng, Hao-Yi; Liang, Bin; Kong, Fan-Ying [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, No. 202 Haihe Road, Harbin 150090 (China); Lee, Hyung-Sool [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West Waterloo, Ontario, Canada N2L 3G1 (Canada); Wang, Ai-Jie, E-mail: waj0578@hit.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, No. 202 Haihe Road, Harbin 150090 (China)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A membrane-free up-flow biocatalyzed electrolysis reactor coupled with an aerobic bio-contact oxidation reactor was developed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Alizarin Yellow R as the mode of azo dyes was efficiently converted to p-phenylenediamine (PPD) and 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PPD and 5-ASA were further oxidized in a bio-contact oxidation reactor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The mechanism of UBER for azo dye removal was discussed. - Abstract: Azo dyes that consist of a large quantity of dye wastewater are toxic and persistent to biodegradation, while they should be removed before being discharged to water body. In this study, Alizarin Yellow R (AYR) as a model azo dye was decolorized in a combined bio-system of membrane-free, continuous up-flow bio-catalyzed electrolysis reactor (UBER) and subsequent aerobic bio-contact oxidation reactor (ABOR). With the supply of external power source 0.5 V in the UBER, AYR decolorization efficiency increased up to 94.8 {+-} 1.5%. Products formation efficiencies of p-phenylenediamine (PPD) and 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) were above 90% and 60%, respectively. Electron recovery efficiency based on AYR removal in cathode zone was nearly 100% at HRTs longer than 6 h. Relatively high concentration of AYR accumulated at higher AYR loading rates (>780 g m{sup -3} d{sup -1}) likely inhibited acetate oxidation of anode-respiring bacteria on the anode, which decreased current density in the UBER; optimal AYR loading rate for the UBER was 680 g m{sup -3} d{sup -1} (HRT 2.5 h). The subsequent ABOR further improved effluent quality. Overall the Chroma decreased from 320 times to 80 times in the combined bio-system to meet the textile wastewater discharge standard II in China.

  20. Azo dye removal in a membrane-free up-flow biocatalyzed electrolysis reactor coupled with an aerobic bio-contact oxidation reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, Dan; Guo, Yu-Qi; Cheng, Hao-Yi; Liang, Bin; Kong, Fan-Ying; Lee, Hyung-Sool; Wang, Ai-Jie

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A membrane-free up-flow biocatalyzed electrolysis reactor coupled with an aerobic bio-contact oxidation reactor was developed. ► Alizarin Yellow R as the mode of azo dyes was efficiently converted to p-phenylenediamine (PPD) and 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA). ► PPD and 5-ASA were further oxidized in a bio-contact oxidation reactor. ► The mechanism of UBER for azo dye removal was discussed. - Abstract: Azo dyes that consist of a large quantity of dye wastewater are toxic and persistent to biodegradation, while they should be removed before being discharged to water body. In this study, Alizarin Yellow R (AYR) as a model azo dye was decolorized in a combined bio-system of membrane-free, continuous up-flow bio-catalyzed electrolysis reactor (UBER) and subsequent aerobic bio-contact oxidation reactor (ABOR). With the supply of external power source 0.5 V in the UBER, AYR decolorization efficiency increased up to 94.8 ± 1.5%. Products formation efficiencies of p-phenylenediamine (PPD) and 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) were above 90% and 60%, respectively. Electron recovery efficiency based on AYR removal in cathode zone was nearly 100% at HRTs longer than 6 h. Relatively high concentration of AYR accumulated at higher AYR loading rates (>780 g m −3 d −1 ) likely inhibited acetate oxidation of anode-respiring bacteria on the anode, which decreased current density in the UBER; optimal AYR loading rate for the UBER was 680 g m −3 d −1 (HRT 2.5 h). The subsequent ABOR further improved effluent quality. Overall the Chroma decreased from 320 times to 80 times in the combined bio-system to meet the textile wastewater discharge standard II in China.

  1. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research - Vol 12, No 1 (2013)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inhibition of Nitric Oxide and Prostaglandin E2 Expression by Methanol Extract of Polyopes affinis in Lipopolysaccharide-stimulated BV2 Microglial Cells through Suppression of Akt-dependent NF-kB Activity and MAPK Pathway · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD ...

  2. Some crustacean zooplankton of Wular lake in Kashmir Himalaya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a taxonomic survey of crustacean zooplankton collected from Wular lake of Kashmir, a pictorial key was developed. Thirty-six (36) pictures of 25 species of crustacean zooplankton, out of which 21 represented 16 Cladocera taxa belonging to Chydoridae (Alona affinis, A. rectangula and A. monacantha, Chydorus ...

  3. 76 FR 7820 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife; 90-Day Finding on a Petition to List the Texas Pipefish as...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... Pipefish as Threatened or Endangered Under the Endangered Species Act AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... Texas pipefish (Syngnathus affinis) as threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act (ESA... NatureServe for listing under the U.S. Endangered Species Act'' because NatureServe assessments ``have...

  4. Nekton communities in Hawaiian coastal wetlands: The distribution and abundance of introduced fish species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard Ames MacKenzie; Gregory L. Bruland

    2012-01-01

    Nekton communities were sampled from 38 Hawaiian coastal wetlands from 2007 to 2009 using lift nets, seines, and throw nets in an attempt to increase our understanding of the nekton assemblages that utilize these poorly studied ecosystems. Nekton were dominated by exotic species, primarily poeciliids (Gambusia affinis, Poecilia...

  5. A new species of Coelospermum (Rubiaceae) from New Caledonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johansson, J.T.

    1987-01-01

    Affinis C. monticoli Baillon ex Guill. sed vulgo fruticosa foliis crassis, plerumque retusis vel emarginatis, calycibus brevibus. – Frutex ad 3 m altus, raro scandens ad 7 m altus. Stipulae 1,3- 4,1 mm longae. Folia 2 ad nodos. Petiolus 3-31 mm longus. Lamina 2,3-15 cm longa, 1-7 cm lata, oblonga

  6. Triterpenoids from Brazilian Ilex species and their in vitro antitrypanosomal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taketa, Alexandre T C; Gnoatto, Simone C B; Gosmann, Grace; Pires, Viviane S; Schenkel, Eloir P; Guillaume, Dominique

    2004-10-01

    From the leaves of Ilex affinis and Ilex buxifolia, two adulterant species of "erva mate" (Ilex paraguariensis), three new triterpenoid glycosides were isolated. Affinoside 1 (3beta-O-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)-[2-O-acetyl-(1-->2

  7. Notes on Michigan Boletaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, Alexander H.

    1973-01-01

    Studies have continued on the diversity of the Michigan bolete flora. During the season of 1972 a variety of Boletus affinis Peck having a reticulate stipe was discovered and abundant material of Boletus bicolor var. subreticulatus Smith & Thiers was obtained. Boletus hortonii Smith & Thiers was

  8. 40 CFR 180.41 - Crop group tables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... intentionally not included in any group include asparagus, avocado, banana, fig, globe artichoke, hops, mango... Artichoke, Chinese (Stachys affinis) 1C, 1D Artichoke, Jerusalem (Helianthus tuberosus) 1C, 1D Beet, garden...; turnip. Crop Subgroup 1C. Tuberous and corm vegetables subgroup. Potato. Arracacha; arrowroot; artichoke...

  9. Influence of continuous light and darkness on the secretory ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    622 ferase and 5-hydroxytryptophan decarboxylase activities in the Japanese quail; Endocrinology 85 1166–1168. Cheze G and Lahaye J 1969 Etude morphologique de la region epiphysaire de Gambusia affinis holbrooki; G Ann. Endocr. (Paris) 30 45–53. Collin J P 1979 Recent advances in Pineal Cytochemistry. Evi-.

  10. Efficacy of Preserving Sea Foods Using Marine Lactobacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was carried out to isolate histamine-producing bacteria from a local fish and to test antibacterial activity of mangrove isolates of Lactobacillus species against the histamine producing bacteria. Fresh tuna fish (Euthinus affinis) obtained from Parangipettai coast and they were divided in to three groups.

  11. Vibrio elicits targeted transcriptional responses from copepod hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almada, Amalia A; Tarrant, Ann M

    2016-06-01

    Copepods are abundant crustaceans that harbor diverse bacterial communities, yet the nature of their interactions with microbiota are poorly understood. Here, we report that Vibrio elicits targeted transcriptional responses in the estuarine copepod Eurytemora affinis We pre-treated E. affinis with an antibiotic cocktail and exposed them to either a zooplankton specialist (Vibrio sp. F10 9ZB36) or a free-living species (Vibrio ordalii 12B09) for 24 h. We then identified via RNA-Seq a total of 78 genes that were differentially expressed following Vibrio exposure, including homologs of C-type lectins, chitin-binding proteins and saposins. The response differed between the two Vibrio treatments, with the greatest changes elicited upon inoculation with V. sp. F10 We suggest that these differentially regulated genes play important roles in cuticle integrity, the innate immune response, and general stress response, and that their expression may enable E. affinis to recognize and regulate symbiotic vibrios. We further report that V. sp. F10 culturability is specifically altered upon colonization of E. affinis These findings suggest that rather than acting as passive environmental vectors, copepods discriminately interact with vibrios, which may ultimately impact the abundance and activity of copepod-associated bacteria. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. 1. Aspetti conoscitivi della metafora in Aristotele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umberto Eco

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Per Aristotele la metafora non è un semplice ornamento del discorso ma possiede valore conoscitivo, perché consente di conoscere il simile e di cogliere concetti affini. Negli autori medievali la metafora mantiene la funzione di strumento di conoscenza?

  13. A key to the "X-Species" of North American fiddler crabs (genus uca)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagen, von H.-O.

    1980-01-01

    Up to the late sixties of this century the number of species of the genus Uca occurring on the East and Gulf coasts of North America seemed rather well established. Usually ten species were listed: U. burgersi Holthuis ( = U. affinis (Streets)), U. leptodactyla Rathbun, U. minax (Le Conte), U.

  14. On an undescribed Cetoniid belonging to the genus Chalcothea, Burm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritsema Cz., C.

    1882-01-01

    Amongst the specimens of Chalcothea smaragdina G. & P. ¹) of the Leyden Museum, I lately found a female specimen from Sumatra of a distinct although nearly allied species, which, as I am informed by Mr. van Lansberge, bears in several, especially french collections the name of Chalcothea affinis

  15. Untitled

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    slightly projecting beyond anal margin. Claw (Fig. 1H) with long basal spine with five short spinules at its base. Concave surface of claw setulated. Figure 1: Alona affinis, Female: habitus (A), first antenna (B), secondantenna (C), labrum (D), headshield (E), ventral margin (F), postero-ventral corner (G), postabdomen (H). 83 ...

  16. Getting Specific

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ayres, Phil

    2005-01-01

    The Art and Architecture Partnership, known for commissioning public works such as Softroom's Belvedere and James Turrell's Skyspace, has recently awarded its first architectural residency at Kielder to sixteen*(makers). Here, Phil Ayres introduces initial questions for an evolutionary design...

  17. Metabolism of materials by the construction sector in developing countries : Costa Rica as a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abarca Guerrero, L.; Scheublin, F.J.M.; Egmond - de Wilde De Ligny, van E.L.C.; Lambert, A.J.D.

    2009-01-01

    Production practices require large amounts of materials and are not likely to be sustained without large implication for the environment. Materials and energy are put together in order to produce goods and the total of these physical processes have been referred by Ayres and Simons as "Industrial

  18. Use of free steered vehicles. [United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferris, W

    1986-01-01

    The UK National Coal Board's Western Area is currently producing 10.5 m/tons per annum from 16 collieries exploiting 26 different seams. This article looks at the use of free steered vehicles (FSV's) in Haig Colliery, Point of Ayr and Silverdale Colliery, covering general applications, installation of coal faces and face salvage by FSV's.

  19. Assessment of genetic diversity in Indian rice germplasm (Oryza ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-12-11

    Dec 11, 2013 ... 3Indian Agricultural Research Institute, Rice Breeding and Genetics Research Centre, Aduthurai 612 101, India ..... Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture and Technology; IRRI, Inter- ..... 83–91, Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station, ... Temnykh S., Park D. W., Ayres N., Cartinhour S., Hauck N.,.

  20. Gut bacteria of bark and wood boring beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archana Vasanthakumar; Yasmin Cardoza; Italo Delalibera; Patrick Schloss; Jo Handelsman; Kier Klepzig; Kenneth Raffa

    2007-01-01

    Bark beetles are known to have complex associations with a variety of microorganisms (Paine and others 1987; Ayres and others 2000; Six and Klepzig 2004). However, most of our knowledge involves fungi, particularly external species. In contrast, we know very little about their associations with bacterial gut symbionts (Bridges 1981). Similarly, work with wood...

  1. Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report for the Proposed Marathon Industrial/Commercial Business Center Tract 5167, Hayward California. Supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-06-01

    National Technical Information Services, U.S. Department of Commerce, Springfield, VA. (1982). Ayres, Judith E., Regional Administrator, EPA, written...Sernmnts (AOA) regarding: a. Wether project emissions have been considered in formulating the Seattaiment Area Plan (MP),. and awe consistent with emission

  2. Distribution of Studied Insectivorous Bat Species of Myanmar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyo Nyo

    2005-10-01

    Fourty-five species of insectivourous bats; Craseonycteris thonglongyai, Emballonura monticola, Taphozous melenopongon, T. theobaldi, T. longimanus, Megaderma lyra, M. spasma, Rhinolophus affinis, R. rouxii, R. pusillus, R. lepidus, R. macrotis, R. trifoliatus, R. pearsoni, R. malayanus, R. stheno, R. thomasi, R. shameli, R. acuminatus, R. marshalli, Rhinolophus sp., Hipposideros pomona, H. larvatus, H. armiger, H. lylei, H. ater, H. fulvus, Aselliscus stoliczkanus, Tadarida plicata, Myotis siligorensis, M. muricola, M. horsfieldii, M. hasseltii, M. chinensis, Scotophilus heathii, S. kuhlii, Ia io, Pipistrellus javanicus, P. coromandra, P. pulveratus, P. paterculus, P. affinis, P. ceylonicus, Miniopterus pusillus and M. magnater were distributed in 7 Divisions; Yangon, Bago, Ayeyawady, Taninthayi, Magway, Mandalay and Sagaing Division, and 7 States; Mon, Kayin, Shan, Chin, Kayah, Kachin and Rakhine States of Myanmar.

  3. Coleópteros (Bostrichidae, Platypodidae e Scolytidae em um fragmento de cerrado da baixada Cuiabana / Coleopterans (Bostrichidae, Platypodidae e Scolytidae in fragment of savannah in baixada Cuiabana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Renato Maurício da Rocha

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi qualificar e quantificar as populações de Bostrichidae, Platypodidae e Scolytidae que ocorrem associadas a um fragmento de cerrado nos períodos de seca (maio a outubro e de chuva (novembro a abril, no município de Cuiabá, estado de Mato Grosso. As coletas foram quinzenais e ocorreram de abril de 2008 a março de 2009. Foram utilizadas seis armadilhas etanólicas, iscadas com álcool etílico combustível hidratado. Os exemplares coletados foram triados, contados e identificados nos Laboratórios de Proteção Florestal da Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso e da Universidade Federal do Paraná. Foram realizados estudos faunísticos de dominância, constância, freqüência, abundância e de diversidade. Também foi desenvolvido estudo de flutuação populacional, de correlação com a tempertura, umidade relativa, precipitação pluvial e testes de médias entre as espécies. Foram identificadas 25 espécies, sendo cinco de Bostrichidae, duas de Platypodidae e 18 de Scolytidae. Foi coletado um total de 874 indivíduos, dos quais 588 foram coletados no período de seca e 286 no período de chuva. Bostrichopsis uncinata, Cryptocarenus diadematus, Xyleborus affinis e Xyleborus retusus foram as espécies mais numerosas no período de seca, enquanto Bostrichopsis uncinata, Xyleborus affinis e Xyleborus ferrugineus foram mais representativas no período de chuvas. As espécies Cryptocarenus diadematus, Xyleborus affinis e Xyleborus retusus ocorreram como dominante, muito abundante, muito frequente e constante somente no período seco, enquanto que no período de chuvas Xyleborus affinis ocorreu como super dominante, super abundante, super frequente e constante. No período de seca, os índices de Equitatibilidade e de Shannon-Wiener foram mais expressivos quando comparados com os obtidos nos meses de chuva.AbstractThe purpose of this research was to qualify and quantify the populations of Bostrichidae, Platypodidae

  4. Simulation Modeling of Zooplankton and Benthos in Reservoirs: Documentation and Development of Model Constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-01

    additional food sources were available. 111. Porter (1973), who examined in situ the selective grazing of algae by a zooplankton community in Fuller Pond...large green algae increased. 112. Anabaena affinis and A. flos- aguae were rarely consumed by the zooplankton and were unaffected by increased grazing...grazing rates over the limited temperature range of 170 to 21*C. Nauwerck (1959), who conducted in situ experiments at Lake Erken, Sweden, with Daphnia

  5. Dimensional Stability of Two Polyvinyl Siloxane Impression Materials in Different Time Intervals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aalaei Sh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Statement of the Problem: Dental prosthesis is usually made indirectly; there- fore dimensional stability of the impression material is very important. Every few years, new impression materials with different manufacturers’ claims regarding their better properties are introduced to the dental markets which require more research to evaluate their true dimensional changes. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate dimensional stability of additional silicone impression material (Panasil® and Affinis® in different time intervals. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, using two additional silicones (Panasil® and Affinis®, we made sixty impressions of standard die in similar conditions of 23 °C and 59% relative humidity by a special tray. The die included three horizontal and two vertical lines that were parallel. The vertical line crossed the horizontal ones at a point that served as reference for measurement. All impressions were poured with high strength dental stone. The dimensions were measured by stereo-microscope by two examiners in three interval storage times (1, 24 and 168 hours.The data were statistically analyzed using t-test and ANOVA. Results: All of the stone casts were larger than the standard die. Dimensional changes of Panasil and Affinis were 0.07%, 0.24%, 0.27% and 0.02%, 0.07%, 0.16% after 1, 24 and 168 hours, respectively. Dimensional change for two impression materials wasn’t significant in the interval time, expect for Panasil after one week (p = 0.004. Conclusions: According to the limitations of this study, Affinis impressions were dimensionally more stable than Panasil ones, but it was not significant. Dimensional change of Panasil impression showed a statistically significant difference after one week. Dimensional changes of both impression materials were based on ADA standard limitation in all time intervals (< 0.5%; therefore, dimensional stability of this impression was accepted at least

  6. Diversity of Endophytic Fungi from Red Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc. Plant and Their Inhibitory Effect to Fusarium oxysporum Plant Pathogenic Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIHEGIKO KANAYA

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia has been known as a country with high medicinal plant diversity. One of the most common medicinal plant from Indonesia is red ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.. Nevertheless, limited studies of endophytic fungi associated with these medicinal plants are hitherto available. The objectives of this research were to study the diversity of endophytic fungi on red ginger and to analyze their potential as a source of antifungal agent. All parts of plant organs such as leaf, rhizome, root, and stem were subjected for isolation. Fungal identification was carried out by using a combination of morphological characteristic and molecular analysis of DNA sequence generated from ITS rDNA region. Thirty endophytic fungi were successfully isolated from leaf, rhizome, root, and stem of red ginger plant. Antagonistic activity was tested against Fusarium oxysporum, a pathogenic fungus on plants, using an antagonistic assay. Based on this approach, the fungi were assigned as Acremonium macroclavatum, Beltraniella sp., Cochliobolus geniculatus and its anamorphic stage Curvularia affinis, Fusarium solani, Glomerella cingulata, and its anamorphic stage Colletotrichum gloeosporoides, Lecanicillium kalimantanense, Myrothecium verrucaria, Neonectria punicea, Periconia macrospinosa, Rhizopycnis vagum, and Talaromyces assiutensis. R. vagum was found specifically on root whereas C. affinis, L. kalimantanense, and M. verrucaria were found on stem of red ginger plant. A. macroclavatum was found specifically in red ginger plant’s organ which located under the ground, whereas C. affinis was found from shoot or organ which located above the ground. The antagonistic activity of isolated endophytic fungi against F. oxysporum varied with the inhibition value range from 1.4 to 68.8%. C. affinis (JMbt7, F. solani (JMd14, and G. cingulata (JMr2 had significantly high antagonistic activity with the value above 65%; and R. vagum (JMa4 and C. geniculatus (JMbt9 had

  7. Diversity of Endophytic Fungi from Red Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc. Plant and Their Inhibitory Effect to Fusarium oxysporum Plant Pathogenic Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROHANI CINTA BADIA GINTING

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia has been known as a country with high medicinal plant diversity. One of the most common medicinal plant from Indonesia is red ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.. Nevertheless, limited studies of endophytic fungi associated with these medicinal plants are hitherto available. The objectives of this research were to study the diversity of endophytic fungi on red ginger and to analyze their potential as a source of antifungal agent. All parts of plant organs such as leaf, rhizome, root, and stem were subjected for isolation. Fungal identification was carried out by using a combination of morphological characteristic and molecular analysis of DNA sequence generated from ITS rDNA region. Thirty endophytic fungi were successfully isolated from leaf, rhizome, root, and stem of red ginger plant. Antagonistic activity was tested against Fusarium oxysporum, a pathogenic fungus on plants, using an antagonistic assay. Based on this approach, the fungi were assigned as Acremonium macroclavatum, Beltraniella sp., Cochliobolus geniculatus and its anamorphic stage Curvularia affinis, Fusarium solani, Glomerella cingulata and its anamorphic stage Colletotrichum gloeosporoides, Lecanicillium kalimantanense, Myrothecium verrucaria, Neonectria punicea, Periconia macrospinosa, Rhizopycnis vagum, and Talaromyces assiutensis. R. vagum was found specifically on root whereas C. affinis, L. kalimantanense, and M. verrucaria were found on stem of red ginger plant. A. macroclavatum was found specifically in red ginger plant's organ which located under the ground, whereas C. affinis was found from shoot or organ which located above the ground. The antagonistic activity of isolated endophytic fungi against F. oxysporum varied with the inhibition value range from 1.4 to 68.8%. C. affinis (JMbt7, F. solani (JMd14, and G. cingulata (JMr2 had significantly high antagonistic activity with the value above 65%; and R. vagum (JMa4 and C. geniculatus (JMbt9 had significantly

  8. Permanent genetic resources added to molecular ecology resources database 1 june 2011–31 july 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barker, F. Keith; Bell, James J.; Bogdanowicz, Steven M.

    2011-01-01

    This article documents the addition of 112 microsatellite marker loci and 24 pairs of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sequencing primers to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Agelaius phoeniceus, Austrolittorina cincta, Circus cyaneus......, Circus macrourus, Circus pygargus, Cryptocoryne · purpurea Ridl. nothovar. purpurea, Mya arenaria, Patagioenas squamosa, Prochilodus mariae, Scylla serrata and Scytalopus speluncae. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Cryptocoryne · purpurea nothovar. purpurea, Cryptocoryne affinis...

  9. Ticks and tick-borne pathogens and putative symbionts of black bears (Ursus americanus floridanus) from Georgia and Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabsley, Michael J; Nims, Todd N; Savage, Mason Y; Durden, Lance A

    2009-10-01

    Ticks were collected from 38 black bears (Ursus americanus floridanus) from northwestern Florida (n = 18) from 2003 to 2005 and southern Georgia (n = 20) in 2006. Five species (Amblyomma americanum, A. maculatum, Dermacentor variabilis, Ixodes scapularis, and I. affinis) were collected from Florida bears, and 4 species (A. americanum, A. maculatum, D. variabilis, I. scapularis) were collected from bears in Georgia. Ixodes scapularis was the most frequently collected tick, followed by D. variabilis, A. americanum, A. maculatum, and I. affinis. The collection of I. affinis from a Florida bear represents a new host record. A subset of ticks was screened for pathogens and putative symbionts by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The zoonotic tick-borne pathogens Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Rickettsia parkeri were detected in 1 of 23 (4.3%) A. americanum and 1 of 12 (8.3%) A. maculatum, respectively. The putative zoonotic pathogen "Rickettsia amblyommii" was detected in 4 (17.4%) A. americanum and 1 (8.3%) A. maculatum. Other putative symbiotic rickettsiae detected included R. bellii and R. montanensis in D. variabilis, a Rickettsia cooleyi-like sp. and Rickettsia sp. Is-1 in I. scapularis, and Rickettsia TR39-like sp. in I. scapularis and A. americanum. All ticks were PCR-negative for Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Panola Mountain Ehrlichia sp., E. ewingii, Francisella tularensis, and Borrelia spp.

  10. IMPACT OF CLIMATE ANOMALY ON CATCH COMPOSITION OF NERITIC TUNA IN SUNDA STRAIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairul Amri

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Tongkol komo/kawakawa (Euthynnus affinis and tenggiri (Scomberomerus guttatus are commonly caught by mini purseiners operated in Sunda Straits and landed in Labuan, West Java. This species inhabits coastal water and has preference staying in relatively warm water. Oceanography parameters commonly influencing the distribution of Euthynnus affinis are temperature, current, and salinity. The oceanography of Sunda Strait is influenced by water masses coming from the north that mainly originated from the Java Sea and water masses from the south mainly originated from Indian Ocean. The internal oceanography of Sunda Strait is also influenced by upwelling and monsoon as regional climate anomaly (ENSO and Indian Ocean Dipole Mode. This paper describes the influence of Dipole Mode (positive and negative event and ENSO (El- Nino/La-Nina to the catch dynamics of neritic tuna particularly in Sunda Straits waters. The results shown that regional climate anomaly influenced neritic tuna catch and its composition. The catches Euthynnus affinis in phase negative dipole mode or La-Nina were higher and dominated the catch composition of pelagic fishes of Sunda Strait. Similar situation also is showen by Scomberomorus commerson.

  11. Comparative population genetics of two invading ticks: Evidence of the ecological mechanisms underlying tick range expansions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadolny, Robyn; Gaff, Holly; Carlsson, Jens; Gauthier, David

    2015-10-01

    Two species of ixodid tick, Ixodes affinis Neumann and Amblyomma maculatum Koch, are simultaneously expanding their ranges throughout the mid-Atlantic region of the US. Although we have some understanding of the ecology and life history of these species, the ecological mechanisms governing where and how new populations establish and persist are unclear. To assess population connectivity and ancestry, we sequenced a fragment of the 16S mitochondrial rRNA gene from a representative sample of individuals of both species from populations throughout the eastern US. We found that despite overlapping host preferences throughout ontogeny, each species exhibited very different genetic and geographic patterns of population establishment and connectivity. I. affinis was of two distinct mitochondrial clades, with a clear geographic break separating northern and southern populations. Both I. affinis populations showed evidence of recent expansion, although the southern population was more genetically diverse, indicating a longer history of establishment. A. maculatum exhibited diverse haplotypes that showed no significant relationship with geographic patterns and little apparent connectivity between sites. Heteroplasmy was also observed in the 16S mitochondrial rRNA gene in 3.5% of A. maculatum individuals. Genetic evidence suggests that these species rely on different key life stages to successfully disperse into novel environments, and that host vagility, habitat stability and habitat connectivity all play critical roles in the establishment of new tick populations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Elevation, Not Deforestation, Promotes Genetic Differentiation in a Pioneer Tropical Tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilla, Antonio R; Pope, Nathaniel; Jaffé, Rodolfo; Jha, Shalene

    2016-01-01

    The regeneration of disturbed forest is an essential part of tropical forest ecology, both with respect to natural disturbance regimes and large-scale human-mediated logging, grazing, and agriculture. Pioneer tree species are critical for facilitating the transition from deforested land to secondary forest because they stabilize terrain and enhance connectivity between forest fragments by increasing matrix permeability and initiating disperser community assembly. Despite the ecological importance of early successional species, little is known about their ability to maintain gene flow across deforested landscapes. Utilizing highly polymorphic microsatellite markers, we examined patterns of genetic diversity and differentiation for the pioneer understory tree Miconia affinis across the Isthmus of Panama. Furthermore, we investigated the impact of geographic distance, forest cover, and elevation on genetic differentiation among populations using circuit theory and regression modeling within a landscape genetics framework. We report marked differences in historical and contemporary migration rates and moderately high levels of genetic differentiation in M. affinis populations across the Isthmus of Panama. Genetic differentiation increased significantly with elevation and geographic distance among populations; however, we did not find that forest cover enhanced or reduced genetic differentiation in the study region. Overall, our results reveal strong dispersal for M. affinis across human-altered landscapes, highlighting the potential use of this species for reforestation in tropical regions. Additionally, this study demonstrates the importance of considering topography when designing programs aimed at conserving genetic diversity within degraded tropical landscapes.

  13. Variation in the Microbiota of Ixodes Ticks with Regard to Geography, Species, and Sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Treuren, Will; Ponnusamy, Loganathan; Brinkerhoff, R. Jory; Gonzalez, Antonio; Parobek, Christian M.; Juliano, Jonathan J.; Andreadis, Theodore G.; Falco, Richard C.; Ziegler, Lorenza Beati; Hathaway, Nicholas; Keeler, Corinna; Emch, Michael; Bailey, Jeffrey A.; Roe, R. Michael; Apperson, Charles S.; Knight, Rob

    2015-01-01

    Ixodes scapularis is the principal vector of Lyme disease on the East Coast and in the upper Midwest regions of the United States, yet the tick is also present in the Southeast, where Lyme disease is absent or rare. A closely related species, I. affinis, also carries the pathogen in the South but does not seem to transmit it to humans. In order to better understand the geographic diversity of the tick, we analyzed the microbiota of 104 adult I. scapularis and 13 adult I. affinis ticks captured in 19 locations in South Carolina, North Carolina, Virginia, Connecticut, and New York. Initially, ticks from 4 sites were analyzed by 454 pyrosequencing. Subsequently, ticks from these sites plus 15 others were analyzed by sequencing with an Illumina MiSeq machine. By both analyses, the microbiomes of female ticks were significantly less diverse than those of male ticks. The dissimilarity between tick microbiomes increased with distance between sites, and the state in which a tick was collected could be inferred from its microbiota. The genus Rickettsia was prominent in all locations. Borrelia was also present in most locations and was present at especially high levels in one site in western Virginia. In contrast, members of the family Enterobacteriaceae were very common in North Carolina I. scapularis ticks but uncommon in I. scapularis ticks from other sites and in North Carolina I. affinis ticks. These data suggest substantial variations in the Ixodes microbiota in association with geography, species, and sex. PMID:26150449

  14. Parametrik Olmayan Çok Değişkenli Varyans Analizi ve Sağlık Alanında Bir Uygulaması

    OpenAIRE

    PASİN, Özge; ANKARALI, Handan; CANGÜR, Şengül; SUNGUR, Mehmet Ali

    2016-01-01

    Sağlık araştırmalarında, etkenlerin genellikle birbirleriyle ilişkili birden fazla sonucu olabilir. Bu ilişkili sonuçları ayrı analiz etmek 1.Tip hatanın artmasına neden olur. Ancak pratik uygulamalarda veri analizinde sıklıkla bu hata yapılmakta, daha basit, kolay yorumlanabilen tek değişkenli analiz yöntemlerinden yararlanılmaktadır.  Ayrıca sağlık araştırmalarındaki özelliklerin önemli bir bölümü tek değişkenli parametrik modellerin varsayımlarından olan normal dağılım ve varyansların homo...

  15. Kefir Mikroflorası Üzerinde Araştırma

    OpenAIRE

    Erol Ergüllü; Mustafa Üçüncü

    2015-01-01

    Çalışmada, çeşitli yörelerden sağlanmış 7 kefir örneğinin mikroflorası araştırılmış ve elde edilen bulgulara göre, kefir mikroflorasında süt asidi bakterileri (Streptokok ve Laktobasiller) ile mayaların çoğunlukta olduğu belirlenmiştir. Bu bakteri türlerinden her birinin kefir oluşumunda ayrı bir yeri bulunmaktadır. Süt asidi bakterileri sütü pıhtılaştırmakta ve bunlardan bazıları da ayrıca uçucu asitler oluşturarak, kefirin tat ve kokusunun meydana gelmesine katkıda bulunmaktadırlar. Mayalar...

  16. Kefir Mikroflorası Üzerinde Araştırma

    OpenAIRE

    Ergüllü, Erol; Üçüncü, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

      Çalışmada, çeşitli yörelerden sağlanmış 7 kefir örneğinin mikroflorası araştırılmış ve elde edilen bulgulara göre, kefir mikroflorasında süt asidi bakterileri (Streptokok ve Laktobasiller) ile mayaların çoğunlukta olduğu belirlenmiştir. Bu bakteri türlerinden her birinin kefir oluşumunda ayrı bir yeri bulunmaktadır. Süt asidi bakterileri sütü pıhtılaştırmakta ve bunlardan bazıları da ayrıca uçucu asitler oluşturarak, kefirin tat ve kokusunun meydana gelmesine katkıda bulunmaktadırlar. Mayal...

  17. Kefir Mikroflorası Üzerinde Araştırma

    OpenAIRE

    Ergüllü, Erol; Üçüncü, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

      Çalışmada, çeşitli yörelerden sağlanmış 7 kefir örneğinin mikroflorası araştırılmış ve elde edilen bulgulara göre, kefir mikroflorasında süt asidi bakterileri (Streptokok ve Laktobasiller) ile mayaların çoğunlukta olduğu belirlenmiştir. Bu bakteri türlerinden her birinin kefir oluşumunda ayrı bir yeri bulunmaktadır. Süt asidi bakterileri sütü pıhtılaştırmakta ve bunlardan bazıları da ayrıca uçucu asitler oluşturarak, kefirin tat ve kokusunun meydana gelmesine katkıda bulunmaktadırlar. Mayal...

  18. Nükleer Yakıt Zenginleştirme İşleminde Kullanılan Gaz Santrifüj Yönteminin İncelenmesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyit Rıza TOKGÖZ

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Özet. Nükleer teknolojiye sahip olmak, günümüz ülkelerinin gelişmişliğinin bir ölçüsü olup, bu çalışmada nükleer reaktörlerde kullanılan yakıtın santrifüj yöntemi ile zenginleştirilmesi incelenmiştir. Santrifüj metodunda ayrıştırma faktörünün hesaplanması, farklı tip santrifüjler’ in ayrıştırma iş birimlerinin bulunması ve bunların performanslarının karşılaştırılması yapılmıştır.Anahtar Kelimeler: Nükleer teknoloji; Santrifüj metodu; Ayrıştırma faktörü; Ayrıştırma iş birimi(SWU Abstract. Having nuclear technology is a measure of the development of present-day countries. In this study, the enrichment process of fuel used in nuclear reactors by centrifugation method has been investigated. The centrifugation method has been used to calculate the separation factor, to find the separation units of different types of centrifuges, and their performance has been compared.Keywords: Nuclear technology, Centrifuge method, Separation factor, Separation work unit (SWU

  19. Improving the U.S. Military’s Understanding of Unstable Environments Vulnerable to Violent Extremist Groups: Insights from Social Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Polletta, It Was Like a Fever: Storytelling in Protest and Politics, Chicago, Ill.: University of Chicago Press, 2006. 15 Jeffrey M. Ayres...negative emotions and framing aggression as critical for the proper assumption of male roles.45 In the same vein, Bourgois describes how physical violence...vengeance become part of cultural systems that invoke and chan- nel fundamental human emotions and motivations.23 Mitigating Variables. One important

  20. What Were the Causes of the Delay of the 79th Division Capturing Montfaucon during the Meuse-Argonne Offensive in World War I?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    7Leonard P. Ayres, The War with Germany: A Statistical Summary (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1919), 21. 8Historical board of the...by looking at this statistic alone, the effectiveness of the primary weapon system of the 79th Division was somewhere around 33 percent. Outside of...those gigantic tanks we had heard so much about.‖178 Fortunately for the men of the 79th, their lack of training in combined arms operations with armor

  1. Adaptive Estimation and Heuristic Optimization of Nonlinear Spacecraft Attitude Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-15

    Biology, Control and Artificial Intelligence , MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, USA, 1992. 177 [89] Thompson, R. E., Colombi, J. M., Black, J. T., and Ayres...utilized for parameter and state estimates. MMAE algorithms involve constructing a bank of recursive estimators, each assuming a different hypothesis for...this research, MMAE routines employing parallel banks of unscented attitude filters are applied to analytical models of spacecraft with time- varying

  2. Far red bioluminescence from two deep-sea fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widder, E A; Latz, M I; Herring, P J; Case, J F

    1984-08-03

    Spectral measurements of red bioluminescence were obtained from the deep-sea stomiatoid fishes Aristostomias scintillans (Gilbert) and Malacosteus niger (Ayres). Red luminescence from suborbital light organs extends to the near infrared, with peak emission at approximately 705 nanometers in the far red. These fishes also have postorbital light organs that emit blue luminescence with maxima between 470 and 480 nanometers. The red bioluminescence may be due to an energy transfer system and wavelength-selective filtering.

  3. GERÇEK VE İDAEL ÖZ KİMLİK UYUMUNUN MARKA SADAKATİ ÜZERİNDEKİ ETKİSİ: SİGARA SEKTÖRÜNDE BİR UYGULAMA

    OpenAIRE

    Kurtuldu, Hüseyin; Çilingir, Zühal

    2010-01-01

    Ozet: Bu cal.sma, tuketicilerin markal. urunler kullanmak suretiylekendilerini gercek ve ideal oz kimlikleri ile ifade etmelerinin marka sadakatigelistirme duzeyleri uzerindeki rolunu tespit etmeyi amaclamaktad.r. Ayr.catuketicilerin sadece oz kimliklerinin de.il, demografik ozelliklerinin de hemmarka sadakati hem de oz kimlik uzerindeki etkisi incelenmistir. Tuketicilerinmarkaya sad.k olma duzeylerini olcmek icin tutumsal yaklas.m benimsenmistir.Cal.smada, hem sembolik nitelikte hem de marka...

  4. Speech Understanding Systems. Summary of Results of the Five-Year Research Effort at Carnegie-Mellon University

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-08-01

    EVC’ (EYVR,O) S IV AH2 M CAI (-,0) S IV fEYVL. EYC (EYP.O) (AYL.0) AYC’ (AYR.C) CALCULUS (.- (-,0),-) (K.O) AE31 EL4 (- (-,0),-) (K.0) IH3 L I6 S...SOLVING CARTOGRAPHV CA-’,[ SYSTEM,- CAUSAL REASONING CELl ASAMLIUVLV THEORY CHIECKiNG PROCF-. CHESS CH[qS; PLAY ING PROGnAMk4S CIRCU’IT AI;ALVSiS

  5. FINDIK KABUKLARININ, ÇAY VE TÜTÜN ATIKLARININ HAMMADDE OLARAK KULLANILMASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ş. İsmail KIRBAŞLAR

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada, fındık kabukları, çay ve tütün atıklarındaki nem, kül, yağ ve sellüloz miktarları analiz edilmiştir. Ayrıca, fındık kabukları, çay ve tütün atıklarının içerdiği pentosan, pentos ve furfural miktarları belirlenmiştir. Furfural her üç atıktan destilasyon metoduyla ayrılmıştır. Atıklardan ayrılan furfural örneklerinin IRspektrumları ile standart furfuralin IR-spektrumları karşılaştırılmıştır. Fındık kabuklarından farklı sıcaklıklarda aktif karbon elde edilmiştir. Bu aktif karbon kullanılarak organik ve anarganik atıklar adsorbsiyonla uzaklaştırılmıştır.

  6. Efficient azo dye decolorization in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) with built-in bioelectrochemical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Min-Hua; Cui, Dan; Gao, Lei; Cheng, Hao-Yi; Wang, Ai-Jie

    2016-10-01

    A continuous stirred tank reactor with built-in bioelectrochemical system (CSTR-BES) was developed for azo dye Alizarin Yellow R (AYR) containing wastewater treatment. The decolorization efficiency (DE) of the CSTR-BES was 97.04±0.06% for 7h with sludge concentration of 3000mg/L and initial AYR concentration of 100mg/L, which was superior to that of the sole CSTR mode (open circuit: 54.87±4.34%) and the sole BES mode (without sludge addition: 91.37±0.44%). The effects of sludge concentration and sodium acetate (NaAc) concentration on azo dye decolorization were investigated. The highest DE of CSTR-BES for 4h was 87.66±2.93% with sludge concentration of 12,000mg/L, NaAc concentration of 2000mg/L and initial AYR concentration of 100mg/L. The results in this study indicated that CSTR-BES could be a practical strategy for upgrading conventional anaerobic facilities against refractory wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The oxygen-rich pentaerythritol modified multi-walled carbon nanotube as an efficient adsorbent for aqueous removal of alizarin yellow R and alizarin red S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jia-Ying; Jiang, Xin-Yu; Jiao, Fei-Peng; Yu, Jin-Gang

    2018-04-01

    A contrastive work on the removal of two organic dyes, alizarin yellow R (AYR) and alizarin red S (ARS), was carried out by utilizing pentaerythritol modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes (ox-MWCNT-PER) as a highly efficient adsorbent. Various characterization methods such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), were applied for revealing the physical and chemical properties of the as-prepared material. In addition, the adsorption kinetics, isotherms and thermodynamic parameters were also discussed. The results showed that the time required to achieve the adsorption equilibrium for both dyes was about 30 min, and the increase in temperature was not favorable to the adsorption process. It was worth noting that the adsorption capacity of ox-MWCNT-PER towards ARS dye was more significant than that towards AYR dye. And the maximum adsorption capacities for ARS and AYR were 257.73 mg g-1 and 45.39 mg g-1, respectively. The possible adsorption mechanism was also proposed, and the synergistic effects of the hydrogen bonding and the π-π electron stacking interactions between the adsorbents and adsorbates both contributed to the adsorption. It could be proposed that the ox-MWCNT-PER nanocomposite might have some positive effects in removing organic dyes from water treatment in the future.

  8. DANSIN İLK AKADEMİSYENİ: AGRİPPİNA VAGANOVA (YAŞAMI VE DANS EĞİTİM METODU)

    OpenAIRE

    KOÇKAR, M. Tekin

    2016-01-01

    Dünya Bale sanatının en teknik ve en güçlü eğitim sistemini yaratan Agrippina Vaganova’nın, öz yaşamı ve yaratmış olduğu teknik ile ilgili genel bilgiler bu çalışmanın konusunu oluşturmaktadır. Vaganova’nın dans eğitim metodu üç temel programa dayalıdır: Birincisi; Eğitimin her aşamasının en ayrıntılı biçimde planlanması, ikincisi; dansçının virtüözlük özelliklerini ortaya çıkaracak olan karmaşık egzersizlerin uygulanması, üçüncüsü ise; eğitim sürecinde ayrı ayrı her dansçının yapacağı hareke...

  9. Assessment of nasal spray deposition pattern in a silicone human nose model using a color-based method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundoor, Vipra; Dalby, Richard N

    2010-01-01

    To develop a simple and inexpensive method to visualize and quantify droplet deposition patterns. Deposition pattern was determined by uniformly coating the nose model with Sar-Gel (a paste that changes from white to purple on contact with water) and subsequently discharging sprays into the nose model. The color change was captured using a digital camera and analyzed using Adobe Photoshop. Several tests were conducted to validate the method. Deposition patterns of different nasal sprays (Ayr, Afrin, and Zicam) and different nasal drug delivery devices (Afrin nasal spray and PARI Sinustar nasal nebulizer) were compared. We also used the method to evaluate the effect of inhaled flow rate on nasal spray deposition. There was a significant difference in the deposition area for Ayr, Afrin, and Zicam. The deposition areas of Afrin nasal spray and PARI Sinustar nasal nebulizer (2 min and 5 min) were significantly different. Inhaled flow rate did not have a significant effect on the deposition pattern. Lower viscosity formulations (Ayr, Afrin) provided greater coverage than the higher viscosity formulation (Zicam). The nebulizer covered a greater surface area than the spray pump we evaluated. Aerosol deposition in the nose model was not affected by air flow conditions.

  10. İLETİŞİM İKLİMİNİN, İŞ DOYUMU VE İŞDEN AYRILMA NİYETİ İLİŞKİSİNE ETKİSİ - THE MODERATING EFFECT OF COMMUNICATION CLIMATE BETWEEN JOB SATISFACTION AND TURNOVER INTENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ela ÜNLER

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ÖzetÇalışmanın amacı, iş doyumu ve iletişim ikliminin çalışanların işden ayrılma niyetlerine etkisini incelemektir. Ayrıca, iletişim ikliminin iş doyumu ve işden ayrılma niyeti ilişkisinde şartlı değişken olarak rol alıp almadığı anlaşılmaya çalışılmıştır. Çalışmaya Türkiye’de bankacılık sektöründe çalışan 182 kişi katılmıştır. Katılımcıların 96’sı kadın 84’ü erkekir. Araştırmanın sonuçlarına göre, iş doyumu ve iletişim ikliminin işden ayrılma niyeti ile olumsuz ilişki içinde olduğu görülmüştür. İş doyumu yüksek ve olumlu iletişim iklime sahip şirketlerde çalışanların işden ayrılma niyetlerinin azaldığı anlaşılmıştır. Ayrıca, iletişim iklimi boyutlarından, yönetici-çalışan iletişimi ve iletişimde şeffaflık ve güvenin, dışsal kaynaklı iş doyumu ve işden ayrılma niyeti ilişkisinde şartlı değişken olarak görev yaptığı bulunmuştur. Çalışmanın tartışma bölümünde kısıtları ve katkıları aktarılmıştır.AbstractThe aim of the study was to explore the effect of job satisfaction on turnover intentions of employees. It was also investigated if communication climate has a moderating effect on the satisfaction-turnover intentions relationship. 182 questionnaires were collected from individuals who were working in the banking industry. The sample was comprised of 97 women and 85 men. Results indicated that, job satisfaction and communication climate both have a negativeeffect on turnover intentions of employees. Participants working in companies with a positivecommunication climate and high levels of job satisfaction displayed a lower levels of turnoverintentions. Furthermore, two of the communication climate dimensions: supervisor-subordinatecommunication, openness and trust in communication were found to have a moderating rolebetween external job satisfaction and turnover intention. Managerial implications and

  11. İLETİŞİM İKLİMİNİN, İŞ DOYUMU VE İŞDEN AYRILMA NİYETİ İLİŞKİSİNE ETKİSİ - THE MODERATING EFFECT OF COMMUNICATION CLIMATE BETWEEN JOB SATISFACTION AND TURNOVER INTENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ela ÜNLER

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available ÖzetÇalışmanın amacı, iş doyumu ve iletişim ikliminin çalışanların işden ayrılma niyetlerine etkisini incelemektir. Ayrıca, iletişim ikliminin iş doyumu ve işden ayrılma niyeti ilişkisinde şartlı değişken olarak rol alıp almadığı anlaşılmaya çalışılmıştır. Çalışmaya Türkiye’de bankacılık sektöründe çalışan 182 kişi katılmıştır. Katılımcıların 96’sı kadın 84’ü erkekir. Araştırmanın sonuçlarına göre, iş doyumu ve iletişim ikliminin işden ayrılma niyeti ile olumsuz ilişki içinde olduğu görülmüştür. İş doyumu yüksek ve olumlu iletişim iklime sahip şirketlerde çalışanların işden ayrılma niyetlerinin azaldığı anlaşılmıştır. Ayrıca, iletişim iklimi boyutlarından, yönetici-çalışan iletişimi ve iletişimde şeffaflık ve güvenin, dışsal kaynaklı iş doyumu ve işden ayrılma niyeti ilişkisinde şartlı değişken olarak görev yaptığı bulunmuştur. Çalışmanın tartışma bölümünde kısıtları ve katkıları aktarılmıştır.AbstractThe aim of the study was to explore the effect of job satisfaction on turnover intentions of employees. It was also investigated if communication climate has a moderating effect on the satisfaction-turnover intentions relationship. 182 questionnaires were collected from individuals who were working in the banking industry. The sample was comprised of 97 women and 85 men. Results indicated that, job satisfaction and communication climate both have a negativeeffect on turnover intentions of employees. Participants working in companies with a positivecommunication climate and high levels of job satisfaction displayed a lower levels of turnoverintentions. Furthermore, two of the communication climate dimensions: supervisor-subordinatecommunication, openness and trust in communication were found to have a moderating rolebetween external job satisfaction and turnover intention. Managerial implications and

  12. Metazoários parasitos de seis espécies de peixes do Reservatório de Lajes, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Metazoan parasites of six fishes species from Lajes Reservoir in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline R. Paraguassú

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Entre abril de 2002 e julho de 2003, foram necropsiados 231 espécimes de peixes: 39 Astyanax bimaculatus (Linnaeus, 1758, 79 A. fasciatus (Cuvier, 1819, 23 Hypostomus affinis (Steindachner, 1877, 26 Hoplias malabaricus (Bloch, 1794, 30 Loricariichthys castaneus (Castelnau, 1855 e 34 Trachelyopterus striatulus (Steindachner, 1876 provenientes do Reservatório de Lajes (22º42' - 22º50'S, 43º53' 44º05'O, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, para estudo das suas comunidades parasitárias. A maioria dos espécimes de H. affinis (95,6% e H. malabaricus (84,6% estavam parasitados por pelo menos uma espécie de metazoário. Em A. bimaculatus, A. fasciatus, L. castaneus e T. striatulus 41%, 39,2%, 56,7% e 14,7% dos espécimes estavam parasitados, respectivamente. Foram coletadas oito diferentes espécies de metazoários parasitos: 2 em A. bimaculatus, 3 em A. fasciatus, 3 em H. affinis, 4 em H. malabaricus, 4 em L. castaneus e 1 em T. striatulus. As comunidades de metazoários parasitos das seis espécies de peixes estudadas apresentaram típico padrão de distribuição agregada. Foram observados dois casos de correlação negativa entre a abundância e a prevalência parasitárias e o comprimento total dos hospedeiros. A comunidade parasitária de L. castaneus apresentou os maiores valores de intensidade média, índice de dispersão e diversidade. As comunidades parasitárias dos peixes estudados apresentaram escassez de correlação entre a abundância, riqueza parasitária e diversidade com o comprimento total dos hospedeiros. Os baixos valores de riqueza e diversidade das comuni-dades parasitárias podem ser atribuídos as características oligotróficas do Reservatório de Lajes.From April 2002 to July 2003, 231 freshwater fishes from Lajes Reservoir in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (22º42' - 22º50'S, 43º53' - 44º05'W were necropsied to study their community metazoan parasites: 39 Astyanax bimaculatus (Linnaeus, 1758, 79 A. fasciatus

  13. Long-term baited lander experiments at a cold-water coral community on Galway Mound (Belgica Mound Province, NE Atlantic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavaleye, Marc; Duineveld, Gerard; Bergman, Magda; van den Beld, Inge

    2017-11-01

    A long-term lander employing a baited camera system was developed to study temporal variation in the presence of scavenging fish and invertebrates at a cold-water coral community on Galway Mound (Belgica Mound Province, NE Atlantic). The camera system was tested during two successful long-term deployments for periods of 6 and 12 months respectively. The baited system, consisting of two separate video cameras with infrared lights and a bait dispenser with 24 bait positions, recorded more than 15,500 clips of 17 s, regularly spread over both periods. New bait, consisting of sardines in oil, was offered at regular time intervals, and attracted scavengers over the whole period of deployment, and especially the crab Chaceon affinis did still eat from it till the end of the deployments. However, the attractiveness for some scavengers, i.e. amphipods, diminished quite quickly. In addition to invertebrate scavengers, namely C. affinis, two other crab species, amphipods, a shrimp and a starfish, also 7 species of fish were recorded near the bait, of which Lepidion eques was by far the most common. Though there was no concrete evidence for seasonal patterns, the observations showed substantial temporal variation in the abundance of several species, especially the crabs C. affinis and Bathynectes maravigna and the fish Phycis blennoides. It is concluded that long-term deployments of such a baited camera system can produce novel data. For instance such a system could be employed for monitoring impacts of disturbances on the deep-sea floor (e.g. mining), as we infer that mobile scavengers will be among the first organisms to show a visible reaction to any chemically and physically (noise, vibrations) alteration of the environment similar to a mine canary.

