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Sample records for atherinops affinis ayres

  1. Two myxozoans from the urinary tract of topsmelt, Atherinops affinis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Justin L.; Jaramillo, Alejandra G.; Ashford, Jacob E.; Feist, Stephen W.; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Kent, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    Two myxozoan species were observed in the kidney of topsmelt, Atherinops affinis, during a survey of parasites of estuarine fishes in the Carpinteria Salt Marsh Reserve, California. Fish collected on three dates in 2012 and 2013 were sectioned and examined histologically. Large extrasporogonic stages occurred in the renal interstitium of several fish from the first two collections (5/8, 11/20, respectively), and, in some fish, these replaced over 80% of the kidney. In addition, presporogonic and polysporogonic stages occurred in the lumen of the renal tubules, collecting and mesonephric ducts. The latter contained subspherical spores with up to 4 polar capsules, consistent with the genus Chloromyxum. For the third collection (15 May 2013, n=30), we portioned kidneys for examination by histology, wet mount, and DNA extraction for small subunit ribosomal gene sequencing. Histology showed the large extrasporogonic forms in the kidney interstitium of 3 fish, and 2 other fish with subspherical myxospores in the lumen of the renal tubules with smooth valves and two spherical polar capsules consistent with the genus Sphaerospora. Chloromyxum-type myxospores were observed in the renal tubules of one fish by wet mount. Sequencing of the kidney tissue from this fish yielded a partial SSU rDNA sequence of 1769 bp. Phylogenetic reconstruction suggested this organism to be a novel species of Chloromyxum, most similar to Chloromyxum careni (84% similarity). In addition, subspherical myxospores with smooth valves and two spherical polar capsules consistent with the genus Sphaerospora were observed in wet mounts of 2 fish. Sequencing of the kidney tissue from 1 fish yielded a partial SSU rDNA sequence of 1937 bp. Phylogenetic reconstruction suggests this organism to be a novel species of Sphaerospora most closely related to Sphaerospora epinepheli (93%). We conclude that these organisms represent novel species of the genera Chloromyxum and Sphaerospora based on host, location, and

  2. Two Myxozoans from the Urinary Tract of Topsmelt, Atherinops affinis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Justin L; Jaramillo, Alejandra G; Ashford, Jacob E; Feist, Stephen W; Lafferty, Kevin D; Kent, Michael L

    2015-10-01

    Two myxozoan species were observed in the kidney of topsmelt, Atherinops affinis , during a survey of parasites of estuarine fishes in the Carpinteria Salt Marsh Reserve, California. Fish collected on 3 dates in 2012 and 2013 were sectioned and examined histologically. Large extrasporogonic stages occurred in the renal interstitium of several fish from the first 2 collections (5/8, 11/20, respectively) and, in some fish, these replaced over 80% of the kidney. In addition, presporogonic and polysporogonic stages occurred in the lumen of the renal tubules, collecting ducts, and mesonephric ducts. The latter contained subspherical spores with up to 4 polar capsules, consistent with the genus Chloromyxum. For the third collection (15 May 2013, n = 30), we portioned kidneys for examination by histology, wet mount, and DNA extraction for small subunit ribosomal (SSU rDNA) gene sequencing. Histology showed the large extrasporogonic forms in the kidney interstitium of 3 fish and showed 2 other fish with subspherical myxospores in the lumen of the renal tubules with smooth valves and 2 spherical polar capsules consistent with the genus Sphaerospora. Chloromyxum-type myxospores were observed in the renal tubules of 1 fish by wet mount. Sequencing of the kidney tissue from this fish yielded a partial SSU rDNA sequence of 1,769 base pairs (bp). Phylogenetic reconstruction suggested this organism to be a novel species of Chloromyxum, most similar to Chloromyxum careni (84% similarity). In addition, subspherical myxospores with smooth valves and 2 spherical polar capsules consistent with the genus Sphaerospora were observed in wet mounts of 2 fish. Sequencing of the kidney tissue from 1 fish yielded a partial SSU rDNA sequence of 1,937 bp. Phylogenetic reconstruction suggests this organism to be a novel species of Sphaerospora most closely related to Sphaerospora epinepheli (93%). We conclude that these organisms represent novel species of the genera Chloromyxum and Sphaerospora

  3. Price Theory and Money Coupled: some Remarks on the Ayres-Martinás Theory

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    Zsolt Gilanyi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main concern of economic science is to explain the Wealth of Nations. This tradition implies on the one hand, that wealth must be evaluated i.e.: economic science must elaborate a price theory; on the other hand, money should be integrated in economic theories because prices are expressed in monetary terms. Mainstream economic theory succeeds in price determination (with some limits but fails on money integration, while non-mainstream monetary models succeed on money integration but fail on price determination. In this paper I argue that the Ayres-Martinás theoretical framework is a promising tentative to cope with this challenge of economic science.

  4. Índice de sustentabilidade agroambiental para o perímetro irrigado Ayres de Souza Environmental sustainability index for Ayres de Souza irrigated district

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    José Alves Carneiro Neto

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Uma análise integrada do atual uso dos recursos naturais do Perímetro Irrigado de Ayres de Souza, localizado no Vale do Acaraú, Ceará, foi realizada através do desenvolvimento de um índice de sustentabilidade agroecológica. Os dados dessa pesquisa foram oriundos de questionários aplicados a 33 produtores agrícolas beneficiados pelo projeto de irrigação. Os indicadores de sustentabilidade foram estimados pelo emprego de análise fatorial, método da análise fatorial/análise de componentes principais. O índice de sustentabilidade estimado a partir dos indicadores selecionados registrou uma situação de sustentabilidade fragilizada ou de insustentabilidade reversível. As unidades produtivas apresentaram um porcentual de 60,6% com alguma sustentabilidade; e os demais 39,4% estão em condições de insustentabilidade. Os resultados também mostraram que os fatores dominantes do índice de sustentabilidade foram: nível da atividade agrícola praticada, agricultura familiar, condições atuais do sistema água-solo e infra-estrutura, fontes alternativas de renda e experiência em tratos culturais.The aim of this work was to make an analysis of natural resources at Ayres de Souza Irrigated District sited in Acaraú basin, Ceará, Brazil. This study was performed through an agro ecological sustainability index (ASI. The approach was based on 33 cross-over form applied to small farms located in the irrigated district. Factors Analysis/Principal Components Analysis were applied to select the sustainability indicators of the irrigated district as well as to define the agro ecological sustainability index. The results showed that the Index is capable of demonstrating clear differences among productivity unit management system with respect to sustainability. 60% of the pooled productivity units presented weak sustainability and the other 39.4% were unsustainable. The dominants factors of the Index were: level of agricultural management

  5. Doğu-Batı Ayrımı Ekseninde Oryantalizm ve Emperyalizm

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    Erkan DİKİCİ

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Öz Bu çalışma, Doğu ile Batı arasındaki ilişkiyi incelemek adına Edward Said tarafından 1978 yılında kaleme alınan “Oryantalizm” kitabında ifade edilen oryantalist yaklaşımdan yola çıkarak, Doğu-Batı ayrımına vurgu yapmakta ve bu ayrımın arkasında yatan çıkar ilişkilerini dile getirmeye çalışmaktadır. Söz konusu Doğu-Batı ayrımı ile birlikte oryantalizm ile emperyalizm arasındaki ilişkiye de temas edilmek istenmiştir. Bu ilişkiler zinciri içerisinde dile getirdiğimiz bu ayrım, Batılıların, Batılı olmayan toplumlar üzerindeki emperyalist düşünceleri uygulayabilmek amacıyla, Batılıların kendileri tarafından ortaya çıkartılmıştır. Bu nedenle çalışmanın temel amacı, Batılıların, ötekileştirdiği Batı-dışı toplumlar üzerindeki emellerine ulaşmada oryantalizmi biçilmiş kaftan olarak görmekte olduklarını ve oryantalizmi, emperyalizmin meşrulaştırıcısı olarak düşündüklerini ifade etmektir. Anahtar Kelimeler: Oryantalizm, Doğu-Batı Ayrımı, Emperyalizm, Ötekileştirme. Orientalism and Imperialism within the Concept of East-West Division This study emphasizes the East-West division based upon the orientalist approach stated in the book “Orientalism” written by Edward Said in 1978 to study the relation between the East and the West, and tries to depict the relationships based on self-interest underlying this division. With the aforesaid East and West division, it is also wanted to mention the relation between orientalism and Imperialism. The division that we have mentioned has been posed by the Westerners to carry out their imperialist thoughts over non-western societies. For his reason, the main aim of this study is to express that the westerners see orientalism perfectly suited to reach their goals over non-western societies that they have otherized, and they also think orientalism as the legitimization of imperialism. Keywords: Orientalism, East

  6. COGNITIVE LOAD THEORY Written by John SWELLER, Paul AYRES, and Slava KALYUGA,

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    Reviewed by Kadir KOZAN

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive load theory (2011 by John Sweller, Paul Ayres, and Slava Kalyuga presents the state-of-the art form of cognitive load theory (CLT including instructional guidelines produced by the theory so far. The book achieves this in a precise, detailed and well-organized manner thereby being very informative from the very beginning to the very end. For instance, even the preface provides an ample amount of information about CLT after stating the main premise of this theory: “Without knowledge of human cognitive processes, instructional design is blind.” (p. v. As stated in the book, CLT is that sort of a theory that informs instructional design from a cognitive perspective or on the basis of how human cognition works.

  7. Genealogy of John and Charles Bell: their relationship with the children of Charles Shaw of Ayr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, M

    2005-11-01

    The Reverend William Bell had six children who survived infancy. Two of his sons entered the legal profession and two other sons became distinguished anatomists and surgeons--John Bell, said for 20 years to have been the leading operating surgeon in Britain and throughout the world--and Sir Charles Bell, possibly the most distinguished anatomist and physiologist of his day. Information is not known about the fifth son or their sister. Charles Shaw, a lawyer of Ayr, had four sons and two daughters who survived infancy. Two of his sons, John and Alexander, became anatomists and later surgeons at the Middlesex Hospital, and both worked closely with Charles Bell at the Great Windmill Street School of Anatomy. His third son entered the law and his fourth son became a distinguished soldier. The two daughters of Charles Shaw married into the Bell family: Barbara married George Joseph Bell and Marion married Mr (later Sir) Charles Bell.

  8. Mysoria affinis (Herrich-Schäffer: morphological variation and synonymy (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae, Pyrrhopyginae

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    Andrew D. Warren

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Mysoria wilsoni H.A. Freeman, 1969, is established as a new junior synonym of Mysoria affinis (Herrich-Schäffer, 1869. A lectotype for Pyrrhopyga [sic] affinis Herrich-Schäffer, 1869 is designated.Mysoria wilsoni H.A. Freeman, 1969 é estabelecido como um novo sinônimo junior de Mysoria affinis (Herrich-Schäffer, 1869. Um lectótipo para Pyrrhopyga [sic] affinis Herrich-Schäffer, 1869 é designado.

  9. Molecular differentiation within and among island populations of the endemic plant Scalesia affinis (Asteraceae) from the Galápagos Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lene Rostgaard

    2004-01-01

    Scalesia affinis, Galápagos, AFLP, endangered populations, discriminant analysis, chloroplast microsatellites......Scalesia affinis, Galápagos, AFLP, endangered populations, discriminant analysis, chloroplast microsatellites...

  10. Regional ecological risk assessment for the introduction of Gambusia affinis (western mosquitofish) into Montana watersheds

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    Jerome J. Schleier; Sing Sharlene E.; Robert K. D. Peterson

    2008-01-01

    Qualitative risk assessment methodologies were used to assess the risk of establishment and consequent impacts on native minnows and species of concern (SOC) associated with the intentional or unintentional introduction of the mosquito biological control agent, Gambusia affinis, to various Montana watersheds. Gambusia affinis...

  11. Taxonomic and ecological notes on Buenia affinis Iljin 1930 (Pisces: Gobiidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, F.; Giacobbe, S.; Salpietro, L. [S. Agata, Messina, Univ. (Italy). Facolta` di Scienze. Dipt. di Biologia Animale ed Ecologia Marina

    1996-12-31

    Taxonomic and ecological notes on Buenia affinis Iljin 1930 (Pisces: Gobiidae). A population of the rare Teleost Buenia affinis Iljin 1930 has been sampled in a brackish pool along the Sicilian Tyrrhenic coastline. A description of the taxonomic features as well as first observations on the ecology of the species are given in detail.

  12. Coccidioidomycosis in a Sonoran gopher snake, Pituophis melanoleucus affinis.

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    Timm, K I; Sonn, R J; Hultgren, B D

    1988-04-01

    Coccidioides immitis was isolated from lesions in the lung of a Sonoran Gopher snake, Pituophis melanoleucus affinis. A lactophenol cotton blue mount of a fungal colony grown on Sabouraud's agar revealed coarse, branching, septate hyphae with alternating thick-walled arthroconidia. Histologically, the lung lesions contained spherical, non-budding, double-walled spherules in various stages of maturity. Some spherules contained endospores. Spherules were also present in granulomas associated with the thyroid and pancreas. A diagnosis was made of disseminated coccidioidomycosis, a condition not previously reported in a reptile.

  13. New Records of Ixodes affinis (Acari: Ixodidae) Parasitizing Avian Hosts in Southeastern Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Erin L; Wright, Chelsea L; Nadolny, Robyn M; Hynes, Wayne L; Gaff, Holly D; Walters, Eric L

    2016-03-01

    Ixodes affinis Neumann (Acari: Ixodidae) is a hard-bodied tick species distributed throughout much of the southeastern United States. Although I. affinis does not parasitize humans, it is a competent vector of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, the causative-agent of Lyme disease, and thus contributes to the enzootic maintenance of this pathogen. This study presents evidence of I. affinis parasitizing five new host passerine species. During 2012-2014, 1,888 birds were captured and examined for ticks, and 18 immature I. affinis were collected from 12 birds-six Carolina Wrens (Thyrothorus ludovicianus); two Brown Thrashers (Toxostoma rufum); and one American Robin (Turdus migratorius), Eastern Towhee (Pipilo erythrophthalmus), Northern Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis), and White-throated Sparrow (Zonotrichia albicollis). Of 15 larvae and 3 nymphs collected, one nymph tested positive for B. burgdorferi DNA. I. affinis was found co-feeding on birds with immature Amblyomma americanum (L.), Ixodes brunneus Koch, Ixodes dentatus Marx, Ixodes scapularis Say, and Haemaphysalis leporispalustris Packard. The results of this research provide a better understanding of I. affinis hosts and identify avian taxa that may play a role in the maintenance and dispersal of this tick species.

  14. Response of mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) populations to seasonally unpredictable perturbations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, M.J.; Stewart, A.J.

    1990-07-01

    Many questions remain unresolved about the linkages between life history attributes of fishes and the tactics that these organisms employ in response to environmental uncertainty. Such questions include (1). If a perturbation affects the entire ecosystem, what are the consequences for a given population of fish (2) What tactics can a fish employ to increase its chances of leaving offspring (3) Do fish respond differently to such perturbations depending on the season (4) How do these changes relate to the overall resilience of the population The research reported here was designed to address such questions. Mosquito fish (Gambusia affinis) populations in thirteen experimental ponds at Oak Ridge National Laboratory were sampled ten times between June 1988, and July 1989 in response to a series of chemical disturbances. During each sampling period the population size and total biomass of Gambusia in each pond was estimated using photographs and a length weight regression. Size-frequency histograms were used to examine seasonal and dose-related changes in population structure. Lipid content and reproductive allotment were measured for a series of fish from each pond on all dates to explore the energy allocation patterns at the individual. 106 refs., 38 figs., 16 tabs.

  15. [Effects of starvation on the consumption of energy sources and swimming performance in juvenile Gambusia affinis and Tanichthys albonubes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiang-tao; Lin, Xiao-tao; Zhou, Chen-hui; Zeng, Peng; Xu, Zhong-neng; Sun, Jun

    2016-01-01

    To explore the consumption of energy sources and swimming performance of juvenile Gambusia affinis and Tanichthys albonubes after starvation, contents of glycogen, lipid and protein, burst swimming speeds (Uburst), and critical swimming speeds (Ucrit) at different starvation times (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 days) were evaluated. The results showed that, at 0 day, contents of glycogen and lipid were significantly lower in G. affinis than those in T. albonubes, whereas no significant difference in content of protein between two experimental fish was found. Swimming speeds in G. affinis were significantly lower than those in T. albonubes for all swimming performances. After different starvation scenarios, content of glycogen both in G. affinis and T. albonubes decreased significantly in power function trend with starvation time and were close to zero after starvation for 10 days, whereas the contents of lipid and protein were linearly significantly decreased. The slope of line regression equation between content of lipid and starvation time in G. affinis was significantly lower than that in T. albonubes, whereas there was a significantly higher slope of line equation between content of protein and starvation time in G. affinis. 40 days later, the consumption rate of glycogen both in G. affinis and T. albonubes were significantly higher than that of lipid, while the consumption rate of protein was the least. Consumption amounts of glycogen in all experimental fish were the least, G. affinis consumed more protein than lipid, and T. albonubes consumed more lipid than protein. Uburst and Ucrit decreased significantly linearly with starvation time for all experimental fish. Slope of linear equation between Uburst and starvation time was not significantly different between G. affinis and T. albonubes. However, the straight slope between Ucrit and starvation time was significantly lower in G. affinis than that in T. albonubes. These findings indicated that there was close

  16. Biologia reprodutiva de Suiriri affinis e S. islerorum (Aves: Tyrannidae no cerrado do Brasil central

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    Leonardo Esteves Lopes

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A biologia reprodutiva de Suiriri affinis (suiriri-do-cerrado e S. islerorum (suiriri-da-chapada é descrita pela primeira vez. O ninho de S. affinis é em forma de cesto raso, sendo construído com fibras vegetais e forrado por painas, sendo todas essas camadas firmemente unidas por grande quantidade de teia de aranha. O seu exterior é ornamentado com liquens e fragmentos de folhas secas. O ninho é apoiado pela base e laterais entre dois ou mais ramos divergentes. Embora superficialmente similar, o ninho de S. islerorum apresenta várias diferenças, sendo mais baixo, raso e apoiado pelas laterais entre uma forquilha. O seu interior é forrado por uma camada adicional de fibras vegetais por sobre as painas. A construção dos ninhos de ambas as espécies é exclusividade das fêmeas. Os ovos de S. affinis são branco-perolados (média de 20,8 x 15,1 mm, 2,5 g, enquanto que os de S. islerorum são creme claro (20,4 x 15,4 mm, 2,4 g, apresentando uma coroa de manchas marrons escuras ao redor do pólo rombo. Os filhotes de S. affinis apresentam a cabeça, superfície dorsal e coberteiras das asas marcadas por abundantes e diminutas manchas brancas, enquanto que os filhotes de S. islerorum são semelhantes aos adultos. A incubação é realizada exclusivamente pelas fêmeas, sendo estimada em 15,2 dias para ambas as espécies. Já os filhotes de S. affinis e S. islerorum permanecem no ninho por 18,9 e 18,3 dias, respectivamente. Algumas evidências sugerem que S. affinis apresenta alguma forma de reprodução cooperativa.The breeding biology of Suiriri affinis (Campo Suiriri and S. islerorum (Chapada Flycatcher is described for the first time. The nest of S. affinis is a basket constructed mainly with vegetable fibers and lined with a thick layer of silk cotton. All its exterior is ornamented with lichens and dry leaf fragments. All those layers are firmly attached to each other by a large amount of spider web. The nest is supported by its bottom

  17. Biologia reprodutiva de Suiriri affinis e S. islerorum (Aves: Tyrannidae) no cerrado do Brasil central

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo Esteves Lopes; Miguel Ângelo Marini

    2005-01-01

    A biologia reprodutiva de Suiriri affinis (suiriri-do-cerrado) e S. islerorum (suiriri-da-chapada) é descrita pela primeira vez. O ninho de S. affinis é em forma de cesto raso, sendo construído com fibras vegetais e forrado por painas, sendo todas essas camadas firmemente unidas por grande quantidade de teia de aranha. O seu exterior é ornamentado com liquens e fragmentos de folhas secas. O ninho é apoiado pela base e laterais entre dois ou mais ramos divergentes. Embora superficialmente simi...

  18. Polyopes affinis alleviates airway inflammation in a murine model of allergic asthma

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dae-Sung Lee; Won Sun Park; Soo-Jin Heo; Seon-Heui Cha; Daekyung Kim; You-Jin Jeon; Sae-Gwang Park; Su-Kil Seo; Jung Sik Choi; Sung-Jae Park; Eun Bo Shim; Il-Whan Choi; Won-Kyo Jung

    2011-12-01

    Marine algae have been utilized in food as well as medicine products for a variety of purposes. The purpose of this study was to determine whether an ethanol extract of Polyopes affinis (P.affinis) can inhibit the pathogenesis of T helper 2 (Th2)-mediated allergen-induced airway inflammation in a murine model of asthma. Mice that were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA) evidenced typical asthmatic reactions such as the following: an increase in the number of eosinophils in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid; a marked influx of inflammatory cells into the lung around blood vessels and airways as well as the narrowing of the airway luminal; the development of airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR); the presence of pulmonary Th2 cytokines; and the presence of allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) in the serum. The successive intraperitoneal administration of P. affinis ethanolic extracts before the last airway OVA-challenge resulted in a significant inhibition of all asthmatic reactions. These data suggest that P. affinis ethanolic extracts possess therapeutic potential for the treatment of pulmonary allergic disorders such as allergic asthma.

  19. Prymnesium parvum exotoxins affect the grazing and viability of the calanoid copepod Eurytemora affinis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sopanen, S.; Koski, Marja; Uronen, P.

    2008-01-01

    The calanoid copepod Eurytemora affinis from the northern Baltic Sea was exposed to cell-free filtrates of the toxic haptophyte Prymnesium parvum as well as to cell mixtures of P. parvum and Rhodomonas salina. To test the effects of P. parvum exudates and allelopathy on selective grazers, copepods...

  20. Behavioral Differentiation Induced by Insecticide Lambda-Cyhalothrin in Mosquito Fish, Gambusia affinis

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    Utku GÜNER

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Test toxic material, one of most used pesticide, the Lambda cyhalothrin (LCY (TEKVANDO 5EC belongs to a group of chemicals called synthetic pyrethroids and pesticides and potential toxic pollutant contaminating aquatic ecosystems, was investigated in the present study for behavioral toxicology. Mosquito fish, Gambusia affinis (Baird & Girard, 1853 were selected for responses of Lambda cyhalothrin by Using to video-based movement analysis system. Selected 3 different doses 0.1, 0.5 and 0.75 ppm were used analyzed behavioral changes according to control group. The following behaviors were measured: total distance, travelled and average speed for treatment and control groups, maximum and average speed and time moving away from the dose applied point. This suggests that LCY contamination has the potential to significantly affect (p<0.05 the behavior of Mosquito fish, G. affinis.

  1. ESTIMASI PARAMETER POPULASI IKAN TONGKOL KOMO (Euthynnus affinis) DI PERAIRAN LAUT JAWA

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    Umi Chodrijah; Thomas Hidayat; Tegoeh Noegroho

    2016-01-01

    Tongkol komo (Euthynnus affinis) yang dikenal dengan nama perdagangan kawa-kawa termasuk dalam family Scombridae. Sebagai ikan pelagis mereka membentuk gerombolan, perenang cepat dan pemakan daging (carnivore). Penelitian tentang estimasi parameter populasi ikan tongkol komo di Laut Jawa didasarkan pada pengumpulan data di Pelabuhan Perikanan Nusantara Pekalongan, pada bulan Februari-Desember 2012. Analisis parameter populasi menggunakan program “Electronic Length Frequency Analysis (ELEFAN-1...

  2. Viability costs of reproduction and behavioral compensation in western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis.

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    Clinton T Laidlaw

    Full Text Available The cost of reproduction hypothesis suggests that current reproduction has inherent tradeoffs with future reproduction. These tradeoffs can be both in the form of energy allocated to current offspring as opposed to somatic maintenance and future reproduction (allocation costs, or as an increase in mortality as a result of morphological or physiological changes related to reproduction (viability costs. Individuals may be able to decrease viability costs by altering behavior. Female western mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis experience a reduction in swimming ability as a consequence of pregnancy. We test for a viability cost of reproduction, and for behavioral compensation in pregnant female G. affinis by measuring survival of females in early and later stages of pregnancy when exposed to predation. Late-stage pregnant females experience a 70% greater probability of mortality compared to early-stage pregnant females. The presence of a refuge roughly doubled the odds of survival of both early and late-stage pregnant females. However, there was no interaction between refuge availability and stage of pregnancy. These data do not provide evidence for behavioral compensation by female G. affinis for elevated viability costs incurred during later stages of pregnancy. Behavioral compensation may be constrained by other aspects of the cost of reproduction.

  3. A molecular and bioinformatic study on the ochratoxin A (OTA)-producing Aspergillus affinis (section Circumdati).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davolos, Domenico; Pietrangeli, Biancamaria

    2014-05-01

    Aspergillus affinis (section Circumdati) is a novel ochratoxin A (OTA)-producing species found in submerged riparian decomposing leaves. However, very little is known about its role on the breakdown of plant debris and its ability to degrade carbohydrate polymers. Moreover, its OTA biosynthetic pathway has not yet been explored. In the present paper, we investigated the gene encoding the extracellular alpha-amylase (amyAa) of A. affinis within the evolution of the Aspergillus lineages in relation to the possible use of this enzyme in starch processing. The novel amyAa, despite being related to branches of the Aspergillus species of the sections Terrei and Flavi, formed a distinct phylogenetic branch, which may be of outstanding importance from a biotechnological point of view. Moreover, we identified the polyketide synthase gene (pks) putatively required for the first step of OTA biosynthesis in A. affinis. This otapks was examined in relation to a limited number of orthologous genes available from Aspergillus species of the sections Circumdati and Nigri. Our study highlights the importance of otapks as target genes in the treatment of ochratoxigenic Aspergillus species on a more comprehensive evolutionary basis.

  4. A new subspecies of Nitokra affinis Gurney, 1927 (Copepoda, Harpacticoida) from the Caribbean coast of Colombia

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    Fuentes-Reinés, Juan M.; Suárez-Morales, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Plankton samples from Laguna Navio Quebrado, La Guajira, northern Colombia, yielded male and female specimens of an harpacticoid copepod that was first identified as the widely distributed species Nitokra affinis Gurney, 1927 for which at least four subspecies have been described from different geographic areas. A more detailed examination of the Colombian specimens revealed that it differs from the other morphs so far considered as subspecies. The Colombian specimens differ from the other four known subspecies in the following aspects: (1) rostrum with long projection, (2) relatively long exopod of P1, almost as long as first endopodal segment, (3) endopodal and exopodal rami of P2 equally long, (4) a reduced number of endopodal setal elements of the male P5. It also differs from N. a. californica Lang in details of the ornamentation of the urosomites. Descriptions and illustrations of this new subspecies, the first one described from the Neotropical region, are presented together with a key to the five known subspecies of Nitokra affinis. As in many other cases of presumedly widespread species of harpacticoids, it is possible that N. affinis represents a species complex with more restricted distributional patterns, a notion that certainly deserves further study. PMID:24574850

  5. Primer registro para la flora argentina de Ilex affinis (Aquifoliaceae, sustituto de la "yerba mate" First report for Argentina of Ilex affinis (Aquifoliaceae, a "mate" substitute

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    Héctor A. Keller

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El hallazgo de Ilex affinis Gardner (Aquifoliaceae en los paredones rocosos y áreas pantanosas del paraje Teyú Cuaré, Misiones, Argentina, permite elevar a siete el número de especies de este género para nuestro país y desplaza al sur el límite austral de dispersión de esta especie. Se describe la especie sobre la base de los ejemplares hallados, y se la ilustra mediante fotografías. Además se presentan consideraciones sobre su distribución, observaciones ecológicas y su relación con la yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis A. St. Hil..The finding of Ilex affinis Gardner (Aquifoliaceae in the rocky cliffs and swampy places of Teyú Cuaré, Misiones Province, Argentina, raises to seven the number of species of this genus for our country and moves southward the distribution limits of the species. The species is described on the basis of the specimens collected, and it is illustrated by photographies. Moreover, considerations about distribution, ecology and relationships with maté (Ilex paraguariensis A. St. Hil. are given.

  6. Estratégia reprodutiva do peixe voador, Hirundichthys affinis Günther (Osteichthyes, Exocoetidae Reproductive stralegy of the flying fish, Hirundichthys affinis Gunther (Osteichthyes, Exocoetidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Soares de Araújo

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the reproductive aspects of the flying fish, Hirundichthys affinis Günther, 1866 considering their importance in the fish production of the Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil. Fish samples were collected from the Municipality of Caiçara do Norte, northern coast of the state, during the period of April, 1999 to April, 2000. The fish were measured, weighed, dissected and the gonads were examined to separate the sex and to determine the stage of maturation. Histological studies were done for microscopic characterization of the gonads. The results indicated that H. affinis had a sexual proportion of 1:1; condition factor was inversely related to the gonadosomatic index during the reproductive phase; and the highest for both sexes was registered during the breeding season. Males and females showed four devolopmental stages of the gonads: immature, initial maturation, mature and spent. Absolute fecundity varied from 4400 to 6400 oocytes, with a mean of 5400. The species presents total spawing and the spawing season occurred in the months of May and June. The rainy season preceeded the occurrence of breeding flying fishes in the coastal waters of Caiçara do Norte.

  7. Notes on a mating event of the deep-sea crab Chaecon affinis in the Gorringe Bank (NE Atlantic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilário, A.; Cunha, M. R.

    2013-08-01

    The deep-water red crab Chaceon affinis is the largest species of the family Geryonidae. Unlike other species of the same genus, C. affinis is not yet subject to intense commercial exploitation but it has been appointed as a new target resource in European waters, in spite of the lack of information on its biology, life cycle and distribution, which is essential to provide advice for a sustainable exploitation. Here we report for the first time the presence of C. affinis in the Gorringe Bank and give the first account of the mating behavior of this species. All mating pairs were found at the interface of the Mediterranean Outflow Water with North Atlantic Deep Water, suggesting that environmental parameters associated with the interface of these water masses may be relevant for mating in this species. The majority of C. affinis was mating which is an indication of synchrony and reproductive seasonality. A biennial female reproductive cycle is hypothesized, involving molting and mating in the first year with subsequent oviposition during the autumn, and spawning during spring of the second year. We suggest that synchrony and seasonality in the reproduction of C. affinis is linked to the formation of phytoplankton blooms in surface waters, with females carrying embryos from autumn to spring, possibly timing the release of planktotrophic larvae to exploit a seasonal peak in surface productivity and its export.

  8. Dieta e comportamento de forrageamento de Suiriri affinis e S. islerorum (Aves, Tyrannidae) em um cerrado do Brasil central Diet and foraging behavior of Suiriri affinis and S. islerorum (Aves, Tyrannidae) in a central Brazilian cerrado

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo E. Lopes

    2005-01-01

    Foi estudado o comportamento de forrageamento de Suiriri affinis (suiriri-do-cerrado) e S. islerorum (suiriri-da-chapada), duas espécies de Tyrannidae que ocorrem em sintopia nos cerrados do Brasil central. Durante o ano de 2003 foram registradas 188 observações de forrageamento para S. affinis e 150 para S. islerorum. Foram encontradas diferenças significativas entre as duas espécies em relação à altura e substrato de forrageamento, fitofisionomia utilizada e densidade da folhagem no local d...

  9. Negligible effects of ocean acidification on Eurytemora affinis (Copepoda) offspring production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almén, Anna-Karin; Vehmaa, Anu; Brutemark, Andreas; Bach, Lennart; Lischka, Silke; Stuhr, Annegret; Furuhagen, Sara; Paul, Allanah; Bermúdez, J. Rafael; Riebesell, Ulf; Engström-Öst, Jonna

    2016-02-01

    Ocean acidification is caused by increasing amounts of carbon dioxide dissolving in the oceans leading to lower seawater pH. We studied the effects of lowered pH on the calanoid copepod Eurytemora affinis during a mesocosm experiment conducted in a coastal area of the Baltic Sea. We measured copepod reproductive success as a function of pH, chlorophyll a concentration, diatom and dinoflagellate biomass, carbon to nitrogen (C : N) ratio of suspended particulate organic matter, as well as copepod fatty acid composition. The laboratory-based experiment was repeated four times during 4 consecutive weeks, with water and copepods sampled from pelagic mesocosms enriched with different CO2 concentrations. In addition, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) of animals from the mesocosms was measured weekly to test whether the copepod's defence against oxidative stress was affected by pH. We found no effect of pH on offspring production. Phytoplankton biomass, as indicated by chlorophyll a concentration and dinoflagellate biomass, had a positive effect. The concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the females was reflected in the eggs and had a positive effect on offspring production, whereas monounsaturated fatty acids of the females were reflected in their eggs but had no significant effect. ORAC was not affected by pH. From these experiments we conclude that E. affinis seems robust against direct exposure to ocean acidification on a physiological level, for the variables covered in the study. E. affinis may not have faced acute pH stress in the treatments as the species naturally face large pH fluctuations.

  10. Linking sub-cellular biomarkers to embryo aberrations in the benthic amphipod Monoporeia affinis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reutgard, Martin; Furuhagen, Sara

    2016-04-01

    To adequately assess and monitor environmental status in the aquatic environment a broad approach is needed that integrates physical variables, chemical analyses and biological effects at different levels of the biological organization. Embryo aberrations in the Baltic Sea key species Monoporeia affinis can be induced by both metals and organic substances as well as by hypoxia, increasing temperatures and malnutrition. This amphipod has therefore been used for more than three decades as a biological effect indicator in monitoring and assessment of chemical pollution and environmental stress. However, little is known about the sub-cellular mechanisms underlying embryo aberrations. An improved mechanistic understanding may open up the possibility of including sub-cellular alterations as sensitive warning signals of stress-induced embryo aberrations. In the present study, M. affinis was exposed in microcosms to 4 different sediments from the Baltic Sea. After 88-95 days of exposure, survival and fecundity were determined as well as the frequency and type of embryo aberrations. Moreover, oxygen radical absorption capacity (ORAC) was assayed as a proxy for antioxidant defense, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) level as a measure of lipid peroxidation and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity as an indicator of neurotoxicity. The results show that AChE and ORAC can be linked to the frequency of malformed embryos and arrested embryo development. The occurrence of dead broods was significantly associated with elevated TBARS levels. It can be concluded that these sub-cellular biomarkers are indicative of effects that could affect Darwinian fitness and that oxidative stress is a likely mechanism in the development of aberrant embryos in M. affinis.

  11. Fecundity of the Hypostomus affinis (Siluriformes, Loricariidae) in the Lajes Reservoir, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Duarte,Silvana; Araújo,Francisco Gerson

    2014-01-01

    The armored catfish Hypostomus affinis is a widespread Loricariidae fish in the Lajes Reservoir (22o42’-22o50’ S; 43o53’-44o05’ W), the largest lentic environment in the Rio de Janeiro State, but little is known about their reproductive biology. One hundred and twenty five females, captured from January 1996 to December 1997, were used to assess ovarian development (29 were used to determine fecundity). The oocyte distribution by size-diameter classes revealed the occurrence of two modes sugg...

  12. Micronucleus Test, Nuclear Abnormalities and Accumulation of Cu and Cd on Gambusia affinis (Baird & Girard, 1853)

    OpenAIRE

    Güner, Utku; Dilek, Fulya; Muranlı, Gökalp

    2011-01-01

    In the present work the induction of micronuclei (MNi) and nuclear abnormalities (NAs) in erythrocytes and Cu and Cd accumulation in whole body of Gambusia affinis were studied. Fish were exposed to two different Cu and Cd concentrations, 0.1 ppm and 1 ppm, for 1 and 2 weeks periods and to Cu-Cd combination (0.1 ppm Cu + 0.1 ppm Cd) for 2 weeks period using a semi-static renewal system. Micronucleus and nuclear abnormality analysis were carried out on peripheral blood erythrocytes. When fish...

  13. Case report: epizootic of coccidiosis in free-flying lesser scaup (Aythya affinis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windingstad, R.M.; McDonald, M.E.; Locke, L.N.; Kerr, S.M.; Sinn, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    A coccidiosis epizootic has occurred in lesser scaup (Aythya affinis) at Bluestem Reservoir in eastern Nebraska during the spring in each of three recent years: 1976-1978. Losses peaked during the period from mid-March through April. As much as 29% of the peak population of scaup using the reservoir died. Necropsies of 72 of the nearly 1390 scaup that died revealed destruction and sloughing of the intestinal mucosa and associated hemorrhaging. Fibrinonecrotic cores were frequently found in the intestinal lumens. Scrapings from the intestinal mucosal contained massive numbers of oocysts of the coccidian Eimeria aythyae. This is the first report of recurrent epizootics of coccidiosis in freeflying waterfowl.

  14. Dieta e comportamento de forrageamento de Suiriri affinis e S. islerorum (Aves, Tyrannidae) em um cerrado do Brasil central

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo E. Lopes

    2005-01-01

    Foi estudado o comportamento de forrageamento de Suiriri affinis (suiriri-do-cerrado) e S. islerorum (suiriri-da-chapada), duas espécies de Tyrannidae que ocorrem em sintopia nos cerrados do Brasil central. Durante o ano de 2003 foram registradas 188 observações de forrageamento para S. affinis e 150 para S. islerorum. Foram encontradas diferenças significativas entre as duas espécies em relação à altura e substrato de forrageamento, fitofisionomia utilizada e densidade da folhagem no local d...

  15. Genetics of radionuclide-contaminated mosquitofish populations and homology between Gambusia affinis and G. holbrooki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theodorakis, C.W.; Bickham, J.W. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences; Elbl, T. [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Cell and Molecular Biology; Shugart, L.R. [L.R. Shugart and Associates, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Chesser, R.K. [Univ. of Georgia, Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Ecology Lab.

    1998-10-01

    The effects of radionuclide contamination on genetic structure of eastern mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) populations from the US Department of Energy`s Savannah River Site (SRS) were investigated to develop methods of assessing ecological risk of chronic exposures to xenobiotics. Fish from two contaminated and two reference sites were examined by the randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique, which revealed that the frequency of three markers was greater in the contaminated than the reference sites and that the frequency of two markers was greater in reference than in the contaminated sites. A previous study examined populations of western mosquitofish (G. affinis) from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and found that certain RAPD markers were present in radionuclide-contaminated ORNL populations at a higher frequency than in reference populations. The contaminant-indicative markers observed in the SRS populations were the same size and amplified by the same polymerase chain reaction primers used in the ORNL study. Southern blot analysis revealed that the SRS G. holbrooki contaminant-indicative markers were homologous to the ORNL G. affinis contaminant-indicative markers. The observation that two species show similar patterns of band frequency shifts at two separate localities is consistent with the hypothesis that these DNA markers may originate from genetic elements that provide a selective advantage in contaminated habitats. Thus, the methodology used in these studies may prove to be useful to indicate population-level effects of environmental contamination.

  16. A transcriptome derived female-specific marker from the invasive Western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunja K Lamatsch

    Full Text Available Sex-specific markers are a prerequisite for understanding reproductive biology, genetic factors involved in sex differences, mechanisms of sex determination, and ultimately the evolution of sex chromosomes. The Western mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis, may be considered a model species for sex-chromosome evolution, as it displays female heterogamety (ZW/ZZ, and is also ecologically interesting as a worldwide invasive species. Here, de novo RNA-sequencing on the gonads of sexually mature G. affinis was used to identify contigs that were highly transcribed in females but not in males (i.e., transcripts with ovary-specific expression. Subsequently, 129 primer pairs spanning 79 contigs were tested by PCR to identify sex-specific transcripts. Of those primer pairs, one female-specific DNA marker was identified, Sanger sequenced and subsequently validated in 115 fish. Sequence analyses revealed a high similarity between the identified sex-specific marker and the 3´ UTR of the aminomethyl transferase (amt gene of the closely related platyfish (Xiphophorus maculatus. This is the first time that RNA-seq has been used to successfully characterize a sex-specific marker in a fish species in the absence of a genome map. Additionally, the identified sex-specific marker represents one of only a handful of such markers in fishes.

  17. KARAKTERISTIK PROKSIMAT DAN KANDUNGAN SENYAWA KIMIA DAGING PUTIH DAN DAGING MERAH IKAN TONGKOL (Euthynnus affinis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Hafiludin

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia has a marine biological resources are very large with the content of various types of creatures living in it. The biological richness of which are fish that have a benefit in the field of food and health. Tunafish (Euthynnus affinis is a species that is very interesting to study both in terms of nutritional composition and in terms of its economy. The purpose of this study was to determine the nutrient content and chemical compounds contained in red meat and white meat tuna. Research methodology includes observation of morphology, proximate analysis and phytochemical analysis of tuna. The highest yield was found in meat that  50%. Proximate protein content of the highest in the white meat that was 68.36%, the highest fat in red meat was 5.6%, the highest in red meat ash 3.29%, and the highest water on the white meat that was 12.16%. In the white meat and red meat tuna contained alkaloid, steroid, and carbohydrate compounds (molisch. Keywords: proximate, chemical compounds, tuna (Euthynnus affinis

  18. Inbreeding depression in the partially self-incompatible endemic plant species Scalesia affinis (Asteraceae) from Galápagos islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, L.R.; Siegismund, Hans Redlef; Hansen, T.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract  A previous study showed that some individuals of the tetraploid Galápagos endemic Scalesia affinis were able to produce offspring after selfing. The present study compares the fitness of self-pollinated offspring with the fitness of cross-pollinated offspring. Germination success, seedl...

  19. Distribution of NgR in the Brain of Rhinolophus affinis%NgR在中菊头蝠(Rhinolophus affinis)脑中分布

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚静; 鲁亚平

    2009-01-01

    Nogo和其受体相互作用可能在抑制神经再生中发挥着重要作用.运用免疫细胞化学方法,本研究观察了Nogo受体(NgR)在中菊头蝠脑中的分布.结果显示NgR在中菊头蝠脑皮层各层均有表达.在海马,NgR主要分布在CA1、CA3和DG区的神经细胞胞膜、胞质或/和突起上.杏仁核、丘脑、室旁核、视上核、视交叉上核等也有NgR阳性神经细胞着色.在脑的白质,轴突着色明显.小脑的分子层、Purkinje细胞层和颗粒细胞层均有NgR免疫阳性反应,其中阳性反应的颗粒细胞最多.这些提示NgR可能介导其配基对中菊头蝠脑多个区域的神经细胞起作用.%An interaction of Nogo with NgR has been suggested to play an important role in limiting axonal growth. By means of immunocytochemistry, the present study investigated the distribution of NgR in the brain of Rhinolophus affinis.The results showed that the NgR protein appeared to be present in all layers of the brain neocortex. In the hippocampus, NgR immunoreactivity was widely located in neurons, mainly concentrated in CA1, CA3 of the stratum pyramidale and dentate gyrus. Neurons in the amygdala, thalamus, paraventricular nucle, supraopticus and suprachiasmaticus also expressed NgR protein. The labeled neuronal cells exhibited immunoreactivity mainly in cytoplasmic membranes, cell bodies and/or neuropil. In white matter, axonal staining for NgR is prominent. In the cerebellum, immunoreactivity was detected in the molecular layer, Purkinje cell layer and granule cell layer. There were numerous granule cells and a few of Purkinje cells stained for NgR. These indicated that the NgR may mediate effects of its ligands on the neuronal cells in various brain regions of XRhinolophus affinis.

  20. IDENTIFIKASI BAKTERI DARI IKAN TONGKOL (Euthynnus affinis YANG DIPERDAGANGKAN DI PASAR IKAN KEDONGANAN BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusti Ayu Dianti Violentina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ikan tongkol (Euthynnus affinis merupakan ikan konsumsi yang disukai masyarakat.Pengetahuan tentang bakteri yang ditemukan pada tubuh ikan ini sangat penting untuk tujuan kesehatan masyarakat dan kajian biologi ikan.  Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengidentifikasi bakteri yang berasosiasi dengan ikan tersebut.Bakteri dari usus ikan diambil secara aseptis dan ditumbuhkan pada Blood Agar dan Nutrient Broth. DNA total dari kultur agar cair diisolasi dengan chelax, gen 16S RNA diamplifikasi dengan PCR menggunakan primer universal dengan produk sekitar 1300 bp. Produk PCR dirunut dengan metode Big-Dye termination. Hasilnya disepadankan dan dianalisis dengan MEGA 6.0. Pada penelitian ini, 14 spesies bakteri yang memiliki > 99% kesamaan dengan data GenBankteridentifikasi, yaitu Photobacterium leiognathi, Uruburuella testudinis, Aeromonas molluscorum, Psychrobacter celer, Psychrobacer faecalis, Acinetobacter johnsonii, Vibrio gallicus, Bacillus megaterium, Vagococcus fessus, Shewanella baltica, Shewanella algae, Rothia nasimurium, Myroides phaeus dan Yersinia ruckeri. Peran bakteribakteri tersebut dalam biologi ikan dan kesehatan masyarakat perlu dikaji lebih lanjut.

  1. Fecundity of the Hypostomus affinis (Siluriformes, Loricariidae) in the Lajes Reservoir, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Silvana; Araújo, Francisco Gerson

    2002-03-01

    The armored catfish Hypostomus affinis is a widespread Loricariidae fish in the Lajes Reservoir (22 degrees 42'-22 degrees 50' S; 43 degrees 53'-44 degrees 05' W), the largest lentic environment in the Rio de Janeiro State, but little is known about their reproductive biology. One hundred and twenty five females, captured from January 1996 to December 1997, were used to assess ovarian development (29 were used to determine fecundity). The oocyte distribution by size-diameter classes revealed the occurrence of two modes suggesting an asynchronic development of the ovaries. The total fecundity ranged from 1235 to 4304, averaging 2374. An exponential relationship between fecundity and total length was determined, and a direct linear relationship was found between fecundity and total weight and gonad weight.

  2. Polar constituents, protection against reactive oxygen species, and nutritional value of Chinese artichoke (Stachys affinis Bunge).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venditti, Alessandro; Frezza, Claudio; Celona, Diana; Bianco, Armandodoriano; Serafini, Mauro; Cianfaglione, Kevin; Fiorini, Dennis; Ferraro, Stefano; Maggi, Filippo; Lizzi, Anna Rita; Celenza, Giuseppe

    2017-04-15

    In the present work, we studied the chemical composition of Chinese artichoke (S. affinis tubers) by analyzing its polar constituents and its macro- and micro- nutrients. A total of nine compounds were isolated from the tuber ethanolic extract and structurally elucidated by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and mass spectrometry (MS). The marker compounds identified were oligosaccharide stachyose and the organic acid, succinic acid, as well as phenylethanoid and iridoid glycosides. The macronutrient profile was dominated by carbohydrates (36.9% dw), whereas potassium (2.36%) was the most abundant micro-nutrient. The tuber ethanolic extract was able to efficiently protect human cells (Caco-2, SHSY-5Y and K562) against t-BHP-induced oxidative damage.

  3. Bamboo (Neosinocalamus affinis)-based thin film, a novel biomass material with high performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Fei; Xu, Chen; Bao, Wen-Yi; Wang, Xiu-Li; Wang, Yu-Zhong

    2015-03-30

    Exploration of biomass based materials to replace conventional petroleum based ones has been a trend in recent decades. In this work, bamboo (Neosinocalamus affinis) with abundant resources was used for the first time to prepare films in the presence of cellulose. The effects of weight ratio of bamboo/cellulose on the appearances and properties of the films were investigated. It was confirmed there existed strong interactions between bamboo and cellulose, which were favorable to formation of homogeneous structure of blend films. Particularly, the presence of bamboo could improve the surface hydrophobicity, water resistance and thermal stability of blend films, and the films possessed an excellent oxygen barrier property, compared with generally used commercial packaging films. The bamboo biomass, therefore, is successfully used to create a new film material with a good application prospect in the fields of packaging, coating, and food industry.

  4. Development and characterization of microsatellite markers of the eastern keelback mullet (Liza affinis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L; Gao, T X; Han, Z Q; Li, C H; Sun, D R; Song, N

    2016-06-17

    Twenty-four polymorphic microsatellite loci were isolated and characterized for Liza affinis using a (GT)13-enriched genomic library. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 3 to 9, with a mean number of 6.250. The observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.417 to 1.000 and from 0.550 to 0.861, with an average of 0.859 and 0.779, respectively. Deviation from Hardy-Weinberg proportions was detected at three loci. Evidence of null alleles was found at two loci. These markers will be useful in further studies investigating the genetic variation and population structure of this species, and may provide insights into the maintenance and efficient management of eastern keelback mullet resources.

  5. Microbiome disruption and recovery in the fish Gambusia affinis following exposure to broad-spectrum antibiotic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlson JM

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Jeanette M Carlson,1 Annie B Leonard,1 Embriette R Hyde,2,3 Joseph F Petrosino,2,3 Todd P Primm1 1Department of Biological Sciences, Sam Houston State University, Huntsville, 2Alkek Center for Metagenomics and Microbiome Research, 3Integrative Molecular and Biomedical Sciences Training Program, Department of Molecular Virology & Microbiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA Abstract: Antibiotics are a relatively common disturbance to the normal microbiota of humans and agricultural animals, sometimes resulting in severe side effects such as antibiotic-associated enterocolitis. Gambusia affinis was used as a vertebrate model for effects of a broad-spectrum antibiotic, rifampicin, on the skin and gut mucosal microbiomes. The fish were exposed to the antibiotic in the water column for 1 week, and then monitored during recovery. As observed via culture, viable counts from the skin microbiome dropped strongly yet returned to pretreatment levels by 1.6 days and became >70% resistant. The gut microbiome counts dropped and took longer to recover (2.6 days, and became >90% drug resistant. The resistance persisted at ~20% of skin counts in the absence of antibiotic selection for 2 weeks. A community biochemical analysis measuring the presence/absence of 31 activities observed a 39% change in results after 3 days of antibiotic treatment. The antibiotic lowered the skin and gut microbiome community diversity and altered taxonomic composition, observed by 16S rRNA profiling. A 1-week recovery period did not return diversity or composition to pretreatment levels. The genus Myroides dominated both the microbiomes during the treatment, but was not stable and declined in abundance over time during recovery. Rifampicin selected for members of the family Comamonadaceae in the skin but not the gut microbiome. Consistent with other studies, this tractable animal model shows lasting effects on mucosal microbiomes following antibiotic exposure, including

  6. Using Gambusia affinis growth and condition to assess estuarine habitat quality: A comparison of indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, Bryan P.; La Peyre, M.K.

    2010-01-01

    Numerous indices have been used to estimate fish growth and condition however, differences in sensitivity and reliability of the methods have hampered efforts to identify appropriate indicators for routine evaluation of habitat quality in the field. We compared common morphometric (length, weight, somatic growth, length-weight condition) and biochemical (RNA:DNA ratio, relative DNA content, energy density) growth indices on the same wild-caught mosquitofish Gambusia affinis to examine their usefulness as indicators of habitat quality. A laboratory experiment was used to quantify growth rates of wild-caught G. affinis under different feeding treatments. Field studies consisted of both a short-term enclosure experiment (10 d) and weekly (7 wk) fish collections to compare growth indices in managed inflow and reference marshes during a winter/spring freshwater pulse event in upper Breton Sound, Louisiana, USA. Marshes flooded by restored freshwater pulses were capable of producing optimum growth (0.001 g DW d-1 DW = dry weight) and energetically valuable habitat (>6000 cal g-1 DW) for trophic transport. Because of differences in timing of response, morphometric and biochemical indices were generally not directly correlated, but there was clear agreement in direction and magnitude of response. The most striking difference in timing was that biochemical indices (RNA:DNA) responded more slowly to treatments than did morphometric growth indices. While gross patterns are comparable between indicators, differences in sensitivity and response time between indicators suggest that choice of indicator needs to be accounted for in interpretation and analysis of effects. ?? Inter-Research 2010, www.int-res.com.

  7. DESCRIPCIÓN MORFOLÓGICA DEL TUBO DIGESTIVO DE JUVENILES DE RUBIO Salminus affinis (PISCES: CHARACIDAE Alimentary tract of juvenile Rubio Salminus affinis (Pisces: Characidae morphological description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VJ ATENCIO GARCÍA

    Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio fue la descripción del tubo digestivo de juveniles de Rubio Salminus affinis. Se analizaron cinco juveniles con 23,6±2,6 cm de longitud total y 142,8±62,5 g de peso. Se realizó descripción topográfica y morfológica de los órganos y cortes histológicos con tinción H-E. El esófago es un órgano tubular corto de pared gruesa que representa el 7,8% de la longitud total del tubo digestivo, presenta pliegues internos que ofrecen gran capacidad de distensión permitiendo el paso de presas de gran tamaño. El estómago es una bolsa asimétrica en forma de "Y", grande y musculosa, amplio en la porción anterior y estrecho hacia el fondo; el número de ciegos pilóricos varió entre 13 y 23 pudiendo ser monotubulares y ramificados. El intestino, con tres asas, se extiende desde el esfínter pilórico hasta el ano. Histológicamente el tubo digestivo está formado por cuatro capas: mucosa, submucosa, muscular y serosa; el epitelio de revestimiento del esófago es estratificado plano no queratinizado con células caliciformes, cambiando a simple cilíndrico mucosecretor llegando al estómago; en el estómago se encuentra epitelio simple cilíndrico mucosecretor y los ciegos pilóricos e intestino son revestidos por epitelio simple cilíndrico con células caliciformes. Tanto el valor promedio del coeficiente intestinal (0,58, como la pared distensible del estómago sugieren que el Rubio tiene un tubo digestivo propio de carnívoro y sus características histológicas presentan similitud con la mayoría de vertebrados superiores.The aim of work was giving biological information about Salminus affinis,a morphological description of the alimentary tract was carried out. Five juvenile Rubio were analyzed (23.6±2.6 cm of total length and 142.8±62.5 g of weight. Topographical and morphological description organs and histology with H-E stain were carried out. The esophagus is a short tubular thick-walled organ that represents 7

  8. Acute toxicity effects of cadmium on Gambusia affinis%镉对食蚊鱼(Gambusia affinis)的急性毒性效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘阳; 陈曦; 覃剑晖

    2015-01-01

    以食蚊鱼(Gambusia affinis)为受试生物,采用半静水式急性毒性试验和亚急性毒性试验,分别测定Cd2+对食蚊鱼的半致死质量浓度(LC50)和超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)活性、过氧化氢酶(CAT)活性、谷胱甘肽转硫酶(GST)活性及组织结构变化,检测镉对食蚊鱼的毒性作用,以探讨Cd2+在水环境中的毒性及食蚊鱼在环境科学研究中的应用.结果表明,Cd2+对食蚊鱼96 h的LC50为22.55 mg/L,属于高毒物质.相同Cd2+暴露质量浓度下,随暴露时间延长,SOD和CAT活性总体表现为先升高后降低的趋势,GST活性则总体表现为先升高后降低、且趋于稳定的趋势.Cd2+暴露后食蚊鱼肝和鳃组织会出现不同程度损伤.研究表明,Cd2+对食蚊鱼属于高毒物质,验证了食蚊鱼对化学品Cd2+的敏感性.

  9. Dieta e comportamento de forrageamento de Suiriri affinis e S. islerorum (Aves, Tyrannidae em um cerrado do Brasil central Diet and foraging behavior of Suiriri affinis and S. islerorum (Aves, Tyrannidae in a central Brazilian cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo E. Lopes

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudado o comportamento de forrageamento de Suiriri affinis (suiriri-do-cerrado e S. islerorum (suiriri-da-chapada, duas espécies de Tyrannidae que ocorrem em sintopia nos cerrados do Brasil central. Durante o ano de 2003 foram registradas 188 observações de forrageamento para S. affinis e 150 para S. islerorum. Foram encontradas diferenças significativas entre as duas espécies em relação à altura e substrato de forrageamento, fitofisionomia utilizada e densidade da folhagem no local do ataque. O comportamento e a direção do ataque, a espécie de planta e a distância de vôo não diferiram entre as espécies. A análise de 26 conteúdos estomacais de membros do gênero revelou o consumo exclusivo de artrópodes. A baixa porcentagem de observações de forrageamento direcionadas a frutos (apenas 7% e 9%, respectivamente confirmou o caráter insetívoro do gênero.The foraging behavior of Suiriri affinis (Campo Suiriri and S. islerorum (Chapada Flycatcher, two sintopic Tyrant Flycatchers in the Central Brazilian Cerrado (tropical savanna was studied. During 2003, 188 feeding bouts of S. affinis and 150 of S. islerorum were registered. Differences between the two species in the feeding height, foraging substrate, phytophysiognomy used, and foliage density at the point of foraging observation were found. The attack methods, attack direction, distance of flight, and plant species used did not differ between both species. The analysis of 26 stomach contents of members of this genus revealed only arthropods. The low percentage of feeding bouts directed to fruits (only 7% and 9%, respectively confirmed the insectivorous character of this genus.

  10. Metabolic responses to metal pollution in shrimp Crangon affinis from the sites along the Laizhou Bay in the Bohai Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lanlan; Ji, Chenglong; Zhao, Jianmin; Wu, Huifeng

    2016-12-15

    Marine environment in the Laizhou Bay is potentially contaminated by metals from industrial discharges. In this study, metal concentrations in shrimps Crangon affinis indicated that two typical sites (S6283 and S5283) close to Longkou and Zhaoyuan cities along the Laizhou Bay have been contaminated by metals, including Cd, As, Cu, Ni, Co, and Mn. In particular, Cd and As were the main metal contaminants in S6283. In S5283, however, Cu was the most important metal contaminant. The metabolic responses in the shrimps indicated that the metal pollution in S6283 and S5283 induced disturbances in osmotic regulation and energy metabolism and reduced anaerobiosis, lipid metabolism, and muscle movement. However, alteration in the levels of dimethylglycine, dimethylamine, arginine, betaine, and glutamine indicated that the metal pollution in S5283 induced osmotic stress through different pathways compared to that in S6283. In addition, dimethylamine might be the biomarker of Cu in shrimp C. affinis.

  11. Recent Discovery of Widespread Ixodes affinis (Acari: Ixodidae) Distribution in North Carolina With Implications for Lyme Disease Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    implications for Lyme disease studies Bruce A. Harrison1, Walker H. Rayburn Jr.2, Marcee Toliver1, Eugene E. Powell1, Barry R. Engber1, Lance A. Durden3...affinis is morphologically very similar to Ixodes scapularis Say, the primary vector of Lyme disease borreliae in the eastern U.S.A. (Keirans et al. 1996...Ixodidae) distribution in North Carolina with implications for Lyme disease studies 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER

  12. Mesopelagic fishes of the Arabian Sea: distribution, abundance and diet of Chauliodus pammelas, Chauliodus sloani, Stomias affinis, and Stomias nebulosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Mari; Bollens, Stephen M.; Burkhalter, Brenda; Madin, Laurence P.; Horgan, Erich

    Four species of predatory fishes - Chauliodus pammelas, Chauliodus sloani, Stomias affinis and Stomias nebulosus - were collected on two cruises to the Arabian Sea during 1995. We present data on the abundances, horizontal and vertical distributions, and diet of these fishes. We also discuss briefly the importance of the oxygen minimum zone and predation on myctophid fishes to the ecology of these mesopelagic predators. Chauliodus pammelas and C. sloani appear to have only partially overlapping horizontal distributions in the Arabian Sea, with C. pammelas more common to the north and C. sloani more common to the south. Our data support previous results suggesting that diel vertical migration is the norm for these species, with smaller individuals usually nearer to the surface and larger individuals tending to stay deeper. In contrast to Chauliodus, Stomias affinis and S. nebulosus appear to have largely overlapping horizontal distributions in the Arabian Sea. However, they may have slightly different vertical distributions, with S. affinis living slightly shallower (especially at night) than S. nebulosus. All four species spend most of their time in the oxygen minimum zone, entering the surface oxygenated waters (100-150 m) only at night (if at all). The diets of C. pammelas, C. sloani, and S. affinis consisted mainly of lanternfishes, Myctophidae, and other fishes. In contrast, S. nebulosus, the smaller of the two Stomias species, ate mostly copepods and other crustaceans. This differential feeding may allow the two Stomias species to co-occur. Three of these four stomiids appear to play an important role in predation on myctophid fish populations in the Arabian Sea.

  13. Proximate composition and mineral and fatty acid profiles of male and female jinga shrimps (Metapenaeus affinis, H. Milne Edwards, 1837)

    OpenAIRE

    DİNÇER, Mehmet Tolga; İlker AYDIN

    2014-01-01

    The jinga shrimp (Metapenaeus affinis, H. Milne Edwards, 1837) is a commercially valuable alien decapod and a seafood product that is highly popular at seafood restaurants in İzmir (Turkey). The chemical, mineral, and fatty acid compositions of male and female jinga shrimps harvested in the Mediterranean Sea were determined for the first time. The compositions of both sexes confirmed that the jinga shrimp is a healthy food source due to its balance of nutrients, with efficient levels of prote...

  14. Geographic differences in the carapace shape of the crab Cyrtograpsus affinis (Decapoda: Varunidae and its taxonomic implications

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    Aníbal H. Lezcano

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Cyrtograpsus genus was traditionally considered to be composed of three species: C. angulatus, C. altimanus and C. affinis. However, recent studies have found solid evidence suggesting that C. affinis and C. altimanus belong to a single species and hypothesize that the morphological differences which caused this misclassification could be related to different ecophenotypes or life stages. Here we report a geometric morphometrics study on the carapace shape of Cyrtograpsus specimens from the Río de la Plata estuary (36°S and the Nuevo Gulf (42.75°S, testing for shape differences between different sizes (allometry in the two environments. We found that previous morphological descriptions of the two species were associated with different sizes of a continuous, statistically significant allometric shape variation, concluding that C. affinis is a junior synonym of C. altimanus. We also found significant differences in the carapace shape between estuarine and marine environments, suggesting an effect of the environmental variables on carapace shape and a potential adaptive value of this trait.

  15. Das citações (indiretas na discursividade do voto de Carlos Ayres Britto acerca da união homoafetiva: efeitos de sentido possíveis

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    Lígia NEGRI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, trazemos o acontecimento que o voto do ministro relator Carlos Ayres Britto funda pela sua enunciação, no Supremo Tribunal Federal, referente à recente (2011 questão da união homoafetiva no Brasil, tendo como corpus de análise as citações (indiretas extraídas de afirmações de personalidades célebres (Platão, Max Scheler, Descartes, Fernando Pessoa, Nietzsche, Hegel, Jung, Caetano Veloso, Rui Barbosa, Spinoza, Sartre e Chico Xavier, postas em jogo na materialidade linguística. Discutimos os efeitos de sentido possíveis delas decorrentes, mediante a perspectiva da Análise do Discurso de orientação francesa, tendo em conta os aspectos relevantes das condições de produção do discurso, sem deixarmos de aventar os efeitos de articulação entre citações e enunciados que as circunscrevem no voto, paralelismos etc. Lançaremos, ainda, breve olhar sobre o ethos do sujeito do discurso, a partir dos efeitos de sentido das citações. Dentre outras avaliações e reflexões, concluiremos que o discurso tem como argumento maior o amor, confrontando uma FD (Formação Discursiva prototípica do judiciário, inclusive nas menções a interdiscursos religiosos. Para nosso exercício analítico, contamos especialmente com Possenti (2009, 2002, Eni Orlandi (2009, 2006, Foucault (2010, 2009, Maingueneau (1997 e Pêcheux (2009, para que constituam nosso aporte teórico.

  16. ESTIMASI PARAMETER POPULASI IKAN TONGKOL KOMO (Euthynnus affinis DI PERAIRAN LAUT JAWA

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    Umi Chodrijah

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Tongkol komo (Euthynnus affinis yang dikenal dengan nama perdagangan kawa-kawa termasuk dalam family Scombridae. Sebagai ikan pelagis mereka membentuk gerombolan, perenang cepat dan pemakan daging (carnivore. Penelitian tentang estimasi parameter populasi ikan tongkol komo di Laut Jawa didasarkan pada pengumpulan data di Pelabuhan Perikanan Nusantara Pekalongan, pada bulan Februari-Desember 2012. Analisis parameter populasi menggunakan program “Electronic Length Frequency Analysis (ELEFAN-1. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan sebaran frekuensi panjang cagak ikan tongkol komo selama penelitian diperoleh panjang minimum 11,7 cm FL, panjang maksimum 55,4 cmFL dan panjang-rata-rata 34,1 cm. Persamaan dari hubungan panjang dan bobot ikan tongkol komo adalah W=0,00001L3,1267 (r2=0,986. Parameter populasi menunjukkan panjang asimtotik (L∞ = 59,63 cm, kecepatan pertumbuhan ikan tongkol (K =  0,91 per tahun dan umur pada saat ditetaskan (t0  = 0,178 tahun. Mortalitas total (Z adalah 2,64 per tahun dengan mortalitas alami (M dan mortalitas penangkapan (F masing-masing 1,13/tahun dan  1,51/tahun. Rasio eksploitasi ikan tongkol adalah 0,57 pertahun. Hal ini berarti bahwa pemanfaatan ikan tongkol komo di Laut Jawa sudah dimanfaatkan secara penuh (fully exploited. As pelagic fish, kawa-kawa (Euthynnus affinis were included in the family Scombridae, Schooling behaviours, fast swimmers and carnivore. Research on population parameter estimates of kawa-kawa of the Java Sea conducted in the Pekalongan fishing port during February to December 2012. Data analyzed using analytical model application with program of “Electronic Length Frequency Analysis (ELEFAN -1”. The results showed that the frequency distribution of fish during sampling periods ranged of 11.7 cm FL to 55.4 cmFL with average length of 34.1 cmFL. Equation of a length and weight relationship of W = 0.00001 L3, 1267 (r2 = 0.986. Population parameters included asymptotic length growth rate (L∞ was

  17. Effects of mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis cues on wood frog (Lithobates sylvaticus tadpole activity

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    Katherine F. Buttermore

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We examined the changes in activity of wood frog (Lithobates sylvaticus tadpoles exposed to combinations of visual, chemical, and mechanical cues of the invasive mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis. We also examined whether the responses of the tadpoles to the predator cues were influenced by the short-term accumulation of chemical cues in the experimental container. In our experiment, the activity of wood frog (L. sylvaticus tadpoles was not affected by the presence of various cues from mosquitofish. Our experiment demonstrated that the repeated use of trial water can influence the activity level of tadpoles, regardless of the predator cue treatment used. Tadpoles in the first trial tended to be less active than tadpoles in subsequent trials. This effect does not appear to be mediated by the accumulation of predator cues since there was no significant interaction term. Our results suggest that short-term accumulation of predator chemical cues do not affect the behavior of wood frog tadpoles: however, our results suggest that the repeated use of the same water in consecutive trials may affect tadpole behavior, perhaps through the accumulation of conspecific chemical cues.

  18. Development of mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis holbrooki populations in lentic mesocosms. Perspectives for ecotoxicological studies

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    DREZE V.

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available In the perspective of ecotoxicological assays in mesocosms, the development of mosquitofish populations (Gambusia affinis holbrooki has been assessed. The objective was to evaluate the ability of fish to reproduce in these experimental ponds under the climatic conditions of Brittany, and to see if population size and individual criteria were related to the number of adults initially introduced. Six mesocosms (3.2 m diameter and 0.7 m water depth similarly designed received sexually mature mosquitofish at the rate of 12 (6 females and 6 males, 6 (3 females and 3 males and 2 (1 female and 1 male in June 1996. Each assay was duplicated. In December 1996, the entire populations were collected and the weight, size and sex of the individuals were noted. Length-frequency distributions were relatively similar between mesocosms and the different mode groups showed that the reproductive activity occurred until the beginning of fall. The produced biomass (from 4.1 to 38.3 g and number of fish collected (from 26 to 301 were statistically correlated to the number of pairs initially introduced. This study provides interesting perspectives for ecotoxicological investigations in which the effects of pollutants on mosquitofish would be assessed at the population level.

  19. Hepatic element concentrations of lesser scaup (aythya affinis) during spring migration in the upper midwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillatzki, A.E.; Neiger, R.D.; Chipps, S.R.; Higgins, K.F.; Thiex, N.; Afton, A.D.

    2011-01-01

    High concentrations of some hepatic elements might be contributing to the decline of the continental lesser scaup (Aythya affinis) population. We evaluated hepatic element concentrations of male and female lesser scaup collected from the upper Midwest (Iowa, Minnesota, North Dakota, and South Dakota) during the 2003 and 2004 spring migrations. We measured concentrations of 24 elements in livers of 117 lesser scaup. We found that only selenium concentrations were at levels (>3.0 ??g/g wet weight [ww)]) proposed to adversely affect reproduction. Approximately 49% of females (n = 61) had individual hepatic concentrations >3.0 ??g/g ww selenium (Se). Our observed hepatic concentration of Se was similar to that reported in lesser scaup collected from the mid-continental United States but less than Se concentrations reported from the Great Lakes region. We found that the liver cadmium (Cd) concentration for males was significantly higher than that for females. Gender differences in hepatic Cd concentrations have not been previously reported for lesser scaup, but Cd is known to have negative impacts on male reproduction. Our results indicate that lesser scaup migrating through the upper Midwest in spring have elevated Se levels and that males carry a significantly greater Cd burden than females. Moreover, elemental concentrations might be high enough to affect reproduction in both male and female lesser scaup, but controlled laboratory studies are needed to adequately assess the effects of Se and Cd on lesser scaup reproduction. ?? 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  20. Masculinization and reproductive effects in western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) after long-term exposure to androstenedione.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Li-Ping; Yang, Yang; Shu, Hu; Ying, Guang-Guo; Zhao, Jian-Liang; Fang, Gui-Zhen; Xin, Li; Shi, Wen-Jun; Yao, Li; Cheng, Xue-Mei

    2017-09-12

    Androstenedione (AED) is a naturally occurring steroid hormone. It is metabolized to potent androgens, which may induce androgenic effects in fish. However, little is known whether and how the androgens interfere with the fish gonadal development and reproduction. This study aimed at demonstrating the effects of long-term AED exposure on reproduction and development in mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis). The growth, development and several morphological endpoints, including the segment number and length of anal fin, histological changes of gonads and liver, were evaluated in mosquitofish during development from fertilized embryo to adulthood (180 days) after exposure of AED at environmentally relevant concentrations. We found that the growth (length, body weight and condition factor) of fish was negatively correlated with AED concentration in females, but not in males. The significant elongation of the ray and increment of segment numbers in the anal fin, were detected in all mosquitofish after exposure. Moreover, AED exposure (0.4gµ/L) caused damages in gonads and reduced the number of pregnant females. These findings indicate that AED has adverse effects on the growth and development of the western mosquitofish after long-term exposure (180d). Long-term exposure (180d) to AED, including environmentally relevant concentration (0.4µg/L and 4µg/L), induced masculinization in female mosquitofish under the experimental conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Feminization and masculinization of western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) observed in rivers impacted by municipal wastewaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guo-Yong; Liu, You-Sheng; Chen, Xiao-Wen; Liang, Yan-Qiu; Liu, Shuang-Shuang; Yang, Yuan-Yuan; Hu, Li-Xin; Shi, Wen-Jun; Tian, Fei; Zhao, Jian-Liang; Chen, Jun; Ying, Guang-Guo

    2016-02-01

    Municipal wastewaters have been known to contain various estrogens and androgens. Little is known about the joint action of these chemicals from wastewaters on fishes in the aquatic environment. The objectives of this study were to investigate the estrogenic and/or androgenic effects in wild mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) of two effluent-impacted rivers in South China by determining morphological changes and hepatic mRNA expression levels of relevant genes such as vitellogenin (Vtg), estrogen receptor (ERα) and androgen receptors (ARα and ARβ), and to assess the linkages of those morphological changes and hepatic mRNA expression levels to the chemical concentrations measured by in vitro bioassays and chemical analysis. The results showed a significant induction of Vtg and ERα mRNA in the livers of the males and a gonopodium-like anal fin in the females collected at the majority of sites. Redundancy analysis and Pearson correlation analysis showed that the chemical concentrations obtained by in vitro bioassays and chemical analysis had significant correlations with some of the endpoints for the estrogenic and/or androgenic effects in mosquitofish. The findings from this study indicate that the estrogens and androgens present in the two rivers could cause the observed estrogenic and androgenic effects in mosquitofish.

  2. Hepatic element concentrations of lesser scaup (Aythya affinis) during spring migration in the upper Midwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillatzki, Angela E; Neiger, Regg D; Chipps, Steven R; Higgins, Kenneth F; Thiex, Nancy; Afton, Alan D

    2011-07-01

    High concentrations of some hepatic elements might be contributing to the decline of the continental lesser scaup (Aythya affinis) population. We evaluated hepatic element concentrations of male and female lesser scaup collected from the upper Midwest (Iowa, Minnesota, North Dakota, and South Dakota) during the 2003 and 2004 spring migrations. We measured concentrations of 24 elements in livers of 117 lesser scaup. We found that only selenium concentrations were at levels (>3.0 μg/g wet weight [ww)]) proposed to adversely affect reproduction. Approximately 49% of females (n = 61) had individual hepatic concentrations >3.0 μg/g ww selenium (Se). Our observed hepatic concentration of Se was similar to that reported in lesser scaup collected from the mid-continental United States but less than Se concentrations reported from the Great Lakes region. We found that the liver cadmium (Cd) concentration for males was significantly higher than that for females. Gender differences in hepatic Cd concentrations have not been previously reported for lesser scaup, but Cd is known to have negative impacts on male reproduction. Our results indicate that lesser scaup migrating through the upper Midwest in spring have elevated Se levels and that males carry a significantly greater Cd burden than females. Moreover, elemental concentrations might be high enough to affect reproduction in both male and female lesser scaup, but controlled laboratory studies are needed to adequately assess the effects of Se and Cd on lesser scaup reproduction.

  3. Endogenous contributions to egg protein formation in lesser scaup Aythya affinis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutting, Kyle A.; Hobson, Keith A.; Rotella, Jay J.; Warren, Jeffrey M.; Wainwright-de la Cruz, Susan E.; Takekawa, John Y.

    2011-01-01

    Lesser scaup Aythya affinis populations have declined throughout the North American continent for the last three decades. It has been hypothesized that the loss and degradation of staging habitats has resulted in reduced female body condition on the breeding grounds and a concomitant decline in productivity. We explored the importance of body (endogenous) reserves obtained prior to arrival on the breeding ground in egg protein formation in southwestern Montana during 2006–2008 using stable-carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotope analyses of scaup egg components, female tissue, and local prey items. From arrival on the breeding grounds through the egg-laying period, δ15N values of scaup red blood cells decreased while δ13C values became less variable; a pattern consistent with endogenous tissues equilibrating with local (freshwater) dietary sources. In 2006 and 2008, isotopic values for egg albumen and yolk protein indicated that most (>90%) protein used to produce these components was obtained on the breeding grounds. However, in 2007, a year with an exceptionally warm and dry spring, endogenous reserves contributed on average 41% of yolk and 29% of albumen. Results from this study suggest that female scaup can meet the protein needs of egg production largely from local dietary food sources. This highlights the importance of providing high-quality breeding habitats for scaup. Whether this pattern holds in areas with similar breeding season lengths but longer migration routes, such as those found in the western boreal forest, should be investigated.

  4. Hydrography, Polk County was flown in May 1996. Ayres Associates, Madison, digitized all hydrography features and provided this data as a two-dimensional AutoCAD drawing file. In 2006 Polk County converted the AutoCAD hydrography file into and shapefile creating the h, Published in 1996, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Polk County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Hydrography dataset current as of 1996. Polk County was flown in May 1996. Ayres Associates, Madison, digitized all hydrography features and provided this data as a...

  5. Identificação de Paspalum notatum fluegge e Axonopus affinis chase através da análise de fragmentos foliares Identification of Paspalum notatum fluegge and Axonopus affinis chase through leaf fragments analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cláudia Lopes Nogueira

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo a caracterização e identificação de fragmentos foliares de Paspalum notatum Fluegge e Axonopus affinis Chase, como forma de subsidiar projetos de avaliação da dieta de animais fistulados. Para a caracterização das espécies, foram feitas várias coletas de folhas em áreas de pastagem natural do Campus da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (RS, de maio de 1992 a junho de 1993. A diferenciação das espécies foi baseada no padrão de nervação, presença de pêlos e características do ápice e bordo foliar, observadas com auxílio de estereomicroscópio. A habilidade de um observador em identificar fragmentos das duas espécies numa mistura e a eficácia dos descritores foliares mencionados foram testadas através de análise estatística. Desta forma, foi constatado que o padrão de nervação é o melhor critério de diferenciação e que A. affinis difere de P. notatum, basicamente, pelo ápice foliar obtuso e pela presença de nervuras quaternárias. A análise estatística confirmou a capacidade do observador em reconhecer fragmentos das duas espécies.This research aimed at the characterization and identification of leaves, fragments of Paspalum notatum Fluegge and Axonopus affinis Chase, for future studies of diet evaluation of fistuleted animals. For the species characterization, several collections of leaves were made in native pasture areas at the UFSM Campus (Santa Maria, RS from May, 1992 to June, 1993. The differentiation of the species was based on the leave’s venation pattern, hair presence, leaf border and apex features, observed with a stereomicroscope. The obverver’s ability to identify the two species of leaves in a misture were tested with statistical analysis. It was observed that the venation pattern is the best characterization criteria and that A. affinis differs from P. notatum mainly by the obtuse leaf apex and by the quaternary vein presence. The statistical analysis

  6. Fluctuación poblacional de Xyleborus ferrugineus y X. affinis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) en ecosistemas de Tabasco, México Population fluctuation of Xyleborus ferrugineus and X. affinis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in ecosystems of Tabasco, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Rangel; Manuel Pérez; Saúl Sánchez; Silvia Capello

    2012-01-01

    Los Scolytinae son insectos comúnmente conocidos como coleópteros descortezadores o ambrosiales debido a su forma de alimentarse. Existen especies que restringen su actividad reproductiva a una planta huésped o a un número reducido de ellas, otras son altamente polífagas. Se estudiaron las poblaciones de Scolytinae con el objetivo de conocer la fluctuación poblacional de X. ferrugineus y X. affinis en ecosistemas de Tabasco, México durante noviembre 2010-julio 2011, febrero 2010-enero 2011 y ...

  7. Effects of Ration Levels on Growth and Reproduction from Larvae to First-Time Spawning in the Female Gambusia affinis

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    Zhiming Zhu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Somatic growth and reproduction were examined in individual laboratory-grown female Gambusia affinis fed with high (H, medium (M and low (L ration levels from birth to the first-time spawning. Results showed that the body length and weight, condition factor (CF, wet weight gain (WGw, specific growth rate in wet weight (SGRw and ration levels in terms of energy (RLe decreased significantly (p < 0.05 with decreasing ration levels from birth to first-time spawning. On the contrary, the food conversion efficiency in terms of energy (FCEe increased significantly (p < 0.05 with the decreasing ration levels from birth to first-time sexual maturity. Furthermore, higher percentages of energy intake from food were allocated to somatic and gonad growth in M and L groups compared to the H group before sexual maturity; In addition, the time for first-time spawning in groups M and L was longer than that of the H group. As a result, the gonad-somatic index (GSI and oocytes/embryos weight in M and L groups were similar to that of the H group, although the ovary weight and oocytes/embryos numbers were all lower than that of the H group. Also, similar growth performances were observed in second-generation offspring, which were produced by female parents fed with different ration levels. These findings suggest that the female G. affinis could produce a number of healthy offspring under conditions of food restriction, and that this could be achieved by increasing the energy allocated to gonad development, reducing fecundity and delaying spawning time. These life strategies ensured that G. affinis could survive and thrive in adverse environmental conditions and exhibit characteristics of invasive fish species.

  8. Comparison of mosquito control provided by the arroyo chub (Gila orcutti) and the mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dam, Alex R; Walton, William E

    2007-12-01

    Two 6-wk trials were conducted in 28-m2 earthen ponds to compare the efficacy of the arroyo chub, Gila orcutti, to the mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis, as a biological control agent for mosquitoes and a possible replacement for the mosquitofish in sensitive watersheds of southern California. The mosquitofish population growth rate was 1.73 times greater than the arroyo chub population growth rate; however, greater reproduction by the mosquitofish did not result in significantly better reduction of mosquitoes than was provided by the comparatively small populations of arroyo chub. On average across a 6-wk study in the spring, both larvivorous fishes reduced the abundance of 3rd and 4th instars by 4- to 5-fold compared to that observed in the control ponds that lacked fish but contained few invertebrate predators. The abundance of nontarget microinvertebrates in ponds containing the mosquitofish was only 7% of that in ponds containing the arroyo chub during the summer, but did not differ significantly between the fish species treatments when zooplankton was comparatively more abundant during the spring. Even though the number of individuals produced by each fish species during 6 wk in the spring was greater than for fish stocked in the summer, species-specific population growth rates in the spring study (individuals/individual/d; mosquitofish, 0.077; arroyo chub, 0.044) were only slightly higher than in the summer (individuals/individual/d; mosquitofish, 0.068; arroyo chub, 0.039) indicating that differences in the number of fish stocked contributed primarily to the differences in final population size between spring and summer studies. The arroyo chub is native to the South Coastal drainages in California and should be considered as a viable alternative to the mosquitofish for integrated mosquito management programs in riverine wetlands and sensitive watersheds of southern California.

  9. Historical introgression and the persistence of ghost alleles in the intermediate horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus affinis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xiuguang; He, Guimei; Hua, Panyu; Jones, Gareth; Zhang, Shuyi; Rossiter, Stephen J

    2013-02-01

    Phylogenetic conflicts between genetic markers can help to disentangle complex histories of phylogeography and introgression among taxa. We previously proposed that the Chinese mainland subspecies of the intermediate horseshoe bat Rhinolophus affinis himalayanus colonized Hainan Island to form the subspecies R. a. hainanus. Subsequent recolonization of the mainland formed a third taxon, R. a macrurus, and a secondary contact zone with the ancestral himalayanus. To test for historical and recurrent genetic exchange between these mainland subspecies, we sampled populations of each from two parapatric zones and undertook analyses using one mtDNA marker, three nuclear genes and 14 microsatellites. Nuclear DNA, echolocation call frequencies and morphological data all recovered two taxa; however, a mtDNA phylogeny revealed two himalayanus clades, of which one clustered with macrurus, as well as some shared or related mtDNA haplotypes in eastern populations. Isolation-with-migration (IM) models suggested some mtDNA gene flow from macrurus to himalayanus. However, strong population structure in himalayanus raises the possibility that macrurus captured mtDNA from a coastal population of himalayanus that has since become rare or extinct. To reconcile these two sets of results, we suggest that the IM estimates might reflect historical mtDNA gene flow among populations of himalayanus, before mtDNA was subsequently captured by macrurus. Finally, microsatellite-based ABC analyses supported the island origin of macrurus; however, mtDNA-based ABC analyses suggest this taxon might have evolved on the mainland. Our findings highlight the importance of understanding population history and structure for interpreting hybridization and introgression events. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Tracking the movements of a post-nesting Southern River Terrapin (Batagur affinis edwardmolli)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pelf-Nyok; Wong, Adrian

    2015-09-01

    A Southern River Terrapin (Batagur affinis edwardmolli) Conservation Project was initiated on one terrapin nesting bank in 2011, following the discovery of a River Terrapin population in the Kemaman River, Terengganu in 2010. Since this project was initiated, Turtle Conservation Society of Malaysia (TCS) was instrumental in the gazettement of three nesting banks along the Kemaman River, from which all River Terrapin eggs are collected for incubation. However, there are at least a dozen other "unprotected" nesting banks along the river, where all eggs were collected for human consumption. This project attempted to determine the movements of a post-nesting River Terrapin, with hopes that it would provide the preliminary baseline information on the utilization of adjacent nesting banks. The solution was a GPS tracking device that transmitted coordinates every hour over cellular networks. Location-based data was sent via Short Message Service (SMS) to our own SMS gateway running on a Raspberry Pi credit-card size computer, which was then logged in a database and presented graphically via Google Maps. It was a complete tracking and monitoring system. This solution enabled researchers to remotely track the movements of a River Terrapin, hence reducing the costs of research. The movements of a post-nesting River Terrapin were tracked for eight days before the battery was drained. On the third day, this River Terrapin ascended an adjacent riverbank and spent less than an hour on the bank, presumably to deposit her remaining eggs. This study confirmed that River Terrapins do utilize other suitable nesting banks if/whenever available. Results from such tracking studies will be used to leverage on the protection of adjacent nesting banks, thus providing greater protection for the critically endangered River Terrapins.

  11. Fluctuación poblacional de Xyleborus ferrugineus y X. affinis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae en ecosistemas de Tabasco, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Rangel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Los Scolytinae son insectos comúnmente conocidos como coleópteros descortezadores o ambrosiales debido a su forma de alimentarse. Existen especies que restringen su actividad reproductiva a una planta huésped o a un número reducido de ellas, otras son altamente polífagas. Se estudiaron las poblaciones de Scolytinae con el objetivo de conocer la fluctuación poblacional de X. ferrugineus y X. affinis en ecosistemas de Tabasco, México durante noviembre 2010-julio 2011, febrero 2010-enero 2011 y 2007. Los métodos de captura utilizados fueron trampa de alcohol, trampa de luz y captura directa sobre sus plantas huésped. Se recolectaron 688 especímenes de X. ferrugineus y 3 911 de X. affinis. La fluctuación poblacional de X. ferrugineus mostró de manera general poblaciones bajas en los ecosistemas estudiados sin alguna estacionalidad marcada, registrándose los máximos picos poblacionales tanto en época seca (marzo-mayo como lluviosa (septiembre-diciembre. A diferencia de las poblaciones de X. affinis que fueron más abundantes y mostraron en la mayoría de los sitios (excepto en el Jardín Botánico José Narciso Rovirosa que se presentó en mayo picos poblacionales en época lluviosa. Las trampas de alcohol y de luz son métodos de recolecta que pueden ser complementarios para el monitoreo de las poblaciones de estos insectos, los cuales se encuentran presentes durante la mayor parte del año y su fluctuación poblacional es dependiente de los recursos alimenticios y sobre todo de factores ambientales como la temperatura y humedad. Se sugiere que X. affinis se ha adaptado y explotado los recursos de mejor manera que X. ferrugineus en estos ecosistemas, a juzgar por la abundancia observada. Las correlaciones entre la abundancia y los factores climáticos presentaron valores positivos y negativos. Los resultados reflejan el comportamiento de las poblaciones, sin embargo, hace falta evaluar de manera detallada algunos factores biol

  12. Fluctuación poblacional de Xyleborus ferrugineus y X. affinis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) en ecosistemas de Tabasco, México

    OpenAIRE

    Rangel,Ricardo; Pérez, Manuel; Sánchez, Saúl; Capello, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    Los Scolytinae son insectos comúnmente conocidos como coleópteros descortezadores o ambrosiales debido a su forma de alimentarse. Existen especies que restringen su actividad reproductiva a una planta huésped o a un número reducido de ellas, otras son altamente polífagas. Se estudiaron las poblaciones de Scolytinae con el objetivo de conocer la fluctuación poblacional de X. ferrugineus y X. affinis en ecosistemas de Tabasco, México durante noviembre 2010-julio 2011, febrero 2010-enero 2011 y ...

  13. Effects of Predation by Invasive Western Mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) on Survival of Eggs, Embryos and Tadpoles of Pelophylax nigromaculatus and Duttaphrynus melanostictus in South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoli FAN; Zhihua LIN; Xiang LI; Li WEI; Guohua DING

    2016-01-01

    Alien species are one of the most serious threats to the decline and extinction of native amphibian populations. In this study, we examined the predation of invasive Western Mosquitofish Gambusia affinis on the eggs, embryos, and tadpoles of Duttaphrynus melanostictus and Pelophylax nigromaculatus in south China. Our results suggested that the survival of eggs and embryos remaining in the egg capsules of P. nigromaculatus and D. melanostictus was significantly higher than those removed from the egg capsule at 12-h intervals within 72 h in the presence of G. affinis. The survival of P. nigromaculatus eggs and embryos without egg capsules was significantly lower than those of D. melanostictus without egg capsules. The survival of P. nigromaculatus eggs and embryos with egg capsules was significantly higher than those of D. melanostictus with egg capsules from 24 h to 72 h except for 12 h. The survival of D. melanostictus tadpoles was significantly higher than that of P. nigromaculatus tadpoles in the presence of G. affinis. The survival of Gosner stage 26 tadpoles of P. nigromaculatus was significantly higher than that of Gosner stage 30 tadpoles from 12 h to 60 h, but there were no significant differences at 72 h. In contrast, the survival of Gosner stage 26 tadpoles of D. melanostictus was significantly lower than that of Gosner stage 30 tadpoles within 72 h, recording every 12h. The increasing temperature caused a significant increase in predation by G. affinis on P. nigromaculatus eggs and embryos. The outer jelly capsule surrounding anurans eggs might serve as a mechanical defense against predation by G. affinis due to its large diameter, relatively stationary state and unpalatability. The differences in the vulnerability of P. nigromaculatus and D. melanostictus embryos and tadpoles to G. affinis probably due to differences in the unpalatability, black skin and activity. Based on the magnitude of predation by G. affinis on the eggs, embryos and tadpoles of

  14. Fluctuación poblacional de Xyleborus ferrugineus y X. affinis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae en ecosistemas de Tabasco, México Population fluctuation of Xyleborus ferrugineus and X. affinis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae in ecosystems of Tabasco, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Rangel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Los Scolytinae son insectos comúnmente conocidos como coleópteros descortezadores o ambrosiales debido a su forma de alimentarse. Existen especies que restringen su actividad reproductiva a una planta huésped o a un número reducido de ellas, otras son altamente polífagas. Se estudiaron las poblaciones de Scolytinae con el objetivo de conocer la fluctuación poblacional de X. ferrugineus y X. affinis en ecosistemas de Tabasco, México durante noviembre 2010-julio 2011, febrero 2010-enero 2011 y 2007. Los métodos de captura utilizados fueron trampa de alcohol, trampa de luz y captura directa sobre sus plantas huésped. Se recolectaron 688 especímenes de X. ferrugineus y 3 911 de X. affinis. La fluctuación poblacional de X. ferrugineus mostró de manera general poblaciones bajas en los ecosistemas estudiados sin alguna estacionalidad marcada, registrándose los máximos picos poblacionales tanto en época seca (marzo-mayo como lluviosa (septiembre-diciembre. A diferencia de las poblaciones de X. affinis que fueron más abundantes y mostraron en la mayoría de los sitios (excepto en el Jardín Botánico José Narciso Rovirosa que se presentó en mayo picos poblacionales en época lluviosa. Las trampas de alcohol y de luz son métodos de recolecta que pueden ser complementarios para el monitoreo de las poblaciones de estos insectos, los cuales se encuentran presentes durante la mayor parte del año y su fluctuación poblacional es dependiente de los recursos alimenticios y sobre todo de factores ambientales como la temperatura y humedad. Se sugiere que X. affinis se ha adaptado y explotado los recursos de mejor manera que X. ferrugineus en estos ecosistemas, a juzgar por la abundancia observada. Las correlaciones entre la abundancia y los factores climáticos presentaron valores positivos y negativos. Los resultados reflejan el comportamiento de las poblaciones, sin embargo, hace falta evaluar de manera detallada algunos factores biol

  15. Chromosomal study of two fish species: Cobitis (C. taenia, Nemachilus tigris and Gambusia Affinis in the Orontes river

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Roukbi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Research was done during the period (October 2009 to September 2010, aiming to identify two species of Cobitis (Cobitis taenia and Nemachilus tigris belonging to Cobitidae and Gambusia affnis by using karyotype examination. Fish specimens were caught alive from the river Orontes drainage and its tributaries in Idlib and Hama departments by routine fishing gears, and submitted Colchcine treatment in Aleppo agricultural research center, General commission for Scientific Agricultural research which included an incubating in Colchicine medium (0.06% for 2.5 -3 hours. Fishes were chopped and placed in hypotonic 0.4% KCl solution for 30 min. Afterwards, tissues were fixed in fresh Carnoy solution (3 parts methanol: 1 part glacial acetic acid. Cell suspension was dropped onto slides, dried and then stained in 4% Giemsa solution. Chromosome spreads on microscope slides were examined and several metaphase plates were selected and photographed. Chromosomes of fish studied were grouping into series, i. e., meta-submetacentric and subtelocentric-acrocentric elements, and aligned serially from the larger to smaller, karyograms were constructed and chromosomal formulas and the number of arms were established, as following: Cobitis taenia: 2n=50=14m/sm+36t/st (NF=64, Nemachilus tigris: 2n=50=12m/sm+38t/st (NF=62, Gambusia affinis (female: 2n=48=1m+2sm+45t/st(NF=51, Gambusia affinis(males: 2n=48=2m+46t (NF=50(. A

  16. Effect of an acute and chronic toxicity of four commercial detergents on the freshwater fish Gambusia affinis Baird & Gerard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Pratibha; Sharma, Subhasini; Sharma, Shweta; Suryavathi, V; Grover, Ruby; Soni, Pratima; Kumar, Suresh; Sharma, K P

    2005-04-01

    The toxic effects of four commercial detergents (two washing powders and two cakes) are reported in this paper on behavior, mortality and RBC counts of a freshwater fish Gambusia affinis. During acute toxicity studies (96h), surface movements of fish increased markedly for 24h, only at higher concentrations (>10 ppm) of all the four detergents. Thereafter, they were lethargic and bottom dwellers similar to those exposed for a period of 30 days in the longterm ecotoxicological studies made on detergent powders at a sublethal concentration (10 ppm). The detergents exposed to fish were found slippery due to mucous secretion. Hemorrhage regions were also found on their gills. The dissolved oxygen content also decreased (10-18%) in the detergent treatments of higher concentration (> 10 ppm). During acute toxicity studies, cakes (LC50 = 6.69 - 19.98ppm) were found more toxic than powders (LC50 = 18.34-20.72ppm). In comparison to the control fish, RBC counts decreased (12-64%) in the detergent exposed fish, being more pronounced among those exposed to cakes. The chronic exposure (30 days) of the fish also resulted in reduction in the RBC counts (41-58%). It is thus evident that all the four detergents are toxic to the fish Gambusia affinis.

  17. Length frequency distribution, mortality rate and reproductive biology of kawakawa (Euthynnus affinis-Cantor, 1849) in the coastal waters of Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M G; Tamatamah, A R

    2013-11-01

    This study explored important aspect of the basis for the highly complex population of kawakawa (Euthynnus affinis) within the coastal waters of Tanzania; by investigating length frequency distribution, mortality rate and reproductive characteristics. This information is essential for the sustainable management of the regionally-important recreational and economic E. affinis fishery. Fish were sampled on a monthly basis for two monsoon seasons using a ring net and artisanal fishermen boat. Maximum and minimum total length was 85 and 31 cm, respectively. Nonlinear least square fitting provided a complete set of von Bertalanffy growth estimates: L8 = 89.25 cm total length and K = 0.78. The estimated value of total mortality based on length converted catch curve using these growth parameters is Z = 1.78 year(-1). Natural mortality based on growth parameters and mean environmental temperature (T = 26.9 degrees C) is M = 1.09 year(-1). The estimated annual instantaneous fishing mortality (F = 0.69 year(-1)) was considerably grater than the target (Fopt = 0.43 year(-1)) and limit (Flimit = 0.58 year(-1)) biological reference point indicating that E. affinis is heavily overexploited. Reproductive aspects were assessed whereby female E. affinis was reported to reach maturity earlier than males which is an indication of phenotypic response toward a decline in population. Two peaks was revealed by the use of Gonad-Somatic Index (GSI), however an extended spawning period was noticed in a period between November to February following an increased water temperature. Although, these findings presents a snapshot concerning population structure and reproduction of E. affinis, further studies covering the entire coastal waters of Tanzania are recommended to aid the management and conservation strategies.

  18. Behavioral responses of the estuarine calanoid copepod Eurytemora affinis to sub-lethal concentrations of waterborne pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalec, François-Gaël [Université Lille Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); USTL, LOG, Station Marine de Wimereux, F-62930 Wimereux (France); CNRS, UMR 8187, F-62930 Wimereux (France); National Taiwan Ocean University, Institute of Marine Biology, Keelung, Taiwan, ROC (China); Holzner, Markus [Institute of Environmental Engineering, ETH Zürich (Switzerland); Menu, Dominique [Université Lille Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); USTL, LOG, Station Marine de Wimereux, F-62930 Wimereux (France); CNRS, UMR 8187, F-62930 Wimereux (France); Hwang, Jiang-Shiou [National Taiwan Ocean University, Institute of Marine Biology, Keelung, Taiwan, ROC (China); Souissi, Sami, E-mail: sami.souissi@univ-lille1.fr [Université Lille Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); USTL, LOG, Station Marine de Wimereux, F-62930 Wimereux (France); CNRS, UMR 8187, F-62930 Wimereux (France)

    2013-08-15

    Highlights: •We studied the effects of sub-lethal exposure to pollutants on Eurytemora affinis swimming behavior. •Nonylphenol, cadmium and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons caused hyperactivity. •Effects were observable within 30 min of exposure and persisted during a depuration period. •The response resembles an escape reaction allowing copepods to evade stressful conditions. -- Abstract: Estuarine waters contain a variety of chemicals which affect to various extents the behavior of aquatic organisms. Little is known, however, on the behavioral response of copepods. The present study shows the results of laboratory experiments investigating the immediate effects of sub-lethal concentrations of three commonly found contaminants on the three-dimensional swimming behavior of the estuarine calanoid copepod Eurytemora affinis. Nonylphenol at 2 μg L{sup −1}, cadmium at 45 ng L{sup −1} and a mixture of low to medium molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at 40 ng L{sup −1} all affected the swimming behavior of E. affinis adults, increasing both swimming speed and activity. In most cases, effects were observable within 30 min of exposure and persisted or faded during a period of depuration in uncontaminated water of similar duration. In ovigerous females exposed to Cd and PAHs, effects appeared to be more pronounced during the depuration period, suggesting that carrying ovisacs may impair recovery. We quantified differences in the distribution of swimming speed values by considering the relative frequencies of periods of break, slow and fast swimming and we observed a trend toward faster movements in the presence of pollutants. The degree of trajectory complexity, estimated through their fractal dimension, was unaffected by pollutants. Since both narcotic and non-narcotic pollutants induced hyperactivity, our results suggest that changes in behavior after a short-term exposure may be independent of the general mode of action of the chemicals. The

  19. Iboga alkaloids from Peschiera affinis (Apocynaceae) - unequivocal {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C chemical shift assignments: antioxidant activity; Alcaloides iboga de Peschiera affinis (Apocynaceae) - atribuicao inequivoca dos deslocamentos quimicos dos atomos de hidrogenio e carbono: atividade antioxidante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Allana Kellen L.; Magalhaes, Ticiane S.; Monte, Francisco Jose Q.; Mattos, Marcos Carlos de; Oliveira, Maria Conceicao F. de; Almeida, Maria Mozarina B.; Lemos, Telma L.G.; Braz-Filho, Raimundo [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica], e-mail: tlemos@dqoi.ufc.br

    2009-07-01

    Six known alkaloids iboga type and the triterpene {alpha}- and {beta}-amyrin acetate were isolated from the roots and stems of Peschiera affinis. Their structures were characterized on the basis of spectral data mainly NMR and mass spectra. 1D and 2D NMR spectra were also used to unequivocal {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C chemical shift assignments of alkaloids. The ethanolic extract of roots, alkaloidic and no-alkaloidic fractions and iso-voacristine hydroxyindolenine and voacangine were evaluated for their antioxidative properties using an autographic assay based on {beta}-carotene bleaching on TLC plates, and also spectrophotometric detection by reduction of the stable DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) free radical. (author)

  20. Study on the Heavy Metal Bioconcentrations of the Shadegan International Wetland Mosquitofish, Gambusia Affinis, by Inductively Coupled Plasma Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Nasirian

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the levels of heavy metal bioconcentration of the mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis in Shadegan international wetland. Sampling including the water, waterbed sediment and mosquitofish was carried out from the selected sampling sites during October and November 2011, and analyzed by the ICP-OES. Results show that the water has poor qualitative condition, according to EPA and WHO water quality standards. The level of the water Cr in the selected sites in both months and the levels of Fe, Mn and Zn during October in the SW1 site were higher than the instrumental detection limits indicating that the water was contaminated with these metals in the mentioned sites and months. The levels of the waterbed sediment As, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn, and mosquitofish Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, Co and Cd were much higher than the instrumental detection limits, indicating that the waterbed sediment and mosquitofish were contaminated with them during October and November in the selected sites. Statistical assessments reveal that there is a significant difference between the mentioned contaminated water, waterbed sediment and mosquitofish heavy metals (all P-values < 0.05. In overall, it is considered that the contaminated heavy metals can be accumulated in the waterbed sediment and bioconcentrated in the wildlife tissues, then finally can be entered in the marine food chains and biomagnified there after long periods. In conclusion, this paper confirmed that the G. affinis can be used as a bioindicator of heavy metal pollution in marine ecosystems such as wetlands

  1. Presencia de Gambusia affinis (Baird & Girard, 1853 en un humedal boscoso del Sur de Chile. Posibles implicancias sobre la fauna local de invertebrados.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Parra-Coloma

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Las especies invasoras son la principal causa de pérdida debiodiversidad del planeta, producto de la depredación que afecta a la faunalocal mediante competencia, hibridación, alteración del hábitat y transmisiónde enfermedades. En este estudio se describe la posible implicancia del pezmosquito sobre la fauna de invertebrados en un humedal boscoso presente en laregión de la Araucanía, Chile. Los resultados nos indican la presencia de Gambusia affinis en todos los sitios demuestreo, destacándose su gran adaptabilidad a la temperatura y pH. El roldepredador de Gambusia affinis sobremosquitos, puede favorecer al desarrollo de sus larvas, al consumirinvertebrados predadores de éstas, influyendo en la estructura trófica de lascomunidades.

  2. Diagnostic value of an abnormal smear in non-pregnant women. Evaluation of positive smear from the surface of the portio obtained by the cottonswab method or by the dry wooden Ayre spatula and the relevance of positive smear from the endocervix and/or from the surface of the portio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundvall, L; Højgaard, L L; Højgaard, K;

    1990-01-01

    During a 3-4 year period, 324 women with a positive smear were registered consecutively and prospectively and divided into two groups according to the design of the investigation. In one group the smear was taken with an Ayre spatula and in the other group with a cotton swab. The purpose of this ...

  3. Weather-induced mass deaths of the Common House Swift Apus affinis in Thengumarahada Village of the Nilgiris, southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ramakrishnan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Weather influences all living organisms, especially wild animals. In the case of birds, inclement weather conditions may affect them during migration and feeding that could cause mass mortality in the same species or many related species. This paper describes an incidence of mass deaths of the Common House Swift Apus affinis at Thengumarahada Village of Nilgiris, Tamil Nadu, southern India during February 2008. The samples of the dead birds were sent for toxicological and bacteriological examination at Southern Regional Disease Diagnostic Laboratory, Bangalore. Spot post mortems were also conducted by forest veterinarians. Results of the diagnostic analysis revealed that mass mortality might be due to extreme weather conditions leading to acute dehydration, shock and death. The postmortem reports say that the crop and the gastro intestinal tract (GI were found empty in all the cases, suggesting starvation. We thus conclude that unseasonal heavy rains and non availability of food could have led to hypothermia and starvation of birds over a long period resulting in mass mortality.

  4. Physiological responses and gene expression changes in the western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) exposed to progesterone at environmentally relevant concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Liping; Xu, Hongyan; Ying, Guangguo; Yang, Yang; Shu, Hu; Zhao, Jianliang; Cheng, Xuemei

    2017-09-14

    Progesterone (P4) is a natural and synthetic steroid, widely distributed in the aquatic environments. It can lead to adverse effects on the endocrine system in aquatic organisms. This study investigated the toxicological effects of exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations (4, 44, and 410ng/L) of progesterone for 42 d on adult female mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis. We performed morphological and histological analyses on gonads, anal fins, liver, and gills after the exposure of mosquito fish to P4. The expression levels of genes (vtg, er, and ar isoforms) related to fish reproduction and detoxification (cyp1a) in the liver were quantified by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The results showed that the progesterone exposure induced slight masculinization in female mosquitofish, influenced the oocyte maturation as revealed by histology of the ovaries, and caused severe damages to the liver and gills of adult female mosquitofish. It also suppressed the mRNAs expression of vtg, er, cyp1a, and significantly enhanced the expression of ar mRNA in the liver. This study reveals the molecular and physiological effects of progesterone at environmentally relevant concentrations, which might further be translated to alterations in the reproduction of mosquitofish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Reproductive plasticity of Hypostomus affinis (Siluriformes: Loricariidae as a mechanism to adapt to a reservoir with poor habitat complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Duarte

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work we describe the gonad morphology and spawning season of Hypostomus affinis (Steindachner, 1877 in a tropical reservoir based on 55 males and 125 females. Our aim was to assess eventual adaptations in reproductive tactics developed by this riverine species inhabiting an oligotrophic reservoir with low habitat complexity, few rocks and few other preferred consolidated substrata. We described the stages of cells of reproductive lineage, gonadal development and some reproductive traits which were compared with information in the available literature. Cells from the spermatogenic lineage were spermatogonia, spermatocytes, spermatids and spermatozoa, and cells from the oocytarian lineage were primary oocytes, previtelogenic oocytes, cortical vesicle oocytes and yolk globules or vitellogenic. Five stages were described for the males/females according to the distribution of oocytes and spermatogenic lineage cells: resting; initial maturation; advanced maturation; partially spent/spawned; totally spent/spawn. Females outnumbered males and reached larger size. Synchronic ovary development in two groups was found with diameter of mature oocytes ranging from 2 to 3.35 mm. Indication of early maturation, a longer reproductive period and the production of smaller eggs in small clutches seems to be features of the reservoir population not found in riverine systems. Such changes in tactics may indicate a shift to an opportunistic strategy, helping the population to withstand environmental constraints and to succeed in this oligotrophic and poorly structured reservoir.

  6. Spatiotemporal distributions of intestinal helminths in female lesser scaup Aythya affinis during spring migration from the upper Midwest, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, J. C.; Levengood, J.M.; Osborn, J. M.; Yetter, A. P.; Kinsella, J.M.; Cole, Rebecca A.; Cory D. Suski,; Hagy, Heath M.

    2016-01-01

    We examined the associations between intestinal helminth infracommunity structure and infection parameters and the age, size, and year and region of collection of 130 female lesser scaup (Aythya affinis) during their 2014–2015 spring migrations through the upper Midwest, USA. We identified a total of 647,174 individual helminths from 40 taxa, including 20 trematodes, 14 cestodes, 4 nematodes and 2 acanthocephalans parasitizing lesser scaup within the study area. Lesser scaup were each infected with 2–23 helminth taxa. One digenean, Plenosoma minimum, is reported for the first time in lesser scaup and in the Midwest. Mean trematode abundance and total helminth abundance was significantly less in 2015 than 2014, and we suspect that colder weather late in 2015 impacted the intermediate host fauna and caused the observed differences. Brillouin's species diversity of helminths was greatest in the northernmost region of the study area, which coincides with the range of a non-indigenous snail that indirectly causes annual mortality events of lesser scaup. While host age and size were not determined to be influential factors of helminth infracommunity structure, non-parametric ordination and permutational analysis of co-variance revealed that year and region of collection explained differences in helminth infracommunities. Our results suggest that spatiotemporal variations play an important role in the structure of intestinal helminth infracommunities found in migrating lesser scaup hosts, and may therefore impact host ability to build endogenous reserves at certain stopover locations in the Midwest.

  7. The application of homemade Neosinocalamus affinis AC in electrokinetic removal technology on heavy metal removal from the MSWI fly ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kexiang; Huang, Tao; Huang, Xiao; Yu, Lin; Muhammad, Faheem; Jiao, Binquan; Li, Dongwei

    2016-12-01

    This present paper was focused on the manufacture of activated carbon (AC) and its application in the electrokinetic remediation (EKR) technology on removal of the heavy metals (HMs) from the municipal solid waste incineration fly ash. AC was produced from Neosinocalamus affinis (NF) by chemical activation with H3PO4 in N2 atmosphere, the effects of activation temperatures, soaking time and impregnation ratios on the adsorption capacity of AC on HMs were examined through equilibrium adsorption experiments. The AC produced under the condition of 450 °C of activation temperature, 10 h of soaking time and 1.5 of impregnation ration was applied in the EKR experiment. The addition of AC in the S3-region of the electrolyzer could effectively improve the removal efficiencies of HMs. The technical parameters of voltage gradient, processing time and proportion were further optimized in the coupled experiments, the maximum removal of Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb was 84.93%, 69.61%, 79.57%, and 78.55% respectively obtained under the optimal operating conditions of 2 V/cm of voltage gradient, 8 d of processing time and 20% of proportion.

  8. Pleistocene climatic cycling drives intra-specific diversification in the intermediate horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus affinis) in Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xiu Guang; Zhu, Guang Jian; Zhang, Shuyi; Rossiter, Stephen J

    2010-07-01

    The repeated formation and loss of land-bridges during the Pleistocene have had lasting impacts on population genetic structure. In the tropics, where island populations persisted through multiple glacial cycles, alternating periods of isolation and contact are expected to have driven population and taxonomic divergence. Here, we combine mitochondrial and nuclear sequence data with microsatellites to dissect the impact of Pleistocene climate change on intra-specific diversification in the horseshoe bat Rhinolophus affinis. This taxon shows considerable morphological and acoustic variation: two parapatric subspecies (himalayanus and macrurus) occur on mainland China and a third (hainanus) on Hainan Island. Our phylogeographic reconstruction and coalescent analyses suggest the island subspecies formed from an ancestral population of himalayanus via two colonization events c. 800,000 years before present. R. a. hainanus then recolonized the mainland, forming macrurus and thus a secondary contact zone with himalayanus. Finally, macrurus recolonized Hainan following the LGM. We found that all three biological events corresponded to known periods of land-bridge formation. Evidence of introgression was detected between macrurus and both its sister taxa, with geographical proximity rather than length of separation appearing to be the biggest determinant of subsequent genetic exchange. Our study highlights the important role of climate-mediated sea level changes have had in shaping current processes and patterns of population structure and taxonomic diversification.

  9. Enhancement of neutral lipid productivity in the microalga Isochrysis affinis Galbana (T-Iso) by a mutation-selection procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougaran, Gaël; Rouxel, Catherine; Dubois, Nolwenn; Kaas, Raymond; Grouas, Sophie; Lukomska, Ewa; Le Coz, Jean-René; Cadoret, Jean-Paul

    2012-11-01

    Microalgae offer a high potential for energetic lipid storage as well as high growth rates. They are therefore considered promising candidates for biofuel production, with the selection of high lipid-producing strains a major objective in projects on the development of this technology. We developed a mutation-selection method aimed at increasing microalgae neutral lipid productivity. A two step method, based on UVc irradiation followed by flow cytometry selection, was applied to a set of strains that had an initial high lipid content and improvement was assessed by means of Nile-red fluorescence measurements. The method was first tested on Isochrysis affinis galbana (T-Iso). Following a first round of mutation-selection, the total fatty acid content had not increased significantly, being 262 ± 21 mgTFA (gC)-1 for the wild type (WT) and 269 ± 49 mgTFA (gC)-1 for the selected population (S1M1). Conversely, fatty acid distribution among the lipid classes was affected by the process, resulting in a 20% increase for the fatty acids in the neutral lipids and a 40% decrease in the phospholipids. After a second mutation-selection step (S2M2), the total fatty acid content reached 409 ± 64 mgTFA (gC)-1 with a fatty acid distribution similar to the S1M1 population. Growth rate remained unaffected by the process, resulting in a 80% increase for neutral lipid productivity.

  10. Factors affecting population fluctuations of the glacial relict amphipod Monoporeia affinis (Lindström) in Sweden's largest lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goedkoop, W; Johnson, R K

    2001-12-01

    Factors affecting long-term (1982-2000) population densities of the glacial relict amphipod Monoporeia affinis were studied in Sweden's three largest lakes. Monoporeia showed large population fluctuations in all three lakes, with conspicuous peaks in density occurring in Lakes Vänern and Mälaren. In Lake Vänern, amphipod densities showed highly significant relationships with spring maximum diatom biovolume at a 1-yr lag. The lack of relationship between diatom biovolumes and Monoporeia densities in L. Vättern is likely due to the larger depth and the lower nutrient content of this lake. In eutrophic L. Mälaren, summer hypoxia (< 4 mg O2 L-1) is likely an important regulating factor. Hypolimnetic temperature showed a clear periodicity with relatively warm deep water occurring between 1989 and 1994. Hypolimnetic temperatures in Vänern and Vättern were correlated with total solar irradiance. However, neither hypolimnetic water temperature nor diatom biovolumes correlated with the North Atlantic Oscillation winter index. We speculate that variations in temperature and near-bottom oxygen concentrations negatively affect population densities by acting on recruitment success (reproduction) and juvenile (young-of-the-year) survival.

  11. Evaluation of halofenozide against prey mosquito larvae Culex pipiens and the predator fish Gambusia affinis: impact on growth and enzymatic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, N; Chouahda, S; Smagghe, G

    2008-01-01

    Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) is the most widely distributed mosquito species in Algeria and many other countries in the world. Mosquitoes are generally controlled by conventional insecticides but these may pose strong secondary effects on the environment. In this context, the insect growth regulators (IGRs) have shown promise in controlling pest insects. Halofenozide (23% EC) is a novel IGRs belonging to the class of non-steroidal ecdysone agonists, and it was found toxic for larvae of C. pipiens. In addition biological methods constitute an alternative to chemical control. Several fish species have been tested against mosquitoes, and Gambusia affinis was found very efficient. In the present study we evaluated the impact of this new potent insecticide (halofenozide) on growth and metric indexes in the larvivorous fish G. affinis under laboratory conditions. In addition, the effects were evaluated on the enzymatic activities of acetyl cholinesterase (AChE) and glutathione S-transferase (GST). The insecticide was added in water at two concentrations (12.6 and 28.6 microg/L) corresponding to the LC50 and LC90 obtained against fourth instar larvae of C. pipiens, and adult females of G. affinis were exposed to halofenozide for 30 days. At different exposure times we measured the length and weight of fishes, the index of condition (K), the gonado-somatic ratio (GSR) and the hepato-somatic ratio (HSR). The results showed that halofenozide had no significant (p>0.05) effects on growth, metric indexes and AChE activities. However, treatment caused a significant induction (p<0.05) in GST activities at days 15 and 30 with the highest dose. Our results indicate that this ecdysteroid agonist presented only minor secondary effects on the non-target fish species, and so it has potential for controlling of mosquitoes in an integrated manner.

  12. 食蚊鱼的生物电场特征%THE BIOELECTRIC FIELD OF GAMBUSIA AFFINIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张旭光; 宋佳坤; 张国胜; 范纯新; 郭弘艺; 王晓杰

    2011-01-01

    Sturgeon is an ancestor electrosensory fish which is able to sense the electric fields of prey animals and other sources. The character of bioelectric fields in environment is an important stimulus to investigate the electrosensory information processing in the brain. However, there were a few documents on bioelectric fields. In this study, the bioelectric fields of Gambusia affinis were measured in living fish, which was used as prey fish of Siberian Sturgeon in laboratory and the common small fish in southern China. They were measured and charactered in three experimental groups: single fish group, pair in same direction group and pair in opposite direction group. The bioelectric field of single fish showed typical features of dipole field, with relative potential up to (-24±2.4) uV on head and (21 ±1.6) uV on tail. There was (4.2±0.8) uV alternating current electric with 1-3 Hz on head which was corresponded with the respiratory rhythm of the fish. In other two experimental groups, the direct current electric fields were larger than the single fish group (P<0.05). However, the alternating current electric field of single fish group was significant bigger than pair in opposite direction group (3.8±0.7) uV but smaller than pairs in same direction group (4.5±0.8) uV (P<0.01). It suggested that the schooling fish could evade the predators by modulating the alternating current respiratory potential. It was maybe a kind of ancestral anti-predator strategy for fish to meet the passive electroreception, and further research would carry on electrophysiology.%文章采用活体记录的方法测量了食蚊鱼(Gambusia affinis)的生物电场.实验分单尾鱼、两尾鱼同向和两尾鱼反向三组测量,每组10个重复.结果表明:单尾鱼的生物电场表现为头负、尾正的偶极子直流电场,头部相对电势为(-24±2.4)μ v,尾部为(21±1 6)μ v,且头部附近产生1-3 Hz与呼吸频率对应的交流呼吸电场,大小为(4.2±0.8)μV.两尾

  13. Lipid reserves of Lesser Scaup (Aythya Affinis) migrating across a large landscape are consistent with the "Spring Condition" hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anteau, M.J.; Afton, A.D.

    2009-01-01

    The "spring condition" hypothesis (SCH) states that nutrition during spring migration affects survival, reproductive success, and, ultimately, population size of migratory birds. The North American population of Lesser Scaup (Aythya affinis) has experienced a marked decline, apparently because of poor recruitment. An important prediction of the SCH is that female Lesser Scaup have low lipid reserves during spring migration. We previously reported that lipid reserves and body mass of females collected on migratory stopover areas in northwestern Minnesota in springs 2000-2001 were lower than those on the same areas in the 1980s and markedly lower than those collected at Pool 19 of the Mississippi River in 2000-2001, an important preceding stopover area. However, it was unclear whether these findings represented a site-specific result or a landscape-scale phenomenon. Accordingly, we examined lipid and body mass of 641 female Lesser Scaup migrating across seven eco-physiographic regions of Iowa, Minnesota, and North Dakota during springs 2003-2005. We found that lipids and body mass of females throughout the Upper Midwest were similar to or less than the low values documented in northwestern Minnesota in springs 2000-2001 and markedly lower than those of females at Pool 19 in springs 2000-2001. Accordingly, our results are consistent with a prediction of the SCH, because lipid and body mass of females are low throughout this large landscape, lower than at an important preceding stopover area, and lower than all historical values. Finally, our results suggest the potential for cross-seasonal influences of nutrition on recruitment and that a stronger management focus on spring migration habitats may be necessary for conservation and recovery of declining migratory birds, especially Lesser Scaup. ?? The American Ornithologists' Union, 2009.

  14. Maximum sustainable speeds and cost of swimming in juvenile kawakawa tuna (Euthynnus affinis) and chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda, C; Dickson, K A

    2000-10-01

    Tunas (Scombridae) have been assumed to be among the fastest and most efficient swimmers because they elevate the temperature of the slow-twitch, aerobic locomotor muscle above the ambient water temperature (endothermy) and because of their streamlined body shape and use of the thunniform locomotor mode. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that juvenile tunas swim both faster and more efficiently than their ectothermic relatives. The maximum sustainable swimming speed (U(max), the maximum speed attained while using a steady, continuous gait powered by the aerobic myotomal muscle) and the net cost of transport (COT(net)) were compared at 24 degrees C in similar-sized (116-255 mm fork length) juvenile scombrids, an endothermic tuna, the kawakawa (Euthynnus affinis) and the ectothermic chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus). U(max) and COT(net) were measured by forcing individual fish to swim in a temperature-controlled, variable-speed swimming tunnel respirometer. There were no significant interspecific differences in the relationship between U(max) and body mass or fork length or in the relationship between COT(net) and body mass or fork length. Muscle temperatures were elevated by 1.0-2.3 degrees C and 0.1-0.6 degrees C above water temperature in the kawakawa and chub mackerel, respectively. The juvenile kawakawa had significantly higher standard metabolic rates than the chub mackerel, because the total rate of oxygen consumption at a given swimming speed was higher in the kawakawa when the effects of fish size were accounted for. Thus, juvenile kawakawa are not capable of higher sustainable swimming speeds and are not more efficient swimmers than juvenile chub mackerel.

  15. Relationships of cadmium, mercury, and selenium with nutrient reserves of female lesser scaup (Aythya affinis) during winter and spring migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anteau, M.J.; Afton, A.D.; Custer, Christine M.; Custer, T.W.

    2007-01-01

    Trace elements may have important effects on body condition of ducks during spring migration, because individuals are experiencing energetically costly events (e.g., migration, nutrient reserve accumulation, pair formation, feather molt, and ovarian follicle development). We examined relationships among hepatic cadmium, mercury, and selenium concentrations (??g/g dry wt) and nutrient reserves (lipid, protein, and mineral) of female lesser scaup (Aythya affinis) during winter and spring migration at four locations within the Mississippi Flyway (LA, IL, and MN, USA, and MB, Canada). Selenium concentrations (range, 3.73-52.29 (??g/g dry wt) were positively correlated with lipid reserves (F1,73 = 22.69, p lipid reserves (F1,73 = 6.92, p = 0.010, type III partial r2 = 0.09). The observed relationship between cadmium and lipid reserves may be cause for concern, because lipid reserves of females declined by 55 g (47%), on average, within the range of observed cadmium concentrations (0.23-7.24 ??g/g dry wt), despite the relatively low cadmium concentrations detected. Mean cadmium concentrations were higher in Minnesota (1.23 ??g/g dry wt) and Manitoba (1.11 ??g/g dry wt) than in Louisiana (0.80 ??g/g dry wt) and Illinois (0.69 ??g/g dry wt). However, mean cadmium concentrations predict lipid reserves of females to be only 11 g lower, on average, in Minnesota than in Illinois. Previous research documented that lipid reserves were 100 g lower in Minnesota than in Illinois; consequently, cadmium is unlikely to be the sole cause for decreases in lipid reserves of females during late-spring migration. ?? 2007 SETAC.

  16. Larval development of Cyrtograpsus affinis (Dana (Decapoda, Brachyura, Varunidae from Río de la Plata estuary, reared in the laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo D. Spivak

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The complete larval development of the crab Cyrtograpsus affinis (Brachyura, Varunidae was obtained by culture in the laboratory. Five zoeal stages, the megalopa and the first crab are described and illustrated. Larval development from hatching to first crab took 29 days at 20° C and 35 PSU. The genus Cyrtograpsus only consists of three species. Larval development of C. altimanus and C. angulatus had been described previously. In the present study, morphological larval characters of the three species are compared. Generic larval features are also compared with those of other Varunidae genera.

  17. Occurrence of Euplatypus parallelus, Euplatypus sp. (col.: Euplatypodidae and Xyleborus affinis (col.: Scolytidae in Pinus sp. in Ribas do Rio Pardo, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanuncio José Cola

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Wood borer species of the families Euplatypodidae and Scolytidae were observed attacking trees of Pinus sp. in the Municipality of Ribas do Rio Pardo, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, in March 2000. This plantation had been previously burned in an accidental fire in January 2000, causing the trees to become partially or totally unhealthy, rendering them more susceptible to attack of these pests. Galleries of these wood borers were opened with a chisel to observe parameters such as their direction and form of these galleries. Species observed as wood borers of Pinus sp. were Euplatypus parallelus, Euplatypus sp. (Coleoptera: Euplatypodidae and Xyleborus affinis (Coleoptera: Scolytidae.

  18. Presencia de Gambusia affinis (Baird & Girard, 1853) en un humedal boscoso del Sur de Chile. Posibles implicancias sobre la fauna local de invertebrados.

    OpenAIRE

    L. Parra-Coloma; F. Correa-Araneda

    2014-01-01

    Las especies invasoras son la principal causa de pérdida debiodiversidad del planeta, producto de la depredación que afecta a la faunalocal mediante competencia, hibridación, alteración del hábitat y transmisiónde enfermedades. En este estudio se describe la posible implicancia del pezmosquito sobre la fauna de invertebrados en un humedal boscoso presente en laregión de la Araucanía, Chile. Los resultados nos indican la presencia de Gambusia affinis en todos los sitios demuestreo, destacándos...

  19. Mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis preference and behavioral response to animated images of conspecifics altered in their color, aspect ratio, and swimming depth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Polverino

    Full Text Available Mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis is an example of a freshwater fish species whose remarkable diffusion outside its native range has led to it being placed on the list of the world's hundred worst invasive alien species (International Union for Conservation of Nature. Here, we investigate mosquitofish shoaling tendency using a dichotomous choice test in which computer-animated images of their conspecifics are altered in color, aspect ratio, and swimming level in the water column. Pairs of virtual stimuli are systematically presented to focal subjects to evaluate their attractiveness and the effect on fish behavior. Mosquitofish respond differentially to some of these stimuli showing preference for conspecifics with enhanced yellow pigmentation while exhibiting highly varying locomotory patterns. Our results suggest that computer-animated images can be used to understand the factors that regulate the social dynamics of shoals of Gambusia affinis. Such knowledge may inform the design of control plans and open new avenues in conservation and protection of endangered animal species.

  20. DESCRIPCIÓN MORFOLÓGICA DEL TUBO DIGESTIVO DE JUVENILES DE RUBIO Salminus affinis (PISCES: CHARACIDAE

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    Hernandez J

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio fue la descripción del tubo digestivo de juveniles de Rubio Salminus affinis. Se analizaron cinco juveniles con 23,6±2,6 cm de longitud total y 142,8±62,5 g de peso. Se realizó descripción topográfica y morfológica de los órganos y cortes histológicos con tinción H-E. El esófago es un órgano tubular corto de pared gruesa que representa el 7,8% de la longitud total del tubo digestivo, presenta pliegues internos que ofrecen gran capacidad de distensión permitiendo el paso de presas de gran tamaño. El estómago es una bolsa asimétrica en forma de “Y”, grande y musculosa, amplio en la porción anterior y estrecho hacia el fondo; el número de ciegos pilóricos varió entre 13 y 23 pudiendo ser monotubulares y ramificados. El intestino, con tres asas, se extiende desde el esfínter pilórico hasta el ano. Histológicamente el tubo digestivo está formado por cuatro capas: mucosa, submucosa, muscular y serosa; el epitelio de revestimiento del esófago es estratificado plano no queratinizado con células caliciformes, cambiando a simple cilíndrico mucosecretor llegando al estómago; en el estómago se encuentra epitelio simple cilíndrico mucosecretor y los ciegos pilóricos e intestino son revestidos por epitelio simple cilíndrico con células caliciformes. Tanto el valor promedio del coeficiente intestinal (0,58, como la pared distensible del estómago sugieren que el Rubio tiene un tubo digestivo propio de carnívoro y sus características histológicas presentan similitud con la mayoría de vertebrados superiores.

  1. EVALUATION OF PHYTOTOXIC EFFECT OF DELETERIOUS RHIZOBACTERIA ON THE ROOT GROWTH OF AXONOPUS AFFINIS (CHASE AND LENS ESCULENTA (MOENCH

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    X.J Pacheco-Hernández

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Las malezas ocasionan una gran pérdida en las tierras agrícolas y comúnmente, las medidas de manejo y contención de estas especies se dan con la aplicación de herbicidas, sin embargo; en años recientes se ha presentado un interés en establecer mecanismos de biocontrol seguros, con el empleo de bacterias inhibidoras del crecimiento conocidas como rizobacterias deletéreas (Deleterious rhizobacteria: DRBque se consideran generalmente como no parasíticas, y causan, de manera sutil, efectos deletéreos a través de la producción de metabolitos dañinos a las plantas. El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo caracterizar la producción de ácido cianhídrico de pseudomonas rizobacterianas de malezas de un cultivo de alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. y evaluar el efecto fitotóxico de éstas sobre el crecimiento radical de plántulas de Axonopus affinis (Chase y Lens esculenta (Moench. De acuerdo con los resultados obtenidos con relación a la evidencia de que los aislados de pseudomonadas son rizobacterias cianogénicas y de su efecto fitotóxico medido sobre las especies vegetales bajo estudio; se sugieren a éstas como posibles agentes de biocontrol con pastos que sean considerados malezas; ya que en general se observó que inhiben su crecimiento radical; sin embargo, un enfoque particular lo tiene la rizobacteria Pseudomonas sp. A52, la cual presentó no solamente actividad como una DRB sino también como una rizobacteria promotora del crecimiento vegetal; lo que la hace más importante de analizar en cuanto a su potencial y espectro de acción; tanto para malezas monocotiledóneas como para dicotiledóneas, recomendable como un posible agente de biocontrol con actividad múltiple.

  2. DESCRIPCIÓN MORFOLÓGICA DEL TUBO DIGESTIVO DE JUVENILES DE RUBIO Salminus affinis (PISCES: CHARACIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VJ ATENCIO GARCÍA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio fue la descripción del tubo digestivo de juveniles de Rubio Salminus affinis. Se analizaron cinco juveniles con 23,6±2,6 cm de longitud total y 142,8±62,5 g de peso. Se realizó descripción topográfica y morfológica de los órganos y cortes histológicos con tinción H-E. El esófago es un órgano tubular corto de pared gruesa que representa el 7,8% de la longitud total del tubo digestivo, presenta pliegues internos que ofrecen gran capacidad de distensión permitiendo el paso de presas de gran tamaño. El estómago es una bolsa asimétrica en forma de “Y”, grande y musculosa, amplio en la porción anterior y estrecho hacia el fondo; el número de ciegos pilóricos varió entre 13 y 23 pudiendo ser monotubulares y ramificados. El intestino, con tres asas, se extiende desde el esfínter pilórico hasta el ano. Histológicamente el tubo digestivo está formado por cuatro capas: mucosa, submucosa, muscular y serosa; el epitelio de revestimiento del esófago es estratificado plano no queratinizado con células caliciformes, cambiando a simple cilíndrico mucosecretor llegando al estómago; en el estómago se encuentra epitelio simple cilíndrico mucosecretor y los ciegos pilóricos e intestino son revestidos por epitelio simple cilíndrico con células caliciformes. Tanto el valor promedio del coeficiente intestinal (0,58, como la pared distensible del estómago sugieren que el Rubio tiene un tubo digestivo propio de carnívoro y sus características histológicas presentan similitud con la mayoría de vertebrados superiores.

  3. Molecular evidence for the predation of Critically Endangered endemic Aphanius transgrediens from the stomach contents of world wide invasive Gambusia affinis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Emre

    2016-01-01

    Predation and competition among native and invasive species are difficult to study in aquatic environments. Identification of preys from semi-digested body parts sampled from stomach contents of the predator is very challenging. Recent studies were mainly based on use of DNA extracted from stomach content to identify the prey species. This study presents the molecular evidence that reveals the predation of critically endangered Aphanius transgrediens by world-wide invasive Gambusia affinis for a better understanding of the link between the invasion and the extinction of native species in freshwater ecosystems. DNA samples were extracted from semi-digested stomach contents of the invader and short fragments of mitochondrial NADH1 gene were amplified using species-specific primers designed in this study to make identification at species level. Existence of both the prey and the predator species were also confirmed using environmental DNA extracted from water samples.

  4. Changes in Behavior and Brain Acetylcholinesterase Activity in Mosquito Fish, Gambusia affinis in Response to the Sub-Lethal Exposure to Chlorpyrifos

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    R. Nageswara Rao

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Sub-lethal studies of chlorpyrifos, O,O-diethyl-O-(3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridyl phosphorothioate on mosquito fish, Gambusia affinis were carried out in vivo, for 20 days to assess the locomotor behavior in relation to bioaccumulation and interaction with a targeted enzyme, acetylcholinesterase (AChE, EC: 3.1.1.7. Fish exposed to sub-lethal concentration of 60 Ag/L (1/5 of LC50 were under stress, and reduced their locomotor behavior like distance travelled per unit time (m/min and swimming speed (cm/sec with respect to the length of exposure. The alteration in locomotor behavior of fish may be due to an accumulation of acetylcholine (ACh, a neurotransmitter at synaptic junctions, due to the inhibition of AChE enzyme activity (40 to 55% in brain and also bioaccumulation of the toxicant in different parts of fish. The bioaccumulation values indicated that the accumulation of chlorpyrifos was maximum in viscera followed by head and body. The average bioconcentration values are 0.109, 0.009 and 0.004 Ag/g for viscera, head and body with depuration rates of 2.24, 1.69 and 0.39 ng/h respectively. It is evident from the results that the sub-lethal concentration [1/5 of LC50; equivalent to Lowest Observed Effect Concentration (LOEC] of chlorpyrifos can able to alter the locomotor behavior of G. affinis in relation to the length of exposure. The findings revealed that the locomotor activity of test organism could be considered as a suitable marker to evaluate the affect of toxicant even at LOEC levels.

  5. Cryptic or pseudocryptic: can morphological methods inform copepod taxonomy? An analysis of publications and a case study of the Eurytemora affinis species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajus, Dmitry; Sukhikh, Natalia; Alekseev, Victor

    2015-06-01

    Interest in cryptic species has increased significantly with current progress in genetic methods. The large number of cryptic species suggests that the resolution of traditional morphological techniques may be insufficient for taxonomical research. However, some species now considered to be cryptic may, in fact, be designated pseudocryptic after close morphological examination. Thus the "cryptic or pseudocryptic" dilemma speaks to the resolution of morphological analysis and its utility for identifying species. We address this dilemma first by systematically reviewing data published from 1980 to 2013 on cryptic species of Copepoda and then by performing an in-depth morphological study of the former Eurytemora affinis complex of cryptic species. Analyzing the published data showed that, in 5 of 24 revisions eligible for systematic review, cryptic species assignment was based solely on the genetic variation of forms without detailed morphological analysis to confirm the assignment. Therefore, some newly described cryptic species might be designated pseudocryptic under more detailed morphological analysis as happened with Eurytemora affinis complex. Recent genetic analyses of the complex found high levels of heterogeneity without morphological differences; it is argued to be cryptic. However, next detailed morphological analyses allowed to describe a number of valid species. Our study, using deep statistical analyses usually not applied for new species describing, of this species complex confirmed considerable differences between former cryptic species. In particular, fluctuating asymmetry (FA), the random variation of left and right structures, was significantly different between forms and provided independent information about their status. Our work showed that multivariate statistical approaches, such as principal component analysis, can be powerful techniques for the morphological discrimination of cryptic taxons. Despite increasing cryptic species designations

  6. İşyeri Nezaketsizliğinin Sosyal Kaytarma Davranışı ve İşten Ayrılma Niyeti Üzerindeki Etkisinde Duygusal Tükenmenin Aracılık Rolü

    OpenAIRE

    Kanten, Pelin

    2016-01-01

    Bu çalışmada, işyeri nezaketsizliğinin sosyal kaytarma davranışı ve işten ayrılma niyeti üzerindeki etkisinde duygusal tükenmenin aracılık rolünün incelenmesi amaçlanmıştır. Literatürdeki çalışmalarda işgörenler tarafından algılanan işyeri nezaketsizliğinin bireysel ve örgütsel açıdan birçok olumsuz sonucu olduğu ileri sürülmektedir. Bu doğrultuda çalışmada işyeri nezaketsizliğinin olumsuz çıktıları kapsamında değerlendirilen sosyal kaytarma davranışı, duygusal tükenme ve işten ayrılma niyeti...

  7. Alcaloides iboga de Peschiera affinis (Apocynaceae - Atribuição inequívoca dos deslocamentos químicos dos átomos de hidrogênio e carbono: atividade antioxidante Iboga alkaloids from Peschiera affinis (Apocynaceae - unequivocal 1H and 13C chemical shift assignments: antioxidant activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allana Kellen L. Santos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Six known alkaloids iboga type and the triterpen α- and β-amyrin acetate were isolated from the roots and stems of Peschiera affinis. Their structures were characterized on the basis of spectral data mainly NMR and mass spectra. 1D and 2D NMR spectra were also used to unequivocal ¹H and 13C chemical shift assignments of alkaloids. The ethanolic extract of roots, alkaloidic and no-alkaloidic fractions and iso-voacristine hydroxyindolenine and voacangine were evaluated for their antioxidative properties using an autographic assay based on β-carotene bleaching on TLC plates, and also spectrophotometric detection by reduction of the stable DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical.

  8. Mudanças ontogênicas no trato digestório e dieta de Apareiodon affinis (Steindachner, 1879 (Osteichthyes, Parodontidae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i3.1542 Ontogenic changes in digestive tract and diet shifts of Apareiodon affinis (Steindachner, 1879 (Osteichthyes, Parodontidae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i3.1542

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Bialetzki

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Aspectos da alimentação de larvas e juvenis de Apareiodon affinis são descritos. As amostragens foram realizadas no Ressaco do Leopoldo, alto rio Paraná, entre fevereiro de 1991 e fevereiro de 1992, utilizando rede de plâncton. Nas larvas em pré-flexão e flexão, a boca é pequena e terminal, passando a inferior no estágio de pós-flexão e nos juvenis. O tubo digestivo é simples e reto nas larvas em pré-flexão e diferenciado naquelas em pós-flexão. A dieta foi constituída principalmente por algas, caracterizando essa espécie como algívora durante todo o seu desenvolvimento. A análise da digestibilidade não evidenciou o horário preferencial de alimentação dos difirentes estágios de desenvolvimento, provavelmente em função do tipo de amostragem utilizada e do alimento consumido pelos indivíduosFeeding aspects of Apareiodon affinis larvae and juveniles are described in this work. Samples collected by plankton net were taken from February, 1991 to February, 1992 in Ressaco do Leopoldo, Paraná River. The mouth is small and terminal in preflexion and flexion larvae and inferior at the end of this development period and in juveniles. The digestive tract is simple and straight in preflexion larvae, but different in those in postflexion. The diet was basically algae, characterizing this species as algivorous during all its development. The analysis of the digestibility did not show the preferential time of feeding of the different development stages. This was probably because of the sampling type utilized and because of the food consumed by the individuals

  9. New Insights in the Ontogeny and Taphonomy of the Devonian Acanthodian Triazeugacanthus affinis From the Miguasha Fossil-Lagerstätte, Eastern Canada

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    Marion Chevrinais

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Progressive biomineralization of a skeleton occurs during ontogeny in most animals. In fishes, larvae are poorly mineralized, whereas juveniles and adults display a progressively more biomineralized skeleton. Fossil remains primarily consist of adult specimens because the fossilization of poorly-mineralized larvae and juveniles necessitates exceptional conditions. The Miguasha Fossil-Lagerstätte is renowned for its Late Devonian vertebrate fauna, revealing the exceptional preservation of fossilized ontogenies for 14 of the 20 fish species from this locality. The mineralization of anatomical structures of the acanthodian Triazeugacanthus affinis from Miguasha are compared among larval, juvenile and adult specimens using Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry. Chemical composition of anatomical structures of Triazeugacanthus reveals differences between cartilage and bone. Although the histology and anatomy is well-preserved, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry shows that the original chemical composition of bone is altered by diagenesis; the mineral phase of the bone (i.e., hydroxyapatite is modified chemically to form more stable carbonate-fluorapatite. Fluorination occurring in mineralized skeletal structures of adult Triazeugacanthus is indicative of exchanges between groundwater and skeleton at burial, whereas the preservation of larval soft tissues is likely owing to a rapid burial under anoxic conditions. The exceptional state of preservation of a fossilized ontogeny allowed us to characterize chemically the progressive mineralization of the skeleton in a Devonian early vertebrate.