  14. Ticks and rickettsiae from wildlife in Belize, Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Marcos G; May Junior, Joares; Foster, Rebecca J; Harmsen, Bart J; Sanchez, Emma; Martins, Thiago F; Quigley, Howard; Marcili, Arlei; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2016-02-02

    The agents of spotted fevers in Latin America are Rickettsia rickettsii, R. parkeri, Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest, and R. massiliae. In Continental Central America, R. rickettsii remains the only known pathogenic tick-borne rickettsia. In the present study, ticks were collected from wild mammals in natural areas of Belize. Besides providing new data of ticks from Belize, we investigated rickettsial infection in some of these ticks. Our results provide ticks harboring rickettsial agents for the first time in Central America. Between 2010 and 2015, wild mammals were lived-trapped in the tropical broadleaf moist forests of central and southern Belize. Ticks were collected from the animals and identified to species by morphological and molecular analysis (DNA sequence of the tick mitochondrial 16S RNA gene). Some of the ticks were tested for rickettsial infection by molecular methods (DNA sequences of the rickettsial gltA and ompA genes). A total of 84 ticks were collected from 8 individual hosts, as follows: Amblyomma pacae from 3 Cuniculus paca; Amblyomma ovale and Amblyomma coelebs from a Nasua narica; A. ovale from an Eira Barbara; A. ovale, Amblyomma cf. oblongoguttatum, and Ixodes affinis from a Puma concolor; and A. ovale, A. coelebs, A. cf. oblongoguttatum, and I. affinis from two Panthera onca. Three rickettsial agents were detected: Rickettsia amblyommii in A. pacae, Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest in A. ovale, and Rickettsia sp. endosymbiont in Ixodes affinis. The present study provides unprecedented records of ticks harboring rickettsial agents in the New World. An emerging rickettsial pathogen of South America, Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest, is reported for the first time in Central America. Besides expanding the distribution of 3 rickettsial agents in Central America, our results highlight the possible occurrence of Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest-caused spotted fever human cases in Belize, since its possible

  15. Intestinal helminths of golden jackals and red foxes from Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahmar, Samia; Boufana, Belgees; Ben Boubaker, Sarra; Landolsi, Faouzi

    2014-08-29

    Forty wild canids including 31 golden jackals (Canis aureus Linné, 1758) and 9 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes Linné, 1758) collected between 2008 and 2011 in the northeast, northwest and center of Tunisia were necropsied and examined for intestinal helminth parasites. All jackals and foxes were found infected with a prevalence rate of 95% for cestodes, 82.5% for nematodes and 7.5% for acanthocephalans. A total of twelve helminth species were recorded in red foxes: cestodes, Dipylidium caninum (55.6%), Diplopylidium noelleri (55.6%), Mesocestoïdes lineatus (55.6%), Mesocestoïdes litteratus (33%), Mesocestoïdes corti (22%); nematodes, Ancylostoma caninum (11%), Uncinaria stenocephala (44%), Spirura rytipleurites (11%), Trichuris vulpis (33%), Pterygodermatites affinis (67%), Oxynema linstowi (33%) and the acanthocephalan Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus (22%). The fifteen recovered helminth species in jackals were Echinococcus granulosus (9.7%), D. caninum (16%), D. noelleri (16%), M. lineatus (74%), M. litteratus (23%), M. corti (12.9%), Taenia pisiformis (3.2%), Taenia spp. (19%), Toxocara canis (16%), Toxascaris leonina (6.5%), A. caninum (9.7%), U. stenocephala (68%), P. affinis (6.5%), O. linstowi (3.2%) and Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus (3.2%). This is the first report on the presence of P. affinis, D. noelleri and O. linstowi in Tunisia. E. granulosus was found in young jackals, aged less than 4 years old, with a higher abundance in females (8.9 worms). M. lineatus presented the highest mean intensity of 231.86 and 108.8 tapeworms respectively in jackals and foxes. Canids from the northwest region had the highest prevalence (77.5%) and highest intensity (243.7) of helminth species compared to those from the northeast and central areas. U. stenocephala and O. linstowi had the highest mean intensity for nematodes in both jackals and foxes at 14.3 and 88 worms respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Molecular Detection and Identification of Rickettsia Species in Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) Collected From Belize, Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polsomboon, Suppaluck; Hoel, David F; Murphy, Jittawadee R; Linton, Yvonne-Marie; Motoki, Maysa; Robbins, Richard G; Bautista, Kim; Bricen O, Ireneo; Achee, Nicole L; Grieco, John P; Ching, Wei-Mei; Chao, Chien-Chung

    2017-11-07

    Little is known about tick-borne rickettsial pathogens in Belize, Central America. We tested ixodid ticks for the presence of Rickettsia species in three of the six northern and western Belizean districts. Ticks were collected from domestic animals and tick drags over vegetation in 23 different villages in November 2014, February 2015, and May 2015. A total of 2,506 collected ticks were identified to the following species: Dermacentor nitens Neumann (46.69%), Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille) (19.55%), Rhipicephalus microplus (Canestrini) (19.47%), Amblyomma cajennense complex (9.74%), Amblyomma maculatum Koch (3.47%), Amblyomma ovale Koch (0.68%), Ixodes nr affinis (0.16%), Amblyomma nr maculatum (0.12%), and Amblyomma nr oblongoguttatum (0.12%). Ticks were pooled according to species, life stage (larva, nymph, or adult), and location (n = 509) for DNA extraction and screened for genus Rickettsia by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). All 42 positive pools were found to be positive for spotted fever group (SFG) Rickettsia in pools of A. cajennense complex (n = 33), A. maculatum (n = 4), A. nr maculatum (n = 1), A. ovale (n = 1), R. sanguineus (n = 1), and I. nr affinis (n = 2). Rickettsia amblyommatis was identified from A. cajennense complex and A. nr maculatum. Rickettsia parkeri was found in A. maculatum, and Rickettsia sp. endosymbiont was detected in I. nr affinis. The presence of infected ticks suggests a risk of tick-borne rickettsioses to humans and animals in Belize. This knowledge can contribute to an effective tick management and disease control program benefiting residents and travelers. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  17. Variation in the Microbiota of Ixodes Ticks with Regard to Geography, Species, and Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Treuren, Will; Ponnusamy, Loganathan; Brinkerhoff, R Jory; Gonzalez, Antonio; Parobek, Christian M; Juliano, Jonathan J; Andreadis, Theodore G; Falco, Richard C; Ziegler, Lorenza Beati; Hathaway, Nicholas; Keeler, Corinna; Emch, Michael; Bailey, Jeffrey A; Roe, R Michael; Apperson, Charles S; Knight, Rob; Meshnick, Steven R

    2015-09-01

    Ixodes scapularis is the principal vector of Lyme disease on the East Coast and in the upper Midwest regions of the United States, yet the tick is also present in the Southeast, where Lyme disease is absent or rare. A closely related species, I. affinis, also carries the pathogen in the South but does not seem to transmit it to humans. In order to better understand the geographic diversity of the tick, we analyzed the microbiota of 104 adult I. scapularis and 13 adult I. affinis ticks captured in 19 locations in South Carolina, North Carolina, Virginia, Connecticut, and New York. Initially, ticks from 4 sites were analyzed by 454 pyrosequencing. Subsequently, ticks from these sites plus 15 others were analyzed by sequencing with an Illumina MiSeq machine. By both analyses, the microbiomes of female ticks were significantly less diverse than those of male ticks. The dissimilarity between tick microbiomes increased with distance between sites, and the state in which a tick was collected could be inferred from its microbiota. The genus Rickettsia was prominent in all locations. Borrelia was also present in most locations and was present at especially high levels in one site in western Virginia. In contrast, members of the family Enterobacteriaceae were very common in North Carolina I. scapularis ticks but uncommon in I. scapularis ticks from other sites and in North Carolina I. affinis ticks. These data suggest substantial variations in the Ixodes microbiota in association with geography, species, and sex. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Karyology of eight species of bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) from Hainan Island, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yi; Motokawa, Masaharu; Li, Yu-Chun; Harada, Masashi; Chen, Zhong; Lin, Liang-Kong

    2009-10-20

    Karyotypes and chromosomal data are presented for eight bat species representing two families (Rhinolophidae and Vespertilionidae) from Hainan Island, China. The species investigated were Rhinolophus lepidus (2n = 62, FN = 60), R. pusillus (2n = 62, FN = 60), R. affinis (2n = 62, FN = 60), R. sinicus (2n = 36, FN = 60), Myotis horsfieldi (2n = 44, FN = 52), Pipistrellus abramus (2n = 26, FN = 44), Miniopterus australis (2n = 46, FN = 50) and M. schreibersii (2n = 46, FN = 50). The karyotype of Rhinolophus lepidus is reported for the first time.

  19. DELIMITACIÓN DE LAS ESPECIES ARGENTINAS DEL GENERO INGA (MIMOSOIDEAE MEDIANTE TÉCNICAS NUMÉRICAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A. Zapater

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ingais represented in Argentina by six species and one variety. However doubts emerge about thevalidity of these taxa. Phenetic relationships were studied among 75 specimens belonging to the sevenrecognized taxa, in order to evaluate their validity. A morphological matrix of 46 characters was ana-lyzed by clustering and conglomerate methods. The dendrogram and the principal components analyses(PCA show six groups, consequently six species can be clearly recognized:I. saltensis, I. marginata,I. laurina, I. virescens, I. affinis, andI. uraguensis. A key for the identification of species is presentedtogether with distribution maps in Argentina.

  20. Isolation and in vitro maintenance of trypanosomes from naturally infected and commercially important Brazilian fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Moara; Souto-Padrón, Thaïs

    2014-10-01

    Fish trypanosomes are widely distributed in commercially important fish, with high prevalence in some Brazilian species. This study provides the first record of the isolation and in vitro maintenance of trypanosomes from Brazilian fish. We produced 49 trypanosome isolates from naturally infected catfish (Hypostomus affinis and Hypostomus luetkeni), using 9 different culture media (out of 31 tested). Trypanosomes were maintained in culture for at least 15 mo and were successfully cryopreserved. Culture forms-epimastigotes and short trypomastigotes-were capable of dividing in vitro. Our study is an important step in the investigation of ultrastructure, taxonomy, and phylogeny of trypanosomes from commercially important Brazilian fish.

  1. The Chemicals, Coal and Petroleum Products, and Rubber Industries in Italy's Regions, 1861-1913: Time-Series Estimates

    OpenAIRE

    Ciccarelli Carlo; Fenoaltea Stefano

    2008-01-01

    Questo saggio presenta stime annuali della produzione delle industrie chimiche e affini nell'Italia post-unitaria, disaggregate per regione e per industria. Nel lungo periodo la produzione si concentra, e si sposta verso nord. La crescita più rapida si registra dai primi anni settanta ai primi anni novanta in Piemonte e in Lombardia, e poi, fino al 1913, in Liguria, in Toscana, e (grazie alla sua elettrochimica) in Umbria. Le regioni meridionali erano dominanti all'Unità; registrarono poi una...

  2. Phytoplankton aggregate formation: observations of patterns and mechanisms of cell sticking and the significance of exopolymeric material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Hansen, Jorgen L. S.

    1993-01-01

    are sticky in themselves, and coagulation depends on cell-cell sticking and does not involve mucus. Aggregates are composed solely of cells. Cells of the diatom Chaetoceros affinis, on the other hand, are not in themselves sticky. Transparent exopolymeric particles (TEP), produced by the diatom, cause...... the cells to aggregate and coagulation depends on TEP-cell rather than cell-cell sticking. Aggregates are formed of a mixture of mucus and cells. We found several species of diatoms and one flagellate species to produce copious amounts of TEP. TEP from some species (e.g. Coscinodiscus sp.) is sticky and may...

  3. Population dynamics of Greater Scaup breeding on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Paul L.; Grand, J. Barry; Fondell, Thomas F.; Morse, Julie A.

    2006-01-01

    Populations of greater scaup (Aythya marila) remained relatively stable during a period when populations of lesser scaup (A. affinis) have declined from historic levels. To assist in describing these differences in population trends, from 1991 through 2000, we studied the survival, nesting ecology, and productivity of greater scaup on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta (Y-K Delta), Alaska, to develop a model of population dynamics. We located nests, radio-marked females for renesting studies, estimated duckling survival, and leg-banded females to examine nest site fidelity and annual survival.

  4. CHROMOSOMES OF WOODY SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio R Daviña

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Chromosome numbers of nine subtropical woody species collected in Argentina and Paraguay are reported. The counts tor Coutarea hexandra (2n=52, Inga vera subsp. affinis 2n=26 (Fabaceae and Chorisia speciosa 2n=86 (Bombacaceae are reported for the first time. The chromosome number given for Inga semialata 2n=52 is a new cytotype different from the previously reported. Somatic chromosome numbers of the other taxa studied are: Sesbania punicea 2n=12, S. virgata 2n=12 and Pilocarpus pennatifolius 2n=44 from Argentina

  5. Kadın Kütüphaneciler: Toplumsal Cinsiyet Sorunları = Female Librarians: Gender Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Yılmaz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Bu araştırmanın amacı, kadın kütüphanecilerin cinsiyet ayrımcılığından dolayı kütüphanelerde karşılaşacakları olası sorunları irdelemektir. Bu amaç doğrultusunda araştırmada, kadın kütüphanecilerin kütüphanelerde karşılaşacakları sorunlar şu şekilde ayrılmıştır; ○ kütüphanelerde cinsel istismar (mobbing; ○ ücret ayrımcılığı (kadın kütüphaneci olarak düşük ücret alma ○ kariyer gelişiminde cinsiyet ayrımcılığı; ○ kadın kütüphaneci olarak haksız yere işten çıkarılma ○ kadın kütüphaneci olarak kariyere ara verme (evlilik ya da bebek sahibi olma gibi nedenler ve ○ iş görüşmelerinde kişisel sorularla karşılaşma (evlilikle ya da annelikle ilgili zamanlamayla ilgili sorular. Ayrıca araştırmada, kadın kütüphanecilerin cinsiyet ayrımcılığına ilişkin kütüphanelerde karşılaşacakları yukarıda sıralanan sorunlara ilişkin çeşitli çözüm önerileri de tartışılmıştır./The purpose of this study is to examine the possible problems being met by female librarians due to gender discrimination in libraries. With this purpose in this study, the relevant problems being met by female librarians in libraries are divided as follows; sexual harassment (mobbing in libraries, wage discrimination (receiving a low wage as a female librarian, gender discrimination in career development, unfair dismissal as a female librarian, career break as a female librarian (because of marriage or having a new baby, and encountering the personal questions in job interviews (such as the questions of the timing of marriage or motherhood. Furthermore, in the study, various recommendations for solving the above problems of gender discrimination met by female librarians in libraries have been also discussed.

  6. Protein Esaslı Yağ İkame Maddesi Kullanımının Yağsız Yoğurdun Kalitesi Üzerine Etkisi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Sezen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada, protein esaslı yağ ikame maddesi olan Dairy-Lo™ 'nun %1 ve %2 gibi iki farklı oranı kullanılarak, rekonstitüe sütten üretilen, yağsız set tipi yoğurtların fiziksel, kimyasal, tekstürel ve duyusal özellikleri incelenmiştir. Yoğurt örneklerinde depolamanın 1., 7. ve 15. günlerinde titrasyon asitliği, pH, asetaldehit, laktik asit, serum ayrılması, viskozite, konsistens değerleri saptanmıştır. Ayrıca yoğurt örneklerinde duyusal değerlendirmeler de yapılmıştır.  Bu çalışma sonucu elde edilen bulgular, protein esaslı yağ ikame maddesi Dairy-Lo™ ilavesinin yağsız yoğurdun konsistens ve viskozitesini artırıp, serum ayrılmasını azalttığını göstermiştir. Dairy-Lo™ 'nun %2 oranında kullanımının yağsız set tip yoğurdun kalitesini iyileştirdiği belirlenmiştir.

  7. Farklı Hayvan Türlerine Ait Karkas Etlerinin ve Mekanik Sıyrılmış Etlerin, Kimyasal Yapılarına ve SDS-PAGE Yardımıyla Saptanan Protein Profillerine Göre Belirlenmesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayça Yaralı

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada farklı hayvan karkas etleri ve farklı mekanik sıyrılmış etlerinin kimyasal bileşimi, atomik absorbsiyon spektrofotometresi ile mineral madde bileşimi ve SDS­PAGE ile protein bant dizilimi incelenmiştir. Bu yöntemler ile tür ayrımı ve MDM ayrımı yapılmıştır. Özellikle MDM örneklerinin protein, yağ ve kalsiyum içerikleri diğer karkas etlerinden önemli ölçüde farklı olarak bulunmuştur. Karkas örneklerinin sodyum miktarının MDM örnekleriyle karşılaştırıldığında yüksek olduğu gözlenmiştir. Ayrıca, deneye tabi tutulan makro elementler içinde magnezyum içeriğinin düşük değerlerde olduğu gözlenmiştir. SDS­PAGE bant diziliminde myofibriler proteinler ve sarkoplazmik proteinler incelenmiştir. Elektoroforez jellerinin görüntü analizi ve nicel analizi için densitometre cihazı (The Imager BL, Biolab UviTec software kullanılmıştır.

  8. Fiili Hizmet Süresi Zammı Uygulamasının Türk Sosyal Güvenlik Sistemine Etkisi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayça ALTINDAL

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Türkiye’de 2008 yılında hayata geçirilen sosyal güvenlik reformu sonrası fiili hizmet süresi zammı yeniden düzenlenmiştir. Yapılan bu düzenleme ile fiili hizmet süresi zammına tabi bir işte 5510 Sayılı Kanunun 4 üncü maddesinin (a bendi kapsamında çalışan sigortalılarla (c bendi kapsamında çalışan sigortalıların malullük, yaşlılık ve ölüm sigortaları prim oranında farklılaşmaya gidilmiştir. Yapılan bu çalışma ile bahsi geçen sigortalılar arasında fiili hizmet süresi zammı hususundaki ayrışmanın etkisi incelenmiş ve bu ayrışmanın giderilmesi önerilmiştir. Ayrıca fiili hizmet süresi zammı alan sigortalıların emeklilik ödemesi ile prim tahsilatı arasında aktüeryal denge oluşturulması durumunda sosyal güvenlik sistemine yıllık 77 milyon TL ek gelir sağlanacağı tespit edilmiştir.

  9. DAİRESEL DALGA KILAVUZLARININ OPTİMİZE EDİLMİŞ İLETİM HATTI MATRİS MODELİ İLE TAM DALGA ANALİZİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayhan AKBAL

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Düşük firekaslarda kullanılan yaklaşımlar yüksek frekanslarda geçerli olmadığında analizde tam-dalga yöntemlerinin kullanılması bir zorunluluktur. İletim Hattı Matrisi Modeli (TLM bir tam-dalga analiz yöntemi olup literatürde elektromanyetik olayların analizinde sıklıkla kullanılmaktadır. Ancak bu modelde sınır şartlarından kaynaklanan yansıma, aşma, üst üste binme, bozulma, sinyal bütünlüğünün bozulması gibi çeşitli problemler ile karşılaşılmaktadır. Bu çalışmada TLM yönteminde sınır şartlarının kolay uygulanabilmesi için optimizasyon yapılmıştır. Optimizasyonun başarısını göstermek içinde örnek olarak analizi daha komplex olan dairesel dalga klavusu kullanılmıştır. Bu yayında X bandında (8-12 GHz kullanılan WC-94 adlı dairesel dalga kılavuzu TE ve TM modu için ayrı ayrı, optimize edilmiş TLM yöntemi ile analiz edilmiştir. Sonuçların doğrulugu ve sunulan optimizasyon yönteminin başarısı ayrıntıları ile sunulmuştur.

  10. The tao of survival skills to keep you alive

    CERN Document Server

    Ayres, James Morgan

    2013-01-01

    The Tao of Survival focuses on real-world, core survival skills that can save your life anytime and anyplace, in any emergency situation. It delves into fundamental concepts that most survival books don't cover, including how to deal with fear, developing mind/body skills, and fully engaging your senses to be aware of your surroundings. James Morgan Ayres has worked as a consultant for various U.S. government agencies and private corporations, founded four companies, and lived and worked all over the world. He's written seven books, taught seminars on the tao of survival and related

  11. ON SOME SEMİGROUPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Refik KESKİN

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada baz ı yarıgrupların id empotent elemanları karakterize edildi. Ayrıca, D(I birim aralıkta:ı birim aralığa tanımlı türevlenebilir fonksi­yonların yarıgrubu olmak üzere, D(I yarıgrubunda ild elemanın bileşkesinin bir homeomorfizm olması -'�!n gerekli ve yeterli k o şu l verildi.

  12. Girişimcilik Eğiliminde Kişilik Özelliklerinin Önemi

    OpenAIRE

    Bozkurt, Öznur

    2006-01-01

    Bu çalısmada, girisimci ve girisimcilik kavramları tanımlanmakta, girisimciyi desteklemenin ve girisimci kisilik özelliklerini gelistirmenin önemine deginilmektedir. Girisimcilerin önemli kisilik özellikleri, girisimciligi etkileyen demografik, sosyal ve psikolojik faktörler detaylı olarak anlatılmakta, girisimciligi etkileyen faktörler ve girisimci kisilik özellikleri arasındaki iliskiler incelenmektedir. Ayrıca girisimci kisiligin tanımı yapılmakta ve risk alma, yenilikleri kabul, belirsizl...

  13. Selected Lectures of the 13th International Workshop on Neonatology; Cagliari (Italy); October 25th-28th, 2017

    OpenAIRE

    --- Various Authors

    2017-01-01

    Selected Lectures of the 13th International Workshop on Neonatology • The power of Epigenetics • Twins: identical but different • Cagliari (Italy) • October 25th-28th, 2017LECT 1. ASPHYXIA IN THE THIRD MILLENNIUM: FROM VIRGINIA APGAR TO METABOLOMICS • O.D. SaugstadLECT 2. INTRAPARTUM FETAL MONITORING: WHERE ARE WE NOW? • D. Ayres-de-CamposLECT 3. THERAPEUTIC HYPOTHERMIA: REVISED IN­DI­CA­TIONS • E. SalibaLECT 4. ANTIBIOTICS PRESCRIPTION IN NEONATAL INTENSIVE CARE UNIT • G. DimitriouLECT 5. CH...

  14. Simplified risk assessment for transporting ATR spent fuel within the INEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franklin, E.M.; Courtney, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    Interest in characterizing the condition of stored spent fuels has generated the need to move spent fuels to hot cell facilities within the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). A simplified probabilistic risk assessment (SPRA) and an evaluation of the radiological consequences in the event of an accident are discussed and applied to on-site Advanced Test Reactor (AYR) spent fuel shipments. Reported accident probabilities between 10 -4 and 10 -6 and low radiological consequences, affords this, and other spent fuel characterization efforts, an additional option to move spent fuels within the INEL

  15. 'Yellow lens' eyes of a stomiatoid deep-sea fish, Malacosteus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somiya, H

    1982-07-22

    Bright yellow lenses were found in the eyes of the stomiatoid deep-sea fish, Malacosteus niger Ayres. The optical properties of the yellow lens and the retinal specializations in the eyes were examined. Absorption spectra of the yellow lens revealed two peaks at wavelengths 425 and 460 nm. The photoreceptors were all rods and were arranged in two superimposed layers. An astaxanthin-type retinal tapetum was observed in the pigment epithelium. Some chemical evidence is presented showing that the tapetal material is an astaxanthin ester. The ecological significance of the yellow lens is discussed in connection with that of Malacosteus' orbital light organ which has a reddish filter.

  16. RFID in libraries a step toward interoperability

    CERN Document Server

    Ayre, Lori Bowen

    2012-01-01

    The approval by The National Information Standards Organization (NISO) of a new standard for RFID in libraries is a big step toward interoperability among libraries and vendors. By following this set of practices and procedures, libraries can ensure that an RFID tag in one library can be used seamlessly by another, assuming both comply, even if they have different suppliers for tags, hardware, and software. In this issue of Library Technology Reports, Lori Bowen Ayre, an experienced implementer of automated materials handling systems, Provides background on the evolution of the standard

  17. Specificity of germination of heteromorphic seeds in four annuals (Salsola L.) at different temperatures in the Junggar basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ning, L.; Feng, L.H.; Chi, L.Z.; Xia, C.Z.

    2015-01-01

    Salsola L. is a large genus of arid desert plants that are primarily distributed in the Junggar Basin, China. We analysed their ability to adapt to arid habitats by comparing differences in germination characteristics of the species and populations of Salsola affinis C. A. Mey, Salsola korshinskyi Drob., Salsola brachiata Pall. and Salsola nitraria Pall. We classified the 4 species into four types (A, B, C and D) according to seed wing and seed size, and the heteromorphic seeds were incubatedunder different temperature regimes (0/10 degree C, 5/15 degree C, 10/25 degree C and 20/35 degree C). The 4 species had the highest germination rates and germination potential at 0/1 C. Germination rates and potential decreased with increasing temperature. However, the change range of the germination rate among the four species was different. Type A and B seeds of S. affinis, S. nitraria and S. korshinskyi were dominant at all temperatures and decreased with increasing temperature. The germination rate of type C seeds was between that of type A, B and D seeds. D-type seeds had the lowest germination rate and the lowest germination potential under the four temperature regimes among the four species but the differences were not significant. The germination rates of the four types of S. brachiata seeds did not significantly change with temperature. These results suggest that Salsola spp. can germinate continuously from spring to autumn to adapt to moisture fluctuations in the desert. (author)

  18. Análisis numérico de las especies de Prosopis L. (Fabaceae de las costas de Perú y Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia D. Burghardt

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Diferentes revisiones coinciden en señalar 2 o 3 especies de Prosopis para el sur de Ecuador y norte de Perú: P. juliflora (SW DC, P. pallida (Humb. et Bonpl. ex Willd. Kunth y P. affinis Sprengel. En el presente trabajo se informa del análisis cuantitativo de caracteres foliares de especímenes del genero Prosopis, recolectados a lo largo de la costa desde Arequipa (Perú a Manta (Ecuador. Los resultados señalan tres grupos bien definidos. Del análisis comparativo de los tipos y ejemplares de herbario de todas las especies y sinónimos citados para la zona de estudio surge que los taxones existentes son: P. pallida, P. limensis Bentham, ambos de amplia distribución, y P. chilensis (Molina Stuntz emend Burkart restringido al valle del río Camaná. Estos tres taxones se corresponden con los tres grupos obtenidos del análisis numérico. Debe señalarse la exclusión del área de P. juliflora y P. affinis. Se sugiere no utilizar las numerosas variedades señaladas para P. pallida.

  19. Absorption, distribution, dynamics of 14C-chlorpyrifos in several kinds of animals and plants in fresh water ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Shunhua; Zhong Chuangguang; Zhao Xiaokui

    1998-01-01

    The absorption, distribution, dynamics of chlorpyrifos in five fresh water organisms were studied. The results showed that all organisms tested absorbed 14 C-chlorpyrifos rapidly in simulation ecosystem for 4 h of exposure. The concentration factors (CF) of 14 C-chlorpyrifos in the organisms were in order of Gambusia affinis>Bellarnya purificata>Planorbis sp.>Lenna polyrrhiza>Naslurtium officincles on the 2nd day of the experiment. The absorption of 14 C-chlorpyrifos by three kinds of animals showed that the 14 C-radioactivity reached peaks after 24 h or 48 h of exposure to the pesticide. the concentration factors of Gambusia affinis (48 h), Bellarnya purificata (48 h) and Planorbis sp. (24 h) were 375, 249.69 and 30 respectively. The absorption peaks expressed in concentration factors in Lenna polyrrhiza and Naslurtium officincles, were 28.54 and 7.78 at 4 and 24 h respectively. After the absorption peaks, the radioactivity in all experimental animals and plants decreased with increase of time. After 4 h, the radioactivity in water rapidly decreased to 67% of the original and it decreased to about one half of the original after 24 h. Then the radioactivity of 14 C in water slightly increased due to the excreta of the organisms

  20. GENETIC IDENTIFICATION FOR TUNA AND RAINBOW RUNNER CAPTURE IN NORTH BALI WATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusti Ngurah Permana

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Gondol Research Institute for Mariculture identification of tuna and rainbow runner was an objective in this current study. Samples of five species were collected from territorial water of North Bali. The method used in this study was allozyme electrophoresis. The results showed that buffer of CAPM-6 (citric acid aminoprophylmorpholine resulted in a sharp and clear banding pattern. The species could be differentiated in six diagnostic isozyme patterns Idh* (isocitrate dehydrogenase, 6Pgd* (6 phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, Gpi* (glucose phosphate isomerase, Mdh* (malate dehydrogenase, Est* (esterase, and Sp* (sarcoplasmic protein. All species were in Hardy-weinberg equilibrium. Heterozygosities of species were ranged from 0.00 to 0.099. Yellowfin tuna has the highest heterozigosity compared with the other species. Clustering samples according to pairs revealed that genetic distance of Bullet tuna (A. rochei and Eastern little tuna (E. affinis had small value (0.001. By contrast, the largest value was observed between yellowfin tuna, T. albacares and rainbow runner, E. bipunnulata (0.007. This value indicated that Bullet tuna (A. rochei and Eastern little tuna (E. affinis closed relation, while among yellowfin tuna, skipjack tuna, and rainbow runner, were separated phylogenically.

  1. Estuarine use and movement patterns of seven sympatric Mugilidae fishes: The Tatu Creek estuary, central western Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chih-Wei; Iizuka, Yoshiyuki

    2012-06-01

    By combining the spatio-temporal distribution of fish abundance and their size structure, and a detailed lifetime Sr/Ca ratio analysis in their otoliths, this study delineates the estuarine use and the movement patterns of seven sympatrical occurring adult mullets in the Tatu Creek estuary, central western Taiwan. In the estuary Mugil cephalus are the most dominant species, whereas Liza subviridis, Liza macrolepis and Liza haematocheilus are common, and Liza affinis, Liza dussumieri and Valamugil seheli are rare. They have adapted a size-related salinity preference. A mean Sr/Ca ratio of (7.5-10.2) × 10-3 in the otolith cores demonstrated that all seven mullet species spawned in the sea. After recruiting to the estuary (mean ratios of (3.6-6.4) × 10-3 at the estuarine check in the otoliths), the ratios fluctuate between (0.1-3.5) × 10-3 and (9.5-19.5) × 10-3 indicating that the mullet shared a common movement between marine and brackish waters and probably even freshwater habitats. However, the profiles fluctuated substantially among individuals. There was high intra-specific variation among M. cephalus and L. subviridis, intermediate intra-specific variation among L. macrolepis and L. affinis, and relatively little among L. haematocheilus, L. dussumieri and V. seheli. Persistent residency in high or low saline environments was found to vary among species, and the extent of their catadromy is discussed.

  2. Development of Plate Reader and On-Line Microfluidic Screening to Identify Ligands of the 5-Hydroxytryptamine Binding Protein in Venoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reka A. Otvos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The 5-HT3 receptor is a ligand-gated ion channel, which is expressed in the nervous system. Its antagonists are used clinically for treatment of postoperative- and radiotherapy-induced emesis and irritable bowel syndrome. In order to better understand the structure and function of the 5-HT3 receptor, and to allow for compound screening at this receptor, recently a serotonin binding protein (5HTBP was engineered with the Acetylcholine Binding Protein as template. In this study, a fluorescence enhancement assay for 5HTBP ligands was developed in plate-reader format and subsequently used in an on-line microfluidic format. Both assay types were validated using an existing radioligand binding assay. The on-line microfluidic assay was coupled to HPLC via a post-column split which allowed parallel coupling to a mass spectrometer to collect MS data. This high-resolution screening (HRS system is well suitable for compound mixture analysis. As a proof of principle, the venoms of Dendroapsis polylepis, Pseudonaja affinis and Pseudonaja inframacula snakes were screened and the accurate masses of the found bioactives were established. To demonstrate the subsequent workflow towards structural identification of bioactive proteins and peptides, the partial amino acid sequence of one of the bioactives from the Pseudonaja affinis venom was determined using a bottom-up proteomics approach.

  3. Orthopteran insects as potential and preferred preys of the Red-footed Falcon (Falco vespertinus in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szövényi Gergely

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Orthopterans play an important role in Red-footed Falcon diet, however, most studies focus only on its qualitative food composition, and less on quantitative composition and preferences of the taxa identified as prey. During the present research, an extensive orthopterological investigation was carried out in the Red-footed Falcon study area, Vásárhelyi Plain (SE-Hungary between 2006 and 2008. Grasshoppers were sampled in their main habitats by sweep netting and pitfall trapping, and orthopterans were identified in the food remnants collected from the nests, both artificial and natural ones. 26 species were detected during the field works, 18 species from the food remnants. Altogether 32 species were identified. Prey preference values for all species for each year were calculated. More than two thirds of the identified preys were Decticus verrucivorus, and nearly 20% were Tettigonia viridissima. Other common prey species were Melanogryllus desertus, Platycleis affinis, Gryllotalpa gryllotalpa, Calliptamus italicus and Gryllus campestris. Based on the prey preference analysis, the most preferred species was Decticus verrucivorus with extreme high values, and the other preferred ones, overlapping with the previous list, were Platycleis affinis, Bicolorana bicolor, Tettigonia viridissima, Calliptamus italicus and Roeseliana roeselii. These results may help in the development of Red-footed Falcon-friendly habitats through the application of habitat management favourable for the preferred prey species.

  4. Fishery status, growth, reproduction biology and feeding habit of two scombrid fish from the Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Zibdah, M.; Odat, N.

    2007-01-01

    The fishery and some biological aspects of two Scombrid fish species, Katsuwonus pelamis and Euthynnus affinis from the Gulf of Aqaba were studied during one year period (1999-2000). Monthly samples of the two species were collected to investigate growth, reproduction and feeding habit. Results showed that the Scombridae family form more than 60% of the total catch of Jordanian fishery. The length-weight relationships (LWr) in the two fish species demonstrated thatthe growth is of an allometric type (around 3). The condition factor (k) showed relatively consistent values in both species but revealed slight variability in growth periods. This could be attributed to the limited food availability in fish natural habitat. Different age classes were observed in the catch of the two species irrespective of season. The mean GSI exhibited similar change pattern with season in both sexes of the two fish. Spawning behavior and planktonic larvae of both fish were not observed in the field. This could be inferred that these fish are not migrating to the region for reproduction. The food composition of K. pelamis and E. affinis suggests that the fish compete for the same food items. These are the fish At herinomorous lacunosus, crustacean and molluscans. Prey occurrence in fish stomachs is attributed mainly to the seasonal availability of food in the Gulf of Aqaba. High abundance of food items in winter may indicate that the two species migrate at the climax of primary productivity in the Gulf. (author)

  5. Gastrointestinal Helminthic Parasites in Stray Cats (Felis catus from North of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Rezaei-Doust

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cats play a crucial role in the epidemiology of gastrointestinal helminthic parasites and also play a major role in transmitting of these parasites through faecal contamination of soil, food or water. The aim of this study was to determine the species of gastrointestinal helminthes parasites in stray cats from a rural area of Bandar-e-Anzali, Iran.Method: Gastrointestinal helminthes were collected from 50 necropsied stray cats (Felis catus after capturing them by trapping from different regions of the city and humanely euthanatized in Bandar-e-Anzali, a port in the Caspian Sea in northern Iran, from March to November 2003. Results: The prevalence of infection was 90%, with those of individual parasites being Diplopylidium nolleri 54%, Phy­saloptera praeputialis 32%, Ancylostoma tubaeforme 20%, Joyeuxiella pasqualei 10%, Toxocara cati 8%, Pterygoderma­tites affinis 6%, Ancylostoma caninum 4%, and Taenia taeniaeformis 2%. Concurrent infections with two or more parasites were recorded in 34% of the individuals. In relation to the sex, the differences were not significant. Conclusion: P. praeputialis, T. cati, D. nolleri and sometime J. pasqualei are the commonest Helminthes in cats. This is the first reported isolation of P. affinis and A. caninum infections from cats in Iran.

  6. A catchment-scale model to predict spatial and temporal burden of E. coli on pasture from grazing livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, David M; Bartie, Phil J; Louise Heathwaite, A; Reaney, Sim M; Parnell, Jared A Q; Quilliam, Richard S

    2018-03-01

    Effective management of diffuse microbial water pollution from agriculture requires a fundamental understanding of how spatial patterns of microbial pollutants, e.g. E. coli, vary over time at the landscape scale. The aim of this study was to apply the Visualising Pathogen &Environmental Risk (ViPER) model, developed to predict E. coli burden on agricultural land, in a spatially distributed manner to two contrasting catchments in order to map and understand changes in E. coli burden contributed to land from grazing livestock. The model was applied to the River Ayr and Lunan Water catchments, with significant correlations observed between area of improved grassland and the maximum total E. coli per 1km 2 grid cell (Ayr: r=0.57; pE. coli burden between seasons in both catchments, with summer and autumn predicted to accrue higher E. coli contributions relative to spring and winter (PE. coli loading to land as driven by stocking density and livestock grazing regimes. Resulting risk maps therefore provide the underpinning evidence to inform spatially-targeted decision-making with respect to managing sources of E. coli in agricultural environments. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Analysis of solvent extracts from coal liquefaction in a flowing solvent reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Wen-Ying; Feng, Jie; Xie, Ke-Chang [Key Laboratory of Coal Science and Technology, Taiyuan University of Technology, Ministry of Education and Shanxi Province, No. 79 Yingze West Street, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Kandiyoti, R. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Chemical Technology, Imperial College, University of London, London SW7 2BY (United Kingdom)

    2004-10-15

    Point of Ayr coal has been extracted using three solvents, tetralin, quinoline and 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP) at two temperatures 350 and 450 C, corresponding approximately to before and after the onset of massive covalent bond scission by pyrolysis. The three solvents differ in solvent power and the ability to donate hydrogen atoms to stabilise free radicals produced by pyrolysis of the coal. The extracts were prepared in a flowing solvent reactor to minimise secondary thermal degradation of the primary extracts. Analysis of the pentane-insoluble fractions of the extracts was achieved by size exclusion chromatography, UV-fluorescence spectroscopy in NMP solvent and probe mass. With increasing extraction temperature, the ratio of the amount having big molecular weight to that having small molecular weight in tetralin extracts was increased; the tetralin extract yield increased from 12.8% to 75.9%; in quinoline, increasing extraction temperature did not have an effect on the molecular weight of products but there was a big increase in extract yield. The extracts in NMP showed the enhanced solvent extraction power at both temperatures, with a shift in the ratio of larger molecules to smaller molecules with increasing extraction temperature and with the highest conversion of Point of Ayr coal among these three solvents at both temperatures. Solvent adducts were detected in the tetralin and quinoline extracts by probe mass spectrometry; solvent products were formed from NMP at both temperatures.

  8. Reglas supletivas “sancionatorias” en el derecho de contratos colombiano: el caso del contrato de transporte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. Monroy C.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A finales de la década de 1980, Ayres y Gertner propusieron una controversial teoría sobre cómo integrar el contenido de lagunas en contratos incompletos, acuñando la noción de “penalty default rule” (regla supletiva sancionatoria para referirse a aquella regla que “sanciona” el silencio de las partes integrando al contrato una regla supletiva que “no” coincide con lo que la mayoría de las partes hubiesen querido. Bajo esta premisa, el artículo pretende demostrar que dichas reglas supletivas sancionatorias existen en el derecho de contratos colombiano. Así, (I propone una metodología para identificar situaciones contractuales hipotéticas donde conviene establecer reglas supletivas sancionatorias; (II somete a prueba la metodología a la luz del principal caso de estudio descrito por Ayres y Gertner, y (III replica la metodología con un caso propio del derecho de contratos colombiano.

  9. Research Methods Used in Library and Information Science Theses: An Evaluation Kütüphanecilik ve Bilgi Bilim Tezlerinde Kullanılan Bilimsel Araştırma Yöntemleri : Bir Değerlendirme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Serap Kurbanoğlu

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available A literature analysis and an evaluation are made on the findings of researches which examine the research methods employed in library science and information science dissertations. The data suggest some changes regarding to research methods used in library science dissertations. Separate examinations of library science dissertations and information science dissertations suggest that there are differences as much assimilarities between these sister disciplines. Kütüphanecilik ve bilgi bilim tezlerinde kullanılan araştırma yöntemleri konusunda yapılan araştırmaların bulguları üzerine bir literatür çalışması ve bir değerlendirme yapılmıştır. Bulgular kütüphanecilik tezlerinde kullanılan araştırma yöntemleri konusunda zaman içinde bir çeşitlenme olduğunu göstermektedir. Kütüphanecilik ve bilgi bilim tezleri üzerinde ayrı ayrı yürütülen incelemeler ise bu iki kardeş disiplin arasında benzerlikler kadar farklılıklar da olduğunu ortaya koymaktadır.

  10. Control of Water Pollution and Phytoplanktonic Algal Flora in Bayındır Dam Reservoir (Ankara.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahir Atıcı

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Su kirliliğinin ve fitoplanktonik alg florasının Bayındır Baraj Gölü’nde kontrolü. Bu çalışmada Bayındır baraj gölü’nün bir plankton kepçesi ile toplanmış olan fitoplanktonik algleri Mart 2003 ve Aralık 2003 arasında incelendi. Toplam 76 fitoplankton türü saptandı. Bunların 13’ü Cyanophyta, 17’si Chlorophyta, 2’si Dinophyta, 6’sı Euglenophyta ve 38’i Bacillariophyta’ya aitti. Ayni periyotta, fiziksel ve kimyasal analizler ayrıca sürdürüldü ve türlerin bollukları ile varlıkları değerlendirildi ve böylece barajda kirliliğe toleranslı alg tiplerinin olduğu bulundu. Ayrıca, Ankara’ya içme suyu sağlayan baraj gölünün devamlılığı üzerine bazı öneriler getirildi

  11. COĞRAFYA EĞİTİMİNDE FİZİKİ COĞRAFYA ÖĞRETİMİ İÇİN BİR ROTA ÖNERİSİ: ÇATALCA YARIMADASI BATISI, İSTANBUL

    OpenAIRE

    TUNA, FİKRET; SARIKAYA, MEHMET

    2014-01-01

    ÖZETSaha çalışması coğrafyanın en önemli öğretim metotlarından biridir ve coğrafya bilimini ve eğitimini saha çalışmasından ayrı düşünmek mümkün değildir. Ayrıca, saha çalışmaları, coğrafya eğitimine çok çeşitli katkılar sağlamaktadır. Bu çalışmanın temel amacı, coğrafya eğitimcilerine çeşitli fiziki coğrafya konularının öğretimi ile ilgili konularda faydalanabilecekleri örnek saha çalışması güzergâhı ve inceleme sahaları ve bunlarla ilgili bilgiler sunmaktır. Böylece, ihtiyaç duyan öğretmen ...

  12. Psikolojik Sermaye ve Çalışanlar Üzerinde Etkisi: Banka Sektöründe Bir Alan Çalışması

    OpenAIRE

    YEŞİL, Salih; YETİŞ, Emirhan; TELLİ, Sümeyra

    2016-01-01

    Bu çalışmanın amacı psikolojik sermayenin çalışanlar üzerinde etkilerini (bilgi paylaşımı, iş tatmini, işten ayrılma eğilimi ve yenilikçi davranış) belirlemeye yöneliktir. Araştırmanın alan çalışması, bir banka çalışanları üzerinde yapılmış, analiz edilmiş ve yorumlanmıştır. Araştırma sonucunda psikolojik sermayenin çalışanlar açısından bilgi paylaşımı, iş tatmini, işten ayrılma niyeti, performans ve yenilikçi davranış üzerinde farklı düzeylerde etkileri olduğu belirlenmiştir. Bu sonuç psiko...

  13. Small-incision 4-point scleral suture fixation of a foldable hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens in the absence of capsule support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terveen, Daniel C; Fram, Nicole R; Ayres, Brandon; Berdahl, John P

    2016-02-01

    To determine the visual outcomes and complications of a new small-incision technique for 4-point fixation of a hydrophilic acrylic posterior chamber intraocular lens (IOL) in the absence of capsule support. Three North American tertiary referral centers and a private practice. Retrospective case series. Secondary IOL placement was performed from 2011 to 2014. Indications for surgery, clinical results, and complications were analyzed. Primary outcomes included postoperative corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) and surgical complications. Charts of 35 patients (37 eyes) were reviewed. The mean age at surgery was 56 years, and the mean follow-up was 6 months (range 3 to 24 months). Clinical indications included a dislocated IOL (30%), ocular trauma (19%), crystalline lens subluxation (19%), uveitis-glaucoma-hyphema syndrome (5%), post-complicated cataract (8%), congenital cataract (8%), and decompensated cornea (3%). The mean CDVA improved from 20/80 preoperatively to 20/40 postoperatively (P IOL dislocation (3%). Small-incision 4-point scleral fixation of the Akreos AO60 hydrophilic acrylic IOL in the absence of capsule support appears to be a safe and effective technique for secondary IOL placement. Drs. Berdahl and Ayres are consultants to Bausch & Lomb, Inc. Drs. Ayres and Fram have received speaker fees from Bausch & Lomb. Dr. Terveen does not have a financial or proprietary interest in any material or methods mentioned. Copyright © 2016 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Advanced Spectral Library (ASTRAL): Atomic Fluorescence in Cool, Evolved Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Ken G.; Nielsen, Krister E.; Kober, Gladys V.; Rau, Gioia

    2018-01-01

    The "Advanced Spectral Library (ASTRAL) Project: Cool Stars" (PI = T. Ayres) collected a definitive set of representative, high-resolution (R~46,000 in the FUV up to ~1700 Å, R~30,000 for 1700-2150 Å, and R~114,000 >2150 Å) and high signal/noise (S/N>100) UV spectra of eight F-M evolved cool stars. These extremely high-quality STIS UV echelle spectra are available from the HST archive and from the Univ. of Colorado (http://casa.colorado.edu/~ayres/ASTRAL/) and will enable investigations of a broad range of problems -- stellar, interstellar, and beyond -- for many years. In this paper, we extend our study of the very rich emission-line spectra of the four evolved K-M stars in the sample, Beta Gem (K0 IIIb), Gamma Dra (K5 III), Gamma Cru (M3.4 III), and Alpha Ori (M2 Iab), to study the atomic fluorescence processes operating in their outer atmospheres. We summarize the pumping transitions and fluorescent line products known on the basis of previous work (e.g. Carpenter 1988, etc.) and newly identified in our current, on-going analysis of these extraordinary ASTRAL STIS spectra.

  15. Mining the HST Treasury: The ASTRAL Reference Spectra for Evolved M Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, K. G.; Ayres, T.; Harper, G.; Kober, G.; Wahlgren, G. M.

    2012-01-01

    The "Advanced Spectral Library (ASTRAL) Project: Cool Stars" (PI = T. Ayres) is an HST Cycle 18 Treasury Program designed to collect a definitive set of representative, high-resolution (R greater than 100,000) and high signal/noise (S/N greater than 100) UV spectra of eight F-M evolved cool stars. These extremely high-quality STIS UV echelle spectra are available from the HST archive and through the University of Colorado (http://casa.colorado.edu/ayres/ASTRAL/) portal and will enable investigations of a broad range of problems -- stellar, interstellar. and beyond -- for many years. In this current paper, we concentrate on producing a roadrnap to the very rich spectra of the two evolved M stars in the sample, the M3.4 giant Gamma Crucis (GaCrux) and the M2Iab supergiant Alpha Orionis (Betelgeuse) and illustrate the huge increase in coverage and quality that these spectra provide over that previously available from IUE and earlier HST observations. These roadmaps will facilitate the study of the spectra, outer atmospheres, and winds of not only these stars. but also numerous other cool, low-gravity stars and make a very interesting comparison to the already-available atlases of the K2III giant Arcturus.