  10. Effects of a parasitic nematode on male mate choice in a livebearing fish with a coercive mating system (western mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaton, Raelynn

    2009-01-01

    I examined the effects of the parasitic larval nematode, Eustrongylides ignotus, on male mate choice in the western mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis. I hypothesized that parasite presence influences male mate choice either directly (via reduction in male mating behavior due to presence of parasite in females) or indirectly (via reduction in male mating behavior due to reduced condition of infected females). Specifically, I tested the predictions that (1) males would mate preferentially with uninfected over infected females (scoring both mating attempts and association time with females); (2) parasitized females would be in poorer condition than non-parasitized females (measured as soluble fat stores); and (3) parasitized females would have reduced fecundity (measured as number of developing embryos). Males preferred to mate with non-parasitized over parasitized females, but showed no differences in association time between females. The nematode did not decrease female body condition, but did decrease female mass, and appeared to decrease female fecundity via reduction in broods (# embryos). Results support that parasites affect male mate choice in mosquitofish; however, the mechanisms used by males to differentiate between parasitized and non-parasitized females remain untested. This study provides the first empirical evidence of parasite affects on male mate choice in livebearing fishes, and suggest a potentially important role for parasite-mediated sexual selection in organisms that use coercive mating as the primary mechanism of obtaining mates.

  11. In-Silico Template Selection of In-Vitro Evolved Kalata B1 of Oldenlandia Affinis for Scaffolding Peptide-Based Drug Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumar, B; Kumar, Prakash; Rajasekaran, R

    2016-01-01

    Structural stability of Oldenlandia affinis cyclotide, kalata B1 of native (1NB1) and two mutants 2F2I ([P20D, V21K] kB1) and 2F2J ([W19K, P20N, V21K] kB1) was investigated. Single model analysis showed high number of intra-molecular interactions followed by more proportion of beta sheet contents in [P20D, V21K] kB1 as compared to that of native and the other mutant of kalata B1. Further, the modern conformational sampling approach, an alternate to classical molecular dynamics was introduced, which revealed that the [P20D, V21K] kB1 was identified as structurally stable one, substantiated by various structural events viz., root mean square deviation, root mean square fluctuation, and angular deviation by Ramachandran plot. Moreover, the statistically validated contours of polar surface area, hydrogen bond distribution and the distance of disulfide bridges also supported the priority of [P20D, V21K] kB1 with respect to stability. From this work, it is proposed that the [P20D, V21K] kB1 (2F2I) could be the best template for scaffolding peptide based drug design.

  12. Influence of a cage farming on the population of the fish species Apareiodon affinis (Steindachner, 1879 in the Chavantes reservoir, Paranapanema River SP/PR, Brazil Influência de uma piscicultura em tanques-rede na população da espécie de peixe Apareiodon affinis (Steindachner, 1879 no reservatório de Chavantes, rio Paranapanema SP/PR, Brasil

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    Heleno Brandão

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the diet and biological attributes of the population of Apareiodon affinis residing near net-cage fish farming activities in the Chavantes reservoir. METHODS: Samples were collected from two populations: one near the net cages (NC and one from an area not influenced by these cages denominated the "reference site" (RS. Monthly sampling was carried out from Mar/2008 to Feb/2009. Fish were caught with a standardized effort using gill nets deployed for 14 hours. After all individuals were measured (standard length and weighed (total weight, carcass weight , body weight without gonads. To determine the composition of the diet, the alimentary index was calculated (AI. We also calculated the length-weight relationship, condition factor, gonad-somatic index (GSI and reproductive potential. RESULTS: A total of 3050 individuals were caught. The results of the (AI revealed that the item detritus was the main food used for populations of A. affinis studied in two areas (NC = 73.1% and RS = 95.7%. The use of feed on diet A. affinis was recorded for the populations of NC adding (20.5% of the total items consumed by the population. The resident populations residing near net-cage showed higher condition factor and more reproductive period. CONCLUSIONS: The results show the ability of the species to benefit from the input of organic matter from fish farming activities, inserting a new item in their diet (ration. This work indicates that the species A. affinis managed to establish near net-cage, allocating enough energy to increase their reproductive period and maintain viable populations close to net-cage, evidenced by the high abundance. This study suggests that systems of fish farming in net-cage influence diet and biological attributes of the species A. affinis residents Chavantes reservoir, Brazil.OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a influência de uma piscicultura em tanques-rede na dieta e nos

  13. 食蚊鱼对水生昆虫的捕食选择性研究%Predacious Selection of Gambusia affinis on Aquatic Insects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽娟; 童晓立

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the effects of mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis on aquatic insect biodiversity in South China, three common species of aquatic insects in mosquitofish habitat, I. E. , Cloeon bengalense, Chironomus kiiensis and Aedes albopictus, were selected under the lab condition to test the feeding preference of mosquitofish. The resulted showed that mosquitofish had no significant feeding selection on all preys in low density under the single-predator-and-multiple-preys experimental design. But mosquitofish preferred the larvae and pupa of A. Albopictus to other preys with the increase of prey density. When the prey ratio was 1' 1 under the single-predator-and-two-prey experimental design, mosquitofish frequently prefer larvae of A. Albopictus to the other prey. However, there was no significant influence to total prey consumption for mosquitofish when prey ratio was changed but total prey numbers unchanged. The results suggested that G. Affinis preferred to feed on the mobile prey close to water surface and showed no interest in the unmoving or dead prey, and mosquito larvae were the favorite prey of mosquitofish compared with mayflies and chironomids.%为了解食蚊鱼Gambusia affinis对华南地区水生昆虫多样性的影响,在实验室条件下,以食蚊鱼栖境中有代表性的3种水生昆虫为猎物,研究食蚊鱼的捕食选择性.结果表明,在单捕食者-多种猎物作用系统中,当猎物密度较低时,食蚊鱼对不同猎物的捕食选择性差异不显著.但随猎物密度的增加,食蚊鱼对白纹伊蚊Aedesalbopictus幼虫和蛹的捕食量明显增加,对摇蚊Chironomus kiiensis幼虫和蜉蝣Cloeon bengalense稚虫的捕食量下降.在单捕食者-2种猎物的作用系统中,在猎物比例相同的情况下,食蚊鱼更喜欢捕食白纹伊蚊幼虫;但是在猎物总数不变的情况下,改变猎物比例,对食蚊鱼总的捕食量影响不大.说明食蚊鱼喜欢捕食漂浮于水面上、会动的活体猎物,对

  14. Heads or tails: do stranded fish (mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis know where they are on a slope and how to return to the water?

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    Robert J Boumis

    Full Text Available Aquatic vertebrates that emerge onto land to spawn, feed, or evade aquatic predators must return to the water to avoid dehydration or asphyxiation. How do such aquatic organisms determine their location on land? Do particular behaviors facilitate a safe return to the aquatic realm? In this study, we asked: will fully-aquatic mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis stranded on a slope modulate locomotor behavior according to body position to facilitate movement back into the water? To address this question, mosquitofish (n = 53 were placed in four positions relative to an artificial slope (30° inclination and their responses to stranding were recorded, categorized, and quantified. We found that mosquitofish may remain immobile for up to three minutes after being stranded and then initiate either a "roll" or a "leap". During a roll, mass is destabilized to trigger a downslope tumble; during a leap, the fish jumps up, above the substrate. When mosquitofish are oriented with the long axis of the body at 90° to the slope, they almost always (97% initiate a roll. A roll is an energetically inexpensive way to move back into the water from a cross-slope body orientation because potential energy is converted back into kinetic energy. When placed with their heads toward the apex of the slope, most mosquitofish (>50% produce a tail-flip jump to leap into ballistic flight. Because a tail-flip generates a caudually-oriented flight trajectory, this locomotor movement will effectively propel a fish downhill when the head is oriented up-slope. However, because the mass of the body is elevated against gravity, leaps require more mechanical work than rolls. We suggest that mosquitofish use the otolith-vestibular system to sense body position and generate a behavior that is "matched" to their orientation on a slope, thereby increasing the probability of a safe return to the water, relative to the energy expended.

  15. Coal ash basin effects (particulates, metals, acidic pH) upon aquatic biota: an eight-year evaluation. [Gambusia affinis; Plathemis lydia; Libellula spp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerry, D.S.; Guthrie, R.K.; Davis, E.M.; Harvey, R.S.

    1984-08-01

    Coal ash effluent effects including particulates, acidic pH excursions, elemental concentrations and bioconcentration in selected organisms have been studied as changes in water quality and densities of benthic macroinvertebrate and mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) populations in a swanmp drainage system over an eight-year period. Initial density of the aquatic biota was altered severely by heavy ash siltation, followed by acidic pH excursions, and perhaps overall by elemental concentrations and bioaccumulation. Heavy ash siltation, followed by acidic pH excursions after the addition of fly ash to the original settling basin system, had the most profound effect on biota. Dipterans (chironomids) and some odonates (Plathemis lydia and Libellula spp.) were resistant to heavy ash siltation, while mosquitofish, which showed no discernible responses to ash siltation, were absent at acidic pH along with the few previously surviving invertebrate populations. Elemental concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, selenium, and zinc did not appear to limit aquatic flora and fauna on a short-term, acute basis. Long-chronic elemental exposures may have been instrumental in retarding the recovery of all forms of aquatic life in the receiving system. Elemental concentrations (except for arsenic and selenium) in the receiving system were generally one to two orders of magnitude higher than the Water Quality Criteria set by the US Environmental Protection Agency (1980) for protection of aquatic life for the minimum and 24-hour mean values. By 1978, when the new settling basin systems were operating effectively, invertebrate populations were largely recovered, and mosquito-fish populations recovered within one year afterward.

  16. Caracterização morfológica e distribuição temporal de larvas e juvenis de Apareiodon affinis (Steindachner (Osteichthyes, Parodontidae no alto rio Paraná, Paraná Morphological characterization and temporal distribution of larvae and juveniles of Apareiodon affinis (steindachner (osteichthyes, PArodontidae in upper Paraná River, Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Bialetzki

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available With the purpose of characterizing morphologicaly the larvae and juveniles of Apareiodon affinis (Steindachner, 1879 and to verify their temporal distribution monthly samples were taken at Leopoldo's Inlet, upper Paraná River. The specimens were captured with a conic-cylindrical plankton net of mesh size 0,5mm from March 1991 to February 1992. Soon after identification, the specimens were separeted according to their development (prefle-xion, flexion, posflexion and juvenile and then the moiphometric analyses were performed. The results showed that the larvae were captured from August 1991 to February 1992, with greatest densities in November 1991. The specimens occured in every timetable, however, larvae in pretlexion and flexion were captured during day time and, posflexion and juvenile, at night. According to series of morphological development, high body proportions variation were verifyed mainly in the head lenght, eye diameter and in height body. Moreover, the individuais showed little pigmentation and myomeres number changing between 39 to 42. The majority of morphometric characteristics have negative allometry with the cxception of head lenght with regard to standart lenght that have positive allometry.

  17. Feeding traits of Gambusia affinis and their relations with zooplankton and environmental factors%食蚊鱼摄食特性及其与浮游动物和环境因子的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚达章; 陈国柱; 林小涛; 赵天; 徐采

    2012-01-01

    2008年11月-2009年4月,利用分时段采样法对广州暨南大学明湖内食蚊鱼在秋季(11月)、冬季(12-2月)、春季(3-4月)3个季节的摄食特性进行了研究,探讨其与湖内浮游动物群体数量动态、光照和水温的关系.结果表明:食蚊鱼主要以浮游动物为食,对枝角类和桡足类有较强的选择性;明湖日平均水温与浮游动物日平均丰度在3个季节间有显著差异,而食蚊鱼消化道饱满指数的差异不显著;食蚊鱼消化道饱满指数在这3个季节的变化与浮游动物丰度、水温、光照在这3个季节的变化无明显的相关;无论哪个季节,食蚊鱼在白天时段( 10∶00-18∶00)的消化道饱满指数均高于夜间(22∶00-6∶00),表现出白天高峰型的摄食节律;光照是影响食蚊鱼昼夜摄食节律的主要因素,而水温、浮游动物丰度的昼夜变化与食蚊鱼的昼夜摄食节律没有显著相关.%From November 2008 to April 2009, an investigation was conducted to understand the feeding traits of Gambusia affinis and their relations with the dynamics of zooplankton population, water temperature, and light intensity in the Minghu pond in Jinan University campus in autumn ( November ) , winter ( December - February ) , and spring ( March - April). In the pond, G. Affinis mainly fed zooplankton, especially cladocera and copepod. The daily mean temperature and daily mean abundance of the zooplankton changed significantly with the three seasons, but the repletion index of the alimentary canal of G. Affinis had little change. The repletion index had no significant relationships with the zooplankton abundance, water temperature, and light intensities in the three seasons. No matter what season, the G. Affinis had a day-night feeding rhythm, and its repletion index in the daytime (10:00-18:00) was higher than that in the nighttime (22:00-6:00). The diurnal feeding rhythm of G. Affinis was significantly affected by light intensity, but not

  18. Lipid nanocapsules for behavioural testing in aquatic toxicology: Time-response of Eurytemora affinis to environmental concentrations of PAHs and PCB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalec, François-Gaël; Holzner, Markus; Souissi, Anissa; Stancheva, Stefka; Barras, Alexandre; Boukherroub, Rabah; Souissi, Sami

    2016-01-01

    The increasing interest for behavioural investigations in aquatic toxicology has heightened the need for developing tools that allow realistic exposure conditions and provide robust quantitative data. Calanoid copepods dominate the zooplankton community in marine and brackish environments. These small organisms have emerged as attractive models because of the sensitivity of their behaviour to important environmental parameters and the significance of self-induced motion in their ecology. Estuarine copepods are particularly relevant in this context because of their incessant exposure to high levels of pollution. We used lipid nanocapsules to deliver sub-lethal concentrations of PAHs (pyrene, phenanthrene and fluoranthene) and PCB 153 into the digestive track of males and females Eurytemora affinis. This novel approach enabled us to achieve both contact and trophic exposure without using phytoplankton, and to expose copepods to small hydrophobic molecules without using organic solvent. We reconstructed the motion of many copepods swimming simultaneously by means of three-dimensional particle tracking velocimetry. We quantified the combined effects of contact and trophic toxicity by comparing the kinematic and diffusive properties of their motion immediately and after 3h and 24h of exposure. Despite the lack of toxicity of their excipients, both empty and loaded capsules increased swimming activity and velocity immediately after exposure. Laser microscopy imaging shows adhesion of nanocapsules on the exoskeleton of the animals, suggesting contact toxicity. The behavioural response resembles an escape reaction allowing copepods to escape stressful conditions. The contact toxicity of empty capsules and pollutants appeared to be additive and nanocapsules loaded with PCB caused the greatest effects. We observed a progressive accumulation of capsules in the digestive track of the animals after 3h and 24h of exposure, which suggests an increasing contribution of systemic

  19. HEMATOLOGÍA Y QUÍMICA SANGUÍNEA DE JUVENILES DE RUBIO (Salminus affinis PISCES: CHARACIDAE DEL RÍO SINÚ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VÍCTOR ATENCIO-GARCÍA

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Rubio Salminus affinis es un pez reofílico, distribuido en ríos de Colombia y Ecuador. Se estudiaron características hematológicas y química sanguínea buscando generar información básica para desarrollar tecnologías de producción piscícola. Fueron examinados diez rubios juveniles aparentemente sanos (117,5±38,6 g de peso y 17,6±3,3 cm de longitud total capturados en el río Sinú. Los peces se tranquilizaron durante cinco minutos en agua a 18 °C y se tomaron 2 mL de sangre por vacutecnia con EDTA (Vacuette®, Greiner Bio-one, USA. La química se determinó utilizando reactivos para cada parámetro (ByoSystems SA, España y el hemograma se desa- rrolló con técnicas tradicionales, a excepción del recuento total de leucocitos y trom- bocitos en el que se utilizó el reactivo de Natt y Herricks. Los frotis sanguíneos fueron teñidos con Wright y en ellos se determinaron las dimensiones celulares. El recuento total de eritrocitos fue 2,2±0,4x106/mm3, los trombocitos 25,4±4,4x103/mm3 y los leu- cocitos fueron estimados en 6,1±2,0x103/mm3. El conteo diferencial de leucocitos fue 68,8±5,9% linfocitos, 28,5±5,2% neutrófilos, 2,1±0,9% monocitos, 0,4±1,3% basó- filos y 0,2±0,4% eosinófilos. La hemoglobina en 12,53±2,2 g/dL y el hematocrito 36,2%. Los índices eritrocitarios: volumen corpuscular medio (VCM 163,8±22,6 fL, concentración de hemoglobina corpuscular media (CHCM 35,0±7,5 g/dL y hemo- globina corpuscular media (HCM de 58,5±19,7 pg. Las proteínas totales fueron 3,8±5,9 g/dL, glucosa 128,9±21,9 mg/dL, colesterol 277,8±92,7 mg/dL, triglicéridos 192,0±109,1 mg/dL y albúmina 2,0±0,3 g/dL. Los resultados sugieren que las carac- terísticas hematológicas de rubio están en el rango reportado para peces neotro- picales aparentemente sanos.

  20. Hematología y química sanguínea de juveniles de rubio (salminus affinis pisces: characidae) del río sinú

    OpenAIRE

    VÍCTOR ATENCIO-GARCÍA; FERNANDO GENES LÓPEZ; DIANA MADARIAGA MENDOZA; SANDRA PARDO CARRASCO

    2011-01-01

    Rubio Salminus affinis es un pez reofílico, distribuido en ríos de Colombia y Ecuador . Se estudiaron características hematológicas y química sanguínea buscando generar información básica para desarrollar tecnologías de producción piscícola. Fueron examinados diez rubios juveniles aparentemente sanos (117,5±38,6 g de peso y 17,6±3,3 cm de longitud total) capturados en el río Sinú. Los peces se tranquilizaron durante cinco minutos en agua a 18 °C y se tomaron 2 mL de sangre por vacutecn...

  1. Cuerpos y pesares: parir en la antigua Buenos Ayres

    OpenAIRE

    Cowen, Miguel Pablo

    2009-01-01

    La historia del cuerpo no consiste simplemente en devorar estadísticas vitales, ni en un conjunto de técnicas para descifrar las representaciones, sino que requiere más bien buscar el sentido de su interrelación. Dado el nivel de conocimientos existentes, hay que admitir que seguimos siendo bastante ignorantes en cuanto al modo en que los individuos y los grupos sociales han experimentando su yo corporal y cómo han considerado el cuerpo del otro. La simple noción de historia del cuerpo implic...

  2. Hematología y química sanguínea de juveniles de Rubio (Salminus affinis Pisces: Characidae del río Sinú Hematology and Blood Chemistry of Juveniles Rubio (Salminus affinis Pisces: Characidae Captured in the River Sinú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genes López Fernando

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Rubio Salminus affinis es un pez reofílico, distribuido en ríos de Colombia y Ecuador . Se estudiaron características hematológicas y química sanguínea buscando generar información básica para desarrollar tecnologías de producción piscícola. Fueron examinados diez rubios juveniles aparentemente sanos (117,5±38,6 g de peso y 17,6±3,3 cm de longitud total capturados en el río Sinú. Los peces se tranquilizaron durante cinco minutos en agua a 18 °C y se tomaron 2 mL de sangre por vacutecnia con EDTA (Vacuette®, Greiner Bioone, USA. La química se determinó utilizando reactivos para cada parámetro (ByoSystems SA, España y el hemograma se desarrolló con técnicas tradicionales, a excepción del recuento total de leucocitos y trombocitos en el que se utilizó el reactivo de Natt y Herricks. Los frotis sanguíneos fueron teñidos con Wright y en ellos se determinaron las dimensiones celulares. El recuento total de eritrocitos fue 2,2±0,4x106/mm3, los trombocitos 25,4±4,4x103/mm3 y los leucocitos fueron estimados en 6,1±2,0x103/mm3. El conteo diferencial de leucocitos fue 68,8±5,9% linfocitos, 28,5±5,2% neutrófilos, 2,1±0,9% monocitos, 0,4±1,3% basófilos y 0,2±0,4% eosinófilos. La hemoglobina en 12,53±2,2 g/dL y el hematocrito 36,2%. Los índices eritrocitarios: volumen corpuscular medio (VCM 163,8±22,6 fL, concentración de hemoglobina corpuscular media (CHCM 35,0±7,5 g/dL y hemoglobina corpuscular media (HCM de 58,5±19,7 pg. Las proteínas totales fueron 3,8±5,9 g/dL, glucosa 128,9±21,9 mg/dL, colesterol 277,8±92,7 mg/dL, triglicéridos 192,0±109,1 mg/dL y albúmina 2,0±0,3 g/dL. Los resultados sugieren que las características hematológicas de rubio están en el rango reportado para peces neotropicales aparentemente sanos.Rubio Salminus affinis is distributed in Colombia and Ecuador rivers. To develop new technologies of fishery

  3. HEMATOLOGÍA Y QUÍMICA SANGUÍNEA DE JUVENILES DE RUBIO (Salminus affinis PISCES: CHARACIDAE DEL RÍO SINÚ Hematology and Blood Chemistry of Juveniles Rubio (Salminus affinis Pisces: Characidae Captured in the River Sinú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VÍCTOR ATENCIOGARCÍA

    Full Text Available Rubio Salminus affinis es un pez reofílico, distribuido en ríos de Colombia y Ecuador . Se estudiaron características hematológicas y química sanguínea buscando generar información básica para desarrollar tecnologías de producción piscícola. Fueron examinados diez rubios juveniles aparentemente sanos (117,5±38,6 g de peso y 17,6±3,3 cm de longitud total capturados en el río Sinú. Los peces se tranquilizaron durante cinco minutos en agua a 18 °C y se tomaron 2 mL de sangre por vacutecnia con EDTA (Vacuette®, Greiner Bioone, USA. La química se determinó utilizando reactivos para cada parámetro (ByoSystems SA, España y el hemograma se desarrolló con técnicas tradicionales, a excepción del recuento total de leucocitos y trombocitos en el que se utilizó el reactivo de Natt y Herricks. Los frotis sanguíneos fueron teñidos con Wright y en ellos se determinaron las dimensiones celulares. El recuento total de eritrocitos fue 2,2±0,4x10(6/mm³, los trombocitos 25,4±4,4x10³/mm³ y los leucocitos fueron estimados en 6,1±2,0x10³/mm³. El conteo diferencial de leucocitos fue 68,8±5,9% linfocitos, 28,5±5,2% neutrófilos, 2,1±0,9% monocitos, 0,4±1,3% basófilos y 0,2±0,4% eosinófilos. La hemoglobina en 12,53±2,2 g/dL y el hematocrito 36,2%. Los índices eritrocitarios: volumen corpuscular medio (VCM 163,8±22,6 fL, concentración de hemoglobina corpuscular media (CHCM 35,0±7,5 g/dL y hemoglobina corpuscular media (HCM de 58,5±19,7 pg. Las proteínas totales fueron 3,8±5,9 g/dL, glucosa 128,9±21,9 mg/dL, colesterol 277,8±92,7 mg/dL, triglicéridos 192,0±109,1 mg/dL y albúmina 2,0±0,3 g/dL. Los resultados sugieren que las características hematológicas de rubio están en el rango reportado para peces neotropicales aparentemente sanos.Rubio Salminus affinis is distributed in Colombia and Ecuador rivers. To develop new technologies of fishery production, hematological and blood chemistry of 10 juvenile Rubios captured

  4. Progesterone induces morphological masculinization in immature female mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis)%孕激素暴露致食蚊鱼形态雄性化的生物学效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范俊杰; 黎紫兰; 徐少群; 何文婷; 黎美媚; 闫月明; 方展强

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the masculinizing effects of progesterone ( PRO) exposure at different concentrations on the morphology of female mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis).Methods Immature female G.affinis individuals were put into static water with 0.5, 5, 50 and 500 nmol/L progesterone (n=56), respective-ly.In addition, control group and parallel groups were set up .After 42-day-long exposure, we measured four main indexes of the G.affinis:the body length, body weight, morphological changes in the anal fin 3rd fin and the 14, 15 and 16 verte-bral ribs.We also observed the state of ovarian development .Results The body lengths (BL) of experimental groups ex-posed at concentration of 50 and 500 nmol/L progesterone for 42 d showed significant differences , respectively ( P0.05).When exposed to 500 nmol/L PRO, the L, D and L:D values of the 14th, 15th and 16th vertebral ribs of the female G.affinis had very significant difference ( P<0.01 for all ) , respectively , indicating significant changes of morphological masculinization .Histological examination revealed that the developmental status of the ovaries of G.affinis in the experimental groups were to different degrees inhibited , and the nuclei appeared swelling in stage II and III oocytes . Conclusions The results of this study indicate apparent masculinizing effects of progesterone on immature female mosquit -ofish.%目的:研究不同浓度孕酮( PRO)暴露对雌性食蚊鱼( Gambusia affinis)的形态雄性化生物学效应。方法将性未成熟的雌性食蚊鱼个体分别静水暴露于0.5、5、50和500 nmol/L不同浓度的PRO实验组中,并设置对照组和平行组。持续暴露42 d后观察与测定食蚊鱼的体长、体重、臀鳍第3鳍条和第14,15,16椎肋骨形态雄性化变化等指标,同时观察卵巢发育状况。结果食蚊鱼暴露42 d后,与对照组相比,50和500 nmol/L实验组食蚊鱼的体长( BL)

  5. A survey of the Population of Gambusia Affinis in a Part of Drainage Area of Suzhou River, Shanghai%苏州河部分流域食蚊鱼种群特征调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴继明

    2012-01-01

    食蚊鱼(Gambusia affinis)是苏州河一期治理后于2001年7月河里出现的第一种鱼。2010年7~8月在苏州河流域设置五个采样点,对食蚊鱼样品进行种群特征的数据统计和分析,检测鱼体、胚胎和样点水质的重金属离子含量。结果表明,目前河水重金属离子没有对食蚊鱼的生存造成影响,同时发现,苏州河食蚊鱼个体普遍偏小,种群正在形成发展中,合适的水文环境也是关系到食蚊鱼能否生存繁衍的一个重要因素。%The Gambusia affinis was the kind of first fish discovered in the Suzhou in July 2001. Based on collection of the Gamubusia at five sample localities in a part of River after the first of governance drainage area along the fiver, The population charactr/stics including sex ratio, body length and weight and reproduction ability were measured and analyzed and heavy metals in river water and fish body were anlyzed. The results showed that the heave metals in the river water did not affect to the Gambusia growth. The bodies of Gambusia in the fiver were smaller than that of the normal fish and the population of the Gambusia was developing. A suitable hydrology environments was vary important for development of the Gambusia population in the Suzhou River.

  6. Eco-friendly control of malaria and arbovirus vectors using the mosquitofish Gambusia affinis and ultra-low dosages of Mimusops elengi-synthesized silver nanoparticles: towards an integrative approach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Jayapal; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Kumar, Palanisamy Mahesh; Dinesh, Devakumar; Chandramohan, Balamurugan; Suresh, Udaiyan; Nicoletti, Marcello; Higuchi, Akon; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou; Kumar, Suresh; Alarfaj, Abdullah A; Munusamy, Murugan A; Messing, Russell H; Benelli, Giovanni

    2015-12-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases represent a deadly threat for millions of people worldwide. However, the use of synthetic insecticides to control Culicidae may lead to high operational costs and adverse non-target effects. Plant-borne compounds have been proposed for rapid extracellular synthesis of mosquitocidal nanoparticles. Their impact against biological control agents of mosquito larval populations has been poorly studied. We synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNP) using the aqueous leaf extract of Mimusops elengi as a reducing and stabilizing agent. The formation of AgNP was studied using different biophysical methods, including UV-vis spectrophotometry, TEM, XRD, EDX and FTIR. Low doses of AgNP showed larvicidal and pupicidal toxicity against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi and the arbovirus vector Aedes albopictus. AgNP LC50 against A. stephensi ranged from 12.53 (I instar larvae) to 23.55 ppm (pupae); LC50 against A. albopictus ranged from 11.72 ppm (I) to 21.46 ppm (pupae). In the field, the application of M. elengi extract and AgNP (10 × LC50) led to 100 % larval reduction after 72 h. In adulticidal experiments, AgNP showed LC50 of 13.7 ppm for A. stephensi and 14.7 ppm for A. albopictus. The predation efficiency of Gambusia affinis against A. stephensi and A. albopictus III instar larvae was 86.2 and 81.7 %, respectively. In AgNP-contaminated environments, predation was 93.7 and 88.6 %, respectively. This research demonstrates that M. elengi-synthesized AgNP may be employed at ultra-low doses to reduce larval populations of malaria and arbovirus vectors, without detrimental effects on predation rates of mosquito natural enemies, such as larvivorous fishes.

  7. 两种慈竹装饰天花板的设计与制造%Design and manufacturing technology of two kinds of bamboo decorative ceiling of Sinocalamus affinis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文金; 姚文亮; 陈新义; 郝睿敏

    2013-01-01

    Based on the scale feature of Sinocalamus affinis,all of the possible dissection units such as bamboo-culm,bamboo-chip,bamboo-split and bamboo filament and their morphological characteristics had been researched.According to the pattern construction theory of plasticism,the combining methods and their feature of single and assembly unit of the bamboo wood had been discussed.The strategic design ideas were put forward.The products having three dimensional structure feature are shaped by using bamboo-culm,and the other bamboo units more fit to used to shape products having plane composition feature.On the basis of requirements for application of interior design,two bamboo ceiling products that have standardized characteristics and with special transmiting light effect were designed,and their manufacturing technology had been introduced.%依据慈竹的尺度特征,分析了慈竹利用过程中可能的原竹、竹片、竹篾、竹丝等解剖单元,并分析各单元的基本形态特征.依据造型学中的形态构成原理,分析慈竹解剖单元间可能的组合形式及其组合形态特征.提出了原竹利用适合塑造具有体构成特点的制品,竹片、竹篾和竹丝组合利用适合塑造具有面构成特点的制品的设计观点.在分析室内装饰应用要求的基础上,设计了具有标准化特征的和具有特殊透光效果的两种吊顶装饰板,并介绍了它们的制造方法.

  8. Pseudangularia gonzalezi n. sp. and Gibsonilepis swifti (Singh, 1952) n. g., n. comb. (Cestoda, Dilepididae) from the House Swift, Apus affinis (J.E. Gray) (Aves, Apodiformes) from Franceville, Republic of Gabon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrova, Yana D; Mariaux, Jean; Georgiev, Boyko B

    2013-11-01

    Nine specimens of Apus affinis (J.E. Gray) were studied at Franceville, Haut-Ogooué Province, Republic of Gabon, for the presence of helminth parasites. Two cestode species of the family Dilepididae were recorded. Pseudangularia gonzalezi n. sp. is distinguished from the most similar species P. europaea Georgiev & Murai, 1993 by having elliptical cirrus-sac, longer vagina, longer rostellar sheath and greater diameter of suckers. An identification key to the species of the genus Pseudangularia Burt, 1938 is proposed. The present study is the first record of the genus Pseudangularia in the Afrotropical Region. Our study confirms that, in dilepidids with vaginal sclerites from swifts, breaking off the cirrus after copulation is a frequent phenomenon. The genus Gibsonilepis n. g. is erected as monotypic for Vitta swifti Singh, 1952 (originally described from the same host species in India) and Gibsonilepis swifti n. comb. is proposed. Gibsonilepis n. g. is distinguished from Vitta Burt, 1938 by its highly elongate rostellum, rostellar sheath much bigger than rostellum, relatively small rostellar hooks possessing strongly developed guard, disc-shaped suckers with weak peripheral musculature and flat or convex central part, long and well-expressed neck, highly lobed two-winged ovary (lobes rounded) and presence of a band consisting of rows of spine-like microtriches along posterior margin of each proglottis. This is the first record of G. swifti in the Afrotropical Region. The separation of G. swifti from the genus Vitta (parasites of swallows) suggests that, contrary to previous opinions, no dilepidid genera are shared by Apodidae (swifts) and Hirundinidae (swallows).

  9. The impacts of education, vocational tenure and career opportunities on job satisfaction, organizational commitment and intent to leave: Security sector analysisEğitimin, mesleki tecrübenin ve terfi imkanlarının iş tatmini, örgütsel bağlılık ve işten ayrılma niyeti üzerine etkisi: Güvenlik sektörü analizi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedat Kula

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates whether job satisfaction, organizational commitment and turnover intention levels of four-year university graduates and two-year police vocational school graduates are different from each other. A sample of 394 police officers working in seven provinces of seven different geographical regions in Turkey was analyzed. The results of t test and correlation analysis obtained indicated that the university degree holders indicated a lower level of organizational commitment and higher level of turnover intention than their non-degree holder colleagues. It was found that there is no statistically significant difference between job satisfaction levels of two groups. Career opportunities increased job satisfaction and organizational commitment while tenure reduced turnover intention. The findings of the study illustrate a need for internal policy reform in how the executives of TNP organize their employment and human resource management policies Based on the study results, recommendations were made on human resources management policies.   ÖzetBu araştırmada dört yıllık üniversite eğitimi almış polis memurları (POMEM ile iki yıllık polis meslek yüksekokulu mezunu polis memurlarının (PMYO iş tatmini, örgütsel bağlılık ve işten ayrılma niyeti düzeylerinin farklılık gösterip göstermediği araştırılmıştır. Türkiye’nin yedi coğrafi bölgesinde yer alan yedi ildeki POMEM ve PMYO mezunlarından alınan 394 kişilik örneklem üzerinde çalışma yapılmıştır. Elde edilen verilerin t testi ve korelasyon analizleri sonucunda, üniversite mezunu polis memurlarının, üniversite mezunu olmayan meslektaşlarına göre daha düşük seviyede örgütsel bağlılık gösterdikleri ve daha yüksek seviyede işten ayrılma eğilimi gösterdikleri bulunmuştur. İş tatmini açısından iki grup arasında istatistiki olarak anlamlı bir fark bulunmamıştır. Meslekte ilerleme imkânlarının iş tatmini

  10. 摄食水平对食蚊鱼生长、卵巢发育和能量收支的影响%Effects of food ration on growth and development of ovary and energy budgets of Gambusia affinis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾祥玲; 林小涛; 夏新建; 许忠能; 孙军

    2011-01-01

    在室内(27.5±0.5)℃水温下设高、中和低3个摄食水平,研究雌性食蚊鱼(Gambusia affinis)幼鱼至初次性成熟期间的生长发育和能量收支,为探讨食蚊鱼的环境适应性和生态入侵机制提供基础数据.结果显示:初次性成熟雌性食蚊鱼的体长、体质量、丰满度、特定生长率、肝指数、性腺系数、成熟卵子数量和鱼体能量密度均随摄食水平增加显著增加;低水平摄食组雌性食蚊鱼初次性成熟的个体最小,体长为(17.98±0.98) mm,体质量为(104.41±3.31)mg,但成熟卵子干重和卵径均不受摄食水平显著影响.实验期间,干、湿物质饵料转换效率均随摄食水平增加呈下降趋势,低水平摄食组饵料转换效率著高于高水平摄食组.随摄食水平减,食蚊鱼摄食能量分配在生长和卵巢发育的比例显著增加,在低水平摄食组其分配比例分别达到56.22%和10.42%.以上结果表明:在食物不足的条件下,食蚊鱼初次性成熟个体呈小型化,但卵子大小稳定,饵料转换率较高,摄食能量分配在生长和繁殖上的比例增大,这些特点有利于其适应不同入侵生境.

  11. 广东从化地区不同生境食蚊鱼种群的繁殖生物学特征%Reproductive Biology of Mosquito Fish (Gambusia affinis) in different Habitats in Conghua, Guangdong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔奕; 姚达章; 林小涛; 刘明中; 王正鲲; 许忠能

    2016-01-01

    本文从繁殖群体的环境条件、形体特征、卵巢发育与繁殖力方面对广东从化地区溪流、池塘、农田3种不同生境的食蚊鱼(Gambusia affinis)种群展开比较研究.结果发现,无论流动水体溪流还是静水水体池塘和农田,食蚊鱼的繁殖期均在3~ 12月份,繁殖群体中雌鱼占比明显高于雄鱼(Chi-Square test,P< 0.01).雌鱼周年平均体长及体重,池塘生境的显著大于农田和溪流生境.农田生境中雌鱼的个体怀卵量(24.1±12.1)粒,体重相对繁殖力(57.5±31.0)粒/g,二者均明显高于溪流生境[(16.6±11.6)粒,(40.8±15.5)粒/g]与池塘生境[(18.9±16.3)粒,(35.7±19.1)粒/g],但农田生境雌鱼成熟卵子的卵径显著小于溪流和池塘生境.结果表明,在环境稳定的池塘生境中,食蚊鱼的繁殖策略偏向k-对策特性;在人为干扰较大的农田生境中,食蚊鱼的繁殖策略偏向r-对策特性.不同类型生境中食蚊鱼的繁殖特性存在一定差异,主要与其栖息环境的稳定性和饵料生物的丰富度有关.

  12. 卵胎生入侵种食蚊鱼的两性异形和雌性繁殖输出%Sexual dimorphism and female reproductive outputs of the ovoviviparous and invasive mosquitofish Gambusia affinis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊晓丽; 林植华; 胡雄光; 雷焕宗; 李香

    2016-01-01

    检测了卵胎生入侵种食蚊鱼(Gambusia affinis)繁殖期个体大小和形态特征的两性异形以及雌性繁殖输出.结果表明,繁殖期,雌性个体的数量显著大于雄性个体,雌性个体的体长显著大于雄性个体,食蚊鱼属于偏向雌性的两性异形.以体长为协变量的One-way ANCOVA及后续的Tukey's检验显示,特定体长食蚊鱼的雌性个体的头宽、眼间距、体宽和体重均显著大于雄性个体;头长和尾鳍长的两性间差异不显著.6个形态特征变量的主成分分析(Eigenvalue≥1)发现,前2个主成分共解释65.1%的变异.头宽、眼间距、体宽和体重在第一主成分有较高的正负载系数(解释45.4%变异),头长在第二主成分有较高的负负载系数(解释19.7%变异).食蚊鱼的繁殖输出与母体个体大小的线性回归显示,窝仔数和窝仔重均与母体体长、体重呈显著的正相关;食蚊鱼的繁殖输出与母体局部特征的线性回归显示,窝仔数和窝仔重均与母体头宽、眼间距和体宽呈显著的正相关.窝仔数与后代个体的平均体长呈显著的正相关、与后代个体的平均体重相关不显著,后代个体大小与数量不发生权衡.食蚊鱼繁殖期的性别比例、个体大小和局部形态特征的两性异形受生育力选择、性选择、生态位分化、食物竞争等多种选择压力的作用,也有利于该物种种群扩张和快速入侵.

  13. Androgenic Effects of Synthetic Progesterone (Medroxyprogesterone acetate) on Gambusia affinis%醋酸甲羟孕酮暴露致食蚊鱼的雄激素效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金子越; 方展强

    2016-01-01

    目的 探讨人工合成孕激素(醋酸甲羟孕酮,MPA)暴露对雌性食蚊鱼(Gambusia affinis)的雄激素效应.方法 将成年雌性食蚊鱼随机分为4组,包括对照组和40 ng/L(低密度组)、200 ng/L(中密度组)和1 000 ng/L(高密度组)等3个MPA实验暴露组,并设置平行组.持续暴露28 d后观察与测定食蚊鱼的体长(BL)、体质量(BW)、身体健康指数(CF)、臀鳍第3鳍条分节数(FJ)、第4、5、6鳍条长度(FL)变化和第14、15、16椎体脉棘的形态变化等5项指标,并在7d、14d、21 d、28 d测定了卵黄蛋白原基因(VTGα)、雄激素受体基因(ARα)和细胞色素P450芳香化酶基因(CYP19α)mRNA表达水平的变化.结果 食蚊鱼经MPA暴露28d后,与对照组相比,200 ng/L和1 000 ng/L实验组食蚊鱼的BL、BW和CF均无明显变化(分别P>0.05).臀鳍第3鳍条分节数和第6鳍条长度变化不明显(P>0.05),但第4、5鳍条的长度显著增加(P<0.01).暴露在200 ng/L和1 000 ng/L MPA中、高浓度组食蚊鱼的第14椎体脉棘的总长(L)、尾部尖端到脊的高度(D)值,第15椎体脉棘的投影长(P)、P∶D值和第16椎体脉棘的P、L∶D、P∶D值分别呈现显著性变化(P<0.05或P<0.01),椎体脉棘伸长,且与脊椎骨接近垂直,显示形态雄性化效应.与对照组相比,低浓度组(40 ng/LMPA) VTGα,CYP19α基因的表达量上升(P<0.01),而ARα表达被抑制(P<0.05);中浓度组VTGα,CYP19α,ARα基因的表达量都显著上升(P<0.01);高浓度组CYP19α,ARα基因的表达量显著上升(P<0.01),而VTGα的表达量则被抑制(P<0.01).结论 MPA暴露致雌性食蚊鱼骨骼出现形态雄性化,目标基因表达水平的变化结果证明MPA对食蚊鱼具雄激素效应,表明MPA是一种具有雄激素效应的孕激素.

  14. MONOGENEA OF EXOTIC FISHES I.DESCRIPTION OF Salsuginus bermudae FROM Gambusia affinis FOR THE FIRST TIME IN CHINA%外来鱼类单殖吸虫研究Ⅰ.食蚊鱼寄生百慕大伴盐虫Salsuginus bermudae首次在我国检出

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊向英; 丁雪娟

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports a newly recorded monogenean in China, Salsuginus bermudae Rand & Wiles, 1987, found on the gills of an exotic fish, Gambusia affinis Baird and Girard, from Guangzhou, Guangdong Province. The shape of our specimens basically agrees with the original description except for the dimensions of the whole worms, the shape of the connective bars and the number of the marginal hooks.%记录采自广东广州食蚊鱼Gambusia-affinis鳃上的1种单殖吸虫——百慕大伴盐虫Salsuginus bermudae Rand & Wiles,1987.所获标本与Rand & Wiles的原始描述基本一致,但在量度、边缘小钩数量、联结片的结构上略有差异.伴盐虫属及百慕大伴盐虫均为我国首次报道.

  15. 广州河涌污水暴露致食蚊鱼骨骼形态雄性化的影响%Bone Morphogenetic Masculinization in Mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) Exposed to Municipal Waste Water in Guangzhou Creek

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓婵; 温茹淑; 方展强

    2015-01-01

    食蚊鱼(Gambusia affinis)骨骼发育具有性别二态性,雄鱼臀鳍与第14、15和16椎体脉棘的形态特化受雄激素所调控,因此可以作为生物标志物监测水环境中的雄激素污染.本文利用食蚊鱼臀鳍和椎体脉棘形态变化为指标,调查了生活在受城市废水严重污染的广州市河涌中的食蚊鱼受内分泌干扰物影响的现状.根据食蚊鱼生长情况和捕鱼的便利性,选择广州市海珠涌中下游宝岗大道段(BG)、洪德路段(HD)和黄埔涌中下游赤岗路段(CG)、苗艺路段(MY)4个采样点,同时设置不受城市废水污染的华南师范大学校区内的中心湖作对照点(REF).测量了雌、雄食蚊鱼第4臀鳍条长度和第4与第6臀鳍条长度的比值,并采用食蚊鱼第14、15和16椎体脉棘的总长(L,μm)、投影长度(P,μm)、尾部尖端到脊柱的高度(D,μm),以及L:D、P:D和P:L的比值来评价食蚊鱼骨骼形态变化.结果,与对照点相比,夏冬两季海珠涌和黄埔涌4个采样点成年雌性食蚊鱼的第4臀鳍条长度显著延长(P< 0.05或P<0.01),第4与第6臀鳍条长度的比值明显增大(P<0.05或P<0.01),成年雌性食蚊鱼臀鳍显现形态雄性化的特征;尽管4个采样点成年雄性食蚊鱼第4臀鳍条长度均显著小于对照点(P<0.01),但是所有采样点的成年雄性食蚊鱼第4与第6臀鳍条长度的比值则无明显差异(P>0.05).与对照点(REF)相比,夏冬两季海珠涌宝岗大道段(BG)、洪德路段(HD)和黄埔涌苗艺路段(MY)采样点成年雌性食蚊鱼第14、15、16椎体脉棘的投影长度(P)显著增加(P< 0.05或P< 0.01);海珠涌宝岗大道段(BG),黄埔涌赤岗路段(CG)和苗艺路段(MY)采样点成年雌性食蚊鱼的P:D比值显著增加(P< 0.05或P<0.01);海珠涌宝岗大道段(BG)和洪德路段(HD),黄埔涌苗艺路段(MY)采样点成年雌性食蚊鱼的P:L比值也显著增加(P< 0.05或P<0.01);成年雌性食蚊鱼的第14、15、16椎

  16. 城市废水暴露致食蚊鱼形态雌/雄性化的生物学效应%Morphological Feminization/Masculinization in Mosquito­fish (Gambusia affinis) Induced by Urban Sewage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢勇平; 方展强

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the feminizing/masculinizing effects of urban sewage exposure at different concentrations on the morphology of mosquito­fish (Gambusia affinis), in order to screen the sensitive biomarkers to monitor the environmental endocrine disruptors pollution in waters. Female and male mosquito­fish individuals were put into static water with 10%, 40%, 60%and 80%of urban sewage, respectively. In addition, control group and parallel groups were set up. After 35­day­long exposure, we measured the morphological changes in the anal fin and the 14, 15 and 16 vertebral ribs. We also determined the mRNA expression levels of vitellogenin gene (VTGα), estrogen receptor gene(ERα)in male livers, and androgen receptor gene (ARα) in female anal. The results showed that, with a hyperosteogeny in 14th, 15th and 16th female spines and increase in anal fin ARα mRNA transcription level of the 35­day­long exposed female mosquito­fish, the androgenic effects in the aquatic environment of the urban sewage was testified. An increased hepatic VTGαmRNA transcription level was also detected in the exposed male mosquito­fish, indicating the estrogenic effects induced by sewage treatment effluents. Laboratory simulation results showed that, there are some endocrine disruptor substances inducing the estrogen/androgen effects on mosquito­fish in Dongguan City’s wastewater, and again, the changes of bone morphology and target gene expression in mosquito­fish could act as sensitive biomarkers to monitor the environmental endocrine disruptor pollution in waters.%研究不同浓度城市污水暴露对食蚊鱼(Gambusia affinis)的形态雌/雄性化生物学效应,以探讨筛选监测水环境内分泌干扰物污染的敏感生物标志物。分别将雌、雄性食蚊鱼个体分别暴露于含10%、40%、60%和80%樟村污水处理厂出水原液不同浓度的实验组中,并设置对照组和平行组。持续暴露35 d后观察与测

  17. Alkaline ;sulfite and low-pressure steam coupled pretreatment on Neosinocalamus affinis and its enzymatic hydrolysis%碱性亚硫酸盐耦合低压蒸汽预处理慈竹及其纤维素酶解转化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦书百川; 刘彦涛; 卜令习; 赵鹏翔; 蒋建新

    2016-01-01

    Neosinocalamus affinis, a widely distributed grassy material rich in cellulose, is a potential resource for cellulose ethanol production. In this study, a coupled pretreatment of low-pressure steam explosion ( SE) and alkaline sulfite ( AS ) was applied to N. affinis in order to protect carbohydrates against degradation and increase delignification, which is useful for subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis. The optimal conditions of SE-AS were explored using the orthogonal experiment. It was found that the optimum condition of SE-AS process was 140 ℃ in 40% dry substrate Na2 SO3 and 15% dry substrate NaOH. A final glucose yield of 88. 54% was achieved during the 72-h enzymatic hydrolysis process ( substrate concentration was 5%) . Further simplification by combining low-pressure SE and AS into one-step pretreatment with a similar glucose yield of 87. 25% was achieved with 89. 25% of cellulose retention rate.%慈竹作为一种富含纤维素、分布广泛的草类资源,是生产纤维素燃料乙醇的潜在原料。本文采用碱性亚硫酸盐法与低压蒸汽爆破相结合对慈竹原料进行预处理,在保留碳水化合物的同时能够有效脱除大量木质素进而提升后续的纤维素酶水解效率。通过正交试验确定最优工艺条件为反应温度140℃、亚硫酸盐用量40%、氢氧化钠用量15%。水解试验中加入质量分数5%的最优工艺条件预处理慈竹原料72 h,纤维素酶解生成葡萄糖得率达到88.54%。在此基础上将碱性亚硫酸盐与低压蒸汽爆破预处理相耦合,有效简化了预处理工艺并降低成本,可实现慈竹原料“一步法”高效预处理,纤维素保留率为89.25%,葡萄糖得率达87.25%。

  18. The Southern California Sensory Integration Tests (Ayres) and the Bender Gestalt: a correlative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, J G

    1977-01-01

    The Southern California Sensory Integration Tests (SCSIT) and the Bender Gestalt are two measures used to evaluate children with suspected perceptual-motor deficits. Since these tests are used primarily by two groups of professionals, occupational therapists and psychologists, it was thought that studying the correlations between these two tests might help psychologists to know which children needed to be referred to an occupational therapist for sensory integrative evaluation, and might help the occupational therapist to understand the psychologist's use of the Bender Gestalt. The use of the Bender by the occupational therapist as a screening device for sensory integrative dysfunction was also investigated. The SCSIT and Bender were given to 26 children with suspected sensory integrative dysfunction. Scores on the Bender were found to be predictive of grouped scores on the Form and Space Perception and Praxis-Tactile sections of the SCSIT, but not of the Postural and Bilateral Integration section. It was concluded that when the Bender is used as a screening device for sensory integrative dysfunction, some measure of postural mechanisms must be included. Correlations between the Bender and individual tests of the SCSIT were also studied.

  19. A new species of Pentamera Ayres, 1852 from the Brazilian coast (Holothuroidea, Dendrochirotida, Phyllophoridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prata, Jéssica; Christoffersen, Martin L.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Pentamera paraibanensis sp. n. is described from more than 3000 specimens as a new species of Phyllophoridae from northeast Brazil, in the tropical southwestern Atlantic. It is distinguished from its congeners by the shape of the calcareous ring with moderate posterior processes, and by the tables in the body wall with a usually quadrilocular disc and a low, toothed spire composed of two pillars. The body is brown, with the tube feet in double rows per ambulacrum, and tentacles more lightly colored. The species was found inside rodoliths in large numbers. This paper contains a morphological description of the specimens, and an account of their habitat characteristics. PMID:27917046

  20. 苯并[a]芘和镉暴露对食蚊鱼求偶行为的影响%Effects on the courtship behavior of mosquitofish(Gambusia affinis) exposed to 3,4-benzopyrene (BaP) and cadmium (Cd2+)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏方; 谢勇平; 方展强

    2013-01-01

    研究苯并[a]芘(BaP)和镉(Cd2+)暴露对雄性食蚊鱼(Gambusia affinis)求偶行为的影响.设对照组和实验组,BaP暴露浓度为0、0.1、100 μg/L;Cd2+暴露浓度为0、5、500 nmol/L;分别暴露6和8周.暴露实验结束后,观察雄鱼与雌鱼配对(1∶1)的求偶行为,并作录像记录分析.结果显示,雄鱼在0.1和100 μg/L的BaP分别暴露6周后其对雌鱼的求偶行为开始明显降低,并随着暴露浓度的升高和时间的延长而呈现下降趋势;BaP高浓度组(100 μg/L)暴露8周后对雄鱼有严重的致死效应.暴露在5和500 nmol/L的Cd2+至8周后雄鱼求偶行为明显降低;雌鱼暴露在低浓度BaP和Cd2+中其对雄鱼的求偶行为无明显影响(P>0.05);但分别在高浓度100 μg/L BaP和500 nmol/L Cd2+中暴露后,雄鱼对雌鱼的求偶行为显著减少.结果表明,BaP和Cd2+暴露均可降低雄性食蚊鱼的求偶行为.

  1. Comparison of the feeding rate under different water velocities and food densities for Gambusia affinis and Tanichthys albonubes%不同流速和饵料密度下食蚊鱼与唐鱼的摄食率比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘明中; 姚达章; 林小涛; 徐采; 许忠能; 孙军

    2013-01-01

    研究通过比较外来入侵物种食蚊鱼(Gambusia affinis)和土著濒危物种唐鱼(Tanichthys albonubes)在不同流速和饵料密度条件下的摄食特点来评价两者对溪流环境的适应能力.实验共设5个流速梯度(0 bl/s,1.5 bus,3.5 b1/s,5.5 b1/s,7.5 b1/s)和3个饵料密度梯度(500 ind/L,1 500 ind/L,3 000 ind/L).摄食一定时间后通过计数鱼体消化管内的丰年虫无节幼体个数来表示鱼的摄食率.实验结果表明,在不同流速和不同饵料密度下,唐鱼摄食率的变化幅度都小于食蚊鱼.食蚊鱼的摄食率显著受到水流速度和饵料密度以及两者交互作用的影响,表现为随着水流速度的上升而极显著地降低,而随着饵料密度的上升而极显著地升高.而唐鱼摄食率则随水流速度的增大而显著下降,但其摄食率不受饵料密度及其与水流两者交互作用的影响.

  2. 摄食水平对不同性别食蚊鱼仔幼鱼生长发育的影响%THE EFFECT OF RATION LEVEL ON GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF MALE AND FEMALE GAMBUSIA AFFINIS DURING LARVAL AND JUVENILE STAGES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾祥玲; 林小涛; 刘毅

    2011-01-01

    在实验室27℃水温下,研究了少食、中食和饱食三个摄食水平对0至25日龄雌雄食蚊鱼(Gambusia affinis)的生长发育特征和饵料利用效率的影响.26d饲养实验结束后,对试验鱼摄食和牛长指标、臀鳍分化、性成熟及饵料转换效率进行分析.结果显示:到臀鳍开始分化时,饱食组雄鱼的累计摄食总能量和生长速度开始小于雌鱼,且随日龄的增加差异加大;随摄食水平的增加,0日龄仔鱼到臀鳍分化和性成熟的时间缩短.至实验结束,各摄食组的雄鱼均形成发育完善的生殖足,性腺都达到成熟状态;而雌鱼性成熟迟于雄鱼,且其性成熟更易受到摄食水平的影响,饱食组只有约50%的个体达到性成熟,少食组的卵母细胞则均处在小生长期.随着摄食水平的增加,雌雄鱼的体长、体重和干物质特定生长率均呈明显上升趋势,而干物质饵料转化效率则呈明显下降趋势;实验结束时,雌鱼的生长指标和干物质饵料转化率均大于雄鱼.以上结果表明,伴随臀鳍的分化,食蚊鱼在摄食、生长、发育、性成熟和应对食物丰度变化上表现出显著的性别差异.%The experiment was conducted at 3 ration levels (low-ration, medium-ration and repletion-ration) to investigate the effect of ration level on growth and feed utilization of male and female Gambusia affinis from 0 to 25 day post-hatch (DPH). For each ration treatment, the experimental larvae born from same Gambusia affeinis were chosen randomly and assigned to three groups (thirty larvae per group). The larvae were respectively reared in beakers (water volume of 200 mL) at (27±0.5)℃. Fish were fed twice daily (at 09:00 and 21:00) and lasted for 26 days at different ration levels. Larvae were sampled at selected intervals and the following parameters were analyzed: food intake, growth,anal fin metamorphosis, sexual maturation and feed conversion efficiency. At the satiation ration, the day of anal

  3. 雄烯二酮长期暴露对食蚊鱼肝脏生物转化酶系的影响∗%Long-term exposure effects of androstenedione on biotransformation enzymes activity in the liver of Gambusia affinis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯丽萍; 舒琥; 李海鹏; 刘珊; 赵建亮; 方展强

    2015-01-01

    Two main anti⁃oxidation enzymes, 7⁃ethoxyresorufin⁃O⁃deethylase ( EROD ) and glutathione S⁃transferase( GST) , play an important role in the transformation and metabolization of toxicants. In this study, the effect of androstenedione ( AED ) on EROD and GST in the liver of Gambusia affinis was investigated. Both male and female mosquitofish fry were exposed to 0.14、1.4、14、140 nmol·L-1 and 420 nmol·L-1 AED for 180 d by using the hydrostatic bath method, and EROD and GST enzyme activities in fish liver were detected, respectively. The results showed that within a certain concentration range of AED, there was dose ⁃effect relationship between EROD activity and AED concentration. The GST activity was induced significantly at lower doses (1.4,14, 140 nmol·L-1 ) , but was inhibited at higher doses ( 420 nmol·L-1 ) .%为了研究雄烯二酮(4⁃androstene⁃3,17⁃dione, AED)长期暴露对食蚊鱼( Gambusia affinis)肝脏7⁃乙氧基⁃3⁃异酚恶唑脱乙基酶(EROD)和谷胱甘肽硫转移酶(GST)的影响,分别利用不同浓度的AED(0.14、1.4、14、140 nmol·L-1和420 nmol·L-1)对食蚊鱼仔鱼进行180 d的水浴暴露,同时设丙酮和空白对照组,分别于第180天取样后测定肝脏的EROD和GST活性.结果表明,与对照组相比,AED对食蚊鱼雌性幼鱼的体重和体长均起到显著的抑制作用,对食蚊鱼雄性幼鱼的体重和体长的影响不明显,只有最高浓度起抑制作用. AED对食蚊鱼幼鱼EROD的抑制作用与暴露浓度呈显著的剂量关系.各浓度组AED对雌性食蚊鱼幼鱼和雄性食蚊鱼幼鱼GST活性的影响大致呈现出倒“U”曲线的趋势.

  4. 北部湾鲔(Euthynnus affinis)的摄食习性及其随生长发育的变化%Feeding Habits and Ontogenetic Diet Shifts of Mackerel Tuna (Euthynnus affinis) in the Beibu Gulf, South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宿鑫; 李永东; 何雄波; 卢伙胜; 颜云榕

    2015-01-01

    To study the mackerel tuna (Euthynnus affinis) feeding habits and its ontogenetic diet shifts, 435 mackerel tuna were collected for an annual research from September 2008 to September 2009 in the main fishing ports such as Beihai, Basuo, Sanya and Jianghong of the Beibu Gulf, South China Sea. Results showed that the mackerel tuna of the Beibu Gulf was omnivorous and it predated not only the small pelagic fish but also the benthic fish, crustaceans and cephalopods. Pisces were dominant in the diets with the percentage of Index of Relative Importance (IRI%) of 98.57%. Among these, 21 species were identified. As indicated with IRI%, Bregmaceros rarisquamosus (45.50%), Stolephorus zollingeri (11.81%), Theyssa setirostris (5.89%), and Sardinella aurita (5.87%) were principal in the food cons-ituent. The main species changed monthly and it was Sardinella aurita in January; Bregmaceros rarisquamosus in February, March, November, December; Unidentified Pisces from April to July;Sardinella aurita in August; Leignathus riviulatus in September; Stolephorus zollingeri in October. The prey weight and numbers increased when body size of mackerel tuna was less than 340 mm (SL<340 mm), but there were decreased when body size of mackerel tuna was from 341 to 520 (341-520 mm). The spawning periods of the mackerel tuna were spring and summer, mainly from April to August. There were two spawn peaks, June and August, which were recognized by the female gonad somatic index (GSI) that maintained strong feeding intensity during the reproduction periods. Moreover, the peak periods were consistent with the water temperature of pelagic layers provided by France CATSAT fisheries remote sensing system.%基于2008年9月-2009年9月在北部湾逐月采集的435尾鲔(Euthynnus affinis)生物学数据,对鲔生长、摄食习性及其随生长发育的变化进行了分析。结果显示,北部湾鲔属于广食性鱼类,主要摄食中上层小型鱼类,另外还包括底栖鱼类、

  5. Effect of alkaline sulfite coupling low pressure steam pretreatment on ethanol production from bamboo (Neosinocalamus affinis)%碱性亚硫酸盐耦合低压蒸汽预处理对慈竹转化乙醇得率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游艳芝; 吉骊; 秦书百川; 蒋建新

    2016-01-01

    Bamboo ( Neosinocalamus affinis) is one of the ideal materials for the production of biofuels and chemicals. In this paper, a“one⁃step” method, namely the alkaline sulfite pretreatment coupling low pressure steam ( ALS⁃SE) , was used to pretreat raw matarials ( RM) to increase delignification as well as protect carbohydrates from degradation, and thus to improve the ethanol fermentation efficiency. Infrared spectrum analysis showed that ALS⁃SE pretreated liquid con⁃tained lignosulfonate. It was added as a surfactant to the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation ( SSF) . The re⁃sults showed that it effectively reduced the enzyme ineffective adsorption to the lignin and improved the fermentation effi⁃ciency. The effect of different substrate mass fraction ( 5% and 10%) , enzyme loading ( 18 U/g⁃cellulose and 24 U/g⁃cellulose) and ALS⁃SE pretreated liquid on the ethanol yield were investigated and compared. The results indicated that the“one⁃step” pretreatment could significantly increase the ethanol yield of 63.22% at its theoretical yield with the sub⁃strate mass fraction of 5% and the cellulase amount of 18 U/g⁃cellulose. This yield was about 1�18 and 0�62 times high⁃er compared with the RM without pretreatment and with low pressure steam explosion ( SE) treatment. The ethanol yield of 82�14% was achieved by increased the substrate mass fraction of 10% and cellulase dosage of 24 U/g⁃cellulose;The conversion rate of ethanol was futher increased to 85�29% with the addition of ALS⁃SE pretreated liquid as a surfactant. At the same time, the happening of side reactions of Neosinocalamus affinis in SSF was reduced.%慈竹是转化生物质燃料及化学品的理想原料之一。笔者采用优化的碱性亚硫酸盐耦合低压蒸汽爆破( ALS⁃SE)“一步法”对原料慈竹进行预处理,在脱除木质素的同时,降低碳水化合物的降解,提高转化乙醇的效率。红外光谱分析表

  6. Opsin gene analysis in the cultured kawakawa Euthynnus affinis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    松本, 太朗; 阿川, 泰夫; 岡田, 貴彦; 澤田, 好史; 石橋, 泰典

    2015-01-01

    スマはインド洋から西太平洋の亜熱帯海域に分布する回遊性資源の一種である。本種は水産資源としての商業的価値が高いにもかかわらず,生理・生態学的特性に不明な点が多い。そこで本研究は,生態学的特性や養殖時の光環境等に関係する網膜の視物質オプシン遺伝子を解析した。その結果,11種類[Rh1(桿体); Rh2A1,...

  7. Growth response and heavy metals tolerance of Axonopus affinis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2010-12-20

    Dec 20, 2010 ... assayed heavy metals, suggesting a synergistic effect between this species and the rhizobacterium in response ... soils, mainly in regions of copper and gold with great ..... enhance plant biomass production in mine tailings at.

  8. Syphacia obvelata and Radfordia affinis infection in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harslund, Jakob le Fèvre; Mandrupsen, Karina; Bollen, Peter

    serology to PCR based monitoringMaterials & methods:Drinking water containing 0.3 mg/ml fenbendazole (Panacur® Vet 10% Oral Suspension) was made by mixing 0.75 ml of Panacur® Vet with drinking water in 250 ml bottles. Precipitation in drinking water was minimized by handling the bottles on regular basis...... initiated in an attempt to eliminate the infections and to prevent future similar events: -Fenbandazole treatment in drinking water (0.3 mg/ml, 5 weeks)-Selamectin treatment topically (1.2 mg/animal, 3 weeks)-Establishment of a new quarantine facility-Revision of staff access-Change from conventional...

  9. Unilateral ovarian absence in a Black-headed Squirrel Monkey (Saimiri vanzolinii Ayres, 1985), a threatened neotropical primate species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Gerson P; Brito, Adriel B; Santos, Regiane R; Domingues, Sheyla F S; Paim, Fernanda P; Queiroz, Helder L

    2017-06-01

    Ovarian agenesis is an unusual anomaly with traumatic or congenital origin. In the present case report, we describe our findings in a senile S. vanzolinii female. As this neotropical primate species is listed as vulnerable, with limited geographic distribution in the Brazilian Amazonia, ovarian agenesis may be an important finding to be reported. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Target gene expression and morphological masculinization in mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) exposed to 17α-methyltestosterone%17α-甲基睾酮对食蚊鱼形态雄性化及目标基因表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范俊杰; 徐少群; 方展强; 温茹淑

    2013-01-01

    为研究17α-甲基睾酮(17 α-methyltestosteron,MT)对生长发育期间的雌性食蚊鱼形态雄性化及目标基因表达的影响,并探讨臀鳍雄激素受体基因(ARα) mRNA表达水平作为监测养殖水体雄激素类污染物的有效生物学标记的可行性,使用浸浴法以0.5、5、50和500 nmol/L 4个MT浓度为雌性食蚊鱼幼鱼染毒,设置对照组和平行组,暴露实验持续21 d,定量测定了幼鱼体长(BL)、体质量(BW)、身体健康指数(CF)以及臀鳍第3鳍条长度(FL)、分节数(FJ)和最宽处宽度(FW);ARα mRNA的表达水平.结果显示:与对照组相比,雌性幼鱼暴露21 d后BL、CF均没有显著变化,只有高浓度组(50和500 nmol/L)食蚊鱼的BW有显著下降(P<0.05);雌性幼鱼臀鳍第3鳍条FJ显著增加,FL随之延长,并且FW也出现显著增宽(P<0.05);雌性幼鱼暴露于MT21 d之后,ARα mRNA表达水平呈现与剂量相关的上升(P<0.05).MT的雄激素效应明显,导致雌鱼在生长发育过程中出现形态雄性化;ARα基因mRNA表达水平可作为监测养殖水体雄激素类污染物有效的生物标记.%The effects of 17a-methyltestosterone ( MT) on target gene expression and morphological masculinization in female mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) during the growth and development is studied in order to test if the level of ARa mRNA expression in mosquitofish can be considered a valid biomarker for aquaculture androgen POPs. With juvenile female mosquitofish exposed to MT with 0. 5,5,50 and 500 nmol/L for 21 d,the body length(BL) ,body weight(BW) ,body health index(CF) ,and the anal fin 3rd fin section length (FL) ,the section number (FJ) ,and the most wide department width (FW) ,as well as the level of ARa mRNA and VTGa mRNA expression were quantitatively determined by morphology and in vitro methods,and set the control group and the parallel groups. The results showed that the BL and CF in female juvenile exposed to different concentrations of MT for 21

  11. Target gene expression in Gambusia affinis exposed to 17β-estradiol, Bisphenol A and Benzo[ a] Pyrene%雌二醇、双酚A和苯并[a]芘对食蚊鱼目标基因表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊甜甜; 方展强

    2015-01-01

    比较雌二醇(E2)、双酚A(BPA)、苯并[a]芘(B[a]P)和他莫昔芬(TAM)暴露对食蚊鱼(Gambusia affinis)卵黄蛋白原基因(VTGα)、雌激素受体基因(ERα)和细胞色素P4501A基因(CYP4501A)表达的影响。结果显示,低浓度E2单独暴露诱导VTGα和ERα表达量显著上调,但高浓度E2极显著抑制VTGα、ERα和CYP4501A表达。高浓度B[a]P明显抑制VTGα表达;B[a]P对ERa表达无明显抑制作用,但致CYP4501A表达量显著上升。 BPA显著上调VTGα和ERα的表达,但低浓度BPA致CYP4501A表达显著下降。 B[a]P+高浓度E2联合暴露,致VTGα和ERα表达量显著提高,但B[a]P+低浓度E2联合暴露抑制ERα的表达。 B[a]P+E2不同浓度组均致CYP4501A表达水平呈极显著上升;B[ a] P+E2+TAM联合暴露均致VTGα、ERα和CYP4501A表达量显著或极显著增加。不同浓度组(B[a]P+BPA)均致VTGα、ERα和CYP4510A表达量显著上调;B[a]P+BPA+TAM暴露,VTGα表达量呈极显著下降,相反,均致ERα和CYP4501A的表达量显著增加。单一毒物实验与联合毒物实验的比较表明,ERα和AhR介导的生理过程机制十分复杂,通过这两个途径对外来污染物的调控跟化合物的效应浓度有关,不是单独暴露效应的简单相加或相减。另外还进行E2/BPA+B[ a] P+TAM联合暴露实验,来研究TAM对ERα受体途径和AhR受体途径的影响,结果显示TAM对两个途径均有抑制作用。%This paper compares the VTGα, ERαand C YP4501A genes expression in liver tissue of immature male mosquitofish ( Gam-busia affinis) when combined with exposure to 17β-estradiol (E2), Bisphenol A (BPA), Benzo[a]Pyrene (B[a]P) and Tamoxifen ( TAM) , in order to research the co-effects and sole-effects of exogenous hormone.The results showed that, when single exposure to low concentration of E2,VTGαand ERαexpression was significantly up-regulated, but high concentration

  12. Predictors of mercury spatial patterns in San Francisco Bay forage fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Ben K; Slotton, Darell G; Harrold, Katherine H

    2013-12-01

    Pollution reduction efforts should be targeted toward those sources that result in the highest bioaccumulation. For mercury (Hg) in estuaries and other complex water bodies, carefully designed biosentinel monitoring programs can help identify predictors of bioaccumulation and inform management priorities for source reduction. This study employed a probabilistic forage fish Hg survey with hypothesis testing in San Francisco Bay (California, USA). The goal was to determine what pollution sources, regions, and landscape features were associated with elevated Hg bioaccumulation. Across 99 sites, whole-body Hg concentrations in Mississippi silversides (Menidia audens) and topsmelt (Atherinops affinis) followed a broad spatial gradient, declining with distance from the Guadalupe River (Pearson's r = -0.69 and -0.42, respectively), which drains historic mining areas. Site landscape attributes and local Hg sources had subtle effects, which differed between fish species. Topsmelt Hg increased in embayment sites (i.e., enclosed sites including channels, creek mouths, marinas, and coves) and sites with historic Hg-contaminated sediment, suggesting an influence of legacy industrial and mining contamination. In 2008, Mississippi silverside Hg was reduced at sites draining wastewater-treatment plants. Fish Hg was not related to abundance of surrounding wetland cover but was elevated in some watersheds draining from historic Hg-mining operations. Results indicated both regional and site-specific influences for Hg bioaccumulation in San Francisco Bay, including legacy contamination and proximity to treated wastewater discharge. © 2013 SETAC.

  13. Radioactive zinc ( sup 65 Zn), zinc, cadmium, and mercury in the Pacific Hake, Merluccius productus (Ayres), off the West Coast of the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naidu, J.R.

    1974-06-01

    The Pacific Hake, Merluccius productus (Ayers) was used to monitor the waters off Puget Sound and the West Coast of the US for zinc(Zn), cadmium(Cd), mercury(Hg) and {sup 65}Zn. The Columbia River is not the source of Zn, Cd or Hg contamination, but is the source of {sup 65}Zn, with the concentration in the Hake reflecting the position of the Columbia River plume. Zn and Cd accumulation in the Hake were fit to the equation Y=B{sub 1}+B{sub 2}e{sup B}{sub 3}X where Y is the concentration of the element and X is the length or weight of the fish. Biological attributes were assigned to the other parameters as follows: B{sub 1} is the asymptotic value for Zn or Cd at chemical maturity; B{sub 2} is the location of the curve with respect to the length or weight of the fish; and B{sub 3} is a constant pertaining to the rate of change of Zn or Cd. Although Zn, Cd and Hg are all Group 2B elements, only the concentrations of Zn and Cd were correlated for all locations; Hg concentrations varied as a function of location. Zn and Cd concentrations increase with fish size and approach an asymptotic value at maturity, while Hg concentrations were linear and the slope is a function of sampling location. Zn and Cd levels are regulated in the adult, while Hg continues to increase with age. It may be significant that the age distribution of fish caught commercially coincides with the maximum concentration of Zn and Cd. 195 refs., 30 figs., 10 tabs. (MHB)

  14. Radioactive zinc ( sup 65 Zn), zinc, cadmium and mercury in the Pacific Hake Merluccius productus (AYRES), off the West Coast of the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naidu, J.R.; Cutshall, N.H.

    1974-08-01

    This report presents the results of analyses of several hundred Pacific Hake, Merluccius productus, for zinc (Zn), zinc-65 ({sup 65}Zn), cadmium (Cd), and mercury (Hg). The fish were collected off the coast of the western United States in 1969--1972. In addition, some data from mercury analyses of fresh and seawater samples collected in 1970--1973 are presented. The contents of this report were used in the author's doctoral thesis. A majority (80%) of the hake samples were collected during July and August 1969, from 32{degrees}N to 48{degrees}N along the western coast of the United States. Most of the samples of Pacific Hake, Merluccius productus, were collected by Russian scientists on board PROFESSOR DERYUGIN, in collaboration with the US Bureau of Commercial Fisheries (now, National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS)) in July and August 1969. Additional samples were collected by NMFS vessels, JOHN N. COBB, BARON AND COMMANDO, and by the Oregon State University of Oceanography CAYUSE and YAQUINA in 1969--1972. Location of sampling stations and a summary of data collected are presented. 5 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Comparison of selected lift and sideslip characteristics of the Ayres Thrush S2R-800, winglets off and winglets on, to full-scale wind-tunnel data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roskam, J.; Williams, M.

    1981-01-01

    All calculations were done in the stability axes system. The winglets used were constructed of modified GA(w)-2 airfoils. Aerodynamic characteristics discussed include: angle of attack; lift-curve slope; side force; yawing moments; rolling moments.

  16. Psikolojik Sermaye, Performans, Ayrılma Niyeti ve İş Tatmini Etkileşimi: Cinsiyetin Düzenleyici Rolü

    OpenAIRE

    Fatih Çetin; A. Kadir VAROĞLU

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to explore the effects of the psychological capital on job satisfaction, job performance and intention to quit and to determine the mediator and moderator roles of job satisfaction and gender in these relations. Focusing just the relations between variables, the data were collected with using survey method from 237 employees working different positions in a large scale private company in Ankara. The instruments were psychological capital scale (Luthans et al,...

  17. Utilization by fishes of the Alviso Island ponds and adjacent waters in south san francisco bay following restoration to tidal influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiki, M.K.; Mejia, F.H.

    2009-01-01

    Earthen levees of three isolated salt ponds known locally as the Alviso Island Ponds were intentionally breached in March 2006 to allow tidal exchange of the ponds with water from Coyote Creek. The water exchange transformed the previously fishless hypersaline ponds into lower salinity habitats suitable for fish life. This study documented fish utilization of the ponds, adjacent reaches of Coyote Creek, and an upstream reach in nearby Artesian Slough during May-July 2006. By the time the study was initiated, water quality conditions in the ponds were similar to conditions in adjacent reaches of Coyote Creek. The only variable exhibiting a strong gradient within the study area was salinity, which increased progressively from upstream to downstream in Coyote Creek. A total of 4,034 fish represented by 18 species from 14 families was caught during the study. Judging from cluster analysis of presence-absence data that excluded rare fish species, the 10 sampling units (3 ponds, 6 reaches in Coyote Creek, and 1 reach in Artesian Slough) formed two clusters or groups, suggesting two species assemblages. The existence of two groups was also suggested by ordination with non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMS). One group, which was composed of the three ponds and four of the lowermost reaches of Coyote Creek, was characterized by mostly estuarine or marine species (e.g., topsmelt, Atherinops affinis; northern anchovy, Engraulis mordax; and longjaw mudsucker, Gillichthys mirabilis). The second group, which was composed of the two uppermost reaches of Coyote Creek and the one reach of Artesian Slough, was characterized by freshwater species (e.g., Sacramento sucker, Catostomus occidentalis) and by an absence of the estuarine/marine species noted in the first assemblage. Judging from a joint plot of selected water quality variables overlaying the ordination results, salinity was the only important variable associated with spatial distribution of fish species. Water

  18. Using an integrated approach to link biomarker responses and physiological stress to growth impairment of cadmium-exposed larval topsmelt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, Wendy L. [Bodega Marine Laboratory, University of California Davis, Bodega Bay, CA 94923 (United States)]. E-mail: Wendy.Rose@WestonSolutions.com; Nisbet, Roger M. [Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Marine Biology, University of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Green, Peter G. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Norris, Sarah [Department of Land, Air, and Water Resources, University of California Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Fan, Teresa [Department of Land, Air, and Water Resources, University of California Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40208 (United States); Smith, Edmund H. [Bodega Marine Laboratory, University of California Davis, Bodega Bay, CA 94923 (United States); Smith and Associates, Sebastopol, CA 95472 (United States); Cherr, Gary N. [Bodega Marine Laboratory, University of California Davis, Bodega Bay, CA 94923 (United States); Departments of Environmental Toxicology and Nutrition, University of California Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Anderson, Susan L. [Bodega Marine Laboratory, University of California Davis, Bodega Bay, CA 94923 (United States)

    2006-12-01

    In this study, we used an integrated approach to determine whether key biochemical, cellular, and physiological responses were related to growth impairment of cadmium (Cd)-exposed larval topsmelt (Atherinops affinis). Food intake (Artemia franciscana nauplii), oxygen consumption rates, apoptotic DNA fragmentation (TUNEL assay), and metallothionein (MT)-like protein levels, were separately measured in relation to growth of larval topsmelt aqueously exposed to sublethal doses of Cd for 14 days. Cadmium accumulation and concentrations of abundant metals were also evaluated in a subset of fish. Fish in the highest Cd treatments (50 and 100 ppb Cd) were smaller in final mean weight and length, and consumed fewer A. franciscana nauplii than control fish. Food intake was positively correlated with final weight of larval topsmelt in Cd and control treatments; food intake increased as final weight of the fish increased. Oxygen consumption rates were positively correlated with Cd concentration and mean oxygen consumption rates were inversely correlated with final mean weight of topsmelt; the smallest fish were found in the highest Cd treatment and were respiring at higher rates than control fish. Apoptotic DNA fragmentation was concentration-dependent and was associated with diminished growth. Apoptotic DNA fragmentation was elevated in the gill of fish exposed to 50 ppb Cd, and in the gut, gill, and liver of fish exposed to 100 ppb Cd. Metallothionein (MT)-like protein levels in fish from 100 ppb Cd treatments were significantly higher than those in other treatments. Oxygen consumption rates may have increased as a compensatory response to Cd exposure. However, it is likely that the energy produced was allocated to an increased metabolic demand due to apoptosis, MT synthesis, and changes in ion regulation. This diversion of energy expenditures could contribute to growth impairment of Cd-exposed fish.

  19. Use of western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) as a sentinel species in pollution studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawkins, W.E.; Overstreet, T.M.; Walker, W.W. [Gulf Coast Research Lab., Ocean Springs, MS (United States); Law, J.M. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States). School of Veterinary Medicine

    1994-12-31

    Because of its introductions as a pest control agent, its tolerance to salinity and pollution, and its fecundity, the mosquitofish is perhaps the most widely distributed freshwater fish species in the world. Nevertheless, it has not been exploited as an environmental sentinel species. In addition to its wide distribution, the mosquitofish has several attributes that make it appropriate for biomarker studies of various types. Populations have a limited home range which means they provide a biologic history of their ambient environmental conditions. They are easily adapted to laboratory conditions and the small size of individuals facilitates histopathological studies. Recent studies at this laboratory examined mosquitofish from various environmentally distinct sites. Results showed that parasitism of mosquitofish reflected ecological completeness and that certain histological features such as degree of melanization, presence of pigment deposits, and cell and tissue integrity generally reflected the ecological condition of the collection site.

  20. Bioindicators from Mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) Sampled from the Imperial Valley in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Jill A.; Draugelis-Dale, Rassa O.

    2006-01-01

    The Sonny Bono Salton Sea National Wildlife Refuge (SSNWR) is located 64 km north of the Mexican border at the southern end of the Salton Sea in California's Imperial Valley. Freshwater ponds and managed habitats at the SSNWR, Calipatria, Calif. are supplied with Colorado River water that carries compounds from upstream sources. Components include municipal and industrial discharges, agricultural drainage, and sewage plant inputs. Aquatic animals in these ecosystems are continuously exposed to multiple constituents, several of which have been demonstrated to be associated with hormonal disturbances. We investigated possible endocrine impacts to fish in the Imperial Valley, Calif., by addressing the null hypothesis that aquatic species in impacted sites did not exhibit evidence of endocrine disruption as compared with those from nonimpacted sites. The results presented are intended to provide managers with science-based information and interpretations about the condition of the animals in their ecosystems for the minimization of potential adverse effects to trust fish and wildlife resources and for the maximization of available water resources.

  1. Physiological and cytological aspects of Inga vera subsp. affinis embryos during storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faria, J.M.R.; Davide, L.C.; Silva, da E.A.A.; Davide, A.C.; Pereira, R.C.P.; Lammeren, van A.A.M.; Hilhorst, H.W.M.

    2006-01-01

    The remarkably short storability of recalcitrant seeds has prevented their inclusion in programs of ex situ conservation. The causes of their desiccation sensitivity and rapid decline in viability during storage are not fully elucidated yet. In this study the highly recalcitrant, fully viable

  2. Low genetic variation suggest single stock of Kawakawa Euthynnus affinis (Cantor, 1849) along the Indian coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    GirishKumar; Kunal, S.P.; Menezes, M.R.

    -Blair, Tuticorin, Pondicherry and Vizag) along the Indian coast. A 500 bp segment of mitochondrial D-loop region was screened in 400 samples using six restriction enzymes (Rsa I, Alu I, Hinf I, Hha I, Msp I and Hae III), resulting in 13 composite morphs. Analysis...

  3. Bioindicators from Mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) Sampled from the Imperial Valley in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Jill A.; Draugelis-Dale, Rassa O.

    2006-01-01

    The Sonny Bono Salton Sea National Wildlife Refuge (SSNWR) is located 64 km north of the Mexican border at the southern end of the Salton Sea in California's Imperial Valley. Freshwater ponds and managed habitats at the SSNWR, Calipatria, Calif. are supplied with Colorado River water that carries compounds from upstream sources. Components include municipal and industrial discharges, agricultural drainage, and sewage plant inputs. Aquatic animals in these ecosystems are continuously exposed to multiple constituents, several of which have been demonstrated to be associated with hormonal disturbances. We investigated possible endocrine impacts to fish in the Imperial Valley, Calif., by addressing the null hypothesis that aquatic species in impacted sites did not exhibit evidence of endocrine disruption as compared with those from nonimpacted sites. The results presented are intended to provide managers with science-based information and interpretations about the condition of the animals in their ecosystems for the minimization of potential adverse effects to trust fish and wildlife resources and for the maximization of available water resources.

  4. Physiological improvement in the copepod Eurytemora affinis through thermal and multi-generational selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Souissi, Anissa; Souissi, Sami; Hansen, Benni Winding

    2016-01-01

    . First two different copepod lines were obtained after long-term culture at constant cold (7°C) and warm (20°C) temperatures. Then both populations were transferred to a higher temperature of 24°C appropriate for aquaculture use and followed during five generations. During the first two generations (F1–F...

  5. 食蚊鱼生态入侵的研究进展%Ecological invasion of Gambusia affinis: A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严云志; 陈毅峰; 陶捐

    2009-01-01

    食蚊鱼原产于中、北美洲,由于被认为可用以控制蚊子,而于20世纪初被世界各地大量引种,现已成为全球性分布的外来入侵种之一.尽管食蚊鱼的控蚊效果尚存争议,但有一点却成不争事实,即该外来入侵种已经对世界各地的土著物种(无脊椎动物、鱼类和两栖类等)、生态系统以及水体环境都构成了巨大的影响.本文从食蚊鱼的生物学特性、入侵机制、控蚊效果和生态效应等4方面对目前有关该外来入侵种的研究结果进行了归纳和总结,并为该物种的管理和控制提出了建议性策略和措施,以期为中国的外来入侵种研究及其管理和控制提供基础资料及参考依据.

  6. 食蚊鱼泌尿系统结构%STRUCTURE OF THE URINARY SYSTEM OF GAMBUSIA AFFINIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    车静; 张耀光; 岳兴建; 王志坚

    2002-01-01

    食蚊鱼泌尿系统包括中肾、输尿管、膀胱.中肾分化程度较低,包括肾小体和肾小管,无皮质、髓质之分,有肾小体聚集现象.肾小管由颈段、第一近曲小管、第二近曲小管、间段、远曲小管及搜集管组成.第一近曲小管上皮中有嗜伊红油滴细胞.肾中散布有淋巴髓样组织、甲状腺滤泡,因此肾脏为多种生理功能的复合性器官.输尿管位于两肾叶腹侧,粘膜层为单层柱状或假复层柱状上皮,缺粘膜下层,无纵肌,外膜甚薄或缺如.左右输尿管在后端合并,移行一段后突出形成膀胱.膀胱内壁具绒毛,绒毛表面为移行上皮.

  7. Naphthalene induced activities on growth, respiratory metabolism and biochemical composition in juveniles of Metapenaeus affinis (H.Milne Edward, 1837)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ansari, Z.A.; Farshchi, P.; Faniband, M.

    and only 5.22% in 0.25 ppm. Metabolic index assessed in terms of oxygen consumption showed a reduction in respiratory rate up to 44.4% in prawns exposed to naphthalene. Activity increased initially but reduced subsequently. Protein content and organic...

  8. Ultrasound-enhanced extraction of lignin from bamboo (Neosinocalamus affinis): characterization of the ethanol-soluble fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming-Fei; Sun, Shao-Ni; Xu, Feng; Sun, Run-Cang

    2012-03-01

    Bamboo was submitted to ultrasound-assisted extraction in aqueous ethanol to evaluate the effect of ultrasonic irradiation on the dissolution of lignin. In this case, the dewaxed bamboo culms were subjected to ball milling for 48 h, and then were suspended in 95% ethanol followed by ultrasonic irradiations for varied times at 20 °C to obtain ethanol-soluble fractions. The structural and thermal properties of the ethanol-soluble fractions were comparatively investigated by chemical analysis including alkaline nitrobenzene oxidation, bound carbohydrate determination, FT-IR spectra, HSQC spectra, TG, and DTA. The results showed that the yields of the ethanol-soluble fractions were between 4.29% and 4.76% for the fractions prepared with ultrasonic irradiation time ranging from 5 to 55 min, as compared to 4.02% for the fraction prepared without ultrasonic irradiation. It was found that the lignin content of the fraction increased with the increase of the ultrasonic irradiation time. There was a slight increase of the molecular weight of the lignin with the increase of the ultrasonic irradiation time. Alkaline nitrobenzene oxidation coupled with HSQC analysis indicated that the lignin in the fractions was mainly composed of GSH type units as well as minor amounts of ferulic acids. In addition, the fraction prepared with ultrasonic irradiation exhibited a slightly higher thermal stability as compared to the fraction prepared without ultrasonic irradiation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Biological and Host Range Studies with Bagous affinis, An Indian Weevil that Destroys Hydrilla Tubers. Aquatic Plant Control Research Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-12-01

    of Entomology and Nematology Institute of Food and Agriculture Services University of Florida Gainesville, FL 32606 Final report Approved for public...FL 32614-7100 Department of Entomology and Nematology , Institute of Food and Agriculture Services, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32606 9

  10. L’italiano degli immigrati ispanofoni. L’influenza della lingua1 nell’apprendimento di lingue affini

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    A causa di un costante aumento dei flussi migratori provenienti dal Sud America, gli ispanofoni formano oggigiorno uno dei gruppi più consistenti di stranieri che apprendono l’italiano. Considerando la notevole somiglianza fra le due lingue, a livello non solo lessicale ma anche strutturale, risulta immediato ipotizzare che la loro competenza nella L2 possa raggiungere, in tempi relativamente brevi, livelli molto elevati. Il lavoro si propone due obiettivi principali: quello di analizzare le ...

  11. L’italiano degli immigrati ispanofoni. L’influenza della lingua1 nell’apprendimento di lingue affini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Maria Ferrario

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A causa di un costante aumento dei flussi migratori provenienti dal Sud America, gli ispanofoni formano oggigiorno uno dei gruppi più consistenti di stranieri che apprendono l’italiano. Considerando la notevole somiglianza fra le due lingue, a livello non solo lessicale ma anche strutturale, risulta immediato ipotizzare che la loro competenza nella L2 possa raggiungere, in tempi relativamente brevi, livelli molto elevati. Il lavoro si propone due obiettivi principali: quello di analizzare le diverse fasi del processo di acquisizione dell’italiano da parte di ispanofoni e quello di verificare il loro effettivo raggiungimento della piena competenza in L2. Per fare ciò, è stata condotta un’indagine su un campione di settantadue immigrati, ai quali è stato proposto un test scritto, costituito da esercizi mirati, atti a verificare le interferenze con lo spagnolo e le strategie linguistiche utilizzate nel tentativo di apprendere l’italiano.  The italian language spoken by spanish-speaking immigrants. The influence of mother tongue on the learning of similar languages Because of the steady increase inthe flow of migration from South America, Spanish-speakers are nowadays one of the largest groups of foreigners who learn Italian. Considering the remarkable similarity between the two languages, not only in terms of vocabulary but also in terms of structure, it iseasy to assumethat Spanish-speakers can achieve very high levels of competence in Italian L2 in a relatively short time. This paper has two main objectives. The first is to analyze the different phases of Italian language acquisition by Spanish-speaking immigrants. The second is to verify their actual competence in Italian L2. A study was conducted involving a sample of seventy-two immigrants. This group completed a written test consisting of specific exercises designed to check for interference from the Spanish language in order to consider the strategies they adoptedin their attempt to learn Italian.

  12. Néstor Cremonte, La Gazeta de Buenos Ayres de 1810. Luces y sombras de la ilustración revolucionaria : La Plata, EDULP, 2010, 302 páginas.

    OpenAIRE

    Forace, Virginia P.

    2012-01-01

    El autor, Magister en Letras Hispánicas por la Universidad de Mar del Plata y egresado en Ciencias Exactas por la UNLP, realizó una tecnicatura en periodismo y se especializó en comunicación mediática. Esta formación, junto con otras prácticas literarias (publicó una novela llamada La Noche de James en 2008) hacen que su libro se nutra de instrumentos conceptuales de diferentes áreas —como la comunicación mediática, la sociología, la antropología cultural, la economía política, el análisis de...

  13. Örgütsel Bağlılık: Çalışanların Kurumda Kalma ya da Kurumdan Ayrılma Kararının Bir Belirleyicisi

    OpenAIRE

    DUYGULU, Dr. Sergül; ABAAN, Doç. Dr. Süheyla

    2007-01-01

    One of the important determinants of employee' intention to stay in or leave from organization is organizational commitment. Maintaining organizational commitment is an essential element in human resources management. Nursing management develops policies to support the organizational commitment, quality of work life and organizational integration of nurses. This article reviews the concept of organizational commitment, basic approaches to organizational commitment, determinants of o...

  14. Ergenlerde Ayrışma Bireyleşme ile Okul Zorbalığı Arasındaki İlişkinin İncelenmesi1

    OpenAIRE

    Güven, Mehmet; ASLAN, Sevda

    2014-01-01

    In this study it is aimed to determine the relationship between separation individuation and bullying and analyse the separation individuation and bullying levels in high school students according to some variables 416 students from three high school students in Ankara participated in this study High School Form of the Separation Individuation Scale of Adolescence Student Relationships Attitude Scale SRAS and Personal Data Form were used in this study T test one way anova and Pearson...

  15. Nef’i’nin Kasidelerinde Mübalağa Sanatındaki Ayrıntılar Details of the Hypperbolısm in the Odes of Nef’i

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali BALALAN

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Nef’i is one of the most powerful ode and satirical poet of Divan literature. He had used all the details of hyperbolisim in his poems. He had used the hyperbolisim by using the power of poetry but at the same time he had not disturb the imagination of the readers while using the hyperbolisim. In order to lighten the mood of hyperbole he always left some doors open. Greatness of sultans are explained in the hyperbolisim related tothe parise of the sultans. Love towards the horses is not an ordinarybare love. He uses horse as an image by giving different meanings. Inhis satires he criticizes in a strong way just the opposite of hispraisings. The explanation of cosmic universe gives chance to explainthe ideas in an indirect way. In the odes of Nef-i the realities areexplained in degrees. In order to understand the meaning of his words,these degrees should be analised in detailes. He had resembled hiswords as an closed magazine. This feature also shows the walue of hisworks. In this ode Nef-i tries to Express the importance of the meaningof the words rather than the structures of the sentences.The poet sometimes sees himself as an diver who searches pear inthe sea of meaning. Sea symbolises the meaning of hugeness,greatness, foreverness. Sea represents the soul of poet and thinkingvisdom of poems. The poet had tried to explain his dream world whenhe had used the hyperbolisim in his poems. While he was exaggeratingthe events, he had tried to explain the hiden reality and he had alsotried to show the most extraordinarry events as ordinary tings.Theability of using hyperbolisim in his poems comes from this feature. Nef’i, Divan edebiyatının en güçlü kaside ve hiciv şairidir. Nef’i, kasidelerinde mübalağa sanatının bütün detaylarını işlemiştir. Şiirin üst dilinden yararlanarak mübalağa sanatını en iyi kullanan sanatçı, okuyucunun hayalini incitmemiştir. Şiirlerindeki aşırı abartıyı yumuşatmak için mutlaka bir açık kapı bırakmıştır. Bu çalışmada Nef’î’nin kasidelerinde mübalağa sanatının olduğu beyitler taranmış, padişaha övgü bölümünde; padişahın kadrinin yüceliği, şan ve ihtişam sahibi olması dile getiriliyor. At sevgisi bölümünde, ata duyulan sevgi kuru bir sevda değildir. Onu imgesel boyutta kullanarak ata farklı çağrışımlar yükler. Hiciv de ise övdüğü kişileri nasıl göklere çıkarıyorsa eleştirdiği kişileri de yerin dibine batırıyor. Kozmik âlem şairde doğrudan söyleyemediklerini dolaylı yoldan söyleme fırsatı verir. Söz ve mana konusuna gelince Nef’i’nin kasidelerinde hakikatler katman katmandır. Sözlerinin tam anlaşılması için bu katmanların aralanması gerekir. Kendisi de sözlerini gizli saklı tutulan bir mecmuaya benzetmektedir. Bu da onun eserlerinin ne kadar değerli olduğunu göstermektedir. İncelediğimiz bu kasidelerdeki beyitlerde Nef’i, sözden ziyade mana üzerinde durmaktadır. Şair bazen kendini mana denizinde inci arayan bir dalgıç olarak görüyor. Büyüklük, genişlik, sonsuzluk anlamlarını taşıyan deniz aslında şairin gönlü ve şiir düşünme yeteneği olan zekâsıdır. Şair, mübalağa sanatını kullanırken, hayal dünyasının derinliklerinde gezinmiştir. Okuyucuyu taşkınlığa sürükleyerek, bu kadar da olmaz dedirttikten sonra beytin arka planındaki hakikatleri açıklamış en olmayacak şeyleri olağan gibi göstermiştir. Mübalağa sanatını kullanma becerisi de bundan kaynaklanmaktadır.

  16. Infection of Gambusia affinis with Bothriocephalus acheilognathi in Laboratory%(鱊)头槽绦虫在食蚊鱼中的感染实验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程喆; 李洪涛; 王彦海

    2009-01-01

    在实验室条件下对寄生于食蚊鱼肠道中的(鱊)头槽绦虫Bothriocephalus acheilognathi Yamaguti,1934生活史进行了研究.结果表明(鱊)头槽绦虫完成生活史只需要一个中间宿主.该虫种虫卵自孕节排出,在0.85%生理盐水中于23℃~26℃条件下经过20 h形成六钩蚴;40~50 h后,在周身纤毛的作用下,钩球蚴顶开卵盖从卵壳内孵出.在培养液中可以看到游动的钩毛蚴.用自由的钩毛蚴感染广布中剑水蚤.8天后,在剑水蚤体内可见有发育完全的原尾蚴(22℃~25℃).原尾蚴在中间宿主体内可存活20天以上,此时用剑水蚤感染阴性食蚊鱼.本次实验中可以观察到在鱼体内发育57天的幼虫.

  17. Histological Studies of the Oogenesis of Gambusia affinis%食蚊鱼卵子发生的组织学观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志坚; 罗虹; 张耀光

    2008-01-01

    食蚊鱼卵子发育过程分为6个时相.第1时相,卵原细胞细胞质较少,核质比较大.第2时相,卵母细胞体积增加迅速,核质比显著减小,细胞质强嗜碱性,滤泡细胞出现.到晚期,有卵黄核及类生长环的出现,这两种结构均和卵黄物质的形成有关.第3时相,卵母细胞嗜碱性减弱,卵黄泡从膜内缘开始出现,逐渐充满细胞质.颗粒层滤泡细胞互相堆积成舌状镶嵌入卵膜,并使放射带凹凸不平,称为镶嵌型滤泡.第4时相,卵母细胞体积增加较快,卵黄泡消失,卵黄物质逐渐充满细胞质,细胞核移至边缘.第5时相,滤泡细胞脱落,成为成熟卵,卵黄物质均匀散布,卵膜极薄.第6时相,未受精卵和滤泡细胞逐渐退化,被吸收.

  18. Histological Observation of Digestive System of Gambusia affinis%食蚊鱼消化系统的组织学观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘娟娟; 蒲德永; 罗虹; 王志坚

    2006-01-01

    食蚊鱼的消化道由口咽腔、食道、肠和肛门组成.口咽腔内有味蕾分布.食道粘膜为复层扁平上皮,粘膜内有粘液细胞.肠可分为前后两段,皱襞高度、肌层厚度有差异.消化腺包括肝脏和胰腺.肝小叶不明显,雌雄肝脏的显微结构不同.胰腺呈弥散型,一部分分布在肝脏内,另一部分和消化道伴生.讨论了食蚊鱼消化系统的特点与食性的关系.

  19. 食蚊鱼对白纹伊蚊的捕食作用研究%Predation of Gambusia affinis (Baird et Girard) to Aedes albopictus Skuse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽娟; 曹玉江; 张国权; 童晓立

    2008-01-01

    目的 了解食蚊鱼对白纹伊蚊幼虫的捕食规律性变化,以及光对食蚊鱼捕食的影响.方法 将1 d的24 h划分为8个时间段,统计每个时间段食蚊鱼的捕食量,并计算捕食速率.设计光照和黑暗处理,观察光对食蚊鱼捕食的影响.结果 食蚊鱼雌雄鱼对白纹伊蚊幼虫的平均日捕食量分别为64和22头.食蚊鱼在24 h内对白纹伊蚊幼虫的捕食行为集中在试验开始后的0 h~6 h,捕食量(Na)随着时间(t)的变化而变化,雌鱼捕食量与时间关系模型为Na=42.71/(1+e1.7602-0.2210t),雄鱼为Na=21.91/(1+e1.5437-0.2189t);捕食速率(V)与时间段(x)的关系呈负指数趋势下降;食蚊鱼雌鱼在光照情况下的捕食量明显高于无光照时的捕食量.结论 光照和自身饥饿程度均能影响食蚊鱼的捕食量,可为利用食蚊鱼灭蚊提供参考依据.

  20. EAG responses to host-based attractants and temporal patterns in host-seeking flight of Xyleborus glabratus, X. affinis, and X. ferrugineus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff, is an exotic wood-boring insect that vectors the mycopathogen responsible for laurel wilt, a lethal vascular disease of trees in the Lauraceae, including avocado (Persea americana Mill.). Effective semiochemical-based detection and control p...

  1. Quantification of vitellogenin mRNA induction in mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) by reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leusch, F D L; Van den Heuvel, M R; Laurie, A D; Chapman, H F; Gooneratne, S Ravi; Tremblay, L A

    2005-01-01

    A method to quantify induction of vitellogenin (Vtg) mRNA in adult male mosquitofish was developed. Male mosquitofish were exposed to 0, 1, 20 and 250 ng l(-1) 17beta-oestradiol (E(2)) for 4 and 8 days in static exposures, and liver Vtg mRNA and 18S rRNA expression were quantified in duplex RT-PCR. Liver 18S rRNA expression was very consistent among individuals, and there was a highly significant increase in Vtg mRNA expression after exposure of mosquitofish for just 4 days at 250 ng l(-1) E(2). Lower doses did not induce Vtg mRNA expression even at 4 or 8 days. This method could be used as a rapid test to detect exposure of mosquitofish to oestrogenic chemicals. Further work is needed to determine if increased Vtg mRNA levels in male mosquitofish induce Vtg synthesis, and to determine the usefulness of the method in field sampling.

  2. Starch gel analysis of allozyme frequencies in mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) populations on a dioxin contaminated site/drainage in north Louisiana

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This study compared the genetic variability of Louisiana mosquitofish at 15 sites in a dioxincontaminated watershed and one site outside the watershed. Allozyme...

  3. L’INFLUENZA DELLA L1 NELL’APPRENDIMENTO DI LINGUE AFFINI: ANALISI DELLE INTERFERENZE LINGUISTICHE DI ISPANOFONI APPRENDENTI L’ITALIANO COME LINGUA STRANIERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Maggioni

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Nell'apprendimento dell'italiano come lingua straniera da parte di ispanofoni l'affinità tra L1 ed L2 emerge come un'arma a doppio taglio: nella fase iniziale facilita l'apprendimento e la comunicazione in LS, ma, una volta raggiunto un livello intermedio nella LS, tale parentela causa un gran numero di fenomeni di transfer dalla L1 con errori che rischiano di fossilizzarsi nel tempo e che richiedono pertanto un'attenzione particolare per essere corretti. In questo lavoro di ricerca, svolto presso il Liceo Scientifico E. Fermi della Scuola Statale Italiana di Madrid, sono stati rilevati i fenomeni di transfer negativo presenti nelle produzioni scritte e orali degli studenti madrelingua spagnoli. Le occorrenze piú frequenti sono state raggruppate in tre ambiti principali: fonologico, morfologico e lessicale.   For Spanish speakers learning Italian as a foreign language, the affinity between L1 and L2 is a double-edged sword: in the initial phase, it facilitates learning and communication in the FL, but once it they have reached an intermediate level in the foreign language, the similarity causes a lot of transfer from the L1 with errors that risk becoming fossilized over time and require particular attention so that they are corrected. In this study, carried out at the Liceo Scientifico E. Fermi at the Scuola Statale Italiana in Madrid, negative transfer phenomena in the oral and written production of mother tongue Spanish speakers were found. The most frequent occurences were grouped into three main areas: phonological, morphological and lexical

  4. Single genetic stock of kawakawa Euthynnus affinis (Cantor, 1849) along the Indian coast inferred from sequence analyses of mitochondrial DNA D-loop region

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    GirishKumar; Kunal, S.P.; Menezes, M.R.; Meena, R.

    /monsoonal fluctuations in a shallow marine depositional setting. To develop this tool into a potential paleoclimatic/ oceanographic proxy and to link it to other proxies within a chronological framework, needs high resolution sampling and age dating... the transgressive surface (Karisiddaiah et al., 2002). Presence of acoustic blanking suggests the occurrence of shallow gases (Siddiquie et al., 1981; Karisiddaiah, and Veerayya, 1996; Mazumdar et al., 2009). 210 Pb-excess ( 210 Pb xs ) based estimation...

  5. The weevil genus Achia champion (Coleoptera: Curculionidae): new species associate with urvillea (Sapindaceae) and New Serjania Host Plant records for A. ancile Burke and A. affinis Hustache

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three new species of the weevil genus Achia Champion are described: A. urvilleae Clark and Burke from the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil and Misiones Province, Argentina; A. uniformis Clark and Burke from Bolivia; and A. boliviana Clark and Burke from Bolivia and Salta and Santiago del Estero prov...

  6. Xyleborus glabratus, X. affinis, and X. ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae): Electroantennogram responses to host-based attractants and temporal patterns in host-seeking flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff, is an exotic wood-boring insect that vectors the mycopathogen responsible for laurel wilt, a lethal vascular disease of trees in the Lauraceae, including avocado (Persea americana Mill.). Effective semiochemical-based detection and control p...

  7. Cloning of cat, gapdh and gst Genes of Gambusia affinis and Its Application in Ecotoxicology%食蚊鱼(Gambusia affinis)cat、gapdh和gst基因的克隆及其在生态毒理学中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧瑞康; 武小燕; 库培佳; 王兰; 苏甜; 梁惜梅; 聂湘平

    2015-01-01

    根据Ensembl、Genbank登录的鱼类cat、gapdh和gst基因的CDS序列设计普通PCR扩增引物,寻找食蚊鱼的cat、gapdh和gst基因的cDNA片段,并根据定量引物设计要求设计出相应的SYBR Green Ⅰ荧光定量RT-qPCR引物,建立了食蚊鱼cat、gapdh和gst基因的SYBR GreenⅠ荧光定量RT-qPCR方法.该方法在104~108数量级范围内有良好线性关系(R=0.999~1.000);熔解曲线显示扩增产物特异性良好,均为单一峰值;质粒标准品最高浓度与最低浓度的批内试验变异系数与批间试验变异系数均低于2%.利用该方法监测和评价环境污染物对水生生物的影响,选择了水体中常见典型药物污染物——双氯芬酸,研究其对食蚊鱼抗氧化基因表达的影响.结果表明,雌性食蚊鱼暴露在不同浓度双氯芬酸钠(0.005、0.05、0.5和5 mg· L-1)24h后,其肝脏cat、gapdh和gst的mRNA呈现显著变化,相对于对照组,在低浓度0.005 mg· L-1时,cat与gst mRNA的表达量均有极显著上升(p<0.01),而其它浓度均极显著下降(p<0.01).试验表明该方法具有快速、精确、灵敏度高的优点,可为利用该类小型鱼类的原位污染物的生物监测和生态毒理评价提供有力的技术支持.

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-RNOR-03-0485 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-RNOR-03-0485 gb|AAY43481.1| NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 [Milvus migrans affin...is] gb|AAY43482.1| NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 [Milvus migrans affinis] gb|AAY43483.1| NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 [Mil...vus migrans affinis] gb|AAY43484.1| NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 [Milvus migrans affinis] AAY43481.1 0.32 25% ...

  9. Örgütsel Politika Algısının İhmalkârlık Üzerindeki Etkisinde İşten Ayrılma Niyetinin Aracı Rolü(Intention to Quit as A Mediator of The Relationship between Perceptions of Organizational Politics and Neglect of Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ufuk BAŞAR

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to uncover whether employees’ perceptions of organizational politics have positive effect on both intention to quit and neglect of work as well as intention to quit has a mediating role in this process. Research data were collected from a total of 314 employees who work at central managerial department of a public organization, in Ankara, in October 2015 by means of questionnaire. Data were analyzed through regression analyses over structural equation models. Findings supported the approach that evaluates organizational politics as a threat to employees’ well being. According to the findings participants’ perceptions of organizational politics resulted in both intention to quit and neglect of work. Besides that, participants’ intention to quit mediated the effect of perceptions of organizational politics on neglect of work.

  10. Marka Yayma Stratejilerinde Ürün Benzerliğinin Etkisi ve Üç Ayrı Marka Üzerinde Bir Uygulama = The Effects of Product Sımilarities on Brand Extension Strategies and a Practice on Three Different Brands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeşim UZUN

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Brand extension strategy is an effort to extend a succesfull brand name to launch new or modified products or lines. Brand extension attitudes are influenced by the percieved quality of the core brand and the fit between the extended products. The similarity is important for brand extension because the greater perceived similarity between the current and new product leads to a greater transfer of positive or negative effect to the new product. Furthermore, higher levels of perceived fit between core brand and extension will lead to more favorable evaluations of the extension. The aim of this study is to analyze the effects of brand extension strategies on consumers' attitudes regarding the product similarity. Three different brands are used for the statistical analysis. According to the results, there is a relationship between the favorable opinion about core brand and the evaluation of similarity for extended products. Furthermore, there is a relationship between the similarity of extended products and extension evaluations.

  11. Hydrography, Polk County was flown in May 1996. Ayres Associates, Madison, digitized all hydrography features and provided this data as a two-dimensional AutoCAD drawing file. In 2006 Polk County converted the AutoCAD hydrography file into and shapefile creating the h, Published in 1996, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Polk County, Wisconsin.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Hydrography dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 1996. It is described as 'Polk...

  12. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected, Polk County retained Ayres Associates to acquire digital aerial photography during the spring of 2010 suitable for the production of color orthophotography at a 12-inch ground pixel resolution (approximately 956 sq. miles). The photography was obtained du, Published in 2010, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Polk County, Wisconsin.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of...

  13. Subchronic Toxicity Test for Xiphophorus helleri, Lebistes reticulatus and Gambusia affinis%红剑鱼、孔雀鱼、食蚊鱼亚慢性毒性试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘永全; 张云美; 韩志刚; 周兴华

    2007-01-01

    目的 研究一种快速评价有毒化学品对红剑鱼、孔雀鱼、食蚊鱼慢性毒性的试验方法.方法 选择<3 d龄的红剑鱼、孔雀鱼、食蚊鱼幼鱼开始暴露,试验药物为国际标准参比毒物Cr6+、Cu2+、Zn2+和Cd2+,试验温度为25±1℃,每天更换试验液1次,试验持续5 d.依据试验鱼的每尾干重和现存量作为观察指标,测定了铬、锌、铜、镉对红剑鱼、孔雀鱼和食蚊鱼的无可观察效应浓度(NOEC)和最低可观察效应浓度(LOEC).结果 铬、锌、铜、镉对红剑鱼和食蚊鱼的NOEC分别是2500、100、10、10 μg/L,LOEC分别是5000、200、20、20 μg/L.铬、锌、铜、镉对孔雀鱼的NOEC分别是2500、100、10、20 μg/L,LOEC分别是5000、200、20、40 μg/L;这与7天亚慢性试验结果相接近.结论 红剑鱼、孔雀鱼、食蚊鱼,亚慢性毒性试验可从7 d缩短为5 d.

  14. Acute Toxicity of Three Kinds of Pesticide Adjuvant on Gambusia affinis%3种农药助剂对野生食蚊鱼的急性毒性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李正; 潘波; 林勇; 姜蕾; 刘迎

    2013-01-01

    [目的]探究新型农药助剂LD-10(授权专利号:200810103519.7)与常用农药助剂NP-10、NP-4对热带水域中非靶标生物的影响.[方法]采用半静态法生物测试,以食蚊鱼为受试生物,研究了这3种农药助剂对水中食蚊鱼的急性毒性.[结果]LD-10在24、48、72、96 h半致死浓度(LC50)分别为28.26、28.26、27.38、26.63 mg/L;NP-10的24、48、72、96 h半致死浓度分别为13.13、11.20、11.11、9.65 mg/L;NP-4在24、48、72、96 h半致死浓度分别为2.63、2.40、2.05、2.05 mg/L.[结论]NP-10和NP-4对食蚊鱼96 h的LC50值均大于1 mg/L小于10.0 mg/L,其对食蚊鱼为中等毒性物质;LD-10对食蚊鱼24~96 h的LC50值均大于10.0 mg/L,其对食蚊鱼为低毒物质.

  15. 家用洗涤剂对红剑鱼、孔雀鱼和食蚊鱼的急性毒性实验观察%Acute Toxicity of Domestic Detergents on Xiphophorus helleri, Poecilia and Gambusia affinis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张云美; 潘永全; 韩志刚; 刘安平; 华小虎; 唐莉; 周兴华

    2005-01-01

    目的-研究4种不同产地的家用洗涤剂对红剑鱼、孔雀鱼和食蚊鱼的急性毒性影响.方法-用水毒理学方法测定它们对3种鱼类的24 h LC50,并将洗涤剂溶液存放15 d和30 d后测定其对鱼类的急性毒性.结果-在远低于日常使用量的浓度下,4种家用洗涤剂均对红剑鱼、孔雀鱼和食蚊鱼有急性毒性,24 h LC50值在20 mg/L~55 mg/L;家用洗涤剂溶液存放一段时间后对鱼类的急性毒性作用无明显降低.结论-含有大量家用洗涤剂的生活污水排放到自然水体后将对鱼类产生持续的有害影响.

  16. Application of Xiphophorus Hellerl, Poecilia and Gambusia Affinis in Subchronic Toxicity Test%在亚慢性毒性试验中应用红剑鱼、孔雀鱼和食蚊鱼的效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张云美; 潘永全; 徐惠; 韩志刚; 李福英; 华小虎; 唐莉; 周兴华

    2007-01-01

    目的 探索红剑鱼、孔雀鱼和食蚊鱼作为实验动物用于七天亚慢性毒性试验材料的可行性.方法 依据生长和现存量作为观察指标,测定了铬、锌、铜、镉对孔雀鱼和食蚊鱼的无可观察效应浓度(NOEC)和最低可观察效应浓度(LOEC).结果 铬、锌、铜、镉对红剑鱼的NOEC分别是2500,200,10,20ug/L,LOEC分别是5000,400,20,40 ug/L.铬、锌、铜、镉对孔雀鱼的NOEC分别是2500,200,10,10 ug/L,LOEC分别是5000,400,20,20ug/L.铬、锌、铜、镉对食蚊鱼的NOEC分别是2500,400,5,10ug/L,LOEC分别是5000,800,10,20ug/L.结论 红剑鱼、孔雀鱼和食蚊鱼作为实验动物用于七天亚慢性毒性试验是可行的.

  17. Partial self-incompatibility in the polyploid endemic species Scalesia affinis (Asteraceae) from the Galápagos: remnants of a self-incompatibility system?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lene Rostgaard; Siegismund, Hans Redlef; Philipp, Marianne

    2003-01-01

    Galápapos, kolonisering, pollinator adfærd, frøsætning, Scalesia, sporofytisk selv-inkompatibilitet, Xylocopa darwini......Galápapos, kolonisering, pollinator adfærd, frøsætning, Scalesia, sporofytisk selv-inkompatibilitet, Xylocopa darwini...

  18. 水竹和慈竹开花代谢关键因子主成分分析%Principal Component Analysis on the Key Metabolism Factors for Bloom of Phyllostachys heteroclada and Neosinocalamus affinis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小红; 郭起荣; 周祖基

    2009-01-01

    @@ 开花是植物从营养生长向生殖生长的转换,是植物生存、繁衍和进化的途径.大多数植物开花需要经过某些特定条件的诱导,比如低温春化和光周期诱导(张云等,2003).竹类植物是典型的多年生一次开花植物,目前还没有迹象表明竹子的开花与日照长度和低温诱导有关.%The key metabolism factors for bloom of Phyllostachys heteroclada olive and Neosinocalamus affirm Keng were analyzed by using the principal component analysis method. The results showed that GA3, GA3 /ABA and starch were the most important factors related to bloom of the two bamboo species, followed by soluble sugar, activities of starch enzyme and glutaminase. GA3, starch and soluble sugar with a certain content, and GA/ABA were positively correlated to the bamboo blossom. However, ZT, ZT/ABA and starch enzyme activity had a clear link to bamboo flowering reversion of Phyllostachys heteroclada. In order to know bamboo flowering more clearly, a preliminary simulating model of bamboo flowering was constructed. The model shows that the bamboo flowering procedure is lengthy and complicated. Any influence and break in the procedure would probably accelerate or terminate growth and florescence course, which could be the reason why bamboo florescence is so variable.

  19. The effect of O2 and CO2 on the dive behavior and heart rate of lesser scaup ducks (Aythya affinis): quantification of the critical PaO2 that initiates a diving bradycardia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, Kim A; Milsom, William K; Jones, David R

    2004-12-15

    Lesser scaup ducks were trained to dive for short and long durations following exposure to various gas concentrations to determine the influence of oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) on diving behavior and heart rate. Compared with normoxia, hyperoxia (50% O2) significantly increased the duration of long dives, whereas severe hypoxia (9% O2) significantly decreased the duration of both short and long dives. Hypercapnia (5% CO2) had no effect on dive duration. Surface intervals were not significantly altered by the oxygen treatments, but significantly increased following CO2 exposure. Heart rate during diving was unaffected by hyperoxia and hypercapnia, but gradually declined in long dives after severe hypoxia. Thus, our results suggest that during the majority of dives, O2 and CO2 levels in lesser scaup ducks are managed through changes in diving behavior without any major cardiovascular adjustments, but below a threshold PaO2, a bradycardia is evoked to conserve the remaining oxygen for hypoxia sensitive tissues. A model of oxygen store utilization during voluntary diving was developed to estimate the critical PaO2 below which bradycardia is initiated (approximately 26 mmHg) and predicted that this critical PaO2 would be reached 19s into a dive after exposure to severe hypoxia, which corresponded exactly with the time of initiation of bradycardia in the severe hypoxia trials.

  20. Macrobenthic Communities of the Lower Chesapeake Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-10-01

    ECHINODERMATA :ECHINOIDEA Arbacij Runlctulata (Lamarck) Echinarachnius Parma (Larmack) ECHINODERMATA :HOLOTHURO-DEA Holothuroidea spp. Leptosynapta ... inhaerens (Ayres) ECHINODERMATA :OPHIUROIDEA Ophiuroidea spp. * HEMICHORDATA Saccoglossus kowalewskii (Agassiz) CHORDATA :CEPHALOCHORDATA Branchiostoma

  1. Compilation of 1986 Annual Reports of the Navy ELF (Extremely Low Frequency) Communications System Ecological Monitoring Program. Volume 3. TABS H-J.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-07-01

    in chlorophyll a or organic matter standing crop data. The species composition shift included a shift towards increased dominance by Achnanthes ...a consequence of Glossosoma grazing. Achnanthes affinis Grun. var. affinis, a small pennate diatom, showed highly significant (P<.01) increases in...increases in Achnanthes affinis occurring on grazed tiles over ungrazed tiles in terms of both relative abundance and actual cell concentrations (Table

  2. 75 FR 38441 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revised Critical Habitat for Santa Ana Sucker

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ... public hearing at Ayres Suites Corona West, 1900 W Frontage Road, Corona, CA 92882. We will post all... from 6 p.m. to 8 p.m. at Ayres Suites Corona West, 1900 W. Frontage Road, Corona, CA 92882. The public... majority of total baseline costs (approximately 90 percent of post-designation upper-bound baseline impacts...

  3. Recovering a Forgotten Pioneer of Science Studies: C. E. Ayers' Deweyan Critique of Science and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddington, David I.

    2013-01-01

    This paper brings to light the ideas of a pioneering but largely forgotten social critic, C. E. Ayres. In his first book, "Science: The False Messiah" (1927), which was written in consultation with John Dewey, Ayres advanced a forceful and original critique of science and technology. He argued that technological change was occurring at a…

  4. 饥饿对食蚊鱼和唐鱼幼鱼能量物质消耗及游泳能力的影响%Effects of starvation on the consumption of energy sources and swimming performance in juvenile Gambusia affinis and Tanichthys albonubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李江涛; 林小涛; 周晨辉; 曾鹏; 许忠能; 孙军

    2016-01-01

    为探究食蚊鱼和唐鱼在遭受饥饿胁迫时其能量物质消耗利用特征以及在游泳能力上的响应,在室内(25±1)℃水温下设O(对照组)、10、20、30和40d5种饥饿时间,研究了饥饿对食蚊鱼和唐鱼幼鱼主要能量物质消耗以及对爆发游泳速度(Uburst)和临界游泳速度(Ucrit)的影响,旨在从能量代谢和游泳行为角度探讨食蚊鱼和唐鱼幼鱼应对饥饿胁迫的策略及其种间差异.结果表明:饥饿前(Od对照组),食蚊鱼糖原和脂肪含量均显著小于唐鱼,蛋白质含量却与唐鱼无显著差异,而无论何种游泳速度,食蚊鱼均显著小于唐鱼.经历不同饥饿时间后,两种鱼糖原含量均随饥饿时间增加呈显著幂函数曲线下降趋势,并在饥饿10 d时接近于0,而脂肪和蛋白质含量均随饥饿时间呈显著线性下降.与唐鱼相比,食蚊鱼脂肪-饥饿时间线性方程斜率显著降低,但蛋白质-饥饿时间方程斜率却显著增加.饥饿40 d后,食蚊鱼和唐鱼能量物质消耗率均显示为糖原>脂肪>蛋白质;但从能量物质的绝对消耗量来看,食蚊鱼表现为蛋白质>脂肪>糖原,而唐鱼则是脂肪>蛋白质>糖原.而无论何种试验鱼,其Uburst和Ucrit均随饥饿时间增加呈显著线性下降,且Uburst-饥饿时间线性方程斜率均显著小于Ucrit-饥饿时间方程.与唐鱼相比,食蚊鱼Uburst-饥饿时间线性方程斜率无显著变化,但Ucrit-饥饿时间线性方程斜率却显著降低.结果表明,饥饿胁迫下2种鱼的能量物质消耗利用特征与游泳能力变化密切相关.相比唐鱼,食蚊鱼虽然整体上能量储备较少,游泳能力较低,但在饥饿期间却主要利用储存量更大的蛋白质供能,饥饿后脂肪含量下降幅度小于唐鱼,其Ucrit变化比唐鱼更加稳定,这从一定程度上表明其具有更强的耐饥饿潜力,为适应营养匮乏的溪流生境提供了有利条件.

  5. 武汉地区西部食蚊鱼的生长、死亡系数及种群补充模式%Growth, mortality and recruitment pattern of western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis Baird & Girard, 1853) in lentic wetlands of Wuhan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张登成; 熊文; 陶捐; 陈毅峰

    2016-01-01

    基于2012年4月-2013年3月在武汉地区两样点调查的西部食蚊鱼数据,运用FAO开发的长度频率数据分析软件FiSAT Ⅱ对西部食蚊鱼的生长、死亡系数以及种群补充模式进行了估算.西部食蚊鱼全长范围为8.30-44.86 mm,其中优势全长为16-26 mm,占总数的69.17%;雌雄性别为2.63∶1,与1∶1存在显著性差异;鳞片观察发现仅存在0+、1+两个年龄组;雌雄样本全长与体重的关系式分别为W=4.686× 10-6 L3.299(R2=0.953),W=1.008×10-5 L2.989(R2=0.903);von Bertalanffy生长方程各参数为:雌性样本极限全长L∞=45.20 mm,生长系数k=0.52 a-1,起始生长年龄t0=-0.47 a,雄性样本极限全长L∞=33.60 mm,生长系数k=0.53 a-1,起始生长年龄t0=-0.50 a;雌性样本和雄性样本的自然死亡系数M分别为1.64 a-1、1.81a-1,而总死亡系数Z分别为2.29 a-1、2.37 a-1;种群补充模式表明,每年4-9月份为西部食蚊鱼的主要补充期.西部食蚊野生种群表现出了寿命短、生长速度快、自然死亡率高、种群补充时间长等特征,表明该物种是一种典型的r对策物种.据此我们提出了针对性的防控措施:阻止其引入,尽早发现并根除该物种.

  6. A Major Degradation Product's Dynamic Changes and Toxicity to Gambusia affinis of Carbosulfan in Water%丁硫克百威对水中食蚊鱼的毒性及其降解产物克百威的动态变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘波; 林勇; 姜蕾; 楚小强; 刘迎

    2013-01-01

    采用固相萃取高效液相色谱柱后衍生荧光检测器检测法,检测了水中克百威的动态变化,比较了90%丁硫克百威原药和20%丁硫克百威乳油制剂的一种主要代谢产物的动态变化及其对野生食蚊鱼的毒性.结果表明:添加90%丁硫克百威原药的水中,有效成分浓度分别为0.1、0.2、0.6、1.2、1.8 mg·L-1时,96h后水中克百威浓度分别为0.018、0.037、0.114、0.189、0.244 mg· L-1,此时测得其对水中食蚊鱼LC50为0.079 mg·L-1;添加20%丁硫克百威乳油制剂的水中,有效成分浓度分别为0.1、0.2、0.6、1.2、1.8 mg·L-1时,96 h后水中克百威的浓度分别为0.020、0.040、0.122、0.215、0.276 mg· L-1,此时测得其对水中食蚊鱼LC50为0.047 mg·L-1.实际测得的丁硫克百威对水中食蚊鱼的毒性已演变成丁硫克百威和其降解产物的联合毒性,20%丁硫克百威的乳油制剂在水中代谢能力及其对水中食蚊鱼的毒性均高于90%丁硫克百威原药.

  7. 多氯联苯暴露对食蚊鱼CYP19α和VTG α基因的表达及骨骼形态雄性化的影响%Effects of PCBs Exposure on CYP19 α, VTG α Gene Expression and Morphological Masculinizing of Bone Morphogenesis in Mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫月明; 方展强

    2016-01-01

    应用食蚊鱼细胞色素P450芳香化酶基因(CYP19α)和卵黄蛋白原基因(VTGα)mRNA转录水平为指标,研究微量多氯联苯(PCBs)长时间暴露对成年雌性食蚊鱼CYP19αL基因和VTGα基因表达的影响,并评价其对雌性食蚊鱼产生的形态雄性化效应.采用静水暴露实验模式,分别设置0.08、0.4、2和10 μg·L1 PCBs浓度,并设置对照组和平行组,定量测定14 d和28 d性腺CYP19α和肝脏VTG αmRNA表达水平的变化,以及对椎体脉棘发育的影响.暴露实验结果显示:①各PCBs浓度组(0.08、0.4、2和10 μg·L-1 PCBs)暴露均能抑制食蚊鱼CYP19α和VTG基因的表达,表明PCBs对食蚊鱼VTG α基因的抑制远大于对食蚊鱼CYP1α基因的抑制;②0.4 μg·L-1 PCBs暴露显著地降低了食蚊鱼第15椎体脉棘的长度并降低第15、16椎体脉棘的L/D值,显示食蚊鱼出现骨骼形态雄性化,表明一定浓度的PCBs暴露会表现出抗雌激素效应.

  8. Biology of commercially important penaeid prawns of Goa waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Achuthankutty, C.T.; Parulekar, A.H.

    . Breeding population of these species also showed monthly and seasonal fluctuation. In Metapenaeus dobsoni and Metapenaeus affinis, maximum number of gravid females was recorded during postmonsoon season while in the case of Penaeus merguiensis and Penaeus...

  9. Description de quatre espèces nouvelles du genre Rhyparus, Westw. (Scarabaeidae: Coprini)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fairmaire, L.

    1893-01-01

    Long. 6 mill. — Elongatus, parallelus, fuscus, opacus, antennis palpisque ferrugineis; R. sumatrensi Fairm. ¹) affinis, similiter coloratus, sed multo minor et angustior, capite minus brevi, minus transverso, antice quadriangulato, haud truncato, fronte medio breviter biplicato, prothorace subquadra

  10. Biochemical composition of muscle tissue of penaeid prawns

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Achuthankutty, C.T.; Parulekar, A

    Biochemical composition of muscle tissue of females belonging to four species of penaeid prawns, viz. Metapenaeus affinis, M. dobsoni, Penaeus merguiensis and Parapenaeopsis stylifera, inhabiting the coastal waters of Goa, India, was estimated...

  11. Further obsrvations on a newly located prawn fishery off Saurashtra coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gopalan, U.K.

    The abundance of prawns in a newly located ground off Saurashtra has been described Catch omposition showed that Metapenaeus affinis formed the bulk of the catches Previously this species was thought to be of not much commercial importance...

  12. Plastic spatula with narrow long tip provides higher satisfactory smears for Pap test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pervinder Kaur

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ayre spatula for cervical smear collection is being used despite the suggestion that different modified spatulas provide more satisfactory sampling. Aims: To see whether the cytological pickup improves with the use of long tipped spatula. Setting and Design: Rurally based University Hospital; crossover study. Materials and Methods: Pap smear using Ayre spatula in 500 and with plastic narrow long tip (Szalay spatula in 500 clinic attending women was taken and analyzed. Crossover smears were taken with modified spatula in 163 and using Ayre spatula in 187 women after 2 weeks of initial smears. The same pathologist made cytological reporting for all smears and was unaware of the type of spatula used. Results: Smears from Ayre spatula had significantly higher reports of inadequate smears (94 of 500 vs. 68 of 500 for Ayre and Szalay, respectively; P = 0.032 and it remained so even after crossover (94 of 187 vs. 70 of 163 for Ayre and Szalay, respectively; P = 0.2. Cellular quality appeared better with smears taken using Szalay spatula, but the overall abnormal smear detection rate remained similar with either collection tool (χ2 = 1.5; P = 0.2. Conclusions: Proportion of satisfactory smears is higher when long tip plastic spatula is used for collection of sample.

  13. Enhanced decolorization of azo dye in a small pilot-scale anaerobic baffled reactor coupled with biocatalyzed electrolysis system (ABR-BES): a design suitable for scaling-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Dan; Guo, Yu-Qi; Lee, Hyung-Sool; Wu, Wei-Min; Liang, Bin; Wang, Ai-Jie; Cheng, Hao-Yi

    2014-07-01

    A four-compartment anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) incorporated with membrane-less biocatalyzed electrolysis system (BES) was tested for the treatment of azo dye (alizarin yellow R, AYR) wastewater (AYR, 200 mg L(-1); glucose, 1000 mg L(-1)). The ABR-BES was operated without and with external power supply to examine AYR reduction process and reductive intermediates with different external voltages (0.3, 0.5 and 0.7 V) and hydraulic retention times (HRT: 8, 6 and 4h). The decolorization efficiency in the ABR-BES (8h HRT, 0.5 V) was higher than that in ABR-BES without electrolysis, i.e. 95.1 ± 1.5% versus 86.9 ± 6.3%. Incorporation of BES with ABR accelerated the consumption of VFAs (mainly acetate) and attenuated biogas (methane) production. Higher power supply (0.7 V) enhanced AYR decolorization efficiency (96.4 ± 1.8%), VFAs removal, and current density (24.1 Am(-3) TCV). Shorter HRT increased volumetric AYR decolorization rates, but decreased AYR decolorization efficiency.

  14. Proposed 9th Infantry Division Force Conversion; Maneuver Damage, Erosion and Natural Resources Assessment Fort Lewis, Washington. Volume 1: Main Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-08-01

    Sialia mexicana forests and open areas Oregon vesper sparrow, Under consideration Grasslands Pooecetes gramineus for State listing affinis Pacific...bance that increases edge. The nest box program on Fort Lewis is also beneficial. 161. Oregon vesper sparrow (Pooecetes gramineus affinis). This bird...Stinging nettle, creeping buttercup ( Ranunculus reens), and orchard grass are also present. This association is common on river terraces where the

  15. Azo dye removal in a membrane-free up-flow biocatalyzed electrolysis reactor coupled with an aerobic bio-contact oxidation reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Dan; Guo, Yu-Qi; Cheng, Hao-Yi; Liang, Bin; Kong, Fan-Ying [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, No. 202 Haihe Road, Harbin 150090 (China); Lee, Hyung-Sool [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West Waterloo, Ontario, Canada N2L 3G1 (Canada); Wang, Ai-Jie, E-mail: waj0578@hit.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, No. 202 Haihe Road, Harbin 150090 (China)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A membrane-free up-flow biocatalyzed electrolysis reactor coupled with an aerobic bio-contact oxidation reactor was developed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Alizarin Yellow R as the mode of azo dyes was efficiently converted to p-phenylenediamine (PPD) and 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PPD and 5-ASA were further oxidized in a bio-contact oxidation reactor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The mechanism of UBER for azo dye removal was discussed. - Abstract: Azo dyes that consist of a large quantity of dye wastewater are toxic and persistent to biodegradation, while they should be removed before being discharged to water body. In this study, Alizarin Yellow R (AYR) as a model azo dye was decolorized in a combined bio-system of membrane-free, continuous up-flow bio-catalyzed electrolysis reactor (UBER) and subsequent aerobic bio-contact oxidation reactor (ABOR). With the supply of external power source 0.5 V in the UBER, AYR decolorization efficiency increased up to 94.8 {+-} 1.5%. Products formation efficiencies of p-phenylenediamine (PPD) and 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) were above 90% and 60%, respectively. Electron recovery efficiency based on AYR removal in cathode zone was nearly 100% at HRTs longer than 6 h. Relatively high concentration of AYR accumulated at higher AYR loading rates (>780 g m{sup -3} d{sup -1}) likely inhibited acetate oxidation of anode-respiring bacteria on the anode, which decreased current density in the UBER; optimal AYR loading rate for the UBER was 680 g m{sup -3} d{sup -1} (HRT 2.5 h). The subsequent ABOR further improved effluent quality. Overall the Chroma decreased from 320 times to 80 times in the combined bio-system to meet the textile wastewater discharge standard II in China.

  16. Demographic and life history characteristics influence the cytonuclear composition of mosquitofish populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scribner, Kim T.; Avise, John C.; Beaumont, A.

    1994-01-01

    Experimental laboratory crosses and population experiments reveal significant differences in individual life-history traits and population demography between two related species of mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis and G. holbrooki. With respect to life-history traits, progeny from G. holbrooki exhibit larger size at birth and earlier age at sexual maturity than do progeny from G. affinis parents. With respect to demography, populations of G. holbrooki exhibit higher recruitment and carrying capacity and loser overwinter mortality than do populations of G. affinis. These differences help t explain the dramatic changes in cytonuclear genotype frequency observed in replicated experimental hybrid populations of Gambusia monitored over 52 weeks. These experimental results are interpreted in the context of introgression patterns previously studied indirectly from distributions of cytonuclear genotypes in a natural mosquitofish hybrid zone.

  17. Novel mobbing strategies of a fish population against a sessile annelid predator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachat, Jose; Haag-Wackernagel, Daniel

    2016-09-12

    When searching for food, foraging fishes expose themselves to hidden predators. The strategies that maximize the survival of foraging fishes are not well understood. Here, we describe a novel type of mobbing behaviour displayed by foraging Scolopsis affinis. The fish direct sharp water jets towards the hidden sessile annelid predator Eunice aphroditois (Bobbit worm). We recognized two different behavioural roles for mobbers (i.e., initiator and subsequent participants). The first individual to exhibit behaviour indicating the discovery of the Bobbit directed, absolutely and per time unit, more water jets than the subsequent individuals that joined the mobbing. We found evidence that the mobbing impacted the behaviour of the Bobbit, e.g., by inducing retraction. S. affinis individuals either mob alone or form mobbing groups. We speculate that this behaviour may provide social benefits for its conspecifics by securing foraging territories for S. affinis. Our results reveal a sophisticated and complex behavioural strategy to protect against a hidden predator.

  18. Disposition of two names in Almeidea (Rutaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Milton Groppo; BRUNIERA, Carla P

    2010-01-01

    Examination of type specimens at the P herbarium showed that Almeidea longifolia A. St.-Hil. (Rutaceae) is an illegitimate substitute name for A. affinis A. St.-Hil. The latter name is proposed here as a heterotypic synonym of A. rubra A. St.-Hil.O estudo dos tipos nomenclatórios no herbário P mostrou que Almeidea longifolia A. St.-Hil. (Rutaceae) é um nome substituto ilegítimo de Almeidea affinis A. St.-Hil., e este último nome é aqui considerado sinônimo heterotípico de A. rubra A. St.-Hil....

  19. Root weevils of artificial forests in Ukraine steppe area (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Cleonini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volovnik S. V.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Seven species of root weevils (Cleonini: were found in man-made forests in the steppe of Ukraine. They are Asproparthenis punctiventris, Bothynoderes affinis, Bothynoderes declivis, Cleonis pigra, Cyphocleonus dealbatus, Pachycerus segnis, Temnorhinus strabus. All these species were registered in open habitats, namely forest borders, glades, sides of the roads, slopes, and connected with plants from Asteraceae, Chenopodiacea, Boraginaceae. If beet plantations situated near artificial forests then A. punctiventris, B. affinis, B. declivis could damage them in case of mass reproduction. C.dealbatus is a potential pest of the ornamental camoniles. Literary data as to real damage caused to artificial forests by root weevils need to be proved.

  20. Predation vulnerability of planktonic copepods: consequences of predator foraging strategies and prey sensory abilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viitasalo, M; Kiørboe, T; Flinkman, J.;

    1998-01-01

    We investigated the vulnerability of 2 copepod species (Eurytemora affinis and Temora longicornis) to predation by predators with different foraging modes, three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus juveniles and mysid shrimps Neomysis integer. Copepods were videofilmed escaping from predators...... of the sticklebacks was higher than that of mysids. In the case of sticklebacks foraging on E. affinis, copepod reaction distance was significantly correlated with stickleback approaching speed; sticklebacks captured a copepod only if they were able to slowly approach to within a strike distance of...

  1. Nutritional Properties of Some Novel Selected Fish Species in Khuzestan Province, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Aberoumand

    2014-01-01

    The proximate biochemical contents of some fish species i. e. Thunnus alalunga, Evynnis japonica, Caulerpa lentillifera, Orcynopsis unicolor and Euthynnus affinis were analyzed. Protein contents was determined in T. alalunga (22 %), E. japonica (13.02%), C.lentillifera (26.9%), O. unicolor (22%) and in E. affinis (24%) respectively. Fat content was recorded as 23.3%, 0.24%, 15%, 16% and 14% respectively in the five species of fish. The ash content was highest in C. lentillifera (8.8%). The pr...