  16. el-Furûkü’d-Delâliyye Beyne’l-Elfâzil’l-Müfessera ve’l-Müfessira (Nemûzecü Kelimeti’l-Hamd min Sûreti’l-Fâtihâ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galip YAVUZ

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Bu makalede, müfesser (açıklanan ve müfesslr (açıklayan kelimelerin, anlamsal ve kavramsal farklılıklar taşıdıklarını ispat edebilmek için önce, lafız ve malıa Ilişkisine dilbilimsel açıdan değindik. Daha sonra, Fatiha suresi ve tefslrlnden seçtiğimiz bazı kelimeleri ayrı ayrı etimolojlk ve semantik tahille tabi tutup, kavramlar ya da kelimeler arasında mukayese yapılabilecek bir bilgi zemini sağladık. Böylelikle, bir kelimeyi baş­ka bir kelimeyle anlatmanın, açıklamada kaçınılmaz bir yol olmasıyla birlikte, eşanlamlılık varsayımından yola çıkmanın zihinsel kaymalara neden olduğunu göstermeğe çalıştık.

  17. GERUNDS MADE FROM THE SUFFIX -GAn IN UZBEK TURKISH THROUGH SAID AHMAD’S NOVEL CALLED “UFQ” SAİD AHMAD’IN “UFQ” ROMANI ESASINDA ÖZBEK TÜRKÇESİNDE -GAn EKİYLE YAPILAN ZARF-FİİLLER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra YAVUZ

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article, it is examined gerunds made from suffix –GAn in Uzbek Turkish through Said Ahmad’s novel called “Ufq”, which is a Turkic language of southeastern branch, and is approached in details historical development, structure and utilization of suffixes. Additionaly, it is emphasized functions of gerund-making by using case ending, noun derivational affix, particle and word of the suffix -GAn, and to understand this issue, utilizations of these suffixes have supported the examinations obtained from “Ufq” novel. Bu makalede, Said Ahmad’ın “Ufq” romanı esasında Özbek Türkçesinde -GAn ekiyle yapılan zarf-fiiller konusu incelenmiş ve eklerin tarihi gelişimi, yapısı ve kullanımları ayrıntılı bir şekilde ele alınmıştır.Ayrıca, –GAn ekinin, isim çekim eki, isim yapma eki, edat ve kelime kullanarak zarf-fiil yapma işlevleri üzerinde durulmuş ve konunun anlaşılması için bu zarf-fiil eklerinin kullanımları “Ufq” romanından elde edilen örneklerle desteklenmiştir.

  18. Elazığ yöresine ait atık tuğla ve kireç taşı tozunun kendiliğinden yerleşen harcın mühendislik özelliklerine etkisi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merve Açıkgenç

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmanın amacı, kendiliğinden yerleşen harçta (KYH mineral katkı kullanımının harcın dayanım ve viskozite özelliklerine etkisinin araştırılmasıdır. Kendiliğinden yerleşen beton (KYB, geleneksel betona göre daha az iri agrega içerdiğinden KYB tasarımının temelini harç oluşturur. Bu nedenle bu çalışmada harç kullanmak uygun bulunmuştur. Bunun yanı sıra KYB' da gerekli dayanım, dayanıklılık ve uygun bir işlenebilirlik gibi özellikler, iyi bir beton üretimini kaçınılmaz kılmaktadır. Bu özelliklerin sağlanmasında mineral katkı maddelerinin (Silis dumanı, Uçucu kul, kireçtaşı tozu, yüksek fırın cürufu vb. gerekliliği ve belirli miktarda toz malzemenin sağlanmasının, özellikle KYB' da işlenebilirlik ve kıvam açısından şart olduğu yapılan birçok çalışmada ortaya konulmuştur. Ayrıca, düzensiz bir biçimde çevreye bırakılan atıkların çevre sağlığını tehdit etmesini önlemek ve KYB' da kullanılacak toz maddelere yöresel anlamda yenilerini ekleyerek, böylece hem nakliye maliyetinin hem de kireç taşı ve tuğla tozunun çimento azaltılarak kullanımıyla malzeme maliyetin düşürülmesi amaçlanmıştır. Bu amaçla, çimento yerine ikame yöntemiyle Elazığ Yöresi Kireçtaşı Tozu ve Atık Tuğla Tozu birlikte ve ayrı ayrı kullanılarak, toplamda 23 adet harç karışımı oluşturulmuştur. Bu harçların, işlenebilirlik özelliklerini belirlemek ve kendiliğinden yerleşebilirliklerini incelemek amacıyla, mini çökme-yayılma ve mini V-hunisi deneyleri yapılmış, ayrıca harçların viskoziteleri saptanmıştır. Mekanik özellikler için numunelerin 3, 7, 28 ve 91 günlük periyotlarında üç noktalı eğilme ve basınç deneyi yapılmıştır. Ayrıca numuneler üzerinde kapiler su emme deneyi yapılmış ve daha sonra numunelerin toplam su emme, porozite oranları ve yoğunlukları belirlenmiştir.

  19. Carbon content and C:N ratio of transparent exopolymeric particles (TEP) produced by bubbling exudates of diatoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mari, Xavier

    1999-01-01

    The carbon content of transparent exopolymeric particles (TEP) was measured in the laboratory in particles produced by bubbling exudates of the diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii, grown under nitrogen non-limited conditions (N:P = 7). The carbon content of these particles (TEP-C) appears to vary...... a coastal area (Kattegat, Denmark), TEP carbon concentration in the surface mixed layer was on the order of 230 ± 150 µg C l-1. This is high relative to other sources of particulate organic carbon (e.g. phytoplankton) and depending on TEP turnover rates, suggests that TEP is an important pathway...... for dissolved organic carbon in coastal seas. The carbon to nitrogen ratio of TEP was measured from particles formed by bubbling exudates of the diatoms T. weissflogii, Skeletonema costatum, Chaetoceros neogracile and C. affinis. Each of these diatom species was grown under various N:P ratios, from N...

  20. Biological effects of simulated discharge plume entrainment at Indian Point Nuclear Power Station, Hudson River estuary, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanza, G.R.; Lauer, G.J.; Ginn, T.C.; Storm, P.C.; Zubarik, L.; New York Univ., N.Y.

    1975-01-01

    Laboratory and field simulations of the discharge plume entrainment of phytoplankton, zooplankton and fish were carried out at the Indian Point Nuclear Station, Hudson River estuary, USA. Phytoplankton assemblages studied on two dates produced different response patterns measured as photosynthetic activity. Chlorophyll-a levels did not change following simulated entrainment. Possible explanations for the differences are discussed. The two abundant copepods Acartia tonsa and Eurytemorta affinis appear to tolerate exposure to discharge plume ΔT without adverse effects. Copepods subjected to plume entrainment may suffer considerable mortality during periods of condenser chlorination. In general, the amphipod Gammarus spp. did not appear to suffer significant mortality during simulated entrainment. Juvenile striped bass, Morone saxatilis, were not affected by simulated plume transit before and during plant condenser chlorination; however, a simulated ''worst possible case'' plume ΔT produced statistically significant moralities. (author)

  1. Laboratory evaluation of methanolic extract of Atlantia monophylla (Family: Rutaceae against immature stages of mosquitoes and non-target organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Sivagnaname

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Methanolic extracts of the leaves of Atlantia monophylla (Rutaceae were evaluated for mosquitocidal activity against immature stages of three mosquito species, Culex quinquefasciatus, Anopheles stephensi, and Aedes aegypti in the laboratory.Larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus and pupae of An. stephensi were found more susceptible, with LC50 values of 0.14 mg/l and 0.05 mg/l, respectively. Insect growth regulating activity of this extract was more pronounced against Ae. aegypti, with EI50 value 0.002 mg/l. The extract was found safe to aquatic mosquito predators Gambusia affinis, Poecilia reticulata, and Diplonychus indicus, with the respective LC50 values of 23.4, 21.3, and 5.7 mg/l. The results indicate that the mosquitocidal effects of the extract of this plant were comparable to neem extract and certain synthetic chemical larvicides like fenthion, methoprene, etc.

  2. Macrozoobenthic recolonization of the littoral and the soft bottom after an oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lax, H.J.; Vainio, T.

    1988-01-01

    Two years after the Eira oil spill the oil concentration in the water had returned to its background level (0.5 ug/l) in the open sea areas. On the polluted shores (depth 0.1- 0.5 m) higher concentrations (2.3 ug/l) occurred occasionaly. No clear effects related to the oil spill were noticed on the dominating soft bottom species (Macoma baltica, Pontoporeia affinis). Among the other soft bottom species the crustacean Corophium volutator showed its lowest density immediately after the spill, becoming more and more abundant during the following two years. The effect of the oil spill on the littoral fauna could still be noticed two years after the spill. The crustacean Gammarus duebeni avoided its natural habitat (uppermost littoral zone). Lymnaea palustris showed and increased mortality immediately after the oil spill but recolonized the polluted shores a normal distribution

  3. Pollen flora of pakistan-lxxi. rosaceae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perveen, A.; Qaiser, M.

    2014-01-01

    Pollen morphology of 50 species representing 17 genera of the family Rosaceae i.e., Alchemilla, Argimonia, Cotoneaster, Crataegus, Duchesnea, Fragaria, Eriybotyra, Filipandula, Geum, Malus, Prunus, Potentilla, Pyrus , Rosa, Sibbaldia, Sorbaria and Sorbus has been studied from Pakistan by light and scanning electron microscope. Pollen grains are usually free, radially symmetrical, isopolar, prolate-spheroidal to subprolate or oblate-spheroidal rarely perprolate, tricolporate rarely tricolpate. Tectum mostly coarsely-finely striate, rarely striate-rugulate, scabrate or spinulose often reticulate. Rosaceae is more or less eurypalynous family. Significant variation is found in P/E ratio, shape and exine ornamentation and on the basis of these characters family has been divided into seven pollen types viz., Agrimonia eupatoria-type, Alchemilla ypsilotoma-type, Cotoneaster affinis-type, Fragaria nubicola-type, Geum roylei-type, Malus pumila-type, Potentilla pamirica-type. Pollen data is useful at specific and generic level. (author)

  4. Variaciones temporales del fitoplancton de los ríos tributarios y emisario del embalse C. Gelsi (Tucumán, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia N Martinez de Marco

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se estudiaron las variaciones temporales del fitoplancton de los tributarios (ríos Salí, Tapia y Vipos y del emisario (río Salí del embalse C. Gelsi. La abundancia algal mínima se obtuvo en verano con una biomasa de 0,19-0,58 µg Cl-a L-1 y la máxima en invierno o primavera con una biomasa de 5,43-6,79 µg Cl-a L-1. En los tributarios se destacaron las diatomeas pennadas sobresaliendo Diatoma vulgare y Cymbella affinis y en el río Salí (emisario dominaron las céntricas especialmente Aulacoseira granulata y Cyclotella meneghiniana. Las Chlorophyta se ubicaron en segundo término en el río Salí, las Cyanobacteria codominaron en los ríos Vipos y Tapia en marzo de 1998 y las Dinophyta sólo fueron observadas en el Salí (emisario. El índice de diversidad específica osciló entre 0,2 y 4,2 y el sapróbico caracterizó las aguas como "no poluídas" o "ligeramente poluídas" en invierno y como "moderadamente poluídas" en verano. El NMDS ordenó temporalmente las muestras según la abundancia de las especies algales consideradas. Los dos primeros ejes del RDA separaron los sitios según gradientes de temperatura, pH, conductividad, DBO5 y nitrato, además de la abundancia de Aulacoseira granulata, Cyclotella meneghiniana, Ulnaria ulna, Cymbella affinis y Leptolyngbya foveolarum.Temporal variations of the phytoplankton of the tributaries and effluent from the C. Gelsi reservoir (Tucumán, Argentina. In this paper we analyzed the phytoplankton variation in the tributaries (Salí, Tapia, and Vipos rivers and effluent (Salí River from the C. Gelsi reservoir according to a seasonal gradient. The minimum algal abundance took place in summer with a biomass of 0.19-0.58 µg Cl-a L-1, while the maximum occurred in winter or in spring, with a biomass of 5.43-6.79 µg Cl-a L-1. In the tributaries pennate diatoms prevailed, Diatoma vulgare and Cymbella affinis were most abundant, while in the Salí river (Gelsi effluent centric

  5. Bioaccumulation of /sup 95m/Tc in fish and snails

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaylock, B.G.; Frank, M.L.; DeAngelis, D.L.

    1982-03-01

    Concentration factors for technetium recommended in radiological assessment models for freshwater biota are default values based on the behavior of iodine in the environment. In this study a small experimental freshwater pond was spiked with /sup 95/mTc to obtain data for calculating concentration factors for fish and snails. A model using the pond data was developed to calculate steady-state body burdens for freshwater biota. The concentration factors based on the calculated body burden for carp (Caprinus carpio), mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis), and snails (Helisoma sp.) were 11, 75 and 121, respectively. The concentration factor for carp was less than the recommended value of 15 listed in the USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.109 for calculating radiation dose to man; however, the concentration factors for mosquitofish and snails exceeded the recommended values by 5 and 24 times, respectively.

  6. Bioaccumulation of sup(95m)Tc in fish and snails

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaylock, B.G.; Frank, M.L.; DeAngelis, D.L. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

    1982-03-01

    Concentration factors for technetium recommended in radiological assessment models for freshwater biota are default values based on the behavior of iodine in the environment. A small experimental freshwater pond was spiked with sup(95m)Tc to obtain data for calculating concentration factors for fish and snails. A model using the pond data was developed to calculate steady-state body burdens for freshwater biota. The concentration factors based on the calculated body burden for carp (Caprinus carpio), mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis), and snails (Helisoma sp.) were 11,75 and 121, respectively. The concentration factor for carp was less than the recommended value of 15 listed in the USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.109 for calculating radiation dose to man; however, the concentration factors for mosquitofish and snails exceeded the recommended values by 5 and 25 times, respectively.

  7. Motility of copepod nauplii and implications for food encounter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Titelman, Josefin; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    (Centropages typicus, Calanus helgolandicus, Temora longicornis, Acartia tonsa, Eurytemora affinis and Euterpina acutifrons). Behaviors of individual nauphi were divided into sequences of sinking, swimming and jumping events. Motility behavior is both stage- and species-specific in terms of appearance......Velocity differences drive all encounter processes. Therefore, knowledge of both prey and predator motility are essential in order to understand feeding behavior and predict food acquisition rates. Here, we describe and quantify the motility behavior of young and old naupliar stages of 6 copepods...... of tracks, speeds, durations and frequencies of events as well as time budgets. Motility mode often changes drastically during naupliar ontogeny. Crudely, nauplii can be divided into those moving with a jump-sink type of motility of various frequencies (1 min(-1) to 3 s(-1)) and those swimming...

  8. Bioaccumulation of sediment-bound Cr-51, Ni-63 and C-14 by benthic invertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumblad, L.; Bradshaw, C.; Giled, M.

    2004-01-01

    Sediments in many areas of the Baltic Sea are highly contaminated with particle-reactive trace metals and/or radionuclides. These may be re-mobilised into aquatic food chains by bioaccumulation into benthic organisms. In this study, we examined and compared assimilation efficiencies and bioaccumulation kinetics (rates of uptake and elimination) of sediment-associated Cr-51, Ni-63 and organic-associated C- 14 in three common benthic invertebrates from the Baltic Sea (the bivalve Macoma balthica, the amphipod Monoporeia affinis and the priapulid worm Halicryptus spinulosus). There were differences between animals and radionuclides in both the rate of uptake and elimination and the maximum amount accumulated. Understanding how and to what degree different deposit-feeding benthic invertebrates are exposed to and bio-accumulate sediment-associated metals are important for both ecological risk assessment and management decisions in coastal ecosystems. (author)

  9. Whale sharks, Rhincodon typus, aggregate around offshore platforms in Qatari waters of the Arabian Gulf to feed on fish spawn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David P Robinson

    Full Text Available Whale sharks, Rhincodon typus, are known to aggregate to feed in a small number of locations in tropical and subtropical waters. Here we document a newly discovered major aggregation site for whale sharks within the Al Shaheen oil field, 90 km off the coast of Qatar in the Arabian Gulf. Whale sharks were observed between April and September, with peak numbers observed between May and August. Density estimates of up to 100 sharks within an area of 1 km(2 were recorded. Sharks ranged between four and eight metres' estimated total length (mean 6.92 ± 1.53 m. Most animals observed were actively feeding on surface zooplankton, consisting primarily of mackerel tuna, Euthynnus affinis, eggs.

  10. Assessment of power-plant effects on zooplankton in the near field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polgar, T.T.; Bongers, L.H.; Krainak, G.M.

    1976-01-01

    With the use of a simple entrainment model that takes into account tidal recirculation, mixing, and once-through kill rate, theoretical expressions are derived for ratios of densities of live organisms at the intake of a power plant to densities in the far field. Experimental data on the abundances of dead and live stages of Eurytemora affinis and Acartia tonsa are used to compare to model results. A study of the entrainment of zooplankton near the intake of the Morgantown power plant and a concurrent study of the distribution of zooplankton in the Potomac River provided the biological data. Physical information was derived from extensive hydrographic measurements. Comparing experimental data with model predictions showed that radical depletions occurred in the naupliar stages near the plant site which cannot be accounted for by cooling-system or delayed entrainment mortalities. These near-field changes are attributed to avoidance reactions and to mortalities in the vicinity of the plant

  11. Historia cultural del algarrobo, desde la cuenca del Mediterráneo hasta la Costa Norte de Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Cairati

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to analyze the cultural history of the botanical species generally indicated as 'carob three', through the correlation between the Mediterranean carob (Ceratonia siliqua and its South American relative (Prosopis pallida, affinis, chilensis o julinflora. Although the biological relationship between the two plants is thin, they share a combination of cultural and symbolic significances common to different communities in different geographical and cultural areas. In particular this paper, based on a field research in the Northern coast of Peru, will examine the symbolic characteristics of the South American carob three in the peculiar area of the Santuario Histórico Bosque de Pómac, in the region of Lambayeque.

  12. The genus Trematocarpus (Sarcodiaceae, Rhodophyta in southern Africa and the exclusion of Sphaerococcus (Chondrus scutellatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. H. Simons

    1983-11-01

    Full Text Available Trematocarpus Kützing in southern Africa is found to comprise four taxa in three species: newly described is T.  fragilis (Ag. De Toni var. divaricatus Simons, var. nov. Two of the species, T. flabellatus (J. Ag. De Toni and T.  affinis (J. Ag. De Toni are restored to independent specific rank after being regarded as synonyms of T.  scutellatus (Her. Searles. It is shown that  Sphaerococcus (Chondrus scutellatus Her., the basionym of  T.  scutellatus refers to a species of Gigartina, therefore a new combination Gigartina scutellata (Her. Simons is made for this species which was formerly known as G. fastigiata J. Ag. and G. scabiosa (Kiitz. Papenf. Trematocarpus elongatus Kiitz. is relegated to synonymy under T. fragilis var.  divaricatus.

  13. A new Huffmanela species, H. schouteni sp. n. (Nematoda: Trichosomoididae) from flying fishes in Curaçao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravec, F; Campbell, B G

    1991-01-01

    A new nematode species, Huffmanela schouteni sp. n., has been established on the basis of its egg morphology and biological characters (adult nematodes are unknown). The dark-shelled eggs of this histozoic parasite occur in masses in the abdominal cavity, serose covers of internal organs and in the liver of the flying fishes Hirundichthys affinis Günther (type host) and Cypselurus cyanopterus Cuvier et Valenciennes in Curaçao. The eggs of H. schouteni sp. n. differ from those in other congeneric species mainly in the absence of small spines on the surface of the transparent envelope enclosing the egg proper, measurements (size of eggs 0.069-0.075 x 0.027-0.030 mm) and their localization in the host. A key to Huffmanela species based on egg morphology has been provided.

  14. Microbiological and chemical transformations of argentatin B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maatooq, Galal T

    2003-01-01

    Argentatin B is a naturally occurring tetracyclic triterpene isolated from Parthenium argentatum x P. tomentosa. It was microbiologically transformed to 16, 24-epoxycycloartan-3alpha, 25-diol, (isoargentatin D), by Nocardia corallina var. taoka ATCC 31338, Mycobacterium species NRRL B3683 and Septomyxa affinis ATCC 6737. The later microbe also produced 16, 24-epoxycycloartan-3beta, 25-diol (argentatin D) and 1, 2-didehydroargentatin B, (isoargentatin D). Sodium hydroxide converted argentatin B to argentatin D and isoargentatin D. Hydrochloric acid treatment gave cycloartan-25-ol-3, 24-dione. Cerium sulfate/sulfuric acid/aqueous methanol induced scission of the isopropanol moiety and provided an isomeric mixture of 24-methoxy-25-27-trinorargentatin B. Oxidation of this isomeric mixture with pyridinium chlorochromate, selectively, attacked the isomer with the equatorial proton at position-24 to give the corresponding lactone, 24-oxo-25-27-trinorargentatin B. The produced compounds were characterized by spectroscopic methods.

  15. Whale Sharks, Rhincodon typus, Aggregate around Offshore Platforms in Qatari Waters of the Arabian Gulf to Feed on Fish Spawn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, David P.; Jaidah, Mohammed Y.; Jabado, Rima W.; Lee-Brooks, Katie; Nour El-Din, Nehad M.; Malki, Ameena A. Al.; Elmeer, Khaled; McCormick, Paul A.; Henderson, Aaron C.; Pierce, Simon J.; Ormond, Rupert F. G.

    2013-01-01

    Whale sharks, Rhincodon typus, are known to aggregate to feed in a small number of locations in tropical and subtropical waters. Here we document a newly discovered major aggregation site for whale sharks within the Al Shaheen oil field, 90 km off the coast of Qatar in the Arabian Gulf. Whale sharks were observed between April and September, with peak numbers observed between May and August. Density estimates of up to 100 sharks within an area of 1 km2 were recorded. Sharks ranged between four and eight metres’ estimated total length (mean 6.92±1.53 m). Most animals observed were actively feeding on surface zooplankton, consisting primarily of mackerel tuna, Euthynnus affinis, eggs. PMID:23516456

  16. FLUKTUASI DAN KOMPOSISI HASIL TANGKAPAN TUNA NERITIK TERTANGKAP JARING INSANG DI PERAIRAN LAUT CINA SELATAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arief Wujdi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Saat ini tuna neritik merupakan komoditas penting perikanan di Indonesia, namun ketersediaan data dan informasi hasil tangkapan jenis tuna ini masih tergolong kurang. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memperoleh informasi mengenai sebaran daerah penangkapan, fluktuasi hasil tangkapan tuna neritik yang tertangkap jaring insang yang beroperasi di Laut Cina Selatan. Pengumpulan data dilakukan melalui program enumerasi monitoring hasil tangkapan harian di Pemangkat pada tahun 2011-2012. Hasil menunjukkan daerah penangkapan tersebar di perairan Laut Cina Selatan pada koordinat 01°03’ LS-04°57’ LU; dan 104°65’-110°00’ BT. Hasil tangkapan jenis tuna neritik menunjukan variasi yang cenderung sama dimana puncak hasil tangkapan terjadi pada bulan Oktober dan November. Pola CPUE berfluktuasi dan cenderung mengalami peningkatan dan puncaknya terjadi pada bulan November 2011 dan 2012, yaitu 402,85 dan 444,57 kg/hari/trip. Secara statistik hasil tangkapan pada periode 2011-2012 tidak berbeda nyata (p<0,05. Komposisi hasil tangkapan bulanan jenis tuna neritik bervariasi berdasarkan atas spesies yang didominasi oleh Euthynnus affinis (49,7% diikuti dengan Thunnus tonggol (33,4%; Scomberomorus commerson (15,9%; dan Scomberomorus guttatus (1%. Kelimpahan Euthynnus affinis terjadi pada musim timur hingga musim peralihan 2 (Juni- November, sedangkan kelimpahan Thunnus tonggol terjadi pada musim barat (Januari-Februari. Nowadays, neritic tuna just become an important commodity Indonesia. However, the information about catch of tuna neritic species in Indonesia still quite lacks. This This study aims to obtain information about catch fluctuation, monthly catch per unit of effort, and catch composition of neritic tuna species caught by gill net operated in the South China Sea. Data was collected by daily catch monitoring program by enumerator in Pemangkat during period 2011-2012. The result showed that gillnetter fishing ground is scattered between 01°03

  17. Non-consumptive effects of predator presence on copepod reproduction: insights from a mesocosm experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heuschele, Jan; Ceballos, Sara; Borg, Marc Andersen

    2014-01-01

    Reproduction in planktonic animals depends on numerous biotic and abiotic factors. One of them is predation pressure, which can have both direct consumptive effects on population density and sex ratio, and non-consumptive effects, for example on mating and migration behaviour. In copepods, predator...... vulnerability depends on their sex, motility pattern and mating behaviour. Therefore, copepods can be affected at multiple stages during the mating process. We investigated the reproductive dynamics of the estuarine copepod Eurytemora affinis in the presence and absence of its predator the mysid Neomysis...... treatment, but increased towards the end of the experiment. The proportion of fertilized females was similar in both treatments, but constantly fell behind model predictions using a random mating model. Our results highlight the importance of non-consumptive effects of predators on copepod reproduction...

  18. Adaptive harvest management: Adjustments for SEIS 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boomer, Scott; Johnson, Fred A.; Zimmerman, Guthrie S.

    2015-01-01

    This report provides a summary of revised methods and assessment results based on updated adaptive harvest management (AHM) protocols developed in response to the preferred alternative specified in the Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement on the Issuance of Annual Regulations Permitting the Hunting of Migratory Birds (SEIS; U.S. Department of the Interior 2013). We describe necessary changes to optimization procedures and decision processes for the implementation of AHM for midcontinent, eastern and western mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), northern pintails (Anas acuta), and scaup (Aythya affinis, A. marila) decision frameworks. We present this final report for communication purposes, and acknowledge that any use of trade, firm, or product names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.

  19. Environmental status of the Lake Michigan region. Volume 6. Zoobenthos of Lake Michigan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mozley, S.C.; Howmiller, R.P.

    1977-09-01

    This report summarizes Lake Michigan zoobenthic studies up to 1974, including reports of power-plant surveys. It describes ecologies of macroinvertebrate species and some microfauna, partly through use of data from other Great Lakes. The following are discussed: methodology of field surveys; zoobenthic indicators of pollution; zoobenthic effects on sediment-water exchanges; and numbers, biomass, and production of total macroinvertebrates. Prominent features of Lake Michigan zoobenthos include predominance of the amphipod Pontoporeia affinis, usefulness of tubificid oligochaetes in mapping environmental quality, and pronounced qualitative gradients in zoobenthos in relation to depth. Further research is needed on sampling methods, energy flow rates and pathways through benthic communities, factors limiting distribution of species near shore, and effects of macroinvertebrates on sediment chemistry and structure.

  20. Feeding ecology of some fish species occurring in artisanal fishery of Socotra Island (Yemen).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan Ali', Mohammed Kaed; Belluscio, Andrea; Ventura, Daniele; Ardizzone, Giandomenico

    2016-04-30

    The demersal species Lethrinus borbonicus, Lethrinus mahsena, Lethrinus microdon, Lethrinus nebulosus, Lutjanus bohar, Lutjanus gibbus, Lutjanus kasmira, Epinephelus fasciatus, Epinephelus stoliczkae, Carangoides gymnostethus and Euthynnus affinis are important coastal fishes species of the northern coast of Socotra (Yemen), exploited by local fishery. The biology and feeding ecology of these species are poorly known in the area. A total of 1239 specimens were sampled from the main fishing landing site of the island (Hadibo). Total length and weight were measured, stomach contents were analyzed, diet overlap, Fulton's Condition index, and trophic levels were estimated. C. gymnostethus, L. microdon and L. kasmira occupied the highest position (T=4.50), L. nebulosus occupied the lower one (TL=3.41). The role of the increasing abundance of small pelagic fish in the diet of many species after the upwelling event is evident, but also different feeding strategies are reported, according to fish ecology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Single-step biological fabrication of colloidal silver nanoparticles using Hugonia mystax: larvicidal potential against Zika virus, dengue, and malaria vector mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Kadaikunnan, Shine; Alharbi, Naiyf S; Benelli, Giovanni

    2017-11-01

    Mosquito control is facing key challenges, including outbreaks of new arbovirus threats. We proposed an eco-friendly synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) employing a low-cost extract of Hugonia mystax. AgNPs were specified by UV, XRD, FTIR and EDX spectroscopy, SEM and TEM. AgNPs were more toxic to Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus larvae (LC 50 : 14.45, 15.86, and 17.46 μg/mL) if compared to aquatic biocontrol organisms Gambusia affinis, Diplonychus indicus, and Anisops bouvieri (LC 50 : 2567.15, 1075.16, and 829.63 μg/ml). Overall, we shed light on the mosquito larvicidal efficacy of H. mystax, a possible biological resource for low-cost fabrication of AgNPs.

  2. An annotated catalogue of the Iranian Euphorinae, Gnamptodontinae, Helconinae, Hormiinae and Rhysipolinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadallah, Neveen S; Ghahari, Hassan; Achterberg, Kees Van

    2016-01-28

    The Iranian species diversity of five braconid subfamilies, Euphorinae (54 species in 16 genera and 8 tribes), Gnamptodontinae (4 species in 1 genus and 1 tribe), Helconinae (9 species in 5 genera and 2 tribes), Hormiinae (8 species in 4 genera and 2 tribe) and Rhysipolinae (3 species in 2 genera) are summarized in this catalogue. A faunistic list is given comprising both local and global distribution of each species under study as well as host records. In the present study ten new records are added to the Iranian fauna: Centistes (Ancylocentrus) ater (Nees), Centistes cuspidatus (Haliday), Meteorus affinis (Wesmael), Meteorus rufus (DeGeer), Microctonus brevicollis (Haliday), Microctonus falciger Ruthe, Peristenus nitidus (Curtis) (Euphorinae), Aspicolpus carinator (Nees), Diospilus capito (Nees) and Diospilus productus Marshall (Helconinae s.l.). Euphorus pseudomitis Hedwig, 1957 is transferred to the subfamily Hormiinae and Hormisca pseudomitis (Hedwig, 1957) is a new combination.

  3. Acumulación de cobre en una comunidad vegetal afectada por contaminación minera en el valle de Puchuncaví, Chile central Copper accumulation in a plant community affected by mining contamination in Puchuncaví valley, central Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ISABEL GONZÁLEZ

    2008-06-01

    accumulation of copper. The species with the highest accumulation of copper was Oenothera affinis (614 mg kg-1. However, no hyperaccumulator species were found. Oenothera affinis could be considered as a good candidate for remediation initiatives in Chile, because it is a native perennial herb, it is drought resistant, it is easy to propágate, and that it produces a large biomass. However, it is still required to verify that there was no overestimation of Cu concentrations in the plants due to attachment of particles onto the trichomes. In addition, two new samplings were carried out later in the growing season, for Argemone subfusiformis and Oenothera affinis. There was a decrease in the concentration of Cu in the shoots with the advance of the season caused by the development of structures with low Cu accumulation (flowers, fruits, and summer leaves during the reproductive stage and the loss of Cu-rich biomass during the senescence. Moreover, this last sampling suggests that there was possibly a certain re-translocation of Cu into the subterranean structures during the senescence for O. affinis.

  4. Unusual dominance by desert pupfish (Cyprinodon macularius) in experimental ponds within the Salton Sea Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiki, Michael K.; Martin, Barbara A.; Anderson, Thomas W.

    2011-01-01

    In October 2006, months after shallow experimental ponds in the Salton Sea Basin were filled with water from the Alamo River and Salton Sea, fish were observed in several ponds, although inlets had been screened to exclude fish. During October 2007November 2009, nine surveys were conducted using baited minnow traps to document species and relative abundance of fish. Surveys yielded 3,620 fish representing five species. Desert pupfish (Cyprinodon macularius), the only native species encountered, was the most numerous and comprised >93% of the catch. Nonnative species included western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis, 4.1%), sailfin molly (Poecilia latipinna, 2.8%), and tilapia (a mixture of hybrid Mozambique tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus ?? O. urolepis and redbelly tilapia Tilapia zillii, <0.1%). Dominance by desert pupfish, which persisted over our 2 years of study, was unusual because surveys conducted in nearby agricultural drains yielded relatively few desert pupfish.

  5. Discovery of a novel putative atypical porcine pestivirus in pigs in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hause, Ben M; Collin, Emily A; Peddireddi, Lalitha; Yuan, Fangfeng; Chen, Zhenhai; Hesse, Richard A; Gauger, Phillip C; Clement, Travis; Fang, Ying; Anderson, Gary

    2015-10-01

    Pestiviruses are some of the most significant pathogens affecting ruminants and swine. Here, we assembled a 11 276 bp contig encoding a predicted 3635 aa polyprotein from porcine serum with 68 % pairwise identity to that of a recently partially characterized Rhinolophus affinis pestivirus (RaPV) and approximately 25-28 % pairwise identity to those of other pestiviruses. The virus was provisionally named atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV). Metagenomic sequencing of 182 serum samples identified four additional APPV-positive samples. Positive samples originated from five states and ELISAs using recombinant APPV Erns found cross-reactive antibodies in 94 % of a collection of porcine serum samples, suggesting widespread distribution of APPV in the US swine herd. The molecular and serological results suggest that APPV is a novel, highly divergent porcine pestivirus widely distributed in US pigs.

  6. Prevalência de ecto e endoparasitas em camundongos e ratos criados em biotério

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cecília R. Vieira Bressan

    1997-06-01

    observed in the mice and rats from conventional colonies, but not in animals from the control colony. Mild alopecia and bristly hairs were detected in all animals from the evaluated colonies. Ectoparasites such as Myobia musculi, Myocoptes musculinus, Radfordia affinis, R. ensifera and Poliplax spinulosa were identified in the conventional colonies, in multiple and single infestations. Myobia musculi is described for the first time in rats reared in breeding colonies. Endoparasites such as Hymenolepisnana, Syphacia sp, Aspiculuris tetraptera, Tritrichomonas muris, Spironucleusmuris, Giardia muris, and Eimeria sp were observed in the conventional colonies. However, through necropsy results, in the control colony Syphacia sp and Aspiculuris tetraptera were the only parasites found. Necropsy confirmed the indication of the anal swab method for detection of Syphacia sp rather than the Willis method, and revealed the degree of infection by intestinal protozoa and Syphacia sp. H. nana and Aspiculuris tetraptera were efficiently detected by Willis method.

  7. Spiders (Araneae of Hůrka u Hranic National Nature Reserve (Moravia, Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej Machač

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Spiders of Hůrka u Hranic National Nature Reserve were investigated during the year 2011. Several capture methods were used during the vegetation season (from April to November in many various habitats of this territory. Altogether, 92 species from 27 families were recorded, including very rare and remarcable species. Majority of such species prefer thermophilous habitats: Atypus affinis Eichwald, 1830, Dysdera czechica Řezáč, in prep., Theridion melanurum Hahn, 1831, Agroeca cuprea Menge, 1873, Drassyllus villicus (Thorell, 1875, Zodarion germanicum (C. L. Koch, 1837 and Dipoena melanogaster (C. L. Koch, 1837. Some species are also listed in the Red List of threatened species in the Czech Republic: Cheiracanthium elegans Thorell, 1875 in category endangered (EN, Cozyptila blackwalli (Simon, 1875 and Leptorchestes berolinensis (C. L. Koch, 1846 in category vulnerable (VU. Altogether, 144 spider species are now known from the reserve; they represent 16.6% of araneofauna of the Czech Republic.

  8. Elektronik Sağlık Kayıtlarının WCF Web Servisleri Kullanılarak Aktarılması ve Depolanması

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan Özgür DOĞAN

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Elektronik Sağlık Kayıtları(Electronic Health Record-EHR kronik hastaların takibinde ve uzaktan tedavisinde önemli rol oynamaktadır. EHR kronik hastaların biyolojik işaretlerinden ve fizyolojik parametrelerinden oluşmaktadır. EHR doktorlara kronik hastaların uzun süreli sağlık işaretlerini inceleyebilme ve bu işaretlerden daha somut çıkarımlarda bulunma yeteneği kazandırmaktadır. EHR’ler oldukça büyük boyutlu verilerdir ve bu veriler üzerinde işlem yapabilmek için verilerin belirli standartlara göre saklanması gerekmektedir. Gelişen teknoloji ile kronik hastalar evlerinden ayrılmadan internet aracılığı ile toplanan EHR bilgileri sayesinde sağlık hizmetlerinden faydalanabilmektedirler. Bu çalışmada EHR’lerin iletim ve saklanma koşullarını iyileştirmek için HL7 standardına uygun WCF teknolojisi kullanılan bir teletıp uygulaması geliştirilmiştir. Windows İletişim Vakfı( Windows Communication Foundation - WCF teknolojisinin kronik hastaların EHR bilgilerinin evlerinden ayrılmadan toplanabilmesi için getirdiği kolaylıklar üzerinde durulmuştur. Ayrıca WCF teknolojisi sayesinde programlama dilinden bağımsız XML tabanlı EHR kayıtlarına hızlıca anlık erişim yapılabilmiş ve bu veriler üzerinde hasta mahremiyeti korunarak kolayca işlem gerçekleştirilmiştir. Ek olarak gerçekleştirilen çalışmada WCF teknolojisi kullanıldığından kurulan teletıp sisteminin PC, tablet ve PDA gibi farklı platformlar üzerinden de kullanılabilmesi sağlanmıştır.

  9. Partnerships Between Ambrosia Beetles and Fungi: Lineage-Specific Promiscuity Among Vectors of the Laurel Wilt Pathogen, Raffaelea lauricola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saucedo-Carabez, J R; Ploetz, Randy C; Konkol, J L; Carrillo, D; Gazis, R

    2018-04-20

    Nutritional mutualisms that ambrosia beetles have with fungi are poorly understood. Although these interactions were initially thought to be specific associations with a primary symbiont, there is increasing evidence that some of these fungi are associated with, and move among, multiple beetle partners. We examined culturable fungi recovered from mycangia of ambrosia beetles associated with trees of Persea humilis (silk bay, one site) and P. americana (avocado, six commercial orchards) that were affected by laurel wilt, an invasive disease caused by a symbiont, Raffaelea lauricola, of an Asian ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus. Fungi were isolated from 20 adult females of X. glabratus from silk bay and 70 each of Xyleborus affinis, Xyleborus bispinatus, Xyleborus volvulus, Xyleborinus saxesenii, and Xylosandrus crassiusculus from avocado. With partial sequences of ribosomal (LSU and SSU) and nuclear (β-tubulin) genes, one to several operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of fungi were identified in assayed individuals. Distinct populations of fungi were recovered from each of the examined beetle species. Raffaelea lauricola was present in all beetles except X. saxesenii and X. crassiusculus, and Raffaelea spp. predominated in Xyleborus spp. Raffaelea arxii, R. subalba, and R. subfusca were present in more than a single species of Xyleborus, and R. arxii was the most abundant symbiont in both X. affinis and X. volvulus. Raffaelea aguacate was detected for the first time in an ambrosia beetle (X. bispinatus). Yeasts (Ascomycota, Saccharomycotina) were found consistently in the mycangia of the examined beetles, and distinct, putatively co-adapted populations of these fungi were associated with each beetle species. Greater understandings are needed for how mycangia in ambrosia beetles interact with fungi, including yeasts which play currently underresearched roles in these insects.

  10. Vertical Distribution and Daily Flight Periodicity of Ambrosia Beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Florida Avocado Orchards Affected by Laurel Wilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menocal, Octavio; Kendra, Paul E; Montgomery, Wayne S; Crane, Jonathan H; Carrillo, Daniel

    2018-03-08

    Ambrosia beetles have emerged as significant pests of avocado ((Persea americana Mill. [Laurales: Lauraceae])) due to their association with pathogenic fungal symbionts, most notably Raffaelea lauricola T.C. Harr., Fraedrich & Aghayeva (Ophiostomatales: Ophiostomataceae), the causal agent of the laurel wilt (LW) disease. We evaluated the interaction of ambrosia beetles with host avocado trees by documenting their flight height and daily flight periodicity in Florida orchards with LW. Flight height was assessed passively in three avocado orchards by using ladder-like arrays of unbaited sticky traps arranged at three levels (low: 0-2 m; middle: 2-4 m; high: 4-6 m). In total, 1,306 individuals of 12 Scolytinae species were intercepted, but six accounted for ~95% of the captures: Xyleborus volvulus (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), Xyleborinus saxesenii Ratzeburg (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), Euplatypus parallelus (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), Xyleborus bispinatus Eichhoff (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), Xyleborus affinis Eichhoff (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), and Hypothenemus sp. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). The primary vector of R. lauricola, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), was not detected. Females of X. volvulus showed a preference for flight at low levels and X. bispinatus for the low and middle levels; however, captures of all other species were comparable at all heights. At a fourth orchard, a baiting method was used to document flight periodicity. Females of X. saxesenii and Hypothenemus sp. were observed in flight 2-2.5 h prior to sunset; X. bispinatus, X. volvulus, and X. affinis initiated flight at ~1 h before sunset and Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) at 30 min prior to sunset. Results suggest that ambrosia beetles in South Florida fly near sunset (when light intensity and wind speed decrease) at much greater heights than previously assumed and have species-specific patterns in host

  11. De novo transcriptome assembly and positive selection analysis of an individual deep-sea fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Yi; Sun, Jin; Xu, Ting; Chen, Chong; Tian, Renmao; Qiu, Jian-Wen; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2018-05-24

    High hydrostatic pressure and low temperatures make the deep sea a harsh environment for life forms. Actin organization and microtubules assembly, which are essential for intracellular transport and cell motility, can be disrupted by high hydrostatic pressure. High hydrostatic pressure can also damage DNA. Nucleic acids exposed to low temperatures can form secondary structures that hinder genetic information processing. To study how deep-sea creatures adapt to such a hostile environment, one of the most straightforward ways is to sequence and compare their genes with those of their shallow-water relatives. We captured an individual of the fish species Aldrovandia affinis, which is a typical deep-sea inhabitant, from the Okinawa Trough at a depth of 1550 m using a remotely operated vehicle (ROV). We sequenced its transcriptome and analyzed its molecular adaptation. We obtained 27,633 protein coding sequences using an Illumina platform and compared them with those of several shallow-water fish species. Analysis of 4918 single-copy orthologs identified 138 positively selected genes in A. affinis, including genes involved in microtubule regulation. Particularly, functional domains related to cold shock as well as DNA repair are exposed to positive selection pressure in both deep-sea fish and hadal amphipod. Overall, we have identified a set of positively selected genes related to cytoskeleton structures, DNA repair and genetic information processing, which shed light on molecular adaptation to the deep sea. These results suggest that amino acid substitutions of these positively selected genes may contribute crucially to the adaptation of deep-sea animals. Additionally, we provide a high-quality transcriptome of a deep-sea fish for future deep-sea studies.

  12. Bloom-Forming Cyanobacteria Support Copepod Reproduction and Development in the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogfors, Hedvig; Motwani, Nisha H.; Hajdu, Susanna; El-Shehawy, Rehab; Holmborn, Towe; Vehmaa, Anu; Engström-Öst, Jonna; Brutemark, Andreas; Gorokhova, Elena

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly accepted that summer cyanobacterial blooms cannot be efficiently utilized by grazers due to low nutritional quality and production of toxins; however the evidence for such effects in situ is often contradictory. Using field and experimental observations on Baltic copepods and bloom-forming diazotrophic filamentous cyanobacteria, we show that cyanobacteria may in fact support zooplankton production during summer. To highlight this side of zooplankton-cyanobacteria interactions, we conducted: (1) a field survey investigating linkages between cyanobacteria, reproduction and growth indices in the copepod Acartia tonsa; (2) an experiment testing relationships between ingestion of the cyanobacterium Nodularia spumigena (measured by molecular diet analysis) and organismal responses (oxidative balance, reproduction and development) in the copepod A. bifilosa; and (3) an analysis of long term (1999–2009) data testing relationships between cyanobacteria and growth indices in nauplii of the copepods, Acartia spp. and Eurytemora affinis, in a coastal area of the northern Baltic proper. In the field survey, N. spumigena had positive effects on copepod egg production and egg viability, effectively increasing their viable egg production. By contrast, Aphanizomenon sp. showed a negative relationship with egg viability yet no significant effect on the viable egg production. In the experiment, ingestion of N. spumigena mixed with green algae Brachiomonas submarina had significant positive effects on copepod oxidative balance, egg viability and development of early nauplial stages, whereas egg production was negatively affected. Finally, the long term data analysis identified cyanobacteria as a significant positive predictor for the nauplial growth in Acartia spp. and E. affinis. Taken together, these results suggest that bloom forming diazotrophic cyanobacteria contribute to feeding and reproduction of zooplankton during summer and create a favorable growth

  13. Bloom-forming cyanobacteria support copepod reproduction and development in the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogfors, Hedvig; Motwani, Nisha H; Hajdu, Susanna; El-Shehawy, Rehab; Holmborn, Towe; Vehmaa, Anu; Engström-Öst, Jonna; Brutemark, Andreas; Gorokhova, Elena

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly accepted that summer cyanobacterial blooms cannot be efficiently utilized by grazers due to low nutritional quality and production of toxins; however the evidence for such effects in situ is often contradictory. Using field and experimental observations on Baltic copepods and bloom-forming diazotrophic filamentous cyanobacteria, we show that cyanobacteria may in fact support zooplankton production during summer. To highlight this side of zooplankton-cyanobacteria interactions, we conducted: (1) a field survey investigating linkages between cyanobacteria, reproduction and growth indices in the copepod Acartia tonsa; (2) an experiment testing relationships between ingestion of the cyanobacterium Nodularia spumigena (measured by molecular diet analysis) and organismal responses (oxidative balance, reproduction and development) in the copepod A. bifilosa; and (3) an analysis of long term (1999-2009) data testing relationships between cyanobacteria and growth indices in nauplii of the copepods, Acartia spp. and Eurytemora affinis, in a coastal area of the northern Baltic proper. In the field survey, N. spumigena had positive effects on copepod egg production and egg viability, effectively increasing their viable egg production. By contrast, Aphanizomenon sp. showed a negative relationship with egg viability yet no significant effect on the viable egg production. In the experiment, ingestion of N. spumigena mixed with green algae Brachiomonas submarina had significant positive effects on copepod oxidative balance, egg viability and development of early nauplial stages, whereas egg production was negatively affected. Finally, the long term data analysis identified cyanobacteria as a significant positive predictor for the nauplial growth in Acartia spp. and E. affinis. Taken together, these results suggest that bloom forming diazotrophic cyanobacteria contribute to feeding and reproduction of zooplankton during summer and create a favorable growth

  14. Toxins not neutralized by brown snake antivenom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Judge, Roopwant K.; Henry, Peter J.; Mirtschin, Peter; Jelinek, George; Wilce, Jacqueline A.

    2006-01-01

    The Australian snakes of the genus Pseudonaja (dugite, gwardar and common brown) account for the majority of snake bite related deaths in Australia. Without antivenom treatment, the risk of mortality is significant. There is an accumulating body of evidence to suggest that the efficacy of the antivenom is limited. The current study investigates the protein constituents recognized by the antivenom using 2-DE, immuno-blot techniques and rat tracheal organ bath assays. The 2-DE profiles for all three snake venoms were similar, with major species visualized at 78-132 kDa, 32-45 kDa and 6-15 kDa. Proteins characterized by LC-MS/MS revealed a coagulant toxin (∼42 kDa) and coagulant peptide (∼6 kDa), as well as two PLA 2 (∼14 kDa). Peptides isolated from ∼78 kDa and 15-32 kDa protein components showed no similarity to known protein sequences. Protein recognition by the antivenom occurred predominantly for the higher molecular weight components with little recognition of 6-32 kDa MW species. The ability of antivenom to neutralize venom activity was also investigated using rat tracheal organ bath assays. The venoms of Pseudonaja affinis affinis and Pseudonaja nuchalis incited a sustained, significant contraction of the trachea. These contractions were attributed to PLA 2 enzymatic activity as pre-treatment with the PLA 2 inhibitor 4-BPB attenuated the venom-induced contractions. The venom of Pseudonaja textilis incited tracheal contractility through a non-PLA 2 enzymatic activity. Neither activity was attenuated by the antivenom treatment. These results represent the first proteomic investigation of the venoms from the snakes of the genus Pseudonaja, revealing a possible limitation of the brown snake antivenom in binding to the low MW protein components

  15. Temperature affects species distribution in symbiotic populations of Vibrio spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiguchi, M K

    2000-08-01

    The genus Sepiola (Cephalopoda: Sepiolidae) contains 10 known species that occur in the Mediterranean Sea today. All Sepiola species have a light organ that contains at least one of two species of luminous bacteria, Vibrio fischeri and Vibrio logei. The two Vibrio species coexist in at least four Sepiola species (S. affinis, S. intermedia, S. ligulata, and S. robusta), and their concentrations in the light organ depend on changes in certain abiotic factors, including temperature. Strains of V. fischeri grew faster in vitro and in Sepiola juveniles when they were incubated at 26 degrees C. In contrast, strains of V. logei grew faster at 18 degrees C in culture and in Sepiola juveniles. When aposymbiotic S. affinis or S. ligulata juveniles were inoculated with one Vibrio species, all strains of V. fischeri and V. logei were capable of infecting both squid species at the optimum growth temperatures, regardless of the squid host from which the bacteria were initially isolated. However, when two different strains of V. fischeri and V. logei were placed in direct competition with each other at either 18 or 26 degrees C, strains of V. fischeri were present in sepiolid light organs in greater concentrations at 26 degrees C, whereas strains of V. logei were present in greater concentrations at 18 degrees C. In addition to the competition experiments, the ratios of the two bacterial species in adult Sepiola specimens caught throughout the season at various depths differed, and these differences were correlated with the temperature in the surrounding environment. My findings contribute additional data concerning the ecological and environmental factors that affect host-symbiont recognition and may provide insight into the evolution of animal-bacterium specificity.