  2. Disturbance Vector in Space from Surface Gravity Anomalies Using Complementary Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-01

    sphere. For the dense 5’x5" data used in our New Mexico tests, however, the Dirac results were superior to those of the l.s.c. because of the ill...Lelgemann, D., "Spherical Approximation and the Combination of Gravimetric and Satellite Data," Bolletino di Geodesia e Scienze Affini, vol. 32, No. 4... Geodesia e Scienze Affini, vol. 41, No. 1, pp. 89-103, 1982. Rapp, R.H., "A FORTRAN Program for the Computation of the Normal Gravity and Gravitational

  3. Incorporation of nitrogen from N2 fixation into amino acids of zooplankton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loick-Wilde, Natalie; Dutz, Jörg; Miltner, Anja;

    2012-01-01

    quantified the direct incorporation of 15N tracer from N2-fixing N. spumigena (diazotroph nitrogen) and ammonium-utilizing R. salina into the amino acid nitrogen (AA-N) of zooplankton using complementary gas chromatography– combustion–isotope ratio mass spectrometry, gas chromatography–mass spectrometry...... consistently low in E. affinis when exposed to N. spumigena, suggesting that these animals were reluctant to feed on N. spumigena. Essential isoleucine received most of the diazotroph nitrogen in field zooplankton, while nonessential amino acids received most 15N tracer in E. affinis. N. spumigena was clearly...... an important amino acid nitrogen source for Baltic Sea zooplankton...

  4. Population Genetic Status of the Western Indian Ocean

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    management initiatives are needed to curtail the environmental decline. ... needed in the region before the true strength of population genetic data can be used as a primary ... their importance, tropical marine environments ... The new found challenge of the 'openness' of ... evolution (Ayre and Hughes 2000), but measures.

  5. Artists' Perception of the Use of Digital Media in Painting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agyeman, Cynthia A.

    2015-01-01

    Painting is believed to predate recorded history and has been in existence for over 35,000 (Ayres, 1985; Bolton, 2013) years. Over the years, painting has evolved; new styles have been developed and digital media have been explored. Each period of change goes through a period of rejection before it is accepted. In the 1960s, digital media was…

  6. Contemporary cognitive load theory research: The good, the bad and the ugly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirschner, Paul A.; Ayres, Paul; Chandler, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Kirschner, P. A., Ayres, P., & Chandler, P. (2011). Contemporary cognitive load theory research: The good, the bad and the ugly. Computers in Human Behavior, 27(1), 99-105. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2010.06.025

  7. the conservation status of eagles in south african law

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    10332324

    expressions of human admiration of eagles include the deifying of eagles in ancient .... Eagles breed in Europe and Asia, while the Ayres's Hawk-Eagle breeds in .... Conflicts between national and provincial legislation are dealt with in s 146. .... 3.1.4 The Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals.

  8. Papers from the Basque Linguistics Seminar, University of Nevada, Summer, 1972.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuario del Seminario de Filologia Vasca "Julio de Urquijo", 1972

    1972-01-01

    Ten papers resulting from the Basque linguistics seminar are collected in this volume. Following introductions by L. Michelena and William A. Douglass, the papers are: (1)"Morphological Evidence of Abstract Verbs in Basque" by Glenn Ayres, (2) "A Survey of Linguistic Variables in the Central Zone of the Deva River Valley" by Ramon M. S. Bereicua…

  9. Getting Specific

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ayres, Phil

    2005-01-01

    The Art and Architecture Partnership, known for commissioning public works such as Softroom's Belvedere and James Turrell's Skyspace, has recently awarded its first architectural residency at Kielder to sixteen*(makers). Here, Phil Ayres introduces initial questions for an evolutionary design pro...

  10. Cathodic bacterial community structure applying the different co-substrates for reductive decolorization of Alizarin Yellow R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qian; Li, Zhi-Ling; Wang, You-Zhao; Yang, Chun-Xue; Chung, Jong Shik; Wang, Ai-Jie

    2016-05-01

    Selective enrichment of cathodic bacterial community was investigated during reductive decolorization of AYR fedding with glucose or acetate as co-substrates in biocathode. A clear distinction of phylotype structures were observed between glucose-fed and acetate-fed biocathodes. In glucose-fed biocathode, Citrobacter (29.2%), Enterococcus (14.7%) and Alkaliflexus (9.2%) were predominant, and while, in acetate-fed biocathode, Acinetobacter (17.8%) and Achromobacter (6.4%) were dominant. Some electroactive or reductive decolorization genera, like Pseudomonas, Delftia and Dechloromonas were commonly enriched. Both of the higher AYR decolorization rate (k(AYR)=0.46) and p-phenylenediamine (PPD) generation rate (k(PPD)=0.38) were obtained fed with glucose than acetate (k(AYR)=0.18; k(PPD)=0.16). The electrochemical behavior analysis represented a total resistance in glucose-fed condition was about 73.2% lower than acetate-fed condition. The different co-substrate types, resulted in alteration of structure, richness and composition of bacterial communities, which significantly impacted the performances and electrochemical behaviors during reductive decolorization of azo dyes in biocathode.

  11. Effects of a Video Model to Teach Students with Moderate Intellectual Disability to Use Key Features of an iPhone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walser, Kathryn; Ayres, Kevin; Foote, Erika

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of video modeling on teaching three high school students with moderate intellectual disability to perform three activities on an iPhone 3GS. This study is a replication and extension of the Hammond, Whatley, Ayres, and Gast (2010) study in which researchers taught this same set of skills using a slightly different…

  12. Pedagogy as a Field Guide to the Ecology of the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clingerman, Forrest

    2014-01-01

    Reflecting on the complementary pedagogical models on teaching courses related to religion and the environment presented in this issue of the journal by Kevin O'Brien ("Balancing Critique and Commitment") and Jennifer Ayres ("Learning on the Ground"), I suggest ways in which these essays form a conversation about teaching.…

  13. Artists' Perception of the Use of Digital Media in Painting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agyeman, Cynthia A.

    2015-01-01

    Painting is believed to predate recorded history and has been in existence for over 35,000 (Ayres, 1985; Bolton, 2013) years. Over the years, painting has evolved; new styles have been developed and digital media have been explored. Each period of change goes through a period of rejection before it is accepted. In the 1960s, digital media was…

  14. Coupling Embryo of Fish,Two Cases from Cyprinodontiformes:Mosquito Fish and Medaka%鳉形目鱼类连体胚胎两例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈国柱; 林小涛; 陈佩

    2009-01-01

    报道了鳉形目鱼类食蚊鱼(Gambusia affinis)和青鳉(Oryzias latipes)的连体胚胎现象各一例.上述连体胚胎均为腹部粘连,内脏各器官分别独立,产出或孵化后短时存活.

  15. Contribution to the knowledge of seed-beetles (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Bruchinae) in Xinjiang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, You; Wang, Zhiliang; Guo, Jianjun; Nápoles, Jesús Romero; Ji, Yingchao; Jiang, Chunyan; Zhang, Runzhi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Nineteen species of seed-beetles belonging to the subfamily Bruchinae (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) were collected in Xinjiang, China. Of these, the following four were new records for China: Bruchus affinis Frolich, 1799, Bruchus atomarius L., 1761, Bruchus loti Paykull, 1800 and Kytorhinus kergoati Delobel & Legalov, 2009. We provide an annotated checklist, illustrations and a key to the 19 species. PMID:25610333

  16. Contributions to Papuasian Botany III. Three new species of Pittosporum (Pittosporaceae) from New Guinea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schodde, Richard

    1967-01-01

    Frutex circa I m altus affinis P. sinuato Bl., differt pumilione, ramulis dense ferrugineis arachnoideo-tomentosis, foliis ± anguste obovato-spathulatis (1½—) 2—4(—4½) cm longis tenuiter coriaceis integris, et fructibus semper solitariis ellipsoideo-rostellatis bi- et tenui-valvibus. Flores ignoti.

  17. A new species of Listera from Nepal (Orchidaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balakrishnan, N.P.

    1966-01-01

    Affinis L. longicauli King & Pantling, a qua tamen differt magnitudine minore totius plantae, racemis brevioribus, labello angustiore lineari-lanceolato, sepalis lateralibus 3—4-plo. longiore ad apicem bifido. Herba terrestris, erecta, gracilis, 6—20 cm alta, radicibus carnosis fibrosis e rhizomate

  18. A new species of Ixora from Enggano (Sumatra)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremekamp, C.E.B.

    1938-01-01

    Ixora engganensis BREM., n. spec, ad sectionem Otobactrum et ad seriem Longitubarum pertinens, I. paludosae valde affinis, sed foliis acuminatis, basi obtusis, inflorescentia laxiore, corollae lobis longioribus et stylo longius exserto ab ea distinguenda. Arbuscula. Rami veteriores cortice griseo-br

  19. A response calculus for immobilized T cell receptor ligands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, P S; Menné, C; Mariuzza, R A

    2001-01-01

    To address the molecular mechanism of T cell receptor (TCR) signaling, we have formulated a model for T cell activation, termed the 2D-affinity model, in which the density of TCR on the T cell surface, the density of ligand on the presenting surface, and their corresponding two-dimensional affini...

  20. Gila topminnow interactions with western mosquitofish: An update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas K. Duncan

    2013-01-01

    Western mosquitofish Gambusia affinis has major impacts on Gila topminnow Poeciliopsis occidentalis. Thirteen years have passed since information on negative impacts has been published. I will list and discuss additional examples where mosquitofish have impacted topminnow. In addition, it appears that long-term drought has a synergistic and negative effect on this...

  1. New plant of Celastraceae%卫矛科新植物

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任继文

    2003-01-01

    @@ 狭叶卫矛;新种 Euonymus stenophyllus J. W. Ren sp. Nov. Species affinis Euonymus linearifolius Franch. ,sed foliis 1~3.5 cm longi, 0.1~0.3 cm lati; inflorescentia cymosa semel furceta;pedunculis 0.8~2.0 cm longi;style;flores purpureus differt.

  2. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U11311-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit rp... 127 8e-36 EF689770_1( EF689770 |pid:none) Placocarpus schaereri...38977 |pid:none) Eurytemora affinis RNA polymerase ... 120 4e-33 DQ883743_1( DQ883743 |pid:none) Coccoca

  3. Contribution to the knowledge of seed-beetles (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Bruchinae in Xinjiang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You Li

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nineteen species of seed-beetles belonging to the subfamily Bruchinae (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae were collected in Xinjiang, China. Of these, the following four were new records for China: Bruchus affinis Frolich, 1799, B. atomarius L., 1761, B. loti Paykull, 1800 and Kytorhinus kergoati Delobel & Legalov, 2009. We provide an annotated checklist, illustrations and a key to the 19 species.

  4. The preferential homing of a platelet derived growth factor receptor-recognizing macromolecule to fibroblast-like cells in fibrotic tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beljaars, L.; Weert, B; Geerts, Albert; Meijer, D.K F; Poelstra, Klaas

    2003-01-01

    Platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) is a key factor in the induction and progression of fibrotic diseases with the activated fibroblast as its target cell. Drug targeting to the PDGF-receptor is explored as a new approach to treat this disease. Therefore, we constructed a macromolecule with affini

  5. Remarks abort certain species of the Anthribid genus Xylinades, Latr

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritsema Cz., C.

    1883-01-01

    1. Xylinades affinis Chevrol. in litt., judging from a typical specimen received from Mr. Chevrolat, is not a variety of Xylinades Westermanni Schönh., but identical with Dejean’s Xylinades marmoratus. described by Mr. Roelofs in the Notes from the Leyden Museum. Vol. II (1880), p. 237. 2. Xylinades

  6. Vibrio elicits targeted transcriptional responses from copepod hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almada, Amalia A; Tarrant, Ann M

    2016-06-01

    Copepods are abundant crustaceans that harbor diverse bacterial communities, yet the nature of their interactions with microbiota are poorly understood. Here, we report that Vibrio elicits targeted transcriptional responses in the estuarine copepod Eurytemora affinis We pre-treated E. affinis with an antibiotic cocktail and exposed them to either a zooplankton specialist (Vibrio sp. F10 9ZB36) or a free-living species (Vibrio ordalii 12B09) for 24 h. We then identified via RNA-Seq a total of 78 genes that were differentially expressed following Vibrio exposure, including homologs of C-type lectins, chitin-binding proteins and saposins. The response differed between the two Vibrio treatments, with the greatest changes elicited upon inoculation with V. sp. F10 We suggest that these differentially regulated genes play important roles in cuticle integrity, the innate immune response, and general stress response, and that their expression may enable E. affinis to recognize and regulate symbiotic vibrios. We further report that V. sp. F10 culturability is specifically altered upon colonization of E. affinis These findings suggest that rather than acting as passive environmental vectors, copepods discriminately interact with vibrios, which may ultimately impact the abundance and activity of copepod-associated bacteria.

  7. In situ observation of chimaerid species in the Gorringe Bank: new distribution records for the north-east Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, R P; Cunha, M R

    2014-09-01

    In the framework of the R.V. Nautilus exploration programme, remotely operated vehicle (ROV) surveys were conducted at bathyal depths in the Gorringe Bank. Video transects revealed the presence of the chimaerids Chimaera opalescens and Hydrolagus affinis in the region. An identification key for the north-east Atlantic species of the family Chimaeridae is proposed.

  8. Improving Student Understanding of Spatial Ecology Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Robert, II; Alberts, Halley

    2015-01-01

    This activity is designed as a primer to teaching population dispersion analysis. The aim is to help improve students' spatial thinking and their understanding of how spatial statistic equations work. Students use simulated data to develop their own statistic and apply that equation to experimental behavioral data for Gambusia affinis (western…

  9. First description of the worker caste of Lasius viehmeyeri Emery (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, P.

    2003-01-01

    Up till now the worker caste of Lasius viehmeyeri was unknown. In the Stärcke Collection present in the Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum at Leiden, a worker of L. viehmeyeri was discovered under Lasius umbratus var. affinis Schenck. This specimen from Dalmatia is described and figured.

  10. Three New Species of Begonia fron Yunnan%云南秋海棠属三新种

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管开云; 田代科

    2000-01-01

    @@ Begonia acutitepala Guan et Tian, sp.nov.(Sect.Begonia) Species B.asperifoliae Irmscher et B.labordei Lévl. affinis, differt ab illa scapis efoliolatis, laminis foliorum non lobulatis vel duplicato-serratis, tepalis exteriorbus ovato-lanceolatis apice acuminatis; ab hac inflorescentiis typice symmetrico-dicharioidibus, tepalis floris feminei 5, quorum exterioribus 2 apice acutis, stylis omnino discrets.

  11. 1. Aspetti conoscitivi della metafora in Aristotele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umberto Eco

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Per Aristotele la metafora non è un semplice ornamento del discorso ma possiede valore conoscitivo, perché consente di conoscere il simile e di cogliere concetti affini. Negli autori medievali la metafora mantiene la funzione di strumento di conoscenza?

  12. The Earth’s Gravity Field to Degree and Order 180 Using Seasat Altimeter Data, Terrestrial Gravity Data and Other Data,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    tracking purposes (with Seasat) S-4 is the superior solution; 3) the PGS1331 field (Marsh, private communication 1981) is a set of potential coefficients...Canberra, 1979. Lelgemann, D., Spherical Approximation and the Combination of Gravimetric and Satellite Data, Bullettino Di Geodesia E Scienze Affini

  13. The Atchafalaya River Delta. Report 1. A Plan for Predicting Delta Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-05-01

    to incorporate new or superior tech- niques with minimum disruption and permitted efficient modeling by separation of some phenomena t:o :educz...Rouge, LA. NONE. Anonymous. 1973. Tide Measurements Indicate More Rapid Sinking of Some U.S. Gulf Coastal Areas, Boliettino Di Geodesia , E Scienze Affini

  14. Improving Student Understanding of Spatial Ecology Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Robert, II; Alberts, Halley

    2015-01-01

    This activity is designed as a primer to teaching population dispersion analysis. The aim is to help improve students' spatial thinking and their understanding of how spatial statistic equations work. Students use simulated data to develop their own statistic and apply that equation to experimental behavioral data for Gambusia affinis (western…

  15. Mesozooplankton affinities in a recovering freshwater estuary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chambord, S.; Maris, T.; Colas, F.; van Engeland, T.; Sossou, A.-C.; Azémar, F.; Le Coz, M.; Cox, T.; Buisson, L.; Souissi, S.; Meire, P.; Tackx, M.

    2016-01-01

    Water quality of the Scheldt estuary (Belgium/The Netherlands) has considerably improved in recent years, especially in the upstream, freshwater reaches. Within the zooplankton community, the copepod Eurytemora affinis, typically abundant in brackish water and quasi-absent from freshwater

  16. Larval migration and growth of marine prawns in the estuarine habitat

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Achuthankutty, C.T.; Nair, S.R.S.

    Larval migration and growth of @iMetapenaeus dobsoni, M. monoceros, M. affinis@@ and @iPenaeus merguiensis@@ were studied in the Mandovi Estuary and a nearby mangrove swamps for one year. In general, total number of larvae were more during the post...

  17. MASCULINIZATION OF FEMALE MOSQUITO FISH IN KRAFT MILL EFFLUENT -CONTAMINATED FENHOLLOWAY RIVER WATER IS ASSOCIATED WITH ANDROGEN RECEPTOR AGONIST ACTIVITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Female mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis holbrooki) downstream from Kraft paper mills in Florida display masculinization of the anal fin, an androgen-dependent trait. The current investigation was designed to determine if water contaminated with pulp-mill effluent (PME) from the Fen...

  18. Notes on Michigan Boletaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, Alexander H.

    1973-01-01

    Studies have continued on the diversity of the Michigan bolete flora. During the season of 1972 a variety of Boletus affinis Peck having a reticulate stipe was discovered and abundant material of Boletus bicolor var. subreticulatus Smith & Thiers was obtained. Boletus hortonii Smith & Thiers was col

  19. Mesozooplankton affinities in a recovering freshwater estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambord, Sophie; Maris, Tom; Colas, Fanny; Van Engeland, Tom; Sossou, Akoko-C.; Azémar, Frédéric; Le Coz, Maïwen; Cox, Tom; Buisson, Laetitia; Souissi, Sami; Meire, Patrick; Tackx, Michèle

    2016-08-01

    Water quality of the Scheldt estuary (Belgium/The Netherlands) has considerably improved in recent years, especially in the upstream, freshwater reaches. Within the zooplankton community, the copepod Eurytemora affinis, typically abundant in brackish water and quasi-absent from freshwater before 2007, has since substantially developed in the latter, where it now represents 90% of the crustacean mesozooplankton community. Simultaneously, cyclopoid copepod abundance has greatly decreased, while cladoceran abundance did not change. The study aim was: 1) to verify if the zooplankton community described for the period 2007-2009 by Mialet et al. (2011) has stabilized until present, and 2) to look for the environmental conditions favouring E. affinis development and causing changes in the upstream freshwater zooplankton community. The 2002-2012 temporal evolution of the zooplankton distribution at three stations in the upstream freshwater Scheldt estuary was analyzed. Water quality remained better after 2007 than before, and some factors revealed continuous improvement in annual mean concentrations (e.g. increase in O2, decrease in BOD5 and NH4sbnd N concentration). The increase in oxygen and the decrease in NH4sbnd N concentration, together with low discharge during summer were the main environmental factors explaining the development and timing of E. affinis in the upstream freshwater reach. In this reach, E. affinis maximal abundance is shifted to higher temperatures (summer) compared to its typical maximum spring abundance peak in the brackish zone of the Scheldt estuary and in most temperate estuaries. The changes in zooplankton community followed a temporal and spatial gradient induced by the spatio-temporal evolution of water quality improvement. The most downstream station (3) allowed E. affinis development (oxygen concentration > 4 mg L-1; NH4sbnd N concentration high predation pressure, NH3sbnd N toxicity, sensitivity to oxygen, etc.), there is no clear cause

  20. Kara Dut (Morus nigra L.) Bitkisinin In Vitro Çoğaltımı

    OpenAIRE

    KALKIŞIM, Özgün; Turan, Ali; AZERİ, Fatma Nur; ÖZDEŞ, Duygu

    2014-01-01

    Karadutun (Morus nigra L.) doku kültürü ile çoğaltılabilme imkanlarını belirlemek amacıyla yapılan bu çalışmada, erişkin ağaçların obur dallarından alınan nodal eksplantlardan çoklu sürgün teşvikini sağlamaya yönelik etkili bir protokol standardize edilmek üzere, bitki büyüme düzenleyicilerin farklı konsantrasyon ve kombinasyonu ile zenginleştirilmiş MS ortamları denenmiştir. Beş ayrı konsantrasyonda BAP (6-enzylaminopurine; 1,0, 2,0, 3,0, 4,0, 5,0 mg/L) ile desteklenmiş ve ayrıca BAP, NAA (...

  1. Ağır Metaller ile Kirlenmiş Toprağın İyileştirilmesinde Vetiver Grass (Vetiveria zizanioides (Linn.) Nash) ve Solucanların Kullanılması

    OpenAIRE

    CINDIK AKINCI, Yasemin; Yüksek, Turan; DEMİREL, Öner

    2016-01-01

    Dünyaüzerindeki yaşamın kalitesi çevrenin kalitesi ile ayrılmaz bir bütündür.Günümüzde organik ve inorganik kirlenme çevre ve insan sağlığı üzerinde önemlisorunlar meydana getirmektedir. Kentleşmenin artması ve sanayinin gelişmesi ileinsan odaklı ağır metal kullanımı giderek artmıştır. Ağır metaller toprak vesuya karışarak besin zincirini üzerinde olumsuz etkilere sahiptir. Son yıllardakirlenmiş toprak ve suyun iyileştirilmesi için güçlü ve etkili tekniklergeliştirilmiştir. Ayrıca bu teknikle...

  2. Toplumsal Dişhekimliğinde Kronik Periodontal Hastalıkların Epidemiyolojisi

    OpenAIRE

    YARKUT, Erdem

    2013-01-01

    ÖZETBu makalede periodontal hastalıkların epidemiyolojik önemi üzerinde durulmuş ve bugünedek elde edilen neticeler tartışılmıştır. Epidemiyolojik analizler bütün kişilerde kronik enflamatuar periodontal proçeslerin mevcut olduğunu göstermiştir. Bu derecler bilhassa kişinin yaşına ve ağız hijyenine göre de değişmektedir. Ayrıca ırk, cins, sosyalekonomik zeminler ve kişilerin eğitiminde rolü olduğu tesbit edilmiştir.Ayrıca beslenme ve hormona! faktörler üzerinde de durularak epidemiyolojik göz...

  3. John Stuart Mill’de Kadının Toplumsal Konumu

    OpenAIRE

    Geçit, Bekir

    2014-01-01

    Kadının toplumdaki yeri problemi, cinsiyet ayrımına bağlı olarak ortaya çıkan kadınların ezilmesi ve ikincileştirilmesi sorunudur. Cinsiyet ayrımına karşı mücadele veren ve bu problemin giderilmesine yönelik düşünce üreten ideolojilerin başında “feminizm” gelir. Feminizm ile birlikte kadınların toplumdaki durumlarının iyileştirmesine yönelik liberal ve sosyalist düşünürler de çaba göstermişlerdir. John Stuart Mill, yaşadığı dönemde kadın ve erkek arasındaki ilişkileri düzenleyen ve yasal olar...

  4. Kefir Mikroflorası Üzerinde Araştırma

    OpenAIRE

    Ergüllü, Erol; Üçüncü, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

      Çalışmada, çeşitli yörelerden sağlanmış 7 kefir örneğinin mikroflorası araştırılmış ve elde edilen bulgulara göre, kefir mikroflorasında süt asidi bakterileri (Streptokok ve Laktobasiller) ile mayaların çoğunlukta olduğu belirlenmiştir. Bu bakteri türlerinden her birinin kefir oluşumunda ayrı bir yeri bulunmaktadır. Süt asidi bakterileri sütü pıhtılaştırmakta ve bunlardan bazıları da ayrıca uçucu asitler oluşturarak, kefirin tat ve kokusunun meydana gelmesine katkıda bulunmaktadırlar. Mayal...

  5. Kefir Mikroflorası Üzerinde Araştırma

    OpenAIRE

    Ergüllü, Erol; Üçüncü, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

      Çalışmada, çeşitli yörelerden sağlanmış 7 kefir örneğinin mikroflorası araştırılmış ve elde edilen bulgulara göre, kefir mikroflorasında süt asidi bakterileri (Streptokok ve Laktobasiller) ile mayaların çoğunlukta olduğu belirlenmiştir. Bu bakteri türlerinden her birinin kefir oluşumunda ayrı bir yeri bulunmaktadır. Süt asidi bakterileri sütü pıhtılaştırmakta ve bunlardan bazıları da ayrıca uçucu asitler oluşturarak, kefirin tat ve kokusunun meydana gelmesine katkıda bulunmaktadırlar. Mayal...

  6. "We are all in the same boat" - ISEE leaders' trip to China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The motto of Tongji University, whose name literallymeans "we are all in the same boat, and must work to-gether to reach common goals", describes the harvest ofISEE leaders' mission to China in May 2007. ISEE Presi-dent Joan Martinez-Alier, President-Elect Peter May andthe society's founder and first President, Robert Costanzaas well as ISEE member Robert Ayres, participated in aseries of events and meetings in Shanghai and Beijing witha view to build institutional collaboration.

  7. Summaries of Research 1983.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    LAKE F LAMB JR, jCIHNSflN AH SH-AW S WOODY JN I-APTZMAN PJ SP-PFSTAICTEC PkESFNTATIGN OF II4FLUENZA ANC HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS ANTIGENS TO HUMAN f-LYM...TCXTcnIOnGY. NCV .16-16, tc81 PAPER NO.23. WRIGH1T-PATTERSON AYR FflRCF EASE. UN 10, AERO PAC MEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY. 1C;P3. PP.337-4-0 IOXICCLCGV DETACI

  8. COMBIC, Combined Obscuration Model for Battlefield Induced Contaminants: Volume 2 - Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-08-01

    Battalino Point Mugu CA 93042-5000 Redstone Scientific Info Ctr Attn AMSMI-RD-CS-R Bldg 4484 Redstone Arsenal AL 35898 Science & Technology 101...Computational and Information Sciences Directorate Scarlett D. Ayres Survivabilty/Lethality Analysis Directorate Approved for public release; distribution...source, one simply uses 15St in the stored cloud tables. Similarly, when one finds the average mass per unit downwind concentration, the average mass

  9. Humboldt Bay Wetlands Review and Baylands Analysis. Volume II. Base Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-01

    at the surface by cool, moisture-laden air that moves in from the Pacific Ocean. Condensa- tion of the moisture in this air mass results in a layer of...Gairdner Pacific Lamprey in Richardson) Hexanchidae Notorynchue maculatua Ayres Sevengill shark Carcharhinidae teiwstelue hen lei (Gill) Brown mouthhound...on muddy/sandy bottoms within patches or beds of eelgrass, surf grass, or seaweeds . The gunnels are brightly colored fish reaching a maximum length of

  10. Veterinary Research Manpower Development for Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    than seronegative cats.  Smoking or cooking of bush meat can be incomplete, and does not completely destroy the genomic integrity of some viruses...15. Chevett, K, Ayres, S. Efficacy of Various Short Progesterone Priming Protocols on Pregnancy Rates in Anestrous Does. Merial-NIH National...family peptide system Summary: Anxiety disorders affect approximately 40 million Americans, with women nearly twice as likely to be affected as

  11. The convergence problem of collocation solutions in the framework of the stochastic interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansò, F.; Venuti, G.

    2011-01-01

    The problem of the convergence of the collocation solution to the true gravity field was defined long ago (Tscherning in Boll Geod Sci Affini 39:221-252, 1978) and some results were derived, in particular by Krarup (Boll Geod Sci Affini 40:225-240, 1981). The problem is taken up again in the context of the stochastic interpretation of collocation theory and some new results are derived, showing that, when the potential T can be really continued down to a Bjerhammar sphere, we have a quite general convergence property in the noiseless case. When noise is present in data, still reasonable convergence results hold true. "Democrito che 'l mondo a caso pone" "Democritus who made the world stochastic" Dante Alighieri, La Divina Commedia, Inferno, IV - 136

  12. Nomenclatural corrections, neotype designation and new subspecies description in the genus Suiriri (Aves: Passeriformes: Tyrannidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirwan, Guy M; Steinheimer, Frank D; Raposo, Marcos A; Zimmer, Kevin J

    2014-03-28

    Zimmer et al. (2001) documented two morphological and vocal forms within what was then known as Suiriri suiriri affinis, and described the short-billed form as Suiriri islerorum. However, studies of the Burmeister type material held at the Natural History Collections of the Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Germany, revealed the types of Suiriri s. affinis (Burmeister, 1856) to be the same taxon as Suiriri islerorum, which name therefore becomes a junior synonym. No published name is available for the long-billed form. A new name is therefore introduced by an original description in accordance with the International code on zoological nomenclature. The original type material of S. s. bahiae (Berlepsch, 1893) is confirmed to be lost; a neotype is designated.

  13. Coleópteros (Bostrichidae, Platypodidae e Scolytidae em um fragmento de cerrado da baixada Cuiabana / Coleopterans (Bostrichidae, Platypodidae e Scolytidae in fragment of savannah in baixada Cuiabana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Renato Maurício da Rocha

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi qualificar e quantificar as populações de Bostrichidae, Platypodidae e Scolytidae que ocorrem associadas a um fragmento de cerrado nos períodos de seca (maio a outubro e de chuva (novembro a abril, no município de Cuiabá, estado de Mato Grosso. As coletas foram quinzenais e ocorreram de abril de 2008 a março de 2009. Foram utilizadas seis armadilhas etanólicas, iscadas com álcool etílico combustível hidratado. Os exemplares coletados foram triados, contados e identificados nos Laboratórios de Proteção Florestal da Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso e da Universidade Federal do Paraná. Foram realizados estudos faunísticos de dominância, constância, freqüência, abundância e de diversidade. Também foi desenvolvido estudo de flutuação populacional, de correlação com a tempertura, umidade relativa, precipitação pluvial e testes de médias entre as espécies. Foram identificadas 25 espécies, sendo cinco de Bostrichidae, duas de Platypodidae e 18 de Scolytidae. Foi coletado um total de 874 indivíduos, dos quais 588 foram coletados no período de seca e 286 no período de chuva. Bostrichopsis uncinata, Cryptocarenus diadematus, Xyleborus affinis e Xyleborus retusus foram as espécies mais numerosas no período de seca, enquanto Bostrichopsis uncinata, Xyleborus affinis e Xyleborus ferrugineus foram mais representativas no período de chuvas. As espécies Cryptocarenus diadematus, Xyleborus affinis e Xyleborus retusus ocorreram como dominante, muito abundante, muito frequente e constante somente no período seco, enquanto que no período de chuvas Xyleborus affinis ocorreu como super dominante, super abundante, super frequente e constante. No período de seca, os índices de Equitatibilidade e de Shannon-Wiener foram mais expressivos quando comparados com os obtidos nos meses de chuva.AbstractThe purpose of this research was to qualify and quantify the populations of Bostrichidae, Platypodidae

  14. The role of genetic structure in the adaptive divergence of populations experiencing saltwater intrusion due to relative sea-level rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, K M; Hitch, A; Martin, S; Klerks, P L; Leberg, P L

    2012-12-01

    Saltwater intrusion into estuaries creates stressful conditions for nektonic species. Previous studies have shown that Gambusia affinis populations with exposure to saline environments develop genetic adaptations for increased survival during salinity stress. Here, we evaluate the genetic structure of G. affinis populations, previously shown to have adaptations for increased salinity tolerance, and determine the impact of selection and gene flow on structure of these populations. We found that gene flow was higher between populations experiencing different salinity regimes within an estuary than between similar marsh types in different estuaries, suggesting the development of saline-tolerant phenotypes due to local adaptation. There was limited evidence of genetic structure along a salinity gradient, and only some of the genetic variation among sites was correlated with salinity. Our results suggest limited structure, combined with selection to saltwater intrusion, results in phenotypic divergence in spite of a lack of physical barriers to gene flow.

  15. A new insular species of Rock Gecko (Cnemaspis Boulenger) from Pulau Langkawi, Kedah, Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grismer, L Lee; Wood, P L Jr; Quah, Evan S H; Anuar, Shahrul; Ngadi, Ehwan; Ahmad, Norhayati

    2015-07-10

    A new, diminutive species of Rock Gecko Cnemaspis mahsuriae sp. nov. of the affinis group, is described from Gunung Raya on Pulau Langkawi, Kedah, Peninsular Malaysia and is differentiated from all other species in the affinis group by having a unique combination of characters including a maximum SVL of 36.6 mm; keeled subtibials and ventrals; 21-24 paravertebral tubercles; no tubercles in the lateral caudal furrows; caudal tubercles not encircling tail; no precloacal pores; 23-26 subdigital lamellae on the fourth toe; no white ocelli in the shoulder region; no yellow postscapular band; and faint yellow bars on the flanks. Cnemaspis mahsuriae sp. nov. is a forest-dwelling species living in close sympatry or paraptry with the insular endemic C. roticanai Grismer & Chan. The Langkawi Archipelago harbors a unique mix of Malaysian and Indochinese taxa and the frequency of new discoveries from this group of islands is increasing.

  16. On Notochaeta (Diptera, Sarcophagidae with descriptions of five new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. de Souza Lopes

    1983-03-01

    Full Text Available Nine species of Notochaeta, five of them proposed as new species (napoensis, flavipes, hixtlaensis, affinis and setifrons were described and figured. Mostly of the species were obtained from the Amazon Region of Peru and Ecuador; one species was collected in Mexioc and the paratype of N. panamensis Dodge was redescribed. The typical material belongs to the collection of the Biosystematics Research Institute, Ottawa and "Museu Nacional", Rio de Janeiro.São estudadas e figuradas nove espécies de NOtochaeta, cinco das quais novas (napoensis, flavipes, huixtlaensis, affinis e stifrons. O material estudado provém principalemnte da Região Amazônica do Peru e Equador; uma espécie foi colecionada no México e o paratipo de N. panamensis Dodge, foi redescrito. O material típico pertence às coleções do "Biosystematics Research Institute", Ottawa e Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro.

  17. Effect of electrode position on azo dye removal in an up-flow hybrid anaerobic digestion reactor with built-in bioelectrochemical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Min-Hua; Cui, Dan; Lee, Hyung-Sool; Liang, Bin; Wang, Ai-Jie; Cheng, Hao-Yi

    2016-04-01

    In this study, two modes of hybrid anaerobic digestion (AD) bioreactor with built-in BESs (electrodes installed in liquid phase (R1) and sludge phase (R2)) were tested for identifying the effect of electrodes position on azo dye wastewater treatment. Alizarin yellow R (AYR) was used as a model dye. Decolorization efficiency of R1 was 90.41 ± 6.20% at influent loading rate of 800 g-AYR/ m3·d, which was 39% higher than that of R2. The contribution of bioelectrochemical reduction to AYR decolorization (16.23 ± 1.86% for R1 versus 22.24 ± 2.14% for R2) implied that although azo dye was mainly removed in sludge zone, BES further improved the effluent quality, especially for R1 where electrodes were installed in liquid phase. The microbial communities in the electrode biofilms (dominant by Enterobacter) and sludge (dominant by Enterococcus) were well distinguished in R1, but they were similar in R2. These results suggest that electrodes installed in liquid phase in the anaerobic hybrid system are more efficient than that in sludge phase for azo dye removal, which give great inspirations for the application of AD-BES hybrid process for various refractory wastewaters treatment.

  18. Efficient azo dye decolorization in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) with built-in bioelectrochemical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Min-Hua; Cui, Dan; Gao, Lei; Cheng, Hao-Yi; Wang, Ai-Jie

    2016-10-01

    A continuous stirred tank reactor with built-in bioelectrochemical system (CSTR-BES) was developed for azo dye Alizarin Yellow R (AYR) containing wastewater treatment. The decolorization efficiency (DE) of the CSTR-BES was 97.04±0.06% for 7h with sludge concentration of 3000mg/L and initial AYR concentration of 100mg/L, which was superior to that of the sole CSTR mode (open circuit: 54.87±4.34%) and the sole BES mode (without sludge addition: 91.37±0.44%). The effects of sludge concentration and sodium acetate (NaAc) concentration on azo dye decolorization were investigated. The highest DE of CSTR-BES for 4h was 87.66±2.93% with sludge concentration of 12,000mg/L, NaAc concentration of 2000mg/L and initial AYR concentration of 100mg/L. The results in this study indicated that CSTR-BES could be a practical strategy for upgrading conventional anaerobic facilities against refractory wastewater treatment.

  19. Length–Weight Relationships for Freshwater Fish Species in Küçük Menderes River Basin, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Korkmaz

    2015-10-01

    Specimens of ten species belonging to three families were analyzed. The exponent b in the length-weight relationship ‘W=a(TLb’ ranged from 2.54 to 3.52. The length-weight relationships for Barbus pergamonensis, Carassius carassius, Carassius gibelio, Chondrostoma holmwoodii, Cyprinus carpio, Gambusia affinis, Perca fluviatilis, Petroleuciscus smyrnaeus, Squalius kosswigi and Rhodeus amarus were given in this study. Information of length–weight relationships will be useful for researchers especially in conservation.

  20. RESEARCH ON THE INFLUENCE OF LEAD ACETATE ON THE GAMETOPHYTE OF SOME PTERIDOPHYTE SPECIES

    OpenAIRE

    Liliana Cristina SOARE; Codruţa-Mihaela DOBRESCU; Camelia Georgiana DIACONESCU

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was to study the influence of lead acetate on spore germination and gametophyte differentiation in the pteridophyte species Athyrium filix-femina, Dryopteris affinis and Dryopteris carthusiana. The study was conducted to determine the lead tolerance level of these species.The experimental variants were: Control - Knop solution, V1-100 ppm lead acetate and V2-500 ppm lead acetate. The spores were cultivated in 50 ml of experimental solutions. The culture vessels were k...

  1. Large-Scale Operations Management Test of Use of the White Amur for Control of Problem Aquatic Plants. Report 2. First Year Poststocking Results. Volume II. The Fish, Mammals, and Waterfowl of Lake Conway, Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-02-01

    were observed than in 1976-77, and yellow bullhead (Ictalurus natalis) and sailfin mollie (Poecilia latipinna) were captured for the first time in 1977...killifish 0.17 0.02 .-. 0.08 ( 0.99) ( 0.18) ... ( 0.51) Sailfin mollie .- - - Brook silverside ...... 0.33 - - - - - - ( 2.10) Bluespotted sunfish 0.17...affinis) or nine other principal nonmigratory species were 32 sighted. Principal wading birds present were great blue heron (Ardea herodias), green

  2. Carex hezhouensis, a new species of Cyperaceae from Guangxi, China%广西薹草属(莎草科)一新种--贺州薹草

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王泓; 王绍能; 宋晓军

    2005-01-01

    @@ 贺州薹草新种图版Ⅰ Carex hezhouensis Hong Wang & S.N.Wang,sp.nov.Fig.1. Species affinis C.tianmushanicae C.Z.Zheng & X.F.Jin,sed foliis angustioribus,2.5~4 mm latis,utriculis glabris,3~4 mm longis, nucibus medio non constrictis,1.5~2 mm longis,stylis basi pubescentibus differt.

  3. 蜘蛛抱蛋属一新种%A new species of Aspidistra Ker-Gawl. (Liliaceae) from Guizhou, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何顺志

    2002-01-01

    @@ 刺果蜘蛛抱蛋新种图1 Aspidistra spinula S. Z. He, sp. nov. (sect. Luridae G. Z. Li), Fig. 1 Species A. longanensi Y. Wan affinis, quae stigmate medio faciei superae valde convexo, tetrapartito, margine 16-lobo, facie infera aciebus 16 longitudinalibus aliformibus ornato differt; et similis A. cruciformi Y. Wan et X. H. Lu, quae lobis perianthii basi intus sine projecturis calcariformibus.

  4. 广西茜草科植物三新种%Three new species of the Rubiaceae from Guangxi, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方鼎; 谢志明

    2002-01-01

    @@ 1 那坡螺序草新种图1: 1~3 Spiradiclis napoensis D. Fang et Z. M. Xie, sp. nov. Fig. 1: 1~3 Affinis S. howii H. S. Lo, quae foliorum laminis saepe lanceolatis in sicco subtus fulvescentibus, stipulis et bracteolis brevioribus, in fl. longistylatis: corolla extra 5-fariam hirsutula, lobis dorso anguste alatis, staminibus medio tubi insertis, in fl. brevistylatis: corollae tubo intra ubique albo-villoso differt.

  5. Selenium Concentrations in Irrigation Drain Inflows to the Salton Sea, California, October 2006 and January 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Thomas W.; Walther, Mike W.; Brumbaugh, William G.

    2007-01-01

    This report presents raw data on selenium concentrations in samples of water, sediment, detritus, and selected food-chain matrices collected from selected agricultural drains in the southern portion of the Salton Sea during October 2006 and January 2007. Total selenium and selenium species were determined in water samples, whereas total selenium was determined in sediment, detritus, algae, plankton, midge larvae (Family Chironomidae), and two fish species (western mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis, and sailfin molly, Poecilia latipinna).

  6. Materials for the flora of myxomycetes of central Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Kalinowska-Kucharska

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The author investigated the Myxomycetes flora in the environment of Łódź. A collection made between 1967-1972 contains 58 species an 3 varieties. Among Myxomycetes found in this territory are species rare in Poland: Badhamia affinis Rost, Comatrichia pulchella (Bab. Rost., Clastoderma debaryanum Blytt., Lycogala conicum Pers., Lycogala exiguum Morgan, Trichia incospicua Rost. and Trichia olivacea (Maylan Krzem.

  7. The deepwater fishery along the Pacific coast of Costa Rica, Central America Pesca en aguas profundas a lo largo de la costa Pacífica de Costa Rica, América Central

    OpenAIRE

    Ingo S Wehrtmann; Vanessa Nielsen-Muñoz

    2009-01-01

    Global catches of marine fishery resources declined during the last decades; however, there has been a trend of increasing exploitation of deepwater resources that are especially vulnerable to depletion. Such a tendency was noticeable in Pacific Latin América, too. In Costa Rica, the vast majority of the commercial fishing activities are concentrated on the Pacific coast. The target species for the deepwater fishery in Costa Rica are the two pandalids Heterocarpus affinis and H. vicarius as w...

  8. 中国树参属(五加科)一新种%A new species of Dendropanax (Araliaceae) from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓云飞; 彭华

    2002-01-01

    @@ 厚叶树参新种图1 Dendropanax crassifolius Y. F. Deng et H. Peng, sp. nov. Fig. 1 Species affinis D. kwangsiensi Li, sed foliis crasse coriaceis eglandulosis, 2~5 cm longis, 1~2 cm latis, venis reticulatis supra impressis vel obscur is, f ructibus minoribus, longe ellipsoideis, c. 7 mm longis, 4 mm diam., longitudi naliter leviter 3_costatis differt.

  9. Responses of the molluscan fauna to environmental variations in a Halodule wrightii Ascherson ecosystem from Northeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    BARROS,KCRISHNA V.S.; Rocha-Barreira,Cristina A

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study observed the spatial and temporal distributions of molluscs in a Halodule wrightii meadow, verifying if they respond satisfactorily to seasonal changes in this seagrass ecosystem. Twenty-four species were identified. Chitons were rare, bivalves had greater number of species (11), followed by gastropods (9) which were also the most abundant class (73%). All classes were more abundant in the belowground. The most common species was Tricolia affinis, especially in aboveground...

  10. Diversity of Endophytic Fungi from Red Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc. Plant and Their Inhibitory Effect to Fusarium oxysporum Plant Pathogenic Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIHEGIKO KANAYA

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia has been known as a country with high medicinal plant diversity. One of the most common medicinal plant from Indonesia is red ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.. Nevertheless, limited studies of endophytic fungi associated with these medicinal plants are hitherto available. The objectives of this research were to study the diversity of endophytic fungi on red ginger and to analyze their potential as a source of antifungal agent. All parts of plant organs such as leaf, rhizome, root, and stem were subjected for isolation. Fungal identification was carried out by using a combination of morphological characteristic and molecular analysis of DNA sequence generated from ITS rDNA region. Thirty endophytic fungi were successfully isolated from leaf, rhizome, root, and stem of red ginger plant. Antagonistic activity was tested against Fusarium oxysporum, a pathogenic fungus on plants, using an antagonistic assay. Based on this approach, the fungi were assigned as Acremonium macroclavatum, Beltraniella sp., Cochliobolus geniculatus and its anamorphic stage Curvularia affinis, Fusarium solani, Glomerella cingulata, and its anamorphic stage Colletotrichum gloeosporoides, Lecanicillium kalimantanense, Myrothecium verrucaria, Neonectria punicea, Periconia macrospinosa, Rhizopycnis vagum, and Talaromyces assiutensis. R. vagum was found specifically on root whereas C. affinis, L. kalimantanense, and M. verrucaria were found on stem of red ginger plant. A. macroclavatum was found specifically in red ginger plant’s organ which located under the ground, whereas C. affinis was found from shoot or organ which located above the ground. The antagonistic activity of isolated endophytic fungi against F. oxysporum varied with the inhibition value range from 1.4 to 68.8%. C. affinis (JMbt7, F. solani (JMd14, and G. cingulata (JMr2 had significantly high antagonistic activity with the value above 65%; and R. vagum (JMa4 and C. geniculatus (JMbt9 had

  11. Review of the bioenvironmental methods for malaria control with special reference to the use of larvivorous fishes and composite fish culture in central Gujarat, India

    OpenAIRE

    Rajni Kant; Haq, S; Srivastava, H. C.; Sharma, V. P.

    2013-01-01

    Mosquito control with the use of insecticides is faced with the challenges of insecticide resistance in disease vectors, community refusal, their high cost, operational difficulties, and environmental concern. In view of this, integrated vector control strategies with the use of larvivorous fishes such as Guppy (Poecilia reticulata) and Gambusia (G. affinis) as biological control agents were used in controlling mosquito breeding in different types of breeding places such as intradomestic c...

  12. Dimensional Stability of Two Polyvinyl Siloxane Impression Materials in Different Time Intervals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aalaei Sh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Statement of the Problem: Dental prosthesis is usually made indirectly; there- fore dimensional stability of the impression material is very important. Every few years, new impression materials with different manufacturers’ claims regarding their better properties are introduced to the dental markets which require more research to evaluate their true dimensional changes. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate dimensional stability of additional silicone impression material (Panasil® and Affinis® in different time intervals. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, using two additional silicones (Panasil® and Affinis®, we made sixty impressions of standard die in similar conditions of 23 °C and 59% relative humidity by a special tray. The die included three horizontal and two vertical lines that were parallel. The vertical line crossed the horizontal ones at a point that served as reference for measurement. All impressions were poured with high strength dental stone. The dimensions were measured by stereo-microscope by two examiners in three interval storage times (1, 24 and 168 hours.The data were statistically analyzed using t-test and ANOVA. Results: All of the stone casts were larger than the standard die. Dimensional changes of Panasil and Affinis were 0.07%, 0.24%, 0.27% and 0.02%, 0.07%, 0.16% after 1, 24 and 168 hours, respectively. Dimensional change for two impression materials wasn’t significant in the interval time, expect for Panasil after one week (p = 0.004. Conclusions: According to the limitations of this study, Affinis impressions were dimensionally more stable than Panasil ones, but it was not significant. Dimensional change of Panasil impression showed a statistically significant difference after one week. Dimensional changes of both impression materials were based on ADA standard limitation in all time intervals (< 0.5%; therefore, dimensional stability of this impression was accepted at least

  13. Morphological Characterization and Topographic Analysis of Multiple Photoreceptor Types in the Retinae of Mesopelagic Hatchetfishes with Tubular Eyes

    OpenAIRE

    Biagioni, Lauren M.; Hunt, David M.; Collin, Shaun P.

    2016-01-01

    Marine hatchetfishes, Argyropelecus spp., are one of the 14 genera of mesopelagic teleosts, which possess tubular eyes. The tubular eyes are positioned dorsally on the head and consist of a main retina, which subtends a large dorsal binocular field, and an accessory retina, which subtends the lateral monocular visual field. The topographic distribution of photoreceptors in the retina of Argyropelecus sladeni, Argyropelecus affinis, and Argyropelecus aculeatus was determined using a random, un...

  14. Biochemical composition of copepods for evaluation of feed quality in production of juvenile marine fish

    OpenAIRE

    van der Meeren, Terje; Olsen, Rolf Erik; Hamre, Kristin; Fyhn, Hans Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    To increase current knowledge on the nutritional value of natural prey organisms, the biochemical components of mainly three copepods (Acartia grani, Centropages hamatus, and Eurytemora affinis) from a marine pond system were analysed once a week from spring until late fall, over two years. The analysed components were total lipid, lipid class composition, total lipid fatty acid composition, free amino acids, total protein, protein-bound amino acids, pigment (astaxanthin and ß-carotene), and ...

  15. Summer foods of lesser scaup in subarctic taiga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartonek, J.C.; Murdy, H.W.

    1970-01-01

    Twenty-five adult and 38 juvenile lesser scaup (Aythya affinis) that were collected in taiga north of Great Slave Lake, Northwest Territories, had eaten almost entirely animal material (99 i?? 1 per cent, P odonates, and corixids. Sampling aquatic organisms concomitantly with collecting ducks revealed that seeds, copepods, and cladocerans were seldom or never eaten; most other organisms were consumed in proportions that were not significantly different (P < 0.05) from those in the collected samples.

  16. The distribution and synonyms of Breutelia microdonta (Mitt.) Broth. : with additional notes on certain taxa of Breutelia

    OpenAIRE

    Griffin, Dana

    1992-01-01

    Breutelia microdonta (Mitt.) Broth., described originally from Brazil, is the oldest name for a disjunct widespread tropical species that includes as synonyms B. angustifolia Rehm. ex Sim of Southern Africa and B. merrillii Broth. of the Philippines. Breutelia kilaueae (C. Muell.) Broth. of Hawaii is considered a synonym of the austral Pacific species B. affinis (Hook.) Mitt., and B. brachyphylla Broth. of Ecuador is reduced to synonymy under the North Andean B. squarrosa Jaeg. Breutelia anac...

  17. California Least Tern Foraging Ecology in Southern California: A Review of Foraging Behavior Relative to Proposed Dredging Locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    freshwater species, including killifish (Fundulus parvipinnis) and mosquito fish (Gambusia affinis) (Atwood and ERDC/EL CR-16-3 2 Kelly 1984...event of oil spill. Three portable pools with mosquito fish provided near Pier 400 nesting site. Included surveys at 3 preferred foraging areas...review summarized available information on CLT biology , ecology, and predators in the first four sections; Section 5 is entitled “Known Effects of

  18. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U11444-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available affinis Toll-7 (Toll-7)... 40 0.53 FJ915436_1( FJ915436 |pid:none) Gallus lafayetii isolate 605 TLR3 ... 40...915435 |pid:none) Gallus lafayetii isolate 149 TLR3 ... 39 0.69 FJ915460_1( FJ915460 |pid:none) Gallus sonne...one) Oryza sativa (japonica cultivar-... 39 0.69 FJ915433_1( FJ915433 |pid:none) Gallus lafayetii isolate 54

  19. Antioxidant Activity, Polyphenols Content and Antimicrobial Activity of Several Native Pteridophytes of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Cristina SOARE

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to test the antioxidant activity, polyphenols content and antimicrobial activity of crude extracts obtained from leaves of pteridophyte species commonly found in Romania. The ORAC (Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity of the investigated ferns varied between 421.90 ?mol TE (Trolox equivalents/g FW (fresh weight in Dryopteris filix-mas and 128.18 ?mol TE/g FW in D. affinis. Methanolic extracts obtained from leaves of ferns have similar antioxidant activity to that of some medicinal plants. Polyphenols content in the leaves of ferns varies between 2340 mg Gallic acid equivalents (GAE/100 g FW in D. filix-mas and 887 mg GAE/100 g FW in D. affinis. The correlation coefficient between ORAC and the total polyphenol content was R=0.985. This correlation suggests that phenolic compounds are major contributors to the antioxidant activity. The methanolic extract obtained from ferns inhibits the growth of Gram negative Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa NBJMCC1390, Salmonella abony and Gram positive Staphyllococcus aureus ATCC 25093 and Enterococcus faecalis. The highest antimicrobial activity was determined for the Dryopteris extract. The antimicrobial activity of methanolic extracts obtained from leaves of D. filix-mas and D. affinis is better than the A. filix-femina in the case of Brevibacterium flavum ATCC 14067, Sarcina sp., Bacillus cereus ATCC 1390, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus niger. The tested ferns could be used as cosmetic ingredients, as preservatives in food or in antimicrobial therapy.

  20. y Quercus laurina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Flores-Velázquez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se determinaron las características de maquinado con base en la norma ASTM D 1666-87, en las operaciones de cepillado, barrenado, moldurado, torneado y lijado de la madera de Quercus affinis y Quercus laurina. Los mejores resultados de cepillado para Q. affinis se encontraron al combinar el ángulo de corte de 15º y una velocidad de alimentación de 7.5 m·min-1, para Q. laurina no hubo influencia del ángulo de corte. En el barrenado se obtuvieron excelentes resultados con las dos velocidades de giro de broca probadas. Para el moldurado, los resultados para las dos especies fueron excelentes en ambos cortes. En el torneado se encontró que no existe influencia del contenido de humedad para Q. laurina, mientras que para Q. affinis se clasificó como buena para un contenido de humedad menor y excelente para el mayor contenido de humedad. Y para el lijado los resultados fueron excelentes. De acuerdo a los resultados de las pruebas, las dos especies son apropiadas para ser utilizadas por la industria maderera para la elaboración de productos terminados de alta calidad.

  1. Comparative population genetics of two invading ticks: Evidence of the ecological mechanisms underlying tick range expansions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadolny, Robyn; Gaff, Holly; Carlsson, Jens; Gauthier, David

    2015-10-01

    Two species of ixodid tick, Ixodes affinis Neumann and Amblyomma maculatum Koch, are simultaneously expanding their ranges throughout the mid-Atlantic region of the US. Although we have some understanding of the ecology and life history of these species, the ecological mechanisms governing where and how new populations establish and persist are unclear. To assess population connectivity and ancestry, we sequenced a fragment of the 16S mitochondrial rRNA gene from a representative sample of individuals of both species from populations throughout the eastern US. We found that despite overlapping host preferences throughout ontogeny, each species exhibited very different genetic and geographic patterns of population establishment and connectivity. I. affinis was of two distinct mitochondrial clades, with a clear geographic break separating northern and southern populations. Both I. affinis populations showed evidence of recent expansion, although the southern population was more genetically diverse, indicating a longer history of establishment. A. maculatum exhibited diverse haplotypes that showed no significant relationship with geographic patterns and little apparent connectivity between sites. Heteroplasmy was also observed in the 16S mitochondrial rRNA gene in 3.5% of A. maculatum individuals. Genetic evidence suggests that these species rely on different key life stages to successfully disperse into novel environments, and that host vagility, habitat stability and habitat connectivity all play critical roles in the establishment of new tick populations.

  2. Effects of elevated pH on marine copepods in mass cultivation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Benni Winding; Hansen, Per Juel; Nielsen, Torkel Gissel

    2017-01-01

    -neritic distribution, O. similis, exhibited 72 h LC50 at pH 8.39 ± 0.11 (±95% CL) whereas the most estuarine E. affinis had LC50 at pH 9.51 ± 0.04. The rest had LC50 at intermediary pH's. Egg hatching by a selection of species, Acartia spp., C. typicus and E. affinis, was unaffected by pH up to 9.0–9.5. Nauplii from...... both Acartia spp. and C. typicus had higher mortality at pH 9.5 than at the other pH regimes while E. affinis nauplii were not affected by pH. Wild Acartia spp. and A. tonsa from a culture showed some differences in response although of minor practical importance for aquaculture; both produced no eggs...... at pH 9.5, A. tonsa exhibited significantly higher egg production at all other pH's than 9.5, both showed egg hatching invariant of pH, but gradually increasing nauplii mortality with pH. We suggest active/passive selection to obtain the most pH robust species able to cope with accidently...

  3. Elevation, Not Deforestation, Promotes Genetic Differentiation in a Pioneer Tropical Tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilla, Antonio R.; Pope, Nathaniel; Jaffé, Rodolfo; Jha, Shalene

    2016-01-01

    The regeneration of disturbed forest is an essential part of tropical forest ecology, both with respect to natural disturbance regimes and large-scale human-mediated logging, grazing, and agriculture. Pioneer tree species are critical for facilitating the transition from deforested land to secondary forest because they stabilize terrain and enhance connectivity between forest fragments by increasing matrix permeability and initiating disperser community assembly. Despite the ecological importance of early successional species, little is known about their ability to maintain gene flow across deforested landscapes. Utilizing highly polymorphic microsatellite markers, we examined patterns of genetic diversity and differentiation for the pioneer understory tree Miconia affinis across the Isthmus of Panama. Furthermore, we investigated the impact of geographic distance, forest cover, and elevation on genetic differentiation among populations using circuit theory and regression modeling within a landscape genetics framework. We report marked differences in historical and contemporary migration rates and moderately high levels of genetic differentiation in M. affinis populations across the Isthmus of Panama. Genetic differentiation increased significantly with elevation and geographic distance among populations; however, we did not find that forest cover enhanced or reduced genetic differentiation in the study region. Overall, our results reveal strong dispersal for M. affinis across human-altered landscapes, highlighting the potential use of this species for reforestation in tropical regions. Additionally, this study demonstrates the importance of considering topography when designing programs aimed at conserving genetic diversity within degraded tropical landscapes. PMID:27280872

  4. Evaluation of biological control agents for mosquitoes control in artificial breeding places

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Salim Abadi Yaser; Vatandoost Hassan; Rassi Yavar; Abai Mohammad Reza; Sanei Dehkordi Ali Reza; Paksa Azim

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the entomological impact of chlorpyrifos-methyl,Bacillus thuringiensis, andGambusia affinis on mosquitoes control in artificial breeding places.Methods:A Latin square design with 4 replicates was performed in order to evaluate the efficacy of chlorpyrifos-methyl,Bacillus thuringiensis, andGambusia affinis on larva. The larvicide was applied at the dosage of 100 mg a.h/ha,Bacillus thuringiensis at the recommended dosage and 10 fishes per m2 were applied at 1í1 m2 artificial breeding sites. The larval densities for both anopheline and culicine were counted according to larvae /10 dippers prior and 24 h after application.Results:All three control agents are effective for mosquito density reduction, and the difference between the three agents and the control is significant (P<0.05). There is also significant difference among chlorpyrifos-methyl,Bacillus thuringiensis andGambusia affinis.Bacillus thuringiensisexhibited more reduction on mosquito larval density than fish and larvicide (P<0.05).Conclusions:Bacillus thuringiensis in comparison with two other agents is the appropriate method for larviciding in the breeding places. Although long term assessing for biological activities as well as monitoring and mapping of resistance is required.

  5. IMPACT OF CLIMATE ANOMALY ON CATCH COMPOSITION OF NERITIC TUNA IN SUNDA STRAIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairul Amri

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Tongkol komo/kawakawa (Euthynnus affinis and tenggiri (Scomberomerus guttatus are commonly caught by mini purseiners operated in Sunda Straits and landed in Labuan, West Java. This species inhabits coastal water and has preference staying in relatively warm water. Oceanography parameters commonly influencing the distribution of Euthynnus affinis are temperature, current, and salinity. The oceanography of Sunda Strait is influenced by water masses coming from the north that mainly originated from the Java Sea and water masses from the south mainly originated from Indian Ocean. The internal oceanography of Sunda Strait is also influenced by upwelling and monsoon as regional climate anomaly (ENSO and Indian Ocean Dipole Mode. This paper describes the influence of Dipole Mode (positive and negative event and ENSO (El- Nino/La-Nina to the catch dynamics of neritic tuna particularly in Sunda Straits waters. The results shown that regional climate anomaly influenced neritic tuna catch and its composition. The catches Euthynnus affinis in phase negative dipole mode or La-Nina were higher and dominated the catch composition of pelagic fishes of Sunda Strait. Similar situation also is showen by Scomberomorus commerson.

  6. The ant genus Carebara Westwood (Hymenoptera, Formicidae: synonymisation of Pheidologeton Mayr under Carebara, establishment and revision of the C. polita species group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Fischer

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the genus Pheidologeton Mayr, 1862 is synonymized under Carebara Westwood, 1840 and the Carebara polita group is established and revised. This species group currently includes six species from the Afrotropical region (C. madibai, C. nicotianae, C. perpusilla, C. polita, C. silvestrii, and C. villiersi and two species from the Neotropical region (C. brevipilosa and C. urichi. The polita group clearly links Carebara and Pheidologeton, and, due to a lack of autapomorphic characters for the latter, a separation of the two genera is no longer justified. As a result Carebara is presented as a monophyletic and better defined genus that can be separated from other genera with more confidence. We present an overview of the distribution and biology of Carebara as well as images from the various genera currently in synonymy under Carebara, and discuss the characters they share. The polymorphism present in Afrotropical and Malagasy Carebara is discussed and one new species from Africa, C. madibai sp. n., is described. The subspecies Carebara perpusilla arnoldiana syn. n., Carebara perpusilla concedens syn. n., and Carebara perpusilla spinosa syn. n. are new synonyms of Carebara perpusilla. Oligomyrmex politus nicotianae is re-elevated to species level and transferred into Carebara, C. nicotianae comb. n., stat. rev.; C. punctata is a new synonym of C. silvestrii comb. n. and C. pygmaea albipes comb. n., syn n., C. pygmaea bugnioni comb. n., syn. n., and C. simularensis syn. n. are new synonyms of C. pygmaea comb. n.. The following names are transferred from Pheidologeton to Carebara as new combinations (with the species epithets adjusted to female endings where necessary: aberrans, affinis, affinis javana, affinis minor, affinis spinosior, affinis sumatrensis, ceylonensis, dentiviris, diversa, diversa draco, diversa ficta, diversa laotina, diversa macgregori, diversa philippina, diversa standfussi, diversa taprobanae, diversa tenuirugosa

  7. İŞTEN AYRILMA NİYETİ VE AŞIRI ROL YÜKÜNÜN OTEL ÇALIŞANLARININ SOSYAL AYLAKLIK DAVRANIŞLARINA ETKİSİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yılmaz AKGÜNDÜZ

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available ÖZ: Bu çalışmanın amacı otel işletmelerinde çalışan işgörenlerin sosyal aylaklık (kaytarma davranışlarına işten ayrılma niyetleri ve aşırı rol yükü algılarının etkisini belirlemektir. Ayrıca çalışma kapsamında aşırı rol yükünün işten ayrılma niyetine olan etkisinin belirlenmesi de amaçlanmaktadır. Bu kapsamda sosyal aylaklık, işten ayrılma niyeti ve aşırı rol yükü ölçeklerini içeren bir anket, İzmir’deki dört ve beş yıldızlı otellerde çalışan 354 işgörene seçkisiz örnekleme yöntemi ile 15 Eylül-15Kasım 2013 döneminde uygulanmıştır. Sosyal aylaklık ölçeği ve işten ayrılma niyeti ölçeği yapılan açıklayıcı faktör analizi sonucunda tek boyutta, aşırı rol yükü ölçeği ise zaman yetersizliği ve aşırı sorumluluk olmak üzere iki faktör altında toplanmıştır. Araştırmada hiyerarşik regresyon analizi yapılarak hipotezler test edilmiştir. Analiz sonucunda, aşırı rol yükü -zaman yetersizliği- algısının ve işten ayrılma niyetinin çalışanların sosyal aylaklık davranışını artırdığı ortaya koyulmuştur. Ayrıca çalışanların aşırı rol yükü -zaman yetersizliği- algısının işten ayrılma niyetlerini artırdığı; aşırı rol yükü -aşırı sorumluluk- algısının ise işten ayrılma niyetini azalttığı da belirlenmiştir. Anahtar Kelimeler: Sosyal Aylaklık, İşten Ayrılma Niyeti, Aşırı Rol Yükü, Oteller. ABSTRACT: The aim of this research is to investigate the effect of turnover intention and role overload on social loafing behavior of hotel employees. Besides, the effect of role overload on turnover intention has been investigated. In the scope of research, questionnaire of the scales of turnover intention, role overload and social loafing have been applied to 354 employees working in the hotels including four and five stars through random sampling between September 15 and December 15, 2013. As a result

  8. Fiili Hizmet Süresi Zammı Uygulamasının Türk Sosyal Güvenlik Sistemine Etkisi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayça ALTINDAL

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Türkiye’de 2008 yılında hayata geçirilen sosyal güvenlik reformu sonrası fiili hizmet süresi zammı yeniden düzenlenmiştir. Yapılan bu düzenleme ile fiili hizmet süresi zammına tabi bir işte 5510 Sayılı Kanunun 4 üncü maddesinin (a bendi kapsamında çalışan sigortalılarla (c bendi kapsamında çalışan sigortalıların malullük, yaşlılık ve ölüm sigortaları prim oranında farklılaşmaya gidilmiştir. Yapılan bu çalışma ile bahsi geçen sigortalılar arasında fiili hizmet süresi zammı hususundaki ayrışmanın etkisi incelenmiş ve bu ayrışmanın giderilmesi önerilmiştir. Ayrıca fiili hizmet süresi zammı alan sigortalıların emeklilik ödemesi ile prim tahsilatı arasında aktüeryal denge oluşturulması durumunda sosyal güvenlik sistemine yıllık 77 milyon TL ek gelir sağlanacağı tespit edilmiştir.

  9. Müşterilerin Restoran Çalışanlarının Bahşiş Arttırma Amaçlı Davranışlarına Karşı Tutumları

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tülay Korkmaz Devrani

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmanın amacı restoranlarda hizmet sunan çalışanların bahşiş gelirlerini arttırmak için sergiledikleri davranışların (bahşiş arttıran davranışlar müşteriler tarafından nasıl algılandığının incelenmesi ve müşteriyi bahşiş vermeye yöneltme nedenlerine göre alt gruplara ayrışıp ayrışmadıklarının belirlenmesidir. Veri Ankara’da yaşayan müşterilerden uygunluk örneklemesi ile toplanmıştır. Analizler geçerli 295 anket üzerinden yapılmıştır. Analiz sonuçlarına göre bahşiş arttıran çalışan davranışlarının müşterilerin daha fazla bahşiş verme isteği üzerindeki etkisi farklılaşmaktadır. Bahşiş arttıran davranışlar müşterilerin değerlendirmelerine göre üç ayrı alt grupta toplanmıştır. Aynı grupta yer alan davranışların müşteriyi bahşiş vermeye yöneltme nedenleri benzerlik göstermektedir.

  10. Metazoários parasitos de seis espécies de peixes do Reservatório de Lajes, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Metazoan parasites of six fishes species from Lajes Reservoir in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline R. Paraguassú

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Entre abril de 2002 e julho de 2003, foram necropsiados 231 espécimes de peixes: 39 Astyanax bimaculatus (Linnaeus, 1758, 79 A. fasciatus (Cuvier, 1819, 23 Hypostomus affinis (Steindachner, 1877, 26 Hoplias malabaricus (Bloch, 1794, 30 Loricariichthys castaneus (Castelnau, 1855 e 34 Trachelyopterus striatulus (Steindachner, 1876 provenientes do Reservatório de Lajes (22º42' - 22º50'S, 43º53' 44º05'O, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, para estudo das suas comunidades parasitárias. A maioria dos espécimes de H. affinis (95,6% e H. malabaricus (84,6% estavam parasitados por pelo menos uma espécie de metazoário. Em A. bimaculatus, A. fasciatus, L. castaneus e T. striatulus 41%, 39,2%, 56,7% e 14,7% dos espécimes estavam parasitados, respectivamente. Foram coletadas oito diferentes espécies de metazoários parasitos: 2 em A. bimaculatus, 3 em A. fasciatus, 3 em H. affinis, 4 em H. malabaricus, 4 em L. castaneus e 1 em T. striatulus. As comunidades de metazoários parasitos das seis espécies de peixes estudadas apresentaram típico padrão de distribuição agregada. Foram observados dois casos de correlação negativa entre a abundância e a prevalência parasitárias e o comprimento total dos hospedeiros. A comunidade parasitária de L. castaneus apresentou os maiores valores de intensidade média, índice de dispersão e diversidade. As comunidades parasitárias dos peixes estudados apresentaram escassez de correlação entre a abundância, riqueza parasitária e diversidade com o comprimento total dos hospedeiros. Os baixos valores de riqueza e diversidade das comuni-dades parasitárias podem ser atribuídos as características oligotróficas do Reservatório de Lajes.From April 2002 to July 2003, 231 freshwater fishes from Lajes Reservoir in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (22º42' - 22º50'S, 43º53' - 44º05'W were necropsied to study their community metazoan parasites: 39 Astyanax bimaculatus (Linnaeus, 1758, 79 A. fasciatus

  11. Dolasımlı Akıskan Yataklı Bir Isıl – Güç Çevrim Santralinin Simülasyonu ve Duyarlılık Analizi

    OpenAIRE

    Rahim, Murad; GUNDUZ, Duygu

    2013-01-01

    Ülkemizde kullanılan linyitlerin oldukça düsük kalorili olusları, ayrıca içersinde yanmayı olumsuz yöndeetkileyen ve hava kirletici emisyonlara neden olan nem, kül, kükürt ve uçucu maddelerin yüksek oranlarda bulunması nedeniyle; alısılmıs yakma sistemlerinde gerekli biçimde temiz ve verimli yakılamamaktadır. Düsük kaliteli kömürlerin yakılmas...

  12. Diyet Lifi Tayin Yöntemlerinin İrdelenmesi II- Enzimatik Yöntemler

    OpenAIRE

    Boyacıoğlu, Dilek; Boyacıoğlu, M. Hikmet

    1994-01-01

    Günümüzde diyet lifi tayin metodolojisi enzimatik-gravimetrik ve enzimatik-kimyasal olarak iki kategoriye ayrılmaktadır. Bunlardan enzimatik-kimyasal yöntemler tekrar enzimatik-kolorimetrik, enzimatik-yüksek basınçlı sıvı kromatografisi (High pressure liquid chromatography; HPLC) ve enzimatik-gaz sıvı kromatografisi (Gas-liquid chromatography, GLC) olarak sınıflandırılabilir. Halen diyet lifi tayininde en yaygın olarak tercih edilen yöntemler enzimatik-gravimetrik yöntemlerdir. ...

  13. KASAPOĞLU ÇENGEL, Hülya Kırgız Türkçesi Grameri Ses ve Şekil Bilgisi, Akçağ/700, Ankara, 2005, 424 s, ISBN 975-338-687-7.

    OpenAIRE

    KINACI, Cemile

    2007-01-01

    gözden geçirildi inde, Prof. Dr. Hülya Kasapo lu Çengel’in bu çalõ masõnõn ala- nõndaki ilk örneklerden biri oldu u görülür. Eser, Kõrgõz Türkçesinin ses ve e- kil bilgisini derli toplu ve ayrõntõlõ ekilde vermektedir. Kõrgõz Türkçesi Grameri sadece Türkoloji çevrelerinin de il; Kõrgõz Türkçesini ö renmek isteyenlerin de ba vuru kaynaklarõndan biri niteli indedir

  14. DİYABETLİ HASTALARDA AĞIZ-DİŞ SORUNLARINA YAKLAŞIM-ORAL HYGIENE IN DIABETIC PATIENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Dinççağ, Nevin; Eren, Gamze

    2013-01-01

    ÖZETBu yazıda diş sorunları bulunan diyabetli hastaların ağız-diş ve medikal kontrolü, hastalığın fizyopatolojisi ve komplİkasyonları ile birlikte ayrıntılı olarak incelenmiştir.Anahtar sözcükler: Diyabetes mellitus, ağız hijyeni.ABSTRACTThis paper will review the pathophysiology and complications associated with the disease as well as the medical and dental management of the diabetic dental patient. 

  15. KASAPOĞLU ÇENGEL, Hülya Kırgız Türkçesi Grameri Ses ve Şekil Bilgisi, Akçağ/700, Ankara, 2005, 424 s, ISBN 975-338-687-7.

    OpenAIRE

    KINACI, Cemile

    2007-01-01

    gözden geçirildi inde, Prof. Dr. Hülya Kasapo lu Çengel’in bu çalõ masõnõn ala- nõndaki ilk örneklerden biri oldu u görülür. Eser, Kõrgõz Türkçesinin ses ve e- kil bilgisini derli toplu ve ayrõntõlõ ekilde vermektedir. Kõrgõz Türkçesi Grameri sadece Türkoloji çevrelerinin de il; Kõrgõz Türkçesini ö renmek isteyenlerin de ba vuru kaynaklarõndan biri niteli indedir

  16. RFID in libraries a step toward interoperability

    CERN Document Server

    Ayre, Lori Bowen

    2012-01-01

    The approval by The National Information Standards Organization (NISO) of a new standard for RFID in libraries is a big step toward interoperability among libraries and vendors. By following this set of practices and procedures, libraries can ensure that an RFID tag in one library can be used seamlessly by another, assuming both comply, even if they have different suppliers for tags, hardware, and software. In this issue of Library Technology Reports, Lori Bowen Ayre, an experienced implementer of automated materials handling systems, Provides background on the evolution of the standard

  17. Topraktan ve insandan izole edilen bazı dermatofitlerin moleküler tanısı

    OpenAIRE

    Yavuz, Merve

    2013-01-01

    Dermatofitler; keratin substratı parçalayabilen funguslardır. Keratin gibi güçlü bir materyalı istila edebilmeleri keratinolitik aktiviteleri sayesindedir. Microsporum, Trichophyton ve Epidermophyton genuslarını içeren bu funguslar hayvanlarda ve insanlarda deri infeksiyonlarına sebep olabilmektedir. Anthropofilik (insan), zoofilik (hayvan) ve geofilik (toprak) olmak üzere 3 ekolojik nişe ayrılırlar. Ülkemizde insan ve hayvanlardan dermatofit izolasyon çalışmalarına birçok örnek vardır. Ancak...

  18. Tratamiento combinado de la retención voluntaria de heces mediante fármacos y terapia ocupacional Combined treatment of voluntary stool retention with drugs and occupational therapy

    OpenAIRE

    I. Beaudry Bellefeuille; E. Ramos Polo

    2011-01-01

    Objetivo. Este trabajo presenta un enfoque terapéutico dirigido al tratamiento de la retención voluntaria de heces. Dicho enfoque combina la Terapia Ocupacional basada en la teoría de la Integración Sensorial (Ayres Sensory Integration-ASI®) con un tratamiento farmacológico prescrito por un pediatra de Atención Primaria o un gastroenterólogo pediátrico. Método. Los niños que no han respondido adecuadamente al tratamiento convencional son derivados al programa Peque-beque. Entre las estrategia...

  19. Barbitüratların ince Tabaka Kromatografisiyle Teşhisi için yeni bir Reaktif

    OpenAIRE

    İlkin SANLI, Hayriye AMAL, Semiha TULUS,

    2013-01-01

    Barbiturat ihtiva eden tabletlerden hidroklorik asid ile serbest hale getirilen ve kloroformla ekstre edilen barbital, fenobarbital, pentobarbital, itobarbital, siklobarbital ve ayrıca tiopentalin ince ta­baka kromatografisile teşhisleri yapıldı.Adsorban, 120° de 20 dakika müddetle aktive edilmiş Silika Gel G, eriticiler ise klor oform-aseton-amonyak \\% 25 (10:18:2) ve­ya (10:14:2) sistemleridir.Kromatogramlara muhtelif reaktifler tatbik edilmiş, birbirini takiben püskürtülen Rhodamine B-merk...

  20. The tao of survival skills to keep you alive

    CERN Document Server

    Ayres, James Morgan

    2013-01-01

    The Tao of Survival focuses on real-world, core survival skills that can save your life anytime and anyplace, in any emergency situation. It delves into fundamental concepts that most survival books don't cover, including how to deal with fear, developing mind/body skills, and fully engaging your senses to be aware of your surroundings. James Morgan Ayres has worked as a consultant for various U.S. government agencies and private corporations, founded four companies, and lived and worked all over the world. He's written seven books, taught seminars on the tao of survival and related

  1. Effects of metal contamination from mine tailings on allozyme distributions of populations of Great Plains fishes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, K.; Roark, S. [Wichita State Univ., KS (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences

    1995-12-31

    This study was conducted to assess the effects of zinc and lead on genetic variability of minnow populations (Gambusia affinis, Pimephales notatus, and Fundulus notatus) sampled from two creeks, one receiving mine drainage (Willow Creek) and one reference (Brush Creek), in the Tri-State Mining district in Kansas. Zinc and lead concentrations were greater in water samples taken from sites in Willow Creek compared to sites sampled in Brush Creek. While total numbers of fish captured from Willow Creek were smaller than numbers taken from Brush Creek, there were no differences in these fish communities for estimates of species diversity, richness and evenness. Genetic differentiation within creeks was rare. However, there was significant differentiation between creeks for allozymes of the enzymes glucose phosphate isomerase (GPI) in F. notatus and P. notatus, malate dehydrogenase (MDH) in G. affinis, and phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (PGDH) in F. notatus. Proportions of heterozygous genotypes of P. notatus and G. affinis were higher in Willow Creek compared to Brush Creek. In vitro experiments were conducted to assess the effects of zinc and lead on sensitivity of enzyme staining during electrophoresis. Results indicated allozyme sensitivity to zinc for GPI and PGDH loci. Other studies suggest that zinc competitively competes with magnesium as a cofactor for these enzymes. Allozymes did not exhibit differential sensitivity to lead. The significant differentiation between creek populations and the results of the in vitro tests indicate a selective effect of zinc on allozymic distributions of these fishes. These results demonstrate the potential use of genetic variability as a bioindicator of heavy metal contamination.

  2. Effects of metal contamination from mine tailings on allozyme distributions of populations of Great Plains fishes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roark, S.; Brown, K. [Wichita State Univ., KS (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences

    1996-06-01

    This study was conducted to assess the effects of zinc and lead on genetic variability of minnow populations (Gambusia affinis, Pimephales notatus, and Fundulus notatus) sampled from two creeks, one receiving mine drainage (Willow Creek) and one reference (Brush Creek), in the Tri-State Mining District in Kansas. Zinc and lead concentrations were greater in water samples taken from sites in Willow Creek compared to sites sampled in Brush Creek. Although total numbers of fish captured from Willow Creek were smaller than numbers taken from Brush Creek, there were no differences in these fish communities for estimates of species diversity, richness, and evenness. Genetic differentiation within creeks was rare. However, there was significant differentiation between creeks for allozymes of the enzymes glucose phosphate isomerase (Gpi) in F. notatus and P. notatus, malate dehydrogenase (Mdh) in G. affinis, and phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (Pgdh) in F. notatus. Proportions of heterozygous genotypes of P. notatus and G. affinis were higher in Willow Creek compared to Brush Creek. In vitro experiments were conducted to assess the effects of zinc and lead on sensitivity of enzyme staining during electrophoresis. Results indicated allozyme sensitivity to zinc for Gpi and Pgdh loci, but not for products of the Mdh locus. No sensitivity to lead was noted for allozymes. The significant differentiation between creek populations and the results of the in vitro tests indicate a selective effect of zinc on allozymic distributions of these fishes. These results provide additional support for the use of genetic structure and variability as a bioindicator of heavy metal contamination.

  3. Intestinal helminths of golden jackals and red foxes from Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahmar, Samia; Boufana, Belgees; Ben Boubaker, Sarra; Landolsi, Faouzi

    2014-08-29

    Forty wild canids including 31 golden jackals (Canis aureus Linné, 1758) and 9 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes Linné, 1758) collected between 2008 and 2011 in the northeast, northwest and center of Tunisia were necropsied and examined for intestinal helminth parasites. All jackals and foxes were found infected with a prevalence rate of 95% for cestodes, 82.5% for nematodes and 7.5% for acanthocephalans. A total of twelve helminth species were recorded in red foxes: cestodes, Dipylidium caninum (55.6%), Diplopylidium noelleri (55.6%), Mesocestoïdes lineatus (55.6%), Mesocestoïdes litteratus (33%), Mesocestoïdes corti (22%); nematodes, Ancylostoma caninum (11%), Uncinaria stenocephala (44%), Spirura rytipleurites (11%), Trichuris vulpis (33%), Pterygodermatites affinis (67%), Oxynema linstowi (33%) and the acanthocephalan Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus (22%). The fifteen recovered helminth species in jackals were Echinococcus granulosus (9.7%), D. caninum (16%), D. noelleri (16%), M. lineatus (74%), M. litteratus (23%), M. corti (12.9%), Taenia pisiformis (3.2%), Taenia spp. (19%), Toxocara canis (16%), Toxascaris leonina (6.5%), A. caninum (9.7%), U. stenocephala (68%), P. affinis (6.5%), O. linstowi (3.2%) and Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus (3.2%). This is the first report on the presence of P. affinis, D. noelleri and O. linstowi in Tunisia. E. granulosus was found in young jackals, aged less than 4 years old, with a higher abundance in females (8.9 worms). M. lineatus presented the highest mean intensity of 231.86 and 108.8 tapeworms respectively in jackals and foxes. Canids from the northwest region had the highest prevalence (77.5%) and highest intensity (243.7) of helminth species compared to those from the northeast and central areas. U. stenocephala and O. linstowi had the highest mean intensity for nematodes in both jackals and foxes at 14.3 and 88 worms respectively.

  4. 食蚊鱼对罗非鱼仔鱼捕食一例%Predation of mosquito fish on Oreochromis sp.larvae, one case from Ming lake,Guangzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚达章; 陈国柱; 赵天; 林小涛

    2011-01-01

    本文报道了在广州地区某一半自然水体中发现的入侵物种食蚊鱼(Gambusia affinis)对另一入侵物种罗非鱼(Oreochromis sp.)仔鱼捕食现象一例.在一尾体长24.10 mm的雌性食蚊鱼消化道中发现3尾罗非鱼仔鱼,其体长分别为6.68 mm、5.85 mm、5.67 mm.

  5. Voci di creature incatenate. Amelia Rosselli ascolta Ingeborg Bachmann

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia De March

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Numerose dichiarazioni di Amelia Rosselli istituiscono un rapporto saldo tra l’ultimo suo poemetto, Impromptu, edito nel 1981, e le poesie di Ingeborg Bachmann. Alla luce dei documenti conservati nel Fondo Amelia Rosselli del Centro di Tradizione Manoscritta di Pavia, analizziamo le convergenze testuali tra le due produzioni poetiche e le premesse teoriche affini. Concludiamo che l’ispirazione alla Bachmann è piuttosto labile e che di contro l’insistenza nel proclamare un’ascendenza genetica da una parte convalida una corrispondenza maggiormente retrospettiva, dall’altra rientra nella strategia di autocostruzione di una figura autoriale da parte della Rosselli.

  6. Analisi, progettazione e valutazione dell'efficacia dello spot pubblicitario. Una semiotica per la ricerca di mercato

    OpenAIRE

    Zannin, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    Il lavoro di ricerca tenta di inquadrare sotto nuove prospettive una problematica ormai classica all’interno della semiotica della pubblicità: l’analisi dello spot. I punti chiave del lavoro – e la pretesa di una certa differenza rispetto a lavori con oggetti affini – consistono sostanzialmente in tre aspetti. Innanzitutto, vi è un ritorno alle origini flochiane nella misura in cui non solo il contesto complessivo e le finalità che la ricerca si propone sono fortemente ancorati all’interno...

  7. Carbon content and C:N ratio of transparent exopolymeric particles (TEP) produced by bubbling exudates of diatoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mari, Xavier

    1999-01-01

    The carbon content of transparent exopolymeric particles (TEP) was measured in the laboratory in particles produced by bubbling exudates of the diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii, grown under nitrogen non-limited conditions (N:P = 7). The carbon content of these particles (TEP-C) appears to vary...... for dissolved organic carbon in coastal seas. The carbon to nitrogen ratio of TEP was measured from particles formed by bubbling exudates of the diatoms T. weissflogii, Skeletonema costatum, Chaetoceros neogracile and C. affinis. Each of these diatom species was grown under various N:P ratios, from N...

  8. Caracterización diatomológica en tres cuerpos de agua de los humedales de Jilotepec-Ixtlahuaca, Estado de México

    OpenAIRE

    María Guadalupe Oliva Martínez; José Gabriel Ramírez Martínez; Gloria Garduño Solórzano; Jaqueline Cañetas Ortega; Martha M. Ortega

    2005-01-01

    Se representa la caracterización taxonómica y ambiental de las diatomeas de tres cuerpos de agua de los humedales de Jilotepec-Ixtlahuaca, Estado de México, a partir de seis muestreos (enero-octubre de 2001). Se colectaron crecimientos algales bentónicos y planctónicos. Los taxa se estudiaron con microscopio de luz y electrónico de barrido. Se identificaron 45 especies y 3 variedades de diatomeas distribuidas en 32 géneros. Aulacoseira granulata, Cymbella affinis, Gomphonema acuminatum, G. an...

  9. THE IMPORTANCE OF BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION OF WATER BODIES: A CASE STUDY CONCERNING THE STRUCTURE AND ROLE OF BIOINDICATORS IN WESTERN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiu Nicolae GLAVA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of macrozoobentos communities is frequently used in conservation studies of water bodies biodiversity, beside the role as bioindicators, larvae belonging to Trichoptera order are an important link of the aquatic food chain. This study draws attention over water bodies continuous degree, among the caddisflies role to insure their stability. Samples were qualitative type, at sampling it was used an entomological net. 10 species of caddisflies belonging at 2 families were identified in analyzed samples. Limnephilus affinis, L. flavicornis and L. rhombicus recorded the highest values regarding frequency, in abundance case this situation was characterized by one specie (L. flavicornis.

  10. INFLUENCE OF HEAVY METALS ON GAMETOPHYTE DIFFERENTIATION IN TWO DRYOPTERIS SPECIES IN ROMANIA’S FLORA

    OpenAIRE

    Oana Alexandra Drăghiceanu; Liliana Cristina Soare; Codruţa Mihaela Dobrescu

    2015-01-01

    In this work we aimed to study the influence of Zn, Cu and Pb compounds on spore germination and gametophyte development in the species Dryopteris affinis (Lowe) Fraser-Jenkins and Dryopteris filix-mas (L.) Schott. The following initial variants were prepared: V1Cu 140 mg•L-1 Knop solution, V1Zn 300 mg•L-1 Knop solution, V1Pb 300 mg•L-1 Knop solution. From these variants we considered V2 and V32 as the concentrations, respectively, 5 and 10 times higher than the initial ones. The percentage o...

  11. DELIMITACIÓN DE LAS ESPECIES ARGENTINAS DEL GENERO INGA (MIMOSOIDEAE MEDIANTE TÉCNICAS NUMÉRICAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A. Zapater

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ingais represented in Argentina by six species and one variety. However doubts emerge about thevalidity of these taxa. Phenetic relationships were studied among 75 specimens belonging to the sevenrecognized taxa, in order to evaluate their validity. A morphological matrix of 46 characters was ana-lyzed by clustering and conglomerate methods. The dendrogram and the principal components analyses(PCA show six groups, consequently six species can be clearly recognized:I. saltensis, I. marginata,I. laurina, I. virescens, I. affinis, andI. uraguensis. A key for the identification of species is presentedtogether with distribution maps in Argentina.

  12. 湖南菊科紫菀属一新种——吉首紫菀%Aster jishouensis (Asteraceae), a new species from Hunan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎维平; 刘胜祥

    2002-01-01

    吉首紫菀新种图1 Aster jishouensis W. P. Li et S. X. Liu, sp. nov. Fig. 1 Species A. baccharoidi (Benth.) Steetz. affinis, sed caule simplici, caulor um fol iorum laminis linearilanceolatis usque oblongolanceolatis apice longe acumi nat is, nervis lateralibus inconspicuis, capitulis 1~4 in racemum dispositis, invol ucri phyllariis purpureorubris vel apice purpureorubris, pedunculis tenuibus 4~17 mm longis, tubo flosculi disci c. 5 mm longo bene differt.

  13. 黄芩属(唇形科)一新种%A NEW SPECIES OF SCUTELLARIA (LABIATAE)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周守标; 郭新弧

    2001-01-01

    @@ 腺毛黄芩新种图1 Scutellaria adenotricha X. H. Guo et S. B.Zhou, sp. nov. Species S. tenerae C. Y. Wu et H. W. Li et S.tienchuanensis C. Y. Wu et C. Chen affinis, sedcamosis fusiformibus tuberantibus radicibus; cauleerecto nullo conspicuo serpente rhizomate; caule,petiolis et laminis subtus dense albis septatis villosis etglandulosopilosis; lamisis supra et corollis extus rareglandulosopilosis; caulis basi brevibus intemodiis etparvis foliis, supeme longsis intemodiis et magnisfoliis; vulgo intemodiis brevioribus foliis; laminisherbaceis; bracteis herbaceis spathulatiellipticisdiffert.

  14. Revised data on the occurrence of myxomycetes in Central Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ławrynowicz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A checklist of 81 taxa has been prepared on the basis of 750 exsiccates of slime moulds collected in the years 1958-2009 in the area of Central Poland and preserved in the Herbarium LOD F. All these materials were reexamined according to contemporary literature. The paper summarizes the existing data concerning the occurrence of slime moulds in this area. Among the identified taxa there are four species indicated in the red list in Poland: Badhamia affinis, Physarum robustum, Didymium leptotrichum, and Clastoderma debaryanum.

  15. JLIS.it 2015 Manifesto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Board JLIS.it

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La rivista JLIS.it, al suo quinto anno di vita, introduce una serie di cambiamenti, primo fra tutti, la suddivisione del periodico in due sezioni dedicate alla biblioteconomia e scienza dell'informazione da una parte e all' archivistica dall'altra, quest'ultima inoltre accoglierà la tradizione di studi della prestigiosa rivista italiana "Archivi & Computer". Il nuovo progetto intende creare un ambiente di integrazione e cooperazione tra le due discipline affini di biblioteconomia e archivistica. Altre novità della rivista prevedono: due comitati scientifici, una struttura organizzativa più articolata e una periodicità quadrimestrale.

  16. Structure and Property of Bamboo Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The chemical composition, fiber characteristics, crystalline structure, mechanical properties and thermal behavior of the five species of bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis cv.Pachyloe, Bambusa tootisk, Arundinaia amabilis, B.vulgaris cv. Vittata, and Dendrocalamus affinis) were studied with IR, X-ray, DSC and chemical analyses. The results indicated that the benzene-ethanol extractive content of bamboo was higher than that of wood, the content of lignin and the content of pentosan were 19.1% - 25.3% and 14.9% - ...

  17. Deepening and Extending Channels for Navigation, Charleston Harbor, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-04-01

    inhabited by species such as sailfin molly (Poecilia latipinna) and mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis). The project area does not support harvestatle...pines are the hardwoods of the river ,swamps and the mountains. Most important of these hardwoods are the sweet gum, black gum, oak, and yellow poplar...10 30’’ -eysof t thick trSoyb t0 black . 110 *0.0 A .u ... o I.7000 153� .1 A0m0 troy 00 black 000. .. I..$ ..... weary:007 09 109 Very 0001 0.0 70

  18. Problem Definition Studies on Potential Environmental Pollutants. VII. Physical, Chemical, Toxicological, and Biological Properties of DDT and Its Derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-06-01

    flavescens 18 96 9 (7-11) 104 Mosquitofish Gambusia affinis 96 20 112 96 27 ill Guppy Poecilia reticulata 96 3 112 Mozamb ique mouthbreeder Tilapia...liver of zebrafish (Brachydanio rerio) and, to a much lesser extent, of guppy . 1 2 Interrupted exposure of salmonid fishes to high sublethal...127-136 (1964). 120. Cuerrier, J., A. Keith, and E. Stone, "Problems with DDT in Fish Culture Operations," Nat. Can. 94:315-320 (1967). 121. Dacre, J.C

  19. A New Species of Goniothalamus (Annonaceae) from China%中国哥纳香属(番荔枝科)一新种

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯学良; 税玉民

    2003-01-01

    @@ 盈江哥纳香新种图1 Goniothalamus lu X. L. Hou et Y. M. Shui, sp. nov. Fig. 1. G.yunnanensi W. T. Wang affinis, sed foliis nervis lateralibus (10-) 13 - 21-jugatis (nec 7- 9-jugatis),pedicellis 9 - 13 mm longis ( nec circ. 4 mm longis), sepalis 5 mm longis 4 mm latis (nec circ. 8 mm longis latisque),petalis exterioribus ovatis 2.5 cm longis 1.3 cm latis (nec 2 cm longis 7 mm latis) facile differt.

  20. Notas de ixodologia: III - conformação de Ixodes aragãoi Fonseca, 1935, de Ixodes amarali Fonseca, 1935, e lista das espécies do gênero Ixodes que ocorrem no Brasil (Acari, Ixodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Aragão

    1952-03-01

    Full Text Available After comparison of the types of Ixodes ricinus aragãoi Fonseca, 1935, with a lot of Ixodes affinis Neumann, 1899, kindly loaned by Dr. Kohls, it was observed that both species differ by the aspect of the dorsal scutm, no large punctations being in the posterior border in the Brazilian material. Therefore is FONSECA'S species maintened as Ixodes aragãoi Fonseca, 1935. Ixodes amarali Fonseca, 1935 was reexamined and confirmed as a valid species. A list of Brazilian species of the genus Ixodes studied by the authors is presented.

  1. Phytoplankton aggregate formation: observations of patterns and mechanisms of cell sticking and the significance of exopolymeric material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Hansen, Jorgen L. S.

    1993-01-01

    are sticky in themselves, and coagulation depends on cell-cell sticking and does not involve mucus. Aggregates are composed solely of cells. Cells of the diatom Chaetoceros affinis, on the other hand, are not in themselves sticky. Transparent exopolymeric particles (TEP), produced by the diatom, cause...... the cells to aggregate and coagulation depends on TEP-cell rather than cell-cell sticking. Aggregates are formed of a mixture of mucus and cells. We found several species of diatoms and one flagellate species to produce copious amounts of TEP. TEP from some species (e.g. Coscinodiscus sp.) is sticky and may...

  2. Are Orthotrichum and Dorcadion (Orthotrichaceae, Bryophyta heterotypic generic names?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plášek Vítězslav

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The generic name Dorcadion Adans. ex Lindb. is a superfluous and illegitimate name for Orthotrichum Hedw. The new generic name Dorcadionella Plášek, Sawicki & Ochyra is proposed for a segregate of Orthotrichum which comprises species with superficial stomata that are always monoicous and only occasionally produce gemmae on leaves. Dorcadionella affinis (Schrad. ex Brid. Plášek, Sawicki & Ochyra is selected as a type of this new generic name. The genus Dorcadionella consists of 63 species and one variety that have a worldwide distribution. Traditionally, they were all placed in Orthotrichum and the relevant transfers to the new genus are effected in the present account.

  3. New species and records of the mite genus Prolistrophorus (Acariformes: Listrophoridae) from rodents of the subfamily Sigmodontinae (Rodentia: Cricetidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochkov, Andre V; Lareschi, Marcela; Barreto, Mauricio

    2014-10-01

    Six fur-mite species of the genus Prolistrophorus Fain, 1970 (Acariformes: Listrophoridae) were recorded from Central and South American rodents of the subfamily Sigmodontinae (Rodentia: Cricetidae). Among them, Prolistrophorus (Aprolistrophorus) parabidentatus sp. nov. from Akodon azarae from Argentina and Prolistrophorus (Aprolistrophorus) tylomys sp. nov. from Tylomys nudicaudus from Guatemala are described as new for science. New hosts are recorded for the following species: Prolistrophorus (Prolistrophorus) grassii (Radford, 1954) from Zygodontomys brevicauda from Colombia, P. (P.) frontalis (Hirst, 1921) from Oligoryzomys sp. from Argentina, P. (P.) argentinus (Hirst, 1921) from Melanomys caliginosus, Akodon affinis from Colombia and Scapteromys aquaticus from Argentina, Prolistrophorus (Beprolistrophorus) hirstianus Fain, 1973 from Scapteromys aquaticus from Argentina.

  4. Satın Alma Kararlarında Tüketici Etnosentrizmi ve Menşe Ülke Etkisinin Cetscale Ölçeği İle Değerlendirilmesi

    OpenAIRE

    Armağan, Ece Aksu; Gürsoy, Özden

    2011-01-01

    Tüketici etnosentrizmi, tüketicilerin yabancı malları kullanmanın ve satın almanın ne derece uygun veya ahlaki olduğuna ilişkin görüş değerlendirmelerini ifade eder. Bu çalışmada Aydın ilindeki 386 tüketicinin Cetscale (Consumer Ethnocentrism belirlenmiştir. Tüketiciler etnosentrik düzey bakımından farklı düzeylere ayrılmış, ve bu düzeyler ile bazı sosyo–demografik özellikleri arasında ilişki olup olmadığı incelenmiştir. Ayrıca çalışmada beyaz eşya, gıda, tekstil ve elektronik eşya olmak üzer...

  5. Mining the HST Treasury: The ASTRAL Reference Spectra for Evolved M Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, K. G.; Ayres, T.; Harper, G.; Kober, G.; Wahlgren, G. M.

    2012-01-01

    The "Advanced Spectral Library (ASTRAL) Project: Cool Stars" (PI = T. Ayres) is an HST Cycle 18 Treasury Program designed to collect a definitive set of representative, high-resolution (R greater than 100,000) and high signal/noise (S/N greater than 100) UV spectra of eight F-M evolved cool stars. These extremely high-quality STIS UV echelle spectra are available from the HST archive and through the University of Colorado (http://casa.colorado.edu/ayres/ASTRAL/) portal and will enable investigations of a broad range of problems -- stellar, interstellar. and beyond -- for many years. In this current paper, we concentrate on producing a roadrnap to the very rich spectra of the two evolved M stars in the sample, the M3.4 giant Gamma Crucis (GaCrux) and the M2Iab supergiant Alpha Orionis (Betelgeuse) and illustrate the huge increase in coverage and quality that these spectra provide over that previously available from IUE and earlier HST observations. These roadmaps will facilitate the study of the spectra, outer atmospheres, and winds of not only these stars. but also numerous other cool, low-gravity stars and make a very interesting comparison to the already-available atlases of the K2III giant Arcturus.

  6. Toplumsal Cinsiyet Rolü Dâhilinde Kadına Şiddet Olgusuna Karşı Kadın Algısı

    OpenAIRE

    AKINCI ÇÖTOK, Nesrin

    2015-01-01

    Yaşanılan sosyo- kültürel gerçeklik içinde kadın ve erkeğin yapabileceği işler konusunda bazı ayrımlar söz konusudur. Bu ayrımlar toplumsal yaşamın organizasyonunu sağlayabilmek adına oluşan işbölümü olarak ifade edilebilir. İşbölümü toplumsal yaşamın sürekliliği için gerekli olduğundan kadın ve erkeğin farklı rolleri meşruiyet kazanır. Toplum ise işbölümü ile organize olurken kadın ve erkeğin de varlık amacı bu organizasyonu birlikte sürdürebilmek olmuştur. Toplumsal yaşamın rutini dahilinde...

  7. Kitap İncelemesi: Thomas Piketty'nin 21. YY'da Eşitsizlik Dinamiklerini Bir Kıt'a Avrupası Bakış Açısından Değerlendirmesi

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Thomas Piketty’nin, “21.yy’da Sermaye” başlıklı kitabı dünya ekonomi literatüründe çok ses getirdi. Uzun zamandan beri Anglosakson hâkimiyetinde olan ekonomi literatüründe bir Kıt’a Avrupası bakış açısının ses getirmesi dikkat çekicidir. Yazarın Fransız olması ve ağırlıklı olarak Fransız ekolünden gelmesi kitabı ayrıcalıklı kılan bir nedendir. Fransız ekolünden gelen bir akademisyen olarak kitabı orijinal dili olan Fransızca okuma ayrıcalığına sahip oldum. Bu yazı, “Thomas Piketty, Le Capital...

  8. The HST Treasury "Advanced Spectral Library" (ASTRAL) Programs

    CERN Document Server

    Carpenter, Kenneth G

    2014-01-01

    The "Advanced Spectral Library (ASTRAL)" Project (PI = T. Ayres) consists of two Treasury Programs: the Cycle 18 "Cool Stars" (GO-12278) Program and the Cycle 21 "Hot Stars" (GO-13346) Program. The primary goal of these programs is to collect, for the use of the astronomical community over the coming decades, a definitive set of representative, high-resolution (R~30,000-100,000), high signal/noise (S/N>100) spectra, with full UV coverage (~1150 - 3100 A) of prototypical stars across the HR diagram, utilizing the high-performance Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS). The Cycle 18 program obtained spectra of 8 F-M evolved late-type stars, while the Cycle 21 program is in the process of observing 21 early-type stars, which span a broad range of spectral types between early-O and early-A. All of these data will be available from the HST archive and, in post-processed and merged form, at http://casa.colorado.edu/~ayres/ASTRAL/. These data will enable investigations of a broad range of problems -- stellar, i...

  9. GERUNDS MADE FROM THE SUFFIX -GAn IN UZBEK TURKISH THROUGH SAID AHMAD’S NOVEL CALLED “UFQ” SAİD AHMAD’IN “UFQ” ROMANI ESASINDA ÖZBEK TÜRKÇESİNDE -GAn EKİYLE YAPILAN ZARF-FİİLLER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra YAVUZ

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article, it is examined gerunds made from suffix –GAn in Uzbek Turkish through Said Ahmad’s novel called “Ufq”, which is a Turkic language of southeastern branch, and is approached in details historical development, structure and utilization of suffixes. Additionaly, it is emphasized functions of gerund-making by using case ending, noun derivational affix, particle and word of the suffix -GAn, and to understand this issue, utilizations of these suffixes have supported the examinations obtained from “Ufq” novel. Bu makalede, Said Ahmad’ın “Ufq” romanı esasında Özbek Türkçesinde -GAn ekiyle yapılan zarf-fiiller konusu incelenmiş ve eklerin tarihi gelişimi, yapısı ve kullanımları ayrıntılı bir şekilde ele alınmıştır.Ayrıca, –GAn ekinin, isim çekim eki, isim yapma eki, edat ve kelime kullanarak zarf-fiil yapma işlevleri üzerinde durulmuş ve konunun anlaşılması için bu zarf-fiil eklerinin kullanımları “Ufq” romanından elde edilen örneklerle desteklenmiştir.

  10. Phylogeny and new taxonomy of the Booted Eagles (Accipitriformes: Aquilinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Heather; Christidis, Les; Gamauf, Anita; Griffiths, Carole; Haring, Elisabeth; Huddleston, Christopher J; Kabra, Sonia; Kocum, Annett; Krosby, Meade; Kvaløy, Kirsti; Mindell, David; Rasmussen, Pamela; Røv, Nils; Wadleigh, Rachel; Wink, Michael; Gjershaug, Jan Ove

    2017-01-09

    We present a phylogeny of all booted eagles (38 extant and one extinct species) based on analysis of published sequences from seven loci. We find molecular support for five major clades within the booted eagles: Nisaetus (10 species), Spizaetus (4 species), Clanga (3 species), Hieraaetus (6 species) and Aquila (11 species), requiring generic changes for 14 taxa. Additionally, we recommend that the Long-crested Eagle (Lophaetus occipitalis) and the Black Eagle (Ictinaetus malaiensis) remain in their monotypic genera, due to their distinctive morphology. We apply the recently resurrected genus Clanga for the spotted eagles (previously Aquila spp.) to resolve the paraphyly of the genus Aquila such that the clade including the Booted Eagle (H. pennatus), Little Eagle (H. morphnoides), Pygmy Eagle (H. weiskei), Ayres's Eagle (H. ayresii) and Wahlberg's Eagle (H. wahlbergi) can remain in the genus Hieraaetus. The Rufous-bellied Eagle should be retained in the genus Lophotriorchis. For consistency in English names, we recommend that the term "hawk-eagles" be used only for the species in the genera Nisaetus and Spizaetus. We suggest following new or modified English names: Cassin's Eagle (Aquila africana), Bonaparte's Eagle (A. spilogaster), Ayres's Eagle (Hieraaetus ayresii), and Black-and-chestnut Hawk-Eagle (Spizaetus isidori).

  11. DEDE KORKUT DESTANLARI HAKKINDA / ABOUT DADA QORQUD EPIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuri ŞİMŞEKLER

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available 1960’lı yıllarda İran Azerbaycan’ında uzun yıllar öğretmenlik yapan Pervin Ağacanzâde Farsça olarak kaleme aldığı bu makalesinde Azerî sözlü edebiyatının ortaya çıkışı, tanınmış şahsiyetleri ve özellikle Dede Korkut Kitabı ile ilgili orijinal bilgiler sunmaktadır. Yazarın bizzat aralarında yaşayarak râvilerden dinlediği bazı Dede Korkut hikâye ve deyişlerini de makalesine yansıtması anılan bölgenin Azerî edebiyatına olan bağlılığına göstermektedir. Ayrıca Dede Korkut hikâyelerinin İran Azerbaycan’ında Farsçadan etkilenmesine işareti ve bu konuda örnekler sunması da ayrı bir önem taşımaktadır.

  12. Yoğurt Üretiminde bazı Stabilizör Maddelerin Kullanılması

    OpenAIRE

    Tayar, Mustafa; Şen, Cem; Güneş, Ertan

    1995-01-01

    Bu çalışmada yoğurt üretiminde stabilizör madde kullanılmasının yoğurdun genel nitelikleri üzerine olan etkileri incelenmiştir. Stabilizör olarak değişik oranlarda agar, jelatin ve Na-kazeinat kullanılmıştır. Bu maddelerin süte ilavesiyle hazırlanan yoğurtlarda 4±1 oC’de 14 günlük depolama süresince serum ayrılması, titrasyon asitliği ile su aktivitesi değerleri saptanmış ve duyusal değerlendirme yapılmıştır. Stabilizör kullanımı serum ayrılmasını azaltmıştır. Sonuç olarak; kaliteli yoğurt...

  13. The role of regional and neuroaxial anesthesia in patients with systemic sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dempsey Z

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Zoey Sarah Dempsey1, Simone Rowell2, Rose McRobert31Department of Anaesthesia, Southern General Hospital, Glasgow, Lanarkshire, 2Department of Anaesthesia, Western Infirmary, Glasgow, Lanarkshire, 3Department of Anaesthesia, The Ayr Hospital, Ayr, Aryshire, UKAbstract: Systemic sclerosis (SSc, previously known as progressive systemic sclerosis, is a form of scleroderma and a multisystem connective tissue disease which can impact on every aspect of anesthetic care, especially airway management. In this review we outline clinical manifestations and current medical treatment of the disease, and general principles of anesthetizing these patients. We focus on the role of regional anesthesia, including neuroaxial anesthesia, which may serve as a safe alternative to general anesthesia but can be technically challenging. We address concerns regarding abnormal responses to local anesthesia which have previously been reported in patients with SSc, and explore future developments in technology and pharmacology, which may enable regional anesthesia to be performed more successfully and with fewer complications.Keywords: systemic sclerosis, scleroderma, regional anesthesia, neuroaxial anesthesia

  14. Estrategias de diseño institucional, cumplimiento y virtud cívica Strategies of Institutional Design: Compliance and Civic Virtue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JORDI TENA SÁNCHEZ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se exploran estrategias de diseño institucional que promuevan el cumplimiento y generen virtud cívica. Más concretamente, se trata de identificar tipos de diseño de leyes, políticas, ordenanzas, reglamentos, etc., que orienten la conducta de los agentes hacia el bien común y que favorezcan que estos desarrollen motivaciones en ese sentido. Se exponen las propuestas de I. Ayres, J. Braithwaite y P. Pettit. El trabajo se concluye analizando algunas limitaciones y dimensiones por desarrollar de dichas propuestas.This paper explores institutional design strategies which promote compliance and civic virtue. More specifically, I try to find kinds of design of laws, policies, by-laws, etc. which direct agent's behaviour toward common good and promote the development of motivations in the same direction. I expose the proposals by I. Ayres, ]. Braithwaite and P. Pettit. Paper concludes analyzing some limitations and dimensions which need to be developed of these proposals.

  15. Veri Zarflama Analizi Tabanlı Yeni Bir Hibrid İki Gruplu Sınıflandırma Modeli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hasan ÖRKCÜ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada iki gruplu sınıflandırma problemlerinin çözümünde kullanılabilecek yeni bir sınıflandırma modeli geliştirilmiştir. Bu model Veri Zarflama Analizi BCC modeline dayanan Pendharkar ve Troutt (2014 modeli ile Sueyoshi (2004 tarafından önerilen iki aşamalı sınıflandırma modelinin bir karmasıdır. Çalışmanın amacı, BCC modelindeki parçalı doğrusal etkinlik sınırı ve iki aşamalı detaylı inceleme fikri sayesinde iki gruplu sınıflandırma problemlerini ele almaktır. Önerilen yeni yaklaşım Pendharkar ve Troutt (2014’den alınan bir örnek üzerinde ayrıntılı olarak incelenmiş ve ayrıca yapılan simülasyon çalışmasından önerilen yöntemin sınıflandırma performansının diğer iki yöntemden daha iyi olduğu gözlenmiştir.

  16. Research Methods Used in Library and Information Science Theses: An Evaluation Kütüphanecilik ve Bilgi Bilim Tezlerinde Kullanılan Bilimsel Araştırma Yöntemleri : Bir Değerlendirme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Serap Kurbanoğlu

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available A literature analysis and an evaluation are made on the findings of researches which examine the research methods employed in library science and information science dissertations. The data suggest some changes regarding to research methods used in library science dissertations. Separate examinations of library science dissertations and information science dissertations suggest that there are differences as much assimilarities between these sister disciplines. Kütüphanecilik ve bilgi bilim tezlerinde kullanılan araştırma yöntemleri konusunda yapılan araştırmaların bulguları üzerine bir literatür çalışması ve bir değerlendirme yapılmıştır. Bulgular kütüphanecilik tezlerinde kullanılan araştırma yöntemleri konusunda zaman içinde bir çeşitlenme olduğunu göstermektedir. Kütüphanecilik ve bilgi bilim tezleri üzerinde ayrı ayrı yürütülen incelemeler ise bu iki kardeş disiplin arasında benzerlikler kadar farklılıklar da olduğunu ortaya koymaktadır.

  17. 贵州省鱼类外来种调查%Survey on the exotic species of fishes in Guizhou province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岑忠龙; 侯秀发; 周江

    2013-01-01

    During July of 2007 to April of 2013,the result of the survey on the fishes composition in Guizhou province showed that there were 11 exotic species in the natural rivers of Guizhou,and belonged to 6 orders,6 famlies and 11 genus; such as:Polyodon spathula,Mylopharyngodon piceus,Ctenopryngodon idellus,Megalobrama amblycephala,Aristichthys nobilis,Hypophtl michthys molitrix,Ietalurus Punetaus,Protosalanx hyalocroaniah,Micropterus salmoides,Oreochromis nilotica ♂ × O.mossambica ♀,Gambusia affinis.%于2007年7月至2013年4月,通过对贵州省境内鱼类物种组种调查中,共发现外来种鱼类11种,隶属6目6科11属,分别为:匙吻鲟Polyodon spathula、青鱼Mylopharyngodon piceus、草鱼Ctenopryngodon idellus、团头鲂Megalobrama amblycephala、鳙Aristichthys nobilis、鲢Hypophtl michthys molitrix、斑点叉尾鮰letalurus Punetaus、大银鱼Protosalanx hyalocroaniah、加州鲈Micropterus salmoides、罗非鱼Oreochromis nilotica♂×O.mossambica ♀、食蚊鱼Gambusia affinis.

  18. RESEARCH ON THE INFLUENCE OF LEAD ACETATE ON THE GAMETOPHYTE OF SOME PTERIDOPHYTE SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Cristina SOARE

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the influence of lead acetate on spore germination and gametophyte differentiation in the pteridophyte species Athyrium filix-femina, Dryopteris affinis and Dryopteris carthusiana. The study was conducted to determine the lead tolerance level of these species.The experimental variants were: Control - Knop solution, V1-100 ppm lead acetate and V2-500 ppm lead acetate. The spores were cultivated in 50 ml of experimental solutions. The culture vessels were kept in the growth room in controlled conditions. The percentage of spore germination was determined after two weeks. Microscopic observations were performed on gametophyte development after 3, 7 and 15 weeks, respectively from the initiation of cultures. Lead acetate influenced both spore germination and gametophyte differentiation. As regards the germination process, Athyrium filix-femina was the least influenced by the lead acetate added to its culture medium. In addition to the decline in germination percentages, we also recorded a delay in the process of gametophyte differentiation and necrosis of prothallic cells. In the V2 variant we noticed the inhibition of cell division in the germinated spores; no further gametophyte differentiation occurred. Athyrium filix-femina is a more tolerant species to this substance as compared with Dryopteris affinis and Dryopteris carthusiana.

  19. Evaluation of dimensional stability of autoclavable elastomeric impression material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surendra, G P; Anjum, Ayesha; Satish Babu, C L; Shetty, Shilpa

    2011-03-01

    Impressions are important sources of cross contamination between patients and dental laboratories. As a part of infection control impressions contaminated with variety of micro-organisms via blood and oral secretions should be cleaned and disinfected or sterilized before being handled in dental laboratory. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of autoclaving on dimensional stability of elastomeric impression material (polyvinyl siloxane-Affinis). In this in vitro study standardized stainless steel die as per ADA specification number 19 was fabricated. Polyvinyl siloxane (Affinis) light body and putty viscosity elastomeric impression materials were used. A total of 40 impressions of the stainless steel die were made and numeric coding system was used to identify the samples. Measurements were made using a measuring microscope. Distance between the cross lines CD and C'D' reproduced in the impression were measured before autoclaving, immediately after autoclaving and 24 hours after autoclaving and dimensional change was calculated. The data obtained was subjected to statistical analysis. The mean difference in dimensional change between the three groups was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). However the results revealed that there was higher mean dimensional change immediately after autoclaving when compared to the other 2 time intervals. It is desirable to delay the casting of an autoclavable elastomeric impression material by about 24 hours. Though disinfection of impression is routinely followed autoclaving of impression is an effective method of sterilization.

  20. Gastrointestinal Helminthic Parasites in Stray Cats (Felis catus from North of Iran

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    A Rezaei-Doust

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cats play a crucial role in the epidemiology of gastrointestinal helminthic parasites and also play a major role in transmitting of these parasites through faecal contamination of soil, food or water. The aim of this study was to determine the species of gastrointestinal helminthes parasites in stray cats from a rural area of Bandar-e-Anzali, Iran.Method: Gastrointestinal helminthes were collected from 50 necropsied stray cats (Felis catus after capturing them by trapping from different regions of the city and humanely euthanatized in Bandar-e-Anzali, a port in the Caspian Sea in northern Iran, from March to November 2003. Results: The prevalence of infection was 90%, with those of individual parasites being Diplopylidium nolleri 54%, Phy­saloptera praeputialis 32%, Ancylostoma tubaeforme 20%, Joyeuxiella pasqualei 10%, Toxocara cati 8%, Pterygoderma­tites affinis 6%, Ancylostoma caninum 4%, and Taenia taeniaeformis 2%. Concurrent infections with two or more parasites were recorded in 34% of the individuals. In relation to the sex, the differences were not significant. Conclusion: P. praeputialis, T. cati, D. nolleri and sometime J. pasqualei are the commonest Helminthes in cats. This is the first reported isolation of P. affinis and A. caninum infections from cats in Iran.

  1. Gene structure and evolution of transthyretin in the order Chiroptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khwanmunee, Jiraporn; Leelawatwattana, Ladda; Prapunpoj, Porntip

    2016-02-01

    Bats are mammals in the order Chiroptera. Although many extensive morphologic and molecular genetics analyses have been attempted, phylogenetic relationships of bats has not been completely resolved. The paraphyly of microbats is of particular controversy that needs to be confirmed. In this study, we attempted to use the nucleotide sequence of transthyretin (TTR) intron 1 to resolve the relationship among bats. To explore its utility, the complete sequences of TTR gene and intron 1 region of bats in Vespertilionidae: genus Eptesicus (Eptesicus fuscus) and genus Myotis (Myotis brandtii, Myotis davidii, and Myotis lucifugus), and Pteropodidae (Pteropus alecto and Pteropus vampyrus) were extracted from the retrieved sequences, whereas those of Rhinoluphus affinis and Scotophilus kuhlii were amplified and sequenced. The derived overall amino sequences of bat TTRs were found to be very similar to those in other eutherians but differed from those in other classes of vertebrates. However, missing of amino acids from N-terminal or C-terminal region was observed. The phylogenetic analysis of amino acid sequences suggested bat and other eutherian TTRs lineal descent from a single most recent common ancestor which differed from those of non-placental mammals and the other classes of vertebrates. The splicing of bat TTR precursor mRNAs was similar to those of other eutherian but different from those of marsupial, bird, reptile and amphibian. Based on TTR intron 1 sequence, the inferred evolutionary relationship within Chiroptera revealed more closely relatedness of R. affinis to megabats than to microbats. Accordingly, the paraphyly of microbats was suggested.

  2. Orthopteran insects as potential and preferred preys of the Red-footed Falcon (Falco vespertinus in Hungary

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    Szövényi Gergely

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Orthopterans play an important role in Red-footed Falcon diet, however, most studies focus only on its qualitative food composition, and less on quantitative composition and preferences of the taxa identified as prey. During the present research, an extensive orthopterological investigation was carried out in the Red-footed Falcon study area, Vásárhelyi Plain (SE-Hungary between 2006 and 2008. Grasshoppers were sampled in their main habitats by sweep netting and pitfall trapping, and orthopterans were identified in the food remnants collected from the nests, both artificial and natural ones. 26 species were detected during the field works, 18 species from the food remnants. Altogether 32 species were identified. Prey preference values for all species for each year were calculated. More than two thirds of the identified preys were Decticus verrucivorus, and nearly 20% were Tettigonia viridissima. Other common prey species were Melanogryllus desertus, Platycleis affinis, Gryllotalpa gryllotalpa, Calliptamus italicus and Gryllus campestris. Based on the prey preference analysis, the most preferred species was Decticus verrucivorus with extreme high values, and the other preferred ones, overlapping with the previous list, were Platycleis affinis, Bicolorana bicolor, Tettigonia viridissima, Calliptamus italicus and Roeseliana roeselii. These results may help in the development of Red-footed Falcon-friendly habitats through the application of habitat management favourable for the preferred prey species.

  3. The response of the diets of four carnivorous fishes to variations in the Yellow Sea ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xianshi; Zhang, Bo; Xue, Ying

    2010-06-01

    The stomach contents of Spanish mackerel ( Scomberomorus niphonius), snailfish ( Liparis tanakae), anglerfish ( Lophius litulon), and Pacific cod ( Gadus macrocephalus) from the Yellow Sea during 1985-1987 and 2000-2002 were analyzed. The diets of these four carnivorous species changed over time, showing that the importance of the previous major prey, Japanese anchovy ( Engraulis japonicus), had greatly decreased, owing to its declining abundance, and that intake of Crangon affinis had increased. Spanish mackerel foraged for more food, particularly for other small pelagic species in addition to Japanese anchovy, causing an increase in its niche width in recent years, whereas the other three demersal carnivorous species had mainly targeted the small benthic shrimp C. affinis, and their niche widths had reduced in the later years. This phenomenon may be an adaptive response to changes in the food availability of the ecosystem, indicating a change in the food web and community structure of the Yellow Sea ecosystem. Changes in the composition of the diet of major predators may be an indicator of changes in a marine ecosystem.

  4. Genomic signals of diversification along ecological gradients in a tropical lizard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Adam H; Thomassen, Henri A; Buermann, Wolfgang; Smith, Thomas B

    2010-09-01

    Studies of rainforest diversification that simultaneously consider the effects of genetic drift and natural selection are rare. We use Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism genome scans of the African rainforest lizard Trachylepis affinis from Cameroon to examine the spatial patterns and environmental associations of both neutrally evolving loci and those thought to be under selection. Bayesian selection scans revealed that approximately 7% of the genome may be under divergent selection. Using non-linear environmental modelling techniques, we fit patterns of genetic differentiation recovered from the pooled neutral data and from individual loci showing a signature of natural selection. Neutral differentiation occurred along a cline from coastal lowland rainforest inland toward the gallery forests-savanna mosaic (ecotone), and was associated with both geographic distance and changing precipitation patterns. Loci under selection were differentiated predominantly along the forest-ecotone gradient-in concordance with morphological divergence in traits related to fitness. A second set of these loci was differentiated between lowland and montane habitats. A third set of loci was indicative of divergent selection between rainforest refugia. Niche models and demographic signals in mitochondrial sequence data support a population expansion out of a core rainforest area into savanna since the last glacial maximum. Our findings indicate adaptive diversification in T. affinis may be taking place along the forest-ecotone gradient during range expansions or contractions, and that refugial isolation augmented by divergent adaptation to different rainforest environments appears to play a less significant role.

  5. Development of Plate Reader and On-Line Microfluidic Screening to Identify Ligands of the 5-Hydroxytryptamine Binding Protein in Venoms

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    Reka A. Otvos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The 5-HT3 receptor is a ligand-gated ion channel, which is expressed in the nervous system. Its antagonists are used clinically for treatment of postoperative- and radiotherapy-induced emesis and irritable bowel syndrome. In order to better understand the structure and function of the 5-HT3 receptor, and to allow for compound screening at this receptor, recently a serotonin binding protein (5HTBP was engineered with the Acetylcholine Binding Protein as template. In this study, a fluorescence enhancement assay for 5HTBP ligands was developed in plate-reader format and subsequently used in an on-line microfluidic format. Both assay types were validated using an existing radioligand binding assay. The on-line microfluidic assay was coupled to HPLC via a post-column split which allowed parallel coupling to a mass spectrometer to collect MS data. This high-resolution screening (HRS system is well suitable for compound mixture analysis. As a proof of principle, the venoms of Dendroapsis polylepis, Pseudonaja affinis and Pseudonaja inframacula snakes were screened and the accurate masses of the found bioactives were established. To demonstrate the subsequent workflow towards structural identification of bioactive proteins and peptides, the partial amino acid sequence of one of the bioactives from the Pseudonaja affinis venom was determined using a bottom-up proteomics approach.

  6. Estuarine use and movement patterns of seven sympatric Mugilidae fishes: The Tatu Creek estuary, central western Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chih-Wei; Iizuka, Yoshiyuki

    2012-06-01

    By combining the spatio-temporal distribution of fish abundance and their size structure, and a detailed lifetime Sr/Ca ratio analysis in their otoliths, this study delineates the estuarine use and the movement patterns of seven sympatrical occurring adult mullets in the Tatu Creek estuary, central western Taiwan. In the estuary Mugil cephalus are the most dominant species, whereas Liza subviridis, Liza macrolepis and Liza haematocheilus are common, and Liza affinis, Liza dussumieri and Valamugil seheli are rare. They have adapted a size-related salinity preference. A mean Sr/Ca ratio of (7.5-10.2) × 10-3 in the otolith cores demonstrated that all seven mullet species spawned in the sea. After recruiting to the estuary (mean ratios of (3.6-6.4) × 10-3 at the estuarine check in the otoliths), the ratios fluctuate between (0.1-3.5) × 10-3 and (9.5-19.5) × 10-3 indicating that the mullet shared a common movement between marine and brackish waters and probably even freshwater habitats. However, the profiles fluctuated substantially among individuals. There was high intra-specific variation among M. cephalus and L. subviridis, intermediate intra-specific variation among L. macrolepis and L. affinis, and relatively little among L. haematocheilus, L. dussumieri and V. seheli. Persistent residency in high or low saline environments was found to vary among species, and the extent of their catadromy is discussed.

  7. Coexistence of two sympatric and mOrpho1ogically similar bat species Rhinolophus affnis and Rhinolophus pearsoni

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tinglei Jiang; Jiang Feng; Keping Sun; Jing Wang

    2008-01-01

    Ecologists have long focused on the coexistence of sympatric species.Here,we investigated two horseshoe bat species,Rhinolophus affinis and Rhinolophus pearsoni inhabited in the same cave,for their foraging strategies,niche differentiation,prey selection,and their coexistence status.These two species of horseshoe bats were ditierent in the dominant frequency of their echolocation calls.but similar in their morphology.We found evidence for prey selectivity although there was a high degree of overlap in prey categories and sizes.R affinis and R pearsoni foraged on 16 and 7 categories insects,respectively,with Pyralidae,Geometridae,Melolonthidae dominating their diets.The degree of trophic niche overlap was 0.69.Pairwise comparisons suggested that there was no obvious differentiation in prey categories and size.However,high prey availability in the environment(Simpson diversity index=0.79 and Margalef richness index=4.121 contributed to their coexistence by dampening the interspecific competition.Since there are one or more mechanisms facilitating species coexistence in a community,our results suggest that the spatial niche differentiation in foraging microhabitats and in foraging habitats at landscape scale may promote the coexistence of the two bat species.However,additional field data are needed to confirm this speculation.

  8. Gambusia quadruncus (Cyprinodontiformes: Poeciliidae): a new species of mosquitofish from east-central México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langerhans, R B; Gifford, M E; Domínguez-Domínguez, O; García-Bedoya, D; DeWitt, T J

    2012-10-01

    Gambusia quadruncus n. sp., the llanos mosquitofish, is described from east-central México. The region inhabited by the species represents a hotspot of diversity of Gambusia, and G. quadruncus sometimes coexists with at least three congeners. The species differs from its closest relative, Gambusia affinis, in several characteristics with plausible effects on reproductive isolation, e.g. body size, body and fin morphology, male genital morphology (distal tip of gonopodium) and female anal spot morphology (colouration near the urogenital sinus). Moreover, combined analysis of mitochondrial and nuclear gene sequence data (c. 2158 total base pairs) indicates reciprocal monophyly of G. quadruncus and its sister species G. affinis, with levels of genetic divergence suggesting the two species diverged from one another over a million years ago. The origin of G. quadruncus may reflect a vicariant event associated with Pliocene orogenesis in the Tamaulipas Arch and a frontal section of the Sierra Madre Oriental (Lleran Mesas). Gambusia quadruncus inhabits a variety of freshwater habitats across several river drainages, with its range spanning at least 350 km from north to south, covering over 25 000 km(2). A key to aid identification of the species is provided.

  9. Distribution of pelagic squids Abraliopsis Joubin, 1896 (Enoploteuthidae) and Pterygioteuthis P. Fischer, 1896 (Pyroteuthidae) (Cephalopoda, Decapodiformes, Oegopsida) in the Mexican Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickx, Michel E.; Urbano, Brian; Zamorano, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The oegopsid squids Abraliopsis and Pterygioteuthis are abundant and diverse genera with taxonomic and distributional problems. Identification and distribution of species in the Mexican Pacific has been somewhat controversial. Here are provided a large series of new records for Abraliopsis affinis, Abraliopsis falco, Pterygioteuthis gemmata, Pterygioteuthis giardi and Pterygioteuthis hoylei from the Gulf of California and off the SW coast of Mexico. All five species were collected in the central or the southern Gulf of California, or in both. Abraliopsis affinis was found in seven samples with a total of 48 specimens, from 21°59' to 24°53'12"N. Abraliopsis falco was much less represented in the samples (14 specimens) but it was found in 10 localities, four of which correspond to the central-southern Gulf of California (north to 27°44'53"N) and six to SW Mexico (south to 16°49'18"N). In the case of Pterygioteuthis gemmata, only two records (three specimens) were obtained, both in the SW Gulf of California, while Pterygioteuthis giardi (nine specimens) records were all from the central Gulf of California (27°44'53” to 25°39'59"N). In the case of Pterygioteuthis hoylei (nine specimens), material was obtained in six localities, also in a restricted latitudinal range (24°23'48” to 25°56'56"N). PMID:26798236

  10. Análisis numérico de las especies de Prosopis L. (Fabaceae de las costas de Perú y Ecuador

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    Alicia D. Burghardt

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Diferentes revisiones coinciden en señalar 2 o 3 especies de Prosopis para el sur de Ecuador y norte de Perú: P. juliflora (SW DC, P. pallida (Humb. et Bonpl. ex Willd. Kunth y P. affinis Sprengel. En el presente trabajo se informa del análisis cuantitativo de caracteres foliares de especímenes del genero Prosopis, recolectados a lo largo de la costa desde Arequipa (Perú a Manta (Ecuador. Los resultados señalan tres grupos bien definidos. Del análisis comparativo de los tipos y ejemplares de herbario de todas las especies y sinónimos citados para la zona de estudio surge que los taxones existentes son: P. pallida, P. limensis Bentham, ambos de amplia distribución, y P. chilensis (Molina Stuntz emend Burkart restringido al valle del río Camaná. Estos tres taxones se corresponden con los tres grupos obtenidos del análisis numérico. Debe señalarse la exclusión del área de P. juliflora y P. affinis. Se sugiere no utilizar las numerosas variedades señaladas para P. pallida.

  11. A phylogenetic analysis of Pseudonaja (Hydrophiinae, Elapidae, Serpentes) based on mitochondrial DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Adam; Donnellan, Stephen C; Hutchinson, Mark N; Hutchinson, Rhonda G

    2005-11-01

    A phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial ND4 and adjacent tRNA sequences for a geographically extensive series of specimens reveals nine major clades within Pseudonaja, of which six are largely coincident with nominal taxa (P. affinis, P. guttata, P. inframacula, P. ingrami, P. modesta, and P. textilis). The remaining three clades are composed of specimens presently referred to P. nuchalis. Two of these clades correspond with the "Darwin" and "Southern" morphs of previous authors, while the third clade incorporates the "Orange with black head" and "Pale head, grey nape" morphs. We are unable to confirm the presence of consistent karyotypic differences between "Orange with black head" and "Pale head, grey nape" specimens, however, P. inframacula, P. textilis, and P. nuchalis "Darwin" are found to exhibit distinctive karyotypes, as previously reported. These results, in conjunction with additional observations of karyotpic and morphological variation, are consistent with nine historically-independent lineages (i.e., species) within Pseudonaja. There is strong support for a clade composed of P. affinis, P. inframacula, P. ingrami, P. textilis, and the three P. nuchalis lineages, and for the relationships (P. inframacula, P. nuchalis "Southern") and (P. nuchalis "Darwin", P. nuchalis "Orange with black head"--"Pale head, grey nape" ).

  12. Akut spinal kord yaralanması sonrasi erken cerrahi dekompresyonun korpus kavernozum ve motor fonksiyon üzerine olan etkilerinin araştırılması

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    Okay Bulut

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Amaç. Akut spinal kord yaralanması sonrasi erken cerrahi dekompresyonun korpus kavernozum ve motor fonksiyon üzerine olan etkilerinin araştırılması. Yöntem. Yirmi bir adet 9-12 aylık Yeni Zelanda tipi, erişkin erkek tavşan kullanıldı. Denekler kontrol grubu (n=5, laminektomi grubu (n=6, 15 saniye kompresyon grubu (n=5 ve 60 sn kompresyon grubu (n=5 olmak üzere 4 gruba ayrıldı. Laminektomi grubuna sadece laminektomi işlemi yapıldı. Kompresyon gruplarına 60 g kapama gücü olan anevrizma klipsi ile 15 ve 60 saniye kompresyon uygulandı. 1, 3, 5 ve 7. günler Modifiye Tarlov skoru ile motor değerlendirme yapıldı. 7 gün sonunda bütün denekler sakrifiye edilerek spinal kordlarından histopatolojik çalışma ile beraber izole korpus kavernozum dokularından in vitro organ banyosunda kasılma ve gevşeme yanıtları incelendi. Bulgular. Modifiye Tarlov skoruna bakıldığında gruplar arası fark anlamlı bulundu (p0,05. Her 4 grupta da pD2 değerleri benzerdi (p>0,05. Sonuç. Akut spinal kord yaralanmasında erken cerrahi dekompresyonun etkinliğini araştırdığımız bu model ile spinal kord yaralanmasında seksüel disfonksiyonunun tedavisinde kullanılması düşünülen ilaçların in vitro ortamda ayrıntılı olarak araştırılması mümkün olabilir. Akut spinal kord yaralanmasında erken cerrahi dekompresyon motor iyileşme yönünden faydalı olabilir ve korpus kavernozum fonksiyonları açısından olumlu etkiler yapabilir. Ayrıca, akut spinal kord yaralanması geçiren hastalarda erektil disfonksiyon fosfodiesteraz tip V inhibitörleri ile çözülebilir.

  13. Nisin ve su ürünleri

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    Zafer Ceylan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nisin doğal ve güvenilir bir gıda katkı maddesidir ve Lactococcus lactis’ ten üretilir. Peynirden balığa ve içeceklere kadar çeşitli gıdalarda katkı maddesi olarak kullanılabilir. Nisin özellikle gram pozitif bakteriler üzerine etkili iken gram negatif ve maya küfler üzerine bir etkisi yoktur. Nisin vücuda alındıktan sonra sindirim enzimleri tarafından inaktif hale getirilir bu nedenle hiçbir toksik etki yaratmaz. Ayrıca, FDA tarafından onaylanan tek bakteriosindir. Nisin sadece toplam bakteriler üzerinde etkin değil aynı zamanda laktik asit bakterileri, koliform ve patojenler üzerine de etkilidir. Nisin su ürünlerinde bulunabilecek L. monocytogenes gibi bazı patojenler üzerine inhibe edici özelliğe sahiptir. Ayrıca; nisin üzerine yapılan pek çok çalışmaya göre, nisin su ürünlerinin mikrobiyolojik güvenliğini sağlar ve raf ömrünü uzatır. Balığın kokusu üzerine olumsuz bir etkisi yoktur. Dahası, balığın doğal kokusunu muhafaza eder. Balıketi pH’sı ve rengi üzerine de olumsuz bir etkisi yoktur. Nisin TVBN, TMA değerleri ve psikrofilik ve mezofilik bakteri sayısının artışını depolama süresince kontrol etmektedir. Ayrıca, nisin vakum paketleme, ışınlama ve diğer katkı maddeleri ile beraber başarı ile kullanılmaktadır. Bu sayede nisin su ürünlerinin raf ömrünü artıran güvenli ve doğal bir katkı maddesi olarak kabul edilmektedir.

  14. Sediment quality assessment using survival and embryo malformation tests in amphipod crustaceans: The Gulf of Riga, Baltic Sea AS case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strode, Evita; Jansons, Mintauts; Purina, Ingrida; Balode, Maija; Berezina, Nadezhda A.

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the toxicity of bottom sediment and to estimate the potential effects of contaminated sediment on health of benthic organisms in the Gulf of Riga (eastern Baltic Sea). Two endpoints were used: survival rate (acute toxicity test) of five crustacean amphipod species and frequency of embryo malformation (samples were collected from the field) in the two species. Toxic resistance of living animals to sediment quality was measured as survival rate (%) at 25 study sites from 2010-2012. Significant differences in the toxic resistance between species were found: 80-100% for Monoporeia affinis, 70-95% for Corophium volutator, 38-88% for Pontogammarus robustoides, 38-100% for Bathyporeia pilosa and 60-100% for Hyalella azteca. Reproductive disorders, measured as percentage (%) of malformed embryos per female, varied in the ranges of 0.0-9.5% in deep water species M. affinis and 0.3-7.5% in littoral species P. robustoides. Both the acute toxicity test and embryo malformation test (only M. affinis was used) indicated moderate and poor sediment quality at 20% and 12% accordingly in the study sites, low toxicity of sediment was estimated in 64% of cases, and no toxicity was recorded in the rest of the cases (4%). Additionally, sediment toxicity test using aquatic organisms was combined with sediment chemical analysis (trace metals) and the Benthic Quality Index (macrozoobenthos) was based on data collected from 13 sites in the Gulf of Riga in 2010 and used for triad sediment quality assessment. According to this combined approach, 23% of the bottom sediments were classified as likely impacted and 23% as possibly impacted (central and southern part of the Gulf). However, the remaining 54% was identified as likely un-impacted. The sediment quality assessment with single survival test or chemical analyses showed better sediment quality in the Gulf than the triad method. The embryo malformation test appeared to be more sensitive to pollution than

  15. CO fundamental bands in late-type stars. II - Spectrum simulations for F-K stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedemann, Guenter; Ayres, Thomas R.

    1991-01-01

    The procedure of Ayres and Wiedemann (1989) was applied to a range of stellar-atmosphere models to study the CO Delta-v = 1 spectrum and to establish its use as a remote sensor of thermal conditions in late-type stars. Spectra were computed to examine the sensitivity of the CO Delta-v = 1 to fundamental stellar parameters and to assess the errors introduced into the spectrum intepretation by uncertain input parameters and non-LTE effects. Results of the sensitivity study demonstrate that CO fundamental spectra are useful probes for the temperature structure of the outer layers of cool stellar atmospheres, but that their value is limited by the uncertainties introduced by non-LTE effects. However, in stars with surface gravities of log g of about 1.5 and greater, the values of these uncertainties are reasonably small.

  16. [Human Capital and Growth, Beşeri Sermaye ve Büyüme

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    Robert J. BARRO

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available 1980’lerin sonundan beri makro-ekonomistler, dikkatlerinin büyük kısmını uzun vadeli ekonomik büyümenin belirleyicilerine odaklandırmış durumdadırlar. Bu makale eğitimin rolünü vurgulamaktadır. Çalışmada yapılan analiz ile eğitimin okula devam edilen yıllarla ölçülen niceliği ile uluslararası düzeyde birbirleri ile karşılaştırılabilecek sınavlarda alınan notlar kanalıyla ölçülen niteliği arasında ayrım yapılmaktadır.