  16. ESTRATÉGIAS REPRODUTIVAS DE SETE ESPÉCIES DE PEIXES DAS ÁGUAS COSTEIRAS DO RIO GRANDE DO NORTE, BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Rocha de Oliveira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho verificou as estratégias reprodutivas de sete espécies de peixes marinhos da região costeira do Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil. Traços da história de vida dos peixes em ambientes relativamente estáveis sugerem um modelo de três estratégias reprodutivas: (1 estrategistas oportunistas, são peixes de pequeno tamanho corporal com primeira maturação precoce, período de vida curto com baixa fecundidade; (2 estrategistas sazonais, são peixes de tamanho corporal intermediário, primeira maturação intermediária e fecundidade intermediária a alta; e (3 estrategistas de equilíbrio, são peixes de tamanho corporal grande, primeira maturação tardia com longo período de vida, além de alta fecundidade. Os aspectos reprodutivos de Hirundichythys affinis, Hemiramphus brasiliensis, Pomadasys corvinaeformis, Oligoplites palometa, Scomberomorus brasiliensis, Lutjanus synagris e Mugil curema foram verificados, considerando-se o tamanho do corpo, proporção sexual, comprimento de primeira maturação sexual, aspectos do desenvolvimento das gônadas, fecundidade, tipo de desova e período reprodutivo dos peixes. Os resultados indicam que H. affinis, H. brasiliensis, P. corvinaeformis e O. palometa podem ser considerados como estrategistas oportunistas. Entretanto, S. brasiliensis, L. synagris e M. curema podem ser considerados como estrategistas de equilíbrio. Este estudo fornece informações sobre os aspectos reprodutivos dos peixes dos estoques pesqueiros das águas costeiras do Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil.

  17. Adrenocortical and adrenomedullary homologs in eight species of adult and developing teleosts: morphology, histology, and immunohistochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi Milano, E; Basari, F; Chimenti, C

    1997-12-01

    Morphology, histology, and immunohistochemistry of the adrenocortical and adrenomedullary homologs (adrenal glands) of the following developing and adult teleosts were examined: Salmoniformes-Oncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout), Salmo trutta fario (brown trout), Coregonus lavaretus (white fish); Cyprinodontiformes-Gambusia affinis (mosquito fish). Perciformes-Dicentrarchus labrax (sea bass), Sparus aurata (sea bream), Diplodus sargus (white bream), Oblada melanura (saddled bream). The anatomical relationships of the gland with the renal system and venous vessels were also noted. In adults of all species steroidogenic and catecholaminergic chromaffin cells were found in the head kidney, which is pronephric in origin and subsequently transformed into a hematopoietic lymphatic organ. In Perciformes, chromaffin cells are distributed around the anterior and posterior cardinal veins and ducts of Cuvier; in Salmoniformes, around the posterior cardinal veins and in the hematopoietic tissue; and in G. affinis, around the ducts of Cuvier and posterior cardinal veins, while a few are visible also around the sinus venosus. In Perciformes and Salmoniformes, numerous chromaffin cells are also present in the posterior kidney, derived from the opisthonephros, in contact with the caudal vein. Steroidogenic cells are always confined to the head kidney. During development chromaffin and steroidogenic cells appear early after hatching in the pronephric kidney, at the level of the ducts of Cuvier and of the cephalic part of the posterior cardinal veins. Later, chromaffin cells in Perciformes reach the anterior cardinal veins, and subsequently, in both Perciformes and Salmoniformes, they reach the developing posterior kidney. Their localization along the posterior kidney is still in progress about 4 months after hatching and is completed about a year after hatching. These findings support the concept that the structure of the adrenal gland in teleosts is intermediate between that of the

  18. Kamptotesin

    OpenAIRE

    Kurtan, Merve; Kurtoğlu, Sezin; Melikoğlu, Gülay

    2014-01-01

    Monoterpen indol alkaloit olan kamptotesin ilk olarak 1957’deÇin’de bulunan Camptotheca acuminata Decaisne türünden eldeedilmiştir. Kamptotesin sadece C. acuminata (Nyssaceae)bitkisinde değil Icacinaceae, Rubiaceae, Loganiaceae veApocynaceae gibi çeşitli familyalara ait başka bitkilerde debulunmuştur. Bu çalışma, kamptotesin ve kamptotesin türevlerininbitkiler alemindeki dağılımı ile ilgili ayrıntılı bir değerlendirmesağlamaktadır. Antitümör alkaloit olarak bilinen kamptotesin DNAtopoizomeraz...

  19. Görme Engellilere Yönelik Kütüphanecilik Hizmetlerinde Türkiye’deki Son Gelişmeler: Gazi Üniversitesi Merkez Kütüphanesi Görme Engelliler Bölümü Örneği

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meliha Kazak

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Bu makalede görme engellilerin kullandığı Braille alfabesinin tarihçesi, görme engellilere yönelik kütüphanecilik hizmetlerinde Türkiye'deki son gelişmeler ve bu hizmetlerin verilmesinde karşılaşılan sorunlar ile çözüm önerileri yer almak­tadır. Ayrıca Gazi Üniversitesi Görme Engelliler Bölümü'nün kuruluşu, gelişimi, kullanıcılarına sunduğu hizmetler ve ileriye yönelik hedefleri anlatılmaktadır.

  20. Görme Engellilere Yönelik Kütüphanecilik Hizmetlerinde Türkiye'deki Son Gelişmeler: Gazi Üniversitesi Merkez Kütüphanesi Görme Engelliler Bölümü Örneği

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meliha Kazak

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Bu makalede görme engellilerin kullandığı Braille alfabesinin tarihçesi, görme engellilere yönelik kütüphanecilik hizmetlerinde Türkiye 'deki son gelişmeler ve bu hizmetlerin verilmesinde karşılaşılan sorunlar ile çözüm önerileri yer almaktadır. Ayrıca Gazi Üniversitesi Görme Engelliler Bölümü 'nün kuruluşu, gelişimi, kullanıcılarına sunduğu hizmetler ve ileriye yönelik hedefleri anlatılmaktadır.

  1. Özgün İslami Finansal Kurumlar İnşa Etmek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asad Zaman Çeviren: Mustafa Kenan ERKAN

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Özet İslam’ın ruhunun kapitalizmin ruhuyla sert ve keskin bir uyuşmazlık içinde olmasından dolayı, İslam’ın ruhunu ifade etmek üzere tasarlanmış kurumların almış olduğu biçimin de ayrıca farklı olması zorunludur. Kapitalist finansal kurumlar kapitalist toplumların özünde yer alan servet biriktirme sürecini desteklemek üzere tasarlanmışlardır. İslam’da esas olan, kapitalist toplumlarda baskın olanlardan radikal bir şekilde farklı çeşitli hizmet-odaklı kurumlardaki hizmet ruhu ve başkalarına infak etmektir.

  2. Mangan (III) asetatın yeni bir yöntemle hazırlanması, saflığının ve kullanılabilirliğinin araştırılması

    OpenAIRE

    ŞAKIYAN, İffet

    1992-01-01

      Bu çalışmada Mangan bileşikleri arasında bilimsel ve teknik yönden önemi büyük olan Mangan ( III )asetat yeni bir metod geliştirilerek sentezlendi. Mangan(II)asetat susuz asetik asit ortamında PbO? ile yükseltgenerek Mangan(III)asetata dönüştürüldü ve kararlı bir madde olarak ayrılması sağlandı. Susuz ortam çalışmalarında organik maddelerin potansiyometrik metodlarla kantitatif tayinlerinde titrant olarak kullanılmasına ve Mangan(III) komplekslerinin sentezine yöneli...

  3. İLKÖĞRETİM ÖĞRETMEN ADAYLARININ TEKNOLOJİYE YÖNELİK TUTUMLARININ KÜMELEME ANALİZİ

    OpenAIRE

    ÇELİK, Halil Coşkun; KAHYAOĞLU, Mustafa

    2007-01-01

    Günümüzde teknolojiyi kullanmak bir ayrıcalık değil, zorunluluk olmuştur. Teknolojik gelişmeler eğitim kurumlarının yapı ve işlevlerini etkilemektedir. Bu nedenle öğretmenlerin de bilgi toplumu bireyleri yetiştirebilmeleri için derslerini teknoloji ile bütünleştirmeleri beklenmektedir. Bu çalışmada, öğretmen adaylarının teknolojiye yönelik tutumlarının kümelenme eğilimleri belirlenmeye çalışılmıştır. Araştırmaya Dicle Üniversitesi Siirt Eğitim Fakültesi İlköğretim Fen Bilgisi, Matematik ve Sı...

  4. Autocad VBA Uygulamalı Geçme Tasarımı

    OpenAIRE

    Eyigün, Erol; Dündar, Kürşad; Durman, Mesut

    2015-01-01

    Bu çalışmada, mil toleransları ve dişli çark, kasnak, burç gibi elemanların geçme toleranslarının belirlenmesi amaçlanmıştır. Üç ayrı bölümden oluşan, Visual Basic 6,0 ve AutoCAD destekli VBA (Visual Basic For Application) programlama dili kullanarak geçmelerin toleransını hesaplayan bir program yazılmıştır. Birinci bölümde, geçmeler ile ilgili kullanılan standart tablolar Access datalar olarak bilgisayar ortamına aktarılmış ve bu datalar kullanılarak istenilen çap ve tolerans değerlerine gör...

  5. Türkiye’de Yetiştirilen bazı Soya Varyetelerinden Elde Edilen Soya Sütlerinin Amino Asit Profilinin Belirlenmesi

    OpenAIRE

    Artık, Nevzat

    1989-01-01

    Bu araştırmada Türkiye’de yetiştirilen 5 farklı soya varyetesinden üretilen soya sütlerinin amino asit profilleri incelenmiştir. Ayrıca Japon soya varyetesi amino asit bileşimi ile karşılaştırma yapılmıştır. Soya sütlerinde esansiyel amino asitler yüksek düzeyde bulunmuştur. Esansiyel amino asit miktarı tüm soya varyetelerinde 4.125, 4.922 (mg/g) sınırları içinde değişmektedir. Bu özelliği ile soya sütü insan beslenmesinde önemli bir gıda maddesidir.  

  6. Türkiye’de Yetiştirilen bazı Soya Varyetelerinden Elde Edilen Soya Sütlerinin Amino Asit Profilinin Belirlenmesi

    OpenAIRE

    Nevzat Artık

    2015-01-01

    Bu araştırmada Türkiye’de yetiştirilen 5 farklı soya varyetesinden üretilen soya sütlerinin amino asit profilleri incelenmiştir. Ayrıca Japon soya varyetesi amino asit bileşimi ile karşılaştırma yapılmıştır. Soya sütlerinde esansiyel amino asitler yüksek düzeyde bulunmuştur. Esansiyel amino asit miktarı tüm soya varyetelerinde 4.125, 4.922 (mg/g) sınırları içinde değişmektedir. Bu özelliği ile soya sütü insan beslenmesinde önemli bir gıda maddesidir.

  7. GEORGE HERBERT MEAD'IN SOSYAL AHLAK ANLAYIŞI

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa Kınağ

    2017-01-01

    Klasik Amerikan pragmatistlerinden George Herbert Mead’a göre benlik, ne salt zihinden ibarettir, ne de ontolojik çatallaşmayı içerir. O, bunun yerine sadece analitik bir ayrım olarak benliği (self) özne benlik (I) ve nesne benlik (me) olarak ifade eder. Ancak ne özne benliği nesne benlik olmaksızın, ne de nesne benliği özne benlik olmaksızın düşünebiliriz. Özne benlik, doğrudan deneyimlerimizde kendisini göstermez, eylemin gerçekleşmesinden sonra biliş alanına girer. O, haf...

  8. Dinlerin intihar olgusuna bakışı

    OpenAIRE

    SÜMER, Necati

    2015-01-01

    Dinlerin intihar olgusuna bakışını ele alan bu tez, giriş ve dört bölümden oluşmaktadır. Giriş kısmında çalışma hakkında genel bilgiler, intihar ve onunla ilişkili kavramlar, intihar üzerine bazı teoriler, antik ve ilkel toplumlardaki intihar olgusu üzerinde durulmuştur. Birinci bölümde, Yahudilikte hayat ve ölüm anlayışı ele alınarak, bu dinin intihara bakışı ve Yahudilik tarihinde meydana gelen intiharlar incelenmiştir. Bu bölümde ayrıca Yahudi din otoriteleri ve mezheplerinin inti...

  9. BAZI PSİKANALİSTLERE GÖRE RÜYANIN İNSAN HAYATINDAKİ ROLÜ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulvahit İMAMOĞLU

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Rüya, insan hayatında daima var olan psikolojik bir fenomendir. İnsanın iç dünyasını belli sem-bol ve kendine has anlatımlarla yansıtmaktadır. Ayrıca, fertlerin günlük yaşantısına zaman zaman yön vermekte ya da dolaylı olarak fertleri etkilemiş olmaktadır. Bu çalışmada, rüyaların insanın iç dünyasına ve dışa yansıyan yönüne olan etkilerini psikanalistlerin görüşleri doğrultu-sunda değerlendirmeye çalıştık.

  10. Çevresel faktörlerin siyahi alaca sığırda sütün protein kompoziyonuna etkileri

    OpenAIRE

    Çardak, Ayşe Deniz

    2008-01-01

    Çalısmada Siyah-Alaca sıgırlarda sütün protein içerigi ve komposizyonuna mevsim, laktasyon sayısı, laktasyon dönemi ve somatik hücre sayısının (SHS) etkileri arastırılmıstır. Laktasyon boyunca toplanan süt örneklerinde protein fraksiyonları Poliakrilamid-Jel-Elektroforezi’nde ayrılmıs ve densitometre yardımıyla her bir protein fraksiyonunun içerigi belirlenmistir. Sütün protein içerigine mevsim, laktasyon dönemi ve SHS’nın etkileri önemli bulunmustur. aS1-kazein (-Cn) içerigine me...

  11. Balaban (Botaurus stellaris) ve Kızıl Şahin (Buteo rufinis) Neurocranium’u Üzerinde Karşılaştırmalı Makro-Anatomik İncelemeler

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZDEMİR, Derviş; ÖZÜDOĞRU, Zekeriya; CAN, Mehmet; SUNAR, Mukadder

    2010-01-01

    Bu araştırmada, balaban ve kızıl şahinin neurocranium kemiklerinin komparativ inceleme metoduyla ayrıntılı olarak ortaya konulması amaçlandı. Cinsiyet gözetmeksizin iki adet balaban ve dört adet kızıl şahin kullanıldı. Neurocranium’un; os occipitale, os sphenoidale, ossa parietalia, ossa frontalia ve ossa temporalia’dan oluştuğu gözlendi. Foramen magnum'un, balabanda vertical, kızıl şahinde ise horizontal pozisyonda bulunduğu, deliğin altında tek çıkın...

  12. M.FAHRETTİN KIRZIOĞLU’NUN “ERZURUM TARİHİNİ ARAŞTIRMA VE TANITMA DERNEĞİ” PROGRAMI TASARISI ÜZERİNDEKİ DEĞİŞTİRME VE EKLEMELERİ - Erzurum Tarihi Üzerine M.Fahrettin Kırzıoğlu’nun Önerdiği Metodu da İhtiva Eden Bir Belge

    OpenAIRE

    Kırzıoğlu, M. Cemal

    2010-01-01

    ÖZETMakale, Erzurum Tarihini Araştırma ve Tanıtma Derneği’nin “ Erzurum tarihini yeniden yazma” konusunda: biri Erzurumlu Tarih Hocası Tahsin (Akgün) Aşıroğlu(1911-1984), diğeri M. Fahrettin Kırzıoğlu(1917-2005)’na ait olmak üzere iki ayrı belgeyi ihtiva etmektedir. ABSTRACTThis study includes two separate documents belonged to a history teacher from Erzurum, Tahsin(Akgün) Aşıroğlu(1911-1984), and M. Fahrettin Kırzıoğlu(1917-2005 about rewritin...

  13. SIĞIR AYAKLARININ POSTMORTEM MAKROSKOPİK VE HİSTOPATOLOJİK OLARAK DEĞERLENDİRİLMESİ

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZSOY, Serhat; ÖZER, Kürşat; ARUN, Seçkin

    2018-01-01

    ÖzetÖzel bir mezbahadan elde edilen 112 sığıra ait 448 ayağın tırnaklan, makroskopik ve histopatolojik olarak incelendi.Değerlendirilen ayakların 110'u Holstayn, 1'i Simental, 1'i Yerli Kara ırkına ait idi. Bunlardan 89'u erkek, 23'ü dişiydi. Ayakların makroskopik incelemesi sonucunda 38 olguda taban-ökçe çürüğü, 22 olguda taban çürüğü, 29 olguda ökçe çürüğü, 30 olguda kronik-subklinik laminitis, 12 olguda beyaz çizgi ayrılması, 4 olguda interdigital panarisyurn, 6 ol...

  14. Analysis of recovered solvents from coal liquefaction in a flowing-solvent reactor by SEC and UV-fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, W.Y.; Feng, J.; Xie, K.C.; Kandiyoti, R. [Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan (China)

    2005-08-01

    Point of Ayr coal has been extracted using three solvents: tetralin, quinoline and 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP); at two temperatures: 350 {sup o}C and 450{sup o}C, corresponding approximately to before and after the onset of massive covalent bond scission by pyrolysis. These solvents differ in solvent power and the ability to donate hydrogen atoms to stabilize free radicals produced by pyrolysis of the coal. Analysis of the fresh solvents and recovered solvents from coal liquefaction was achieved by size exclusion chromatography and UV-fluorescence spectroscopy. In the blank run, it was testified that the filling material sand and the steel powder did not react with solvent with increasing reaction temperature. The role of hydrogen donation in the tetralin extracts was to increase the proportion of large molecules with increasing extraction temperature. Quinoline and NMP both have the powerful extracting capability to get more materials out of coal with increasing extraction temperature.

  15. Analysis of recovered solvents from coal liquefaction in a flowing-solvent reactor by SEC and UV-fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen-Ying Li; Jie Feng; Ke-Chang Xie; R. Kandiyoti [Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan (China). Key Laboratory of Coal Science and Technology for Ministry of Education and Shanxi Province

    2005-08-01

    Point of Ayr coal has been extracted using three solvents: tetralin, quinoline and 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP); at two temperatures: 350{sup o}C and 450{sup o}C, corresponding approximately to before and after the onset of massive covalent bond scission by pyrolysis. These solvents differ in solvent power and the ability to donate hydrogen atoms to stabilize free radicals produced by pyrolysis of the coal. Analysis of the fresh solvents and recovered solvents from coal liquefaction was achieved by size exclusion chromatography and UV-fluorescence spectroscopy. In the blank run, it was testified that the filling material sand and the steel powder did not react with solvent with increasing reaction temperature. The role of hydrogen donation in the tetralin extracts was to increase the proportion of large molecules with increasing extraction temperature. Quinoline and NMP both have the powerful extracting capability to get more materials out of coal with increasing extraction temperature.

  16. Pre-emptif uygulanan intravenöz, spinal ve epidural morfinin erken postoperatif analjezi ve stres yanıt üzerine etkileri

    OpenAIRE

    Düger, Cevdet; Ayvaz, Hakan; Bulut, Filiz; Gürsoy, Sinan; Kaygusuz, Kenan; İsbir, Ahmet Cemil; Özdemir Kol, İclal; Gürelik, Bilge; Mimaroğlu, Caner

    2013-01-01

    Özet Bu çalışmada, preemptif uygulanan iv, spinal ve epidural morfinin erken postoperatif dönemdeki analjezik tüketimi ve stres yanıt üzerine etkilerini belirlemek amaçlandı. Alt batın operasyonu uygulanacak ASA I-II grubuna giren 60 hasta rasgele üç gruba ayrıldı. Grup I’e indüksiyondan 5 dk. önce 5 mg iv morfin, Grup II’ye indüksiyondan 5 dk önce 0,5 mg intratekal morfin, Grup III’e indüksiyondan 30dk önce 5mg epidural morfin uygulandı. Anestezi indüksiyonu 0,1 µg kg-1 fentanil ve 4-7 mg k...

  17. Pıtrak (Xanthium strumariumL.) Bitkisinin Kültüre Alınma Potansiyelinin İncelenmesi

    OpenAIRE

    CESUR, Cüneyt; ÇOŞGE ŞENKAL, Belgün

    2016-01-01

    ÖZET: Asteraceae familyasına ait olan pıtrak (Xanthium strumarium L. - sinonomi X. sibiricum) dünyanın birçok bölgesinde görülen çok yaygın bir yabancı ottur. Bitki tek yıllık olup, 1.0-3.5 cm uzunluğunda kahverengi, sert, odunumsu meyveleri çengel şeklinde dikenlidir. Her bir meyve iki tohum içermektedir. Bazı tıbbi özelliklere sahip olan bitki geleneksel tıpta kullanılmaktadır. Ayrıca, yapılan araştırmalar bitkinin anti-ülserojenik, anti-inflamatuar, idrar söktürücü, antifungal gibi biyoloj...

  18. İneklerde embriyo transferinde farklı prostaglandin F2α protokolleri ile taşıyıcı senkronizasyonu

    OpenAIRE

    Kırbaş, Mesut; Dursun, Şükrü; Köse, Mehmet; Bülbül, Bülent; Çolak, Mehmet; Mutlu, Hasan

    2010-01-01

    Amaç: Çalışmada, dondurulmuş çözdürülmüş embriyo transferi amacıyla taşıyıcı senkronizasyonunda kullanılan farklı prostaglandin F2α protokolleri karşılaştırıldı. Gereç ve Yöntem: Toplam 46 İsviçre Esmeri inek rastgele üç gruba ayrıldı. Grup I (n=15)’deki ineklere östrüs siklusunun herhangi bir döneminde i.m. yoldan tek doz 0.150 mg kloprostenol enjekte edildi. Enjeksiyonları takiben beş gün boyunca östrüsler takip edildi. Diğer ineklere ise 11 (Grup II, n=15) ya da 14 (Grup III, n=16) gün ara...

  19. Türkiye’de Yetiştirilen bazı Soya Varyetelerinden Elde Edilen Soya Sütlerinin Amino Asit Profilinin Belirlenmesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevzat Artık

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Bu araştırmada Türkiye’de yetiştirilen 5 farklı soya varyetesinden üretilen soya sütlerinin amino asit profilleri incelenmiştir. Ayrıca Japon soya varyetesi amino asit bileşimi ile karşılaştırma yapılmıştır. Soya sütlerinde esansiyel amino asitler yüksek düzeyde bulunmuştur. Esansiyel amino asit miktarı tüm soya varyetelerinde 4.125, 4.922 (mg/g sınırları içinde değişmektedir. Bu özelliği ile soya sütü insan beslenmesinde önemli bir gıda maddesidir.

  20. Extruder ile Pişirme Yönteminin Gıda Bileşim Öğeleri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevzat Artık

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Gıdalara uygulanan diğer ısıl işlemler gibi extruder ile pişirme yönteminde yararlı ve zararlı etkileri birlikte söz konusudur. Bu yöntemin yararlı etkisi; gıdanın özelliklerini olumsuz etkileyen faktörlerin elemine edilmesi; olumsuz etkisi ise, proteinler ile şekerler arasında oluşan Maillard tepkimesidir. Anılan tepkime ile proteinlerin besleyici niteliği azalmaktadır. Ayrıca ısıl işlem nedeniyle vitamin kayıpları söz konusu olmaktadır (Bjorck ve Asp, 1982.

  1. Besinin Galleria mellonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) Puplarının Toplam Lipid ve Toplam Yağ Asidi Yüzdelerine Etkisi

    OpenAIRE

    Taşkın, Deniz

    2010-01-01

    Galleria mellonella (L.) kepek, mısır unu, gliserinli mısır unu, petek ve yarı sentetik besin olmak üzere beş ayrı besin kullanılarak kültüre edilmeye çalışılmıştır. Kepek ve mısır ununda G. mellonella gelişmemiştir. Petek, yarı sentetik besin ve gliserinli mısır unu ile beslenen puplarda toplam lipit ve yağ asidi yüzdeleri belirlenmiştir. Toplam lipit ve yağ asidi yüzdesi gliserinli mısır unu ile beslenen grupta, diğer gruptakilere göre daha yüksek bulunmuştur...

  2. Elektrik Motorlarının Verimlilik Standartları

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Aydın ERCAN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Bu bildiride, elektrik motorlarının Avrupa birliğindeki verimlilik standartları ve geçmişten geleceğe gelişimi incelenmiştir. Ayrıca diğer eş standartlara da değinilmiş olup yakın zamanda gelecek olan Avrupa birliğinde yasal olarak zorunlu olacak olan elektrik motorları verimlilik standartları verilmiş olup ilgili standartlar, uygun motorların yapılan verim testlerindeki grafik eğrileri üzerinde açıklanmıştır. Türkiye olarak elektrik motor üretiminde ve kullanımında bu standartlara uymanın önemi vurgulanmıştır.

  3. Interpreting Medieval Inter-tidal Features at Weelie's Taing on Papa Westray, Orkney, NE Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Edward; Gibson, Julie; Littlewood, Mark

    2016-12-01

    Investigation of the inter-tidal heritage of the Orkney Islands is used to interpret a previously perplexing complex at Weelie's Taing on Papa Westray. The study revealed a previously unknown type of harbour since identified in several locations around Orkney. Situated in exposed environmental situations, shelter is formed by an `ayre', a type of spit that encloses a loch, and which has been used historically as a landing place or crossing of the inter-tidal zone. A complex landing area, pier, tower and ship-blockage suggest Weelie's Taing was used as a harbour. Important fishing grounds exploited since the Neolithic are nearby, and Papa Westray was the site of water-focussed religious communities. It is suggested that Weelie's Taing was in use in the medieval period when Papa Westray was less isolated than today with the presence of ecclesiastical communities and situation on the Orkney-Shetland route.

  4. Between Germanic and Latin eugenics: Portugal, 1930-1960

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Mark Cleminson

    Full Text Available Abstract This article assesses critically the participation of Portuguese eugenicists in “Latin eugenics” and traces the continuities and discontinuities with respect to this model. In particular, it focuses on a number of examples of more “Germanic” eugenics in contrast and in comparison to Latin versions of eugenics. In the former category, Eusébio Tamagnini, José Ayres de Azevedo and Leopoldina Ferreira de Paulo are considered; in the latter category, especially the work of Almerindo Lessa on “racial mixing” is considered. The conclusions suggest that we should seek diversity in both Latin and northern European eugenic models while at the same time placing Portugal within the array of possible versions of eugenics during the first half of the twentieth century.

  5. Gebelerde Kronik Yorgunluk Sendromu Belirti ve Bulgularının Sıklığının Araştırılması

    OpenAIRE

    Gölcür, Mehmet; Sarı, Oktay; Aydoğan, Ümit; Akpak, Yaşam Kemal; Keskin, Uğur

    2017-01-01

    Amaç: Kronik yorgunluk sendromu (KYS) istirahat ile düzelmeyen ve en az altıaydan beri devam eden yorgunluk ile birlikte, ayrıca hafıza ve konsantrasyonproblemleri, miyalji, artralji, başağrısı, uyku bozukluğu, tekrarlayan boğazağrısı ve hassas lenf nodları gibi bulgulardan en az dört tanesininbulunmasıyla karakterize bir hastalıktır. Gebelik süreci ise çeşitli hormonal,metabolik ve anatomik değişiklikler paralelinde benzer yakınmalarıngörülebileceği fizyolojik bir süreçtir. Çalışmamızda, geb...

  6. Günümüzün Markaları: Paylaşılmaya Değer Kampanyalar = Brands of today: Campaigns worth sharing

    OpenAIRE

    Tüylüoğlu, Fatih

    2016-01-01

    Fatih Tüylüoğlu C-Section reklam ajansında 2009'dan beri çalışmaktadır. C-Section'da metin yazarı olarak çalıştığı süreç içerisinde Coca-Cola, Efes Pilsen, Arçelik, Fanta, Burn, Playstation, Sprite, ve daha birçok ünlü marka için kampanyalar yaratmıştır. Ayrıca Back to the Future filminin en popüler Facebook hayran sayfasının kurucusudur. Universal Pictures adına bu sayfayı yönetmeye devam etmektedir. Doğu Akdeniz Üniversitesi (DAÜ) Sosyal Medya Birimi ve DAÜ İletişim Fakültesi işbirliği ...

  7. Sarcoma de Kaposi en una paciente de Santo Tomé y Príncipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melba Elers Bandera

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el caso clínico de una paciente que fue asistida en el Hospital General "Dr. Ayres Menezes" de la República Democrática de Santo Tomé y Príncipe, por presentar fiebre y lesiones en la piel, a la cual se le diagnosticó sarcoma de Kaposi asociado a la infección por el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana/sida. La evolución tórpida y el estadio tan avanzado de la enfermedad, así como la resistencia a los fármacos antirretrovirales, ocasionaron la muerte de la fémina

  8. HELİCOBACTER PYLORİ ERADİKASYONUNDA PROTON POMPA İNHİBİTÖRLERİNİN EKTKİNLİKLERİNİN (LANSOPRAZOL VE OMEPRAZOL) KIYASLANMASI

    OpenAIRE

    HİLMİOĞLU, Dr. Murat ALADAĞ Dr. Melih KARINCAOĞLU D

    1999-01-01

    Gelişmekte olan ülkelerde önemli bir sağlık sorunu olan Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infeksiyonu ülkemizde de bölgeden bölgeye farklılık göstermekle birlikte, yüksek oranlarda izlenmektedir. Biz bu çalışmamızda iki farklı proton pompa inhibitörünün Hp eradikasyonu ve ülser iyileşmesindeki ektinliğini kıyaslamayı amaçladık. Kliniğimize dispeptik yakınmalarla başvuran ve yapılan endoskopilerinde gastrik veya duodenal ülser saptanan 44 hasta rastgele iki guruba ayrıldı. İki gurup arasında yaş ve...

  9. NOHUT SAMANI TARLA ATIĞININ SULU ÇÖZELTİLERDEN METİLEN MAVİSİ GİDERİMİNDE DÜŞÜK MALİYETLİ BİYOSORBENT OLARAK DEĞERLENDİRİLMESİ

    OpenAIRE

    KILIÇ, Murat; ÇEPELİOĞULLAR, Özge; ÖZSİN, Gamzenur; UZUN, Başak Burcu; E. PÜTÜN, Ayşe

    2014-01-01

    Yapılan bu çalışmada tarımsal bir atık olan nohut samanı, sulu çözeltilerden boyar madde gideriminde biyosorbent olarak değerlendirilmiştir. Çözelti pH’ı, biyosorbent miktarı, başlangıç boyar madde derişimi, temas süresi ve çözelti sıcaklığının biyosorpsiyon işlemine olan etkileri incelenmiştir. Ayrıca, metilen mavisi biyosorpsiyonuna ait denge izoterm, termodinamik ve kinetik çalışmalar gerçekleştirilmiştir. Biyosorpsiyon denge verilerinin Freundlich izotermi ile uyumlu olduğu belirlenmiş, b...

  10. Süleyman Demirel Üniversitesi Hastanesi Yoğun Bakım Ünitesi plazmaferez uygulamaları

    OpenAIRE

    polat, mümin; ceylan, berit; Alanoğlu, Güçhan; Eroğlu, Füsun; Sipahi, Tansu

    2010-01-01

    Terapötik aferez çeşitlerinden en sık kullanılan, tedavi amaçlı plazma değişimi, tam kanın hastadan alınarak bir cihaz vasıtası ile komponentlerine ayrılması ve bu komponentlerden şekilli elemanların diğer bir plazma kaynağı ile (doğal veya yapay) birlikte hastaya geri verilmesidir. Hastanemiz yoğun bakım ünitesinde 1 yıl içerisinde plazmaferez uyguladığımız olguları retrospektif olarak değerlendirdik. Toplam 11 olguya 56 seans plazmaferez yapılmıştır. 3 olgunun Gullian Barre Sendromu (%27.2)...

  11. Muğla-yatağan linyitinin çözücü ile şişirilmesinin ekstrakt verimi üzerine etkisi

    OpenAIRE

    ŞİMŞEK, Emir Hüseyin

    1990-01-01

      Bu çalışmada, Muğla- Yatağan linyitinin.şişirilmesi, ön şişirmenin linyitin soxhlet ve süperkritik koşullarda ekstraksiyon verimi üzerine etkisi ve kömürün hacimsel olarak şişirilmesinin matematiksel olarak modellenmesi incelenmiştir. Cam tüplerde, değişik çözücülerle yapılan deneyler sonunda, linyitin şişme oranları saptanmıştır. Ekstraksiyon işlemleri iki ayrı grupta toplanmıştır, önşişirilmiş ve orjinal kömür örnekleri soxhlet ve süperkritik gaz ekstraksiyon...

  12. [Medical behavior (deontology) towards our students, our colleagues, our patients and the society].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammaticos, Philip C

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we try to describe the importance of a dignified behavior of the physician to his students, colleagues, patients and the society. We come to the conclusion that even if the other party is not showing the best of behavior, the physician has not only the responsibility and the duty but it is very much for his own interest to show a dignified and useful behavior to others. This is the main route for having a good reputation which will help him better exercise his medical duties and offer him personal happiness. Jeremy Bentham, an English judge and philosopher formed the Greek word deontology to mean correct behavior stating that this behavior is morally useful and a source of pleasure. The codes of Hammurabi, of the Indian Ayr Veda, of the Egyptians, the teaching of Aristotle, Hippocrates and others also describe medical deontology.

  13. Special Issue: Aspects of Game Theory and Institutional Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfram Elsner

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Classical economists from Adam Smith to Thomas Malthus and to Karl Marx have considered the importance of direct interdependence and direct interactions for the economy. This was even more the case for original institutionalist thinkers such as Thorstein Veblen, John Commons, and Clarence Ayres. In their writings, direct interdependence, interactions (or transactions among agents, with all beneficial and with all problematic consequences, took center stage in economic analysis. Why, for instance, do people adhere to a particular new fashion or trend? Because others do, after eminent people, wealthy people, the “leisure class” (T. Veblen, have made it a symbol for status. The new fashion, however, ceases to serve as such a symbol once too many people follow it. The constant effort put into following trends and adopting fashion turns out to be a social dilemma, driven by Veblenian instincts, such as invidious distinction in predatory societies, conspicuous consumption and emulation. [...

  14. Dermatolojik Hastalıklarda Tens Kullanımının Yeri

    OpenAIRE

    SEÇKİN, Havva YILDIZ

    2011-01-01

    TENS cihazı kaşıntılı deri hastalıklarında etki mekanizması net olmamakla birlikte antipruritik etki sağlayabilmektedir. Böylelikle TENS cihazının kullanımıyla liken simpleks kronikus, jeneralize pruritus, atopik dermatit, prurigo nodülaris, notaljiya parestetika, mikozis fungoides ve hematolojik hastalıkların neden olduğu kaşıntılarda; ayrıca reaktif perforan kollajenozların ve yanıkların neden olduğu kaşıntıların giderilmesinde kullanılmış ve yarar sağlandığı daha önceden rapor edilmiştir. ...

  15. Veri Transferi Ve İşlem Güvenliğinin Sağlanmasında Kullanılan Şifreleme Yöntemleri Ve Sayısal İmza

    OpenAIRE

    ANBAR, Adem

    2004-01-01

    İnternetin ve e-ticaretin gelişmesi ve yaygınlaşması, güvenlik problemlerinin çözümüyle yakından ilişkilidir. Güvenlik sorununu; yetkilendirme, www (world wide web) güvenliği ve veri-işlem güvenliği olmak üzere üç açıdan inceleyebiliriz. Bu çalışmada, yetkilendirme ve www güvenliğine kısaca değinildikten sonra, veri-işlem güvenliği üzerinde ayrıntılı olarak durularak, veri işlem güvenliğinde kullanılan, kriptografi, onay kurumu, elektronik noter, elektronik ve sayısal imza gibi yeni güvenlik ...

  16. İki değişkenli bazı ortogonal polinom ailelerinin özellikleri

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZTÜRK, Güner

    2017-01-01

    Bu tez on bir bölümden oluşmaktadır.  Birinci bölüm giriş kısmına ayrılmıştır.  İkinci bölümde temel kavramlar ve ön bilgiler hatırlatılmıştır.  Üçüncü bölümde tek değişenli ortogonal polinomlar verilmiş ve ortogonal polinomların genel özellikleri üzerinde durulmuştur.   Dördüncü bölümde iki değişkenli ortogonal polinomlar ve bu polinomlara ait bazı özellikler verilmiştir.  Beşinci, altıncı, yed...

  17. ORTA ÖĞRETİM COĞRAFYA ÖĞRETMENLERİNİN MESLEKİ SORUNLARI HAKKINDA BİR ARAŞTIRMA

    OpenAIRE

    ŞAHİN, CEMALETTİN

    2013-01-01

    ÖZETBu çalışmada coğrafya öğretmenlerinin mesleki sorunları konu edilmiştir. Sorunların tespitine yönelik olarak bir anket hazırlanmış, ve İstanbul'daki 37 ayrı devlet okulunda görevli coğrafya öğretmenlerine uygulanmıştır. Çalışmada söz konusu anketin sonuçlarına yer verilmiştir. Coğrafya öğretmenlerinin mesleki sorunlarının tespitinde öğretmenlerinin görüşlerine yer verilmiş olması önemlidir. Öğretmenlerin mesleki sorunları incelenirken, aynı zamanda orta öğretim coğrafya öğretiminin d...

  18. Kuru Dut (Morus alba)Ekstraksiyonunun Kinetiği

    OpenAIRE

    Karkacıer, Mustafa; Poyrazoğlu, Ender Sinan; Artık, Nevzat; Velioğlu, Sedat

    2014-01-01

    Bu çalışmada, kuru dutun çözünür kurumadde ekstraksiyonu üzerine sıcaktık ve sürenin etkisi belirlenmiştir. Ekstraksiyonun sıcaklıkla ilişkisi Arrhenius bağıntısıyla tanımlanmıştır. Aktivasyon enerjisi değerleri ekstraksiyon tekrarına bağlı olarak 164, 232-0.787 kcal/g.mol K ara­sında değişim göstermiştir. Ayrıca 1/T.103 değerleri, 293, 323 ve 358 K sıcaklık derecelerinde sırasıyla 2.79, 3.09 ve 3.41 olarak saptanmıştır.  

  19. GELECEĞİN MALİYETLERİNİN KONTROLÜNDE YENİ BİR YAKLAŞIM: HEDEF VE KAIZEN MALİYETLEME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZEYNEP TÜRK

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Firmalar tarafından modern üretim teknolojilerinin kullanılması yeni maliyet ve yönetim muhasebesi yöntemlerinin geliştirilmesine ve uygulanmasına neden olmuştur. Hedef ve kaizen maliyetleme bu yeni sistemlerin örneklerindendir. Japon elektronik ve araç üreticileri hedef ve kaizen maliyetlemeyi yoğun bir şekilde kullanmışlardır. Hedef ve kaizen maliyetleme, firmalara bugünün dizaynı ile geleceğin maliyetlerinin düşürülmesinde ve kontrol edilmesinde yardımcı olmaktadır. Çalışmamızda, söz konusu maliyet sistemleri ayrıntıları ile incelenecektir.

  20. Tükiyenin farklı bölgelerinde üretilen değişik un tiplerinin tiamin ve riboflavin miktarları

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raci Ekinci

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Çalışmada, Türkiye'nin 7 ayrı bölgesine ait 19 farklı ilde un üretimi yapan 30 fabrikadan sağlanan (30 adet Tip 550, 30 adet Tip 650 ve 26 adet Tip 850 un örnekleri vitaminlerde tiamin ve riboflavin miktarı açısından incelenmiştir. Un tipleri açısından ortalama tiamin ve riboflavin değerleri arasında önemli farklılıklar olduğu, ancak farklı fabrikalara ait unların tiamin ve riboflavin miktarı arasındaki farklılıklar istatistiksel olarak önemli bulunmamıştır (P

  1. Kuzeydoğu Anadolu Bölgesi Kapsamında Su Ürünleri Sektörünün Ulaşabileceği Potansiyel Büyüklüğünün Mali Projeksiyonu / Financial Projection of Potential of Aquaculture Sector in Northern Anatolia

    OpenAIRE

    Aras, N. Mevlüt; Yanık, Telat; Kocaman, E. Mahmut; Haliloğlu, H. İbrahim

    2011-01-01

    ÖZET: Bu çalışmada Doğu Anadolu Projesi (DAP) kapsamında merkezi hükümet tarafından yürütülen alt yapı destekleme programının aksatılmadan devreye girmesiyle daha çok Kuzeydoğu Anadolu Bölgesi illerinde ulaşılabilecek potansiyelin mali büyüklüğü üzerinde durulmuştur. Ayrıca projelerin katma değerleri açısından istihdam kapasitesi, sosyal değeri ve illere...

  2. Verification and clarification of patterns of sensory integrative dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailloux, Zoe; Mulligan, Shelley; Roley, Susanne Smith; Blanche, Erna; Cermak, Sharon; Coleman, Gina Geppert; Bodison, Stefanie; Lane, Christianne Joy

    2011-01-01

    Building on established relationships between the constructs of sensory integration in typical and special needs populations, in this retrospective study we examined patterns of sensory integrative dysfunction in 273 children ages 4-9 who had received occupational therapy evaluations in two private practice settings. Test results on the Sensory Integration and Praxis Tests, portions of the Sensory Processing Measure representing tactile overresponsiveness, and parent report of attention and activity level were included in the analyses. Exploratory factor analysis identified patterns similar to those found in early studies by Ayres (1965, 1966a, 1966b, 1969, 1972b, 1977, & 1989), namely Visuodyspraxia and Somatodyspraxia, Vestibular and Proprioceptive Bilateral Integration and Sequencing, Tactile and Visual Discrimination, and Tactile Defensiveness and Attention. Findings reinforce associations between constructs of sensory integration and assist with understanding sensory integration disorders that may affect childhood occupation. Limitations include the potential for subjective interpretation in factor analysis and inability to adjust measures available in charts in a retrospective research.

  3. KADIN YOKSULLUĞU VE İKİNCİL İŞGÜCÜ

    OpenAIRE

    YÜCEL, DUYGU

    2018-01-01

    Yoksulluk, çok boyutlu, ölçülmesizor, göreceli bir kavram olup hem ekonomik hem de ekonomik olmayan ihtiyaçlarıyeterince karşılayamama durumudur. Ayrıca hastalık, sakatlık, ölüm, doğal afetgibi ekonomik durumu etkileyen riskler de yoksulluğun daha fazla hissedilmesineyol açarak güvenlik ihtiyacını doğurmaktadır. Başka bir ifadeyle yoksulluk,ekonomik olduğu kadar sosyal ve manevi nitelikteki ihtiyaçları da kapsadığıiçin, hem ekonomik hem de sosyolojik bir sorun halini almaktadır. Yoksulluğunen...

  4. BİR SANATSAL BİÇİM OLARAK “ARADA OLMAK”: İNTERMEDYA ÜZERİNE ÇÖZÜMLEMELER

    OpenAIRE

    ARAPOĞLU, Fırat; YAVUZ, Seda

    2013-01-01

    Geleneksel sanat tarihi yazınında yöntemsel olarak bir sanat nesnesi; tanımlanır, biçimsel olarak kategorize edilir ve tarihsel olarak dönemleştirilir. Belirli kategorizasyonlar, sanatsal üretimlerin biçimlerinin “kesin” tanımlamalar ile birbirinden ayrıldıklarını göstermektedir ki bu geleneksel çözümleme yöntemleri özellikle 20. yüzyıl sanatını çözümlemekte eksik kalırlar. 1960’larda ABD ve Avrupa’da ortaya çıkan bazı sanat akımları, farklı üretim biçimlerini bir arada kullanırlar (Fluxus, H...

  5. Rat İskemik Deri Fleplerinde Defibrotide (Cas 83712-60-1)'in Doku Nitrik Oksit ve Flep Yaşamına Etkisi

    OpenAIRE

    Özyazgan, İrfan; Saraymen, Recep

    2003-01-01

    Defibrotide (CAS 83712-60-1), iskemik dokularda, önceki çalışmalarda flep yaşamını artırdığı gösterilen NO düzeyini artırır.Buradan yola çıkarak Defibrotide 'in flep yaşamını artırabileceği hipotezi ile deneysel bir çalışma yapıldı.Bu amaçla 24 rat, Kontrol, Defibrotide 100 ve Defibrotide 200 olmak üzere üç gruba ayrılarak sırtlarında 3 x 10 cm boyutlarında deri flepleri hazırlandı. Bu sırada fleplere komşu bölgelerden deri örnekleri alındı. Fleplerin oluşturulmasından hemen sonra kontro...

  6. Öğretmenlerin güdülenme türünün, kullandıkları duygusal emek stratejilerinin ve yordayıcılarının incelenmesi

    OpenAIRE

    APAYDIN ŞEN, Hatice

    2017-01-01

    Bu araştırmada öğretmenlerin kullandıkları duygusal emek stratejilerini, öğretmenlerin güdülenme türlerinin yordayıp yordamadığı ile öğretmenlerin güdülenme türü ve kullandıkları duygusal emek stratejilerini, öğretmen özgecilik davranışları ve kişilik özelliklerinin hangi düzeyde yordadığı incelenmiştir. Ayrıca, öğretmenlerin güdülenme türleri ve kullandıkları duygusal emek stratejilerinin, öğretmenliği seçme nedenleri, mesleğe devam etme nedenleri, cinsiyet,  deneyim yılı, ...

  7. Feminist Sanatta Beden ve Yabancılaşma

    OpenAIRE

    Alp, Kafiye Özlem

    2015-01-01

    Feminizm, eril bir toplumda kadının, eşit hak ve özgürlüklere sahip olma gerekçelerine dayalı bir mücadele alanı olarak tanımlanabilir. Feminizmin, kamusal ve özel alanda kadın ayrımcılığına karşı başkaldırısı, insanın kendi emeğine ve kendi bedenine olan yabancılaşmasının bir sonucudur. Bu bakımdan feminizm, tüm tarihi boyunca toplumsal, felsefi, cinsel ve psikanalitik yabancılaşma kavramlarıyla yakın ilgi içinde olmuştur. Feminist sanat pratikleri; feminist kuramlar, toplumsal dinamikler...

  8. A mutant of a mutant of a mutant of a ...: Irradiation of progressive radiation-induced mutants in a mutation-breeding programme with Chrysanthenum morifolium RAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broertjes, C.; Koene, P.; Veen, J.W.H. van.

    1980-01-01

    Radiation-induced sports in Chrysanthemum morifolium RAM. have been reported for several years. It has become an everyday practice to produce flower-colour mutants from outstanding cross-breeding products, even before they are distributed for the commercial production of cut flowers. One of the most successful and recent examples is that of cv. Horim, of which hundreds of mutants were produced by successive use of radiation-induced mutants in the mutation-breeding programme. Over about 4 years a variety of flower-colour mutants was obtained, not only largely including the outstanding characteristics of the original cultivar but sometimes even with an appreciable improvement in quality and yield. It is expected that the latter types, the Miros group, will soon completely supersede the spontaneous or raditation-induced Horim sports and mutants and take over the leading position of the Horim group in the production of all-year-round (AYR) cut-flowers. (orig.)

  9. BILDUNGSROMAN OLARAK F. S. FITZGERALD’IN THIS SIDE OF PARADISE ADLI ROMANI

    OpenAIRE

    Tanrıtanır, Bülent Cercis; Eleman, Akın

    2010-01-01

    İlk defa Alman yazar Johann Wolfgang von Goethe tarafından 1794 yılında yazılan Wilhelm Meister’s Lehrjahre adlı romanla ortaya çıkan Bildungsroman türü, genç bir ‘erkek’ kahramanın ahlaki, psikolojik ve entelektüel gelişiminden ibarettir. Geleneksel romandan keskin bir şekilde ayrılan Bildungsroman, ‘Çıraklık Modeli’ adı verilen bir model sayesinde henüz olgunlaşmamış kahramanının içsel gelişimini aşama aşama g&oum...

  10. Fitoterapide karminatif olarak kullanılan Apiaceae Meyvaları (Foeniculum vulgare, Pimpinella anisum)

    OpenAIRE

    ORTANCIL, Mahmut

    2006-01-01

    Bu çalışmada halk arasında karminatif olarak kullanılan Apiacea bitkileri Foeniculum vulgareve Pimpinella anisum'un kimyasal özellikleri ve biyolojik etkileri literatür verilerine dayanılarak incelenmiştir.Pimpinella anisum uçucu yağının büyük kısmını anetol oluşturmaktadır. Uçucu yağda ayrıcaöstragol, kumarin yapısında bileşikler (bergapten, umbelliferon ve skopoletol), lipitler(petroselinik asit, palmitik asit, linoleik asit) ve flavonoitler de bulunmaktadır.Pimpinella ...

  11. Topraktan Pestisitlerin Arındırılmasında Önemli Bir Araç: Fitoremediasyon

    OpenAIRE

    TİRYAKİ, Osman; POTUR, Tayfun

    2018-01-01

    Pestisitler bitki koruma önlemleri arasındaen fazla uygulananıdır.Ancak, pestisitlerin tarımsal alanlarda bilinçsiz ve yoğun bir şekilde kullanımı bazı ekosistem problemlerine neden olur.Pestisitlerin sınıflandırma şekillerinden biri de topraktaki yarılanma sürelerine göre yapılanıdır. Bu sınıflandırmada pestisitler kalıcı değil, orta derece kalıcı, kalıcı ve devamlı kalıcı olarak 4 gruba ayrılırlar. Kullanılan pestisitler arasında toprakta çok çabuk parçalananları olduğu gi...

  12. Melatonin ve Klinik Önemi

    OpenAIRE

    Fehmi, Özgüner; Özcankaya, Ramazan; Delibaş, Namık; Koyu, Ahmet; Çalışkan, Sadettin

    2009-01-01

    SüleymanDemirel Üniversitesi TIP FAKÜLTESİ DERGİSİ: 1995 Aralık; 2(4) Melatonin ve Klinik Önemi Fehmi Özgüner Ramazan Özcankaya Namık Delibaş Ahmet Koyu Sadettin Çalışkan . Özet Melatonin karanlık periyotta sentezlenir ve salınır, ayrıca karanlığın süresi hakkındaki bilginin değerlendirilmesine aracılık eder. Melatonin sirkadiyan ritmi, gençlerde oldukça düzenlidir, yaşlılıkta sıklıkla siklus bozulma gösterir ve bir hipomelatoninemi sendromu ola...