  17. Çayağzı Deresi’nin (Antalya) Ekonomik Yeşil Algleri Konusunda Bir Ön Çalışma

    OpenAIRE

    TURNA, İbrahim İsmail; Durucan, Furkan; KUŞAT, Mete

    2012-01-01

    Yeşil algler özellikle uzak doğu ve Akdeniz ülkelerinde gıda, kozmetik, farmakoji, tıp vb. amaçlarla değerlendirilirler. Bu çalışmada, Çayağzı Deresi’nde (Antalya) dağılım gösteren yeşil alglerden Gayralia oxysperma (Kützing) K.L.Vinogradova ex Scagel et al.ve Enteromorpha intestinalis (Linnaeus) Nees’in yoğunlukları ortaya konulmuştur. Örnekler sonbahar 2011 tarihinde, bölgede 4 ayrı noktadan kuadrat yöntemiyle (50x50 cm) (Dodolahi-Sohrab A, et.al.2012) toplanmış ve taze ağırlıkları saptanmı...

  18. Gömülü 20 yaş dişi cerrahisinde kemik dokusuna yapılan müdahalelerde kullanılan Er:YAG lazer, piezocerrahi ve konvansiyonel frez yöntemlerinin birbirleriyle klinik olarak karşılaştırılmalı incelenmesi

    OpenAIRE

    ÇELEBİOĞLU, Bedriye Gizem

    2011-01-01

    Gömülü 20 yaş dişi çekimleri oral ve maksillofasiyal cerrahide en sık yapılan uygulamalardır. Cerrahi işlemlerin tamamında amaç doku hasarını minimalize ederek az komplikasyon yaratmak ve postoperatif iyleşme periodunda hastalara daha az ağrı ve daha fazla rahatlık sağlamaktır.Çalışmamız Pell-Gregory Sınıflaması'na göre klas 2, pozisyon B vertikal pozisyonda bilateral alt gömülü yirmi yaş dişi bulunan 30 hasta üzerinde gerçekleştirmiştir. Hastalar rastgele 2 gruba ayrıldı...

  19. Karadut (Morus Nigra) Meyvesinden Elde Edilen Boyalarla Boyanmış Yünlü Materyalin Yıkama ve Işık Haslıklarının İncelenmesi

    OpenAIRE

    Emine Dilara KOÇAK Nigar MERDAN Kamil ACAR, Zeynep ÖZTÜRK

    2014-01-01

    Bu araştırmada karadut ağacının meyvelerinden yararlanılmıştır. Dünya'da çok geniş bir yayılma alanına sahip olan dut ağacı meyvesinin doğal boya olarak yün liflerinin boyanmasında kullanılabilirliği araştırılmıştır. Yünlü materyal, bilinen mordan maddeleri ile mordanlandıktan sonra, meyveden ekstrakte edilmiş boya ile konvansiyonel yöntemle boyanmıştır. Boyalı örneklerin reflektans değerleri ölçülerek, CIELAB sistemine göre kolorimetrik değerleri hesaplanmış ve değerlendirilmiştir. Ayrı...

  20. Türkiye’de memurların sendikal hakları çerçevesinde grev hakkı

    OpenAIRE

    Ünal, Emel

    2012-01-01

       Devletin asli ve sürekli kamu hizmetlerini yerine getiren memurların örgütlenmeleri ve örgütlenmeleri neticesinde doğan hakları, sahip oldukları ayrıcalıklı statü sebebiyle birçok alanda tartışmaya konu olmuştur.

       Yapılan çalışmada Türkiye’de memurların sendikal hakları çerçevesinde grev hakkı ele alın...

  1. Turizm Ön Lisans Programlarında Meslek Amaçlı İngilizce (Eop) Öğretiminin Öğrenci Görüşlerine Dayalı İhtiyaç Değerlendirmesi

    OpenAIRE

    GÖKÇE, Akif

    2015-01-01

    Turizm eğitimi, Türk turizmini dış dünyaya açmanın önemli etmenlerinden biridir ve bu nedenle turizm politikalarının belirlenmesinde en az altyapı kadar önemlidir. Özellikle turizm sektörüne ara eleman vasfıyla çalışan iş gücü yetiştiren ve bu sebepten hizmet odaklı bu sektörün bel kemiğini oluşturan; ayrıca aralarında lisans eğitimine devam edenlerin bulunması sebebiyle potansiyel yönetici yetiştiren Meslek Yüksekokulları bünyesindeki turizm ön lisans programları, eğitimli üst ve orta düzeyd...

  2. Türkiye’nin Çeşitli Ballarına Kaynak Oluşturan Compositae (Asteraceae) Familyasında Inula Türlerinin Polen Morfolojilerine Istatistiksel Bir Yaklaşım

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Bu çalışmada, Türkiye’de doğal olarak yayılış gösteren, özellikle bal üretimi açısından önem arz eden Inula genusunun 16 türüne ait taze polenlerin mikroskopla boyutları ölçülmüş, mikrofotoğrafları çekilmiş ve ölçümler bilgisayar ortamına aktarılarak ayrıştırma analizi ile değerlendirilmiştir. Inula viscosa (Dittrichia viscosa), Inula thapsoides ve Inula peacockiana (Duhaldea peacockiana) t&uu...

  3. Ankilozan spondilitli hastalarda yapılandırılmış grup eğitiminin etkinliği=The effectiveness of structured group education on ankylosing spondylitis patients

    OpenAIRE

    Rodoplu, Meliha

    2006-01-01

    Ankilozan spondilit, ağrı ve ilerleyici sakatlığa yol açan kronik bir hastalıktır. Bu çalışmanın amacı ankilozan spondilitli hastalarda hasta eğitiminin hastalık parametreleri üzerine etkisini araştırmaktı. Bu çalışma modifiye New York kriterlerine göre kesin ankilozan spondilit tanısı almış toplam 41 hasta üzerinde yapıldı. Olgular rastgele olarak iki gruba ayrıldı. Birinci gruptaki hastalar, yataklı servise yatırılarak yapılandırılmış eğitim ve egzersiz programına alındı. Bu program 4-5 kiş...

  4. Artroskopik diz cerrahisinde intraartiküler uygulanan levobupivakain, fentanil-levobupivakain ve tramadol-levobupivakain’in postoperatif ağrı kontrolüne etkileri

    OpenAIRE

    Sayin, Pinar; Dobrucali, Hale; Turk, Hacer Sebnem; Totoz, Tolga; Isil, Canan Tulay; Hanci, Ayse

    2017-01-01

    Amaç: Bu çalışmanın amacı diz cerrahisinde levobupivakain, levobupivakain-fentanil ve levobupivakain-tramadol eklem içi enjeksiyonlarının postoperatif ağrı kontrolündeki etkinliğini karşılaştırmaktır.Çalışma planı: Elektif diz artroskopisi için başvuran 80 hasta çalışmaya dahil edildi. Hastalar 20’şerli gruplara ayrıldı. Grup 1’deki hastalara eklem içi serum fizyolojik verildi ve kontrol grubu olarak planlandı. Grup 2’deki hastalara levobupivakain 2,5 mg/ml, Grup 3’teki hastalara levobupivak...

  5. Elektrik Motorlarının Verimlilik Standartları

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Aydın ERCAN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Bu bildiride, elektrik motorlarının Avrupa birliğindeki verimlilik standartları ve geçmişten geleceğe gelişimi incelenmiştir. Ayrıca diğer eş standartlara da değinilmiş olup yakın zamanda gelecek olan Avrupa birliğinde yasal olarak zorunlu olacak olan elektrik motorları verimlilik standartları verilmiş olup ilgili standartlar, uygun motorların yapılan verim testlerindeki grafik eğrileri üzerinde açıklanmıştır. Türkiye olarak elektrik motor üretiminde ve kullanımında bu standartlara uymanın önemi vurgulanmıştır.

  6. Görme Engellilere Yönelik Kütüphanecilik Hizmetlerinde Türkiye'deki Son Gelişmeler: Gazi Üniversitesi Merkez Kütüphanesi Görme Engelliler Bölümü Örneği

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meliha Kazak

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Bu makalede görme engellilerin kullandığı Braille alfabesinin tarihçesi, görme engellilere yönelik kütüphanecilik hizmetlerinde Türkiye 'deki son gelişmeler ve bu hizmetlerin verilmesinde karşılaşılan sorunlar ile çözüm önerileri yer almaktadır. Ayrıca Gazi Üniversitesi Görme Engelliler Bölümü 'nün kuruluşu, gelişimi, kullanıcılarına sunduğu hizmetler ve ileriye yönelik hedefleri anlatılmaktadır.

  7. Kimyadaki Bazı Yaygın Yanlış Kavramalar

    OpenAIRE

    CANPOLAT, Nurtaç; PINARBAŞI, Tacettin; Samih BAYRAKÇEKEN; Geban, Ömer

    2004-01-01

    Kimya konularında geçen kavramların etkili bir şekilde öğretimi ve öğrenilmesi sürecinde, ilgili konularda öğrencilerin sahip olduğu yanlış kavramaların belirlenmesi, önemli bir yer tutmaktadır. Ayrıca, yanlış kavramaların ortaya çıkarılması, hem program geliştiricilere hem de öğrencilerin kavramsal düzeyde öğrenmelerini sağlamak amacı ile onlara rehberlik eden öğretmenlere yardımcı olur. Öğrencilerin mevcut bilgilerinin ortaya çıkarılması, kavram öğretimine yönelik yapılan araştırmaları...

  8. 4. Nesil Mobil Telefon Sistemi Anten Tasarımı

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samet AKDENİZ

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada LTE 4G mobil telefon sistemleri incelenmiş ve bu sistemlerde kullanılmak üzere spiralheliks anten tasarımı yapılmıştır. Bu anten diğer GSM frekanslarında da çalışabilecek şekilde tasarlanmıştır. Aynı zamanda hareketli alış noktalarında da bazı eklemelerle, bluetooth anteni özelliğine sahip olabilecek bir anten tasarımı yapılabilir. Bu çalışmada ayrıca elektromanyetik zorluklar ve uygulamada karşılaşılan sorunlara ilişkin çözüm yöntemleri üzerinde de durulmuştur.

  9. Lomber traksiyonun subakut lomber disk hernili hastalarda klinik ve fonksiyonel durum üzerine etkisi

    OpenAIRE

    Murat, Sadiye

    2007-01-01

    Lomber disk hernisi, dejenere diskin lomber spinal sinir kökünü sıkıştırması ile ortaya çıkan bel ve bacak ağrısı ile karakterize klinik tablodur. Çalışmanın amacı subakut lomber disk hernisi tanısı konan hastalarda fizik tedavi yöntemlerinden biri olan traksiyonun; ağrı, klinik, fonksiyonel durum ve yaşam kalitesi üzerine olan etkilerini araştırmaktır. Çalışmaya subakut lomber disk hernisi tanısı almış 61 hasta alındı. Olgular rastgele olarak iki gruba ayrıldı. Birinci gruba vücut ağrırlığın...

  10. Pulsed-Field Jel Elektroforez (PFGE) Metodu ve Akuatik Organizmalarda Kullanımı

    OpenAIRE

    TÜRE, Mustafa; ALTINOK, İlhan

    2013-01-01

    PFGE (Pulsed-Field Jel Electroforez), akuakültürde salgın hastalıklara yol açan izolatların ilişkilendirilmelerinde anahtar rol oynayan bir metottur. Teknik, 10 megabaz çifti (Mbç) kadar geniş molekül ağırlığına sahip DNA parçalarının etkin bir biçimde ayrışmasına olanak sağlamıştır. PFGE, çeşitli patojenlerin epidemiyolojisi, genom büyüklüklerinin belirlenmesi, bakteri kromozomlarının fiziksel ve genetik haritalandırılmalarının gerçekleştirilmesi gibi konularda son yıllarda sıkça kullanılan ...

  11. BÜYÜME EĞRİLERİNİN TAHMİNİNDE KULLANILAN BAZI SİGMOİDAL MODELLER VE ELDE EDİLEN BİYOLOJİK PARAMETRELER: BERTALANFFY MODELİ ÖRNEĞİ

    OpenAIRE

    Oda, Volkan; KORKMAZ, Mehmet; Özkurt, Elif

    2016-01-01

    Bu çalışmada, doğrusal olmayan sigmoidal büyüme modellerine ait parametrelerin, mekanik modellere ait biyolojik anlamlı parametrelere nasıl dönüştürüldüğü üzerinde durulmuştur. Bu amaçla kullanılan doğrusal olmayan sigmoidal büyüme modellerinden Logistic, Gompertz ve Bertalanffy modellerine ait birinci ve ikinci türevler yardımıyla hesaplanan biyolojik anlamlı parametrelerin değerleri tablolar halinde verilmiştir. Ayrıca, kullanılan modellerden biri olan  Bertalanffy modelinin mekanik modele ...

  12. Ezine Peyniri. I. Aroma Karakterizasyonu

    OpenAIRE

    Yüceer, Yonca Karagül; İşleten, Müge; Mehmet MENDEŞ

    2009-01-01

    Bu çalışmanın amacı, bir yıllık depolama sonucu Ezine peynirinin aroma-aktif bileşenlerinde ve duyusal özelliklerinde meydana gelen değişimi belirleyerek enstrümental ve duyusal analizler sonucu elde edilen bulgular arasındaki ilişkiyi göstermektir. Peynir örneklerindeki aroma-aktif bileşenler Termal Desorpsiyon-Gaz Kromatografisi Olfaktometri sistemi (TD-GCO) kullanılarak saptanmıştır. Ayrıca tarife dayalı duyusal analiz tekniği kullanılarak lezzet özellikleri dokuz uzman panelist tarafından...

  13. [Medical behavior (deontology) towards our students, our colleagues, our patients and the society].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammaticos, Philip C

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we try to describe the importance of a dignified behavior of the physician to his students, colleagues, patients and the society. We come to the conclusion that even if the other party is not showing the best of behavior, the physician has not only the responsibility and the duty but it is very much for his own interest to show a dignified and useful behavior to others. This is the main route for having a good reputation which will help him better exercise his medical duties and offer him personal happiness. Jeremy Bentham, an English judge and philosopher formed the Greek word deontology to mean correct behavior stating that this behavior is morally useful and a source of pleasure. The codes of Hammurabi, of the Indian Ayr Veda, of the Egyptians, the teaching of Aristotle, Hippocrates and others also describe medical deontology.

  14. Lecture et interprétation de la presse : le cas de la gazette de Buenos-Aires, 1811 : Colloque "Influences et confluences : La Révolution française / La Révolution de Mai"

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, Sophie; Bernand, Carmen; Garavaglia, Juan Carlos; SIGAL, Sylvia; De Pablo, Elisabeth; STOCKINGER, Peter; Legrand, Valérie; Winkler, Lisette

    2009-01-01

    Mesa redonda III - Escritos: la cultura política en el Rio de la Plata a principios del siglo XIXAnalizar un « no-texto » compuesto de los números de un periódico semanal, la Gaceta de Buenos-Ayres del año 1811, en el cual el título mismo gaceta, diminutivo de gazza, urraca ladrona y charlatana, o sacado del título de un diario veneciano cuyo nombre era en de una moneda de escaso valor, es ya todo un programa. Un año después de la “revolución” de Mayo encontramos no solo textos oficiales que ...

  15. Sensory integration and activities of daily living in children with developmental coordination disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elbasan Bülent

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The aim of our study was to evaluate sensory integration and activities of daily living in children with developmental coordination disorder Subjects and methods 37 cases with developmental coordination disorder and 35 healthy age-matched peers were included in this study. Ayres Southern California Sensory Integration Test was used for evaluating the sensory integration and Functional Independence Measure for Children (WeeFIM was used for evaluating the activities of daily living. Results Significant differences were found in the visual shape perception, position in space, and design copying (p p p p p = 0.002 between the groups. Discussion Special education and rehabilitation programs including sensory integration therapy and motor performance will increase independence in the activities of daily living in children with developmental coordination disorder.

  16. Special Issue: Aspects of Game Theory and Institutional Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfram Elsner

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Classical economists from Adam Smith to Thomas Malthus and to Karl Marx have considered the importance of direct interdependence and direct interactions for the economy. This was even more the case for original institutionalist thinkers such as Thorstein Veblen, John Commons, and Clarence Ayres. In their writings, direct interdependence, interactions (or transactions among agents, with all beneficial and with all problematic consequences, took center stage in economic analysis. Why, for instance, do people adhere to a particular new fashion or trend? Because others do, after eminent people, wealthy people, the “leisure class” (T. Veblen, have made it a symbol for status. The new fashion, however, ceases to serve as such a symbol once too many people follow it. The constant effort put into following trends and adopting fashion turns out to be a social dilemma, driven by Veblenian instincts, such as invidious distinction in predatory societies, conspicuous consumption and emulation. [...

  17. Hülya Kasapoğlu Çengel, Kırgız Türkçesi Grameri Ses ve Şekil Bilgisi

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZDARENDELİ, Nursel

    2014-01-01

    kında bilgi verilmiş, daha sonra Kırgız Türkçesindeki ses özellikleri ve olayları ayrıntılı olarak ele alınmıştır. Bu bölüm, eserde 44 sayfalık bir yer tutmaktadır. Ses özellikleri ve olayları değerlendirilirken yazar, alıntı kelimelerdeki ses olaylarını orijinal dillere göre tek tek değerlendirmiştir. Alıntı kelimelerin de, diğer unsurlarla birlikte değerlendirme- ye alındığı dilbilgisi kitaplarında, bu durum, Genel Türkçeye ait kimi ses özelliklerinin belirlenmesinde karışıklık yaratma...

  18. Interpreting Medieval Inter-tidal Features at Weelie's Taing on Papa Westray, Orkney, NE Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Edward; Gibson, Julie; Littlewood, Mark

    2016-12-01

    Investigation of the inter-tidal heritage of the Orkney Islands is used to interpret a previously perplexing complex at Weelie's Taing on Papa Westray. The study revealed a previously unknown type of harbour since identified in several locations around Orkney. Situated in exposed environmental situations, shelter is formed by an `ayre', a type of spit that encloses a loch, and which has been used historically as a landing place or crossing of the inter-tidal zone. A complex landing area, pier, tower and ship-blockage suggest Weelie's Taing was used as a harbour. Important fishing grounds exploited since the Neolithic are nearby, and Papa Westray was the site of water-focussed religious communities. It is suggested that Weelie's Taing was in use in the medieval period when Papa Westray was less isolated than today with the presence of ecclesiastical communities and situation on the Orkney-Shetland route.

  19. Dudak Damak Yarıklarının Protetik Tedavisinde Uygulanan Schiltsky Obtüratörü, Suersen Obtüratörü ve Farenks Uzantısız Hareketli Obtüratör

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    ÖZETBu makalemizde dudak damak yarıklarının embriyoiojisi ve etiolojisi incslenerek, bu tür gelişim bozukluklarının Veau ve, Kernahan ve Stark'a göre sınıflandırılması açıklanmıştır. Ayrıca farenks uzantısız hareketli obtüratörün, Schiltsky ve Suersen obtüratörlerinin endikasyon ve uygulama yöntemleri ortaya konmuştur.SUMMARYIn this article the author has summarized the cleft lip and palate embriology, and illustrated Veau's, and Kernahan and Stark's cleft lip and palate classifications. More...

  20. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Abundances of late-type stars (Roederer+, 2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roederer, I. U.; Jacobson, H. R.; Thanathibodee, T.; Frebel, A.; Toller, E.

    2017-01-01

    We obtained observations covering the NUV spectral range from the Barbara A. Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST). These observations were taken using the medium- or high-resolution echelle gratings in the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS; Kimble et al. 1998ApJ...492L..83K; Woodgate et al. 1998PASP..110.1183W) on board the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Spectra downloaded from the MAST have been reduced by the calstis pipeline and combined by Ayres (2010, Cat. J/ApJS/187/149). Spectra obtained previously by our own observing programs were reduced by the calstis pipeline and processed as described in Roederer et al. (2012ApJS..203...27R, 2014ApJ...791...32R) and Placco et al. (2014ApJ...790...34P). (4 data files).

  1. Um olhar sobre a música produzida na ESML para clarinete solo e clarinete e eletrónica

    OpenAIRE

    Vinagre, Mário Gabriel Piteira

    2015-01-01

    O presente Projeto Artístico propõe como principal objetivo a divulgação de obras para clarinete solo e para clarinete e eletrónica produzidas no seio das classes de clarinete e composição da Escola Superior de Música de Lisboa. A preparação e montagem da obra de Edward Luiz Ayres d’Abreu, aqui realizada em estreia absoluta, pretende manter viva a continuidade de produção artística desta instituição a todos os níveis, neste caso, entre dois estudantes. Neste relatório estão registados os bene...

  2. Türkiye’de Varroa Destructor ile Doğal Enfeste Bal Arısı Kolonilerinde Apıvar®’ın (Amitraz) Etkisi

    OpenAIRE

    AYDIN, Levent; GİRİŞGİN, A. Onur

    2014-01-01

    Bu çalışmada, Bursa yöresinde Varroa destructor ile doğal bulaşık olan balarısı kolonilerinde (polen tuzaklı kovanlarda) Apivar’ın (Amitraz) etkinliği araştırılmıştır. V.destructor ile doğal olarak bulaşık 40 koloni yirmişer koloniden oluşan 2 gruba ayrılmıştır. Birinci grup Apivar strip ile 6 hafta süre ile sonbaharda tedavi edilmiş, ikinci grup ise tedavisiz kontrol bırakılmıştır. Tedavi sonrası Apivar strip’in etkinlii istatistiki olarak Henderson-Tilton ve Yüzde Değişim Testleri ile karşı...

  3. Large molecular mass materials in coal derived liquids by {sup 252}Cf-plasma and matrix assisted laser desorption mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domin, M. [School of Pharmacy, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Pharmaceutical and Biological Chemistry; Li, S.; Herod, A.A.; Larsen, J.W. [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Lazaro, M.J.; Kandiyoti, R. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Chemical Technology

    1997-12-31

    A Point of Ayr coal extract, its hydrocracked product and the pyridine solubles/insolubles of a coal tar pitch have been examined using {sup 252}Cf-plasma desorption-mass spectrometry (PDMS) and matrix assisted laser desorption-mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS). Comparison of molecular masses (MMs) between the coal extract and its hydrocracked product by PDMS indicated ranges of masses in the product to be considerably smaller, with number and weight average MMs reduced by approximately a factor of two. MALDI-mass spectra of the same samples indicated a greater reduction in mass. Similar comparison of the pyridine soluble/insoluble fractions of the coal tar pitch showed smaller differences by PD-MS than by MALDI-MS. (orig.)

  4. Gustav Klimt Ve "Beethoven Friz"

    OpenAIRE

    Fırıncı, Mehmet; Zencirci, Dizan Ercivan

    2006-01-01

    Bu makalede, tarihin hemen hemen her döneminde, paralel gelişim gösteren sanatın üç kolu olan resim, müzik ve mimariyi bir araya getiren "Gustav Klimt" ve sanatçının "Ayrılma (Secession)" döneminde meydana getirdiği başyapıt Beethoven Friz incelenecektir.Avusturyalı sanatçı Klimt, Secession binasının mimari durumunu değerlendirip, Beethoven' in 9.Senfonisi'nden ilham alarak yaptığı Beethoven Friz'i resmetmiştir. Döneminde sanat çevresince pek de anlaşılamamı...

  5. Repeat Breeder ineklerde GnRH uygulaması ve döl verimi

    OpenAIRE

    Ata, Ayhan

    1997-01-01

    Bu çalışma Repeat Breeder ineklerde değişik gonadotropin releasing hormon (GnRH) uygulamalarının reprodüktif performans üzerine etkisini tespit etmek amacıyla yapıldı. Araştırmada materyal olarak bakım ve barınma koşulları yeterli olan Repeat Breeder özelliği gösteren 30 inek kullanıldı. Bu inekler üç gruba ayrıldı. I. gruptaki ineklere 0,02 mg GnRH analoğu, II. gruptaki ineklere 0,01 mg GnRH analoğu uygulanırken, IH. gruptaki 10 inek kontrol grubu olarak tutuldu. Çalışma...

  6. Kritik Altı Su Ekstraksiyonu İşleminin Gıda Endüstrisinde Kullanımına Yönelik Uygulamalar

    OpenAIRE

    Kanmaz, Evrim Özkaynak; Ova, Gülden

    2014-01-01

    Kritik altı su ekstraksiyonu işleminde kullanılan sıcaklığa bağlı olarak çeşitli polaritedeki bileşikleri elde etmek mümkün olup daha düşük sıcaklıklarda polaritesi yüksek bileşikler, daha yüksek sıcaklıklarda ise polaritesi düşük bileşikler ekstrakte elde edilebilmektedir. Kritik altı su ekstraksiyonu doğal gıda bileşenlerinin ekstraksiyonu amacıyla toksik organik bileşiklerin kullanılmadığı çevre dostu bir tekniktir. Bu teknik ayrıca daha düşük ekstraksiyon süresi, daha yüksek kaliteli ekst...

  7. Lecture et interprétation de la presse : le cas de la gazette de Buenos-Aires, 1811 : Colloque "Influences et confluences : La Révolution française / La Révolution de Mai"

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, Sophie; Bernand, Carmen; Garavaglia, Juan Carlos; SIGAL, Sylvia; de Pablo, Elisabeth; Stockinger, Peter; Legrand, Valérie; Winkler, Lisette

    2009-01-01

    Mesa redonda III - Escritos: la cultura política en el Rio de la Plata a principios del siglo XIXAnalizar un « no-texto » compuesto de los números de un periódico semanal, la Gaceta de Buenos-Ayres del año 1811, en el cual el título mismo gaceta, diminutivo de gazza, urraca ladrona y charlatana, o sacado del título de un diario veneciano cuyo nombre era en de una moneda de escaso valor, es ya todo un programa. Un año después de la “revolución” de Mayo encontramos no solo textos oficiales que ...

  8. Fitoterapide karminatif olarak kullanılan Apiaceae Meyvaları (Foeniculum vulgare, Pimpinella anisum)

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Bu çalışmada halk arasında karminatif olarak kullanılan Apiacea bitkileri Foeniculum vulgareve Pimpinella anisum'un kimyasal özellikleri ve biyolojik etkileri literatür verilerine dayanılarak incelenmiştir.Pimpinella anisum uçucu yağının büyük kısmını anetol oluşturmaktadır. Uçucu yağda ayrıcaöstragol, kumarin yapısında bileşikler (bergapten, umbelliferon ve skopoletol), lipitler(petroselinik asit, palmitik asit, linoleik asit) ve flavonoitler de bulunmaktadır.Pimpinella ...

  9. Özgün İslami Finansal Kurumlar İnşa Etmek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asad Zaman Çeviren: Mustafa Kenan ERKAN

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Özet İslam’ın ruhunun kapitalizmin ruhuyla sert ve keskin bir uyuşmazlık içinde olmasından dolayı, İslam’ın ruhunu ifade etmek üzere tasarlanmış kurumların almış olduğu biçimin de ayrıca farklı olması zorunludur. Kapitalist finansal kurumlar kapitalist toplumların özünde yer alan servet biriktirme sürecini desteklemek üzere tasarlanmışlardır. İslam’da esas olan, kapitalist toplumlarda baskın olanlardan radikal bir şekilde farklı çeşitli hizmet-odaklı kurumlardaki hizmet ruhu ve başkalarına infak etmektir.

  10. PLC PROGRAMLAMA EĞİTİMİNDE PC_SIMU YAZILIMININ KULLANIMI

    OpenAIRE

    ENGİN UFUK ERGÜL; CENK GEZEGİN

    2013-01-01

    PLC (Programlanabilir Lojik Denetleyici)’ lerin son yıllarda artan kullanımına paralel olarak bu konuda yetişmiş bilgi ve beceriye sahip teknik personele olan talep de artmaktadır. PLC’ lerin ek donanımlarının ve PLC içeren deney setlerinin fiyatları oldukça yüksektir. Bu yüzden eğitim kurumları PLC eğitimi konusunda öğrencilere tüm imkânları sağlamakta yetersiz kalmaktadır. Ayrıca gerçek sistemlere benzeyen PLC kontrollü proseslerin boyutları bir laboratuara sığdırılamayacak kadar büyük ve m...

  11. Characterization of hot-gas filter ash under PFBC operating conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, A.K.; Swanson, M.L.; Hurley, J.P.; Watne, E.M. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy and Environmental Research Center

    1997-12-31

    The objective of this program was to perform bench-scale dynamic tests of ash formation and long-term ash cake formation in pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) systems to help in the development of methods to predict possible filter bridging problems and suggest possible strategies for mitigating these problems. During the program, four ash formation tests using a washed coal from the Consol Enlow Fork mine, with two size distributions of Plum Run dolomite at two different temperatures, were completed under conditions simulating the operation of the American Electric Power (AEP) Tidd PFBC. In addition, the same test matrix, plus two tests using no sorbent, was completed with the Belle Ayr Powder River Basin subbituminous coal, which will be used at the Southern Company Services (SCS) Wilsonville, Alabama, power systems development facility (PSDF).

  12. Characterization of hot-gas filter ash under PFBC operating conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, A.K.; Swanson, M.L.; Hurley, J.P.; Watne, T.M.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this program was to perform bench scale dynamic tests of ash formation and long-term ash cake formation in pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) systems to help in the development of methods to predict possible filter bridging problems and suggest possible strategies for mitigating these problems. During the program, four ash formation tests using a washed coal from the Consol Enlow Fork mine, with two size distributions of Plum Run dolomite at two different temperatures, were completed under conditions simulating the operation of the American Electric Power (AEP) Tidd PFBC. In addition, the same test matrix, plus two tests using no sorbent, was completed with the Belle Ayr Powder River Basin sub-bituminous coal, which will be used at the Southern Company Services (SCS) Wilsonville, Alabama, power systems development facility (PSDF).

  13. Between Germanic and Latin eugenics: Portugal, 1930-1960

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Mark Cleminson

    Full Text Available Abstract This article assesses critically the participation of Portuguese eugenicists in “Latin eugenics” and traces the continuities and discontinuities with respect to this model. In particular, it focuses on a number of examples of more “Germanic” eugenics in contrast and in comparison to Latin versions of eugenics. In the former category, Eusébio Tamagnini, José Ayres de Azevedo and Leopoldina Ferreira de Paulo are considered; in the latter category, especially the work of Almerindo Lessa on “racial mixing” is considered. The conclusions suggest that we should seek diversity in both Latin and northern European eugenic models while at the same time placing Portugal within the array of possible versions of eugenics during the first half of the twentieth century.

  14. Dolgulu Kolonlarda Sıvı Faz Eksenel Dağılımı

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmet ALICILAR

    2013-01-01

    Dolgulu kolonlarda sıvı faz eksenel dağılımının etkisini belirlemek üzere izleyici metotla çalışıldı. İki ayrı izleyici kullanılarak inert sistem ve adsorpsiyon şartları için etkiler gözlendi. Dağılım katsayıları, Carslaw'ın Levenspiel ve Smith tarafından modifiye edilmiş denklemi kullanılarak tespit edildi. Sonuçlar bilgisayarla model haline getirilerek literatürdeki değişik modellerle mukayese edildi.

  15. Kurşun (Pb) ve Bakır (Cu) ağır metal stresi uygulanan enginar (cynara scolymus L.) tohumlarının fidelerinde oluşan DNA değişikliklerinin belirlenmesi

    OpenAIRE

    Batır, Muhammet Burak

    2014-01-01

    Toprakların ağır metaller ile kontaminasyonu ve burada gelişimlerini sürdürmek zorunda olan bitkilerde yüksek konsantrasyonlar da ağır metal birikimi görülür. Bu durum kontaminasyona sahip bölgelerde yetişen bitkilerin hücre ve dokularında toksik hasarlara neden olur. Ayrıca, bitkilerde ağır metal kontaminasyonu genotoksik etki göstererek DNA profilinde mutasyon benzeri değişimlere yol açar. Bu çalışmada, kurşun (Pb) ve bakır (Cu) kontaminasyonunun enginar (Cynara scolymus L.) fideleri üze...

  16. Dinlerin intihar olgusuna bakışı

    OpenAIRE

    sümer, Necati

    2015-01-01

    Dinlerin intihar olgusuna bakışını ele alan bu tez, giriş ve dört bölümden oluşmaktadır. Giriş kısmında çalışma hakkında genel bilgiler, intihar ve onunla ilişkili kavramlar, intihar üzerine bazı teoriler, antik ve ilkel toplumlardaki intihar olgusu üzerinde durulmuştur. Birinci bölümde, Yahudilikte hayat ve ölüm anlayışı ele alınarak, bu dinin intihara bakışı ve Yahudilik tarihinde meydana gelen intiharlar incelenmiştir. Bu bölümde ayrıca Yahudi din otoriteleri ve mezheplerinin inti...

  17. Rejyonel anestezi sırasında midazolam ve deksmedetomidin\\'in sedatif etkilerinin karşılaştırılması

    OpenAIRE

    Korkmaz, Mehmet; Gurbet, Alp; Şahin, Şükran; Pürcü, Özden Özkurt

    2011-01-01

    Amaç: Bu çalışmada, spinal anestezi altında artroskopik diz cerrahisi uygulanacak olgulara sedasyon amacıyla deksmedetomidin ve midazolam uygulamasının etkilerini karsılaştırmayı amaçladık. Gereç ve yöntem: Yaşları 18-65 yıl arasında değişen 50 olgu randomizasyon ile iki gruba ayrıldı: Grup M\\'deki ol­gulara midazolam 0.04 mg/kg intravenöz (iv) uygulandık­tan sonra Ramsay sedasyon skoru (RSS) 3-4 olacak şe­kilde 0,5 mg ek dozlarla işleme devam edild...

  18. Sıçan testisinde subakut deltametrin maruziyetinin etkileri: Histopatolojik bir çalışma

    OpenAIRE

    Kılıç, Kubilay Doğan; Çavuşoğlu, Türker; Yiğittürk, Gürkan; Erbaş, Oytun; Çetin, Emel Öykü; Uyanıkgil, Yiğit

    2016-01-01

    Amaç: Bu çalışmada bir hayvan modelinde deltametrinin toksisitenin testis histolojisi üzerindeki etkileri değerlendirildi.Gereç ve yöntemler: Ağırlıkları 200-220 gram olan toplam 36 yetişkin erkek Sprague-Dawley albino cinsi sıçan dört gruba ayrıldı. Grup 1 sıçanlara deltametrin 15 mg/kg/gün, grup 2 sıçanlara deltametrin 30 mg/kg/gün, grup 3 sıçanlara deltametrin 60 mg/kg/gün ve grup 4 sıçanlara (kontrol grubu) %0.9 sodyum klorür 1 mL/kg/gün 30 gün boyunca oral gavaj yolu ile verildi.B...

  19. MODA İLLÜSTRASYONUNDA ART DECO ETKİSİ

    OpenAIRE

    AKDEMİR, Nihan

    2016-01-01

    ÖzBu makalede Art Deco’nun moda illüstrasyonuna etkisi üzerine biraraştırma yapılmıştır.  Çalışmada ilkolarak moda illüstrasyonunun kısa tarihçesine yer verilmiş, ardından Art Decokavramından, döneminden ve stil özelliklerinden bahsedilmiştir. Art Deco’nunetkin olduğu dönem içerisinde yapılmış moda illüstrasyonlarından örneklersunulmuştur. Ayrıca bu örnekleri yapan moda illüstratörlerine de değinilmiştir.Sanattan mimariye kadar geniş bir yelpazede etkisi gözlemlenen bu akımın, modail...

  20. 2-NAFTOLDEN NEROLİN ÜRETİM PROSESİNİN GELİŞTİRİLMESİ

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    2-Naftolün (2-NP) metil alkol (MeOH) ve etil alkol (EtOH) ile oluşturduğu ve nerolin olarak isimlendirilen eterler -sırasıyla 2-metoksinaftalin (2-naftil metil eter; 2-NME) ve 2-etoksinaftalin (2-naftil etil eter; 2-NEE)- aromaları nedeniyle parfüm endüstrisinde; 2-NME ayrıca farmasötik endüstrisinde önemli kimyasallardır. Bu projede, 2-NME ve 2-NEE üretimlerinde sıvı ve katı asit katalizör türü ile derişimi, 2-NP/alkol mol oranları, sıcaklık, inert ortam ve ortak-çözücü etkileri -girdi ve ür...

  1. Şerefiye’nin İktisabı ve Değerlemesi: UFRS ile Arnavutluk Mevzuatının Karşılaştırılması

    OpenAIRE

    ÜÇ, Mustafa; MANCELLARI, Erjon

    2016-01-01

    Bu çalışma, şerefiye ile ilgili muhasebe işlemlerinde  UFRS, SKK (Arnavutluk Muhasebe Standartları) UFRS’nin adaptosyonu ve Arnavutluk vergi mevzuatı açısından farklılıklar olup olmadığı incelemektedir. Çalışmanın ilk kısmı maddi olmayan duran varlıklar ile ilgili genel teori sunulmaktadır. Ardından şerefiyenin detaylı açıklamaları ile şerefiyenin hesaplanması, değerlemesi ve muhasebesi daha ayrıntılı iredelenmektedir. Şerefiye ile ilgili muhasebe işlemleri UFRS ve yerel mevzuat açısından Alb...

  2. TARHUNTAŠŠA VE KONYA-KARAMAN ARAŞTIRMALARI ÜZERİNE / ON RESEARCHS OF TARHUNTAŠŠA AND KONYA-KARAMAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güngör KARAUĞUZ

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Bu makalede, 1924 yılından günümüze kadar Türk ve Batılı araştırmacılar tarafından Konya ve Karaman Bölgesi’nde yapılmış arkeolojik yüzey araştırmaları eleştirel bir bakış açısıyla ortaya konulmuştur. Ayrıca Konya-Karaman Bölgesi’nin eskiçağ tarihi ve arkeoloji için ne gibi atılımlar yapılması gerektiği üzerine kısaca durulmuştur.

  3. Laboratuar Yaşamının Antropolojisi: Bruno Latour’un Bilim İncelemeleri ve Metafizik Sonuçları

    OpenAIRE

    Metin DEMİR

    2014-01-01

    Her ne kadar sosyal bilimler literatüründe pozitivizm eleştirisi ile bilimin ayrıcalıklı konumu alaşağı edilmiş olsa da, günümüz tekno-bilimi hayatımızın her noktasına nüfuz etmeye devam etmektedir. Gündelik aygıtların üretiminden siyasal kararların alınmasına kadar yaşamın tüm alanları bilim ve teknoloji ile belirlenmektedir. Çağdaş tekno-bilimin doğasını anlama konusunda en önemli katkılardan birisi de bilimin sosyolojisi çalışmalarıdır. Bu makalede bilim sosyolojisi literatürü içerisindeki...

  4. İKİ FARKLI DİKİŞ İPLİĞİNİN DENİM KUMAŞ ÜZERİNDEKİ MUKAVEMET PERFORMANSLARININ ARAŞTIRILMASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa ERDEM

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada, yıkama öncesi ve yıkama sonraları (1 yıkama ve 3 yıkama, iki farklı yapıda ancak aynı numaraya sahip dikiş ipliklerinin denim kumaş üzerindeki mukavemetinin değişimleri ayrıca denim kumaşın yıkama öncesi ve yıkma sonrası kopma mukavemetinin araştırılması ve karşılaştırılması değerleri bulunmuştur.

  5. GELECEĞİN MALİYETLERİNİN KONTROLÜNDE YENİ BİR YAKLAŞIM: HEDEF VE KAIZEN MALİYETLEME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZEYNEP TÜRK

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Firmalar tarafından modern üretim teknolojilerinin kullanılması yeni maliyet ve yönetim muhasebesi yöntemlerinin geliştirilmesine ve uygulanmasına neden olmuştur. Hedef ve kaizen maliyetleme bu yeni sistemlerin örneklerindendir. Japon elektronik ve araç üreticileri hedef ve kaizen maliyetlemeyi yoğun bir şekilde kullanmışlardır. Hedef ve kaizen maliyetleme, firmalara bugünün dizaynı ile geleceğin maliyetlerinin düşürülmesinde ve kontrol edilmesinde yardımcı olmaktadır. Çalışmamızda, söz konusu maliyet sistemleri ayrıntıları ile incelenecektir.

  6. Pop sanatta portre imgesi

    OpenAIRE

    Kenger, Ozan

    2015-01-01

    Yüzyıllar boyunca sanatta uygulamalar ve fikirler sahip oldukları üslup ve anlatımlarla bir araya gelip etkilendikleri yönde belli dönemlere göre akımlar oluşturmuşlardır. Bu akımlar belirli zaman dilimi içerisinde birbirinden ayrılıp yeni fikirleri desteklemişlerdir. 20. Yüzyılda “Modern Sanat’’ hareketleri, kitlelerin sahip olduğu sosyal, kültürel ve ekonomik değişimlerden etkilenerek yeni dönem olan “Çağdaş Sanat’’ın oluşmasına neden olmuştur. 1960’lara doğru İngiltere ve Ameri...

  7. Kedi Enfeksiyonları 1: Zorlayan Tanı Kedilerin Enfeksiyöz Peritonitisi "Infectious of Feline 1: A challenging diagnosis; Feline Infectious Peritonitis"

    OpenAIRE

    AYTUĞ, Nilüfer

    2008-01-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) kedi koronaviruslerinin (FCoV) virulent ve mutant bir formu tarafından oluşturulan, sistemik bir hastalıktır. Genç kedilerdeki en önemli ölüm nedeni olduğu bildirilmektedir. Bu virusun mutantı olduğu koronavirusler (FCoV), genellikle patojenik değildirler ya da bazı olgularda sadece hafif ishale neden olabilirler. Bu iki suş, birbirlerinden morfolojik ya da antijenik olarak ayrılamazlar. Bu nedenle FIP’in tanısı çok zordur. Olası tanı, klinik bulgular ve ba...

  8. Türkiye’de Yetiştirilen bazı Soya Varyetelerinden Elde Edilen Soya Sütlerinin Amino Asit Profilinin Belirlenmesi

    OpenAIRE

    Artık, Nevzat

    1989-01-01

    Bu araştırmada Türkiye’de yetiştirilen 5 farklı soya varyetesinden üretilen soya sütlerinin amino asit profilleri incelenmiştir. Ayrıca Japon soya varyetesi amino asit bileşimi ile karşılaştırma yapılmıştır. Soya sütlerinde esansiyel amino asitler yüksek düzeyde bulunmuştur. Esansiyel amino asit miktarı tüm soya varyetelerinde 4.125, 4.922 (mg/g) sınırları içinde değişmektedir. Bu özelliği ile soya sütü insan beslenmesinde önemli bir gıda maddesidir.  

  9. Alzheimer hastalığında ve depresyonda PPARΓ2-PRO12ALA polimorfizminin rolü

    OpenAIRE

    Özdaş, Şule Beyhan; Akın, Demet; CANKURTARAN, MUSTAFA; Çurgunlu, Aslı

    2012-01-01

    Amaç: Peroksizom proliferatör-aktive reseptör gama (PPAR-γ) adipoz dokunun gelişiminde ve fonksiyonunda önemli bir transkripsiyon faktörüdür. PPARγ genindeki Pro- 12Ala polimorfizmi insülin sensitivitesinde artış ve diabet riskinde azalma ile ilişkili bulunmuştur. Yine PPARγ2-Pro12Ala polimorfizmine sahip yaşlılarda depresyon riskinin azaldığı saptanmıştır. Ayrıca son yıllarda yapılan sınırlı sayıdaki çalışmada PPARγ2-Pro12Ala polimorfizminin Azheimer hastalığı riskinde artışa neden olduğu ve...

  10. Massive Black Hole Binary Mergers in Dynamical Galactic Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Luke Zoltan; Blecha, Laura; Hernquist, Lars

    2016-10-01

    Gravitational Waves (GW) have now been detected from stellar-mass black hole binaries, and the first observations of GW from Massive Black Hole (MBH) Binaries are expected within the next decade. Pulsar Timing Arrays (PTA), which can measure the years long periods of GW from MBHB, have excluded many standard predictions for the amplitude of a stochastic GW Background (GWB). We use coevolved populations of MBH and galaxies from hydrodynamic, cosmological simulations ('Illustris') to calculate a predicted GWB. The most advanced predictions so far have included binary hardening mechanisms from individual environmental processes. We present the first calculation including all of the environmental mechanisms expected to be involved: dynamical friction, stellar `loss-cone' scattering, and viscous drag from a circumbinary disk. We find that MBH binary lifetimes are generally multiple gigayears, and only a fraction coalesce by redshift zero. For a variety of parameters, we find all GWB amplitudes to be below the most stringent PTA upper limit of A_yr^{-1} ≈ 10^{-15}. Our fairly conservative fiducial model predicts an amplitude of A_yr^{-1} ≈ 0.4× 10^{-15}. At lower frequencies, we find A_{0.1 yr^{-1} ≈ 1.5× 10^{-15} with spectral indices between -0.4 and -0.6-significantly flatter than the canonical value of -2/3 due to purely GW-driven evolution. Typical MBHB driving the GWB signal come from redshifts around 0.3, with total masses of a few times 109 M⊙, and in host galaxies with very large stellar masses. Even without GWB detections, our results can be connected to observations of dual AGN to constrain binary evolution.

  11. Virtue and Liberty: Italian Opera and Roman Self-Imaging in Britain, 1720-1742 Vertu et Liberté L’opéra italien en Angleterre, 1720-1742 : l’autoportrait des Anglais en Romains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas McGeary

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available En Angleterre, les opéras et les chanteurs italiens ont été, dès le départ, objets de ridicule et d’invectives. Cependant, les sommes d’argent importantes, le soutien et le mécénat dont cet art bénéficia de la part des élites intellectuelles, culturelles et politiques du royaume semble suggérer que l’opéra a joué un rôle politique et culturel dans le pays. Un quart des livrets d’opéra ont trait à l’antiquité romaine et l’opéra semble avoir eu une influence dans ce que Philipe Ayres appelle « Roman Self-Imaging », l’élaboration d’une image de soi comme Romain. Ayres n’englobe pas l’opéra italien parmi les arts qui ont illustré et défendu un état d’esprit fondé sur les deux piliers de la liberté et la vertu classiques, grâce auxquels les Britanniques se sont construits une image dérivée de la Rome républicaine et se sont façonnés en « oligarchie de vertu ». Cependant, il nous semble que les livrets d’opera seria italiens ont pu contribuer à ce processus en présentant des modèles avec lesquels les Britanniques ont pu s’identifier pour mieux les dépasser dans l’élaboration de leur image d’eux-mêmes en Romains.

  12. YAPAY SİNİR AGI (YSA KULLANARAK TİTREŞİM TABANLI MAKİNA DURUM iZLEMESi VE HATA TEŞHİSİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin dal

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada titreşim analizi için "Orta Ölçekli Makinaların Titreşim Değerlendirme Standatiları IS0-10816" tablosukullanılarak oluşturulan eğitim seti, Yapay Sinir Ağını (YSA eğitmek için kullanılmıştır. Üç katmanlı oluşturulanYSA ağını eğitmek için IS0-10816 tablosundan 720x9'luk veri matrisi, test için 200x5'lik veriye sahip bir matriskullanılınıştır. Eğitim, gizli katman hücre sayısı 5, 10, 15, 25, 50 ve 75 olan ağların her biri için ayrı ayrıgerçekleştirilmiştir. Birbirleriyle karşılaştırılarak en iyi sonucu veren ağ yapısı bulunn1uştur. Eğitim için geri yayılımalgoritması kullanılmıştır. Eğitimden sonra elde edilen çıkış değerleri gerçek tablo değerleriyle karşılaştınlarak, titreşimanalizinde kullanılabilirliği saptanmıştır.

  13. MERKEZKAÇ KOMPRESÖRDE EMME KENARI TASARIM KRİTERLERİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saim KOÇAK

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Sıkıştırılabilir akışkanla çalışan merkezkaç kompresörde çark tasarımı hakkında genel bir bilgi verilmiş, emme kenarı tasarım kriterleri tanımlanmış, açıların (geliş, ayrılış ve sapma, bağıl dolanım, dönen ayrılma ve Mach sayılarının tasarıma etkileri araştırılmıştır. Emme kenarı minimum bağıl Mach sayısı ile akış açısı arasındaki ilişki incelenmiş ve minimum Mach sayısının akış açısının -680 ile -520 değerleri olduğu görülmüştür. Tasarıma başlarken akış açısındaki 10 derecelik farkın minimum bağıl Mach sayısına etkisinin % 1'den daha az olduğu gösterilmiştir.

  14. Massive black hole binary mergers in dynamical galactic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Luke Zoltan; Blecha, Laura; Hernquist, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Gravitational waves (GWs) have now been detected from stellar-mass black hole binaries, and the first observations of GWs from massive black hole (MBH) binaries are expected within the next decade. Pulsar timing arrays (PTA), which can measure the years long periods of GWs from MBH binaries (MBHBs), have excluded many standard predictions for the amplitude of a stochastic GW background (GWB). We use coevolved populations of MBHs and galaxies from hydrodynamic, cosmological simulations (`Illustris') to calculate a predicted GWB. The most advanced predictions so far have included binary hardening mechanisms from individual environmental processes. We present the first calculation including all of the environmental mechanisms expected to be involved: dynamical friction, stellar `loss-cone' scattering, and viscous drag from a circumbinary disc. We find that MBH binary lifetimes are generally multiple gigayears, and only a fraction coalesce by redshift zero. For a variety of parameters, we find all GWB amplitudes to be below the most stringent PTA upper limit of A_{yr^{-1}} ≈ 10^{-15}. Our fairly conservative fiducial model predicts an amplitude of A_{yr^{-1}} ≈ 0.4× 10^{-15}. At lower frequencies, we find A_{0.1 yr^{-1}} ≈ 1.5× 10^{-15} with spectral indices between -0.4 and -0.6 - significantly flatter than the canonical value of -2/3 due to purely GW-driven evolution. Typical MBHBs driving the GWB signal come from redshifts around 0.3, with total masses of a few times 109 M⊙, and in host galaxies with very large stellar masses. Even without GWB detections, our results can be connected to observations of dual active galactic nuclei to constrain binary evolution.

  15. Efetividade de rizóbios e caracterização fenotípica dos isolados que nodulam feijão-caupi em solos da Amazônia Central Effectiveness and phenotypic characterization of cowpea rhizobia isolated from central Amazonian soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aloísio Freitas Chagas Junior

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata é uma cultura importante na Amazônia Central, mas os rizóbios associados a essa leguminosa são poucos estudados. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a efetividade e caracterizar fenotipicamente os isolados de rizóbio que nodulam feijão-caupi na região. As populações de rizóbio de Novo Ayrão proporcionaram as maiores produções de matéria seca da parte aérea e total, raiz, número de nódulos e peso dos nódulos secos nas plantas de feijão-caupi; porém, não diferiram do tratamento testemunha com N. Com base nos critérios fenotípicos avaliados, foi possível identificar uma ampla diversidade de populações de rizóbios contidos nos solos da Amazônia.Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata is an important legume cultivated in central Amazonia, but its rhizobia have been little studied. The present study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness and to characterize phenotypically the population of indigenous rhizobia that infect cowpea in the region. The rhizobia population from Novo Ayrão soils provided the highest shoot, root and total dry matter yields, number of nodules and nodule dry weights in cowpea plants; however, they were not different from those found for the control treatment with N. Based on phenotypic criteria, it was possible to identify a wide diversity of populations of rhizobia contained in Amazonian soils.

  16. Ekonomik gerikalmışlık ve ekonomik dengesizlik kavramları üzerine bir deneme

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    Ahmet Ali KARACA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bu makalede öncelikle azgelişmişlik kavramı üzerinde durulmuş bu konuda en önde gelen yerli ve yabancı kaynaklar belirlenmiştir. Ardından da bu kaynaklarda yer alan çalışmalar incelenmiş ve özellikle daha güncel tarihli çalışmalarda ele alınan ana ve alt konular üzerinde durulmuştur. Ayrıca azgelişmişlik düzeyini ölçen kriterler ayrıntılı olarak incelenmiştir. Özellikle; Dünya ekonomisine entegrasyon kriterleri, endüstrileşme kriterleri, sosyo-ekonomik kriterler, jeo-politik kriterler başlıklarında detaylı bilgiler verilmiştir. Literatürde ekonomik gerikalmışlık kriterlerini inceleyen çok çeşitli makaleler vardır. Bu makaleler genelde geri kalmışlık yaklaşımlarını genel değerlendirme perspektifinden aktarmaktadırlar. Bu makalede ise ekonomik geri kalmışlık kavramı ekonomik kalkınma iktisadı açısından incelenmiş ve ekonomik dengesizlikler ve kriterleri detaylı bir şekilde verilmiştir.

  17. [The Economic Roots of Political Underdevelopment in the Middle East: A Historical Perspective] Ortadoğu’daki Politik Az Gelişmişliğin Ekonomik Kökenleri: Tarihsel Bir Bakış Açısı

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    Timur KURAN

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Özet. Çağdaş dönem öncesi Ortadoğu ekonomisinin İslam hukukuna dayanan kilit kurumları, demokratik kurumların gelişimini engelledi. Bu konuşma, kritik rol oynayan üç mekanizmayı tanımlamaktadır. Kur’an’da belirtilen vergi sistemi yönetim üzerinde kalıcı ve güvenilir kısıtlamalar geliştirmeyi başaramadı. Çeşitli kesimlere sosyal hizmetler sağlamak için kurulan İslami vakıfların politik gücü yoktu. Kâr getiren özel işletmeler küçük ölçekli ve kısa ömürlüydüler; bu özellikler devletle pazarlık edebilecek istikrarlı koalisyonlar kurmalarını önledi. Son iki mekanizma, demokratik yönetim için gerekli olan güçler ayrılığını sağlayacak sivil toplumun gelişimini geciktirdi.Anahtar Kelimeler. Ortadoğu, zekât, vakıf, ortaklık, İslam hukuku, güçler ayrılığı, demokrasi.JEL Sınıflandırma. 053, N95, H11, P48.

  18. A General Review to Publishing Activities of Prime Ministry General Directorate of State Archives Başbakanlık Devlet Arşivleri Genel Müdürlüğü Yayıncılık Faaliyetlerine Genel Bir Bakış

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Aşçı

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, publishing activities of Prime Ministry General Directorate of State Archives are being presented and being evaluated. In this frame, firstly, the working areas and departments of General Directorate are explained and the Directorate's publishing principles are presented in detail. The importance of publishing activities in Archive Science is also emphasized. It is aimed to contribute the use of General Directorate's services by the scientists. Bu makalede, Başbakanlık Devlet Arşivleri Genel Müdürlüğü'nün yayıncılık faaliyetleri tanıtılmakta ve değerlendirilmektedir. Bu çerçevede öncelikle Genel Müdürlük ve bağlı Daire Başkanlıklarının çalışma alanları ile, takip edilen yayıncılık ilkeleri üzerinde ayrıntılı olarak durulmaktadır. Ayrıca ülkemizde arşivcilik alanında yürütülen kapsamlı çalışmalar içerisinde yayıncılık çalışmalarının taşıdığı değer vurgulanmaktadır. Bu şekilde, Devlet Arşivleri Genel Müdürlüğü hizmetlerinden bilim çevrelerinin daha iyi istifade edebilmesine katkı sağlanması amaçlanmaktadır.

  19. TEACHING TO FIRST YEAR ÜNIVERSITY STUDENTS IN İSTANBUL AYDIN ÜNIVERSITY

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    Halit Hami ÖZ

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Başarılı eğitim eğiticinin öğrenim görenlerin gereksinimlerini bilip ona hitap etmesi, öğrencilerin öğrenme stillerindeki değişiklikleri bilmeleri ve ona göre eğitim/öğretim yapmak ile olur. Bilgisayar Mühendisliği, Mimarlık, İç Mimarlık, Mimari Restorasyon, Bilgisayar Teknolojileri ve Programlama ile İngiliz Dili ve Edebiyatı öğrencilerine Eleştirel Düşünme / Öğrenim Stratejileri ile Toplum Ününde Konuşma/ İletişim Teknikleri dersleri verildi ve öğrencilerin bu derslerde öğrendiklerini diğer derslerde ne ölçüde kullandıkları takip edildi. Özellikle öğrenmeden çok ders çalışma, derste not tutma, daha iyi ve hızlı okuma teknikleri ile zaman yönetimi konuları işlendi. Ayrıca öğrencinin kendi öğrenme stili dışındaki diğer öğrenme tekniklerini de geliştirmesi, problem çözme ve bilgiyi işleme teknikleri üzerinde üzerinde de duruldu. Pragmatik yaklaşım geliştirmeyi, aktif öğrenim teknikleri öğrencilerin en fazla beğendikleri beceriler oldu. Ayrıca toplum önünde etkili konuşma yapmanın kazanılması gereken en önemli ve bir o kadar da en zor becerilerden biri olduğu belirtildi.

  20. FARKLI YAPIDAKİ RADYAL MANYETİK YATAK SİSTEMLERİNİN İKİ BOYUTLU STATİK MANYETİK ANALİZİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf ÖNER

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Sürtünme kayıpları, diğer dönel makinalarda olduğu gibi elektrik makinalarında da önemli bir problemdir. Ayrıca, sürtünme kayıplarının oluştuğu yataklar periyodik aralıklarla yağlanmaya ve bakıma ihtiyaç duyarlar. Bu çalışmada, elektrik motorunun sürtünme kayıplarını azaltmak için, farklı yapıya sahip radyal manyetik yatak sistemlerinin iki boyutlu statik manyetik analizi yapılmış ve birbirleri ile karşılaştırılmıştır; ayrıca, dört kutba sahip manyetik yatak sistemi gerçeklenmiş ve bir asenkron motora uygulanmıştır. Simülasyonlarda, tasarlanan manyetik yatak sistemi tarafından asenkron motorun rotoruna uygulanan kuvvetler, FEMM yazılım paketi kullanan bir bilgisayar yardımıyla hesaplanmıştır. Uygulamada, manyetik yatak sistemi ile mekanik yatak sistemi 350 d/d'lık hızlara kadar karşılaştırıldığında; manyetik yataklı sistemin, asenkron motorun yüksüz çalışma kayıplarını % 15 dolaylarında azalttığı gözlenmiştir. Buna ek olarak, motorun mekanik gürültüsü de önemli derecede azalmıştır.

  1. Variaciones temporales del fitoplancton de los ríos tributarios y emisario del embalse C. Gelsi (Tucumán, Argentina

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    Silvia N Martinez de Marco

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se estudiaron las variaciones temporales del fitoplancton de los tributarios (ríos Salí, Tapia y Vipos y del emisario (río Salí del embalse C. Gelsi. La abundancia algal mínima se obtuvo en verano con una biomasa de 0,19-0,58 µg Cl-a L-1 y la máxima en invierno o primavera con una biomasa de 5,43-6,79 µg Cl-a L-1. En los tributarios se destacaron las diatomeas pennadas sobresaliendo Diatoma vulgare y Cymbella affinis y en el río Salí (emisario dominaron las céntricas especialmente Aulacoseira granulata y Cyclotella meneghiniana. Las Chlorophyta se ubicaron en segundo término en el río Salí, las Cyanobacteria codominaron en los ríos Vipos y Tapia en marzo de 1998 y las Dinophyta sólo fueron observadas en el Salí (emisario. El índice de diversidad específica osciló entre 0,2 y 4,2 y el sapróbico caracterizó las aguas como "no poluídas" o "ligeramente poluídas" en invierno y como "moderadamente poluídas" en verano. El NMDS ordenó temporalmente las muestras según la abundancia de las especies algales consideradas. Los dos primeros ejes del RDA separaron los sitios según gradientes de temperatura, pH, conductividad, DBO5 y nitrato, además de la abundancia de Aulacoseira granulata, Cyclotella meneghiniana, Ulnaria ulna, Cymbella affinis y Leptolyngbya foveolarum.Temporal variations of the phytoplankton of the tributaries and effluent from the C. Gelsi reservoir (Tucumán, Argentina. In this paper we analyzed the phytoplankton variation in the tributaries (Salí, Tapia, and Vipos rivers and effluent (Salí River from the C. Gelsi reservoir according to a seasonal gradient. The minimum algal abundance took place in summer with a biomass of 0.19-0.58 µg Cl-a L-1, while the maximum occurred in winter or in spring, with a biomass of 5.43-6.79 µg Cl-a L-1. In the tributaries pennate diatoms prevailed, Diatoma vulgare and Cymbella affinis were most abundant, while in the Salí river (Gelsi effluent centric

  2. Freshwater fish of the Wilderness National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Russell

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to determine the distribution and relative abundance of freshwater fish in the Wilderness National Park. Fish assemblages in the Touw and Duiwe rivers were sampled in 1997 and 1998, with a total of 327 fish from nine species recorded. Indigenous species included two freshwater species (Pseudobarbus afer, Sandelia capensis, two catadromous species (Anguilla mossambicus, Myxus capensis, and two estuarine species (Monodactylusfalciformis, Caffrogobius multifasciatus. Three of the nine recorded species were alien (Micropterus dolomieu, Micropterus salmoides, Gambusia affinis, with the Micropterus spp., in particular, likely to have a substantial negative influence on indigenous species. A further one indigenous species, two translocated indigenous species, and five estuarine species could potentially be recorded in these rivers. River catchment management actions to restore perennial flow to the Duiwe River, to prevent the attenuation of floods, and to prevent further establishment and spread of alien and translocated biota are required to conserve indigenous fish assemblages.

  3. Unusual dominance by desert pupfish (Cyprinodon macularius) in experimental ponds within the Salton Sea Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiki, Michael K.; Martin, Barbara A.; Anderson, Thomas W.

    2011-01-01

    In October 2006, months after shallow experimental ponds in the Salton Sea Basin were filled with water from the Alamo River and Salton Sea, fish were observed in several ponds, although inlets had been screened to exclude fish. During October 2007November 2009, nine surveys were conducted using baited minnow traps to document species and relative abundance of fish. Surveys yielded 3,620 fish representing five species. Desert pupfish (Cyprinodon macularius), the only native species encountered, was the most numerous and comprised >93% of the catch. Nonnative species included western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis, 4.1%), sailfin molly (Poecilia latipinna, 2.8%), and tilapia (a mixture of hybrid Mozambique tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus ?? O. urolepis and redbelly tilapia Tilapia zillii, <0.1%). Dominance by desert pupfish, which persisted over our 2 years of study, was unusual because surveys conducted in nearby agricultural drains yielded relatively few desert pupfish.

  4. Occurrence and abundance of fungus-dwelling beetles (Ciidae in boreal forests and clearcuts: habitat associations at two spatial scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komonen, A.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Insect material (> 30,000 individuals reared from the fruiting bodies of wood-decaying Trametes fungi was compared between old-growth boreal forests and adjacent clearcuts in Finland. Sulcacis affinis and Cis hispidus occurred more frequently and were, on average, more abundant in the clearcuts. Interestingly, Octotemnus glabriculus and Cis boleti had a slightly higher frequency of occurrence in the forests, despite lower resource availability. The former also showed a higher average abundance. On average, the cluster size of Trametes fruiting bodies occurring on woody debris was higher in the clearcuts than in the forests and had a positive effect on species occurrence and abundance in these clusters. The independent effect of the macrohabitat (forest or clearcut underscores the importance of the macrohabitat where specific resources occur, and this may override the positive effects of resource availability.

  5. [Diatoms from Unare and Píritu Lagoons, Anzoátegui state, Venezuela. Subclass Bacillariophycidae D. G. Mann ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subero-Pino, Sonia S; Diaz-Ramos, José R; Sanchez-Suarez, Isaac G; Ferraz-Reyes, Elvira

    2002-01-01

    The diatom flora of Unare and Píritu Lagoons, Venezuela, comprises freshwater, estuarine and marine organisms. In this paper, 15 species of diatoms belonging to the subclass Bacillariophyceae D.G. Mann are described. Water samples from Unare and Píritu lagoons (Venezuela) were collected from November 1988 to July 1989. Samples were fixed with neutral formaldehyde (10%) and were examined under phase contrast microscopy. Species under study were Dictyoneis marginata (Lewis) Cleve, Cymbella affinis (Kützing) Cleve, Cymbella sp., Achnanthes brevipes var. intermedia (Kützing) Cleve, Lyrella irroratoides (Hustedt) Mann, Navicula carinifera (Grunow) Peragallo, Navicula liber (W. Smith) Peragallo, Navicula vacillans (Schmidt) Peragallo, Navicula sp, Amphora crassa var. campechiana Grunow, Amphora decussata Grunow, Caloneis powelli (Lewis) Cholnoky, Tryblionella acuta (Cleve) Mann in Round et al., Tryblionella apiculata Gregory, Surirella febigerii Lewis.

  6. Whale sharks, Rhincodon typus, aggregate around offshore platforms in Qatari waters of the Arabian Gulf to feed on fish spawn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, David P; Jaidah, Mohammed Y; Jabado, Rima W; Lee-Brooks, Katie; Nour El-Din, Nehad M; Al Malki, Ameena A; Elmeer, Khaled; McCormick, Paul A; Henderson, Aaron C; Pierce, Simon J; Ormond, Rupert F G

    2013-01-01

    Whale sharks, Rhincodon typus, are known to aggregate to feed in a small number of locations in tropical and subtropical waters. Here we document a newly discovered major aggregation site for whale sharks within the Al Shaheen oil field, 90 km off the coast of Qatar in the Arabian Gulf. Whale sharks were observed between April and September, with peak numbers observed between May and August. Density estimates of up to 100 sharks within an area of 1 km(2) were recorded. Sharks ranged between four and eight metres' estimated total length (mean 6.92 ± 1.53 m). Most animals observed were actively feeding on surface zooplankton, consisting primarily of mackerel tuna, Euthynnus affinis, eggs.

  7. Rheological Properties of the Aqueous Solution for Fluorocarbon-containing Hydrophobically Modified Sodium PolyacrylicAcid with Various Surfactants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO,Jin-Feng(郭金峰); ZHUANG,Dong-Qing(庄东青); ZHOU,Hui(周晖); ZHANG,Yun-Xiang(章云祥)

    2001-01-01

    The interaction of fluorocarbon-containing hydrophobicallymodified sodiun polyacryiic acid (FMPAANa) (0.5 wt% )with various surfactants (anionic,nonionic and cationic) hasbeen investigated by theological measurements.Different rhe-ological behaviors are displayed for ionic surfactants and non-ionic surfactants.Fluorinated surfactants have stronger affini-ty with polyelectrolyte hydrophobes comparing with hydro-genated surfactants.The hydrophobic association of FM-PAANa with a cationic surfactant (CTAB) and a fluorinatednonionic surfactant (FC171) is much stronger than with anonionic surfactant (NP7.5 ) and an anionic surfactant(FC143).Further investigation of the effects of temperatureon solution properties shows that the dissociation energy Em iscorrelated to the strength of the aggregated junctions.``

  8. Feeding ecology of some fish species occurring in artisanal fishery of Socotra Island (Yemen).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan Ali', Mohammed Kaed; Belluscio, Andrea; Ventura, Daniele; Ardizzone, Giandomenico

    2016-04-30

    The demersal species Lethrinus borbonicus, Lethrinus mahsena, Lethrinus microdon, Lethrinus nebulosus, Lutjanus bohar, Lutjanus gibbus, Lutjanus kasmira, Epinephelus fasciatus, Epinephelus stoliczkae, Carangoides gymnostethus and Euthynnus affinis are important coastal fishes species of the northern coast of Socotra (Yemen), exploited by local fishery. The biology and feeding ecology of these species are poorly known in the area. A total of 1239 specimens were sampled from the main fishing landing site of the island (Hadibo). Total length and weight were measured, stomach contents were analyzed, diet overlap, Fulton's Condition index, and trophic levels were estimated. C. gymnostethus, L. microdon and L. kasmira occupied the highest position (T=4.50), L. nebulosus occupied the lower one (TL=3.41). The role of the increasing abundance of small pelagic fish in the diet of many species after the upwelling event is evident, but also different feeding strategies are reported, according to fish ecology.

  9. Two new hemiurine species (Digenea: Hemiuridae) from Spratelloides robustus Ogilby (Clupeiformes: Clupeidae) off south-western Australia and records of Parahemiurus merus (Linton, 1910) from Australian and New Caledonian waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Rodney A; Cribb, Thomas H

    2005-03-01

    Two new species of hemiurine hemiurid are described from Spratelloides robustus off Woodman Point in southern Western Australia. Hemiurus lignator n. sp. differs from its congeners by a combination of similar-sized suckers, long sinus-sac, tandem testes, relatively elongate shape and unthickened seminal vesicle wall. Parahemiurus xylokopos n. sp. differs from its congeners in a combination of its squat form, its distinctly lobed vitellarium and the proximity of the gonads to the ventral sucker. P. merus (Linton, 1910) is reported from Acanthopagrus australis, Pomatomus saltatrix and Trachinotus coppingeri off northern New South Wales, Caranx sexfasciatus, Scorpis lineolata, Siganus nebulosus, Thunnus tonggol and T. coppingeri off southern Queensland, Cephalopholis boenak and Euthynnus affinis off Heron Island, southern Great Barrier Reef, P. saltatrix off southern Western Australia and Priacanthus hamrur off New Caledonia.

  10. ASSOCIATION OF PSL (p55),A S-PHASE-RELATED NUCLEAR ANTIGEN,WITH CHROMATIN IN HeLa CELLS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁耀宗; Barque JP; Dellavalle V; Larsen CJ

    1993-01-01

    PSL is a S-phase-related 55 kDa antigen which has been previously located inchromatin areas of the nucleus by electron microscopic studies. In the present report, weshow that it is released from purified HeLa cell nuclei by micrococcal nuclease treatment,which relieves chromatin under the form of nucleosome. However, the antigen is not associ-ated with nucleosomes but is part of a structure that sediments through 5-20% sucrosegradient. Moreover, PSL is completely retained on single-stranded DNA (ss-DNA) affini-ty columns and binds more efficiently HeLa cell ss-DNA than double stranded DNA.Although no direct evidence could be obtained, these data suggest that PSL might bea ss-DNA-binding or a RNA-binding protein.

  11. Aquatic macrophytes as feeding site for small fishes in the Rosana Reservoir, Paranapanema River, southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casatti, L; Mendes, H F; Ferreira, K M

    2003-05-01

    In the present investigation we studied the feeding habits of the fishes associated with aquatic macrophytes in the Rosana Reservoir, southeastern Brazil. Twenty fish species were collected during four field trips, regularly distributed across the dry and wet seasons. Focal snorkeling observations of the fishes were made over a total of six hours. Nine species were present in abundances of more than 1% and, therefore, had their feeding habits analyzed. Hemigrammus marginatus, Roeboides paranensis, Hyphessobrycon eques, Astyanax altiparanae, Serrasalmus spilopleura, and Bryconamericus stramineus were predominantly invertivores, with predominance of aquatic insects (Diptera, Ephemeroptera, and Trichoptera immatures) among their food items. The predominantly algivores were Apareiodon affinis, Serrapinnus notomelas, and Satanoperca pappaterra, with high frequency of filamentous blue-green algae, diatoms, clorophyts, and periderm. The different microhabitat exploitation plus diet composition suggests partitioning of resources and absence of food competition among the most representative fish species in the studied community, indicating the importance of the naturalistic approach to fish ecology studies.

  12. Checklist and distribution of ciliates from the family Euplotidae Ehrenberg, 1838 (Protista: Ciliophora: Spirotrichea) in Slovakia, Central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirjaková, Eva; Botlíková, Simona; Vďačný, Peter

    2015-02-20

    A checklist of ciliates from the family Euplotidae recorded in the territory of Slovakia, Central Europe was assembled. Altogether, 11 species belonging to three genera of the family Euplotidae have been reported there: Euplotes alatus, Euplotes charon, Euplotes moebiusi, Euplotoides aediculatus, Euplotoides eurystomus, Euplotoides patella, Euplotoides woodruffi, Euplotopsis affinis, Euplotopsis finki, Euplotopsis muscicola, and Euplotopsis novemcarinata. However, records of the marine species E. alatus and E. charon are doubtful and very likely represent misidentifications of E. moebiusi. Since the euryhaline species E. woodruffi was found for the first time in Slovakia, its morphology is described. Based on the literature data and our own observations, the present checklist is also accompanied with distribution data on the 11 aforementioned species. As concerns ecology, Slovak euplotids typically occurred in freshwater bodies having higher trophic levels. Only two species, E. finki and E. muscicola, were isolated from terrestrial habitats, especially, from mosses, leaf-litter, and decaying wood mass.

  13. Ingestion and transfer of microplastics in the planktonic food web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setälä, Outi; Fleming-Lehtinen, Vivi; Lehtiniemi, Maiju

    2014-02-01

    Experiments were carried out with different Baltic Sea zooplankton taxa to scan their potential to ingest plastics. Mysid shrimps, copepods, cladocerans, rotifers, polychaete larvae and ciliates were exposed to 10 μm fluorescent polystyrene microspheres. These experiments showed ingestion of microspheres in all taxa studied. The highest percentage of individuals with ingested spheres was found in pelagic polychaete larvae, Marenzelleria spp. Experiments with the copepod Eurytemora affinis and the mysid shrimp Neomysis integer showed egestion of microspheres within 12 h. Food web transfer experiments were done by offering zooplankton labelled with ingested microspheres to mysid shrimps. Microscopy observations of mysid intestine showed the presence of zooplankton prey and microspheres after 3 h incubation. This study shows for the first time the potential of plastic microparticle transfer via planktonic organisms from one trophic level (mesozooplankton) to a higher level (macrozooplankton). The impacts of plastic transfer and possible accumulation in the food web need further investigations.

  14. Adaptation to sea level rise: does local adaptation influence the demography of coastal fish populations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, K M; Klerks, P L; Leberg, P L

    2010-10-01

    This study compared the growth of two western mosquitofish Gambusia affinis populations that were previously demonstrated to have genetic adaptations that increased survival under lethal salinity exposures. The objective was to evaluate how genetic adaptations to lethal salinity stress affect population demography when exposed to sublethal salinity stress. Results indicate that chronic salinity exposure had a generally negative impact on population size, but fish originating from one of the two populations established with fish from a brackish site exhibited an increase in population size. Saltwater intrusion seems to result in reduced population size for most populations. Some populations inhabiting more saline sites, however, may develop localized adaptations, mitigating the consequences of increased salinity on population productivity.

  15. Single-step biological fabrication of colloidal silver nanoparticles using Hugonia mystax: larvicidal potential against Zika virus, dengue, and malaria vector mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Kadaikunnan, Shine; Alharbi, Naiyf S; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-09-09

    Mosquito control is facing key challenges, including outbreaks of new arbovirus threats. We proposed an eco-friendly synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) employing a low-cost extract of Hugonia mystax. AgNPs were specified by UV, XRD, FTIR and EDX spectroscopy, SEM and TEM. AgNPs were more toxic to Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus larvae (LC50: 14.45, 15.86, and 17.46 μg/mL) if compared to aquatic biocontrol organisms Gambusia affinis, Diplonychus indicus, and Anisops bouvieri (LC50: 2567.15, 1075.16, and 829.63 μg/ml). Overall, we shed light on the mosquito larvicidal efficacy of H. mystax, a possible biological resource for low-cost fabrication of AgNPs.

  16. 东喜马拉雅地区雀稗属一新种%Paspalum xizangense(Poaceae),A New Species from the Eastern Himalayas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙必兴; 孙航

    2001-01-01

    @@Paspalum xizangense B. S. Sun et H. Sun sp. nov. Figure 1   Species P. vaginato Sw. affinis, sed culmis caespitosis erectis vel ascendentibus, lematibus inferoribus sparsim villosis deffert.   Caespitose perennial. Culms 20-40 cm, erect or ascending. Sheaths glabrous, ligule about 0.5 mm; blades 3-10 cm long, 3-6 mm wide, glabrous. Inflorescence of 2-3 racemes arranged digitately,raceme 3-6 cm, glabrous, with narrowly singed rhachis. Spikelets 2-2.3 mm, solitary, seesile, in 2-rows, ovate-elliptical, yellowish-green, plano-convex; lower glume absent; upper glume as long as the spikelet, glabrous or sparely villous; lower lemma similar but sparely villous, the mid-vein obscure.

  17. Winter Waterbird Community Composition and Use at Created Wetlands in West Virginia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Michael L.

    2017-01-01

    Information on nonbreeding waterbirds using created wetlands in the Central Appalachian region of the United States is limited. We compared waterbird communities of two managed wetlands, created in 2013 and 2001, in West Virginia. We observed 27 species of waterbirds. Species richness and diversity were generally similar between the wetlands, but species composition and use differed. Branta canadensis (Canada Geese), Anas strepera (Gadwall), Bucephala albeola (Buffleheads), Aythya affinis (Lesser Scaup), and Aythya collaris (Ring-Necked Ducks) used the older wetland most frequently. Disparities in species use were the highest in March. The older wetland differed from the younger in supporting species such as diving ducks, possibly due to differences in size, vegetation, water depth, and microtopography. However, the ability to provide habitat for waterbirds during the winter was determined to be comparable between wetlands, despite their age difference. PMID:28386513

  18. Acumulación de cobre en una comunidad vegetal afectada por contaminación minera en el valle de Puchuncaví, Chile central Copper accumulation in a plant community affected by mining contamination in Puchuncaví valley, central Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ISABEL GONZÁLEZ

    2008-06-01

    accumulation of copper. The species with the highest accumulation of copper was Oenothera affinis (614 mg kg-1. However, no hyperaccumulator species were found. Oenothera affinis could be considered as a good candidate for remediation initiatives in Chile, because it is a native perennial herb, it is drought resistant, it is easy to propágate, and that it produces a large biomass. However, it is still required to verify that there was no overestimation of Cu concentrations in the plants due to attachment of particles onto the trichomes. In addition, two new samplings were carried out later in the growing season, for Argemone subfusiformis and Oenothera affinis. There was a decrease in the concentration of Cu in the shoots with the advance of the season caused by the development of structures with low Cu accumulation (flowers, fruits, and summer leaves during the reproductive stage and the loss of Cu-rich biomass during the senescence. Moreover, this last sampling suggests that there was possibly a certain re-translocation of Cu into the subterranean structures during the senescence for O. affinis.

  19. Correlation between biochemical parameters and susceptibility of freshwater fish to malathion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li Shao-Non; Fan De-Fang

    1996-07-01

    Acute toxicity (96-h LC50) of malathion was tested using five species of freshwater fish, namely, topmouth gudgeon (Pseudorasbora parva), goldfish (Carassius auratus), nile tilapia (Tilapia nilotica), mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis), and rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). Correlation was found between susceptibility and biochemical parameters such as activity of brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and in vitro resistance of the enzyme to inhibition (IC50) of malaoxon (a major metabolite of malathion). The in vitro study also showed that malaoxon instead of malathion was the main inhibitor of AChE. Susceptibility to malathion was considerably changed as the fish was pretreated with piperonyl butoxide (PB, a P-450 inhibitor) and triphenyl phosphate (TPP, an inhibitor of carboxylesterase), respectively. Toxicity of malathion was significantly increased by TPP, but the responses of fish to PB were quite different among species. This suggested that both carboxylesterase and monooxygenase played an important role in susceptibility determination, and great variations existed among species in activity of monooxygenase.

  20. New Coleoptera records from New Brunswick, Canada: Megalopodidae and Chrysomelidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginald Webster

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Zeugophora varians Crotch and the family Megalopodidae are newly recorded for New Brunswick, Canada. Twenty-eight species of Chrysomelidae are newly recorded for New Brunswick, including Acalymma gouldi Barber, Altica knabii Blatchley, Altica rosae Woods, Altica woodsi Isely, Bassareus mammifer (Newman, Chrysolina marginata (Linnaeus, Chrysomela laurentia Brown, Crepidodera violacea Melsheimer, Cryptocephalus venustus Fabricius, Neohaemonia melsheimeri (Lacordaire, N. nigricornis (Kirby, Pachybrachis bivittatus (Say, Pachybrachis m-nigrum (Melsheimer, Phyllobrotica limbata (Fabricius, Psylliodes affinis (Paykull, Odontota dorsalis (Thunberg, Ophraella communa (LeSage, Ophraella cribrata (LeConte, Ophraella notata (Fabricius, Systena hudsonias (Forster, Tricholochmaea ribicola (Brown, and Tricholochmaea rufosanguinea (Say, which are also newly recorded for the Maritime provinces. Collection data, habitat data, and distribution maps are presented for all these species.

  1. Personality-dependent dispersal cancelled under predation risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cote, Julien; Fogarty, Sean; Tymen, Blaise; Sih, Andrew; Brodin, Tomas

    2013-12-22

    Dispersal is a fundamental life-history trait for many ecological processes. Recent studies suggest that dispersers, in comparison to residents, display various phenotypic specializations increasing their dispersal inclination or success. Among them, dispersers are believed to be consistently more bold, exploratory, asocial or aggressive than residents. These links between behavioural types and dispersal should vary with the cause of dispersal. However, with the exception of one study, personality-dependent dispersal has not been studied in contrasting environments. Here, we used mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) to test whether personality-dependent dispersal varies with predation risk, a factor that should induce boldness or sociability-dependent dispersal. Corroborating previous studies, we found that dispersing mosquitofish are less social than non-dispersing fish when there was no predation risk. However, personality-dependent dispersal is negated under predation risk, dispersers having similar personality types to residents. Our results suggest that adaptive dispersal decisions could commonly depend on interactions between phenotypes and ecological contexts.

  2. Backbone cyclised peptides from plants show molluscicidal activity against the rice pest Pomacea canaliculata (golden apple snail).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plan, Manuel Rey R; Saska, Ivana; Cagauan, Arsenia G; Craik, David J

    2008-07-09

    Golden apple snails ( Pomacea canaliculata) are serious pests of rice in South East Asia. Cyclotides are backbone cyclized peptides produced by plants from Rubiaceae and Violaceae. In this study, we investigated the molluscicidal activity of cyclotides against golden apple snails. Crude cyclotide extracts from both Oldenlandia affinis and Viola odorata plants showed molluscicidal activity comparable to the synthetic molluscicide metaldehyde. Individual cyclotides from each extract demonstrated a range of molluscicidal activities. The cyclotides cycloviolacin O1, kalata B1, and kalata B2 were more toxic to golden apple snails than metaldehyde, while kalata B7 and kalata B8 did not cause significant mortality. The toxicity of the cyclotide kalata B2 on a nontarget species, the Nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus), was three times lower than the common piscicide rotenone. Our findings suggest that the existing diversity of cyclotides in plants could be used to develop natural molluscicides.

  3. The genus Trematocarpus (Sarcodiaceae, Rhodophyta in southern Africa and the exclusion of Sphaerococcus (Chondrus scutellatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. H. Simons

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available Trematocarpus Kützing in southern Africa is found to comprise four taxa in three species: newly described is T.  fragilis (Ag. De Toni var. divaricatus Simons, var. nov. Two of the species, T. flabellatus (J. Ag. De Toni and T.  affinis (J. Ag. De Toni are restored to independent specific rank after being regarded as synonyms of T.  scutellatus (Her. Searles. It is shown that  Sphaerococcus (Chondrus scutellatus Her., the basionym of  T.  scutellatus refers to a species of Gigartina, therefore a new combination Gigartina scutellata (Her. Simons is made for this species which was formerly known as G. fastigiata J. Ag. and G. scabiosa (Kiitz. Papenf. Trematocarpus elongatus Kiitz. is relegated to synonymy under T. fragilis var.  divaricatus.

  4. Baseline concentration of Polonium-210 ((210)Po) in tuna fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M Feroz; Wesley, S Godwin

    2016-06-15

    Several species of tuna fish were analyzed for (210)Po content in their edible muscle tissues. This study was carried out as a part of baseline data generation around a large nuclear power plant situated at Kudankulam, southeast coast of India. The concentration of (210)Po in the muscle tissue ranged from 40.9±5.2 to 92.5±7.9Bq/kg of fresh fish, and the highest activity was recorded for the tuna Euthynnus affinis and the lowest for Auxis thazard. The committed effective dose to the local residents was calculated to be 62.7-141.8μSvyear(-1). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Native bees mediate long-distance pollen dispersal in a shade coffee landscape mosaic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Shalene; Dick, Christopher W

    2010-08-01

    Coffee farms are often embedded within a mosaic of agriculture and forest fragments in the world's most biologically diverse tropical regions. Although shade coffee farms can potentially support native pollinator communities, the degree to which these pollinators facilitate gene flow for native trees is unknown. We examined the role of native bees as vectors of gene flow for a reproductively specialized native tree, Miconia affinis, in a shade coffee and remnant forest landscape mosaic. We demonstrate extensive cross-habitat gene flow by native bees, with pollination events spanning more than 1,800 m. Pollen was carried twice as far within shade coffee habitat as in nearby forest, and trees growing within shade coffee farms received pollen from a far greater number of sires than trees within remnant forest. The study shows that shade coffee habitats support specialized native pollinators that enhance the fecundity and genetic diversity of remnant native trees.

  6. Helminth parasites of eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina) from southern Indiana, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraga, P; Kinsella, J M; Sepúlveda, M S

    2012-03-01

    Very little is known about parasitic diseases of eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina). The objective of this study was to examine the parasitic fauna of eastern box turtles collected from southern Indiana, USA. Turtles (n = 40) were salvaged mostly as road kills from southern Indiana between May and October 2009. Seven species of helminths in total were found parasitizing the gastrointestinal tract, including two digenean trematodes (Brachycoelium salamandrae and Telorchis robustus) and five nematodes (Oswaldocruzia pipiens, Cosmocercoides dukae, Falcaustra affinis, F. chelydrae and Serpinema trispinosus). We report prevalence, abundance and mean intensity of infection for all helminths. Helminths were not found in any other organs examined (heart, gonads, liver, heart, kidney and urinary bladder) and no ectoparasites were found. Overall, mean intensity of infections was low (1-14 parasites/host), suggesting that these parasites are unlikely to be associated with negative health impacts. This constitutes the first study of this kind for Indiana.

  7. The parasite fauna of stray domestic cats (Felis catus) in Dubai, United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Rolf K; Thomas, Katja; Sivakumar, Saritha; O'Donovan, Declan

    2009-07-01

    Two hundred forty feral domestic cats trapped between 2004 and 2008 in the city centre and the suburb districts of Dubai, as well as in desert biotopes, were subjected to a complete parasitological dissection. The established parasite fauna consisted of Cystoisospora felis (12.9%), Cystoisospora rivolta (9.2%), Toxoplasma/Hammondia (0.8%), Heterophyes heterophyes (2.5%), Heterophyopsis continua (0.4%), Joyeuxiella spp. (65.8%), Diplopylidium noelleri (37.1%), Hydatigera taeniaeformis (16.7%), Taenia hydatigena (0.4%), Ancylostoma ceylanicum (8.8%), Ollulanus tricuspis (0.8%), Toxocara mystax (2.9%), Toxascaris leonina (0.8%), Pterygodermatites affinis (35.0%), Centrorhynchus aluconis (4.6%), Rhipicephalus sanguineus (4.2%), Xenopsylla astia (3.8%) and Synosternus pallidus (4.2%).

  8. Bioaccumulation of 51Cr, 63Ni and 14C in Baltic Sea benthos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumblad, L; Bradshaw, C; Gilek, M

    2005-03-01

    The Baltic Sea is a species-poor, semi-enclosed, brackish sea, whose sediments contain a wide range of contaminants, including sediment-associated metals and radionuclides. In this study, we have examined and compared bioaccumulation kinetics and assimilation efficiencies of sediment-associated (51)Cr, (63)Ni and (14)C in three key benthic invertebrates (the deposit-feeding Monoporeia affinis, the facultative deposit-feeding Macoma baltica, and the omnivorous Halicryptus spinulosus). Our results demonstrate that (i) all radionuclides were accumulated, (ii) the different radionuclides were accumulated to various extents, (iii) small changes in organic carbon concentration can influence the accumulation, and (iv) the degree of accumulation differed only slightly between species. These processes, together with sediment resuspension and bioturbation, may remobilise trace metals from the sediment to the water and to higher trophic levels, and therefore should be taken into account in exposure models and ERAs.

  9. Laboratory evaluation of methanolic extract of Atlantia monophylla (Family: Rutaceae against immature stages of mosquitoes and non-target organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Sivagnaname

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Methanolic extracts of the leaves of Atlantia monophylla (Rutaceae were evaluated for mosquitocidal activity against immature stages of three mosquito species, Culex quinquefasciatus, Anopheles stephensi, and Aedes aegypti in the laboratory.Larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus and pupae of An. stephensi were found more susceptible, with LC50 values of 0.14 mg/l and 0.05 mg/l, respectively. Insect growth regulating activity of this extract was more pronounced against Ae. aegypti, with EI50 value 0.002 mg/l. The extract was found safe to aquatic mosquito predators Gambusia affinis, Poecilia reticulata, and Diplonychus indicus, with the respective LC50 values of 23.4, 21.3, and 5.7 mg/l. The results indicate that the mosquitocidal effects of the extract of this plant were comparable to neem extract and certain synthetic chemical larvicides like fenthion, methoprene, etc.

  10. Spiders (Araneae of Hůrka u Hranic National Nature Reserve (Moravia, Czech Republic

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    Ondřej Machač

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Spiders of Hůrka u Hranic National Nature Reserve were investigated during the year 2011. Several capture methods were used during the vegetation season (from April to November in many various habitats of this territory. Altogether, 92 species from 27 families were recorded, including very rare and remarcable species. Majority of such species prefer thermophilous habitats: Atypus affinis Eichwald, 1830, Dysdera czechica Řezáč, in prep., Theridion melanurum Hahn, 1831, Agroeca cuprea Menge, 1873, Drassyllus villicus (Thorell, 1875, Zodarion germanicum (C. L. Koch, 1837 and Dipoena melanogaster (C. L. Koch, 1837. Some species are also listed in the Red List of threatened species in the Czech Republic: Cheiracanthium elegans Thorell, 1875 in category endangered (EN, Cozyptila blackwalli (Simon, 1875 and Leptorchestes berolinensis (C. L. Koch, 1846 in category vulnerable (VU. Altogether, 144 spider species are now known from the reserve; they represent 16.6% of araneofauna of the Czech Republic.

  11. Experiment of 30%Glyphosate Oil Miscible Flowable Concentrate Against Weeds Control in Citrus Garden%30%草甘膦油悬浮剂防治柑橘园杂草药效试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王平

    2013-01-01

    30%草甘膦油悬浮剂防治柑橘园杂草药效试验结果表明,30%草甘膦油悬浮剂相比较于50%草甘膦可溶性粉剂,对柑橘园杂草鼠麴草、繁缕、看麦娘等有很好的防治效果。%The experiment of 30% glyphosate oil miscible flowable concentrate agarinst weed control in citrus garden showed that ,30%glyphosate oil miscible flowable concentrate had good control effect compared to 50% glyphosate soluble powder on the weeds in citrus garden , including Herba Gnaphaii Affinis,Stellaria media(Linn.) Cyrill.,Alopecurus aequalis etc.

  12. THE EXISTENCE OF PATHOGENIC BACTERIA Vibrio cholerae IN SOME FISHERY PRODUCTS SOLD IN DENPASAR CITY TRADITIONAL MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wayan Yogi Widyastana

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to find out the existence of Vibrio cholerae, bacteria that may cause cholera disease, in some fishery products in Denpasar traditional market, Bali. This research used samples taken from three different fisheries products: tuna fishes (Euthynnus affinis, shrimps (Penaeus indicus, and shellfish (Anodonta sp.. They were taken from three traditional markets in Denpasar City: Ketapian, Kumbasari, and Pidada Markets. All samples were cultured on Alkaline Peptone Water (APW media, continued by Thiosulfate Citrate Bile Salt Sucrose (TCBS, and then Biochemical Test and Serology Test undertaken. The results of this study showed that two (7.4% samples taken from Ketapian Market were proved to be positive containing pathogenic bacteria of V. cholerae; they were the shrimps with UA2 code and the shellfish with KA2 code. Meanwhile, there were no V. cholerae contaminations proven to exist in two other kind of products in other two traditional markets.

  13. Historia cultural del algarrobo, desde la cuenca del Mediterráneo hasta la Costa Norte de Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Cairati

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to analyze the cultural history of the botanical species generally indicated as 'carob three', through the correlation between the Mediterranean carob (Ceratonia siliqua and its South American relative (Prosopis pallida, affinis, chilensis o julinflora. Although the biological relationship between the two plants is thin, they share a combination of cultural and symbolic significances common to different communities in different geographical and cultural areas. In particular this paper, based on a field research in the Northern coast of Peru, will examine the symbolic characteristics of the South American carob three in the peculiar area of the Santuario Histórico Bosque de Pómac, in the region of Lambayeque.

  14. Vitality and storage condition of Syringa pollen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOULi; LUOFeng-xia; DAILi-min; ZHANGHui-hua

    2003-01-01

    The fresh pollen vitality,the effect of different storage conditions on the pollen vitality,and the difference of vitality among the species of seven species of Syringa were determined in Shenyang,China.The results indicated that the pollen vitality (81.5%) of Syringa villosa was the highest among the seven tested species,followed by S.microphylla and S.meyeri,and that of S.oblata var.affinis was the lowest.The low temperature was the best condition for storage of pollen of Syringa,and the most proper temperature for the storage was 0-2℃.The storability of S.microphylla was the best of all,and it could be stored over 60 days at the temperature of 0-2℃,next was S.villosa and S.meyeri.

  15. Defensive allomones in three species ofHypselodoris (gastropoda: Nudibranchia) from the Cantabrian sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, A; Avila, C; Martinez, E; Ortea, J; Trivellone, E; Cimino, G

    1993-02-01

    ThreeHypselodoris species,H. villafranca, H. cantabrica, and H. tricolor, have been studied in order to further investigate the defensive strategies of Chromodorididae mollusks from Iberian coasts. All animals possess large amounts of furanosesquiterpenoids, probably derived from their diet of sponges. The products are transferred and stored in specific sites of the mantle (mantle dermal formations, MDFs) to be used as chemical deterrents against predators. Chemical analysis of CantabrianHypselodoris species has led to the characterization of eight sesquiterpenoids. Among these, six have been found previously in both sponges and nudibranchs, while two are new natural products.Hypselodoris species cooccurring in the same area contained comparable mixtures of sesquiterpenoids. However, two populations ofH. cantabrica from different sites of the Cantabrian sea showed different metabolic patterns. All sesquiterpenoids induce feeding deterrence inCarassius auratus and two are also toxic toGambusia affinis.

  16. Grimmiaceae subfam. Racomitrioideae (Bryophyta in Hungary

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    Erzberger Peter

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The subfamily Racomitrioideae of the Grimmiaceae is represented in Hungary by seven species belonging to four genera, including Bucklandiella affinis (F. Weber & D. Mohr Bednarek-Ochyra & Ochyra, B. heterosticha (Hedw. Bednarek- Ochyra & Ochyra, B. microcarpa (Hedw. Bednarek-Ochyra & Ochyra, Codriophorus aciculare (Hedw. P. Beauv., C. aquaticus (Brid. Brid., Racomitrium lanuginosum (Hedw. Brid. and Niphotrichum canescens (Hedw. Bednarek-Ochyra & Ochyra. All species are briefly described and illustrated and their distribution in Hungary is mapped. A key for determination of genera and species is provided. Some ecological, bryogeographical and conservation questions related to particular species are discussed. The following new statuses and combinations are proposed: Codriophorus P. Beauv. sect. Hydrophilus (Bednarek-Ochyra Bednarek- Ochyra & Ochyra, stat. et comb. nov., Codriophorus sect. Depressi (Bednarek-Ochyra Bednarek-Ochyra & Ochyra, stat. et comb. nov., and Codriophorus sect. Andicola (Bednarek-Ochyra Bednarek-Ochyra & Ochyra, stat. et comb. nov.

  17. Exploring fish bioassay of textile dye wastewaters and their selected constituents in terms of mortality and erythrocyte disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shweta; Sharma, Subhasini; Singh, P K; Swami, R C; Sharma, K P

    2009-07-01

    Acute (4 day) and short-term (7 day) toxicity studies (at 1/5th and 1/10th of LC(50)) of textile dye wastewaters and their selected ingredients (azo dye methyl red and heavy metals Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn) were made on a freshwater fish Gambusia affinis under laboratory conditions. LC(50) value was found to be the lowest in four cases, and the EC(50) value for reduction in erythrocyte counts in the remaining four tests. Thus, the reduction in erythrocyte counts to the 50% level was similar in sensitivity to fish mortality. The short-term toxicity studies revealed significant disorders in erythrocyte morphology (poikilocytosis) and its counts to be the better indices for toxicity monitoring in the absence of fish mortality.

  18. Environmental status of the Lake Michigan region. Volume 6. Zoobenthos of Lake Michigan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mozley, S.C.; Howmiller, R.P.

    1977-09-01

    This report summarizes Lake Michigan zoobenthic studies up to 1974, including reports of power-plant surveys. It describes ecologies of macroinvertebrate species and some microfauna, partly through use of data from other Great Lakes. The following are discussed: methodology of field surveys; zoobenthic indicators of pollution; zoobenthic effects on sediment-water exchanges; and numbers, biomass, and production of total macroinvertebrates. Prominent features of Lake Michigan zoobenthos include predominance of the amphipod Pontoporeia affinis, usefulness of tubificid oligochaetes in mapping environmental quality, and pronounced qualitative gradients in zoobenthos in relation to depth. Further research is needed on sampling methods, energy flow rates and pathways through benthic communities, factors limiting distribution of species near shore, and effects of macroinvertebrates on sediment chemistry and structure.

  19. Almanca ve Türkçede Düz ve Dolaylı Tümleçler Direct And Indirect Objects In German And Turkish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umut BALCI

    2013-03-01

    distinction between directand indirect objects. Bu çalışmanın çıkış noktasını yabancı dil eğitiminde dört temel becerinin (dinleme, okuma, yazma, konuşma temel özellikleri ve bu becerilerin geliştirilmesi için kullanılabilecek yöntemler oluşturmaktadır. Dil öğrenimi dört temel becerinin eşit oranda kullanımı ve geliştirilmesine bağlı olmasına rağmen, bu çalışmada dilbilgisi öğretimi üzerine ağırlık verilmektedir. Özellikle konuşma ve yazma becerileriyle direk ilintili olan dilbilgisi öğretimi konusunda bazı yöntemlerde dil öğrenimini zorlaştıran gereksiz bilgilere yer verilmektedir. Bu noktadan hareketle bu çalışmada, dilbilgisinin alt konularından biri olan düz ve dolaylı tümleçlerin dilbilgisi kitaplarında ele alınış şekli üzerinde durulmaktadır.Nesneler, dilin kaynaşmalı, eklemeli ya da bükümlü oluşuna göre morfolojik, konumsal ya da yapısal olarak tanımlanan sözdizimsel işlevlerdir ve cümlede, yüklemin gösterdiği eylemle /oluşla /durumla ilgili olan kişi ya da konu olarak görünürler. Cümlede anlatılmak isteneni tümlerler, bu yüzden Türkçede tümleç diye adlandırılırlar. Geleneksel Türkolojide nesne, belirli ya da belirsiz akuzatif durumunda olabilen ve geçişli eylemi tümleyen cümle öğesi olarak tanımlanmaktadır. Almanca bilimsel dilbilgisi ile Türkçe bilimsel ve eğitsel dilbilgisi kitaplarında düz ve dolaylı tümleç ayrımı yapılmakta ve akuzatif tümleçler dolaylı tümleç, datif tümleçler ise düz / dolaysız tümleç olarak kabul edilmektedir. Ancak bu ayrım kimseye yaramamakta ve karışıklıklara neden olmaktadır; çünkü tutarlı ölçütlere dayanmamaktadır. Ayrıca Almanca öğretiminde düz tümleç / dolaylı tümleç ayrımı yapılmaz; buna karşılık Türkçe öğretiminde ve dilbilgisinde bu ayrıma çok önem verilmektedir. Tutarlı ölçütlere dayanmayan bu ayrım anadili Türkçe olan kişilerin yabancı dil öğrenimini de zorla

  20. Biological effects of ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaylock, B.G. [SENES Oak Ridge Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Theodorakis, C.W.; Shugart, L.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Division

    1996-12-31

    Natural populations have always been exposed to background levels of ionizing radiation; however, with the event of the nuclear age, studies about the effects of higher-than-background levels of ionizing radiation on individuals or populations of organisms became important. Originally, concern was focused on survival after large, acute radiation doses, and numerous studies document the somatic and genetic effects of acute ionizing radiation. However, there is a growing realization that chronic long-term exposure to higher-than-background levels of environmental radiation is more likely than is large acute exposure. Less than 10% of the literature on ionizing radiation effects deals with chronic long-term effects, and very few studies involve natural populations. In 1977, mosquito fish, Gambusia affinis, were experimentally introduced into a 0,45 ha, decommissioned, radioactive waste pond where the measured dose at the sediment-water interface was 1,150 rad/year. One year later, the fecundity of the population had not changed significantly. Eighteen years later, studies of the fish showed an inverse correlation between DNA strand breakage and fecundity in the contaminated pond. More recent studies have provided evidence that genetic diversity of the fish has increased in the contaminated site. These fish also have a greater prevalence of certain DNA banding patterns. Individuals displaying these banding patterns have a higher fecundity and lower degree of DNA strand breakage than individuals with less common banding patterns. Gambusia affinis has apparently adapted to the high background radiation, successfully surviving for approximately 50 generations. 31 refs, 5 figs.

  1. A simultaneous multiple species acute toxicity test comparing relative sensitivities of six aquatic organisms to HgCl{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCrary, J.E.; Heagler, M.G. [McNeese State Univ., Lake Charles, LA (United States). Dept. of Biological and Environmental Science

    1995-12-31

    In the last few years there has been concern in the scientific community about observed declines in some amphibian species. These population declines could be reflecting a global phenomenon due to a general class sensitivity or may be part of a natural cycle. The suggestion of an overall greater sensitivity of amphibians is not supported. Studies show that amphibians, as a class, are neither more or less susceptible than fish to environmental conditions. Mercury has been found to be one of the most toxic of the heavy metals introduced into amphibian breeding waters. Six aquatic species were simultaneously exposed in a comparative acute toxicity test with mercury chloride: three amphibians, Rana catesbeiana (bullfrog), R. clamitans (green frog), and R. sphenocephala (southern leopard frog, formally classified as R. utricularia); two fish, Gambusia affinis (mosquitofish) and Notemigonus crysoleucas (golden shiner); one aquatic aligochaete, Lumbriculus variegatus (aquatic earthworm). The five test concentrations used were 1.4, 3.9, 12.0, 110.0, and 487.0 {micro}g Hg/L respectively. Ten organisms per species were randomly placed into the six test tanks (control and five concentrations), each species in a separate chamber. The resultant LC50-96hr values produced the following rank order: R. sphenocephala, 6.59 {micro}g Hg/L; R. clamitans, 14.7 {micro}g Hg/L; N. crysoleucas, 16.75 {micro}g Hg/L; L. variegatus, 43.72,ug Hg/L; G. affinis, 52.62 {micro}g Hg/L; R. catesbeiana, 63.36 {micro}g Hg/L. No general organism class sensitivity trend, for amphibians, was developed from this data, contrary to the implicit suggestions of some researchers.

  2. New species of the genus Castanopsis from Hainan%海南锥栗属新植物

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    符国瑷

    2001-01-01

    @@1. 五指山锥别名:山白锥(五指山)新种图版Ⅰ-A Castanopsis wuzhishangensis G. A. Fu sp. nov. Species affinis Castanopsi carlesii(Hemsl.)Hayata var. spinulosa,a qua folia crasoribus et duroribus differf. Etiam affinis C.Echinocarpae Miq.var.seninudae,sed folia minoribus,tantum 5.5~10.5 cm longa,1.5~2.8 cm lata differt. Arbor,usque ad 19 m alta,trunco 26~32 cm diam.,ramulis nigro-fuscis,glabris. Folia coriacea,oblonga vel longo-elliptica,5.5~10.5 cm longa,1.5~2.8 cm lata,apice caudato-acuminata,basi cuneata vel late cuneata,supra in sicco viridis,glabra,subtus ferrugineo-lepidota,margine apicem remote serrulata,supra costa impressa,nerris lateralibus utrinqe 10~11,subtus conspicuis prominulis,petioli cir. 7 mm longi.Inflorescentiae spicatae;flores♂:calycis obovatis,6-partitis,staminibus 10~13,filamentis 3.5~4 mm longis;flores♀:involucra flore uno vel dou amplecantia; ovario 3-loculo,stylis vulgo 3,rare 2.Infructescentia spicata 5.5~14 cm longa,solitaria vel 2~3 in ramulis disposita,nuculis globosis,apice triangulatis,cupulae cum spinis usque ad 13~20 mm diam.,spinis 2~5 mm longis,puberulis,cicatrice 9 mm longa,6 mm lata.

  3. ARBOREAL VEGETATION ASPECTS ON A SEASONAL STEPPE SAVANNA REMAINING, IN BARRA DO QUARAÍ, RS STATE, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Farinha Watzlawick

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509813320The purpose of this study was to evaluate the floristic composition, the horizontal and vertical structures, as well as the spatial distribution patterns of the tree component in a Steppe Savanna Park located at ‘Parque do Espinilho’, in Barra do Quaraí, Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. Floristic composition and phyto-sociological analysis were carried out in a four (04 ha permanent plot (40 000 m², where all individuals which circumference (C was ≥ 15.7 cm, measured 30 cm from the ground, were sampled and had their circumference and total height measured. A mean of 145 individuals/ha was found, distributed in 11 species, 10 genera and eight (08 families, with basal area of 4.06 m²/ha. The Shannon Diversity Index (H’ for the tree vegetation was 1.86, and the species with the highest importance values were Prosopis nigra (25.86%, Aspidosperma quebracho-blanco (24.57%, Prosopis affinis (24.30% and Vachellia caven (10.51%, representing 85.26% of the total. The tree vegetation has two strata, the lower one with 93.3% of the trees and the upper one with only 6.7% of total. The species Aspidosperma quebrachoblancodominated with 70.0% of trees in this stratum. Regarding the spatial distribution pattern of thespecies, Aspidosperma quebracho-blanco presented a grouped tendency, whereas the other ones weregrouped. The savannah steppe park studied is mainly characterized by the occurrence of Aspidospermaquebracho-blanco, Prosopis nigra, Prosopis affinis and Vachellia caven, constituting a unique combinationof species in Brazil, presenting question of rarity in terms of species composition and structure.

  4. ASPECTOS DA VEGETAÇÃO ARBÓREA EM FRAGMENTO DE ESTEPE ESTACIONAL SAVANÍCOLA, BARRA DO QUARAÍ-RS, BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Farinha Watzlawick

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the floristic composition, the horizontal and vertical structures, as well as the spatial distribution patterns of the tree component in a Steppe Savanna Park located at ‘Parque do Espinilho’, in Barra do Quaraí, Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. Floristic composition and phyto-sociological analysis were carried out in a four (04 ha permanent plot (40 000 m², where all individuals which circumference (C was ≥ 15.7 cm, measured 30 cm from the ground, were sampled and had their circumference and total height measured. A mean of 145 individuals/ha was found, distributed in 11 species, 10 genera and eight (08 families, with basal area of 4.06 m²/ha. The Shannon Diversity Index (H’ for the tree vegetation was 1.86, and the species with the highest importance values were Prosopis nigra (25.86%, Aspidosperma quebracho-blanco (24.57%, Prosopis affinis (24.30% and Vachellia caven (10.51%, representing 85.26% of the total. The tree vegetation has two strata, the lower one with 93.3% of the trees and the upper one with only 6.7% of total. The species Aspidosperma quebracho- blanco dominated with 70.0% of trees in this stratum. Regarding the spatial distribution pattern of the species, Aspidosperma quebracho-blanco presented a grouped tendency, whereas the other ones were grouped. The savannah steppe park studied is mainly characterized by the occurrence of Aspidosperma quebracho-blanco, Prosopis nigra, Prosopis affinis and Vachellia caven , constituting a unique combination of species in Brazil, presenting question of rarity in terms of species composition and structure.

  5. ESTRATÉGIAS REPRODUTIVAS DE SETE ESPÉCIES DE PEIXES DAS ÁGUAS COSTEIRAS DO RIO GRANDE DO NORTE, BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Rocha de Oliveira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho verificou as estratégias reprodutivas de sete espécies de peixes marinhos da região costeira do Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil. Traços da história de vida dos peixes em ambientes relativamente estáveis sugerem um modelo de três estratégias reprodutivas: (1 estrategistas oportunistas, são peixes de pequeno tamanho corporal com primeira maturação precoce, período de vida curto com baixa fecundidade; (2 estrategistas sazonais, são peixes de tamanho corporal intermediário, primeira maturação intermediária e fecundidade intermediária a alta; e (3 estrategistas de equilíbrio, são peixes de tamanho corporal grande, primeira maturação tardia com longo período de vida, além de alta fecundidade. Os aspectos reprodutivos de Hirundichythys affinis, Hemiramphus brasiliensis, Pomadasys corvinaeformis, Oligoplites palometa, Scomberomorus brasiliensis, Lutjanus synagris e Mugil curema foram verificados, considerando-se o tamanho do corpo, proporção sexual, comprimento de primeira maturação sexual, aspectos do desenvolvimento das gônadas, fecundidade, tipo de desova e período reprodutivo dos peixes. Os resultados indicam que H. affinis, H. brasiliensis, P. corvinaeformis e O. palometa podem ser considerados como estrategistas oportunistas. Entretanto, S. brasiliensis, L. synagris e M. curema podem ser considerados como estrategistas de equilíbrio. Este estudo fornece informações sobre os aspectos reprodutivos dos peixes dos estoques pesqueiros das águas costeiras do Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil.

  6. Drinking induced by angiotensin II in fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, H; Uemura, H; Takei, Y; Itatsu, N; Ozawa, M; Ichinohe, K

    1983-02-01

    Among 20 species of freshwater fishes examined, Pseudorasbora parva, Rhodeus ocellatus, Cobitis anguillicaudatus, Carassius auratus, Oryzias latipes, Gambusia affinis, and Gyrinocheilus anymonieri were found to drink water like seawater fishes, while 13 remaining species did not drink. For fish species found exclusively in fresh water, angiotensin II (AII) treatment did not induce drinking. In contrast, those freshwater fishes which survive in estuarine brackish water (Leuciscus hakonensis, C. carassius, Parasilurus asotus, G. affinis, Chaenogobius annularis, Tridentiger obscurus, and G. anymonieri responded to AII by drinking. Furthermore, some freshwater fishes which survive either in hypertonic water (C. auratus) or in sea water (Anguilla japonica and O. latipes) also responded to AII by drinking. Of 17 seawater fishes examined, Eptatretus burgeri, Triakis scyllia, and Heterodontus japonicus failed to drink water, and for Trachurus japonicus, Platichthys bicoloratus, and Glossogobius giuris fasciatopunctatus, water intake was minor (similar to freshwater fishes). The 11 remaining seawater fishes drank water. AII did not induce drinking in fishes living exclusively in sea water. However, seawater fishes which survive either in tide pools (Chasmichthys dolichognathus gulosus) or in brackish water (Sillago japonica, Mugil cephalus, G. giuris fasciatopunctatus) responded to AII by drinking. P. bicoloratus, Acanthopagrus schlegeli, and Fugu niphobles were exceptional, in that they survive in brackish water, but did not respond to AII. Although some exceptions exist, it is generally concluded that a drinking response to AII is characteristic of fishes which encounter water more hypertonic than that in which they typically reside. Accordingly, a drinking mechanism induced by AII may be a compensatory emergency reaction to dehydration stress.

  7. Plasticity of the mate choice mind: courtship evokes choice-like brain responses in females from a coercive mating system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S M T; Ramsey, M E; Cummings, M E

    2014-04-01

    Female mate choice is fundamental to sexual selection, and determining molecular underpinnings of female preference variation is important for understanding mating character evolution. Previously it was shown that whole-brain expression of a synaptic plasticity marker, neuroserpin, positively correlates with mating bias in the female choice poeciliid, Xiphophorus nigrensis, when exposed to conspecific courting males, whereas this relationship is reversed in Gambusia affinis, a mate coercive poeciliid with no courting males. Here we explore whether species-level differences in female behavioral and brain molecular responses represent 'canalized' or 'plastic' traits. We expose female G. affinis to conspecific males and females, as well as coercive and courting male Poecilia latipinna, for preference assays followed by whole-brain gene expression analyses of neuroserpin, egr-1 and early B. We find positive correlations between gene expression and female preference strength during exposure to courting heterospecific males, but a reversed pattern following exposure to coercive heterospecific males. This suggests that the neuromolecular processes associated with female preference behavior are plastic and responsive to different male phenotypes (courting or coercive) rather than a canalized response linked to mating system. Further, we propose that female behavioral plasticity may involve learning because female association patterns shifted with experience. Compared to younger females, we found larger, more experienced females spend less time near coercive males but associate more with males in the presence of courters. We thus suggest a conserved learning-based neuromolecular process underlying the diversity of female mate preference across the mate choice and coercion-driven mating systems.

  8. Myxomycetes de Floresta Atlântica: novas referências de Trichiales, Liceales e Stemonitales para o Estado da Paraíba, Nordeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônia Aurelice Aurélio Costa

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A pesquisa da mixobiota da Área de Preservação Permanente Mata do Pau Ferro - APPMPF (6º58'12"S e 35º42'15"W, 400-650 m de altitude, 600 ha, enclave de Floresta Atlântica situado no semi-árido paraibano, permitiu que fossem efetuados 11 novos registros de Myxomycetes para o Estado da Paraíba: Cribraria mirabilis (Cribrariaceae; Licea biforis (Liceaceae; Dictydiaethalium plumbeum,Lycogala exiguum (Reticulariaceae; Macbrideola scintillans,Stemonaria longa, Stemonitis axifera,S. smithii (Stemonitaceae; Metatrichia floriformis,Perichaena chrysosperma, Trichia affinis (Trichiaceae. M. scintillans está sendo assinalada pela primeira vez para o Brasil e M. floriformis para a Região Nordeste. São fornecidas, para cada espécie, descrições baseadas no material coletado na APPMPF e a distribuição geográfica no Brasil é indicada com base na literatura.A study of the myxomycete biota of Mata do Pau Ferro Permanent Preservation Area (Área de Preservação Permanente Mata do Pau Ferro - APPMPF (6º58'12''S; 35º42'15''W, 400-650 m alt., 600 ha, an Atlantic Forest fragment located in the semi-arid region of Paraíba, was carried out. Eleven new records of myxomycetes for this state were recorded: Cribraria mirabilis (Cribrariaceae; Licea biforis (Liceaceae; Dictydiaethalium plumbeum,Lycogala exiguum (Reticulariaceae; Macbrideola scintillans,Stemonaria longa, Stemonitis axifera,S. smithii (Stemonitaceae; Metatrichia floriformis,Perichaena chrysosperma, Trichia affinis (Trichiaceae. M. scintillans is reported for the first time in Brazil, and M. floriformis, in the northeastern region. Descriptions based on the material collected in the APPMPF are given for each species and their geographic distribution in Brazil is indicated according to the literature.

  9. Adrenocortical and adrenomedullary homologs in eight species of adult and developing teleosts: morphology, histology, and immunohistochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi Milano, E; Basari, F; Chimenti, C

    1997-12-01

    Morphology, histology, and immunohistochemistry of the adrenocortical and adrenomedullary homologs (adrenal glands) of the following developing and adult teleosts were examined: Salmoniformes-Oncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout), Salmo trutta fario (brown trout), Coregonus lavaretus (white fish); Cyprinodontiformes-Gambusia affinis (mosquito fish). Perciformes-Dicentrarchus labrax (sea bass), Sparus aurata (sea bream), Diplodus sargus (white bream), Oblada melanura (saddled bream). The anatomical relationships of the gland with the renal system and venous vessels were also noted. In adults of all species steroidogenic and catecholaminergic chromaffin cells were found in the head kidney, which is pronephric in origin and subsequently transformed into a hematopoietic lymphatic organ. In Perciformes, chromaffin cells are distributed around the anterior and posterior cardinal veins and ducts of Cuvier; in Salmoniformes, around the posterior cardinal veins and in the hematopoietic tissue; and in G. affinis, around the ducts of Cuvier and posterior cardinal veins, while a few are visible also around the sinus venosus. In Perciformes and Salmoniformes, numerous chromaffin cells are also present in the posterior kidney, derived from the opisthonephros, in contact with the caudal vein. Steroidogenic cells are always confined to the head kidney. During development chromaffin and steroidogenic cells appear early after hatching in the pronephric kidney, at the level of the ducts of Cuvier and of the cephalic part of the posterior cardinal veins. Later, chromaffin cells in Perciformes reach the anterior cardinal veins, and subsequently, in both Perciformes and Salmoniformes, they reach the developing posterior kidney. Their localization along the posterior kidney is still in progress about 4 months after hatching and is completed about a year after hatching. These findings support the concept that the structure of the adrenal gland in teleosts is intermediate between that of the

  10. Species Diversity and Abundance of Marine Crabs (Portunidae: Decapoda) from a Collapsible Crab Trap Fishery at Kung Krabaen Bay, Chanthaburi Province, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunsook, Chutapa; Dumrongrojwatthana, Pongchai

    2017-01-01

    The diversity and abundance of marine crabs from a collapsible crab trap fishery at Kung Krabaen Bay, Gulf of Thailand, were observed from August 2012 to June 2013 using 10 sampling stations. The results showed that there were seven families, 11 genera and 17 species (two anomuran and 15 brachyuran crabs). The two anomuran species were Clibanarius virescens (1,710 individuals) and Clibanarius infraspinatus (558 individuals). For brachyuran crabs, Portunidae was the most common family, including 10 species. The dominant species of brachyuran crabs included Thalamita crenata (897 individuals), Portunus pelagicus (806 individuals), Charybdis affinis (344 individuals), Scylla sp. (201 individuals), and Charybdis anisodon (100 individuals). The abundance of crabs was affected by the habitat type. Anomuran crabs had the highest abundance in Halodule pinifolia seagrass beds, whilst brachyurans had the highest abundance in Enhalus acoroides seagrass beds. The dominant brachyuran species were found in pelagic areas near the bay mouth, such as P. pelagicus, P. sanguinolentus, C. feriatus, C. helleri, C. natator, C. affinis, and M. hardwickii. Lastly, reforested mangroves were important habitats for Scylla tranquebarica and C. anisodon. Seasonal and physical factors influenced the abundance of some crabs, for example, the abundance of C. virescens was correlated with temperature, and the abundance of T. crenata was correlated with transparency depth. Our results revealed that Kung Krabaen Bay serves as the home to many marine crab species; however, our results also revealed that 49% of the harvested crabs (2,308 out of 4,694 individuals) were simply discarded and subsequently died. Moreover, our research noted that eight non-target species will become target species in the near future. Therefore, research on the reproductive biology of some marine crabs and an improved understanding of the importance of marine crabs by local fishermen are necessary to prevent biodiversity

  11. About the status of certain species of Dryopteris Adans. s. str. in tne flora of Azerbaijan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Askerov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article the status of some taxa of fern genus Dryopteris Adans. s. str. (Dryopteridaceae Ch­ing is analyzed in South Caucasus. Based on the critical treatment of herbarium material both collected by authors in various regions of Azerbaijan and that deposited in BAK and LE, as well as analysis of relevant literature, D. talyschensis (Askerov et A. Bobr. Askerov et U. Aktcay, D. schorapanensis Askerov, D. iranica Fras.-Jenk., and D. raddeana (Fomin Fomin are recognized as worthy being accepted at the rank of a species, and D. borreri (Newm. Newm. ex Oberh. et Tavel, D. remota (A. Br. ex Döll. Druce, and D. assimilis S. Walker are prior names for the other South Caucasian representatives of the genus. Dryopteris talyschensis known before as D. raddeana var. talyschensis Askerov et A. Bobr. (Asgarov, Bobrov, 1972 by its morpho-biological and ecological featers differs considerably from D. raddeana which is a relic and endemic species of hircanian flora. Dryopteris schorapanensis initially (Askerov, 1978 described as a hybrid, later, based on morphological and cytogenetic studies, has been proven to be a distinct apomictic triploid species (Johns et al., 1996; Fraser-Jenkins, 2007. Similarly, it was demonstrated that D. affinis subsp. coriacea Fras.-Jenk. is rather widespread in the Caucasus, possess original morphology and should better be treated as another apomictic triploid species, D. iranica. Although Fraser-Jenkins (1977, 1986 considered D. radd­eana as D. pallida (Bory Fomin subsp. subsp. raddeana (Fomin Fr.-Jenk., we accepte it with species status. Finally, the names D. borreri, D. remota, and D. assimilis are recognized as prior for D. affinis p. p., D. kemulariae, and D. expansa p. p., respectively.

  12. Bloom-forming cyanobacteria support copepod reproduction and development in the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogfors, Hedvig; Motwani, Nisha H; Hajdu, Susanna; El-Shehawy, Rehab; Holmborn, Towe; Vehmaa, Anu; Engström-Öst, Jonna; Brutemark, Andreas; Gorokhova, Elena

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly accepted that summer cyanobacterial blooms cannot be efficiently utilized by grazers due to low nutritional quality and production of toxins; however the evidence for such effects in situ is often contradictory. Using field and experimental observations on Baltic copepods and bloom-forming diazotrophic filamentous cyanobacteria, we show that cyanobacteria may in fact support zooplankton production during summer. To highlight this side of zooplankton-cyanobacteria interactions, we conducted: (1) a field survey investigating linkages between cyanobacteria, reproduction and growth indices in the copepod Acartia tonsa; (2) an experiment testing relationships between ingestion of the cyanobacterium Nodularia spumigena (measured by molecular diet analysis) and organismal responses (oxidative balance, reproduction and development) in the copepod A. bifilosa; and (3) an analysis of long term (1999-2009) data testing relationships between cyanobacteria and growth indices in nauplii of the copepods, Acartia spp. and Eurytemora affinis, in a coastal area of the northern Baltic proper. In the field survey, N. spumigena had positive effects on copepod egg production and egg viability, effectively increasing their viable egg production. By contrast, Aphanizomenon sp. showed a negative relationship with egg viability yet no significant effect on the viable egg production. In the experiment, ingestion of N. spumigena mixed with green algae Brachiomonas submarina had significant positive effects on copepod oxidative balance, egg viability and development of early nauplial stages, whereas egg production was negatively affected. Finally, the long term data analysis identified cyanobacteria as a significant positive predictor for the nauplial growth in Acartia spp. and E. affinis. Taken together, these results suggest that bloom forming diazotrophic cyanobacteria contribute to feeding and reproduction of zooplankton during summer and create a favorable growth

  13. The impact of geomorphology of marsh creeks on fish assemblage in Changjiang River estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Binsong; Xu, Wang; Guo, Li; Chen, Jiakuan; Fu, Cuizhang

    2014-03-01

    Tidal marshes are an important habitat and nursery area for fish. In the past few decades, rapid economic development in the coastal areas of China has led to the interruption and destruction of an increasing number of tidal marshes. The growing interest in tidal marsh restoration has increased the need to understand the relationship between geomorphological features and fish assemblages in the design of marsh restoration projects. We studied temporal variations in, and the effects of creek geomorphological features on, the estuarine tidal creek fish community. Using modified channel nets, we sampled fish monthly from March 2007 to February 2008 from seven tidal creeks along an intertidal channel system in Chongming Dongtan National Nature Reserve. Fourteen creek geomorphological variables were measured or derived to characterize intertidal creek geomorphological features. The Gobiidae, with 10 species, was the most speciesrich family. The most abundant fish species were Liza affinis, Chelon haematocheilus, and Lateolabrax maculatus. The fish community was dominated by juvenile marine transients, which comprised about 80% of the total catch. The highest abundance of fish occurred in June and July, and the highest biomass occurred in December. Canonical redundancy analyses demonstrated that depth, steepness, cross-sectional area, and volume significantly affected the fish species assemblage. L. affinis favored small creeks with high elevations. Synechogobius ommaturus, Acanthogobius luridus, and Carassius auratus preferred deep, steep creeks with a large cross-sectional area and volume. These findings indicate that the geomorphological features of tidal creeks should be considered in the conservation and sustainable management of fish species and in the restoration of salt marshes.

  14. Eurytemora carolleeae in the Laurentian Great Lakes revealed by phylogenetic and morphological analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Adrian A.; Hudson, Patrick L.; Fujimoto, Masanori; Keeler, Kevin M.; Armenio, Patricia M.; Ram, Jeffrey L.

    2016-01-01

    In the Laurentian Great Lakes, specimens of Eurytemora have been reported asEurytemora affinis since its invasion in the late 1950s. During an intensive collection of aquatic invertebrates for morphological and molecular identification in Western Lake Erie in 2012-2013, several specimens of Eurytemora were collected. Analysis of these specimens identified them as the recently described species Eurytemora carolleeaeAlekseev and Souissi 2011. This result led us to assess E. carolleeae’s identifying features, geographic distribution and historical presence in the Laurentian Great Lakes in view of its recent description in 2011. Cytochrome oxidase I (COI) DNA sequences ofEurytemora specimens were identified as closer (2 - 4% different) to recently describedE. carolleeae than to most E. affinis sequences (14% different). Eurytemora from other areas of the Great Lakes and from North American rivers as far west as South Dakota (Missouri River) and east to Delaware (Christina River) also keyed to E. carolleeae. Morphological analysis of archival specimens from 1962 and from all the Great Lakes was identified as E. carolleeae. Additionally, Eurytemora drawings in previous publications were reassessed to determine if the species was E. carolleeae and are reported here. Additional morphological characters that may distinguish North AmericanE. carolleeae from other taxa are also described. We conclude that E. carolleeae is the correct name for the species of Eurytemora that has inhabited the Great Lakes since its invasion, as established by both morphological and COI sequence comparisons to reference keys and sequence databases in present and archival specimens.

  15. Seasonal cycles of zooplankton from San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambler, Julie W.; Cloern, James E.; Hutchinson, Anne

    1985-01-01

    The two estuarine systems composing San Francisco Bay have distinct zooplankton communities and seasonal population dynamics. In the South Bay, a shallow lagoon-type estuary, the copepods Acartia spp. and Oithona davisae dominate. As in estuaries along the northeast coast of the U.S., there is a seasonal succession involving the replacement of a cold-season Acartia species (A. clausi s.l.) by a warm-season species (A. californiensis), presumably resulting from the differential production and hatching of dormant eggs. Oithona davisae is most abundant during the fall. Copepods of northern San Francisco Bay, a partially-mixed estuary of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Rivers, organize into discrete populations according to salinity distribution: Sinocalanus doerrii (a recently introduced species) at the riverine boundary, Eurytemora affinis in the oligohaline mixing zone, Acartia spp. in polyhaline waters (18–30\\%), and neritic species (e.g., Paracalanus parvus) at the seaward boundary. Sinocalanus doerrii and E. affinis are present year-round. Acartia clausi s.l.is present almost year-round in the northern reach, and A. californiensis occurs only briefly there in summer-fall. The difference in succession of Acartia species between the two regions of San Francisco Bay may reflect differences in the seasonal temperature cycle (the South Bay warms earlier), and the perennial transport of A. clausi s.l. into the northern reach from the seaward boundary by nontidal advection.

  16. Yapı Açısından Cümle Sorunu In Terms of Sentence Structure Problem

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    H. İbrahim DELİCE

    2012-09-01

    kullanılan sözcük veya sözcük öbeği dizisi' olması ve bir duygu, düşünce, hüküm vb. ifade etmesi' özellikleri esas alınarak tanımlanmaktadır. Cümlenin 'yargı' esaslı bu tanımı, cümle için doğru bir bakış açısını yansıtmamaktadır; çünkü, bir sözcük veya sözcük öbeği de cümle içinde yerine göre bir yargı ifade edebilir. Bir dizgeye cümle dememizi sağlayan en temel kavram 'yüklem'dir. Dolayısıyla, “Cümle, bir yüklem ile ona bağlı en az bir tamamlayıcıdan oluşan ve bir oluş, kılış ile durum bildiren söz dizim biçiminin adıdır.” şeklinde tanımlandığında 'yapı bakımından cümle' konusunda bizi doğruya götürebilecek başka bir açıdan bakmamız mümkün olabilecektir. Yüklem etrafında tamamlayıcı cümle öğelerinin eklenmesiyle oluşturulan cümle, eğer başka bir yüklemin yapısal öğesi olmuyorsa iki yüklemli dizgeyi bir cümle saymak doğru olmaz; zira, her iki dizgenin de öğe çözümlemesi ayrı ayrı yapılır. Bir kılış, oluş veya durum bir yüklem etrafında ifade edildikten sonra başka bir cümleyle birbirini takip eden zaman çizgisi doğrultusunda sıralama bağlaçları veya noktalama işaretleriyle sıralanarak ya da bir cümle başka bir cümleyle bağlama edatları vasıtasıyla ilişkilendirilerek yan yana dizilebilir. Anlamca birbirinin tamamlayıcısı olmasına rağmen yapısal açıdan bakıldığında ayrı birer cümle olan bu dizgeleri bir birleşik cümle saymak doğru değildir. Sonuç olarak bir yüklem etrafında oluşturulan dizge için 'yapmak' dolayısıyla 'yapı'; iki yüklem etrafında ayrı ayrı yapılmış dizgeleri bir amaç veya anlam doğrultusunda kurgulamak için 'kullanmak' dolayısıyla 'kullanım' sözcüklerinin benimsenmesi ile cümle tanımına aykırı cümle tasniflerinin ortaya çıkması önlenmiş; var olan cümle tasniflerindeki çelişki giderilmiş olacaktır.

  17. ‘Een extra fraai Octant in zyn kas’ uit de verzameling van een achttiende-eeuwse Amsterdamse regent

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    W.F.J. Mörzer Bruyns

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available ‘A very fine Octant’ from the collection of an eighteenth-century Amsterdam regent The Utrecht University Museum owns an octant made by Jonathan Sisson, an eighteenth-century London scientific instrument maker. The device was acquired in 1776 by Utrecht University at the auction sale of the instrument collection of Gerard Aernout Hasselaer, an Amsterdam regent, who held important posts at Dutch admiralties and the Amsterdam Chamber of the Dutch East-India Company (VOC. The octant had been invented in 1731 by John Hadley, a vice-president of the Royal Society of London. Sisson made one of the first copies, which was put at the test at sea the following year. This try out proved to be a success, and octants soon replaced older instruments for measurements of the altitude of celestial bodies above the horizon at sea. The Dutch Republic was one of the first countries outside Britain where the octant was introduced. Among others, this introduction was stimulated by contacts between scientific instrument makers in both countries. In 1735 for instance, the Leiden instrument maker Jan van Musschenbroek was the first Dutchman to sell octants. It is known that he had business contacts with Sisson. In 1737 the octant was used for the first time on the Dutch vessel Teijlingen of the Amsterdam Admiralty. These developments occurred at a time that officials in the Dutch Republic became increasingly aware that the knowledge and practice of navigation on Dutch ships lay well behind those used at British ships. Dutch seamen and scholars drew up reports, pointing at the lagging of knowledge, and among others recommended the use of octants. These recommendations soon led to improvements, such as the founding of a navigational school in Amsterdam and the publication of a Dutch manual on its ships. Then these instruments were bought from Van Musschenbroek. Three years later the Company purchased octants from Benjamin Ayres, a former apprentice and brother

  18. SOME NOTES ON TURKISH PRONOMINAL ANAPHORA TÜRKÇE ADIL BAĞIMLILIKLARI ÜZERİNE BAZI NOTLAR

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    Hasan Mesut MERAL

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the distributional properties of the pronominal expressions in Turkish in light of the Binding theory proposed by Chomsky (1980, 1982, 1986 and developed in various dimensions throughout the Generative enterprise. The following questions are raised: (i How are the anaphoric relations reflected in syntax? (ii How does anaphora appear in Turkish? (iii Can Binding theory explain the Turkish facts? I propose that the Binding theory Conditions A and B seem to be inadequate in explaining the anaphoric system of Turkish given that (i Turkish seems to have a three-partite system instead of pronoun-anaphor complementarity, and (ii the idea that Turkish has a specifiable minimal domain where the binding operation applies is problematic in a number of respects. I propose that Turkish distinguishes between forms which have only variable interpretation (kendi and forms which have only deictic interpretation (personal pronouns. kendisi is a special form which combines these interpretations and licensed in accordance with the presence/absence of an A’- operator. Bu makalede Türkçedeki adılların tümce içerisinde kurduğu bağımlılıklar Chomsky (1980, 1982, 1986 tarafından ortaya atılan ve Üretici dilbilgisi çerçevesinde geliştirilen Bağlama kuramı ışığında tartışılmaktadır. Makalede Bağlama kuramı koşullarının Türkçenin kimi yapılarını açıklayamayacağı iki neden etrafında savunulmaktadır: (i Türkçede Bağlama kuramının öngördüğü kişi adılı-dönüşlü adıl ayrımı yerine üçlü bir ayrım göze çarpmaktadır. (ii Türkçede dönüşlü adılın işleneceği bir en küçük alan oluşturmak olanaksızdır. Makale bu anlamda sadece bağlı değişken okumasına sahip olan kendi ve sadece gösterici okumaya sahip olan kişi adılları arasında bir ayrım önermekte, kendisi adılının özel bir dağılıma sahip olup bu iki okumayı birleştirdiğini ve tümce içerisindeki bir i

  19. Manuscript Documentation and Conservation Treatment: A Mamluk Manuscript from the 15th Century El Yazmalarında Belgeleme ve Konservasyon Çalışması: 15. Yüzyıldan Bir Memluk El Yazması

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    Nil Baydar

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The conservation treatment of a 15th century Mamluk manuscript decorated in a manner suitable to the period is considered in three parts. First, with the goal of establishing the manuscript's technical and material characteristics, a "definition" is made; second, under the heading "the pre-conservation condition", the damage observed in the object and its causes are researched; finally, "the conservation treatments" carried out on the object are explained. The history of prophets, written in black and red ink on handmade paper, is explained in the manuscript. The object's covers and envelope flap are made of laminated paper board covered with goat leather. Some of the kinds of damage observed in the object were: The binding and text block were on the point of separating from each other; it suffered considerable losses because of the "jengar" (copper containing pigments on the object's pages; old restorations had lost their function. During conservation treatment, in the work undertaken separately on the binding and text block, consolidation, filling and mending was done. Guided by macro and micro examinations, this conservation work was carried out in the laboratory of Ankara University, Başkent Vocational School. Bu makalede, dönemine uygun biçimde süslenmiş olan 15. yüzyıl Memluk el yazmasının konservasyon çalışmaları üç bölümde ele alınacaktır. İlk olarak el yazmasının teknik ve hammadde özelliklerini saptamak amacıyla "tanımlama" yapılmıştır. İkinci olarak, "konservasyon öncesi durum" başlığı altında objede tespit edilen bozulmalar ve nedenleri irdelenmiş, son olarak da objeye uygulanan "konservasyon işlemleri" anlatılmıştır. El yapımı kağıt üzerine siyah ve kırmızı mürekkeple yazılmış olan el yazmasında peygamberler tarihi anlatılmaktadır. Objenin kapakları ve mıklebi murakka kartondan olup üstü keçi derisi ile kaplanmıştır. Cilt ile metin kısmının birbirinden ayrılmak

  20. Türkçede Üçüncü Kişide Kişi ve Sayı Özelliklerinin Onarım Tabanlı İncelenmesi A Repair-Based Investigation Of Person And Number Features Of Third Person In Turkish

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    Mehmet AYGÜNEŞ

    2013-07-01

    thethird person. This indicates that the third person differs from the firstperson, particularly in terms of the number category. Sözdizim kuramında [kişi] ve [sayı] özelliklerinin demet özellikler biçiminde bulunduğunu belirten görüşe karşın (Chomsky, 1995, 2000, 2004, bu özelliklerin ayrık özellikler olduğunu öne süren görüşler de bulunmaktadır (Sigurðsson, 2004; Baker, 2008; Nevins, 2011, vd.. [kişi] ve [sayı] özellikleri arasındaki bu ayrımın yanı sıra, [kişi] özelliği içerisinde de bir hiyerarşik yapılanmanın bulunduğu, dillerarası görünüme bakıldığında, 1/2>3 biçiminde bir [kişi] hiyerarşisinin bulunduğu belirtilmektedir (Benveniste, 1966; Silverstein, 1985; Carminati, 2005; Bianchi, 2006. Bu çalışmada, Türkçede, üçüncü kişideki [kişi] ve [sayı] özelliklerinin ayrık özellikler olup olmadığının onarım stratejisi üzerinden belirlenmesi amaçlanmıştır. Ayrıca, çalışmanın bulguları, Aygüneş (2012, 2013’te yer alan verilerle bir araya getirilerek, ikinci bir analiz gerçekleştirilmiştir. Bu analizde, birinci kişi ile üçüncü kişi arasında kişi ve sayı kategorisinde onarım sürecine yansıyan farklılıkların belirlenmesi amaçlanmıştır. Çalışmada 70 katılımcı yer almıştır. Katılımcılara BelÖ (Belirleyici Öbeği ile Zo başı (Zaman Başı arasında kişi, sayı ve hem kişi hem sayı kategorilerinde birden uyumsuzluğun bulunduğu üç tümce biçimi sunulmuş ve katılımcılardan bu tümceleri onarmaları istenmiştir. Çalışma sonucunda, katılımcıların uyumsuzluk içeren tümceleri daha büyük oranda BelÖ’ye göre onardıkları ve onarım sürecine sözcük dizilişinin bir etkisinin bulunmadığı belirlenmiştir. Dahası, üçüncü kişide kişi ve sayı kategorilerindeki uyumsuzlukların onarımında farklılığın olduğu görülmüştür. Bu bulgu [kişi] ve [sayı] özelliklerinin ayrık özellikler olduğunu öne süren görüşlerle de