  13. Gömülü 20 yaş dişi cerrahisinde kemik dokusuna yapılan müdahalelerde kullanılan Er:YAG lazer, piezocerrahi ve konvansiyonel frez yöntemlerinin birbirleriyle klinik olarak karşılaştırılmalı incelenmesi

    OpenAIRE

    ÇELEBİOĞLU, Bedriye Gizem

    2011-01-01

    Gömülü 20 yaş dişi çekimleri oral ve maksillofasiyal cerrahide en sık yapılan uygulamalardır. Cerrahi işlemlerin tamamında amaç doku hasarını minimalize ederek az komplikasyon yaratmak ve postoperatif iyleşme periodunda hastalara daha az ağrı ve daha fazla rahatlık sağlamaktır.Çalışmamız Pell-Gregory Sınıflaması'na göre klas 2, pozisyon B vertikal pozisyonda bilateral alt gömülü yirmi yaş dişi bulunan 30 hasta üzerinde gerçekleştirmiştir. Hastalar rastgele 2 gruba ayrıldı...

  14. MEKANİ K KAZI MAKİNALARIND A KESM E TİTREŞİMİ ANALİZİ

    OpenAIRE

    TİRYAKİ, Bülent; HEKİMOĞLU, Osman Z.

    1998-01-01

    Bu makalede, keski kullanarak kaya ve kömür kazısı yapan mekanik kazı makinalarındaki kesme titreşimi anlatılmaktadır. Kesme titreşimi ve titreşim analizi yöntemi ayrıntılı olarak verilmiştir. Kesme titreşimlerinin makina performansı üzerindeki etkilerini araştırmak için Orta Anadolu Linyitleri (OAL) İşletmesi Bölge Müdürlüp'ndeki tamburlu kesici-yükleyicilerle bir dizi yeraltı denemeleri yapılmıştır. Yine OAL'deki tamburlu kesici-yükleyicilerin kesme karakteristikleri bir bilgisaya...

  15. Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis MA83 Suşunda Aktif Bir Faj Dirençlilik Sisteminin Genetik ve Biyokimyasal Doğası

    OpenAIRE

    Tükel, Çağla; Akçelik, Mustafa

    2003-01-01

    Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis MA83 susunda fajlann adsorbsiyonu, bu bakteride 32.7 kb büyüklükteki plazmidin varlığında üretilen ekzopolisakkarit materyal tarafından engellendi. Kimyasal analizler sonucunda bu ekzopolisakkarit materyalin ana bileşenlerinin galaktoz, galaktozamin, ramnoz ve fosfat olduğu belirlendi. Ayrıca, L. lactis subsp. lactis MA83 susunda Øla2, Øp78, Ør4 ve Øp81 fajlannın almaç bölgelerinin protein yapıda olduğu saptandı.  

  16. Tarihsel süreç içinde peyzaj tasarım ve uygulama çalışmalarında yapı malzemelerinin kullanımının irdelenmesi

    OpenAIRE

    Shakouri, Nasim

    2010-01-01

    Peyzaj, sayısız materyallerden oluşan görsel bir bütünlük olarak tanımlanmaktadır. Bu materyaller zaman içindeki değişimlerle, peyzaj tipi ve karakterini belirlemektedir. Peyzaj mimarlığında kullanılan materyaller, canlı ve cansız materyaller olarak ayrıca tanımlanmaktadır. Cansız materyaller kavramı içinde, peyzaj mimarlığında kullanılan yapısal öğelerin oluşturmasında önemli rol oynayan yapı malzemeleri de yer almaktadır. Peyzaj mimarlığında kullanılan yapısal malzemelerin özellikl...

  17. Harşit Vadisi’nin (Türkiye) Caligonellid Akarları (Acari: Raphignathoidea: Caligonellidae)

    OpenAIRE

    DOĞAN, Sibel; DOĞAN, Salih; ERMAN, Orhan

    2018-01-01

    Bu çalışmada, Harşit Vadisi’nden (Türkiye) toplanancaligonellid akarların (Acari: Caligonellidae) iki cinsine ait toplam dört türtespit edildi. Türlerden üçü, Caligonellahumilis (Koch), Neognathusspectabilis (Summers ve Schlinger) ve N.terrestris (Summers ve Schlinger), çalışma alanından ilk defa kaydedildi.Bu türlerin, çeşitli organlarının şekilleri çizildi, ölçümleri alındı vetanımları yapıldı. Ayrıca Türkiye’de ve dünyada yayılışları üzerinde duruldu....

  18. Dental ağrılarda analjezik seçimi

    OpenAIRE

    ERGÜN, Selin; GÜNERİ, Pelin

    2015-01-01

    Dental ağrının giderilmesini ya da azaltılmasını sağlayan ilaçların etkin biçimde kullanılması, ağrı yakınması olan bir hastanın tedavisini ve dolayısıyla klinik sonuçlarını da olarak etkilemektedir. Ağrı kesiciler genel olarak opiodler ve nonopioidler olarak ikiye ayrılır; bu terimler eskiden kullanılan narkotikler ve nonnarkotiklerin yeni isimleridir. Nonopioidler, prostoglandin sentezini inhibe eden asetaminofen ve non-steroid anti-enflamatuar ilaçları (NSAÎ) içermektedir. Opioidler ise sp...

  19. Aladağlar da Bitki Formasyonları ve Dağılışları

    OpenAIRE

    ÜNALDI, Ülkü ESER; TOROĞLU, Emin

    2007-01-01

    Bulunduğu konum itibariyle Türkiye\\'de yetişme şartlarının bitki gelişimine ve çeşitliliğine uygun koşullar taşıdığı yerlerden biri de Aladağlar\\'dır. Nitekim dağda orman, çalı ve ot formasyonları yer almaktadır. Orman formasyonu kuru ormanlar ve yarı nemli ormanlar olmak üzere ikiye ayrılmaktadır. Kuru ormanlar güney yamaçta 250-1300mler, kuzey yamaçta 1400–2400 mler arasında uzanmaktadır. Kuru ormanların hakim elemanları güney yamaçlarda kızılçam, kuzey yamaçlarda i...

  20. Efetividade de rizóbios e caracterização fenotípica dos isolados que nodulam feijão-caupi em solos da Amazônia Central Effectiveness and phenotypic characterization of cowpea rhizobia isolated from central Amazonian soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aloísio Freitas Chagas Junior

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata é uma cultura importante na Amazônia Central, mas os rizóbios associados a essa leguminosa são poucos estudados. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a efetividade e caracterizar fenotipicamente os isolados de rizóbio que nodulam feijão-caupi na região. As populações de rizóbio de Novo Ayrão proporcionaram as maiores produções de matéria seca da parte aérea e total, raiz, número de nódulos e peso dos nódulos secos nas plantas de feijão-caupi; porém, não diferiram do tratamento testemunha com N. Com base nos critérios fenotípicos avaliados, foi possível identificar uma ampla diversidade de populações de rizóbios contidos nos solos da Amazônia.Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata is an important legume cultivated in central Amazonia, but its rhizobia have been little studied. The present study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness and to characterize phenotypically the population of indigenous rhizobia that infect cowpea in the region. The rhizobia population from Novo Ayrão soils provided the highest shoot, root and total dry matter yields, number of nodules and nodule dry weights in cowpea plants; however, they were not different from those found for the control treatment with N. Based on phenotypic criteria, it was possible to identify a wide diversity of populations of rhizobia contained in Amazonian soils.

  1. 15. YÜZYIL ŞAİRLERİNDEN DİYARBAKIRLI HALÎLÎ’NİN ŞİİRLERİ / THE POEMS OF HALÎLÎ WHO IS A 15th CENTURY POET FROM DIYARBAKIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet KAVAKLIYAZI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Klasik Türk edebiyatında divanı bugün için elimizde bulunmayan kimi şairlerin şiirleri, şiir mecmualarında karşımıza çıkmaktadır. Bu şairlerden biri de Firkat-nâme’si ile tanınan, 15. yüzyıl şairi Diyarbakırlı Halîlî’dir.Halîlî’nin belli başlı mecmualardaki şiirleri daha önce bazı akademik çalışmalara konu edilmişti. Üzerine yüksek lisans tezi hazırladığımız Koyunoğlu Müzesi Kütüphanesinde bulunan 13450 numaralı mecmuada Halîlî’nin, önceki yayımlarda bulunmayan şiirlerinin olduğunu gördük. Ayrıca, mecmualarda Halîlî’ye ait bazı şiirlerin onun Firkat-nâme’sinde geçen şiirler olması sebebiyle bu eserdeki şiirlerin ayrılması ve mecmuaların yeniden taranarak diğer şiirlerinin belirlenmesi gerekmekteydi.Çalışmamızda Halîlî’nin Firkat-nâme dışındaki şiirleri mecmualar taranarak tespit edilmiş, bu şiirlerin ona aidiyeti saptanmış ve şiirlerin karşılaştırmalı metni verilmiştir.

  2. FARKLI YAPIDAKİ RADYAL MANYETİK YATAK SİSTEMLERİNİN İKİ BOYUTLU STATİK MANYETİK ANALİZİ

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    Yusuf ÖNER

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Sürtünme kayıpları, diğer dönel makinalarda olduğu gibi elektrik makinalarında da önemli bir problemdir. Ayrıca, sürtünme kayıplarının oluştuğu yataklar periyodik aralıklarla yağlanmaya ve bakıma ihtiyaç duyarlar. Bu çalışmada, elektrik motorunun sürtünme kayıplarını azaltmak için, farklı yapıya sahip radyal manyetik yatak sistemlerinin iki boyutlu statik manyetik analizi yapılmış ve birbirleri ile karşılaştırılmıştır; ayrıca, dört kutba sahip manyetik yatak sistemi gerçeklenmiş ve bir asenkron motora uygulanmıştır. Simülasyonlarda, tasarlanan manyetik yatak sistemi tarafından asenkron motorun rotoruna uygulanan kuvvetler, FEMM yazılım paketi kullanan bir bilgisayar yardımıyla hesaplanmıştır. Uygulamada, manyetik yatak sistemi ile mekanik yatak sistemi 350 d/d'lık hızlara kadar karşılaştırıldığında; manyetik yataklı sistemin, asenkron motorun yüksüz çalışma kayıplarını % 15 dolaylarında azalttığı gözlenmiştir. Buna ek olarak, motorun mekanik gürültüsü de önemli derecede azalmıştır.

  3. Van Otlu Peynirinin Yapılışı ve Mikrobiyolojik, Fiziksel ve Kimyasal Nitelikleri

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    Ahmet Kurt

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Bu araştırmada 10 adet taze Van Otlu peyniri örneklerine; mikrobiyolojik, fiziksel ve kimyasal analizler uygulanmıştır. Peynir teknolojisinde, sağlık, teknik ve ekonomik yönden önemli olan toplam koliform, süt asidi, lipolitik ve proteolitik mikroorganizmalarla maya ve küflerin sayısal değerleri yanında rutubet, yağ, yağsız kurumadde, kurumaddede yağ, protein, suda eriyen protein, kül, tuz, saf kül, kurumaddede tuz ve % asitlik oranları, peynir örneklerinde ayrı ayrı saptanmıştır. Elde edilen sonuçlara göre peynir yapımı çok dağınık ve ilkel karakter arz etmektedir. Peynirlerin yapımındaki farklı uygulamalar, teknik bilgi ve yöntem noksanlığı yüzünden, gerek mikrobiyolojik analiz ve gerekse fiziksel ve kimyasal analiz sonuçları örnekten örneğe önemli fraklılıklar göstermiştir. Peynir örneklerinde saptanan Koliform organizma sayıları, hem sağlık yönünden hem de peynirlerin olgunlaşmalarında sorunlara neden olabilecek düzeydedir.

  4. KESTANE KABUĞUNUN PİROLİZİ VE ELDE EDİLEN ÜRÜNLERİN KARAKTERİZASYONU

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    Ilknur DEMIRAL

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada kestane kabuğu biyokütle kaynağı olarak seçilmiş ve sabit yataklı reaktörde pirolizi gerçekleştirilmiştir. Deneylerde piroliz sıcaklığı, ısıtma hızı ve sürükleyici gaz akış hızının piroliz ürün verimleri üzerindeki etkileri incelenmiştir. Yapılan deneyler sonucunda en yüksek katran verimine 50 oCdk-1 ısıtma hızı, 400 oC piroliz sıcaklığı ve 150 cm3dk-1 sürükleyici gaz akış hızında %18,70 ile ulaşılmıştır. Çalışmalar sonucunda elde edilen katranın FTIR spektrumu alınmış, elementel analizi gerçekleştirilmiş ve ısıl değeri belirlenmiştir. Katran sütun kromatografisinde hidrokarbon ve polar bileşiklerine ayrılmıştır.  Alifatik alt fraksiyon GC-MS ile karakterize edilmiştir. Ayrıca hammaddenin ve katı ürünün BET yüzey alanları belirlenmiş ve katı ürünün SEM görüntüsü alınmıştır.

  5. MERKEZKAÇ KOMPRESÖRDE EMME KENARI TASARIM KRİTERLERİ

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    Saim KOÇAK

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Sıkıştırılabilir akışkanla çalışan merkezkaç kompresörde çark tasarımı hakkında genel bir bilgi verilmiş, emme kenarı tasarım kriterleri tanımlanmış, açıların (geliş, ayrılış ve sapma, bağıl dolanım, dönen ayrılma ve Mach sayılarının tasarıma etkileri araştırılmıştır. Emme kenarı minimum bağıl Mach sayısı ile akış açısı arasındaki ilişki incelenmiş ve minimum Mach sayısının akış açısının -680 ile -520 değerleri olduğu görülmüştür. Tasarıma başlarken akış açısındaki 10 derecelik farkın minimum bağıl Mach sayısına etkisinin % 1'den daha az olduğu gösterilmiştir.

  6. Yapı Açısından Cümle Sorunu In Terms of Sentence Structure Problem

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    H. İbrahim DELİCE

    2012-09-01

    kullanılan sözcük veya sözcük öbeği dizisi' olması ve bir duygu, düşünce, hüküm vb. ifade etmesi' özellikleri esas alınarak tanımlanmaktadır. Cümlenin 'yargı' esaslı bu tanımı, cümle için doğru bir bakış açısını yansıtmamaktadır; çünkü, bir sözcük veya sözcük öbeği de cümle içinde yerine göre bir yargı ifade edebilir. Bir dizgeye cümle dememizi sağlayan en temel kavram 'yüklem'dir. Dolayısıyla, “Cümle, bir yüklem ile ona bağlı en az bir tamamlayıcıdan oluşan ve bir oluş, kılış ile durum bildiren söz dizim biçiminin adıdır.” şeklinde tanımlandığında 'yapı bakımından cümle' konusunda bizi doğruya götürebilecek başka bir açıdan bakmamız mümkün olabilecektir. Yüklem etrafında tamamlayıcı cümle öğelerinin eklenmesiyle oluşturulan cümle, eğer başka bir yüklemin yapısal öğesi olmuyorsa iki yüklemli dizgeyi bir cümle saymak doğru olmaz; zira, her iki dizgenin de öğe çözümlemesi ayrı ayrı yapılır. Bir kılış, oluş veya durum bir yüklem etrafında ifade edildikten sonra başka bir cümleyle birbirini takip eden zaman çizgisi doğrultusunda sıralama bağlaçları veya noktalama işaretleriyle sıralanarak ya da bir cümle başka bir cümleyle bağlama edatları vasıtasıyla ilişkilendirilerek yan yana dizilebilir. Anlamca birbirinin tamamlayıcısı olmasına rağmen yapısal açıdan bakıldığında ayrı birer cümle olan bu dizgeleri bir birleşik cümle saymak doğru değildir. Sonuç olarak bir yüklem etrafında oluşturulan dizge için 'yapmak' dolayısıyla 'yapı'; iki yüklem etrafında ayrı ayrı yapılmış dizgeleri bir amaç veya anlam doğrultusunda kurgulamak için 'kullanmak' dolayısıyla 'kullanım' sözcüklerinin benimsenmesi ile cümle tanımına aykırı cümle tasniflerinin ortaya çıkması önlenmiş; var olan cümle tasniflerindeki çelişki giderilmiş olacaktır.

  7. Diet, Prey Selection, and Body Condition of Age-0 Delta Smelt, Hypomesus transpacificus, in the Upper San Francisco Estuary

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    Steven B. Slater

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Steven B. Slater and Randall D. Baxterdoi: http://dx.doi.org/10.15447/sfews.2014v12iss3art1The Delta Smelt, an endangered fish, has suffered a long-term decline in abundance, believed to result from, in part, to changes in the pelagic food web of the upper San Francisco Estuary. To investigate the current role of food as a factor in Delta Smelt well-being, we developed reference criteria for gut fullness and body condition based on allometric growth. We then examined monthly diet, prey selectivity, and gut fullness of larvae and juvenile Delta Smelt collected April through September in 2005 and 2006 for evidence of feeding difficulties leading to reduced body condition. Calanoid copepods Eurytemora affinis and Pseudodiaptomus forbesi remained major food items during spring and from early summer through fall, respectively. Other much larger copepods and macroinvertebrates contributed in lesser numbers to the diet of older juvenile fish from mid-summer through fall. In fall, juvenile Delta Smelt periodically relied heavily on very small prey and prey potentially associated with demersal habitat, suggesting typical pelagic food items were in short supply. We found a strong positive selection for E. affinis and P. forbesi, neutral to negative selection for evasive calanoid Sinocalanus doerrii, and neutral to negative selection for the small cyclopoid copepod Limnoithona tetraspina and copepod nauplii, which were consumed only when extremely numerous in the environment. Feeding incidence was significantly higher in 2006, but among successfully feeding fish we found no between year difference in gut fullness. However, we did detect differences in fullness across months in both years. We found no difference in body condition of Delta Smelt between years yet our sample sizes were low in September when Delta Smelt reverted to feeding on very small organisms and fullness declined, so the longer-term effect remains unknown. Our findings suggest that: Delta

  8. Earthworms from Mato Grosso, Brazil, and new records of species from the state Minhocas do Mato Grosso e novos registros de espécies do estado

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    Marie Luise Carolina Bartz

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to undertake a qualitative assessment of earthworm diversity in areas under human influence, in a region of Cerrado-Pantanal-Amazon rainforest transition, in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. The earthworms were collected in the municipalities of Barra do Bugres and Arenápolis, and were studied together with species previously identified from other municipalities. Seventeen municipalities, at 29 sampling points of Mato Grosso State, have been sampled. Seven species of earthworms were collected and identified in Barra do Bugres: Goiascolex vanzolinii, Pontoscolex (Pontoscolex corethrurus, Opisthodrillus borellii borellii, Opisthodrillus sp., Dichogaster (Diplothecodrilus gracilis, Dichogaster sp. and a species of the Criodrilidae family. Four species of earthworms were identified in Arenápolis: Pontoscolex (Pontoscolex corethrurus, Dichogaster (Diplothecodrilus gracilis, Dichogaster (Diplothecodrilus affinis and Dichogaster sp. In total, 32 earthworm species/subspecies are known from Mato Grosso, 22 native and 10 exotic.O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar qualitativamente a diversidade de minhocas em áreas sob influência humana, em uma região de transição de Pantanal-Cerrado-Floresta Amazônica, no Estado de Mato Grosso. As minhocas foram coletadas nos municípios de Barra do Bugres e Arenápolis e estudadas em conjunto com espécies previamente identificadas de outros municípios do Estado, em um total de 29 pontos de coletas em 17 municípios. Em Barra do Bugres, foram coletadas e identificadas sete espécies de minhocas: Goiascolex vanzolinii, Pontoscolex (Pontoscolex corethrurus, Opisthodrillus borellii borellii, Opisthodrillus sp., Dichogaster (Diplothecodrilus gracilis, Dichogaster sp. e uma espécie da família Criodrilidae. Em Arenápolis foram identificadas quatro espécies: Pontoscolex (Pontoscolex corethrurus, Dichogaster (Diplothecodrilus gracilis, Dichogaster (Diplothecodrilus affinis e

  9. Fauna de coleópteros aquáticos (insect: coleoptera na Amazônia central, Brasil Aquatic Beetlefauna (insecta: coleoptera in Central Amazonia, Brazil

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    Cesar João Benetti

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram coletados 888 exemplares de Coleoptera aquáticos nos municípios de Manaus, Manacapuru e Presidente Figueiredo (AM, de fevereiro de 2000 a agosto de 2002, distribuídos em 12 famílias, 50 gêneros e 88 espécies ou morfoespécies. Novas ocorrências para o Brasil, incluem as seguintes espécies de Dytiscidae: Hydrodessus robinae, H. surinamensis, Hypodessus frustrator, Neobidessus confusus, N. spangleri e N. woodruffi. Os gêneros Agaporomorphus (Dytiscidae e Pronoterus (Noteridae são registrados pela primeira vez para o estado do Amazonas, assim como as espécies: P. punctipennis e Suphisellus nigrinus (Noteridae; Agaporomorphus grandisinuatus, Bidessonotus tibialis, Derovatellus lentus,Desmopachria nitida, Hydaticus xanthomelas, Laccophilus tarsalis, Liodessus affinis e Megadytes laevigatus (Dytiscidae. A família Dytiscidae foi a que apresentou maior riqueza, com 34 espécies, seguida de Hydrophilidae, com 20 e Noteridae, com 12 espécies. Os gêneros com maior número de espécies foram Gyretes (Gyrinidae e Suphisellus (Noteridae com 6 espécies, Copelatus (Dytiscidae e Tropisternus (Hydrophilidae, com 5 espécies.In this work, 888 specimens of aquatic Coleoptera were collected in Manaus, Manacapuru and Presidente Figueiredo counties (AM, distributed in 12 families, 50 genera and 88 species or morphospecies. New occurrences in Brasil include the following species of Dytiscidae: Hydrodessus robinae, H. surinamensis, Hypodessus frustrator, Neobidessus confusus, N. spangleri and N. woodruffi. The genera Agaporomorphus (Dytiscidae and Pronoterus (Noteridae were reported for the first time in the State of Amazonas, as well as the species P. punctipennis and Suphisellus nigrinus (Noteridae; Agaporomorphus grandisinuatus, Bidessonotus tibialis, Derovatellus lentus,Desmopachria nitida, Hydaticus xanthomelas, Laccophilus tarsalis, Liodessus affinis and Megadytes laevigatus (Dytiscidae. The family Dytiscidae presented the highest richness

  10. Problem Davranışların Azaltılmasında Olumlu Davranışsal Destek Planı Hazırlama

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    Dilek Erbaş

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Günümüzde problem davranışlara, normal gelişim gösteren ve özürlü çocuklarda oldukça sık rastlanılmaktadır. Problem davranışlar öğrencilerin yaşamlarını farklı şekillerde olumsuz olarak etkilemekledir. Problem davranış gösteren bireyler bit davranışları nedeniyle, eğitim ve öğretim olanaklarından yeterince yararlanamamaktadır. Ayrıca, bu bireyler akranları ve toplumdaki diğer bireyler tarafından dışlanabildikleri için bazı sosyal becerileri geliştirememekle ya da sınırlı düzeyde geliştirebilmekledirler. Dolayısıyla, öğretmenler, öğrencilerin yaşamlarını olumsuz etkileyen bu davranışları azaltmak için, olumlu davranışsal destek planı hazırlamalıdır. Hazırlanan bu planlar, uygulamalı davranış analiz ilkelerine dayalı olmalıdır. Ayrıca, hazırlanan planın Öğrenciye ve uygulayacak bireylerin değer yargılarına uygun olması gereklidir. Olumlu davranışsal destek planının sahip olması gereken diğer önemli bir özelliği ise, hazırlanan planın. Öğrencinin yaşam kalitesini arttıracak şekilde desenlenınesi ve uygulanmasıdır. Kapsamlı bir plan hazırlamak için, planı ayrıntılı şekilde yazmak, tutarlı ve sistemli olarak uygulamak ve planın etkililiğini değerlendirmek ve gerektiğinde düzenlemeleri yapmak için veri toplamak gibi basamakları gerçekleştirmek gereklidir. Problem behaviors are frequently seen among the children with normal development as well as children with disabilities- Problem behaviors affect the students' lives in different negative ways. Individuals exhibiting problem behaviors cannot make the most out of their educational opportunities due to their behaviors. What's more, these individuals may run the risk of being incompetent or restricted İn some social skills because of being excluded by their peers. Thus, teachers should prepare behavior-changing plans based on positive behavior support to mitigate the problem behaviors

  11. Yağ Gülü (Rosa damascena Mill.’nde Tepe Boşluğu Katı Faz Mikro Ekstraksiyonu (HS-SPME ve Konvansiyonel Su Distilasyonu Yöntemleri ile Elde Edilen Uçucu Bileşenlerin Karşılaştırılması

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    Hasan BAYDAR

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Yağ gülü (Rosa damascena Mill., kendine özgü doğal koku bileşenleri nedeniyle parfüm ve kozmetik endüstrisinde değerlendirilen en önemli kokulu gül türüdür. Bu araştırmada, taze yağ gülü çiçeklerinin sepal (çanak yaprak, petal (taç yaprak, stamen (erkek organ ve pistil (dişi organ olarak ayrılan kısımlarının uçucu bileşenleri gaz kromatografisi/kütle spektrometresi (GC-MS ile kombine edilmiş Tepe Boşluğu-Katı Faz Mikro Ekstraksiyon (HS-SPME tekniği ile tespit edilmiştir. Ayrıca taze yağ gülü çiçekleri konvansiyonel hidro-Clevenger su distilasyonu yöntemi ile damıtılmış, elde edilen uçucu yağların bileşenleri GC-MS ile belirlendikten sonra HS-SPME sonuçları ile karşılaştırılmıştır. HS-SPME yönteminin yağ gülünde uçucu bileşenleri analizinde oldukça hassas ve etkili olduğu anlaşılmış, bir yağ gülü çiçeğinin farklı kısımların farklı koku bileşenlerine sahip olduğu belirlenmiştir. Ayrıca su distilasyonu ile elde edilen gül yağının uçucu yağ bileşenlerinin çiçeğin doğal koku bileşenlerinden farklı olduğu ve distilasyon sürecinde önemli bazı bileşenlerde değişimler ve kayıplar olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Taze gül çiçeğinin en önemli bileşeni olan feniletil alkol çiçeğin en fazla pembe renkli petallerinde (taç yapraklarında, gül yağında varlığı istenmeyen metil öjenol ise çiçeğin en fazla stamenlerinde (erkek organlarında bulunduğu belirlenmiştir.

  12. Sesli Okuma ve Konuşma Prozodisi: İlişkisel Bir Çalışma

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    Hasan Keskin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Bu araştırma,  ilköğretim dördüncü sınıf öğrencilerinin sesli okuma ve konuşma prozodileri arasındaki ilişkiyi incelemek amacıyla ilişkisel tarama modelinde yapılmıştır. Araştırmaya,  Konya ve Afyonkarahisar’da ilköğretim dördüncü sınıfa devam eden 50 öğrenci katılmıştır.  Öğrencilerin sesli okumaları ve konuşmaları video ile kayıt altına alınmış, daha sonra bu kayıtlar üzerinde ölçekler aracılığıyla puanlamalar yapılmıştır. Sesli okuma ve konuşma prozodisi arasındaki ilişkiyi belirlemeye yönelik, Pearson Momentler Çarpım Korelasyon Tekniği kullanılmıştır. Analiz sonuçlarına göre, öğrencilerin sesli okuma ve konuşma prozodileri arasında, pozitif yönlü orta düzeyde bir ilişki çıkmıştır. Öğrencilerin sesli okumaları ve konuşma prozodi puanları cinsiyet açısından ayrı ayrı incelenmiş; kız ve erkek öğrencilerin ortalamaları arasında anlamlı bir farklılık çıkmamıştır. Ayrıca, öğrencilerin sesli okuma ve konuşmalarındaki prozodik düzeyi belirlemeye yönelik ölçümler yapılmıştır. Bu ölçüm sonuçlarına göre, araştırmaya katılan öğrencilerin %52’sinin sesli okuma prozodilerinin,  %48’inin ise konuşma prozodilerinin düşük düzeyde olduğu görülmüştür.

  13. Teknokent’lerde Geliştirilen Yazılım Projelerinin Risk Analizi ve Başarı Düzeyleri

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    M.Hanefi CALP

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Günlük hayatın hemen her alanında ihtiyaç duyulan yazılım projeleri her geçen gün daha fazla büyümekte ve daha çok önem arz etmektedir. Bununla birlikte, büyüyen bu yazılımlar beraberinde daha karmaşık bir yapıyı doğurmaktadır. Bu bağlamda, sözkonusu yazılım projelerinin analiz ve kontrol süreci, ayrıca başarı düzeyleri merak edilmektedir. Dolayısıyla bu çalışmada, geliştirilen anket formlarında bulunan kontrol listeleri aracılığıyla, Teknokent’lerde geliştirilen yazılım projelerinde karşılaşılan risk faktörlerini belirlemek, analiz etmek ve bu projelerin başarı düzeylerini ortaya koymak amaçlanmıştır. Bu amaçla, gerekli olan veriler toplanmış, yazılım risk faktörleri belirlenmiş ve sözkonusu faktörler analiz edilmiştir. Araştırma kapsamında elde edilen verilerin analizi için betimsel analiz yönteminden yararlanılmış olup, Microsoft Excel 2010 ve IBM SPSS Statistics 21.0 programları kullanılmıştır. Ayrıca, çalışmada analiz sonuçlarına ve geliştirilen yazılımların başarı düzeylerine ayrıntılı bir şekilde yer verilmiştir. Elde edilen sonuçlar içerisinde özellikle; proje süresi, bütçesi, personel sayısı ve hedeflerdeki sapmalara rağmen Teknokent’lerde geliştirilen yazılım projelerinin yaklaşık %95’inin başarıyla sonuçlandırılmış ve müşteriye teslim edilmiş olması dikkat çekmektedir.Anahtar Kelimeler: Yazılım, Risk faktörleri, Risk analizi, Proje başarısı

  14. Radurizasyonun Tavuk Etlerinin Duyusal, Kimyasal ve Mikrobiyolojik Kalitesi Üzerine Etkisi

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    Nuray Kolsarıcı

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Araştırmada 1, 2 ve 3 kGy dozunda uygulanan iyonize radyasyonun (Radurizasyon tavuk but ve göğüs etlerinin mikrobiyolojik, kimyasal ve duyusal kalitelerine olan etkisi üzerinde çalışılmıştır. 6-8 haftalık broilerler kesilerek but ve göğüs etlerine parçalandıktan sonra biri açık kontrol olmak üzere 5 gruba ayrılmış ve 4 grup vakum paketlenmiştir. Vakum paketi gruplardan biri vakumlu kontrol olarak ayrılırken, diğer gruplar 1, 2 ve 3 kGy olmak üzere iyonize radyasyona tabi tutulmuştur. 0. günden başlamak üzere 3’er günlük periyotlarla gruplar analize alınmış, toplam mezofilik aerob, toplam psikrofilik aerob, stafilokok ve laktik asit bakterileri ile pH ve TBA değeri belirlenmiştir. Ayrıca örneklerin duyusal özellikleri de panel oluşturularak saptanmıştır. Elde edilen tüm veriler varyans analizi ile değerlendirilmiştir. Araştırma bulgularına göre tavuk but ve göğüs etlerinde radurizasyon sonrası bakteriyel yükte azalma gözlenmiştir. Radurizasyonun toplam mezofilik aerobik ve toplam psikrofilik aerobik bakteriler üzerine olan etkisi stafilokok ve laktik asit bakterilerine kıyasla daha yüksek düzeyde olup, özellikle laktik asit bakterilerinde zayıf kalmıştır. PH ve TBA değerleri açısından radurizasyonun değişiklik yaratmadığı gözlenmiştir. Bununla birlikte 3 kGy ışınlanmış örneklerin raf ömrü 27 gün civarında olurken 2 kGy ışınlı örnekler 24 günde, 1 kGy ışınlı örnekler 18 günde, vakumlu kontroller 15 günde, açık kontroller 9 gün civarında tüketim özelliğini yitirmiştir. Duyusal değerlendirmelerde alınan sonuçlarda ışınlanmış örneklerin renk, görünüş, aroma, gevreklik gibi özellikleri kontrollere göre farklı olmayıp, tüm gruplar pazarlanabilir nitelikte bulunmuşlardır.

  15. Küf Koleksiyonlarının Oluşturulması ve Korunumu

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    Şeminur Topal

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Çeşitli amaçlarla saf küf kültürlerinin uygun koşullarda ve özgün karakterlerini değiştirmeden korunmasını esas alan küf koleksiyonunun varlığı pek çok durum ve kuruluşun çalışmalarına destek sağlayabilir. Bu gerçekten hareketle NATO destekli ve 6 yıl süren Türkiye’de çeşitli tarımsal ürün ve gıdaların tarladan-tüketime kadarki küf floralarının taranmasına yönelik proje çalışmasında izole ve identifiye edilen küflerin bir koleksiyon bünyesinde değerlendirilmesi planlanmıştır. Pek çoğu, önemli dış koleksiyon merkezleri olan CBS-Hollanda ve CMI-İngiltere’deki uzmanların teyidini alan ve identifikasyonları tarafımızdan yapılan 10.000 civarındaki küf izolatından duplikasyon yaratabilecekleri elemine edilmiş, diğerleri korunuma alınmıştır. Yatık ve liyofilize kültürler olarak koleksiyonda bulunan küf suşlarının büyük bir kısmı için sistematik arşivleme çalışması tamamlanmış ve bilgisayar yardımı ile sınıflandırılmıştır. Bu sınıflama mevcut küflerin, izole edildiği örnek cinsi ve kayıt numaralarına, sağlandığı bölgelerin il trafik kod numaralarına, küf kültürlerinin cins ve tür isimlerine, liyofilize numaralarına ve koleksiyon odasındaki konumunun yer numaralarına göre olmak üzere 6 ayrı parametre için tek tek yapılarak arşivleme gerçekleştirilmiştir. Ayrıca identifiye edilen küflerin cins ve türlerine göre kartoteksleme işlemi yapılmıştır. Bu çalışmada koleksiyon ve korunumuna ilişkin ayrıntılı bilgiler verilmiştir.

  16. Türkçede Üçüncü Kişide Kişi ve Sayı Özelliklerinin Onarım Tabanlı İncelenmesi A Repair-Based Investigation Of Person And Number Features Of Third Person In Turkish

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    Mehmet AYGÜNEŞ

    2013-07-01

    thethird person. This indicates that the third person differs from the firstperson, particularly in terms of the number category. Sözdizim kuramında [kişi] ve [sayı] özelliklerinin demet özellikler biçiminde bulunduğunu belirten görüşe karşın (Chomsky, 1995, 2000, 2004, bu özelliklerin ayrık özellikler olduğunu öne süren görüşler de bulunmaktadır (Sigurðsson, 2004; Baker, 2008; Nevins, 2011, vd.. [kişi] ve [sayı] özellikleri arasındaki bu ayrımın yanı sıra, [kişi] özelliği içerisinde de bir hiyerarşik yapılanmanın bulunduğu, dillerarası görünüme bakıldığında, 1/2>3 biçiminde bir [kişi] hiyerarşisinin bulunduğu belirtilmektedir (Benveniste, 1966; Silverstein, 1985; Carminati, 2005; Bianchi, 2006. Bu çalışmada, Türkçede, üçüncü kişideki [kişi] ve [sayı] özelliklerinin ayrık özellikler olup olmadığının onarım stratejisi üzerinden belirlenmesi amaçlanmıştır. Ayrıca, çalışmanın bulguları, Aygüneş (2012, 2013’te yer alan verilerle bir araya getirilerek, ikinci bir analiz gerçekleştirilmiştir. Bu analizde, birinci kişi ile üçüncü kişi arasında kişi ve sayı kategorisinde onarım sürecine yansıyan farklılıkların belirlenmesi amaçlanmıştır. Çalışmada 70 katılımcı yer almıştır. Katılımcılara BelÖ (Belirleyici Öbeği ile Zo başı (Zaman Başı arasında kişi, sayı ve hem kişi hem sayı kategorilerinde birden uyumsuzluğun bulunduğu üç tümce biçimi sunulmuş ve katılımcılardan bu tümceleri onarmaları istenmiştir. Çalışma sonucunda, katılımcıların uyumsuzluk içeren tümceleri daha büyük oranda BelÖ’ye göre onardıkları ve onarım sürecine sözcük dizilişinin bir etkisinin bulunmadığı belirlenmiştir. Dahası, üçüncü kişide kişi ve sayı kategorilerindeki uyumsuzlukların onarımında farklılığın olduğu görülmüştür. Bu bulgu [kişi] ve [sayı] özelliklerinin ayrık özellikler olduğunu öne süren görüşlerle de

  17. İşlenmiş Kalamar Ürünlerinde Sitokrom Oksidaz I Gen Dizileri Kullanılarak Tür Tayini

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    Emre Keskin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available İşlenmiş su ürünlerinde kullanılan türlerin tayininde moleküler yaklaşımların kullanılması, işleme sonucunda morfolojik özelliklerin kaybolmasından dolayı bir zorunluluk olarak karşımıza çıkmaktadır. Bu çalışmada, kalamar ürünlerinde kullanılan türlerin belirlenmesinde sitokrom oksidaz I gen dizilerinin karşılaştırılması yönteminden yararlanılmıştır. Ürünlerden elde edilen DNA dizileri hizalandıktan sonra Gen Bankası veri tabanındaki referans diziler ile karşılaştırılarak tür seviyesinde eşleşmeler gerçekleştirilmiştir. Ayrıca bu örnekler ve referans dizilerden elde edilen veriler kullanılarak filogenetik bir analiz de gerçekleştirilmiştir. Elde edilen sonuçlar 10 farklı üründen elde edilen DNA dizilerinin 2 farklı familyadan 7 türe ayrıldıklarını göstermektedir. Bu örneklerin 3 tanesinin ekonomik önemi yüksek olan Loliginidae familyasından, diğer 4 örneğin ise ekonomik değeri daha düşük olan Ommastrephidae familyasından oldukları tespit edilmiştir. Ürün paketlerinde bulunan etiketlerde 6 örnekte tür belirtilmezken, diğer 4 örnekte cins belirtilmiş ve bunlardan biri belirtilenden farklı olarak tespit edilmiştir.

  18. Dioktil Adipat (DOA 'ın Sparus aurata (Çipura karaciğer ve solungaç histolojisi üzerine etkileri.

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    Melih Üreten

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Polimer üretim süreçlerinde ikincil plastikleştirici olarak çok yaygın kullanılan dioktil adipat (DOA ’ın ekotoksikolojik etkileri ayrıntılı olarak araştırılmamıştır. Bu çalışmanın amacı 15 gün süreyle 250, 500 ve 750 ppm DOA’ya maruz bırakılan erkek çipura balıklarının (Sparus aurata solungaç ve karaciğerlerindeki histopatolojik değişimlerin ışık mikroskobu ile belirlenmesidir. Kontrol grubuyla karşılaştırıldığında, deneme grubu örneklerinin solungaçlarında vakuolizasyon, merkezi venada genişleme ve çarpıcı füzyon olarak ayırt edilen önemli histopatolojik değişimler gözlenmiştir. Ayrıca solungacın epitel, pillar mukus ve mitokondri zengini hücrelerinde belirgin hipertrofi ve hiperplazi de not edilmiştir. DOA’ya maruz bırakılan balıkların karaciğerlerinin incelenmesi yağlanma, fibrozis ve nekrozis olarak bir dizi hepatosellüler değişim ortaya koymuştur. Kanamaya ek olarak parankimatik sinüzoidler ve hepatopankreasın merkezi venleri genişlemiştir. Çalışma, DOA etkisinin araştırılan her iki dokuda da çoklu histolojik değişimlere yol açtığını, üstelik bu değişimlerin hepsinin uygulanan kimyasalın artan konsantrasyonuyla bağlantılı olduğunu göstermektedir. Sonuçta DOA’nın bir sucul kirletici olarak daha fazla dikkate alınması gerektiği vurgulanmıştır

  19. İnkübasyon Sıcaklığının Kefirin Bazı Nitelikleri Üzerine Etkisi

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    Nesrin Kaptan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Kefirin bazı nitelikleri üzerine, farklı inkübasyon sıcaklıklarının etkisinin araştırıldığı bu çalışmada, 20±1 oC (A, 25±1 oC (B ve 30±1 oC (C de 16 saat süreyle inkübasyon ve iki gün süreyle olgunlaştırma aşamalarından sonra, örnekler titrasyon asitliği, pH, viskozite, serum ayrılması gibi bazı kalite ölçütleri yanısıra asetaldehit, etil alkol gibi aroma unsurları ve duyusal özellikleri yönünden karşılaştırılmıştır. Denenen inkübasyon sıcaklıkları örneklerin titrasyon asitliği üzerinde önemli bir etki yaratmış (P<0.01 ve en yüksek titrasyon asitliği değeri 30 oC de inkübe edilen örneklerde saptanmıştır. PH değeri, viskozite, serum ayrılması ve asetaldehit içeriği açısından örnekler arasında istatistik olarak önemli bir farklılık görülmemiş, bu niteliklerdeki önemli değişimler olgunlaştırma süresi içinde ortaya çıkmıştır. Toplam uçucu yağ asitleri ve karbondioksit içeriklerinde ise gerek inkübasyon sıcaklıkları ve gerekse olgunlaştırma süresi önemli bir farklılığa yol açmamıştır. Duyusal nitelikler yönünden, 25 oC de inkübasyona bırakılan kefir örneği beğenilmiştir.

  20. Antalya İlinde Portakal Bahçelerinde Gözlenen Önemli Zararlı ve Yararlı Böcek Popülasyonları

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    Vildan GÖL

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada, 2014 yılında, Antalya ilinde bulunan iki portakal bahçesinde önemli zararlı ve yararlı böcek popülasyonları belirlenmiştir. Bahçelerde ağırlıklı olarak portakal bulunması nedeniyle örneklemeler de bu tür üzerinde yapılmıştır. Çalışma süresince zararlılara karşı herhangi bir mücadele yöntemi uygulanmamıştır. Çalışmada örneklerin toplanması için gözle kontrol yöntemi, yaprak, sürgün, meyve örnekleme yöntemi, darbe ve tuzakla yakalama yöntemi kullanılmıştır. Çalışma sonucunda zararlı türler olarak Tetranychus urticae (Koch (Acarina: Tetranychidae, Empoasca decipiens (Paoli, Asymmetrasca decedens (Paoli (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae, Dialeurodes citri (Ashmead, Aleurothrixus floccosus (Maskell (Hem.: Aleyrodidae, Aphis craccivora (Koch (Hem.: Aphididae, Icerya purchasi Maskell (Hem.: Margarodidae, Coccus hesperidum (Linnaeus, Ceroplastes floridensis (Comstock (Hem.: Coccidae, Aonidiella aurantii (Maskell, Aonidiella citrina (Coquillet, Parlatoria pergandii (Comstock (Hem.: Diaspididae, Planococcus citri (Risso (Hem.: Pseudococcidae, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae ve Phyllocnistis citrella (Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracillaridae saptanmıştır. Bunlardan E. decipiens (Paoli, A. decedens (Paoli, A. floccosus (Maskell, A. aurantii (Maskell ve Parlatoria pergandii (Comstock en yaygın türler olarak belirlenmiştir. Ayrıca 2 takıma bağlı 7 avcı ve asalak tür saptanmıştır. Bu türler: Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae, Coccinella septempunctata L., Chilocorus bipustulatus L., Rhyzobius lophantae (Blaisdell, Oenopia conglobata (L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae, Aphytis melinus DeBach ve Comperiella bifasciata (Coleoptera: Aphelinidae’ dır. Çalışmada ayrıca zararlı iki cicadellid türü ile A. floccosus, A. aurantii, P. pergandii, C. capitata‘nın ve doğal düşmanlardan C. carnea’nın, coccinellidlerin, A. melinus ve E. citrina

  1. MEVSİMSEL DÜZELTMEDE KULLANILAN İSTATİSTİKİ YÖNTEMLER ÜZERİNE BİR İNCELEME-AN ANALYSE ON STATISTICAL METHODS WHICH ARE USED FOR SEASONAL ADJUSTMENT

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    Handan YOLSAL

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Bu makalenin amacı zaman serileri için resmi istatistik ajansları tarafından geliştirilen ve çok yaygın olarak uygulanan mevsim düzeltme programlarını tanıtmaktır. Bu programlar iki ana grupta sınıflanmaktadır. Bunlardan biri, ilk defa olarak NBER tarafından geliştirilen ve hareketli ortalamalar filtreleri kullanan CENSUS II X-11 ailesidir. Bu aile X-11 ARIMA ve X-12 ARIMA tekniklerini içerir. Diğeri ise İspanya Merkez Bankası tarafından geliştirilen ve model bazlı bir yaklaşım olan TRAMO/SEATS programıdır. Bu makalede sözü edilen tekniklerin mevsimsel ayrıştırma süreçleri, bu tekniklerin içerdiği ticari gün, takvim etkisi gibi bazı özel etkiler, avantaj ve dezavantajları ve ayrıca öngörü performansları tartışılacaktır.-This paper’s aim is to introduce most commonly applied seasonal adjustment programs improved by official statistical agencies for the time series. These programs are classified in two main groups. One of them is the family of  CENSUS II X-11 which was using moving average filters and was first developed by NBER. This family involves X-11 ARIMA and X-12 ARIMA techniques. The other one is TRAMO/SEATS program which was a model based approach and has been developed by Spain Central Bank. The seasonal decomposition procedures of these techniques which are mentioned before and consisting of some special effects such as trading day, calendar effects and their advantages-disadvantages and also forecasting performances of them will be discussed in this paper.

  2. ÇİMENTO ENJEKSİYONLARINDA KULLANILAN KATKI MALZEMELERİNİN REOLOJİK ÖZELLİKLERE ETKİLERİNİN ARAŞTIRILMASI

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    Özcan TAN

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada farklı oranlardaki bentonit (B, uçucu kül (UK ve silis dumanı (SD ile birlikte hazırlanan enjeksiyon karışımlarının reolojik özellikleri araştırılmıştır. Deneyler için Taguchi Yöntemine göre 3 parametreli 4 seviyeli L16 deney tasarım tablosu seçilmiştir. Enjeksiyon karışımlarının hazırlanmasında, kullanılan katı ağırlığının % 0, % 0.5, % 1 ve % 3'ü oranlarında bentonit, % 10, % 20, % 30 ve % 40'ı oranlarında uçucu kül ve % 0, % 5, % 10 ve % 20'i oranlarında silis dumanı kullanılmıştır. Hazırlanan enjeksiyon karışımları için laboratuarda çökelme ve Marsh Hunisi deneyleri yapılmıştır. Deneyler su/katı (S/K 1.25 için yapılmış olup deney sonuçları Taguchi Yöntemine göre ayrı ayrı değerlendirilmiştir. Yapılan değerlendirmeler sonucunda; Akma süresi ve çökelme miktarı üzerinde en etkili parametrenin silis dumanı olduğu belirlenmiştir. Enjeksiyon karışımlarının incelenen özellikleri için optimum karışım oranları Taguchi Yöntemi ile belirlenmiş ve bu oranlar için doğrulama deneyleri yapılmıştır.

  3. Content and Form Anaysis of the Web Sites of University Libraries: A study on the Case in Turkey Üniversite Kütüphaleri Web Sitelerinin Biçim ve İçerik Analizi: Türkiye'deki Uygulamaya İlişkin Bir Araştırma

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    Mesut Kurulgan

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Internet is an important medium in the process of development of information and information technologies. University library web sites are used by many users to reach information. The speed, ease and efficiency of library web site usage contributes to users' satisfaction. This study compares library web sites of state universities to the foundation universities in terms of form and content. Evaluation criteria obtained through content analysis is measured by visiting each library Web site and measures are given as frequency distribution and percentage analysis. The study concludes that library web sites of state universities use the Internet opportunities more effectively than the library web sites of foundation universities. Dünyadaki bilgi miktarının giderek artması ve bilgi teknolojilerinin gelişmesi sürecinde Internet önemli bir mecra oluşturmaktadır. Üniversite kütüphanelerinin web siteleri birçok kullanıcının bilgiye ulaşma noktasındaki beklentilerini karşılamaktadır. Kullanıcıların kütüphane web sitelerinden kolay ve etkin olarak yararlanması kullanıcı tatminini etkilemektedir. Bu çalışmada, Türkiye'deki devlet ve vakıf üniversitelerinin kütüphanelerinin web sitelerinin özellikleri, biçim ve içerik açısından karşılaştırılmaktadır. Üniversite kütüphanelerine ait web sitelerinin her bir ayrı ayrı ziyaret edilmiş ve belirlenen bazı değerlendirme ölçütleri kullanılarak içerik analizi yöntemi ile incelenmiştir. Çalışmada devlet üniversitelerinin kütüphanelerinin web sitelerinin, vakıf üniversitelerinin kütüphanelerinin web sitelerine göre daha yetkin olduğu ve Internet olanaklarını daha iyi kullandıkları belirlenmiştir.

  4. Tomas Peyniri. II. Peynir Örneklerine Katılan P. roqueforti Starter Kültürleri ve Doğal Mikrobiyal Floranın Olgunlaşma Süresince Değişimi

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    H. Hüsnü Gündüz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Bu araştırmada, Doğu Anadolu Bölgesinin bazı yörelerinde üretilen Tomas peynirinin mikrobiyal florası, olgunlaştırma süresince incelenmiştir. Laboratuvarda üretilen peynir örnekleri, 4 ayrı Penicillium roqueforti suşu ile aşılanmış ve 5±1 oC da 4 ay süre ile olgunlaştırılmıştır. Örnekler, 0., 1., 2., 3. ve 4. aylarda mikrobiyolojik yönden analize tabi tutulmuştur. Uygulanan analizler sonucunda; Tomas peyniri örneklerinde, ortalama 26.14x107 adet/g toplam canlı bakteri, 18.70x107 adet/g toplam süt asidi bakterileri sayımı yapılmıştır. Süt asidi bakterilerinden, Streptococcus lactis (ortalama 5.7x107 adet/g, S. cremoris (ort. 2.9x107 adet/g, S. thermophilus (ort. 2.7x107 adet/g, Lactobacillus bulgaricus (ort. 6.5x107 adet/g ve L. plantarum (ort. 12.1x107 adet/g türleri tanımlanmıştır. Proteolitik bakteri olarak, ortalama 6.5x107 adet/g bakteri saptanmış, lipolitik mikroorganizma olarak ise, Candida lipolytica mayası tanımlanmış ve ortalama olarak 13.3x107 adet/g maya belirlenmiştir. Peynir örneklerinde starter kültür olarak kullanılan P. roqueforti suşlarından başka küf mantarına rastlanmamış olup, bu suşlar için sayısal ortalama değer 99.98x107 adet/g olarak bulunmuştur. Ayrıca, örneklerde, coli grubu bakteriye de rastlanılmamıştır

  5. Farklı Isıl İşlem Görmüş İnek Sütlerinden Kefir Kültürü ve Tanesi ile Üretilen Kefirlerin Nitelikleri ve Dayanıklılığı Üzerine Araştırmalar

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    Ergin Oktar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Kaynatılmış, pastörize ve sterilize inek sütlerine ayrı ayrı kefir tanesi ve kefir kültürü aşılanarak üretilen kefirlerin depolamanın 1., 6 ve 9. günlerinde fiziksel, kimyasal ve duyusal analizleri yapılmıştır. Kefir örneklerinin depolama süresince pH’ları düşmüş, asitlikleri yükselmiştir. Kefir üretiminde yağ, protein ve laktoz miktarlarında azalma görülmüştür. Depolamada yağ miktarı değişmezken protein ve laktoz miktarında az da olsa azalma görülmüştür. Serbest yağ asitleri gerek üretim gerekse depolama boyunca artış göstermiştir. Tane ile üretilen kefirlerde maya miktarı kültür ile üretilenlere göre daha fazladır. Alkol, asetaldehit ve aseton kefir üretimi sırasında oluşmuş, depolama sırasında artış göstermiştir. Tüm kefir örnekleri depolama süresince duyusal değerlendirmede beğeni kazanmıştır. Kefir kalitesinin; tane ve kültürü aşılama oranına, inkübasyon sıcaklığı ve süresine, katılan sütün bileşim ve uygulanan ısıl işleme bağlı olduğu belirlenmiştir.

  6. Manisa Gördes’de 2008-2014 Yılları Arasında Tarımsal Üretim-Fiyat İlişkisi(Crop Yield-Price Relation Between The Years 2008-2014 in Gordes, Manisa

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    Uğur BİLGEN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available İnsanlık tarihi incelendiğinde üç önemli devrim karşımıza çıkmaktadır. Bunlardan birincisi yerleşik hayata geçilmesiyle başlayan tarım devrimi, ikincisi buhar gücünün makinelerde kullanılmasıyla başlayan sanayi devrimi ve sonuncusu da bilgi toplumuna geçiş devrimidir. Bu devrimlerin güçlendirdiği tarım ve sanayi sektörleri arasındaki karşılıklı bağımlılık gün geçtikçe daha da artmaktadır. Teknolojinin gelişmesi tarım sektörünü, sanayi ve hizmetler sektörü ile birlikte milli gelir içerisinde önemli bir konuma getirmiştir. Çalışmada Manisa ilinin Gördes ilçesi veri alınarak, bu ilçede yetişen on iki ürünün toplam maliyet yapıları, birim fiyat satış değerleri ve karlılıkları dekar başına ayrı ayrı hesaplanmıştır. Yapılan hesaplamalar sonucunda üretim maliyetlerinin en yüksek olduğu ve de en yüksek karlılığa sahip ürünler belirlenmiştir. Human history has seen three important revolutions. The first one is the agricultural revolution which started when the human race started settled life. The second one is the industrial revolution which started with the industrial use of steam power. The interdependence of agriculture and industry sectors, which are powered by these two revolutions, increases day by day. Ever developing technology has placed agriculture in an important position in terms of national income, together with industry and service sectors. This study takes data from Gordes town of Manisa province and calculates total cost structures, unit price sale values and profitability of 12 crops separately per one thousand square meter. It uses these data to see which crop has higher production costs and which crops yield the highest profitability.

  7. Vakumla Paketlenen İnegöl Köftelerin Farklı Derecelerde Buzdolabında Saklanması Sırasında Bakteri Florasında ve Listeria monocytogenes Sayısındaki Değişiklikler

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    Ece Soyutemiz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Çalışma, günümüzde hazır olarak satışı yaygınlaşan inegöl köftenin vakumla paketlenerek farklı derecelerde muhafazası sırasın­da köftenin bakteri florasını ve L. monocytogenes 'ingelişimini incelemek amacıyla yapıldı. Birinci grup köftelere 4.0x103 kob/g, 9.0x103 kob/g ve 2.4x104 kob/g düzeylerinde 3 farklı L. monocytogenes inokülasyonu uygulanarak, va­kumla paketleme işleminden sonra 7 gün süreyle 4°C'de muhafaza edildi, ikinci grup köftelere ise, 2,9x103 kob/g, 7.0x102 kob/g ve 4.3x103 kob/g düzeylerinde etken inoküle edilerek vakumla paketlendi ve 4°C'de 7 gün süreyle muhafaza edildi. Ayrıca köfteler mezofil aerob bakteri, psikrofil bakteriler, koliform bakteriler, E.coli,stafilokok ve mikrokoklar, koagülaz pozitif stafilokoklar, sülfit indirgeyen anaeroblar, laktobasiller, maya-küf ve enterokoklar bakımından analizlere alındı. Köftelerin ayrınca pH değerleri belirtendi. Analizler depolamanın 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 ve 7. günlerinde yapıldı. İnegöl köftelerin, vakumla paketlenerek 0°C'de ve 4°C'de muhafaza işlemi L. monocytogenes 'inçoğalmasını önlese bile etken bu süre içinde varlığını sürdürmeye devam etti. Bu nedenle köfte yapımında hijyen prensiplerinin ve köftelere yeterli ızgara işlemi uygulamasının önem ka­zandığı düşünüldü.

  8. Ters Ozmos ile Ultrafiltrasyonun Temel İlkeleri ve Gıda Sanayiinde Kullanım Alanları

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    Mehmet Pala

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Gıda sanayiinde yeni yöntemlerin araştırılarak uygulamaya konulması, üretilen gıdaların kalitelerini düzeltmek yönünden olduğu kadar, söz konusu yöntemlerin optimizasyonu açısından da önem taşır. Son 20 yıl içerisinde ilk kez deniz  suyundan içme suyu eldesinde kullanılan ters ozmos yöntemi, gıda sanayiinde yaygın bir uygulama alanı bulmaya başlamıştır. Ters ozmos, bilinen ozmos olayının tersine yönlendirilerek uygulandığı bir yöntemdir. Bu nedenle konunun daha iyi aydınlanması bakımından, canlı metabolizmasında pek çok örnekler görülen ozmos olayının açıklanması gerekir. Bu olayın en basit örneği bir çözelti ile çözücünün yarı geçirgen bir membranla birbirinden ayrıldığı sistemde görülebilir. Bu sistemde şeker çözeltisi ile saf suyun yarı geçirgen bir membranla ayrıldığını düşünecek olursak; çözücüden yani suyun bulunduğu bölümden şeker çözeltisinin bulunduğu ortama doğru bir difüzyon olayı meydana gelecektir. Doğada çok rastlanan bu olaya ozmos olayı adı verilir.

  9. BUTİK HASTANELERDE PAZARLAMA STRATEJİLERİ

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    Ayşen NARİNÇ SALMAN

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available MARKETING STRATEGIES IN BUTIQUE HOSPITAL’SAbstract: Due to today's competitive environment, hospitals providing health services, physicians and the others endeavor for finding continuous better services and providing better level of these services. As a new trend "Boutique Hospitals" provide representing one or several health services and high level  hotel hood to their clients, and consist of patients who are willing to pay most.  In this context, activities such as determination of the target population, type of service delivery, decision of quotation, physical environment, participants, process management and promotion are addressed individually. Presentation of boutique health, intended for demanding people who can pay for the best service.Keywords:                Hospitals, Boutique Hospital, Properties of Boutique Hospital, Health Services, Marketing Mix. BUTİK HASTANELERDE PAZARLAMA STRATEJİLERİÖzet: Günümüz rekabetçi ortamı nedeniyle, sağlık hizmeti sunan hastaneler, hekimler ve diğerleri sürekli daha iyi ürünler bulmak ve bu ürünleri daha iyi düzeyde sağlamak için çabalamaktadır. Yeni bir trend olan “Butik Hastaneler” de hastalığına, bir ya da birkaç branşta sağlık hizmeti sunumu, yüksek kalitede otelcilik hizmetinin verildiği hastanelerdir. En çok ödemeyi yapma isteğinde olan hastalardan oluşmaktadır. Hedef kitlenin belirlenmesi, hizmetin sunum şekli, fiyatlandırma kararı, dağıtım, fiziksel çevre, katılımcılar, süreç yönetimi ve tutundurma  işlevleri ayrı ayrı ele alınmıştır. Butik sağlık sunumu, en iyisinin bedelini ödeyebilecek az sayıda talepkar bireylere yöneliktir.

  10. Makine Öğrenmesi Algoritmalarıyla Android Kötücül Yazılım Uygulamalarının Tespiti

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    Abdurahman AYDIN

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Son yıllarda akıllı mobil cihazlar hayatımızı ciddi anlamda kolaylaştırmış ve hız kazandırmıştır. Android işletim sistemi (İS bu cihazlar arasında en yüksek kullanım oranına sahiptir. Yaygın kullanım, yetersiz güvenlik mekanizmaları ve kullanıcıların bilinç düzeyi bu İS’ni saldırganların hedefi haline getirmektedir. Android İS’nin güvenlik mekanizmasını temelini izin tabanlı güvenlik modeli oluşturmaktadır. Uygulamalar, kullanıcı tarafından verilen izinlere bağlı olarak işlevlerini yerine getirebilmektedir. Ancak kullanıcı farkındalığı, talep edilen izinlerin suiistimale açık olup olmadığı hususunda yeterli seviyede değildir. Bu sebeple bu uygulamalarda kötücül içerik tespiti için ek yöntemlere ihtiyaç duyulmaktadır. Bu çalışmada, kötücül yazılım uygulamalarının tespiti amacıyla makine öğrenmesi algoritmaları kullanılarak izin tabanlı bir yöntem önerilmiştir. Önerilen yöntem destek vektör makinesi, rastgele orman, Naïve Bayes ve K en yakın komşu makine öğrenmesi algoritmalarıyla ayrı ayrı denenmiş ve başarımları kıyaslanmıştır. Rastgele orman algoritması %95,65 doğruluk oranıyla en yüksek başarımı sergilemiştir.

  11. PANIC OF SEXUAL IDENITY: BEING A WOMAN ABSTRACT CİNSEL KİMLİK PANİĞİ: KADIN OLMAK

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    Ülkü ELİUZ

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The gap between becoming man or woman biologically and becoming man or woman socially is the main reason why the concept of feminism emerged. The main aim of feminism for a woman is getting herself by getting rid of being seen as an object of a man in a lower value. That conscious will ensure the disappearance of the effect of biological discrimination on social order and the most important one, the emancipation of women, the termination of dilemmas and the process of making social structure stronger. This study is a theoretical assessment focusing on a thought that with its sociologic, politic and moral aspects it is false for one sex to alienate the other one and it is the biggest obstacle to the development of humanity by aiming for understanding and questioning women's rights against men's sovereignty. Biyolojik olarak erkek ya da kadın olmak ile sosyal olarak erkek ya da kadın olmak arasındaki uçurum, feminizmin ortaya çıkışının temel sebebidir. Feminizmin temel hedefi, kadının erkeğin nesnesi olarak aşağı değerde görülmekten kurtularak kendiliğini kazanmasıdır. Bu bilinç, cinsiyetçi toplumsal ve cinsiyet ayrımıyla kutuplaşmış dünyada, biyolojik ayrımın toplum düzenindeki etkisinin ortadan kalkmasını ve ön önemlisi kadının özgürleşmesini, ikilemlerinin son bulmasını ve toplumsal yapının güçlenmesini sağlayacaktır. Bu çalışma, erkek egemenliğine karşı kadın haklarını anlamayı, sorgulamayı amaçlayarak sosyolojik, politik ve ahlakî yönleri ile bir cinsin diğer cinsi öteki’leştirmesinin yanlış ve insanlığın gelişimi önündeki en büyük engellerden biri olduğu düşüncesinde odaklanan kuramsal bir değerlendirmedir.

  12. Model Referans Uyarlanabilir Kontrole Dayalı Bulanık Kontrol Kullanımı ile DC Motor Sürücülerde Hız Kontrolünün Analiz ve Benzetimi

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    Ghazanfar SHAHGHOLIAN

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Bu makalede, model referans uyarlamalı kontrol (MRAC ve model referans bulanık uyarlanabilir kontrol (MRFAC için geleneksel performans sunulmuştur. Çalışmanın amaçları: a sistemin tanımlı referans model hızı ile motor hızının uyumunun arttırılması, b yükleme değişimi ve bozuklukları durumunda gürültünün azaltılması ve c sistemin kararlılığının arttırılması. Böylece, model referans uyarlamalı kontrol yerine uyarlanabilir olmayan veya geleneksel kontrol uygulanır.Ayrıca bulanık kontrolör, PI kontrolör gibi klasik kontrolörlerin yerine kullanılmıştır. Uyarlanır olmayan kontrolün işletimi ve model referans bulanık kontrol ve geleneksel uyarlanabilir kontrol, dc motor hızının türetilmesi ve ayarlanmasında çalışılmıştır. Ardından bunlar birbirleriyle karşılaştırılmıştır. Model referans ve bulanık kontrolör, tüm sistemin kararlılık güvencesine dayanarak tasarlanmıştır. Simülasyon, sabit ve değişken yükler ile yapılmıştır. Elde edilen sonuçlara göre, uyarlanabilir kontrol, uyarlanabilir olmayana göre daha gözdedir. Ayrıca bulanık uyarlanabilir kontrol geleneksel uyarlanabilir kontrolden daha tatmin edicidir.Simülasyonlar, Matlab-Simulink kullanılarak yapılmıştır

  13. Kurşunun Cyprinus carpio Kas Dokusunda İyon Paremetrelerine Etkisi

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    Hikmet Yeter ÇOĞUN

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Bu araştırmada, C. carpio’nun kas dokusunda kurşun (Pb etkisinde iyon parametrelerdeki (Na+, K+, Ca++ ve Mg++ değişimleri Atomik Absorbsiyon Spektrometrik yöntemle belirlenmiştir.Araştırmada kurşunun 0.1 ve 1.0 mg/L derişimleri 10 ve 20 günlük sürelerde, C. carpio kas dokusundaki metal etkisinde kas dokusundaki iyon parametreler (Na+, K+, Ca++ ve Mg++ incelenmiştir. Yapılan çalışmada C. carpio kas dokusunda kurşun her iki derişimde de etki kalma süresinin uzamasıyla arttığı saptanmıştır. C. carpio balıkların kas dokusunda kurşun etkisinde iyon değerleri incelendiğinde, sodyum ve potasyum iyonlarında her iki derişimde ve etkide kalınan süreye bağlı olarak azalmaya, kalsiyum ve magnezyum düzeylerinde ise bir artmaya neden olmuştur.Sodyum ve potasyum iyonlarındaki azalma her iki süre sonunda kontrol grubuna göre yaklaşık %33 ve %93 oranlarında olmuştur. Kalsiyum iyon düzeyi kontrol balıkları ile karşılaştırıldığında 10. günde yaklaşık 4 katlık bir artış, 20. günde ise bu artış yaklaşık 10 kat kadar olduğu gözlenmiştir. Magnezyum iyonunda her iki sürede de artma olmuştur, fakat bu artış her iki sürenin 0.1 mg L-1Pb derişiminde kontrol grubuna göre istatistiksel bir ayrıma neden olmazken, 20. günde ise tüm derişimlerde %30 bir artış olarak istatistiksel bir ayrıma neden olmuştur

  14. Kongre İzlenimleri

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    Faruk Aşıcıoğlu

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available 6th Indo Pasific Congress on Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences 26-30 Temmuz 1998 Kobe Üniversitesinin ev sahipliğini yaptığı ve denizden doldurularak oluşturulan şehir merkezi ile bağlantılı yapay bir ada üzerinde bulunan Kobe Uluslararası Konferans Merkezinde yapılan kongreye 30 ayrı ülkeden yaklaşık 300 kişi katıldı. 7 ayrı salonda yürütülen Kongre Bilimsel programı çerçevesinde 4 konferans, 3 sempozyum, 110 sözlü bildiri, 185 poster sunumu yapıldı. Poster sunumları başında 6 dakikalık sözlü sunum ve 2 dakikalık tartışma süresiyle kısıtlandırılmış olmasına rağmen oturum başkanları bu sürelerin aşılmasına hoşgörüyle yaklaştı. Türkiye’den Prof.Dr.Sevil Atasoy’un 2 sözlü bildiri, 2 poster sunumu, Dr.Faruk Aşıcıoğlu’nun 3 poster sunumu ile katıldığı kongrede, 2 poster oturumu Türk katılımcıların başkanlığında yapıldı. Hyogo Polis Bandosu’nun konseri geleneksel davul gösterisi, çay seramonisi, çiçek düzenleme ve Takarazuka Revüsünün gösterileri katılımcılara geleneksel Japon kültürünü tanıma fırsatı verdi. INPALMS genel kurulunun da yapıldığı kongrede uzun yıllar birliğin başkanlığını yapan Prof.Dr. MS Laksman Salgada (Sri Lanka yerini Prof.Dr. Yoshitsugu Tatsunc’a (Japonya devretti. Dr.Faruk Aşıcıoğlu

  15. [Accuracy of oncotic cytology for HPV infection diagnosis on the cervix uteri of HIV-infected women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Faria, Iwens Moreira; Melo, Victor Hugo; de Castro, Lúcia Porto Fonseca; de Faria, Fernando Meira; Carvalho, Nara de Oliveira; de Araújo, Angela Cristina Labanca; de Oliveira, Homero Caporali

    2008-09-01

    to verify the accuracy of uterine cervix cytology for HPV diagnosis, as compared to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in samples of women with HIV. 158 patients who had undergone a first collection of material from the uterine cervix with Ayre's spatula for PCR were included in the study. Then, another collection with Ayre's spatula and brush for oncotic cytology was performed. Only 109 slides were reviewed, as 49 of them had already been destructed for have being filed for over two years. the prevalence of HPV was 11% in the cytological exam and 69.7% in the PCR. Age varied from 20 to 61 years old, median 35 years. The HIV contagious route was heterosexual in 91.8% of the cases, and 79.1% of the patients had had from one to five sexual partners along their lives. The most frequent complaint was pelvic mass (5.1%), and 75.3% of the women had looked for the service for a routine medical appointment. The categorical variable comparison was done through contingency tables, using the chi2 test with Yates's correction to compare the ratios. The Fisher's test was used when one of the expected rates was lower than five. In the comparison of diagnostic tests, sensitivity, specificity and similarity ratios have been calculated. Among the 76 patients with HPV, detected by PCR, only 12 had the diagnosis confirmed by cytology (sensitivity=15.8%), which on the other hand did not present any false-positive results (specificity=100%). Concerning the HPV presence, the cytological prediction for positive results was 100% and 33.3% for negative, when both results were compared. Among the 12 patients with HPV positive cytology, four (33.3%) presented cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (OR=56; positive similarity ratio=positive infinity; negative similarity ratio=0.83). As the cytology specificity is quite high, it is possible to rely on the positive result, which means that a positive result will surely indicate the presence of HPV. The low sensitivity of cytology does not qualify it

  16. FOTOVOLTAiK SiSTEMLERiN DENETLENMESi iÇiN YENi BiR KONTROL KARTI VE BiLGiSAYAR YAZILIMI

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    Mustafa Berkant SELEK

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalısmada, İzmir ili Bornova ilçesindeki Ege Üniversitesi Günes Enerjisi Enstitüsü bünyesinde kurulan bir yenilenebilir enerji sisteminin elektrik akısını kontrol eden bir mikroislemci kartı tasarlanmıs ve bilgisayar yazılımı gelistirilmistir. Bu amaçla, anahtarlama görevi yapan güç elektronigi devre elemanlarının bulundugu ayrı bir elektronik kartın kontrol islemini üstlenen PIC18F452 mikrodenetleyicisi kullanan bir elektronik devre gerçeklestirilmistir. Piyasadaki standart kontrol kartları tek seviyeli eviricilerin anahtarlanmasına olanak saglamaktadır. Gelistirilen kontrol kartı ise çok seviyeli eviricilerle çalısmak üzere tasarlanmıstır. Bunun yanı sıra, günes enerjisi panellerinin verimleri oldukça düsük oldugundan, günes panellerinin maksimum güç noktasında (MPP çalıstırmak çok önemlidir. Bu yüzden, tasarlanan kontrol kartı üzerinde MPP algoritması da bulunmaktadır. Ayrıca, tasarlanan kontrol kartının üzerinde RS232 seri haberlesme arabirimi mevcuttur. Böylece, kontrol kartı üzerinde gerçeklestirilen tüm fonksiyonların kullanıcının istegine göre bir bilgisayar yazılımı aracılıgı ile seçilebilmesine ve istenirse kullanıcıya rapor olarak verilebilmesine olanak tanınmıstır. Son olarak, gelistirilen kontrol kartının, gelistirdigimiz yazılım ile haberlesebilmesi için bir komut seti olusturulmustur. Böylece, kendi kontrol kartını gelistirmek isteyen veya daha görsel bir yazılım gelistirmek isteyen diger arastırmacılar için ortak bir taban olusturulması hedeflenmistir.

  17. A Regulação Responsiva das Telecomunicações: Novos horizontes para o controle de obrigações pela Anatel / Responsive Regulation in Telecommunications: New horizons for the Anatel’s Enforcement

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    João Marcelo Azevedo Marques Mello da Silva

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumo Propósito – O propósito deste trabalho foi avaliar a aplicação de estratégias características de regulação responsiva na discussão do novo modelo de telecomunicações brasileiro. Metodologia/abordagem/design – Valendo-se da teoria da regulação responsiva de Ayres e Braithwaite, foram avaliadas as revisões do modelo de gestão de qualidade e de acompanhamento e controle em andamento na Anatel. Resultados – A pesquisa demonstrou que a Agência vem utilizando, ainda que de maneira embrionária, técnicas de regulação responsiva nos novos instrumentos que serão aplicadas no novo modelo de prestação de serviços de telecomunicações brasileiro. Implicações práticas – A análise presente neste trabalho pode subsidiar as discussões em andamento e aprimorar a atuação regulatória da Agência. Originalidade/relevância do texto – A presente pesquisa indica que a Anatel vem buscando se valer deliberadamente de estratégias de regulação responsiva na sua atuação. Abstract Purpose – The purpose of this article is to assess the use of responsive regulation strategies in the debate about the new Brazilian telecommunications framework. Methodology/approach/design – The Responsive Regulation Theory proposed by Ayres and Braithwaite is used as lenses to evaluate Anatel’s quality management and command and control model. Findings –The research showed that Anatel is using, even though in an embryonic manner, responsive regulation techniques in the new regulation that will be applied in the new Brazilian telecommunications framework. Practical implications – The result of this work can be used to improve the regulation by Anatel. Originality/value – The research showed that Anatel tends do use responsive regulation strategy in a regular manner.

  18. La Media Literacy nella prospettiva finlandese, nordica ed europea

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    Sol-Britt Arnolds-Granlund

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Nel secolo scorso, e in special modo negli ultimi dieci anni, la questione dei media e, in particolare, il tema della media literacy ha attratto l’interesse delle autorità, degli studiosi e di altri responsabili nel settore educativo. Nel tempo sono entrati in uso molti concetti, ma sfortunatamente senza che ne venisse fornita una definizione, nella maggior parte dei casi. Questo articolo si focalizza sulla media literacy, su come può essere definita e sul significato di concetti affini utilizzati nel contesto finlandese. Inoltre viene discussa la relazione tra i concetti di media literacy e digital literacy e la collocazione della media literacy nei curricula scolastici in Finlandia. Il contributo affronta anche il problema della valutazione della media literacy nelle politiche istituzionali e chiude con un accenno alle prospettive future di ricerca nel campo dell’educazione ai media. Trattandosi di un lavoro di ampio respiro sulla media literacy, si riferisce sia a iniziative politiche che ai risultati della ricerca e alle pratiche educative.

  19. Description of a new tick species, Ixodes collaris n. sp. (Acari: Ixodidae), from bats (Chiroptera: Hipposideridae, Rhinolophidae) in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornok, Sándor; Görföl, Tamás; Estók, Péter; Tu, Vuong Tan; Kontschán, Jenő

    2016-06-10

    In a recent study on ixodid bat ticks from Eurasia, a high genetic difference was found between Ixodes vespertilionis from Europe and Vietnam. Accordingly, it was proposed that I. vespertilionis is a species complex, with at least one additional, hitherto undescribed species. The aim of the present study was to investigate the morphology of bat ticks from Vietnam and to assess their taxonomic status in comparison with those collected in Europe. Ixodid bat ticks (two females and two nymphs) collected from the pomona leaf-nosed bat (Hipposideros pomona) (Hipposideridae) and intermediate horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus affinis) (Rhinolophidae) in Vietnam showed major morphological differences from European isolates of I. vespertilionis, including the shape of the scutum, the enclosure and shape of porose areas, the presence of a caudo-lateral collar-like ridge ventrally on the basis capituli, polytrich coxae with short setae, and grouped (non-linear) arrangement of anterior pit sensillae in Haller's organ. In this study the female and the nymph of an ixodid bat tick species from Vietnam are described for the first time. The genetic and morphological differences between I. vespertilionis Koch, 1844 and these bat ticks from Vietnam justify the status of the latter as a distinct species, Ixodes collaris Hornok n. sp.

  20. Facile fabrication of eco-friendly nano-mosquitocides: Biophysical characterization and effectiveness on neglected tropical mosquito vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Hoti, S L; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-12-01

    Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) vectors are solely responsible for transmitting important diseases such as malaria, dengue, chikungunya, Japanese encephalitis, lymphatic filariasis and Zika virus. Eco-friendly control tools of Culicidae vectors are a priority. In this study, we proposed a facile fabrication process of poly-disperse and stable silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) using a cheap leaf extract of Ichnocarpus frutescens (Apocyanaceae). Bio-reduced Ag NPs were characterized by UV-vis spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The acute toxicity of I. frutescens leaf extract and green-synthesized Ag NPs was evaluated against larvae of the malaria vector Anopheles subpictus, the dengue vector Aedes albopictus and the Japanese encephalitis vector Culex tritaeniorhynchus. Compared to the leaf aqueous extract, Ag NPs showed higher toxicity against A. subpictus, A. albopictus, and C. tritaeniorhynchus with LC 50 values of 14.22, 15.84 and 17.26μg/mL, respectively. Ag NPs were found safer to non-target mosquito predators Anisops bouvieri, Diplonychus indicus and Gambusia affinis, with LC 50 values ranging from 636.61 to 2098.61μg/mL. Overall, this research firstly shed light on the mosquitocidal potential of I. frutescens, a potential bio-resource for rapid, cheap and effective synthesis of poly-disperse and highly stable silver nanocrystals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Characterization of the current biological communities within the Nanticoke River in the vicinity of the Vienna SES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroup, C.F.; Brindley, A.; Kazyak, P.F.

    1991-07-01

    Pursuant to a utility's intent to file for permission to build a generating station along the Nanticoke River, Maryland, a field program was conducted to update characterizations of major aquatic biota of the river in proximity to the existing power plant and a potential intake/discharge location. This characterization sampled five stations on the Nanticoke River, spanning 14 miles from Chapter Point to Riverton, between July 1988 and October 1989. During the study period, the juvenile and adult fish community was dominated by white perch, Atlantic menhaden, bay anchovy, hogchoker, and spot. Spring ichthyoplankton was composed of white perch, striped bass, yellow perch, and alosids, while summer ichthyoplankton was dominated by naked gobies and bay anchovy. Acartia tonsa, Eurytemora affinis and Bosmina longirostris dominated zooplankton samples. The phytoplankton community was composed primarily of diatoms, green algae, and monads. Polychaetes and crustaceans were the dominant macrobenthic taxa, with molluscs contributing to total abundance primarily during spring recruitment. The final report presents the results of fish, ichthyoplankton, zooplankton, and benthic surveys conducted between July 1988 and October 1989 in the middle portion of the Nanticoke River, Maryland. During the dry conditions of 1988, aquatic communities were dominated by estuarine species, while the lower saline environment of 1989 resulted in the presence of more freshwater species

  2. Morphological characterization and topographic analysis of multiple photoreceptor types in the retinae of mesopelagic hatchetfishes with tubular eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Michelle Biagioni

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Marine hatchetfishes, Argyropelecus spp., are one of the 14 genera of mesopelagic teleosts, which possess tubular eyes. The tubular eyes are positioned dorsally on the head and consist of a main retina, which subtends a large dorsal binocular field, and an accessory retina, which subtends the lateral monocular visual field. The topographic distribution of photoreceptors in the retina of Argyropelecus sladeni, A. affinis and A. aculeatus was determined using a random, unbiased and systematic stereological approach, which consistently revealed a region of high density (area centralis in the central region of the main retina (up to a peak of 96,000 receptors per mm2 and a relatively homogeneous density of photoreceptors in the accessory retina (of approximately 20,000 receptors per mm2. The position of the area centralis in the main retina indicates this retinal region subserves greater spatial resolution in the centre of the dorsal binocular visual field. Light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy also revealed the presence of multiple photoreceptor types (two rod-like and one cone-like based on the size and shape of the inner and outer segments and ultrastructural differences in the ellipsoidal region. The presence of multiple photoreceptor types in these tubular-eyed, mesopelagic hatchetfishes may reflect the need for the visual system to function under different lighting conditions during vertical migratory behavior, especially given their unique dorsally-facing eyes.

  3. Correlation and Fishers’ Perception in Selected Sites in Laguna de Bay, Luzon Island, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur J. Lagbas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available White goby (Glossogobius giuris Hamilton 1822 is an omnivorous, native fish species which can be found in Laguna de Bay and its tributaries, and in other bodies of water in the Philippines. Deteriorating water quality, unsustainable fishing practices, aquaculture and predation by introduced invasive species are threatening the population of white goby and other native fish species in Laguna de Bay. This study was conducted to correlate select physico-chemical parameters of lake water and zooplankton abundance, and to assess white goby population based on fishers’ perception. Water samples were collected in three sites in June, September and December 2014. Twenty one zooplankton species belonging to 12 families were identified. The most abundant and frequently encountered zooplankton species is Eurytemora affinis Poppe 1880. Zooplanktons were most abundant in June and lowest in September. Key informant interviews with local fishers revealed that white goby population was abundant in April to August while catch report showed that fish catch is abundant in June and least during December. The fish abundance in April to June could be attributed to high productivity especially in summer season. The fishers perceived that the population of white goby was declining mainly due to water pollution, aquaculture, and predation by invasive alien species. A multi-stakeholder sustainable watershed management should be adapted to improve the water quality and extinction of native fish species in Laguna de Bay.

  4. The use of biomarkers for assessing effects of pollutant stress on fish species from a tropical river in Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Nona Morado

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Biomarkers are measurements within an organism that respond to environmental effects and are used as tools in bioassessment programs since they reflect physiological changes induced by exposure to pollutants. The hepatosomatic index (HSI and the condition factor (CF in three fish species Geophagus brasiliensis, Hypostomus affinis and Hypostomus auroguttatus were used to assess effects of pollutant stress in a tropical river during two seasons (dry and wet. Fish from the least disturbed sites had the lowest condition factor (CF and the lowest HSI, whereas those from sites near pollutant discharges had the highest CF and HSI. Higher HSI and lower CF occurred during the dry season. It is suggested that species adapted to stressful conditions take advantage on food availability from organic loads or unoccupied niches by lesser tolerant species, increasing CF. We concluded that higher HSI values were directly associated with environmental stress whereas the higher CF values are related to availability of food resources derived from organic loads or other sources. CF and HSI are simple and cost-effective, thus suitable as routine screening tools in pollution monitoring, but caution should be taken in relating changes in physiological measurements and any specific pollutant to prevent misinterpretation.

  5. Intestinal parasites of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergles Rataj, Aleksandra; Posedi, Janez; Zele, Diana; Vengušt, Gorazd

    2013-12-01

    In the present study, 428 foxes were collected and examined for intestinal helminths using the washing-out method. Parasites were found in 93.2% of the examined animals. The most frequently identified nematodes were Uncinaria stenocephala (58.9%), Toxocara canis (38.3%) and Molineus patens (30.6%). Other nematodes found were Pterygodermatites affinis (4.2%), Capillaria sp. (2.8%), Crenosoma vulpis (2.8%), Toxascaris leonina (2.5%), Trichuris vulpis (0.7%) and Physaloptera sp. (0.2%). Mesocestoides sp. (27.6%) and Taenia crassiceps (22.2%) were the most prevalent cestodes, followed by T. polyacantha (6.5%), Hymenolepis nana (2.1%), T. pisiformis (2.1%) and Dipylidium caninum (1.4%). The study also revealed four trematode species: Rossicotrema donicum (1.6%), Heterophyes heterophyes (1.1%), Metagonimus yokogawai (1.1%), Prohemistomum appendiculatum (0.4%) and two protozoan species: oocysts of Sarcocystis (2.8%) and Isospora (0.4%). This is the first extensive study on the intestinal parasites of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in Slovenia. The 2.6% prevalence of Echinococcus multilocularis in the same sample population as investigated herein has been reported previously (Vergles Rataj et al., 2010).

  6. Differential survival of mosquitofish exposed to radionuclides is dependent on RAPD genotype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theodorakis, C.W.; Shugart, L.R.

    1995-01-01

    In previous studies, it was found that certain RAPD (Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA) markers were present at higher frequencies in radionuclide-contaminated mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) populations than in reference populations. These markers will be referred to as contaminant specific markers. In the present study, fish with and without these markers were collected from non-contaminated populations and exposed in situ to radionuclides by caging them in one of the contaminated sites. Forty fish were exposed for 1--6 weeks, after which the survivors were collected and DNA was extracted for genotypic analysis. In one experiment, the frequencies of contaminant specific markers in the survivors were compared to the frequencies of these markers in the native contaminated and uncontaminated (the source of the caged fish) populations. It was found that the genotypic distributions were more similar to the native contaminated population. In another experiment, samples of caudal fin tissue were collected for DNA extraction before and after placing fish in the cages, in order to compare survival rates of different genotypes. It was found that fish with the contaminant indicative bands had higher percent survival than the other fish. Experiments are underway or are being planned in order to determine the molecular identity of these bands and the ecological significance of altered band frequencies in hopes of developing population-level biomarkers of contaminant exposure and ecological affects

  7. Science foundation Chapter 5 Appendix 5.1: Case study diving ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takekawa, John Y.; De La Cruz, Susan; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Yarris, Gregory S.

    2015-01-01

    Diving ducks are the most abundant group of waterfowl that overwinter in the open bays and ponds of San Francisco Bay (SFB). Species within this group are primarily benthivores that dive to obtain their macroinvertebrate prey in bottom sediments, although at times they may eat plant matter or forage in the water column. These migratory species include bay ducks (lesser scaup Aythya affinis, greater scaup A. marila, canvasback A. valisineria), sea ducks (surf scoter Melanitta perspicillata and bufflehead Bucephala albeola), and a stiff-tailed duck (ruddy duck Oxyura jamaicensis). These species vary from largest to smallest body mass: canvasback, greater scaup, surf scoter, lesser scaup, ruddy duck, and bufflehead. Their breeding grounds range from Central Valley grasslands, intermountain wetlands, prairie potholes, boreal forest, and Arctic tundra. Their wintering populations in SFB are most abundant between October and April, and SFB comprises up to 50% of the number counted during midwinter surveys on the lower Pacific coast. Species are found in all SFB regions, but greater scaup and surf scoter are most often seen in subtidal to intertidal waters and are not commonly found in baylands. In contrast, ruddy duck and bufflehead populations are most abundant in baylands, particularly in managed ponds. Canvasbacks are commonly found at estuaries or creek mouths.

  8. Elementi di fisica teorica

    CERN Document Server

    Cini, Michele

    2006-01-01

    Le idee e le tecniche della Fisica Teorica del XX secolo (meccanica analitica, meccanica statistica, relatività e meccanica quantistica non relativistica) non sono più appannaggio esclusivo dei fisici. Ormai, specialmente con la recente introduzione di nuovi corsi di laurea, le conoscenze di base rientrano nel bagaglio culturale comune ai laureati in materie scientifiche e tecnologiche affini alla Fisica e alle sue applicazioni. Un laureato in queste materie non può non conoscere l’equazione E=mc2 e la media di Gibbs; inoltre deve avere i concetti e i metodi fondamentali della meccanica quantistica che ha cambiato la concezione del mondo ed è alla base della rivoluzione tecnologica in corso. Eppure quelle idee rimangono distanti dal comune modo di pensare e richiedono molto studio e un insegnamento ben mirato. La trattazione in questo libro, è meno formale rispetto ai tradizionali corsi di Istituzioni di Fisica Teorica. Lo scopo è comunque quello di raggiungere una reale comprensione dei concetti fisi...

  9. Characterisation of transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) produced during algal bloom: A membrane treatment perspective

    KAUST Repository

    Villacorte, Loreen O.

    2013-01-01

    Algal blooms are currently a major concern of the membrane industry as it generates massive concentrations of organic matter (e.g. transparent exopolymer particles [TEP]), which can adversely affect the operation of membrane filtration systems. The goal of this study is to understand the production, composition and membrane rejection of these organic materials using different characterisation techniques. Two common species of bloom-forming freshwater and marine algae were cultivated in batch cultures for 30days and the productions of TEP and other organic matter were monitored at different growth phases. TEP production of the marine diatom, Chaetoceros affinis, produced 6-9 times more TEP than the freshwater blue-green algae, Microcystis. The organic substances produced by both algal species were dominated by biopolymeric substances such as polysaccharides (45-64%) and proteins (2-17%) while the remaining fraction comprises of low molecular weight refractory (humic-like) and/ or biogenic organic substances. MF/UF membranes mainly rejected the biopolymers but not the low molecular weight organic materials. MF membranes (0.1-0.4 lm) rejected 42-56% of biopolymers, while UF membranes (10-100 kDa) rejected 65-95% of these materials. Further analysis of rejected organic materials on the surface of the membranes revealed that polysac-charides and proteins are likely responsible for the fouling of MF/UF systems during an algal bloom situation. © 2013 Desalination Publications.

  10. Advanced characterization of dissolved organic matter released by bloom-forming marine algae

    KAUST Repository

    Rehman, Zahid Ur

    2017-06-01

    Algal organic matter (AOM), produced by marine phytoplankton during bloom periods, may adversely affect the performance of membrane processes in seawater desalination. The polysaccharide fraction of AOM has been related to (bio)fouling in micro-filtration and ultrafiltration, and reverse osmosis membranes. However, so far, the chemical structure of the polysaccharides released by bloom-forming algae is not well understood. In this study, dissolved fraction of AOM produced by three algal species (Chaetoceros affinis, Nitzschia epithemoides and Hymenomonas spp.) was characterized using liquid chromatography–organic carbon detection (LC-OCD) and fluorescence spectroscopy. Chemical structure of polysaccharides isolated from the AOM solutions at stationary phase was analyzed using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (H-NMR). The results showed that production and composition of dissolved AOM varied depending on algal species and their growth stage. AOM was mainly composed of biopolymers (BP; i.e., polysaccharides and proteins [PN]), but some refractory substances were also present.H-NMR spectra confirmed the predominance of carbohydrates in all samples. Furthermore, similar fingerprints were observed for polysaccharides of two diatom species, which differed considerably from that of coccolithophores. Based on the findings of this study,H-NMR could be used as a method for analyzing chemical profiles of algal polysaccharides to enhance the understanding of their impact on membrane fouling.

  11. Ingestion and transfer of microplastics in the planktonic food web

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setälä, Outi; Fleming-Lehtinen, Vivi; Lehtiniemi, Maiju

    2014-01-01

    Experiments were carried out with different Baltic Sea zooplankton taxa to scan their potential to ingest plastics. Mysid shrimps, copepods, cladocerans, rotifers, polychaete larvae and ciliates were exposed to 10 μm fluorescent polystyrene microspheres. These experiments showed ingestion of microspheres in all taxa studied. The highest percentage of individuals with ingested spheres was found in pelagic polychaete larvae, Marenzelleria spp. Experiments with the copepod Eurytemora affinis and the mysid shrimp Neomysis integer showed egestion of microspheres within 12 h. Food web transfer experiments were done by offering zooplankton labelled with ingested microspheres to mysid shrimps. Microscopy observations of mysid intestine showed the presence of zooplankton prey and microspheres after 3 h incubation. This study shows for the first time the potential of plastic microparticle transfer via planktonic organisms from one trophic level (mesozooplankton) to a higher level (macrozooplankton). The impacts of plastic transfer and possible accumulation in the food web need further investigations. -- Highlights: • Experiments show the potential of ingestion of plastics by various zooplankton taxa. • This ingestion of plastics can be indirect via other zooplankton organisms. • There may be several alternate routes for microplastic transfer in the food webs. -- Experiments with zooplankton and microspheres showed ingestion of spheres by zpl and the transfer of ingested microspheres to higher trophic level organisms via labelled zooplankton

  12. Reproductive biology of galatheoid and chirostyloid (Crustacea: Decapoda) squat lobsters from the Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgour, Morgan J; Shirley, Thomas C

    2014-01-16

    Reproductive timing, fecundity, and average egg sizes were examined for galatheoid and chirostyloid squat lobster collections from the Gulf of Mexico. While congeners did not always significantly differ in egg size or timing, each genus had a unique average egg diameter size which may indicate whether the developing embryos will be lecithotrophic or planktotrophic larvae. The eggs of Eumunididae, Galatheidae, and Munididae were more numerous and smaller than the larger and less abundant eggs of Chirostylidae and Munidopsidae. With the exception of members of the Munididae, members of genera within the same family had distinct egg diameters. Ovigerous females were significantly larger than non-ovigerous females in some species (i.e., Uroptychus nitidus, Munida forceps, Galacantha spinosa, Munidopsis abbreviata, M. alaminos, M., erinacea, M. robusta, M. sigsbei, and M. simplex). Munidopsis erinacea and Munida affinis males were significantly larger than females; the reverse was true for Munidopsis robusta and Munidopsis simplex. All other species studied did not have a significant difference between males and females. The spatial and bathymetric ranges for many species are extended in this study from prior reports. Seasonality of reproduction was evident in few species, but this may be a result of limited sample sizes.

  13. Experimental dosing of wetlands with coagulants removes mercury from surface water and decreases mercury bioaccumulation in fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Kraus, Tamara E.C.; Fleck, Jacob A.; Krabbenhoft, David P.; Horwarth, William R.; Bachand, Sandra M.; Herzog, Mark; Hartman, Christopher; Bachand, Philip A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Mercury pollution is widespread globally, and strategies for managing mercury contamination in aquatic environments are necessary. We tested whether coagulation with metal-based salts could remove mercury from wetland surface waters and decrease mercury bioaccumulation in fish. In a complete randomized block design, we constructed nine experimental wetlands in California’s Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta, stocked them with mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis), and then continuously applied agricultural drainage water that was either untreated (control), or treated with polyaluminum chloride or ferric sulfate coagulants. Total mercury and methylmercury concentrations in surface waters were decreased by 62% and 63% in polyaluminum chloride treated wetlands and 50% and 76% in ferric sulfate treated wetlands compared to control wetlands. Specifically, following coagulation, mercury was transferred from the filtered fraction of water into the particulate fraction of water which then settled within the wetland. Mosquitofish mercury concentrations were decreased by 35% in ferric sulfate treated wetlands compared to control wetlands. There was no reduction in mosquitofish mercury concentrations within the polyaluminum chloride treated wetlands, which may have been caused by production of bioavailable methylmercury within those wetlands. Coagulation may be an effective management strategy for reducing mercury contamination within wetlands, but further studies should explore potential effects on wetland ecosystems.

  14. Chemical composition, toxicity and non-target effects of Pinus kesiya essential oil: An eco-friendly and novel larvicide against malaria, dengue and lymphatic filariasis mosquito vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-07-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are vectors of important parasites and pathogens causing death, poverty and social disability worldwide, with special reference to tropical and subtropical countries. The overuse of synthetic insecticides to control mosquito vectors lead to resistance, adverse environmental effects and high operational costs. Therefore, the development of eco-friendly control tools is an important public health challenge. In this study, the mosquito larvicidal activity of Pinus kesiya leaf essential oil (EO) was evaluated against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi, the dengue vector Aedes aegypti and the lymphatic filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus. The chemical composition of the EO was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. GC-MS revealed that the P. kesiya EO contained 18 compounds. Major constituents were α-pinene, β-pinene, myrcene and germacrene D. In acute toxicity assays, the EO showed significant toxicity against early third-stage larvae of An. stephensi, Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus, with LC50 values of 52, 57, and 62µg/ml, respectively. Notably, the EO was safer towards several aquatic non-target organisms Anisops bouvieri, Diplonychus indicus and Gambusia affinis, with LC50 values ranging from 4135 to 8390µg/ml. Overall, this research adds basic knowledge to develop newer and safer natural larvicides from Pinaceae plants against malaria, dengue and filariasis mosquito vectors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Fatty acid composition indicating diverse habitat use in coral reef fishes in the Malaysian South China Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takaomi Arai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In order to understand feeding ecology and habitat use of coral reef fish, fatty acid composition was examined in five coral reef fishes, Thalassoma lunare, Lutjanus lutjanus, Abudefduf bengalensis, Scarus rivulatus and Scolopsis affinis collected in the Bidong Island of Malaysian South China Sea. RESULTS: Proportions of saturated fatty acids (SAFA ranged 57.2% 74.2%, with the highest proportions in fatty acids, the second highest was monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA ranged from 21.4% to 39.0% and the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA was the lowest ranged from 2.8% to 14.1%. Each fatty acid composition differed among fishes, suggesting diverse feeding ecology, habitat use and migration during the fishes' life history in the coral reef habitats. CONCLUSIONS: Diets of the coral fish species might vary among species in spite of that each species are living sympatrically. Differences in fatty acid profiles might not just be considered with respect to the diets, but might be based on the habitat and migration.

  16. Chromium levels in fish from a lake chronically contaminated with chromates from cooling towers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elwood, J.W.; Beauchamp, J.J.; Allen, C.P.

    1980-01-01

    Chromium concentrations of several fish species (bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) goldfish (Carassius auratus), and mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis)) from White Oak Lake (WOL), a small impoundment which formerly received cooling water blowdown containing high Cr(VI) concentrations, were measured to determine levels of tissue accumulation. Chromium concentrations in the muscle and/or whole body (excluding G.I. tract) of some species in some years were found to be negatively correlated with total fish weight. Results suggest that Cr levels in muscle and whole body of most species analyzed from WOL and from Melton Hill Reservoir, an uncontaminated impoundment, may be inversely related to fish weight. Muscle and wholebody Cr concentrations were not significantly different from each other in bluegill or largemouth bass. With the exception of goldfish collected in 1969, between species comparisons of chromium levles in WOL fish within years showed no statistically significant differences, indicating that there was not trophic level effect on Cr accumulation in tissues of the species examined.There was also no significant difference in Cr concentration in muscle of bluegill and largemouth bass from WOL and Melton Hill Reservoir, indicating that these species either effectively regulate their Cr absorption or that the elevated Cr levels in WOL were in a form that is unavailable for absorption into tissues.

  17. Chromium levels in fish from a lake chronically contaminated with chromates from cooling towers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elwood, J.W.; Beauchamp, J.J.; Allen, C.P.

    1980-01-01

    Chromium concentrations of several fish species (bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) goldfish (Carassius auratus), and mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis)) from White Oak Lake (WOL), a small impoundment which formerly received cooling water blowdown containing high Cr(VI) concentrations, were measured to determine levels of tissue accumulation. Chromium concentrations in the muscle and/or whole body (excluding G.I. tract) of some species in some years were found to be negatively correlated with total fish weight. Results suggest that Cr levels in muscle and whole body of most species analyzed from WOL and from Melton Hill Reservoir, an uncontaminated impoundment, may be inversely related to fish weight. Muscle and wholebody Cr concentrations were not significantly different from each other in bluegill or largemouth bass. With the exception of goldfish collected in 1969, between species comparisons of chromium levels in WOL fish within years showed no statistically significant differences, indicating that there was not trophic level effect on Cr accumulation in tissues of the species examined. There was also no significant difference in Cr concentration in muscle of bluegill and largemouth bass from WOL and Melton Hill Reservoir, indicating that these species either effectively regulate their Cr absorption or that the elevated Cr levels in WOL were in a form that is unavailable for absorption into tissues.

  18. Abundance of gap junctions at glutamatergic mixed synapses in adult Mosquitofish spinal cord neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose L Serrano-Velez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Dye-coupling, whole-mount immunohistochemistry for gap junction channel protein connexin 35 (Cx35, and freeze-fracture replica immunogold labeling (FRIL reveal an abundance of electrical synapses/gap junctions at glutamatergic mixed synapses in the 14th spinal segment that innervates the adult male gonopodium of Western Mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis (Mosquitofish.To study gap junctions’ role in fast motor behavior, we used a minimally-invasive neural-tract-tracing technique to introduce gap junction-permeant or -impermeant dyes into deep muscles controlling the gonopodium of the adult male Mosquitofish, a teleost fish that rapidly transfers (complete in 50 of the 62 gap junctions at mixed synapses are in the 14th spinal segment.Our results support and extend studies showing gap junctions at mixed synapses in spinal cord segments involved in control of genital reflexes in rodents, and they suggest a link between mixed synapses and fast motor behavior. The findings provide a basis for studies of specific roles of spinal neurons in the generation/regulation of sex-specific behavior and for studies of gap junctions’ role in regulating fast motor behavior. Finally, the CoPA IN provides a novel candidate neuron for future studies of gap junctions and neural control of fast motor behaviors.

  19. Elements in fish of Malibu Creek and Malibu Lagoon near Los Angeles, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, Anthony; MacNeil, Spencer D.; Ambrose, Richard F.; Que Hee, Shane S

    2003-04-01

    Our aim was to assess whether past discharges from a wastewater treatment plant increased metal pollutant loads in stream mobile species in a one-day baseline sampling study that included a coastal wetland. Mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) of two sizes, black bullhead (Ameiurus melas), and crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus) were collected from Malibu Creek, and California killifish (Fundulus parvipinnis) of three sizes, as well as arroyo chub (Gila orcutti) were sampled from Malibu Lagoon near Los Angeles, California. Species from each locality were pooled by length, homogenized, digested by microwave wet ashing, and analyzed by simultaneous inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy for 27 elements. Lagoon killifish 2.0-3.5 cm long contained levels of arsenic and lead above the levels for 95% of California fish, the EDL95. Black bullhead upstream of the discharge contained elevated levels of As, Cr and Se. Young mosquitofish <3 cm in length upstream of the discharge differed greatly in the order of abundance of their elements relative to larger mosquitofish and to other species collected. More sampling than this baseline study allowed was needed to determine if the wastewater treatment plant was a pollution source.

  20. Cerambycidae (Coleoptera do estado do Maranhão, Brasil: III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubirajara R. Martins

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Oitenta e quatro espécies são registradas para o Estado do Maranhão: Prioninae (uma, Disteniinae (uma, Cerambycinae (49 e Lamiinae (33. O número total de espécies assinaladas para o Estado eleva-se a 367. Nove novas espécies são descritas em Cerambycinae: Chlorida inexpectata sp. nov. (Bothriospilini; Jupoata germana sp. nov. (Cerambycini; Eburodacrys separatus sp. nov. e Eburodacrys cincora sp. nov. (Eburiini; Ectenessa affinis sp. nov. (Ectenessini; Minibidion bicolor sp. nov. (Ibidionini, Tropidiina; Compsibidion maculatum sp. nov. e Compsibidion ytu sp. nov. (Ibidionini,Ibidionina; Ideratus beatus sp. nov. (Ideratini. Três espécies são descritas em Lamiinae: Aerenea gibba sp. nov. (Compsosomatini; Mimasyngenes barbozai sp. nov. (Desmiphorini; Cacostola exilis sp. nov. (Onciderini. Uma variação no colorido de Adesmus paradiana Galileo & Martins, 2004 é observada. Corrigenda de Piruana pulchra Martins et al., 2009 para Piruauna pulchra (Desmiphorini.

  1. Structure dynamics of a fish community over ten years of formation in the reservoir of the hydroelectric power plant in upper Uruguay River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schork, G; Zaniboni-Filho, E

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the structure of the fish assemblage in the ten years following the closing of the lake of the Itá Hydroelectric Power Plant. Seasonal collections were conducted from 2001 to 2010. During this period, 44,834 fish were captured, totaling 3,818.01 kg, among 8 orders, 24 families and 84 species. In general, profound changes were not observed in the fish assemblage in the ten years after the formation of the Itá lake. Few species changed in dominance over time, while many were rare in the environment. The ichthyofauna in the reservoir was dominated by small and medium size opportunist species that conduct short or no migratory movements. Among the most abundant, six species were responsible for more than 50% of the numeric representation: Steindachnerina brevipinna, Astyanax fasciatus, Apareiodon affinis, Hypostomus isbrueckeri, Iheringichthys labrosus and Loricariichthys anus. The increase in the representation of the later species stood out. The biomass was dominated by Steindachneridion scriptum, Prochilodus lineatus, I. laborsus, Schizodon nasutus, Hoplias malabaricus, Acestrorhynchus pantaneiro, Hoplias lacerdae, H. isbrueckeri and L. anus. Despite the presence of large migrators in the region of the reservoir, their vulnerability was revealed by the low numeric abundance and accidental capture. The k-dominance curve of numerical abundance and biomass indicates a moderately disturbed community, in which the representation of small species was also important to the amounts of biomass.

  2. Experimental dosing of wetlands with coagulants removes mercury from surface water and decreases mercury bioaccumulation in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T; Kraus, Tamara E C; Fleck, Jacob A; Krabbenhoft, David P; Horwath, William R; Bachand, Sandra M; Herzog, Mark P; Hartman, C Alex; Bachand, Philip A M

    2015-05-19

    Mercury pollution is widespread globally, and strategies for managing mercury contamination in aquatic environments are necessary. We tested whether coagulation with metal-based salts could remove mercury from wetland surface waters and decrease mercury bioaccumulation in fish. In a complete randomized block design, we constructed nine experimental wetlands in California's Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, stocked them with mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis), and then continuously applied agricultural drainage water that was either untreated (control), or treated with polyaluminum chloride or ferric sulfate coagulants. Total mercury and methylmercury concentrations in surface waters were decreased by 62% and 63% in polyaluminum chloride treated wetlands and 50% and 76% in ferric sulfate treated wetlands compared to control wetlands. Specifically, following coagulation, mercury was transferred from the filtered fraction of water into the particulate fraction of water which then settled within the wetland. Mosquitofish mercury concentrations were decreased by 35% in ferric sulfate treated wetlands compared to control wetlands. There was no reduction in mosquitofish mercury concentrations within the polyaluminum chloride treated wetlands, which may have been caused by production of bioavailable methylmercury within those wetlands. Coagulation may be an effective management strategy for reducing mercury contamination within wetlands, but further studies should explore potential effects on wetland ecosystems.

  3. Sigma viruses from three species of Drosophila form a major new clade in the rhabdovirus phylogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longdon, Ben; Obbard, Darren J.; Jiggins, Francis M.

    2010-01-01

    The sigma virus (DMelSV), which is a natural pathogen of Drosophila melanogaster, is the only Drosophila-specific rhabdovirus that has been described. We have discovered two new rhabdoviruses, D. obscura and D. affinis, which we have named DObsSV and DAffSV, respectively. We sequenced the complete genomes of DObsSV and DMelSV, and the L gene from DAffSV. Combining these data with sequences from a wide range of other rhabdoviruses, we found that the three sigma viruses form a distinct clade which is a sister group to the Dimarhabdovirus supergroup, and the high levels of divergence between these viruses suggest that they deserve to be recognized as a new genus. Furthermore, our analysis produced the most robustly supported phylogeny of the Rhabdoviridae to date, allowing us to reconstruct the major transitions that have occurred during the evolution of the family. Our data suggest that the bias towards research into plants and vertebrates means that much of the diversity of rhabdoviruses has been missed, and rhabdoviruses may be common pathogens of insects. PMID:19812076

  4. Protein valves prepared by click reaction grafting of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) to electrospun poly(vinyl chloride) fibrous membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jian-Wei; Lin, Zhen-Yu; Chang, Chi-Jung; Lu, Chien-Hsing; Chen, Jem-Kun

    2018-05-01

    In this study, poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) was electrospun into fibrous membranes and then reacted with NaN3 to generate azido-terminated PVC fibrous membranes. A propargyl-terminated poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) was also synthesized and then grafted, through click reactions, onto the azido-terminated PVC fiber surface. Protrusion-, scale-, and joint-like structures of the PNIPAAm grafts on the PVC fibers were formed upon increasing the molecular weight of the PNIPAAm grafts. The PNIPAAm-grafted PVC fibrous mats exhibited completely wetted surfaces at 25 °C because of their high roughness. The static water contact angle of the PNIPAAm-grafted PVC fibrous mats reached 140° when the temperature was increased to 45 °C. This thermoresponsive behavior was significantly greater than that of the PNIPAAm grafted on a flat surface. Temperature-responsive membranes were constructed having a pore size of 1.38 μm and applied as protein valves to block and release an antibody (fluorescein-conjugated AffiniPure goat anti-rabbit IgG). At 25 °C, the collection efficiency remained at 94% for antibody concentrations up to 60 ng/L. As the temperature increased to 45 °C, the collection efficiency decreased abruptly, to 4%, when the antibody concentration was greater than 20 ng/L. Accordingly, this system of PNIPAAm-grafted PVC fibers functioned as a protein valve allowing the capture and concentration of proteins.

  5. Relationship between thermal loading and parasitism in the mosquitofish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aho, J.M.; Gibbons, J.W.; Esch, G.W.

    1976-01-01

    The relationship between thermal loading and parasitism was examined in 980 mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis, taken from areas of varying thermal conditions at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) near Aiken, S. C. Collections were made at 2-week intervals from May to August 1974 and again from January to February 1975. The metacercaria of two strigeid trematodes, Ornithodiplostomum ptychocheilus and Diplostomum scheuringi were the only species of parasites recovered. Ornithodiplostomum ptychocheilus was always found encysted in the brain and eyes, whereas D. scheuringi was restricted exclusively to the body cavity. The density of the body-cavity parasite was highest in fish from areas of ambient temperatures and declined in fish from areas with higher water temperatures. The density of the brain parasite, on the other hand, was higher in fish from areas directly receiving thermal effluent than in fish from ambient-temperature areas. The body-cavity parasite was absent from mosquitofish from Pond C, but the infection percentages were relatively consistent in fish from other areas in the Par Pond system regardless of water temperature. The brain metacercaria were recovered from 95 percent of fish from Pond C

  6. Wetland use and feeding by lesser scaup during spring migration across the upper Midwest, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anteau, M.J.; Afton, A.D.

    2009-01-01

    Low food availability and forage quality and concomitant decreased lipid reserves of lesser scaup (Aythya affinis; hereafter scaup) during spring migration in the upper Midwest may partially explain reductions in the continental population of scaup. In springs 20042005, we examined wetland use and feeding activity of scaup on 356 randomly-selected wetlands within 6 regions in Iowa, Minnesota, and North Dakota. We examined wetland characteristics that favor high scaup use in 286 of these wetlands. We found that probabilities of wetland use and feeding by scaup increased with turbidity up to 45 and 30 NTU, respectively, but then declined at higher turbidity levels. Wetland use was positively correlated with size of open-water zone and amphipod densities, but was not correlated with chironomid densities. Feeding increased with amphipod density up to 26 m-3 and then declined at higher amphipod densities; scaup seemingly forage most efficiently at amphipod densities above 26 m -3. Wetland use was higher in North Dakota than in southern Minnesota and Iowa. Our results indicate that effective wetland restoration efforts to benefit scaup require maintaining abundant populations of amphipods (generally near 26 m-3 landscape geometric mean) in wetlands with large (> 500 m diameter) open-water zones throughout the upper Midwest, but especially within Iowa and southern Minnesota.

  7. Responses of the molluscan fauna to environmental variations in a Halodule wrightii Ascherson ecosystem from Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KCRISHNA V.S. BARROS

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study observed the spatial and temporal distributions of molluscs in a Halodule wrightii meadow, verifying if they respond satisfactorily to seasonal changes in this seagrass ecosystem. Twenty-four species were identified. Chitons were rare, bivalves had greater number of species (11, followed by gastropods (9 which were also the most abundant class (73%. All classes were more abundant in the belowground. The most common species was Tricolia affinis, especially in aboveground. The occurrence of some species in both strata or out of the expected stratum may have been influenced by shallow layer of the sediment considered in this study, hydrodynamic, and low biomass of the studied meadow. According to univariate and multivariate analyses, despite of molluscan descriptors had been related to variables associated with rainfall, the seagrasses had an important role on the seasonal and vertical variations of the molluscan fauna. The biomass of the epiphyte Hypnea musciformis was correlated to temporal variations of the species from aboveground, indicating its secondary role for this community. The molluscs were sensible to environmental variations, and also reflected seasonal changes of the seagrass, showing that damages on these meadows reflect even at lower levels of the marine food web.

  8. Compositional Similarities and Differences between Transparent Exopolymer Particles (TEP) from two Marine Bacteria and two Marine Algae: Significance to Surface Biofouling

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Sheng

    2015-06-12

    Transparent-exopolymer-particles (TEP) have been recently identified as a significant contributor to surface biofouling, such as on reverse osmosis (RO) membranes. TEP research has mainly focused on algal TEP/TEP precursors while limited investigations have been conducted on those released by bacteria. In this study, TEP/TEP precursors derived from both algae and bacteria were isolated and then characterized to investigate their similarities and/or differences using various advanced analytical techniques, thus providing a better understanding of their potential effect on biofouling. Bacterial TEP/TEP precursors were isolated from two species of marine bacteria (Pseudidiomarina homiensis and Pseudoalteromonas atlantica) while algal TEP/TEP precursors were isolated from two marine algae species (Alexandrium tamarense and Chaetoceros affinis). Results indicated that both isolated bacterial and algal TEP/TEP precursors were associated with protein-like materials, and most TEP precursors were high-molecular-weight biopolymers. Furthermore all investigated algal and bacterial TEP/TEP precursors showed a lectin-like property, which can enable them to act as a chemical conditioning layer and to agglutinate bacteria. This property may enhance surface biofouling. However, both proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra and the nitrogen/carbon (N/C) ratios suggested that the algal TEP/TEP precursors contained much less protein content than the bacterial TEP/TEP precursors. This difference may influence their initial deposition and further development of surface biofouling.

  9. Evaluation of the diversity of Scolitids (Coleoptera: Curculionidae in the forest plantations of the central zone of the Ecuadorian littoral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malena Martínez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The species of Scolytinae subfamily have a worldwide distribution, and are found mainly in the Neo-tropic regions. They usually dominate the communities of wood borer insects. The aim of the present study was to determine the diversity among Scolytinae species associated with balsa, teak, rubber and gamhar plantations located in the humid tropical zone of the Ecuadorian littoral. In each plantation seven flight interception traps containing an ethanol / gel mixture were installed, with a collection frequency of 15 days for three months in the dry period. A total of 1437 specimens were collected, represented by Xyleborini, Cryphalini, Corthylini and Ipini tribes. In the four plantations, 18 species of Scolitids were collected, of which 16 were recorded in the balsa plantation, while in the other plantations 10 to 12 species were found. The most abundant Scolitids were Hypothenemus spp., Corthylus spp., Xyleborus affinis, Xyleborinus bicornatulus and Premnobium cavipennis. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index was higher in the balsa culture (H’= 2.37 and lower in Teak (H’= 1.57. The Jaccard similarity index was higher among the teak and rubber plantations (Cj = 0.9090 while the balsa plantation obtained less similarity with respect to the other three plantations. The greatest diversity of Scolitids was recorded in the balsa plantation, which is a native species, unlike the other forest species, which are exotic, indicating that the diversity would be influenced by the host tree and the location where they are found.

  10. Modeling continuous cultures of microalgae colimited by nitrogen and phosphorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougaran, Gaël; Bernard, Olivier; Sciandra, Antoine

    2010-08-07

    It is well documented that the combination of low nitrogen and phosphorus resources can lead to situations where colimitation of phytoplankton growth arises, yet the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Here, we propose a Droop-based model built on the idea that colimitation by nitrogen and phosphorus arises from the uptake of nitrogen. Indeed, since N-porters are active systems, they require energy that could be related to the phosphorus status of the cell. Therefore, we assumed that N uptake is enhanced by the P quota. Our model also accounts for the biological observations that uptake of a nutrient can be down-regulated by its own internal quota, and succeeds in describing the strong contrast for the non-limiting quotas under N-limited and P-limited conditions that was observed on continuous cultures with Selenastrum minutum and with Isochrysis affinis galbana. Our analysis suggests that, regarding the colimitation concept, N and P would be better considered as biochemically dependent rather than biochemically independent nutrients. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Environmental stress and assessment program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adriano, D.C.; Brisbin, I.L.; Gibbons, J.W.

    1981-01-01

    Research progress is reported in sections entitled: Savannah River Plant (SRP) studies provide general models for thermal research; in vivo studies of thermal stabilities of cattail isozymes reveal interspecific differences; thermal regimes in Par Pond have little effect on micronutrient uptake by cattails; continued tree kill in the SRP swamp may have an adverse impact on the swamp's cooling capabilities; Par Pond provides understanding of complexity of lake ecosystems affected by thermal effluents; temperature affects size, species distribution, and emergence date of dragonfly larvae; the midge subcommunity in Par Pond maintains relative integrity across a multi-faceted environmental gradient; temperature does not alter contribution of predators to community stability; habitat affects enzyme activity levels in natural populations of Gambusia affinis; studies of large-mouth bass in Par Pond system reveal lipid cycles; long-term turtle research provides information on survivorship and longevity; data on SRP watersnakes contribute to understanding of sexual dimorphism in animals; terrestrial drift fences and pitfall traps prove to be an effective technique for quantitative sampling of animal populations; and, Steel Creek targeted for environmental assessment

  12. "A chiare lettere" Editoriale gennaio 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Casuscelli

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Ad onta delle crisi ricorrenti che investono il diritto ecclesiastico, nell’anno appena iniziato la nostra disciplina raccoglie il testimone inatteso della speranza. Il 2006 ci ha offerto la pubblicazione di tre manuali1 che, con un taglio ed un’impostazione nuovi, si rivolgono ad un’utenza che non è fatta soltanto degli studenti delle nostre Università; la pubblicazione del primo numero della nuova rivista semestrale “Diritto e Religioni”2, che intende trattare il fattore religioso da molteplici punti di vista aprendosi ad una molteplicità di scienze affini (antropologia, sociologia, storia, filosofia; la nascita di questa rivista telematica che non vuole avere un proprio indirizzo o orientamento, ma si prefigge lo scopo di essere strumento e manifesto della pluralità e del pluralismo delle scuole, delle sensibilità, dei metodi che alimentano il patrimonio comune del sapere teorico perché in esso trovi a sua volta alimento il concreto, quotidiano farsi dell’esperienza giuridica. Due ricorrenze di particolare rilievo segnano, ancora, questa fase: i cinquanta anni della Corte costituzionale, alla cui attività molto è legato il rinnovamento del “diritto ecclesiastico”, che ha partecipato alla celebrazione corale offrendo uno specifico contributo di analisi della sua giurisprudenza 3; i dodici lustri della Costituzione repubblicana, un’età “matura” che offre l’occasione per un bilancio della sua vitalità, delle compiute attuazioni, delle attese non ancora realizzate.

  13. Ecological aspects of nematode parasites of introduced salmonids from Valdivia river basin, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio Torres

    1991-03-01

    Full Text Available Between 1986 and 1987 fishes distributed among the following species introduced in Chile, and from different sectors of the Valdivia river basin (39º30' - 40º00', 73º30' - 71º45'W, were examined: 348 Salmo trutta, 242 Salmo gairdneri, 24 Cyprinus carpio and 52 Gambusia affinis holbrooki. The presence of Camallanus corderoi and Contracaecum sp. in S. gairdneri and of C. corderoi in S. trutta is recorded in Chile for the first time. Cyprinus carpio and G. a. holbrooki did not present infections by nematodes. The prevalence and mean intensity of the infections by nematodes presented significant differences among some sectors of the Valdivia river basin. In general, the prevalence and intensity of the infections by C. corderoi were greater than those by Contracaecum sp. The infections in S. gairdneri were higher than in S. trutta. The sex of the hosts had no influence on the prevalence and intensity of the infections by both nematodes. The length of the hosts did have an influence, except in the case of the infections by Contracaecum sp. in S, gairdneri. The infrapopulations of both nematode species showed over dispersion in most cases. The diet of the examined salmonids suggests that they would become infected principally throught the consuption of autochthonous fishes.

  14. MF/UF rejection and fouling potential of algal organic matter from bloom-forming marine and freshwater algae

    KAUST Repository

    Villacorte, Loreen O.

    2015-07-01

    Pretreatment with microfiltration (MF) or ultrafiltration (UF) membranes has been proposed for seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) plants to address operational issues associated with algal blooms. Here, we investigated the MF/UF rejection and fouling potential of algal organic matter (AOM) released by common species of bloom-forming marine (Alexandrium tamarense and Chaetoceros affinis) and freshwater (Microcystis sp.) algae. Batch culture monitoring of the three algal species illustrated varying growth pattern, cell concentration, AOM released and membrane fouling potential. The high membrane fouling potential of the cultures can be directly associated (R2>0.85) with AOM such as transparent exopolymer particle (TEP) while no apparent relationship with algal cell concentration was observed. The AOM comprised mainly biopolymers (e.g., polysaccharides and proteins) and low molecular weight organic compounds (e.g., humic-like substances). The former were largely rejected by MF/UF membranes while the latter were poorly rejected. MF (0.4μm and 0.1μm pore size) rejected 14%-56% of biopolymers while conventional UF (100kDa) and tight UF (10kDa) rejected up to 83% and 97%, respectively. The retention of AOM resulted in a rapid increase in trans-membrane pressure (δP) over time, characterised by pore blocking followed by cake filtration with enhanced compression as illustrated by an exponential progression of δP. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

  15. Diversity of Quill Mites of the Family Syringophilidae (Acari: Prostigmata) Parasitizing Owls (Aves: Strigiformes) With Remarks on the Host-Parasite Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoracki, Maciej; Unsoeld, Markus; Marciniak, Natalia; Sikora, Bozena

    2016-07-01

    The quill mite fauna of the family Syringophilidae (Acari: Prostigmata: Cheyletoidea) associated with owls (Aves: Strigiformes) is reviewed. A new genus is proposed, Neobubophilus Skoracki & Unsoeld gen. nov. It differs from closely related Bubophilus (Bubophilus Philips and Norton, 1978) by the absence of leg setae vsII in the both sexes. In addition, four new species are described: (1) Neobubophilus cunicularius Skoracki & Unsoeld sp. nov. from Athene cunicularia (Molina, 1782) (Strigidae) from Paraguay; (2) Neobubophilus atheneus Skoracki & Unsoeld sp. nov. from Athene noctua (Scopoli, 1769) and Athene brama (Temminck, 1821) (Strigidae), both from India; (3) Bubophilus tytonus Skoracki & Unsoeld sp. nov. from Tyto alba affinis (Blyth, 1862) (Tytonidae) from Cameroon, and (4) Megasyringophilus dalmas Skoracki & Unsoeld sp. nov. from Megascops choliba (Vieillot, 1817) (Strigidae) from Venezuela. The following new host species are given: Bubo bubo (Linnaeus, 1758) (Strigidae) from Nepal for Bubophilus ascalaphus (Philips and Norton 1978) and Strix woodfordii (Smith, 1834) (Strigidae) from Tanzania for Bubophilus aluconis (aluconis Nattress and Skoracki 2009). A key for syringophilid genera and species associated with owls is constructed. The host-parasite relationships of syringophilid mites and owls are discussed. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com Version of Record, first published online May 24, 2016 with fixed content and layout in compliance with Art. 8.1.3.2 ICZN.

  16. Taxonomic notes on some Polyglyptini: descriptions of new genus and new species (Homoptera, Membracidae, Smiliinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albino M. Sakakibara

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Taxonomic notes on some Polyglyptini; descriptions of new genus and new species (Homoptera, Membracidae, Smiliinae. The genera Hemiptycha Germar, Metheisa Fowler, Maturnaria Metcalf, Aphetea Fowler, Dioclophara Kirkaldy, and Phormophora Stål, are redescribed; Creonus, gen.n. (type species: Maturna lloydi Funkhouser, 1914, and Aphetea robustula, sp.n. (from Bolivia, are described. Some nomenclatural changes are introduced, as follow: - Hemiptycha Germar, 1833 = Polyrhyssa Stål, 1869, syn.n.: - Hemiptycha cultrata (Coquebert, 1801, comb.n., = Polyglyptodes flavocostatus Haviland, 1925, syn.n., = Polyrhyssa cultrata maculata Fonseca, 1942, syn.n. - Hemiptycha obtecta (Fabricius, 1803 = Hille herbicola Haviland, 1925, syn.n. - Maturnaria ephippigera (Fairmaire, 1846 = Publilia tumulata Buckton, 1903, syn.n., = Metheisa fowleri Funkhouser, 1927, syn.n. - Creonus lloydi (Funkhouser, 1914, comb.n. - Aphetea parvula (Fabricius, 1803, comb.n., = Aphetea affinis Haviland, 1925, syn.n. - Dioclophara Kirkaldy, 1904 = lncolea Goding, 1926, syn.n. - Dioclophara viridula (Fairmaire, 1846 = Maturna multilineata Fonseca, 1942, syn.n. - Dioclophara variegata (Goding, 1926, comb.n. = lncolea viridis Goding, 1926, syn.n. - Phormophora maura (Fabricius, 1803 = Darnis dorsata Fabricius, 1803, syn.n.

  17. Spatial and temporal variation in artisanal catches of dolphinfish Coryphaena hippurus off north-eastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nóbrega, M F; Kinas, P G; Lessa, R; Ferrandis, E

    2015-02-01

    The sampling of fish from the artisanal fleet operating with surface lines off north-eastern Brazil was carried out between 1998 and 2000. Generalized linear models (GLMs) were used to standardize mean abundance indices using catch and fishing effort data on dolphinfish Coryphaena hippurus and to identify abundance trends in time and space, using 1215 surface line deployments. A standard relative abundance index (catch per unit effort, CPUE) was estimated for the most frequent vessels used in the sets, employing factors and coefficients generated in the GLMs. According to the models, C. hippurus catches are affected by the operating characteristics and power of different fishing vessels. These differences highlight the need for standardization of catch and effort data for artisanal fisheries. The highest mean abundance values for C. hippurus were off the state of Rio Grande do Norte, with an increasing tendency in areas with greater depths and more distant from the coast, reaching maximal values in areas whose depths range from 200 to 500 m. The highest mean abundance values occurred between April and June. The higher estimated abundance of C. hippurus in this period off the state of Rio Grande do Norte and within the 200-500 m depth range may be related to a migration pattern of food sources, as its main prey, the flying fish Hirundichthys affinis, uses floating algae as refuge and to deposit its pelagic eggs. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  18. Pineal organs of deep-sea fish: photopigments and structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowmaker, James K; Wagner, Hans-Joachim

    2004-06-01

    We have examined the morphology and photopigments of the pineal organs from a number of mesopelagic fish, including representatives of the hatchet fish (Sternoptychidae), scaly dragon-fish (Chauliodontidae) and bristlemouths (Gonostomidae). Although these fish were caught at depths of between 500 and 1000 m, the morphological organisation of their pineal organs is remarkably similar to that of surface-dwelling fish. Photoreceptor inner and outer segments protrude into the lumen of the pineal vesicle, and the outer segment is composed of a stack of up to 20 curved disks that form a cap-like cover over the inner segment. In all species, the pineal photopigment was spectrally distinct from the retinal rod pigment, with lambdamax displaced to longer wavelengths, between approximately 485 and 503 nm. We also investigated the pineal organ of the deep demersal eel, Synaphobranchus kaupi, caught at depths below 2000 m, which possesses a rod visual pigment with lambdamax at 478 nm, but the pineal pigment has lambdamax at approximately 515 nm. In one species of hatchet fish, Argyropelecus affinis, two spectral classes of pinealocyte were identified, both spectrally distinct from the retinal rod photopigment.

  19. Speciation in Indo-Pacific swiftlets (Aves: Apodidae): integrating molecular and phenotypic data for a new provisional taxonomy of the Collocalia esculenta complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheindt, Frank E; Christidis, Les; Norman, Janette A; Eaton, James A; Sadanandan, Keren R; Schodde, Richard

    2017-04-07

    White-bellied swiftlets of the Collocalia esculenta complex constitute a radiation of colony-breeding swifts distributed throughout the tropical Indo-Pacific region. Resolution of their taxonomy is challenging due to their morphological uniformity. To analyze the evolutionary history of this complex, we combine new biometric measurements and results from plumage assessment of museum specimens with novel as well as previously published molecular data. Together, this body of information constitutes the largest systematic dataset for white-bellied swiftlets yet compiled, drawn from 809 individuals belonging to 32 taxa for which new molecular, biometric, and/or plumage data are presented. We propose changing the classification of white-bellied swiftlets, for which two species are currently recognized, to elevate eight regional forms to species level, and we also describe two new subspecies. The ten taxa we recommend recognizing at the species level are: Collocalia linchi (Java to Lombok, Sumatran hills), C. dodgei (montane Borneo), C. natalis (Christmas Island), C. affinis (Greater Sundas, including the Thai-Malay Peninsula and Andaman-Nicobar Islands), C. marginata (Philippines), C. isonota (Philippines), C. sumbawae (west Lesser Sundas), C. neglecta (east Lesser Sundas), C. esculenta (Sulawesi, Moluccas, New Guinea, Bismarck Archipelago, Solomon Islands), and C. uropygialis (Vanuatu, New Caledonia). Future molecular and morphological work is needed to resolve questions of speciation and population affinities in the Philippines, Christmas Island, Wallacea and central Melanesia, and to shed light on historic diversification and patterns of gene flow in the complex.

  20. Fatty acid composition indicating diverse habitat use in coral reef fishes in the Malaysian South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Takaomi; Amalina, Razikin; Bachok, Zainudin

    2015-02-22

    In order to understand feeding ecology and habitat use of coral reef fish, fatty acid composition was examined in five coral reef fishes, Thalassoma lunare, Lutjanus lutjanus, Abudefduf bengalensis, Scarus rivulatus and Scolopsis affinis collected in the Bidong Island of Malaysian South China Sea. Proportions of saturated fatty acids (SAFA) ranged 57.2% 74.2%, with the highest proportions in fatty acids, the second highest was monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) ranged from 21.4% to 39.0% and the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) was the lowest ranged from 2.8% to 14.1%. Each fatty acid composition differed among fishes, suggesting diverse feeding ecology, habitat use and migration during the fishes' life history in the coral reef habitats. Diets of the coral fish species might vary among species in spite of that each species are living sympatrically. Differences in fatty acid profiles might not just be considered with respect to the diets, but might be based on the habitat and migration.

  1. Heavy metals levels in muscle, gonads and gills of Brazilian fishes using SRTXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calza, Cristiane; Pereira, Marcelo O.; Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu; Anjos, Marcelino Jose dos; Araujo, Francisco Gerson

    2005-01-01

    This work evaluated heavy metals levels in selected tissues of G. brasiliensis, O. hepsetus, H. luetkeni and H. affinis collected at the Paraiba do Sul River, Brazil. The muscle analysis was performed to evaluate the possible transfer of heavy metals to human beings through fish consumption; gonads were used to study the possible transfer and/or influence of metals, through the reproductive processes, to later generations of fishes; and gills are considered the primary action site for most metals, which are absorbed through fish breathing and/or ionic exchanges. The digestion procedure of samples was performed with HNO 3 65% in Teflon bombs, with heating at about 120 deg C. The analysis, using Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence with Synchrotron Radiation (SRTXRF), was performed at the LNLS (Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory) using white beam and a Si(Li) detector with resolution of 165 eV. The elements identified were: Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Ba and Pb. Fe and Zn exhibited the highest concentrations in the four species investigated. Comparing the results with the Brazilian Food Legislation Cr, Cu, Zn and Pb exceeded the maximum permissible limits in fish tissues. (author)

  2. Heavy metals levels in muscle, gonads and gills of Brazilian fishes using SRTXRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calza, Cristiane; Pereira, Marcelo O.; Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear]. E-mail: ccalza@lin.ufrj.br; ricardo@lin.ufrj.br; Anjos, Marcelino Jose dos [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica]. E-mail: marcelin@lin.ufrj.br; Araujo, Francisco Gerson [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Ecologia de Peixes]. E-mail: gerson@uffrj.br

    2005-07-01

    This work evaluated heavy metals levels in selected tissues of G. brasiliensis, O. hepsetus, H. luetkeni and H. affinis collected at the Paraiba do Sul River, Brazil. The muscle analysis was performed to evaluate the possible transfer of heavy metals to human beings through fish consumption; gonads were used to study the possible transfer and/or influence of metals, through the reproductive processes, to later generations of fishes; and gills are considered the primary action site for most metals, which are absorbed through fish breathing and/or ionic exchanges. The digestion procedure of samples was performed with HNO{sub 3} 65% in Teflon bombs, with heating at about 120 deg C. The analysis, using Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence with Synchrotron Radiation (SRTXRF), was performed at the LNLS (Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory) using white beam and a Si(Li) detector with resolution of 165 eV. The elements identified were: Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Ba and Pb. Fe and Zn exhibited the highest concentrations in the four species investigated. Comparing the results with the Brazilian Food Legislation Cr, Cu, Zn and Pb exceeded the maximum permissible limits in fish tissues. (author)

  3. Development of Miocene-Pliocene reef trend, St. Croix, U. S. Virgin Islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, I.; Eby, D.E.; Hubbard, D.K.; Frost, S.H.

    1988-01-01

    The Miocene-Pliocene reef trend on St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands, rims the present southern western coasts of the island and includes accompanying lagoonal and forereef facies. The reef trend was established on a foram-algal bank facies that represents basinal shallowing from the deep-water pelagic and hemipelagic facies of the Miocene Kingshill Limestone. Information on facies distribution and thickness is derived from rock exposures and 22 test wells drilled to a maximum depth of 91 m. The greatest thickness of the reef facies exists in a subsidiary graben on the south coast of St. Croix. The thickness of the reef section in this locality is due to preservation of the section in a downdropped block. Reef faunas include extant corals, as well as several extinct genera. Extant corals (e.g. Montastrea annularis, Diploria sp., and Porites porites) and extinct corals (e.g., Stylophora affinis, Antillea bilobata, and Thysanus sp.) are the main reef frame-builders. Coralline algea and large benthic foraminifera are significant contributors to the sediments both prior to and during scleractinian reef growth. Dolomitization and calcite cementation occur prominantly in an area corresponding to a Holocene lagoon. The spatial distribution of the dolomite suggests that the lagoon is a Tertiary feature directly related to the dolomitization process. Stable isotopic values suggest dolomitization of fluids of elevated salinity.

  4. Food habits of diving ducks in the Great Lakes after the zebra mussel invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, Christine M.; Custer, T.W.

    1996-01-01

    Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) invaded the Great Lakes in the mid-1980s and quickly reached high densities. The objective of this study was to determine current consumption of zebra mussels by waterfowl in the Great Lakes region. Feeding Lesser Scaups (Aythya affinis), Greater Scaups (A. marila), Canvasbacks (A. valisineria), Redheads (A. americana), Buffleheads (Bucephala albeola) and Common Goldeneyes (B. clangula) were collected in western Lake Erie and in Lake St. Clair between fall and spring, 1992-1993 to determine food habits. All 10 Redheads, 97% of Lesser Scaups, 83% of Goldeneyes, 60% of Buffleheads and 9% of Canvasbacks contained one or more zebra mussels in their upper gastrointestinal tracts. The aggregate percent of zebra mussels in the diet of Lesser Scaups was higher in Lake Erie (98.6%) than in Lake St. Clair (54.4%). Zebra mussels (aggregate percent) dominated the diet of Common Goldeneyes (79.2%) but not in Buffleheads (23.5%), Redheads (21%) or Canvasbacks (9%). Lesser Scaups from Lake Erie fed on larger zebra mussels ( = 10.7 i?? 0.66 mm SE) than did Lesser Scaups from Lake St. Clair ( = 4.4 i?? 0.22 mm). Lesser Scaups, Buffleheads and Common Goldeneyes from Lake Erie consumed zebra mussels of similar size.

  5. Tests for oil/dispersant toxicity: In situ laboratory assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, D.A.; Coelho, G.M.; Aurand, D.V.

    1995-01-01

    As part of its readiness program in oil spill response, the Marine Pollution Control Unit (MPCU), Department of Transport, U.K. conducts annual field trials in the North Sea, approximately 30 nautical miles from the southeast coast of England. The trials take the form of controlled releases of crude oil or Medium Fuel/Gas Oil mix (MFO), with and without the application of Corexit 9527 dispersant. In 1994 and 1995 the authors conducted a series of in situ toxicity bioassays in association with these spills with included 48h LC50 tests for turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) and oyster (Crassostrea gigas) larvae, a 48 h oyster (C. gigas) embryonic development test and two full life-cycle assays using the copepods Acartia tonsa and Tisbe battagliai. Tests were also conducted in the Chesapeake Bay laboratory using estuarine species including the copepod Eurytemora affinis and the inland silverside Menidia beryllina. Here, the authors report on the results of these assays, together with 1996 in situ toxicity data resulting from Norwegian field trials in the northern North Sea

  6. Molecular Characterization of Copepod Photoreception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Megan L; Steck, Mireille; Roncalli, Vittoria; Lenz, Petra H

    2017-08-01

    Copepod crustaceans are an abundant and ecologically significant group whose basic biology is guided by numerous visually guided behaviors. These behaviors are driven by copepod eyes, including naupliar eyes and Gicklhorn's organs, which vary widely in structure and function among species. Yet little is known about the molecular aspects of copepod vision. In this study we present a general overview of the molecular aspects of copepod vision by identifying phototransduction genes from newly generated and publicly available RNA-sequencing data and assemblies from 12 taxonomically diverse copepod species. We identify a set of 10 expressed transcripts that serve as a set of target genes for future studies of copepod phototransduction. Our more detailed evolutionary analyses of the opsin gene responsible for forming visual pigments found that all of the copepod species investigated express two main groups of opsins: middle-wavelength-sensitive (MWS) opsins and pteropsins. Additionally, there is evidence from a few species (e.g., Calanus finmarchicus, Eurytemora affinis, Paracyclopina nana, and Lernaea cyprinacea) for the expression of two additional groups of opsins-the peropsins and rhodopsin 7 (Rh7) opsins-at low levels or distinct developmental stages. An ontogenetic analysis of opsin expression in Calanus finmarchicus found the expression of a single dominant MWS opsin, as well as evidence for differences in expression across development in some MWS, pteropsin, and Rh7 opsins, with expression peaking in early naupliar through early copepodite stages.

  7. Phylogeny and origins of hantaviruses harbored by bats, insectivores, and rodents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Ping Guo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Hantaviruses are among the most important zoonotic pathogens of humans and the subject of heightened global attention. Despite the importance of hantaviruses for public health, there is no consensus on their evolutionary history and especially the frequency of virus-host co-divergence versus cross-species virus transmission. Documenting the extent of hantavirus biodiversity, and particularly their range of mammalian hosts, is critical to resolving this issue. Here, we describe four novel hantaviruses (Huangpi virus, Lianghe virus, Longquan virus, and Yakeshi virus sampled from bats and shrews in China, and which are distinct from other known hantaviruses. Huangpi virus was found in Pipistrellus abramus, Lianghe virus in Anourosorex squamipes, Longquan virus in Rhinolophus affinis, Rhinolophus sinicus, and Rhinolophus monoceros, and Yakeshi virus in Sorex isodon, respectively. A phylogenetic analysis of the available diversity of hantaviruses reveals the existence of four phylogroups that infect a range of mammalian hosts, as well as the occurrence of ancient reassortment events between the phylogroups. Notably, the phylogenetic histories of the viruses are not always congruent with those of their hosts, suggesting that cross-species transmission has played a major role during hantavirus evolution and at all taxonomic levels, although we also noted some evidence for virus-host co-divergence. Our phylogenetic analysis also suggests that hantaviruses might have first appeared in Chiroptera (bats or Soricomorpha (moles and shrews, before emerging in rodent species. Overall, these data indicate that bats are likely to be important natural reservoir hosts of hantaviruses.

  8. Comparative jet wake structure and swimming performance of salps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Kelly R; Madin, Laurence P

    2010-09-01

    Salps are barrel-shaped marine invertebrates that swim by jet propulsion. Morphological variations among species and life-cycle stages are accompanied by differences in swimming mode. The goal of this investigation was to compare propulsive jet wakes and swimming performance variables among morphologically distinct salp species (Pegea confoederata, Weelia (Salpa) cylindrica, Cyclosalpa sp.) and relate swimming patterns to ecological function. Using a combination of in situ dye visualization and particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements, we describe properties of the jet wake and swimming performance variables including thrust, drag and propulsive efficiency. Locomotion by all species investigated was achieved via vortex ring propulsion. The slow-swimming P. confoederata produced the highest weight-specific thrust (T=53 N kg(-1)) and swam with the highest whole-cycle propulsive efficiency (eta(wc)=55%). The fast-swimming W. cylindrica had the most streamlined body shape but produced an intermediate weight-specific thrust (T=30 N kg(-1)) and swam with an intermediate whole-cycle propulsive efficiency (eta(wc)=52%). Weak swimming performance variables in the slow-swimming C. affinis, including the lowest weight-specific thrust (T=25 N kg(-1)) and lowest whole-cycle propulsive efficiency (eta(wc)=47%), may be compensated by low energetic requirements. Swimming performance variables are considered in the context of ecological roles and evolutionary relationships.

  9. Testing competing hypotheses for chronology and intensity of lesser scaup molt during winter and spring migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anteau, M.J.; Anteau, A.C.E.; Afton, A.D.

    2011-01-01

    We examined chronology and intensity of molt and their relationships to nutrient reserves (lipid and protein) of Lesser Scaup (Aythya affinis) to test predictions of two competing hypotheses. The "staggered cost" hypothesis states that contour-feather molt is nutritionally costly and should not occur during nutritionally costly periods of the annual cycle unless adequate nutrients are available. The "breeding plumage" hypothesis states that prealternate molt must be complete prior to nesting, regardless of nutrient availability. Males and females were completing prebasic molt during winter (Louisiana) and had similar molt intensities. Females underwent prealternate molt during spring migration (Illinois and Minnesota) and prebreeding (Manitoba) periods; 53% and 93% of females were in moderate to heavy molt in Minnesota and Manitoba, respectively, despite experiencing other substantial nutritional costs. Intensity of prealternate molt was not correlated with lipid reserves even though females, on average, were nutritionally stressed. Molt intensity was not negatively correlated with protein reserves at any location. Chronology and intensity of prealternate molt varied little and were not temporally staggered from other nutritionally costly events. Prealternate molt did not influence nutrient reserves, and nutrient reserves likely were not the ultimate factor influencing chronology or intensity of prealternate molt of females. We surmise that nutrients required for prealternate molt come from exogenous sources and that the "staggered cost" hypothesis does not explain chronology of prealternate molt in female Lesser Scaup; rather, it appears that molt must be complete prior to nesting, consistent with the "breeding plumage" hypothesis. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2011.

  10. A comment on “temporal variation in survival and recovery rates of lesser scaup”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Mark S.; Boomer, G. Scott; Schmutz, Joel A.; Walker, Johann A.

    2017-01-01

    Concerns about declines in the abundance of lesser scaup (Aythya affinis) have promoted a number of analyses to understand reasons for this decline. Unfortunately, most of these analyses, including that of Arnold et al. (2016 Journal of Wildlife Management 80: 850–861), are based on observational studies leading to weak inference. Although we commend the efforts of Arnold et al. (2016 Journal of Wildlife Management 80: 850–861), we think their conclusions are over-stated given their retrospective analysis. Further, we note a number of inconsistencies in their reasoning and offer alternative conclusions that can be drawn from their analysis. Given the uncertainty still surrounding management of lesser scaup, we do not believe it is prudent to abandon or greatly modify adaptive management approaches designed specifically to make optimal decisions in the face of uncertainty. The current learning-based and recursive approach to management appears to be providing adequate guidance for harvest without punctuated changes to harvest levels, as Arnold et al. (2016 Journal of Wildlife Management 80: 850–861) recommend.

  11. Selenium and other elements in freshwater fishes from the irrigated San Joaquin Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiki, M.K.; Jennings, M.R.; May, T.W.

    1992-01-01

    Arsenic (As), chromium (Cr), mercury (Hg), and selenium (Se) were measured in composite whole-body samples of five fishes — bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), and Sacramento blackfish (Orthodon microlepidotus) — from the San Joaquin River system to determine if concentrations were elevated from exposure to agricultural subsurface (tile) drainage. Except for Cr, the concentrations of these elements in fishes from one or more sites were elevated; however, only Se approached concentrations that may adversely affect survival, growth, or reproduction in warm water fishes. Moreover, only Se among the four measured elements exhibited a geographic (spatial) pattern that coincided with known inflows of tile drainage to the San Joaquin River and its tributaries. Historical data from the Grassland Water District (Grasslands; a region exposed to concentrated tile drainage) suggested that concentrations of Se in fishes were at maximum during or shortly after 1984 and have been slightly lower since then. The recent decline of Se concentrations in fishes from the Grasslands could be temporary if additional acreages of irrigated lands in this portion of the San Joaquin Valley must be tile-drained to protect agricultural crops from rising groundwater tables.

  12. Visitation by wild and managed bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) to eastern U.S. native plants for use in conservation programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuell, Julianna K; Fiedler, Anna K; Landis, Douglas; Isaacs, Rufus

    2008-06-01

    Addition of floral resources to agricultural field margins has been shown to increase abundance of beneficial insects in crop fields, but most plants recommended for this use are non-native annuals. Native perennial plants with different bloom periods can provide floral resources for bees throughout the growing season for use in pollinator conservation projects. To identify the most suitable plants for this use, we examined the relative attractiveness to wild and managed bees of 43 eastern U.S. native perennial plants, grown in a common garden setting. Floral characteristics were evaluated for their ability to predict bee abundance and taxa richness. Of the wild bees collected, the most common species (62%) was Bombus impatiens Cresson. Five other wild bee species were present between 3 and 6% of the total: Lasioglossum admirandum (Sandhouse), Hylaeus affinis (Smith), Agapostemon virescens (F.), Halictus ligatus Say, and Ceratina calcarata/dupla Robertson/Say. The remaining wild bee species were present at wild bees; 9 were highly attractive, and 20 were moderately attractive. Honey bees visited 24 of the 43 plant species at least once. Floral area was the only measured factor accounting for variation in abundance and richness of wild bees but did not explain variation in honey bee abundance. Results of this study can be used to guide selection of flowering plants to provide season-long forage for conservation of wild bees.

  13. ALTURA DE VOO DE ESCOLITÍNEOS (COLEOPTERA, SCOLYTINAE EM POVOAMENTO DE Pinus taeda L. NO SUL DO BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Mortari Machado

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Scolytids (Curculionidae, Scolytinae are small borer beetles belonging to the order Coleoptera that develop within or under the bark of trees. In northern countries, these insects cause significant damage especially when outbreaks occur. In Brazil, in general, the damage is minor when compared to the northern hemisphere. Given the importance of subfamily Scolytinae, this paper aims at providing a better understanding of the behavior of Scolytids, mainly regarding the flight height in a stand of Pinus taeda L. For the execution of this work 72, intercept flight traps were installed in area belonging to the State Foundation for Agricultural Research (FEPAGRO, located in Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul state. The treatments correspond to heights of 0.5; 1.0; 1.5; 2.0; 2.5; 3.0; 3.5; 4.0; 4.5; 5.0; 5.5 and 6.0 meters. It was possible to capture: Hypothenemus eruditus in greater abundance at the range of 1 to 1.5 meters; Xyleborus ferrugineus , Xyleborinus gracilis and Xyleborus affinis to 0.5 meters; Xyleborinus saxeseni and Xylosandrus retusus with no preference. It is concluded that the range between 0.5 and 1.5 meters is ideal to analyze quantitatively the scolytids present in the Pinus taeda.

  14. Testing competing hypotheses for chronology and intensity of lesser scaup molt during winter and spring migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anteau, Michael J.; Anteau, Andrea C.E.; Afton, Alan D.

    2011-01-01

    We examined chronology and intensity of molt and their relationships to nutrient reserves (lipid and protein) of Lesser Scaup (Aythya affinisK/i>) to test predictions of two competing hypotheses. The "staggered cost" hypothesis states that contour-feather molt is nutritionally costly and should not occur during nutritionally costly periods of the annual cycle unless adequate nutrients are available. The "breeding plumage" hypothesis states that prealternate molt must be complete prior to nesting, regardless of nutrient availability. Males and females were completing prebasic molt during winter (Louisiana) and had similar molt intensities. Females underwent prealternate molt during spring migration (Illinois and Minnesota) and prebreeding (Manitoba) periods; 53% and 93% of females were in moderate to heavy molt in Minnesota and Manitoba, respectively, despite experiencing other substantial nutritional costs. Intensity of prealternate molt was not correlated with lipid reserves even though females, on average, were nutritionally stressed. Molt intensity was not negatively correlated with protein reserves at any location. Chronology and intensity of prealternate molt varied little and were not temporally staggered from other nutritionally costly events. Prealternate molt did not influence nutrient reserves, and nutrient reserves likely were not the ultimate factor influencing chronology or intensity of prealternate molt of females. We surmise that nutrients required for prealternate molt come from exogenous sources and that the "staggered cost" hypothesis does not explain chronology of prealternate molt in female Lesser Scaup; rather, it appears that molt must be complete prior to nesting, consistent with the "breeding plumage" hypothesis.

  15. Occurrence of zebra mussels in near-shore areas of western Lake Erie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, Christine M.; Custer, T.W.

    1997-01-01

    Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) invaded the Great Lakes in the mid-1980s and quickly reached high densities. The objective of this study was to determine current consumption of zebra mussels by waterfowl in the Great Lakes region. Feeding Lesser Scaups (Aythya affinis), Greater Scaups (A. marila), Canvasbacks (A. valisineria), Redheads (A. americana), Buffleheads (Bucephala albeola) and Common Goldeneyes (B. clangula) were collected in western Lake Erie and in Lake St. Clair between fall and spring, 1992-1993 to determine food habits. All 10 Redheads, 97% of Lesser Scaups, 83% of Goldeneyes, 60% of Buffleheads and 9% of Canvasbacks contained one or more zebra mussels in their upper gastrointestinal tracts. The aggregate percent of zebra mussels in the diet of Lesser Scaups was higher in Lake Erie (98.6%) than in Lake St. Clair (54.4%). Zebra mussels, (aggregate percent) dominated the diet of Common Goldeneyes (79.2%) but not in Buffleheads (23.5%), Redheads (21%) or Canvasbacks (9%). Lesser Scaups from Lake Erie fed on larger zebra mussels ( = 10.7 i?? 0.66 mm SE) than did Lesser Scaups from Lake St. Clair ( = 4.4 i?? 0.22 mm). Lesser Scaups, Buffleheads and Common Goldeneyes from Lake Erie consumed zebra mussels of similar size.

  16. Tintinnid ciliates of Amundsen Sea (Antarctica plankton communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Dolan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Amundsen Sea has been described as one of the most productive and dynamic pelagic systems in Antarctica and is one of the least studied. Based on samples from 15 stations in the Amundsen Sea, we describe for the first time the composition of the tintinnid ciliate assemblage of the microzooplankton. We compared the species compositions of coastal polynya sites, where the phytoplankton communities are dominated by Phaeocystis, to those of the offshore deep water sites, which are dominated by diatoms. We found a total of 15 species. Polynya sites were dominated by a few species of tintinnids, mostly those endemic to the Southern Ocean. In contrast, the deep-water sites contained many widespread tintinnid species, which are known from a wide variety of systems as well as other areas of the Southern Ocean. We examined polymorphism known to characterize the Antarctic tintinnid species Cymatocylis affinis/convallaria and Codonellopsis gaussi. We found that the types or forms found appeared unrelated to the type of microplankton community, defined by the identity of the dominant phytoplankton taxa. However, the number of different morphotypes found at a site appeared related to the overall concentration of the species, suggesting that different morphologies, previously considered distinct species, may simply be developmental stages.

  17. Elements in fish of Malibu Creek and Malibu Lagoon near Los Angeles, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, Anthony; MacNeil, Spencer D.; Ambrose, Richard F.; Que Hee, Shane S.

    2003-01-01

    Our aim was to assess whether past discharges from a wastewater treatment plant increased metal pollutant loads in stream mobile species in a one-day baseline sampling study that included a coastal wetland. Mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) of two sizes, black bullhead (Ameiurus melas), and crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus) were collected from Malibu Creek, and California killifish (Fundulus parvipinnis) of three sizes, as well as arroyo chub (Gila orcutti) were sampled from Malibu Lagoon near Los Angeles, California. Species from each locality were pooled by length, homogenized, digested by microwave wet ashing, and analyzed by simultaneous inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy for 27 elements. Lagoon killifish 2.0-3.5 cm long contained levels of arsenic and lead above the levels for 95% of California fish, the EDL95. Black bullhead upstream of the discharge contained elevated levels of As, Cr and Se. Young mosquitofish <3 cm in length upstream of the discharge differed greatly in the order of abundance of their elements relative to larger mosquitofish and to other species collected. More sampling than this baseline study allowed was needed to determine if the wastewater treatment plant was a pollution source

  18. DNA barcode of Parodontidae species from the La Plata river basin - applying new data to clarify taxonomic problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisangela Bellafronte

    Full Text Available In the past years, DNA barcoding has emerged as a quick, accurate and efficient tool to identify species. Considering the difficulty in identifying some Parodontidae species from the La Plata basin and the absence of molecular data for the group, we aimed to test the effectiveness of DNA barcoding and discuss the importance of using different approaches to solve taxonomic problems. Eight species were analyzed with partial sequences of Cytochrome c oxidase I. The mean intraspecific K2P genetic distance was 0.04% compared to 4.2% for mean interspecific K2P genetic distance. The analyses of distance showed two pairs of species with K2P genetic divergence lower than 2%, but enough to separate these species. Apareiodon sp. and A. ibitiensis, considered as the same species by some authors, showed 4.2% genetic divergence, reinforcing their are different species. Samples of A. affinis from the Uruguay and Paraguay rivers presented 0.3% genetic divergence, indicating a close relationship between them. However, these samples diverged 6.1% from the samples of the upper Paraná River, indicating that the latter represents a potentially new species. The results showed the effectiveness of the DNA barcoding method in identifying the analyzed species, which, together with the morphological and cytogenetic available data, help species identification.

  19. Nachträge zum „Katalog der schweizerischen Spinnen“ 4. Neunachweise von 2002 bis 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hänggi, Ambros

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the ”Checklist of the spiders of Central Europe” 945 species are listed for Switzerland. During the last few years numerous species have been found which represent new records for Switzerland and that, at least partly, have already been published. This 4th appendix to the catalogue of Swiss spiders presents fourteen species recorded for the first time in Switzerland: Carniella brignolii Thaler & Steinberger, 1988, Theridion cinereum Thorell, 1875, Diplocephalus foraminifer (O. P.-Cambridge, 1875, Panamomops affinis Miller & Kratochvíl, 1939, Troxochrota scabra Kulczyński, 1894, Pardosa fulvipes (Collett, 1876, P. sphagnicola (Dahl, 1908, Hahnia microphthalma Snazell & Duffey, 1980, Archaeodictyna consecuta (O. P.-Cambridge, 1872, Brommella falcigera (Balogh, 1935, Cheiracanthium campestre Lohmander, 1944, Drassodex drescoi Hervé, Roberts & Murphy, 2009, Thanatus firmetorum Muster & Thaler, 2003 and Xysticus viduus Kulczyński, 1898. Thirteen further species are presented that were already published elsewhere. The current number of species in Switzerland is thus 972. As special curiosities, five species are presented that will not yet be entered into the checklist but nevertheless may happen to be found in human surroundings.

  20. Combined use of alkane-degrading and plant growth-promoting bacteria enhanced phytoremediation of diesel contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tara, Nain; Afzal, Muhammad; Ansari, Tariq M; Tahseen, Razia; Iqbal, Samina; Khan, Qaiser M

    2014-01-01

    Inoculation of plants with pollutant-degrading and plant growth-promoting microorganisms is a simple strategy to enhance phytoremediation activity. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of inoculation of different bacterial strains, possessing alkane-degradation and 1-amino-cyclopropane-1 -carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase activity, on plant growth and phytoremediation activity. Carpet grass (Axonopus affinis) was planted in soil spiked with diesel (1% w/w) for 90 days and inoculated with different bacterial strains, Pseudomonas sp. ITRH25, Pantoea sp. BTRH79 and Burkholderia sp. PsJN, individually and in combination. Generally, bacterial application increased total numbers of culturable hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in the rhizosphere ofcarpet grass, plant biomass production, hydrocarbon degradation and reduced genotoxicity. Bacterial strains possessing different beneficial traits affect plant growth and phytoremediation activity in different ways. Maximum bacterial population, plant biomass production and hydrocarbon degradation were achieved when carpet grass was inoculated with a consortium of three strains. Enhanced plant biomass production and hydrocarbon degradation were associated with increased numbers of culturable hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in the rhizosphere of carpet grass. The present study revealed that the combined use of different bacterial strains, exhibiting different beneficial traits, is a highly effective strategy to improve plant growth and phytoremediation activity.

  1. Total selenium and selenium species in irrigation drain inflows to the Salton Sea, California, October 2008 and January 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Thomas W.; Walther, Michael J.; Saiki, Michael K.; Brumbaugh, William G.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents the results for two sampling periods (October 2008 and January 2009) during a 4-year monitoring program to characterize selenium concentrations in selected irrigation drains flowing into the Salton Sea, California. Total selenium, selenium species (dissolved selenite, selenate, organoselenium), and total suspended solids were determined in water samples. Total selenium also was determined in water column particulates and in sediment, detritus, and biota that included algae, plankton, midge larvae (family, Chironomidae), and two fish species (western mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis, and sailfin molly, Poecilia latipinna). In addition, sediments were analyzed for percent total organic carbon and particle size. Mean total selenium concentrations in water for both sampling periods ranged from 1.00 to 33.6 micrograms per liter, predominately as selenate, which is typical of waters where selenium is leached out of selenium-containing marine shales and associated soils under alkaline and oxidizing conditions. Total selenium concentrations (micrograms per gram dry weight) ranged as follows: algae, 1.52 to 8.26; plankton, 0.79 to 3.66; midges, 2.68 to 50.6; fish, 3.09 to 30.4; detritus, 1.78 to 58.0; and sediment, 0.42 to 10.0.

  2. Total selenium and selenium species in irrigation drain inflows to the Salton Sea, California, April and July 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Thomas W.; Walther, Michael J.; Saiki, Michael K.; Brumbaugh, William G.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents the results for two sampling periods (April 2008 and July 2008) during a 4-year monitoring program to characterize selenium concentrations in selected irrigation drains flowing into the Salton Sea, California. Total selenium, selenium species (dissolved selenite, selenate, organoselenium), and total suspended solids were determined in water samples and total selenium was determined in water column particulates and in sediment, detritus, and biota that included algae, plankton, midge larvae (family, Chironomidae), and two fish species - western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) and sailfin molly (Poecilia latipinna). In addition, sediments were analyzed for percent total organic carbon and particle size. Mean total selenium concentrations in water for both sampling periods ranged from 1.93 to 44.2 micrograms per liter, predominately as selenate, which is typical of waters where selenium is leached out of selenium-containing marine shales and associated soils under alkaline and oxidizing conditions. Total selenium concentrations (micrograms per gram dry weight) ranged as follows: algae, 0.75 to 3.39; plankton, 0.88 to 4.03; midges, 2.52 to 44.3; fish, 3.37 to 18.9; detritus, 1.11 to 13.6; sediment, 0.11 to 8.93.

  3. Relation of desert pupfish abundance to selected environmental variables in natural and manmade habitats in the Salton Sea basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, B.A.; Saiki, M.K.

    2005-01-01

    We assessed the relation between abundance of desert pupfish, Cyprinodon macularius, and selected biological and physicochemical variables in natural and manmade habitats within the Salton Sea Basin. Field sampling in a natural tributary, Salt Creek, and three agricultural drains captured eight species including pupfish (1.1% of the total catch), the only native species encountered. According to Bray-Curtis resemblance functions, fish species assemblages differed mostly between Salt Creek and the drains (i.e., the three drains had relatively similar species assemblages). Pupfish numbers and environmental variables varied among sites and sample periods. Canonical correlation showed that pupfish abundance was positively correlated with abundance of western mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis, and negatively correlated with abundance of porthole livebearers, Poeciliopsis gracilis, tilapias (Sarotherodon mossambica and Tilapia zillii), longjaw mudsuckers, Gillichthys mirabilis, and mollies (Poecilia latipinnaandPoecilia mexicana). In addition, pupfish abundance was positively correlated with cover, pH, and salinity, and negatively correlated with sediment factor (a measure of sediment grain size) and dissolved oxygen. Pupfish abundance was generally highest in habitats where water quality extremes (especially high pH and salinity, and low dissolved oxygen) seemingly limited the occurrence of nonnative fishes. This study also documented evidence of predation by mudsuckers on pupfish. These findings support the contention of many resource managers that pupfish populations are adversely influenced by ecological interactions with nonnative fishes. ?? Springer 2005.

  4. Trophic relationships of small nonnative fishes in a natural creek and several agricultural drains flowing into the Salton Sea, and their potential, effects on the endangered desert pupfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Barbara A.; Saiki, Michael K.

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to characterize trophic relationships of small nonnative fishes and to determine if predation by these fishes contributes to the decline of desert pupfish (Cyprinodon macularius), an endangered cyprinodont on the verge of extinction. We sampled 403 hybrid Mozambique tilapias (Oreochromis mossambica by O. urolepis), 107 redbelly tilapias (Tilapia zillii), 32 longjaw mudsuckers (Gillkhthys mirabilis), 182 western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis), 222 sailfin mollies (Poecilia latipinna), 63 shortfin mollies (Poecilia mexicana), and 235 porthole livebearers (Poecilurpsis gracilis) from a natural creek and four agricultural drains during September 1999- December 2001. Evidence of piscivory was in gastrointestinal contents of 14 hybrid Mozambique tilapias, 3 redbelly tilapias, 10 longjaw mudsuckers, 8 western mosquitofish, 2 sailfin mollies, and 8 porthole livebearers. Although digestion often was too advanced for identification of fishes consumed by nonnative fishes, remains of desert pupfish were in gastrointestinal contents of a longjaw mudsucker. Our findings, along with Field evidence from other studies that inverse relationships exist between abundances of desert pupfish and nonnative species, are consistent with the hypothesis that predation by nonnative species is contributing to decline of desert pupfish. We suspect that competitive interactions with nonnative fishes might also adversely affect abundance of desert pupfish.

  5. Total selenium and selenium species in irrigation drain inflows to the Salton Sea, California, October 2007 and January 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Thomas W.; Walther, Michael J.; Saiki, Michael K.; Brumbaugh, William G.

    2008-01-01

    This report presents the results for two sampling periods (October 2007 and January 2008) during a 4-year monitoring program to characterize selenium concentrations in selected irrigation drains flowing into the Salton Sea, California. Total selenium, selenium species (selenite, selenate, organoselenium), and total suspended solids were determined in water samples, and total selenium was determined in sediment, detritus, and biota that included algae, plankton, midge larvae (family, Chironomidae), and two fish species?western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) and sailfin molly (Poecilia latipinna). In addition, sediments were analyzed for percent total organic carbon and particle size. Mean total selenium concentrations in water for both sampling periods ranged from 0.97 to 64.5 micrograms per liter, predominately as selenate, which is typical of waters where selenium is leached out of selenium-containing marine shales and associated soils under alkaline and oxidizing conditions. Total selenium concentrations (micrograms per gram dry weight) ranged as follows: algae, 0.95 to 5.99; plankton, 0.15 to 19.3; midges, 1.39 to 15.4; fish, 3.71 to 25.1; detritus, 0.85 to 21.7; sediment, 0.32 to 7.28.

  6. Total selenium and selenium species in irrigation drain inflows to the Salton Sea, California, April and July 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Thomas W.; Walther, Michael J.; Saiki, Michael K.; Brumbaugh, William G.

    2007-01-01

    This report presents the results for two sampling periods during a 4-year monitoring survey to provide a characterization of selenium concentrations in selected irrigation drains flowing into the Salton Sea, California. Total selenium, selenium species, and total suspended solids were determined in water samples, and total selenium was determined in sediment, detritus, and biota that included algae, plankton, midge larvae (family, Chironomidae), and two fish species-western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis), and sailfin molly (Poecilia latipinna). In addition, sediments were analyzed for percent total organic carbon and particle size. Total selenium concentrations in water for both sampling periods ranged from 1.43 to 47.1 micrograms per liter, predominately as selenate, which is typical of waters leached out of selenium-contaminated marine shales under alkaline and oxidizing conditions. Total selenium concentrations ranged from 0.88 to 20.2 micrograms per gram in biota, and from 0.15 to 28.9 micrograms per gram in detritus and sediment.

  7. Bioassay of Lake Onego bottom sediments toxicity based on their chemical composition and deepwater macrozoobenthos state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalinkina Nataliya Michailovna

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The bioassay of the toxicity of bottom sediments sampled in different areas of Lake Onega was carried out by crustaceans biotesting (Ceriodaphnia affinis Lillijeborg. It was shown that in the most areas of Lake Onega there are non-toxic bottom sediments. Toxic bottom sediments were found in Kondopogskaya Bay, intensively polluted with pulp-and-paper mill wastewaters. For the first time in the deep central part of Lake Onega the area was revealed where the toxic bottom sediments contain a high content of iron, manganese and other trace elements typical for the central areas of the lake. The mapping of the bottom of Lake Onega was accomplished, and three zones were identified based on the analysis of the data concerning the chemical composition of bottom sediments, bioassay toxicity data and the results of the deepwater macrozoobenthos assessment. For each zone the parameters of the main groups of benthos (Amphipoda, Oligochaeta, Chironomidae were defined. The first zone is located in the area of intensive anthropogenic influence (Kondopogskaya Bay, Petrozavodskaya Bay, Povenets Bay, Kizhi Skerries. The second zone is located mostly in the deep part of Petrozavodskaya Bay, where the most intensive development of amphipods is observed. The third area is identified for the first time: it is located in the central deep part of Lake Onega, where the communities of macrozoobenthos are limited by a natural toxic factor.

  8. A comparison of auditory brainstem responses across diving bird species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell, Sara E.; Berlin, Alicia; Carr, Catherine E.; Olsen, Glenn H.; Therrien, Ronald E.; Yannuzzi, Sally E.; Ketten, Darlene R.

    2015-01-01

    There is little biological data available for diving birds because many live in hard-to-study, remote habitats. Only one species of diving bird, the black-footed penguin (Spheniscus demersus), has been studied in respect to auditory capabilities (Wever et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 63:676–680, 1969). We, therefore, measured in-air auditory threshold in ten species of diving birds, using the auditory brainstem response (ABR). The average audiogram obtained for each species followed the U-shape typical of birds and many other animals. All species tested shared a common region of the greatest sensitivity, from 1000 to 3000 Hz, although audiograms differed significantly across species. Thresholds of all duck species tested were more similar to each other than to the two non-duck species tested. The red-throated loon (Gavia stellata) and northern gannet (Morus bassanus) exhibited the highest thresholds while the lowest thresholds belonged to the duck species, specifically the lesser scaup (Aythya affinis) and ruddy duck (Oxyura jamaicensis). Vocalization parameters were also measured for each species, and showed that with the exception of the common eider (Somateria mollisima), the peak frequency, i.e., frequency at the greatest intensity, of all species' vocalizations measured here fell between 1000 and 3000 Hz, matching the bandwidth of the most sensitive hearing range.

  9. Othello Üzüm Çeşidinin Ampelografik Özelliklerinin Belirlenmesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yılmaz Fidan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Bu araştırmada, Ankara Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi Bahçe Bitkileri Bölümü araştırma ve uygulama bağında 41 B.M.G. asma anacı üzerine aşılı olarak yetiştirilen Othello üzüm çeşidinin ampelografik özellikleri belirlenmiştir. Gözlerin patlamasından yaprak dökümüne kadar geçen süre içinde incelenen ampelografik özelliklerin belirlenmesinde, “Uluslar arası Bitki Gen Kaynakları Merkezi” (IBPRG adına oluşturulan bir bilim komitesi tarafından esas alınmıştır. Yaprakların ampelografik ölçülerinin belirlenmesinde MORTON (1979’dan alınan Galet yöntemi kullanılırken, araştırmada ayrıca ben düşmeden başlayarak 10’ar gün aralıklarda suda çözünebilir kuru madde miktarı (SÇKM ile titre edilebilir asit (TA miktarları saptanmıştır.

  10. Taze Barbunya Peroksidazının Rejenerasyonu (Phaseolus vulgaris (İngilizce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Yemenicioğlu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Kısmi olarak inaktive edilmiş taze barbunya peroksidazının (POX rejenerasyon kinetiği 30o ve 1 oC’lerde incelenmiştir. Rejenerasyon, her iki sıcaklıkta da yavaş bir şekilde gerçekleşmiş ve rejenerasyonun çoğunluğu  ilk 1 saat içinde tamamlanmıştır. Beklenildiği gibi 30 oC’deki rejenerasyon, 1 oC’deki rejenarasyondan daha hızlı gerçekleşmiştir. Ayrıca 30 oC’de gerçekleşen yüzde rejenerasyon ile 65 oC’deki ısıtma süresi arasında ters gelişin bir ilişki olduğu belirlenmiştir.

  11. Fikri hukukta manevi haklar ve manevi hakların korunması

    OpenAIRE

    Bellican, Cüneyt

    2008-01-01

    Söz’den sese, yazıdan görüntüye doğru ilerleyen düşünen insanın düşünce ürünlerinin pozitif hukuk kuralları tarafından korunması gerekliliği, Fikri Hukuk adı altında bağımsız bir hukuk dalının ortaya çıkmasına neden olmuştur. Fikri Hukuk kavramı, çatısı dar tutulabildiği kadar geniş bir çerçeveye de kavuşturulabilir. Dar anlamda Fikri Hukuk-geniş anlamda Fikri Hukuk ayrımı Fikri Hukuk korumasından yararlanacak olan kişilerden çok Fikri Hukuk kurallarını yorumlayacak olanlar...

  12. The end of an era at Restaurant No. 1

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Director-Generals came and went, but they stayed on. For over 30 years, Carmen, Christian, José, Luis and Mario have been on duty at CERN's Restaurant No. 1, between them notching up 171 years of service. They all retire before the end of the month. In their own individual ways they have established close relationships with the CERN personnel, who have appreciated their unfailing warmth, good humour, elegance and impeccable manners. The Bulletin has collected testimonials from many members of the CERN personnel paying tribute to them. At a farewell party on 15 May, CERN's theorists exchanged roles with the departing Restaurant No. 1 team members. Appropriately uniformed and with the obligatory bow-tie, the theorists stood behind the tables to serve those who have served us for so long. In 1974 when I arrived at CERN, I had to organise meetings for delegates and learnt everything about the catering side from Mario. It came as a total surprise one day when he asked me where I came from. I replied, 'Ayr, just ...

  13. Parabolik Kuantum Kuyusundaki Hidrojenik Düzeyler Üzerine Manyetik Alan Etkisi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ünal YEŞİLGÜL

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Özet.  Bu çalışmada,   tek parabolik kuantum kuyusunda 1s, 2s ve 2p± düzeylerindeki donor safsızlık atomunun bağlanma enerjisi, etkin kütle yaklaşımında varyasyonel olarak, kuyu genişliği ve dışarıdan uygulanan manyetik alanın bir fonksiyonu olarak hesaplamıştır. Ayrıca, GaAs/Ga1-xAlxAs tek parabolik kuantum kuyusunda hidrojenik düzeyler arasındaki kızılötesi geçişler üzerinde manyetik alanın etkisi incelenmiştir.Anahtar Kelimeler: Parabolik kuantum kuyusu, Safsızlık bağlanma enerjisi, Manyetik alan Abstract. In this study, the binding energy of the donor impurity at 1s, 2s and 2p± states in a   parabolic quantum well is calculated variationally within the effective mass approximation as a function of the quantum well width and the external magnetic field. Furthermore, the effects of the magnetic field on the infrared transitions between the hydrogenic states in a parabolic quantum well under are investigated.Keywords: Parabolic Quantum Well, Impurity Atoms, Magnetic Fields

  14. KLASİK OSMANLI TÜRKÇESİYLE YAZILMIŞ BİR DİL YADİGÂRI: MUHAMMED KONEVÎ’NİN HEDİYYETÜ’L-MÜLÛK’Ü

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şermin KALAFAT

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Özet Bu çalışmada Klasik Osmanlı Türkçesi ile yazılmış, Muhammed Konevî’nin Hediyyetü’l-Mülûk adlı eseri üzerine bir dil incelemesi (ses ve biçim özellikleri yapılmıştır. Ayrıca eserdeki mevcut astronomi terimleri de sözlük olarak verilmiştir. Çalışmanın sonuna da eserin çeviri yazısı eklenmiştir. Abstract This study examines the phonetic and morphologic features of Muhammad Qunawī’s work named Hadiyyatu’l-Mulūk written in Classical Ottoman Turkish. The article has a brief dictionary listing the astronomical terms used in the work. Moreover, an English translation of the work has been added at the end.

  15. Mondros Mütarekesi Öncesinde Osmanlı Kamuoyunda Sulh Tartışmaları

    OpenAIRE

    ÇELİK, AKIN

    2013-01-01

    Osmanlı Devleti, 28 Temmuz 1914 tarihinde başlayan Birinci Dünya Savaşı'na İttifak Devletleri safında dahil olmuştur. Ancak bu savaş, Osmanlı Devleti açısından sonun başlangıcıydı. Osmanlı Devleti, çöküş devresini yaşamakta olan çok uluslu bir imparatorluk için en istenmeyen bir netice ile bu savaştan ayrılmıştır. Her ne kadar İtilaf Devletleri savaşın galibi gibi görünse de, bu savaşa dahil olan bütün devletler büyük zarar görmüştür. Bu büyük yangından en az zararla çıkmak için Osmanlı ...

  16. Prematürite Retinopatisi: İki Yıllık İzlem Sonuçlarımız

    OpenAIRE

    Dikci, Seyhan; Keskin, Halil

    2015-01-01

    Özet Amaç: Yenidoğan yoğun bakım ünitemizde takip ettiğimiz ve dış merkezlerden hastanemize refere edilen prematüre bebeklerde prematürite retinopatisi (PR) sıklığını saptamak ve hastalığın klinik gidişatını değerlendirmek. Gereç ve Yöntemler: Ocak 2012-Aralık 2013 tarihleri arasında Samsun Kadın Doğum ve Çocuk Hastalıkları Hastanesi yenidoğan yoğun bakım ünitesinde takibi yapılan ve ayrıca dış merkezlerden hastanemize refere edilen 34 hafta ve altında doğum haftası olan bebekler ile do...

  17. Yerelden Evrensele Japon Anime ve Manga Sanatı

    OpenAIRE

    TAŞ ALİCENAP, Çiğdem

    2014-01-01

    Anime ve manga kültürü Uzakdoğu çizgi roman sanatının yoğun üretimi, tarih, din, kültür ve felsefenin konulara yansıması ve Batı çizgi film ve çizgi romanlarından ayrılan farklı tarzlarıyla araştırılması ve öğrenilmesi gereken değerler içermektedir. Japonya’ da çizgi film sanatının Batı’ daki Disney gibi bir endüstrinin dışında bu denli özgün ve başarılı örnekleri elbette o sanatçıların yetiştiği kültürün, tarihin, sanatın ve felsefi değerlerin olduğu kadar eski...

  18. The influence of economic business cycles on United States suicide rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, I M

    1984-01-01

    A number of social science investigators have shown that a downturn in the economy leads to an increase in the suicide rate. However, the previous works on the subject are flawed by the fact that they employ years as their temporal unit of analysis. This time period is so large that it makes it difficult for investigators to precisely determine the length of the lag effect, while at the same time removing the autocorrelation effects. Also, although most works on suicide and the business cycle employ unemployment as a measure of a downturn in the business cycle, the average duration of unemployment represents a better measure for determining the social impact of an economic downturn. From 1947 to 1977 the average monthly duration of unemployment is statistically related to the suicide rate using multivariate time-series analysis. From 1910 to 1939 the Ayres business index, a surrogate measure for movement in the business cycle, is statistically related to the monthly suicide rate. An examination of the findings confirms that in most cases a downturn in the economy causes an increase in the suicide rate.

  19. Râzî’nin, Kur’an’daki Yeryüzü (Arz Âyetleriyle İlgili Tefsir-i Kebir’deki Yorumları: Modern Jeoloji Biliminin Verileriyle Kısa Bir Mukayese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enver BAYRAM

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Batı dünyasında bilimsel buluş ve keşiflerin yeni başladığı bir dönemde, İslam dünyasında birçok bilimsel buluş ve keşif Müslüman bilim adamları tarafından ortaya konulmuştur. Bu buluş ve keşiflerin yapıldığı alanlardan biri de Jeoloji (yer ilmidir. Bu konuyu tefsirinde etraflıca ele alan Râzî (ö. 606/1210, yer ile ilgili âyetleri kendi döneminin ilmi verileri doğrultusunda ayrıntılı bir şekilde tefsir etmiştir. Bu yüzden onun bazı açıklamaları, zaman zaman modern Jeoloji ilminin verilerine ters düşebilmektedir. Onun, bu âyetleri tefsir ederken en temel amacı, bunları Allah’ın varlığına ve birliğine delil getirmesi olmuştur.

  20. An Analysis of work values, organizational commitment, and work centrality of turkish employees from an age diversity perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Sönmezer, Sırma

    2015-01-01

    112 pages Bu çalışmanın temel amacı, yaşın çalışma değerleri, örgüte bağlılık, ve çalışma merkeziliği üzerindeki etkisini anlamaktır. Bu bağlamda, yaş grupları arasında çalışma değerlerinde, örgüte bağlılık ve çalışma merkeziliği seviyelerinde farklılık öngörülmüştür. Buna ek olarak, farklı yaş gruplarında, örgüte bağlılık ile çalışma değerleri ve çalışma merkeziliği arasındaki ilişki ayrı olarak incelenmiştir. Türkiye, Istanbul'da yapılan çalışmaya, üniversite mezunu, kurumsal firmalarda ...

  1. MARKA DEĞERİNİN HESAPLANMASI ÜZERİNE AMPİRİK BİR ÇALIŞMA: FİNANS VE PAZARLAMA BOYUTU

    OpenAIRE

    ZENGİN, Burcu; GÜNGÖRDÜ, Aybegüm

    2015-01-01

    Çalışmada, marka ve marka değeri kavramları açıklandıktan sonra marka değerinin hesaplanmasında kullanılan yöntemlere yer verilmiştir. Çalışmanın amacı, marka değerinin ölçümünde finansal ve pazarlama yöntemlerinin kıyaslanmasıdır.Çalışmada, Türkiye’de gıda perakendeciliği sektöründe yer alan işletmelerden Migros, CarrefourSA, TESCO KİPA, BİM ve Kiler’in Hirose yöntemiyle finansal marka değerinin tespiti sağlanmıştır. Ayrıca aynı işletmelere ait tüketici temelli marka değerleri 400 tüketici ü...

  2. Ege Denizinde Yaşayan Kaya Balıklarının (Gobius niger L., 1758 Karaciğer Dokusunda Bazı Ağır Metallerin Birikimi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Katalay

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada petrol rafinerisinin bulunduğu Aliağa Körfezi’nin çeşitli yerlerinden toplanmış kaya balıklarının (Gobius niger karaciğer dokusu alınarak ağır metal içerikleri (Cd, Ni, Se, Zn, Cu,Cr ölçülmüştür. Aliağa bölgesinden alınan örneklerde ağır metal birikimine minumum düzeyde rastlanmıştır. Ayrıca alınan datanın fiziksel (boy ve mevsime (yaz ve ilkbahar göre dağılımı incelendiğinde metal birikiminin dağılımında farklılıklar olduğu saptanmıştır

  3. ÇEVRESEL FAKTÖRLERiN SİYAH-ALACA SIĞIRDA SÜTÜN PROTEİN KOMPOZİYONUNA ETKİLERİ

    OpenAIRE

    ÇARDAK, Ayşe Deniz

    2008-01-01

    Çalışmada Siyah-Alaca sığırlarda sütün protein içeriği ve komposizyonuna mevsim, laktasyon sayısı, laktasyon dönemi ve somatik hücre sayısının (SHS) etkileri araştırılmıştır. Laktasyon boyunca toplanan süt örneklerinde protein fraksiyonları Poliakrilamid-Jel-Elektroforezi’nde ayrılmış ve densitometre yardımıyla her bir protein fraksiyonunun içeriği belirlenmiştir. Sütün protein içeriğine mevsim, laktasyon dönemi ve SHS’nın etkileri önemli bulunmuştur. αS1-kazein (-Cn) içeriğine mevsim, laktas...

  4. Eğitsel Değerlendirme ve Bireyselleştirilmiş Eğitim Programı Hazırlama Süreci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tevhide Kargın

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Eğitsel değerlendirme süreci, engelli ya da risk durumunda olduğundan şüphe edilen çocukları ilk belirleme aşamasından başlayarak, gönderme öncesi süreç, gönderme, ayrıntılı değerlendirme, özel eğitim hizmetleri için uygunluğuna karar verme, yerleştirme, bireyselleştirilmiş eğitim programı hazırlama, uygulama ve değerlendirme-izleme aşamalarından oluşan bir süreci tanımlamak amacıyla kullanılan bir terimdir. Makalede bu aşamalar tanımlanmış ve her bir aşamada dikkat edilmesi gereken önemli noktalar vurgulanmaya çalışılmıştır. Assessment procedures consist of screening, pre-referral, referral, evaluation, eligibility determination, placement, developing, implementation and monitoring of the individualized education programs (IEP, in this article all these steps were defined and the important issues in each step were emphasized.

  5. Yağ İçeriği Azaltılmış Beyaz Peynir Üretiminde Isıl İşlem Uygulanan Lactobacillus helveticus ve Lactobacillus bulgaricus Kültürlerinin Kullanımı

    OpenAIRE

    Gürsoy, Ayşe; Şenel, Ebru; Gürsel, Asuman; Deveci, Organ; Karademir, Ebru; Yaman, Şenay

    2001-01-01

    Bu çalışmada, yağ içeriği azaltılmış Beyaz peynir örneklerinde, proteolizi teşvik ederek olgunlaşmayı hızlandırmak ve böylece yapı ve tadı iyileştirmek amacıyla, isti işlem uygulanan L.helveticus ve L. bulgaricus kültürlerinden yararlanılmıştır. Bunun için kurumaddede %20 yağ içerecek şekilde peynir üretimi gerçekleştirilmiş, ayrıca karşılaştırma amacıyla yağlı peynir örneği (kurumaddede %40 yağ) de üretilmiştir. Peynirler 7±1 °C'de olgunlaşmaya bırakılarak 0, 7, 15, 30, 60 ve 90. gü...

  6. Türkiye'nin 7 akarsu havzasında horozbina, Salaria fluviatilis (Asso,1801, balığına ait boy-ağırlık ilişkisi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali İlhan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada Türkiye‟nin 7 akarsu havzasından toplanmış olan Horozbina Balığı (Salaria fluviatilis‟na ait boy-ağırlık ilişkisinin ortaya çıkarılması amaçlanmıştır. Marmara, Küçük Menderes, Batı Karadeniz, Antalya, Doğu Akdeniz, Seyhan ve Ceyhan havzalarına ait akarsulardan toplanmış olan 652 birey incelenmiştir. Tüm bireyler dikkate alındığında türün Türkiye içsularındaki total boy dağılımı 2.0-12.9 cm, total ağırlık dağılımı 0.10-33.82 g, boy-ağırlık ilişkisi parametreleri a= 0.0135, b= 3.004, r2= 0.986 olarak hesaplanmıştır. Ayrıca, büyüme tipi havzaların 5‟inde izometrik, 1 havzada pozitif allometrik ve 1 havzada da negatif allometrik olarak belirlenmiştir

  7. Madencilik Faaliyetlerinin Çevresel Etkilerini Değerleme Yöntemleri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alper DEMİRBUGAN

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Madencilik projeleri çevresel kaynaklar üzerinde önemli etkiler yaratırlar. Çevre kalitesindeki değişimin parasal olarak değerlendirilmesi madencilik projelerinin değerlendirilme sürecinde önem taşımaktadır. Bir proje nedeniyle çevre kalitesinde ortaya çıkan değişimden kaynaklanan fayda ya da kaçınılan maliyet bireylerin 'ödeme isteği (Willingness to pay, WTP' ile açıklanır. Ödeme isteği kavramını göz önünde bulunduran değerlendirme yöntemleri 'üretim yaklaşımı' ve 'talep yaklaşımı' olmak üzere iki ana grupta ayrımlaşmaktadır. Bu çalışmada ödeme isteği ve talep kavramı ile çevresel değerlendirme yöntemleri açıklanmakta ve konu bir madencilik projesine uygulanarak örneklenmektedir.

  8. Yerli ve Yabancı Kökenli Bazı Zeytinyağlarının Trigliserit Düzeylerine Göre Kemometrik Sınıflandırılması

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    Harun Dıraman

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada Türkiye’den (2 KKTC, 2 Güneydoğu Anadolu, 3 Akdeniz, 9 Kuzey Ege, 3 İzmir Yarımdası, 16 Güney Ege, 11 Akhisar-Manisa, 4 Marmara ve diğer ülkelerden (1 Ürdün, 1 Filistin, 3 İspanya,1 Portekiz, 2 İtalya, 2 Yunanistan olmak üzere toplam 60 adet ticari natürel zeytinyağı örneği, kemometrik yöntemler (Temel Bileşenler [PCA] Kümeleme [HCA] analizleri yardımıyla triaçilgliserol (TAG bileşenlerine göre sınıflandırılmış ve karakterize edilmişlerdir. Yağ örneklerinin TAG profilleri (ECN 42–ECN 50,LLL ve ana bileşenleri LOO, OOO, POO, PLO ve SOO Avrupa Komisyonu (ABK tarafından onaylanmış Yüksek Basınç Sıvı Kromatografisi ile belirlenmiştir. Türk natürel zeytinyağlarının TAG bileşenlerinin diğer zeytinyağı üreten ülkelerin ürünleri ile benzer olduğu ve bir örnek hariç (Filistin analiz edilen tüm yağ örneklerindeki trilinolein (LLL düzeylerinin, ABK tarafından farklı zeytinyağları için verilen en çok %0.5 düzeyini aşmadığı görülmüştür. Kümeleme analizi (HCA sonuçlarına göre, Türk ve yabancı zeytinyağı örnekleri sırasıyla beş gruba ayrılmıştır. Temel bileşenler analizine (PCA göre, Güney Ege (hâkim çeşit Memecik yağ örneklerinin sınıflandırılmasında LOO/POO, OOO/POO ve OOO düzeylerinin sorumlu olduğu gözlenmiştir. Kuzey Ege (hâkim çeşit Ayvalık örneklerinin ayrımında LOO parametresi büyük rol oynamıştır. Akhisar–Manisa yöresi örnekleri ise ECN48 ve ECN48/ECN46 parametreleri ile karakterize olmuştur. Bu çalışmada Türkiye’den (2 KKTC, 2 Güneydoğu Anadolu, 3 Akdeniz, 9 Kuzey Ege, 3 İzmir Yarımdası, 16 Güney Ege, 11 Akhisar-Manisa, 4 Marmara ve diğer ülkelerden (1 Ürdün, 1 Filistin, 3 İspanya,1 Portekiz, 2 İtalya, 2 Yunanistan olmak üzere toplam 60 adet ticari natürel zeytinyağı örneği, kemometrik yöntemler (Temel Bileşenler [PCA] Kümeleme [HCA] analizleri yardımıyla tria

  9. KURUMSAL FAALİYET RAPORLARININ GRAFİK TASARIM ÜRÜNÜ OLARAK İNCELENMESİ: ASPEN SİGORTA HOLDİNG ÖRNEĞİ

    OpenAIRE

    CİVELEK, Hüseyin; GÖKÇEARSLAN, Armağan

    2017-01-01

    Bu çalışmada, bir grafik tasarım ürünü olarak düşünülenfaaliyet raporlarının tanımı, içeriğinin nasıl olması gerektiği, kurumsal birşirket açısından yeri ve önemi ve grafik tasarım öğelerinin bir faaliyetraporunda nasıl kullanılması gerektiği araştırılmıştır. Ayrıca tüm dünyadayatırımcılar ve tanıtım ajansları tarafından faaliyet raporlarının Oscar’larıolarak bilinen, alanında yılın en çok tanınan organizasyonu olan Annual ReportCompetition (ARC: Yıllık Faaliyet Raporları) Ödüllerine değinilm...

  10. Ultrasonik Homojenizasyon İşleminin Yoğurdun Su Tutma Kapasitesi Üzerine Etkisi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Şengül

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Çalışmada, ısıl olmayan muhafaza tekniklerinden biri olan ultrason ve klasik homojenizatör kullanılarak homojenize edilen sütlerden elde edilen yoğurtların su tutma kapasiteleri incelenmiştir. Ultrasonik homojenizasyonda, 20, 50 ve %70 olmak üzere 3 farklı güç seviyesi, 3 ve 6 dakika olmak üzere 2 farklı işlem zamanı kullanılmıştır. Klasik homojenizasyonla karşılaştırıldığında, ultrasonik homojenizasyonun yoğurdun su tutma kapasitesi üzerine daha etkili olduğu belirlenmiştir. İşlem zamanı ve güç seviyesi arttıkça su tutma kapasitesi de artmıştır. En yüksek su tutma kapasitesi (%66.18, 6 dakikalık işlem zamanı ve %70 güç seviyesinde elde edilmiştir. Ayrıca, fermantasyon boyunca örneklerin pH değerleri 30’ar dakikalık periyotlarla izlenmiştir.

  11. Dünya’da Yoğurt ve Üretimi

    OpenAIRE

    Konar, Atilla

    2015-01-01

    Bu yayın yoğurt yapımı konusunda en son basılmış bilgileri incelemektedir. Birçok yapım tekniği değerlendirilmiş ve yoğurt üretiminde kullanılan “Katkı maddeleri” (Additives) ve mikroorganizma üzerinde özellikle durulmuştur. Yoğurt’un yapım sonrası dayanıklılık süresinin uzatılabilmesi için gerekli tekniklerde ayrıca görüşülmüştür.  Çeşitli ülkelerin yoğurt ile ilgili yasal standartları, halen mevcut veya ticarette geçerli olabilecek uygulamalar ışığında dikkate alınmıştır....

  12. YOKSULLUKLA MÜCADELEDE SOSYAL YARDIMLARIN BİR KAMU YÖNETİMİ POLİTİKASI OLARAK SÜRDÜRÜLEBİLİRLİĞİ

    OpenAIRE

    GÜNEŞ, Mehmet

    2012-01-01

    Yoksulluk tüm ülkelerin en çok zorlandığı konuların başında yer almaktadır. Çünkü yoksulluk şekil ve tür değiştirerek sürekli yayılmaktadır. Ayrıca yoksul olmanın kriterleri de değişmektedir. Bu yüzden kamu yönetimleri için yoksullukla mücadele gittikçe daha zor şartlarda yürütülmektedir. Yoksullukla mücadelede kamu yönetimlerinin kullandığı politikalardan biri olan sosyal yardımlarla, yoksul kesimlerin bu durumdan kurtulmaları hedeflenmektedir. Ancak sosyal yardımların her geçen gün artan ma...

  13. DEVE MİDESİ ÜZERİNDE MAKROANATOMİK ARAŞTIRMALAR

    OpenAIRE

    Erden, Hasan; Öcal, M. Kamil; Güzel, Necdet; Kara, Erkut; Öğüt, İlknur

    1998-01-01

    Çalışma deve midesinin makroanatomik ayrıntılarını ortaya koymak amacıyla gerçekleştirildi. On beş adet eriş­kin, sağlıklı deve midesi kullanıldı. Karın organları normal konumlarında tutularak, mide ile ilişkileri incelendi. Deve mi­desinin anatomik yapısı diğer ruminanllar1a karşılaşlırıldı ve farklılıkların fonksiyonel önemi tartışıldı. Deve midesinin diğer ruminanılarda olduğu gibi dört bölümden (rumen, reticulum, omasum, abomasum) oluşmasına karşın, yapı 've şekil bakımından oldukça ...

  14. Review of Super Crunchers by Ian Ayers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Gaze

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Ayers, I. Super Crunchers: Why Thinking-by-Numbers Is the New Way to be Smart. (Bantam Dell Publishing Group, 2007. 272 pp. Hard cover $25 ISBN 978-0-553-80540-6.Super Crunchers tells the story of how analyzing data is changing the ways in which decisions are made. We in the National Numeracy Network make a case for the importance of quantitative literacy by referring to how much quantitative information is now available to each of us: “a world awash in numbers.” Ian Ayres zeroes in on the people who are making a living crunching all of these data. From the seemingly innocuous (how wines are rated, and the scouting of baseball players to the life impacting (diagnosis of disease, and parole of inmates, this book paints a vivid portrayal of how data analysis is impacting decision making at every level in our society. The use of simple regression models and randomized trials is calling into question who the “experts” of the twenty-first century will be, and why thinking-by-numbers really is the new way to be smart.

  15. Salnamelere Göre XIX. Yüzyılda Kırşehir Sancağı Hakkında Bilgiler (1873-1910 (Coğrafyası, Tarihi, Nüfusu, Nahiye ve Kazaları According Yearbooks XIX. Information about Century Ensign Kırşehir (1873-1910 (Geography, History, Population, Canton and Accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet GÜNDÜZ

    2012-09-01

    aralarında farklı isimlerle ve farklı amaçlarla çıkarılmış oldukları hakkında bilgiler verilmiştir. Salnamelerin içeriğine bakıldığında yayımlandıkları tarihlerde Osmanlı Devletinin tarihi, idari teşkilatı, müesseseleri, şahıs biyografileri, ilmî, iktisadî, siyasî, askerî, kültürel ve diğer sahalardaki önemli bilgileri ihtiva etmektedirler. Hatta ilgili sancağın türbeleri, tekkeleri, camileri, resmi binaları, dükkânları, gezilecek-görülecek yerleri, madenleri, hangi meslek ve iş alanlarının olduğu, ormanları, av hayvanları, posta teşkilatı gibi konularda da bilgiler sunmaktadırlar. Ardından Kırşehir tarihi ile ilgili olarak Hititlerden itibaren Yunanlılar, Romalılar, Bizanslılar, Selçuklular, Osmanlı ve Cumhuriyet Türkiye’si dönemleri hakkında da kısa bilgiler verilerek Kırşehir’in Cumhuriyet döneminde bir ara ilçe haline getirilişine de vurgu yapılmıştır. Selçuklular döneminde bir ilim ve kültür şehri haline gelen Kırşehir, burada yetişen ilim ve fikir adamları ile önemli bir şehir duruma gelmiştir. Ağırlıklı olarak salnamelere dayanan bu çalışmamızda Kırşehir’in nüfusu, nahiye ve kazaları hakkında bilgiler verilmektedir. İncelenen dönemdeki tarihler arasında Kırşehir’de yaşayan Müslim, Rum ve Ermeni nüfus değerlendirmeye tabi tutulmuştur. Verilen bilgilerin daha iyi anlaşılması için ayrı ayrı tablolar düzenlenerek bu tablolar da ayrıca değerlendirilmiştir. Ayrıca yapılan bu çalışmada tamamlayıcı bilgi olması amacıyla şehirde maddi açıdan zengin olan kişiler tablo halinde verilmiştir. Kırşehir’de ileri gelen kişiler yaşadığı yer açısından veya serveti bakımından kaçıncı sırada olduğu belirtildiği gibi bu kişilerin tanınmış şöhretleri-lakapları da belirtilmiştir. İncelenen tarihler içerisinde yer alan dönemde (1876-1880 Kırşehir’de işlenen suçlardan da kısa bir şekilde bahsedilmektedir.

  16. Kayseri’de Satışa Sunulan Kanatlı Eti Ürünlerinde Listeria spp. Varlığının Belirlenmesi*

    OpenAIRE

    YERLİKAYA, Osman Burak; YILDIRIM, Yeliz

    2015-01-01

     Bu çalışma, Kayseri’de satışa sunulan kanatlı eti ürünlerinde Listeria türlerinin varlığını belirlemek ve bu ürünlerinlisteriozis açısından taşıdığı halk sağlığı risklerini değerlendirmek amacıyla planlanmıştır. Beş farklı kanatlı eti ürününe (Taşlık,ciğer, nugget, sosis, salam) ait örneklerden 20’şer adet olmak üzere toplam 100 örnek analiz edilmiştir. Örnekler iki aşamalızenginleştirme prosedürünü takiben iki ayrı selektif besi yerine ekim ve biyokimyasal identifikasyon yapılmak s...

  17. Effects of Adding Honey on Different Temperatures in Linden Tea Prepared by Infusion and Decoction on Antioxidant Properties and Hydroxymethylfurfural Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Benzer Gürel, Duygu; Çağındı, Özlem

    2018-01-01

    ÖzetIhlamur olarak bilinenTilia türlerinin çiçekleri, üst solunum yolları rahatsızlıkları, kuruöksürük ve tahriş öksürüklerini rahatlatmak amacıyla kullanılır. Bu türrahatsızlıkların tedavilerinde, halk arasında sıklıkla tüketilen ıhlamur, heminfüzyon hem de dekoksiyon olarak farklı yöntemlerle hazırlanmakta, yetişkinlerve çocuklar tarafından tüketilmektedir. Ayrıca içerdiği etkili bileşenler vetatlandırmak sebebiyle bal, ıhlamur çayına eklenerek kullanılmaktadır. Balıngüçlü antioksidan aktiv...

  18. Mersin Bölgesinde Yetiştiriciliği Yapılan Bazı Akvaryum Balıkları (POECİLİDAE'nda Rastlanılan Lernea cyprinaceae (Linnaeus, 1758 Enfeksiyonu.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Erkin Koyuncu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bu araştırma Nisan - Ağustos 2002 tarihleri arasında Mersin Bölgesi’nde bir akvaryum işletmesinde Poecilidae familyasına ait balıklarda görülen ani ölümlerin nedenini ortaya koymak amacıyla yapılmıştır. Balıkların deri, yüzgeç ve solungaç dokularından alınan parazitler laboratuvarda incelenmesi sonucunda ölümlere neden olan etmenin Lernaea cyprinacea (Linnaeus, 1758 olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Araştırmada 110 adet balık incelenmiş olup, bunlardan 49 adetinin parazit ile enfeste olduğu saptanmıştır. Ayrıca parazitin morfolojik özellikleri ve balıklarda oluşturduğu semptomlar incelenmiştir. Balıklar Kloramin T (10 ppm / 1 saat / 3 gün kullanılarak tedavi edilmiştir

  19. Değişik Randımanlı Unlarda Tiyamin, Riboflavin ve Demir Miktarı

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Recai Ercan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Undaki besin öğesi miktarı, randımana bağlı olarak değişmektedir. Değişik randımanlı unlardaki doğal besin öğesi miktarı, gıda zenginleştirme uygulaması açısından da önem taşımaktadır. Randımana bağlı olarak ticari unlar 6 tipe ayrılmaktadır. Değişik tip unlardaki riboflavin, tiyamin ve demir miktarını belirlemek amacıyla farklı 10 değirmenden sağlanan un örnekleri analiz edilmiştir. Bulgulara göre ekmek hammaddesi olarak kullanılan Tip 4 unlarında (%80 randıman, tiyamin miktarı 1.15-2.08 mg/kg (ortalama 1.72 mg/kg, riboflavin miktarı 0.65-0.90 mg/kg (ortalama 0.81 mg/kg, demir miktarı 12.0-29.6 mg/kg (ortalama 16.77 mg/kg arasında değişmektedir.

  20. Peyniraltı Suyu Tozu İlave Edilmiş Meyveli İçecek Üretimi ve Bazı Kalite Karakteristikleri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Büşra Ece Argan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada, peyniraltı suyu tozu ile meyve suyu konsantreleri (elma, vişne veya meyve pulpu (kayısı belirli oranlarda karıştırılarak fonksiyonel özellikte meyveli içecekler üretilmiş ve içeceklerin bazı fiziksel, kimyasal ve duyusal özellikleri depolama boyunca ortaya konmuştur. En yüksek toplam fenol ve antioksidan kapasite (TEAC düzeyine sahip ürün vişneli içecek olarak belirlenirken, depolama süresince ürünlere ait TEAC değerlerinin meyve çeşidine göre farklılık gösterdiği saptanmıştır. Ayrıca, meyve çeşidinin içeceklerin asitlik, invert şeker, toplam şeker ve toplam fenol miktarı üzerine etkisinin önemli olduğu belirlenmiştir. Tüketiciler tarafından en çok beğenilen ürün kayısılı içecek olmuştur.